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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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ciW^..9.3.5.3...J..a..aLl. 

Vol .41 




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vx.J". 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





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INDEX 



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VOLUME XLI: Numbers 104S^1070 

Jm/j 6 -December 28, 1959 



HE 

mciAL 

EEKLY RECORD 

^ITED STATES 
)REIGN POLICY 



Issue 

Number 

1045 

1046 

1047 

1048 

1049 

1050 

1051 

1052 

1053 

1054 

1055 

1056 

1057 

1058 

1059 

1060 

1061 

1062 

1063 

1064 

1065 

1066 

1067 

1068 

1069 

1070 






^/^6y 


Date of Issue 


Pages 


July 6, 1959 


1- 40 


July 13,1959 


41- 72 


July 20,1959 


73-104 


July 27,1959 


105-144 


Aug. 3,1959 


145-188 


Aug. 10, 1959 


189-224 


Aug. 17,1959 


225-260 


Aug. 24, 1959 


261-296 


Aug. 31, 1959 


297-332 


Sept. 7,1959 


333-368 


Sept. 14, 1959 


369-400 


Sept. 21, 1959 


401-432 


Sept. 28, 1959 


433-464 


Oct. 5, 1959 


465-496 


Oct. 12,1959 


497-528 


Oct. 19,1959 


529-568 


Oct. 26, 1959 


569-612 


Nov. 2,1959 


613-656 


Nov. 9,1959 


657-700 


Nov. 16, 1959 


701-736 


Nov. 23, 1959 


737-776 


Nov. 30, 1959 


777-816 


Dec. 7, 1959 


817-852 


Dec. 14,1959 


853-892 


Dec. 21, 1959 


893-928 


Dec. 28, 1959 


929-964 



4 



^ff 



01 $ir3j ^^0 



>ir 






Corrections lor Volume XLI 

The Editor of the Btjixetin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors in Volume XLI : 

August 3, page 179: The Bulletin reference in 
the footnote should read "July 20. 1959, p. 9o 

September 14, page 371, eighth Ime of italic 
paragraph: The date of President Eisenhowers 
letter to Mayor Brandt should be -August -8 

September 14, page 386, right column, 22d line 
of text: The sentence should read, -Likewise, our 
Foreign Service posts in the cities of Fort-de- 
France and Bridgetown appear in the Forexgn Serv- 
ice List as Martinique and Barbados." 

September 21, page 403, left column, 12th line of 
text- "Programs" should read "problems. 

September 21, page 404, right column: The date 
of President Eisenhower's letter should be August 
o-i ]^959 '* 

December 21, pages 914 and 917: Guy Scalabre 
also signed for the French Republic. 



INDEX 

Volume XLI: Numbers 1045-1070, July 6-December 28, 1959 



Academy of Sciences, National. See National Academy 

of Sciences 
Academy of Sciences, Soviet, 200 
Access to Berlin. See Berlin situation 
Accounting Office, General, report on aid program In 

India, statement (Herter), 865 
Acheson, Dean, 864 
Adair, Charles W., 733, 925 
Adenauer, Konrad, 4, 264, 372, 501, 785 
Administrative radio conference (ITU), U.S. representa- 
tives to, 182 
Adriatic-Ballian region, Soviet proposal for atom-free 

zone, U.S. rejection, 160 
Aerial photographic survey of New Zealand coastline, 

agreement with New Zealand for, 925 
Afghanistan : 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 07ji 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 742, 934 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 

African states, independent, conference of, address and 

message : Dillon, 264 ; Satterthwaite, 337 
Aspirations and problems of, statements, Tour6, 719, 
720; text of joint communique (Eisenhower, 
Tourg) , 722 
DLF loans, 563 
Economic commission for, U.N., statement (Meany), 

879 
European territories in, U.S. views, address (Murphy), 

711 
Foreign Relations, volume on, published, 68 
French Community, political developments in, address 

(Eisenhower), 436 
Joint U.S. National Academy of Seiences-ICA study of 

problems in area south of the Sahara, 634, 691 
Progress in and U.S. policy toward, addresses and 
statement : Herter, 468 ; Satterthwaite, 335 ; Sears, 
808 
South-West Africa, question of, texts of statements 

(Sears), and General Assembly resolutions, 807 
U.N. trust territories, developments in, addresses, let- 
ter, resolution, and statements: Eisenhower, 289; 
General Assembly resolution, 732; Satterthwaite, 
338 ; Sears, 180, 291 ; Wilcox, 446 ; Zablocki, 730, 922 
Aging. 1st White House conference on the, address 

(Lord), 839 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 293, 365, 
461, 491, 608, 772, 924 



Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 
Addresses: Dillon, 706, 856; Paarlberg, 672 
Agreements with : Argentina, 34 ; Austria, 142 ; Brazil, 
461; China, Republic of, 68; Colombia, 653; Ethi- 
opia, 240; Iceland, 849; India, 772, 849, 850, 890; 
Indonesia, 68, 697 ; Iran, 34 ; Korea, 142 ; Paliistan, 
101, 697, 890; Peru, 609; Poland, 34, 789, 814; 
Spain, 294; Thailand, 222; Turl^ey, 258; U.A.R., 
330, 698, 890; Uruguay, 890; Viet-Nam, 850; 
Yugoslavia, 222 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. 
See Agricultural Trade Development and Assist- 
ance Act 
Child feeding program, agreement with Italy, 241, 294 
Disposal policy, U.S. delegation report on 15th session 

of GATT, 846 
Draper Committee proposal re, 209 
Emergency relief aid to : Guinea, 22 ; India, 679 ; 

Libya, 358 ; Malagasy Republic, 94 
Sales for foreign currencies, loans from proceeds, ad- 
dresses and statement: Cabot, 755; Dillon, 539, 
856; Rubottom, 596 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(P.L. 480) : 
Addresses : Dillon, 856 ; Paarlberg, 675 
Administration of : 
Executive order, 54 

Views of Department of State on, statement (Mann), 
212 
Approval of extension of, statement (Eisenhower), 515 
Agriculture (see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter-Amer- 
ican Institute of ; Agricultural surpluses ; Food and 
Agriculture Organization; and Tariff policy): 
Agrarian reform, U.S. views on, statement (Hender- 
son), 887 
Commodity trade problems. See Commodity trade 

problems 
Exchanges in field of, U.S.-Soviet, 952 
GATT Committee II consultations re, 845 
Mexico, Rocliefeller Foundation aid to, 882 
Polish Minister for, visit to U.S., 555 
Soviet 7-year plan for, prospects of, statement (Alien 

Dulles), 871 
U.S. food-for-peace program, addresses and statement: 
Dillon, 857 ; Eisenhower, 515 ; Paarlberg, 672 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid. Military assistance, and Mutual security 
Air transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 

Airmail, universal postal convention (1957) provisions 
re, 849 



Index, July to December J 959 



967 



^Spendence. 47th anniversary of, Department state- 
ment, 866 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Alessandri, Jorge, 907 
Algeria : 

Rpfueees, U.S. aid, 651 

^determination, De Gaulle's plan for, U^S. voews 
on, remarks and statements : Eisenhower, 500 , Her- 
ter, 500, 503, 578 
U.S. position re granting visas to FLN members, stat^ 
ment (Herter), 865 
Aliens, departure for Cuba by, U.S. intensifies enforce- 
ment of laws re. Department of Justice announce 
ment and statement (Herter), 757 
Allen, George V., 67 
Allen. Raymond B., 494 

AUowances to certain U.S. personnel abroad, Executive 
order providing regulations and delegations of au- 
thority re, 940 , ^ . _* 
Almonds, request for investigation on need for import 
quota announcement and letter (Eisenhower), 240 
Ambassadorial talks, U.S.-Communist China, address 

(Robertson), 9 
American Bar Association, 377 
American Doctrine, purpose of, address (McClintock), 

120 , ^ , 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations, position on Berlin, President 
Eisenhower's reply to letter concerning, 154 

American National Exhibition at Moscow. See Exhibits : 
U.S. exhibit at Moscow 

American Republics. See Inter-American, Latin Amer- 
ica, Organization of American States, Pan American, 
and individual countries 

American States, 5th Consultation of Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs. See under Foreign Ministers of Amer- 
ican States 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Anderson, Andrew W., 383 
Anderson, Charles W., Jr., 460 
Anderson, Daniel V., 222 
Anderson, Robert B., 210, 392, 532, 652, 907 
Anglo-American relations, principles of, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Macmillan), 405, 409 
Anguilla and St. Christopher Nevis, convention for ex- 
change of postal money orders with U.S., 772 
Antarctica, peaceful uses of : 
Conference to negotiate treaty : 

Address (Herter) and delegations, 650 

Member of advisory committee to U.S. delegation 

named, 771 
Text of final act, 912 
Treaty : 

Current actions, 924 

Signing of, announcement and statements (Elsen- 
hower, Herter), 911, 912 
Text, 914 
ANZUS Council, 10th meeting, text of communique, 708 
Apartheid, policy in Union of South Africa, U.S. views, 
statements : Riegelman, 949 ; Sears, 807 



968 



Arab-Israeli dispute, statements (Herter), 468, 575, 579, 

861 
Arab Republic, United. See United Arab Republic 
Arab states (see also individual countries) : 

Arab development bank, proposed establishment of, 288 
Nationalism, development of, article (Newsom), 415 
Refugees. See Refugees and displaced persons 
U.S. position toward Arab League, address (McClin- 
tock), 119 „ 
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, designation of U.S. 

members, 587 
Argentina : 

Air transport negotiations with U.S., 491 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 623 

GATT accession, consideration of, 846 

Trade restrictions against dollar imports, relaxation 

of, 84, 285 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 34 
Air Force mission, agreement amending 1956 agree- 
ment with U.S., 772 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 
IFC, articles of agreement, 697 

Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, 653 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, ob- 
ligations under, statement (Herter) , 912 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 183 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 925 
Visit by director of Export-Import Bank, 117 
Arias Espinosa, Ricardo, 827 

Armaments (see also Arms supply, MissUes, Nuclear 
weapons, and Disarmament) : 
Arms for forces in Berlin, question of, statement ■ 

(Herter), 266 
Caribbean area, U.S. policy re exports to, 717 
Costa Rica, trading of surplus arms for agricultural 

equipment, statement (Herter), 783 
Federal Republic of Germany, statement (Herter), 579 
Latin American limitation of, proposed, U.S. support, 

907 
Modern weapons for NATO forces in Turkey, U.S.- 
Turkish agreement on, 850 
NATO. See under North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Reduction and control of : 

U.S. position, address (Merchant), 590 
Western willingness to negotiate, report (Eisen- 
hower), 437 
Rockets, U.S. rejection of Soviet proposal to ban In 
Balkan-Adriatic region, 160 
Armed forces, foreign, in Berlin and Germany : 

Force levels for and question of withdrawal of. West- 
ern position: statements (Herter), 149, 150. 151, 
152, 206, 270, 580 ; text of Western proposal, 153 
NATo"'status-of-forces agreement, agreements supple- 
menting, 293, 398 
Armed forces, U.S.: 
Air Force personnel, operation of communications unit 

in Pakistan, agreement re, 164 
Aircraft, Communist attacks on. See under Aviation 

Department of SJafe Bulletin 



Armed forces, U.S.^Continued 
Germany {nee also Armed forces, foreign), persons on 
leave and direct procurement, U.S.-German agree- 
ments relating to, 398 
Iceland, withdrawal of, statement (Herter), 938 
Korea, statement (Lodge), 684 
Military bases overseas. See Military bases 
Military missions abroad. See Military missions 
Sale of excess property on Taiwan, agreement with 

Republic of China relating to, 401 
Withdrawal from Morocco, discussions on, 723 
Arms supply («ee oJ«o Missiles) : 
Caribbean area, U.S. policy, 717 

NATO defense forces in Turkey, agreement with Tur- 
liey re supply of modern weapons to, 850 
Armstrong, Robert, 903 

Art exhibit in Moscow, U.S., statement (Herter), 112 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also Far East 
and individual countries) : 
Collective security In. See ANZUS Council and South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization 
Communist activities in, remarks and statement: 

Fujiyama, Herter, 509 ; Lodge, 282 
Conlon report re U.S. policy, statements (Herter), 787, 

862 
Economic development : 
Asian Economic Development, President's Fund for, 

205 
Colombo Plan, U.S. delegation to 11th meeting, 733 
DLF loans, 564 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization contributions. 
See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Refugees. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Visit by Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Western policy in, remarks (Parsons), 345 
Athletes, exchange of, U.S.-Soviet agreement, 956 
Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Atlantic Community. See North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation 
Atom-free zone in Balkans and Adriatic, U.S. rejection 

of Soviet proposal, 160 
Atomic energy, mutual defense uses of : 
Agreements for cooperation with : Canada, 258 ; France, 
222; Germany, Federal Republic of, 258; Greece, 
365; Netherland.s, 258; Turkey, 258; U.K., 222 
International cooperation under act of 1954 relating 
to. Executive order, 554 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (see also Atomic Energy 
Agency) : 
Agreements with : Austria, 221 ; Belgium, 222, 565 
Brazil, 142; China, Republic of, 961; France, 222, 
526; German.y, Federal Republic of, 222, 526 
IAEA, 330; Israel, 398; Italy, 222; Lebanon, 609 
Netherlands, 222, 772 ; Panama, 45, 68 ; Peru, 430 
Soviet Union, 958 ; Viet-Nam, 101 
European Atomic Energy Community, article (Birch), 

88, 89 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, U.S. dele- 
gation to 1st meeting, 695 
International cooperation for, statement (Herter), 508 
U.S. efforts to support, letter (Eisenhower), 290 



Atomic Energy Act (1954), as amended. Executive order 

providing for carrying out of certain provisions of, 

554 

Atomic Energy Agency, International : 

Atomic energy, peaceful uses, agreement with U.S., 330 

Laboratory, U.S. contribution for construction and 

equipment of, 397 
3d session of General Conference of : 
Statement (Floberg), 642 
U.S. delegation, 98, 460, 524 
U.N. establishment of, statement (Herter), 508 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., functions in agreement 

with Panama, 45 
Atomic Energy Community, European, relationship to 

European unity, article (Birch), 88, 89 
Auerbach, Prank L., 600 
Augsbury, Frank A., Jr., 306 
Australia : 

ANZUS Council, 10th meeting of, 708 

Economy of, role of U.S. investment in, address 

(Sebald), 556 
Participation in SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty 

Organization 
Trade restrictions against dollar imports, relaxation 

of, 84, 284, 285, 286, 844 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

Imported aircraft, reciprocal acceptance of certifi- 
cates of airworthiness for, agreement with U.S., 
890 
International carriage by air, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 461 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 183 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Telecommunication convention (1954), International, 

461 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

172, 183, 925 
WHO, amendments to constitution of, 565 
U.S. consular districts, revision of, 67 
Austria : 
IAEA, proposed laboratory near Vienna, 397 
Trade restrictions, liberalization of, 83 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 142 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement with U.S., 221 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67ft 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 183 
State treaty, 772 

Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Austrian state treaty, 772 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, 1944 convention on 

regulation of, 961 
Aviation : 
Aircraft, U.S. claim against U.S.S.R. for destruction 
of B-29 over Hokkaido, Japan : submission to ICJ, 
122 ; removal from calendar of ICJ, 670 
Airport, designation of Dulles International AirjKjrt, 
Executive order, 154 



Index, July fo December J 959 



969 



Aviation — Continued 

Attack on U.S. Navy patrol craft over Sea of Japan, 

tests of UNC protests. 206, 349 
Federal Aviation Act (li).o8), extension of application, 

announcement and Executive order, 941 
Flights to or over Cuba by private aircraft, enforcement 

of laws re, announcement, letter, message, and 

statements: Department statements, 716, 757; 

Herter, 758 ; Justice Department, 757 ; Rubottom, 

716 
Jet aircraft on fligbts between U.S. and Venezuela, 

introduction of, discussions begin with Venezuela, 

90G 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air Force missions agreements. See Military missions 
Air services transit, international agreement (1944) 

on, 461 
Air traffic control, agreement with Germany relating 

to, 608 
Air transport : Argentina, negotiations for agreement, 

491; France, agreement with, 258, 329, 397, 491; 

Mexico, agreement with, 142 ; Yugoslavia, termina- 
tion of agreement with, 294 
Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 293, 526 
Aircraft, imported, certificates of airworthiness for, 

agreement with Australia, 890 
Carriage by air, international, protocols amending 

convention (1929) for unification of certain rules 

relating to, 141, 327, 461 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 

protocol relating to certain amendments to, 293, 608 
Flights between U.S.-Soviet Union, agreement relating 

to establishment, 957 
Aviation Agency, Federal, 758, 941 

Baghdad Pact. See Central Treaty Organization 
Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground, agreement with 
U.K. on administrative matters connected with, 430 
Balance-of-payments problems : 

Addresses and statements : Anderson, 535 ; Dillon, 703, 
741 ; Herter, 820, 824, 866 ; Meany, 884 ; Phillips, 179 

GATT consideration of, statement (Beale), 95 

IMF decision re, 681 

Report to Congress ( Eisenhower) , 83, 85, 86 
Balkan-Adriatic region, Soviet proposal for atom-free 

zone, U.S. rejection, 160 
Ballistic missiles. See Missiles 
Barco, James W., 683, 684 

Bases, U.S. military, overseas. See Military bases 
Bayar, Celal, 932 
Beale, W. T. M., 95, 170, 680 
Becker, Loftus, 330 
Beitzel, George B., 514, 910 
Belgium : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 354 

Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions re 
shipiiing problems, 10 

Tariff concessions, renegotiation with U.S., 354, 482, 725 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

970 



Belgium — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S., 222, 565 
Double taxation on income, conventions with U.S. for 

avoidance of, 182, 183, 293 
GATT, proc^s-verbal containing schedule to be an- 
nexed to new schedule Ill-Brazil, 34 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements sup- 
plementing, 293, 398 
Sugar agreement (1958) , international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi, Belgian contribu- 
tions for development of, statement (Sears), 180 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon for economic talks, 862 
Bentley Bill (H.R. 7006) re issuance of passports, state- 
ment (Hanes),323 
Berding, Andrew H., addres.ses and remarks: 
The Cold War and the Khrushchev Visit, 627 
Freedom Day, 78 
Introductory remarks at Under Secretary Dillon's 

press conference, 547 
NATO — Cooperation in Freedom, 825 
Reflections on Khrushchev Visit, 544 
Reorganization of Bureau of Public Affairs, 184 
Berlin : 

Developments in. See Berlin situation 

Otto Suhr Institute to receive U.S. contribution for 

new building, 306 
Significance of, relation to a divided Germany, address 

(Eleanor Dulles), 794 
U.S. Mission, Berlin, designation of assistant chief, 38 
Visit of Secretary Herter, proposed, 114 
West Berlin : 
Broadcasting station in, proposed establishment by 
Federal Republic of Germany, statements 
(Herter), 782,784 
U.K. and U.S. support, 408, 437 
Berlin situation (see also Germany: Reunification of): 
Addresses : Eleanor Dulles, 790 ; Murphy, 711 
Effect of Khrushchev visit to U.S. on, addresses and 
statements : Berding, 544, 545 ; Herter, 575, 578, 
819, 864 ; Merchant, 588 ; Wilcox, 6G3 
Federal Republic of Germany-U.S. joint communique, 

373 
Foreign armed forces in Berlin. See Armed forces, 

foreign 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting negotiations re. See 

Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva 
Joint communique (Eisenhower, Khrushchev) at con- 
clusion of talks at Camp David, 499 
NATO interest in, statement (Herter), 936 
Soviet position, statements (Herter), 506, 864, 865 
Soviet threat re, question of, statements (Herter), 576, 

577, 578, 579, 580 
U.S. position, letter and statements: Eisenhower, 154; 

Herter, 504, 865 
Western position and proposals, addresses : Herter, 
470 ; Merchant, 591 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



Bernstein, Joel, 185 

Berry, J. Lampton, 925 

Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 812 

Biddle, William S., 206 

Birch, John A., 88 

Black, Eugene R., 392 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, report on educational 

exchange program, 21 
Boggs, Hale, 284, 844 
Bohleii. Charles E., 113, 925 
Bohn, Ernest J., 889 
Bolivia : 

ULF loan, 164 

Economic assistance, agreement amending 1953 agree- 
ment with U.S., 925 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international 
491 
Bolster, Edward A., 651 
Bonsai, Thilip W., 715 

Borneo, North, relaxation of restrictions on dollar im- 
ports, 285 
Boswell, William O., 38 
Bourguiba, Habib, 823 
Bow, Frank T., 358 
Brady, Edward L., 98 
Brand, Vance, 398, 635, 708 
Brazil : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 197 
DLF loan, cancellation of, 563 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 286 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 461 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1955 

research reactor agreement with U.S., 142 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and protocols 

1, 2, and 3, 814 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for estab- 
lishment of new schedule III, 34, 68, 101, 183, 961 
Opium, protocol regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 925 
Sugar agreement (19158), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S. -Brazilian cooperation, address (Cabot), 753 
U.S. National Advisory Committee on Inter-American 
Affairs, messages on establishment of (Kubitschek, 
Lafer), 905 
British Cameroons, elections in and future status of, 
statement (Zablocki) and General Assembly resolu- 
tion, 730 
British Commonwealth, The, Foreign Relations volume 

on, published, 68 
British Guiana, relaxation of restrictions on dollar im- 
ports, 285 
British Honduras, relaxation of restrictions on dollar 

imports, 285 
Broadcasting. See Telecommunications 
Bruce, David K. E., 850 

Buenos Aires economic conference, address (Rubottom), 
594 



Bulgaria : 

Resumption of diplomatic relations with U.S. and ap- 
pointment and designation of U.S. and Bulgarian 
Ministers, 8G0, 890 
10 Nation Committee ou Disarmament, membership, 438 
Universal postal convention (1957), 183 
Burden, William A. M., 462 

Bureau of the Budget, functions in administration of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
55 
Burgess, W. Randolph, 744 
Burma : 
Ambassador to U.S., designation and credentials, 121, 

354 
Economic assistance and cooperation, agreements with 

U.S., 222, 565 
U.S. aid, 121 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 814 
Bursley, Herbert S., 66 
Bush, James Smith, 383 

Business Council for International Understanding, pro- 
grams for executives going abroad and senior For- 
eign Service officers, 67 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 
Union), universal postal convention (1957), 183 

Cable rates, international press, U.S. views on Commis- 
sion on Human Rights resolution, statement (Phil- 
lips), 28 
Cabot, John Moors, 753 
Calendar of international conferences and meetings, 24, 

174, 361, 485, 640, 836 
Camargo, Alberto Lleras, 718 
Cambodia : 

Cambodian-American Friendship Highway, opening, 

163 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67>i 
Cameroons, British, elections in and future status of, 
statement (Zablocki) and General Assembly resolu- 
tion, 730 
Cameroun, French, political problems in. General Assem- 
bly proposed resolution and statement (Zablocki), 
922 
Camp David talks (Eisenhower-Khrushchev) : 
Addresses and statements : Dillon, 547 ; Herter, 505, 
507, 575, 577, 578, 579, 580 ; Lodge, 766, 876 ; Mer- 
chant, 591; Murphy, 713, 714; Wilcox, 663 
ANZUS Council communique re, 709 
Department statement re order of subjects to be dis- 
cussed, 479 
Text of joint communique, 499 
Canada : 
American Embassy property at London, purchase of, 

709 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), report 

ou St. Croix River Basin, 804 
Joint Defense, Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on, 
announcement of meeting and text of communique, 
788 
Reservation to NARBA, statement (Beale), 171 



Index, July fo December 1959 



971 



Canada — Continued 

St. Lawrence Seaway, official opening, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Elizabeth II), 75 
St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, U.S. 

member of Advisory Board confirmed, ;506 
10 Nation Committee on Disarmament, membership, 

438 
Textile tariff concessions, renegotiation with U.S., 561 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for cooperation 

on uses for mutual defense, 258 
Ballistic missile early-warning system, agreement 

with U.S. relating to establishment of, 222 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI :4, proc6s-verbal extending validity of 
declaration, and protocol relating to negotiations 
for estal)lishment of new schedule III — Brazil, 68 
Haines cutoff road, agreement extending 1957 agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to use of, 526 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements supple- 
menting, 293, 398 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S.-Canadian boundary line, exposition to commemo- 
rate centennial, 163 
U.S.-Canadian friendship monument, ceremony unveil- 
ing, 10 
U.S.-Canadian relations, remarks (Eisenhower), 405 
U.S. consulate at Niagara Falls closed, 609 
Visit of Secretary Herter to Ottawa, 116 
Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense, 

2nd meeting and communique, 788 
Canal Zone : 

Demonstrations in. See under Panama 
Sovereignty over, U.S. position, statement (Merchant), 
859 
Capehart, Homer E., 937 

Capitalism, aspects of , statement (Nixon), 228 
Captive Nations Week, 1959, proclamation, 200 
Caribbean area (see also individual countries) : 

Geographic nomenclature problems in, article (Pearcy), 

385 
Threats to peace in : 

OAS Council consideration: statement (Dreier), 30, 

136 ; text of resolution, 31 
Santiago meeting of American Foreign Ministers : 
Address and statements: Herter, 299, 342, 576; 

Rubottom, 594, 595 
Declaration, text, 342 

Resolution on Inter-American Peace Committee, 
text, 343 
Statements ( Herter ) , 108, 109 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unilication of certain rules relating 
to, 141, 327, 4(;l 
Casey, Richard G., 509, 708 
Castlella, Fernando Maria, 404 
Castlcman, Edward. 258 
CENTO. Sec Central Treaty Organization 



Central America (see also Caribbean, Inter-American, 
Latin America, Pan American, and individual courts 
tries), political composition of, article (Pearcy), 387 
Central Intelligence Agency, cornerstone laying ceremony 
for headquarters building, remarks (Eisenhower), 
743 
Central Treaty Organization : 
Economic Committee, 7th meeting, statement (Ken- 
nedy), 487 
Question of U.S. membership, statement (Herter), 576 
7th Ministerial meeting (Washington) : 
Declaration, 586 
Final communique, 585 
Remarks and statements: Herter, 576, 583; Nixon, 

581 
U.S. observer delegation, 586 
U.S. support, address (McClintock), 119 
Century 21 Exposition, 163, 378 
Ceylon : 
Educational exchange programs, financing of, agree- 
ment with U.S. amending 1952 agreement, 925 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Trade restrictions, liberalization of, 84 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 142 
Visit by Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Chang Chien Yuh, 902 
Charter, U.N. See United Nations Charter 
Chatterjee, D. N., 786, 960 

Cheeses, request for investigation of effect of imports on 
domestic price-support program, letter (Eisenhower), 
729 
Child, declaration on the rights of the, draft completed, 

address (Lord), 841 
Child Congress, Pan American, U.S. delegation to 11th 

session of, 847 
Child feeding program, agreement with Italy. 241. 294 
Children and Touth, 6th White House Conference on, 

address (Lord), 839 
Children's Fund, U.N., U.S. support, address (Lord), 840 
Chile : 
Achievements of, remarks (Herter), 299 
Antarctic treaty, 050, 911, 924 
China (see also China, Communist; and China, Republic 
of): 
Refugees, U.S. aid, 651, 843 

U.N. representation question, addresses, resolution, and 
statements : General Assembly resolution, 517 ; 
Herter, 469; Robertson, 8, 517; Wilcox, 441 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Soviet-bloc 
countries) : 
Aggressive activities and threat in Asia and Far East 
(«ee also Laos: Communist intervention, Taiwan 
Straits, and Tibet) : 
Addresses, joint statement, remarks, and report : Dil- 
lon, 571 ; Eisenhower, 435 ; Herter, 469 ; Herter, 
Fujiyama, 509; Lodge, 282; Parsons, 201, 346; 
Koliertson, 5, 518 
ANZUS Council communique, 709 
Anniversary celebration, 10th, of regime, address (Wil- 
cox), 604 



972 



Department of State Bulletin 



China, Communist — Continued 
Border dispute witli India, statements (Herter), 782, 

786 
Disarmament discussions, views on question of partici- 
pation in, statement (llerter), 506 
Economic offensive. See Less developed countries : 

Economic offensive 
Question of U.S. recognition, address (Robertson), 8 
Relations with Soviet Union, addresses and state- 
ments: Berdiug, 629; Herter, 577, 578; Murphy, 
660, 901 
Seizure of U.S. consular employee in Bombay, U.S. 

protest, 902 
Soviet responsibility for actions of, statement (Herter), 

581 
U.N. representation question. See tinder China 
UNC protest of attack on U.S. Navy patrol craft over 

Sea of Japan, 206 
U.S. efforts for exchange of news correspondents with, 

statement (Herter), 787 
Visit of Premier Khrushchev to, and question of U.S. 
diplomatic relations with, statements (Herter), 
577 
China, Republic of: 
Communist aggression in Taiwan Straits. See Taiwan 

Straits 
DLF loan, 57 

Economic and social progress in, address (Dillon), 779 
Question of application of Camp David communique 

re use of force to, statement (Herter), 578 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 68 
Destroyers, U.S. loan of, agreement amending 1954 

agreement, 608 
Nuclear research and training equipment and mate- 
rials, agreement with U.S. providing for a grant to 
assist in acquisition of, 961 
Postal convention (1957), universal, final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions 
regarding airmail with final protocol, 849 
Small craft, agreement with U.S. relating to loan of, 

222 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
U.S. excess property in Taiwan, agreement relating 
to sale of, 461 
U.N. representation question. See under China 
Cholera research project, visit to Asia by U.S. medical 

group, 205 
Chounramany, Nouphat, 902 
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency 
Civil strife, duties and rights of states in event of, 

protocol to 1928 convention on, 141, 293 
Claims : 
Germany, claims against, deadline set for filing under 
Federal Republic of Germany General War Sequel 
Law, 935 
Philippine "omnibus" claims, 113, 279 
U.S. claims against : 

Japan, joint statement re (Herter, Fujiyama), 509 
Rumania, negotiations begin for settlement of finan- 
cial claims against, 764 



Claims — Continued 

U.S. claims against — Continued 

Soviet Union, submission to ICJ of claims for de- 
struction of aircraft, 122, 670 
Claims Settlement Commission, Foreign, appointment of 

member, 935 
Clothespins, spring, tariff negotiations with Sweden, 

Denmark, Belgium, and Netherlands regarding, 354 
Coal Committee (ECE), U.S. delegate to 47th session, 429 
Coastline, New Zealand, aerial photographic survey of, 

agreement with New Zealand, 925 
Cocke, Erie, Jr., 460 
Coerr, Wymberley DeR., 772 
Coffee surplus problem, address (Rubottom) , 598 
"Cold war," address and statement : Berding, 627 ; Herter, 

578 
Collective security (see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Asia and Par East. Sec ANZUS Council and Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
Contribution to world peace, joint communique (Eisen- 
hower, Adenauer), 373 
Development of, address and remarks : Nixon, 581 ; Par- 
sons, 201 
Europe (see also North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 

U.S. views on, address (Murphy), 710 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Near and Middle East. See Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Collier Bill (H.R. 2468) re issuance of passports, state- 
ment (Hanes),324 
Colombia : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 653 
Genocide, convention (1948) on prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of, 961 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 

697 
WHO, constitution, .34 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 38 

Visit of President to U.S., announcement of invitation, 
718 
Colombo Plan, U.S. delegation to 11th meeting, 733 
Colonialism, remarks (Macmillan), 407 
Commerce. Sec Trade 

Commerce, Department of, statements welcoming relaxa- 
tion of restrictions against dollar imports by : Aus- 
tralia, 284 ; New Zealand, 639 ; U.K., 805 
Commercial treaties. See Trade: Treaties and Trade 

agreements 
Commission for Exchange of Students and Professors Be- 
tween the U.S.A. and the U.A.R., established, 608 
Commission on International Commodity Trade, 178, 599 
Committee for Cultural Action, OAS, 847 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, 237, 355, 450, 561, 

728 
Committee of Presidential Representatives, address (Ru- 
bottom), 593 
Committee of 10. See Ten Nation Committee on Disarm- 
ament 
Committee of 21, results of efforts, address (Rubottom), 
594 



Index, July to December 7959 



973 



Committee I (Political and Security), General Assembly, 

resolution on disarmament, 766 
Commodity trade problems (see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses) : 
Commission on International Commodity Trade, efforts 

re, 178, 599 
Latin America, address (Rubottom), 598 
Statements : Meany, 884 ; Phillips, 176 
Common markets : 

European. See European Economic Community and 

European Free Trade Association 
GATT discussions, 15th session, U.S. delegation report, 
845 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; and Soviet 
Union) : 
Economic offensive. See Less developed countries : Eco- 
nomic offensive 
International : 
Competition with and challenge to free world, ad- 
dresses : Berding, 545 ; Dillon, 375 ; Herter, 819. S22 ; 
Murphy, 900, 901 ; Paarlberg, 072, 673 ; Wilcox, 670 
Efforts of free world and U.S. to combat, addresses, 
letter, and remarks : Draper Committee, 208, 392 ; 
Hart, 51 ; Lodge, 280; Parsons, 345 
Increased rejection of, address (Murphy), 714 
Objectives of, letter and remarks : Allen Dulles, 275 ; 

Draper Committee, 392 
Soviet leadership, addresses and statements : Dillon, 

572 ; Herter, 580, 581 ; Murphy, 661 
Threat of in the Americas, address and statements: 

Herter, 303 ; Rubottom, 595 
Threat to the Middle East, article (Newsom), 416, 419 
U.S. position, Department statement, 718 
Propaganda : 

Chinese Communist, statement (Robertson), 520 
In Iran, CENTO declaration re, 586 
Supporters of, need for U.S. legislation to deny passports 
to, statements : Hanes, 319 ; Murphy, 165 
Community development, need for study of, address 

(Lord), 840 
Conciliation, Permanent Commission of (U.S.-Swiss), 

members, 50, 303 
Conference of independent African states, meeting at Mon- 
rovia, Liberia, message (Dillon) , 264 
Conferences and organizations. International («ee also 
subject), calendar of meetings, 24, 174, 361, 485, 640, 
836 
Congress, U.S. : 

Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 23, 57, 135, 

217, 241, 286, 360, 395, 483, 516, 682, 729, S05, 874 
Hearings re operation of Mutual Security Program in 

Viet-Nam, 217 
Legislation : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

of 1954, statements : Eisenhower, 515 ; Mann, 212 
Immigration legislation, 1959, article (Auerbach), 600 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, amendments to, and Mu- 
tual Security Program authorization for fiscal year 
1960, 207 
Legislation, proposed : 

Passports, control and issuance of, statements : Hanes, 
319; Murphy, 165 

974 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 

Legislation, proposed — Continued 

Refugees, resettlement of, statement (Hanes), 215 
U.S. private investment abroad, views on, statements : 
Dillon, 128: Lindsay, 1.30 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower, 
Dwight D. : Messages, letters, and reports to 
Congress 
Public opinion effect on, address ( Foster) , 798, 801 
Senate advice and consent to ratification requested for : 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 
materials, agreement and protocol on, message 
(Eisenhower), report (Murphy), and text, 422 
North American regional broadcasting agreement and 
U.S.-Mesican broadcasting agreement, statement 
(Beale), 170 
Protocol amending 1929 convention for the unification 
of certain rules relating to international carriage by 
air, report ( Herter) , 327 
Trade with Soviet Union, expansion of, question of need 
for congressional action re, statements (Dillon), 
548, 550 
Conlon report on U.S. policy in Asia, 787, 862 
Connally amendment re domestic jurisdiction by ICJ, 
views on need for repeal of, address (Rogers), 381, 
382 
Consular service, U.S. See Foreign Service 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Devel- 
opment in South and Southeast Asia, U.S. delegation 
to 11th meeting, 733 
Contracting Parties to GATT. See under Tariffs and 

trade, general agreement on 
Control and inspection in a disarmament program. See 

Inspection and control 
Convention of establishment with France, 828, 890 
Coolidge, Charles A., 237, 330 
Coolidge Committee study on U.S. disarmament policy, 

237, 079, 864 
Copyright (see also Patents) convention (1952), univer- 
sal, and protocols 1, 2, and 3 : 
Current actions, 398, 430, 653, 814 

Effect on U.S. book-manufacturing field, report (Mur- 
phy), 422 
Corson, Harland, 925 
Costa Rica : 
Trading of surplus arms for agricultural equipment, 

statement (Herter), 783 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, 

protocol to 1928 convention on, 141 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
565 
Views on Nicaraguan revolutionary movement, state- 
ment (Dreier), 30 
Cotton : 

Imports of long-staple cotton. President accepts report 

re quotas, 516 
Price and surjilus problems, efforts to solve, address 

(Rubottom),. 199 
Textiles, President requests investigation of imports, 
letter (Eisenhower), 803 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Council of Jurists, Inter-American, U.S. delegation to 4th 

meeting, 364 
Court of Arbitration, Permanent, designation of U.S. 

members, 5S7 
Court of Justice, International. See International Court 

of Justice 
Couve de Murville, Maurice, 509 

Crabmeat, embargo on imports from Soviet Union, state- 
ments (Dillon), 551 
Craven, T. A. M., 182 
Crawford, William A., 506 

Credit arrangements with Soviet Union, question of, state- 
ments (Dillon), 548, 549, 550, 551 
Cuba: 

Caribbean situation. Sec Caribbean area : Threat to 

peace in 
Tariff renegotiations with U.S., proposed, 237 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1050) on, 67n 
Shrimp conservation, convention with U.S. re, 68, 460, 

401, 566 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), International, with annex, 
172, 183, 293 
U.S.-Cuban relations, problems of : 
American regional labor organization, Cuban charge 

of U.S. domination, statement (Herter), 862 
Cuban refusal to discuss, statement (Herter), 937 
Departure from U.S. to Cuba, intensified enforce- 
ment of laws regarding, test of Department of Jus- 
tice announcement and letter (Herter), 757 
Expropriation of U.S. property, progress of negotia- 
tions for compensation of, statement (Herter), 937 
Inter-American organization excluding U.S., Cuban 
proposal for, question of effect on U.S.-Latin Ameri- 
can relations, statement (Herter) , 865 
Inter-American Peace Committee, U.S. willingness 

to cooperate with, 716 
Leaflet distribution by aircraft over Habana, De- 
partment statement on investigation of, 787 
Question of U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, 

statement (Herter), 785 
Sugar quota, question of, statement (Herter), 939 
U.S. concern and views, statements : Department 
statement, 715 ; Herter, 783 
Cultural, educational, and scientific materials, agreement 

(1950) on importation of, 67, 422 
Cultural, scientific, technical, and educational fields, 
agreements with Soviet Union for exchanges in. 
See Exchange agreements 
Cultural Action, Committee for, 847 
Cultural Council, Inter- American, U.S. delegation to 3d 

meeting, 846 
Cultural Presentions, President's Special International 

Program for, address (Thayer), 751 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 221 
Cultural relations and programs, U.S. («ee also Educa- 
tional exchange program and Exchange of persons) : 
Addresses (Thayer), 310, 510, 748 
Agreements : 

Guinea, agreement with, 722, 734 

Index, July fo December 7959 



Cultural relations and programs, U.S. — Continued 
Agreements — Continued 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 
materials, multilateral agreement (1950) on, 67, 
422 
Soviet Union, agreements with. See Exchange 
agreements 
Establishment of Bureau of International Cultural Re- 
lations in State Department, 183 
Exchanges with : 

Far East, address (Dillon), 781 
Latin America, address (Rubottom), 593 
Soviet Union (see also Exchange agreements), ad- 
dresses : Nixon, 234 ; Thompson, 159 
Need for increase in exchanges, address (Hart), 53 
U.S. cultural development, remarks (Murphy), 307 
Currency convertibility : 

GATT, 15th session of Contracting Parties : 
Communique, 707 
U.S. delegation report, 680 
IMP role and decision re, statement (Anderson), 534, 

535 ; text of decision, 681 
Importance to trade relations, addresses and state- 
ments: Beale, 95; Dillon, 156, 1.57, 703, 858; Phil- 
lips, 179 
Curtis Bill (H.R. 5455) re issuance of passports, state- 
ment (Hanes), 325 
Customs (see also Tariff policy, U.S.) : 

Border inspection station, agreement with Mexico re- 
lating to opening of, 330 
Duty-free entry privileges for nondiplomatic personnel, 

agreement with Venezuela relating to, 330 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 182 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 182 
Cutler, Robert, 652 
Czechoslovakia : 

Border, U.S. warning against unauthorized crossing 

of, 350 
10 Nation Committee on Disarmament, membership, 

438 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyright convention (1952), universal, and proto- 
cols 2 and S, 653 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for estab- 
lishment of new schedule III — Brazil, 101 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 814 

Dalai Lama, 683 

Daniels, Paul C, 911 

Davis, Richard H., 365 

Davis, Thomas W. S., 935 

Declaration of Lima, remarks (Herter), 300 

Declaration of Santiago de Chile, text, 342 

Defense. See Mutual defense and National defense 

Defense, Department of: 

Functions in administration of Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act, 55 

Joint study with State Department on disarmament, 
679 

Schools for dependents, 940 

975 



Defense, Joint, Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on, 

2(1 meeting and communicjue, 7S8 
Defense support. See Mutual security 
De Gaulle, Charles, 2G3, 410, 411, ."iOO 
Deming, Olcott H., 430 
Democracy, representative, principle of, statement 

(Herter),301, 302, 304 
Denniarli : 

Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions 

regarding shipping problems, 10 
yarifl concessions, compensatory, negotiations with 

U.S., 354 
Trade restrictions against dollar imports, relaxation 

of, 83, 285, 286 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IMCO, convention, 101 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 849 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Department of Commerce, 284, 639, 805 
Department of .Justice, 757 
Department of State. See State Department 
Department of the Treasury, 805 

Dependent territories. See Trust territories and Non- 
self-governing territories 
Dependents Schools of the Department of Defense, 940 
De Seynes, Philippe, 8S1 
Development association, international, proposed: 

Functions of and U.S. support, addresses, letter, and 
statements : Anderson, 532, 534 ; Dillon, 539, 574, 
70.5, 740, 741 ; Draper Committee, 210 ; Eisenhower, 
532; Herter, 473, 821; Meany, 885, 886; Wilcox, 
446 
IBRD resolution, 541 

National Advisory Council on International Monetary 
and Financial Problems, report (excerpts), 392 
Development Bank, Inter-American. See Inter-American 

Development Bank 
Development Loan Fund : 

Commitments, list of loan operations, 127, 563 
Delegation of authority concerning, 365 
Draper Committee proposal re, 209 

Functions and operations of, addresses and statement: 
Brand, G35; Dillon, 1.56; Herter, 473; Meany, 883 
Functions in administration of Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act, 55 
Loans in : Bolivia, 164 ; China, Republic of, 57 ; Ethiopia, 
318; Guatemala, 3.58; Haiti, 516; India, 22, 240; 
Indonesia, 57; Iran, 3.58, 587; Korea, 164, 211; 
Latin America, 563, 596; Lebanon, 211, 240; Libya, 
04; Pakistan, 22, 94, 164, 482; Paraguay, 284; 
Philippines, 164, 240, 318 ; Thailand, 211 ; Turkey, 
164, 318 ; Uruguay, 4.55 ; Yugoslavia, 23, 57, 211 
rx)ng-term commitment, question of, statement (Her- 
ter), 115 
Managing director, confirmation (Brand), 398 
New loan policy of, address and statements : Brand, 
708 ; Herter, 821, 861 
De Wolf, Francis Colt, 652 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 162 



Dillon, Douglas: 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

China, Republic of, economic aid to and progress of, 

779 
Economic development of less developed countries, 

challenge of, 855 
Far East, U.S. policies In, 571 

FSI study and training, importance to Foreign Serv- 
ice, 36 
Honor awards ceremony of Department, 65 
ICA development programing, 908 
IDA, proposed, 886 
International Bank, report of, 537 
Lend-lease account with Soviet Union, 547, 548, 550, 

553 
Need for elimination of trade barriers and expansion 

of trade, 703 
Private investment abroad, 128 
SEATO, 5th anniversary, 421 
Shipping situation, world, 10 
Soviet economic offensive, problems of, 553 
Strengthening the foundations of freedom, 375 
U.S. foreign economic policy, 739 
World trade and investment, U.S. role, 155 
Appointment as Alternate Governor of Inter-American 

Development Bank, announcement, 052 
Correspondence and message : 

Dollar trade liberalization, progress of, 285 
Independent African states, conference of, 264 
Greetings to Vice President Nixon on return from 

Europe, 272 
Meetings : 
Advisory Committee of Business Council for Inter- 
national Understanding, 67 
Financial discussions re credits to Spain. 210 
GATT Ministerial meeting. U.S. representative at, 
633, 679, 703, 843 
News conference on U.S. -Soviet trade relations, 547 
Responsibility for administration of military aid, state- 
ment (Herter). SCO 
Visit to Europe, 862 
Diplomacy, cultural, role in developing mutual under- 
standing, address (Thayer), 310 
Diplomacy, per.sonal, value of, addresses : Berding, 631 ; 

Merchant, 589 ; Murphy, 899 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under For- 
eign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

Century 21 Exposition, invitation to participate in, 378 
I'resentation of credentials : Argentina, 623 ; Belgium, 
354 ; Brazil, 197 ; Burma, 354 ; Dominican Republic, 
197; Ghana, 718; Guatemala. 154; Israel, 500; 
Jordan, 679 ; Laos, 902 ; Rumania, 354 ; Sudan, 197 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Armed forces, Dis- 
armament Commission, Nuclear weapons. Outer 
space, and Ten Nation Committee) : 
China, Communist, question of participation in dis- 

cu.ssions, statement (Horter), 506 
Declaration by Foreign Ministers of France, Soviet 
Union, U.K., and U.S., 269 I 

Joint communique (Eisenhower, Khrushchev) at con- 
clusion uf talks at Camp David, 499 



976 



Department of State Bulletin 



1 



Disarmament — Continued 

Joint State-Defeuse Departments study of U.S. dis- 
armament policy : 
Coolidge Committee, creation of, and report, 237, 679, 

864 
Deputy for Technical Affairs, appointment of, 679 
Negotiations, prospects for, address (Mercliant), 589 
Secretary of State and advisers review recent develop- 
ments in, 743 
Soviet proposals and position, U.S. views on, addresses, 
remarks, and statements : Herter, 502, 504, 508, 
575 ; Lodge, 615 ; Murphy, 662 ; Wilcox, 443 
U.N. consideration of problem of : 
General Assembly resolution, 7CG 

Irish draft resolution on referral of question of wider 
use of nuclear weapons to 10 Nation Committee, 
statement (Lodge), 942 
Letter (Eisenhower), 288 
Statement (Lodge), 765 
U.S.-Canada Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense, 

communique, 789 
U.S. -Italian joint communiques, 541, 542 
U.S. position, addresses and statements : Eisenhower, 
895; Herter, 471, 472; Lodge, 615; Murphy, 661; 
Saccio, 760; White House statement, 902; Wilcox, 
443, 665 
Western willingness to negotiate, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 371 
Disarmament Commission, U.N. (.see also Ten Nation 
Committee on Disarmament) : 
Documents, list of, 607 

Resolution re 4-power establishment of 10 Nation 
Committee on Disarmament, 439 
Disputes, peaceful settlement of : 
Camp David proposal for. See Camp David talks 
Responsibility of legal profession to work for systems 
to deal with, address (Rogers), 381 
DLF. See Development Loan Fund 

Documents on Oerman Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, Series 
C {1933-19ST), Volume III, The Third Reich: First 
Phase, June H. 1034-March 31, 1935, released, 462 
Dodge, Robert J., 800 
Domestic jurisdiction : 
ICJ: 

Declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction of 

statute, 330, 608 
U.S. reservation to jurisdiction by, address (Rogers), 
381 
Question of application to problem of Tibet, statement 
(Lodge), 684 
Dominican Republic: 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 197 
Situation in, statement (Dreier), 136 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 461 
Sugar agreement (19.58), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 258 
Donato del Carril, Emilio, 623 
Donnelly, Walter J., 823 



Double taxation on income, conventions for avoidance 
of, wilh: Belgium, 182, 18;i, 293; India, 813, 814, 900; 
Norway, XM, 653, 697, 925 
Dougall, Richardson, 80 
Dowling, Walter C, 308, 814 
Draper, William H., Jr., 46, 866 
Draper Committee. See President's Committee To Study 

the United States Military Assistance Program 
Dreier, John C, 30, 136 
Drugs, narcotic : 

Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 461, 925 
Pharmacopoeial formulas for potent drugs, protocol 

terminating agreement for unification of, 526 
Protocol (1946) amending conventions on narcotic 

drugs, 461 
Protocol (1048) bringing under international control 
drugs outside scope of 1931 convention, 461 
Dry dock, floating, agreement with Peru relating to loan 

of, 34 
Dulles, Allen W., 274, 867 
Dulles, Eleanor Lansing, 790 
Dulles, John Foster: 
Dedication of John Foster Dulles AUee (Berlin), state- 
ments and remarks (Herter), 198 
Issuance of U.S. passports to Communist supporters, 

quoted, 167 
Papers, personal, gift to Eisenhower Library, 207 
Policies of, remarks (Berding), 78 
Tribute to, letter (Adenauer), 502 
Dulles International Airport, designation, 154 
Durbrow, Elbridge, 217 

Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, proto- 
col to 1928 convention on, 141, 293 
Dwinell, Lane, 185 

Early-warning system, ballistic missile, agreement with 

Canada relating to establishment of, 222 
Earthquake, U.S., exchange of messages (Eisenhower, 

Tubman), 481 
East- West contacts (see also Cultural relations) : 

Addresses, messages, and report: Dillon, 573; Eisen- 
hower, 437; Eisenhower, Kozlov, 158; Thayer, 312 
U.S.-Soviet. See Exchange agreements awl Khru- 
shchev : Visit to U.S. 
East-West trade, proposed Increase in U.S.-Soviet trade, 

statements : Dillon, 547 ; Rubottom, 596 
Eaton, Frederick M., 902 
EGA. See Economic Commission for Africa 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 
Consideration of land reform problem, statement (Hen- 
derson), 888 
Council of, 27th session, statement (Phillips), 26 
Documents, lists of, 32, 141, 490, 607, 771, 847, 924 
Economic commissions. See Economic commission 
Question of increasing membership, U.S. position, 

statement (Hancher), 769 
Report and work of, U.S. views, addresses and state- 
ment: Lord, 838; Meany, 879; Wilcox, 669 
Resolution re freedom of Information, adoption of, 29» 



Index, July to December 1959 



977 



Economic and social development, address and state- 
ments: Department statement, 717; Hart, 53; Hen- 
derson, 887 ; Kotschnig, 692 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries {see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Inter-American 
Development Banls, International Bank, International 
Cooperation Administration, Mutual security and 
other assistance programs, and United Nations : 
Technical assistance programs) : 
Aid to: Bolivia, 925; Brazil, 755, 756; British Guiana, 
526; Burma, 121, 222, 5C5; CENTO, 488, 583; 
China, Republic of, 779, 781; Ecuador, 222; Ice- 
land, 142; India, 783; Indonesia, 22; Israel, 697; 
Italy, 294; Latin America, 596; Liberia, 490; 
Libya, 358, 925; Mexico, 398; Morocco, 94; SEATO, 
205; Spain, 210; Turkey, 142; U.A.R., 79; Yemen, 
258, 698 ; Yugoslavia, 772 
Draper Committee study, letters transmitting reports, 

46, 208, 390 
IAEA programs, need for, address ( Floberg) , 645 
Importance of, address (Parsons), 203 
Problems, of address (Saccio), 702 
Proposed aid to Guinea, joint communique, 722 
Sino-Soviet bloc programs. See Less developed coun- 
tries : Economic offensive 
Termination of economic assistance agreement (1957) 

with Iraq, 294 
U.S. policy and programs, addresses and statements: 
Dillon, 156, 376, 378, 705, 740, 855, 856, 908 ; Hart, 
53; McClintock, 120; Meany, 882; Murphy, 711; 
Newsom, 418, 419 ; Robertson, 7 ; Sears, 291 ; Sat- 
terthwaite, 340 
U.S. public opinion on, address (Foster), 798, 800 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., creation of, state- 
ment (Meany), 879 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 
Coal Committee, U.S. delegate to 47th session, 429 
Housing Committee, U.S. delegate to 19th session, 889 
Special meeting on organization and techniques of for- 
eign trade, U.S. delegation, 65 
Timber Committee, U.S. delegate to 17th session, 565 
Economic Committee, CENTO, 7th meeting, statement 

(Kennedy), 487 
Economic Community, European. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Economic conference of Buenos Aires, address (Ruhot- 

tom), 594 
Economic cooperation (see also Common markets) : 
Europe. See European Economic Community ; Euro 
pean Economic Cooperation, Organization for ; 
European Free Trade Association ; and European 
Monetary Agreement 
Latin America : 
Address (Rubottom), 597 

U.S. delegation to 15th session of GATT, report, 845 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan and 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Economic development (see also Economic and technical 
aid) : 
Asia. See under Asia 
Challenge and problems of, address (Dillon), 741 



Economic development — Continued 

Financing of (see also Agricultural surpluses; Develop- 
ment association, international, proposed ; Develop- 
ment Loan Fund ; Export-Import Bank ; Inter- 
American Development Bank ; International Bank ; 
International Monetary Fund ; Investment of pri- 
vate capital abroad; and Special Fund), address 
and statement : Herter, 783 ; Saccio, 763 
Free world, address (Dillon), 703 

Latin America («ee also Inter-American Development 
Bank) : 
Address and remarks: Herter, 300, 301, 302; Rubot- 
tom, 594, 596 
Exchange of messages (U.S.-Brazil), 905, 906 
Less developed countries, letter, remarks, and state- 
ments : Dillon, Lindsay, 129 ; Elsenhower, 290, 406 ; 
Meany, 878 
Need for international cooperation, U.S.-Itallan joint 

communique, 542 
Program training, remarks (Dillon), 908 
Relationship to social development, address and state- 
ment : Kotschnig, 692 ; Lord, 838 
U.S. and Soviet development, evaluation of, remarks and 

statement (Allen Dulles), 274, 867 
U.S. efforts and programs to promote, address 
(Herter), 473 
Economic opportunities for women, article (Hahn), 62 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical 
aid, Export-Import Bank, and Mutual security 
Domestic economy : 
Developments in and status of, remarks and state- 
ments : Anderson, 535, 537 ; Elsenhower, 531 ; Phil- 
lips, 176, 178, 258 
Need for growth, address and statement: Allen 

Dulles, 870, 872 ; Meany, 878 
Problems of, address (Elsenhower), 896 
Foreign economic policy, address (Dillon), 739 
Relationship to political policy, remarks (Dillon), 37 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Economic Research, National Bureau of, 869 
Economic research techniques, U.N., evaluation of, state- 
ment (Meany), 881 
ECOSOO. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 

Army, Navy, and Air Force missions, agreement amend- 
ing agreements with U.S., 68 
Financial assistance, agreement amending 1958 agree- 
ment with U.S., 222 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 772 
Rawinsonde observation station at Guayaquil, agree- 
ment amending 1957 agreement with U.S. for 
establishment and operation of, 293 
Education (see also Educational exchange program) : 
Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, U.S. aid, 843 
College representation In the Foreign Service, letters 

(Bow, Henderson), 358 
Foreign Service Institute, 35, 493 
Guinea, proposed U.S. aid, 723 
IAEA program, growth of, statement (Floberg), 645 



978 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Education — Continued 
Institute on ICA Development Programing, 183 
Multilateral agreement (1950) re importation of edu- 
cational materials, 67, 422 
NATO fellowship program, 1900-61, announcement of, 

87-1 
Need for education of public on problems confronting 

U.S., remarks (Eisenhower), 447 
Otto Suhr Institute, Berlin, U.S. gift to, 306 
Role in cultural exchange, address (Thayer), 315 
Role in the life of a nation, remarks (ilurphy), 307 
SEATO Graduate School of Engineering, statement 

(Dillon), 421 
22d international conference on public education, U.S. 

delegation, 100 
U.S. institutions, support of U.N. Special Fund projects, 

690 
UNESCO activities in promotion of equality of women, 
article (Hahn), 63 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agreement 

(1950) on importation of, 67, 422 
Educational, scientific, technical, and cultural fields, 
agreements with Soviet Union for exchanges in. 
See Exchange agreements 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Importance of, address (Rubottom), 593 
Role in negotiation of agreement on importation of 
educational, scientific, and cultural materials, 422 
Study on status of women, article (Hahn), 63 
Educational exchange program, ixiternational (see also 
Education) : 
Addresses (Thayer), 312, 511, 750 
Agreements with : Ceylon, 925 ; Italy, 68 ; Soviet Union, 

953, 957 ; Sweden, 849, 890 ; U.A.R., 608, 609 
Agricultural delegations, U.S.-Polish, exchange of 

visits, 555, 747 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, report on, 21 
Fulbright and Smith-Mundt Acts, exchanges under, 

184 
Public administrators, visit to U.S., 450 
Teacher exchange program, 448, 479 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
Egypt (see also United Arab Republic), U.S. relations 

with, statement (Herter),861 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

( P.L. 480 ) , approval of extension, 515 
Algeria, General de Gaulle's plan to provide for self- 
determination, 500 
Anglo-American relations, 405, 409 
Antarctic treaty, 912 

Cornerstone-laying ceremony for CIA building, 743 
Dedication of Eisenhower Presidential Library at 

Abilene, Kans., 620 
Domestic economy and economic development, 531 
Exchange of official visits with Premier ELlirushchev, 

263 
Exchange of persons, 407 
Foreign Service senior oflScer training, 35 
Free world unity, importance of religion and educa- 
tion to, 447 

Index, July fo December 7959 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — ContiDued 

Freedom, 408 

Japanese security treaty negotiations, 907 

Less developed countries, problem of, 406 

Mutual Security Act of 1954, appropriations for fiscal 
year 19G0, 207 

NATO, importance of, 412 

Peace, 400, 407 

Passports, issuance of, 167 

St. Lawrence Seaway official opening, 75 

Teacher exchange program, 479 

Trade, importance to national growth, 407 

U.S. -Canadian relations, 405 

Visit of Premier Khrushchev («ee also Camp David 
talks), exchange of greetings and toasts, and text 
of joint statement, 476 

Visit of President Lopez Mateos of Mexico to U.S., 
exchange of greetings, 624 

Visit of President Tour6 of Guinea, welcome to U.S. 
and exchange of toasts at state dinner, 721 

Visits to Europe and 11 nations. See Visit to Europe 
and Visit to 11 nations infra 

West Berlin, problem of, 408 
Correspondence and messages : 

Adenauer, Konrad, congratulations on 10th anni- 
versary as Chancellor of Federal Republic of 
Germany, 501 

Aid to Mexico after Pacific coast storm, offer of, 703 

Almond import quota, request for investigation on 
need for, 240 

American National Exhibition at Moscow, greetings 
for opening of, 229 

Berlin, U.S. position, 154 

Cotton textiles, request for investigation of imports 
of, 803 

Dried figs, decision against reopening escape-clause 
action on, 723 

Earthquake victims, appreciation of sympathy ex- 
pressed for, message to President Tubman of Li- 
beria, 481 

Far East-American Council, greetings to 12th annual 
conference of, 573 

Fourth of July, significance of, 116 

Frol R. Koslov, First Deputy Chairman, Council of 
MinLsters, U.S.S.R., exchange of messages upon 
conclusion of U.S. visit, 157 

Mayor Brandt, greetings to, 373 

National Advisory Committee on Inter-American 
Affairs, exchange of messages with President 
Kubitschek of Brazil on establishment, 905 

President Ngo Dinh Diem, 5th anniversary of ac- 
cession to oflice, exchange of messages on occasion 
of, 162 

Rye import quota, request for investigation of need 
for continuance of, 56 

Spain, exchange of letters with General Franco, 404 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Meetings and discussions (see also Visit infra) : 

Camp David talks with Premier Khrushchev. See 
Camp David talks 

Four Power (U.S., U.K., France, Germany) Paris 
meeting, announcement of, 708 

979 



Elsenhower, Dwight D.— Continued 
Meetings and discussions — Continued 

Italian President and Minister of Foreign Affairs 
announcement and texts of joint communiques, 264 

412 541 
National Advisory Committee on Inter-American 

Affairs, 905 
President Habib Bourguiba of Tunis, 823 
President of NAC and Secretary General of NATO, 

264 
Prime Minister Eqbal of Iran, 587 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 
Agreement on importation of educational, scientific, 

and cultural materials, 422 ,. ^ 

Cheeses, requests for investigation of effect of imports 

on domestic price-support program, 729 
Draper Committee reports, transmittal of. 46, -.08, 

390 

Stainless-steel flatware, increase In Import duties 

on, 729 ^ ^^ 

Trade agreements program, 3d annual report on 

operation of, excerpt, 83 _ 

United Nations, 13th annual report on U.S. partici- 
pation in, transmittal of, 287 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Proposed visits to : ^ qoq 

Latin America, question of, statement (Herter), 938 

Moscow, 263, 507 
Visit to 11 nations : 

Afghanistan, text of joint communique, 934 

Italy, text of joint communique, 931 

Itinerary for, statements: Eisenhower, 742; Hagerty, 

823 
Members of party, 742 
Pakistan, text of joint communique, 933 
Question of visit to Arab countries or Israel, state- 
ment (Herter), 864 
Radio-TV address prior to departure, 895 
Statements (Herter) , 863, 864, 936 
Turkey, text of joint communique, 932 
Visit to Europe : 

Address, remarks, and statements: Eisenhower, 371, 

435 437 ; Herter, Fujiyama, 509 
Federal Republic of Germany, exchange of greetings 
and joint communique with Chancellor Adenauer. 
372 
France : 
Acceptance of invitation, 263 

Exchange of greetings and joint communique with 
President de Gaulle, and departure statement, 
410, 413 
Members of party, 372 
U.K.: 

Acceptance of invitation, 263 

Exchanges of greetings and departure statements 
with Prime Minister, and transcript of TV Inter- 
view, 403, 405, 409 
White House announcements re, 264 
Elsenhower, Milton S., 823 
Eisenhower Doctrine, purpose of, address (McClintock), 

120 
Elsenhower Presidential Library, 207, 620 

980 



^BMlTn! western proposal, statement (Herter) 147, 148 
British Cameroons, statement (Zablocki) and General 
Assembly resolution, 730 
El-Hadari, Osman, 197 
Elizabeth II, 10, 75, 76 

""'imiormlon of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67re 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences pr^ 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 365, 924 
International sugar agreement (1958) , 925 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
regulations of execution, agreements relating to 
parcel post and money orders, and final protocols, 

68 
EMA See European Monetary Agreement 
Emergency Force, U.X., addresses and statements: Her- 
ter, 508 ; Lodge, 919 ; Wilcox, 445, 668 
Emmons, Arthur B. Ill, 365, 566 
EPU. See European Payments Union 
Eqbal, Manuchehr, 587 
Espinosa, Ricardo Arias, 827 

Establishment, convention of, protocol and joint declara- 
tion with France, 828, 890 
Ethiopia : 

Crown Prince Asfa Wossen, visit to U.S., 592 

DLF loan, 318 

U.S. aid, 240 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 5-b 
EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Community 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 

Collective security. See European security and North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization 

DLF loans, 564 

Eastern Europe, U.S. policy toward, remarks (Berding). 

78 
Economic cooperation. See European Economic Com- 
munity ; European Economic Cooperation, Organ- 
ization for ; European Free Trade Association ; and 
European Monetary Agreement 
Problems of, address (Merchant), 590 
Refugees. See European Migration, Intergovernmental 
Committee for ; and Refugees and displaced persons 
U.N. Economic Commission for. See Economic Com- 
mission for Europe 
U.S. policy for, address (Murphy), 710 
Unity of: 

Article (Birch), 88, 89 

Chancellor Adenauer's contribution, message (Eisen- 
hower), 501 
Italian contribution, U.S.-Italian joint communique, 

542 
Visit of Chief Justice Warren, 236 
Western Europe : 

Economic recovery and defense of, U.S. contributions, 
address (Burgess), 744 

Shipping problems, discussions with U.S., announce- 
ment, statement (Dillon), and texts of agreed 
statement and communique. 10 

Trade restrictions, relaxation of, address and report: 
Dillon, 156, 157 ; Elsenhower, 83 

Deparfmenf of Sfa/e Bu//etin 



Europe — Continued 

Western Europe — Continued 

Visit of President Eisentiower. See Eisenhower : 
Visit to Europe 
European Atomic Energy Community, relationship to 

European unity, article (Birch), 88, 89 
European Common Alarlcet. See European Economic 

Community 
European Economic Community : 

Liberalization of trade policies, U.S. welcomes, state- 
ment (Meany), 884 
Meeting of Under Secretary Dillon with officials of, 862 
Negotiations with "Outer Seven," statement (Herter), 

862 
Progress of : 

Address (Dillon), 706 
GATT communique and report, 707, 845 
Relationship to U.S. foreign trade, article (Birch), 88 
U.S. agreements for establishment of mutual relations 
with. Department announcement, 828 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for: 
Spain, membership and credits to, 210 
Trade liberalization, OEEC efforts for, report to Con- 
gress (Eisenhower), 85, 87 
Views on effect of shipping policies on promotion of in- 
ternational trade, 15 
European Free Trade Association : 
Membership, S62n 
Negotiations for establishment, U.S. delegation to 15th 

session of GATT report, 845 

Question of U.S. support, statements (Herter), 862, 939 

Under Secretary Dillon's visit to Europe to discuss, 862 

European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee fori 

10th session of Council and 12th session of Executive 

Committee, article (Warren), 58 
11th session of Council, 770, 843 
European Monetary Agreement : 

Provisions of, statement (Beale), 95 
Relationship to EPU, 84 
European Payments Union : 

Liquidation of, statement (Beale), 95 
Relationship to EMA, 84 
European security (see also Berlin situation; Germany: 
Reunification of; and North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization), relationship to European prosperity, address 
(Murphy), 710 
Evenko, I. A., 693 

Excess property, U.S., agreements relating to disposal of, 
with : China, Republic of, 461 ; Korea, Republic of, 
609 ; Turkey, 925 
Exchange agreements with Soviet Union in scientific, 
technical, educational, and cultural fields : 
Addresses : Murphy, 660 ; Thompson, 159 
Agreement of 1958 : 

Agreement for exchange of scientists, 200, 350 
Premieres of first films exchanged, 671 
Soviet composers and music critic visit U.S., 632 
U.S. exhibit at Moscow. See Exhibits : U.S. at Mos- 
cow 
Agreement for 1960-61 : 
Current action, 890 



Exchange agreements with Soviet Union — Continued 
Agreement for 1960-61 — Continued 

Negotiations for. Department statement and text of 

joint communique, 848 
Text, 951 
Exchange of information, need for increase in, ad- 
dresses : Herter, 474 ; Nixon, 234 
Exchange of persons {see also Cultural relations, Educa- 
tional exchange program, and Exchange agree- 
ments) : 
Aid to development of understanding, remarks 

(Eisenhower, Macmillan), 407 
Brazil, U.S. exchanges with, address (Cabot), 756 
Far East, U.S. exchange of technical personnel in, ad- 
dress (DiUon), 781 
Need for exchange of East- West members of legal pro- 
fession, address (Rogers), 350 
Role of U.S. public in, address (Foster), 802 
U.K. removal of restrictions against, 682 
U.S.-Soviet, Camp David talks re, 499 
Value and extent of, address (Thayer), 311 
Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High 
Commissioner for Refugees, U.S. delegation to 2d 
session, 607 
Executive orders : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 

administration of (10827), 54 
Allowances to certain U.S. personnel abroad, regula- 
tions on and delegations of authority re (10853), 
940 
Atomic Energy Act (1954), providing for the carrying 

out of certain provisions of (10841), 554 
Dulles International Airport, designation (10828), 154 
Federal Aviation Act (1958), extension of application 

(108.54), 941 
International Refugee Organization, revocation of 
designation as public international organization 
(10832), 363 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, exemption of certain func- 
tions under (10845), 653 
Secretary of State, designating oflBcers to act as (10839), 

566 
State Department representative on Operations Co- 
ordinating Board, designation (10838), 493 
Exhibits, U.S. and Soviet under 1958 exchange agree- 
ment: 
Soviet exhibit at N.Y., 157«. 
U.S. exhibit at Moscow : 
Address, message, remarks, and statement: Eisen- 
hower, 229 ; Nixon, 227, 228 ; Thompson, 159 
Carl Sandburg and Edward Steichen to visit, 158 
Contribution of, letter (Herter), 514 
Question of U.S. art on exhibit, statement (Herter), 
112 
Exhibits, U.S.-Soviet agreement (1959) for exchange of, 

956 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, U.N. See 
under United Nations: Technical assistance pro- 
grama 
Expanding Private Investment for Thailand's Economic 
Orowth, report, 909 



Index, July to December 1959 

556066—60 3 



981 



Export-Import Bank : 

Board member, conflrmation of, 383 
Functions in administration of Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act, 55 
Loans in : Brazil, 755 ; I^tin America, 596 ; Spain, 211 
Visit of director to Argentina, 117 
Exports, low-wage countries, problem of, statement (Dil- 
lon), 705 
Exports, U.S. (see also Balance-of -payments ; Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on ; and Trade) : 
Agricultural products (see also Agricultural surpluses), 

outlook for, address (Dillon), 858 
Arms to Caribbean area, U.S. position, 717 
Competition in international markets, address (Dil- 
lon), 157 
Foreign restrictions against See Imports : Restric- 
tions 
Relationship to European Common Market, article 
(Birch), 88 
Expropriation of property : 
Guaranty against. See Investment guaranty program 
U.S. property in Cuba, question of compensation for, 
statement (Herter), 937 
External debts, German, agreement (1953) on, 101, 293 

Falc6n-Briceno, Marcos, 907 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 

Far East (see also Asia and individual countries) : 

Developments in, addresses and statement : Herter, 109, 

408 ; Robertson, 5 
Relationship of developing nations to U.S. security, 

address (Parsons), 201 
Tensions in, effect of Khrushchev visit to Peiping on, 

statement (Herter), 577 
U.S. policy, address and message: Dillon, 571; Eisen- 
hower, 573 
Far East- America Council, 573 
Federal Aviation Act (1958), extension of application, 

announcement and Executive order, 941 
Federal Aviation Agency, 758, 941 
Federal Communications Commission, 171, 172 
FSd^ration Ue Liberation Nationale, 865 
Fidel, B. Allen, 462 
Figs, dried, decision against reopening of escape-clause 

action on, 723 
Film festival, Moscow, U.S. representation, 21 
Films, agreements with Soviet Union for exchange of : 
Premieres of 1st films exchanged under 1958 agreement, 

671 
Provision of 1959 agreement, 955 
Finance, protocol terminating obligations arising from 
1948 accord regarding German assets in Spain, 101 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 

Finance Corporation 
Financial assistance, agreement amending 1958 agreement 

with Ecuador, 222 
Financial situation, world, statement (Anderson), 536 
Finland : 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. providing, 

258 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 698 



Fishing, shrimp conservation convention with Cuba, 68, 

460, 461, 566 
Fisk, James Brown, 859 
Fiske, Robert Bishop, 49 
FitzGerald, WUliam H. G., 961 

Flag, U.S., question in U.S.-Panamanian relations, state- 
ment (Herter), 938 
Flags of convenience, use in shipping, statement (DUlon) 

and communique, 11, 13, 14, 16 
Flatware, stainless-steel, increase in duty on unjiorts of, 

proclamation and letter (Eisenhower), 727 
PLN. See Federation de Liberation Nationale 
Floberg, John P., 524n, 642, 695 
Flood relief, U.S. aid to India for, 679 
Food and Agricultural Organization, U.N. : 
Conference of, 10th session : 
Announcement and U.S. delegation, 732 
Statement (Henderson), 887 
Joint programs with UNICEF, U.S. supiK)rt, address 
(Lord), 840 
Food-for-peace program, addresses and statement : Dillon, 

857 ; Eisenhower, 515 ; Paarlberg, 672 
Foreign aid, U.S. iSee Economic and technical aid, Mili- 
tary assistance, and Mutual security 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, appointment of 

member, 935 
Foreign currency : 
Convertibility. See Currency convertibility 
Use of proceeds from sales of agricultural surpluses. 
See Agricultural surpluses : Sales 
Foreign economic policy (see also Economic policy), U.S., 

address (Dillon), 739 
Foreign forces in the Federal Republic of Germany {see 
also Armed forces, foreign), agreement abrogating 
1952 conventions and agreement pertaining to, 293 
Foreign Ministers, SEATO, meeting at Washington, com- 
munique, 565 
Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva : 
Adjournment until July 13 : 
Four Power communique, 3 
Statements : Department, 4 ; Herter, 4 
Western proposal for, 3 
Progress of negotiations, address and statements (Her- 
ter), 43, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 115, 199 
Resumption of, July 13 : 

Statements (Herter), 116, 147, 191, 194, 195 
Text of Western proposal on Berlin, 153 
Closing session : declaration on disarmament and 
Four Power communique, 269; statements (Her- 
ter), 265, 269 
Statement (Herter) on question of resumption of, 578 
U.S. efforts and position, address (Murphy), 713 
Western proposals and position, address (Herter), 470 
Foreign Ministers of American States : 

Annual meeting proposed, statement (Herter), 579 
5th meeting of consultation at Santiago : 

Convocation of, proposed, U.S. supiwrt, statement 

(Dreier), 137 
Declaration of Santiago, text, 342 
Resolution on Inter-American Peace Committee, 343 
Results of, address (Rubottom), 594, 595 



982 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Foreign Ministers of American States — Continued 
5tli meeting of consultation at Santiago — Continued 
Statements (Herter), 270, 299, 342 
U.S. delegation, 299, 306 
Foreign policy, German, documents on, 13th volume re- 
leased, 462 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
Basic principles and objectives, addresses and state- 
ments : Cabot, 753 ; Eisenhower, 767 ; Herter, 864 ; 
Murphy, 710, 711, 714, 900 
Broadening responsibilities of, remarks (Dillon), 36 
Congressional documents relating to. See under 

Congress 
Cultural relations role in, addresses (Thayer), 314, 510 
Factors influencing, address (Murphy), 659 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Limitations of, remarks (Murphy), 308 
Personal contacts, importance to, address (Murphy), 

899 
Question of affording, address (Burgess), 744 
Role of public opinion in, address (Foster), 796 
U.N. as a cornerstone of, statement (Herter), 507 
Foreign policy, Soviet, developments in, address (Mur- 
phy), 901 
Foreign Relatimi-g of the United States, lOJfO, Volume I, 

General, released, 68 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1941, Volume III, 
The British Commonwealth, The Near East and 
Africa, released, 68 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, report on educational 

exchange program, 21 
Foreign Service (see also International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration and State Department) : 
Ambassadors and Ministers, appointments, designations, 
confirmations, and resignation, 38, 142, 258, 330, 
462, 609, 654, 698, 814, 850, 866, 890 
Business Council for International Understanding, 

joint training program, 67 
College representation in, letters (Henderson, Bow), 

358 
Consular agency at Malaga, Spain, closed, 493 
Consular districts in Australia, revision of, 67 
Consulate at Niagara Falls, closed, 609 
Consulate at Poznan, Poland, to reopen, 398 
Damage to Embassy property at Panama, U.S. protest, 

759 
Development of, address (Murphy), 899 
Embassy at Katmandu, Nepal, opening of, 82, 270 
Examination announced, 493 
FSI. See Foreign Service Institute 
Personnel : 
Communist seizure of employee of Consulate General 

at Bombay, India, U.S. protest, 902 
Honor awards ceremonies of State Department, re- 
marks (Dillon), 65 
Hungarian imposition of travel restrictions on Lega- 
tion personnel at Budapest, 161 
Tribute to, address (Dillon), 781 
Sale of Embassy property at London to Canada, 700 
Selection Boards, 13th, convening of, 461 
Soviet expulsion of attach^, U.S. protest, 632 
U.S. Mission, Berlin, designation of assistant chief, 38 



Foreign Service — Continued 

Visit of Assistant Secretary Jones to south Asia, 792 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon to Europe for meeting 
with economic coun.selors, 862 
Foreign Service Institute, senior officers training course : 
Graduation ceremonies of 1st class, remarks: Eisen- 
hower, 35 ; Dillon, 36 
Second session, convocation of, announcement re, 493 
Formosa. See China, Republic of; and Taiwan Straits 
Foster, H. Schuyler, 796 
Foster, Paul F., 460, 524 

Four Power (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.) summit meet- 
ings. See Western summit meetings 
Fourth of July, significance of, message (Eisenhower) 

116 
France : 
African territories, developments in, address, reports, 
and statements : Eisenhower, 289, 436 ; Sears, 180 ;' 
Wilcox, 446 ; Zablocki, 922 
Algerian question. See Algeria 

Four Power (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.) Paris meet- 
ing, announcement, 708 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Min- 
isters meeting, Geneva 
Geneva technical talks. See Geneva technical talks 
German war documents, 13th volume, released, 462 
Nuclear test in the Sahara, question of health hazards 

of, statement (Lodge), 806 
Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions on 

shipping problems, 10 
Relations with U.S., remarks (Berding), 78 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament. See Ten 

Nation Committee on Disarmament 
Trade restrictions, relaxation of, 84, 285, 286, 559, 844 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreements mo<lifying and extending 
agreement (1946) with U.S. re, 258, 329, 397, 491 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 
Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes and civil 

uses, agreements with U.S., 222, 526 
Convention of establishment with U.S., with protocol 

and declaration, 828, 890 
Foreign forces in the Federal Republic of Germany, 
agreement abrogating 1952 conventions and agree- 
ment pertaining to, 293 
ICJ, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdiction, 
withdrawal of and acceptance with conditions and 
reservations, 330, 382 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67ra 
International carriage by air, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 141 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements sup- 
plementing, 293, 398 
Potent drugs, protocol for termination of 1906 agree- 
ment for unification of pharmacopoeial formulas 
for, 526 



Index, July fo December 1959 



983 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Rawinsonde observation station at Guadeloupe, agree- 
ment amending 1956 agreement with U.S. for estab- 
lishment and operation of, 293 

Reciprocal filing of classified patent applications, 
agreement with U.S., 293 

Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 925 

Universal postal convention (1957), 183 

Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 173, 183 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 263, 410, 413, 742 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon for economic talks, 862 
Franco, Francisco, 404, 823 

Free nations, preserving security of, address (Eisen- 
hower), 435 
Free Trade Association, European. See European Free 

Trade Association 
Free Trade Unions, International Confederation of, 862 
Free world, uniting of through religion and education, 

remarks (Eisenhower), 447 
Freedom, address, remarks, and statement: Dillon, 375; 

Eisenhower, 408 ; Nixon, 230 
Freedom Day celebration, remarks (Berding), 78 
Freedom of information, U.N. Commission on Human 

Rights report on, U.S. views, address (Lord), 841 
Freeman, Alwyn W., 364 
French Cameroun, political problems in. General Assembly 

proposed resolution and statement (Zablocki), 922 
French Community, Paris meeting, report (Eisenhower), 

436 
French Resistance veterans, visit to Washington, 49 
Friendship and commerce treaty (see also Convention of 

establishment) with Pakistan, 811, 814 
FSI. See Foreign Service Institute 
Fujiyama, Aiichiro, .508 
Fulton, James G., 460 

GAO. See General Accounting OflBce 

Gardiner, Arthur Z., 217 

GATT. See Tariifs and trade, general agreement on 

General Accounting OflBce report on aid program in India, 

statement (Herter), 865 
General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs and 

trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly, U.N. : 
Documents, lists of, 32, 141, 220, 257, 292, 489, 525, 696, 

771, 847, 890, 924 
Fourteenth session : 
Agenda, 218, 522, 652 
U.S. delegation, 460, 475 
Hungarian question, consideration of. See under 

Hungary 
Nuclear weapons tests, suspension of, efforts for and 

U.S. position, statements (Lodge), 917, 918 
Resolutions : 

British Cameroons, elections iu, 732 
Chinese representation question, decision not to con- 
sider, 517 
Human rights and fundamental freedoms, adoption of, 

950n 
Hungarian question, 946 



984 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 
Resolutions — Continued 

Nuclear weapons, prevention of wider dissemination 

of, adoption of, 843n 
Nuclear weapons tests, suspension of, 919 
Tibet, restjeet for rights and freedoms of, 688 
Tibet, question of. See Tibet 
General War Sequel Law, Federal Republic of Germany, 
deadline set for filing nonbonded claims under, 935 
Geneva conference of experts for the study of possible 
measures which might be helpful in preventing sur- 
prise attack and for the preparation of a report 
thereon to governments : 
Question of new negotiations, statement (Herter), 863, 

864 
U.S. views, address, letter, and statement: Eisenhower, 
288 ; Lodge, 615, 616 ; Mui-phy, 662 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests : 
General Assembly resolution re, 919 
Importance of, statement (Lodge), 806 
Progress of negotiations, addresses, letter, and state- 
ment : Eisenhower, 288 ; Herter, 471 ; Lodge, 615, 
617; Merchant, 590; Wilcox, 443 
Question of discussion at Camp David, statement 

(Herter), 578 
Resumption of, addresses : Murphy, 662 ; Wilcox, 666 
Technical talks on seismic instrumentation and tech- 
niques, proposed, statement (Herter), 785 
U.S. submission of report of Panel on Seismic Improve- 
ment, 10 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Minis- 
ters meeting, Geneva 
Geneva tarift conference (1960-61), GATT Committee I 

recommendations, 844 
Geneva technical talks for detection and identification of 

high-altitude nuclear explosions, U.S. delegation, 32 
Geneva technical talks on detection and identification of 
seismic events : 
Statements (Herter), 785,863, 865 
U.S. delegation, 859 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of, 526, 961 
Genocide, evidence of Chinese Communist acts of in Tibet, 
International Commission of Jurists report, 442, 683, 
686 
Germany : 

Berlin. Sec Berlin 

Division of, historical background of and present sit- 
uation, address (E. L. Dulles), 790 
Documents on German Foreign Policij, 1918-1945, vol- 
ume on, published, 462 
Foreign forces in. See Armed forces, foreign 
Reunification of (.fee also Berlin situation) : 
Camp David talks re. text of communique, 499 
Federal Republic-U.S. joint comnuinique, 373 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting negotiations re. 

See Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva 
Western position, address and report: Eisenhower, 
437 ; Merchant. 591 
Germany, East : 

Anniversary of uprising (June 17), exchange of mes- 
sages (Adenauer. Heiter), 4 

Department of State Bulletin 



Germany, Eaet — Continued 

Peace treaty with Soviet Union, question of, statements 

(Herter),113,506,507 
Present situation in, address ( Eleanor Dulles) , 791 
Social progress in, address ( Murphy ) , 713 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Chancellor Adenauer, congratulations on 10th anniver- 
sary, letters and messages (Adenauer, Eisenhower, 
Herter), 501 
East German refugees in, address (Eleanor Dulles) , 703 
Four Power (U.S., U.K., France, Germany) Paris meet- 
ing, announcement, 708 
General War Sequel Law, deadline set for filing non- 
bonded claims under, 935 
Question of armaments purchases, statement (Herter), 

579 
Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions 

re shipping problems, 10 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, S3, 285, 286 
Social progress, comparison with East German, address 

(Murphy), 713 
Tariff concessions, compensatory, negotiations with 

U.S., 354 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air traffic control, agreement with U.S. relating to, 

608 
Assets in Spain, German, protocol terminating obli- 
gations arising from 1948 accord regarding, 101 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 222, 526 
Atomic energy, mutual defense uses of, agreement 

with U.S. for cooperation, 258 
Classified patent applications, agreement with U.S. 

approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 365 
Direct procurement, settlement of disputes arising 

out of, agreement with U.S., 398 
Drugs outside the scope of 1931 convention on manu- 
facture and distribution of, protocol bringing under 
international control, 461 
External debts, German, agreement (1953) on, 101, 293 
Foreign forces In the Federal Republic of Germany, 
agreement abrogating 1952 conventions and agree- 
ment pertaining to, 293 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Narcotic drugs, agreements, conventions, and proto- 
cols on, protocol (1946) amending, 461 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements sup- 
plementing, 293, 398 
North Atlantic lee Patrol, agreement (1956) regard- 
ing financial support of, 772 
Opium protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 461 
Persons on leave, application of certain articles of 
status-of-forces agreement to, agreement with U.S., 
398 
Rights in aircraft, convention (1948) and protocol 

(1954) on international recognition of, 293 
Sugar agreement (195S), international, 734 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 849 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 



Germany, Federal Republic of— Continued 

U.S. Ambassador: appointment, 814; resignation, 850 
Visit of Chief Justice Warren, 236 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 264, 372 
Ghana : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 718 

Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285»i, 844 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, protocols, declaration, and procfes-verbal re- 
lating to, 961 
IMCO, convention, 183 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n. 
Postal convention (1957), universal, final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re- 
garding airmail with final protocol, 849 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
U.N. Special Fund, contract for survey in, 445 
Gleeck, Lewis E., Jr., 566 
Good Offices Committee, report re South-West Africa, 

statement (Sears), 808 
Gordon, Marcus J., 294 

Government and relief in occupied areas, Japanese ac- 
count, proposed settlement of, joint statement (Her- 
ter, Fujiyama), 509 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom' 
Greece : 

Foreign Minister Averoff, meeting with Secretary Her- 
ter, 413 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energ)' for mutual defense purposes, agree- 
ment with U.S. for cooperation on, 365 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Postal convention (1957), universal, final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re- 
garding airmail with final protocol, 849 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Vessels, agreements with U.S. relating to loan of, 526 
Wheat agreement ( 1959 ) , international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 430 
Gromyko, Andrei A., 479 
Gronchi, Giovanni, 931 
Gross, Gerald C, 935 
Guatemala : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 154 
DLF loan, 358 

Sugar agreement (19.58), international, 734 
Gufler, Bernard, 142 
Guinea : 

Admission to U.N., 289 
GATT accession postponed, 846 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1954), international, pro- 
tocol relating to certain amendments to, 608 
Cultural relations program, agreement with U.S., 

722, 734 
WHO, constitution, 34 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 38 
U.S. grant of rice and flour, 22 

U.S. immigration quota, proclamation establishing, 19 
Visit of President Tour6 to U.S., 634, 719 



Index, July fo December 1959 



985 



Hadraba, Theodore J., 430 

Hager, Eric H., 398 

Hagerty, James C, 742, 823 

Hahn, Mrs. Lorena B., 62 

Baikal, Yusuf, 079 

Haines cutofE road, agreement extending 1957 agreement 

with Canada relating to use of, 520 
Haiti : 

DLF loan, 516 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement for 

establishment of, 849 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 608 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

172, 183 
WHO, amendments to constitution of, 565 
Hale, Robert, 50, 363 
Halibut Commission, International Pacific, U.S. member 

appointed, 383 
Halm, W. M. Q., 718 
Hamill, Edward B., 67 
Hancher, Virgil M., 4G0, 767 
Hanes, John W., Jr., 215, 319, 770 
Harman, Avraham, 500 
Harrington, Julian F., 759, 859 
Hart, Parker T., 51 

Hawaii, University of, proposed center for cultural and 
technical interchange with Far East, address (Dil- 
lon), 781 
Hawk Production Organization (NATO), establishment, 

49 
Hays Bill (H.K. 8329) re issuance of passports, state- 
ment (Hanes), 324 
Heads of Government, Western, meeting. See Western 

summit meetings 
Heads of Government meeting, proposed : 
Date, question of, statements (Herter), 784, 785, 860 
Preparation for, statement (Herter), 937 
Prospects for, address and statements : Herter, 108, 

112, 575, .578 ; Merchant, rm 
U.S. po.sition, report and statements: Eisenhower, 437; 
Herter, 506, 580 
Health : 

International health and medical research year, pro- 
posed, address (Lord), 841 
Nuclear weapons tests effect on, statement (Lodge), 

806 
SEATO cholera research project, U.S. aid, 205 
U.S. proposals regarding disposal of radioactive wastes, 

address (Floberg),647 
U.S.-Soviet agreement for exchanges in field of, 954 
Health, National In.stitutes of, fund for cholera re-search 

project from ICA, 205 
Health Organization, World, constitution of, 34, 565 
Heath, Donald R., 866 
Heck, L. Douglas, 270 

Helicopters, question of sale to Soviet Union, statements 
(Dillon), 551, 552 



Henderson, Horace E., 99, 887 
Henderson, Loy W., 67, 358 
Henry, Bethwel, 252 
Herter, Christian A. : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : 

Algeria, French proposal for self-determination in, 

500, 503, 578 
American States, meetings of Foreign Ministers of: 
Annual meetings proposed, 579 
5th meeting of consultation at Santiago, 270, 299, 
342 
Antarctica, conference and treaty on, 650, 912 
Anti-U.S. sentiment in Latin America, assessment of, 

783 
Arab refugees in Jordan, question of mismanagement 

of U.S. aid to, 861 
Arab-Israeli summit meeting, question of, 575, 579 
Balance-of-payments problems, 861, 866 
Berlin situation, 470, 504, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 

819, 864, 865 
Bohlen, Charles E., question of Departmental assign- 
ment, 113 
Camp David talks (Eisenhower-Khrushchev), 505, 

507, 575, 577, 578, 579, 580 
Caribbean, situation in, 108, 109, 576 
Central Treaty Organization, 576, 583 
Chinese Communist regime : 

Diplomatic relations with, question of, 577 
Disarmament discussions, question of participation 

in, 506 
U.S. efforts to exchange news correspondents with, 

787 
Visit of Premier Khrushchev to, 577 
"Cold war," aspects of, 578 

Conlon report concerning U.S. policy in Asia, 787, 862 
Cuban-U.S. relations, 757, 783, 785, 862, 865, 939 
Disarmament : 

Camp David talks re, 575, 577 
Soviet proposals, 502, 504, 508 
Status of Coolidge Committee report, 864 
U.S. position, 471, 472 
DLF, long-term commitment, 115 
European Free Trade Association, question of U.S. 

support, 862, 939 
Far East, situation in, 109 
Films exchange with Soviet Union, 671 
Foreign policy, 864 

GAO report on aid in India program, 865 
Geneva conference on discontinuance of nuclear 

weapon tests, 578, 785 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting, 4, 43, 107, 108, 101), 
110, 112, 115, 116, 147, 149, 191, 194, 19.5, 199, 265, 
269, 470, 578 
Geneva technical talks on detection and identifica- 
tion of seismic events, 785, 863, 865 
Germany, Ea.st, 4, 113, 506, 507 
Heads of Government meeting, proposed, 108, 112, 506, 

575, 578, 580, 784, 785, 860, 937 
Hungarian question, possible U.N. action, 469, 507 
Iceland, removal of U.S. forces from, 938 
India, border dispute with Communist China, U.S. 
position, 782, 783, 786 



986 



Department of State Bulletin 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 

India, treaty for avoidance of double taxation on 

income with, 813 
Inter-American AdTisory Committee, National, 864, 

866 
International Bank proposed loan to U.A.R., question 

of U.S. position, 939 
Japanese-U.S. security treaty negotiations, 862, 938 
John Foster Dulles AUee, dedication of, 198 
Laos, situation in, 469, 505, 508, 579, 783 
Lend-lease negotiations with Soviet Union, 579 
Matsn and Quemoy, U.S. position regarding, 114 
Middle East : 

Question of President Eisenhower visiting, 864 

Situation in, developments, and question of U.S.- 
Soviet agreement on. 111, 468, 505, 861 
Missiles, questiim of U.S. supply to Korea, 863 
Mutual Security Program, administration of, 860 
NATO: 

Ministerial meeting at Paris, 934, 935, 936, 938, 939 

Proposal to expand responsibility of, 861 

Question of increasing aid to less developed coun- 
tries, 783 

U.S. policy, 824 
Nuclear test ban : 

Question of. 111, 865 

U.S. ban, 786, 863 
Nuclear weapons, control of, 112, 865 
170th anniversary of the Department of State, 492 
Pakistan, treaty of friendship and commerce with, 812 
Pauamanian-U.S. relations, problems of, 783, 863, 937, 

938 
Peaceful Change, 468 
Polish-U.S. relations, 784, 786 
Premier Khrushchev's visit to U.S., 500, 505, 575 
President Eisenhower's visits abroad, 863, 864, 936, 

938 
Prevention of surprise attack, question of new nego- 
tiations, 863, 864 
Soviet Union : 

Publication of U.S. speeches, 864 

Responsibility as leader of Communist world, 580, 
581 

Sino-Soviet relations, 577. 578 
The Survival of Freedom, 819 
Tibet, problem of, question of inscription on General 

Assembly agenda, 507 
U.A.R. ban on Israeli shipping in Suez Canal, 468, 575 
U.S. art exhibit in Moscow, 112 

U.S.-Philippine claims negotiations, status of, 113 
United Nations, 502, 507 
Viet-Nam, terrorist activities in, 115 
Visas for FLN members, U.S. position, 865 
Visit of Vice President Nixon to Soviet Union, 116 
Visit to Berlin, proposed, 114 
Visit to Ottawa, 116 
West Berlin, question of German Federal Republic 

broadcasting station in, 782, 784 
Administrative action, delegation of authority regarding 

Mutual Security Act of 1951,, 102, 365, 698 

Index, July to December 1959 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 
Messages, letters, and report : 
Adenauer, Konrad, congratulations on 10th anniver- 
sary as Chancellor of Federal Republic of Germany, 
501 
American National Exhibition at Moscow, 514 
Departure of aliens to Cuba for illegal activities, re- 
quest that Justice Department enforce laws re, 757 
East Germany, anniversary of uprising in, 4 
International carriage by air, protocol amending con- 
vention (1929), 327 
National Advisory Committee on Inter-American 
Affairs, establishment of, 906 
Meetings (see also subject) : 

Advisers on disarmament policy, 743 

ANZUS Council, 10th meeting, 708 

CENTO Ministerial Council meeting, U.S. observer, 

586 
14th General Assembly, 475 
Greek Foreign Minister, 413 
Indian Charg6 d'Affaires, 786 
Italian President and Minister of Foreign Affairs, 

79, 541, 542 
Japanese Foreign Minister, 508 
Panamanian Ambassador, 827 
SEATO Council of Ministers, 509 
Soviet Foreign Minister, 479 
Turkish Foreign Minister, 413 
News conferences, 107, 575, 782, 860, 936 
Hickerson, John D., 654 
Higdon, Charles E., 850 
High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N. : 

Executive Committee, U.S. delegation to 2d session, 607 
U.S. contributions to programs of, 843 
Highway, Cambodian, U.S. representative to attend open- 
ing ceremonies, 163 
Hoffman, Paul, 689, 690 
Holland, G. Kenneth, 823 
Holy See, wheat agreement (1959), international, with 

annex, 172, 183 
Homma, Kyusaka, 65 

Hong Kong, Chinese refugees in, U.S. aid to, 651, 843 
Hoofnagle, James G., 609 
Housing Committee, ECE, U.S. delegation to 19th session, 

889 
Housing development in Panama, U.S. proposal for, state- 
ment (Herter), 938 
Huff, Thomas D., 185 
Human rights (see also Racial relations) : 

Advisory services in field of, address (Lord), 842 
Guarantee thereof essential to freedom and progress in 
American Republics, statements (Herter), 302, 303, 
304 
Human Rights Week, proclamation of, 897 
Communist suppression in Tibet. See Tibet 
Progress in field of, address and statement : Riegelman, 
849 ; Wilcox, 446 
Human Rights Commission, U.N. : 

Proposed resolutions on technical assistance, freedom 
of information, and international press cable rates, 
statement (Phillips), 27, 28 
U.S. views on work of, address (Lord), 841 

987 



Humanities, role in international relations, address 

(Thayer), 510 
Hungary : 

Hungarian question : 

Revolution, 3d anniversary of, 670, 714 
U.N. efforts to resolve and recent developments, ad- 
dresses, letter, resolution, and statements: Eisen- 
hower, 289; General Assembly resolution, 946; 
Herter, 460, 507 ; Lodge, 875, 876, 877, 942 ; Wilcox, 
442, 608 
Rejection of Hungarian delegation credentials by Inter- 
national Labor Conference, statement (Henderson), 
99 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
U.S. travel restrictions on Legation and U.N. delega- 
tion personnel, aide memoire, 161 
Hyde, Rosel H., 652 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 

Ibrahim, Mouley Abdullah, 633, 723 

IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
lee Patrol, North Atlantic, 1956 agreement re financial 

support of, 461, 772, 849 
Iceland : 

Removal of U.S. forces from, statement (Herter), 938 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements supplementing 

1959 agreement with U.S., 849 
Special assistance, agreement with U.S., 142 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 925 
ICEM. See European Migration, Intergovernmental 

Committee for 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See Development association, international 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration : 
Alien treaty merchant and investor status, U.S.-French 
convention of establishment relating to, 828, 834 
Immigration legislation, 19.59, article (Auerbach), 600 
Quotas for, proclamation determining, 19 
Refugee immigration, statement (Hanes) on legisla- 
tion re, 215 
Immigration and Nationality Act, section 215, applica- 
tion to illegal flights of aliens to Cuba, 757 
Imports (sec also Tariff policy and Trade) : 
Crabmeat from Soviet Union, embargo on, statements 

(Dillon), 551 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (19.50) and protocol on importation of, 67, 
422 
Restrictions on dollar imports : 
GATT consideration of, 95, 844 
Need for elimination, addresses: Anderson, 534; 

Beale, 95 ; Dillon, 704 
Relaxation by: Australia, 284; Federation of Rho- 
desia and Nyasaland, 844; France, 559; New Zea- 
land, 639 ; U.K., 805 



Imports — Continued 
Restrictions on dollar imports — Continued 

Reports on: Eisenhower, 83; State Department, 284 
U.S., effect of trade fairs on, remarks (Rankin), 513 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxa- 
tion. See Double taxation 
Independence, African nations' desire for, address (Sat- 

terthwaite), 335 
India : 
Border dispute with Communist China, statements 

(Herter),782, 783, 786 
Development of waters of Indus Basin, 538 
DLP loans, 22, 240, 564 

IDA, proposed, support for establishment, 885 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 772, 

849, 8.50, 857, 890 
Double taxation on income, treaty with U.S. for 

avoidance of, 813, 814, 960 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 183 
GATT, 7th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to texts of schedules, 101 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 526 
ICJ, statute of, declaration recognizing compulsory 

jurisdiction, 608 
Investment guaranty program, agreement supple- 
menting 19.57 agreement with U.S., 959, 961 
Understanding with U.S. that assurances in 1951 
agreement are applicable to equipment, materials, 
information, and services supplied under Mutual 
Security Act of 1954, 608 
Wheat agreement (1959), International, with annex, 
101, 172 
U.S. aid, 679, 783 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 8.50 
U.S. protests Communist seizure of consular employee 

in Bombay, 902 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Visit of President Eisenhower, proposed, statement 
(Eisenhower), 742 
Indiana University, contract with ICA to assist Indonesia 

in management program, 22 
Indonesia : 
DLF loan, 57 

Management improvement program, U.S. aid, 22 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 68, 

697 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for estab- 
lishment of new schedule III— Brazil, 101 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183. ■">65 
Indus Basin, International Bank aid for development of 

waters of, 538 
Industrial development : 

ECOSOC report, statement (Meany), 879 
Soviet, statement (Allen Dulles), 869 
Information : 

American ideals and ideas, need for dissemination of, 
address (Rogers), 379 



988 



Department of State Bulletin 



Information — Continued 
Exchange of, need for increase in, addresses : Herter, 

474 ; Nixon, 234 
Freedom of: 

U.N. Commission on Human Rights reports re, U.S. 

views, address (Lord), 841 
U.N. efforts regarding, statement (Phillips) and text 
of draft declaration, 26 
Importance to peace and security, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 743 
Media guarantee program, agreement with Korea, 734 
Mutual Security Program, need to inform public on. 

Draper Committee letter, 391 
Technical information, U.S. proposal for expanded 
IAEA distribution of, statement (Floberg), 646 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Information 

Agency 
Inspection and control in a disarmament program : 
Problems of, address and remarlis (Herter), 471, 503 
Question of discussion at Camp David talks, statement 

(Herter), .577 
Soviet position, address (Merchant), 590 
U.S. position, addresses and statement: Lodge, 918; 
Murphy, 662 ; Saccio, 761 : Wilcox, 665, 666 
Inspection in Antarctica, provision for, text of treaty, 

911, 914 
Inter-American Affairs, National Advisory Committee on: 
Establishment, purpose, and membership of, 823 
Inaugural session, announcements re, 904 
Messages and statements : Eisenhower, Kubitschek, 
905 ; Herter, 864, 866, 906 ; Lafer, 906 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, 961 
Inter- American Commission of Women, 13th Assembly, 

article (Lee), 326 
Inter-American conference at Quito, 11th, 595, 907 
Inter-American convention on granting of political rights 

to women, OS 

Inter-American convention on the duties and rights of 

states in the event of civil strife, provisions of, 30 

Inter-American cooperation and unity, address, remarks, 

and messages : Eisenhower, Kubitschek, 905 ; Herter, 

300, 301, 302, 305, 906; Lafer, 906; Rubottom, 593 

Inter-American Council of Jurists, U.S. delegation to 

4th meeting, 364 
Inter-American Cultural Council, U.S. delegation to 3d 

meeting of, 846 
Inter-American Development Bank : 
Establishment : 
Addresses and statement : Dillon, 538 ; Herter, 473 ; 

Rubottom, 594, 597 
Agreement for, current actions, 653, 849, 925 
U.S. nomination to Board of Executive Directors, 652 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 293, 365, 
461, 491, 608, 772, 924 
Inter- American Nuclear Energy Commission : 
Statement (Rubottom), 594 
U.S. delegation to first meeting, 695 
Inter-American Peace Committee, 343, 594, 716 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, obliga- 
tions of Argentina and Chile not affected by signing 
of Antarctic treaty, statement (Herter), 912 

Index, July fo December 1959 



Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements, 450, 
724 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration. 
See European Migration, Intergovernmental Commit- 
tee for 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention, 101, 183 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic Energy 

Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
{see also Development association international, 
l)roposed) : 
Announcement of increase in capital, 488 
Board of Governors, annual meeting, remarks and 
statements : Anderson, 5.32 ; Dillon, 537 ; Eisen- 
hower, 531 
Financial statements, 396, 835 
Loans in: Africa, 340; Latin America, 597 
Proposed loan to U.A.R., U.S. position, statement 

(Herter), 939 
Resolution on proposed international development 

association, 541 
U.S. contribution, increase in, 446 
International Commission of Jurists, report on question of 
Tibet, address and statements : Bareo, 683 ; Lodge, 
686 ; Wilcox, 442 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 862 
International conference on public education, 22d, U.S. 

delegation, 100 
International Cooperation Administration {see also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual security) : 
Annual honor awards ceremony, remarks (Dillon, 

Riddleberger),66 
Deputy director for management, resignation (Fitz- 

Gerald),961 
Development programing training, 183, 90S 
Educational exchanges and technical aid, addresses 

(Thayer), 313, 314, 751 
Grant to American Bar Association, address (Dillon), 

377 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Operations Missions, appointment of directors to : 
Ethiopia, 526; Greece, 430; India, 850; Indonesia, 
494; Japan, 654; Korea, 366; Laos, 494; Mexico, 
925; Nicaragua, 67; Surinam, 258; Turkey, 430; 
U.A.R., 430 
Procurement policy, 708n, 822 

Recall of Operations Mission director to Vlet-Nam, 217 
Regional directors, designations : 
Africa and Europe (Gordon) , 294 
Far East (Roseman) , 494 
Representative to Nigeria, designation, 185 
Support of U.N. Special Fund projects, statement 

(Phillips), 690 
Survey on Africa financed by, 634, 691 
Thailand, survey of investment opportunities In, 514, 909 
International Court of Justice : 

Statute, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdic- 
tion, 330, 60S 
Strengthening of, views on, address (Rogers) , 381 

989 



International Court of Justice — Continued 

U.S. claim against U.S.S.R. for destruction of B-29 
plane : submission to court, 122 ; removal from 
calendar of, 670 
International development association, proposed. See 

Development association, international 
International Finance Corporation : 
Articles of agreement, 697 

Board of Governors annual meeting, remarks and state- 
ments : Anderson, 532 ; Eisenhower, 531 ; Upton, 540 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), 804 
International Labor Conference, rejection of Hungarian 

delegation credentials, statement (Henderson), 99 
International Labor Organization, 100 
International law. See Law 

International Monetary Fund {see also International 
Bank) : 
Announcement of increase in quotas, 489 
Board of Governors annual meeting, remarks and state- 
ments : Anderson, 532, .533 ; Eisenhower, 531 
Credits to : Latin America, 597 ; Spain, 210 
Decision on discriminatory trade restrictions, 681, 704, 

707, 844 
Functions of, report to Congress (Eisenhower) , 87 
U.S. contribution, increase in, 446 
International organizations {see also subject) : 

Application of universal copyright convention (1952) to 

works of, 430, 653, 814 
Calendar of international conferences and meetings, 24, 
174, 361, 485, 640, 836 
International Pacific Halibut Commission, appointment of 

U.S. member, 383 
International jwlice force, addresses, remarks, and state- 
ment : Herter, 503, 508 ; Murphy, 661, 662 ; Wilcox, 666 
International Refugee Organization, revocation of designa- 
tion as public international organization, text of 
Executive order, 263 
International relations, role of humanities in, address 

(Thayer), 510 
International Telecommunication Union {see also Tele- 
communications) : 
Administrative radio conference, designation of U.S. 

representatives, 1S2 
Plenipotentiary conference of, U.S. delegation, 652 
Secretary General, election of, 935 
Inve.sUneut guai niity program : 

Agreements with: Finland, 258; India, 959, 961 
Expansion of, statements : Lindsay, 131 ; Meany, 883 
Guinea, joint communique re possible agreement with, 
728 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, U.S. investment in, address ( Satterthwaite) , 341 
Amount of, address and statement: Anderson, 536; 

Herter, 821 
Australia, role of U.S. investment in, address (Sebald), 

556 
Brazil, contributions to development of, address 

(Cabot), 755, 756 
Convention of establishment, protocol and joint dec- 
laration with France re reciprocal treatment, 828 
India, efforts to attract, 960 

Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 



Investment of private capital abroad — Continued 
Latin America, U.S. investments in, address (Rubot- 

tom), 597 
Thailand, U.S. efforts to stimulate, 514, 909 
Treaty of friendship and commerce with Pakistan re 

reciprocal treatment, 811, 814 
U.S. efforts to promote {see also Double taxation) : 
Addresses and statements: Dillon, 156, 377; Meany, 

883 ; Phillips, 177 
Draper Committee proposal, 209 

Legislation to promote, views on, statements : Dil- 
lon, 128 ; Lindsay, 130 
Investment of Soviet capital, Soviet 7-year plan re, state- 
ment (Allen Dulles), 871 
Iran: 

CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Communist proiiaganda campaign against, 586 
DLF loans, 358, 587 

Prime Minister Eqbal, meeting with President Elsen- 
hower, 587 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 34 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 221 
WMO, convention of, 565 
Visit by Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Iraq: 

Communist subversion in, article (Newsom), 416 
Economic and military assistance agreements, agree- 
ment with U.S. terminating, 293, 294 
U.S. relations with, statement (Herter), 861 
Ireland : 

Draft resolution on prohibition of dissemination of 

nuclear weapons, statement (Lodge), 842 
Request for inscription of question of Tibet on Gen- 
eral Assembly agenda, 683 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959). international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Irwin, John N. II, 860 
Israel : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 500 
Dispute with Arab states, statements (Herter), 468, 

575, 579, 861 
GATT, public views requested on provisional accession 

to, 450 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees and displaced per- 
sons : Arab 
Role of Zionism in establishing, article (Newsom), 417 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 398 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (19i50) on, 67» 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Tetlmical cooperation joint fund program, agreement 

amending 1952 agreement with U.S., 697 
Wlieat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 398 
Italy: 

Meeting of President Elsenhower and Prime Minister 
at Paris, 264, 412 



990 



Department of State Bulletin 



Italy — Continued 

Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions 

re sliipping problems, 10 
10 Nation Committee on Disarmament, membership, 

438 
Trade restrictions, relaxation of, 84, 285, 286 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 222 
Child feeding program, agreement with U.S., 241, 

294 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amend- 
ing 1948 agreement with U.S. for financing, 68 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Trust Territory of Somaliland, independence for, state- 
ment (Sears), 291 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation increasing, 19 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 742, 931 
Visit of Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs to U.S., 79, 264, 541, 544 

Jacques, Sidney B., 430 
Japan : 
Economic progress of, address (Dillon), 740 
GATT: 

15th session of Contracting Parties to meet at 

Tokyo, 679 
U.S. support for equal treatment under, statements : 
Dillon, 705 ; Meany, 884 
Meeting of Secretary Herter and Foreign Minister 

Aiichiro, joint statement, 508 
Negotiations with U.S. re security treaty, statements: 

Eisenhower, 907 ; Herter, 862, 938 
Shipments of stainless-steel table flatware to U.S., 729 
Tariff concessions, compensatory, negotiations with 

U.S., 354 
Trade mission, visit to U.S., 682 
Trade restrictions, relaxation of, 84, 285, 286, 844 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new sciiedule Ill-Brazil, 183 
GATT, 6th and 7th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 183 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. for 

Japanese financial contributions, 430 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. for 

return to U.S. of 23 landing ships, 430 
Naval vessels, agreement amending 1954 agreement 

and 1955 proc6.s-verbal with U.S. for loan of, 697 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, agreement re financial 

support, 849 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 7.34 
Whaling convention (1946), international, and sched- 
ule of whaling regulations, 101 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

172, 183, 925 
Wheat flour for distribution to typhoon victims, dona- 
tion of, agreement with U.S. relating to, 925 
U.S. designation of U.S. Operations Mission director 
and Minister for Economic Affairs, 654 



Japan — Continued 

U.S.-Japanese relations, address (Dillon), 742 
Jamaica, relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285 
Jet aircraft, introduction on flights between U.S. and 

Venezuela, discussions for, 906 
John Foster Dulles AUee, dedication of, statements and 

remarks (Herter), 198 
Johnson Act (1934), statements (Dillon), 548, 551 
Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), International, 804 
Joint Defense, Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on, 2d 

meeting and text of communique, 788 
Jones, G. Lewis, 142, 679, 959 
Jordan : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 679 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67rt 
U.N. and U.K. efforts to maintain peace in, letter 
(Eisenhower), 287 
Jurists, Inter-American Council of, U.S. delegation to 4th 

meeting of, 364 
Jurists, International Commission of, report on question 
of Tibet, address and statements : Barco, 683 ; Lodge, 
686 ; Wilcox, 442 
Justice, Department of, announcement re enforcement of 

laws governing departure for Cuba, 757 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice 

Kennedy, Donald D., 487 

Kenya, relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285n 

Khan, Mohammed Ayub, 933 

Khoman, Thanat, 509 

Khrushchev, Nlkita S. : 

New policies of, address (Murphy), 900 
Objectives in Berlin, statement ( Herter) , 865 
Responsibilities of, address (Nixon), 235 
Visit to Communist China, address and statement : Dil- 
lon, 572 ; Herter, 577 
Visit to U.S. : 

Announcement of invitation, 263 

Evaluation of, addresses, communique, and state- 
ments : Berding, 544, 627 ; Dillon, 858 ; Herter, 575, 
819, 825; Herter, Fujiyama, 509; Merchant, 588; 
U.S.-Italian joint communique, 541 ; Wilcox, 440, 
663 
Exchange of greetings on arrival (Eisenhower, 

Khrushchev ) , 476 
14th session of General Assembly, address to, 508n 
Itinerary and engagements, 373, 505 
Members of party, 413 
Preliminary talks with President Eisenhower, joint 

statement, 476 
Purpose and reason for, report and statement : Eisen- 
hower, 436, 438 ; Herter, 305 
Secretary Herter's luncheon for, exchange of toasts, 

500 
State dinner at White House, exchange of toasts, 478 
Talks with President Eisenhower at Camp David. 

See Camp David talks 
U.S.-Soviet trade relations, discussions re, statements 
(Dillon), 547 
Kishi, Xobusuke, 907 



Index, July to December 1959 



991 



Knight, O. A., 823 

Kohler, Foy David, 961 

Korea, north, UNO protests of attack on U.S. Navy patrol 

craft over Sea of Japan, 206, 349 
Korea, Republic of : 
Chinese Communist aggression, address and statement : 

Herter, 469 ; Robertson, 518 
Denial of admission to U.N., 289 
DLP loans, 164, 211, 6;i8 

Monuments and temples. State Department photo- 
graphic exhibition of, 609 
Question of U.S. supply of missiles to, statement (Her- 
ter), 863 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 142 
Informational media guarantee program, agreement 

with U.S., 734 
U.S. excess property in Korea, agreement on disposal 

of, 609 
Weights and measures, 1875 convention concerning 
the creation of an international office of, and 1921 
convention amending, 772 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 609 
U.S. forces in, statement (Lodge), 684 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 366 
Kotschnig, Walter M., 692 
Kozlov, Frol R., 157 
Kubitschek de Oliveira, Juscelino, 905 
Kuwait, international telecommunication convention, 398 
Kuznets, Simon, 693 

Labor : 
American, resolution calling for aid to less developed 

countries, statement (Meany), 878 
Cuban, withdrawal from regional group of Interna- 
tional Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 862 
Dispute with steel industry, need for settlement, ad- 
dress (Eisenhower), 896 
EEC provisions re, article (Birch), 88, 93 
Migrant, agreements amending and extending 1951 

agreement with Mexico, 258, 365, 492, 772 
Panamanian, problems of, statements (Herter), 937, 

938 
Skilled alien. Immigration legislation re, article (Auer- 
bach), 606 
Labor conference, international, rejection of Hungarian 
delegation credentials, statement (Henderson), 99 
Labor Organization, International, 100 
Lafer, Horacio, 906 
Lamb, George A., 429 
Land tenure and settlement, U.S. policies re, statement 

(Henderson), 888 
Langelle, Russell A., 632 
Laos: 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 902 
Communist intervention In: 
Chinese Communist support, statement (Robertson), 

519 
Need for Soviet cooperation to resolve, address (Wil- 
cox), 667 



Laos — Continued 

Communist intervention in — Continued 

SEATO consideration of, texts of ijress release and 

communiques, 564 
Security Council action, address, resolution, and 
statements: Herter, 508; Lodge, 456; resolution, 
456 ; Wilcox, 441 
Soviet proposal for conference, U.S. rejection, 475 
U.S. position, address, report, and statements: Eisen- 
hower, 435; Herter, 469, 505, 783; State Depart- 
ment, 278, 344, 414 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 

The Situation in Laos, published, 827 

U.S. aid to, 374, 579 
Lasker Award, 841 

Latin America (see also Caribbean, Inter-American, Or- 
ganization of American States, and individual 
countries) : 

Anti-American sentiment in, assessment of, statement 
(Herter), 783 

Armaments acquisition in, U.S. support of proposed 
limitation of, 907 

Communist activities in, remarks and statement: Her- 
ter, 303 ; Lodge, 282 

Cooperation and understanding needed for solution of 
problems of, address (Rubottom), 593 

DLF loans, 563, 596 

Economic development. See under Economic develop- 
ment 

Exiles in U.S., U.S. cooperation offered on problem of, 
716 

Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Ministers of 
American States 

Free-trade area, proposed establishment, 845 

Inter-American Development Bank. See Inter-Ameri- 
can Development Bank 

Names and places in, article (Pearcy), 384 

Pan American Child Congress, U.S. delegation to 11th 
session, 847 

Steps to strengthen peace in, address (Herter), 468 

U.S. efforts to improve relations. See Inter-American 
Affairs, National Advisory Committee on 

Visit of President Eisenhower, question of, statement 
(Herter), 938 
Law (see also International C!ourt of Justice) : 

Economic progress through, address (Dillon), 377 

German Federal Republic, General War Sequel Law re 
claims, 935 

Peace under law, address (Rogers), 379 

Permanent Commission of Conciliation (U.S.-Swiss), 
members, 50, 363 

Permanent Court of Arbitration, designation of U.S. 
members, 587 

Private, discussion at 13th session of U.X. Commission 
on Status of Women re, 64 

U.S. {see also Congress: Legislation), governing de- 
parture for Cuba, application and enforcement of, 
Department of Justice announcement and state- 
ment (Herter), 757 
Lawyers, international conforeni-e of, proposed, 377 



992 



Department of State Bulletin 



Lead and zinc problem, efforts to solve, address (Rubot- 

tom),598 
Lebanon : 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and protocols 

1, 2, and 3, 39S, 430 
DLF loans, 211, 240 

Nuclear research eijuipment, agreement with U.S. pro- 
viding for a grant to assist in acquisition of, 609 
U.S. and U.N. efforts to maintain peace in, letter 
(Eisenhower), 287 
Lee, Mrs. Frances M., 32C 
Leghorn, Richard S., 679 
Legislation, U.S. See under Congress 
Lend-lease, negotiations with Soviet Union for settlement, 
statements: Dillon, 547, 548, 550, 553; Herter, 579 
Less developed countries : 
Aid to. See Economic and technical aid 
Awakening in, addresses : Murphy, 711 ; Paarlberg, 672, 

673 
Economic development. See Economic development 
Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc 
countries in, addresses, article, remarks, and state- 
ments : Dillon, 37, 375, 376, 553 ; Allen Dulles, 276, 
277 ; Meany, 887 ; Newsom, 418 ; Saccio, 760 
Export earnings, expansion of, GATT recommendations, 

707, 845 
IAEA programs in, need for, statement (Floberg), 644, 

646 
Investment of U.S. private capital in. See Investment 

of private capital abroad 
Long-term development financing, need for, statements 

(Anderson), 533, 536 
Need to continue military assistance to, Draper Com- 
mittee letter, 392 
Problems of, address, remarks, report, and statements : 
Dillon, 155, 705 ; Eisenhower, 371, 435 ; Eisenhower, 
Macmillan, 406, 408 
Soviet views re, address (Murphy), 901 
U.N. technical assistance programs. See under United 
Nations 
Liberia : 

Conference of independent African states, meeting at 

Monrovia, 264 
Cooperation for security, defen.«e, and economic devel- 
opment, agreement with U.S. re, 490 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 330 
U.S. earthquake victims, expression of sympathy for, 

message (Tubman), 481 
Voice of America, facilities for radio relay, agreement 
with U.S. providing for, 365 
Librarian of Congress, functions in administration of 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
55 
Library, Eisenhower Presidential, 207, 620 
Libya : 

DLF loan, 94 

Economic assistance program, agreement amending and 

supplementing agreement of 1954 with U.S., 925 
Grant of wheat from U.S., 358 
International Bank, membership, 396 
Lightner, Edwin Allan, Jr., 38 
Lindsay, David A., 130 

Index, July to December 7959 



Lindt, Auguste, 607 

Linen toweling, investigation of tariffs on imports de- 
ferred, 639 
Living standards, U.S. and Soviet, comparison of, state- 
ment (Allen Dulles), 873 
Load line convention, international (1930), modification 

of, 142 
Loans, U.N. See International Bank 

Loans, U.S., (see also Development Loan Fund and 
Export-Import Bank), special assistance loan to 
Iceland, 142 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 

Addresses and statements : 

Disarmament negotiations, 439, 615, 765 
"The Hardest Struggle," 280 
Hungarian question, 875, 942 

Irish proposal to prevent transfers of nuclear weap- 
ons, 842 
Lao situation, 456 

Nuclear tests, cessation of, U.S. ixisition, 917, 918 
Nuclear tests, health hazards of, 806 
Tibet, question of, 684 
U.N. Charter review, U.S. position, 429 
U.N. Emergency Force, 919 
U.N. outer-space activities, 138, 651 
Confirmation as U.S. delegate to 14th session of Gen- 
eral Assembly, 460 
Personal representative of the President to accompany 
Premier Khrushchev on tour of U.S., 373 
London agreement (1944), background of, address (Mur- 
phy), 712, 713 
L6pez Mateos, Adolfo, 624, 763 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 460, 838 
Loren, Allan, 526 
Luns, Joseph M. A. H., 264 
Luxembourg : 

GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III— Brazil, 101 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending annex 
B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 850 

Macmillan, Harold, 263, 403, 405, 409 
Macovescu, George, 354 
Malagasy Republic, U.S. grant of rice to, 94 
Mala.va : 

Communist Chinese support of attempts to over- 
throw Government, statement (Robertson), 519 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285, &44 
Tibet, question of, request to inscribe on General As- 
sembly agenda, 6.83 
Malgache Republic. See Malagasy Republic 
Manchester, Alan K., 846 

Mandated Territory of South-West Africa, future of, 
statements (Sears) and General Assembly resolu- 
tions, 807 
Mann, Thomas C, 172, 212 
Marey, Oliver M., 142 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention, 101, 183 
Marshall, George C, 887 



993 



Marshall plan, addresses: Dillon, 855; Foster, 798 

Mathews, Elbert G., 330 

Matsu and Quemoy, U.S. position regarding, statements 

(Herter), 114 
MeClintock, Robert, 65, 118 
McCoUum, Robert S., 607, 651 
McConaughy, Walter P., 609 
McCone, John A., 460, 524 
McDonald, John, 487 
Mcintosh, Dempster, 38 
McNair, Lord, 363 
Meany, George, 154, 460, 878 
Mechanics training school, agreement extending 1954 

agreement with Mexico, 398 
Menapace, Robert B., 210 

Merchant, Livingston T., 330, 588, 827n, 859, 925 
Meteorological Organization, World, convention of, 565 
Mexico : 
Agriculture, Rockefeller Foundation aid to, 882 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement extending provisional agree- 
ment with U.S., as amended, 142 
Customs, agreement with U.S. relating to opening of 

a border inspection station, 330 
Migrant labor, agreements amending and extending 

1951 agreement with U.S., 2.58, 365, 492, 772 
Radio communications between amateur stations on 
behalf of third parties, arrangement with U.S., 330 
Standard broadcasting band, agreement with U.S., 

170 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Technical cooperation, agreement extending 1954 

agreement with U.S., 398 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 293 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S. offer of aid after Pacific coast storm, texts of 

letters (Eisenhower, L6pez Mateos), 763 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 925 
Visit of President L6pez Mateos to U.S., 624 
Meyer, Armin H., 430 
Meyer, Charles A., 823 

Middle East. See Near and Middle Bast 
Migrant labor, agreements amending and extending 1951 

agreement with Mexico, 258, 365, 492, 772 
Migration, European, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See European Migration, Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for 
Military advi.sers, SEATO, meeting of, 564 
Military assistance (see also Military missions. Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Administration of, statements (Herter), 860 
Aid to: Brazil, 756; China, Republic of, 608; Laos, 374, 

414, .'579 
Draper Committee study, letters transmitting reports 

of, 46, 208, 390 
Effect of cuts in appropriations on Far Eastern pro- 
gram, statement (Herter), 109 
Effect on balance-of-payments situation, statement 

(Herter), 860 
Equipment, materials, and services, agreements relat- 
ing to disposition and sales. See Military equip- 
ment 



Military assistance — Continued 

Far East countries, importance to, address (Robert- 
son), 6 
Greek-Turkish aid, U.S. public opinion on, address 

(Foster), 798 
NATO: 
Question of increased share of, statements (Herter), 

783 
U.S. aid, recommendations re, address (Burgess), 745 
Near and Middle East (American Doctrine), puriwse 

of, address (MeClintock), 120 
Termination of agreements with : Iraq, 293, 294 ; Yugo- 
slavia, 430 
Military bases, U.S., overseas: 
Morocco, discussions re withdrawal of forces from, 723 
Naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, statement 

(Herter), 785 
Purpose of, address (Nixon), 233 

Spain, construction and operation of, letter and state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 404 
Military equipment, materials, and services : 
China, Republic of, agreement re sale of, 461 
India, understanding that assurances of 1951 agree- 
ment are applicable to sales of, 608 
Iraq, agreement terminating agreements re disposition 

of, 294 
NATO: 

Agreement with NATO Maintenance Supply Services 

System re credit sales of, 101 
Coordinated program for i)ro(luction of, 49 
Yugoslavia, agreements re sale of, 430 
Military expenditures : 

American Foreign Ministers, recommendation at San- 
tiago meeting re, 907 
Soviet, remarks and statement (Allen Dulles), 274, 868 
U.S., abroad, address and statement : Anderson, 536 ; 
Herter, 821 
Military missions, U.S., agreements with : 
Argentina, agreement amending 1956 Air Force mission 

agreement, 772 
Ecuador, agreement amending agreements for Army, 

Navy, and Air Force missions, 68 
Nicaragua, agreement amending agreements for Air 
Force and Army missions, 330 
Millen, Bruce H., 142 
Miller, Clarence L., 732 
Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense (U.S.-Canada), 

2d meeting and text of communique, 788 
Missiles : 
Ballistic missile early-warning system, agreement with 

Canada relating to establishment of, 222 
NATO coordinatetl program for production of, 49 
Question of U.S. supply to Korea, statement (Herter), 

863 
Soviet proposal to ban in Balkan-Adriatic region, U.S. 
rejection of, 160 
Monaco : 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, (!7n 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Monetary and Financial Problems, International, Na- 
tional Advisory Coimcil on, report on proposed inter- 
national development association, excerpts, 302 



994 



Department of State Bulletin 



Monetary Fund. See International Monetary Fund 
Money orders : 

International, agreement with U.A.R. (Egyptian Ter- 
ritory) for exchange of, 330 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, agreement 

and final protocol re, 68 
St. Christopher Nevis and Anguilla, convention for 
exchange of postal money orders with, 772 
Moreno, Miguel J., Jr., 759 
Morgan, George A., 398 
Morgan, William, 716 
Morocco : 

Prime Minister to tour U.S., 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734, 925 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 68 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
U.S. bases in, discussions re withdrawal of forces from, 

723 
U.S. loans to, 94 
Morrow, John Howard, 38 
Moscow film festival, 21 
Moyer, Raymond T., 366 
Mueller, Frederick H., 747, 812 
Munro, Dana G., 823 
Munro, Leslie, 507, 668, 875, 877 
Murphy, John E., 294 
Murphy, Robert : 

Addresses, report, remarks, and statement : 
Foreign poUcy, 659, 710, 898 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 
materials, proposed agreement and protocol on, 422 
Passport legislation, proposed, 165 
Role of education in the life of a nation, 307 
Confirmation as Under Secretary for Political Affairs, 

330 
Member of party to accompany President abroad, 742 
Reception for French Resistance veterans, 49 
Resignation, 850 
Mutual defense, U.S.-Canada, 2d meeting of Ministerial 

Committee on Joint Defense, text of communique, 788 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions), with : 
Iraq, termination of 1955 agreement, 294 
Japan, agreement for Japanese financial contributions, 

430 
Japan, agreement for the return to U.S. of 23 landing 

ships, 430 
Luxembourg, agreement amending annex B of 1950 

agreement, 850 
Norway, agreement amending annex C of 1950 agree- 
ment, 566 
Mutual defense treaties and agreements (see also Cen- 
tral Treaty Organization, Collective security. Mutual 
security, National defense. North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, and Southeast Asia Treaty Organiza- 
tion) : 
Agreements for cooperation on the uses of atomic energy 
for mutual defense. See Atomic energy, mutual de- 
fense uses of 
ANZUS Council, 10th meeting, text of communique, 708 

Index, July to December 1959 



Mutual defense treaties and agreements — Continued 
Negotiations for security treaty with Japan, statements : 
Eisenhower, 907; Uerter, 862, 938; Ilerter, Fuji- 
yama, 509 
Mutual Security Act of 195J : 

Amendments to, statement on signing (Elsenhower), 

207 
Delegations of authority re administration of functions 

under, 102, 305, 698 
Exemption of certain functions under, Executive order, 
653 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural surpluses. Collective security. Economic 
and technical aid. Military assistance, and Mutual 
defense) : 
Address (Dillon), 856 

Administration of (see also International Cooperation 
Administration) : 
Designation of Inspector General and Comptroller 

for, 294 
Statements (Herter), 860 
Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 340 
Authorization for fiscal year 1960, 207 
Congressional hearings re operation in Viet-Nam, 217 
Development Loan Fund. See Development Loan Fund 
Draper Committee proposals re, 46, 208, 390, 745 
Future of, address (Saccio), 760 

Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
President's Fund for Asian Economic Development, 

aid to SEATO cholera research project, 205 
Technical cooperation program, agreement with Puerto 
Rico re special training for participants, 33 
Mutual understanding between peoples, role of human- 
ities in promoting, address (Thayer), 510 

NARBA. See North American regional broadcasting 

agreement 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 
Nash, Walter, 708 
National Academy of Sciences : 

Appointment of advisers to U.S. delegation to Ant- 
arctica conference, 651 
Exchange agreement with Academy of Sciences of the 

U.S.S.R., joint announcement and text, 200, 350 
Survey on Africa for ICA, 634, 691 
National Advisory Committee on Inter-American Affairs. 
See Inter-American Affairs, National Advisory Com- 
mitte on 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 
and Financial Problems, report on proposed inter- 
national development association, excerpts, 392 
National Bureau of Economic Research, study of Soviet 

industrial growth, statement (Allen Dulles), 869 
National defense and security (see also Collective secu- 
rity. Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Expenditures for, addresses: Eisenhower, 896; Saccio, 

761 
Need for legislation authorizing denial of passports to 
Communists, statements : Hanes, 319 ; MunA.v, 165 
Security zones, extension of application of Federal 
Aviation Act (1958) providing for establishment 
of, Executive order, 941 



995 



National exhibits, exchange of. See Exhibits 

National Institutes of Health, fund for cholera research 

project from ICA, 205 
National Olympic Week, 1959, proclamation, 515 
National Science Foundation, functions in administration 
of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act, 54, 56 
Nationalism : 

Arab nationalism, development of, article (Nevesom), 

415 
Counteractant to communism, address (Parsons), 204 
U.S. policy toward, addre.ss (Murphy), 711 
Nationality, publication on nationality of married wo- 
men, proposed, 64 
Nationalization (see also Expropriation) program in 
Yugoslavia, registration by foreign property owners, 
283 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naughten, Thomas E., 419 
Naval vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Near and Middle East (.see also individual countries) : 
Arab states. See Arab states 

Collective security in. See Central Treaty Organization 
DLF loans, 5(>i 

Foreign Relations, volume on, published, 68 
Middle East situation : 
Arab-Israeli meeting on, question of, statements 

(Herter), 575, 579 
Developments, address and statement (Herter), 

111, 468 
Question of possible agreement with Soviet Union 

on, statement (Herter), 505 
U.N. actions and efforts, letter (Eisenhower), 287 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees and displaced per- 
sons : Arab 
Question of President Eisenhower visiting, statement 

(Herter), 864 
U.N. Emergency Force, contribution to peace and 
stability in, addresses and statement : Herter, 508 ; 
Lodge, 919 ; Wilcox, 445, 668 
U.S. policy, address, article, and statement: Herter, 
861 ; McClintock, 118 ; Newsom, 415 
Nepal : 

U.S. Embassy at Katmandu, opening, 82, 270 
Visit by Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Netherlands : 

Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions 

regarding shipping problems, 10 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar Imjjorts, 285, 286, 

844 
Tariff concessions, compensatory, negotiations with 

U.S., 354 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aircraft, convention (1918) on international recog- 
nition of rights in, 526 
Atomic energy, civil uses, agreements amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 222, 772 
Atomic energy, mutual defense uses, agreement with 

U.S. for cooi)eration, 258 
External debts, German, extension of 1953 agree- 
ment on to territories, 101, 293 



Netherlands — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, proed.s-verbal containing schedule to be an- 
nexed to the protocol relating to negotiations for 
the establishment of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 34 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements sup- 
plementing, 293, 398 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 
approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 697 
Sugar agreement (10.58), international, 734 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Neutrality, U.S. views on, address (McClintock), 120 
New Zealand : 
ANZUS Council, 10th meeting of, text of communique, 

708 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 84, 285, 

286, 639, 844 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 
Austrian state treaty, 772 
Coastline survey, aerial photographic, agreement 

with U.S., 925 
Universal postal convention (1957), 183 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
101, 172 
News correspondents : 

Exchange with Communist China, U.S. efforts, state- 
ment (Herter), 787 
Polish expulsion of, statement (Herter), 784 
Newsom, David D., 415 
Nicaragua : 

Army mission agreement (1953) and Air Force mission 
agreement (1952) with U.S., agreement amend- 
ing, 330 
OAS Council consideration of complaint re invasion of : 
statements (Dreier), 30, 136; text of OAS Coun- 
cil resolution, 31 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 67 
Nigeria : 

GATT, proposed association with, 846 
ICA representative to, designation, 185 
North Cameroons, possibility of joining, 731, 732 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285n 
Nixon, Richard M. : 
Exchange of greetings with President of Guinea on 

visit to U.S., 719 
Exchange of greetings with Prime Minister of Italy on 

visit to U.S., 543 
Remarks at 1st meeting of Council of CENTO, 581 
Visit to Poland : 

Announcement of, 236 

Arrival and departure statements at Warsaw, 270 
Exchange of greetings with Secretary Dillon on re- 
turn, 272 
Visit to Soviet Union : 
Arrival statement, 227 
Radio-TV address, 232 



996 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Nixon, Richard M. — Continued 
Visit to Soviet Union — Continued 
Remarlcs at opening of U.S. exhibition at Moscow, 

228 
Statement (Herter), 116 
Nonintervention, principle of, U.S. position, statements: 

Department, 715 ; Ilerter, 301, 302, 305 
Non-self-governing territories (see also Self-determina- 
tion and Trust territories), question of South- West 
Africa, statements (Sears) and General Assembly 
resolutions, 807 
North American regional broadcasting agreement, need 

for U.S. ratification, statement (Beale), 170 
North Atlantic Council, remarks (Eisenhower) on visit, 

412 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, 1956 agreement re financial 

support of, 401, 772, 849 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Assistant secretary general, appointment (Fiske), 49 
Cooperation in, address and report: Berding, 825; 

Eisenhower, 435 
Defense forces in Turkey, U.S. agreement with Turkey 

re supply of modern weapons to, 850 
Developments in, address (Herter), 468 
Fellowship program, 1960-61, announcement of, 874 
Financial costs, question of increased share by other 

members, statement (Herter), 938, 939 
Hawk Production Organization, establishment, 49 
Meeting of President Eisenhower with NATO heads, 

264, 412 
Ministerial meeting at Paris : 
Members of U.S. delegation, 935 
Statements (Herter). 934, 936 
Parliamentarians conference, address (Herter), 824 
Public support of U.S. participation, address (Foster), 

799, 800 
Relationship to U.S. need for adequate merchant ma- 
rine, statement (Dillon), 12 
Secretary General Spaak's proposal to expand respon- 
sibility of, statement ( Herter) , 861 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment between U.S. and NATO Maintenance Supply 
Services System for credit sales of, 101 
Status of forces, agreements supplementing agree- 
ment on, 293, 398 
U.S. support and policy, addresses and statements: 

Burgess, 744 ; Eisenhower, 371 ; Herter, 783, 824 
U.S.-German cooperation in, joint communique, 373 
U.S.-Italian views re, joint communiques, 542 
North Borneo, relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 

285 
Norway : 
Balance-of-payments consultations held with U.S., 844 
Participation in U.S.-Western European discussions re- 
garding shipping problems, 10 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 84, 285, 286 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 6.50, 911, 924 

Double taxation on income, convention modifying 
and supplementing 1949 convention with U.S. for 
the avoidance of, 330, 653, 697, 925 



Norway — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 1950 

agreement with U.S., 566 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Nucker, Delmas H., 242, 254 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy 
Nuclear Energy Commission, Inter-American : 
Statement (Rubottom), 594 
U.S. delegation to first meeting, 695 
Nuclear research materials, agreements re grants to as- 
sist in acciuisition of, with : China, Republic of, 961 ; 
Lebanon, 609 ; Peru, 430 
Nuclear weapons : 
Control of : 

Statement (Herter), 865 

U.S.-French discussions re, statement (Herter), 112 
Dissemination of, U.S. support of Irish draft resolution 

to prevent, statement (Lodge), 842 
Soviet proposal to ban in Balkan-Adriatic zone, U.S. 

rejection, 160 
Tests, detection of (see also Inspection and control) : 
High altitude, U.S. delegation to Geneva technical 

talks, 32 
Seismic, Geneva technical talks on detection and 
identification of: statements (Herter), 785, 863, 
865; U.S. delegation, 859 
Tests, discontinuance of : 

Geneva conference on discontinuance of. See Geneva 
conference on discontinuance of nuclear weapon 
tests 
Possibilities for agreement on, statement (Herter), 

111 
U.N. actions and consideration of, letter, resolutions, 
and statement : Eisenhower, 288 ; General Assembly 
resolutions, 919; Lodge, 917, 918 
U.S. and Soviet positions, address and statement: 

Lodge, 806 ; Nixon, 233 
U.S. ban, extension of, statements: Department, 374; 
Herter, 786, 863 
Tests, fallout from, statements: Floberg, 647; Lodge, 

806 
Tests in Antarctica, prohibition of : 
Statement (Eisenhower), 912 
Text of treaty, 911, 914 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

Ochab, Edward, 555 

OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for 

Oettinger, Katherine B., 847 

Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, functions in ad- 
ministration of Agricultural Trade Development and 
Assistance Act, 55 

Office of Strategic Services, host to visit of French Re- 
sistance veterans, 49 

Oil: 
Importance of Middle Eastern oil, article (Newsom), 
418 



Index, July to December 1959 



997 



Oil — Continued 
Less developed countries, development of resources in, 
statement (Meauy),881 
Okamatsu, Seitaro, 682 

Olympic Week, National, 1959, proclamation, 515 
Operation Pan America, 594, 905, 906 
Operations Coordinating Board, State Department mem- 
ber, 492 
OPEX (operational and executive personnel) project, 

U.N., statement (Rancher), 768 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 461, 925 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation. See 

European Economic Cooperation 
Organization of American States : 

Council consideration of Caribbean situation (see also 
Foreign Ministers of American States) : 
Statements : Dreier, 30, 136 ; Herter, 108, 109 
Text of resolution convoking Organ of Consultation, 

31 
Inter-American Council of Jurists, U.S. delegation to 4th 

meeting, 304 
Inter- American Cultural Council, U.S. delegation to 3d 

meeting, 846 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 293, 365, 
461, 491, 608, 772, 924 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, U.S. dele- 
gation to 1st meeting, 695 
Ormsby-Gore, David, 765 

Otto Suhr Institute, Berlin, U.S. contribution to, 306 
"Outer Seven." See European Free Trade Association 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.N. consideration of : 
Letter and statement : Eisenhower, 289 ; Herter, 508 
Soviet proposal for exchange of experience in explora- 
tion of, address and statement : Lodge, 651 ; Wil- 
cox, 667 
U.N. ad hoc committee, report of, statement (Lodge), 

138 
U.S. proposals and Soviet boycott, addresses: Herter, 
472 : Wilcox, 443, 667 
Outer space, U.N. committees on peaceful uses of, 138, 443 
Owsley, Charles H., 607 

P.L. 480. See Agricultural Trade Development and As- 
sistance Act 
Paarlberg, Don, 672 
Pacific Festival, 1959, 483 
Pacific Halibut Commission, International, appointment 

of U.S. member, 383 
Pacific Island.s, Trust Territory of : 

Sugar agreement (1958), international, extension to, 

734 
U.S. administration of, report on, statements: Henry, 
252 ; Nucker, 242, 254 
Page, Edward, Jr., 866, 890 
Pakistan : 

CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
DLF loans, 22, 94, 1G4, 482, 564 
Indus Basin, development of waters of, 538 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 
1958 agreement with U.S., 101, 667, 890 



998 



Pakistan — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc.- — Continued 

Communications center, agreement with U.S. for 

establi-shuient and operation of, 164, 294 
Friendship and commerce, treaty with U.S., 811, 814 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n. 
Postal convention (1957), universal, final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions 
regarding airmail with final protocol, 849 
U. S. Ambassador, confirmation, 38 
Visit by Assistant Secretary Jones, 679 
Vi-sit of President Eisenhower, text of joint communi- 
que, 933 
Visit of U.S. scientists in connection with cholera re- 
search project, 205 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees and displaced persons: 

Arab 
Palmer, Gardner E., 654 
Palmer, Williston B., 860 

Pan American Child Congress, U.S. delegation to 11th ses- 
sion of, 847 
Pan Pacific-World Science Exposition, 163, 378 
Panama : 
Attempt to overthrow Government, statement (Dreier), 

136 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for cooperation 

in research in peaceful uses of, 45, 68 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 

257 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, 1956 agreement re financial 

support of, 461 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
U.S.-Panamanian relations : 

Damage and demonstrations at U.S. chancery, texts 

of notes and aide memoire, 759 
Meetings re, 787, 827 
Special mission (Merchant), 859 
U.S. concern, statement (Herter), 783 
U.S. proposals to improve, statements (Herter), 863, 
937, 938 
Panel on Seismic Improvement, summary of report of 

findings on underground explosions, 16 
"Panlibhon" flags, use in shipping, 11, 13, 14, 16 
Pappano, Albert E., 734 
Paraguay : 
DLF loan, 284 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 925 
Parcel post : 
Agreement with U.A.R. re, 492 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, agreement re, 
67 
Parliamentarians conference, NATO, address (Herter), 

824 
Parsons, J. Graham, 201, 345 
Passports (sec also Visas) : 

Initial validity of, increased to 3 years, 481 
Legislation authorizing denial to Communists, need for, 
statements : Haues, 319 ; Murphy, 165 
Pate, Maurice, 841 

Department of State Bulletin 



Patents (see also Copyright) : 

Applications, agreements approving procedures for re- 
ciprocal filing of, with : France, 293 ; Germany, 
Federal Republic of, 3C5 ; Netherlands, 697 
Eights : 

Convention with France for reciprocal treatment re, 

831 
Discussions with Soviet Union re, statements (Dil- 
lon), 549, 552 
Patterson, Richard S., SO 
Peace : 

Achievement in Latin America, statements (Herter), 

300, 303 
Address and remarks : Eisenhower, 406, 407 ; Macmil- 

lan, 400, 408 ; Thompson, 158 
Camp David communique re peaceful settlement of dis- 
putes. See Camp David talks 
Food-for-peace program, addresses and statement : Dil- 
lon, 857 ; Eisenhower, 515 ; Paarlberg, 072 
"Peaceful coexistence," addresses: Berding, 628; 

Burgess, 746 
U.S. and Soviet views, address and statement (Nixon), 

230, 232, 234 
U.S. desire for, address (Berding), 545 
Peace Committee, Inter-American, 343, 594, 716 
Pearcy, G. Etzel, 384 
Peck, David W., 587 
Pella, Giuseppe, 79, 541 
Performing artists, U.S.-Soviet agreement for exchange, 

955 
Permanent Commission of Conciliation (U.S.-Swiss), 

members, 50, 363 
Permanent Court of Arbitration, designation of U.S. mem- 
bers, 587 
Peru: 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1958 

agreement with U.S., 609 
Floating dry dock, agreement with U.S. relating to loan, 

34 
Nuclear research, agreement with U.S. providing for 
grant to assist in the acquisition of training equip- 
ment and materials, 430 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 293 
Peterson, Avery F., 142, 850 
Philippines: 

Communist Chinese support of attempts to overthrow 

Government, statement (Robertson), 519 
DLF loans, 164, 240, 318 
"Omnibus" claims: 
Department announcement re, 279 
Status of negotiations, statements (Herter), 113 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Sugar agreement (1958) , international, 734, 925 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 398 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 654 



Philippines — Continued 

Visit of U.S. scientists in connection with cholera re- 
search project, 205 
Phillips, Christopher H., 20, 176, 258 
Phleger, Herman, 587, 650, 911 

Photography exhibition of Korean monuments and tem- 
ples, 609 
Piel, George, 882 
Point 4 program, contribution in Brazil, address (Cabot), 

755 
Poland : 
Changes in Government, statement (Herter), 786 
Expulsion of U.S. news correspondent, statement (Her- 
ter), 784 
GATT, relationship to, 706, 707, 846 
Minister of Agriculture, visit to U.S., 555 
10 Nation Committee on Disarmament, membership, 

438 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 34, 

789, 814 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734, 925 
U.S. consulate at Poznan to reopen, 398 
U.S. delegation to visit, members, 747 
Visit of Vice President Nixon, 236, 270 
Police force, international, addresses, remarks, and state- 
ment: Herter, 503, 508; Murphy, 661, 602; Wilcox, 
666 
Political and Security Committee, General Assembly, 

resolution on disarmament, 766 
Political rights for women: 
Article (Hahn),63 

Inter-American convention on granting of, current ac- 
tion, 68 
Population Commission, U.N., 840 
Population growth, world, problem of, address (Lord), 

839 
Portugal : 
Air services transit, international agreement on, 461 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (19.59), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Postal agreements and conventions : 

Parcel post, agreement with United Arab Republic, 492 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 183, 814, 849 
Postal money orders, convention with St. Christopher 

Nevis and Anguilla for exchange of, 772 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
regulations of execution, agreements relating to 
money orders and parcel post, and final protocols, 
67 
Potsdam agreements (1945), Soviet evasion of, address 

(Murphy), 712 
Prado, Manuel, 907 

President's Committee To Study the United States Mili- 
tary Assistance Program (Draper Committee) : 
Letters transmitting reports of: 
2d interim report, 46 
3d interim report, 208 
Final report, 390 
Recommendations re aid to NATO, address (Burgess), 
745 



Index, July to December 7959 



999 



Presidential Representatives, Committee of, address (Ru- 

bottom), 503 
President's Fund for Asian Economic Development, 

cholera research project, 205 
President's Special International Program for Cultural 

Presentations, 184, 312, T51 
Press, the: 
Coverage of Premier Khrushchev's visit to U.S., prob- 
lems of, address (Berding), 630 
Impact on foreign policy and relations vpith Foreign 

Service, address (Murphy), 898 
International press cable rates, U.S. views on Com- 
mission on Human Rights resolution, statement 
(Phillips), 28 
Views on Cuban situation. Department statement re 
Cuban charge against, 717 
Price-support program, agriculture, address (Paarlberg), 

674 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Private enterprise : 

Importance to economic development, statement (Kot- 

schnig), 695 
Role in progress of less developed countries, addresses 
and statement : Brand, 636 ; Dillon, 156 ; Upton, 540 
U.S. aid to develop in Thailand, 514, 909 
Proclamations by the President : 

Captive Nations Week, 1959 (3303), 200 

Human Rights AVeek, 1959 (3327), 897 

Immigration quotas, establishment (3298), 19 

National Olympic Week, 1959 (3316), 515 

Pacific Festival (1959), invitation to foreign nations 

to participate in (3313), 483 
Pulaski, Casiniir, memorial day (3318), 555 
Rye, rye flour, and rye meal, import quotas established 

for (3306), 317 
Stainless-steel flatware, increase in import duty on 

(3323), 727 
Wool-fabric supplemental tariff quota, proclamation 

(3317) amending proclamation (3160) re, 559 
World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition, invitation to 
States and countries to attend (3302), 163 
Propaganda : 

Berlin, proposed U.N. reporting staff, statement 

(Herter), 152 
Communist: 
Chinese Communist, statement (Robertson), 520 
In Iran, CENTO resolution, 586 
Question of dropping political propaganda leaflets on 
Habana, Department statement, 716 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 221 
Property, U.S. excess, agreements re disposal of, with : 
China, Republic of, 461; Korea, Republic of, 609; 
Turkey, 925 
Psychological warfare. See Propaganda 
Public administrators, foreign, visit to U.S. under ex- 
change program, 449 
Public education, 22d international conference on, U.S. 

delegation, 100 
Public opinion, U.S., role In foreign policy, address (Fos- 
ter), 796 

1000 



Publications : 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists of, 23, 57, 135, 217, 241, 286, 360, 39.5, 483, 516, 
682, 729, 805, 874 
Exchange of, U.S.-Soviet agreement, 956 
Expanding Private Investment for Thailand's Eco- 
nomic Growth, report, 909 
State Department: 
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-19Ji5, 
Series C (1933-1937), Volume III, The Third 
Reich: First Phase, June H, 1931,-Mareh 31, J9S5, 
released, 462 
Foreign Relations of the United States, ]9il. Volume 
III, The British Commonwealth, The Near East 
and Africa and Foreign Relations of the United 
States, 19I1O, Volume I, General, published, 68 
Lists of recent releases, 69, 102, 185, 366, 494, 609, 

773, 926, 961 
The Situation in Laos, published, 827 
Status of women, list of publications on, 64 
United Nations, lists of current documents. 32, (54, 141, 
220, 257, 292, 364, 397, 489, 525, 607, 696, 771, 847, 
890, 924 
Puerto Rico: 

Geographic location of, article (Pearcy), 384 
U.S. technical cooperation programs, special training 
for participants, agreement with U.S. re, 33 
Pulaski, Casimir, designation of memorial day for, 555 

Qadir, Manzur, 509 

Quadripartite commission on Berlin problems, Western 

proposal for, 151, 1.53 
Queen Elizabeth II, 10, 75, 76 
Quemoy and Matsu Islands, U.S. position re, statements 

(Herter), 114 
Quota preferences under immigration legislation, charts, 

601, 604, 605 

Racial relations in Africa, problem of, address and state- 
ments : Riegelman, 948 ; Satterthwaite, 338 ; Sears, 
807, 808 

Radio. See Telecommunications 

Radioactive fallout and wastes, statements : Floberg, 647 ; 
Lodge, 806 

Radioisotopes, U.S. proposal for expanded use in IAEA 
program, statement (Floberg), 645 

Ramirez Pinto, Arturo, 154 

Randall, Clarence B., 169>i 

Rankin, Karl L., 513 

Rawinsonde observation stations, agreements for estab- 
lishment and operation of, with : Ecuador, 293 ; 
France, 293 

Reciprocity Information, Committee for, 237, 450, 561 

Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 
See International Bank 

Reed, .Tohn C, 771 

Refugee Organization, International, revocation of desig- 
nation as public international organization, text of 
Executive order, 263 

Refugees and displaced persons : 
Algerian, U.S. aid, 651 

Department of State Bulletin 



Refugees and displaced persons — Continued 

Arab, U.N. and U.S. efforts to solve problems of: 
Addresses, article, and statement : Herter, 468, 861 ; 

Newsom, 420 ; Wilcox, 444 
Question of mismanagement of U.S. aid, statement 
(Herter), 861 
Chinese, U.S. aid, 651 
East German, migration to West Germany, address 

(Eleanor Dulles), 793 
ICEM. Sec European Migration, Intergovernmental 

Committee for 
Protocol concerning application of universal copyright 

convention (1952) to works of , 430, 814 
Tibetan, U.S. aid, 651 
U.X. High Commissioner for, U.S. delegation to 2d 

session of Executive Committee of, 607 
U.S. Immigration legislation re, article and statement : 

Auerbach, 602 ; Hanes, 215 
World Refugee Year, U.S. contributions, 237, 652, 843 
Regional associations, development in West Africa, ad- 
dress (Sattertbwaite), 336 
Regional markets. See Common markets 
Reiner. Herbert, 66 
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, U.N., 

address ( Wilcox ) , 444 
Religion, importance in Middle East, article (New.som), 

417 
Research. See Science and technology 
Rewinkel, Milton C, 366 
Rhee, Syngman, 863 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 

Relaxation of restrictions on dollar Imports, 844 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
Rice, U.S. shipment to Malagasy Republic, 94 
Riddleberger, James W., 06, 210 
Riegelman, Harold, 460, 769, 948 

Rights and duties of states in event of civil strife, pro- 
tocol to 1928 convention on, 141 
Rio Treaty, Invocation of, statement (Dreier), 136, 137 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 182 
Robertson, Walter S., 5, 460, 517 

Rockefeller Foundation, aid to agriculture in Mexico, 882 
Rockets. U.S. rejection of Soviet proposal to ban in 

Balkan-Adriatic region, 160 
Rogers, William P., 379 

Rome Treaty. See European Economic Community 
Roseman, Alvin, 494 
Rountree, William M., 38 

Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of, problems in achieve- 
ment of self-government, statement (Sears), 180 
Rubottom. Roy R., Jr., 593, 716, 787 
Ruegger, Paul, 363 
Rumania : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 3.54 
10 Nation Committee on Disarmament, membership, 438 
U.S. financial claims against, negotiations for settle- 
ment, 764 
Rye imports : 

Investigation of effect on domestic price-support pro- 
gram, 56 



Rye imports — Continued 
Proclamation limiting, 317 

Sacclo, Leonard J., 760 
Safety at sea : 

IMCO, convention, 101, 183 

Load line convention (1930), international, modifica- 
tion of, 142 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, 1956 agreement re financial 
support of, 461, 772, 849 
Safety pins, tariff negotiations with U.K. and Federal 

Republic of Germany re, 354 
St. Christopher Nevis and Anguilla, convention with U.S. 

for exchange of postal money orders, 772 
St. Croix River Basin, IJC (U.S.-Canada) report, 804 
St. Lawrence Seaway, official opening, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Elizabeth II), 75 
St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, confir- 
mation of U.S. member of Advisory Board, 306 
Salles, Walther Moreira, 197 

San Marino, universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Sandburg, Carl, 158 
Sarasin, Pote, 509 
Sattertbwaite, Joseph C, 335 
Saudi Arabia, international wheat agreement (1959), 

with annex, 172, 173, 734 
Scheyven, Louis, 354 

Science and technology (see also Atomic energy, Nuclear 
weapons, and Outer space) : 
Agricultural, U.S. programs to aid foreign countries, 

address (Paarlberg), 676 
Antarctica, cooperation in: statement (Eisenhower), 

912 ; text of treaty, 914 
Exchange agreements (U.S.-Soviet) : 

1958 agreement : 

Exchange of scientists, announcement and text of 

agreement, 200, 350 
Soviet national exhibition at N.Y., 157» 

1959 agreement, text, 951, 952, 954, 95S 
IAEA research programs, 397, 646 

Panel on Seismic Improvement, report of findings on 

underground explosions, 16 
Scientific, educational, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) on importation of, 67, 422 
Soviet achievements, statement (Khrushchev), 477 
World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition, 163, 378 
Sciences, National Academy of. Sec National Academy 

of Sciences 
Scranton, William W., 102, 462 
Sears, Mason, 180, 291, 807 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Seaton, Fred A., 163 
Sebald, William J., 556 
Secretary of State : 
Executive order designating officers to act as, 566 
Numbering of, article (Dougall, Patterson), 80 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Consideration of Lao appeal for assistance against ag- 
gression. See Laos : Communist intervention in 
Documents, lists of, 141, 220, 489, 525, 696, 847, 890 
Procedural functions, views on question of application 

of veto to, statement ( Lodge ) , 457 
Projwsals to revitalize, address (Wilcox), 447 



Index, July to December 7959 



1001 



Security Council, U.N. — Continued 

Question of increasing membership, U.S. position, 

statement (Hancher),7G9 
Seat for Turkey, U.S. support, statement (Herter), 578 
Segni, Antonio, 79, 264, 412, 541, 543 
Sein,U On, 121,354 
Seismic events, detection of. See Geneva technical talks 

on detection and identification of seismic events 
Seismic Improvement, Panel on, summary of report of 

findings on underground explosions, 16 
Selden Bill (H.R. 55) re issuance of passports, statement 

(Hanes),323 
Selection Boards, Foreign Service, 461 
Self-determination : 
Algeria, General de Gaulle's plan for, statements : Eisen- 
hower, 500 ; Herter, 500, 503, 578 
U.S. position, statement (Zablocki),732 
Sessions, Edson O., 698 

Ships and shipping (see also St. Lawrence Seaway) : 
Agreement for loan of floating dry dock to Peru, 34 
IMCO, convention, 101, 183 
Lend-lease ships, U.S., number loaned to Soviet Union, 

statements (Dillon), 553 
Load line convention (1930), international, modifica- 
tion of, 142 
Loan of U.S. naval vessels, agreements with : China, 
222, 60S ; Greece, 526 ; Japan, 430, 697 ; Spain, 142 ; 
Turkey, 492 
North Atlantic Ice Patrol, 1956 agreement re financial 

support, 461, 772, 849 
U.A.R. ban on Israeli shipping in Suez Canal, statements 

(Herter), 468, 575 
U.S.-Western European shipping problems, discussions 
on : 
Agreed statement, 15 
Delegates, 10 
Statement (DiUon), 10 
Text of communique, 16 
Shostakovich, Dmitri, 632 

Shrimp conservation, 1958 convention with Cuba regard- 
ing, 68, 460, 461, 566 
Singapore, relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 

285n 
The Situation in Laos, published, 827 
Smadel, Joseph B., 205 
Smith, H. Alexander, 733 
Smith, Harold Armstrong, 587 
Snow, William P., 814 
Social development : 
Relationship to economic development, statement 

(Kotschnig),692 
U.N. activities : 

Special Fund projects, proposed, 690 
U.S. views, addresses : Lord, 838 ; Wilcox, 669 
U.S. policy, address (Hart), 53 
Somalia, progress toward independence, statement 

(Soars), 291 
South Africa, Union of. See Union of South Africa 
South America. See Latin America 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Developments in, address (Herter), 468 
Cholera research project, approval of, 205 



Southeast Asia Treaty Organization — Continued 

Council of Ministers, informal meetings, 509, 565 

Council representatives, meeting of, text of communi- 
que, 564 

5th anniversary, statement (Dillon), 421 

Military advi.sers, 11th conference of, text of press re- 
lease, 564 

State Department special assistant for, designation, 566 
South-West Africa, future of, statements (Sears) and 

General Assembly resolutions, 807 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also Communism, Soviet Union, 
and individual countries) : 

Economic offensive. See Less developed countries : Eco- 
nomic offensive 

Shipping practices, 15 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Soviet-bloc couhtries, and 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 

Agricultural development, comparison with U.S., ad- 
dress (Paarlberg), 674 

Balkan-Adriatic atom-free zone projwsal, U.S. rejec- 
tion, 160 

Berlin, position on. See BerUn 

Changes in policy, address (Saccio), 760 

"Cold war," address and statement: Berding, 627; 
Herter, 578 

Destruction of U.S. B-29 over Hokkaido, Japan, U.S. 
submission of claim against U.S.S.R. to ICJ and re- 
moval from calendar, 122, 670 

Developments in, address (Slurphy), 900 

Disarmament. See Disarmament 

Economic development, remarks and statements: Allen 
Dulles, 274, 867 ; Kotschnig, 693 

Economic offensive in less developed countries. See 
Less developed countries : Economic offensive 

Efforts to improve relations with West, address 
(Burgess), 740 

Exchanges with U.S. under exchange agreement See 
Exchange agreements 

Expulsion of U.S. attach^, U.S. protest, G32 

Foreign policy, developments in, address (Murphy), 901 

Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Min- 
isters meeting, Geneva 

Geneva technical talks. See Geneva technical talks 

Heads of Government meeting, proposed. See Heads 
of Government meeting, proposed 
Hungarian question. See hik/ cr Hungary 

Lao situation. See Laos : Communist intervention in 

Lend-lease account with U.S., negotiations for settle- 
ment, statements : Dillon, 547, 548, 550, 553 ; Herter, 
579 

Middle East situation, question of U.S.-Soviet agree- 
ment re, remarks (Herter), 505 

Moscow film festival, U.S. representation, 21 

National exhibition of science, technology, and culture, 
157n. 

Nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons 

Outer space, peaceful uses of, Soviet position re U.N. 
efforts. See Outer space 

Peace treaty with East Germany, question of, statements 
(Herter), 113, 506, 507 

Premier Khrushchev. See Khrushchev 



1002 



Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Union — Continued 
Prospects for negotiations with, address (Merchant), 

5SS 
Publication in Soviet papers of U.S. speeches, statement 

(Herter),SG4 
Relations with Communist China, addresses and state- 
ments : Berding, 629 ; Herter, 577, 578 ; Murphy, 660, 
901 
Role of women in, address (Murphy), 714 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament. See Ten Na- 
tion Committee on Disarmament 
Threat to free world, implications of, remarks (Allen 

Dulles), 274 
Trade with U.S., proposed increase in, statements: 

Dillon, 547 ; Rubottom, 596 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreement for co- 
operation with U.S., 958 
Exchange agreement (1959) with U.S., 848, 890, 951 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Universal postal convention (1957), 183 
TV address (Moscow) of Ambassador Thompson, 159 
U.N. Emergency Force, Soviet refusal to support, ad- 
dresses and statement : Lodge, 919 ; Wilcox, 445, 
6G8 
U.S. exhibit at Moscow. See under Exhibits 
U.S.-Soviet relations (see also Khrushchev: Visit to 
U.S.), address and statement: Herter, 305; 
Murphy, 659 
United Nations, Soviet attitude and position re, ad- 
dresses and letter: Eisenhower, 290; Wilcox, 441, 
446, 665 
Visit of 1st Deputy Chairman Kozlov to U.S., 157 
Visit of Vice President Nixon, 116, 272 
World domination, policy of, address (Rogers), 379, 380, 
381 
Soviet Union Affairs, Office of, establishment, 101 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 49, 264, 825, 861 
Spain : 
International Bank, membership, 396 
International credits for financial and economic stabi- 
lization program, 210 
Invitation to President Eisenhower to visit, 823 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 294 
German assets in Spain, protocol terminating obliga- 
tions arising from 1948 accord, 101 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
Loan of destroyer and submarine, agreement with 

U.S., 142 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention, 
regulations of execution, agreements relating to 
parcel post and money orders, and final protocols, 
67 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 461 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 925 
U.S. consular agency at Malaga, closed, 493 



Spain — Continued 
U.S.-Spanish relations, meeting of President Eisen- 
hower with Foreign Minister and exchange of let- 
ters (Eisenhower, Franco), 404 
"Spanish case" (1946), Security Council consideration of, 

statement (Lodge), 459 
Special assistance (see also Mutual security), amount in 

Latin America, address (Rubottom), 596 
Special Committee on World Peace Through Law, 377 
Special Fund, U.N. : 
Aid to Ghana and Guinea, 340 
Document on financial regulations, 257 
Establishment, purpose of, and U.S. contributions, ad- 
dress and letter: Eisenhower, 290; Wilcox, 445 
Progress of, statement (Phillips), 689 
Special Political Committee, U.N., 770h. 
Specialized agencies, U.N. (see also name of agency), 
economic and technical aid to Africa, address (Sat- 
terthwaite), 340 
Stainless-steel flatware, increase in duty on imports of, 

proclamation and letter (Eisenhower), 727 
State Department (see also Foreign Service and Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration) : 
Administration and coordination of Mutual Security 
Program : 
Delegations of authority re, 102, 365, 698 
Inspector General and Comptroller (Murphy), des- 
ignation, 294 
Statement (Herter), 860 
Annual honor awards ceremony, remarks (Dillon), 65 
Appointments and designations, 38, 67, 102, 142, 185, 
222, 294, 330, 365, 398, 430, 462, 494, 5G6, 609, 
654, 698, 734, 772, 850, 925, 961 
Assistant Secretaries of State, appointment and confir- 
mations : Dowling, 898 ; Dwinell, 185 ; Jones, 142 ; 
, Kohler, 961 
Confirmations, 142, 185, 330, 398 

Deputy Under Secretary (Merchant), confirmation, 330 
Foreign Service examination announced, 493 
Functions in administration of Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act, Executive order, 
55, 56 
Implementation of 1959 immigration legislation, 604 
Joint study with Defense Department on disarmament, 

679 
Legal Adviser, eonflrmation (Hager), 398; resignation 

(Becker), 330 
170th anniversary of founding of, 492 
Operations Coordinating Board, representative on, 492 
Organization and activities : 
Bureau of Inter-American Affair.?, article (Pearcy), 

389 
Bureau of International Cultural Relations : 
Designations in, 38 
Establishment, 183 
Bureau of Public Affairs, reorganization of, 183 
Office of Soviet Union Affairs, establishment, 101 
Public opinion analysis and study, address (Foster), 
796 
Participation in training program for executives going 

abroad and senior Foreign Service officers, 67 
Passport controls. See Passports 



Index, July to December 7959 



1003 



state Departmeut — Continued 
Publications. See under Publications 
Kesignations : Becker, 330; Murphy, 850 
Secretary of State: 
Designation of officers to act as. Executive order, 566 
Numbering of, article (Dougall, Patterson), 80 
Special Adviser to the Secretary of State (Coolidge), 

appointment, 330 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State (Bohlen), 

designation, 925 
Under Secretary for Political Affairs : 
Appointment (Merchant), 925 
Confirmation and resignation (Murphy), 330, 850 
Stateless persons and refugees, protocol concerning appli- 
cation of universal copyright convention (1952) to 
works of, 430, 814 
Status of forces (NATO), agreements supplementing 

agreement on, 293, 398 
Stebbins, Henry E., 462 
Steel industry, dispute vpith labor, address (Eisenhower), 

896 
Steeves, John M., 67, 698 
Steichen, Edward, 158 
Stimpson, Harry F., Jr., 462 
Strumilin, Stanislav, 869 
Student-exchange program. See Educational exchange 

program 
Sudan : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 197 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285«. 
Suez Canal : 

Expansion of, proposed International Bank loan to 

U.A.R. for, statement ( Herter ) , 939 
Freedom of passage in, question of, statements (Her- 
ter), 468, 575 
Sugar : , 

Cuba, question of U.S. action re quota for, statement 

(Herter), 939 
International sugar agreement (1958) : 
Address and statement: Mann, 172; Rubottom, 599 
Current actions, 734, 772, 925 
Summit meeting, proposed. See Heads of Government 

meeting, proposed 
Supreme Court, U.S., decision re passport issuance re- 
strictions, statement (Hanes),319 
Surinam, designation of director of U.S. Operations Mis- 
sion, 258 
Surprise attack, Geneva conference on. See Geneva con- 
ference of experts 
Sweden : 
Participation in U.S.- Western European discussions re- 
garding shipping problems, 10 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 844 
Tariff concessions, compensatory, negotiations with 

U.S., 354 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational exchange programs, agreements with 

U.S. re, 849, 890 
GATT, procOs-verbal extending validity of declaration 
extending standstill provisions of article XVI : li, 
101 



Sweden — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, G7/i 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 925 
Switzerland : 
GATT, provisional accession to, public views requested 

on, 450 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
U.S.-Swiss Permanent Commission of Conciliation, 

members of, 50, 303 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
142, 172 

Taiwan Straits (see also China, Republic of). Communist 
aggression in, and U.S. position, addresses : Dillon, 
571 ; Herter, 469 ; Parsons, 203 ; Robertson, 7, 8, 518 
Tariff Commission, U.S., 240, 516, 725, 804 
Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs; and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Almonds, request for investigation on need for import 
quota, announcement and letter (Eisenhower), 240 
Cheeses, investigation of effect of imports on price- 
support program, 729 
Compensatory tariff concessions, requests for renegoti- 
ation of, 354 
Cotton, long-staple, President accepts report re import 

quotas on, 516 
Cotton textiles. President requests investigation of im- 
ports of, letter, 803 
Negotiations with Cuba, proposed, 237 
President's decisions against reopening escape-clause 
action on: 
Dried figs, 723 
Linen toweling, 639 
Watch movements, 639 
Renegotiation of Canadian textile concessions, views 

invited, 561 
Rye imports : 

Investigation of effect on domestic price-support pro- 
gram, 56 
Proclamation limiting, 317 
Stainless-steel flatware, increase in duty on imports of, 

proclamation and letter (Eisenhower), 727 
Wool fabrics : 

Renegotiation of concessions, proposed: 
Announcement, 481 
Views invited on, 724 
Supplemental quota, proclamation amending, 559 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Compensatory tariff concessions, negotiations with seven 
countries, aimouncement, notices, and list of arti- 
cles, 354 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI :4 and proc^s-verbal extending validity of dec- 
laration, 68, 101, 901 
15th session of Contracting Parties : 
Announcement of and de|iarture statement (Dillon), 

633 
Report of U.S. delegation, 843 



1004 



Department of Sfale Bulletin 



TariCfe and trade, general agreement on — Continued 
15th sesision of Contracting Parties — Continued 
Statement (Dillon) and text of communique, 703 
U.S. delegation listed, 679 
New negotiating conference, statement (Dillon), 706 
"Outer Seven," question of U.S. support of, statement 

(Herter), 939 
ProcSs-verbaux containing schedules to be annexed to 
the protocol relating to negotiations for the estab- 
lishment of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 34, 68, 101, 183, 
961 
Provisional accession to, Israel and Switzerland, 450 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

6th and 7th protocols, 101, 183, 961 
Relationship to EEC, 91, 92 

Trade liberalization, GATT efforts for, report and state- 
ments: Beale, 95; Eisenhower, 83, 86; Meany, 884, 
885 
Yugoslavia, closer relations with GATT, public views 
requested on, 450 
Taxation : 

Convention with France for reciprocal treatment re, 

831 
Double taxation, avoidance of. Sec Double taxation 
Equal rights for women re, article (Hahn), 63 
Incentives to stimulate private investment abroad, 
letter and statements : Dillon, 128, 156, 377 ; Draper 
Committee, 209 ; Lindsay, 130 
U.S. owners of ships under foreign flags, statement 
(Dillon), 14 
Teacher exchange program (see also Educational ex- 
change program), remarks : Eisenhower, 479 ; Thayer, 
448 
Technical, scientific, educational, and cultural fields, 
agreements with Soviet Union for exchanges in. See 
Exchange agreements 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical talljs, Geneva, for detection and identification 
of high-altitude nuclear explosions, U.S. delegation, 32 
Technical talks, Geneva, on detection and identification 
of seismic events : 
Statements (Herter), 785, 863, 865 
U.S. delegation, 859 
Telecommunications (see a ?so Voice of America) : 
Broadcasting station in West Berlin, Federal Republic 
of Germany proposed establishment, statements 
(Herter), 782, 784 
CENTO system, U.S. aid, 584 

Communications center in Peshawar, Pakistan, agree- 
ment for establishment and operation, 164, 294 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 68, 
257, 293, 330, 398, 461, 491, 565, 608, 697, 849, 890, 
925 
International Telecommunication Union. See Interna- 
tional Telecommunication Union 
North American regional and Mexican broadcasting 
agreements, need for U.S. ratification, statement 
(Beale) and text of negotiating history, 170 
Radio communications between amateur stations on be- 
half of third parties, arrangement with Mexico, 
330 



Telecommunications — Continued 
Radio-TV programs, U.S.-Soviet: 
Agreement for exchange, 955 
Need for exchange, address (Nixon), 2.35 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 68, 293, 

330, 461, 608, 697, 849, 890, 925 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament : 
Establishment of : 
Addresses and statements : Lodge, 439, 615, 616 ; Mur- 
phy, 662 ; Wilcox, 443, 666 
Four Power communique, 438 
Negotiations, text of Disarmament Commission resolu- 
tion, 439 
Problems facing, address (Merchant), 590 
Study of problems of transfers of nuclear weapons, 

Irish proposal, statement (Lodge), 842 
U.S. representative, designation, 902 
Tesoro, George A., 65 
Textiles : 

Canadian tariff concessions, renegotiation of, .561 
Cotton, President requests investigation of imports of, 

letter, 803 
Woolen. See Wool fabrics 
Thacher, Nicholas G., 142, 430 
Thailand : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1957 

agreement with U.S., 222 
DLF loan, 211 

Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural ma- 
terials, agreement (1950) on, 67» 
Private enterprise and Investment in, U.S. aid to devel- 
op, 514, 909 
Visit of U.S. scientists in connection with cholera re- 
search project, 205 
Thayer, Robert H., 38, 184, 310, 448, 510, 748 
Thebom, Miss Blanche, 751 

Thermometers, clinical, tariff negotiations with Japan re- 
garding, 354 
Thomen, Luis F., 197 
Thompson, Llewellyn B., 158 
Tibet, Communist aggression and suppression in : 
Addresses, remarks, and statement: Herter, 469; Par- 
sons, 348; Robertson, 518, 519; Wilcox, 442, 668 
Refugees, U.S. aid, 651 
U.N. consideration and action : 
Question of inscription on General Assembly agenda, 

statement (Herter), 507 
Statements : Barco, 683 ; Lodge, 684 
Text of General Assembly resolution, 688 
U.S. support. Department statement, 447 
Timber Committee, Economic Commission for Europe, 

U.S. delegate designated for 17th session, 565 
Tobler, John H., 494 

Togoland, advancement towards self-government, state- 
ment (Sears), 180 
Tour^, Sekou, 634, 719, 720 
Touring. Sec Travel, international 

Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses ; Commodity trade ; 

Customs ; Economic policy ; Exports ; Imports ; Tariff 

policy ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; 

Trade agreements ; and Trade fairs) : 

Balance-of-payments problems. See Balance-of-pay- 

ments problems 



Index, July to December J 959 



1005 



Trade — Continued 

Barriers, need for elimination of, addresses: Dillon, 

703, 740, 741, 858 ; Herter, 821, 824 
Brazil, U.S. trade with, address (Cabot), 755 
Currency convertibility, effect on. See Currency con- 
vertibility 
ECB special meeting on organizations and techniques of 

foreign trade, U.S. delegation, 65 
Foreign trade policy, U.S., remarks (Rankin), 513 
Guinea, discussions on expansion of, 723 
International trade : 

Effects of developments in U.S. on, statements (Phil- 
lips), 176, 258 
Importance to national growth, remarks (Eisenhower, 

Macmillan), 407 
Shipping policies, effect on, U.S.-Western European 
discussions regarding, 10 
Japan, increase in trade with, joint statement (Herter, 

Fujiyama), 509 
Latin America : 

Efforts to solve problems of, address (Rubottom), 598 
U.S. trade with, 596 
St. Lawrence Seaway, official opening, remarks (Eisen- 
hower, Elizabeth II), 75 
Soviet Union (see also Less developed countries: Eco- 
nomic offensive) : 
Camp David talks re U.S.-Soviet trade relations, 

statements (Dillon), 547 
Proposed increase in trade with U.S., address (Ru- 
bottom), 596 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

France, convention of establishment, 828, 890 
Pakistan, treaty of friendship and commerce, 811, 814 
Switzerland, proposed suspension of certain pro- 
visions of 1936 agreement as supplemented, 450 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 450, 

724 
TTrade agreements program, U.S. : 
Negotiations with certain Contracting Parties to 

GATT, 354 
Public support of, address (Foster), 799 
Purpose of, address (Dillon), 856 
3d report to Congress on operation of (Eisenhower), 
excerpt, 83 
Trade fairs and missions (see also Exhibits) : 
Japanese, visit to U.S., 682 
U.S. mission to Guinea, proposed, 723 
U.S. program, remarks (Rankin), 513 
Trade Unions, International Confederation of Free, 862 
Trade unions, necessity for, statement (Meany), 886 
Training school for mechanics, agreement extending 1954 

agreement with Mexico, 398 
Travel, international (see also Passports and Visas) : 
Exchange restrictions on foreign travel by British 

residents, removal of, 682 
Inter-American automotive trafBc, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, 961 
Need for control of Communist travel, statements: 

Haues, 320; Murphy, 165 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary importation of, 182 



Travel, international — Continued 

Restrictions on Hungarian personnel in U.S., aide 

memoire, 161 
Survey of Yugoslavia's tourist possibilities, remarks 

(Rankin), 513 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 182 
Traffic of persons and goods, agreement with Mexico 
relating to the opening of a border inspection sta- 
tion, 3.30 
Travel to U.S., new visa regulations for facilitation of, 

349 
U.S.-Soviet exchange agreement relating to, 956, 957 
Treasury, Department of the, 805 

Treasury, Secretary of the, functions in administration of 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
55 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international (for specific 
treaty, see country or sutject) : 
Current actions, 34, 67, 101, 141, 182, 221, 257, 293, 330, 
365, 398, 430, 461, 491, 526, 565, 608, 653, 697, 734, 
772, 814, 849, 890, 924, 961 
Need for provision to settle disputes arising from in- 
terpretation, address (Rogers), 382 
Trieste, Free Territory of, proclamation abolishing U.S. 

immigration quota, 19 
Trikamdas, Purshottam, 683, 686 

Trinidad, relaxation of restriction on dollar imports, 285ii 
Trust territories, U.N. (see also individual territory) : 
Africa, progress toward independence, addresses, letter, 
resolution, and statements : Eisenhower, 289 ; Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution, 732; Satterthwaite, 338; 
Sears, 180, 291 ; Wilcox, 446 ; Zablocki, 730, 922 
Pacific Islands, report on U.S. administration, state- 
ments : Henry, 252 ; Nucker, 242, 254 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 33, 221, 607, 848 
Organizational problem, address (Wilcox), 446 
Tubman, W. V. S., 481 
Tunisia : 

GATT, provisional status granted, 846 

Proposed visit of President Eisenhower, announcement, 

823 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 925 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 258 
Turkey : 

CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
DLF loans, 164, 318 

Foreign Minister meets with Secretary Herter, 413 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1959 

agreement with U.S., 258 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for cooperation 

on uses for mutual defense, 258 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. relating to, 

142 
Loan of 2 submarines, agreement amending 1954 

agreement with U.S. re, 492 
Modern weajjons for NATO defense forces in, agree- 
ment with U.S. relating to, 850 
U.S. excess and scrap property in, agreement with 
U.S. approving procedures for sale of, 925 



1006 



Department of State Bulletin 



Turkey — Continued 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 430 
U.S. support for Security Council seat, statement 

(Herter), 578 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 742, 932 

Turner, William T., 904 

Tuthill, John W., 494 

U On Sein, 121, 354 

U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 

U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 200 

Uganda, relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 285» 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic {see also Soviet 

Union), universal postal convention (1957), 814 
UUastres, Alberto, 210 
UNO. Sec United Nations Command 

Underdeveloped countries. See Less developed countries 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Union of South Africa : 
Administration of Soutb-West Africa, General As- 
sembly resolutions and statement (Sears), 807 
Policy of apa7-theid, U.S. views on, statements: Riegel- 

man, 949 ; Sears, 807 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 101 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
101, 172 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Arab Republic : 
Barring passage of Israeli ships through Suez Canal, 

statements (Herter), 468, 575 
Exchange commission with U.S., establishment, 608 
Support for proposed IDA, 885 

Technical cooperation program, U.S. resumption of, 79 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 330, 

698, 890 
Educational exchange programs, agreements with 

U.S. for financing, 608, 609 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n 
International carriage by air, convention (1929) for 
unification of certain rules relating to, and protocol 
amending, 141 
Money orders, international, agreement with U.S. for 

exchange of, 330 
Parcel post, agreement with U.S., with detailed regu- 
lations for execution of, 492 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 430 
United Kingdom : 
British Cameroons, elections in, statement (Zablocki) 

and text of General Assembly resolution, 730 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Contribution to U.N. Special Fund, increase in, 692 
Exchange restrictions on foreign travel, removal of, 682 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Four Power (U.S., U.K., France, Germany) Paris meet- 
ing, announcement, 708 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests. 
Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting. See Foreign Minis- 
ters meeting, Geneva 
Geneva technical talks. See Geneva technical talks 
German war documents, 13th volume, released, 402 
Participation in U.S.-Western European discu.ssiona 

regarding shipping problems, 10 
Queen Elizabeth II, 10, 75, 76 
Relaxation of restrictions on dollar imports, 84, 285, 

286, 805, 844 
Tariff concessions, negotiations with U.S., 354, 482, 725 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament. See Ten Na- 
tion Committee on Disarmament 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 650, 911, 924 

Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, agree- 
ment amending 1958 agreement with U.S., 222 
Bahamas Long Range Proving Ground, agreement 
with U.S. on administrative matters connected 
with, 430 
Customs convention on temporary importation of pri- 
vate road vehicles, extension to Barbados, 182 
Customs facilities for touring, conventicm on, exten- 
sion to Barbados, 182 
Foreign forces in the Federal Republic of Germany, 
agreement abrogating 1952 conventions and agree- 
ment pertaining to, 293 
GATT, proces-verbal containing schedule to be an- 
nexed to protocol relating to negotiations for estab- 
lishment of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 34 
GATT, proeds-verbal extending validity of declara- 
tion extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI :/,, 68 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67w 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements sup- 
plementing, 293, 398 
Potent drugs, protocol for termination of 1906 agree- 
ment for unification of pharmacopoeial formulas 
for, 526 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 734, 772 
Technical assistance program in British Guiana, 
agreement extending 1954 agreement with U.S., 526 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 925 
Universal postal convention (1957), 814 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
172, 183, 925 
Visit of President Eisenhower, exchange of greetings 
and transcript of TV interview with Prime Minis- 
ter, 263, 403, 405, 409 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon for economic talks, 862 
United Nations: 
Addresses, remarks, and statement : 

Great-Power Cooperation in the United Nations (Wil- 
cox), 663 
Instrument for accomplishment of peaceful change 
(Herter), 467 



Index, July to December 1959 



1007 



United Nations — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements— Continued 
Role in a changing world (Wilcox), 440 
Tlie U.N. as a Cornerstone of U.S. Foreign Policy 

(Herter), 507 
The U.N. as a Peace Mechanism (Herter), 502 
Admission of Guinea to membership, 289 
Arab-Israeli dispute, U.N. role in keeping the peace, 

article (Newsom), 420 
Berlin situation, proposed role to assist in settlement, 

statement (Herter), 151, 152 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Chinese representation question. See under China 
Disarmament, efforts for. See under Disarmament and 

Disarmament Commission, U.N. 
Documents, lists of, 32, 141, 220, 257, 292, 364, 397, 489, 

525, 607, 690, 771, 847, 890, 924 
Economic and social activities, address (Wilcox), 669 
Freedom of information, efforts to promote, statement 

(Phillips) and draft declaration, 26 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 
Human rights activities. See Human rights 
Hungarian question, efforts in. See under Hungary 
Laos, U.N. action re Communist intervention in. See 

Laos : Communist intervention in 
Organs of, question of increasing membership, state- 
ment (Riegelman), 769 
Outer space, committees on peaceful uses of, 138, 443 
Police force, need for, addresses, remarks, and state- 
ment : Herter, 503, 508 ; Murphy, 661, 662 ; Wilcox, 

666 
Public approval of U.S. participation, address (Foster), 

797, 800 
Kefugees, aid to. See Refugees and displaced persons 
Scientific conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy, 

letter (Eisenhower), 290 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Soviet attitude and position, addresses and letter: 

Eisenhower, 290 ; Wilcox, 441, 446, 665 
Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
Specialized agencies (see also name of agency), aid in 

Africa, address (Satterth\vaite),340 
Technical assistance programs: 
Expanded program of : 

Address (Lodge), 281 

Aid in Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 340 

U.S. contributions and support, addresses, letter, 
and statement : Eisenhower, 290 ; Hancher, 767 ; 
Herter, 473 ; Wilcox, 445 
Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
Tibet, U.N. consideration of Communist aggression in. 

See under Tibet 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trusteeship 

Council 
U.S. participation during 1958, letter (Eisenhower), 

287 
United Nations Charter: 
Application to Chinese representation question, state- 
ment (Robertson), 517 
Goals, statement (Herter), 508 
Need for conference to review, address and statement : 

Lodge, 429 ; Wilcox, 440, 447 



United Nations Charter — Continued 
Provision re human rights, application to Tibet situa- 
tion, statement (Lodge), 684 
United Nations Children's Fund, U.S. support of, address 

(Lord), 840 
United Nations Command (Korea), protests of attack on 

U.S. Navy plane over Sea of Japan, 206, 349 
United Nations Commission on Human Rights. See 

Human Rights Commission 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 

address and article : Hahn, 62 ; Lord, 842 
United Nations committees on peaceful uses of outer 

space, 138, 443 
United Nations Disarmament Commission. See Disarma- 
ment Commission, U.N. 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations economic commissions. See Economic 

Commission 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nations Emergency Force, addresses and state- 
ments : Herter, 508 ; Lodge, 919 ; Wilcox, 445, 668 
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. See 

Food and Agricultural Organization, U.N. 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees : 

Executive Committee, U.S. delegation to 2d session, 607 
U.S. contribution to programs of, 843 
United Nations Population Commission, endorsement of 

work of, address (Lord), 840 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 

Refugees, address (Wilcox), 444 
United Nations Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States citizens and nationals: 
Alien spouses and relatives, 1959 immigration legisla- 
tion re, article (Auerbach), 600 
Claims. See Claims 
Protection of : 

Citizens and property in Panama, texts of notes and 

aide memoire and meeting re, 759, 827 
Communist seizure of consular employee in Bombay, 

U.S. protest, 902 
Investments and properties overseas. See Investment 

of private capital abroad 
U.S. protest of Soviet actions against attach^, 632 
Warning against unauthorized crossing of Czecho- 
slovak border, 350 
Regulations on allowances to certain U.S. personnel 
abroad, announcement and Executive order, 940 
United States Information Agency : 
Functions in administration of Agricultural Trade De- 
velopment and Assistance Act, 55, 56 
Contribution to U.S. exhibit at Moscow, letter (Herter), 

514 
Damage to property in Panama, U.S. protest, texts of 
U.S. and Panamanian notes and aide memoire, 759 
Voice of America. See Voice of America 
United States Operations Missions. See under Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration 



1008 



Department of State Bulletin 



Universal copyright convention. See Copyriglit conven- 
tion, universal 
Universal postal convention (1957), 183, 814, 849 
Upton, T. Graydon, 540 
Uruguay : 

DLP loan, 455 

Agricultural commodities, agreement further supple- 
menting 1959 agreement with U.S., 890 

Vallon, Edwin E., 609 

Van Dyke, Stuart H., 430 

Vass, Laurence C, 907 

Vatican City, international wheat agreement (1959), with 

annex, 172, 183 
Vedeler, Harold C, 772 
Venezuela : 

Jet aircraft on flights between U.S. and Venezuela, in- 
troduction of, discussions begin with U.S., 906 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Duty-free entry privileges for nondiplomatic person- 
nel, agreement with U.S. relating to, 330 
Inter-American Development Bauls, agreement estab- 
lishing, 925 
Regulation of inter- American automotive traffic, 1944 

convention on, 961 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with 
annex, 172, 183 
Verzijl, J. H. W., 363 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 
Veto: 

Double veto, U.S. position on use, statement (Lodge), 

458 
Operations of control system in disarmament agree- 
ment, address (Herter),471 
Viet-Nam : 

Denial of admission to U.N., 289 

President Ngo Dinh Diem, 5th anniversary of accession 
to office, exchange of messages with President 
Eisenhower on occasion of, 162 
Terrorist activities in, statement (Herter), 115 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 850 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S., 

101 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (1950) on, 67n. 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 697 
U.S. Mutual Security Program, congressional hearings 
on, 217 
Viet-Nam, north. Communist Chinese support, statement 

(Robertson), 519 
Virgin Islands, 386 
Visas {see also Immigration and Passports) : 

Issuance to FLN members, statement (Herter), 865 
Travel to U.S., new regulations to facilitate, 349 
Voice of America : 
Radio relay facilities in Liberia, agreement with Liberia 

providing, 365 
Soviet jamming, reduction of, addresses: Herter, 474; 
Wilcox, 664 
Voutov, Peter G., 866 



Wagner, George Corydon, Sr., 565 
Wailes, Edward T., 65 
Wallner, Woodruff, 398 
Walmsley, Walter N., 258 
Walsh, Lawrence E., 757 
Walter, Francis E., 600, 604 
Warren, Earl, visit to Europe, 236 
Warren, George L., 58 

Watch movements, investigation of tariffs on imports de- 
ferred, 639 
Water resources, report by IJO on development in St. 

Croix River Basin, 804 
Waugh, Samuel, 210 
Weather : 

Rawinsonde observation stations, agreements for estab- 
lishment and operation, 293 
WMO, convention of, 565 
Webster, Bethuel Matthew, 587 

Weights and measures, 1875 convention concerning crea- 
tion of an international office of, and 1921 convention 
amending, 772 
Wellard, James A., 750 
Wellborn, Alfred T., 402 
West Africa («ee also Africa), development of regional 

associations in, address (Satterthwaite), 336 
West Indian Islands, geographic terms in, article 

(Pearcy), 385 
Western summit meetings: 

Meeting at Paris, proposed, 708, 937 
Question of need for and purpose of, statements (Her- 
ter), 784, 785 
Whaling convention (1946), international, and schedule 

of whaling regulations, 101 
Wheat: 
Financing wheat transportation costs, agreement with 

Yemen re, 258, 698 
Flour, U.S. donation for distribution to typhoon victims 

In Japan, agreement re, 925 
International wheat agreement (1959), with annex, 101, 
142, 172, 173, 183, 258, 293, 398, 491, 565, 734, 925 
U.S. grant to Libya, 358 
AVhite, Lincoln, 70S7i 
White House conferences : 
The aging, 1st, 839 
Children and youth, 6th, 839 
Whitman, Roswell H., 430 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wlckstrom, Hugo, 363 
Wilcox, Francis O., 440, 663 
Wilken, David, 142 
Wilson, Evan M., 679 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Women : 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 13th Assembly 

of, article (Lee), 326 
Inter-American convention granting political rights to, 

68 
Publications on status of, list of, 64 
Role in Soviet Union, address (Murphy), 714 
U.N. Commission on the Status of Women, 13th session, 
article (Hahn), 62 



Index, July fo December 7959 



1009 



Women — Continued 

U.N. promotion of status of, address (Lord), 842 
Wood, C. Tyler, 850 
Wool fabrics : 

Renegotiation of tariff concessions, proposed : 
Announcement, 481 
Views invited on, 724 

Supplemental quota, proclamation amending, 559 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World economic situation, statements (Phillips), 176, 179, 

258 
World financial situation, statement (Anderson), 536 
World Health Organization, constitution of, 34, 565 
World Meteorological Organization, convention of, 565 
World Peace Through Law, Special Committee on, 377 
World Refugee Tear : 

Purpose of, statement (Hanes), 215 

U.S. contributions, 237, 652, 843 
World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition, 163, 378 
World social development, U.S. views on U.N. efforts for, 

address (Lord), 838 
World trade. See Trade : International 
Wossen, Asfa, 592 
Wright, Thomas K., 430 



Yugoslavia — Continued 
Nationalization program, registration by foreign prop- 
erty owners, 283 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

1958 agreement with U.S., 222 
Air transport, provisional agreement with U.S. termi- 
nated, 294 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement (19.50) on, 67)^ 
International carriage by air, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 141 
Military assistance, termination of agreements with 

U.S. re, 430 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. for purchase of, 430 
Technical assistance projects for fiscal 1960, agree- 
ment with U.S. granting special economic assistance 
to finance, 772 
Universal postal convention (1957), 183 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation increasing, 19 
Zagreb International Fair, U.S. participation, remarks 
(Rankin), 513 



Yemen, agreement with U.S. for special economic assist- 
ance to finance wheat transportation costs, 258, 698 
Yugoslavia : 

DLF loans, 23, 57, 211 

GATT, proposed closer relations with, public views re- 
quested on, 450 



Zablocki, Clement J., 460, 730, 922 

Zagreb International Fair, 513 

Zahir Shah, Mohammed, 934 

Zinc and lead problem, efforts to solve, address (Rubot- 

tom), 598 
Zionism, role in the Middle East, article (Newsom), 417 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Publication 7021 

Released September 1960 

U.S. GOVERNMENT rRINTING OFFIC£t I960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. Subscription Trice: $1.50 a year; 50 cents additional for foreign 

mailing. No single copies sold. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




IE 

•FICiAl 
EEKLY RECOI 

IITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY 



i 



Vol. XLI, No. 1045 July 6, 1959 

FOREIGN MINISTERS MEETING AT GENEVA 

RECESSES UNTIL JULY 13 3 

TRENDS AND PORTENTS IN THE FAR EAST • 

by Assistant Secretary Robertson 5 

PANEL ON SEISMIC IMPROVEMENT REPORTS 
FINDINGS ON UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS • 

Summary of Conclusions 16 

OAS COUNCIL AGREES TO INVESTIGATE COM- 
PLAINT BY NICARAGUA • Statement by Ambassador 
John C. Dreier and Text of Resolution ........... 30 

U.S. AND WTST EUROPEAN NATIONS DISCUSS 

SHIPPING PROBLEMS • Announcement of Meeting, 
Statement by Acting Secretary Dillon, and Texts of Agreed 
Statement and Communique • 10 

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION • Statement by 

Christopher H. Phillips 26 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLI, No. 1045 • Publication 6841 
July 6, 1959 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JUL 3 1959 



DEPOSITORY 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.60, forelpn $12.25 

Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the liudget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained licroln may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides tlie public 
and interested agencies of tite 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various piloses of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations tlocuments, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Foreign Ministers Meeting at Geneva 
Recesses Until July 13 



Following is a statement issued on June 19 at 
Geneva hy the British, French, and U.S. delega- 
tions to the meeting of Foreign Ministers, to- 
gether ivith a four-pov'er co7mnunique of June 20, 
a Department statement of June 20, and a state- 
ment made by Secretary Herter upon his return 
to Washington on June £1.^ 



WESTERN STATEMENT, JUNE 19 

Press release 446 dated June 20 

The Foreign Ministers of Fi-ance, the United 
Kingdom and the United States have examined 
the statement made to them this afternoon by Mr. 
Gromyko. This statement was clearly timed to 
coincide with Mr. Khrushchev's speech today ^ in 
which the Western proposals of June 16 ^ were 
characterized as "groundless and unacceptable". 
Mr. Gromyko's statement does not differ in any 
important aspects from the Soviet proposal of 
June 9 on which the Western Ministers clearly 
expressed their views in the meetings of Jmie 10 
and 12. 

Although the latest Soviet statement extends 
the time limit of the proposed agreement from one 
year to a year and a half, it reserves to the Soviet 
Union freedom of unilateral action at the expira- 
tion of that period. Moreover it is clear that it is 
the Soviet intention that the Western Powers upon 
signing sucli an agreement would acquiesce in the 
liquidation of their rights in Berlin and the 



' For statements made by Secretary Herter at the 
Geneva Meeting of Foreign Ministers, see Bulletin of 
June 1, 1959, p. 775 ; June 8, 1959, p. 819 ; June 15, 1959, 
p. 859 ; and June 29, 1959, p. 943. 

' Soviet Premier Niliita Khrushchev discussed the Ge- 
neva meeting in an address made at Moscow on June 19 
during a reception for a visiting East German delegation. 

' Xot printed here. 



abandonment of their responsibility for maintain- 
ing the freedom of the people of West Berlin. 

It is true tliat there is provision for a resump- 
tion of the consideration of the Berlin question 
by the Four Powers during or at the end of the 
year and a half period. But if no agreement has 
been reached in the meantime the Western Powers 
would enter into any negotiation at the end of that 
period without any rights at all so far as Berlin 
or the access to it were concerned. 

In the light of these fimdamental objections the 
Foreign Ministers of France, the United King- 
dom and the United States have concluded that 
the latest Soviet statement constitutes no change 
in the previous Soviet position. They consider 
that in the circumstances the wise course is to 
recess the conference for a period. They ac- 
cordingly suggest that the next meeting be post- 
13oned until July 13. This interval would give 
the Soviet Government the oi^portunity of con- 
sidering the Western proposals further. It 
would give the Western Governments the oppor- 
tunity to consider the position in relation in par- 
ticular to Mr. Khrushchev's statement of today 
and its connection with the future course of 
negotiations. 



FOUR-POWER COMMUNIQUE, JUNE 20 

Press release 448 dated June 20 

At the Conference of the Foreign Ministers in 
Geneva which began on May 11, a broad exchange 
of views took place between the participants on 
the subjects imder discussion. 

The Ministers believe that further discussion 
and negotiations are necessary. 

The Ministers agreed to recess and to resume 



July 6, 1959 



the work of the Conference in Geneva on July 
13, 1959. 



DEPARTMENT STATEMENT, JUNE 20 

Press release 447 dated June 20 

The United States together with its allies has 
been engaged during the past several weeks in 
conversations with the Soviet Foreign Minister 
at Geneva in a serious effort to achieve peaceful 
solutions of problems relating to Berlin and Ger- 
many. These conversations are now recessed. 
The circumstances relating to the temporary sus- 
pension of the work of the conference were ex- 
plained in the statement issued by Secretaiy of 
State Herter and the British and French Foreign 
Ministers in Geneva yesterday. It might be ap- 
propriate to emphasize in this connection that 
throughout these talks, as will be true of the 
talks when they resume, the United States has 
constantly borne in mind the difficult position of 
the courageous people of West Berlin. Our re- 
sponsibility to them has been and will remain 
our primary consideration. The United States 
Government believes they share our confidence 
that with patience and determination we shall find 
solutions which will safeguard their security and 
welfare. 



STATEMENT BY SECRETARY HERTER, JUNE 21 

Press release 449 dated June 21 

I return from the recessed Foreign Ministers 
Conference with regret that no agreement was 
reached with the Soviet Union despite the unceas- 
ing efforts of the Western Foreign Ministers. 

The Western Powers offered far-reaching pro- 
posals on German reunification and European se- 
curity and put forward reasonable offers to reach 
an interim agreement on West Berlin pending 
German reunification. 

The Soviet Union, however, clearly revealed 
that its true desire is to absorb West Berlin into 
East Germany and to keep Germany divided until 
it can be brought under Soviet influence. 

In all the discussions my Western colleagues 
and I had foremost in mind the freedom of the 
more than 2 million people of West Berlin. We 



were determined, and remain determined, to make 
no arrangement with the Soviet Union which 
would undermine that freedom. 

When the conference resumes, the Western For- 
eign Ministers will be ready, as before, to nego- 
tiate in good faith but resolved, as before, to stand 
firm on rights and principles. 

The unfailing unity displayed by the Western 
Powers at Geneva was an outstanding feature of 
the conference. It gives me confidence that we 
can continue to face the problems ahead with 
patience and firmness. 



Secretary Herter Notes Anniversary 
of East German Uprising 

Following is an exchange of messages between 
Secretary Herter and Chancellor Konrad Aden- 
auer on the occasion of the anniversary of the 
June 17, 1953, uprising in East Germany. 

Secretary Herter to Chancellor Adenauer, June 16 

Press release 434 dated June 17 

As you and your compatriots again honor the 
courageous stand of the captive people of East 
Germany against oppression, I send cordial greet- 
ings on behalf of the American people. It is my 
sincere hope that the tragic division of Germany 
may soon come to an end so that throughout a 
united country it will bo possible for all Germans 
to exercise the natural right of free men to man- 
age their own affairs. 

Chancellor Adenauer to Secretary Herter, June 19 

Press release 445 dated June 19 

I have received with deep emotion your telegram of 
16 June in which, in the name of the American people, 
you send greetings to me and to the German people on 
the anniversary of June 17. I hope with you that, despite 
all present difficulties, the tragic division of Geiniauy will 
soon come to an end and that we Germans in the Kast 
and in the West can determine imr own lives in peace 
and liberty. To the American people as the most im- 
portant fighters for freedom, to whom the right of free 
men to determine their own affairs is the basis of demo- 
cratic living, I send, in tlie name of the whole German 
people, heartfelt greetings. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Trends and Portents in the Far East 



hy Walter S. Rohertson 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^ 



During the past 6I/4 years I liave had the honor 
of accompanying many Far Eastern dignitaries to 
this platform. I am always proud to do so. Na- 
tional Press Club luncheons exemplify in a par- 
ticularly interesting and impressive way one of 
the basic freedoms of American life. Freedom 
of the press is no doubt abused at times as all of 
our other freedoms are abused, but, more im- 
portantly, it is an essential foundation stone of 
the kind of democracy which we are struggling 
to preserve in the world today. I am greatly 
honored to be your guest. 

A member of my staff once mentioned to me 
that I was accused by some critics as being a Sino- 
centric. At first thought I considered the ac- 
cusation unjust. On second thought I was un- 
prepared to challenge it. If the map of the Far 
East is Sinocentric, surely the Assistant Secretary 
of State for the Far East could be excused for 
being the same, particularly since the bulk of the 
population in the Far East is Chmese and it is the 
Chinese Communists who pose the principal 
threat to everyone else in the area. Whether or 
not communism is long fastened on the Chinese 
people is of direct consequence to all of Asia, to 
you and to me and to all the generations that fol- 
low us. 

Lenin once remarked that London and New 
York would fall on the Yangtze Eiver under the 
assault of communism. He recognized that con- 
ditions were developing in the Far East which 
made it peculiarly susceptible to Communist dom- 
ination : the destitution of the masses, the collapse 
of law and order, and the great u]Dsurge of anti- 



^ Address made before the National Press Club at Wash- 
ington, D.C., on June 16 (press release 431). 



colonialism and nationalism which he hoped to 
convert into a Communist tide against the free 
world. These were among the conditions prevail- 
ing in Asia at the time of the Communist seizure 
of mainland China in the tragic aftermath of 
World War II. With the seizure of the great 
landmass of China with its 600 million people — 
one-quarter of the world's population — the Com- 
munist imperialists gained a huge central base of 
operations for encroaching upon neighboring 
territories. 

Around the central Red mass of mainland China 
and the Soviet Union the free countries of the Far 
East are for the most part narrowly distributed. 
These countries lack common ties. Almost all of 
these, including all the bordering countries, have 
gained independence since 1945. In general this 
means that they lack experience in national ad- 
ministration and that new national democratic 
institutions require more time for driving down 
their roots and acquiring greater permanency. 

Above all, the new nations of Asia are seeking 
to consolidate their new-found independence and 
achieve economic growth and general advance- 
ment in the face of a Sino-Soviet foe which dis- 
poses not only of enormous militai-y power but 
also of a highly organized Communist subversive 
apparatus permeating the free world. The Com- 
munists make much of the fact that the Soviet 
Union was transformed in the space of 40 years 
from a relatively backward country to a modern 
industrial giant. 

A Turning of the Tide 

In the face of all these threats and opportmii- 
ties for communism in Asia it seems almost a 



Jo/y 6, J 959 



miracle that the whole area is not today under 
Communist rule. However, a turning of the tide 
occun-ed some time after 1950 largely as a result 
of our reaction to tlie Korean aggression, which 
eventually curbed the Red forward surge and re- 
sulted in a strengthening of the free countries of 
the Far East. Today the free Far Eastern coun- 
tries are far more aware of the true nature of the 
Communist threat and, with every passing year, 
are better equipped to meet that threat. 

Contrast the decay, the banditry, the insur- 
gency, and all the discouragements that character- 
ized the Far Eastern scene up to 1954 with wliat 
we see today and you will see the true measure of 
progress that has occurred in this area of the. 
world. Overt Communist aggression in Korea 
and Indochina has been stopped. Insurgency has 
been wiped out in the Philippines and almost en- 
tirely eradicated in Malaya. Not one square inch 
of additional Far East territory has been taken by 
the Communists since 1954 with the exception of 
the Tachen Islands, which were voluntarily relin- 
quished in early 1955. The Governments of 
Burma and Indonesia are making progress in 
bringing about order and stability. Although 
Laos and Viet-Nam still face problems of con- 
solidating internal security, the present scene con- 
trasts sharply with that of 4 or 5 years ago, when 
it was widely forecast that these countries might 
slip under Communist rule. The Government of 
free China has brought about stability and im- 
proved conditions of life on Taiwan which stand 
in bright contrast to those on mainland China. 
Japan is now one of the four great industrial com- 
plexes of the world, thanks to its energetic, in- 
dustrious people, who are also making a hearten- 
ing contribution to the economic development of 
Southeast Asia tlirough reparations, technical as- 
sistance, and other programs totaling some $2 
billion. 

I use the term "miracle" in describing this great 
transformation from chaos and impending disas- 
ter to relative security and stability. But it was 
and remains a manmade miracle. These things 
don't just happen. They require courageous lead- 
ers and people who have the will and dedication 
to make the enormous sacrifices involved in gain- 
ing and preserving their cherished freedom. Our 
friends and allies in the Far East have these 
qualities. 



U.S. Responsibility in Far East 

But they could not have done and cannot now 
do these things alone, unaided. They need out- 
side economic and military support, and it is only 
natural that they, who set such store by national 
independence and human advancement, should 
turn to the United States for assistance. "We, for 
our part, help free Far Eastern nations because 
we understand and sympathize with their desires 
for economic progress and political freedom. We 
and other free countries benefit from their ad- 
vancement. We know that our failure to help 
them adequately in these critical years would 
mean the disappearance of free, independent gov- 
ernments in the Far East and probably the even- 
tual loss of a free America. Our policy is just 
that realistic. 

"Wlien I travel about the Far East I am con- 
tinually struck by the tremendous responsibility 
which our country has assumed in that part of 
the world. I do not suppose there is any other 
quarter of the globe where other nations' inde- 
pendence is so immediately dependent upon us. 
We have close relations with every one of the free 
countries of the area, and, even though some of 
them are not allies, I think we can say with real- 
istic modesty that free Far Eastern governments 
look to the United States as the main coimter- 
poise to Communist expansion. They know that 
if it were not for a strong United States military 
establisliment, including our armed forces widely 
deployed across the Pacific, the way would be wide 
open for Communist aggression. "Wliat is more 
significant, the Communists know this too. 

Equally important is the assistance we are sup- 
plying to these countries to consolidate and pro- 
tect their independence. The 1.8 million free Far 
Eastern forces which we are helping to support 
make a major contribution to the deterrence of 
war — especially limited wars, probes, and infiltra- 
tion. If, as many forecast, tlie threat of Commu- 
nist military aggression is likely to shift in tlie 
direction of subtler and more ambiguous local 
thrusts and if our capabilities continue to be 
directed toward larger war situations, (lien our 
allies in the Far East become increasingly im- 
portant in complementing our capabilities and in 
thereby establishing a sound, overall, balanced 
free- world security posture capable of meeting all ] 
types of challenges. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Yet no amount of weapons can make a country 
strong if it is internally weak. Largely for this 
reason the United States has a broad range of pro- 
grams for helping our Asian friends: loans for 
development projects, teclmical assistance, ex- 
change programs, encouragement of private in- 
vestment, trade promotion, and so forth. 

I agree with those who urge that we should 
do more to assist in the economic development of 
Asian nations, but this must not be at the sacrifice 
of those levels of military assistance wliich are re- 
quired to deter aggression, maintain internal se- 
curity, and promote an atmosphere of confidence. 
Without this securit}', economic development will 
not be possible. Our general aim could be de- 
scribed in these terms : It is to help free Asians be 
their true selves and to do it so successfully that 
they will not listen to, or have to give in to, any- 
one who suggests that they be something else. 

Mounting Asian Revulsion Against Communism 

Today there is far less inclination for them to 
be something else. At one time not so long ago 
communism seemed a plausible ideal to many of 
the Asian intelligentsia who naively saw com- 
munism as a means for achieving social justice 
and as a shortcut to national advancement. Some 
of these intelligentsia also regarded Chinese com- 
munism as different from Moscow's communism — • 
as something more Chinese than Communist. 

Each passing day disabuses more Asians of 
these notions. Communism has been on display 
before Asia for a sufEciently long time to unfold 
its true implications, as against its tempting but 
false promises. No free Far East country wants 
Communist solutions. 

This was the principal conclusion reached at a 
recent meeting in the Philippines of all our Am- 
bassadors assigned to the Far East. It was thair 
dominant impression that events of the past year 
have, as never before, served to open the eyes of 
Asia to the methods and purposes of Communist 
imperialism. They referred in particular to 
Asian reactions to the Chinese Communists' rape 
of Tibet and to the brutal, oppressive commune 
system wliich is attempting to transform the great 
Chinese people, who have made such notable con- 
tributions to the intellectual and cultural life of 
the world, into unthinking slaves responsive only 
to the dictates of their Communist masters. 

Furthei-more, this Asian revulsion against the 



appalling destniction of human values inherent 
in the commune system coincided with emerging 
evidence that the Chinese Commmiist "great leap 
forward" is requiring many creeps backward. 
Economic gains boasted by the Communists are 
grossly infiated. Failures resulting from poor 
planning and resultant dislocations and bottle- 
necks have deepened the misery of the people. 
The Chinese mainland is now in the grip of a 
critical food shortage, and the backyard pig-iron 
furnaces, which were a great feature of Peiping's 
propaganda last year, have literally backfired. 
Thus the Chinese Communists cannot even claim 
material benefits for the Chinese people as a justi- 
fication for the commmies and other totally 
repressive measures. 

The recent attack last year on the offshore is- 
lands, Communist trade warfare tactics in South- 
east Asia and against Japan, interference in free 
nations' elections, subversion through local Com- 
munist parties and through Sino-Soviet bloc dip- 
lomatic missions complete the reasons for this 
mounting Asian revulsion against communism. 
Probably the most powerful generic influences at 
work in Asia today in counteracting Communist 
advances are nationalism and the acts of com- 
munism itself, which are manifestly in opposition 
to nationalist aspirations. 

Nevertheless it is not easy for the Far Eastern 
peoples to stand up resolutely against their pow- 
erful Communist neighbor. We must remember 
how exposed is their position, narrowly rimming 
the Sino-Soviet bloc. If we weaken, if we do not 
stand firm, if we start talking about withdrawing 
support from any of the free nations, then they 
may well feel compelled to reevaluate their foreign 
policy positions accordingly. 

Taiwan Strait Crisis 

Last summer and autumn our country was put 
to the acid test. On August 23 an all-out artil- 
lery bombardment was loosed on the little island 
of Quemoy. Tliis was accompanied by Chinese 
Communist statements and actions which made it 
clear that the attack was directed toward the 
seizure of Taiwan, for the defense of which the 
United States has an explicit commitment under 
the terms of our mutual defense treaty with the 
Republic of China. Even though the object in 
dispute seemed to be distant small islands which 
the vast majority of the American people had 



July 6, 7959 



never heard of and which were widely described 
at the time as not worth the life of one American 
boy, I am proud, as I am sure the American 
people are proud, that our counti-y stood by its 
ally, the Republic of Cliina. We provided free 
China with vital equipment and other assistance 
and, by all our actions, made it umnistakably clear 
to the Communists that the United States would 
stand by its ally. We thereby discouraged the 
pursuit of the attack and gave no gromids for 
enemy miscalculation. Ultimately the situation 
eased off. 

I would like to add parenthetically that it has 
been my good fortime to have served more than 
6 years as Assistant Secretary of State under the 
late Secretary of State Jolin Foster Dulles. The 
world has come to appreciate the towering stature, 
courage, and wisdom of this great man who, in 
the cruel exigencies of closes, seemed to me to be 
at his very finest. He richly deserves the honor 
the free world confers upon him. 

The cooperative action of the United States 
and of its ally, the Republic of China, in the Tai- 
wan Strait crisis has had a salutaiy impact upon 
the Far East scene. It clearly shows that the 
United States will support its friends in their 
hour of need. The fact that the United States 
could rapidly mobilize for action halfway round 
the world was also widely noted. 

Had the United States fallen back in the face 
of Peiping's aggressive effort against Quemoy and 
Taiwan, or in the face of Khrushchev's blustering 
threats which accompanied that aggi'essive effort., 
that would have confirmed Sino-Soviet bloc rulers 
in the belief that they are in a position to tlireaten 
anywhere and to compel fallbacks everywhere. 
Clearly it is better to meet Coimnunist probings 
at the outset rather than later on, when fi'iends are 
apt to get discouraged and enemies overconfident 
and miscalculating. 

Question of Recognition of Red China 

What I have said about our responsibility to- 
ward our friends and firmness toward our foes 
applies directly to the cpiestion of nonrecognition 
of the Peiping regime and opposing its member- 
ship in the United Nations. Some people argue 
that recognition and U.N. seating would induce 
Peiping to be a less aggressive, less hostile mem- 
ber of the international community. However, 



Cliinese actions, depredations, and present record 
of intentions that would support such a 
contention. 

Our Government — your Government — cannot 
overlook realities. Forty-five free-world coun- 
tries now recognize the Republic of Cliina. Only 
22 fi-ee- world countries recognize Red China. Of 
the 13 coimtries of the Far East, only 3 recognize 
Red China. We can see our recognition of Red 
China, which would surely be followed by that 
of almost all other free- world countries, as offer- 
ing Peiping expanded opport.miities for subver- 
sion. We can see Communist China using the 
U.N. for the dissemination of bitter propaganda 
and for the disrupting of an organization which 
has difficulties enough in being constnictive. We 
can see this turn of events as bringing about the 
downfall of free China with all that that would 
imply militarily and politically to the security of 
the free- world position in Asia. We can see such 
a development as confirming Peiping in its belief 
in the effectiveness of its cui'rent policies and tac- 
tics. For my part I can well imagine how other 
countries on the sidelines, looking to the United 
States for support and widely interpreting the 
implications of our every move, would read sucli 
a shift in United States policy. TVHiat I cannot 
see on balance is any good coming to the United 
Nations, to the United States, or to any other 
free-world nation. 

Then there is the school of thought which, 
while rejecting United States recognition of Com- 
mimist China, holds that we have not really at- 
tempted to negotiate with the Chinese Commu- 
nists or to get them to mend their ways. Such a 
contention overlooks many things. In the first 
place it suggests failure to take into account the 
fanatical devotion of the Peiping regime to its ob- 
jective of taking over Asia. The Communists do 
not enter negotiations witli us in the hope of find- 
ing solutions to difierences. From their stand- 
point there is no solution to the differences be- 
tween our sj'stem and theirs, except their winning 
the final victory. To them negotiations with us 
are a kind of warfare to be waged in the inter- 
vals between real wars. They regard any conces- 
sions on our part as either a sign of weakness or 
a sly trick. 

As Liu Shao-chi once said, "All gestures of for- 
eign imperialists must ... be viewed with sus- 
there is nothing in the long record of Communist picion." The Communists themselves make no 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



concessions unless compelled to do so, and then 
they do so only as an expedient and temporary re- 
treat in the continuing battle with the enemy. 
Also we must not forget that Communist ideology 
causes the Chinese Communists to deny tlie exist- 
ence of a moral standard applying to tliemselves 
and ourselves alike. For them what is "right" is 
what serves the interests of international com- 
munism ; wliat serves free-world interests is auto- 
matically "wrong." Thus under the warped 
Communist logic it can be "right" to break a 
pledge as soon as it has served its purpose. 

Negotiating With the Chinese Communists 

Tliis is tlie lesson we have learned tlirough hard 
experience. "We have been negotiating with the 
Cliinese Communists for several years — at Pan- 
munjom, in the Korean and Indochina conference 
at Geneva in 1954, and in the ambassadorial talks 
at Geneva and Warsaw. We will continue to ne- 
gotiate with them whenever that might serve a 
useful purpose. 

The story' of Panmunjom is well known. After 
2 years of hard negotiation an armistice agree- 
ment was finally signed. The ink was hardly dry 
on the document before the Communists began to 
violate it. The same was true of their perform- 
ance after signing the Geneva accords on 
Indochina. 

In the 89 ambassadorial talks, which are still 
continuing, we have attempted to negotiate with 
the Chinese Communists on various issues en- 
venoming our relations. They have shown no dis- 
position whatever to settle these issues. Instead 
they have consistently taken an intransigent all- 
or-nothing stand. They have rejected every for- 
mula we have proposed to reduce tension in the 
Taiwan Strait. It is their position that the issue 
is nonnegotiable except on their terms: that the 
United States get out of Taiwan. They have made 
it clear that they will accept no solution for Tai- 
wan other than Commimist possession of it. In- 
deed our efforts at the ambassadorial talks have 
produced only one agreement, the one proclaimed 
on September 10, 1955, in which the Chinese Com- 
munists pledged to release "expeditiously" our 
fellow citizens being forcibly held on the main- 
land of China.^ The fact that today, 3i/^ years 



' For text of an agreed announcement, see Bulletin of 
Sept. 19, 1955, p. 456. 



after this agreement was concluded, there are still 
five Americans in Chinese Communist jails is elo- 
quent testimony to Peiping's utter lack of sincer- 
ity in negotiating with us. 

What the Peiping regime is interested in is 
capitulation to its demands, not negotiations. 

I would therefore remind those who accuse- our 
Government of being intransigent in its attitude 
toward Coimnunist China that it is the Chinese 
Conununists who are standing pat, refusing to 
negotiate except on their unilateral terms. If 
they hold out long enough, they feel, the conces- 
sions will be on our side, not theirs. Evidence of 
weakness and lack of determination on our part 
can only reduce the chances of reaching the set- 
tlement of cold-war issues which we all seek. 

As I survey the general trend expressed by all 
the many significant events that have transpired 
in the Far East during the past decade, I find 
much that offers encouragement and justification 
for the continuation of the basic policies and pro- 
grams on which we are embarked. While con- 
tinuing to make creative adjustments to a chang- 
ing world, our policies and programs are 
contributing to a stronger free Asia — economi- 
cally, politically, and Socially — and all that is 
clearly in the interests of free men evei-ywhere. 

It is true that the physical power of Communist 
China contmues to gi'ow, but it is wrought at a 
cruel price that no people, having the power of 
consent, would ever choose to pay. Communism 
is a tyranny more absolute and more debasing 
of human nature than any the world has ever 
known. Like all tyrannies, it is at war with 
human nature itself. I am therefore persuaded 
tliat it will eventually fall, but hard work, steady 
hands, wise counsels, infinite patience, and im- 
flinching determination are required within the 
free world to insure that its collapse comes before 
it engulfs us all in disaster. 

It is easy to give in to one's apprehensions and 
to become fascinated with one's own mistakes. 
Yet we must not let our disappointments and 
frustrations with seemingly insoluble problems 
take their toll of our long-term efforts and pro- 
grams in international affairs. To do so could be 
disastrous. The United States lias no reason to 
be discountenanced by its record in world affairs. 
It has every reason to be reassured and to carry 
forward resolutely with the tasks on which it is 
now embarked. The only doubt we can justi- 
fiably harbor is whether we are doing enough. 



July 6, 1959 



We must always bear in mind the true meaning 
of those basic concepts and free institutions wliich 
made our country great, in order tliat tlie very 
success of our great experiment may not lead us 
to an unworthy, affluent indifference. For free- 
dom is by no means free. It must not only be 
earned but continually reeamed. Each of us 
bears a direct responsibility for making our Na- 
tion worthy of the trust and leadership which liis- 
tory has thrust upon it. 



Vice President and Queen Elizabetii 
Unveil Friendship Monument 

The Department of State announced on June 17 
(press release 436) that Queen Elizabeth II, ac- 
companied by tlie Prince Philip, Dul^e of Edin- 
burgh, will visit the United States near Massena, 
N.Y., on June 27, 1959, and will be welcomed by 
Vice President Nixon in the name of tlie President 
of the United States. The Queen and the Vice 
President will take part in a ceremony unveiling 
an international friendship monument at the 
Canadian- American boundary which bisects the 
Saint Lawrence Power Dam. The power dam 
was constructed jointly by the Power Autliority 
of the State of New York and tlie Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario.^ 



U.S. and West European Nations 
Discuss Shipping Problems 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF MEETING 

Press release 397 dated June 5 

Representatives of nine West European nations 
will meet with U.S. Government officials during 
the week beginning June 8 to discuss shipping 
problems of mutual interest. Acting Secretary 
of State Dillon will welcome the opening session 
in the Department's main conference suite at 
1776 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, 
D.C. 



' For an announcement of the ceremonies marking tiie 
opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, in which President 
Eisenhower is participatins;, see Riilletin of Mar. 2, 1950, 
p. 298 ; for an announcement of phins for the visit of the 
Queen at Chicago, 111., on .Tuly (i, see ibid., June 20, 1950, 
p. 954. 



The purpose of these informal intergovern- 
mental talks will be to explore whether the ship- 
ping policies of the West European countries and 
of the United States could be brought into closer 
harmony without impairing either tlie legitimate 
needs of the United States in shipping matters or 
the common economic strength of the West. 

Tlie European nations represented will be Bel- 
gium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, 
Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The govern- 
ments of these countries jointly approached the 
Department of State in December 1958 and ex- 
pressed the view that it would be in the common 
interest to have an informal exchange of views 
among government officials on such matters as the 
use of subsidies and cargo preference measures 
to favor national flag shipping and the register- 
ing of vessels under the so-called flags of 
convenience. 

The U.S. delegation will be headed by W. T. M. 
Beale, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for 
Economic Affairs, and will include John J. Allen, 
Under Secretary of Commerce for Transporta- 
tion, Perkins McGuire, Assistant Secretary of 
Defense, and Clarence G. Morse, Federal Mari- 
time Administrator. 

The chief delegates of the other countries will 
be: Belgium — H. van Cauwenberg, Minister 
Plenipotentiary, Embassy of Belgium; Den- 
mark — Kjeld Philip, Minister of Commerce; 
Franc* — Herve Alphand, Ambassador E. and P. ; 
Federal Republic of Germany — Franz Krapf, 
Minister, German Embassy; Italy — INIanlio 
Brosio, Ambassador E. and P.; Netherlands — 
J. H. van Roijen, Ambassador E. and P.; Nor- 
way — Ame Skaug, Minister of Commerce and 
Shipping; Sweden — Gunnar Jarring, Ambas- 
sador E. and P. ; United Kingdom — Harold Wat- 
kinson, M.P., Minister of Transport and Civil 
Aviation. 



OPENING STATEMENT OF ACTING SECRETARY 
DILLON, JUNE 8 

Press release 422 dated June 11 

It is an honor and a pleasure to welcome such 
a distinguislied group of officials representing the 
maritime interests of our friends and allies in 
Western Europe to this meeting in Washington 
to discuss merchant shipping policies. 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



We are looking forward with great interest to 
hearing a fuller explanation of your views. We 
realize that, to date, we have had available for 
study only the summary statements which the 
Ambassador of the Netherlands [J. H. van 
Roijen] has given to us on your behalf. 

These are to be informal talks, as you know, 
and I take this to mean that we all wish to have 
a full and frank exchange of views and informa- 
tion on this subject in order to find out whether 
there are significant areas of agreement, or per- 
haps of disagreement, among us in respect of mar- 
itime policies. 

The 10 nations represented around this table 
control perhaps 70 percent of the world's ship- 
ping. Shipping services provide an important 
source of income to many of our countries and are 
also an important element in our defense plans. It 
goes without saying that we should seek to im- 
prove our understanding of each other's problems 
in this area and to move as far as possible toward 
a closer identity of views. 

The purpose of these talks, we have agreed, will 
be "to explore whether the shipping policies of the 
Western European countries and of the United 
States could be brought into closer harmony with- 
out impairing either the legitimate needs of the 
United States in shipping matters or the common 
economic strength of the West." 

U.S. Views on World Shipping Situation 

It will, I hope, be helpful if I outline briefly 
the view which my Government takes of the pres- 
ent situation in world shipping and the basis of 
our United States shipping policies. 

I shall have something to say, shortly, concern- 
ing the legitimate needs of the United States in 
shipping matters, since this is one of the factors 
governing our discussions. But first there are 
certain observations which I should like to offer 
on behalf of my Government with regard to the 
common economic strength of the West. This is 
a matter of great concern to the United States. 

There is no doubt that there is a severe depres- 
sion in world shipping activity. Clearly this is 
a source of weakness in an otherwise generally 
strong economic situation in Western Europe. Its 
effects are especially notable in those countries 
which are most dependent upon shipping as a 
source of employment and income. 

There are a number of facts, well known to most 



of us, which point up the seriousness of the situsu- 
tion. About 10 percent of the world's tonnage is 
either laid up — some 12 million deadweight tons — • 
or underemployed. Freight rates for tramp ship- 
ping are only about one- fourth of the level in cai-ly 
1957. And the prices for older secondhand ton- 
nage have declined to 20 percent and even 10 per- 
cent of the level of 2 years ago. Even in an 
industry that is well known for its ups and downs, 
this recent experience has been unusual. There 
are of course some favorable factors in the situa- 
tion. Liner services have been less affected than 
the tramp trade. And orders for new building, 
although they have recently declined to some ex- 
tent, have kept world shipbuilding at a high level. 

"What are the causes of this situation? One 
explanation, offered chiefly by the European ship- 
ping industry, is that the growth of flag discrim- 
ination and the existence of what is called unfair 
competition are largely responsible for the diffi- 
culties which face the industry today. Reference 
is made to subsidy policies which are "uneco- 
nomic" and to the use of the so-called flags of 
convenience — the "Panlibhon" flags. It is im- 
plied that the policies followed by governments 
are to blame. This attitude is perhaps under- 
standable. 

But what is not so understandable, at least to 
my Government, is the tendency to single out the 
shipping policies of the United States as some- 
how particidarly responsible for the worldwide 
problems facing the shipping industry today. I 
have to say that, in my view, this seems quit« 
unjustified. It may even be harmful if it leads 
people in the shipping industry to anticipate and 
wait for some change in United States policies in 
the hope that in this way alone their position 
might be materially improved. 

Real Causes of Depression in Shipping Industry 

The real causes of the depressed conditions in 
the shipping industry today have very little to do 
with the shipping policies, strictly speaking, 
which governments have adojated. I might men- 
tion two points: 

Fii-st, we can identify one basic cause of our 
difficulties quite simply : More toimage, and more 
efficient tonnage, has come into existence. The ex- 
tensive shipbuilding programs undertaken during 
the years 1953-56, and even into 1957, have glutted 
the shipping market. The superior efiiciency of 



July 6, J 959 



11 



these new vessels has impaired the competitive 
position of older vessels. The pressure of com- 
petition in the shipping industry, and perhaps 
miscalculation of the trends, might partly ex- 
plain this heavy building activity. Government 
policies encouraging shipbuilding without com- 
pensating elimination of old tonnage and tax pol- 
icies which tend to induce investment in new 
building have undoubtedly contributed but have 
not been the prime determinants. 

We can identify a second cause in the reduced 
availability of cargoes. There has been a decline 
in oceanborne trade or, more specifically, a decline 
in abnormal postwar shipping activities which 
stemmed from needs and conditions which no 
longer exist. I refer to the Korean war. United 
States Government stockpiling programs, heavy 
petroleum and coal shipments prior to and dur- 
ing the Suez crisis, large shipments of metal scrap, 
imusual grain shipments because of short crops 
in Europe, and so forth. 

I do not mean to imply in these remarks that 
government policies which are discriminatory or 
restrictive or protectionist are not important or 
that they do not contribute to the difficulties fac- 
ing our shipping interests. But they should be 
viewed in perspective, and we would be unwise 
to regard them as primary causes of the present 
serious difficulties. It seems to us that the funda- 
mental problem is one of low rates caused by a 
surplus of tonnage relative to cargoes available. 
If you agree with this conclusion, perhaps you 
would also agree that the most useful area for 
action is to find means which might lead to an im- 
provement in the freight market. In the last an- 
alysis we are presumably more concerned to 
increase income from shipping than to seek cor- 
rective actions which would only serve to redis- 
tribute the available traffic. 

U.S. Needs in Shipping Matters 

I have said that I would comment on the legiti- 
mate needs of the United States in shipping 
matters. 

I might begin by saying that the United States 
has a historical background as a maritime coun- 
try, even though it has not always been able to 
maintain a position as a major maritime power. 
Before our Civil War the United States merchant 
marine, then composed largely of wooden sailing 



vessels, was a close second to that of the United 
Kingdom. Because of our vast expansion in the 
West our merchant marine was at low ebb for 
50 years. However, after World War I, largely 
as a result of the shipbuilding program of that 
war, the United States began to work toward a 
suitable measure of maritime strength. As of 
now the ships we build are as good as any in 
the world. Only in quantity are we lacking. 

I doubt if anyone would question the fact that 
a country with a total annual export and import 
commerce by water of approximately 250 million 
tons should have a merchant marine sufficient to 
carry at least a substantial part of that conmicrce. 
Currently, under the American flag, we carry only 
about 15 percent of this total. In our view this 
does not assure an adequate American-flag trans- 
portation capability. The present percentage of 
trade carried in American-flag ships is far re- 
moved from the "substantial portion" which is 
specified in our legislation. 

We also require an adequate merchant marine 
for defense purposes, including not only our share 
of NATO obligations but necessary capabilities 
in case of non-NATO emergencies, such as Koref,. 
For the latter we must have ready for immediate 
use a satisfactory number of vessels in operating 
status. In a NATO emergency the United States 
must also have a shipbuilding potential sufficient 
to allow it to embark upon a large-scale ship- 
building program, as it has had to in both world 
wars. Rapid expansion of shipyards can only be 
accomplished if the yards enjoy a reasonably 
stable employment in peacetime. The support of 
our shipyards in peace is therefore in the overall 
NATO interest. 

Governmental Support Measures 

In view of the very liigh costs of operating 
American-flag vessels, our merchant fleet cannot 
be maintained on a competitive basis without gov- 
ernmental support. We support our shipping 
and, as a collateral, our shipbuilding industries 
in several ways. One is the protection of our 
coastwise trades, a policy dating back to 1817. 
In foreign commerce we follow a direct subsidy 
policy which presently is applied both to the con- 
struction and opei'ation of selected vessels. Our 
direct operating subsidy policy began with legis- 
latioi\ adopted in 18-15, which expired in 1858. 
Subsidy measures were adopted to a limited ex- 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



tent again after tlie Civil War and, later, in the 
Ocean Mail Act of 1891. Later still the Merchant 
Marine Act of 1028 was passed, providing for a 
fixed grant subsidy to offset the higher cost of 
American-flag operation. This in turn was fol- 
lowed by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, which, 
as amended, is still in force. 

In the 1936 act, as you know, both construction 
and operating differential subsidies were author- 
ized. These were intended to do no more than 
place the costs of American shipowners on a parity 
with those of their principal competition. In 
addition, for defense purposes the Defense De- 
partment was empowered to requii-e certain fea- 
tures unnecessary for commercial operation and 
representing in many directions a burden to the 
shipowner, for the inclusion of wliich the Gov- 
ernment bore the excess cost. 

The principle of direct subsidy, as I have 
stated, goes back more than one hundred years. 
The requirement that our merchant ships shall be 
suitable for national defense purposes has been 
enunciated in all of our major shipping legis- 
lation since 1916. I cite a little of the historical 
background because there seems to be a tendency 
to believe that these are recent developments and 
therefore in some way responsible for the reces- 
sion that presently afflicts worldwide shipping. 

In addition to operating subsidies, which are 
restricted to specific liners on approved routes, 
and to construction subsidies the United States 
employs a form of support which we have de- 
scribed as cargo preference. In this connection I 
would like to make a number of basic points. As 
you know, we follow a policy of reserving at 
least 50 percent of certain cargoes to American- 
flag ships, but this applies only to governmentally 
generated shipments. We consider that the 
United States Government is acting as trustee for 
the people and has a proprietary interest in such 
transactions. 

Cargo preference as we define it, therefore, 
differs widely from flag discrimination in the ac- 
cepted sense of the term, which we believe prop- 
erly refers to government measures to control the 
routing of normal commercial cargoes in which 
that government has no proprietary interest. Our 
cargo-preference statutes, then, apply to a very 
limited and clearly defined class of cargoes which 
would, in fact, be nonexistent if they had not 
been generated by our Government under specific 



programs authorized by statute. Even with re- 
spect to these cargoes, which account for less than 
6 percent of our total trade, we do not require 
that they be carried entirely in American-flag 
ships but leave a substantial share open to for- 
eign flags. 

It has been charged that flag discrimination as 
practiced abroad is being justified by reference to 
tlie cargo-preference laws of the United States. 
Of course we cannot prevent such statements be- 
ing made, although we take the occasion at every 
opportunity to point out that the cases are not 
parallel. Moreover, I think it safe to say that, in 
the unlikely event that the United States swept 
its cargo- preference legislation off the books, it 
would not alter the practices of other govern- 
ments one iota. 

I should like to add a final word on the matter 
of cargo preference. As you know, the recipient 
of our assistance is often a government or a gov- 
ernment entity, and where this is the case, were 
it not for our cargo-preference legislation, it 
could decide to route these cargoes 100 percent by 
vessels of its own or other foreign flags. In fact, 
this is what actually happened 25 yeare ago and 
led the Legislature of the United States to adopt 
a resolution expressing the sense of Congi"ess that 
100 percent of such cargoes should move on Amer- 
ican-flag vessels if available. I believe that, if 
the United States did not have cargo-preference 
legislation today, we would find that very little of 
these aid cargoes would move on our own vessels. 

Flags of Convenience 

I shall turn now to the subject of the use of 
the so-called flags of convenience, which we pre- 
fer to identify as the "Panlibhon" flags. 

Our Government, our shipping industry, and 
our maritime unions are all in agreement that 
if it were practicable we would prefer to have a 
much larger merchant marine operating under 
the United States flag. We recognize, however, 
that for many years this has not been practicable 
from a competitive viewpoint owing to the lower 
costs of operation possible under foreign flags. 
Until such time as American-owned ships, now 
sailing under foreign flags, might be operated 
competitively under the American flag, we see no 
alternative but to continue on the present course. 

I think it is well recognized, although it may 
not have been sufficiently emphasized, that a very 



Jo/y 6, 1959 



13 



large part of the tonnage owned and conti'olled 
by American citizens under Panamanian and Li- 
berian flags, and under other foreign flags as well, 
is engaged in the bulk transportation of petroleum 
and iron ore, raw materials which are vital to our 
economy. During and after World War II there 
was a tremendous increase in use of imported 
petroleum products in the United States. Even 
earlier, the major steel companies in the United 
States had begun to search energetically for new 
foreign sources of iron ore. These major indus- 
tries, depending on foreign sources for such a 
large part of their raw material, had to be sure 
of reliable overseas transportation arrangements. 
They expended large amounts of United States 
capital and accomplished the objective by de- 
veloping the present bulk carrier fleet, American 
owned and controlled, largely under the flags of 
Liberia and Panama. 

From the viewpoint particularly of our mari- 
time unions and of our shipowners operating 
under the American flag, it is a matter of real 
concern that the share of our total foreign trade 
carried by slups under our own flag has declined 
in recent years. The proportion fell from over 26 
percent in 1954 to less than 18 percent in 1957 
(and below 15 percent in 1958), while the share 
carried on ships under Panamanian and Liberian 
flags rose from less than one-fourth to over one- 
third. During that period, incidentally, the 
share carried by vessels under European flags has 
remained steady, at close to 40 percent. 

The fact that "Panlibhon" ships which are 
carrying American exports and imports are bene- 
ficially owned and controlled by United States 
citizens is of gi-eat importance from the stand- 
point of our mobilization requirements. It is 
also advantageous that large amounts of Ameri- 
can capital have been put to work to produce 
modern, efficient ships mider many foreign flags, 
including European flags, to the benefit of our 
mutual defense position. 

So far as wage levels aie concerned, the United 
States believes that practically all ships owned 
by American citizens under flags of convenience 
meet the standards generally accepted by the tra- 
ditional maritime countries in Europe. Indeed, 
wages and working conditions and safety stand- 
ards are often superior. We do not condone sub- 
standard wages and working conditions any- 



where. Much criticism we have heard seems ill 
informed, and we would like to see the true facts 
broadcast. 

So far as taxes are concerned, it is of course 
untrue that American owners of ships under for- 
eign flags are "tax free." Even in the case of 
Panama and Liberia, which do not tax income de- 
rived from shipping under their flags, the Ameri- 
can owners of such ships are taxed when their 
earnings are repatriated to the United States. 
This deferral of taxation for our shipowners op- 
erating abroad gives them only the same tax bene- 
fits as the United States allows to any other type 
of foreign investment. The tax treatment is ac- 
tually more liberal than that accorded to nonsub- 
sidized shipping under the American flag. How- 
ever, it is consistent with a long-established 
principle under our tax system not to tax income 
derived from foreign sources by foreign corpora- 
tions. It is also consistent with our general 
policy of encouraging foreign investment. No 
change in this basic principle is being contem- 
plated. 

It is clear that any non-American shipowner 
who might be able to avoid his own national tax- 
ation through the use of flags of convenience is 
taking advantage of a "tax haven" situation 
which is available to many other types of business. 
To the extent that there is actual tax avoidance 
through tlie use of tax havens, it seems to me that 
this is, first and foremost, a problem for the tax 
authorities in the particular country whose taxes 
are being avoided. This is obviously a complex 
problem with ramifications far beyond the ship- 
ping field. 

As a practical matter, if differences in national 
tax policies cause difficulties for shipowners, it 
would appear that the solution, at least in the 
short run, may have to be found bj' the individual 
country which considers that its own shipowners 
are operating at a competitive disadvantage. 

My final thought on this subject is that, until 
such time as it may prove feasible for these Amer- 
ican shipowners to operate competitively under 
the United States flag, my Government retains its 
interest in the continued operation of ships under 
foreign flags, including the "Panlibhon" regis- 
tries. From our viewpoint there are important 
and valid defense requirements which support 
this position. And there are also good reasons, 



14 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



in our view, wliy it would be unjustified to under- 
take a concerted campaign, as lias sometimes been 
suggested, against these flags. Our representa- 
tives here are ready to discuss these and other 
aspects of the subject, and indeed we welcome 
this opportunity to do so. 

I have outlined to you the basic reasons for 
my Government's shipping policy. At subsequent 
sessions the various aspects of this policy will be 
dealt with in greater detail. I am confident that 
this frank interchange will lead to a better under- 
standing of our mutual problems. 

So far as common policies are concerned, in 
the maritime field as elsewhere, we are most 
pleased to hear your views and to give them most 
careful consideration. We look forward to ob- 
taining a better understanding of your thinking 
in this important area. We are confident that 
such exchanges of views as we will have are most 
useful in strengthening our alliance. I should 
add, however, that we must also bear in mind the 
interests and aspirations of other countries not 
represented here. 

In closing I wish to reiterate that the basic 
world shipping problem seems to lie in the exist- 
ence of excess tonnage in the form of old and in- 
efficient shipping, unable to compete with newer 
and more economic vessels and constituting a con- 
tinual threat to any rise in freight rates. This 
seems to be primarily a problem to which the 
slupping industry must address itself, although 
we do not rule out the possibility that some initi- 
ative by governments might also be helpful. 



AGREED STATEMENT, JUNE 8 

The Department of State 7-eleased on June 8 
{press release JfiS) a statement agreed upon at 
the conference which dealt with the opening 
etatement of Acting Secretary Dillon and con- 
cluded with the following paragraphs: 

The European representatives did not comment in de- 
tail at this stage on Mr. Dillon's statement. 

They made it clear that they had asked for these talks 
not because of the current shipping depression but be- 
cause of the long-term effects of the policies under dis- 
cussion. They drew attention to the important part 
played in their economies by shipping and to its im- 
portance in connection with the development of inter- 
national trade, and explained how the practices of flag 
discrimination and the granting of any subsidies which 



were excessive interfered, in their view, with the normal 
pattern of commercial trading and increased the cost of 
shipping .services throughout the world. They also re- 
ferred to the difliculties arising from the growth of ton- 
nage registered under flags of countries which they con- 
sidered were not in a ixjsitiou to e.xeroise effective 
jurisdiction and control. 

Since the last war one of the prime objects of the 
O.E.E.C., of which they all were members, had been to 
liberalise so far as possible international trade, and they 
had themselves applied the principle of liberalisation to 
international shipping. They drew attention to the fact 
that at the same time there was an increasing tendency 
on the part of many countries to adopt policies which 
had precisely the opposite effect in the field of shipping. 

The European countries also drew attention to the pro- 
found effect which, in their view, U.S. shipping policies 
in these respects inevitably had on the shipping policies 
of other governments throughout the world. 

The European countries considered that their objectives 
and those of the United States in the.se matters were 
fundamentally the same. In particular, it was a common 
objective of the United States and the other countries 
represented at the conference to maintain and increase 
the economic strength of the free world, which the Euro- 
pean countries believed was being steadily undermined by 
the spread of discriminatory practices and other govern- 
mental policies affecting shipping which distort the nor- 
mal pattern of commercial trade. This objective could 
not be achieved unless satisfactory solutions could be 
found to the three main shipping problems at present 
under discussion. 

In this connection the representatives of the European 
NATO countries referred to the growth of Soviet bloc 
merchant fleets and pointed out that there was increasing 
evidence that the Soviet Bloc are seeking to undermine 
the commercial system built up by the maritime nations 
of the free world by the application and encouragement 
of discriminatory shipping practices. 

The European countries were hoping, in common with 
the United States, to find satisfactory solutions to the 
present difiicult problems, and they hoped it would be pos- 
sible for the United States and themselves to give prac- 
tical effect to the important concept of interdependence 
in the field of shipping as in other fields. 

The remaining days of the Conference wUl be devoted 
to more detailed discussion of the various problems that 
were outlined in the opening statements. 

The Conference was addressed by : 

Mr. Dillon; 

Dr. Kjeld Philip, Minister of Commerce, Denmark ; 

Claude Label, Minister Counselor, France; 

Dr. Karl Schubert, Ministerialdirektor, Ministry of Trans- 
port, Federal Republic of Germany ; 

His Excellency Manlio Brosio, Ambassador E. and P., 
Italy ; 

His Excellency Dr. J. H. van Roijen, Ambassador E. and 
P., The Netherlands ; 

Arne Skaug, Minister of Commerce and Shipping, Nor- 
way; 



Jo/y 6, 1959 



15 



Bengt Odlmer, Commercial Counselor, Royal Swedish 

Embassy, Sweden ; 
The Right Honorable Harold Watkinson, M. P., Minister 

of Transport and Civil Aviation, United Kingdom. 



TEXT OF COMMUNIQUE, JUNE 11 

Representatives of Belgiimi, Denmark, Prance, the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Nor- 
way, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States 
concluded today the informal intergovernmental talks on 
shipping policy which began Monday. The delegates 
agreed that their full and frank exchange of views had 
been helpful as a step toward establishing a closer har- 
mony between their shipping policies. 

The delegations recognized that the policies adopted by 
governments throughout the world on the problems under 
discussion were of great Importance, not only for those 
countries which provide international shipping services 
but also in the seneral interest of fostering and develop- 
ing international trade and of promoting world peace 
and prosperity. 

Discussion centered on the long-range effects of Govern- 
ment policies which direct cargoes to national-flag ships 
and provide subsidies for ship construction and opera- 
tion, as well as the situation resulting from the opera- 
tion of ships under the flags of countries such as Panama, 
Liberia, and Honduras. 

The representatives reafl5rmed that the general objec- 
tive of their governments is to promote so far as is prac- 
ticable freedom of opportunity for ships of all nations to 
compete in world trade and thus provide the most efficient 
service in the interest of the general economy of the free 
world. 

There was a full examination of the different points of 
view concerning the United States measures designed to 
assure that a portion of cargoes originating in defense 
programs and economic assistance is carried in national- 
flag ships. The representatives recognized that these spe- 
cial measures concern only a very small proportion of the 
cargoes moving in American trade and that the consider- 
ations giving rise to them are not applicable to the great 
bulk of cargoes carried in international trade. 

The European representatives welcomed the assurances 
given by the United States that its shipping sub.sidies 
are administered in such a manner as not to give sub- 
sidized operators an advantage over their foreign 
competitors. 

The complex problems arising from the rapid growth 
of tonnage registered under .so-called flags of convenience 
were considered, and it was recognized that there was 
a need for further study and discussion. 

The United States representative noted that a study of 
United States transportation policy is being made at 
the direction of the President of the United States. He 
said that the views on United States shipping policy ex- 
pressed by the European governments would be con- 
sidered in connection with that study, together with 



16 



such additional material as may be presented by these 
and other governments. 

The representatives found that in the limited time 
available it was not possible to examine fully all aspects 
of the complex problems under discussion. They agreed 
that there was a need for further exploration of some 
aspects of these problems, and of new problems which 
might develop in the field of shipping. They therefore 
agreed to recommend to their governments that favor- 
able consideration be given to informal arrangements 
which would facilitate discussion and consideration of 
these problems. 



Panel on Seismic Improvement Reports 
Findings on Underground Explosions 

Following is a summ^ary of the canclusioTis re- 
ported on March 16 l>y the Panel on Seismic Im- 
provement appointed on December 28, 1958, hy 
the Special Assistant to the President for Science 
and Technology to review the feasibility of im- 
proving the system of detecting and identifying 
underground explosions. 

On June 12, with the concurrence of the Depart- 
ment of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, 
and the Special Assistant to the President for 
Science and Technology, the Department of State 
released this doc^iment, together vnth the sum- 
mary section of a report made by the panel on 
March 31 on the need for fundamental research in 
seismology.^ Both documents v)ere submitted on 
June 12 to the Conference on Discontinuan-ce of 
Nuclear Weapons Tests at Geneva for study by 
the other delegations. 

1. The Panel on Seismic Improvement, a group 
of distinguished American scientists under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Lloyd Berkner, President of 
Associated Universities, has recently completed a 
series of studies on the feasibility of improving 
the capability of the system recommended by the 
Geneva Conference of Experts last summer to de- 
tect and identify underground events.- The Panel 
was appointed by the Special Assistant to the 
President for Science and Tex^linology at the re- 
quest of the State Department when it became 



' Not printed here. 

' For text of the experts' report, see Buixetin of Sept 



22, 1958, p. 453. 



Department of State Bvlletin 



apparent from the analysis of new data obtained 
from the underground tests in Hardtack II hast 
fall that the capability of the Geneva System 
against underground tests was considerably less 
than had been originally estimated by the Geneva 
Conference of Experts. The studies undertaken 
by the Panel were directed at three basic problem 
areas: (1) the possibility of improving the Ge- 
neva System within existing technology; (2) the 
possibility of further improving the Geneva Sys- 
tem through a program of research in seismology; 
and (3) the possibility that the capability of the 
Geneva System miglit be reduced by the conceal- 
ment of underground tests. The following anal- 
ysis, prepared in consultation with the chairman 
of the Panel, summarizes all of the conclusions 
contained in the studies by the Panel on Seismic 
Improvement. 

2. In order to interpret the conclusions of the 
Panel on Seismic Improvement, it should be re- 
called that the Geneva Conference of Experts last 
summer concluded that, althougli it was not pos- 
sible to identify an underground explosion by 
seismic means alone, it would be possible to iden- 
tify a large fraction of seismic events as natural 
earthquakes when the direction of first motion of 
the seismic signal was observed at several, appro- 
priately located stations. This procedure reduces 
the number of seismic events which would be un- 
identified and, therefore, could be suspected of 
being underground tests. As was reported in the 
statement of the President's Science Advisory 
Committee on January 5, 1959,^ the analysis of 
later data from the underground tests at Hard- 
tack last fall indicated that this method of dis- 
tinguishing earthquakes from explosions was less 
effective than had been estimated. In addition, it 
developed that there were about twice as many 
natural earthquakes equivalent to an underground 
explosion of a given yield as had been earlier esti- 
mated. These two factors meant that there would 
be a substantial increase in the number of earth- 
quakes that could not be distinguished fi-om un- 
derground nuclear explosions by seismic means 
alone. For example, the Geneva net of 180 sta- 
tions without modification would have about the 
same capability ( in terms of numbers of unidenti- 
fied events) for seismic events above 20 kilotons 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 26, 1959, p. 118. 
July 6, 1959 



equivalent as was originally estimated by the Ge- 
neva Conference of Experts for seismic events 
above 5 kilotons. 

3. In considering the existing state of tech- 
nology, the Panel on Seismic Improvement con- 
cluded that with improved equipment and tech- 
niques that can be specified today the Geneva net 
of 180 stations would acquire the same capability 
(in terms of numbers of unidentified events) for 
seismic events above 10 kilotons equivalent as was 
oi'iginally estimated by tlie Geneva Conference of 
Experts for seismic events above 5 kilotons equiv- 
alent. This partial recovery of the originally 
estimated capabilities of the Geneva System de- 
pends upon the incorporation of two improve- 
ments into the system. The first improvement 
would increase the number of seismometers in the 
arrays at each station from 10 to 100 which would 
increase the ability of the system to distinguish 
first motion by reducing background "noise". On 
the basis of recent experiments, this improvement 
will increase the ability of the array to distinguish 
"fii-st motion" by a factor of 2.5 over background 
noise. The second improvement adds a new cri- 
terion for identifying natural earthquakes by 
means of the analysis of long period surface 
waves. An analysis of the Love waves (hori- 
zontally polarized surface waves) from five 
earthquakes similar in magnitude, direction, and 
distance to the Logan and Blanca nuclear shots 
indicated that the peak frequency in the explo- 
sions was twice that for earthquakes. Another 
study of experimental data on the ratio of Love 
waves to Kayleigh waves (vertically polarized sur- 
face waves) and on the relative amplitude of sur- 
face waves and the P waves (used to determine first 
motion) also showed diagnostic possibilities to dis- 
tinguish earthquakes from explosions. This 
experimental evidence led the Panel to conclude 
that the analysis of long period surface waves can 
probably identify about 50 percent of earthquakes 
equivalent to five kilotons or more. 

4. The following table compares the capabilities 
of the Geneva System, as initially estimated at 
Geneva last summer, with the estimates of the 
degradation of the system made in the light of 
data from the Hardtack tests and with the new 
estimates by the Panel on Seismic Improvement 
in the light of improvements that are now tech- 
nically feasible. 



17 



Estimated Annual Number of Unidentified Worldwide 
Continental Earthquakes 

5 KT 10 KT 20 KT 

and and and 

greater greater greater 

Estimate — Geneva Confer- 
ence of Experts, August 
1958 20 100 -- 

Estimate — Geneva Network 
and Equipment on basis of 
Hardtack data, January 
1959 1500 400 60 

Estimate — Geneva Network 
with improvements within 
the present state of tech- 
nology on basis of Hardtack 
data, April 1959 300 40 15 

In presenting these estimates together with its other 
conclusions, the Panel emphasized the limited nature of 
the data on which all estimates of seismic detection 
capahilities depend. There have been only a few under- 
ground nuclear shots ; and all of these have been in the 
same type of rock, and in a single geographical location. 
The type of rock, location, and shot chamber design can 
all have major effects on the strength of the seismic 
waves produced by a test of a given yield. The degree 
of coupling to the seismic waves achieved in the Rainier 
shot is the standard to which all estimates are adjusted. 

5. The Panel concluded that a vigorous re- 
search program in seismology would result in im- 
portant improvements in the ability to detect 
and identify earthquakes of small magnitude. 
Specifically, the Panel believed that the program 
of research it recommended would in three years 
probably result in further improvements which 
could achieve tlie same capability in the Geneva 
net of 180 stations as was originally estimated by 
the Geneva Conference of Experts. The Panel 
submitted a very detailed technical report on the 
requirements for such a research program wliich 
will be published in the near future by the Depart- 
ment of State. Of the many ideas advanced by 
the Panel, one of particular promise is the so- 
called deep-hole technique. There is evidence 
that the "background noise" which interferes with 
the detection of "first motion" is for the most part 
transmitted along the eartli's surface. Therefore, 
seismomctei-s located in lioles thousands of feet 
below the earth's surface may be able to detect 
"first motion" with much greater sensitivity than 
instruments on the surface. Another method of 
particular interest exists in the possibility of de- 
veloping techniques to reconstruct tlie initial 
shock motion of an event from the seriously dis- 

18 



torted and complex seismic waves observed at a 
distance. It may be possible to achieve this 
through the use of coniputor techniques wliich 
compensate for the passage of the seismic wave 
through the earth in such a way as to remove the 
distortions introduced. The Panel noted more 
generally that experience in analogous scientific 
fields suggests that vigorous research in the com- 
paratively neglected field of seismology is likely 
to produce new ideas or approaches which will 
make additional large improvements possible. 

6. The Panel concluded that, in addition to the 
improvements discussed above, the augmentation 
of the Geneva net with an auxiliary network of 
unmanned seismic stations offei"S tlie possibility 
of major improvement in the capability to dis- 
criminate between earthquakes and explosions. 
For example, if such unmanned stations were 
spaced at 170 kilometer intervals in and adjacent 
to the seismic areas of the world, about 98 percent 
of the events as small as one kiloton equivalent, 
located within the network, would be identified by 
this system. This capability would be reduced to 
about 75 percent for events located at the periph- 
eries of continents. The capability of such a 
net would depend primarily upon the degree of 
reliability of equipment that could be achieved. 

7. All of the above estimates by the Panel refer 
to nuclear explosions conducted under conditions 
similar to those of Rainier, Logan, and Blanca in 
the Nevada Test Sites. The Panel concluded that, 
although the differences in seismic signals from 
shots conducted in different geological environ- 
ments cannot be predicted with any certainty, it 
is entirely possible that some natural conditions 
will yield seismic signals much smaller for a given 
size shot than those from shots in the volcanic 
rock at the Nevada Test Site. The Panel recom- 
mended that, in order to resolve the uncertainty on 
this question, an experimental test program in- 
volving many high explosive and some nuclear 
shots should be undertaken as soon as feasible. 

8. In considering the possibility that the capa- 
bilities, now or in the future, of the Geneva Sys- 
tem might be reduced by the intentional conceal- 
ment of underground tests, the Panel concluded 
tliat decoupling techniques existed which could 
reduce the seismic signal b}- a factor of ten or 
more. Moreover, preliminary theoretical studies 
have shown that it is possible in principle to re- 
duce the seismic signal from an explosion by a 

Deparfmenf of Stale Bullelin 



much greater factor tlian this. Nevertheless, in 
view of the many complexities involved, it is nec- 
essary that these ideas be tested with appropri- 
ately designed experiments to detennine how large 
a decoupling factor can actually be realized in 
practice. While many of these tests can be car- 
ried out with high explosives, complete evaluation 
of the theory probably cannot be made without 
nuclear explosions. Such tests may also disclose 
some characteristics which might allow long-range 
detection of such decoupled underground tests. 

9. The Panel emphasized the need to construct 
a complete prototype experimental station in- 
corporating all features of the seismic stations 
recommended by the Geneva Conference of Ex- 
perts. Operating this station for a period of time 
would serve the two immediate objectives of pro- 
viding experimental evidence on the capability of 
such stations to detect and identify earthquakes, 
and of assisting in working out installation and 
operational problems which would be encountered 
in establishing a control network. Subsequently, 
tlie station should be expanded to include facili- 
ties for testing other detection methods proposed 
by the Panel or methods \\luch may be developed 
through future research progi-ams. 

10. The following scientists, representing the 
fields of seismology, geophysics, electronics, 
physics, and matliematics, were members of the 
Panel : 

Dr. Lloyd Berkner, Associated Universities, Inc., Chair- 
man 

Prof. Hugo Benioff, California Institute of Teclinology 

Prof. Hans A. Betbe, Cornell University 

Prof. W. Maurice Ewing, Columbia University 

Dr. John Gerrard, Texas Instruments, Inc. 

Prof. David T. Griggs, University of California at Los 
Angeles 

Mr. Jack H. Hamilton, The Geoteehnical Corporation 

Dr. .Julius P. Jlolnar, Sandia CorjJoration 

Dr. Walter H. Hunk, Seripps Institute of Oceanography 

Dr. Jack E. Oliver, Columbia University 

Prof. Frank Piess, California Institute of Technology 

Dr. Carl F. Romney, Department of Defense 

Dr. Kenneth Street. Jr., Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, 
University of California 

Prof. John W. Tukey, Princeton University 

In addition. Dr. "Warren Heckrotte, Lawrence 
Kadiation Laboratory; Dr. Montgomery Johnson, 
Aeroneutronic Systems, Inc. ; and Dr. Albert Lat- 
ter, Rand Corporation, participated as special 
consultants to the Panel. 



Determination of Quotas Under 
Immigration and Nationality Act 

White House press release dated June 3 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

The President has signed a proclamation e.stab- 
lishing a quota of 100 for the Republic of Guinea, 
which was recognized by the United States on 
November 1, 1958.^ 

The proclamation also abolislies the quota for 
the Free Territory of Trieste, which has ceased 
to constitute a separate quota area within the 
meaning of section 202 (a) of the Immigration 
and Nationality Act. The quota for Italy is in- 
creased by 21 numbers and the quota for Yugo- 
slavia by 9 numbers. 

The proclamation publishes a list of immigra- 
tion quotas such as was last published in Proc- 
lamation 2980 of June 30, 1952.^ The new 
publication of tlie quotas reflects a number of 
changes in quota areas which have taken place 
since the general proclamation of 1952. 



PROCLAMATION 3298 ^ 

Immigration Quotas 

Whekeas under the provisions of section 202(a) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act, each independent 
country, .self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and 
territory under the international trusteeship system of 
the United Nations, other than independent countries of 
Xorth, Central, and South America, is entitled to be 
treated as a separate quota area when approved by the 
Secretary of State; and 

Whereas under the provisions of section 201(b) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General, 
jointly, are required to determine the annual quota of any 
quota area established pursuant to the provisions of sec- 
tion 202(a) of the said Act, and to report to the Presi- 
dent the quota of each quota area so determined ; and 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202(e) of the 
said Act, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General, jointly, are required to 
revise the quotas, whenever necessary, to provide for any 



' For an exchange of correspondence between President 
Eisenhower and Prime Minister Sekou Tour6 of Guinea, 
see Bulletin of Dec. 15, 1958, p. 966. 

= For text, see md., July 14, 1952, p. 83. 

'24 Fed. Reg. 4679. 



July 6, 1959 



19 



political changes requiring a change in the list of quota 
areas ; and 

Whereas the State of Guinea was on November 1, 1958, 
recognized de jure by the United States as an independent 
country ; and 

Whereas it has been determined that the existing im- 
migration quotas for Italy and Yugoslavia should be re- 
vised upward by reason of the aI)olishment of the quota 
established for the Free Territory of Trieste, such terri- 
tory having ceased to constitute a quota area within the 
meaning of section 202(a) of the Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act ; and 

Whereas several changes have occurred in quota areas 
since the issuance of Proclamation No. 2980 of June 30, 
1952, warranting a republication of all established quotas 
and quota areas : 

Now, THEREFORE, I, DwiGHT D. EISENHOWER, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the aforesaid Act 
of Congress, do hereby proclaim and make known that 
the annual quota of each quota area hereinafter desig- 
nated has been determined in accordance with the law 
to be, and shall be, as follows : 

Quota Area 

Afghanistan 100 

Albania 100 

Andorra 100 

Arabian Peninsula 100 

Asia-Pacific 100 

Australia 100 

Austria 1,405 

Belgium 1,^97 

Bhutan 100 

Bulgaria 100 

Burma 100 

Cambodia 100 

Cameroons (trust territory. United Kingdom) . , 100 

Cameroun (trust territory, France) 100 

Ceylon 100 

China 100 

Chinese Persons 105 

Czechoslovakia 2, 859 

Danzig, Free City of 100 

Denmark 1, 175 

Estonia 115 

Ethiopia 100 

Finland 5R6 

France 3, 0G9 

Germany 25, 814 

Ghana 100 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 65, 3G1 

Greece 308 

Guinea 100 

Hungary 865 

Iceland 100 

India 100 

Indonesia 100 

Iran (Persia) 100 

Iraq 100 

Ireland (Eire) 17,756 

Israel 100 

Italy 5,606 

Japan 185 

Jordan 100 

Korea 100 

Laos 100 

Latvia 235 

Lebanon 100 

Liberia 100 

Libya 100 

20 



Liechtenstein 100 

Lithuania 384 

Luxemburg 100 

Malaya (Federation of) 100 

Monaco 100 

Morocco 100 

Muscat (Oman) 100 

Nauru (trust territory, Australia) 100 

Nepal 100 

Netherlands .■{,136 

New Guinea (trust territory, Australia) 100 

New Zealand 100 

Norway 2, 364 

Pacific Islands (trust territory, United States ad- 
ministered) 100 

Pakistan 100 

Palestine (Arab Palestine) 100 

Philippines 100 

Poland 6,488 

Portugal 438 

Ruanda-Urundi (trust territory, Belgium) .... 100 

Rumania 289 

Samoa, Western (trust territory, New Zealand) . 100 

San Marino 100 

Saudi Arabia 100 

Somaliland (trust territory, Italy) 100 

South-West Africa (mandate) 100 

Spain 2.J0 

Sudan 100 

Sweden 3,295 

Switzerland 1,698 

Tanganyika (trust territory, United Kingdom) . . 100 

Thailand (Siam) 100 

Togo (trust territory, France) 100 

Tunisia 100 

Turkey 225 

Union of South Africa 100 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 2, 697 

United Arab Republic 100 

Vietnam 100 

Yemen 100 

Yugoslavia 942 

The establishment of an immigration quota for any 
quota area is solely for the pun^se of compliance with 
the pertinent provisions of the Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act and is not to be considered as having any sig- 
nificance extraneous to such purpose. 

The following proclamations regarding immigration 
quotas are hereby revoked : Proclamation No. 2980 of 
June 30, 1952; Proclamation No. 3147 of July 9, 1956: 
Proclamation No. 3158 of September 20, 1956 ; Proclama- 
tion No. 318SA of June 26, 1957 ; Proclamation No. 3206 
of October 10, 1957 ; and Proclamation No. 3248 of Jime 
20, 1958. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this third day of June 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and 
[seal] fifty-nine, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and eighty- 
third. 

By the President : 
Douglas Dillon, 
Acting Secretary of State. 



Departmenf of Slate Bulletin 



Board of Foreign Scholarships 
Reports to President 

The Department of State announced on June 15 
(press release 428) that the Board of Foreign 
Scholarships had on that date presented to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower a special report urging the U.S. 
Government to strengthen and expand its educa- 
tional exchange program as a long-range force for 
peace. The Board, a 10-member public body of 
educators and representatives of cultural, student, 
and veterans' groups appointed by the President, 
is responsible for the supervision of the educa- 
tional exchange program under the Fulbright Act 
(Public Law 584, 79th Congress) . 

The program under the Fulbright Act is fi- 
nanced through the use of U.S. Government- 
owned foreign currencies acquired tlirough the 
sale abroad of surplus properties or surplus agri- 
cultural commodities. In its report the Board 
warned that the program faces an uncertain fu- 
ture unless early measures are taken to overcome 
financial difficulties and stated that reliance upon 
foreign-currency fuiancing is preventing the ex- 
pansion of the program to a point where it would 
be commensurate with this country's worldwide 
responsibilities. The Board pointed out that, al- 
though the United States has cultural relations 
with more than 80 countries, the educational ex- 
change program under the Fulbright Act will be 
operating in only 32 countries next year, 12 of 
which are in Western Europe. Stressing the im- 
portance of education in the less developed coun- 
tries of the world, the Board expressed concern at 
the fact that only 19 programs are being conducted 
with the nations of Africa (1), the Middle East 
(6), Asia (5), and Latin America (7). 

According to the Board this situation is due both 
to the absence of American-o-mied foreign cur- 
rencies in many countries and to the fact that, 
when foreign currencies are available, educational 
exchange is often subordinated to the require- 
ments of the agencies that have other overseas 
missions to perform. 

To overcome the deficiency the Board recom- 
mended that the program be given adequate dollar 
support through congressional appropriations 
under the provisions of Public Law 402, 80th 
Congress, the Smith-Mundt Act. The Board also 
recommended that, where foreign currencies are 
available for Government use, the allocations to 



educational exchange be high enough to meet the 
Nation's needs as defined by the Secretary of 
State. 

Stating its belief that the development of mu- 
tual understanding is, in the long riui, the basic 
remedy for the political stalemate that confronts 
the world today, the Board recommended that the 
program of cultural exchange bo expanded 
through small annual increases in the program's 
appropriation and that the program be placed on 
a 5- to 10-year footing to allow for suitable plan- 
ning and flexibility. 

The Board also stated that the educational ex- 
change program is a perfect example of the fine 
results that can be obtained through the coopera- 
tion of public agencies and private enterprise. 
"Each year," the Board said in its report, "private 
foundations, service clubs, luiiversities and col- 
leges, religious organizations, professional groups, 
and individual American citizens spend many 
millions of dollai-s to finance exchange programs 
of their own or to support the Government's pro- 
gram in a variety of ways." 



U.S. Embassy Official To Attend 
Film Festival at IVloscow 

Press release 441 dated June 19 

The United States on June 19 rej^Iied to a note ' 
from the Soviet Union annoimcing an interna- 
tional film festival to take place at Moscow from 
August 3 to August 17, 1959. The Department of 
State will designate an official from the American 
Embassy at Moscow to attend but will not accredit 
a delegation. 

The U.S. Information Agency will make avail- 
able to American motion-picture producing and 
distributing organizations copies of the regula- 
tions governing the event, but the Department of 
State has informed the Soviet Union that Amer- 
ican films shown at the event will be presented 
out of competition. 

Meanwhile the Department has asked an inter- 
departmental committee chaired by USIA to co- 
ordinate communications between American pro- 
duction and distribution organizations and the 
Soviet Union. The Department expressed inter- 
est in the event as an opportunity to show repre- 
sentative examples of American film production 



' Not printed. 



July 6, 7959 



21 



before people in tlie Soviet Union. The festival 
calls for one feature film and two documentaries 
from each country. 



Indiana University To Assist 
Indonesia in Management Program 

Press release 432 dated June 16 

The International Cooperation Administration 
has signed a contract with Indiana University to 
aid the Government of Indonesia in its general 
program of management improvement, the De- 
partment of State announced on June 16. The 
contract will run to September 30, 1961, and in- 
volves an initial commitment by the United States 
of $586,900. 

Indiana University, by providing advisory serv- 
ices and training resourceis, will aid in the devel- 
opment of the National Institute of Administra- 
tion, the agency of the Indonesian Government 
primarily concerned with inservice training for 
improvement of management within government. 
One major activity will be that of providing tech- 
nical assistance to inservice training for govern- 
ment personnel at all levels, including the execu- 
tive level. Indiana University will send 6 public 
administration specialists to Indonesia and will 
train up to 10 Indonesian staff membei'S of the Na- 
tional Institute a year at the University at Bloom- 
ington. In addition Indiana University will assist 
generally with development of public administra- 
tion training among Indonesian national educa- 
tional institutions and will seek to advance man- 
agement as a professional field of activity. 

In recent years many of the newly developing 
nations have asked technical assistance of the 
United States in the fields of public and business 
administration and a number of university con- 
tracts of this nature have been entered into pre- 
viously- The countries include Bolivia, Brazil, 
Iran, Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Thailand, Turkey, 
and Viet-Nam. The U.S. universities holding 
public administration and business administra- 
tion contracts include the University of Cali- 
fornia, Indiana University (which has a previous 
contract for Thammasat University in Thailand) , 
Michigan State University, the University of Min- 
nesota, New York University, the University of 
Pennsylvania, the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia, the University of Tennessee, and Washing- 
ton University at St. Louis. 



U.S. Surplus Rice and Flour 
Being Shipped to Guinea 

Press release 430 dated June 15 

The U.S. Government is sending 5,000 tons of 
rice and 3,000 tons of wheat flour to the new Afri- 
can Republic of Guinea. The food shipments are 
being made on a gi-ant basis through the facilities 
of the International Cooperation Administration 
and will further demonstrate U.S. friendship for 
Guinea by assisting that country to meet its food 
requirements until the next major harvest in Sep- 
tember. 

The transfer authorization for the rice was 
signed at Conakry, capital of Guinea, June 13, and 
the transfer authorization for the wheat is ex- 
pected to be signed shortly. 

The United States is providing the rice and 
flour under provisions of title II of the Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(Public Law 480), which provides for the distri- 
bution abroad of surplus U.S. agricultural com- 
modities. 

The first shipment of rice is on its way to 
Guinea now and M-ill arrive at Conakry about 
June 16. Arrangements are being made for ship- 
ment of the remainder of the rice and the wheat 
flour to Guinea as soon as possible. The food will 
be distributed free of charge by the Government 
of Guinea. 



Development Loans 

India 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund annoimced 
on June 18 basic approval and commitment of 
funds for a $20 million loan to the Government of 
India to purchase heavy and light structural steel 
and other steel products. Terms and conditions 
of this new loan agreement, which will supplement 
a previous one signed last December for the same 
purpose, are still to be negotiated. For details, 
see Department of State press release 442 dated 
June 18. 

Pahhtan 

Tlie U.S. Development Loan Fund announced 
on June 17 basic approval and commitment of 
funds for a loan of up to $23 million to the West 
Pakistan Water and Power Dovelopniont Author- 



22 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe ^yiW^Wn 



ity to finance foreign-exchange costs of building 
secondary electric power transmission and distri- 
bution facilities in West Pakistan. For details, 
see Department of State press release 439 dated 
June 17. 

Tugosia via 

The United States and Yugoslavia signed an 
agreement at Washington on June 12 whereby the 
U.S. Development Loan Fimd will lend $5 million 
to the Yugoslav Government to help cover the 
foreign-exchange cost of about 20 diesel locomo- 
tives of 2,000 horsepower, and initial spare parts, 
for the Yugoslav Railways. For details, see De- 
partment of State press release 423 dated June 12. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 1st Session 

Missile Development and Space Sciences. Hearings be- 
fore House Science and Astronautics Committee. No. 
11, February 2-Miirch 12, 19r.i). 492 pp. 

Organization and JIanagement of Missile Programs. 
Hearings liefore a subcommittee of the House Govern- 
ment Operations Committee. February 4-Marcli 20, 
1959. 803 pp. 

International Control of Outer Space — No. 7. Hearings 
before the House Committee on Science and Astronau- 
tics. March .5-11, 1959. 108 pp. 

Slutual Security Act of 1959. Hearings before the House 
Foreign Affairs Committee. Part III, April 3-15, 19.59, 
212 pp. ; Part IV, April 16-20, 1959, .317 pp. : Part V, 
April 21-24, 1959, 250 pp. ; Part VI, April 27-28, 1959, 
271 pp.; Part VII, April-May 12, 1959, 191 pp.; Part 
VIII, including appendix and index. May 14—21, 1959, 
148 pp. 

Over.seas Dependents Schools. Hearing before the House 
Subcommittee on Civil Service on H.R. 1871 and re- 
lated bills to govern the salaries and personnel prac- 
tices applicable to teachers, certain school officers, and 
other employees of the dependents schools of the De- 
partment of Defense in overseas areas, and for other 
purposes. April 2.3, 1959. 42 pp. 

Observations on the United Nations. Report of Senators 
Bourke B. Hickenlooper and Mike Mansfield, members 
of the U.S. delegation to the 13th General Assembly 
of the United Nations. S. Doc. 26. April 30, 1959. 
58 pp. 

Convention With Cuba for the Conservation of Shrimp. 
Report to accompany Ex. B. 86th Cong., 1st sess. S. Ex. 
Rept. 3. May 5, 1959. 3 pp. 

Free Importation of Certain Chapel Bells. Report to ac- 
company H.R. 3681. S. Rept. 242. May 7, 1959. 2 pp. 

Satellites for World Communication. Report of the 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics. H. 
Rept. 343. May 7, 1959. 9 pp. 

U.S. Policy on the Control and Use of Outer Space. Re- 
port of the House Committee on Science and Astro- 
nautics. H. Rept. 353. May 11, 19.59. 11 pp. 

The International Health and Medical Research Act of 



19.59. Report to accompany S..T. Res. 41. S. Rept. 243. 
May 11, 19.59. 22 pp. 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Has Sus- 
pended Deportation Pursuant to Section 244(a) (5) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act. Report to ac- 
company S. Con. Res. 33. S. Rept. 273. May 11, 1959. 
3 pp. 

Providing Certain Administrative Authorities for the Na- 
tional Security Agency, and for Other Purposes. Re- 
port to accompany H.R. 4599. S. Rept. 284. May 12, 
1959. 6 pp. 

Report on United States Relations With Latin America. 
Report of the Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs 
of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. May 12, 
1959. 10 pp. 

Handbook of Arms Control and Related Problems in 
Europe. Excerpts and summaries of official and un- 
official proposals prepared by the Senate Subcommittee 
on Disarmament. May 1959. 56 pp. 

Documents on Germany, 1944-1950. Background docu- 
ments on Germany and a chronology of political de- 
velopments affecting Berlin from 194.5-59, prepared for 
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by the Depart- 
ment of State. May 8, 19.59. 491 pp. 

Recommendations Adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its Forty-First Session at Geneva. H. 
Doc. 131. May 11, 1959. 21 pp. 

Recommendations Adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its Forty-Second Session at Geneva. H. 
Doc. 132. May 11, 1959. 35 pp. 

Special Report of the National Advisory Council on the 
Proposed Inter-American Development Bank. H. Doc. 
133. May 11, 1959. 70 pp. 

Nomination of C. Douglas Dillon. Hearing before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the nomination 
of Mr. Dillon to be Under Secretary of State and S. 
1877, a bill to amend the act of May 26, 1949, as 
amended, to strengthen and improve the organization 
of the Department of State and for other purposes. 
May 12, 1959. 29 pp. 

Nomination of Ogden R. Reid. Hearings before the Sen- 
ate Foreign Relations Committee on the nomination 
of Mr. Reid to be Ambassador to Israel. May 12-19, 
1959. 39 pp. 

Redesignating the Position of the Third Ranking Official 
in the Department of State and Vesting in the Secre- 
tary of State Authorities Now Vested in the Under 
Secretai-y of State for Economic Affairs. Report to 
accompany S. 1877. S. Rept. 292. May 15, 19.59. 3 pp. 

Wlieat Act of 1959. Report to accompany S. 1968. S. 
Rept. 295. May 18, 1959. 13 pp. 

Military Construction Authorization for Military Depart- 
ments, Fiscal Year 1960. Report to accompany H. R. 
5674. S. Rept. 296. May 19, 1959. 90 pp. 

A Certified Copy of the International Sugar Agreement of 
1958. S. Ex. D. May 20, 19.59. 41 pp. 

Convention and Recommendation Adopted by the Interna- 
tional Labor Conference at its Forty-Second Session at 
Geneva. H. Doc. 155. May 20, 19.59. 12 pp. 

Study of the Effectiveness of Governmental Organization 
and Procedure in the Contest With World Communism. 
Report to accompany S. Res. 115. S. Rept. 302. May 
20, 1959. 3 pp. 

Authorizing the Secretary of the Navy To Furnish Sup- 
plies and Services to Foreign Vessels and Aircraft. 
Report to accompany H.R. 3292. S. Rept. 307. May 
21, 19.59. 8 pp. 

Authorizing the Extension of Loans of Naval Vessels to 
the Governments of Italy, Turkey, and the Republic of 
China- Report to accompany H.R. 3366. S. Rept. 308. 
May 21, 19.59. 4 pp. 

Di'partments of State and Justice, the .ludiciary, and Re- 
lated Agencies Appropriation Bill, Fiscal Tear 1960. 
Report to accompany H.R. 7343. H.R. Rept. 376. May 
21, 1959. 28 pp. 



Ju/y 6, J 959 



23 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings* 

Adjourned During June 1959 

ITU Administrative Council: 14th Session Geneva May 19-June 12 

ICAO Panel for Coordinating Procedures Respecting the Supply of Geneva May25-June5 

Information for Air Operations. 

UNESCO Executive Board: 54th Session Paris May 25-June 13 

WHO Executive Board: 24th Session Geneva June 1-2 

International Commission for the Nortliwest Atlantic Fisheries: Montreal June 1-6 

9th Meeting. 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 31st Session Rome June 1-13 

Inter-American Commission of Women: 13th General Assembly. . Washington June 1-18 

UNICEF Committee on Administrative Budget New York June 2-4 

Permanent International Commission of Navigation Congresses: Brussels June 2-5 

Annual Meeting. 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties Geneva June 3-5 

ILO Conference: 43d Session Geneva June 3-25 

IAEA Scientific Advisory Committee to Board of Governors. . . . Vienna June 4—5 

Informal Intergovernmental Shipping Talks Washington June 8-11 

FAO/UNICEP Joint Policy Committee: 2d Session Rome June 8-12 

U.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians: 7th Session . . . Geneva June 8-12 

Customs Cooperation Council: 14th Session Brussels June 10-13 

U.N. Seminar on National Accounts Rio de Janeiro June 11-26 

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Commis- Geneva June 15-20 

sioner for Refugees: 2d Session. 

International Sugar Council: Statistical Committee London June 15 (1 day) 

GATT Group of Experts on Restrictive Business Practices .... Geneva June 15-24 

FAO Council: 30th Session Rome June 15-26 

International Sugar Council: Executive Committee London June 16(1 day) 

International Sugar Council: 3d Session London Jime 16-18 

South Pacific Research Council: 10th Meeting Noumea, New Caledonia . . . June 17-27 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee Geneva June 19-23 

International Whaling Commission: 11th Meeting London June 22-26 

lA-ECOSOC Permanent Technical Committee on Ports: 2d Meet- Montevideo June 22-27 

ing. 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee and Working Parties Geneva June 24-26 

IMCO Maritime Safety Committee: 1st Session of Tonnage Meas- London June 24-27 

urement Subcommittee. 

In Session as of June 30, 1959 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

PAHO Subcommittee To Study the Constitution and Rules of Pro- Washington April 13- 

cedure. 

Meeting of Foreign Ministers (recessed on June 20; to reconvene Geneva May 11- 

July 13). 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 24th Session New York June 2- 

6th International Electronic and Nuclear Exhibit and Congress . . Rome June 15- 

lAEA Board of Governors: 12th Session Vienna June 15- 

ICAO Assembly: 12th Session San Diego June 16- 

9th International Berlin Film Festival Berlin June 26- 

International Dairy Congress London June 29- 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 6th Session Rome June 29- 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 18, 1959. Following is a list of abbreviations: ECAFE, 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and 
Social Council; FAO, P'ood and Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; lAE.A, Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency; lA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social Council; THE, International Bureau 
of Education; ICAO, international Civil Aviation Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITII, International Telecommunication Union; PAHO, Pan American 
Health Organization; PAIGH, Pan American Institute of Geography and History; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, 
World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 



24 Department of Slate Bulletin 



. 



GATT Committoe on Balanco-of-Payments Restrictions Geneva June 29- 

U.N. ECE Special Meeting on Organization and Tecluiiqnes of Geneva June 29- 

Foreign Trade (including payments). 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 28th Session Geneva June 30- 

Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1959 

U.N. EC.\rE/FAO Working Party on Rational Utilization of Wood Bangkok July 1- 

Poles for Power and Communication Lines. 

Venice Film Festival Venice July 2- 

Caribbean Commission: 3d Caribbean Fisheries Seminar St. Maarten, Netherlands An- July 3- 

tilles. 

Conference on Prevention of Oil Pollution of the Seas Copenhagen July 3- 

lAEA Seminar on Training of Specialists in the Peaceful Uses of Saclay, France July 6- 

Atomic Energy. 

IMCO Council Meeting: 2d Session London July 6- 

International Seed Testing Association: 12th Congress Oslo July 6- 

U.N. Seminar on Urbanization in Latin America Santiago July 6- 

UNESCO/IBE: 22d International Conference on Public Ediica- Geneva July 6- 

tion. 

FAO European Forestry Commission: 10th Session Rome July 7- 

IBE Council: 25th Session Geneva July 11- 

ICAO Airworthiness Committee: 3d Meeting Stockholm July 14- 

Caribbean Commission: Special Session of the West Indian Con- Trinidad July 28- 

ference. 

2d General Assembly of the International Union of Physiological Buenos Aires Aug. 9- 

Sciences and 21st International Congress of Physiology. 

Caribbean Commission: 28th Meeting St. Thomas, Virgin Islands . . Aug. 10- 

Commonwealth Survey Officers: Military Survey and Mapping England Aug. 11- 

Conference. 

Commonwealth Survey Officers Cambridge Aug. 17- 

ITU Ordinary Administrative Radio Conference Geneva Aug. 17- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and Handi- Singapore .'Vug. 17- 

craft Marketing: 6th Meeting. 

ICAO Legal Division: 12th Session Munich Aug. 18- 

Inter)iational Institute of Refrigeration: 10th Congress Copenhagen Aug. 18- 

20th International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art Venice Aug. 23- 

13th .\nnual Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh Aug. 23- 

Inter-.\merican Council of Jurists: 4th Session Santiago Aug. 24- 

Interparliamentary Union: 48th Conference Warsaw Aug. 25- 

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: 20th Con- Munich Aug. 26- 

ference. 

17th International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry . . . Munich Aug. 30- 

U.N. Seminar on Judicial and Other Remedies Against Abuse of Buenos Aires Aug. 31- 

Administrative Authority. 

FAO Working Party on Copra Quality and Grading: 2d Session . Colombo August 

PAIGH Directing Council: 4th Meeting Mexico, D.F August 

IC.^O Meteorological Division: 5th Session (joint session with WMO Montreal Sept. 1- 

Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology). 

PAHO Directing Council: 11th Meeting Washington Sept. 2- 

lAEA Conference on the Application of Large Radiation Sources Warsaw Sept. 5- 

in Industry. 

Astronomical Union: Executive Committee Herstmonceux, England . . . Sept. 7- 

U.N. EC.\FE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: Work- New Delhi Sept. 7- 

ing Party on Earthmoving Operations. 

UNICEF Executive Board, Program Committee, and Committee New York Sept. 8- 

on Administrative Budget. 

Pan American Highway Congresses: Meeting of Technical Experts . Rio de Janeiro Sept. 14— 

U.N. General Assembly: 14th Session New York Sept. 15- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Bangkok Sept. 15- 

Planning: 5th Session. 

11th International Road Congress Rio de Janeiro Sept. 21- 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee and Working Parties Geneva Sept. 21- 

lAEA General Conference: 3d Regular Session Vienna Sept. 22- 

FAO Expert Meeting on Fisheries Statistics in North Atlantic Area. Edinburgh Sept. 22- 

FAO International Poplar Commission and 7th International Poplar Rome Sept. 23- 

Congress. 

International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruc- Washington Sept. 28- 

tion and Development, and International Finance Corporation: 

Annual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: 7th Tokyo Sept. 29- 

Session of the Subcommittee on Electric Power. 

PAHO Executive Committee: 38th Meeting Washington September 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 10th Session . . . Taipei September 

Inter-American Indian Institute: Executive Committee Mexico, D.F September 



July 6, 1959 25 



Freedom of Information 



Following is a statement made on April 20 hy 
jChristopher H. Phillips^ U.S. Representative on 
the U.N. Economic and Social Council, before the 
.27th sessio7i of the Council at Mexico City, to- 
gether vyith the text of a U.S. draft declaration 
on freedom of information. 



•D.S./U.N. press release 3172 
STATEMENT BY MR. PHILLIPS 

Freedom of infonnation is one of tlie gi-eat ob- 
jectives of the United Nations. In the United 
States it is recognized as a cornerstone of liberty, 
as it is in every countrj' whicli believes in free- 
dom for the individual. The need to know, to 
"be informed, is a deep-seated urge in all mankind. 
It is more than a need; it is a hunger for facts 
and ideas, a hunger for the means to think and 
to understand events and situations. The urge 
is to listen as well as to speak, to learn as well as 
to teach, to judge the fact as well as to plan the 
action. Only as men and women are able to sat- 
isfy this hunger can they feel tliey are valued 
fully as human beings. The right to know is a 
part of human dignity ; the right to seek the truth 
is a foundation of human freedom. 

It is for this reason that any withholding of 
infonnation instantly arouses suspicion. Censor- 
ship breeds only fear and insecurity. Within 
nations such limitations undermine confidence; 
between nations they jeopardize peace. Full ac- 
cess to the news is the only basis on which we can 
hope to build strong democracies and popular un- 
derstanding of and support for a strong United 
Nations. 

This has been said before, but it cannot be said 
too often. Ignorance and false report have long 
■been recognized as the shackles by wliicli tyrants 
and dictators control the peoples >mder their rule. 
In a free society there is special cause to keep up 
witli the course of events. Wherever tlie ultimate 
decisions rest with the people, it is obvious that 



intelligent decisions can be made only in the light 
of adequate knowledge. As a practical matter 
this means full and rapid access to all possible 
news — in the daily press, through radio, and all 
other media of information. 

On this point I would like to quote Thomas Jef- 
ferson, tlie author of our Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Jefferson felt strongly on the necessity 
for information in a government of the people. 
He once wrote that, if he were foi-ced to choose 
between a government without newspapers on the 
one hand and newspapers without government on 
the other, he would not hesitate to prefer the 
newspapers. Jefl'erson maintained this view even 
though he was severely criticized in the press after 
he became the third President of the United 
States. "Where the press is free," he said, "and 
evei"y man able to read, then all is safe." 

Thus there can be no question of the importance 
the United States attaches to freedom of informa- 
tion. Our belief in this freedom is implicit in our 
system of education, in the tremendous variety of 
our newspapers and our broadcasting systems, our 
magazines, and all other media of communication. 
Our aim is knowledge of facts and situations — • 
knowledge for everyone, with sources sufficient 
that each may seek the tnith for himself. In tliis 
we believe that we are at one with all other free 
peoples in the United Nations. 

There are also wide areas of agreement we shai'e 
with other comitries on the means by which free- 
dom of information can be achieved. We are in 
agreement on the need to develop news media of 
all kinds; it is academic to expect adequate infor- 
mation in areas which lack sufficient media and 
opportunities for training journalists. But there 
would be little point to providing media and train- 
ing journalists if the free flow of information is 
then hanqiered by censorship, jamming, or other 
artificial barriei-s. This would be like digging 
wells and then stopping or curtailing the flow of 
wa((M\ In particular we are convinced tliat full 
information on the United Nations sliould be 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



available to all the people of the United Nations. 
The sales outlets listed on the back of our Council 
reports indicate that this is the general practice 
but by no means the universal rule. The two res- 
olutions recommended for our action by the Hu- 
man Eights Conunission ^ embody these principles, 
and the United States is generally in favor of their 
adoption. I would like to discuss each of these 
briefly. 

Resolutions Proposed by Human Rights Commission 

The lii-st of the Human Rights Commission 
resolutions is in two parts, part A on technical as- 
sistance to underdeveloped countries and part B 
on continuing review of developments aifecting 
freedom of information and the preparation of 
requisite reports. The United States delegation 
had the honor to cosponsor this resolution along 
with Mexico, Ceylon, India, Iran, Italy, and the 
Philippines. The Commission adopted this res- 
olution with no negative votes; 14 members voted 
for it, and 4 abstained. Part A calls for a survey 
by UNESCO [United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization], of prob- 
lems involved in providing technical assistance to 
underdeveloped areas, to be presented to the Com- 
mission and to this Council in time for considera- 
tion during the summer of 1961. This survey is 
in line with the request of the 13th General Assem- 
bly. We welcome especially the specification that 
it include possibilities for fellowships, seminars, 
and expert advice as well as provision of technical 
equipment and other facilities. 

However, provision of technical assistance to 
requesting governments will not and should not 
await the completion of this survey. UNESCO 
is currently providing considerable technical as- 
sistance in the field of information through its 
regular program and also in cooperation with the 
United Nations. Its budget for the 1959-60 bien- 
nium includes $3.5 million for mass communica- 
tion projects designed primarily to meet needs in 
the less developed countries. The United Nations 
progi-am of advisory services in the field of hu- 
man rights offers another possible source of tech- 
nical assistance in the information field. 

Section B of this resolution provides, first, for 
regular review of developments afi'ecting freedom 
of information by the Commission on Human 



Rights. An established procedure to assure reg- 
ular consideration of freedom of information is 
much needed as a basis for action throughout the 
United Nations and the specialized agencies, and 
the Human Rights Commission is the appropriate 
body to undertake initial review. 

This section also provides for documentation to 
support continuing study of this item. The Com- 
mission requests two different reports on freedom 
of information, one an annual report for use in 
its sessions and the other a longer range survey 
on developments since 1954. In his statement on 
the financial implications of this resolution, the 
Secretary-General raises various questions regard- 
ing these reports. 

On the annual report the Secretary-General 
asks whether the "developments" will be "of a 
legal character" which can be described on the 
basis of "official documents emanating from gov- 
ernments" or whether the information is to in- 
clude "unverified information from private or 
other non-governmental sources." We can be quite 
clear that the objective of this annual report is 
information of the usual type needed in Commis- 
sion work, based primarily on official and public 
sources. The Secretary-General should have no 
difficulty in providing docmnentation of this type. 

On the long-range report the Secretary-Gen- 
eral raises similar questions, pointing out that the 
language of the resolution indicates that nongov- 
ernmental sources should be included. Here again 
we can be quite clear; the intention of this request 
is to obtain a substantive survey of wide scope on 
developments throughout the United Nations and 
its member states since 1954. "Wliile the bulk of 
this material would probably come from official 
sources, this should be supplemented and con- 
firmed from nongovernmental reports, particu- 
larly those of professional press organizations and 
other responsible agencies in the information field. 
We can hardly expect the Commission on Human 
Rights to make sound recommendations on free- 
dom of information if it does not itself have the 
benefit of full and free access to mformation on 
the subject. I hope, therefore, that the Secretary- 
General can see his way to undertake this report 
through apj^ropriate procedures and at reasonable 
cost.^ 



' U.N. doc. E/3224. 



• A propo-sal by the Secretary-General that he entrust 
the preparation of this report to a consultant was ap- 
proved by the Council on Apr. 24. 



July 6, 1959 



27 



The second resolution proposed by the Commis- 
sion on Human Rights deals with international 
press cable rates. The United States sympathizes 
with the pi'inciples expressed in this resolution; 
in fact, we see no reason why these principles 
should not be extended generally to international 
press telegraph rates and to all international 
agreements regarding such rates. We would pre- 
fer to support a text providing this wider 
coverage. 

Action Needed To Advance Freedom of Information 

All this is helpful ; but let us be honest — it is 
not enough. The United Nations should be doing 
more — much more — to advance freedom of infor- 
mation. Much energy has been devoted in recent 
years to the Draft Convention on Freedom of In- 
formation which the General Assembly will con- 
sider in detail next fall. Frankly the United 
States does not believe much headway can be 
gained by attempting international legislation of 
this type. The record on the convention in the 
information field thus far adopted by the United 
Nations bears out this contention : the Convention 
on the Right of Correction adopted in 19.52 has 
not yet been ratified by a sufficient number of 
countries to bring it into effect, and the Articles on 
International Transmission of News have not yet 
been opened for signature. Moreover, for reasons 
which we have expressed in previous United Na- 
tions discussions, we do not regard the proposed 
Convention on Fi'eedom of Information as an ade- 
quate or effective means to protect the information 
media of our time or promote the right of every- 
one to full and free access to the facts. However, 
since some other countries have not yet given up 
hope, we certainly do not intend to stand in the 
way of the General Assembly debate on the Draft 
Convention on Freedom of Information next fall. 

The United States attitude toward freedom of 
speech and press is based on constitutional guar- 
antees which prohibit the passage of legislation 
infringing these rights. This is provided in the 
first amendment in the section known as our Bill 
of Rights. It says simply that "Congress shall 
make no law . . . abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press . . . ." This amendment 
has been in force for more than ICO years. It lias 
kept our media of information free from govern- 
ment control and regulation. This is the frame- 
work in which our gi-eat newspapers and radio 



and television systems have developed ; while they 
respect and conform to laws forbidding libel, ob- 
scenity, and other infringements on public order, 
they know that these cannot be used to justify 
censorsMp or interference in presenting facts and 
opinion. 

You may argue that this prohibition indicates 
a distrust of authority. I would say quite openly 
that this is the case. Our feeling goes back to the 
days before we became an independent nation, 
when our newspapers often had to be licensed and 
were at the mercy of foreign governors. We have 
learned to fear any attempt, direct or indirect, to 
control freedom of information lest it lead to 
suppression and tyranny. We have learned "the 
hard way," if I may borrow a popular phrase, 
that no government, however good or highly mo- 
tivated, should be trusted with power over the 
rights of every individual to know and to think. 
We have learned also the two reasons why this is 
so — first, that governments may change and, sec- 
ond, that men may grow lazy in their own defense 
against authority. 

For these same reasons we believe that the 
United Nations must do more to promote and pro- 
tect freedom of information. The concern ex- 
pressed repeatedly in the General Assembly and 
elsewhere suggests that others share this sense of 
urgency. To meet this need the United States is 
hereby submitting a proposal for a United Na- 
tions declaration on freedom of information, with 
a view to its adoption by the General Assembly, 
together with a provisional text.^ This declara- 
tion would in no way be a substitute for the Draft 
Convention on Freedom of Information. As I 
stated earlier the United States looks forward to 
consideration of that convention in the 14th Gen- 
eral Assembly in accordance with the decision 
taken last year. This fact is made abundantly 
clear in preambular paragraph 5 of the draft res- 
olution. The declaration would serve a quite dif- 
ferent purpose. Just as the Univei-sal Declaration 
of Human Rights has given voice to tlie scope and 
meaning of human dignity, so we would hope that 
this further declaration would voice more fully 
the right of men to seek the truth for themselves. 
Such a declaration would not have to await the 
long process of ratification; it could be adopted 
within the framework of the United Nations 



' U.N. doc. E/L. 824, cosponsored by Chile, Costa Rica, 
Mexico, and the United States. 



28 



Deparfmenf of State Bvlletin 



Charter, and it could become an iniraediato tool 
for the defense of freedom of information. 

The provisional text of the Declaration on 
Freedom of Information consists of five articles, 
with a preamble referring to the Universal Dec- 
laration of Human Rights and the purposes of 
the United Nations. It is designed as a clear-cut 
statement of what we mean by freedom of infor- 
mation and of wliat is and what is not conducive 
to its promotion. There will undoubtedly be 
many suggestions for improvement in this text. 
I shall read it now in the hope that it will serve 
as a basis for a declaration around which all who 
l)elieve in genuine freedom of information can 
rally. 

[After reading the draft de<'laration, Mr. Phillips 
continued :] 

These are very simple statements. They must 
be read, of course, in the light of article 18 of the 
Universal Declaration of Himian Rights quot«d in 
the preamble. We believe, liowever, that within 
these five articles we have gathered together the 
requirements of liberty and of responsibility es- 
sential to the practical exercise of freedom of in- 
formation. Adoption of such a declaration, we 
believe, may well prove more effective than any- 
thing else we can do to place the United Nations 
and its members on record and thus advance 
understanding of this great right among all peo- 
ples. In affirming these principles the United Na- 
tions would also reaffirm its faith in the capacity 
of eacli person to discern what is true when free 
to seek that truth in information at hand. 

Because the development of a Declaration of 
Freedom of Information is an undertaking to 
which all membeis of the United Nations should 
contribute, this Council should not be expected to 



* On Apr. 24 the Economic and Social Council adopted 
three resolutions on freedom of information. The first, 
"Freedom of Information" (E/RES/718(XXVII) ; reso- 
lution 1 (XV) of the Human Rights Commission), re- 
quests reports on metlia of information in underdeveloped 
countries and on developments in freedom of information 
in all member states since 19.54. The second, "Freedom 
of Information : International Press Telegram Rates" 
(E/RES/719(XXVII) ; resolution 2 (XV) of the Human 
Rights Commission, as amended), calls for reduced in- 
ternational press telegram rates. The third, "Free<lom of 
Information : Draft United Nations Declaration on Free- 
dom of Information" (E/RES/720( XXVII) ; L/824. as 
amended), decides to place the question of a draft dec- 
laration on the agenda for the 28th session. 



consider the text in detail. Our proposal is that 
this text be forwarded to member governments 
for comment and that the replies be made avail- 
able to the General Assembly for such action as 
it sees fit. We believe it will be useful to all who 
love liberty and who wish to defend the right to 
speak, to think, and to know.* 



TEXT OF DRAFT DECLARATION 

United Nations Declaration on Fiieedom of Information 

Whereas, the development of friendly relations among 
nations and the promotion of respect for human rights 
and fundamental freedoms for all are basic purposes of 
the United Nations : 

Whereas, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
provides that "Everyone has the right to freedom of 
opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to 
hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive 
and impart information and ideas through any media 
and regardless of frontiers" ; 

Whereas, the promotion of these rights requires the 
opening of countries to greater freedom of communica- 
tion, since no other liberty is secure if men cannot freely 
convey their thoughts to one another ; 

Whereas, the erection of artificial barriers to com- 
munication creates fear and suspicion between peoples 
and impairs prospects for world peace ; 

Whereas, newspapers, books, periodicals, radio, tele- 
vision, and other media of information are essential 
means by which people learn of events and situations, and 
are thus a vital force in determining the reaction of 
l>eoples and nations to each other ; 

Now, therefore, the General Assembly 

Proclaims this Declaration on Freedom of Information 
as evidence of its determination to assure the peoples of 
the United Nations free interchange with one another 
and access to all sources of information and expression : 

Article I. Everyone has the right to knowledge and 
expression. 

The right to know is an inalienable and 
natural right of man. Free men, given the 
opportunity to know the truth, are not easily 
misled. 

Each man must be free to advance his 
views and consider those of others. Through 
mutual toleration and comparison of differ- 
ing opinions the individual can expand his 
understanding of the truth. 

Article II. All governments have the responsiUlity to 
protect and encourage the Iree flow of 
information through all media. 

Information is a public trust. Govern- 
ments should avoid measures which inter- 
fere with the free dissemination of 
information, or manipulate facts with the 
intent to mislead. 



Jo/y 6, 1959 



29 



The right to gather and transmit news 
should be assured, including the right of 
reporters to observe and report news within 
countries and across frontiers. 

Article III. The press and other media of information 
Khould he the servants of the people and not 
of the State. 

There should be no monopoly in the dis- 
semination of news and ideas by Govern- 
ments or any other agency, public or private. 
Minorities as well as majorities should have 
access to the press and all other media of 
information and be free to develop such 
media of their own choosing. 

Article IV. All media nf puWlcinformation should report 
honestly and responsibly, ichile giving due 
consideration to national security, public de- 
cency, and the rights of individuals and 
nations. 

No media should knovringly propagate 
falsehood. It is a high privilege and a public 
responsibility to provide the basis on which 
enlightened opinion can be formed. 

Article V. Everyone has the right to full information 
about the United Nations and its associated 
organizations. 

The efforts of the United Nations can suc- 
ceed only as the peoples of the United 
Nations are able to understand and support 
Its objectives and activities. 



OAS Council Agrees To Investigate 
Complaint by Nicaragua 

Folloioing is a statement made on June ^ hy 
Ambassador John C. Dreier, U.S. Representative 
on the Council of the Organization of American 
States, at the opening session of a meeting of the 
OAS Council to consider a complaint of the Gov- 
ernment of Nicaragua that its territory had been 
violated, together with the text of a resolution 
convoking the Organ of Constdtation to investi- 
gate the complaint. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR DREIER 

My Government has considered with greatest 
care the request made by the Representative of 
Nicaragua [Guillermo Sevilla-Sacasa] yesterday 
[June .">] that the Organ of Consultation be con- 
voked under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro [Inter- 



American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance] ^ in 
view of the fact that a situation affecting the in- 
violability of the territory of Nicaragua had de- 
veloped, which might endanger the peace of Amer- 
ica and which thus came within the provisions of 
article 6 of the treaty. 

In considering this matter my Government has 
directed itself to the question of whether the terms 
of article 6 of the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro are 
fulfilled by the situation which the Nicaraguan 
Government has brought to our attention. It 
seems clear that the inviolability of the territory 
of Nicaragua has been affected by the illegal entry 
of aircraft carrying armed men which came from 
a neighboring country. This fact remains undis- 
puted and has moreover been confirmed by Costa 
Rican sources, including the owner of the aircraft, 
who is reported to have admitted making aircraft 
of Costa Rican registry belonging to him available 
to the revolutionary movement directed against 
the Government of Nicaragtia. The Government 
of Costa Rica has also, through its representative 
here, expressed its regret that this action took 
place and has reported that steps have been taken 
to prevent any further flights of this type. 

My Government has also concluded that the sit- 
uation under consideration may well threaten the 
peace of America. The activities of political 
exiles in one country to promote civil strife in 
their own country, for whatever motives, have 
long been recognized in the inter- American com- 
munity as a major cause of international tension 
and conflict. It was for this reason that in 1928 
the Inter- American Convention on the Duties and 
Rights of States in the Event of Civil Strife was 
adopted. It may be worth while recalling that 
the main provision of this convention does not 
merely prohibit actions by governments in sup- 
port of civil strife in other comitries but lays 
down the very categorical obligation upon govem- 
monts "to use all means at their disposal to pre- 
vent the inhabitants of their territory, nationals 
or aliens, from participating in, gathering ele- 
ments, crossing the boundary or sailing from their 
territory for the purpose of starting or promoting 
civil strife." The international law recognized by 
this treaty, therefore, does not merely prohibit 
"invasions" by foreigners. It calls upon states 
to take the necessary steps to prevent movements 
from starting from within their borders. 



' For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 21, 1947, p. 565. 



30 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Tliis treaty was later supplemented by the adop- 
tion of the nonintervention principle which is now 
inscribed in the charter of the OAS. Together 
these treaty obligations constitute recognition of 
the principle that the political affairs of any 
American state must be left in the hands of the 
inhabitants of that country and should not be 
interfered with by armed actions emanating from 
other states. All member states of the OAS have 
the right to expect that this principle will be effec- 
tively observed. 

The actions already taken for the purpose of 
promoting civil strife in Nicaragua from the 
shelter of other countries indicate that the prin- 
ciples embodied in these two basic treaties of 
inter-American relations are being challenged. 
News from various quarters indicates that tension 
and excitement are mounting. History has given 
us too many examples for us to disregard the very 
real possibility that a situation of this sort may 
well produce international conflicts and thereby 
places in danger the peace of America. 

It has been argued that the request of Nicara- 
gua for action by the OAS in this situation is not 
justified because it is related to an internal politi- 
cal situation in Nicaragua and that the persons 
who have so far crossed the border from Costa 
I Rica illegally have been largely Nicaraguans. My 
Government will be the first to say that, if it 
considered this to be a purely internal matter in 
Nicaragua, the OAS would have nothing to do 
with it. It is recognized that the OAS cannot 
concern itself with purely internal political situ- 
ations. "V\niat goes on in Nicaragua is the concern 
of the Nicaraguan people. Under the Rio Treaty 
the concern of the OAS is limited to those facts 
or situations, such as those referred to above, and 
which may threaten the peace of America. Its 
action under the Rio Treaty in the present case 
would be properly directed to resolving — or help- 
ing resolve — the international problems involved, 
particularly with respect to possible conflicts be- 
tween American states. 

In this respect it is clear that the nationality 
of the persons entering Nicaragua is not the deter- 
mining factor. I well recall that in 1955 my first 
opportunity to participate in an action of the 
OAS in a situation of this nature dealt with the 
invasion of the territory of Costa Rica^ by a 



well-armed force, a largo majority of which were 
Costa Eican nationals. The then govei-nment of 
Costa Rica appealed to the OAS for assistance. 
Some who opposed action by the OAS argued 
that the situation was a purely internal political 
one. However, the fact that the invading force 
had come from abroad, had been armed abroad, 
and was being supported by airplane fliglits from 
abroad was sufficient to remove all doubt that the 
action of the OAS was justified and was in fact 
called for under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro. 

Mr. Chairman, my Government believes that it 
is important for the American Republics at this 
moment to demonstrate once again the effective- 
ness of the inter- American system for the main- 
tenance of peace and security. 

The United States delegation is prepared to 
vote in favor of the convocation of the Organ of 
Consultation under the Rio Treaty to consider the 
situation placed before this Council by the repre- 
sentative of Nicaragua. Subsequently considera- 
tion can be given to the steps which this Council, 
acting provisionally as Organ of Consultation, 
should take for the purpose of maintaining inter- 
American peace and security as called for in arti- 
cle 6 of the treaty. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

tJnofflclnl translation 

The Council of the Organization of Ameeican 

States, 

Considering : 

That in the session held yesterday the Council took 
note of the note of the Ambassador of the Republic of 
Nicaragua ' in which he state<l that the Inviolability of 
the territory of Nicaragua had been affected by an inva- 
sion by air made up of various foreign elements, adding 
that a new invasion by sea was expected, which might 
endanger the peace of the Continent ; 

That by means of the said note the Government of 
Nicaragua invoked the Inter- American Treaty of Recipro- 
cal Assistance ; and 

That in the meeting held yesterday and today the 
Ambassador of Nicaragua presented additional informa- 
tion regarding the facts to which he referred in the 
above-mentioned note. 

Resolves : 

1. To convoke the Organ of Consultation in accordance 
with the provisions of the Inter-American Treaty of 
Reciprocal Assistance. 



' For background, see ihid., Oct. 3, 19.^5, p. 546. 



July 6, 1959 



' Adopted by the Council on June 4. 
'Not printed here. 



31 



2. To desiirnate opportunely the site and date of the 
meeting of that Organ. 

3. To constitute itself and act provisionally aa Organ 
of Consultation in accordance with article 12 of the 
above-mentioned Treaty. 

4. To authorize the Chairman of the Council to desig- 
nate a Committee to gather the additional infonnation 
which may be indispensable concerning the situation 
which has been the subject of the request of the Nieara- 
guan Government, in order that the Council may be in a 
position to decide on the measures which it may be de- 
sirable to adoirt. 

5. To declare that this resolution does not imply in 
any way prejudgment of the nature of the facts nor 
intervention in the internal affairs of a member state. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

General Assembly 

Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. 

Report of the Legal Committee. A/AC.98/2. June 12, 

1059. 10 pp. 
Annual Progress Report of the Scientific Committee on 

the Effects of Atomic Radiation for 1959. A/4119. 

June 15, 1959. 11 pp. 
Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. 

Report of the Technical Committee on Paragraph 1 (b) 

of General Assembly Resolution 1348 (XIII). A/AC. 

98/3. June 16, 1959. 27 pp. 
Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. 

Report of the Secretary-General on Paragraph 1 (a) of 

General Assembly Resolution 1348 (XIIIj. A/AC.98/4. 

June 16, 1959. 68 pp. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

Geneva High-Altitude Technical Talks 

The Department of State announced on June 17 
(press release 437) the following U.S. members of 
a working group of teclmical experts from the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and the 
U.S.S.R. which will convene at Geneva June 22 to 
assess the capabilities and limitations of possible 
techniques for the detection and identification of 
nuclear explosions at high altitudes (more than 30 
to 50 kilometers) above the earth and, on the basis 
of the discussions and conclusion of the Geneva 
Conference of Experts,^ recommend techniques 
and instrumentation for consideration by the con- 
ference for incorporation in the detection and 
identification system : 

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, director, High Energy Physics 
Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Sterling Colgate, Eme.st O. Lawrence Radiation Labora- 
tory, University of California 

Allen F. Donovan, director, Astrovehicles Laboratory, 
Space Technology Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Allen Graves, Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, 
University of California 

Spurgeon Keeny, Jr., technical assistant. Office of Special 
Assistant to the President for Science and Technology 

Richard Latter, chief. Physics Division, Rand Corp., Santa 
Monica, Calif. 

Col. Dent L. Lay, as.sistiint director. Technical Ojjerations 
Division, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Depart- 
ment of Defense 

Allen M. Peterson, head, Propag;ition Laboratory, Stan- 
ford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. 

Kenneth M. Watson, professor of physics, University of 
California at Berkeley 



Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Consultations 
on Trade Policy. E/CN.12/C.1/11. March 28, 1959. 
41pp. 

Social Commission. Scope and Development of National 
Social Service Programs. Report by the Secretary- 
General. E/CN.5/333/Add.l. March 30, 1959. 29 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Preliminary 
Review of Questions Relating to the Development of 
International River Basins in Latin America. 
E/CN.12/511. March 30, 1959. 32 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Report on the 
Joint ECLA/TAA Economic Development Training Pro- 
gramme. E/CN.12/523. March 30, 1959. 22 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Report of the 
Mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency to 
Latin America. E/CN.12/526. March 30, 1959. 16 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Progress Re- 
port by the Executive Secretary on the Programme of 
Work. E/CN.12/513. March 31, 1959. 28 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Immigration 
and Economic Development In Latin America. E/CN.- 
12/520. April 1,1959. 26 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Progress Re- 
port on the Central American Economic Integration 
Programme Since 10 June 1958. E/CN.12/517. April 
2, 1959. 11 pp. 

Technical Assistance in Public Administration. Report 
by the Secretary-General. E/3230. April 3, 1959. 20 
pp. 

Social Commission. Future of the United Nations Social 
Defence Programme. Report by the Secretary-General. 
E/CN.5/340. April 6, 1959. 29 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. The Role of 
Agricultural Commoditie.'! in a Latin American Re- 
gional Market. E/CN.12/4f)9. April 7, 1959. I(i8 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Systems of 
Administrative Organization for the Integrated De- 
velopment of River Basins. Outline of different types 
of institutional structure used in Latin America and 
the rest of the world. E/CN.12/503. April 17, 1959. 
73 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Rejiort of tlie 



' Bulletin of Sept. 22, 1958, p. 452. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
fnmi the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 29(!() Broadway, New Yo;k 27. \.Y. 
Other materials (mimeographed or pr<Kesst>d documents) 
may be consulted at certain designated libraries in the 
United States. 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



Latin American Centre on Food and Agricultural Trice 
Stabilization and Support Policies. Document pre- 
sented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of 
the United Nations. E/CN.12/527. April 20, 1959. 
79 pp. 
Social Commission. Progress Made by the United Na- 
tions in the Social Fields During the Period 1 January 
1957-31 December 1958 : Technical Assistance in the 
Social Field 1957-1958. E/CN.5/334/Add. 3. April 23, 
1059. 20 pp. 
Economic Commission for Latin America. Suggested 
Programme of Work and Priorities, 1959-60. E/CN. 
12/52!1. April 24, 19.59. 20 pp. 
Social Commission. Appraisal of the Future Scope and 
Trend of the United Nations Programme in the Social 
Field for the X'eriod 1959-1964. Report by the Secre- 
tary-General. E/CN.5/334/Add. 1. April 29, 1959. 
40 pp. 
Transport and Communications Commission. Facilita- 
tion of International Travel and Transport. E/CN.2/ 
190. May 1, 1959. 19 pp. 
Social Commission. Progress Made by the United Na- 
tions in the Social Field During the Period 1 January 
1957-31 December 1958 and Proposals for the Pro- 
gramme of Work 1959-1961. Public Administration 
Aspects of Community Development Programmes. 
E/CN.5/334/Add. 4. May 1, 19.'^9. 73 pp. 
Economic Development of Less Developed Countries. In- 
ternational Economic Assistance to the Less Developed 
Countries, 1957-58. Report by the Secretary-General. 
E/3255. May 8, 1959. 79 pp. 
Programme AppraLsal, 1959-1964. Work of the United 
Nations in the Economic, Social, Human Rights and 
Related Fields. E/3260. May 11, 1959. 77 pp. 
General Review of the Development and Co-ordination of 
the Economic, Social and Human Rights Programmes 
and Activities of the United Nations Specialized Agen- 
cies as a Whole. E/3261. May 11, 19.59. 13 pp. 
, General Review of the Development and Co-Ordination 
of the Economic, Social and Human Rights Programmes 
and Activities of the United Nations and the Specialized 
Agencies as a Whole. E/3247. May 14. 19.59. ()7 pp. 
United Nations Programme of Technical Assistance Under 
General Assembly Resolutions 200 (III), 304 (IV), 418 
(V), 723 (VIII), and 926 (X). E/3236. May 18, 1959. 
55 pp. 
Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner 

for Refugees. E/3263. May 18, 1959. 97 pp. 
Economic Development of Under-developed Countries : 
Analytical Sunmiary of Various Sugge.sted Means of 
Accelerating P^conomic Growth in Less Developed 
Countries Through International Action. Report b.v 
the Secretary-General. E/3259. May 18, 1959. 38 pp. 
E<onomic Development of Under-developed Countries: 
International Co-operation for the Development of 
Under-developed Countries. Interim report under Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution 1316 (XIII). E/3258. May 
19, 1959. 84 pp. 
Economic Development of Under-developed Countries : 
Techniques of Resources Surveys. Progress report pre- 
pared by the Secretary-General pursuant to Council 
resolution 614 C (XXII). E/3267/Add. 1. May 25, 
1959. 20 pp. 
Report of the Social Commission. 12th Session held at 
New York April 27-May 15, 1959. E/3265/and Corr. 
1. May 26, 19.59. 84 pp. 
International Commodity Problems. Review of interna- 
tional commodity problems for 1959. E/3269. May 26, 
1959. 55 pp. 
Economic Commission for Latin America. Annual report 
to the Economic and Social Council, covering the period 
April 8 to May 23, 1959, inclusive. E/3246/Rev. 1. 
June 4, 1959. 231 pp. 
Economic Development of Under-developed Countries. 
International Tax Problems; Taxation in Capital-Ex- 

July 6, 7959 



porting and Capital-Importing Countries of Foreign 

Private Investments. Swedish taxation of private 

Swedish investments abroad. E/3272. June 8 19,59 
31 pp. 

Report of the Governing Council of the Special Fund 
E/3270. June 9, 1959. 30 pp. 

General Review of the Development and Co-ordination of 
Economic, Social and Humanitarian Programmes and 
Activities of the United Nations and the Si)ecialized 
Agencies as a Whole. E/3274. June 12, 1959. 18 pp. 

Trusteeship Council 

United Nations Visiting Mission to the Trust Territories 
of Nauru, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands, 19.59: 
Report on Nauru. T/1448, May 14, 1959. 54 pp. 

Report of United Nations Visiting Mission to Western 
Samoa, 1959. T/1449. May 21, 1959. SO pp. 

Examination of the Annual Rejwrt on the Trust Territory 
of Ruanda-Urundi for the Year 1957. Additional in- 
formation supplied by the Administering Authority. 
T/1452. May 28, 1959. 32 pp. 

Revision of the Questionnaire Relating to Trust Terri- 
tories. Ob.servations by the Government of Australia 
a.s the Administering Authority for the Trust Territory 
of Nauru concerning the sixth progress report of the 
Sub-Committee on the Questionnaire (T/1430). T/14.56. 
June 3, 1959. 5 pp. 

Revision of the Questionnaire Relating to Trust Terri- 
tories. Seventh progress report of the Sub-Committee 
on the Questionnaire. T/1459. June 8, 1959. 24 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and Puerto E^ico 
Sign New Training Agreement 

Press release 438 dated June 17 

Puerto Rico's partnership witli the United 
States as a training ground for the worldwide 
technical cooperation jDhases of the U.S. mutual 
security program is being broadened and ex- 
panded by a new agi-eement reached on June 17 
between the Commonwealtli and the U.S. Intei-- 
national Cooperation Administration. The 
agreement was signed by Governor Luis Muiioz 
Marin of the Commonwealth, who is presently in 
the United States, and by Eollin S. Atwood, Re- 
gional Director, Office of Latin American Opera- 
tions, ICA. 

The new agreement calls for continuance until 
June 30, 1962, on a gi-eatly expanded basis, of a 
program under which the United States sends par- 
ticipants in the worldwide technical cooperation 
programs to Puerto Rico for special study and 
training in the fields of education, public admin- 



33 



istration, public health, housing, social welfare, 
industry, and agriculture. Puerto Rico's rapid 
economic and social development serves as an ex- 
ample for participants from newly developing 
countries. 

Further expansion of the program will bring in- 
to fuller utilization Puerto Rico's institutional 
and technical services as well as the know-how and 
experience of Commonwealth technicians and per- 
sonnel in furthering this training. Greater em- 
phasis will be placed on group training and semi- 
nars especially designed to serve the needs of the 
U.S. mutual security program. These courses 
will be based on Puerto Rican experience and com- 
petence in such fields as industrial development, 
economic plamiing, community development and 
housing, etc. 

The new agreement also provides a broader and 
more flexible basis for joint funding of the serv- 
ices being provided. The Commonwealth Gov- 
ernment will make a sizable contribution from its 
own budget. This arrangement also brings ICA 
missions in the field into closer association with 
the training facilities made available by the Com- 
monwealth. 

The joint training program was originally 
started in 1950 following a suggestion by Gov- 
ernor Munoz Marin that Puerto Rico was an ideal 
place for a training ground for participants in 
the U.S. technical cooperation programs. Since 
that beginning, with only 16 participants — all 
from Latin American countries — the program has 
been enlarged and expanded from time to time 
until to date more than 9,000 persons from free 
countries all over the world — Africa, the Far East, 
Near East, South Asia, with emphasis on partici- 
pants from Latin America and the Caribbean — 
have received training in technical cooperation in 
Puerto Rico in this and related programs. 

The Commonwealth's contribution is extremely 
valuable because of its Spanish cultural back- 
ground and language, aside from the excellent 
training facilities which have been made available 
by Puerto Rico. Some participants who receive 
training on the U.S. mainland spend part of their 
time training in Puerto Rico. Many spend their 
entire training period in Puerto Rico. 

An advantage of the Puerto Rican study is in 
observing how advanced and modern techniques 
have been applied to conditions more nearly ap- 



proximating those in the countries from which the 
participants come. Additional benefits are de- 
rived not only from observing Puerto Rico's prog- 
ress but by the participants' observing for them- 
selves the Conmionwealth's achievements in free 
association with the United States in an atmos- 
phere where democratic principles prevail. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Health 

Constitution of the World Health Organization. Opened 
for signature at New York July 22, 1946. Entered into 
force April 7. 1948. TIAS 1808. 

Acceptances deposited: Colombia, May 14, 1959; Guinea, 
May 19, 1959. 

Trade and Commerce 

Proems-verbal containing schedule to be annexed to the 
protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment 
of new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade (Brazil and Benelux). Done at 
Geneva March 10, 1959.' 

Signatures: Belgium (subject to ratification), Brazil, 
and Netherlands, April 2, 19.59. 

Procf>s-verbal containing schedules to be annexed to the 
protocol relating to negotiations for establishment of 
new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade (Brazil and United Kingdom). 
Done at Geneva May 13, 1959.' 
Signatures: Brazil and United Kingdom, May 13, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

Agricultural commodities agreement imder title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (G8 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchanges of notes. Signed at Washington June 
12, 1959. Entered into force June 12, 1959. 

Iran 

Agreement further amending the agricultural commodi- 
ties agreement of February 20, 1956, as amended (TIAS 
3506, 3749, and 3767). Effected by exchange of notes 
at Tehran September IS and November 16, 1958. En- 
tered into force November 16, 1958. 

Peru 

Agreement relating to the loan of a floating dry dock 
to Peru. Effected by exchange of notes at Washington 
June 15, 19.59. Entered into force June 15, 19.59. 

Poland 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
19.54, as amended (OS Stat. 4.55; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchange of notes. Signed at Washington Juno 10, 
19.59. Entered into force June 10, 1959. 



' Not in force. 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



FSI Holds Graduation Ceremonies 
for First Senior Officer Class 

Following are remarks made hy President 
Eisenhower and Acting Secretary Dillon on June 
12 at the graduation ceremonies held at the For- 
eign Service Institute for the members of the first 
senior officer course. The course., which was in- 
augurated hy former Secretary Dulles on Septem- 
ber 22, 1958, is designed to prepare officers for 
the highest positions of responsibility in diplo- 
matic posts abroad and in interagency and inter- 
national organizations. 



REMARKS BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

White House press release dated June 12 

Secretary Dillon, Mr. Hoskins/ members of the 
graduating class, distinguished guests, and 
friends : To ask anyone whether or not he would 
like to say some words, if that person has had 
any experience in political life and omits such 
an opportunity or ignores it, is truly, if not mirac- 
ulous, at least an error. 

In the years that Secretary Dulles and I served 
together, he often spoke about the lack of oppor- 
tunity among high officei-s of Government, and 
indeed of high officers in any profession, for con- 
templation. He felt so strongly about this that 
he believed that there should be some reorganiza- 
tion in the very highest echelons of the executive 
departments so that there could be more time to 
think about the job. 

As a matter of fact, before I leave this office I 
hope to lay before the Congi-ess a plan that I 
believe will do sometliing of tliis kind. 

Importance of Senior Officer Training 

Mr. Dulles spoke about this school in the same 
terms. In keeping with that idea of contempla- 
tion, he once said such a school will give some of 



' Harold B. Hoskins, director of the Foreign Service 
Institute. 



our foreign officers the opportunity to contem- 
plate their own profession, to think about it not 
merely as cramming of more information into 
your heads or talking about new techniques or 
even possibly any plans or policies or ideas but 
of providing the opportunity, under guidance, to 
contemplate your profession and all it means to 
the United States. 

I would like to voice my own tremendous inter- 
est in this school and my support for the idea that 
a few of our officers should be taken out from tlie 
normal activities of their offices, no matter where 
they are — as Secretaries, Counselors, or what- 
ever — and be given this opportunity. 

Not only can our Government afford this; my 
belief is it cannot afford to ignore it. So, if I 
am guilty of lobbying for an appropriation for 
this particular activity, I plead guilty with the 
greatest of enthusiasm. 

The program that you are undergoing is of 
course terrifically important. One of the things 
that I would like to bring out is this : Today we 
are exploring space, trying to expand our uni- 
verse, but all the time we are contracting our 
own world. We are so tied together now with 
communications that, when a man has a bad tem- 
per in Moscow or in Bucharest or any other place 
in that region, we look at our reports to see 
whether it's going to have any effect before to- 
morrow morning. 

Wlien I was 3 years old — that was 1893 — the 
first Ambassador of the United States was ap- 
pointed. Today there are 77 Ambassadors repre- 
senting the United States abroad. We have rep- 
resentations in 86 different countries, and I think 
we have large groups or at least representation 
in something like 285 separate cities. 

With each of these Ambassadors the Stat© De- 
partment is in daily communication — often in 
communication to the extent of what should be 
described as transatlantic essays. But these have 
to be digested. And the next day there must be 
some kind of action taken on them very shortly. 
In other words, this world is not only small but 
it is extremely complicated and these messages 



Jo/y 6, 7959 



35 



are necessary. Every kind of factor in Iniman 
existence comes in — psycliological reactions, po- 
litical reactions. There are economic, militai-y re- 
quirements to be met and to tliink about. 

If people are not o:oing to get the kind of oppor- 
tunity that this school is giving them, then the 
inevitable result will be to do them in keeping 
with the past — either by preconceptions or routine 
or habit. 

We must have men who are capable of tliink- 
ing — thinking objectively on the problem that is 
before them — who can give the best information 
with the best interpretation and the best advice 
they can provide to the State Department. 

Interdependence of Foreign and Local Affairs 

I would make one other observation : What we 
call foreign affairs is no longer foreign affairs. 
It's a local affair. Whatever happens in Indo- 
nesia is important to Indiana. Wliatever happens 
in any corner of the world has some effect on the 
farmer in Dickinson County, Kansas, or on a 
worker at a factory. 

Now this means that even our news is no longer 
properly called foreign news. It's local news be- 
cause it is so important to us. All this means that 
everyone who is charged with foreign affairs or 
anyone that has any direct or indirect responsi- 
bility concerning them — indeed, I think, every 
citizen — should think of the oneness of the world. 

We cannot escape each other, certainly not until 
the day we can emigrate to Mars. We just can't 
escape each other. We must understand people. 
We must make it our business to know what they 
are thinking, and why, and what it means to us. 

Because no nation, even one so directed and 
operated as is the Soviet's, can dominate all and 
be the controlling factor. Of course, a democracy 
would not even attempt it because it would be 
completely antithetical to their own conceptions 
and doctrines. 

So while I was complimented tliat tlie Acting 
Secretary of State would think it wortli while to 
quote from me, I think that expression "soldiers 
of peace" is a pretty good one. I go back to it to 
say this: You are soldiei-s of peac*, but you must 
be soldiers of peace for all men. As long as any 
man, any significant sector of our world, cannot 
enjoy the blessings of peace with justice, then in- 
deed there is no peace anywhere. 



That is the reason that again I express my feel- 
ings about the terrific importance of this kind of 
operation. I extend to each of the graduates my 
congratulations on your expanded capacity and 
opportunities for service and my best wishes for 
good luck to each of you. 



REIVIARKS BY ACTING SECRETARY DILLON 

Press release 426 dated June 12 

Mr. President, Mr. Iloskins, ladies and gentle- 
men : I would like to begin my brief remarks with 
a quotation from Secretary of State Dulles. Two 
years ago he said : ^ 

Never before In history has a nation had the degree of 
worldwide responsibility for the maintenance of peace 
that is now carried by the United States. Our responsi- 
bilities are mounting almost daily. Whether or not they 
can be adequately discharged depends not just upon the 
broad principles proclaimed by America's leaders. It de- 
pends directly upon the performance of those who, in the 
Department of State and in 81 countries, carry on the 
day-by-day task of waging peace and defending freedom. 

I can think of no better way to express the im- 
portance to the United States of our Foreign 
Service. In helping them to do the very best job 
possible, nothing can be more important than the 
training effort to prepare them — junior officei-s, 
midcareer officers, and now senior officers — in 
eveiy way for their duties. In the short span of 
2 years since Secretai-y Dulles made this state- 
ment our responsibilities, the responsibilities of 
the United St-ates Foreign Seiwice, have increased 
further. We have opened a number of new mis- 
sions, particularly in Africa,^ and our responsibil- 
ities have broadened. 

Broadening Responsibility in Foreign Policy 

Our responsibilities are also broader in the num- 
ber of subjects we have to deal with. Economic 
and psychological functions have grown greater 
in a way that makes clear that they are an integi'al 
part of our foreign policy. We also have had to 
become, in a way, specialists in science, in nuclear 
test suspensions, and in the problems of outer 
space. All of these responsibilities indic^ite how 



" Bulletin of Jlay 20, lO.')?, p. "iW. 

' For an address by Deputy Assistant Secretary James 
K. Penfield on the role of the United States in Africa, see 
ibid.. June 8, 19.^,), p. 841. 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



very important are tlie training: and tlie duties of 
tlie Foreign Service. That is wliy we feel it is so 
important that this institute flourish and grow. 

We are witnessing a real landmark in the gi'ad- 
uation today of the first class of the senior officer 
coui'se. There are a total of 19 members : 12 from 
the Department of State and 7 from otlier agen- 
cies * of the Government interested in foreign af- 
fairs and foreigii policy. This is as it should be. 
It emphasizes the coordination which is vitally 
necessary between the many departments and 
agencies of the Government working in this field. 

I find the curriculum ^ to be particularly inter- 
esting. Some of the five segments are totally new 
and have not been included in any of the courses 
being given in the war colleges. One of them par- 
ticularly struck me. It is devoted to contempo- 
rary American society. Certainly a primary 
function of our representatives abroad is to rep- 
resent America as it really is and to interpret it 
to other peoples. Through this course, which 
takes a good look at how our society is developing 
and examines our problems here at home, tlie 
members of the class should be better prepared to 
carry out their duties abroad. 

Mr. President, we are happy and pleased that 
you have honored us today by coming to the grad- 
uation of this first class. You have always been 
a great supporter of the Foreign Service, and we 
appreciate it. I remember that once you de- 
scribed the members of the Foreign Service as 
"soldiers of peace," as "officers of the great army 
that has as its first business the developing and 
sustaining of a peace with justice and honor." 
We appreciate this expression of faith in our 
Servnce, and I know that the Service will do every- 
thing it can to live up to your faith and justify it. 
In pursuit of this goal, the role of the Foreign 
Service Institute in training our officers to carry 
on their duties is vitally important. 

Today we are faced with a threat by the Soviet 
Union that is ideological, economic, and political. 



*Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, U.S. Informa- 
tion Agency, International Cooperation Administration, 
and Department of Commerce. 

" The program of studies included the following general 
subjects: (1) the basis of American foreign policy, (2) 
domestic influences on foreign policy, (.3) review of U.S. 
diplomatic history, (4) foreign policy objectives, and 
(5) current U.S. foreign policy problems. 



The particular area of contest is the economi- 
cally underdeveloped sector of the world. 
Througli psychological warfare, economic war- 
fare, including trade and aid, the Soviets are car- 
rying on a tremendous campaign. It is signifi- 
cant in this connection tliat we have sitting today 
on our platform Ambassador [Ellsworth] 
Bunker, just back from India, VN-ho has just given 
us a very interesting report on the depth and 
breadth of the Soviet effort in India, which is 
probably the chief target of the Soviets at the 
moment. 

Interrelationship of Economics and Politics 

That leads me to another point which I feel 
very strongly about. Today, particularly in tlie 
underdeveloped areas, there is no longer a sharp 
difference, indeed no longer any difference at all, 
between economics and politics. There is no po- 
litical problem I know of that doesn't have some 
economic connotations. And, by the same token, 
we find that any problem that we seek to decide 
by economic means immediately has national se- 
curity or political overtones. Both aspects of for- 
eign policy are intertwined. 

Therefore, there is great satisfaction to me in 
the amount of emphasis the Foreign Service In- 
stitute is giving to economics, both in courses here 
and in sending officers to universities where at 
least half of them are taking classes in advanced 
economics. For every Ambassador really has to 
know economics if he is going to do a whole, 
rounded job. 

I certainly hope the Congress will provide, over 
the years, steady and continuing support to this 
institute. I cannot think of anything that is more 
important to our Service in fitting our officers to 
do a better job abroad. 

You members of the graduating senior class 
have had the privilege of studying here for a 
year. You have, during that time, had the chance 
to range broadly over the problems of our foreign 
policy. You have had your opportunity to stim- 
ulate your thinking and to develop a grasp of 
the overall problems with which the United States 
is concerned. It has been a high privilege. I 
hope that you will use this experience well. I 
wish each and every one of you the very best of 
luck in your future assignments. 



July 6, J 959 



37 



Department Announces Designations 

in Bureau of international Cultural Relations 

The Department of State aunounced on June 15 (De- 
partment notice dated June 15) the following designa- 
tions effective innnediately in the new Bureau of Inter- 
national Cultural Relations, which was established on 
June 1, 1959 : 

Office of the Spceial Assistant (CV) 

Robert H. Thayer, Special Assistant to the Secretary for 
the Coordination of International Educational and Cul- 
tural Relations 

Saxton Bradford, Deputy for Operations to the Special 
Assistant to the Secretary 

Cary T. Grayson, Special Assistant 

Clayton S. Dann, Acting Director, Executive Staff 
(CU/EX) 

Francis J. Colligan, Acting Director, Cultural Policy and 
Development Staff (CU/CPD) 

Donald B. Cook, Staff Director, U.S. Advisory Commis- 
sion on Educational Exchange and Advisory Committee 
on the Arts (ACE/S) 

Gertrude G. Cameron, Chief, Program Reporting Staff 

Ardelia M. Hall, Arts and Monuments Adviser (AM) 

International Educational Exchange Service (IE8) 

Donald Edgar, Director 

John N. Hayes, Deputy Director 

East-West Contacts Staff {EWC) 
Frederick T. Merrill, Director 

Cultural Presentations Staff (CU/CP) 
James F. Magdanz, Director 

UNESCO Relations Staff (URS) 

Ralph Hilton, Dii-eetor 

Abram Manell, Deputy Director. 

Confirmations 

The Senate on June 18 confirmed the following nomi- 
nations : 

Dempster Mcintosh to be Ambassador to Colombia. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 406 dated June 9.) 

John Howard Morrow to be Ambassador to the Repub- 
lic of Guinea. (For biographic details, see Department 
of Stiite press release 373 dated May 28.) 

William M. Rountree to be Ambassador to Pakistan. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 384 dated June 2.) 



Designations 



William O. Boswell as director of the Office of Security, 
effective June 15. 

Edwin Allan Lightner, Jr., as assistant chief, U.S. Mis- 
sion, Berlin. (For biographic details, see press release 
433 dated June 16.) 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 15-21 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 15 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 397 of June 5, 
403 of June 8, 422 of June 11, and 423 and 426 of 
June 12. 

Subject 

Board of Foreign Scholarships report 
(rewrite). 

Surplus foods to Guinea. 

Robertson : "Trends and Portents in 
Far East." 

Public administration project in Indo- 
nesia. 

Lightner designated assistant chief, 
U.S. Mission, Berlin (biographic de- 
tails). 

Herter : anniversary of East German 
uprising. 

Foreign Relations volume. 

Vice President and Queen Elizabeth 
unveil friendship monument (re- 
write). 

U.S. delegation to high-altitude tech- 
nical talks (rewrite). 

Technical cooperation program with 
Puerto Rico. 

DLF loan to Pakistan (rewrite). 

Hart : "How the Free World Can Meet 
the Communist Challenge." 

Gufler nominated ambassador to Cey- 
lon (biographic details). 

DLF loan to India (rewrite). 

Educational exchange (Costa Rica). 

International film festival at Moscow. 

Adenauer : anniversary of East Ger- 
man uprising. 

Western Foreign Ministers statement. 

Department statement on Foreign Min- 
isters meeting. 

Foreign Ministers communique. 

Herter : return from Foreign Ministers 
meeting. 



Not printed. 

Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


428 


6/15 


430 
431 


6/15 
6/16 


432 


6/16 


*433 


6/16 


434 


6/17 


t435 
436 


6/17 
6/17 


437 


6/17 


438 


6/17 


439 
t440 


6/17 
6/18 


•441 


6/18 


442 

*443 

444 

445 


6/18 
6/18 
6/19 
6/19 


446 
447 


6/20 
6/20 


448 
449 


6/20 
6/21 



38 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



July 6. 1959 



Index 



Vol. XLI, No. 104S 



American Republics. OAS Council Agrees To In- 
vostifiate Complaint by Nicaragua (Dreier, text 
of resolution) 30 

Asia. Trends and Portents in the Far East (Rob- 
ertson) 5 

Atomic Energy 

Geneva Higli-Altitude Technical Talks (delega- 
tion) 32 

Panel on Seismic Improvement Reports Findings on 

Underground Explosions 16 

Canada. Vice President and Queen Elizabeth Un- 
veil Friendship Monument 10 

Colombia. Mcintosh confirmed as ambassador . . 38 

Congress, The. Congressional Documents Relating 

to Foreign Policy 23 

Cultural Exchange. U.S. Embassy Official To At- 
tend Film Festival at Moscow 21 

Department and Foreign Service 

Confirmations (Mclntosli, Morrow, Rountree) . . 38 

Department Announces Designations in Burt^iu 

of International Cultural Relations (Bradford, 

Cameron. Colligan, Cook, Dann, Edgar, Grayson, 

Hall, Hayes, Hilton, Magdanz, Manell, Merrill, 

Thayer) 38 

Designations (Boswell, Lightner) 38 

FSI Holds Graduation Ceremonies for First Senior 

Officer Course (Dillon, Eisenhower) 35 

Economic Affairs. U.S. and West European Na- 
tions Discuss Shipping Problems (Dillon, texts of 
agreed statement and communique) 10 

Educational Exchange. Board of Foreign Scholar- 
ships Reports to President 21 

Europe. U.S. and West European Nations Discuss 
Shipping Problems (Dillon, texts of agreed state- 
ment and communique) 10 

France. Foreign Ministers Meeting at Geneva Re- 
cesses Until July 13 3 

Germany 

Foreign Ministers Meeting at Geneva Recesses Until 

July 13 3 

Lightner designated assistant chief, U.S. Mission, 

Berlin 38 

Secretary Herter Notes Anniversary of East German 

Uprising (Adenauer, Herter) 4 

Ghana. Determination of Quotas Under Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act (text of proclamation) . 19 

Guinea 

Morrow confirmed as amba,ssador 38 

U.S. Surplus Rice and Flour Being Shipped to 
Guinea 22 

Immigration and Naturalization. Determination 
of Quotas Under Immigration and Nationality 
Act (text of proclamation) 19 

India. Development Loan 22 

Indonesia. Indiana University To Assist Indonesia 

in Management Program 22 

International Information. Freedom of Informa- 
tion (Phillips) 26 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 24 

Foreign Ministers Meeting at Geneva Recesses Until 
July 13 3 

Geneva High-Altitude Technical Talks (delega- 
tion) 32 

OAS Council Agrees To Investigate Complaint by 

Nicaragua (Dreier, text of resolution) .... 30 

Italy. Determination of Quotas Under Immigration 

and Nationality Act (text of proclamation) . . 19 



Mutual Security 

Development Loans (India, Pakistan, Yugoslavia) . 22 

Indiana University To Assist Indonesia in Manage- 
ment Program 22 

United States and Puerto Rico Sign New Training 

Agreement 33 

U.S. Surplus Rice and Flour Being Shipped to 

Guinea 22 

Pakistan 

Development Loan 22 

Rountree confirmed as ambassador 38 

Presidential Documents 

Determination of Quotas Under Immigration and 

Nationality Act 19 

FSI Holds Graduation Ceremonies for First Senior 

Officer Course 35. 

Puerto Rico. United States and Puerto Rico Sign 

New Training Agreement 33 

Science. Panel on Seismic Improvement Reports 

Findings on Underground Explosions .... 16 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 34 

United States and Puerto Rico Sign New Training 

Agreement 33 

U.S.S.R. 

Foreign Ministers Meeting at Geneva Recesses Until 

July 13 a 

U.S. Embassy Official To Attend Film Festival at 

Moscow 21 

United Kingdom 

Foreign Jlinisters Meeting at Geneva Recesses Until 

July 13 3 

Vice President and Queen EUzabeth Unveil Friend- 
ship Monument Ifr 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 32 

Freedom of Information (Phillips) 26 

Yugoslavia 

Determination of Quotas Under Immigration and 

Nationality Act (text of proclamation) ... 19 

Development Loan 23 

Name Index 

Adenauer, Konrad 4 

Boswell. William O 38 

Bradford, Saxton 38 

Cameron, Gertrude G 38 

Colligan, Francis J 38 

Cook, Donald B 38 

Dann, Clayton S 38 

Dillon, Douglas 10,36 

Dreier, John C 30 

Edgar, Donald 38 

Eisenhower, President 19, 35 

Grayson, Cary T 38 

Hall, Ardelia M 38 

Hayes, John N 3S 

Herter, Secretary 4 

Hilton, Ralph 38 

Lightner, Edwin Allan, Jr 38 

Magdanz, James F 38 

Manell, Abram 38 

Mcintosh, Dempster 38 

Merrill, Frederick T 38 

Morrow, John Howard 38 

Phillips, Christopher H 26 

Robertson, Walter S 5 

Rountree, William M 38 

Thayer, Robert H 38 



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of the United States, 191f.l, Volume III, The British Commonwealth, 
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HE 

FFICIAL 

fEEKLY RECORD 
F 



Vol. XLI, No. 1046 July 13, 1959 

REPORT TO THE NATION: THE GENEVA FOREIGN 

MINISTERS CONFERENCE • Address by Secretary 
Herter 43 

HOW THE FREE WORLD CAN MEET THE COMMU- 
NIST CHALLENGE • By Parker T. Hart 51 

PRESIDENT URGES CONGRESS TO ACT ON DRAPER 
COMMITTEE'S RECOMMENDATIONS ON U.S. 
MILITARY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 

Letters From President Eisenhower to Vice President Nixon 

and Williant H. Draper, Jr 46 

Letter From Committee Transmitting Second Interim Report , 47 

PROMOTING THE PROGRESS AND EQUALITY OF 

WOjMEN • Article by Lorena B. Hahn 62 

PROSPECTS OF MIGRATION FROM EUROPE IN 

1959-60 • Article by George L. Warren 58 



NITED STATES 
DREIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



uoston ruDiic i^iorary 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 2 1953 



DEPOSITORY 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLI, No. 1046 • Publication 6847 
July 13, 1959 



Tor sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

fi2 Issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of tills publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nittions documents, and legis- 
{attt'c material in tlic field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Report to the Nation: The Geneva Foreign 
IVEinisters Conference 

Address hy Secretary Herter^ 



Fellow Americans: President Eisenhower has 
asked me to report to you tonight on where we 
stand after 6 weeks of the Geneva talks with the 
Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, 
France, and the Soviet Union.^ 

I regret to say that no significant progress was 
made toward settlement of the problem of the con- 
tinued division of Germany and of Berlin. 

My Western colleagues and I did not go to 
Geneva with any high hopes. We knew how diffi- 
cult it is to negotiate with the Soviet Union, but 
we negotiated earnestly and in good faith. The 
Soviets gave no indication of being interested in 
genuine negotiation. They engaged in a good 
deal of propaganda and some threats. Once 
again they demonstrated that they are not willing 
to rely on normal methods of transacting inter- 
national business. 

Unnatural Division of Germany 

The long-range Soviet aim is to keep Germany 
divided until the possibility exists of a single Ger- 
man state under Communist influence. The 
Soviet Union has year after year refused to allow 
the issue of German reunification to be put to the 
free electoral choice of the German people. 

As long as Germany remains unnaturally 
divided there will be a continued threat to the 
peace of the world. 

The problem of Berlin arises from this con- 



' Made to the Nation by television and radio on Jiue 23 
(press release 4.50). 

' For statements made by Mr. Herter during the Con- 
ference, see BunETiN of June 1, 1959, p. 775 ; June 8, 1959, 
p. 819 ; June 15, 1959, p. 859 ; June 29, 1959, p. 943 ; and 
July 6, 1959, p. 3. 

Ju/y 73, J 959 



tinned division of Germany. The Berlin issue can 
only be solved finally when Germany is reunified. 

Western Peace Plan Rejected by Soviets 

We put forward at Geneva a Western peace 
plan,^ designed to bring about the reunification of 
Germany. This plan was carefully phased into 
progressive arrangements for European security. 
It was especially designed to meet Soviet objec- 
tions to previous Western plans for German uni- 
fication. It provided for reunification of the 
country in a manner which would safeguard the 
best interests of the German people and of the 
other nations concerned. 

The Soviets flatly rejected the Western peace 
plan. They would not even consider it as a basis 
for discussion. Instead they proposed that a peace 
treaty be signed with two German governments — 
the Federal Republic of Germany and the Com- 
munist regime, the so-called. German Democratic 
Republic. By some curious logic which was never 
explained, Foreign Minister Gromyko argued that 
by thus making two peace settlements the cause 
of one Germany would be advanced. On the con- 
trary it seemed to us that the Soviet plan would 
assure the permanent partition of Germany. 

Soviet's "Free City" Proposal Unacceptable to West 

You will recall that last November the Soviet 
Union presented the Western Powers with a 
threatening proposal for what they called a "free 
city" status for West Berlin. If we did not ac- 
cept it, the U.S.S.R. said it would abandon its 
obligations to us in regard to Berlin.* 



" For text, see iUd., June 1, 1959, p. 779. 
* For text of Soviet note and U.S. reply, see ihid,., Jan. 19, 
in.-i9, p. 79. 

43 



In our judgment this proposal could only have 
led to the absorption of West Bei'lin into the Com- 
munist empire. Foreign Minister Gromyko 
frankly admitted at Geneva that this was the Ber- 
lin solution which the U.S.S.R. would like to see. 

It would sever West Berlin economic and 
political ties with West Gei-many. It would make 
West Berlin more and more dependent on the 
Communist system wliich surrounds it. It would 
deprive West Berlin of the protection afforded 
by the Western forces — either by eliminating them 
or reducing them drastically and by introducing 
Soviet forces into West Berlin. It would have 
required a major Western withdrawal from which 
the world would have drawn the lesson that Soviet 
brute strength was the ruling force in that part of 
Europe. 

The Soviets called their proposal for West Ber- 
lin a proposal for a "free city." By this they 
meant a city free of the protection of Allied forces 
and exposed to the pressures and inroads of the 
Communist area surrounding it. This was a 
typical example of Communist upside-down talk. 
The Soviets would take what is now in fact a free 
city and make it like East Berlin, which is now in 
fact a slave city. 

We must remember what this would mean in 
human terms. West Berlin's population of more 
than 2 million is gi'eater than the population of 
almost 20 percent of the member nations of the 
United Nations. Over half the States in the 
United States have fewer people than there are in 
West Berlin. The value of goods and services 
produced in West Berlin last year exceeded that of 
more than half of the member nations of the 
United Nations. 

How did the West Berliners themselves react to 
the Soviet proposal? Within a few weeks West 
Berlin elections showed that 98 percent of the 
voters supported parties whose programs called 
for the continued presence of the Western forces 
in Berlin. The courage these people exhibited is 
but a repetition of the courage they displayed at 
the time of the Soviet blockade 10 years ago. You 
may be sure that we will stand by people who stand 
by themselves. 

The Western Powers rejected this Soviet pro- 
posal and its associated threat. 

Becatiso Berlin is divided into a free part and a 
Communist part, its situation is certainly not 
ideal. The Western Powere made serious pro- 



posals to the Soviet Union for an interim settle- 
ment on Berlin which would insure the stability 
of the city until Germany is reunified. These pro- 
posals would have offered a basis for agreement if 
the real Soviet concern had been to reduce tension 
over Berlin. 

Agreement was not reached, however, because of 
one crucial obstacle: Foreign Minister Gromyko 
refused time and time again to discuss Western 
projjosals until the Soviet-proposed new status 
for the city had been agreed to. That new status 
was the so-called "free city," which was as unac- 
ceptable to us as when it was first put forward last 
November. 

In the later stages of our talks about Berlin the 
Soviets once again introduced threatening pro- 
posals. They called on the Western Powers to 
agree to a time limit, after which our rights to 
protect West Berlin would expire. They proposed 
a 1-year extension, wliich later, with a show of 
mock generosity, they increased to 18 months. We 
made it clear that the Western Powers were no 
more interested in negotiating under threat in the 
spring than in the fall. 

Wliile the Foreign Ministers were negotiating, 
the baneful influence of statements outside the 
conference by Mr. Khrushchev was clearly felt. 
On one occasion he stated that the Western seven- 
point program for Berlin did not contain a single 
element for negotiation. Then just before Mr. 
Gromyko presented his final paper Mr. Khru- 
shchev made a speech in Moscow in which he re- 
peated previous Soviet threats to abandon their 
responsibilities to the Western Powers concerning 
Berlin. These statements, reflected in the Soviet 
attitude at Geneva, made our attempts to negotiate 
practically fruitless. 

Heads of Government Meeting 

President Eisenhower has made quite clear his 
willingness to attend a meeting of the Heads of 
Government if such a meeting holds out some 
prospect of success. We believe that some degree 
of progi'ess in the Geneva negotiations is necessaiy 
if there is to exist such a prospect of success. Re- 
gretfully, no such progress has as yet been reg- 
istered at Geneva. 

Some Possible Areas of Agreement 

Did any good come out of the first session of the 
conference? I believe so. The Western peace 



44 



Deparfmenf of Slafe Bulletin 



plan for the reunification of Germany lias met with 
widespread approval around the world. History 
will, I believe, judge it to be a significant political 
offer looking to the solution of the key German 
problem. A study of this proposal shows that the 
Western allies are willing to go the "extra mile," of 
which President Eisenhower spoke in his state of 
tlie Union message last year,^ in order to make 
peace more secm-e. I still hope that the Soviet 
Union will give serious second thought to this 
proposal. 

In addition the Geneva talks demonstrated a 
high degree of unity among the Western allies. 
Allied unity was maintained from start to finish 
and was, if anything, even more solid at the end 
than at the beginning. 

Finally, the conference revealed possible areas 
of agreement concerning specific arrangements for 
Berlin. I believe that it may be possible to build 
on these areas of agreement if the Soviet Union is 
prepared to accept the continued existence of a free 
West Berlin under Western protection. 

This is the critical question. If the Soviet 
Union persists in its determination to add more 
than 2 million free West Berliners to the captive 
peoples of Eastern Europe, then no agreement is 
possible. However, if the Soviets do not hold to 
this annexationist design, we should be able to 
reach agreements on Berlin consistent with the 
honor and interest of all our countries. 

We again take up the Geneva talks on July 13. 
We will continue our efforts to find an area of 
agreement, but the United States will never com- 
promise the freedom of the brave people of West 
Berlin, who have placed their faith in our protec- 
tion. Our fate and the fate of the people of West 
Berlin and that of free people everywhere are 
linked together. Wlien their freedom is dimin- 
ished, our freedom is inevitably diminished. 

The path to a just peace will be long and diffi- 
cult. But I know that I speak for all of you when 
I say that we will continue with the patience and 
understanding and firmness needed to travel that 
path so long as it remains open. 



" Ibid.. Jan. 27, 1958, p. 115. 



United States and Panama Sign 
Atomic Energy Agreement 

The U.S. Atomic Energy Conmiission and the 
Department of State annoimced on Jmie 24 (press 
release 456) that representatives of the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Panama on that 
day signed at Washington an agreement for co- 
operation in research in the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy. The agreement was signed for the United 
States by Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- 
American Affairs R. R. Rubottom, Jr., and Com- 
missioner of the Atomic Energy Commission John 
S. Graham and for Panama by Ambassador Ri- 
cardo M. Arias. 

Under the agreement the Government of 
Panama will receive information as to the design, 
construction, and operation of nuclear research 
reactors and their use as research, development, 
and engineering devices. Private American citi- 
zens and organizations will be authorized by the 
agreement to supply appropriate nuclear equip- 
ment and related services to the Panamanian 
Government or authorized private persons under 
its jurisdiction. 

The agreement also provides that the U.S. 
Atomic Energy Commission may lease uranium 
to the Panamanian Government. The quantity 
of such material in the custody of the Government 
of Panama at any time may not be in excess of 
6 kilograms of U-235 in uranium enriched up to 
a maximum of 20 percent U-235, plus such addi- 
tional quantity as the Commission considers neces- 
sary to permit the efficient and continuous 
operation of reactors while replaced elements are 
cooling or in transit. Permitted also is transfer 
of gram quantities of U-235, U-233, and pluto- 
nium for defined research projects related to the 
peaceful uses of atomic energy. Panama assumes 
responsibility for safeguarding the fissionable 
material used. 

The agreement further provides for the ex- 
change of unclassified information in the research 
reactor field, in related health and safety matters, 
and in the use of radioactive isotopes in physical 
and biological research, medical therapy, agri- 
culture, and industry. 



July 13, 1959 



45 



President Urges Congress To Act on Draper Committee's Recommendations 
on U.S. Military Assistance Program 



Following are letters from President Eisen- 
hower to Vice President Nixon and William H. 
Draper, Jr., chairman of the Presidenfs Commit- 
tee To Study the United States Military Assist- 
ance Program, together with a letter from the 
Committee submitting its second interim report to 
the President. 



THE PRESIDENT'S LETTERS 



Wliite House press release dated June 24 



The President to Mr. Nixon > 



June 24, 1959 



Dear Mr. Vice President: I transmit for the 
consideration of the Congress a report on the 
Organization and Administration of the Military 
Assistance Program,^ submitted to the President 
on June 3, 1959 by the President's Committee to 
Study the United States Military Assistance 
Program. 

I am in full agi-eement with the basic concepts 
enumerated by the Committee in its letter, and 
urge that the Congress provide for continuing 
authorizations for the Military Assistance Pro- 
gram, and hereafter make appropriations for mili- 
tary assistance to the Secretary of Defense under 
a separate title in the Department of Defense 
budget. In addition, I believe that legislative ac- 
tion along the lines suggested by the Executive 
Branch is necessary to clarify the responsibilities 
of the Departments of State and Defense in the 



^ An identical letter, with a copy of the report, was sent 
to Representative Sam Raybum, Si)ealier of the Ilouse of 
Representatives. 

' H. Doc. 186, 86th Cong., 1st sess. 



administration of the Military Assistance 
Program. 

The remainder of the principal recommenda- 
tions in the Committee's letter largely pertain to 
administrative actions which could be taken within 
the Executive Branch without additional legisla- 
tive authorization. These proposals as I interpret 
them are acceptable to me, and the appropriate 
executive agencies are now studying them and will 
make appropriate recommendations for my early 
consideration and approval with respect to their 
implementation. 
Sincerely, 

DWIGHT D. ElSENHOWXR 

The Honorable Richard M. Nexon 
President of the Senate 
United States Senate 
Washington, D.C. 



Tite President to Mr. Draper 



June 24, 1959 



Dear Bill : I want to thank you and the other 
members of your Committee for the thoughtful 
Second Interim Report of the President's Com- 
mittee to Study the U.S. Military Assistance Pro- 
gi-am, which was summarized in the letter of June 
3, 1959, submitting the report. 

Let me say first that I fully concur in your Com- 
mittee's judgment as to the high importance of as- 
suring that the Military Assistance Program is 
organized and administered as efficiently and 
effectively as possible. Your exploration of these 
aspects of the program has been most useful and 
timely. 

Your Committee in its Juno '.\ letter unani- 



46 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



mously recommends acceptance of two basic 
concepts : 

(1) The strengthening of tlie position of the 
State Department on the jjolicy level of military 
assistance planning and an increased assurance of 
the conformity of the Military Assistance Pro- 
gram to foreign policy and to related assistance 
programs. 

(2) The focusing of responsibility on the De- 
partment of Defense for planning, programming 
and execution of military assistance within the 
framework of policy guidance laid down in the 
National Security Council and by the Department 
of State. 

I am fully in agreement with these concepts. 

I also consider the principal recommendations 
outlined in the letter of the Committee for effectu- 
ating these basic concepts to be valuable and well 
reasoned. Two of these recommendations, pro- 
viding for a continuing authorization of military 
assistance and appropriating for military assist- 
ance as i^art of the Department of Defense budget, 
require legislative action. In transmitting copies 
of your report to the Congress, I am indicating my 
support of these proposals. I have also approved 
the substance of a legislative proposal to clarify 
the respective responsibilities of the Departments 
of State and Defense in the Military Assistance 
Program. 

The remainder of the principal recommenda- 
tions contained in your letter of transmittal 
largely pertain to administrative actions which 
could be taken within the Executive Branch with- 
out additional legislative authorization. These 
proposals as I interpret them are acceptable to 
me, and the appropriate executive agencies are 
now making a detailed study of these pro- 
posals and will give to me, for my early considera- 
tion, recommendations with respect to their 
implementation. 

I am in complete accord with your conclusion as 
to the necessity for continuing reappraisal and 
critical evaluation of our military assistance pro- 
grams to assure that such progi'ams do not tend to 
continue simply through their own existing 
momentum beyond the period of their real need. 

May I once again thank you and the members of 
your Committee for the earnest study of and con- 
structive suggestions about our vital Militray As- 



sistance Program. In these troubled times I can 
think of no more important problem upon which 
the devoted attention of outstanding citizens is 
needed. As I have noted many times, our Military 
Assistance Program is a vital part of our total 
security effort. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The Honorable William H. Draper, Jr. 

Chair7nan 

The Presidenfs Committee To Stvdy the United 

States Military Assistance Program 
708 Jackson Place, N.W. 
Washington 25, D.C. 

COMMITTEE'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

June 3, 1959 

Dear Mr. President : Based upon continued studies 
since our first Interim Report on Marcli 17, 1959,' we are 
submitting to you our second Interim Report. Ttiis report 
deals witli "The Orgayiization and Administration of the 
Military Assistance Program." 

We expect to submit to you in tlie near future our 
recommendations on the economic assistance program. 

We reiterate our unanimous belief that the United 
States and the free world are gravely threatened ; that the 
military threat of the communist dictatorships is greater 
than ever ; that, likewise, the communist economic and 
political threat and capability are increasing. 

While there is at the moment no widespread military 
conflict with the communist bloc, free world forces bol- 
stered by our assistance are in fact confronting the 
enemy on many fronts. In certain areas, hostilities are 
suspended only by uneasy truces. 

We have seen the development in recent years of a new 
dimension of the communist threat: The effective use by 
the communist dictators of military and economic aid 
programs. These dictators, not accountable to their 
people, move with great speed and flexibility in using their 
aid programs in support of their aggressive aims to take 
over or subvert additional free world countries. 

The scope and purposes of our Military Assistance Pro- 
gram have changed markedly since the program was be- 
gun some ten years ago as a hastily instituted series of 
measures to meet commimist aggression in particular 
areas. Our programs have now grown to include assist- 
ance to nations which are clearly threatened with aggres- 
sion or subversion. From mere reaction to overt actions 
our policy has developed into one of anticipation of 
threatened events and the building of collective security. 
It has thus become a basic portion of the defense structure 



" For text, see Bulletin of June 1, 1959, p. 797. 



July 13, 1959 



47 



of the free world and a bulwark of the long-range security 
interests of the United States. 

Concurrently with the evolution of this concept, the 
nature and character of our Military Assistance Program 
have undergone significant change. Our early programs 
consisted largely of shipments of conventional weapons 
drawn from post World War II stocks. Today, to meet the 
manifest needs of an adequate free world defense posture, 
new weapons having varying degrees of complexity ap- 
propriate to particular areas, are required. 

Since many of the threatened free world nations are not 
capable of producing and paying for essential weapons, 
there is a clear need for military assistance. To eliminate 
or drastically reduce military aid to a country which is 
part of the present front line defense would constitute 
disengagement or withdrawal. This would, as certainly as 
in war, result in the loss of free world positions. And, 
since the threat will be with us for a long time, our 
planning and programming should be grounded on a long- 
term approach. 

The administration of the Military Assistance Program 
has greatly improved through the years. Nonetheless, 
there remain serious deficiencies in planning and execu- 
tion. These require correction if military assistance is to 
make its maximum contribution. We are convinced that 
our assistance programs must be administered with in- 
creased speed and greater flexibility, and that this can be 
done effectively under our democratic processes. 

An urgent need in this field is so to organize the admin- 
istration of the Military Assistance Program that our aid 
can be provided on a selective basis in timely anticipation 
of threatened aggression. Only so can we build the kind of 
collective strength that must underlie our efforts to deter 
or turn back those tempted to use force to achieve the 
subjugation of free nations. 

By thi.s, we do not mean to Imply that all of our existing 
military assistance programs must be regarded as a 
permanent part of our national security position. For 
unless we do a selective job in this respect, we surely run 
the risk of dissipating, in response to competing demands 
of many nations, the quantities of materials and support 
available year after year. 

For this reason we recommend that there be reflected 
in the administrative process the substantive concept of 
selectivity, namely, that a continuing critical program re- 
view be provided in the Executive Department ; that 
such review be made in the light of our basic national se- 
curity strategy and that of the free world; that such 
review take into account the ability of other nations to 
provide their own share in the concept of true mutual 
security ; and that any military assistance proposals 
which are not found conducive to the security interests 
of the United States be eliminated from our military as- 
sistance programs. Without such continuing reappraisiU 
and evaluation, there is danger that such programs tend 
to continue simply through their own existing momentum 
as a drain on limited resources beyond the i)eriod of their 
real need. Without such technique of selectivity In its 
administration, even this essential program cannot long 
endure. 



The Committee is convinced that the key to successful 
admini.stration of the program lies in an effective work- 
ing relationship between the Departments of State and 
Defense. This will require restraint by the Department 
of State against becoming involved in the details of opera- 
tions, a willing acceptance by the Department of Defense 
of competent and timely foreign policy guidance, the de- 
velopment in the Department of State of a thoroughgoing 
capacity to provide this guidance, and a workable system 
through which proper execution of plans and adequate 
ability to effect necessary changes in programs is as- 
sured. The central role in such a system of meaningful 
and effective foreign policy guidance, utilized on behalf 
of the President and the Secretary of State, must be tliat 
of the State Department. 

The Committee recommends acceptance of the follow- 
ing two basic concepts : 

(1) The strengthening of the position of the State 
Department on the policy level of military assistance 
planning and an increased assurance of the conform- 
ity of the Military Assistance Program to foreign 
policy and to related assistance programs. 

(2) The focussing of responsibility on the Depart- 
ment of Defense for planning, programming and 
execution of military assistance within the framework 
of policy guidance laid down in the National Security 
Council and by the Department of State. 

Our principal recommendations giving effect to these 
two concepts are: 

Military assistance should be planned and pro- 
grammed on a long term basis, covering a period 
of three and ultimately five years. 

There should be a continuing authorization 
for the military assistance appropriation, in or- 
der to provide a sound legislative framework for 
multi-year planning and programming. 

The militai-y assistance appropriation should 
be placed in the Department of Defense budget, 
in order to center responsibility for administer- 
ing the program more positively in the Defense 
Department. 

Military assistance plans should be formulated 
within order of magnitude dollar guidelines to 
ensure feasibility and should be approved by the 
Secretaries of State and Defense before 
implementation. 

The Department of State and the Ambassadors 
should participate at an earlier sitage in the 
development of military assistJUK'e plans. 

Military assistance planning and programming 
should be further decentralized to the United 
States Unified Commands overseas and to the 
Military Assistance Advisory GrouiKS. 

Provision should be made for more adequate 
consultation with recipient countries during mlli- 
tiiry assistance planning. 

The Department of Defense should have clearer 
operational responsibility for planning, program- 
ming and execution of military assistjince. 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Executive Branch should assure that 
funds for the procurement of military assistance 
materiel are made available to the military de- 
partments more promptly after appropriation ; 
the military dei>artments, in turn, should ac- 
celerate procurement and supply actions to ex- 
pedite actual deliveries overseas of military end 
items. 

There should be est;iblished within the Defense 
Deimrtment a Director of Military Assistance. 

There should be established within the De- 
fense Department an independent evaluation 
staff. 

Highly qualified and experienced personnel 
should be assigned to the program. 

Most of the changes we recommend can be carried out by 
actions within the Executive Branch. However, two of 
our recommendations are deijendent directly or indirectly 
upon legislative action. They are : 

(1) That you include the request for the military 
assistance appropriation for Fiscal Year 1961 in the 
Defense Department budget and submit it to the 
Congress in a separate title of the regular Defense 
Department Appropriation bill, with the appropria- 
tion to be made directly to the Department of De- 
fense ; and 

(2) That at the current session of Congress you re- 
quest a revision of the Mutual Security Act of 1954 
to place the authorization for military assistance on 
a continuing basis. 

Our recommendations are set out in greater detail in 
the rejxirt we are submitting to you. The remainder of 
our report consists of a discussion of the background of 
our recommendations and specific procedures for putting 
them into effect. 

In our judgment, acceptance of our unanimous recom- 
mendations should lead to substantial improvement in 
the administration of the Military Assistance Program. 
The extreme complexities of the program are such, how- 
ever, that maximum results can be obtained only with 
the continuous command attention of all top level person- 
nel in the Executive Branch responsible for the various 
parts of the program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

DiiiON Anderson 
Joseph M. Dodge 
Alfred M. Gruenthee 
Mabx Leva 
John J. McClot 
George McGhee 
Joseph T. McNabnet 
Abthur W. Radford 
James E. Webb 



WrLLiAM H. Draper, Jr. 
Chairman 



The President 
The White House 
WiMhington 25, D.C. 



French Resistance Veterans 
Visit Washington 

Tlie Department of State announced on June 
24 (press release 457) that Deputy Under Secre- 
tary Murphy would give a reception at the Presi- 
dent's Guest House that day for the group of 45 
French Resistance veterans who visited this coun- 
try between Jiuie 21 and 28 as the guests of the 
veterans of the Office of Strategic Services. 

The veterans of the Office of Strategic Services 
organized this trip as an expression of their appre- 
ciation for the splendid cooperation they received 
from members of the French Eesistance during 
the war. The French Resistance leaders chosen 
to come to the United States were chosen from the 
several thousand who worked closely with the 
United States forces during the war. The gi'oup 
includes 38 men and 7 women, all of whom were 
active in sabotage intelligence or escape chains. 



Robert Fiske To Head NATO 
Production and Logistics Division 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF APPOINTMENT 

The Department of State annomiced on June 
23 (press release 455) that NATO Secretary Gen- 
eral Paul-Henri Spaak has approved the appoint- 
ment of Robert Bishop Fiske of New York City 
and Hamburg, Conn., to be Assistant Secretary 
General of NATO and Head of the Production 
and Logistics Division of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization. Mr. Fiske will succeed 
Ernest H. Meile of New York. 

The Production and Logistics Division of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization is responsible 
for the most efficient use of the Alliance's resources 
in the production of military equipment. It stud- 
ies problems of the supply, production, and 
standardization of equipment and supervises the 
NATO infrastructure program. The establish- 
ment of the Hawk Production Organization, under 
which five European NATO member countries 
will cooperate in the coordinated production of the 
Hawk antiaircraft missile for use by military 
forces of NATO member countries, is one of the 



July 13, 1959 



49 



recent achievements of NATO's Production and 
Logistics Division. 

DESCRIPTION OF HAWK MISSILE ORGANIZA- 
TION 

Following is the text of a press release issued by 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization at Paris 
on June 18 announcing the formation of the Hawh 
Production Organization. 

A new NATO agency to supervise the coordi- 
nated production in Europe of the Hawk missile 
has now been created. This agency will be known 
as the Hawk Production Organization and will 
consist of a Board of Directors and a small man- 
agement office. The govermnents of the five 
countries concerned, Belgium, France, Germany, 
Italy, and the Netherlands, will be represented on 
the Board by one principal and one alternative 
representative. There will also be a special repre- 
sentative and alternative representative from the 
United States. 

The Hawk, developed by the Raytheon Manu- 
facturing Co. and currently entering service in 
the U.S. Army, is a highly mobile, supersonic, 
surface-to-air missile system which is effective 
against enemy aircraft to altitudes above 55,000 
feet. The special characteristic of the Hawk 
which distinguishes it from other antiaircraft 
missiles, however, is its extreme effectiveness 
against aircraft flying at the lowest levels. 

Five European companies. Ateliers de Construc- 
tions Electriques de Charleroi (ACEC) of Bel- 
gium, Thomson-Houston (CFTH) of France, 
Telefunken of Germany, Finmeccanica of Italy, 
and N. V. Philips of the Netherlands, have 
pooled their efforts for the overall management of 
the project by forming an international corpora- 
tion organized under French laws and known as 
SETEL, Societe Europeenne de Teleguidage. 



Each company will produce selected components 
and subassemblies of the weapon system, and final 
assembly will be accomplished by SETEL in 
France. 

The U.S. Govenmient will provide the necessary 
technical information, including drawings, spec- 
ifications, and sample equipment, and the Ray- 
theon Manufacturing Co. and their U.S. subcon- 
tractors, including Northrop Aircraft, Inc., and 
the Aerojet General Corp., will work directly with 
the European companies to transfer the necessary 
teclmical and production know-how. 

This marks the first success of the NATO policy 
established in the December 1957 NATO Heads of 
Government meeting,^ at which the U.S. promised 
NATO nations help in establishing large-scale 
production of advanced type weapons in Europe. 

The agreement represents the culmination of 
many months of discussion and planning between 
the govermnents and industrial experts of the five 
European countries and the United States, which 
was sponsored by the Production and Logistics 
Division of the NATO International Staff. This 
project will serve as the precedent for future joint 
efforts within NATO in the field of cooperative 
production of modern weapons. 

Robert Hale Named Member 
of U.S.-Swiss Commission 

The Wliite House announced on June 26 that 
President Eisenhower had on that date appointed 
Robert Hale to be the American member of the 
Permanent Commission of Conciliation, Treaty of 
Arbitration and Conciliation between the United 
States and Switzerland. 



'■ For background, see Bulletin of Jan. 6, 1958, p. 3, and 
Jan. 13, 195S, p. 47. 



50 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



How the Free World Can Meet the Communist Challenge 



by Parker T. Hart 

Deputy Asdfstant Secretary for Near Eastern and South Asian Afjairs ^ 



We have been considering tliis afternoon the 
Communist challenge to the many countries 
across the breadth of Africa and Asia which make 
up the Islamic world. I have been asked to ad- 
dress myself to the question : "How the Free 
World Can Meet the Communist Challenge." 
Perhaps in this room is foimd a clue to an ulti- 
mate answer. I believe we are on the way to 
facing this challenge when the Asian and the 
African, the European and the American, assem- 
ble in spirit all over the world as we assemble 
here to ponder our common problem and consider 
an approach. 

This is as it should be, for in this global strug- 
gle Islam and Christendom are natural if not al- 
ways conscious allies. Our two civilizations are 
so interwoven that, in things of the spirit, no 
science can determine the location of the prime 
meridian that separates East from West. Our 
religions are inspired by the universality of the 
Supreme Deity. Our cultures have been mutually 
enriched for centuries by the flow of arts and 
sciences from East to West and back again. We 
have long met in each other's market places, buy- 
ing and selling our goods and services to the profit 
of all. And fijially, in this gigantic conflict to 
determine the nature of tomorrow's world, the 
political aspirations of the peoples of Asia and 
Africa and those of the Western democracies in 
all the larger issues closely coincide. We are 
moved by the same basic urge for freedom and 
independence of the individual and of the group 
of his free choice. 

In fact such disagreements as we have in our 



' Address made before the Council on Islamic Affairs, 
Inc., at New York, N.Y., on June 18 (press release 440). 



midst relate largely to the manner and the speed 
with which the independence of individuals and 
groups are to be interrelated and moved forward 
rather than to the principle itself. Majorities 
and minorities must mutually adjust as new states 
are bom, and interdependence must wrestle with 
independence. Some serious friction is inherent 
as this process occurs. The overriding fact is that 
the trend in Asia and Africa is toward self-gov- 
ernment and away from subordination to remote 
control. Free and independent societies in Asia 
and Africa have nothing in the long run to fear 
in a free world, once this process of internal and 
mutual adjustment is worked out. Both would 
lose all freedom of individual or group if their 
liberation movements were captured by interna- 
tional communism. 

It is natural and healthy that each of us views 
the Communist challenge in his own way and that 
each has his pai"ticular reaction. Our group 
vision is filtered through the glass of our distinc- 
tive national psychology. Our thoughts develop 
according to our national pliilosophy. But, al- 
though our concepts may differ, it is important 
that we share to the fullest an understanding of 
those aspects of the challenge wliich lend them- 
selves to a common or to a parallel approach 
throughout the free world and especially in Asia, 
Africa, and America. 

Free-World Defense Shield 

First, it is apparent that a good part of the free 
world has had to arm and organize to meet the 
challenge and that the shield thereby forged 
against militant international communism not 
only must not be weakened but must be reinforced. 

Ever since it became apparent in the months 



My J 3, J 959 



51 



and years immediately after the end of the war 
against the Axis that the Soviet Union was em- 
barked on a campaign for world domination 
which could be met in the last analysis only by 
the combined forces of the main power centers of 
tlie free world, the United States has been obliged 
to shed a cherished policy of isolation and to make 
an enormous effort to build up its own defenses and 
those of all who saw the tlu'eat as innnediate and 
compelling and who sought our aid. 

The United States has been obliged by grim 
experience to recognize that militai-y combina- 
tions are necessary in many areas to hold at bay 
the powerful armies of Communist imperialism. 
These armies, by long definition, have the mission 
not only to defend the mobilization base of com- 
munism but to assist Communist forces elsewhere, 
notably in adjacent territories, whenever the 
progress of world revolution can thereby be ad- 
vanced. This was proven beyond all doubt by 
the flagrant military aggressions lamiched under 
the cloak of national movements in Korea and 
Viet-Nam. With the death of Stalin this pol- 
icy has never been disavowed, and, if it were, the 
disavowal would be intended strictly to disarm 
future targets. The policy cannot in fact be dis- 
carded by Soviet leaders without a fundamental 
change in Soviet philosophy — something we hope 
nevertheless to assist in ultimately bringing about 
by rendering Kremlin- or Peiping-directed mili- 
tary adventures too risky to attempt. 

Now it is understandable that tliis network of 
free-world defense should not be seen in the same 
light by countries which have never directly ex- 
perienced the Soviet threat as by those which have 
experienced it intimately and to their cost. In 
fact large areas of Asia and Africa which have 
been acquiring their independence from certain 
members of this defense system are most eager at 
this stage for nonalinement. Some continue to be 
plagued by serious issues with the colonial powers, 
and some are still emerging from dependency to 
self-government by a difficult and painful road. 
Their situation must be understood and respected 
by those who are active participants in free- world 
defense. 

The free world is not seeking additions to its 
defense system against the will of the people con- 
cerned. Unwilling allies would not only be im- 
helpful but actually dangerous. By the same 
token, however, tliose nations wliich for imder- 



standable reasons prefer nonalinement can assist 
in meeting the challenge of communism by recog- 
nizing the utility of the defense shield, even 
though such recognition be tacit. We would hope 
they will not be misled by those dedicated to 
undermine it. 

Exposing Communism to Glare of Publicity 

Second, the free world, including free xVsia, 
Africa, and America, must take the following 
course of action — whether together or in paral- 
lel — if it is to meet this challenge: It must ex- 
pose inexorably and continually to the glare of 
publicity the cloak mider which international 
communism operates in our midst. This is one 
treatment to which the movement does not take 
kindly at all, and we would do well to bear down 
on it increasingly. We in America discovered 
after the last war how hard communism tried to 
penetrate our Government, our labor mo^-ement, 
and certain of our professions. The discovery in- 
cluded revelations of what this had cost us — and 
the free world — in terms of security, and it was 
done by the U.S.S.R. while allied with us in the 
war. In Asia and Africa the strategy of Com- 
munist penetration of nationalist movements was 
laid down by Stalin in 1913 in his Naflonalism 
and the Colonial Question and reiterated and ex- 
panded after the revolution by Lenin in two 
important tlieses to assemblies of the Third In- 
ternational. Now the young of Asia and Africa 
are undei-standably impatient to close the gap 
with the mid-20th century, and they are intensely 
frustrated by the physical and social obstacles 
which slow their progress. 

Frustration prolonged leads to extremism, and 
extremism in societies, as among individuals, gives 
the purposeful interloper his great opportunity. 
No customer is more vulnerable to the swindler 
than the one who is overeager, nor is any society 
more easily subverted than one torn by a loss of 
faith in its power to adapt, to correct abuses, and 
to achieve rapid progress. It is then that the pur- 
poseful cadres of Moscow-trained men move at 
will. This is their element, and they know liow 
to find their way to their objectives through the 
tornado of passions which shreds the fabric of 
ancient rights and obligations. They insure that 
arguments become street fights and street fights 
pitclied baltles. They know the value of blood- 
shed in shattering faith in law. Stalin in his 



52 



Department of State Bulletin 



Problems of Leninism wrote t.liat the merit of 
Leniii was that he luiderstood the importance of 
revolution by force. When the fabric is hopelessly 
torn and the population has lost its sense of di- 
rection, the Communists are the first to take ad- 
vantage. They have a plan and an organization. 
Construction of the state proceeds in accordance 
with specifications long since prepared in the 
Communist mobilization base. The extremist 
who has been the Communist's unwitting ally is 
now brought to heel or liquidated. The direction 
of social change is now in Communist hands. Let 
those who wonder whether these hands are respon- 
sive to the will of the people — or to the will of an 
outside force — question the Tibetan, the East Ger- 
man, the north Vietnamese, or the Hungarian 
refugees. 

Cultural Interchange 

Third, let us share oiu* values and our store of 
knowledge on a greatly increased scale. Inter- 
change is the great leaven of spiritual as well as 
cultural strength. Independent America lived in 
isolation for well over a century. If we do not al- 
ways seem to imderstand you, teach us and give us 
time to absorb. The American public is vast, but 
it is anything but monolithic and it is not con- 
trolled by the Government. That quite the con- 
trary is the case is readily apparent to all who 
travel and study here. It is a receptive public 
with a profoimd sense of fair play and an ex- 
ceptional willingness to give a lift to him who 
struggles toward a better life. 

The American public in a very real sense is a 
sounding board for the world. Even interna- 
tional commmiism knows this, instructs its agents 
in it, and has attempted to apply this knowledge. 
We invite Asians and Africans to study us as they 
teach us about themselves. No fi-ee government 
can do more than a limited amount to finance 
student scholarships and cultural interchange. 
Organizations of private citizens, as exemplified 
by the one under whose auspices we meet today, 
should be generated and multiplied. Let us not 
simply call on our govermnents; let us develop 
the habit of "do it youreelf." 

In recent years certain towns, villages, and 
cities in this coimtry have undertaken direct 
friendly contact with municipal centers abroad, 
extending scholarships, raising money for emer- 
gencies, and exchanging leading visitors and flats. 



This was not initiated or even conceived in Wash- 
ington. It just sprang up. If I remember 
rightly, a small town in upper New York 
"adopted" a city in Pakistan. Was it rather pre- 
tentious in view of the disparity in size? It was 
not so interpreted in Pakistan, and the exchanges 
of visits and messages created a bond halfway 
across the world which I know has enriched the 
lives of the people of the little American com- 
munity. I hope it also did something for the life 
of the larger Asian city far away. 

Our changing world is engaged in a mammoth 
i-eappraisal in the realm of the spirit. Let us 
share this effort. Communism is a way of life 
and must be answered by a better way of life. 
Our religious leaders have much to give to one 
another in the search for divine guidance and for 
messages to convey to their own people. Think- 
ing Christians of today welcome the construction 
of the Washington Mosque and of centers of Is- 
lamic studies in this country. Out of deeper 
mutual understanding will come an identification 
of common truths. 

Developing Social and Economic Strength 

Fourth, we must help each other in the develop- 
ment of social and economic strength. I shall not 
burden you with a recitation of our own aid pro- 
grams, past and present, nor seek to forecast their 
future. The United States Congi-ess is presently 
considering the question of foreign military and 
economic assistance for the coming fiscal year. 
As each Congressman and Senator comes to his 
own decision, he keeps constantly in mind the re- 
action of the taxpayer, the man who elected him. 
What does he want from liis contributions to for- 
eign aid ? How much is he willing to give and to 
whom? Wliat are his criteria for the program's 
success ? 

I believe that Americans as a whole have come 
to the conclusion that the results of aid are to be 
measured not by the acquisition of promises, of 
base agreements, or even statements of gratitude 
from the recipients. Results are measured by 
the degree to which free men abroad are moving 
toward self-reliance, better health, greater stabil- 
ity, and deeper recognition of the rights of the in- 
dividual. Healthy self-realization is the best im- 
munization of less developed nations against the 
Communist appeal to the frustrated in their midst. 
Communism builds on negativism and despair ; it 



iu\Y 73, 1959 



53 



cannot flourish where there is liope, confidence, 
and sense of achievement. 

The United States is historically attached to 
the principle of noninterference in the internal 
affairs of other states. We do not barter our eco- 
nomic aid for political concessions. Our aid car- 
ries with it no obligation to accept our advice, 
much less our direction. And we will continue 
to demonstrate by strict adherence to the practice 
of noninterference that we respect the solemn 
right of the peoples of Asia and Africa to create 
such institutions and pursue such policies as they 
consider appropriate and to handle their affairs 
without pressure from abroad. 

This being said it should also be made clear 
that we do not urge acceptance of our aid on any- 
one. Our burdens are already huge and still 
growing. Rather would I encourage here today 
a better climate for investment in Asia and Africa 
and the development there of better agricultural 
methods, a multiplication of trade and of condi- 
tions under which Asian and African initiative, 
in partnership with sound Western business inter- 
ests, may generate local industry and the growth 
of the skills and purchasing power that accom- 
pany it. Diversification of crops is as badly 
needed as is the generation of local industry. De- 
pendency on Soviet barter to solve recurrent mar- 
keting crises of a one-crop economy is not a prom- 
ising way to meet the Communist challenge. Here 
our own great agricultural surpluses present both 
an opportunity and a problem to Asia and Africa. 
We shall continue to do what we can to assist in 
the orderly development of the trade of vulner- 
able and sensitive economies while responding to 
food and fiber shortages where requested and 
when the need is clear. 

Free World's Message to the Unfree 

Lastly, we must make the message of freedom 
known to every corner of the Communist-domi- 
nated world. In saying this I am fully cognizant 
of the fact that not every part of what we call 
free Asia and Africa considers itself as yet free. 
We cannot be complacent about our champion- 
ship of freedom as long as the free world itself is 
embittered by struggles over self-determination. 
To the task of building evolutionary — as distinct 
from violent revolutionary — self-government we 
must continue to bend our best minds and our 
hearts in the spirit of the United Nations Char- 



ter. An immense work has been done since the 
end of the last war; over 700 million people who 
were under outside rule have earned their free- 
dom. The trend is clear. Let us therefore pro- 
ceed in confidence, understanding, and patience, 
recognizing that steady progress must be made if 
we are to avoid the extremism which gives com- 
munism its greatest opportunity. 

Meanwhile the free world need not mute its 
message to the unfree. It can be carried by many 
voices and from all quarters of the globe. It can 
be borne by individuals as well as by mass media. 
It is by no means the prerogative of the Western 
defense alliance to alone speak of freedom. As 
Asian and African societies come steadily of age, 
their voices already count for many listeners far 
more than do ours. "WHien those who are behind 
the curtain at last comprehend that new free so- 
cieties are springing up in Asia and Africa and 
that their peoples enjoy under self-government a 
rapidly improving standard of life, the effect may 
well be more profound than any voice that comes 
from the West and perhaps more permanent than 
any measure which we may otherwise take to meet 
the challenge of international communism. 



President Amends Executive Order 
on Administration off P.L. 480 

White House pres3 release dated June 25 
WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

The President issued an Executive order on 
June 25 further providing for the administration 
of the Agricultural Trade Development and As- 
sistance Act of 1954, as amended (Public Law 
480). 

The order assigns to certain Federal agencies 
responsibility for the use of foreign currencies, 
accruing; from the sale of agricultural commodities 
under that act, for purposes stated in the authori- 
zations added by the Congress in 1958 to section 
104 of the act, as follows: 

1. Eesponsibility for the collection, translation, 
and dissemination of scientific and technological 
information under section 104 (k) is placed in the 
National Science Foundation or any other agency 
designated by the Director of the Bureau of the 
Budget after consultation with appropriate Gov- 



54 



DepaTtmen\ of Sfafe Bulletin 



ernment agencies. Responsibility for the conduct 
and support of other scientific activities overseas 
under the same section is assigned to any agency 
designated by the Director of the Bureau of the 
Budget after similar consultation. 

2. The Department of State is given responsi- 
bility for the acquisition of buildings and related 
facilities abroad under section 104(1) of the act 
and also for providing assistance to American- 
sponsored educational institutions and for sup- 
porting workshops and chairs in American studies 
under section 104(o) of the act. 

3. Responsibility for financing participation in 
trade fairs and related activities under section 
104(m) of the act is placed in the United States 
Information Agency, while that for participation 
in agricultural and horticultural fairs is given to 
the Department of Agriculture. 

4. The Librarian of Congress is made responsi- 
ble for financing programs outside the United 
States under section 104 (n) of the act for the 
evaluation, acquisition, reproduction, translation, 
and dissemination of foreign books and periodicals 
and for their deposit in libraries and research cen- 
ters in the United States. 

5. The order also enables the Development Loan 
Fluid to participate in the administration of loans 
to permit multilateral trade and economic devel- 
opment under section 104(g) of the act. 

EXECUTIVE ORDER 10827> 

Further Providing for the Administration op the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
OF 1954, as Amended 

By virtue of the authority vested in me hy section 301 of 
title 3 of tlie United States Code, and as President of the 
United States, it is ordered that sections 4 and 5 of Execu- 
tive Order No. 105G0 of September 9, 1954, as amended,^ 
be, and they are hereby, further amended to read as 
follows : 

Sec. 4. Foreign currencies, (a) (1) The amounts of 
foreign currencies which accrue under Title I of the Act 
to be used for the loans described in section 104(g) of the 
Act, and the amounts of such currencies to be used for 
loans by the Export-Import Bank pursuant to section 
4(d) (5) of this order, shall be the amounts thereof .spec- 
ified, or shall be the amounts thereof corresponding to the 
dollar amounts specified, for such loans in sales agree- 
ments entered into pursuant to section 3(a) of this order. 



' 24 Fed. Reg. 5233. 

' For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1954, p. 501. 



The Department of State mny allocate or transfer to the 
Development Loan Fund foreign currencies to be used for 
loans made by the latter under section 104(g) of the Act 
in pursuance of section 4(d) (7) (i) hereof. 

(2) Except as otherwise provided in section 4(a)(1) 
above, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall from 
time to time fix the amounts of foreign currencies which 
accrue under Title I of the Act to be used for the purposes 
described in the respective lettered paragraphs of .section 
104 of the Act (including purposes linanced with foreign 
currencies acquired, or to be acquired, with funds ap- 
propriated by the Congress pursuant to the Act) and, to 
such extent as may be necessary, shall allocate the 
amounts so fixed among the Government agencies 
concerned. 

(3) The function conferred upon the President by the 
la-st proviso of section 104 of the Act of waiving the ap- 
plicability of section 1415 of the Supplemental Appropria- 
tion Act, 1953 (31 U.S.C. 724), is hereby delegated to the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby author- 
ized to prescribe regulations governing the purchase, cus- 
tody, deposit, transfer, and sale of foreign currencies 
received under the Act. 

(c) The foregoing provisions of this section shall not 
limit section 3 of this order, and the foregoing subsection 
(b) shall not limit subsection (a) above. 

(d) The purposes described in the lettered paragraphs 
of section 104 of the Act shall be carried out, with foreign 
currencies made available in consonance with law and the 
provisions of this order, as follows : 

(1) Those under sections 104(a) and 104(m) (B) of 
the Act by the Department of Agriculture. 

(2) Those under section 104(b) of the Act by the Of- 
fice of Civil and Defense Mobilization. The function con- 
ferred upon the President b.y that section of determining, 
from time to time, materials to be contracted for or to be 
purchased for a supplemental stockpile is hereby delegated 
to the Director of the Oflice of Civil and Defense 
Mobilization. 

(3) Those under section 104(c) of the .\ct by the De- 
partment of Defense or the Department of State, as those 
agencies shall agree, or in the absence of agreement, as the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine. 

(4) Those under .sections 104(d) and 104(e) of the Act 
by the Department of State, except to the extent that sec- 
tion 104(e) pertains to the loans referred to in subsection 
(d) (5) of this section. 

(5) Those under section 104(e) of the Act by the 
Export-Import Bank of Washington to the extent that 
section 104(e) pertains to loans governed by that portion 
of such section added by the act of August 13, 1957, 71 
Stat. 345. 

(6) Those under section 104(f) of the Act by the 
respective agencies of the Government having authority 
to pay United States obligations abroad. 

(7)(i) Those under section 104(g) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by the Development Loan Fund, 
as they shaU agree, (ii) The function conferred upon the 
President by section 104(g) of the Act of determining the 
manner in which the loans provided for in section 104(g) 



Ju/y J 3, 1959 



55 



shall be made is hereby delegated to the Secretary of State 
with respect to loans made by the Department of State 
pursuant to the assignment of purposes effected under 
item (i) of this paragraph, and to the Development Loan 
Fund with respect to loans made by the Development Loan 
Fund pursuant to such assignment of purposes, (iii) As 
used herein, the term 'the Development Loan Fund' means 
the Managing Director of the Development Loan Fund, 
acting subject to the immediate supervision and direction 
of the board of directors of the Development Loan Fund ; 
but, notwithstanding the foregoing, the Development Loan 
Fund, with respect to this order, shall be subject to the 
supervision and direction of the Secretary of State. 

(8) Those under sections 104(h) and 104 (o) of the Act 
by the Department of State. 

(9) Those under sections 104(1) and 104(m) (A) of 
the Act by the United States Information Agency. 

(10) Those under section 104(j) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by the United States Information 
Agency in accordance with the division of responsibilities 
for the administration of the United States Information 
and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (62 Stat. 6) pro- 
vided by Reorganization Plan No. 8 of 1953 (67 Stat. 642) 
and Executive Order No. 10477 of August 1, 1953,' and by 
subsequent agreement between the Department of State 
and the United States Information Agency. 

(11) Those under section 104(k) of the Act as follows : 
(i) Those with respect to collecting, collating, translating, 
abstracting, and disseminating scientific and technological 
information by the Director of the National Science Foun- 
dation and such other agency or agencies as the Director 
of the Bureau of the Budget, after appropriate consulta- 
tion, may designate, (ii) All others by such agency or 
agencies as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, after 
appropriate consultation, may designate. As used in this 
paragraph the term 'appropriate consultation' shall in- 
clude consultation with the Secretary of State, the Di- 
rector of the National Science Foundation, and any other 
appropriate Federal agency. 

(12) Those under section 104(1) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by any other agency or agencies 
designated therefor by the Secretary of State. 

(13) Those under section 104 (n) of the Act by the 
Librarian of CJongress. 

Sec. 5. Reservation of functions to the President. 
There are hereby reserved to the President the functions 
conferred upon him by section 108 of the Act, with respect 
to making reports to Congress. 

Section 1 of Executive Order No. 10685 of October 27, 
1956,^ is hereby revoked. 

The White House, 
June 25, 1959. 



President Requests Investigation 
on Need for Rye Import Quota 

White House press release dated June 23 
White House Announcement 

The President has requested the U.S. Tariff 
Commission to make an immediate investigation 
of the need for continuing the present rye import 
quota beyond June 30, 1959. The President's 
action was taken in response to a recommendation 
from the Secretary of Agriculture. Tlie Com- 
mission's investigation will be made pursuant to 
section 22 of tlie Agricultural Adjustment Act, 
as amended, which authorizes import restrictions 
to prevent imdue interference with domestic 
price support programs or with the amount of 
products processed in the United States from 
domestic products. 

On June 27, 1957, the President issued Procla- 
mation 3189 ^ imposing an annual import quota 
on rye of 186 million poimds. The proclamation 
provided that the quota would terminate on June 
30, 1959. 

President's Letter to Tariff Commission Chairman 

June 23, 1959 

Dear Mr. Chairman : I have been advised by 
the Secretary of Agriculture that there is reason 
to believe that, in the absence of a continuation of 
import restrictions on rye (including rye flour and 
meal) beyond June 30, 1959, these products are 
practically certain to be imported into the United 
States under such conditions and in such quanti- 
ties as to render or tend to render ineffective or 
to materially interfere with the price support pro- 
gram for rye undertaken by the Department of 
Agriculture pursuant to Sections 301 and 401 of 
the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended, or to 
reduce substantially the amount of products proc- 
essed in the United States from domestic rye. A 
copy of the Secretary's letter is enclosed. ^ 

The Tariff Commission is requested to make an 
immediate investigation of this matter imder Sec- 
tion 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as 
amended, to determine if there is a need for con- 
tinued restrictions on rye imports. The Commis- 



3 For text, see iUd., Aug. 24, 1953, p. 240. 
* For text, see ibid., Nov. 12, 1956, p. 780. 



' For text, see Buixetin of Aug. 5, 1957, p. 241. 
' Not printed. 



56 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



sion's investigation and report should be com- 
pleted as promptly as practicable. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGUT D. Eisenhower 

The Honorable Joseph E. Talbot 

Chainnan 

United States Tariff Commission 

Washington, D.C. 



Development Loans 

Republic of China 

The U.S. Development Ix)an Fund signed at 
Washington on Jime 25 an agreement to lend 
$1,350,000 to the Taiwan Aluminmn Corporation, 
a Republic of China-owned enterprise, to help 
modernize and expand its plant at Kaohsiung, 
Taiwan. For details, see Department of State 
press release 461 dated June 25. 

Indonesia 

The Department of State announced on June 26 
(press release 465) the signing in Indonesia of 
agreements whereby the Development Loan Fund 
will make two loans totaling $9 million for de- 
velopment projects in that country. 

One loan, for $3 million, is for rehabilitation of 
about 100 miles of railroad which runs from the 
port of Palembang to Tandjung Emm in southern 
Sumatra. This will make possible the tripling of 
the output of Indonesia's largest coal mine. The 
other loan, for $6 million, is for development and 
rehabilitation work at seven Indonesian harbors, 
water supply facilities at six harboi"s, and cargo 
handling equipment at four harbors. 

Yugoslavia 

The Development Loan Fund on Jxme 24 an- 
noimced basic approval and commitment of funds 
for a loan of up to $9 million to the Yugoslav 
Government to assist in the establishment of a 
thermal powerplant in the village of Krusevac in 
southern Serbia near the Macedonian border. For 
details, see Department of State press release 458 
dated June 24. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 1st Session 

Claim of George B. goto Against tiie Government of Gua- 
temala. Hearing before the Inter-American Affairs 
Subcommittee of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. 
May 22, 1959. 37 pp. 

Amending Sections 353 and 354 of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act. Report to accompany H.U. 30SS. 
H.R. Kept. 398. May 27, 1959. 6 pp. 

Satellites for World Communication. Hearings before 
the House Committee on Science and Astronautics. No. 
9, March 3-i, 1959. 122 pp. 

International Wheat Agreement, 1959. S. Ex. E. June 1, 
1959. 37 pp. 

Authorizing Appropriations to the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. Report to accompany H.R. 
7007. S. Rept. 332. June 2, 1959. 48 pp. 

Bretton Woods Agreements Act. Conference report to 
accompany S. 1094. H. Rept. 435. June 4, 1959. 3 
pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 19,59. Report of the House For- 
eign Affairs Committee on H.R. 7500 to amend the Mu- 
tual Security Act of 1954, as amended, and for other 
purposes. H. Rept. 440. June 5, 1959. 144 pp. 

U.S. Foreign Aid — Its Purposes, Scope, Admini.stration, 
and Related Information. Prepared by the Legislative 
Reference Service of the Library of Congress. H. Doc. 
116. Jiuie 11, 1959. 117 pp. 

Expressing the Sense of Congress Desiring Freedom of 
Speech and Freedom of Press in Countries Receiving 
Mutual Security Aid. Report to accompany H. Cou. 
Res. 188. H. Rept. 542. June 12, 1959. 4 pp. 

U.S. Aid Operations in Laos. Seventh Report by the 
House Government Operations Committee. H. Rept. 
546. June 15, 1959. 51 pp. 

Space Propulsion. Hearings before the House Science 
and Astronautics Committee. No. 16, March 16-23, 
1959. 307 pp. 

Mutual Security Act of 1959. Hearings before the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee on S. 1451 to amend fur- 
ther the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, and 
for other purposes. Part 1, April 23-May 14, 1959, 650 
pp. Part 2, May 15-25, 1959, 665 pp. 

The International Claims Settlement Act. Hearing be- 
fore the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on S. 706, 
a bill to amend the International Claims Settlement 
Act of 1949, as amended. May 29, 1959. 68 pp. 

Inter-American Development Bank Act. Hearings before 
Subcommittee No. 1 of the House Banking and Cur- 
rency Committee on H.R. 7072 and H.R. 7073. June 
3-5, 1959. 62 pp. 

Status of Missile and Space Programs. Report of the 
House Science and Astronautics Committee. H. Rept. 
562. June 18, 1959. 10 pp. 

Protocol to the Convention of February 20, 1928, on the 
Duties and Rights of States in the Event of Civil Strife 
and Signed in Behalf of the United States on July 15, 
1957. S. Ex. F. 6 pp. 

The Mutual Security Act of 1959. Report of the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee on S. 1451 together with 
minority views. S. Rept. 412. June 22, 1959. 89 pp. 

The Mutual Security Act of 1959. Minority views of Sen- 
ator Morse on S. 1451. S. Rept. 412, part 2. June 23, 
1959. 17 pp. 



Ju/y 13, 1959 



57 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Prospects of Migration From Europe in 1959-60 



TWELFTH SESSION OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND TENTH SESSION OF COUNCIL 
OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION 



Jy George L. Warren 



The Intergovernmental Committee for Euro- 
pean Migration (ICEM) is composed of 28 mem- 
ber governments. Its purpose is to facilitate the 
movement from overpopulated areas in Europe of 
migrants and refugees who would not otherwise 
be moved. The ICEM Comicil, consisting of all 28 
member governments, and the Executive Com- 
mittee of 9 govei'uments meet twice annually at the 
headquarters in Geneva. 

The 10th session of the Council was convened 
at Geneva on April 7 and. adjourned on April 10, 
1959. The Executive Committee convened in its 
12th session on April 2 and adjourned on April 10, 
1959. Alberto Berio (Italy) presided as cliairman 
of the Council and Eric O. Baron van Boetzelaer 
(Netherlands) as chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee. All members of the Council were repre- 
sented except Paraguay and the Federation of 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Dominican Repub- 
lic, Ecuador, Pei-u, the United Kingdom, the Holy 
See, and the Sovereign Order of Malta were repre- 
sented as observers. The United Nations and the 
United Nations specialized agencies, the High 
Commissioner for Refugees, the Council of Eu- 
rope, the Organization for European Economic 



• Mr. Warren is Adviser on Refugees and 
Displaced Persons., Department of State. He 
served as principal adviser to the U.S. dele- 
gations at the T2th session of the ICEM Ex- 
ecutive Committee and the 10th session of the 
ICEM Council. 



Cooperation, and nongovernmental organizations 
interested in migration were also represented as 
accredited observers. 

John W. Hanes, Jr., Administrator of the Bu- 
reau of Security and Consular Ailairs of the De- 
partment of State, was the U.S. representative at 
the Coimcil. Robert S. McCollmn, Deputy Ad- 
ministrator, Bureau of Security and Consular 
Affairs, as alternate, also represented the United 
States at meetings of the Executive Committee. 
Representative Francis E. "Walter attended as 
alternate U.S. representative. Rejiresentative 
Arch A. Mooi'e, Jr., and Dean Francis B. Sayre, 
Jr., of the Washington Cathedral, were members 
of the U.S. delegation. 

Director's Report on Work of Committee in 1958 

The Director, Marcus Daly, of the United 
States, reported that, although the final total of 
94,222 movements in 1958 was far from satisfac- 
tory, the proportion of moveniei\ts under ICEM 
auspices of the total movements out of Europe 
during 1958 had been maintained at approximately 
35 percent. This had been due in large part to the 
high level of refugee movements during the year — 
38,711 — which compensated in part for the lower 
level of movements of indigenous migrants. 
Movements of indigenous migrants had been 
lower in 1958 owing to economic conditions in the 
immigration countries and lessening pressures on 
potential migi'ants in Europe to seek emigration 
iibroad. Exjierience in 1958 liad, however, stimu- 
hited tlie administration and the covernments to 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



irive more attention to ways and means of in- 
creasing migration from overpopuluted areas in 
Europe through further development of migra- 
tion services and expanded technical services to 
governments in the migration iield. 

In commenting on the report, the Italian and 
Greek representatives noted that the reductions in 
pereons moved under ICEAI auspices from their 
countries in 1958 had been greater than the reduc- 
tions in total movements from their areas dur- 
ing the period. The Netherland representative 
pointed out that, in spite of a lower level of move- 
ments in 1958, per capita contributions of govern- 
ments based on movements had been inadequate to 
meet all transport costs incurred. The United 
States representative commented that experience 
in 1958 demonstrated that, regardless of the level 
of movements in a given year, per capita contribu- 
tions based on movements would inevitably fall 
short of meeting total transport costs because, 
among other reasons, per capita contributions were 
not available to ICEM in many instances to sup- 
port the movement of refugees. The Director 
produced figures, supplementing his report, in- 
dicating that refugee movements in 1958 which 
did not generate per capita contributions ac- 
counted for approximately one-third of the short- 
fall of per capita income in meeting total transport 
costs in that j^ear. 

Report of Director on Prospects for 1959 

The Director reported that on the basis of ex- 
perience in the first 3 months of 1959 there were 
good prospects that the earlier estimate of 121,800 
movements out of Europe for the year would be 
achieved. Lower movements than estimated to 
Argentina would be offset by anticipated higher 
movements of refugees to Australia and the 
United States. With income of $1,736,000 in 
prospect for the movement of European refugees 
from mainland China through Hong Kong, it was 
expected that 3,100 would be moved during the 
year. 532 had departed from Hong Kong by 
April 1, 1959. Some 9,500 presently remain on 
mainland China awaiting resettlement abroad. 

Discussion of the financial implications of the 
1959 plan of operations revealed that, as in previ- 
ous years, a deficit of transport income would de- 
I velop which, with expenditures for international 
operations, technical assistance to governments, 
and grants to voluntary agencies, would produce 
total requirements of $4,587,305 to be met by in- 

July 13, 7959 



come to the special fund. Of this amount 
$2,467,305 would be needed in contributions from 
governments. An additional $1,220,000 would be- 
come available for these purposes from miscellane- 
ous income and $900,000 from repayments of 
transport loans by migrants moved in earlier 
years. This discussion assisted the Council to 
realize, much more clearly than at earlier sessions, 
that, in view of the fact that the practice of per 
capita contributions by governments based on 
actual movements from or to their territories has 
now been well established by the experience of 7 
years in moving migrants, ICEM's continuing 
financial problem is to raise approximately 
$4 million for the special fund in adclition to per 
capita contributions annually to cover the trans- 
port deficit and the costs of all services provided. 

With the foregoing in mind the Council in- 
structed the Director to seek ways and means of 
interpreting the services supplied by ICEM more 
effectively and particularly to stress ICEM's 
transport services to refugees in appeals to gov- 
ernments for contributions to the special fund. 

The Director also reported the initiation of a 
study in 1959 of the numbers of migrants who 
return to their home countries after emigration 
and of the causes of such returns. He requested 
the governments to assist this study by supplying 
data on the problem. He also indicated that the 
administration would continue its efforts in co- 
operation with the United Nations, the Interna- 
tional Labor Office, and the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation to compile fur- 
ther statistics on migration from Europe and to 
improve and standardize government reporting 
on emigration and immigration. 

For the information of the Council special pa- 
pers were presented on "The Simplification of 
Migi'ation Procedures," "International Coopera- 
tion Kegarding Social Security for Migrants," 
and "Social Security Systems in Latin American 
Countries." 

Pilot Projects 

At the previous session in November 1958 ' the 
Council adopted two pilot projects for implemen- 
tation in 1959 : one to train migration officials in 



' For an article by Mr. Warren on the 9th session of the 
Council and the 11th session of the Executive Committee, 
see BtJi-LETiN of Mar. 16, 1959, p. 384. 



59 



Canada and the other to establish vocational 
training for 300 emigrants annually in Italy. 
The Director reported that 10 officials had started 
training in Canada in March 1959 and that sub- 
stantial progress had been made in establishing 
vocational training for emigrants in Italy. 

The Director proposed six additional pilot proj- 
ects for consideration at the 10th session : a farm 
training and placement center in Argentina, psy- 
chotechnical testing of migrants in Italy, pre- 
embarkation language training for migi-ants, 
experiments in vocational trainmg of migrants in 
Latin American countries, mobile exhibitions, and 
an emigi-ation processing center in Greece. The 
administration presented data and details on each 
proposal to the Executive Committee. A number 
of government representatives, including the 
United States representative, stated that the docu- 
ments describing the projects had not been re- 
ceived sufHciently in advance of the session of the 
Council to permit objective appraisal of the in- 
dividual proposals. They were not therefore in 
a position to act upon them at the session. "Wliile 
many repi-esentatives generally supported the pro- 
posal to extend language training for migrants, 
provided funds for the purpose could be secured, 
this activity ai^peared to be a normal service al- 
ready provided by ICEM and therefore not in 
need of experimentation and testing in the man- 
ner or form of a pilot project. The United States 
representative questioned the organization and 
financing proposed for the farm training and 
placement center in Argentina because, contrary 
to previous Council decisions, ICEM would un- 
dertake direct administrative and financial re- 
sponsibility in the continuing operation of the 
project. The proposals for mobile exlubitions and 
for the emigration center in Greece were sub- 
mitted only in outline and required further prep- 
aration before formal presentation to the Council. 

Apart from the foregoing observations, many 
representatives considered that the administration 
had not given sufficient consideration to the finan- 
cial implications of the projects and to the neces- 
sity for securing in advance of the initiation of 
any particular project firm income to carry the 
project through to its conclusion. The United 
States representative pointed out in addition that 
it was necessary to raise $350,000 in additional 
income for the special ftmd to support services 
already budgeted for 1959. Until this income was 



in hand, an expansion of services tlirough the 
adoption of new pilot projects would not appear 
to be feasible. 

Under these circumstances the Executive Com- 
mittee decided to request the administration to 
reconsider all the proposals for pilot projects in 
the light of the discussions that had taken place 
and particularly to review the prospects of secur- 
ing income to support them to conclusion as a 
necessary preliminaiy step to Council decisions 
to undertake the projects. No objections were 
raised, however, to the expansion of language 
training for migi-ants in the current year if income 
for this purpose became available later in the year. 
These actions by the Executive Committee were 
duly reported to the Council. 

Policy and Programs for 1960 

Tlie Director presented to the Council a paper 
which attempted to forecast the economic, politi- 
cal, and social circumstances within which ICEM 
will have to carry on its work in 1960, analyzed 
the problems which will be faced, suggested pos- 
sible programs to meet the problems presented, 
and invited the governments to indicate the nature 
of their own emigration or immigration pro- 
grams in 19C0 and the manner in which they might 
participate with ICEM in certain programs or 
authorize ICEM to proceed unilaterally. The 
forecast for movements in 1960, estimated at 
129,000, was generally optimistic based on im- 
proved economic prospects already evident in 
countries of overseas immigration. The basic 
problem to be faced by ICEM arises out of the fact 
that the immigration countries require skilled im- 
migrants, whereas potential migrants in the Euro- 
pean countries are in the main unskilled. To 
meet this problem the Director proposed sub- 
stantial expansion of the services already supplied 
in a limited manner by ICEM, such as the distri- 
bution of mformation concerning inunigration 
countries, facilities for the better selection of mi- 
grants, language and vocational training, better 
reception and placement facilities, the promotion 
of family reunion and sponsorship schemes, and 
special elForts to encourage emigration of "seed" 
worker migrants who will later call their families 
forward to join them. 

The appeal to governments to make known their 
emigration or iimnigration programs for 1900 did 
not elicit responses from governments of a nature 



60 



Department of State Bulletin 



lielpful to tlie building of an ICEM propcram for 
i960. Those governments interested in expanding 
ICEM services welcomed the suggestions con- 
tained in the administration paper. Other govern- 
ments indicated that the services suggested were 
adequately supplied by their own public adminis- 
trations. It was apparent from the discussion that 
the i^rograms for 1960 of many of the government 
members had not developed at the time of the 
current session to the point at which it would prove 
useful to discuss coordination with ICEM's pro- 
gram for the next year. Suggestions were there- 
fore nitule that the Director pursue convereations 
with individual governments in further effoiis to 
present a realistic program for 1960 at the next 
session of the Council later in the year. Otherwise, 
the Council accepted the recommendation of the 
Executive Committee that the Director be re- 
quested to give appropriate consideration to the 
financial aspects of the final program which he 
might propose for 1960 and that governments be 
invited during the ensuing period prior to the next 
session to assist the Director in developing a pro- 
gram for 1960 which would attract the financial 
resources required for its implementation. 

Proposals on Executive Committee Membership 

A proposal by representatives of Italy and Spain 
to amend article 12 of the ICEM Constitution to 
increase the membershijD of the Executive Com- 
mittee to a number in excess of nine did not appeal 
to the Council as feasible and was not pressed by 
the two Governments. As an alternative measure 
to satisfy the aspirations of certain governments to 
particijiate as membere of the Executive Commit- 
tee, the principle of rotation of members of the 
Executive Committee was suggested. It was 
further suggested that the principle of rotation 
might be supplemented by the creation of "sub- 
stitute members" of the Executive Committee who 
would be entitled to attend sessions of the Com- 
mittee with the privilege of participating in voting 
only in the absence of regular membei-s. The 
Council requested the Director to circulate a paper 
on the system of "substitute members" in anticipa- 
tion that a solution of the problem could be reached 
at the next session. 

Interest in the work of the Executive Committee 
was demonstrated by the attendance at its meetings 
as observers of representatives of 12 members of 
the Council in addition to the full membership of 
the Executive Committee. 



World Refugee Year 

At the previous session of the Council a special 
meeting of governments and interested voluntary 
agencies had been convened apart from the formal 
session to consider the problem of refugees. At the 
10th session of the Council the subject of refugees 
was included in the adopted agenda. By vote of 
the Council, Representative Francis E. Walter of 
the United States delegation was invited to preside 
at tlie meeting devoted to refugee matters. The 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 
Auguste Lindt, and Claude de Kemoularia, Spe- 
cial Representative of the Secretary-General of the 
United Nations, attended and reported on develop- 
ments in response to the resolution adopted by the 
General Assembly of the United Nations on De- 
cember 5, 1958, which established the World 
Refugee Year to begin on July 1, 1959.^ The High 
Commissioner outlined the current unresolved 
problems of refugees and made an eloquent plea 
for further actions by governments to reduce the 
numbers remaining in the refugee stat«. The 
response of govenunent representatives setting 
forth the plans of individual governments to par- 
ticipate in the World Refugee Year gave every 
indication that the World Refugee Year was ac- 
quiring encouraging momentum. Dean Francis 
Sayre, a public member of the United States 
delegation, reported briefly on the organization 
and plans of the United States Committee on 
Refugees in support, of the worldwide effort. 

The discussions at the 10th session revealed, as 
was pointed out by Carmine de Martino, Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Italy, 
who addressed the Council, that ICEM is going 
through the initial phase of a gradual evolution 
toward the provision on a larger scale of many 
services other than transport which are considered 
by the administration and presently by some gov- 
ernments as helpful, if not necessary, to a sus- 
tained or increased volume of migration. In this 
development some governments believe ICEM's 
Constitution to be a restraining factor in that 
ICEM is established under the constitution as a 
temporary rather than a permanent body. Other 
governments, including the United States, con- 
sider the problem of expanding services at both 
ends of movement largely a matter of interpret- 
ing the need and effectiveness of such services to 



' For background on the U.S. role in the World Refugee 
Tear, see ibid., June 15, 1959, p. 872. 



July 13, 1959 



61 



governments in such a manner as to win the broad 
financial backing required for their support. In- 
volved in this development also is the question of 
the extent to which emigration and immigration 
countries may be prepared in time to seek the ob- 
jectives of their respective programs cooperatively 



through the medium of an international organi- 
zation such as ICEM. 

The Executive Committee and the Council ad- 
journed their meetings on April 10, 1959, and 
agreed to convene the next session early in 
November 1959. 



Promoting the Progress and Equaiity of Women 

THIRTEENTH SESSION OF U.N. COMMISSION ON THE STATUS 
OF WOMEN, NEW YORK, MARCH 9-27, 1959 

hy Lorena B. Hahn 



The 13th session of the U.N. Commission on tlie 
Status of Women met at New York City from 
March 9 to 27, 1959. The 18 countries serving 
on the Commission at this session were Argentina, 
Canada, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican 
Republic, France, Greece, Israel, Japan, Mexico, 
the Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Sweden, 
U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. Of these Greece and the Netherlands be- 
gan new terms after an absence of several years. 
The following officers were elected by unanimous 
acclaim : chairman, Uldarica Mafias of Cuba ; first 
vice chairman, Mrs. Zolia Dembinska of Poland; 
second vice chairman, Mrs. Setsu Tanino of 
Japan; and rapporteur, Mrs. Tamar Shoham- 
Sharon of Israel. 

The Commission gave major attention at this 
session to matters in the economic field. In line 
with its usual practice, it also considered prog- 
ress in relation to political rights of women, educa- 
tional opportunities, private law, nationality, and 
related matters. 



• Mrs. Hahn is the United States Repre- 
sentative on the United Nations Commission 
on the Status of Women. 



Economic Opportunities for Women 

The Commission had before it this year a series 
of reports on the access of women to architecture, 
engineering, and the legal professions. These re- 
ports marked the first step in a study of oppor- 
tunities for women in all major professional and 
technical fields. In response to a U.N. question- 
naire, information had been received from ap- 
proximately 40 countries in all areas of the world, 
including Africa, and from 6 nongovernmental 
organizations, several with specialized knowledge 
of the field. The reports showed that, wliile wom- 
en in most countries play a relatively minor role 
in these professions, this is due not to legal dis- 
criminations against them but ratlicr to social atti- 
tudes and practical difficulties, such as lack of 
adequate vocational guidance for girl students. 

A U.S. suggestion that future questionnaires 
include an inquiry on methods the various coun- 
tries are using to stimulate wider interest among 
young women in entering the professions met with 
general approval. This question will provide a 
basis for exchange of experience on the many 
constructive measures being taken in the United 
States and elsewhere to interest girls in new de- 
velopments in scientific and technical fields and 
acquaint them with the almost limitless oppor- 
tunities in many areas for education and oiuploy- 
ment open to girls and boys alike. The Ignited 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



States called attention to measures being taken in 
this comitry, such as the increasing use of televi- 
sion and mass communication media for this pur- 
pose, programs for secondary school students 
conducted under the leadership of the National 
Science Foundation, expanded vocational guid- 
ance and counseling services in high schools, and 
numerous projects carried on by organized labor, 
trade associations, voluntary organizations, and 
other private groups. 

Commission membei-s expressed enthusiastic in- 
terest in continuing this study. The United 
States cosponsored a resolution, which vras unani- 
mously adopted, requesting a further report, to 
be presented to the Commission in 1961, on op- 
portunities for women as technicians in science, 
engineering, and related fields. 

Under this item the Commission also considered 
whether the age of retirement and right to pension 
should be the same for men and women. At its 
1958 session ^ the Commission had divided sharply 
on this question. The Economic and Social Coun- 
cil took no action on the Commission's recommen- 
dation for identical treatment but instead 
requested the Commission to give the matter 
further consideration. However, a similar divi- 
sion of opinion was reflected this year, with a 
somewhat larger majority favoring identical re- 
tirement provisions for both sexes and the mi- 
nority, including the United States, believing that 
a lower age for women was justified. The United 
States emphasized the essential difference between 
compulsoi-}' retirement systems and the vohmtary 
system in effect in this country, under which the 
worker decides for himself when he will leave 
full employment, pointing out that, although 
women workers may receive adjusted pension 
benefits at a somewhat earlier age than men, only 
a small proportion of women actually retire at 
an earlier age. 

Equal Pay 

In the equal-pay field the Commission consid- 
ered a draft pamphlet which had been revised 
after discussion last year. The Commission 
agreed that this would be an important contribu- 
tion to information available on equal pay and 
recommended unanimously that it be completed 



' For a report by Jlrs. Hiihn on the 12th session of the 
Commission, see Botxetin of June 2, 1958, p. 930. 



and published by the United Nations as a sales 
document. During the discussion the United 
States called attention to recent equal-pay legisla- 
tion enacted in several States and to equal-pay bills 
pending in Congress with achninistration support. 

Taxation 

A study on taxation affecting women, based on 
information requested from governments and or- 
ganizations in consultative status, showed little 
discrimination against women, although proce- 
dures vary widely among member states. United 
States women proved to be in an unusually fa- 
vorable position in the income tax field ; according 
to the study the United States is the only country 
where a woman can choose between being taxed 
separately on her individual income or jointly 
with her husband, in which case the aggregate 
mcome is split in two equal parts for tax purposes. 

Political Rights and Advisory Services 

The amiual progress report on political rights 
showed that women in Malaj-a had achieved equal 
suffrage some years before that comitry entered 
the United Nations in 1957 and that Timisia had 
granted limited suffrage to women in 1956. Hon- 
duras had revised its legislation, which already 
provided for universal suffrage, to make voting 
equally compulsory for men and women. The an- 
nouncement that a regional seminar for Africa 
would be held in Ethiopia in 1960 on the partici- 
pation of women in public life was enthusiasti- 
cally received by the Commission. The United 
States stressed the usefulness of regional seminars 
in helping women fulfill the obligations of citi- 
zenship and suggested that the report on the 
seminar to be held at Bogota in May 1959 for 
countries in the Western Hemisphere be made 
available for discussion in the Commission next 
year. A resolution to this effect, cosponsored by 
France, Israel, and the United States, was adopted 
unanimously. A second resolution calling for 
the exchange of persons as a means of improving 
the status of women also received unanimous 
support. 

Access of Women to Education 

A study presented by the United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) on the access of women to the teach- 



Ju/y 73, 7959 



63 



Publications on Status of Women 

The following U.N. publications relating to the 
status of women may be of interest. They can be 
purchased from the International Documents Serv- 
ice, Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway, 
New York 17, N.Y. 

• Women and Technical Assistance (195S.I-21) 

35 cents 

• Political Education of Women (1951.1V.8) 

25 cents 

• Nationality of Married Women ( 1955.1 V.l) 

50 cents 

• Legal Status of Married Women (1957.IV.8) 

75 cents 

• 1957 Seminar on Civic Responsibility and In- 

creased Participation of Asian Women in 
Public Life ( 1957.1 V.IO) ; 50 cents 

• Commission on the Status of Women : Report 

of Session (by years) ; about 30 cents 



ing profession provoked an unusually spirited dis- 
cussion, with members united in expressing dis- 
satisfaction with the sources and the coverage of 
the study and a desire for further information. 
UNESCO agreed to provide a further report. 
The United States called attention to the high edu- 
cational standards for both teacliers and pupils 
in this country. Pointing out that the rapid 
growth of population had led to a shortage of 
teachers, the U.S. Representative described pro- 
grams to expand the supply of qualified teachers 
for our schools by such measures as encouraging 
mature women with college degrees to become 
teachers when their children no longer need full- 
time supervision at home. The United States also 
continued to emphasize the importance of full edu- 
cational opportunities for every girl and the need 
for community support in encouraging girls to 
complete their education. 

Private Law 

Discussion was directed principally to the ac- 
tion taken by the Economic and Social Council in 
July 1958 whereby the Commission's request for 
the preparation of a draft convention regarding 
the minimum age of marriage, assurance of free 
consent of the spouses, and registration of mar- 
riage was modified to call instead for the prep- 
aration of a draft recommendation. The United 
States had favored this modification by the Coun- 
cil in the belief that the Commission could decide 



more wisely on the need for a convention after it 
received the additional information on these mat- 
ters due from govenmients in 1960. The United 
States accordingly urged the Commission to post- 
pone efforts to have the Council reverse its de- 
cision. However, other members felt strongly 
that a draft convention should be prepared at this 
time, and a resolution was adopted requesting re- 
consideration of this issue by the Economic and 
Social Coimcil. The United States abstained on 
this resolution. 

Nationality 

There was general support for a new sales pub- 
lication on the nationality of married women 
which would describe the United Nations Conven- 
tion on the Nationality of Married Women, to- 
gether with the history and background of work 
for equality in this field. The last sales publica- 
tion on nationality was issued in 1955, prior to the 
adoption of this convention in 1957. After being 
assured that a request for a nationality sales pam- 
phlet would in no way interfere with the proposed 
pamphlet on equal pay, the United States joined 
in supporting a resolution requesting preparation 
of such a pamphlet. 

Participation of Specialized Agencies and Nongov- 
ernmental Organizations 

Throughout the session the Commission had the 
active cooperation of representatives of the spe- 
cialized agencies, who contributed valuable back- 
ground information and clarified many of the 
questions under discussion. As in previous ses- 
sions the Commission benefited by the participa- 
tion of some 30 nongovernmental organizations in 
consultative status with the Economic and Social 
Council. These organizations represented a large 
proportion of women throughout the world affili- 
ated with international organizations. 

Plans for Next Year 

Toward the close of the session the representa- 
tive of Argentina, Mrs. Blanca Stabile, announced 
an invitation from her Government for the Com- 
mission to hold its 1960 meeting at Buenos Aires. 
Members expressed their appreciation and desire 
to accept this invitation, which will be considered 
further at the next sessions of the Economic and 
Social Comicil and the General Assembly. 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States Delegations to 
International Conferences 

ECE Meeting on Organization and Techniques of 
Foreign Trade 

The Department of State announced on June 26 
(press release 4G3) that George A. Tesoro of the 
U.S. resident delegation at Geneva will head the 
U.S. delegation to the Special Meeting on Organi- 
zation and Techniques of Foreign Trade (Includ- 
ing Payments) of the Economic Commission for 



Europe (ECE), which will convene at Geneva on 
June 29. Mr. Tesoro will be assisted by two other 
members from Government and a repi-esentative 
from private industry, Edwin Allen Locke, Jr., 
president. Union Tank Car Co., Chicago, 111. 

The purpose of the meeting is to convene experts 
to expand knowledge of the organization and 
techniques of foreign trade existing in European 
countries and the United States as a contribution 
to tlie knowledge and mutual underetanding re- 
garding trade. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Annual Honor Awards Ceremonies 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

On June 23 the Department of State held its 
eighth annual honor awards ceremony at the De- 
partment of the Interior^ Washington, D.C} Fol- 
lowing are the remarks made hy Under Secretary 
Dillon hefore introducing Roger W. Jones, Chair- 
man of the U.S. Civil Service Corrmiission, the 
guest speaker at the ceremony. 

Press release 453 dated June 23 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen of the De- 
partment and the Foreign Service, and guests: 
I am happy to be here today to join with you in 
honoring a number of our colleagues who have 
distinguished themselves by outstanding service 
to our country. 

Many of those receiving awards today are being 
honored because they have displayed outstanding 
ability or heroism in critical situations. Some of 
these men and women faced physical danger. 
Others faced problems of extraordinary difficulty 
and complexity in which the highest interests of 
their country were at stake. One of those honored 
by a Distinguished Service Award, Ambassador 



' For a list of individuals and units honored for out- 
standing performance, see press release 452 dated June 23. 



Edward T. Wailes, rendered outstanding service 
as Chief of Mission of the American Legation in 
Budapest during the tragic and dangerous days of 
the Hungarian uprising. Ambassador Robert 
McClintock, who is to be presented with a Su- 
perior Service Award, served as America's Am- 
bassador to Lebanon during a most crucial period. 
The decisions which he made so ably during those 
weeks were of utmost importance to the welfare 
of our comitry. Another of the Superior Service 
Awards, together with a cash award, will be pre- 
sented to Mr. Kyusaka Homma, a Foreign Sei-vice 
local employee at the American consulate at Sap- 
poro, Japan. Mr. Homma, who is regularly em- 
ployed at the consulate as a chauffeur, bravely 
volunteered to guard the gate to the consulate com- 
pound to prevent unauthorized entry by crowds of 
hostile demonstrators. On three occasions he 
stood his ground in the face of such crowds and 
conducted himself calmly and effectively without 
regard for his own safety. 

In dramatic situations such as these, heroism 
and outstanding competence become conspicuous. 
The moment demands such qualities — and any- 
thing less might well mean failure or disaster. 
But let us remember that we honor here today as 
well a great many men and women whose out- 
standing service took place under far less dramatic 
conditions. We honor many who demonstrate 
their dedication and devotion to duty and their 
superior competence in the performance of their 



Ju/y 7 3, 1959 



65 



day-to-day duties. Among these is Ambassador 
Herbert S. Bursley, who is being presented with 
a Distinguished Service Award for his contribu- 
tion to tlie condiict of our foreign rehxtions as head 
of the Career Development and Counseling Pro- 
gram for Foreign Service officers. This assign- 
ment for Ambassador Bursley capped a career of 
more than 40 years of devoted, inspiring, and suc- 
cessful service as a member of the Foreign Service. 
Mr. Herbert Reiner, Jr., is to receive a Superior 
Service Award for his excellent service as adminis- 
trative officer of the American Embassy in 
Liberia. Mr. Eeiner's proficiency in the perform- 
ance of his duties made an outstanding contribu- 
tion to the efficient operation of his post and to 
the maintenance of high morale among the other 
employees, despite hardship conditions. 

I have sinsled out these two awards because I 
believe they illustrate the importance the Depart- 
ment attaches to superior performance in the or- 
dinary tasks which face us each day as well as in 
times of grave emergency. 

Tliere can be no question but that the work in 
which we are together engaged is the most im- 
portant work in the world. It is our privilege 
and our responsibility to be in the forefront of 
our country's efforts to preserve and promote the 
peace of the world. Such a noble goal dignifies 
every task which we perform. And because of 
this, every task we perform in the course of our 
careers, no matter how liumble, is deserving of 
our very finest efforts. 

We need not wait for a single hour of crisis in 
which to put forth every talent and skill which we 
possess. We live in an age of continuing crisis — 
an entire era in which our highest ideals are be- 
ing challenged and our peace and safety threat- 
ened. Such an age gives us the continuous oppor- 
tunity for great and important service. 

During the years that I have worked with you 
T have come to know first-hand the long, fine tradi- 
tion of dedication and service of the Department 
and the Foreign Service. This knowledge of your 
devotion to duty and your high standards of per- 
formance is most gratifying and reassuring to me 
in moments when tlie responsibilities of our com- 
mon task weigh most heavily. 

I wish to extend my personal congratulations 
and my tribute to all tiiose wlio are being honored 



today. Your exemplary conduct reflects great 
credit upon the Department and tlie Foreign Serv- 
ice and is, I know, a source of inspiration to all 
your colleagues. 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRA- 
TION 

The Department of State announced on June 24 
( press release 459 ) that the International Coopera- 
tion Administration had held its annual honor 
awards ceremony that day at the Mayflower Hotel, 
Washmgton, D.C. The occasion also marked the 
first appearance of the newly appointed ICA Di- 
rector, James W. Eiddleberger, before an all- 
employee meeting. 

Mr. Riddleberger, fonner Ambassador to 
Greece, was presented by Under Secretary of State 
Douglas Dillon, who said : 

Let me state unequivocally that Mr. Riddleberger has 
the complete trust and coniidenee of Secretary of State 
Herter nnd myself. He is well suited to his new position 
by reason of experience, temperament, and ability. He 
shares with the Secretary and myself a deep and abiding 
faith in the importance of ICA's mission and in the dedi- 
cated men and women who are carrying it out, both here 
and abroad. 

The new ICA Director told the ICA employees 
he had "no doubts about the desirability and 
necessity of our endeavor." Mr. Riddleberger also 
said, 

I believe that the work in which we are engaged is per- 
haps the most vital and constructive instrument today in 
the struggle for growth, freedom, and independence 
throughout the world. 

In point of time we are at the end of the first decade of 
an experiment in international relations that marked a 
turning point in the history of nations and their concept of 
dealing with each other, their mutual concerns and re- 
sponsibilities, and their obligation to assist the less fortu- 
nate and newly emerging nations of the world to assume 
their rightful place with dignity and freedom. When we 
compare the situation in Euroije today with that of 10 
years ago, I believe the Americans and their allies can 
take legitimate pride in the accomplishments of this 
decade. 

Five meritorious service awards,- 14 letters of 
commendation, and 14 length-of-service awards 
were presented during the ceremony. 



" For (ho names of the recipients of the meritorious serv- 
ice awards, see press release l.'iO dateil June 24. 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



Department To Continue Cooperation 
in Industry Program for Executives 

Press release 454 dated June 23 

Under Secretary Dillon, together with Deputy 
Under Secretary Loy W. Henderson, other high 
Department of State officials, and George V. Allen, 
Director of the U.S. Information Agency, met 
with the Advisory Committee of the Business 
Council for International Understanding on June 
23 to discuss the development of a training pro- 
gram for business executives going abroad and an 
industry orientation plan for senior Foreign Serv- 
ice officers. 

The Business Council for International Under- 
standing grew out of a "VVliite House meeting in 
November 1955, at which leaders of business and 
Government discussed activities that "encourage 
United States business in its efforts to improve the 
underetanding abroad of the people and economy 
of the United States." 

Since that time BCIU has interested over 80 
international business firms in participating in 
conferences and other private activities in the field 
of international relations. It now operates apart 
from the Government with its own staff, program, 
and financing. However, the Council maintains 
liaison with various Government agencies. 

Mr. Dillon and Mr. Henderson heard BCIU 
Advisoi-y Committee Chairman Charles M. Wliite 
and his fellow businessmen outline a program that 
would operate imder the administration of the 
American University. It would enroll senior busi- 
ness executives scheduled for assignment abroad in 
a 6-week course that would entail study of lan- 
guages, American institutions, and foi'eign cul- 
tures. The last 3 weeks of the program would 
specialize on the area of assignment. 

The Business Council is also developing in con- 
junction with the Foreign Service a week-long 
orientation course for certain senior Foreign Serv- 
ice officers prior to their overseas assignments. 
The orientation would be with an industiy wliich 
plays an important role in the area of the officer's 
new assignment. 

The Department will continue to cooperate 
closely with this effort on the part of private in- 
dustry to better prepare its representatives for 
activities in the field of foreign affairs. 



Revision of Consular Districts in Australia 

Department mailing notice dated June 22 

Effective July 1 the eousular districts of Brisbane and 
Sydney are defined as follows : 

Brisbane, Queensland (consulate) — the State of 
Queensland and all of the area of the Northern Territory 
north of the 20th parallel. 

Sydney, New South Wales (supervisory consulate gen- 
eral) — the State of New South Wales, the Australian 
Capital Territory, Norfolk Island, the Territory of Papua, 
the Trust Territory of New Guinea, and the Trust Terri- 
tory of Nauru. 

The purpose of this revision was to transfer the Terri- 
tory of Papua, the Trust Territory of New Guinea, and the 
Trust Territory of Nauru from the Brisbane consular dis- 
trict to the consular district of the consulate general at 
Sydney. 

Designations 

Edward B. Haniill as director of the U.S. Operations 
Mission, Nicaragua, effective June 24. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release 460 dated 
June 24. ) 

John M. Steeves as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Far 
Eastern Affairs, effective July 1. (For biographic details, 
isee Department of State press release 466 dated June 27. ) 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Cultural Relations 

Agreement on the importation of educational, scientific, 
and cultural materials, and protocol. Done at Lake 
Success November 22, 1950. Entered into force May 21, 
1952.1 
Signiiature: United States, June 24, 1959. 

Postal Services 

Convention of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 

final protocol, and regulations of execution ; 
Agreement relative to parcel post, final protocol, and 



' Not in force for the United States. States which are 
parties are Afghanistan, Austria, Belgium, Cambodia, 
Ceylon, Cuba, El Salvador, Finland, France, Federal Re- 
public of Germany, Ghana, Greece, Haiti, Israel, Jordan, 
Laos, Luxembourg, Jlonaco, Netherlands, Norway, Paki- 
stan, Philippines, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, 
United Arab Republic, United Kingdom, Viet-Nam, and 
Yugoslavia. 



July 13, 1959 



67 



regulations of execution of the Postal Union of the 

Americas and Spain ; 
Agreement relative to money orders and final protocol of 

the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain. 

Signed at Bogotd November 9, 1955. Entered into force 
March 1, 1956. TIAS 3653, 3654, and 3655, respec- 
tively. 

Ratification deposited: El Salvador,' January 19, 1959. 

Telecommunication 

Telegi-aph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed to 
the international telecommunication convention of De- 
cember 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), veith appendixes and final 
protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958.' 
Notification of approval: Morocco, March 20, 1959. 

Trade and Commerce 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 

XVI :4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 

Done at Geneva November 30, 1957.° 

Signature: Canada, April 21, 1959. 
Proc&s-verbal extending the validity of the declaration' 

extending the standstill provisions of article XVI : 4 of 

the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 

Geneva November 22, 1958.' 

Signatures: United Kingdom, April 20, 1959; Canada, 
April 21, 1959. 
Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment of 

new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement on 

Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 31, 1958.' 

Signature: Canada, April 21, 1959. 

Women-Political Rights 

Inter-American convention on the granting of political 
rights to women. Signed at Bogota, May 2, 1948. En- 
tered into force April 22, 1949.* 
Ratification deposited: Colombia, June 3, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

China 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchanges of notes. Signed at Taipei June 9, 1959. 
Entered into force June 9, 1959. 

Cuba 

Convention for the conservation of shrimp. Signed at 
Habana August 15, 19.58.' 
Ratified by the President: June 12, 1959. 

Ecuador 

Agreement amending the Army Mission agreement of June 
29, 1944, as amended and extende<l (58 Stat. 1300, TIAS 
1843 and 3221) ; the Naval Mis.sion agreement of Decem- 
ber 12, 1940, as amended and extended (54 Stat. 2429, 
55 Stat. 1263, TIAS 1944, 2478, and 3220) ; and the Air 
Force Mis.sion agreement of December 12, 1940, as 
amended and extended (54 Stat. 2437, 55 Stat. 1265, 
TIAS 1942 and 3219) . Effected by exchange of notes at 
Quito February 25 and May 22, 1959. Entered into 
force May 22, 1959. 

Indonesia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural lYade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 



with exchanges of notes. Signed at Djakarta May 29, 
1959. Entered into force May 29, 1959. 

Italy 

Agreement further amending the agreement of December 
18, 1948, as amended (TIAS 1804, 3148, and 3278), for 
financing certain educational exchange programs. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Rome June 17, 1959. 
Entered into force June 17, 1959. 

Panama 

Research reactor agreement concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington June 24, 1959. 
Enters into force on date each Government receives from 
the other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 



PUBLICATIONS 



'With a reservation to article 43 of the eonventicm. 
El Salvador does not accept the U.S. reservation to article 
42 of the convention. 

' Not in force. 

' Not in force for the United States. 



Foreign Relations Volumes 

1341, VOLUME III 

Press release 407 dated June 9 for release June 14 

The Department of State released on June 14 Foreign 
Relations of the United States, 19^1, Volume III, The 
British Commonicealth, The Near East and Africa, one 
of a series of seven volumes giving the documentary 
record of the diplomacy of the United States for the 
year 1941. Three volumes for the year have already been 
published: Volume I, General, The SotHet Union; Volume 
II, Europe; and Volume IV, The Far East. Volumes still 
to be published include an additional volume on the Far 
East and two volumes on the American Republics. 

The present volume, dealing almost entirely with prob- 
lems arising from the war in Europe, has sections on 
relations with the United Kingdom, Canada, India, Ire- 
land, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, Morocco, Pal- 
estine, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon, and Turkey. 

Copies of volimie III (viii, 998 pp.) may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for $4.25 each. 

1940, VOLUME I 

The Department of State announced on June 28 (press 
release 435 dated June 17) the release of Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States, I'J'jO, Volume I. General, one 
of a series of five volumes giving the documentary record 
of the diplomacy of the United States for the year 1940. 
Three other volumes for the year have already been is- 
sued. Volume V, on relations with the American Repub- 
lics, is still in preparati(m. 

The present volume is divide<l into five main se<'tions, 
all dealing with various a.spects of the European war. 



68 



Department of State Bulletin 



I'Ue first section relates to discussions regarding tlie pos- 
sibility of peace, including the special mission to Europe 
of Sumner Welles. The next section treats of the ex- 
tension of the war, with subsections on the invasion of 
Norway and Denmark, the invasion of the Netherlands, 
Luxembour;:, and Belgium, the invasion of France, and 
the Greek-Italian v?ar. 

The third section is on the activities of the Soviet Union 
in Eastern Europe and Soviet relations with the lielliger- 
ent powers. Subjects treate<l in this section are the Fin- 
nish-Soviet war, the occupation of the Baltic states and 
their incorporation Into the Soviet Union, Soviet activi- 
ties in the Balkans and the seizure of Bessarabia, co- 
operation between the Soviet Union and Germany, and 
attempts of the British and French to obtain closer rela- 
tions with the Soviet Union. 

Other sections of this volume are on relations of Japan 
with the Axis Powers and with Uie Soviet Union and on 
cooperation among the American Republics in their re- 
action to the European war. 

Copies of volume I (viii, 832 pp.) may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for $3.75 each. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Wa.shington 2.5, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free ptiblications, ivhich may be 
obtained from the Department of State. 

Employment Information — United States Department of 
State. Pub. 6765. Department and Foreign Service Series 
85. 36 pp. Limited distribution. 

This pamphlet outlines the requirements for employment 
in the Department of State, both at home and abroad, 
and the manner in which appointments are made under 
both systems. 

Participation of the United States Government in Inter- 
national Conferences— July 1, 1957-June 30, 1958. Pub. 
6772. International Organization and Conference Series 
1. xxiii, 263 pp. 70^. 

This volume is a reference guide to the official participa- 
tion of the U.S. Government in multilateral international 
conferences and meetings of international organizations 
during the period July 1, 1957-June 30, 1958. 

Educational Exchange Grants. Pub. 6789. International 
Information and Cultural Series 64. 26 pp. 15«(. 

A booklet explaining the International Educational Ex- 
change Program, the opportunities available, and the pro- 
cedure for the application and selection of grantees. 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands— 1958. Pub. 6798. 
International Organization and Conference Series 2. 246 
pp . map. ?1. 

This report, covering fiscal year 19.58, is the 11th annual 
report by the United States to the United Nations on the 
administration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands. 



Mutual Security in Action— Ethiopia. Pub. 0801. Near 
and Middle Eastern Series 37. 12 pp. 10^. 

A fact sheet on Ethiopia, di.scussing the country's econ- 
omy, its problems, and the extent of U.S. assistance 
programs. 

Mutual Security in Action— Iran. Pub. 6805. Near and 
Middle Eastern Series 38. 12 pp. 10(S. 

A fact sheet on Iran, giving background information on 
the country and discussing its economy, problems, and 
the extent of U.S. assistance. 

Atomic Energy— Establishment of Joint Program. TIAS 
4173. 66 pp. 25(». 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) — 
Signed at Brussels November 8, 1958. Entered into force 
February 18, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4178. 3 pp. 

50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Mexico, amending agreement of October 23, 19.57, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Mexico Febru- 
ary 17, 1959. Entered into force February 17, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4179. 16 pp. 
100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Uruguay — Signed at Montevideo February 20, 1959. 
Entered into force February 20, 1959. With related ex- 
change of notes. 

Defense— Loan of Vessel to China. TIAS 4180. 12 pp. 

100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
China. Exchange of note.s — Signed at Taipei February 7, 
1959. Entered into force February 7, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4181. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
India— Signed at Washington March 3, 1959. Entered into 
force March 3, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4182. 8 pp. 

100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Spain— Signed at Madrid January 13, 1959. Entered into 
force January 13, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4183. 4 pp. 50. 

-Vgreement between the United States of America and 
Brazil, amending agreement of December 31, 1956, as 
corrected and amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at 
Washington March 2, 1959. Entered into force March 2, 
1959. 

Claims — Maneuvers at Laur Training Area During Janu- 
ary and February 1959. TIAS 4184. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Republic of the Philippines. Exchange of aide memoire — 
Dated at Manila January 21, 1959. Entered into force 
•January 21, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4185. 6 pp. 50. 

Agreement, with memorandum of understandings, between 
the United States of America and Iceland — Signed at 
Reykjavik March 3, 1959. Entered into force March 3, 
1959. 



Juty 13, 1959 



69 



Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes— Filing Classified Patent Applica- 
tions. TIAS4187. 8 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Norway. Excbauge of notes — Signed at Oslo December 5, 

1958, and .January 6 and 17, 1959. Entered into force 
January 17, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 41S8. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Israel, supplementing and amending agreement of Novem- 
ber G, 1958. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington 
March 10, 1959. Entered into force March 10, 1959. 

Cooperation. TIAS 4189. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Iran — Signed at Ankara March 5, 19.59. Entered into 
force March 5, 1959. 

Cooperation. TIAS 4190. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Pakistan— Signed at Ankara March 5, 1959. Entered 
into force March 5, 1959. 

Cooperation. TIAS 4191. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Turkey — Signed at Ankara March 5, 1959. Entered into 
force March 5, 1959. 

Saint Lawrence Seaway— Tariff of Tolls. TIAS 4192. 

7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Canada. Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa March 9, 

1959. Entered Into force March 9, 1959. 

Whaling — Amendments to the Schedule to the Interna- 
tional Whaling Convention Signed at Washington on 
December 2, 1946. TIAS 4193. 4 pp. 50. 

Adopted at the tenth meeting of the International Whaling 
Commission — London, June 23-27, 1958. Entered into 
force October 6, 1958, and January 29, 1959. 

Defense — Facilities Assistance Program. TIAS 4194. 
7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Italy, supplementing agreement of June 24, 1954. Ex- 
change of notes — Dated at Rome July 9 and 16, 1958. 
Entered into force July 16, 1958. 

Archives of Allied High Commission for Germany and 
Connected Tripartite Agencies — Security Files of Com- 
bined Travel Board. TIAS 4195. 3 pp. 50. 

Protocol between the United States of America. *he 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
and France, modifying agreement of June 30, 1954 — 
Signed at Bonn March 5, 1959. Entered into force March 
5, 1959. 

Defense — Offshore Procurement Program. TIAS 4196. 
3 pp. 5<J. 

Agreement between the Unite<l States of America and 

Spain, amending agreement of July 30, 19.54, as amended. 

Exchange of note.s — Dated at Madrid Octolier 29 and 

November 11, 19.58. Entered into force November 11, 

1958. 

Air Force Mission to Haiti. TIAS 4198. 3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Haiti, amending agreement of January 4, 1949, as ex- 



70 



tended. Exchange of notes — Dated at Port-au-Prince 
February 20, 1959. Entered into force February 20, 1959. 

Saint Lawrence Seaway — Navigation Improvements of the 
Great Lakes Connecting Channels. TIAS 4199. 18 pp., 
map. 35^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Canada. Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa February 
27, 1959, and May 19, 1955. Entered Into force February 
27, 1959. 

Settlement of United States Claim for Postwar Economic 
Assistance to Germany. TIAS 4200. 7 pp. 10^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the Federal Republic of Germany. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Bonn March 20, 1959. Entered into force 
March 20, 1959. 

Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 4201. 5 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Sudan. Exchange of notes — Signed at Khartoum March 
17, 1959. Entered into force March 17, 1959. 

Relief Supplies and Packages — Duty-Free Entry and 
Exemption From Internal Taxation. TIAS 4203. 3 pp. 

5«S. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Ghana. Exchange of notes — Signed at Accra April 9, 
1959. Entered into force April 9, 1959. 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: June 22-28 


Press releases may be obtained from the News 


Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 


Releases issued prior to June 22 which appear in 


this 


ssue of the Bullktin are Nos. 407 of June 9, 


435 of June 17, and 440 of June IS. | 


No. 


Date 


Subject 


450 


6/23 


Herter : report to the Nation. 


*451 


6/23 


Dillon : Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee. 


*452 


6/23 


Honor awards ceremony. 


453 


6/23 


Dillon : honor awards ceremony. 


454 


6/23 


Training program for business and 
Foreign Senice officials. 


455 


6/23 


Fiske appointed Assistant Secretary 
General of NATO (rewrite). 


456 


6/24 


Atomic energy agreement with Pan- 
ama. 


457 


6/24 


French Resistance veterans visit U.S. 
(rewrite). 


4.58 


6/24 


DI-F loan to Yugoslavia (rewrite). 


4.59 


6/24 


ICA honor awards ceremony ( rewrite) . 


*460 


6/24 


Hamlll designated USO.M director, 
Nicaragua i Inographlc details). 


401 


6/25 


DLF loan to China (rewrite). 


*4(i2 


6/26 


Cultural exchange. 


403 


6/26 


U.S. delegation to ECE meeting on 
organization and techniques of for- 
eign traile (rewrite). 


*464 


6/26 


Cultural exchange (Latin i\jnerlca). 


465 


6/26 


DLF loan to Indonesia (rewrite). 


*466 


(i '27 


1'esignatioii.s in Bureau of Far Eastern 
Aflairs (liiographic details). 

ted. 


'Not prln 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



July 13, 1959 



I 



n 



[Africa. IIow the Free World Can Meet the Com- 
munist Challenge (Hart) 51 

Agriculture. President Amends Executive Order on 
Administration of P.L. 480 (text of Executive 
order) 54 

Asia 

How the Free World Can Meet the Communist Chal- 
lenge (Hart) 51 

Steeves designated as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Far Eastern Afifairs 67 

Atomic Energy. United States and Panama Sign 
Atomic Energy Agreement 45 

Australia. Revision of Consular Districts in Aus- 
tralia 67 

China. Development Loan 57 

Communism. How the Free World Can Meet the 
Communist Challenge (Hart) 51 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 
Policy 57 

President Urges Congress To Act on Drai>er Com- 
mittee's Recommendations on U.S. Military Assist- 
ance Program (texts of letters) 46 

Cultural Exchange. President Amends Executive 
Order on Administration of P.L. 480 (text of 
Executive order) 54 

Department and Foreign Service 

Annual Honor Awards Ceremonies (Dillon) ... 65 
Department To Continue Cooperation in Industry 

Program for Executives 67 

Designations (Hamill, Steeves) 67 

Revision of Consular Districts in Australia ... 67 

Economic Affairs 

Department To Continue Cooperation in Industry 

Program for Executives 67 

ECE Meeting on Organization and Techniques of 

Foreign Trade (delegation) 65 

?resident Requests Investigation on Need for Rye 

Import Quota 56 

Europe 

SCB Meeting on Organization and Techniques of 

Foreign Trade (delegation) 65 

Prospects of Migration From Europe In 1959-60 

(Warren) 58 

France. French Resistance Veterans Visit Wash- 
ington 49 

Jermany. Reiwrt to tie Nation: The Geneva For- 
eign Ministers Conference (Herter) 43 

Bealth, Education, and Welfare. Promoting the 
Progress and Equality of Women (Hahn) ... 62 

ndonesia. Development Loans 57 

nternational Organizations and Conferences 

SCB Meeting on Organization and Techniques of 
Foreign Trade (delegation) 65 

'rospects of Migration From Europe in 1959-60 
(Warren) gg 

leport to the Nation : The Geneva Foreign Ministers 
Conference (Herter) 43 



d e X Vol. XLI, No. 1046 

Robert Hale Named Member of U.S.-Swiss Commis- 
sion 50 

Military Affairs 

President Urges Congress To Act on Draper Commit- 
tee's Recommendations on U.S. Military Assistance 

Program (texts of letters) 46 

Robert Fiske To Head NATO Production and Logis- 
tics Division 49 

Mutual Security 

Annual Honor Awards Ceremonies (ICA) .... 65 
Development Loans (China, Indonesia, Yugoslavia) . 57 
Hamill designated director, USOM, Nicaragua . . 67 
President Amends Executive Order on Administra- 
tion of P.L. 480 (text of Executive order) ... 54 
President Urges Congress To Act on Draper Commit- 
tee's Recommendations on U.S. Military Assist- 
ance Program (texts of letters) 45 

Nicaragua. Hamill designated director, USOM . . 67 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Robert Fiske 
To Head NATO Production and Logistics Divi- 
sion 49 

Panama. United States and Panama Sign Atomic 
Energy Agreement 45 

Presidential Documents 

President Amends Executive Order on Administra- 
tion of P.L. 480 54 

President Requests Investigation on Need for Rye 
Import Quota 56 

President Urges Congress To Act on Draper Commit- 
tee's Recommendations on U.S. Military Assist- 
ance Program 4g 

Publications 

Foreign Relations Volumes 68 

Recent Releases 69 

Refugees. Prospects of Migration From Europe in 
1959-60 (Warren) 53 

Switzerland. Robert Hale Named Member of U.S.- 
Swiss Commission 5Q 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions q'j 

Unitetl States and Panama Sign Atomic Energy Agree- 
ment 4g 

U.S.S.R. Report to the Nation : The Geneva Foreign 
Ministers Conference (Herter) 43 

United Nations. Promoting the Progress and Equal- 
ity of Women (Hahn) 62 

Yugoslavia. Development Loan 57 

Name Index 

Dillon, Douglas 65 

Eisenhower, President 46, 54, 56 

Fiske, Robert Bishop 49 

Hahn, Lorena B 62 

Hale, Robert 50 

Hamill, Edward B 67 

Hart, Parker T 51 

Herter, Secretary 43 

Steeves, John M §7 

Warren, George L 53 

U.S. COVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 


















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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

The basic source of information on 
U.S. diplomatic history 

J94I, Volume III, The British Commonwealth 
The Near East and Africa 



of 
State 



The Department of State recently released Foreign Relations 
of the United States, 19^1, Volume III, The British Commonwealth, 
The Near East and Afi'ica, one of a series of seven volumes giving the 
docimientary record of the diplomacy of the United States for the year 
1941. Three volumes for the year have already been puhlithed : Vol- 
ume I, General, The Soviet Union; Volume II, Europe; and Volume 
IV, The Far East. Volumes still to be published include an additional 
volume on the Far East and two volumes on the American Republics. 

The new volume, dealing almost entirely with problems arising 
from the war in Europe, has sections on relations with the United 
Kingdom, Canada, India, Ireland, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Li- 
beria, Morocco, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon, and 
Turkey. 

Copies of Volume III may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C, 
for $4.25 each. 



Orrl 'T Form l^^H Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 1941, 

Volume III, The British Commonwealth, The Near East and Africa. 

To: Stipt. of Documents 

<;ovt. Priniiiifi Office 

Washautton 25, D.<'.JSH Name: 

Enclosed liiul: -M Street Address : 

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, , . , 'M City, Zone, and State: 

(rd^h .cncck.or rnoiii y ^ 
ordtr iinuubU: to 
Siipl. of Dock.) 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




E 

FICIAL 

EKIY RECORD 

ITED STATES 
REIGN POLICY i 



Vol. XLI, No. 1047 July 20, 1959 

PRESIDENT AND QUEEN ELIZABETH OPEN 

ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY • Texts of Remarks .... 75 
FREEDOM DAY • Remarks by Assistant Secretary Berding . 78 

RESTRICTIONS AGAINST U.S. EXPORTS • Excerpt 

From Third Annual Report of the President on the Trade 
Agreements Program 83 

TRADE DISCRIMINATION AND CURRENCY CON- 
VERTIBILITY • Statement by W. T. M. Beale 95 

THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COM- 
MON MARKET • Arlicle by John A. Birch 88 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE REJECTS 
CREDENTIALS OF HUNGARIAN DELEGATION • 

Statement by Horace E. Henderson 99 

THE NUMBERING OF THE SECRETARIES OF 

STATE • Article by Richardson Dougall and Richard S. 
Patterson 80 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARXrVIENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLI, No. 1047 • Publication 6856 
July 20, 1959 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing OlBce 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.60, foreign $12.25 

Shigle copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

JVole; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
bo reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETiy. 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau oj 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of tlie 
Covernment with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BVLLETIIS includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by tlie White House and tlxe 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various piloses of 
international ajfairs and the func 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



President and Queen Elizabeth Open St. Lawrence Seaway 



Following are remarks made hy President 
Eisenhoioer and Queen Elizabeth II at the ofp-cial 
opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway at Montreal, 
Canada, on Jime 26. 



REMARKS BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

White House press release dated June 26 

Your Majesty, Your Eoyal Highness, Mr. 
Prime Minister, Mr. Roberts and Mr. Castle,^ dis- 
tinguished guests, and citizens of Canada and tlie 
United States : 

It is a gi"eat personal privilege to be a part of 
the ceremony of the official opening of the St. 
Lawrence Seaway. The occasion gives to me the 
opportunity to express again to Your Majesty the 
lasting respect, admiration, and affection of the 
citizens of the United States for you and for all 
the people of Canada, for whom you reign as 
their gracious Queen. Moreover, I prize this re- 
newal of my friendly contacts with your eminent 
Prime Minister [John Dief enbaker] , who was so 
warmly hospitable when I visited Ottawa last 
year.^ 

And because we are in this beautiful pai't of 
Canada where French is principally spoken, will 
you permit me a single halting sentence of my 
western-prairie brand of that language: 

Je suis tres heureux de me retrouver parmi vo^is 
au Canada, ou, il y aun an, fai fait twi si agreahle 
sejour, 

[I am very happy to be with you in Canada 
again, where a year ago I had such a pleasant 
visit.] 

This waterway, linking the oceans of the world 



'B. J. Roberts, President. The St. Lawrence Seaway 
Authority, and Lewis G. Castle, Administrator, Saint 
Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation. 

■ BtjLLetin of Aug. 4, 1958, p. 204. 



with the Great Lakes of the American Continent, 
is the culmination of the dreams of thousands of 
individuals on both sides of our common Cana- 
dian-United States border. It is the latest event 
in a long history of peaceful parallel progress by 
our two peoples. 

Side by side we have grown up together. Long 
ago we foimd solutions for many of the problems 
characteristic of pioneering peoples. We have 
built nations out of vast stretches of virgin terri- 
tory and transformed a wilderness into one of the 
most productive areas on earth. We are still de- 
veloping better means of production and com- 
munication and supporting measures needed for 
the welfare of our respective jieoples. 

A notable spirit of cooperation has been respon- 
sible for major steps in our past progress. That 
spirit animates both countries today. We enjoy 
between us a larger volume of reciprocal trade 
than do any other two nations in the world. Our 
peoples move freely back and forth across a 
boundary that has known neither gun nor fortress 
in over a century. Our citizen-soldiers have three 
times fought together in the cause of freedom, 
and today we are as one in our determination to 
defend our homelands. We have lived in peace 
with each other for nearly a century and a half. 
We cherish this record. 

There have been and are still problems to solve 
between us. But in the past, as now, we have 
never faltered in our conviction that these prob- 
lems must be settled by patient and understanding 
negotiation, never by violence. 

So today our two nations celebrate another tri- 
umph in peaceful living. The St. Lawrence 
Seaway presents to the world a 2,300-mile water- 
way of locks, lakes, and manmade channels. Its 
completion is a tribute to those farsighted and 
persevering people who across the years pushed 
forward to their goal despite decades of disap- 
pointments and setbacks. We pause to salute all 



Jo/y 20, J 959 



75 



those who have shared in this task, from the archi- 
tects and the planners to the artisans and the 
workers who have spent countless hours in its con- 
struction. Included among those who made pos- 
sible this great development are the statesmen and 
political leaders of the major parties of both coim- 
tries, beginning with the administrations of Prime 
Minister Bennett of Canada and President Her- 
bert Hoover of the United States. 

The parade of ships already passing through 
the Seaway on their way to and from the heart 
of the continent strikingly demonstrates the eco- 
nomic value of this new channel. But the Seaway 
is far more than a technical and commercial 
triumph. It has more significance than could just 
the successful construction of even this notable aid 
to commerce and navigation. It is, above all, a 
magnificent symbol to the entire world of the 
achievements possible to democratic nations peace- 
fully working together for the common good. 

So may this example be never forgotten by us ; 
and may it never be ignored by others. For in the 
reasonable resolution of the acute international 
problems of our time rests the single hope for 
world prosperity and happiness in peace, with 
justice for all. 

Thank you very much. 

REMARKS BY QUEEN ELIZABETH 

Mr. President: I am delighted that this occa- 
sion which marks the inauguration of a great 
joint enterprise between our two countries should 
afford me the first opportunity of welcoming you 
and Mrs. Eisenliower to Canada. It is with the 
warmest feelings of friendship that I do so on be- 
half of the Canadian people, myself, and my hus- 
band. The President of the United States will 
always be welcome here, but today there is an 
added pleasure and a special warmth in our greet- 
ing. You will always bo remembered as one of 
the great military leaders who brought the free 
world through the most severe crisis of modem 
times. The soldiers, sailors, and airmen of the 
Commonwealth, including many thousands of 
Canadians, were proud to serve under your leader- 
ship until the ultimate victory was won. We wel- 
come you here as a President of a great and 
friendly neighboring state ; but we have a special 
welcome for you as General Eisenhower. 

Today Canada and the United States are cele- 



76 



brating a victory of another kind. This dis- 
tinguished company has come together from the 
two gi-eat countries that border this waterway to 
mark the completion of a combined operation that 
ranks as one of the outstanding engineei'ing ac- 
complishments of modern times. We can say in 
truth that this occasion deserves a place in history. 
This is nothing new to the St. Lawrence River, 
which from the times of Cartier and La Salle, of 
Wolfe and Montcalm, has been the scene of so 
much of North America's history. 

Depuis le jour oil les intrepides explorateurs et 
colons jraruQais ont jete les fondements du Canada 
sur les rives de ce fleuve, des hommes prevoyants 
ont reve d''une voie navigable en eau profonde 
depuis le port a maree de Montreal jusqu''d la tete 
des Grands Lacs. Plusieurs generations de 
Canadiens tant de langue frangaise que de langue 
anglaise ont travaille a la realisation de ce projet 
grandiose. Meme au 17ieme siecle, il y eut deja des 
pro jets visant a contoumer les Rapides de Lachine. 
Ces rapides doivent, incidemment, leur nom a la 
croyarice generale de Vepoque quHls iloqu^ienf la 
route vers la Chine. Dollier de Casson^ des miZle 
six cent quutre-vingt, avait deja envisage la 
possihilite de surmonter cet obstacle. Sa tentative 
hardie etait cependant vouee a la dcfaite., car il 
etait bie7i en avant de son siecle. II demeure 
cependant le pionnier de la canalisation du Saint- 
Laurent et nous nous devons aujourd^hui de hii 
temoigner notre reconnaissance. 

[From the time when intrepid French explorei'S 
and settlers established the foundations of Canada 
by the banks of this river, farsighted men have 
dreamed of a navigable deepwater channel from 
the harbor of Montreal up to the head of the 
Great Lakes. Several generations of Canadians, 
whether French-speaking or English-spealdng, 
have worked for the realization of this great 
project. Even in the I7th century there were 
already plans to seek a route around the Lachine 
rapids. These rapids, incidentally, owe their 
name to the general belief of the time that they 
blocked the route to China. Dollier de Casson in 
1680 had already envisaged the possibility of get- 
ting over tliis obstacle. His daring attempt was, 
liowever, doomed to defeat, for he was well ahead 
of his time. He remains, however, the pioneer of 
the navigation of the St. Lawrence, and we today 
must express our gratitude to him.] 

Department of State Bulletin 



Since the time of Dollier de Casson men have 
dreamed and worked for 2i/2 centuries to make 
this river navigable, and now at last it is a reality. 
Tliis waterway will carry ocean shipping from 
tidewater to the very heart of the continent, a dis- 
tance of more than 2,000 miles. It will affect 
the lives of many generations of our peoples; and 
it is bound to exercise a profoimd influence on the 
maritime trading nations of the world. It is right 
that we should acknowledge the foresight of those 
who first conceived this great plan. But we 
should also aclcnowledge the courage and persist- 
ence of those men in public life, in both comitries, 
who brought about the political agreement essen- 
tial to putting the project in hand. "VAHien their 
work was done, it rested on the engineers to design 
these vast and complex works, which finally began 
to take shape in the hands of the men who drove 
the trucks, poured the concrete, and perfonned all 
the other tasks to complete the Seaway. To each 
and every one of them I offer my congratulations 
and the congratulations of their fellow citizens. 

Just 99 years ago my great-grandfather. King 
Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, came to open 
the Victoria Bridge. In those days that bridge 
was regarded as a tremendous feat of engineering. 
It was obviously a good bridge, because nearly 100 
years later it is still in use. In fact I shall sail 
under it shortly. It was also the final link in a 
new railway line more than 2,000 miles long. 

So in 1860 people thought of the Victoria 
Bridge as a striking symbol of Canadian progress 
and achievement. Today, within sight of the spot 
where the Prince of Wales stood in 1860, we are 
opening a project with exactly the same signifi- 
cance for our own age. In the context of a much 
larger and stronger Canada this enterprise reflects 
the same confidence and determination. The same 
creative vision has conceived and built a highway 
which will open the middle of this continent to 
the commerce of the woi'ld. 

Je vois dans V acKevement des travaux de la 
canalisation du Saint-Laurent une signification 
qui depasse les avantages ecoTiomiqiies qui en 
decouleront. Cette realisation ouvre, en pre- 
mier lieu, im n/mveau chapitre de Vhistoire de la 



Confederation en etahlissant de nauveaux liens 
entre les deusa pr-incipaux groupes ethniques dont 
la presence donne a la nation canadienne u/n 
caracti-re particulier. Le succes de cette entre- 
prise demontre, en outre, quHl est possible pour 
deu0i etats voisins de cooperer dans un esprit de 
confiance mutuelle a V edification d\ne oev/vre 
commune. Enfin, cette nouvelle route fluviale 
facilitera la rencontre de miUiers de citoyens du 
nouveau et Vancien monde, contribuant ainsi a 
dissiper les malentendus et a renforcer Ventente et 
la paix entre les nations. 

[I see in the accomplisliment of these works for 
the navigation of the St. Lawrence a meaning that 
goes beyond the economic advantages that will flow 
from it. This realization opens, in the first place, 
a new chapter in the history of this confederation 
in establishing new bonds between the two prin- 
cipal ethnic groups that have given a particular 
character to the Canadian nation. The success of 
this enterprise demonstrates, moreover, that it is 
possible for two neighboring countries to cooperate 
in a spirit of mutual confidence in the building of 
this work together. Finally, this new water route 
will facilitate the meeting of thousands of citizens 
from the New and Old World, helping in this way 
to dissipate misunderstandings and to strengthen 
agreement and peace between nations.] 

This vast imdertaking has been a cooperative 
effort of Canada and the United States, of the 
Power Authority of the State of New York and 
the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of the 
Province of Ontario. The two nations built it 
together, and the two nations will share its bene- 
fits. Power will flow from the new turbines to 
drive factories on both sides of the river. Ocean- 
going ships will go up and down this waterway, 
taking goods to and from American and Canadian 
ports and exchanging the products of North 
America for those from the rest of the world. 
More than all this, it is a magnificent monument to 
the enduring friendship of our two nations and to 
their partnership in the development of North 
America. That partnership is most agreeably 
symbolized, Mr. President, in the fact that you and 
I have joined together to perform this ceremony 
today. 



Ju/y 20, ?959 



77 



Freedom Day 

hy Andrew H. Berding 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs "■ 

I am particularly pleased to be here today to 
represent my Government for the Freedom Day 
celebration. This year Freedom Day has a double 
significance. Seventy-five years ago the deed for 
this magnificent statue was presented to the 
American people by the people of France. One 
hundred and fifty yeare ago this year Abraham 
Lincoln was born. 

Both the statue and the man are known the 
world over for what they represent. And that is 
liberty. This statue, rising toward the skies, is 
proof that belief in an ideal can be enduringly 
shared by two peoples despite the thousands of 
miles that separate them. 

France's interest in the American people has 
never flagged from the time when she helped bring 
about the birth of our democracy. We, too, have 
demonstrated on many historic occasions our 
friendship for the people of France. Each coun- 
try has helped the other in time of need. Each 
nation has encouraged the other during periods 
of darkness. 

In the addresses and proclamations given today 
you have heard belief in liberty eloquently ex- 
pressed. But you are aware also of the fact that 
for many people throughout the world this con- 
cept is only a barren recollection of something 
once enjoyed but now virtually unknown. I am 
speaking of those millions who live under the 
dark shadow of a system that declares the indi- 
vidual exists only for the good of the state. 

U.S. Position Toward Eastern Europe 

Since France and the United States have both 
had traditional ties with Eastern Europe, it is 
natural to think of Eastern Europe in this con- 
nection. 

The position of the United States toward the 
Soviet-dominated countries in Eastern Europe is 
clear. It has been expressed many times by 
President Eisenhower. 

The United States seeks nothing for itself in 
Eastern Europe. It offere no threat to the secu- 
rity of the Soviet Union in that area. It does not 

' Kemarks made at the Freedom Day celebration at (he 
base of the Statue of Liberty, New York, N.Y., on July 
1 (press release 47.')). 



78 



seek the military alliance of the coimtries con- 
cerned. It does not want to impose upon them the 
American way of life. It does not wish a return 
to methods of government which existed prior to 
World War II. It desires for their peoples only 
this: that they be ti-uly free; that they possess 
genuine national independence ; that they be able 
to establish whatever form of government and 
whatever economic and social institutions they 
desire to live under. The peoples of Eastern 
Europe aspire to this freedom. Our Government 
and our people hope they will achieve it. "What- 
ever this country can do by peaceful, legitimate 
means to help them to that end, we shall do. 

In short, the United States cannot accept the 
permanent subjugation of the once-free captive 
peoples of Eastern Europe— a subjugation that 
is without legal basis and is morally repugnant 
to all free men. 

No Change in Mr. Dulles' Policy on Back Issues 

In recent speeches Soviet Premier Khrushchev 
has taken advantage of the death of John Foster 
Dulles to claim that ]Mr. Dulles had changed his 
policies in the last period of his life. In ad- 
dresses on May 26 in Tirana, Albania, on June 
11 in Kiga, Latvia, and on June 19 in Moscow, 
Mr. Khrushchev declared that Mr. Dulles in the 
closing months of his life had recognized the 
shortcomings of certain Western policies with re- 
gard to the Soviet Union. He asserted that Mr. 
Dulles had finally come around to a realization 
of the futility of the positions-of-strength policy 
and that the late Secretary of State was weaken- 
ing, if not abandoning, opposition to two prior- 
ity Soviet foreign policy objectives— recognition 
of the status quo in Eastern Europe and the 
closely related question of recognition of two 
Germanics. 

I categorically deny that John Foster Dulles 
had changed his thinking on these basic issues. 
He was as stalwart just before he died as he was 
in the full vigor of his career in maintaining : 

that continued strength is one of the corner- 
stones of our foreign policy ; 

that the United States does not recognize the 
permanence of Soviet-imposed rule in Eastern 
Europe and instead will use all legitimate means 
to promote the independence of these peoples; 

and 

that Germany must bo reunified in the niterests 
of world peace" and of the German people. 



Department of State Bulletin 



I was with Secretary Dulles on the last trip he 
made to Eiiroi)e in February, when he saw Prime 
Minister Macmillan, President de Gaulle, and 
Chancellor Adenauer. I saw him the day before 
I left for the Geneva conference on May 8. In 
no sense had he changed his basic policies. As 
for the reunification of Germany, he was one of 
the architects of the "Western peace plan - pre- 
sented at Geneva, which would have brought 
about the reuniting of Germany in stages geared 
in with progress toward European security, so 
that Germany could become one nation again in 
the interests of all nations concerned, including 
the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Khrushchev waited until Mr. Dulles' death 
to state his conclusions. They are not warranted 
by the facts. He congratulated Mr. Dulles on 
having the courage to change his mind. He could 
better have congratulated Mr. Dulles on having 
the corn-age to stick by his principles. 

Lincoln, Champion of Freedom and Justice 

Let me now turn to Abraham Lincoln. If he 
were alive today he would be as interested in the 
great issues of international policy as he was in 
the domestic crisis of his day involvmg personal 
freedom. 

Lincoln was and is widely known and respected 
throughout the world. The people of France 
have looked to him as a champion of freedom and 
justice. He has become a symbol of man's belief 
in the cause of the oppressed. His famous 
Gettysburg plea that "government of the people, 
by the people, for the people, shall not perish 
from the earth" has been noted and is supported 
wherever men of free will forgather in the 
common interest. 

It is because of our basic sharing of these be- 
liefs that we have remained allies and friends 
with France. Their respect for our leadere like 
Lincoln and for our ideals explains why the 
Statue of Liberty was presented to us by the 
people of France. We continue to share common 
interests today with a France which is finding 
new strength and vigor under the leadership of 
President de Gaulle. 



President of Council of Ministers 
of Italy To Visit United States 

White House press release dated June 30 

The White House announced on Jvme 30 that 
Antonio Segni, President of the Council of Min- 
isters of Italy, has accepted the invitation of 
President Eisenhower to visit the United States. 
Mr. Segni, who will be accompanied by Mrs. 
Segni, will be in Washington for a 3-day official 
visit beginning September 30. 

Secretary of State Ilerter and the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Italy, Giuseppe Pella, will par- 
ticipate in discussions dm'ing the Prime Minister's 
visit. 

U.S. Resumes Technical Cooperation 
Program With U.A.R. 

Department Statement ^ 

The United States early in March 1959 removed 
restrictions on approximately $5 million in eco- 
nomic aid f mids previously obligated for use in the 
United Ai-ab Republic for prior fiscal years and 
also made available to the U.A.R. $2 million from 
fiscal year 1959. These funds have been appor- 
tioned for the procurement of locomotives, tallow, 
and newsprint. At the same time we agreed to 
resume normal technical cooperation activities 
under our general Teclmical Cooperation Agree- 
ment of 1951. As a result of discussions in Cairo, 
project agreements were signed in late June in the 
fields of civil aviation and highway development 
assistance. The civil aviation project agreement 
provides for the expenditure of $66,300, almost all 
of which is to finance ti-aining of Egyptian civil 
aviation technicians outside of Egypt. The high- 
way development project is similar to one which 
was in effect prior to mid-1956 and calls for the 
expenditure of approximately $225,000, a large 
portion of which is designed to finance a contract 
with a firm of private American highway con- 
sultants. A small sum has also been obligated for 
assistance in training on statistical methods in- 
volved in census taking. No new general technical 
assistance agreement has been signed. 



' For text, see Bulletin of June 1, 1959, p. 779. 



Read to news correspondents on July 2. 



Jo/y 20, 7959 



79 



The Numbering of the Secretaries of State 

by Richardson Dougall and Eichard S. Patterson 
Historical Division, Department of State 



At the time of John Foster Dulles' retirement 
as Secretary of State and the appointment of 
Christian A. Herter as his successor, there was a 
considerable diversity in published sources in the 
numerical designations used to describe the out- 
going and incoming Secretaries. 

The Department of State thought it desirable 
to standardize its own usage in the mmibering of 
the Secretaries of State and to give guidance on 
the subject to unofficial writers. Upon review of 
the special factors involved in the numbering of 
the Secretaries, the Department considers that 
Mr. Dulles should be referred to as the 52d Sec- 
retary of State and that Mr. Herter is therefore 
the 53d Secretary of State. 

There are four basic questions the answers to 
which affect the numbering of the Secretaries, and 
it is the fact that different individuals have an- 
swered these questions in different ways which has 
caused such a wide divergence in the numbere as- 
signed to the Secretaries in the past. These four 
basic questions and the answers to them which now 
govern the practice of the Department of State 
are as follows : 

1. Are the Secretaries of Foreign Affairs To Be 
Counted? 

Under the Continental Congress two men, first 
Robert 11. Livingston and then Jolin Jay, served 
as Secretary of (or for) Foreign Affairs, a posi- 
tion of somewhat lesser status and authority tlian 
that of Secretary of State under the act of Con- 
gress approved September 15, 1789. 

Jay, who was elected "Secretary for foreign 
affaii-s" by the Continental Congress on May 7, 
1784, entered upon the duties of that office on 
December 21, 1784; he held the office imtil the 



80 



begimiing of the new regime under the Constitu- 
tion on March 4, 1789 ; and he went on to super- 
vise the new Department of Foreign Affairs 
(created by the act of Congress approved July 
27, 1789) and the new Department of State (cre- 
ated by the act of Congress approved September 
15, 1789) until Thomas Jefferson assumed his 
duties as the first duly commissioned Secretary of 
State. 

President WasMngton informed Jefferson, fol- 
lowing the latter's appointment but before his as- 
sumption of Ms duties, that "Mr. Jay has been so 
obliging as to continue his good offices." And 
Jay informed a Spanish plenipotentiary in the 
United States during this same period that he 
would receive a negotiator, "circumstances having 
rendered it necessary that I should continue, 
though not officially, to superintend the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs until relieved by a 
successor." Jay was never given a formal ap- 
pointment or commission, however, with respect 
to the new Department of Foreign Afl'airs under 
the Constitution or the new Department of State, 
and both the messages quoted above concerning 
Jay's supei'visoiy functions relating to these De- 
partments were written after Jay had become 
Chief Justice of the United States — an office to 
which he was appointed 11 days after the creation 
of the Department of State. "While Jay was 
supervising the new Department of Foreign Af- 
fairs under the Constitution, he was referred to 
in the Executive Journal of the Senate as "the 
Secretary of Foreign Afl'airs, under the former 
Congress" or as "the Secretai-y of the United 
States for tlie Department of Foreign Afl'airs, 
under the former Congress," in recognition of the 
holdover nature of his supervisory function. 

Department of State Bulletin 



An officinl publication of the Department issued 
in 1931 (publication 232) states that Jay was 
"Secretary of State de facto from September 15, 
1789 [the date of the creation of the Department 
of State], until Jefferson assumed duties on March 
22, 1790." Wlien this publication was revised in 
1933, however (as publication 461), this languai;e 
was dropped and Jefferson was referred to as 
"the first duly appointed Secretary of State of 
the United States." In succeeding publications 
of the Department, Jefferson has uniformly been 
considered as the first Secretary of State, just as 
Washinnrton is universally listed as the first Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

Since Presidents are counted beginning ^\ith 
Washington, who was the first President under 
the Constitution, and presiding officers of the 
Continental Congress (who were of different and 
lesser status and authority) are not counted, the 
Secretaries of State are to be counted beginning 
with Jefferson, who was the first duly commis- 
sioned Secretary of State under the Constitution, 
and tlie two Secretaries of Foreign Affairs, Liv- 
ingston and Jay (who were of different and lesser 
status and authority), should not be counted as 
Secretaries of State. 

2. Are the Secretaries of State Ad Interim To Be 
Counted? 

"RHien there is no Secretary of State in office, 
the Department is supervised (except on the rarest 
of occasions) by a Secretaiy of State ad interim, 
who in current practice is the ranking officer of 
the Department but who, in earlier practice, was 
frequently the Cabinet officer in charge of some 
other executive department or even an official of 
another branch of the Government, such as the 
Chief Justice. The Secretaries of State ad in- 
terim have included Chief Justice John Marshall, 
Secretary of War James Monroe, Attorney Gen- 
eral Richard Rush, Secretary of the Navy Abel 
P. Upshur, Second Assistant Secretary of State 
Alvey A. Adee, Counselor of the Department of 
State Robert Lansing, Under Secretary of State 
Joseph C. Grew, and Deputy Under Secretaiy of 
State H. Freeman Matthews, the last of whom 
served as Secretary ad interim for the first one 
and a half days of the Eisenhower administration 
pending the commissioning and swearing in of 
Secretary Dulles. 

Since the tenure of these officials is frequently 



very short — sometimes only a day or two — and 
since they are not appointed or commissioned as 
"Secretary of State" but are rather mei-ely acting 
in lieu of a Secretary of State, the Secretaries 
ad interim are not to be counted in a numerical 
listing of the Secretaries of State. 

3. Are Secretaries Webster and Blaine To Be 
Counted Twice Each? 

Daniel Webster sei-ved two nonconsecutive 
terms as Secretary of State, from 1841 to 1843 
and from 1850 to 1852, with Secretaries Upshur, 
Calhoun, Buchanan, and Clayton serving between 
Webster's two terms of office. James G. Blaine 
served as Secretary of State for several months in 
1881 and again from 1889 to 1892, with Secretaries 
Frelinghuysen and Bayard serving between 
Blaine's terms of office. 

In the Presidency the two nonconsecutive terms 
of Grover Cleveland supply a precedent in this 
matter. In formal Presidential documents (e.g. 
the proclamation by President Coolidge on the 
death of President Harding and the proclamation 
by President Tnunan on the death of President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt) the practice has been to 
count Cleveland twice. Thus, in the proclama- 
tions referred to, Coolidge refers to Harding as 
the 29th President of the United States and Tru- 
man refers to Roosevelt as the 32d President. In 
the official White House portrait gallery, Cleve- 
land is labeled "The Twenty-second and the 
Twenty-fourth President," and his successors are 
nimibered accordmgly, from McKinley (the 2oth 
President) to Truman (the 33d President). A 
1945 opinion of the Legal Adviser of the Depart- 
ment of State includes the following statement 
on this subject: 

From the standpoint of logic there is no objection to 
considering that Mr. Cleveland was both the twenty-sec- 
ond and the twenty-fourth President of the United 
States. However, from the same standpoint there does 
appear objection to considering that Mr. Cleveland, in 
serving his second term, served as the twenty-second 
President of the United States. If such a designation 
were adopted there would be achieved the anomalous 
result of having the twenty-second President serving after 
the twenty-third President, who undoubtedly was Presi- 
dent Harrison. 

The Department follows the precedent set ia 
the official numbering of the Presidents, and Sec- 
retaries Webster and Blaine are to be counted 
twice each. 



Ju/y 20, 1959 



81 



4. Is Secretary Monroe To Be Counted Twice? 

James Monroe also served two nonconsecutive 
terms as Secretary of State, from 1811 to 1814 
and from 1815 to 1817, but in the interval between 
Monroe's two terms no other mdividual served as 
Secretai-y of State. Indeed, in a unique situation, 
Monroe himself (while Secretary of War) served 
as Secretary of State ad interim between his two 
terms of office as Secretai-y of State. Tiiis cir- 
cumstance creates a substantial difference between 
Monroe's case and the cases of Webster and Blaine 
discussed above. 

It would seem ludicrous to comit Monroe twice 
in a numerical listing of the Secretaries of State, 
with two consecutive numbers. Secretary Mon- 
roe is therefore to be counted only once. 

Numerical Listing of the Secretaries of State 

The answers given above to the four basic ques- 
tions stated result in the following numerical list- 
ing of the Secretaries of State, which reflects the 
approved official practice of the Department in 
this matter: 

1. Tlionias Jefferson, 1790-93. 

2. Edmund Randolph, 1794-9.5. 

3. Timothy Pickering, 1795-1800. 

4. John Marshall, 1800-01. 

5. James Madison, 1801-09. 

6. Robert Smith, 1809-11. 

7. James Monroe, 1811-14 and 1815-17. 

8. John Qiiincy Adams, 1817-2.5. 

9. Henry Clay, 1825-29. 

10. Martin Van Buren, 1829-31. 

11. Edward Livingston, 1831-33. 

12. Louis MeLane, 1833-34. 

13. John Forsyth, 1834-^1. 

14. Daniel Webster, 1841-43. 

15. Abel P. Upshur, 1843-44. 

16. John C. Calhoun, 1844-45. 

17. James Buchanan, 184.5-49. 

18. John M. Clayton, 1849-50. 

19. Daniel Webster, 18.50-52 (second term). 

20. Edward Everett, 1852-53. 

21. William L. Marcy, 1853-57. 

22. Lewis Cass, 1857-60. 

23. Jeremiah S. Black, 1860-61. 

24. William H. Seward, 1861-69. 

2.5. ElihuB. Washburne, 1869 (March .5-16). 
26. Hamilton Fish, 1869-77. 



27. William M. Evarts, 1877-81. 

28. James G. Blaine, 1881 (March 7-December 19). 

29. Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, 1881-85. 

30. Thomas F. Bayard, 1885-89. 

31. James G. Blaine, 1889-92 (second term). 

32. John W. Foster, 1892-93. 

33. Walter Q. Gresham, 1893-95. 

34. Richard Olney, 189.5-97. 

35. John Sherman, 1897-98. 

36. William R. Day, 1898 (April 28-September 10). 
,37. John Hay, 1898-190.5. 

38. Elihu Root, 190.5-09. 

39. Robert Bacon, 1909 (January 27 -March 5). 

40. Philander C. Knox, 1909-1.3. 

41. William Jennings Bryan, 1913-15. 

42. Robert Lansing, 191.5-20. 

43. Bainbridge Colby, 1920-21. 

44. Charles E. Hughes, 1921-2.5. 

45. Frank B. Kellogg, 192.5-29. 

46. Henry L. Stimson, 1929-33. 

47. Cordell Hull, 1933-44. 

48. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1944-45. 

49. James F. Byrnes, 194.5-47. 
.50. George C. Marshall, 1947-49. 
51. Dean Acheson, 1949-53. 

.52. John Foster Dulles, 19.53-.59. 
53. Christian A. Herter, 19.59- . 



U.S. To Open Embassy 
at Katmandu, Nepal 

Press release 469 dated June 29 

The United States will open a new Embassy 
at Katmandu, capital of the Kingdom of Nepal, 
in the near future. Hitherto the American Am- 
bassador to India, resident at New Delhi, has 
also served as Ambassador to Nepal. Nepal, an 
independent kingdom with a population of about 
8.5 million, is a member of the United Nations 
and has had diplomatic relations with the 
United States since 1947. In January 1959 
Nepal established a resident Embassy at 
Washington. 

A joint statement making the announcement 
said: "The Embassy of the United States of 
America is being established to further the 
friendly relations existing between the United 
States and Nepal and to facilitate contacts 
between the two governments." 



82 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Restrictions Against U.S. Exports 



EXCERPT FROM THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 
ON THE TRADE AGREEMENTS PROGRAM 



On June 25 the I'resklcnt transmitted to Con- 
gress the third annual report on the operation of 
the trade agreements program,} Following is tlie 
text of chapter VI of the report, entitled ^'•Restric- 
tions Against U.S. Exports." ' 



A. PROGRESS IN ELIMINATING RESTRICTIONS 

During 1958 there was significant progress 
abroad in further relaxation of quantitative con- 
trols against products exported from the United 
States. This progress was part of tlie recent ac- 
celeration in the general postwar movement to- 
ward less restricted trade. 

Immediately following World War II many 
countries resorted to rigid import controls to pro- 
tect their limited supplies of foreign exchange, 
strained by disiiiption of normal trade channels, 
reduced production capacity, and an exceptional 
demand for imports. While a number of comi- 
tries currently impose import restrictions because 
of balance-of-payments difficulties, the general and 
continuing improvement in world economic con- 
ditions in the postwar period has permitted quan- 
titative restrictions to be progressively relaxed 
and discrimination against dollar goods to be 
greatly reduced. 

In 1957 a combination of unusual circumstances, 



' A limited number of copies of the report are available 
from the Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. For 
text of the first annual report, see Bulletin of Mar. 4, 
1957, p. 36.3 ; for the second report, see H. Doc. 384, 85th 
Cong., 2d sess. 

' This chapter has been prepared in considerable detail 
In accordance with the reporting requirements introduce<l 
into the 1958 extension of the Trade Agreements Act. 
[Footnote in original.] 



including the economic impact of the Suez crisis 
and the poor European harvest of the preceding 
year, the replenishment of world cotton stocks, and 
heavy speculative capital movements, brought 
about temporary foreign losses of gold and dollars 
to the United States and consequently a slowdown 
in trado liberalization. Despite this adverse effect 
on foreign balances, there was continued progress 
in elimination of import restrictions, including re- 
maining discrimination against American prod- 
ucts. 

In 1958 progress in liberalizing trade again ac- 
celerated, particularly in industrial areas of the 
world. In Western Europe, Germany announced 
early in the year that 1,300 commodity classifica- 
tions in its import schedule would be freed of ad- 
ministrative control. In November 1958 the Ger- 
man Government removed import controls on 50 
additional industrial items, and in early January 
1959 placed 66 agricultural and 33 more industrial 
items on the liberalization list. Under GATT 
principles, however, Germany is no longer entitled 
to employ quantitative restrictions for balance-of- 
payments reasons. This fact has been emphasized 
both in the GATT forum and in bilateral 
discussions. 

Austria announced a further relaxation of dol- 
lar import restrictions during 1958 and stated tliat 
discrimination between liberalization ^ of dollar 
and nondollar imports had been eliminated for 
practically all nonagricultural products. In Feb- 
ruary 1958 Denmark increased dollar liberaliza- 
tion from 55 to 66 percent (based on 1953 im- 



' Formal removel of all restrictive control over imports 
of a product is termed "liberalization." [Footnote in 
original.] 



July 20, 7959 



83 



ports). At the end of the year Denmark again 
increased the number of items on its "free lists" 
of goods that can be imported from the dollar area 
■without individual license. In early January 1959 
Norway raised liberalization of dollar imports to 
the same level as that for imports from OEEC 
countries, virtually eliminating discrimination 
against dollar goods. Italy, ^Yhile not removing 
any additional dollar imports from administra- 
tive control, made some progress by releasing a 
list of 91 items which would be freely licensed. 

Balance-of-payments difficulties had led France 
in June 1957 to suspend all of its trade liberaliza- 
tion measures. By the end of 1958, however, 
France was able to recover lost ground, and with 
further decontrol in mid-January of 1959, France 
has now freed 56 percent of its dollar imports 
(based on 1953 import, statistics) from administra- 
tive control, more than at any other time since the 
war. 

Measures undertaken by the United Kingdom 
during 1958 point up the momentum toward lib- 
eralization of trade. In August dollar imports 
of industrial chemicals and allied products, in- 
cluding plasticmaking materials, were freed of 
licensing controls. In September, at a Common- 
wealth Trade and Economic Conference in Mon- 
treal, the British Government annoimced tliat it 
was making almost a clean sweep of remaining 
conti'ols on dollar imports of industrial and agri- 
cultural machinei-y (including office machinery), 
canned salmon, and newsprint, leaving mostly 
consumers' goods and a limited range of 
specialized machinery subject to import control. 

The United Kingdom invited colonial govern- 
ments also to relax import restrictions on a wide 
range of dollar goods, and revealed plans for 
commencing in 1959 the liberalization of remain- 
ing U.K. dollar controls on consumers' goods. A 
number of countries in the overseas sterling area, 
including the Federation of Khodesia and Nyasa- 
land, Burma, and Malaya, followed the lead of 
the United Kingdom in introducing measures to 
facilitate f I'eer imports of dollar goods. 

In March 1958, and again in August, Australia 
introduced modifications in its import licensing 
system which greatly reduced the degree of dis- 
crimination against dollar imports. Ceylon, fol- 
lowing a balance-of-payments consultation under 
the GATT, announced that it would remove its 
few remaining discriminatory controls against 



dollar goods. New Zealand cut back imports and 
increased discrimination against dollar goods 
early in 1958 because of an adverse payments 
position, but announced later in the year a 1959 
import licensing schedule with a wide range of 
global quotas which virtually eliminated dis- 
crimination against imports from the dollar area. 
Although total New Zealand imports in 1959 will 
probably be lower than in the pre^aous year, the 
U.S. share of the market may very well increase 
as a result of the new global licensing system. 

Outside Europe and the sterling area there was 
less progress. Wliile controls were tightened in 
some cases, there were also improvements. On 
December 30, 1958, Argentina announced removal 
of all quantitative and exchange restrictions on 
trade and payments with the introduction of a 
single fluctuating rate of exchange responsive to 
market forces. Japan followed the pattern of 
other industrial countries with a series of moves 
designed to facilitate increased dollar imports. 
These and other developments in individual 
countries are described in detail in appendix B.^ 

One of the most significant single developments 
affecting prospects for removal of discriminatory 
restrictions against dollar goods, as mentioned 
in the chapter on trade, was the announcement by 
most Western European countries at the end of 
1958 that their currencies would be freely con- 
vertible for nonresidents of tlieir countries or 
currency areas. As a related step, the European 
Payments Union (EPU) was superseded by the 
European Monetary Agreement (EMA). Under 
the EPU there was a certain amoimt of auto- 
matic credit allowed in the settlement of intra- 
European payments. This provided a financial 
incentive for European countries in balance-of- 
payments difficulty to restrict dollar imports more 
severely than those from EPU countries. Under 
the EMA rules, however, there is no automatic 
credit and settlement must be 100 percent in gold 
or dollars. Wlien credits are granted, they are 
autliorized on a case-by-case basis and are 
repayable within 2 years. 

These changes have created a new financial set- 
ting for commercial policy in Europe and else- 
where and should give added momentum to the 
process of eliminating restrictions ou dollar 
exports. 



* Not printed here. 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



B. REMAINING RESTRICTIONS 

Although significant progress has been made, 
there are still many countries which retain vary- 
ing degrees of quantitative control over imports, 
including imports from the United States. 

Of the 37 countries participating in tlie Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 
26 maintain restrictions for balance-of-payments 
purposes on at least a part of their imports. Of 
the 8 non-GATT coimtries with which the United 
States has bilateral trade agreements, Argentina, 
Honduras, El Salvador, and Switzerland have 
little or no quantitative restriction of trade, while 
Iceland, Iran, Paraguay, and Venezuela impose 
various types of quantitative import limitations. 

Methods of control vary greatly from country 
to country, but usually provide for a graduated 
range of restrictions, under wliich imports of 
individual items are roughly proportional to their 
rated essentiality and to the availability of the 
exporting country's currency. In a great many 
systems there is wide scope for administrative 
discretion — that is, individual import requests are 
considered on a case-by-case basis, and licenses 
granted, either liberally or not, in accordance 
with conditions at the time of request. 

The Organization for Em-opean Economic 
Cooperation (OEEC) has indicated the extent to 
which its members have removed restrictions 
against dollar goods by publishing periodically 
for each country the percentage of private sector 



imports from the United States and Canada which 
have been formally freed from administrative 
control, calculated on the basis of 195.3 import pat- 
tenis. For example, 90 percent dollar liberaliza- 
tion means that commodities free of quantitative 
import restrictions accounted in 1953 for 90 per- 
cent of the value of private imports from the 
United States and Canada. 

Table I shows the liberalization ratios (through 
Januaiy 1, 1959) calculated in this manner for all 
OEEC countries with which the United States 
maintains trade agreement relations. Of these 15 
countries 10 have removed controls on commodi- 
ties which represented in 1953 at least two-thirds 
of the total value of their private dollar imports, 
with individual percentages ranging up to 99 for 
Switzerland and Greece, 95 for the Federal Ee- 
public of Germany, and 90 for Norway. 

The OEEC liberalization ratios give no indica- 
tion of the severity with which remaining controls 
against dollar imports are administered in the 
"unliberalized" sector. However, European coun- 
tries in recent years have relaxed controls on 
many unliberalized commodities. A nmnber of 
countries in fact have introduced de facto liberali- 
zatiou for a significant portion of their restricted 
dollar trade by establishing lists of commodities 
for which import licenses are automatically issued. 
In this way demand is tested and some indication 
is obtained of the extent to which formal liberali- 
zation can be undertaken. 



Table I. 



The Percentage of Liberalization of Private Imports Prom the United States and Canada by OEEC Countries 
With Which the U.S. Has Trade Agreements, 1953-591 
(Percent) 



Country 


Jan. 1 
1953 


Jan. 1 

1954 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 
1956 


Jan. 1 

1957 


Jan. 1 
1968 


Jan. 1 
1959* 


Austria. . _. . __ _ 



57 
1 








98 

7 




70 

1 



24 

90 

33 

10 

30 





98 



43 



86 
38 


60 
90 
33 
24 
86 


55 
98 


50 


8 
86 
55 
11 
68 
99 
33 
24 
86 


58 
99 


56 


40 
86 
55 
11 
90 
99 
33 
39 
86 
84 
68 
99 

59 


40 
86 
55 


94 
99 
33 
68 
86 
87 
68 
99 


62 


45 


Belgium-Luxembourg 


86 


Denmark.. 


70 


France 


56 


Germany . 


95 


Greece 


99 


Iceland . 


33 


Italy 


68 


Netherlands. 


86 


Norway.. 


91 


Sweden. . 


68 


Switzerland 


99 


Turkey 





United Kingdom . 


75 







♦Preliminary estimates, including results of certain actions taken in January 1959. 

' All countries shown participate in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade except Iceland, with which the 
United States has a bilateral agreement. The United States also maintains a bilateral agreement with Switzerland 
although the latter has acceded to the GATT on a provisional basis. 
Source: OEEC publications. 



My 20, 7959 



85 



For Europe as a whole, the overall level of 
quantitative import restrictions, as well as the de- 
gree of discrimination against dollar goods, has 
been reduced to a postwar low. Eemaining con- 
trols are concentrated on agiicultural and con- 
sumer goods, with raw materials and capital goods 
relatively free. 

For other areas of the world the measure of lib- 
eralization is usually less precise than for Europe. 
This is in part due to the systems of import con- 
trol employed. In some countries substantially 
all imports are under government restraint, and 
relaxation of restrictions takes the form of more 
liberal treatment for certain categories of imports 
or for specific items, on a case-by-case basis. 
Other coiuitries may base their restrictive systems 
on requirements for prior import deposits varying 
from a small percentage to many times the total 
price of the commodity, and/or on exchange li- 
censing regiilations. Some use differing exchange 
rates or exchange allocations for various classifi- 
cations of imports. 

In general less developed countries have main- 
tained stricter controls over imports than have in- 
dustrialized countries with more balanced econo- 
mies. Because a substantial share of their export 
earnings may depend upon sales of a few primary 
products, prices for which have declined in recent 
years in comparison to prices for industrial goods, 
these countries exercise some control over imports 
to protect their balance-of-payments positions and 
to assure a steady supply of the goods essential 
to their economic development programs. The 
tendency of less developed countries, tlierefore, 
has been to permit imports of needed raw mate- 
rials and capital equipment from the dollar area 
and to restrict most consumere' goods rather se- 
verely. Appendix B discusses individual coun- 
tries in detail. 



C. MEANS AVAILABLE TO SEEK FURTHER 
PROGRESS 

As there is improvement in the balance-of-pay- 
ments and reserve position of a country employinsr 
quantitative restrictions on imports, the United 
States seeks a commensurate relaxation of that 
country's restrictions, based upon considerations 
of fair treatment for the U.S. exporter imder ex- 
isting international treaties and agreements and 
upon (he restricting country's own .self interest. 



The United States continually emphasizes the ad- 
vantages of a freer flow of international trade in 
stimulating the competitiveness of free- world in- 
dustry and permitting purchases in the most ad- 
vantageous market. These representations are 
carried out not only on a bilateral basis in "Wash- 
ington and abroad but also through appropriate 
international forums. 

The United States is a party to many interna- 
tional treaties and agreements providing for re- 
straint in the use of trade restrictions. Friend- 
ship, commerce and navigation (FCN) treaties 
have been signed with numerous countries and 
cover U.S. economic interests ranging from basic 
personal rights, property rights, and taxation to 
exchange controls, customs administration, and 
business practices. Individual treaties differ, but 
most contain assurance of most-favored-nation 
(MFN) or nondiscriminatory treatment for 
American goods in the administration of import 
restrictions. 

Trade agreements usually contain more specific 
obligations than FCN treaties regarding the use 
of quantitative trade restrictions. In addition to 
the general MFN commitment which limits dis- 
crimination, most U.S. bilaterals contain provi- 
sions (subject to usual exceptions) against the 
imposition of quotas on imports which have been 
the subject of tariff concessions. By 1947 the 
United States had negotiated bilateral tirade agree- 
ments with 29 countries luider the authority of the 
Trade Agreements Act of 1934, as amended. In 
1948 many of these were superseded by the es- 
tablishment of a single multilateral agreement, 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT). Eight bilateral agreements are still in 
force. 

The GATT contains by far the most compre- 
hensive provisions concerning the use of quanti- 
tative restrictions. It is adhered to by 37 of the 
principal trading countries of the world, including 
the United States. By negotiating a single multi- 
lateral agreement it was possible to obtain in the 
GATT a general limitation on the use of quanti- 
tative restrictions, even on imports for which no 
tariff concessions had been granted. The GATT 
recognized, however, certain special situations in 
which quotas miglit be employed temporarily, 
chiefly to safeguard a country's external financial 
position, and to prevent interference with domestic 
agricultural support programs. The GATT pro- 
visions against quantitative restrictions were not 



86 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



possible under the old bilateral system because no 
country was willing to forego the use of quotas 
unless its principal trading partners would agree 
to the same limitation. 

Under revised GATT procedures effective in 
1959, countries imposing quotas for balance-of- 
payments reasons will begin to consult on a regu- 
lar basis with the Contracting Parties regarding 
the extent of these restrictions, their conformity 
with GATT i)rinciples, and their effect on other 
contracting parties. Former consultations held 
were mostly on an irregular basis, usually when a 
country substantially intensified its restrictions. 
The new comprehensive consultations, in which 
the United States will play an active role, are to 
be conducted generally on an annual basis for in- 
dustrial nations and biennially for less developed 
countries. 

During GATT meetings, U.S. officials fre- 
quently conduct informal bilateral discussions 
with trade specialists of other coiuitries regard- 
ing specific restrictions which have proved unduly 
burdensome to U.S. exporters. These discussions 
among experts, on a cooperative and open basis, 
sometimes accomplish even more than contacts by 
normal diplomatic means. 

Some countries employ exchange restrictions 
rather than, or in conjunction with, quotas to 
limit the importation of goods. The Articles of 
Agreement of the International Monetary Fund 
(I]\IF) govern the use of exchange restrictions by 
member countries in much the same way that the 
GATT deals with quotas. The objective of the 
IMF is to bring about elimination of exchange re- 
strictions as rapidly as possible. Annual consul- 
tations with member countries utilizing exchange 
restrictions provide an opportunity for discussion 
of the economic and financial problems which give 
rise to restrictive and discriminatory practices and 
of the possibilities for further relaxation. Al- 
though resort to import controls may be unavoid- 
able, there is often a tendency for a country to use 
trade controls to offset basic difficulties in its econ- 
omy and thus escape less popular internal finan- 
cial measures which would correct them. The 
IMF consultations and expert technical advice 



are useful in persuading countries to take the 
sounder course of action. 

The IMF also makes available its lending re- 
sources to countries in temporary balance-of-pay- 
ments difficulties, often enabling them to avoid 
intensification of import r»strictions. During 
1958 the United States, as a member of the IMF, 
recoimnended a general increase in Fund resources 
of 50 percent. 

Another international forum in which the 
United States has sought to encourage the liberal- 
ization of restrictions of dollar goods has been the 
Organization for European Economic Coopera- 
tion (OEEC). Although the OEEC comitries 
have no formal obligation among themselves to 
eliminate dollar import restrictions, tliey have de- 
clared this as one of their aims. The United 
States as an associate member of the OEEC works 
closely with the organization in facilitating this 
liberalization. 

Complementing and supported by the above 
international commitments and activities for re- 
moval of restrictions against dollar imports are 
the bilateral representations constantly made 
through the many U.S. diplomatic posts abroad. 
These representations have the advantage of con- 
tinuity. They permit prompt consideration of 
problems as they arise, or at a time when local 
conditions are most favorable to a solution. Often 
U.S. officials conferring abroad with foreign gov- 
ernment representatives on unrelated matters 
make a special point of discussing trade liberaliza- 
tion and suggesting ways in which further prog- 
ress can be made. The problems of scores of U.S. 
businessmen are solved in this fashion without the 
necessity of referring them to more formal 
forums. 

The import policy of the United States is 
another important factor in aiding the removal of 
import restrictions abroad. A large and healthy 
trade with the United States contributes to the 
earnings of other countries and makes it finan- 
cially more feasible for them to import freely from 
the United States. A wise import policy at home 
is thus vital to the effective promotion of sound 
import policies abroad. 



July 20, 1959 



87 



The United States and the European Common Market 



hyJohn A. Birch 



Unification of Western Europe has stirred the 
imagination of thinking, farsighted men ever 
since nationalism and the nation-state replaced the 
Holy Roman Empire of Charlemagne. For mii- 
fication would mean the end of those ancient rival- 
ries which through the centuries since the IVIiddle 
Ages have cost Europe so much in bloodshed, in 
manpower, and in material wealth. For dra- 
matic and bloody illustrations of such rivalries 
and their cost, one needs merely to look at the 
histories of two West European countries, France 
and Germany, which in the last himdred years 
have faced each other in the Franco-Prussian War 
and in two world wars. 

In 1957 Westei-n Europe took a significant step 
toward unification when the representatives of six 
countries — Belgium, Federal Eepublic of Ger- 
many, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Neth- 
erlands — met at Rome and signed on March 25 a 
treaty establishing the European Economic Com- 
mimity (EEC), or Common Market, which looks 
toward an economic xmion of these six West Euro- 
pean coimtries.^ 

The Rome Treaty, which went into effect on 
Januai-y 1, 1958, envisages the elimination of tar- 
iffs and quantitative restrictions on trade among 
the six member countries over a 12- to 15-year 
transition period and the establishment of a com- 
mon tariff and a vmified commercial policy toward 
outside countries. It is also designed to free the 
movement of capital and labor within the Com- 
mon Market area and to harmonize labor and so- 
cial legislation. The Common Market countries 
have also set up a social fund to facilitate read- 



• Mr. Birch is chief of the Trade Agree- 
ments Division, Office of International 
Trade, in the Department of State. 



justment by labor and a bank to meet the need 
for increased investment. There is a provision 
in the treaty to associate witli the Coimnunity 
specific dependent overseas territories of the mem- 
ber states, now largely limited to the French and 
Belgian possessions in Africa. The treaty also 
contains a declaration of the intention of the six 
Common Market countries to negotiate with the 
independent countries of the franc area with the 
view toward associatmg them with the Commu- 
nity. 

The treaty further provides for central insti- 
tutions with specified powers to deal with the 
Community's affairs : a Commission to administer 
the treaty on a continuing basis, a Comicil of 
Ministers to represent the six governments, a 
Court of Justice with jurisdiction over questions 
involving interpretation of the treaty, and a Par- 
liamentary Assembly which, for example, reviews 
the Community's annual budget. 

Other European Regional Groupings 

The Common Market is the most significant of 
a nimiber of integration movements involving 
these six countries. In addition to the Coimnon 
Market, the nations have established the Euro- 
pean Atomic Energy Community (EUR ATOM) 
and the Coal and Steel Commimity. Some of the 
central institutions identified above are common 
to all three communities. It is important to un- 
derstand that the Rome Treaty and the measures 
already taken toward fulfillment of its objectives 
do not in themselves represent political unifica- 
tion of these six countries. They do, however. 



' Other Kuropean countries are not excluded ; article 
237 of the Rome Treaty states, in part, that "any Euro- 
pean state may apply to become a member of the Com- 
munity." 



88 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



represent significant steps toward the unification 
of "Western Europe and merit U.S. support in that 
they liold tlie promise and hope for a more peace- 
ful and prosperous Europe. 

Walter Hallstein, the German statesman who 
is now President of the Euroi^ean Economic 
Community Commission, credits the Marshall 
plan with providing the initial stimulus for the 
series of moves toward integration in Western 
Europe of which the Common Market is the latest 
and, in many ways, the most impressive example. 
Professor Hallstein's point is well founded, for 
the Organization for European Economic Coop- 
eration (OEEC) came about as a result of the 
]\Iarshall plan. Working together within the 
OEEC and the European Payments Union, 
which developed from it, the governments of 
Europe established both the psychological en- 
vironment and the technical procedures for 
achieving closer cooperation. It was on their own 
initiative, however, that the countries concerned 
established the European Coal and Steel Com- 
munity in 1952 and, more recently, the Common 
Market and EUEATOM. 

EURATOM, which was established at the same 
time as the Common Market and which is com- 
posed of the same six countries, intends to develop 
atomic energy as a Conununity industrial re- 
source. The U.S. Government in November 1958 
concluded a unique joint program with 
EURATOM for peaceful research and develop- 
ment of nuclear power resources.^ This program 
will make available valuable knowledge and ex- 
perience for use on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Possibilities for Expanding World Trade 

The long distance that Western Europe has 
come since the inception of the Marshall plan in 
1947 is evidence of its inherent economic vitality 
and of what economic cooperation and integra- 
tion can do. During the 10-year period begin- 
ning in 1947, industrial production in Western 
Europe increased by 90 percent and agricultural 
output by 55 percent. During the same period 
the internal trade of the area expanded by 257 
percent and trade with countries outside the area 
by 79 percent. Many factors are, of course, re- 
sponsible, but there can be no doubt that cooper- 



' For text of agreement, see Bulletin of Jan. 12, 19.59, 
p. 69; for a statement by Under Secretary Dillon, see 
il>id., Feb. 16, 1959, p. 247. 



ation was one of the most important ingredients 
in making this progress possible. 

The realization of the opportunity for expand- 
ing world trade presented by the Rome Treaty 
will, in practice, depend upon a liberal interpre- 
tation and application of the treaty provisions 
and a favorable world atmosphere in wliich it can 
develop. Western Europe is a great manufactur- 
ing and trading area. As such, it is increasingly 
dependent upon the outside world for both im- 
ports and exports. It is logical to expect, there- 
fore, that, as production increases and the Com- 
mon Market area becomes more competitive in 
third-country markets, its total imports will ex- 
pand rather than contract, although the pattern 
of imports may be altered. 

Wliat assurances do we have that the European 
Economic Community will follow a liberal course 
and avoid protectionist policies? How can we 
determine in advance that the Common Market 
will become a full customs union rather than 
merely a preferential trading bloc? 

As a rule a preferential system reduces tariffs 
only in selected commodities, all too frequently as 
the result of political pressures. Consequently 
there is a tendency for demand in those selected 
commodities to shift from cheaper outside sources 
to less competitive inside sources without the 
compensating benefits of more competition in the 
internal economy as a whole. In a full customs 
union, on the other hand, the trade-creating ef- 
fects of the arrangement are greater than the 
trade-diverting effects. This is the economic 
rationale that has resulted in the U.S. Govern- 
ment's policy of giving general support to cus- 
toms imions but opposing the formation of pref- 
erential arrangements. It is also the rationale 
underlying the provisions of the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) relating to 
customs unions. 

There are substantial assurances in the Rome 
Treaty itself that the Common Market will re- 
sult in a full customs union in which all internal 
tariffs will be eliminated and a common external 
tariff will be developed. By signing this treaty 
the six countries concerned have imdertaken a 
solemn commitment to attain these goals over a 
maximum period of 15 years. 

One might, of course, argue that, although tar- 
iffs and quotas could be eliminated, monopolies 
and cartels could keep the inefficient producer in 
business. On this point, too, we can be reassured 



July 20, 7959 



89 




population 
9,027,000 
area 

12,000 sq. 
miles 



population 
44,289.000 
area 

212,000 sq. 
miles 



population 
51 .832,000 
area 

95,000 sq. 
miles 



population 
48,594,000 
area 

116,000 sq. 
miles 



population 
315,000 
area 
1,000 sq. 
miles 



population 
11.096.000 
area 

12,500 sq. 
miles 



The European Community covers \^ UINIICU 

an area of 449,000 square miles. 

In this area live some 165 million 

people — roughly as many as there 

are In the United States. The active wSwSw wwrnn^ 

working population of some 73 million f^TlUT TT VVV^ 

is greater than that of the United J CCXXXi OO 

States. Its associated countries and r~\ — <r i m m n n i rrrr 

territories number a further 53 million , — '"A^-i V V V VV V V 

inhabitants. A 

The Community produced in '1957 a W 

record of 60 million metric tons of 

steel, and 248 million tons of coal. It 

shares with the USSR, the world's m ^^^ - ^.^ ,„ 

second place in output of these / jQl^jQl^llg 

products. -^ 

Its crude energy consumption In 1957 

stood at the equivalent of 421 million ^^^^^^ /^^^^r 

metric tons of coal. , ^^"o \ \ 

Between 1950 and 1957, its cross wwding pop„ioi,on n io.qi popjoi.on ^ 

-^ 1 lun.li ol 10 m.ll.oni \ l„r,.r> oF 10 m.ltan| ^^-^^ 

national product (at 1954 prices) in- r^ \ 

creased by 48 %. The Community ^r"^ Gross energy consumption ^ i 

I /o - I r\__r1 ('^ millions of metric tons. W \ 

is the world's largest importer and ' (jq I ""' equivalent) 1 ) 

Its second largest exporter. Its total W^ j I 

imports from the outside world in L / 

1957 amounted to $17,700 million and ^^^^ 

Its total exports to $15,300 million. 

Community USA UK USSR 

Area (thousand sq. miles) 449 3,600 94 8,600 

Population 1957 (million) 165 171 52 200* 

5Q^£ Active working population 1957 (million). .73 70 24 91* 

_^..__ _.__.._ Steel production 1957 (in millions of metric 

COMPARISONS: tons) 6o 102 22 51 

Steel consumption per tiead of population 

1957 (in kilograms) . 293 577 397 255** 

Crude energy consumption 1956 (in mil- 
lions of metric tons, hard coal equivalent) 416 1,356 248 415 
Grain production (in millions of metric 

tons, average 1952-55 46 144 9 94 

Milk production (in millions of metric tons 

» 19S4. average 1952-55) 53 55 11 40 

** production per heod. Automobile production 1955 (thousands). . 1,489 7.920 898 108 

SouiicB : European Community InforDiation Service, May 1059. 

90 liepat\men\ of Sfafe Bulletin 




by the fact tliat the Rome Treaty contains impor- 
tant antitrust provisions designed to prevent such 
a development.^ 

Another factor which should favor increased 
trade between the Common Market and the rest 
of the world is the philosophy of the treaty that, 
if the Common Market is to work as intended, 
each member must keep its economic house in 
order. Each is expected to take the fiscal, budg- 
etary, and monetary measures needed to control 
inflation and to keep international payments in 
overall balance. As these objectives are met, 
quantitative restrictions and exchange controls 
that now limit exports, especially from the dollar 
area, can be further relaxed and eventually 
eliminated. 

Perhaps the most promising indication that the 
Common Market will look outward upon the 
world and increase its trade with outside coun- 
tries lies in the provisions for administering the 
Community's affairs. These provisions have 
been drawn up in such a way that with the pas- 
sage of time the actions of the European institu- 
tions will increasingly be based upon the larger 
interest of the Community as a whole rather than 
upon the need to compromise diverse national 
interests. 

There are additional safeguards that the Com- 
mon INIarket will work toward the interests of the 
free world, including the United States, which 
flow from the provisions of the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to which the 
six members of the Common Market are contract- 
ing parties. "Wliile recognizing that the advan- 
tages of a customs imion justify an exception to 
the most-favored-nation provisions of the agree- 
ment for the special treatment (removal of duties 
and other trade restrictions) which members of 
a customs miion accord to each other (article 
XXIV, paragraphs 4 to 10), the General Agree- 
ment does contain certain requirements which 
must be followed. One of these is that, in order 
to come within the exception for a customs union 
in the agreement, the duties and other regulations 
of commerce imposed at the institution of the 
customs imion must not on the whole be higher 
or more restrictive than the general incidence of 
the duties and regulations of commerce applicable 
in the constituent territories prior to its forma- 



" Article 85 of the Rome Treaty is particularly directed 
against cartel-like practices. 



tion (article XXIV, paragraph 5 (a)). More- 
over, recognizing that the formation of a common 
customs union tariff" is likely to involve increases 
in rates of duty for some members of the union 
which have been bound against increase in their 
schedules of tariff concessions annexed to the 
General Agreement, provision is made that any 
such increases shall be accomplished through the 
procedures of renegotiation provided for in the 
General Agreement (article XXIV, paragraph 
6). These procedures emphasize the importance 
of granting compensatory tariff concessions to off- 
set any increases in higher bound rates resulting 
from the renegotiations (article XXVIII, 
paragraphs 1 and 2) . 

Series of Tariff Adjustments 

The procedures which these six countries plan 
to follow in developing the Common Market may 
be envisaged as two separate but, for the most 
part, simultaneous series of tariff adjustments, 
one internal and the other external. 

The internal tariffs, i.e. the tariffs now applied 
by the Common Market coimtries on impoi-ts from 
each other, are to be gradually reduced until they 
are entirely eliminated. The first step in this di- 
rection was taken on January 1 of this year, when 
these six coimtries reduced by 10 percent their tar- 
iffs on trade with each other. A second 10-per- 
cent reduction is plamied for July 1, 1960. The 
internal tariffs will have been reduced at least 25 
percent by the end of 1961 and will be completely 
eliminated by the end of 1972, at tlie latest. 

This means, of course, that, all other things 
being equal, goods produced within any Common 
Market country will have a steadily increasing ad- 
vantage in the Common Market ai-ea over those 
from the rest of the world. 

The first step in the Common Market plan for 
arriving at an external tariff provides for the 
formulation of a proposed external tariff for the 
Market as a whole. This tariff would apply to 
imports into any of the six countries. 

The rates of duty provided in this common ex- 
ternal tariff are to be determined partly by a 
formula established in the Rome Treaty, partly 
by a schedule specifically provided for in the Rome 
Treaty, and partly by subsequent negotiations 
among the six countries themselves. 

For those rates to be established by formula, 
the method to be used is that of a simple arith- 



July 20, 7959 



91 



metic average. That is, the Common Market duty 
on an item on which the present duty is, say, 7 
percent in the Benelux countries,^ 28 percent in 
France, 15 percent in Germany, and 22 percent in 
Italy, would be 18 percent. While this averaging 
procedure is simple, the process of formulating 
the common tariff is made more complex because 
the tariff nomenclature used by each country must 
be made uniform before the average can be de- 
termined. Moreover, the rates on a large number 
of products have still to be fixed by negotiation. 
The six countries concerned have stated, however, 
that they expect to have their common external 
tariff available for examination sometime during 
the early part of 1960. 

Soon after the proposed common external tariff 
becomes available, it will be tested against the 
rules and criteria provided for in the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. At this stage 
the views of the other contracting parties to the 
GATT with regard to the proposed external tariff 
will be considered. These countries, including the 
United States, will want to satisfy themselves on 
two points: (1) that the new tariff is not on the 
whole higher or more restrictive than the separate 
tariff schedules previously in effect, and (2) that, 
in those instances where the new common rate of 
duty is higher than the rate previously bound in 
the GATT by one or more of the Common Market 
coimtries, adequate compensation is provided in 
the form of a reduction in the boimd rate applied 
either on the same product or on other products 
by another EEC country or by a reduction in the 
EEC schedule in the GATT. 

By January 1, 1962, the six Common Market 
countries will be required imder the terms of the 
Kome Treaty to adjust by 30 percent the difference 
between their individual national tariffs and the 
new Common Market rate. Similar adjustments 
will be made during the succeeding years, some 
upward and some downward, so that by January 
1, 1973, at the latest, a single, uniform external 
tariff for the Common Market will have been 
achieved. 

Relation to United States Trade 

How important are the Common Market coun- 
tries to U.S. trade? With a population of 165 
million and a gross national product of some $140 
billion, these countries are a market for our ex- 
ports second only to Canada. Their imports from 



the United States in 1957 amounted to $3.1 billion, 
or about $1 in every $6 of our total exj^ort trade. 
The new internal and external tariff rates for this 
area will almost certainly cause an adjustment in 
imports from the United States just as they will 
in imports from other parts of the world. The 
impact of these adjustments will be a gradual one, 
however, as the various stages for arriving at the 
new rates are reached. As living standards in 
these countries rise, U.S. exports to that area 
should increase. Some American firms have es- 
tablished or expanded subsidiary companies in the 
Common Market to consolidate and/or expand 
their share of the market in that area. 

The external tariff is, of course, very important 
to the United States, and we caraiot lose sight of 
the impact on our exports to the Common Market 
of the elimination of all trade barriers within the 
Community. By expanding their internal mar- 
ket, manufacturers within the six countries will 
be able to expand their production and cut their 
costs. This will lead to trade adjustments which 
will affect the exports of outside countries. One 
of the most important ways to ease the impact of 
these adjustments is to assure that this external 
tariff is reduced to as low a level as possible. A 
low common external tariff should also be advan- 
tageous to consumers and producers in the Euro- 
pean Economic Community in assuring them of 
low-cost imports. 

It was primarily to enable the United States to 
participate in negotiations with the Common 
Market looking toward a low external tariff that 
the President last year requested a 5-year exten- 
sion of the Eeciprocal Trade Agi-eements Act and 
the authority to reduce existing tariff rates by 25 
percent. ^ The measure, as approved by the Con- 
gress, provides for a 4-year extension and the 
authority to reduce individual rates by up to 
20 percent, subject to certain safeguards for 
American industry which are written into the act. 

1960-61 Tariff Negotiations 

The United States believes that it will be pos- 
sible to conclude meaningful tariff" negotiations 
with the Common Market and with those GATT 
countries interested in entering into negotiations 
looking toward a further reduction of tariffs. At 



' The Benelux countries — Belgium, the Netherlands, 
and Luxembourg — form a customs union. 
• Bulletin of Feb. 17, 1958, p. 263. 



92 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



the 13th GATT session, held at Geneva in the fall 
of 1958, the then Under Secretary of State for 
Economic Affairs, Douglas Dillon, proposed a 
general round of tariff negotiations to include the 
countries of the European Economic Community." 
Accordingly a committee was established, charged 
with the task of examining the possibility of ar- 
ranging a further round of multilateral tariff ne- 
gotiations within the GATT framework. On the 
basis of this committee's recommendations, the 
Contracting Parties to the GATT at the 14th ses- 
sion, held tliis spring, decided to convene a tariff 
conference, probably at Geneva, beginning in Sep- 
tember I960.' This conference will cover, among 
other categories of negotiations, those with mem- 
ber states of the European Economic Community, 
pursuant to GATT article XXIV, paragraph 6, 
i.e. negotiations for adjustments to be made in the 
common tariff' to make up for changes in rates 
bound under the GATT. 

The conference is to be held in two stages. The 
first, which it is hoped can be concluded by the end 
of 1960, will be concerned with renegotiations with 
the Common Market countries and with any rene- 
gotiations of existing concessions. The second 
phase, scheduled to begin in January 1961, will 
provide for negotiations for new concessions and 
for negotiations with countries which have been 
invited to accede to the GATT. In arriving at this 
schedule the GATT committee on tariff arrange- 
ments considered the fact that the President's 
authority by which the United States is enabled 
to participate in tariff negotiations will expire on 
June 30, 1962. The committee also noted that, 
under the provisions of the Kome Treaty, the Com- 
mon Market countries will begin the adaptation of 
their national tariffs to their new common ex- 
ternal tariff on Januai-y 1, 1962 — a fact which 
makes it desirable that the renegotiations imder 
GATT article XXIV, paragraph 6, and the nego- 
tiations for those new concessions which may in- 
volve the EEC countries be concluded prior to that 
date. 

Political and Social Considerations 

Wliile the economic importance to this comitry 
of the Conamon Market has been emphasized thus 
far, the United States supports the Common 
Market also on political grounds. Stated in the 
simplest terms, U.S. support of the EEC is con- 
sistent with its policy of seeking to strengthen the 



free countries of Europe and to encourage unity 
in that area so that those countries can effectively 
resist the dual threat of subversion from within 
and aggression from without. This has been U.S. 
policy since World War II, and it has been very 
successful, for the economic advancement, politi- 
cal progress, and general stabilization of Western 
Europe have all been heartening. 

We believe that the Common Market will pro- 
duce even greater strength and increased pros- 
perity — prosperity which will give the average 
European a grei^ter stake in the maintenance of 
democratic governments and free economies. This 
same prosperity will reduce the attraction of to- 
talitarian solutions to economic problems by dem- 
onstrating that solutions can be found without 
sacrificing liberty. Similarly, by setting coopera- 
tion above national rivalries, economic integration 
will make stronger the political fotmdations of 
NATO and of the Western Powers. 

Last, but certainly not least, there are the social 
aspects of the Common Market, which are closely 
related both to economic and to political factors. 
As the provisions of the Rome Treaty take effect, 
the free market forces will function more effec- 
tivelj', permitting a greater shifting of the factors 
of production to areas where they can be used most 
efficiently. Labor will become more mobile and 
the low-paid Italian worker, for example, will be 
able to go to the Benelux countries or elsewhere 
within the Community where his labor will com- 
mand higher wages. All people in the Commimity 
will obtain new inspiration and increased energy 
from the broader economic and political horizons 
envisaged by the Eome Treaty. 

Recently James D. Zellerbach, the American 
Ambassador to Italy, called the Connnon Market 
treaty "one of the most important events which 
have taken place in Western Europe in this cen- 
tury. If the Common Market and EURATOM 
fulfill their promise, they may prove to be a sig- 
nificant turning point in history." ^ 



'Ibid., Nov. 10, 1958, p. 742. For the report of the U.S. 
delegation on the proceedings of the 13th session, see ibid., 
Dec. 8, 1958, p. 930. 

' For the report of the U.S. delegation on the proceedings 
of the 14th session and an announcement of the tariff con- 
ference, see ibid., June 22, 1959, p. 917 ; for a statement on 
"Trade Discrimination and Currency Convertibility" made 
by W. T. M. Beale at the 14th session, see p. 95. 

• BiTLLETiN of Oct. 14, 1957, p. 608. 



July 20, 1959 



93 



U.S. Sends Emergency Aid 
to Malgache Republic 

Press release 477 dated July 1 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
a grant of 100 tons of rice by the United States 
to the Malgache Republic ( formerly Madagascar) 
to alleviate a food shortage in the storm-stricken 
island. 

Earlier this year a series of cyclones swept the 
island republic, a member state of the French 
Community, causing floods and widespi'ead de- 
struction. It has been estimated that approxi- 
mately 300 persons were killed, 140 injured, and 
over 80,000 left homeless. Property damage has 
been estimated at between $60 and $80 million. 

Rice is the Malgache Republic's staple food and 
second most important export commodity. The 
extent of crop devastation is indicated by the fact 
that ill 1958 the island exported 58,200 tons of rice, 
while food requirements for the remainder of this 
year will necessitate large imports of this com- 
modity. 

An all-out drive for aid to relieve the people of 
Malgache has been launched by France and the 
French Community. 

The token U.S. gift of 100 tons of rice is being 
made by the International Cooperation Adminis- 
tration from U.S. Government-owned stocks of 
surplus commodities. The U.S. Government will 
also defray the costs of ocean freight for shipment 
to the Malgache Republic, where the Government 
will distribute tlie rice free to needy persons. 

ICA has no regular program in France or in 
states of the French Community. 

Jean-Pierre Lescuyer, Commercial Counselor of 
the Embassy of the French Republic at Washing- 
ton, D.C., accepted the grant on behalf of the 
Malgache Republic. 



U.S. Makes Loan to Morocco 
for Economic Development 

Press release 479 dated July 2 

The Department of State announced on July 2 
the signing of loan agreements totaling $40 mil- 
lion to support the Government of Morocco's eco- 
nomic development progi-am. Other assistance to 
Morocco during fiscal year 1959 totaled about $5 
million in the form of a gi-ant. In fiscal 1958 the 
United States loaned Morocco about $30 million. 

The mutual security progi'am loans were nego- 
tiated through the Export-Import Bank, acting on 
behalf of the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration. Samuel C. Waugh, President of the 
Bank, signed for the United States, and the Am- 
bassador of Morocco, El-Mehdi Ben Aboud, for 
his Government. 



Development Loans 

Libya 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund announced 
on June 29 the signing of an agreement at Wash- 
ington, D.C., to lend the Government of Libya $5 
million to install electric power generating and 
transmission facilities to serve Tripoli and the 
surrounding area. For details, see Department 
of State pi'ess release 468 dated June 29. 

Pakistan 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund announced 
on July 2 basic approval and commitment of funds 
for a loan of $1,750,000 to the East Pakistan In- 
land Water Transportation Authority, a Govern- 
ment agency, to meet the foreign exchange costs 
of installing a system of modern navigational aids 
on inland waterways in East Pakistan. For de- 
tails, see Department of State press release 480 
dated Julv 2. 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Trade Discrimination and Currency Convertibility 



Statement by W. T. M. Beale 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



Wlien the Contracting Parties agreed last fall 
to wait until this session to act on the review of 
import restrictions under articles XII and 
XVIII, all of us, I believe, had in mind no more 
than the advisability of providing additional time 
for improving the text. I know that we in the 
I'nited States delegation did not expect that 
within a few weeks after tlie end of the 13th ses- 
sion the Contracting Parties would be able to add 
a new and important page to the review, namely, 
a report on fundamental changes in the interna- 
tional payments situation. 

Tlie changes in the situation to which I refer 
were, of course, brought about by the measures 
taken by a number of contracting parties in 
Europe and elsewhere to establish the external 
convertibility of their currencies. As the result 
of a series of dramatic and welcome actions that 
crowned the progress of several years, the cur- 
rencies used to finance the bulk of world trade are 
now generally convertible into one another for 
nonresidents at official rates of exchange. All of 
the countries that acted applied their converti- 
bility measures to current transactions, including 
trade, and some of them extended convertibility to 
the capital sector also. At the same time the 
European Payments Union, with its provisions 
for automatic credit facilities, was liquidated, and 
the European Fund, with its provisions for dis- 
cretionary credits repayable in gold, was put into 
operation along with the other arrangements pro- 
vided for in the European Monetary Agreement. 



' Made before the 14th session of the Contracting Par- 
ties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade at 
Geneva on May 11. Mr. Beale was chairman of the U.S. 
delegation. For a report on the session by the U.S. 
delegation, see Btjlletin of June 22, 1959, p. 917. 



These measures foi-mally brought to an end the 
basic difference that had previously existed be- 
tween the dollar-area currencies, on tlie one hand, 
and sterling and many other currencies of conti- 
nental Europe, on the other. In a broad and prac- 
tical sense, the phrase "dollar area" broke out of 
its old geographic definition and, in effect, came to 
include not only a few countries mainly concen- 
trated in the Western Hemisphere but also the 
United Kingdom and a large part of the continent 
of Europe, as well as the countries in other parts 
of the world which are members of the currency 
areas centered in Europe. 

The practical significance of these measures 
may be clarified by a few illustrations. Today 
any counti-y that earns sterling, for instance, is 
free to use it for financing its imports from any 
supplier in the world. Today countries include in 
their published accoimts of gold and convertible 
currency holdings their balances in the newly 
convertible currencies, such as the French fi-anc 
and the deutsche mark. Today a merchant in 
South America, Asia, or Africa who buys goods, 
whether in Europe or elsewhere, for Belgian 
francs, Italian lire, or Austrian schillings pays in 
currency that is in fact as usable as dollar 
cun-ency. 

In the new situation the effect on Cliile's or 
Norway's balance-of-payments position and mone- 
tary reserves of a given amount of foreign-ex- 
change expenditure is the same whether the money 
is spent in Canada or Denmark. Similarly the 
effect of a given amount of foreign-exchange in- 
come is the same whether it is received from the 
Dominican Republic or India. Thus we note that 
Brazil no longer has separate exchange auctions 
for the dollar and the so-called A.C.L. [area of 



I July 20, 1959 



95 



limited convertibility] currencies but has a com- 
bined auction where dollars and the European 
convertible currencies are traded on the same basis. 
In short, the broad establishment of external 
convertibility lias generally removed the sub- 
stantive distinction that existed for two decades 
between the cun-encies of the dollar countries and 
the currencies of other countries and thus has 
ended the relevance of this distinction to trade 
policy and to the appraisal of balance-of-pay- 
ments and exchange-reserve positions. 

Before commenting in more detail on the impli- 
cations for trade policy of the convertibility 
moves, I would like to refer to some of the con- 
siderations that appear to have made it possible 
for the European countries to move forward. 
First, the comitries of Europe had, by and large, 
achieved a notable degree of financial stability 
and high levels of productive capacity and pro- 
ductivity. Secondly, although some of the less 
developed countries as well as some of the indus- 
trialized countries had individual balance-of-pay- 
ments problems, the general international pay- 
ments situation was propitious. In this respect 
may I point out that in the period following the 
postwar realinement of exchange rates— that is, in 
the 9 years from 1950 thi-ough 1958— the rest of 
the free world, as a result of transactions with the 
United States, increased its gold and liquid dollar 
reserves and working balances by almost $14 bil- 
lion, or an average of about $1.5 billion a year. 
Other transactions, including official receipts of 
gold from new production, brought the increase 
to $18 billion for the period. Thirdly, there was 
the longstanding realization, reflected both in the 
Articles of Agreement of the International Mone- 
tai7 Fund and in the General Agreement on Tar- 
iffs and Trade, that inconvertibility and the trade 
restrictions that accompany it are costly obstacles 
to the economic allocation of resources, both na- 
tionally and internationally, and hence to eco- 
nomic growth and standards of living. Finally, 
but not least in importance, the governments 
which acted had the courage of their convictions. 

New Setting for Commercial Policy 

When tlie convertibility measures were an- 
nounced, government officials and businessmen all 
over the world undoubtedly asked themselves the 
same question : What practical effect would these 
measures have on trade, investment, foreign-ex- 

96 



change markets, and so on ? To answer the ques- 
tion as it applies to trade we must, of course, con- 
sider the relationship between convertibility and 
the principles of the General Agreement. 

The General Agreement, in essence, is a co- 
operative venture of a gi-oup of nations designed 
to achieve common economic objectives imder 
agreed trade rules for the benefit of all partici- 
pants. It is natural that we should find running 
through an agreement of this character the his- 
toric principle of the most favored nation or, as 
we sometimes call it, the principle of nondiscrim- 
ination. The General Agreement tolerates little 
deviation from this principle and defines in strict 
terms the situations in which discriminatoi-y 
practices may be followed. 

With regard to quantitative import restric- 
tions, the provisions of the General Agreement 
establish a close relationship between the balance- 
of-payments criterion and the privilege of de- 
parting from the rule of nondiscrimination. 
Thus, article XIV permits a contracting party to 
deviate from the rule of nondiscrimination in 
article XIII only with regard to import restric- 
tions maintained to safeguard its balance of pay- 
ments, that is, under article XII or X^IIIiB. 
Article XIV does not authorize the discrimina- 
tory application of restrictions maintained, for 
example, under article XI. 

The character of the rules in the General 
Agreement governing the discriminatory applica- 
tion of quantitative restrictions reflects the ex- 
traordinary balance-of-payments problems and 
shortages of monetary reserves that many coun- 
tries experienced after the war. Few currencies 
were convertible when the General Agreement 
was negotiated, and of course supplies of con- 
vertible means of payment were short. In these 
circumstances, had the General Agreement re- 
quired absolute adherence to the rule of nondis- 
crimination, many countries might have found it 
necessary to limit their imports according to 
standards dictated by the availability of their 
least plentiful means of payment. In other 
words, article XIV was written to take account 
of peculiar balance-of-payment situations aris- 
ing out of the inconvertibility of currencies and 
to allow for discriminatory import policies based 
on the proposition that, in the circumstances, in- 
creased imports from some suppliers would not 
endanger slender monetar}- reserves to the extent 
that imports from others might. The various 

Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



II 



formulas found in tlie article were all designed 
with this end in mind. 

It may be noted that the fonnula utilized by 
most contracting parties that liave resorted to 
article XIV is the one given in paragraph 1(b). 
This paragraph permits the discriminatory appli- 
cation of import restrictions oidy to the extent 
that discriminatory payments restrictions may be 
applied under article XIV of the Fund agree- 
ment. The Fund agreement, in turn, provides 
that members shall withdraw payments restric- 
tions under article XIV no longer needed for 
balance-of-payments reasons. 

In this context, the United States believes that 
the recent convertibility measures have created a 
new setting for commercial policy. As inconverti- 
bility has given way to convertibility, so discrimi- 
nation and bilateralism should now give way to 
nondiscrimination and multilateralism. Tliis ob- 
servation applies not only to a country whose bal- 
ance of payments has been put on a convertible 
basis by its own convertibility measures; it applies 
in general to other countries also since, with ster- 
ling and other currencies of Western Europe 
added to the previous list of convertible curren- 
cies, the bulk of world exports is now being paid 
for with convertible currency. All countries, 
whether or not their currencies have been made 
convertible, are affected by the new convertibility 
situation: some because payments in their own 
currency are on a convertible basis ; others because 
their foreign-exchange income and payments are 
made in the form of the convertible currencies 
of other countries. 

Discriminatory Import Restrictions 

Discrimination in the application of import re- 
strictions has taken various forms, for example: 

the maintenance against some suppliers of re- 
strictions on imports that have been liberalized — 
that is, freed of restraints — for other suppliers; 
the maintenance against some suppliers of prohi- 
bitions on imports for which quotas have been 
opened for other suppliers ; 

the administration of quotas in a mamier not in 
harmony with the central concept of article XIII, 
paragraph 2, which calls for a distribution of 
quotas aimed at a pattern of trade which might 
be expected to obtain in the absence of restric- 
tions (deviations from tliis concept sometimes 



take the form of a bilateral exchange of ciuota 
privileges not oj^en to tliird countries) ; and, 
finally, 

the application to the imports of some suppliers of 
procedural requirements that are not applied to 
like imports from others. 

May I make a further comment with regard to 
the last situation. It has been said that certain 
regulations applicable to imports are merely for- 
malities, not restrictions, and therefore do not 
constitute discriminatory import restrictions even 
though they are unevenly applied among export- 
ing countries. We are not sure that this assertion 
is valid, but, if it is, we should not forget that 
article I, paragraph 1, of the General Agreement 
requires unconditional most- favored-nation treat- 
ment with respect to all rules and formalities in 
connection with importation and exportation. 

The United States considers that the advent of 
convertibility has refuted whatever financial logic 
may have been found in trade discrimination. 
Convertibility should mean the rapid removal of 
the inequalities that have proved costly both to the 
countries whose export interests have felt the 
sharper edge of import restrictions and to the 
countries which have considered it necessary to 
apply import restrictions in a discriminatory way. 
May I repeat what the United States delegations 
to the meetings of the Contracting Parties have 
said many times: All import restrictions carry 
some economic cost, but discriminatory import re- 
strictions are likely to be especially costly since 
they tend to divert from cheap sources to expensive 
ones the purchase of whatever volume of imports 
is permitted. Countries with the greatest need 
for foreign exchange — including the less developed 
countries, a number of which continue to have 
overall balance-of-payments difficulties — are least 
able to afford the extra costs that discriminatory 
import restrictions entail. 

We have noted with appreciation the quick ac- 
tion taken by a number of countries following the 
establishment of convertibility to eliminate vari- 
ous discriminatory elements in their restrictive 
systems. Some of them have opened for non- 
European suppliers the liberalization lists that had 
been established for European suppliers. Othere 
have put quotas on a nondiscriminatory basis. 
Wlien the recent advances toward nondiscrimina- 
tion are added to the advances of previous years, 



July 20, 7959 



97 



it is apparent that the Contracting Parties have 
moved a good part of tlie way toward the goal of 
nondiscrimination enunciated in the General 
Agreement. But there is much left to be done, and 
we believe that the opportunity afforded by the 
new financial situation should be seized by all con- 
tracting parties that are still resorting to discrimi- 
natory import practices. 

At the same time, as progress has been made in 
the elimination of discrimination since the advent 
of convertibility in Europe, consideration has been 
given to new measures and arrangements that 
would have the effect of increasing the scope or 
intensifying the incidence of discriminatory im- 
port restrictions. The introduction of measures 
and arrangements of this kind would be a singu- 
larly disconcerting way of responding to the new 
convertibility situation. The United States be- 
lieves that, at this juncture, the Contracting 
Parties can reasonably expect that changes in 
quantitative import restrictions will run in the 
direction of eliminating rather than expanding 
the impact of discrimination. 

U.S. Trade Interests and Question of Discrimination 

At this point I wish to say a few words spe- 
cifically about the trade interests of the United 
States in relation to the discriminatory import 
restrictions still in force. Over the yeai-s the 
United States has, I believe, approached the ques- 
tion of discrimination against its exports with a 
reasonable degree of understanding. We have 
cited the disadvantages and economic cost of dis- 
criminatory restrictions; we have encouraged 
their relaxation and removal ; and we have pointed 
out — no doubt with vigor on occasion — particular 
restrictions that were proving to be specially 
harmful to our legitimate trade interests. But in 
doing this I do not believe that we have been 
unmindful of the serious problems faced by many 
contracting parties during the postwar period, and 
I know that we have not l)een unmindful of tlie 
resolute efforts made to solve them. 

It is only too clear, however, that the period of 
postwar adjustment is behind us. The old argu- 
ments about the "dollar shortage" and the unique 
export position of United States goods have lost 
their relevance. The last 10 years have seen a 
remarkable growth of productive capacity and 
efficiency in many areas of the world. The revival 
of productive power in other countries has been 



98 



revealed by their sales not only in the United 
States but also in other markets. American pro- 
ducers and exporters can testify from fii-sthand 
experience to the revival of effective competition 
from overseas producers. 

For some years we in the United States Gov- 
ernment have had to answer the following question 
put to us by American exporters : If a country is 
able to open its doors to goods produced in the 
countries of Europe and other areas, is there any 
good reason wliy it cannot open up its doors to 
like goods produced in the United States? Sjjeak- 
ing plainly, I must say that in present circum- 
stances we do not believe that tliere is a persuasive 
answer to that question. 

The periodic consultations now called for by the 
revised provisions of articles XII and XVIII :B 
will enable the Contracting Parties to examine 
systematically the remaining area of discrimina- 
tion in the restrictions applied under those articles. 
The United States and the other countries whose 
exports have been affected by restrictions against 
the dollar area will, of course, be highly interested 
in this aspect of the consultations. Discrimina- 
tion does not affect dollar countries alone, however. 
Wlien we speak of nondiscrimination we have in 
mind not only the interests of the Western Hemi- 
sphere dollar countries but the interests of others 
as well. All contracting parties stand to gain by 
the acliievement of a fully multilateral trading sys- 
tem. We therefore look forward to the consulta- 
tions, and the constructive encouragement they can 
give to the early elimination of discrimination, as 
a source of benefit to all contracting parties. 

By the timely application of the logic of con- 
vertibility to their commercial policies, contract- 
ing parties will not only promote their immediate 
economic welfare but will also make a lasting 
contribution to the system of multilateral trade 
that they have been striving for so long to attain 
through the General Agreement. 

Edward Brady Appointed Adviser 
to U.S. Representative to IAEA 

The Department of State announced on July 2 
(press release 481) that Edward L. Brady, a scien- 
tist at the Knolls Atomic Power Lalwraton-, Sche- 
nectady, N.Y., has been selected as senior scientific 
and technical adviser to the U.S. Represent.ative to 
the International Atomic Energy Agency 
(IAEA). 

Department of State Bulletin 



kl 



The IAEA is an outgrowth of President Eisen- 
hower's atoms-for-peace proposal in his now liis- 
toric speech before the General Assembly of the 
United Nations on December 8, 1953.^ It was 
established in 1957 and is the international agency 
primarily responsible for promoting, on a world- 
wide basis, the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 
The IAEA has a membei'sliip of 70 countries. Its 
headquarters are at Vienna, Austria. 



International Labor Conference Rejects 
Credentials of Hungarian Delegation 

Statement hy Horace E. Henderson - 

For the second successive year the International 
Labor Conference has received objections to the 
accreditation of the government delegation of 
Hungary, objections presented by delegates and 
organizations representing the vast majority of 
the workers and employers present at this Confer- 
ence. For the second time a majority of the Cre- 
dentials Committee of the International Labor 
Conference has decided that the objection to the 
nomination of the government delegates and ad- 
visers of Hungary is well founded and that the 
Conference should refuse, as it did last year, to 
admit these delegates and advisers in conformity 
with paragraph 9 of article 3 of the constitution 
of the ILO and paragraph 7 of article 26 of the 
standing orders of the Conference. 

The reasons for the position taken by the ma- 
jority of the Credentials Committee again this 
year and by the 42d International Labor Confer- 
ence last year are absolutely clear. They are cora- 
pellingly stated in the majority report of the com- 
mittee. In the light of this report and the facts 
on which it is based, the United States Government 
believes tliat this Conference should again reject 
the credentials of the Ilmigarian government 
delegation. We believe that this Conference 
sliould also reject the credentials of the workers 



• Bulletin of Dec. 21, 1953, p. 847. 

^ JIade before the 43d International Labor Conference 
on June 22 during debate on the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
reports of the Credentials Committee, which dealt with 
the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. Mr. Hen- 
derson, who is Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for 
International Organization Affitirs, was a U.S. delegate 
to the Conference. 



and employers from Himgary and refuse to admit 
the entire Hungarian delegation. 

Compelling Reasons for Rejection 

The events behind the decision of tlie majority 
of the Credentials Committee and of the last Con- 
ference are beyond dispute. They were elo- 
quently set forth in the report of the United Na- 
tions Special Committee on the Problem of Hun- 
gary in 1957 ^ and are explicitly stated in the reso- 
lutions adopted by the 12th and 13th sessions of 
tlie United Nations General Assembly in 1957 * 
and 1958.= 

These indictments include a thorough and com- 
plete analysis of the situation in Himgary since 
the spontaneous national uprising led by students 
and workers in October and November 1956 and 
in effect constitute the resounding condemnation 
of an overwhelming majority of the peoples of the 
world. 

The situation remains tragic. Hungary is still 
enslaved. It was deprived of its liberty and po- 
litical independence by a foreign power. The 
Government of Himgary has been imposed on the 
people against their will by the ruthless interven- 
tion of Soviet military force. Masses of its citi- 
zens have been forcibly deported to the U.S.S.R. 
Secret trials are followed by executions, and thou- 
sands are political prisoners in jails and concen- 
tration camps. Thus fundamental individual 
rights and freedoms, which have been proclaimed 
in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
and acknowledged by all free men, have been in- 
discriminately violated. 

The fact is, as the majority report of the Cre- 
dentials Committee declares, one member state has 
imposed a government on another member state. 
The Hungarian Government whicli sends its dele- 
gates to this Conference does not represent the 
free people of Hmigary. Elections which have 
been held under the threat and presence of a for- 
eign anny can never be accepted as an expression 
of the will of a people. 

Confronted with this indictment the Hungarian 



' U.N. doc. A/3592. For text of the final chapter of the 
report, see Bulletin of July 8, 1957, p. 62. 

■* For a statement by Henry Cabot Lodge and text of the 
resolution, see ihid., Sept. 30, 1957, p. 515. 

' For statements by Mr. Lodge and text of the resolu- 
tion, see ibid., Jan. 12, 1959, p. 55. 



Ju/y 20, J 959 



99 



Government and its foreign masters have defied 
the highest coimcil of world opinion. They have 
ignored the resolutions of the General Assembly 
which called upon the Hungarian authorities and 
the U.S.S.E. to cease and desist from repressive 
measures against the Hungarian people and to re- 
store their political independence and their funda- 
mental human rights and freedoms. The Special 
Committee of the United Nations and the Special 
Eepresentative of the General Assembly have been 
repeatedly and completely rebuffed in their efforts 
to pave the way for a restoration of freedom in 
Hungary. 

Responsibility of the ILO 

Perhaps those who control the fate of the Hun- 
garian people believe that with the lapse of time 
the world will forget their duplicity. Perhaps 
they believe the passage of time will sanction 
their crimes in the eyes of the outside world. This 
must not happen. The International Labor Or- 
ganization, as stated in the preamble of its con- 
stitution, is moved by sentiments of justice and 
humanity in its desire to secure the pennanent 
peace of the world. This organization, in which 
is represented the people of the world, through 
worker, employer, and government delegations, 
cannot approve such a flagrant violation of these 
principles. 

Last year, at the vei-y time this Conference met, 
the execution of Imre Nagy and General Maleter 
provided a shocking reminder to all men every- 
where that the Hungarian authorities were per- 
sisting in their shameful conduct. Not a single 
development has taken place since that time to 
indicate any change or improvement whatsoever 
in the situation. ILO has an obligation to resist 
tyranny and defend the freedom of man. 

The contention is heard that the International 
Labor Conference should conform precisely with 
the United Nations General Assembly in the mat- 
ter of credentials. This view was not accepted 
last year, it has not been accepted by a majority 
of the Credentials Committee this year, and there 
is no justification for the Conference to accept 
this view today. 

Every delegate knows that the International 
Labor Organization is a imique body. There exists 
no counterpart to its tripartite structure. The 
structure of the ILO, which makes it milike any 
other international organization in the world, was 



designed to insure that not only the opinions of 
governments but the views and aspirations of the 
workers and employers of the world could also 
be heard and respected. Their views were recog- 
nized and accepted last year. The situation 
remains unchanged. We today can do no less 
than maintain the previous decision of the 
Conference and again reject all Hungarian 
credentials. 

And now, with reference to the motion to hold 
this question in abeyance, the United States urges 
every delegate to vote against this motion. Any 
agreement to hold the question in abeyance would, 
in effect, deny this Conference the exercise of its 
rightful responsibility. The Conference should 
have the opportunity to face the question squarely 
and to reject, as we believe it will, the credentials 
of the Hungarian delegation by an overwhelming 
majority. 

The facts are clear. The issue is clear. There 
is no reason for the ILO to change, and there is 
every reason — moral and legal — for it to maintain 
the decision taken in 1958. 

Ten million people in Himgary look to you for 
faith and hope. We urge every delegate to sup- 
port the majority of the Credentials Committee 
and thus to reject the credentials of the 
Himgarian delegation. "^ 

United States Delegations 
to international Conferences 

22d International Conference on Public Education 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
(press release 476) the U.S. delegation to the 22d 
International Conference on Public Education, 
which will be held at Geneva, July 6-15. The Con- 
ference is sponsored jointly by the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) and the International Bureau of 
Education (IBE). 

The U.S. Government will be represented at this 
annual conference by the following delegation : 

Wayne O. Reed, chairmun. Deputy Commissioner, Office 
of Education, Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare 



° The credentials of the Hungarian government dele- 
gation were rejected on June 22 and those of the worker 
and employer delegations on June 23 by the required 
two-thirds majority vote. 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



Austin J. McCaffrey, Executive Secretary, American Text- 
book Publishors Institute, New Yorlc, N.T. 

Thomas J. Mills, Program Director for Scientific Man- 
power, National Science Foundation 

Fredrika M. Tandler, Specialist in International Educa- 
tional Relations, Office of Education, Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare. 

The purpose of these conferences is to provide 
leading educators and government officials the 
annual opportunity to survey and discuss the 
progress in education. This session of the Con- 
ference will discuss the preparation, selection, and 
use of textbooks for primary schools; measures 
for promoting the training of technical and scien- 
tific staff; and brief reports, supplied by minis- 
tries of education, on the progress of education 
during the school year 1958-59. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Finance 

Protocol terminating obligations arising from the accord 

of May 10, 1948 (TIAS 1773), regarding German assets 

in Spain. Signed at Madrid August 9, 1958. 

Entry into force: July 2, 1959 (date of entry into force 

of agreement between the Federal Republic of 

Germany and Spain of April 8, 1958, on certain 

con-sequences of Second World War). 

Germany, Federal Republic of 

Agreement on German external debts. Signed at London 
February 27, 1953. Entered into force September 16, 
1953. TIAS 2792. 

Notification by Netherlands of extension to: Nether- 
lands New Guinea, Jime 10, 1959. 

Shipping 

Convention on the Intergovernmental Maritime Consult- 
ative Organization. Signed at Geneva March 6, 1948. 
Entered into force March 17, 1958. TIAS 4044. 
Acceptance deposited {with declaration): Denmark 
June 3, 1959. 

Trade and Commerce 

Seventh protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva November 30, 
1957.' 
Signature: India, May 29, 1959. 

Procds-verbal extending the validity of the declaration' 



extending the standstill provisions of article XVI :4 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done 
ut Geneva November 22, 1958.' 
Signature: Sweden, Juno 3, 1959. 
Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment of 
new .schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 31, 
1958.' 
Signatures: Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg (subject to 

ratification). May 13, 1959; Union of South Africa, 

May 22, 1959 ; Indonesia, May 26, 1959. 

Whaling 

International whaling convention and schedule of whal- 
ing regulations. Signed at Washington December 2, 
1946. Entered into force November 10, 1948. TIAS 
1849. 

Cancellation of notification of withdrawal: Japan, June 
29, 1959. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1959, with annex. Open 
for signature at Wasliington April 6 through April 24, 
1959.' 

Acceptances deposited: New Zealand, June 26, 1959; 
India, June 30, 1959 ; Union of South Africa, July 1, 
1959. 

BILATERAL 

NATO Maintenance Supply Services System 

Agreement for credit sales of military equipment, mate- 
rials, and services. Signed at Paris June 22, 1959. 
Entered into force June 22, 1959. 

Pakistan 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of November 26, 19.58 (TIAS 4137). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Karachi May 21, 1959. Entered 
into force May 21, 1959. 

Viet-Nam 

Research reactor agreement for cooperation concerning 
civil uses of atomic energy. Signed at Wasliington 
April 22, 1959. 

Entered into force: July 1, 1959 (date each party re- 
ceived from the other written notification that it has 
complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments). 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 
July 20, J 959 



Office of Soviet Union Affairs Established 

An Office of Soviet Union Affairs was established in 
the Bureau of European Affairs on April 15, 1959. The 
Office of Eastern European Affairs will continue to dis- 
charge the responsibilities assigned to the bureau with re- 
spect to Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, 
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania, and 
Yugoslavia. 



101 



Delegation of Certain Functions 
Under Mutual Security Act 

Administration of Mutual Security Act of 1954 and 
Delegation of Certain Related Functions ' 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Executive 
Order No. 10610, as amended, the Mutual Security Act 
of 1954 (6S Stat. 832), as amended, section 4 of the Act 
of May 26, 1949 (63 Stat. Ill, 5 U.S.C. 151c), as amended, 
and as Secretary of State, Delegation of Authority No. 85 
of June 30, 1955 (20 P.K. 4825), as heretofore amended, is 
amended as follows : 

Sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 are amended by substituting 
"Under Secretary of State" for "Under Secretary of State 
for Economic Affairs" wherever that phrase appears. 

Dated: June 12, 1959. 



[seal] 



Christian A. Herter, 

Secretary of State. 



Appointments 

William W. Scranton as Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary of State, effective June 1. (For biographic details, 
see press release 474 dated June 29.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale ty the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
eminent Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which nmy he 
obtained frotn the Department of State. 

Joint Financing of Certain Air Navigation Services in 
Greenland and the Faroe Islands and in Iceland. TIAS 
4204. 2 pp. 50. 

Agreements between the United States of America and 
Other Governments, amending agreements of September 
25, 1956 — Adopted as recommendations by the Second 
Special North Atlantic Fixed Services Meeting at Paris 
January 12-21, 1959. Entered into force February 25, 
1959. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4205. 5 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Ecuador, amending agreement of June 30, 1958. Ex- 
changes of notes — Signed at Quito February 16, 23, and 
27, and March 9, 1959. Entered into force March 9, 1959. 

Army and Air Force Missions to El Salvador. TIAS 4206. 
3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
El Salvador, amending agreements of September 23, 1954, 
as extended, and November 21, 1957. Exchange of notes 
—Dated at San Salvador March 16 and 31, 1959. Entered 
into force March 31, 1959. 

Air Force and Army Missions to Bolivia. TIAS 4209. 
3 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Bolivia, amending agreements of June 30, 1956. Ex- 
change of notes — Dated at La Paz April 2 and 3, 1959. 
Entered into force April 3, 1959. 



' Public notice 163 ; 24 Fed Reg. 5394. 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: June 29-July 5 


Press releases may be obtained from the News Di- 


vision, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 


No. Date 


Subject 


*467 6/29 


DLF loan to Philippines. 


468 6/29 


DLF loan to Libya (rewrite). 


469 6/29 


U.S. to open embassy in Nepal. 


*470 6/29 


DLF loan to Pakistan. 


*471 6/29 


Cultural exchange (India). 


*472 6/29 


Dwiuell nominated Assistant Secretary 




for Administration (biographic de- 




tails). 


*473 6/29 


Itinerar.v of visit of Soviet First Deputy 




Chairman Kozlov. 


*474 6/29 


Scranton appointed Special Assistant 




to Secretary of State (biographic 




details). 


475 7/1 


Berdiug : Freedom Day celebration. 


476 7/1 


U.S. delegation to 22d International 




Conference ou Public Education 




(rewrite). 


477 7/1 


Rice shipped to Malgache Republic. 


*478 7/2 


Itinerary of visit of Queen Elizabeth. 


479 7/2 


Loan to Morocco. 


480 7/2 


DLF loan to Pakistan (rewrite). 


481 7/2 


Brady appointed adviser to U.S. repre- 




sentative to IAEA (rewrite). 


*482 7/2 


Educational exchange (Lebanon. Mex- 




ico, Uganda, United Arab Republic, 




Uruguay). 


t4S3 7/2 


Keoiiianization of Bureau of Public 




Affairs. 


t484 7/2 


Estalilishment of Bureau of Interna- 




tional Cultural Relations, 
ted. 


*Not prin 


tHeld for 


a later issue of the Bulletin. 



102 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



July 20, 1959 



Index 



Vol. XLI, No. 1017 



American Principles. Freedom Day (Berding) 78 

Atomic Energy. Edward Brady Aiipt)intetl Ad- 
viser to U.S. Representative to IAEA .... 98 

Canada. President and Queen Elizabeth Open St. 
Liiwri>nee Seaway (Eisenhower, Queen Eliza- 
beth) 75 

Congress, The. Restrictions Against U.S. Exports 
( excerpt from Tliird Annual Report ol: the Presi- 
dent on tlie Trade Agreements Program) ... 83 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Scranton) 102 

Delegation of Certain Functions Under Mutual Se- 
curity Act (text of public notice) 102 

The Numbering of the Secretaries of State 

(Dougall, Patterson) 80 

Office of Soviet Union Affairs Established . . . 101 
U.S. To Oix?n Embassy at Katmandu, Nepal . . 82 

Economic Affairs 

Restrictions Against U.S. Exports (excerpt from 
Third Annual Report of the President on the 
Trade Agreements Program) 83 

Trade Discrimination and Currency Converti- 
bility (Beale) 95 

The United States and the European Common 

Market (Birch) 88 

Europe. The United States and the European 
Common Market ( Birch ) 88 

France 

Freedom Day (Berding) 78 

U.S. Sends Emergency Aid to Malgache Republic . 94 

Health, Education, and Welfare. 22d International 

Conference on Public Education (delegation) . 100 

Hungary. International Labor Conference Rejects 
Credentials of Hungarian Delegation (Hender- 
son) 99 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Edward Brady Appointed Adviser to U.S. Repre- 
sentative to IAEA 98 

International Labor Conference Rejects Credentials 

of Hungarian Delegation (Henderson) .... 99 

Trade Discrimination and Currency Convertibility 

(Beale) 95 

22d International Conference on Public Education 

(delegation) 100 

The United States and the European Common 

Market (Birch) 88 

Italy. President of Council of Ministers of Italy 
To Visit United States 79 



Labor. International Labor Conference Rejects 
Credentials of Hungarian Delegation (Hender- 
son) 99 

Libya. Development Loan 94 

Malgache Republic. U.S. Sends Emergency Aid to 

Malgache Republic 94 

Morocco. U.S. Makes Loan to Morocco for Eco- 
nomic Development 94 

Mutual Security 

Delegation of Certain Functions Under Mutual 

Security Act (text of public notice) 102 

Development Loans (Libya, Pakistan) 94 

U.S. Makes Loan to Morocco for Economic De- 
velopment 94 

U.S. Resumes Technical Cooperation Program 

With U.A.R. (text of Department .statement) . . 79 

U.S. Sends Emergency Aid to Malgache Republic . 94 

Nepal. U.S. To Open Embassy at Katmandu, 

Nepal 82 

Pakistan. Development Loan 94 

Presidential Documents 

President and Queen Elizabeth Open St. Lawrence 

Seaway 75 

Restrictions Against U.S. Exports 83 

Publications. Recent Releases 102 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 101 

U.S.S.R. 

Freedom Day (Berding) 78 

Office of Soviet Union Affairs Established ... 101 
United Arab Republic. U.S. Resmnes Technical 
Cooperation Program With U.A.R. (text of De- 
partment statement) 79 

United Kingdom. President and Queen Elizabeth 
Open St. Lawrence Seaway (Eisenhower, Queen 
Elizabeth) 75 

Name Index 

Beale, W. T. M 95 

Berding, Andrew H 78 

Birch, JolmA 88 

Brady, Edward 98 

Dougall, Richardson 80 

Eisenhower, President 75 

Henderson, Horace E 99 

Herter, Secretary 102 

Patterson, Richard S 80 

Queen Elizabeth 75 

Scranton, William W 102 

Segni, Antonio 79 



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FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

The basic source of information on 
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Department 

of 

State 



1940, Volume I, General 

The Department of State recently released Foreign Relations of 
the United States, 19]fi, Volume I, General, one of a series of five 
volumes giving the docimaentary record of the diplomacy of the 
United States for the year 1940. Three other volumes for the year 
liave already been issued. Volume V, on relations with the American 
Republics, is still in preparation. 

The present volume is divided into five main sections, all dealing 
with various aspects of the European war: exchanges of views 
regarding possibility of peace and on postwar problems; extension 
of the European war; activities of the Soviet Union in Eastern 
Europe, and Soviet relations with the belligerent powers; relations 
of Japan with the Axis Powers and with the Soviet Union; and 
cooperation among the American Republics in their reaction to the 
European war. 

Copies of Volume I may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C, 
for $3.75 each. 



Order Form 

To: Supt. of Documents 
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order payable to 
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Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



J^4^ 




HE 

FFICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 

F 

NITED STATES 

9REIGN POLICY 



Vol. XLI, No. 1048 July 27, 1959 

SECRETARY HERTER'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JULY 9 107 

ADMINISTRATION'S VIEWS ON LEGISLATION TO 
PROMOTE U.S. PRIVATE INVESTMENT 

ABROAD • Statements by Under Secretary of State Dillon 

and David A, Lindsay, Department of the Treasury • . • . 128 

U.S. SUPPORTS CALL FOR MEETING OF OAS 

FOREIGN MINISTERS • Statement by Ambassador 
John C. Dreier .....>.••..... 136 

AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE 

EAST • by Ambassador Robert McClintock 118 

U.N. COMMITTEE ON OUTER SPACE COMPLETES 

REPORT • Statement by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge • 138 

U.S. FILES APPLICATION INSTITUTING PROCEED- 
INGS AGAINST U.S.S.R. FOR DESTRUCTION OF 

B-29 OVER HOKKAIDO IN 1954 • Department 
Announcement and Text of Application to International 
Court of Justice .......•••••••••••••• 122 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLI, No. 1048 • Pubucation 6860 
July 27, 1959 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.O. 

Price: 

62 issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Public Services Division, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on de- 
velopments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions and on the tiorh of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Foreign Service. 
The BULLETIN includes selected press 
releases on foreign policy, issued by 
the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made 
by the President and by the Secretary 
of State and other officers of the De- 
partment, as well as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
and the functions of the Department. 
Information is included concerning 
treaties and international agreements 
to which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of general 
international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and leg- 
islative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Secretary Herter's News Conference of July 9 



Press release 500 dated July S) 

Assistant Secretary Berding: Ladies and gen- 
tlemen, we haven't had a press conference for 
some time. Possibly because of that fact some of 
you asked if today I would state again one rule 
that we follow and that relates to direct 
quotations. 

The rule is the same rule that is used by the 
"Wliite House and that is, no direct quotations 
until the transcript comes out. As you know, we 
make eveiy effort to get the transcript out just as 
soon as we possibly can, and, in the meantime, 
until it does come out, indirect quotations. 

Secretary Herter. 

Secretary Herter: Ladies and gentlemen, if I 
may I would like to say just a word or two 
before the questions begin. As Andy Berding 
just told you, this is my first open press confer- 
ence, and I hope that it will be one of a regular 
series just as soon as I can get my life reg-ulated to 
a point where I will be in Washington for any 
extended period of time. 

During the 21^ months that I have been Secre- 
tary, I have had a number of background confer- 
ences, one here and four in Geneva. But I feel 
very strongly that there should be periodic open 
press conferences of this kind, and, as I say, I 
hope that the exigencies of the Foreign Ministers 
Conference will make it possible for me to be with 
you at regular intei-vals in the near future. I say 
this because of a profound conviction that any 
Secretary of State has a definite responsibility 
to make as clear as he is able to the bases on which 
our Govermnent acts in the foreign policy field. 

"With that rather brief preliminary statement 
I would be very glad to answer any questions that 
I can. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you are returning noto to 
Geneva to resumie your talks with Mr. Grorayho 



and the Western Ministers. Would you give ws 
at this time your assessment of the possiiility of 
reaching any ivorthtvhile agreement on Berlin 
there and laying the groundioorh for any simimit 
conference, please. 

A. I am afraid I couldn't give that to you in 
terms of betting odds. We naturally don't know 
just what we will find at Geneva from the point 
of view of any change or any more explicit in- 
terpretation of what at the moment we are not 
certain about in the Russian position. 

As you know, at midnight of the night on which 
we decided to recess, Mr. Gromyko put out a state- 
ment in Geneva which indicated that the position 
we had taken with respect to the last proposal 
made by the Soviets contained certain misinter- 
pretations.^ However, our statement that we put 
out earlier in the day was based not only on the 
wording of the document but on Mr. Khru- 
shchev's radio speech which had come over to us 
that same afternoon. 

Here in Washington I made a report to the 
Nation a few days after our return,- and I think 
it was on June 28th that Mr. Gromyko saw fit to 
answer that particular statement. He took excep- 
tion to some of the things I had said, and we have 
been studying with great care the wording that he 
has used with respect to the exceptions that he has 
taken. In particular he objected to an assump- 
tion that we had made, and I think we probably 
made on the basis of evidence before us, that, if 
we entered into any mterim agreement with re- 
spect to Berlm and then resumed negotiations at 
the expiration of the tenn of that agi-eement, we 
would have forfeited our occupation rights. Mr. 



^ For background on the Foreign Ministers Meeting 
wliicli convened at Geneva on May 11 and recessed on 
July 20, see Bulletin of July 6, 1959, p. 3. 

' For text, see ibid., July 13, 1959, p. 43. 



July 27, J 959 



107 



Gromyko indicated that was an entirely false as- 
sumption and that otherwise they would not have 
suggested we would resume negotiations after a 
blank period of time. That is a new point on 
which we certainly would want some clarification. 

The other point, which is very indefinite of 
course, is the one concerning their suggestion of 
an interim agreement, at first for a year and then 
11/^ years. Both Mr. Gromyko and Mr. Kliru- 
shchev made the statement that the period of time 
was neither a matter of importance or of princi- 
ple. This presumably means the period of time 
is one for negotiation. 

I think that we shall have to explore first of all, 
when we get back to Geneva, the meaning of those 
statements — if the meanings are as apparently in- 
tended by the Eussians, but certainly not borne 
out by the earlier documents. 

I think there is some possibility we might reach 
agreement. I dare say there is some possibility, 
but we are not saying it with optimism. I have 
never been optimistic, as you know, about reach- 
ing a successful negotiation. 

With respect to the summit conference, I think 
that was made amply clear by the President: 
unless we can make progress which would jus- 
tify such a conference, that he would not be will- 
ing to go. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have you made an effort, 
through Ambassador Thompson in Moscow, to 
clarify these two points in Mr. Gromykd's state- 
ment? 

A. No, we haven't. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if the Soviet Union indi- 
cates in Geneva, as GromyJco^s statement seems 
to indicate, that our rights would not run out 
at the end of this period, would we he willing 
to settle for an indefinite or an intermediate ex- 
tension of those rights laid down, as you put it, 
I believe, in your speech — or in the official West- 
ern statement — until the reunification of Germany 
is brought about? 

A. I would hesitate to make any commitment 
on that. Actually it is difficult to make a com- 
mitment, speaking as only one Foreign Minister 
among four. Obviously the first thing, and the 
very important thing, is to concert our position 
with our allies. Before making any reply as to 



what we might do under hypothetical circum- 
stances, naturally, we would want to be certain 
of the attitude of the allies. 

Q. Has there not been in this period any dis- 
cussion with our allies on this point? 

A. Veiy little discussion, largely because of 
other engagements on the part of our allies. 
Couve de Murville, the Foreign Minister of 
France, went to Madagascar with General de 
Gaulle and has been away from Paris. Mr. von 
Brentano has been away for some time from Bonn. 
The consultations will take place just as soon as 
we return to Geneva. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, since your return have you 
had the opportunity to examine the mounting un- 
rest in Latin America, and, if so, would you tell 
us if you favor a conference of Latin American 
States at this time specifically to deal loith prob- 
lems of the Canbbean? 

A. The problems of the Caribbean, as you 
know, are a very real concern to us. This is a 
matter that is going to be discussed tomorrow at 
the Organization of American States, and we are 
not certain as yet just what procedural questions 
will come up or what fonn the discussion will 
take. 

We are in the process of discussing the overall 
picture with some of our South American and 
Central American friends, and I would not want 
to express a specific view as of the moment. We 
will be expressing our views at the OAS confer- 
ence tomorrow.^ 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your reaction to the 
character of tJie reinarhs which Mr. Khrushchev 
mad,e to Governor Harriman? 

A. Well, I don't know just how to characterize 
them. I think the President did it pretty well 
yesterday, and I think we liad better stand on 
what he then said. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in the event that your nego- 
tiations at Geneva are not successful, is there a 
fully agreed Allied plan on countenneasures to 
maintain ou/r position in Berlim, if the Soviets 
take some unilateral action? 

A. That matter has been discussed for a consid- 



' See page 136. 



108 



Depariment of Sfafe Bulletin 



erable period of time, and I would say that on the 
whole our position is well concerted. 

Q. Could you elaborate on that? 

A. No, I wouldn't go into details. 

Situation in Far East 

Q. Mr. Secretary, xoovM you assess the situa- 
tion in the Far East, in view of tliese rather men- 
acing remarks from Mr. Khrushchev and in the 
light of the incidents that have come along in tlie 
Taiwan Straits and in Yiet-Nam,? 

A. Well, with regard to the remarks made by 
Mr. Khrushchev — which I assume are those that 
have been attributed to Mr. Harriman in his inter- 
view with respect to rockets in Communist 
China — that is the fii-st news of anything of that 
kind that we have had; so I am in no position to 
assess the validity of tliose statements. 

With respect to the recent incidents, there is no 
question but what shelling has continued on odd 
days in Quemoy, that there is always the oppor- 
tunity of a breakout again of hostilities in the 
Far East. We have to be continually alert. I 
think that perhaps the most disturbing tiling with 
regard to the Far East that has happened has 
been the cut that has been made in military as- 
sistance in the Senate in the last 48 hours. It is 
not because of the amount of the cut as such, alone, 
but it is because it has to be taken in conjunction 
with the provision that a very large percentage 
of the money remaining must be assigned to 
NATO, which means that a disproportionately 
large amount has to be cut in the Far Eastern 
area. That may present some very serious prob- 
lems for us in connection with the nations border- 
ing on China, to whom we have been giving mili- 
tary assistance and to whom military assistance 
is of great importance from the point of view of 
maintaining stability. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you spoke of the absence of 
the German and the French Foreign Ministers. 
Have you been in consultation with Secretary 
Lloyd over the last several weeks? 

A. No, I haven't been in direct conversation 
with him at all. I have talked with the Ambassa- 
dor once or twice here. 

Q. Has there been contact between the Presi- 
dent and Mr. Macmillun? 

A. None direct, that I know of. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, in view of the lack of these 
contacts in the interim, plus a number of other 
items, including an interpretation by Mr. Mac- 
millan xohich differed from ours on the progress 
of the first meeting and the near crisis situation 
in some respects between our Government and 
France over nuclear armaments — taking these 
things cumulatively, how 7nuch are they likely to 
militate against a united front amongst the West- 
em allies at this second meeting? 

A. Well, I assume that any family difficulties 
we liave are always taken account of by the Rus- 
sians. On the other hand, I can say this — I have 
said it before, and I want to repeat it: that in 
Geneva the united, front was a genuine front, and 
I hope it is a front that will hold and hold effec- 
tively. Both the process of consultation and the 
process of reaching agi-eement — and I mean 
genuine agreement — was very real and to me very 
heartening. 

Q. In that connection, sir, if I may, does it 
mean that the position of our Government is that 
we are willing to go to these meetings — / am not 
talking about the summit now — on the foreign 
ministers'' level, ad infinitum? 

A. No, not necessarily. "Ad infinitum" is quite 
a long time. (Laughter.) I think that, if we 
feel we are making real progress, we will stick 
with them. If we feel that we are stymied and 
are making no further progress, we would be very 
frank about it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, KhrushcJiev is quoted in Life 
magazine as having told Mr. Haririman that the 
Soviet Union would positively support Com- 
munist China in an offensive against Formosa. 
This seemed to go beyond his previous statements. 
Do you have any knowledge yourself of any 
such commitment or any such statement by 
Khrushchev? 

A. None whatsoever. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, independent of tomorrow's 
meeting of the OAS, could you give ms some idea 
just how serious this Government thinks the sit- 
uation in the Caribbean is? 

A. Well, I think that the whole problem of tlie 
intervention of one country in the internal affairs 
of another coimtry we always regard with real 
seriousness. It is very difficult to assess how se- 
rious any one of the individual reported actions 



July 27, 1959 



109 




Secretary Herter holds his first news conference at the Department of State, July 9, 1959. 



may be. However, there has been enough smoke, 
at least, to warrant the assumption that there is a 
certain amoimt of fire, and we take tliat seriously. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your speech I ielieve you 
said that Mr. Khrushcliev had said that no item 
in the Western proposal package was negotiable. 
Have you liad any reason to revise your ojyinion 
of that now? 

A. No, that statement of Mr. Khrushchev's ap- 
plied to our proposal, the seven-point proposal 
with regard to West Berlin,^ not to the initial 
Western peace plan. It was on that that he said 
that none of the seven points was subject to 
negotiation. 



' For a statement by Mr. Hertpr on May 26, see Bulle- 
tin of .Tune 1!>, lOr.O, p. 8G0. 



Q. Mr. Secretary, how long would you go on 
in Geneva if there were no progress, as there was 
in the previous 6 weeks? Would you stay on 2 
or 3 weeks, or longer? Or how seriously do you 
take your Puerto Rico engagement? 

A. Well, I wish I could give you the answer to 
that. I am hoping that we will not be there 
longer than 3 weeks. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in view of the position the 
United States has taken with regard to the con- 
tinwation of our rights in Berlin, how could these 
he modified at all in any new discussion, based on 
these latest remarks of Mr. Gromyko''s? 

A. Well, as I say, the remarks of Mr. Khini- 

shchev and those of Islv. Groniyko do not exactly 
gibe, and I think that our first responsibility is to 



110 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



find out what the official position is. As you 
know, tlie remarks of Mi'. Klirushchev were as re- 
ported in an interview, tlie remarks of Mr. Gro- 
myko in documentary form, and I tliink that we 
have a definite responsibility to find out which 
repi-esents the official Kussian attitude. 

Q. Do you have any idea that the U.S. might 
modify its position on the maintenance of its 
rights in Berlin? 

A. We have not indicated any such thing. 

Q. If the Russians withdraw their limitation on 
alleged — or proposed — limitation on our rights in 
Berlin, does that qualify as the progress that is 
necessary to go on to the summit? Or will we 
require some other further progress? 

A. Well, as you know, we hadn't come close to 
agreement. There are otlier elements, obviously, 
that have still got to be planed out, and, when 
I mentioned this one particular attitude of the 
Kussians, it doesn't necessarily mean that a satis- 
factory answer to that means a satisfactory 
agreement. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if the Soviets did give a satis- 
factory answer on that point, would it he possible 
for the Western Powers then to join in negotia- 
tions on the basis of the Soviet proposal? 

A. Not necessarily. The Soviet proposal con- 
tains a number of things that I think you would 
realize, in view of our position, are objectionable 
to us. The Soviet proposal and our own pro- 
posals I think had only two or three thuigs in 
common, that actually overlapped, from the point 
of view of points at issue. I would hope that we 
would return to negotiation on the basis of our 
proposals. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have you given any thought 
to a substitute to take your plaice in case the For- 
eign Ministers Conference is prolonged? 

A. Yes, that obviously has to be considered. 

Question of Agreement on Atomic Test Ban 

Q. Mr. Secretary, we haven't seen you since the 
Berkner report ° has come out. Could you tell us 
how you feel that affects the prospects of our 



^ For a sunimary of the conclusions reported on Mar. 16 
by the Panel on Seismic Improvement, see ihid., July 6, 
1959, p. 16. 



agreement on the test ban, particularly in regard 
to the neio findings about the possibilities of con- 
cealing tests? 

A. Well, it is very difficult to tell. If we should 
reach an agreement with the llussians in regard 
to inspection of underground testing or under- 
gi-ound illegal explosions, we could never expect 
that that would be a perfect system. We are not 
even sure that it would be an adequate system. 
The whole range of scientific data from a seismic 
point of view — and here we get into real teclmi- 
calities — is a fairly uncertain one. The amount 
of work that has been done on underground ex- 
plosions is comparatively small, and at the mo- 
ment we have to operate with a considerable de- 
gree of uncertainty as to how effective the type 
of inspection system that we believe is desirable 
would be, once it was installed. We think it 
would probably be adequate to constitute a very 
real deterrent, but there are continual studies and 
evaluations being made on that subject and I 
would not want at this stage of the game to ex- 
press a layman's opinion on what is a very highly 
scientific opinion that we will be receiving very 
shortly. 

Q. Mr. Secreta/ry, on that point, in view of the 
fact that the two Senate observers who called on 
you yesterday, I believe, and a number of other 
Senators have expressed opposition to a total ban 
and are favoring the alternative of an atmos- 
pheric ban, is it fair to say that the administra- 
tion would prefer at this point, because of these 
technical uncertainties, to have only an atmos- 
pheric ban if that can be negotiated? 

A. Well, I wouldn't say "prefer." I think that 
the administration might feel that it was more 
expedient and more practical to start in on an 
atmospheric ban and work toward better scientific 
competence from the point of view of inspections 
in connection with an overall ban. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, a year ago the situation in the 
Middle East, to say the least, was unstuck. Can 
you assess for u^ briefly what you think the situa- 
tion there is now from our point of view, particu- 
larly in respect to Iraq aiid our relations with 
Cairo? 

A. Well, I would say that we are coming nearer 
to normalizing the situation in the Middle East, 
that from that point of view the signs are en- 



Jw// 27, 1959 



111 



couraging. With respect to detail in either the 
Cairo or the Iraqi situation, we are obviously 
maintaining an attitude of friendliness and hope- 
fulness that our relations will be normalized even 
more. Stated in other terms, we, I think, are 
more optimistic than we have been on the turn 
the developments have taken in the Middle East 
area. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there is a movement in the 
Labor Party in Great Britain to create what is 
called a nonnuclear club to which Britain will 
invite all nations besides the United States and 
Russia to join. Has the American Government 
formulated any policy as concerns that kind of 
an intei'Tiational movement? 

A. I am sorry to say this is the first I had 
heard of that particular movement, so that I don't 
think we have had an opportunity of formulat- 
ing any policy with regard to it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have recently received a 
letter from Congressman [Francis E.l Walter on 
the art that is about to be exhibited in Moscow. 
Do you plan to ansioer him? I understand that 
he tvanted you to screen the art and possibly re- 
move some of the paintings. 

A. It is true that we did receive such a letter. 
I think it is in the process of being answered now. 
My own feeling with regard to that exhibit is 
very much the same as that of the President. I 
would hate to see the administration or Govern- 
ment officials become art censors. I feel veiy 
much as the President does, as a lay individual, 
about the quality of some of the pictures that are 
being exhibited. But that is entirely a personal 
judgment. Unhappily I come from a family of 
painters — my grandfather, mother, fatlier, broth- 
er, and daughter — and I feel less qualified per- 
haps tlian anybody to be an art critic. 
{Laughter.) 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I am not clear from your re- 
marks as to whether you are more optimistic now 
as to some agreement toith the Soviets than you 
were after the negotiations recessed and you gave 
your television report to the Nation. 

A. No, nothing has happened since. The only 
thing is the Gromyko statement I spoke of — that 
is the only thing that has intervened, and that is 
an important statement. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on the movement of tlie 
American fighter bombers from, France, this is a 



Defense matter, but it is generally regarded that 
the motives behind it are political and diplomatic. 
Could you tell us how much this is going to cost 
and whether it will come out of the mutual de- 
fense funds for European defense or whether it 
will come out of the Pentagon funds or even out 
of State Department funds? 

A. That I cannot tell you the answer to. I 
have no idea what it would cost. This redeploy- 
ment to facilities that have already been prepared 
may not cost a great deal — I just don't know. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the French Government has 
been pressing u^ for some time for sharing in 
global, strategic planning and the control of the 
use and deployment of nuclear weapons. Could 
you tell us \ohere those discussions now stand? 

A. There have been discussions, as you know, 
that have been taking place in Washington from 
time to time at the ambassadorial level which 
have covered some of that ground. They have 
not been conclusive in any way; they have been 
exploratory. That is where they stand at the 
present time. But I am hopeful, as I think both 
General de Gaulle and the President are, that be- 
fore too long the opportunity will arise when they 
can discuss these matters themselves. They have 
a peculiar individual and personal interest in 
these matters entirely aside from the positions 
that they hold. For that reason it is entirely ap- 
propriate that they should discuss them together. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would agreement on a rea- 
sonable agenda be enough at Geneva to take the 
two sides on to a summit meeting? 

A. Well, that determination would be made 
elsewhere. I would not make that determina- 
tion. A reasonable agenda might cover a lot of 
things. At a svimmit meeting there is no way of 
stopping any Head of State who is there from 
bringing up any subject he M-ants to bring up. 
I am not at all sure how precise an agenda would 
be required, if any at all. The President has 
taken the same position consistentl}', that if the 
developments were sucli in the present negotia- 
tions that are going on to justify a simimit con- 
ference, he will be glad to go to it. 

Q. What xoo^dd you consider as progress suf- 
ficient to toarrant a summit conference? 

A. That determination I would not want to 
make at this time. 



112 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have any plans to 
bring Ambassador [Charhs E.^ Bohlen back from 
Manila to serve you in some capacity liere in 
the State Department? 

A. That is something I discussed with Asa- 
bassador Bohlen some months ago when he was 
here in tlie United States. Notliing definite has 
come out of it for the simple reason that he has 
been engaged in very important negotiations with 
the Philippines as Ambassador. They are still 
continuing, and there is no telling how soon the 
crucial phases of those negotiations may have fin- 
ished up. I have a real admiration for Am- 
bassador Bohlen. He is reaching a time in his 
career when he could retire with, I think, the 
maximum retirement allowance and where he un- 
doubtedly would have to consider retirement just 
fi-om a financial point of view. "Whether or not 
we can induce him to stay on and give his talents 
to the Government is something that still has to 
be explored. 

Q. To clarify an earlier question, Mr. Secre- 
tary, I think you said you loould have to con- 
sider a substitute for you perhaps at the Geneva 
talks at sonw point. Did you mean that that 
would be at a foreign ministers^ level or some lesser 
level in the consultations? 

A. Well, if it were agreed that the conversa- 
tions should cari-y on for this indefinite period, 
then they would probably be carried on at a lower 
level. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how do you find life in your 
new job? 

A. I don't know whether my life has been what 
you would call "typical" in tlus job, insofar as 
I have been out of the country just about twice 
as long — a little more than twice as long as I 
have been in the country, since I took it over. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there is a report that Ambas- 
sador [Jacob Z?.] Beam in Poland has asked the 
State Department to request Radio Free Europe 
to cease broadcasts beamed to Poland and that the 
State Department has decided against this. Can 
you tell us what the thinking luas? 

A. Well, I didn't know that any decision had 
been made one way or another. Radio Free 
Europe has served a very useful purpose, and I 
think still is. I have the utmost respect for the 
opinion of Ambaesador Beam, and I am sure that 



any recommendations that he has made will be 
very carefully studied. It is possible that he 
recommended that it not be "beamed," if I can 
put it that way, to Poland. (Laughter.) 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you spoke of Ambassador 
Bohlen's negotiations in the Philippines. These 
have been going on from time to time for over 2 
years. Can you explain how it is that we are un- 
able to reach agreement with a friendly country 
on one issue for so long? 

A. Well, the issues have been pretty large and 
pretty important, and I would rather not go into 
the areas of disagreement. There have been times 
when we were very optimistic that they could 
wind up quickly, but our optimism was proved 
unfounded. We are still optimistic, however, that 
we can reach agreement in the near future. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is this country^s position 
on the use of a multination police force by the 
OAS? That provision is contained in the Mutual 
Security Act as it passed the Senate. 

A. Well, I don't know that we have given that 
any formal consideration. I don't think that we 
have taken a position on it. 

Q. Has Senator {George A.'\ Snmthers talked 
to you, ahout it? 

A. No, he hasn't talked to me about it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there seems to be a similar 
situation as the one toith the Philippines develop- 
ing in PanarrM. Panama rejected yesterday a 
inemorandum. on the wage problem in the Canal 
Zone. Have you looked into this matter yourself? 

A. No. I have just had a very brief account of 
that. I think that they rejected it on procedural 
grounds, and I think we are looking into it to see 
whether there was any validity in that and ascer- 
tain just what it meant. It only just happened 
in the last 24 hours. 

Separate Peace Treaty With East Germany 

Q. Mr. Secretary, various Soviet spokesmen, in- 
cluding Premier Khrushchev, in the past few 
weeks have said that the Soviet Union definitely 
ivill go ahead and sign a separate peace treaty 
with East Germany unless toe agree to proposals 
that the Soviet Union believes acceptable. What 
do you think would be the result if the Soviet 



July 27, J 959 



113 



Union went aliead and, signed such a separate 
peace treaty? 

A. Well, a separate peace treaty is a part of two 
questions. One is the question of the access routes 
and the sovereignty to be exercised over the ac- 
cess routes. Actually, the Soviet Government 
when it created the East German state in 1955 had 
an exchange of letters, known as the Zorin-Bolz 
letters, with the newly created East German gov- 
ernment, in which, on the one hand, all access 
rights to Berlin dealing with the civilian popula- 
tion were put in the hands of the East German 
government. Those dealing with access rights of 
the garrisons of the three Allied Powers in West 
Berlin were reserved to the Russians in accordance 
with the agreement which they had with the 
Allies. 

Today, if the Russian Government wanted to 
turn over to the East German government the 
access rights that we now enjoy, they could do so 
by the plain cancellation of that Zorin letter. So 
that the peace treaty, as such, is not an essential 
part of that particular act. 

I think that in talking of a separate peace treaty 
the Russians hope that they can get other nations 
outside of the Soviet bloc to recognize the East 
German government at the same time that they 
make a peace treaty with East Germany. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., Mr. Harriman has suggested 
that it might he a good id-ea to have Soviet Premier 
Khrushchev visit the United States to nd himself 
of misconceptions. Do you think this would he 
a good idea? 

A. It is certainly worth thinking about. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if you could use only one 
word to descrihe your feelings as you head hack 
toward Geneva., what would that one word he? 

A. It might be unprintable. {Laughter.") 

Q. Mr. Secretary., we have had two Soviet 
visitors this year— Mr. Mikoyan and Mr. Kozlov. 
Do you think those visits have contributed to bet- 
ter understanding and a lessening of tensions be- 
tween our two countries? 

A. It is very hard to know how to gage them. 
On the whole, I would think that they were 
useful. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., with respect to the situation 
around Taiuian, there was some talk after the 



tense situation last year of thinning out the Amer- 
ican forces and the Atnerican co7nmitment, par- 
ticularly with respect to Matsu and Quemoy. Can 
you tell us what our policy on that is today? 

A. Well, I am not quite sure that I agree with 
the premise there. You say the "iVmerican com- 
mitments on Matsu and Quemoy"? As far as I 
know, there are no American conmiitments on 
those islands. There has never been more than a 
very small number of observers. We have never 
had troops on those two islands. 

Q. I am speaking of the Anierican commitment 
to defend those islands. 

A. Well, as far as I know, any commitment 
that we have — and I am speaking now from a 
legalistic or moral point of view — has remained 
unchanged. The thinning out of the troops on 
Quemoy, particularly, is something that was 
under discussion. Just what the figures are now, 
I couldn't tell you, but I understand that there 
has been some thinning out. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you intend to pay a visit 
to Berlin in the near future? 

A. Yes. I am hoping to go to Berlin at the 
conclusion of the conference in Geneva. I am not 
sure that I will be welcome there, but I have 
talked to Mayor Brandt about it and I have told 
him that I wanted very much to come to Berlin, 
just to pay him a courtesy call. And I have agreed 
to do it just as soon as I can — just as soon as the 
conference is over. 

Q. Why do you say you think you might not he 
welcome in Berlin? 

A. Well, perhaps Berlin might be mihappy as 
a result [of failure] of the conference. I am 
hoping veiy much that that will not be the case. 
Perhaps I was talking a little facetiously. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, some people in Italy are 
thinking that the Segni government has not been 
consulted enough on the shaping of Western pol- 
icy toward, the Soviets, despite the recent contri- 
bution of Italy for a reinforced NATO alliance. 
Have you any comment on that? 

A. No, except to say this: that insofar as Italy 
is concerned, we have been consulting with Italy 
at every turn as far as I Imow. I took a special 
trip to Rome and met with the President, and with 
Prime Minister Segni and Foreign Minister Pella. 
The Italian Government has a nnin of ambassa- 



114 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



dorial rank in Geneva with wliom we were in 
touch all the time. Certainly our consultations 
have been of the very closest, and I understand 
that I am to meet ISIr. Pella on Sunday in 
Geneva — this coming Smaday — for consultation 
again. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one of the points in hoth the 
Eastern and the Western Berlin proposals is the 
creation of some kind of all-German group. The 
Russians insist on parity. We have proposed a 
25-10 ratio, I believe. Is this nonparity posture 
of the West an absolute position? 

A. Well, the numbers that make uj) the group 
I don't feel is an item of too great importance. 
In the proposal that we made in the Western 
peace plan " for a so-called all-German commit- 
tee, we used that proportion. But we said that 
all decisions of the group should be made by a 
three-quarters vote. So that, in efTect, either side 
had a veto on tlie other. If agi'eement had to be 
reached, the numbers on each side are not of pri- 
mary importance. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there lias been increasing talh 
in some quarters that a limited nuclear xoar may 
be ine vitahle. What is your view? 

A. A "limited nuclear war" ? 

Q. That a limited nuclear war may be in- 
evitable. 

A. Well, I liad never tliought of a "limited 
nuclear war" in just those terms before. I cer- 
tainly don't see why it is inevitable. I would 
hope a "limited" war would not be a "nuclear 
war." 

Value of Geneva Talks 

Q. Mr. Secretary, did you find your 6 weeks in 
Geneva a waste of time, or, if not, lohat fndtful 
elements did you find in it? 

A. Well, sjjeaking entii-ely personally, I found 
them of very real value because it gave me an 
opportvmity to get to know Selwyn Lloyd and 
Couve de Murville and Dr. von Brentano ex- 
tremely well as individuals, and I think that that 
is a very helpful thing in carrying out the re- 
sponsibilities of my job. 



° For text, see i6i(7., June 1. 19.59, p. 779. 
Ju/y 27, 7959 



I also learned sometliing about Russian nego- 
tiations, and I think that is useful. From the 
point of view of the specifics of our discussions, I 
think it was at least useful to get our positions 
fairly clearly outlined, so that when we start off 
this coming week we at least won't have to go over 
all the same ground that we went over those 6 
weeks. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you find that the Rus- 
Kians are using Geneva mainly for propaganda 
purposes? 

A. No, I wouldn't say that. On occasion, they 
do. But the greater nimiber of meetings that we 
had there were so-called "private" meetings — not 
the plenary sessions — at one villa or another. 
And they were very scrupulous from the point of 
view of not putting out any press releases as a 
result of the "private" conversation. And after 
each one of the meetings we would discuss what 
might be put out or what shouldn't be put out, 
and they didn't use those meetings for propaganda 
to the extent that we thought that they might. 

Q. Well, then, would you conclude that they 
are trying seriously to find a solution to Berlin? 

A. One day I think that, and the next day I 
think "no," so — I tliink that they are trying to 
find an answer. 

Q. Mr. Secretatni , there have been reports that 
some in the State Department were not too happy 
about the defeat of the Fulbright proposal for the 
Development Loan Fu7id. Were you happy about 
the defeat of these proposals? 

A. Well, let me put it this way : ^Vliat I liked 
about the Fulbright proposal — what I have always 
hoped could be done in connection with the De- 
velopment Loan Fund was to secure a long-term 
commitment. On the question of the annual fi- 
nancing of that commitment, that was a matter 
where there might have been differences of opin- 
ion. But what I am really soriy about is that 
we didn't get the long-term commitment. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, two Americans were killed 
yesterday in South Viet-Nam by what is said to 
have been a Communist terrorist attack. What 
intimation do we have about this threat of Com- 
munist influence in South Viet-Nam? 

A. Well, I don't think that one can relate that 
directly to the spread of communism in South 



115 



Viet-Nam. There have been terrorist organiza- 
tions operating in that country, as you know, for 
some time. 

This is the third serious incident in which 
bombs have been used and unprovoked attacks on 
the members of tlie Government, or ourselves and 
the USIA, and on the military force. It is a very 
unfortunate incident. Of course, President Diem 
has apologized very profusely for it. Every ef- 
fort is being made to round up the terrorist group 
and we have entered into a comparatively recent 
commitment for the development of the organiza- 
tion of a constabulary police force and its arming, 
which may be very helpful in keeping that type 
of operation under control. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Vice President Nixon is due 
to visit Russia in a couple of weeks. Do you 
think it would he useful if he discussed some of 
our international problems toith Premier Khru- 
shchev and other Soviet oiftcials? 

A. I know that Vice President Nixon is not 
going over to negotiate anything. If he is, of 
course, asked his \dews on any of our problems, 
he is very articulate, very well informed, and I 
think it is always useful to have a high official of 
the Government able to discuss them if the Rus- 
sians want to enter into any discussions. But 
by that I do not imply that he has any inten- 
tion of negotiating or that that is the purpose of 
his mission. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Secretary Herter Leaves for Geneva 
To Resume Foreign Ministers Meeting 

VISIT TO OTTAWA 

Press release 494 dated July 8 

Secretary Herter will stop for a few liours in 
Ottawa en route to Geneva for informal talks with 
the Prime Minister, the Minister for External Af- 
fairs, and other officials of the Canadian Govern- 
ment. The Secretary, accompanied by Mrs. 
Herter and a staff which will continue on with 
him to Geneva, is scheduled to arrive at the Ot- 
tawa airport on July 11. The party will enplane 
that same day for Geneva. 



DEPARTURE STATEMENT " 

Press release 506 dated July 11 

I leave for Geneva for the Foreign Ministers 
Conference, which resumes after 3 weeks' recess.'' 

My colleagues of France and the United King- 
dom and I will strive, as we did before, to reach 
a reasonable agreement with the Soviet Union on 
the problems of Germany and Berlin. We go to 
Geneva resolved, as before, to negotiate in good 
faith and equally determined to maintain our obli- 
gations to the more than 2 million free people of 
West Berlin. 

Before I left for the first series of discussions in 
Geneva I said I had no great expectations for 
success. Negotiations with the Soviet Union re- 
quire infinite patience and long labor. That re- 
mains my view as we approach the second series 
of discussions. 

I am confident that the same close unity among 
the Western allies which brightened our work at 
Geneva will again prevail. 

En route to Geneva I shall stop at Ottawa for 
conversations with the Canadian Prime Minister, 
Mr. Diefenbaker, and the new Secretary of State 
for External AflFairs, Mr. Green. In the difficult 
period ahead the continuing close imderstanding 
between Canada and the United States on the basic 
issues involved will be invaluable. 



Significance of Fourth of July 

Message of President Eisenhower ' 

My fellow Americans: 183 years ago a dra- 
matic event took place in our country — the proc- 
lamation of our independence and the establish- 
ment of our Nation. Today I speak to each of 
you — American citizens abroad— first, to convey 
the greetings of all of us at home on this special 
occasion; and second, to acknowledge a keen ap- 
preciation of your important role as our repre- 
sentatives to the rest of the world. 



'Made at Washiugton National Airport on July 11. 

' For baekgromid, see Buixetin of July 6, 1959, p. 3. 

' Recorded for broadcast to Americans overseas on July 
4 via the facilities of the worldwide English service of 
the Voice of America (White House press release dated 
July 3). 



116 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Approximately two and a half million of you 
are outside the United States today, all guests in 
foreign lands. Whether you are overseas in an 
official capacity, serving at one of our diplomatic 
missions or consular posts; or in uniform, helping 
to secure the common defense of freedom; or 
studying or teaching at a foreign school; or con- 
tributing knowledge to help improve the health 
or productivity of one of the world's newly de- 
veloping lands; or working as a correspondent of 
GUI' free press ; or engaged in commerce ; or travel- 
ing as a visitor to enliance your understanding of 
our neighbors on earth — you are, in foreign eyes, 
guests of those nations in which you reside. I 
trust that your hosts may ever consider you wel- 
come representatives of the United States and of 
everything we cherish. 

On this national holiday, I take this opportu- 
nity to talk to you directly about what you rep- 
resent. 

First of all, the significance of July fourth. 
This date annually commemorates and renews our 
dedication to the principles of freedom, of gov- 
ernment elected by the people, of equal opportu- 
nity for all. 

These are not static principles. What began in 
1776 was a continuing, dynamic experiment. Let 
us look at the United States today to see what we 
have accomplished since 1776 in carrying out the 
American experiment. In these 183 years we have 
developed an industrialized society while main- 
taining our personal freedoms. Despite the pre- 
dictions of Karl Marx, our economy has devel- 
oped swiftly through imprecedented teamwork on 
the part of those who toil and those who invest 
and manage. During this development the work- 
ing man has obtained an increasingly lai-ger share 
of the fruits of his labors. We live under the rule 
of law, which jealously guards our freedom from 
illegal restraint. It guarantees our freedom of 
information, our freedom of movement. 

I do not suggest that all of these achievements 
exist constantly or uniformly throughout our land. 
The goals for which America strives are not al- 
ways easy of attainment. But we have an abid- 
ing detennination to reach those goals without 
sacrifice of principle and to further the cause of 
freedom at home and abroad. 

We have grown in the realization of interde- 
pendence among nations as well as among indi- 
viduals. 



We helped establish and steadfastly support the 
United Nations in applying the concept of col- 
lective security to preserve freedom and integrity. 

We felt it our duty to extend help to those who 
need and desire it. In the forms of economic, 
scientific, technological, and defense assistance, we 
try to help other peoples realize their legitimate 
aspirations. 

Our major goal is the achievement of a lasting 
peace with justice. 

This, then, is wliat you represent abroad. You 
can be proud of the American experiment — dy- 
namic, vital, constructive, hopeful. I ask you to 
tell that stoiy. But let the facts speak for them- 
selves. It is traditional with us not to impose 
ideas on other peoples. And in those countries 
engaged in social experiments of their own, let 
them know that we wish them well in their efl'orts 
toward the peaceful enhancement of the individ- 
ual. Give our encouragement to all nations to 
solve their problems in their own way, in accord- 
ance with their own traditions — as we do our- 
selves. If my message to you on this Fourth of 
July could be put into one sentence, it would be 
this: 

State the facts of freedom and trust in God, as 
we have ever done. Thus, we know that truth 
will triimiph. 

God bless you all. 



Export- Import Bank Director 
Visits Argentina 

Press release 495 dated July 8 

The U.S. Grovernment has followed with sympa- 
thy and interest the efforts of President Arturo 
Frondizi and the Argentine Government to over- 
come current economic problems and thus to as- 
sure fuller development of that nation's resources 
with the aid of the $329-million credit line an- 
nounced last December.^ 

The Export-Import Bank, which participated 
in that credit, announced on July 8 that one of its 
directors, Vance Brand, will arrive at Buenos 
Aires on July 20. In representation of the Board 
of Directors of the Bank, Mr. Brand will discuss 
with the President and his economic ministers the 
progress of the Argentine economic program and 
the use of the credits previously agreed upon. 



^ Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1959, p. 105. 



July 27, 1959 



117 



American Foreign Policy in tlie IViiddle East 



hy Robert McCUntoch 
Ambassador to Leba/non ' 



The United States did not have much interest 
in the Middle East until after the First World 
War so far as foreign policy was concerned. 
However, there was always great public interest 
in the holy places in Palestine, and there was 
considerable American missionaiy activity which 
came to useful fruition in the educational field ui 
such universities as Robert College at Istanbul 
and the American University at Beirut. Also, in 
the mid-19th century the American Navy charted 
the Dead Sea and brought back to Texas and 
Arizona a number of camels in the hope that these 
animals of the Arab desert would prove economi- 
cally useful in the Great American Desert. 

At the end of the First World War, when the 
victorious powers were disputing among them- 
selves over the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, 
President Wilson dispatched the King-Crane 
Commission in 1919, which recommended an 
American mandate for the Near East, and in 
general it appeared that the people in the area 
would have welcomed such a mandate. However, 
the United States did not assmne tliis responsibil- 
ity, and, in fact, its interest in the Middle East 
remained quiescent until the Second World War. 

However, as the United States emerged as the 
strongest power of the free world, with all the 
strategic responsibilities which this role entailed, 
it could no longer ignore the strategic significance 
of the Middle East. No other region on earth 
possesses a tricontinental position, linking, as it 
does, Europe with Asia and Africa. 

Because of its tricontinental position, the Mid- 
dle East has throughout the centuries of its his- 
tory been a region of transit. Thus, from the days 



' Address made before the Lebanese Political Science 
Society at Beirut on June 2. 



of Phoenicia to the present time the Middle East 
has been a region of caravan routes or of seaborne 
commerce. It has been a great isthmus for the 
trade between east and west, north and south. 
Likewise, the Middle East has been a transit area 
for people not only moving in trade but as pil- 
grims to the holy places of Jerusalem and Slecca. 
It has been a transit area for innumerable armies 
from the time of the Hittites, the Assyrians, the 
Egyptians, and Persians to the Greeks, Romans, 
Turks, and tlie armies of the Western Powers. 
We who live in Lebanon have seen the insignia 
of these armies inscribed on the walls of the Dog 
River. Only one foreign army never put its name 
there. This was the American force which landed 
in Lebanon last year and left voluntarily without 
causing a casualty. 

Not only was the Middle East of importance to 
the United States for its strategic position, but 
likewise, with the advent of oil as the principal 
source of energy in an industrial age, the Middle 
East took on a new importance as the greatest 
reservoir of hydrocarbon energy on the globe. 

Therefore, because of its strategic situation, its 
natural resources, and its human resources in the 
Arab race and culture, it became important in 
American foreign policy to assist the countries of 
the area to remain free, to prevent encroaclmient 
on their sovereignties, and to maintain the tradi- 
tional transit of people and things across the tri- 
continental position. 

Third-Party Problems 

It is not my purpose this evening to discuss a 
variety of "third-party problems" wliich liave 
engaged the interest and sympathy of the United 
States but which are peripheral to the main lines 
of our foreign policy. Tliere have been many 



118 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



problems of the Middle East, in which the United 
States has become involved, not from its own in- 
terest but because these problems concerned the 
friends of the United States in one way or another. 
Such problems include those of the negotiations 
which gave rise to the withdrawal of the British 
foi'ces from tlie Suez Zone; the emergence of 
new nations through negotiations as, for example, 
in the case of the Sudan ; the problem of Cyprus, 
which has now happily been resolved by the states- 
manship of Greece, Turkey, and Great Britain; 
and the problem of Israel. 

Hero it might be said, in passing, that in 1955 
our great Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, 
whose funeral took place last week, made some 
concrete and friendly proposals for a resolving 
of a gi-eat Middle Eastern problem but that thus 
far these proposals have evoked no response either 
in Israel or among the Arab states. Mr. Dulles 
in 1955 offered American assistance in alleviating 
the tragic plight of the 900,000 refugees who 
formerly lived in the territory that is now occu- 
pied by Israel ; he offered American assistance in 
seeking to prevent attack across the frontiers be- 
tween Israel and its Arab neighbors; he offered 
American assistance in fixing those frontiers." 
However, as I have indicated, no nation of the 
Near East accepted these suggestions and offer of 
assistance of the United States. 

Most Nations in Middle East Are New 

In pursuance of the United States policy to help 
the nations of the Middle East maintain their 
freedom, it is worth noting that most of the na- 
tions of the Middle East are new. In fact, with 
the exception of Iraq, Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi 
Arabia, all the nations of the Arab world 
achieved sovereignty after World War II. In 
these new states one can discern the truth of Lord 
Attlee's observation that when new nations are 
bom there is an immense release of political en- 
ergy. New countries in the Middle East and else- 
where, which had strived for many years to cast 
off the previous servitude of colonialism, have 
now won their struggle, but there is still a vast 
release of political energy which they now seek 
to channel in new and constructive directions. 



The United States, which also was once a new 
nation emerged from previous colonial status, has 
a particular sympathy for, and respect of, the 
new nations. As President Eisenhower said last 
year in addressing the third emergency special 
session of the United Nations General Assembly,^ 

. . . the United States respects the right of every Arab 
nation of the Near East to live in freedom without domi- 
nation from any source, far or near. 

Wliat are the U.S. policies in the Near East 
seeking to aid the new nations (or, for that matter, 
the old) to remain free? 

Systems of Collective Security 

In the first place, the United States believes in 
and relies on systems of collective security. The 
charter of the United Nations is based on the 
principle of collective security, both in action by 
the Security Comicil under chapters VI and VII, 
or in systems of regional collective security au- 
thorized by the charter, or through collective 
action by the General Assembly, as instanced by 
the so-called "Arab resolution" passed by the 
special session last summer.* 

The United States is not a member of the Bagh- 
dad Pact, nor at the present time is any Arab 
state a member of that alliance. However, the 
United States supports the Baghdad Pact, a 
purely defensive collective-security arrangement 
which has protected its members against the threat 
of Communist aggression. Also, in the same spirit 
of collective security, the United States has re- 
cently entered into bilateral defense arrangements 
with the three Middle Eastern members of the 
Baghdad Pact, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran.= 

As for other instruments of collective security 
in the Middle East, the United States respects such 
indigenous collective-security arrangements as the 
Arab League. The United States, in particular, 
respects the natural desire of the Arab nations 
for unity within the area. As Secretary Dulles 
said at his news conference of July 31 last year,* 

. . . there is no opposition that I Ijnow of on the part 
of the United States to Arab nationalism. There are 
plenty of good reasons why there should be greater unity 
among the Arab nations. The United States encourages 



'For an address by Mr. Dulles before the Council on 
Foreign Relations at New York, N.Y., on Aug. 26, 1955, 
see BnxETiN of Sept. 5, 1955, p. 378. 



' IMd., Sept. 1, 1958, p. 337. 

' For text, see ibid., Sept. 15, 1958, p. 411. 

' Ibid., Mar. 23, 1959, p. 416. 

' Ibid., Aug. 18, 1958, p. 265. 



July 27, 7959 



119 



that. We were among the early nations to recognize the 
U.A.R. when it was formed. Some of our friends held 
back. We did not. . . . There is no opposition on the 
part of the United States to an increased Arab unity 
which expresses, and gives an opportunity to, the aspira- 
tions of the Arab peoples. 

Eisenhower Doctrine 

In addition to arrangements for collective se- 
curity, the policy of the United States compre- 
hends the possibility of either elective or bilateral 
means to assist the nations of the Near East to 
remain free. Here let me say a word about one 
of the most misunderstood, misquoted, and mis- 
named policies of the United States, which is de- 
scribed under the unofficial title of the "Eisen- 
hower Doctrine." 

In the first place, the joint resolution of the 
American Congress concerning the Middle East ' 
was a purely unilateral statement of an American 
intent to come, if requested, to the assistance of 
Near Eastern countries should their independence 
be endangered by aggression from any country 
controlled by international communism. Tliis 
was a statement of policy from the Congress of the 
United States to the executive branch of the 
Government. It was not an international pact, 
not a bilateral agreement with any state. 
However, since the purpose of the so-called 
Eisenhower Doctrine was to help free nations of 
the Middle East to resist Communist aggression, 
it was no wonder that Communist propaganda 
sought, and with a considerable degree of success, 
to twist its meaning in the popular imagination. 
It would be our hope that, in view of recent de- 
velopments in the Middle East and Asia which 
have shown the true face of the Communist jieril, 
there will be a greater realization that the policy 
enunciated by the U.S. Congress is a sound one 
which can be availed of by free nations who desire 
help to remain free. 

There are other ways in which the United 

States has acted in the Middle East to help free 

countries remain free. As President Eisenhower 

said to the General Assembly on August 13 last 

year: 

I recall the moments of clear danger we have faced 
since the end of the Second World War — Iran, Greece 
and Turkey, the Berlin blockade, Korea, the Straits of 
Taiwan. 



A common principle guided the position of the United 
States on all of these occasions. That principle was that 
aggression, direct or Indirect, must be cheeked before it 
gathered suflBcient momentum to destroy us all — aggressor 
and defender alike. 

It was this principle that was applied once again when 
the urgent appeals of the Governments of Lebanon and 
Jordan were answered. 

Furthermore, the President, in placing the 
American action in responding to the appeal of 
the Lebanese Government within its proper 
framework of action under the United Nations 
"Peace Through Deeds" resolution of 1950,* pro- 
posed a concrete plan for insuring peace and prog- 
ress in the Middle East. He addressed himself 
not only to the danger of indirect aggression but 
to the long-range problems imposed on the Mid- 
dle East by shortage of water, by disease, and by 
lack of economic development. Thus, he pro- 
posed a United Nations Peace Force to help main- 
tain the integrity of nations in the Near East; a 
regional economic development plan to assist and 
accelerate improvement in the living standards of 
people in the Arab nations; and steps to avoid a 
new arms race spiral in the area. It is a hopeful 
sign that, on the second of President Eisenhower's 
proposals, for an Arab development institution, 
Lebanon recently led the way in the Council of 
the Arab League in proposing an Arab Develop- 
ment Fund to be derived from oil revenues. 

Respect for Policies of Nonatinement 

Thus far we have seen that American policy 
toward the Near East of seeking to help free 
coimtries remain free has included systems of col- 
lective security and systems of straight bilateral 
aid from the United States to countries who feel 
their independence and integrity are in jeopardy. 
However, there is a third American policy which 
is applicable toward the overall objective of help- 
ing free nations remain free. This is respect for 
policies of nonalinement. 

Many of the new nations created since World 
War II have felt that the Ixist foreign policy for 
them to adopt is to remain neutral in wars, cold 
or hot. The United States, under similar circum- 
stances when it was a new nation, adopted a sim- 
ilar policy. The United States followed tlie ad- 
vice of George Washington to stay out of 
"entangling alliances," tlie advice of Jefferson to 



' For text, see iliid., Mar. 25, 1957, p. 481. 
120 



' For text, see ibid., Nov. 13, lO.^O, p. 767. 

Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



stay out of the "broils of Europe," and the advice 
of Monroe, as expressed in the Monroe Doctrine, 
to keep tlie "broils of pjurope" out of tlie New 
AVorld. The United States contributed perhaps 
more than any other nation to the international 
law of neutrality. So recently as 1 month ago, 
on the 4tli of May, at the opening of a conference 
in Washington called "India and the United 
States, 1959," Vice President Nixon said that tha 
purpose of U.S. aid "is not to make any country 
dependent on us but to allow all countries to be 
independent of us and of any foreign domination." 

American respect for policies of nonalinement 
is based on the belief that if neutral countries re- 
main really neutral tliey will be able to resist the 
encroacliment of international communism or any 
otlier "ism" that tlireatens their independence. It 
is interesting that tlie aim of tliis policy of respect 
for nonalinement is identical with that of the 
much misunderstood and maligned so-called 
Eisenhower Doctrine, wliich is to help free coim- 
tries to prevent the encroaclmient of international 
commmiism. If the neutral new countries suc- 
ceed in maintaining an absolute neutrality, com- 
munism will be barred. Tlie need, however, is for 
policies of "positive neutrality" to be positively 
neutral. 

In conclusion, therefore, the foreign policy of 
the United States in the Middle East is simple, 
straightforward, and constructive. In one sen- 
tence it can be defined bj' saying that, in the vi- 
tally strategic tricontinental bridge of the Mid- 
dle East, tlie home of three world religions, the 
center of Arabic race and culture, and the site of 
the world's largest reserve of oil, the United States 
seeks to maintain freedom of transit, religion, and 
commerce witliin the framework of peace, and to 
assure the freedom of the Middle Eastern nations. 



Burma Designates U On Sein 
Ambassador to Washington 

Press release 499 dated July 9 

The U.S. Government has been informed that 
the Government of the Union of Burma has 
designated U On Sein, former Burmese Ambassa- 
dor to Pakistan, as the next Burmese Ambassa- 
dor to the United States. He will succeed U Win, 
who has been Burmese Ambassador to Washing- 
ton since December 1955. 



U.S. Aid Offered to Burma 

Press release 486 dated July 6 

The Department of State announced on July 6 
that, i)ursuant to a request of the Burmese Gov- 
ernment, tlio United States has offered to provide 
substantial economic assistance to two major de- 
velopment projects in Burma. These projects in- 
volve the construction of a modern highway con- 
nectuig Rangoon with central Bunna and of mod- 
ern dormitory-classroom facilities at the Univer- 
sity of Eangoon. 

Diplomatic notes were exchanged at Rangoon 
on June 24 between the U.S. Ambassador to 
Bunna, Walter P. McConaughy, and Burmese 
Foreign Minister U Chan Tmi Aung, jiroviding 
for the use of up to $1 million of U.S. economic 
assistance funds to finance feasibility, engineer- 
ing, and other studies for these two projects. It 
is anticipated tliat most of these studies will be 
carried out by tlie United States Army Corps of 
Engineers. 

The Bui-mese Government has also been in- 
fonned that the United States is prepared to make 
available over the next 4 years up to $30 million 
in economic assistance toward the foreign ex- 
change costs of these projects. This would be 
subject to mutual agreement on details, compli- 
ance with applicable U.S. legislation, and appro- 
priation of fimds by the Congress. On its part, 
the Burmese Government would cover, from loans 
or other sources, the foreign exchange costs of the 
projects, in excass of this U.S. contribution. The 
Bunnese Government will also cover local cur- 
rency costs of the projects. The United States 
is prepared to assist in financing a portion of these 
local currency costs by providing the equivalent of 
$6 million in Burmese currency derived from sales 
to Burma under the surplus agricultural com- 
modities program (Public Law 480). 

The Department stated that this assistance is 
intended as a token of friendship toward the 
people of Burma to assist the development of 
Burma's economic and human resources. A mod- 
em highway serving the interior of Burma will 
stimulate further economic development, while the 
new facilities at the University of Rangoon will 
contribute materially to the improvement of 
higher education for the young people of Bunna. 
The Burmese Government has indicated that it 
considers these projects exceptionally important 
to the future of Burma. 



July 27, 7959 

514057—59 3 



121 



U.S. Files Application Instituting Proceedings Against U.S.S.R. 
for Destruction of B-29 Over Hokkaido in 1954 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 491 dated July 7 

On July 7 Philip Young, U.S. Ambassador at 
The Hague, filed an application of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment instituting proceedings before the Inter- 
national Court of Justice against the Soviet Gov- 
ernment for damages in the amount of $756,604.09. 
The suit is the result of the destruction by Soviet 
fighter aircraft of a U.S. Air Force B-29 aircraft 
on November 7, 1954, over Hokkaido, Japan. 
This marks the end of diplomatic negotiations 
which have been conducted in an attempt to ob- 
tain satisfaction from the Soviet Government for 
an act which resulted in the loss of a human life 
and also of a plane.^ 

The present proceedings are being instituted 
after the Soviet Government had been requested to 
join the U.S. Government in submitting this case 
to the International Court of Justice. The last 
such request was made on June 19, 1958. The U.S. 
Government has received a negative reply to this 
note but still hopes that the Soviet Government 
will ultimately accede to the jurisdiction of the 
Court. 

The present proceedings have been instituted in 
accordance with the well-established U.S. policy 
of resolving such disputes, whether of fact or of 
law, in the International Court of Justice. The 
Court is the judicial organ of the United Nations 
for this purpose and is the appropriate interna- 
tional body before which such cases can be heard 
and decided. 

The facts, as described in prior Department 
press releases and in the notes annexed to the ap- 
plication are, in brief, as follows : A B-29 aircraft 
was engaged in a routine flight near and over 
the Nemuro Peninsula of Hokkaido, Japan, on 
November 7, 1954, when it was attacked by several 
fighter aircraft from the Soviet-occupied islands 



to the east of that part of Japan. Although the 
B-29 turned closer into Japanese territorial air- 
space in an attempt to escape, the Soviet aircraft 
continued their attacks. The plane began to bum, 
and the crew bailed out over the mainland of 
Hokkaido. In the course of the bailout one of the 
crewmen was killed and others injured. The air- 
craft was wholly destroyed. Property of Jap- 
anese nationals living on Hokkaido was also 
damaged. 

This case has legal principles which are, in part, 
similar to those which the Soviet Government re- 
fused to litigate in the case of the B-29 aircraft 
which was attacked and destroyed off the Nemuro 
Peninsula of Hokkaido on October 7, 1952.- In 
addition, as the application explains, there are 
other principles of law which may be involved 
and which the United States Government seeks 
to have declared and applied by the International 
Court of Justice. The rules of international flight 
of aircraft, whether near or, by force of circum- 
stances, over international boundaries, are a sub- 
ject which the United States has always sought to 
determine by principles of international law and 
without resort to force. The Soviet Government 
and other governments in the Soviet bloc have 
thus far resisted such determinations. They have 
continued to exert force and to assert facts in 
justification of their conduct which they have been 
unable and unwilling to support by accepted legal 
standards before appropriate international judi- 
cial institutions. 



TEXT OF APPLICATION TO INTERNATIONAL 
COURT OF JUSTICE 

June 8, 1959 
Sir: 1. This is a written application, in accordance 
with the Statute and Rules of the Court, submitted by 
the Government of the United States of America institut- 



' For background, see Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1954, p. 811, 
and July 8, 1957, p. 68. 



' For background, see ifiicf., Oct 27, 1952, p. 649 ; Oct. 18, 
1954, p. 579 ; and July 11, 1955, p. 65. 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



Ing proceedings against the Government of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics on account of certain wilful 
acts committed by fighter aircraft of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. These fighters attacked and de- 
stroyed a United States Air Force B-lii) airplane engaged 
In legitimate and peaceable flight in the area of the 
Japanese Island of Hokkaido and caused thereby the 
death of one crew member of tlie B-29, an American 
national, and injury to the remaining members of the 
B-29 aircraft, all American nationals. This incident 
occurred on November 7, 1954. 

The subject of the dispute and a succinct statement of 
the facts and grounds upon which the claim of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America is based are 
adequately set forth in a note delivered to the Soviet 
Government on May 23, 1957. A copy of the note is 
attached to this application as an annex. 

The Soviet Government has asserted various conten- 
tions of fact and law with reference to the United States 
Government's claim in other diplomatic correspondence 
on this subject, including notes attached as annexes to 
this application, namely tie notes of November 7, 1954 
and December 11, 19.>1, a note of August 19, 1957, in 
reply to the United States Government's note of May 23, 
1957, and a note of March 4, 1959, in reply to the United 
States Government's note of June 19, 1958, copies of which 
are also attached hereto as annexes. 

2. The United States Government observes that the 
dispute between the United States Government and the 
Soviet Government as set forth in the foregoing diplo- 
matic correspondence concerns matters of the nature 
specified in Article 36(2) of the Statute of the Court, 
including subdivisions (a) through (d). As will be seen 
from the annexes, the legal dispute of the United States 
Government with the Soviet Government involves serious 
questions of international law. Some of these questions 
were also involved to some extent in the case of the 
Aerial Incident of October 7, 1952, which was described 
in the application filed with this Court on June 2, 1955.° 
These include the legality in international law of the 
Soviet claims to land, waters and air space in the area 
of the Habomai Islands and Shikotan, and to Kunashiri 
and Etorofu. and their territorial waters and air space. 

The incident of November 7, 1954 thus represents an 
aggravation of the conduct complained of by the United 
States in its earlier application against the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. In addition there are involved the apparent 
Soviet claims to treat as hostile peaceable aircraft of the 
United States over international waters and in the air 
space in the Goyomai Strait and leading thereto, as well 
as all Soviet claims of sovereignty in this area. In that 
connection, there is involved the interpretation of the 
Treaty of Peace with Japan signed by the United States 
and other governments in San Francisco on September 
8, 1951. There are also involved the scope and applica- 
tion of international obligations relating to the intercep- 
tion by military aircraft, together with other issues of 
fact which if resolved in favor of the United States 
Government would demonstrate breaches of International 



•For text, see ibid., July 11, 1955, p. 65. 



obligation by the Soviet Government; and the nature 
and extent of reparations to be made by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to the United States Government for all these 
breaches. 

The United States Government, filing this application 
with the Court, has submitted to the Court's jurisdiction 
for the purposes of this case. The Soviet Government 
appears not to have filed any declaration with the Court 
thus far. It was invited to do so by the United States 
Government as to the present dispute in the note of 
June 19, 1958. The Soviet Government has sent a nega- 
tive reply thereto. The Soviet Government is, however, 
qualified to submit to the Court in this matter and may, 
upon notification of this application by the Registrar, 
in accordance with the Rules of the Court, take the neces- 
sary steps to enable the Court's jurisdiction over both 
parties to the dispute to be confirmed. 

The United States Government thus founds the juris- 
diction of this Court on the foregoing considerations and 
on Article 36 (1) of the Statute. 

3. The claim of the Government of the United States 
of America is briefly that the Government of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics on November 7, 1954 caused 
fighter aircraft of its Air Force to overfly international 
air space and the territorial air space of Japan In the 
area of Hokkaido to intercept, attack and destroy a 
United States Air Force B-29 airplane engaged in legiti- 
mate and peaceful flight within Japan and the interna- 
tional air space adjacent thereto. 

The United States Air Force, prior to and on Novem- 
ber 7, 1954, had been duly authorized, by virtue of the 
Security Treaty between the United States and Japan, 
signed September 8, 1951, to conduct flights by military 
aircraft over Japanese territory. Pursuant to this au- 
thority, on the morning of November 7, 1954, a United 
States Air Force B-29, bearing serial number 42-94000, 
and with the identification call sign "AF-4705," was duly 
dispatched with instructions to fly in specified areas ex- 
clusively within the territorial confines of the Island of 
Hokkaido and the adjacent international air space. The 
aircraft's crew were eleven men, all members of the 
United States Air Force and nationals of the United 
States. The B-29 had flown along the southeast end 
of Hokkaido and had reached a point south of the town 
of Nemuro. The pilot then made a turn with the purpose 
of flying back along a parallel of latitude approximately 
43 degrees, 18 minutes north, running through the island 
of Tomoshiri in the east and through the town of Shi- 
becha in Hokkaido in the west. The B-29 executed a 
left turn over the international waters of the Pacific to- 
ward a heading of approximately 360 degrees due north, 
southwest of the tip of Nemuro Peninsula. Two fighter 
type aircraft of the Soviet Government moved In on the 
B-29 and while the B-29 was flying due west on a head- 
ing of 270 degrees in the Japanese territorial air space, the 
two Soviet fighters opened fire with successive bursts 
without any warning of an intention to fire and without 
any provocation by the B-29 justifying or reasonably call- 
ing for such hostile action. The firing of the Soviet fight- 
ers continued, directed to the destruction of the B-29, to 
the point where it had passed completely over the land 



July 27, 7959 



123 



mass of Hokkaido, so that the crew were forced to aban- 
don the aircraft by parachute. The airplane crashed on 
Japanese soil near the village of Kamishunbetsu in Hok- 
kaido and one crew member who had parachuted was 
seriously injured and died. Damage was also caused to 
the house of a Japanese national and to cultivated fields 
and crops of another Japanese national. 

The facts are more fully set forth in the United States 
Government note of May 23, 19.j7. The damages suf- 
fered by the United States Government, for which the So- 
viet Government is liable, are specified in the annexed 
note of June 19, IO.jS as well. The United States Gov- 
ernment claims that in the circumstances de.scribed in 
the annex the actions chargeable to the Soviet Govern- 
ment constituted serious violations of international obli- 
gation for which the United States Government has de- 
manded and demands monetary and other reparation. 

In diplomatic correspondence with reference to this 
matter, including that which is attached hereto, the So- 
viet Government has asserted a version of the facts and 
of the law contrary to that asserted by the United States 
Government. The United States Government believes 
that in the circumstances recited the diplomatic channel 
of negotiations must be determined to have been ex- 
hausted. A dispute is therefore presented appropriate 
for hearing and decision by this Court in accordance with 
the Statute and Rules. 

The United States Government, in further pleadings 
herein, will more fully set forth the issues of fact and 
the issues of law in this dispute. It will request that the 
Court find that the Soviet Government is liable to the 
United States Government for the damages caused ; that 
the Court award damages in favor of the United States 
Govermuent against the Soviet Government in the amount 
of $756,604.09, and such other reparation and redress as 
the Court may deem fit and proper; and that the Court 
make all other necessary awards and orders, including 
an award of costs, to effectuate its determinations. 

4. The undersigned has been appointed by the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America as its agent for the 
purposes of this application and all proceedings thereon. 
Very truly yours, 

LoPTUS E. Becker 

The Agent for the 

Government of the United States of Ameriea 

The Registrar 

OF THE International Court of Justice, 

The Hague. 



Annex 1 

Note to the Soviet Government of November 7, 1954 
[For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1954, p. 811.] 

Annex 2 

Note From the Soviet Government of November 7, 1954 
[For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1954, p. 812.] 



Annex 3 

Note to the Soviet Government of November 17, 1954 
[For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1954, p. 811.] 

Annex 4 

Note From the Soviet Government of December 11, 1954 

No. 104/OSA 

In connection with the note of the Government of the 
United States of America No. 390 of November 17 of this 
year the Soviet Government considers it necessary to state 
the following : 

The note of the Soviet Government of November 7 con- 
tained established facts, according to which on November 
7 this year at 1320 local time (1241 Vladivo.stok time) 
an American four-motored military airplane of the B-29 
type violated the state boundary of the USSR in the 
region of the island of Tanfllev (Kurile Islands) and con- 
tinued to penetrate into the air space of the Soviet Union 
in the direction of this island. At the time of the flight 
over the indicated island the violating airplane was met 
by two Soviet fighter planes with the purpose of pointing 
out that it was inside the boundaries of the USSR, and 
to propose that it immediately leave the air space of the 
Soviet Union. However, the American plane upon the 
approach of the Soviet fighters opened fire on them. In 
connection with this unprovoked action of the American 
airplane, the Soviet airplanes were forced to open an- 
swering fire. The American violating airplane left the 
air space of the USSR only after this and departed in a 
southwesterly direction. 

The facts set forth above accurately established by 
appropriate verification refute assertions contained in the 
reference note of the Government of the United States 
of America, to the effect that the airplane of the United 
States was shot down on November 7 by Soviet airplanes 
over Japanese territory in the region of the Island of 
Hokkaido and to the effect that the attack was begun by 
Soviet airplanes. 

From the note of the Government of the USA it fol- 
lows that it does not dispute the fact that the flight of 
the American airplane of the B-29 type took place along 
the course indicated in the note of the Soviet Government 
of November 7 and that the encounter of the American 
airplane with the Soviet airplanes took place over the 
island of Tanfilev (Kurile Islands). 

The Government of the USA alleges, however, that the 
American airplane did not open fire on the Soviet air- 
planes. Nevertheless, the fact that at the approach of 
the Soviet fighters the American airplane opened fire has 
been established by trustworthy means, including ap- 
propriate apparatus. 

In this connection it is appropriate to call to mind that 
in the note of the Government of the USA of Sei>tember 
of this year* regarding an American military airplane of 
the Neptune type, which had violated the state boundary 
of the USSR in the region of Cape Ostrovnoi on Septem- 
ber 4 of this year, the assertion was also made that the 



124 



* For text, see ihid., Sept. 13, 1954, p. 365. 

Department of State Bulletin 



American military airplane did not open fire at all on 
the Soviet fighters. However, later the Navy Department 
of the USA, and also the American reiireseutativc in the 
UN in his speech in the Security Council on September 
10, 19r)4,'' admitted that the American airplane actually 
did fire on the Soviet airplanes. 

As regards the allegation of the Government of the 
USA to the effect that certain southern Kurile Islands, 
in the region of which incidents with American airplanes 
took place, are not Soviet territory, this statement is 
wilhout foundation and is in plain contradiction with 
provisions of the Yalta agreement on the Kurile Islands, 
in which the USA also is a participant. As is known, 
the Soviet Union on the basis of agreements between the 
Allies concerning the surrender of Japan accepted capitu- 
lation of the Japanese forces on the territory of all the 
Kurile Islands, which by decision of the Yalta conference 
were transferred to the Soviet Union. In accordance 
with the agreement mentioned above and in the directive 
of the staff of the Supreme Commander of the Allied 
Powers, MacArthur, of January 29, 1946, it is directly 
pointed out that these islands are excluded from the 
sovereignty of Japan along with other territories which 
were withdrawn from Japan. 

In view of the foregoing, the Soviet Government states 
that the protest of the Government of the USA does not 
have basis. 

The Soviet Government in its note of November 7 has 
already expressed its regret with reference to the fact 
that instances of violations by American military air- 
planes of the state boundary of the USSR which have 
taken place, including the instance which occurred on 
November 7, involve, as indicated in corresponding notes 
of the Government of the USA, losses and casualties 
which are in no way justified. In stating this, the Soviet 
Government proceeds on the assumption that henceforth 
measures will be taken on the part of the USA excluding 
repetitions of similar instances. 

The taking of measures to prevent henceforth viola- 
tions by American airplanes of the Soviet state boundary 
would permit similar incidents and losses connected with 
them to be avoided. However, it cannot but be observed 
that the statement of the Government of the USA that 
in the future it will "insure necessary defense" of air- 
planes of the US can in no way contribute to this. Such 
actions of the American military command could only 
increase the risk of repetition of similar incidents, not to 
mention that these actions would be contrary to the in- 
terests of lessening international tension. The Soviet 
Government confirms its note of November 7 of this year 
and expects that the Government of the USA will give 
appropriate instructions to the command of military air 
forces of the USA to take necessary measures to prevent 
in the future violations by American airplanes of the state 
boundary of the Soviet Union. 

Annex 5 

Note to the SonET Government of May 2.3, 1957 
[For text, see Bulletin of July 8, 1957, p. 68.] 

'^ For text, see Hid., Sept. 20, 1954, p. 417. 

July 27, J 959 



Annex 6 

Note From the Soviet Government of August 19, 1957 

No. 46/OSA 

In connection with the note of the Government of the 
United States of America, No. 945 of May 23, 1957, the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
considers it necessary to state the follovping. 

Examining the above-mentioned note of the Government 
of the USA relating to the incident which took place in 
connection with the violation by an American four- 
motored military airplane, B-29, of the state border of 
the USSR in the region of the island of Tanfilyev 
(Kurile Islands) on November 7, 1954, the Soviet Govern- 
ment notes that in this note, there is contained nothing 
new relative to the incident in question in comparison 
with what the Government of the USA has previously 
stated on this question. In the note, there is again re- 
peated a version of the incident, contradicting exactly 
established facts at the disposal of the Soviet Government. 

The Soviet Government in it notes of November 7 and 
December 11, 19.")4 has already set forth, on the basis of 
factual data, the conditions of the violation by an Amer- 
ican military airplane of the Soviet state border. Veri- 
fied factual data show that on November 7, 1954 at 12: 41 
Vladivostok time, an American military airplane B-29 
violated the state border of the USSR in Soviet Strait 
(Koemai-Kaikio) towards the southwest from the shoal 
of Kaigara-Sendan and penetrated into the airspace of 
the USSR to the extent of more than 30 kilometers, ap- 
proximately to a point with coordinates of 146°15' east- 
ern longitude and 43°24' northern latitude. After that, 
the B-29 airplane turned towards the west, went over 
the northern extremity of Yuri Island and then over Tan- 
filyev Island (Kurile Islands), where it was met by two 
Soviet interceptors, moving towards it with the intention 
of indicating that it was located within the limits of the 
borders of the USSR and of proposing that it immediately 
leave the airspace of the Soviet Union. On approaching 
the B-29 airplane the Soviet interceptors were fired at 
from the side installations of the American airplane, in 
connection with which they were obliged to open answer- 
ing fire. Only after this did the violating American air- 
plane quit the airspace of the USSR and dei)art in a 
southwesterly direction. 

Taking into consideration that the facts of the viola- 
tion by the above-mentioned American airplane of the 
state border of the USSR and of the firing by it at the 
Soviet airplanes are exactly established and that in con- 
sequence of this responsibility for the incident in question 
is placed fully on the American side, the Soviet Govern- 
ment rejects the claim set forth in the note of the 
Goveriiment of the USA of May 23, 1957 as unfounded. 

In connection with this, the Soviet Government con- 
siders it necessary to note that the assertions contained 
in the note of the Government of the USA that there are 
supposedly at the disposition of American authorities 
proofs of the correctness of their version of the incident 
with the B-29 airplane are all the more strange in that 
they are being brought out more than two and a half 
years after the incident. To assert, in these conditions, 
for example, that the Government of the USA supposedly 



125 



possesses "Indisputable evidence" that tiie American air- 
plane allegedly did not open fire on the Soviet airplanes 
seems, at tlie very least, frivolous. 

As regards the statement of the Government of the 
USA that supposedly several South Kurile Islands, in the 
region of which the incident vpith the American airplane 
took place, are not Soviet territory, such a statement has 
no basis, as has already been shown in the note of the 
Soviet Government of December 11, 1954. Moreover, it 
is in open contradiction with well known international 
agreements and documents, signed by official representa- 
tives of the United States of America. 

It is possible only to add to that which is stated in the 
note of the Soviet Government of December 11, 1954, 
that in general there is not, in these documents dealing 
with territorial questions, and particularly in the Yalta 
Agreement, which provided for the transfer of the Kurile 
Islands to the Soviet Union, even one article or one clause 
which would single out from the composition of these 
islands the islands of Shikotan, Habomai, Kunashiri, or 
Iturup, which are an inseparable, composite part of the 
Kurile Islands. 

The Soviet Government considers the question of the 
Kurile Islands decided on the basis of the Yalta Agree- 
ment and other international agreements and does not 
consider it necessary to enter into further discussion of 
arbitrary statements of the Government of the USA on 
this question. 

Inasmuch as, in the note of the Government of the 
USA, baseless assertions regarding the width of terri- 
torial waters defined by the Soviet Union are again re- 
peated, the Soviet Government recalls that its position 
on this question is well known and that, in particular, 
it was set forth in an exhaustive manner in the note of 
the Soviet Government to the Government of the USA 
of December 31 [11?], 1954. 

As is clear from the note of the Government of the 
USA of May 23 of this year, instead of giving a strict 
order to the Headquarters of the American Air Forces 
not to permit further violations of the airspace of the 
Soviet Union, the Government of the USA in every man- 
ner attempts to deny the exactly established facts of the 
violation by American airplanes of the state borders of 
the USSR, encouraging in this manner, such violations. 

In connection with the above-stated, the Soviet Govern- 
ment reaffirms its notes of November 7 and December 
11, 1954, and considers it necessary to emphasize that 
the possibility of repetition of undesired incidents with 
American airplanes similar to that which took place on 
November 7, 1954 will be completely excluded if the Gov- 
ernment of the USA takes measures for the prohibition 
of violations by American airplanes of the state borders 
of the Soviet Union. 

Annex 7 

Note to the Soviet Government of June 19, 1958 

No. 1093 

Excellency : I have the honor to transmit, upon the 
instruction of my Government, the following communica- 
tion from my Government to your Government : 



The Government of the United States of America has 
received and studied the note of the Government of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics No. 46/OSA of August 
19, 1957 delivered to the Embassy of the United States 
Government in Moscow in reply to note No. 945 of the 
United States of America dated May 23, 1957, relating 
to the destruction on November 7, 1954 by Soviet military 
aircraft of a United States Air Force B-29 airplane en- 
gaged in legitimate and peaceable flight in the area of 
the Japanese island of Hokkaido. 

On the principal issues of fact raised by the prior ex- 
changes of notes between the United States Government 
and the Soviet Government on this incident, the Soviet 
Government's new note constitutes no clarification. It 
does not state where the Soviet Government claims its 
territorial jurisdiction to begin in the area of the Nemuro 
Peninsula. It further varies the account given by the 
Soviet Government in prior communications of the alleged 
course of flight of the United States Air Force B-29 which 
was attacked and destroyed over the island of Hokkaido, 
and it provides no justification for such action. 

The Soviet Government has thus categorically taken 
issue with the United States Government's allegations 
of fact In prior communications, particularly in note 
No. 945 of May 23, 1957, and with the legal validity of the 
United States Government's contentions. The propriety 
of the conduct of the Soviet fighter aircraft and of Soviet 
claims to the areas of the Habomai Islands and Shikotan, 
and to Kunashiri and Etorofu, and their territorial waters 
remains in dispute. If the Soviet Government also claims 
any territorial rights in the Goyomai Strait or in the 
waters adjacent to the Nemuro Peninsula such claims 
too are disputed. The United States Government denies 
the Soviet Government's contentions of law and fact and 
further reasserts that the actions of the Soviet Govern- 
ment against the B-29 aircraft were without warning and 
unprovoked and, under the circumstances which obtained, 
illegal. 

The United States Government therefore believes, and 
hereby notifies the Soviet Government that it deems, that 
an international dispute exists between the two Govern- 
ments falling within the competence of the International 
Court of Justice and proposes that the dispute be pre- 
sented for hearing and decision in the International Court 
of Justice. Since the Soviet Government has thus far not 
filed with that Court any declaration of acceptance of 
the compulsory jurisdiction of that Court, the United 
States Government invites the Soviet Government to file 
an appropriate declaration with the Court, or to enter 
into a Special Agreement, by which the Court may be 
empowered in accordance with its Statute and Rules to 
determine the issues of fact and law between the parties. 
The Soviet Government is requested to inform the United 
States Government of its Intentions with respect to such 
a declaration or Special Agreement. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est considerations. 



126 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Annex 8 

Note From the Soviet Government of Maboh 4, 1959 

No. 16/OSA 

In connection with Note No. 1093 of the Elmbassy of the 
United States of America of 19 June 1958, the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics considers 
it necessary to state the following. 

In Its notes of 7 November and 11 December 1954 and 
in the note of 19 August 1957 the Soviet Government has 
already set forth on the bases of factual data the cir- 
cumstances of the violation by an American B-29 military 
plane of the Soviet state frontier in the region of 
Tanfilyev Island (Kurile Islands) on 7 November 1954. 

From the said notes of the Soviet Government it is 
clear that on 7 November 1954 an American military 
plane violated the state frontier of the USSR in the 
region of Tanfilyev Island (Kurile Islands) and opened 
unprovoked fire on Soviet fighters guarding the state 
frontier of the USSR and making their way toward it 
with the aim of showing that it is in the limits of the 
frontiers of the USSR. The Soviet Government regrets 
that the Government of the USA does not consider it 
possible to acknowledge the indisputable fact of the viola- 
tion by the American plane of the Soviet state frontier 
and that responsibility for the incident noted lies com- 
pletely on the American side. 

The Soviet Government sees no basis for transmitting 
this question for the examination of the International 
Court as is proposed in the note of the Government of 
the USA of 19 June 1958. 

As for the statement of the Government of the USA 
concerning the Southern Kurile Islands and their terri- 
torial waters, the Soviet Government does not consider 
it possible to enter into further discussion of the arbi- 
trary statements of the Government of the USA on this 
score since the question about the Kurile Islands is settled 
on the basis of the Yalta and other international agree- 
ments which also bear the signature of the Government 
of the USA. 

The Soviet Government confirms its notes of 7 Novem- 
ber and 11 December 1954 and of 19 August 1957. 



DLF Lists Total Commitments)^ f^ 
of $765 Million TT^. 

Press release 493 dated July 7 

As of June 11, the United States Development 
Loan Fund had made or approved 87 loans and one 
guarantee totaling $718,306,000 to public and 
private borrowers in 38 countries, according to a 



listing made public on July 7. This listing super- 
sedes an earlier one dated February 28.^ 

In addition, $13,200,000 worth of DLF loans 
have been approved, but letters of advice contain- 
ing basic terms have not yet been formally trans- 
mitted to loan applicants; and a further $33,950, 
000 have been committed by the DLF for certain 
countries to finance projects within their develop- 
ment programs, subject to approval of the specific 
projects. DLF loan commitments to date thus 
total $765,456,000. 

The Development Loan Fund is a U.S. Govern- 
ment corporation established to help speed the eco- 
nomic growth of the less developed nations. It 
lends money to governments and private firms for 
constructive purposes for which capital cannot be 
obtained from other sources, accepting repayment 
in local currencies if necessary. 

The new list includes brief descriptions of all 
loans signed or approved by the Fund from its in- 
ception on June 30, 1957, through June 11, 1959. 
Copies are available at the DLF offices at 1025 
Fifteenth St., NW., Washington 25, D.C. 

The list shows that DLF loan operations to dat« 
break down as follows : 

Sixteen loans totaling $63,290,000 to borrowers 
in 12 Latin American countries ; 

Nine loans totaling $30,140,000 to borrowers in 7 
countries in Africa ; 

Six loans totaling $62,100,000 to borrowers in 3 
European countries ; 

Twelve loans totaling $120,900,000 to borrowers 
in 6 countries in the Near East ; 

Twenty-two loans totaling $295,200,000 to bor- 
rowers in 3 countries in South Asia; and 

Twenty-two loans totaling $146,676,000 to bor- 
rowers in 7 Far Eastern countries. 

The principal borrowing countries were India, 
with 8 loans totaling $195,000,000 ; Pakistan, with 
11 loans totaling $96,750,000; and Taiwan (For- 
mosa), with 8 loans and one guarantee totaling 
$39,486,000. 



' For an announcement, see Bulletin of Apr. 6, 1959, 
p. 484. 



July 27, J 959 



127 



THE CONGRESS 



Administration's Views on Legislation To Promote 
U.S. Private Investment Abroad 



Following are statements made hefore the House 
Committee on Ways and Means on July 7 iy 
Under Secretary of State Douglas Dillon and 
David A. Lindsay, Assistant to the Secretary of 
the Treasury, during consideration of H.R. 5, 
a nil entitled '■'■Foreign Investment Incentive Tax 
Act of 1959." 



STATEMENT BY UNDER SECRETARY DILLON 

Press release 490 dated July 7 

I welcome this opportunity to present to your 
committee the views of the Department of State 
on the important problem of encouraging United 
States private investment in the less developed 
areas of the free world and on appropriate and 
timely tax incentive measures which could con- 
tribute substantially to meeting that problem. 

As you know, a major motivating force behind 
our foreign economic policy is the conviction that 
Govermnent measures, essential as they are, cannot 
substitute for the vitality and initiative of pri- 
vate investment, which provides along with capi- 
tal the technical and managerial skills so essential 
to economic growth. The goal of our private in- 
vestment policy is to help create situations in 
which private enterprise can prosper in the in- 
dustrialized countries and can take root and flour- 
ish in the less developed areas of the free world. 

During recent yeare there has been a strong 
upsurge in the flow of United States private 
capital to Canada and Western Europe, where the 
creation of the Common Market is providing a 
new stimulus to American investment.^ These 



' For an article on the Common Market by John A. 
Birch, see Bulletin of July 20, 1959, p. 88. 



private investments of oiu-s in the more advanced 
countries have made an important contribution 
to the economic strength of the free world. There 
is no indication that any further incentives are 
called for in this area. 

Turning to the less developed countries of the 
free world we find a very different situation. 
Throughout the vast areas of Asia, the Middle 
East, Africa, and Latin America we have entered 
upon an age of mounting expectations, reflecting 
the demands of the less privileged peoples of the 
free world for higher living standards imder free- 
dom. This tremendous urge for a better life under 
free institutions presents us with a great hope for 
the future, and with a great challenge as well. 
To help meet this challenge, continued and vigor- 
ous action by our Government is required. Also 
required, and of vital importance, is a substantial 
increase in United States private business relation- 
ships with those areas to help accelerate the proc- 
ess of economic development and to guide it in the 
right direction. 

Free private enterprise is the very basis of our 
free system. On this foundation stand the free- 
doms we liold so dear — freedom of thouglit, free- 
dom of expression, freedom of religion, and 
freedom of the individual. This system of ours 
is now facing a formidable challenge from totali- 
tarian communism. 

In the imderdeveloped world this cliallenge now 
largely takes an economic form. If our free sys- 
tem is to prevail we must show tlie people of these 
lands that the private enterprise system is in their 
own best interest. This can only be done if our 
American private enterprise plays a substantial 
role in the development process. This in turn 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



requires adequate incentives for our private 
businessmen. 

Need for Economic Progress in Less Developed Areas 

The nuinifest needs of the less developed coun- 
tries for economic progi-ess, and the impatient de- 
mands of their peoples, provide the Communist 
bloc with a dangerously exploitable opportunity 
to advance communism's long-term drive for 
world domination. The Coimnunists have made 
clear that the less developed countries of Asia, 
the ]\Iiddle East, Africa, and Latin America are 
major targets in communism's drive to undermine 
the West. These countries cherish their freedoms 
and intend to preserve them, but the demands for 
economic growth are strong and urgent. "Whether 
these demands ai-e met in freedom or whether 
these countries are forced to turn to the path of 
communism will depend in no small measure on 
what we and the other industrialized countries 
of the West do to help. The main burden of eco- 
nomic progress lies, of course, on the less devel- 
oped countries themselves, but it is in our interest 
as well as theirs that we help them to speed the 
process of economic development. 

Through such means as our governmental loan 
and technical assistance progi-ams, our multilat- 
eral trade policies, our commercial treaty, tax 
treaty, and investment guarantee progi-ams, and 
our economic and investment information activi- 
ties, the U.S. Government is making a major eifort 
to assist the less developed countries in attaining 
a satisfactory rate of economic growth. Never- 
theless, although progress has been made during 
recent years by the underdeveloped areas, the rate 
of progress generally has been less than that of the 
industrialized countries while the rate of popu- 
lation increase has been higher. This has led to 
a widening of the gap between our standards of 
living and those in the less developed areas. This 
situation is a serious one and calls for urgent 
attention. We must provide additional impetus 
for the economic development process. Govern- 
mental resources and capabilities are of necessity 
limited: so new actions to stimulate the flow of 
private capital, with its accompanying skills and 
techniques, have become an urgent necessity. 

During recent years new United States direct 
investment in the less developed countries of Asia, 
the Middle East, and Africa has been relatively 
small— roughly $100 million annually— and much 



of this has gone into petroleum investment in a 
few countries. In regard to Latin America the 
situation is substantially better, but here too the 
flow of private investment has been very uneven, 
witli substantial investments going to a few coun- 
tries and relatively little going to the rest of the 
area. 

There are, of course, many reasons for the un- 
satisfactory level of our private investments in 
the underdeveloped countries. There are impor- 
tant obstacles to an expanded foreign investment 
flow, such as political, legal, or institutional prob- 
lems affecting the investment climate, which are 
susceptible of correction only by the country con- 
cerned. Others, such as a lack of natural re- 
sources or the limitations imposed by a relatively 
small market, present problems of a more perma- 
nent nature which have to be met by doing the 
best job possible under the circumstances. On the 
other hand we have it within our power to provide 
incentives which could substantially stimulate the 
flow of our private capital to the less developed 
areas. It is here that there is a crying need for 
governmental action. 

During the past few months, pursuant to section 
413(c) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as 
amended, a thorough study was made under the 
direction of Mr. Ralph I. Straus, a distinguished 
American business leader, of the problem of ex- 
panding private investment for free-world eco- 
nomic growth.^ The report based on this study 
included a number of specific recommendations 
covering a wide range of activities. All these 
recommendations are being carefully examined, 
and many of them are already in tlie process of 
implementation. 

In connection with this study the Commerce 
Department asked a large number of American 
enterprises with foreign business experience for 
their views on the ways and means of improving 
the utilization of American private enterpi-ise in 
carrying out our foreign economic policies. It is 
significant that most of the businessmen replying 
to the question as to what governmental induce- 
ments would most encourage foreign investment 
and related activities cited tax incentives. Appro- 
priately, one of the principal recommendations 



^For a summary of the report's recommendations, see 
Bulletin of Apr. 20, 19.59, p. .562. Copies of the report. 
Expanding Privale Investment for Free World Economic 
Growth, may be obtained upon request from the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington 25, D.C. 



Ja/y 27, J 959 



129 



made in the Straus report, and the principal rec- 
ommendation in the taxation area, was for the 
authorization of tax deferral on income of a for- 
eign business corporation until such income is re- 
patriated. Similarly, the Committee on World 
Economic Practices, appointed last year by the 
President to study new ways in which the Gov- 
ernment and the private sector of our economy 
could effectively join together to combat the Sino- 
Soviet economic offensive and to promote free- 
world economic growth, advised tax deferral 
through the foreign-business-corporation mecha- 
nism as its principal recommendation in the tax 
incentive field. This Committee of outstanding 
businessmen conducted its work under the able 
chairmanship of Mr. Harold Boeschenstein.^ 

Importance of Tax Incentive Measures 

The Department of State is convinced that ap- 
propriate tax incentive measures can make a sig- 
nificant contribution to our foreign economic pol- 
icy objective of expanding the role played by 
private enterprise in helping the peoples of the 
less developed areas realize their mounting ex- 
pectations for a better life under free institu- 
tions. It is our belief that, under present cir- 
cumstances and in view of all the considerations 
involved, the most practicable and most effective 
tax incentive would be tax deferral through the 
foreign business corporation, substantially as rec- 
ommended in the Straus report and the Boeschen- 
stein report. Tax deferral, it seems to us, has a 
significant advantage over tax rate reduction in 
that deferral promotes the reinvestment of earn- 
ings whereas rate reduction would tend to en- 
courage rapid repatriation of foreign earnings. 

Accordingly, we are very pleased that in H.E. 
5 Congressman [Hale] Boggs has proposed legis- 
lation which would authorize the deferral of 
United States tax on the income of qualified for- 
eign business corporations until that income is 
repatriated. Mhidful of revenue considerations, 
for comment on which we defer to the Treasury 
Department, and consonant with our views that 
no new incentives are needed to encourage private 
investment in the more advanced countries, the 
Department of State welcomes this opportunity 



' Copies of the Bocschenstein report may be obtained 
upon request from the Business Advisory Council, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Washington 25, D.C. 



to support the enactment of legislation authoriz- 
ing the deferral through the foreign-business- 
corporation mechanism of tax on income derived 
from business operations in the less developed 
coimtries of the free world. 

It is also our recommendation that legislation 
be enacted providing ordinary loss treatment, 
rather than capital loss treatment, for losses in- 
curred by original investors on stock of a foreign 
business corporation. This recommendation, 
which is also found in both the Straus and 
Bocschenstein reports, could provide a substantial 
and needed stimulus to private investment in the 
less developed areas. Because of the greater 
risks involved and the substantial national interest 
in stimulating such investment, this special treat- 
ment seems eminently appropriate. 

As to other provisions of H.R. 5, which mvolve 
teclinical tax problems and tax administration 
problems as well as revenue considerations, we 
consider that comment should more appropriately 
come from the Treasury Department. 

In conclusion I would like to emphasize again 
the importance of taking all reasonable and prac- 
ticable actions to promote an expanding flow of 
United States private investment to the less de- 
veloped countries and to reiterate our strong rec- 
ommendation that the Congress enact as soon as 
possible legislation for this purpose authorizing 
tax deferral through the foreign-business-cor- 
poration mechanism and providing ordinary loss 
treatment for losses incurred by original investors 
in foreign business corporations. 



STATEMENT BY MR. LINDSAY 

We are pleased to appear before your committee 
today to present the view of the Treasuiy Depart- 
ment on H.R. 5, a bill entitled "Foreign Invest- 
ment Incentive Tax Act of 1959," introduced on 
January 7, 1959, by Mr. Boggs. The purpose of 
the bill is to provide tax relief for foreign income 
in order to provide incentives for expansion of 
United States investment abroad. 

The need to enlist resources and talents of 
American enterprise in helping to improve the 
economies of the less developed countries is par- 
ticularly important today with a hostile Commu- 
nist bloc actively pressing a massive economic 
offensive against the free world. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



Secretary Dillon stated, in testimony before 
your committee's Subcommittee on Foreign Trade 
Policy last December,* that he regards the prob- 
lem of acliievement in freedom of higher living 
standards in the lesser developed countries as the 
primary economic and political problem of the 
20th century. He observed that it is a problem 
in whicli the interests of our Government and 
our business community coincide, so that a real 
opportunity exists for a joint effort in attack- 
ing it. 

During the last decade there has been an in- 
creasing flow of United States capital to Canada 
and Western Europe. Almost half of our pri- 
vate foreign investments are in these more de- 
veloped areas. A relatively small percentage of 
our private investment abroad has been and is 
going to the less developed critical areas in Asia, 
the Jliddle East, and Africa. 

In the light of these considerations, the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury submitted a report on H.K. 
5 which was developed in cooperation with the 
State and Commerce Dejaartments. The Secre- 
tary stated in this report that measures wlrich 
the Treasury would support include : 

(1) The deferral of tax on income derived by 
a foreign business corporation which obtains sub- 
stantially all of its income from investments in 
one or more of the less developed areas of the 
free world. 

(2) Ordinary loss treatment for losses incurred 
by original investors on stock of such a foreign 
business corporation. 

(3) The early implementation, by treaty or by 
negotiated agreement authorized by legislation, 
of the principle of a credit for tax sparing in 
order to make it possible for American firms in- 
vesting in an underdeveloped country to benefit 
from the tax inducements offered by such a comi- 
try to attract new capital. 

It generally is recognized that tax incentives 
alone camiot successfully stimulate private invest- 
ment in the critical less developed areas of the 
free world. Tliere are many obstacles which im- 
pede the flow of private investment to less devel- 
oped coimtries. These include political in- 
stability, risk of expropriation, problems of 
currency convertibility, inflation, in some instances 

' Bulletin of Dec. 29, 1958, p. 1056. 
July 27, 7959 



high foreign tax rates, and the natural attraction 
of capital to areas -where a profitable return is 
comparatively assured. 

We believe that some of these problems can be 
minimized, howe\'er, by provision for ordinary 
loss treatment for investment losses in the less de- 
veloped areas coupled with the expansion of our 
investment guarantee program. Implementation 
of the tax-sparing principle should make more 
effective efforts of certain countries to provide 
tax incentives of their own to attract new in- 
vestment. Deferral of tax on profits reinvested 
should encourage relative permanence and expan- 
sion of the successful enterprises in such areas. 

H.R. 5 contains a number of provisions designed 
to encourage private investment abroad. A ma- 
jor difference between H.R. 5 and the Treasury 
Department recommendations is that the tax pro- 
visions of H.R. 5 would have worldwide appli- 
cation outside of the United States, whereas the 
Treasury proposals are limited in application to 
the less developed areas. 

The substantive provisions of H.R. 5 are: de- 
ferral of tax on foreign income for private domes- 
tic foreign business corporations; liberalization 
of present restrictions on tax-free transfers of 
property to foreign corporations; a 14 percent 
reduction in tax rates for foreign business cor- 
porations; modification of the foreign tax credit 
to include an overall limitation wherever such 
limitation would be more advantageous than the 
per country limitation imposed by present law; 
a credit for taxes spared by foreign countries to 
attract American industries; and nonrecognition 
of gain on involmitary conversion of property of 
foreign subsidiaries. 

For convenience we shall cover each of the pro- 
visions of H.R. 5 in order of appearance in the 
bill. 



Tax Deferral (Section 2) 

This provision would permit the creation of a 
special domestic corporation — referred to as a for- 
eign business corporation — which would be en- 
titled to tax deferral on its foreign earnings until 
they are repatriated. 

Setting aside our fiscal situation, the problem 
of revenue, and the question of encouraging in- 
vestment abroad, there is substantial merit to sec- 
tion 2 of H.R. 5. 

Under existing law, deferral of income derived 



131 



abroad is now available to American companies 
operating through subsidiaries incorporated in 
foreign countries. This is because a corporation 
which is created under the laws of a foreign coun- 
try and derives its income abroad does not fall 
within the scope of our tax system. A tax is paid 
by the domestic parent only upon dividends re- 
ceived from the foreign subsidiary if and when 
distributed. This has been a basic feature of our 
income-tax structure since its enactment. 

On the other hand, domestic corporations, in- 
dividual residents, and most of our citizens must 
pay tax currently on all income, foreign and do- 
mestic alike, with provision, however, for tax 
credit against United States tax for taxes imposed 
by foreign countries on income derived within 
their borders. Under certain circumstances do- 
mestic corporations have tax advantages, as, for 
example, the offsetting of foreign losses against 
domestic income, the availability of the percentage 
depletion deduction, and the benefit of various tax 
treaties negotiated by the United States. 

Because American firms are able to defer United 
States tax by operating abroad through foreign 
subsidiaries, much of the private investments 
abroad by citizens of this country has been chan- 
neled through foreign corporations, with the ex- 
ception of the extractive industries. If, for ex- 
ample, an American firm contemplates the acquisi- 
tion of a plant in a coimtry having a tax rate sub- 
stantially lower than our corporate rate and if 
it expects to leave a substantial part of its profits 
of its foreign plant abroad, it would ordinarily or- 
ganize a foreign corporation to operate the busi- 
ness so as to postpone indefinitely payment of tax 
to the United States. In recent years a number of 
American firms investing abroad have done so 
through foreign holding companies located in a 
"tax haven" country. The holding company, in 
turn, conducts its business tlirough foreign operat- 
ing subsidiaries located in various parts of tlie 
world. This method of operation permits, for ex- 
ample, the transfer of earnings from a subsidiary 
in Western Europe to one in South America, free 
of United States income tax. In the absence of 
the intermediate holding company, the transfer 
of funds from one foreign subsidiary to another 
would ordinarily be treated as a taxable dividend 
to the United States parent corporation followed 
by a capital contribution by the parent to the 
second subsidiary. 

Section 2 of H.R. 5 would permit foreign busi- 



ness corporations the same latitude available to 
foreign holding companies to shift funds between 
countries or subsidiaries with no intervening 
tax imposed by the United States. In this sense 
and also in its application to export income, sec- 
tion 2 is broader than the deferral provisions con- 
tained in earlier bills, namely, H.R. 8300 in 1954 
and H.R. 7725 in 1955. 

Although recognizing the merits of section 2 
of H.R. 5, the Treasury Department nevertheless 
is compelled to oppose unlimited deferral at this 
time because of the substantial revenue losses in- 
volved in extending the deferral provisions to in- 
clude investments in and exports to all regions of 
the world by American firms. "Wliile the esti- 
mates are exceedingly difficult to make, it is be- 
lieved that section 2, if enacted, would involve a 
revenue loss ranging from $300 million to 
$500 million annually, depending upon the divi- 
dend policies followed by foreign business cor- 
porations. If export income were entirely ex- 
cluded the revenue loss would be in the neigh- 
borhood of $100 million a year. Revenue losses 
of this magnitude cannot be accepted at this time 
without contributing to an imsound fiscal position. 

If section 2 is confined to less developed areas 
without limitation in regard to export income, the 
revenue loss would still be in the order of 
$100 million. Apart from the impact on revenues, 
to extend deferral to export income is to grant 
deferral in many cases even though no significant 
activity is conducted abroad. Accordingly, we 
are compelled to recommend that export income 
be excluded but would be pleased to explore with 
the committee, in cooperation with the committee 
staffs, the feasibility of limiting the deferral pro- 
vision to foreign business corporations which do 
not earn more than 50 percent of their gross in- 
come from exports. 

Liberalization of Section 367 (Section 3) 

Section 3 of the bill is designed to facilitate the 
creation of a foreign corporation through the 
transfer of assets, other than cash, which ai'e cur- 
rently in use either in tlie United States or abroad, 
without the recognition of any gain or loss upon 
such transfer. Under section 367 of existing law, 
the transfer of assets to a foreign corporation can- 
not be accomplished on a tax-fi-ee basis unless 
prior approval is obtained that the exchange does 
not have as one of its principal jiurposes the 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



avoidance of United States tax. This provision 
was enacted in 1932 and according to the report 
of the Ways and Means Committee at that time 
was designed to close "a serious loophole for 
avoidance of taxes." 

Section 3 would make section 367 inapplicable 
in the case of transfers of foreign business prop- 
erty and certain stock investments to foreign cor- 
porations. Thus, under the bill, a domestic cor- 
poration with separate foreign manufacturing 
subsidiaries in various countries could transfer its 
stock in all these companies to a foi-eign holding 
company organized in a "tax haven" country 
without recognition of gain. Each of the sub- 
sidiaries may have accumulated substantial earn- 
ings free of United States tax and paid little or 
no dividends to the American parent corporation. 
In the absence of a favorable ruling under section 
367, the transfer of stock of the operating com- 
panies to the foreign holding company in ex- 
change for stock of the holding company would 
be a taxable exchange. 

The Treasury would support a limited amend- 
ment to section 367 to permit tax-free transfers of 
foreign business property, including stock of for- 
eign subsidiaries, to a United States foreign busi- 
ness corporation. Possibly a change in tlie ad- 
vance ruling requirement might also be desirable 
in the case of transfers of business property from 
a foreign business corporation to one or more of 
its foreign subsidiaries if "distribution" limita- 
tions were placed on the foreign subsidiary simi- 
lar to those provided in section 2 of the bill for 
the foreign business corporation itself. 

"We believe that such distribution limitations 
would largely eliminate the present oppoi-tunities 
for tax avoidance in the repatriation of the earn- 
ings of a foreign subsidiary either without tax or 
at capital gain rates. Under this approach, loans 
by the foreign subsidiary to the shareholder of the 
foreign business corporation and certain invest- 
ments by the subsidiary in the United States 
would be regarded as a constructive dividend dis- 
tributed by the foreign business corporation. If 
changes such as these were made, tax avoidance 
opportunities available through foreign subsidi- 
ary operations would be considerably reduced and 
greater leeway would be justified in connection 
with the proposed liberalization of present re- 
strictions on tax-free transfers of property to for- 
eign corporations. 



While consideration might be given to permit- 
ting transfer of property to other foreign corpo- 
rations controlled by United States interests, if 
similar "distribution" safeguards were enacted, it 
would seem that broad liberalization in tiiis area 
would tend to defeat the purpose of limiting de- 
ferral under section 2, as suggested by the Treas- 
ury, to foreign business corporations operating in 
the less developed areas. 

Reduction in Tax Rate (Section 4) 

Section 4 would reduce the tax on foreign in- 
come by 14 percentage points. With certain mod- 
ifications, this section of the bill would apply the 
present Western Hemisphere trade corporation 
provisions of the [Internal Revenue] Code on a 
worldwide basis. Foreign-source income eligible 
for the reduced rate would include income from 
exports, royalties, and passive portfolio invest- 
ments. The provision would apply equally to 
earnings from existing as well as new investments. 

An enterprise that is currently engaged in busi- 
ness in a foreign country and which could qual- 
ify for treatment as a foreign business corporation 
would be more likely to repatriate foreign earn- 
ings if the tax on such repatriated profits were to 
be at the reduced rate of 38 percent than would 
be the case if the tax were continued at the 52 
percent rate. The incentive to repatriate foreign 
income would probably have its greatest impact 
in the less developed areas abroad, where reinvest- 
ment of earnings is most needed but where the 
risk of loss is comparatively acute. 

The estimated revenue loss from the proposed 
14 percentage point rate reduction is in the order 
of $200 million a year. This loss, it should be 
noted, would materialize without an increase in 
investments abroad. 

Because of the loss of revenue involved and be- 
cause of the doubtful effect of rate reduction as 
an effective incentive for the expansion of private 
investment in the less developed areas, the Treas- 
ury Department is opposed to the enactment of 
section 4 of the bill. 

Liberalization of the Foreign Tax Credit Limitation 
(Section 5> 

Section 5 of the bill would revise the present 
provisions of the Code dealing with the foreign 
tax credit to give taxpayers the benefit of the so- 
called "overall" limitation, whenever such limita- 



July 27, 1959 



133 



tion would be more advantageous than the pres- 
ent "per coimtry" limitation. The new overall 
limitation is similar to one which was in the law 
until 1954 but with tliis difference — the pre-1954 
provision was operative only if it reduced the 
credit that was otherwise available mider the ap- 
plication of the per-country limitation wliile the 
present proposal would be operative only if it 
increased the credit. The per-country limitation 
gives companies operating at a loss in some coun- 
tries the right to continue to take tax credits for 
the taxes paid in countries where they operate 
profitably without having to offset for losses in 
the other coimtries. The overall limitation would 
give companies operating in countries with tax 
rates above the United States rates the right to 
offset those higher taxes against income tax in 
other countries where the tax rates are lower than 
the United States rates. 

The justification often given for the overall lim- 
itation is that foreign income should be treated 
as a whole. So viewed, a consistent approach 
would require the elimination of the per-country 
limitation. It should be noted, however, that tax- 
payers conducting their operations abroad 
through foreign holding companies average the 
foreign tax rates applied to the distributed earn- 
ings of their subsidiaries and are in effect using 
only the overall limitation. 

The proposed overall limitation might provide 
some encouragement to investment in less devel- 
oped areas abroad where some of the countries 
most in need of capital impose taxes at rates that 
are higher than our 52 percent corporate rate. 
On the otlier hand, if section 5 were enacted, the 
immediate revenue loss attributable to existing 
United States private investment abroad might 
well be substantial. 

Our estimates, based on the year 1955, are that 
the revenue loss under section 5 would amount to 
approximately $45 million. With respect to in- 
dividual companies, the effect of such an amend- 
ment would vaiy from year to year. We referred 
in our report to a revenue loss of $19 million in 
1955 for one company. We are informed that 
there would be no loss for that company today; 
in recent years the existing per-country limitation 
has been more favorable to that company than 
the overall limitation. 

There may not be a substantial difference in 
revenue impact in comparhig the overall limi- 



tation on a consistent basis with the per-coimtrj' 
limitation on a consistent basis, but there is rev- 
enue loss where each company may use the more 
favorable limitation each year regardless of con- 
sistency. Accordingly, we oppose adoption of 
section 5 at this time. 

In our report of May 6, we referred to possible 
amendments to section 5 which we believe would 
considerably reduce the impact on the revenue. 
Such amendments should be adopted only if on 
thorough analysis they are deemed fair and ap- 
propriate. We should like to explore tliis further 
with the committee and the committee staffs. 

Tax Sparing by Underdeveloped Countries (Section 6) 

Under section 6 of the bill, a taxpayer deriv- 
ing income from abroad would be allowed a credit 
for taxes waived by a foreign country as an in- 
ducement to render services or to engage in busi- 
ness in that country. The principle involved in 
this provision is one to which the Treasury De- 
partment fully subscribes and which is incor- 
porated in a number of tax conventions that are 
currently in the process of negotiation. Tax 
treaties with tax-sparing provisions are currently 
in an advanced state with six countries located in 
Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. Pre- 
liminary negotiations have been held with four 
other countries in Latin America and Asia. 

Under existing law, a reduction in foreign tax 
as an incentive to induce new investment may re- 
sult in a reduced foreign tax credit and a com- 
mensurate increase in United States tax. The tax 
incentive measures of less developed countries 
may thus be made ineffective by the provisions 
of our own law. By gi\nng recognition to such 
tax incentive laws, the tax treaty program can, 
within appropriate limitations, remove this con- 
sequence of existing law and help promote a de- 
sirable tax climate in other ways. 

Our experience thus far indicates that this 
policy has stimulated greatly interest among 
underdeveloped countries in tax treaties to elimin- 
ate double taxation and other tax obstacles to 
international trade and investment. This tax 
credit device, utilized in connection with the 
negotiation of treaties, would, we believe, produce 
more productive results than if handled in a 
unilateral statutoi-y provision such as is incorpo- 
rated in section 6. 



134 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Nonrecognition of Gain or Involuntary Conversion 
of Property of a Foreign Subsidiary (Section 7) 

Section 7 of the bill would permit a domestic 
parent corporation that takes out insurance in 
this country on the property of a foreign sub- 
sidiary to exclude from its taxable income the 
insurance proceeds received upon the destniction 
or other in\oluntary conversion of the subsidi- 
ary's property, provided the insurance money is 
reinvested abroad in property similar or related 
in use to the converted property. Under existing 
law taxable gain is realized upon receipt of in- 
surance proceeds if the recipient does not also 
own the property destroyed or otherwise con- 
verted. 

It has been suggested that section 7 would en- 
courage investment abroad in countries where it 
is difficult or impossible for a subsidiary corpo- 
ration to secure adequate insurance coverage by 
permittmg the domestic parent to carry the neces- 
sary insurance without adverse tax consequence. 
If it is true that adequate insurance protection 
cannot be obtained by foreign subsidiaries, a 
change in our tax law along the lines proposed in 
section 7 niay merit consideration. A change in 
existing law seems unwarranted unless adequate 
information is developed as to the countries in- 
volved and the nature of the restrictions which 
result in the luiavailability of insurance protec- 
tion. It is our hope that witnesses from the busi- 
ness community will, either during the course of 
these hearings or shortly thereafter, come forth 
with specific information indicating the extent of 
and the reasons underlying the claimed inade- 
quacy of insurance coverage abroad. 

Other Recommendations 

There are other provisions in the Code dealing 
with foreign income where a modification would 
be desirable. Several of these have been described 
in the Secretary's letter of May 6, and I should 
like here merely to mention them briefly. Two 
deal with the filing of information returns with 
respect to the formation or reorganization of 
foreign corporations and with respect to the own- 
ership and changes in ownership of foreign per- 
sonal holding companies. Our suggestions would 
simjjlify and improve the eifectiveness of the in- 
formation returns currently required. Another 
suggestion would con-ect what seems to be an 
error in the 1954 redrafting of the provisions 
dealing with foreign personal holding companies. 



Under some circumstances the aggregate taxes 
imposed with respect to the income of a foreign 
personal holding company may equal 115 percent 
of its income. We doubt that this was intended 
by the Congi-ess and suggest that it be modified. 

In conclusion, the Treasury Department favors 
adoption of legislation which would, in f act^ pro- 
mote the flow of United States investment into 
the less developed regions of the free world. We 
believe that ordinary loss treatment for invest- 
ment losses in lesser developed countries, together 
with tax defen-al of reinvested profits and early 
implementation of the tax-sparing principle, 
should help to encourage United States firms to 
operate in less developed areas. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 



86th Congress, 1st Session 

Improvement in Standards of Language Proficiency and 
in Recruiting for the Foreign Service. Hearing before 
a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee on S. 1243, a bill to amend the Foreign Service 
Act of 1946, as amended, to establish standards of lan- 
guage proficiency for the Foreign Service and for other 
purposes. April 16, 1959. 92 pp. 

Study of United States Foreign Policy: Summary of 
Views of Retired Foreign Service Officers. Prepared 
for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee pursuant 
to the provisions of S. Res. 31. June 15, 1959. 81 pp. 

Suspension of Duties on Metal Scrap. Report to ac- 
company H.R. 6054. H. Rept. 577. June 23, 1959. 4 pp. 

Nuclear Explosions in Space. Report of the House Science 
and Astronautics Committee. H. Rept. 575. June 23, 
1959. 6 pp. 

Telegraph Regulations (Geneva Revision, 1958) With 
Final Protocol to Those Regulations. S. Ex. G. June 
23, 1959. 172 pp. 

Report on the Organization and Administration of the 
Military Assistance Program Submitted to the Presi- 
dent on June 3, 19.59. A report submitted by the Presi- 
dent's Committee To Study the U.S. Military Assistance 
Program. H. Doc. 186. June 24, 1959. 36 pp. 

U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade Relations. Department of State re- 
plies to a letter by Senator J. W. Fulbright and other 
documents pertaining to trade relations between the 
United States and the Soviet Union. June 24, 1959. 
40 pp. 

Trade Agreements Program. Message from the Presi- 
dent transmitting the third annual report on the opera- 
tions of the trade agreements program. S. Doc. 31. 
June 25, 1959. 2 pp. 

Proposed Appropriations for the Mutual Security Pro- 
grams, Including a Department of State Appropriation. 
H. Doc. 188. June 26, 1959. 4 pp. 

Employment of Aliens. Report to accompany S. 1495. 
S. Rept. 437. June 29, 1959. 11 w- 

Certain Cases in Which the Attorney General Has Sus- 
pended Deportation Pursuant to Section 244 (a)(5) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act. Report to ac- 
company S. Con. Res. 33. H. Rept. 601. June 30, 
1959. 3 pp. 



July 27, 1959 



135 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Supports Call for Meeting 
of OAS Foreign Ministers 

Statement hy Ambassador John C. Dreier ^ 

The Council is now for the third time in the last 
3 months considering a situation involving a 
threat to the peace in the Caribbean area. 

Last April the Comicil was asked by the Gov- 
ernment of Panama to invoke the Rio Treaty and 
send an investigating committee to that country 
because of an invasion of its territory by an 
armed force, consisting largely of Cubans, which 
had come f I'om Cuba with the evident purpose of 
overthrowing the Government of Panama. The 
Government of Cuba took immediate measures to 
cooperate with the Government of Panama in this 
matter. Prompt action by the OAS was instru- 
mental in resolving tlus problem in accordance 
with inter- American principles. 

It was the hope of many members of the Coun- 
cil, including the Eepresentative of the United 
States, that the effective opposition of the Organ- 
ization of American States to armed intervention 
of this kind would serve to discourage further 
efforts of that sort. 

However, forces apparently exist in the Carib- 
bean area tliat are detennined to promote and 
assist revolutionary activities in other coimtries 
in violation of the principles of the Habana Con- 
vention of 1928 on the Duties and Rights of 
States in the Event of Civil Strife.^ On June 3 
the Government of Nicaragua reported that its 
ten-itoiy had been invaded by armed forces com- 
ing from another country with the purpose of 
overthrowing the Government of Nicaragua and 
that further invasions were threatened. The 
Nicaraguan Government requested the invocation 



^ Made before the Council of the Orpanization of Amer- 
ican States on July 10 (press release 504). Ambassador 
Dreier is U.S. llepresentative on the Council. 

' 4(5 Stat. 2749. 



136 



of the Rio Treaty with a view to maintaining 
peace and security in the area. Again the Coun- 
cil responded favorably and took the steps which 
in the light of circumstances seemed wise in order 
to carry out its responsibility for the maintenance 
of peace and security.^ 

The case of Nicaragua is still before the Coun- 
cil acting provisionally as Organ of Consultation. 
The report of the Information Committee estab- 
lished by the Council indicates that, in addition 
to the first two attacks on Nicaragua, at least three 
additional armed expeditions were organized with 
a view to entering that country. Recent infor- 
mation concerns a force of men which flew to 
Honduras a short time ago for the purpose of in- 
vading Nicaragua by its northern frontier. 

Deterioration of Situation in Caribbean 

At its last two meetings, on July 2 and 6, the 
Council received further evidence that the situa- 
tion in the Caribbean, far from being improved 
as a result of the action of the Organization of 
American States with respect to the cases of Pan- 
ama and Nicaragua, had deteriorated further. 
The Representative of the Dominican Republic 
charged that two invasions of his country were 
organized, trained, and equipped in territory of 
the Republic of Cuba, from which they departed 
with the evident purpose of starting and promot- 
ing civil war in the Dominican Republic. The 
Dominican Representative has also charged that 
large contingents are now being trained in Cuba 
for the purpose of initiating new invasions. Tliis 
Council has received most categorical assurances 
from the Minister of State of Cuba that the 
charges contained in the Dominican note are with- 
out foundation. 

At tlie same time, the Representative of Cuba 
has expressed the view that it is his country which 
is suffering a threat of attack from the Dominican 
Republic rather than vice versa, although the 
Government of Cuba has not requested any as- 



■ Bulletin of July 6, 111."i9, p. 30. 

Department of State Bulletin 



sistance from the Organization of American 
States. The Representative of Venezuela, likewise 
rejecting the charges made by the Dominican Re- 
public, has also expressed his concern over the 
propaganda attacks from Dominican sources 
against the Goverimient of Venezuela, its Presi- 
dent, and Venezuela institutions.* 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, the Government of 
Haiti has informed the Coimcil of its great con- 
cern over the growing tension in the Caribbean 
area, which it feels constitutes a serious danger 
to its peace and tranquillity. 

It became evident to my Grovernment some time 
ago, and particularly in the development of the 
Nicaraguan case, that the Organization of Ameri- 
can States was faced with a very large and wide- 
spread problem with regard to the maintenance 
of peace and security in the Caribbean area. In 
many countries of the area there are exiles seek- 
ing to overthrow the governments of their own 
countries. They have sought, and in many cases 
have obtained, support from elements in various 
other countries. 

In many cases these exiles are motivated by high 
ideals of democracy and justice. Many of them 
are concerned only with what they consider to 
be the interests of their own countries. However, 
it is equally clear that some of those responsible 
for these revolutionary movements organized in 
foreign countries have either knowingly or un- 
knowingly become associated with political ele- 
ments whose interests are far removed from those 
of any government represented around this table. 
To put it in simple terms, Communists have at- 
tempted, and with some success, to infiltrate some 
of these revolutionary movements in accordance 
with their well-established policy of taking ad- 
vantage of any sort of disturbance and unrest to 
promote their own sinister designs. 

Proposal for Meeting of OAS Foreign Ministers 

Under these circumstances it has seemed to my 
Government that the consideration of individual 
controversies or conflicts between one government 
and another — or, as has been the case, between one 
government and unnamed attackers — constitutes 
a futile approach to the solution of a serious prob- 
lem. My Government has therefore for some time 
considered the desirability of suggesting a meeting 



' The Dominican Republic on July 10 withdrew its 
charges against Cuba and Venezuela. 



of Foreign Ministers under the charter of the OAS 
to consider the whole problem of the current ten- 
sions of the Caribbean and how the American 
govennnents, cooperating through the Organiza- 
tion of American States, may restore peace and 
security, confidence and friendly relations, among 
the sister republics of this important area. The 
United States has concluded that the time has come 
to proceed with an overall study of this kind. We 
have, therefore, been happy to join witli the Gov- 
ernments of Brazil, Chile, and Peru in proposing 
at this time that a Meeting of Consultation of 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs be called under the 
charter. 

The purpose of the meeting of Foreign Min- 
isters, as my Government sees it, would be to 
examine the present situation of the Caribbean on 
a broad front. The objective would not be to air 
or judge charges by one country against another. 
The task before the Foreign Ministers would 
rather be to review the reports and statements 
which have been made available to the govern- 
ments and to the Organization of American States 
on the general subject of tensions in this area, to 
examine the cause thereof, and to suggest courses 
of action that will revitalize the principles on 
which the Organization of American States is 
based, principles which we know are essential to 
any system of cooperative international relations 
in this hemisphere. 

It is evident, Mr. Chairman, that basic prin- 
ciples of the Organization of American States are 
indeed jeopardized by the present situation. One 
of these principles is that of nonintervention in 
the internal affairs of other states. The active 
participation of foreign elements in efforts to over- 
throw the governments of states in this area consti- 
tutes a definite threat to that principle. If it is 
permitted to be violated in the present situation, it 
will be violated increasingly in the future. The 
foundation of our structure will then quickly 
crumble. 

Another principle affected here is that of collec- 
tive security as set forth in the clear terms of the 
Rio Treaty and the charter of the Organization. 
The OAS has developed a system without parallel 
elsewhere in the world for guaranteeing the secu- 
rity of states against aggression. This system ap- 
plies equally to all members of the Organization. 
My Government believes that the inter- American 
system of peace and security, which is flexible 



July 27, 1959 



137 



enough and broad enough to meet virtually any 
type of situation that affects the security of a 
member state and the peace of the continent, must 
at all times be supported and made effective if our 
inter-American relationship is to endure. 

Effective Exercise of Representative Democracy 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, there is a matter of 
deep principle affecting the Caribbean situation 
which has to do with the desire of people of this 
hemisphere for an increasingly effective exercise 
of representative democracy. My Government 
believes deeply that political democracy is the 
most desirable form of government for people 
who wish to live in freedom and dignity. We 
fully share the desires of those people who wish 
to see the exercise of democracy made more 
effective. 

The development of democratic institutions is 
no simple matter, however. Kevolutions against 
authoritarian rule do not necessarily result in 
perfect democracy. The achievement of effective 
democracy depends upon many factors of cultural, 
liistorical, economic nature which are brought to- 
gether in the political complex of any given state. 
Above all, democracy is a benefit tliat eveiy people 
must win for itself. 

Moreover, my Government is convinced that the 
maintenance of international peace and security 
under a system of justice and law is essential to 
the gi-owth of democracy in this hemisphere. We 
cannot conceive of democracy flourishing in an 
area where statas are subjected to constant tension 
requiring the unproductive diversion of human 
and economic resources to military ends. It there- 
fore seems to us that democratic progress which 
all of us seek requires among other factors a strict 
compliance with those very principles of nonin- 
tervention and collective security to which I have 
referred. 

There are indeed other ways in which the Or- 
ganization of American States can and should 
encourage political and democratic development. 
My Government believes that this problem should 
be frankly and squarely faced by the Organiza- 
tion of American States at the proposed meeting 
of Foreign Ministers on the Caribbean problem. 
We are prepared to discuss any proposals which 



the other member states of the Organization be- 
lieve to be worthy of consideration witliin the 
principles and procedui'es of the charter of the 
Organization. 

Mr. Chairman, in view of the foregoing con- 
siderations, it is clear that my Government favors 
at this time the prompt approval of a resolution 
calling for a meeting of Foreign Ministers under 
the charter of the OAS to consider in broad terms, 
and in the light of inter- American pruiciples, the 
present serious situation in the entire Caribbean 
area. My delegation recommends, therefore, that 
the resolution that has been presented by the Gov- 
ernments of Brazil, Chile, Peru, and the United 
States be approved. The United States firmly 
believes that the holding of a meeting of Foreign 
Ministers at tliis stage offers the most effective 
and constructive approach to the serious problem 
of the Caribbean and the most desirable way of 
revitalizing and strengthening tlie principles of 
the Organization of American States.^ 



U.N. Committee on Outer Space 
Completes Report 

Statement hy Henry Cabot Lodge 

U.S. Representative to the United Nations ' 

The United States believes that the Ad Hoc 
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 
is now in a position to complete its work. We 
have received excellent reports from the two sub- 
committees of the whole which were set up at our 
meeting on May 7th.' These reports examine in 
detail those scientific and legal aspects involved 
in the peaceful uses of outer space to wliich the 
General Assembly requested this Committee to ad- 
dress itself.' The United States believes that 



'' On July 13 the Council voted unanimously to call a 
Meeting of Consultation of Jlinisters of Foreign Affairs. 

' Made in the Ad Hoc Committee on tie Peaceful Uses 
of Outer Space on June IS (U.S./U.N. press release 3197). 

' For statements by U.S. representatives in the Atl Boo 
Committee on May G and 7, see Bulletin of .luue 15, 
1959, p. 8S3 ; for statements in the legal and tei'huical 
subcommittees, see ihid., June 29, 1959, p. 972. 

' For background and text of the General Assembly 
resolution, see ihid., Jan. 5, 1959, p. 24. 



138 



Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



these are two important contributions to the work 
of tliis Committee. 

Reports of Legal and Technical Subcommittees 

Since we are about to complete our work, I 
think it is appropriate to comment briefly on the 
reports of these two subcommittees. 

Turning firet to the report of the legal sub- 
committee,* let me point out several valuable con- 
tributions which it makes. 

First, the subcommittee noted that as a matter 
of principle the charter of the United Nations 
and the statute of the International Court of 
-Justice are not limited in their operation to the 
confines of tlie earth. 

Second, it observed that there may be in the 
process of development a rule that, in principle, 
outer space is, on conditions of equality, freely 
available for exploration and use by all in accord- 
ance with existing of future international law or 
agreements. 

Finally, after agreeing that a comprehensive 
code of space law is not now practicable or desir- 
able, the legal subcommittee drew up a useful sur- 
vey of legal problems in connection with outer- 
space programs, distinguishing between those 
questions which appear to call for priority treat- 
ment and matters which may be dealt with at a 
later stage. 

The technical subcommittee for its part has 
drawn up a scientific report^ which the layman 
can understand. It gives us the elementary tech- 
nical background against which future scientific 
activities in outer space must be considered. It 
goes on to set foith certain problems, to describe 
certain possibilities, and to suggest certain areas 
where international cooperation now can con- 
tribute to progress. 

I wish also to emphasize that this Committee 
urged that priority be given to considering the 
problem of allocation of radio frequencies for use 
in connection with space vehicles. The United 
States hopes that the forthcommg conference of 
the International Telecommunication Union will 
deal with this problem on an urgent basis. 

Finally, it concluded that "There is need for a 
suitable centi'e related to the United Nations that 



can act as a focal point for international co-oper- 
ation in the peacefid uses of outer space." 

Both subcommittees quite wisely reconunended 
that the General Assembly arrange to keep all 
these matters under continuing review, a point 
wluch the United States endorses. 

Secretary-General's Report 

Paragi-aph 1(a) of the Assembly's resolution 
also asked this Committee to report on the activi- 
ties and resources of the United Nations, its spe- 
cialized agencies, and other international bodies 
relating to the peaceful uses of outer space. The 
Secretariat has ably performed this task. The 
United States regards the docmnent " on this topic 
as a useful contribution to our work and will 
study it carefully. Meantime I wish to reserve 
the right to make further comments on it. It 
will be of interest to all members when they see 
the present extent of international cooperation in 
this field, both as a result of the program during 
the International Geophysical Year and work on 
particular aspects of space activities going on in 
the specialized agencies. The United States be- 
lieves that it will be useful if the United Nations 
can continue to be infontned about such activities. 

On the basis of these reports the Ad Hoc Com- 
mittee can now consider the remaining task be- 
fore it, which involves "The future organizational 
arrangements to facilitate international co-opera- 
tion in this field within the framework of the 
United Nations." 

Appraisal of Final Committee Report 

The United States considers that the working 
paper before the Committee (document A/AC.98/ 
4) covers this final aspect of our work in a satis- 
factory way. We agree fully that it is premature 
at this stage to consider the establislunent of an 
autonomous intergoveramental organization but 
that this question should remain mider review. 
None of us now can foresee how i-apid the scien- 
tific advances in the challenging new field of outer 
space may be. Consequently we cannot now de- 
cide what eventually may be required organiza- 
tionally to facilitate international cooperation 
and to insure that work in the field redound to 



' U.N. doc. A/AC. 98/2. 
' U.N. doc. A/AC. 98/3. 



' U.N. doc. A/ AC. 98/4. 



Juty 27, J 959 



139 



the advantage of all member states, irrespective 
of the status of their economic, social, or scientific 
advancement. 

The United States believes tliat the Ad Hoc 
Committee was wise to describe in tliis section of 
its report the various possible organizational ar- 
rangements within the framework of the United 
Nations. This will show the General Assembly 
that we carefully examined all possible ap- 
proaches. In turn, the General Assembly can 
draw upon the backgi'ound material appearing in 
section B ["The International Scientific Unions"] 
of the working paper in reaching its own conclu- 
sions. 

The working paper goes on to describe the func- 
tions that might be undertaken witliin the frame- 
work of the United Nations on the basis of the 
work of the technical and legal subcommittees. 
It then suggests various ways in which these func- 
tions might be carried out. 

It singles out certain functions which are prop- 
erly subjects for consideration and action by gov- 
ernments and suggests in tliis connection that the 
General Assembly may wish to consider the estab- 
lishment of a committee of states with such mem- 
bers as it may decide. The United States re- 
mains convmced that subjects of the character 
this Committee has been considering require con- 
sideration and actions by governments if genuine 
progress is to be made. 

Certain functions of a more limited character 
might also be entrusted to the Secretary-General. 
In his work he might find it helpful to have the 
assistance of a small advisory committee which 
could include representatives of the interested 
specialized agencies, other specially qualified in- 
dividuals, including key scientists, and member 
states, as necessary. 

The United States believes that these sugges- 
tions, in setting the framework for possible future 
action, provide the maximum flexibility for the 
General Assembly. The Assembly may decide to 
follow up all the possibilities in a resolution or to 
take one or a combination of them. For example, 
if a committee of nieml>er states is established, the 
General Assembly might also wish to invite the 
Secretary-General to assume certain responsibili- 
ties, subject to appropriate guidance from the 
Committee, and at the same time to have recourse 
to an expert advisory committee. 



Suggestions on Form of Report 

I^t me now say a few words about the form of 
the final report of this Committee. To present 
the results of our work in the most orderly and 
understandable way to the General Assembly, the 
United States believes that it would be desirable 
for the report to be put together along the follow- 
ing lines. 

First, there might be a brief introduction, in the 
usual pattern, to give the essential facts about 
the meetings of the Conunittee, officers, and the 
way in which it did its work. 

The section prepared by the Secretariat, pur- 
suant to paragraph 1(a) of the Assembly's resolu- 
tion, would follow logically. This would start the 
substantive report with a summary of the activi- 
ties and resources of the United Nations, its spe- 
cialized agencies, and other international bodies 
relating to the peaceful uses of outer space. Alter- 
natively, this survey might be an annex. 

Under either arrangement, the reports of the 
technical and legal subcommittees, which can 
simply be incoi-porated as separate chapters, would 
come next. 

Finally the section covering future organiza- 
tional arrangements, which, as I have noted, stems 
from the work of the technical and legal sub- 
conunittees, would fall into place. The United 
States would be glad to hear comments on this 
suggestion. 

In conclusion, let me say a few words about the 
report as a whole. The United States regards it 
as an extremely useful examination of relevant 
material in this challenging new field. In days to 
come it may well be pointed out as the historic first 
contribution of the United Nations to the estab- 
lishment of international cooperation in the peace- 
ful uses of outer space. 

Naturally the United States continues to regret 
that certain members of this Committee are not 
present. We believe, however, when they, as well 
as the other members of the United Nations, study 
this report, they will see that it is a fair and bal- 
anced presentation of those topics which the Ad 
Hoc Committee was requested to consider. 

In appraising the value of this Committee and 
of its work I believe we can say that it has pro- 
vided guidance wliich will facilitate the rapid and 
orderly realization by all mankind of benefits 
which technology promises to unlock in outer 
space. 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



Given good faith, good will, and the desire to 
move forward, the General Assembly can build 
upon this report and open the way to future prog- 
ress in this field, to which all members can make 
an important contribution.^ 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography' 

Security Council 

Letter Dated 23 June 1959 From the Secretary General 
of the Organization of American States to the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations, Transmitting a Resolu- 
tion Adopted on 4 June by the Council of the Organ- 
ization of American States in Response to a Requei>t of 
the Government of Nicaragua. S/4194. July 2, 1959. 
3 pp. 

General Assembly 

Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Pro- 
gramme. Draft Programme Appraisal for the Period 
1959 to 1964. Submitted by the High Commissioner. 
A/AC.96/25. May 13, 1959. 18 pp. 

Cessation of the Transmission of Information Under Ar- 
ticle 73e of the Charter: Communication From the 
Government of the United States of America. A/4115. 
June 11, 1959. 75 pp. 

Progress Achieved by the Non-Self-Governing Territories 
in Pursuance of Chapter XI of the Charter: Co-oper- 
ative Societies in Non-Self-Governing Territories. Re- 
port prepared bv the International Labor Office. A/ 
4114. June 15, 19.59. 54 pp. 

Proposals for the Continuation of United Nations Assist- 
ance to Palestine Refugees. Document submitted by 
the Secretary-General. A/4121. Jime 15, 1959. 34 pp. 

Public Information Activities of the United Nations. Re- 
port of the Secretary-General. A/4122. June 16, 1959. 
22 pp. 

Provisional Agenda of the Fourteenth Regular Session 
of the General Assembly : Item Proposed by Ireland — 
the Prevention of the Wider Dissemination of Nuclear 
Weapons. Letter dated June 15 from the permanent 
representative of Ireland to the United Nations, ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General. A/4125. June 18, 
1959. 4 pp. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1960: Modern- 
ization of the Palais des Nations. Report of the Sec- 
retary-General. A/C.5A75. June 22, 1959. 12 pp. 

Progress Achieved by the Non-Self-Goveming Territories 
in Pursuance of Chapter XI of the Charter: Fisheries 
in the Non-Self-Governing Territories. Report pre- 
pared by the Food and Agriculture Organization. 
A/4129. June 23, 1959. 21 pp. 



'On June 25 the Ad Hoc Committee unanimously ap- 
proved its report to the General Assembly. 

• Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New Yorlj 27, N.T. 
Other materials (mimeographed or proces.sed documents) 
may be consulted at certain designated libraries in the 
United States. 



Administrative and Budgetai-y Co-ordination Between the 
United Nations and the Specialized Agencies: Pro- 
grammes of Technical Assistance. Allocation of the 
administrative and operational services costs of techni- 
cal assistance between regular and expanded program 
budgets. A/4130. June 24, 1959. 8 pp. 



Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Progress Re- 
port on the Work of the Secretariat in Connexion With 
the Chemical Industry in Latin America. E/CN.12/525. 
April 25, 1959. 28 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Water Re- 
sources and Their Utilization in Latin America. Sum- 
mary of results achieved by the working group. 
E/CN.12/501. May 1959. 40 pp. 

Economic Commission for Latin America. Consultations 
on Trade Policy. Meetings held at Caracas, Venezuela, 
May 1959. E/CN.12/G.l/ll/Add. 2. May 11, 1959. 55 
pp. 

Economic Commission for Europe. The latest Economic 
Developments in Western Europe. Supplementary note 
to the economic survey of Europe in 1958. E/ECE/- 
345/ Add. 1. May 14, 1959. 7 pp. 

Economic Development of Under-developed Countries. 
International Co-operation for the Development of 
Under-developed Countries. Interim report under Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution 1316 (XIII) — additional re- 
plies from governments. E/3258/Add. 1. June 15, 
1959. 28 pp. 




Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Aviation 

Convention for unification of certain rules relating to in- 
ternational carriage by air, and additional protocol. 
Concluded at Warsaw, October 12, 1929. Entered into 
force February 13, 1933. 49 Stat. 3000. 
Declaration iy United Aral) Republic that it considers 

itself bound by ratification by Egypt: March 2, 19.59. 
Protocol to amend convention for unification of certain 
rules relating to international carriage by air signed at 
Warsaw, October 12, 1929 (49 Stat. .3000). Done at The 
Hague September 25, 1955.^ 
Ratifications deposited: Yugoslavia, April 16. 1959: 

France, May 19, 19.59. 
Declaration by United Arab Rcpnblir that it considers 

itself bound by ratifiention by Egypt: March 2, 19.59. 

Duties and Rights of States 

Protocol to the convention on duties and rights of states 
in the event of civil strife signed at Habana, February 
20. 192S (46 Stat. 2749). Opened for signature at the 
Pan American Union, Washington, May 1. 19.57.^ 
Ratification deposited: Costa Rica, June 24. 19.")9. 



^ Not in force. 

'■ Not in force for the United States. 



July 27, J 959 



141 



Shipping 

Modification of paragraph 1, annex II, of the International 
Load Line Convention signed at London, July 5, 1930 
(47 Stat. 2228). Proposed by Canada in 19-17 ; entered 
into force July 13, 1957. 
Proclaimed hy the President: July 8, 1959. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1959, with annex. Open 
for signature at Washington, April 6 through April 24, 

1959.' o ,„ n 

Acceptance deposited: Switzerland, July 8, 19o9. 

BILATERAL 
Austria 

Agreement amending the agi-icultural commodities agree- 
ment of May 10, 1957 (TIAS 3824). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Vienna, June 29, 1959. Entered into 
force June 29, 1959. 

Brazil 

Agreement amending reseiirch reactor agreement con- 
cerning civil uses of atomic energy of August 3, 1955 
(TIAS 3303). Signed at Washington, July 9, 1958. 
Entered into force July 2, 1959. 

Iceland 

Agreement providing special assistance to Iceland on a 
loan basis. Effected by exchange of notes at Reykja- 
vik, June 23, 1959. Entered into force June 23, 1959. 

Korea 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of tie 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709). 
Signed at Seoul, June 30, 1959. Entered into force 
June 30, 1959. 

Mexico 

Agreement extending the provisional air transport agree- 
ment, as amended (TIAS 3776, 4099). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Mexico City, June 23, 1959. En- 
tered into force June 23, 1959. 

Spain 

Agreement for the loan of a destroyer and a submarine to 
Spain. Effected by exchange of notes at Madrid, June 
23, 1959. Entered into force June 23, 1959. 

Turkey 

Agreement concerning economic assistance to Turkey for 
the acquisition of prefabricated huts to be used as 
facilities for primary schools. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Ankara, May 26, 1959. Entered into force 
May 26, 1959. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on July 2 confirmed the following nomina- 
tions : 
Bernard Gufler to be Ambassador to Ceylon. (For 



biographic details, see press release 441 dated June 18.) 
G. Lewis Jones to be an Assistant Secretary of State. 
( For biographic details, see press release 385 dated June 
2.) 



Designations 

Oliver M. Marcy as Deputy Director, Office of Greek, 
Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, effective June 28. 

Bruce H. Millen as Officer in Charge of Labor Affairs, 
Office of Near Eastern and South Asian Regional Affairs, 
effective June 28. 

Avery F. Peterson as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Far Eastern Economic Affairs. (For biographic details, 
see Department of State press release 488 dated July 7.) 

Nicholas G. Thacher as Deputy Director, Office of Near 
Eastern Affairs, effective June 28. 

David Wilken as U.N. Adviser to the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Economic Affairs, effective July 1. 



' Not in force. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 6-12 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

No. Date Subject 

t485 7/6 DLF loan to Pakistan (rewrite). 
486 7/6 Economic aid to Burma. 
*487 7/6 Cultural exchange (Uruguay). 
*488 7/7 Palmer and Peterson designations (bi- 
ographic details). 
*4S9 7/7 Beale : statement on S. 1711. 

490 7/7 Dillon : statement on H.R. 5. 

491 7/7 Application to ICJ on Soviet destruc- 

tion of B-29. 
t492 7/7 Restrictions on travel of Hungarian 
officials in U.S. 

DLF commitments. 

Secretary Herter visits Canada. 

Eximbank director visits Argentina. 

DLF loan to Korea (rewrite). 

Beale : statement on NARBA and 
U.S.-Mexican broadcasting agree- 
ment. 

DLF loan to Bolivia (rewrite). 

U On Sein to be Burmese ambassador. 

Herter : news conference. 

DLF loan in Pakistan (rewrite). 

DLF loan for Turkish bank (rewrite). 

Educational exchange (British Gui- 
ana). 

Dreier : statement before OAS Council. 

DLF loan in Philippines (rewrite). 

Herter : departure statement. 

Department statement on Soviet decla- 
ration seeking atomic weapons ban 
in Balkan-Adriatic region. 
•508 7/11 Educational exchange (Ireland). 



493 

494 

495 

t496 

t497 



t498 
499 

500 
tSOl 
t502 
*503 

504 
t505 

506 
t507 



7/7 
7/8 
7/8 
7/9 
7/9 



7/9 

7/9 

7/9 

7/10 

7/10 

7/10 

7/10 
7/10 
7/11 
7/11 



•Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the BtrLLETiN. 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 27, 1959 



Index 



Vol. XLI, No. 1048 



American Republics 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of July 9 . . 107 
U.S. Supports Call for Meeting of OAS Foreign 
Ministers (Dreier) 136 

Argentina. Export-Import Bank Director Visits 
Argentina 117 

Asia. Secretary Herter's News Conference of 

July 9 107 

Atomic Energy. Secretary Herter's News Confer- 
ence of July 9 107 

Aviation. U.S. Files Application Instituting Pro- 
ceedings Against U.S.S.R. for Destruction of 
B-20 Over Hokkaido in 1954 (text of applica- 
tion) 122 

Burma 

Burma Designates U On Sein Ambassador to Wash- 
ington 121 

U.S. Aid Offered to Burma 121 

Canada. Secretary Herter Leaves for Geneva To 

Resume Foreign Ministers Meeting (Herter) . . 116 

Ceylon. Gufler confirmed as ambassador .... 142 

Claims. U.S. Files Application Instituting Pro- 
ceedings Against U.S.S.R. for Destruction of 
B-29 Over Hokkaido in 1954 (text of applica- 
tion) 122 

Congress, The 

Administration's Views on Legislation To Promote 
U.S. Private Investment Abroad (Dillon, Lind- 
say) 128 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy 135 

Department and Foreign Service 

Confirmations (Gufler, Jones) 142 

Designations (Marcy, Millen, Peterson, Thacher, 

Wilken) 142 

Economic Affairs 

Administration's Views on Legislation To Promote 
U.S. Private Investment Abroad (Dillon, Lind- 
say) 128 

Export-Import Bank Director Visits Argentina . . 117 

Germany 

Secretary Herter Leaves for Geneva To Resume 

Foreign Ministers Meeting (Herter) 116 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of July 9 . . 107 

International Information. Significance of Fourth 

of July (Eisenhower) 116 



International Law. U.S. Files Application Insti- 
tuting Proceedings Against U.S.S.R. for Destruc- 
tion of B-29 Over Hokkaido in 19.54 (text of 
application) 122 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Secretary Herter Leaves for Geneva To Resume 
Foreign Ministers Meeting (Herter) 116 

U.S. Supports Call for Meeting of OAS Foreign 

Ministers (Dreier) 136 

Middle East 

American Foreign Policy in the Middle East (Mc- 

Clintock) 118 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of July 9 . . 107 

Mutual Security 

Administration's Views on Legislation To Promote 
U.S. Private Investment Abroad (Dillon, Lind- 
say) 128 

DLF Lists Total Commitments of $765 MUlion . . 127 
U.S. Aid Offered to Burma 121 

Presidential Documents. Significance of Fourth 
of July 116 

Science. U.N. Committee on Outer Space Com- 
pletes Report (Lodge) 138 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 141 

U.S.S.R. 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of July 9 . . 107 

U.S. Files Application Instituting Proceedings 
Against U.S.S.R. for Destruction of B-29 Over 
Hokkaido in 1954 (text of application) .... 122 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 141 

U.N. Committee on Outer Space Completes Report 

(Lodge) 138 

Name Index 

Dillon, Douglas 128 

Dreier, John C 136 

Eisenhower, President 116 

Gufler, Bernard 142 

Herter, Secretary 107, 116 

Jones, G. Lewis 142 

Lindsay, David A 130 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 138 

Marcy, Oliver M 142 

McClintock, Robert 118 

MUlen, Bruce H 142 

Peterson, Avery F 142 

Thacher, Nicholas G 142 

U On Sein 121 

Wilken, David 142 



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OFFICrAL BUSINESS 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

The basic source of information on 
U.S. diplomatic history 



1940, Volume I, General 

The Department of State recently released Foreign Relations of 
the United States, 1940, Volume I, General, one of a series of five 
volumes giving the documentary record of the diplomacy of the 
United States for the year 1940. Tliree other volumes for the year 
have already been issued. Volume V, on relations with the American 
Republics, is still in preparation. 

The present vohmie is divided into five main sections, all dealing 
with various aspects of the European war: exchanges of views 
regarding possibility of peace and on postwar problems; extension 
of the European war; activities of the Soviet Union in Eastern 
Europe, and Soviet relations with the belligerent powers; relations 
of Japan with the Axis Powers and with the Soviet Union; and 
cooperation among the American Eepublics in their reaction to the 
European war. 

Copies of Volume I may be purchased from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C, 
for $3.75 each. 



Order Fimn 

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G'ovf. Printing OfTice 
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THE 

OFFICIAL 

WEEKLY RECORD 

OF 

UNITED STATES 

FOREIGN POLICY 



I 



i 



Vol. XLI, No. 1049 August 3, 1959 

FOREIGN MINISTERS MEETING RECONVENES AT 
GENEVA; SECRETARY HERTER PROBES SOVIET 

INTENTIONS • Statements by Secretary Herter July 13 

and 16 and Western Proposal of June 16 147 

A NEW ERA IN WORLD TRADE AND INVEST- 
MENT • by Acting Secretary Dillon 155 

DEPARTMENT'S VIEWS ON PROPOSED PASSPORT 

LEGISLATION • Statement by Deputy Under Secretary 
Murphy 165 

PARTICIPATION IN WHEAT AND SUGAR AGREE- 
MENTS SUPPORTED • Statement by Assistant 
Secretary Mann ■'■'^ 

DEPARTMENT URGES RATIFICATION OF TWO 
BROADCASTING AGREEMENTS • Statement by 

W. T. M. Beale 1^® 

U.N. TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL • Statements by Mason 

Sears on Ruanda-Vrundi and Togoland lo" 

RECENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 

UNITED STATES • Statement by Christopher H. 
Phillips 1"^^ 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




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AUG 2 1959 



Vol. XLI, No. 1049 • Pubucation 6862 
August 3, 1959 



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Foreign Ministers Meeting Reconvenes at Geneva; 
Secretary Herter Probes Soviet Intentions 



Following are two statements made ly Secretary 
Eerter at the Foreign Ministers Meeting which 
reconvened at Geneva, Switzerland, on July 13, 
together with the text of a paper on Berlin pre- 
sented by the Western Foreign Ministers to the 
Soviet Foreign Minister at a private meeting on 
June 16} 



continue our discussions in a realistic and under- 
standing manner. From our earlier discussion we 
found tliat the Foreign Ministei-s all agreed that 
Germany should be reunified, that there should be 
free elections held for this purpose, and that there 
should be a final peace settlement at the earliest 
practicable time. They were unable to agi-ee, how- 
ever, on procedures for achieving these ends. 



OPENING STATEMENT, JULY 13 

At the opening of the second session of this con- 
ference a brief review of the first 6 weeks will be 
helpful in gaging where we now stand and how we 
should continue our deliberations. 

The discussions during the first 6 weeks revealed 
certain points of agreement between the Western 
Powers and the Soviet Union. But even more 
clearly it showed that the positions taken at the 
close of the first series of meetings were so far 
apart that any significant agreement seemed vir- 
tually impossible unless time wei'e taken for re- 
flection and reconsideration. It was clear that suc- 
cessful negotiations would require a change in the 
approach to the problems with which we were 
dealing. Therefore we proposed a recess in the 
hope that the Soviet Union would consider the 
gravity of the situation we were facing and would 
return to tlie next phase of the conference ready to 



'The Foreign Ministers of France, the U.S.S.R., the 
United Kingdom, and the United States met at Geneva 
from May 11 to June 20 to discuss the German problem. 
For earlier statements by Secretary Herter and the text 
of the Western peace plan of May 14, see Bulletin of June 
1, 1959, p. 775 ; June 8, 1959, p. 819 ; June 15, 1959, p. 859 ; 
June 29, 1959, p. 943 ; and July 6, 19.59, p. 3. For a report 
to the Nation by Mr. Herter on June 23, see ihid., July 
13, 1959, p. 43. 



Western Peace Plan 

The Western Powers presented a plan for Ger- 
man reunification which would be permanent be- 
cause it would be freely accepted by the German 
people and would bring about a peace settlement 
which would assure Germany's neighbors that 
their security interests would be thoroughly safe- 
guarded. The plan was based on the conviction 
that a lasting settlement of the major cause of 
European instability must rest on consent and 
mutual confidence. 

The plan therefore provided the German people 
with the right of self-determination through the 
mechanism of free elections. However, it took 
account of the views of the Soviet Union by pro- 
posing a transitional period during which plans 
for free all-German elections and for the develop- 
ment of closer contacts between both parts of Ger- 
many could be developed by a German mixed 
committee. 

The plan also provided a basis for the discussion 
of regional security in Europe and disarmament, 
which both the Western Powers and the Soviet 
Union have recognized as forming an integral part 
of the problem of achieving a permanent program 
for the stabilization of Europe. 

Unfortunately the Soviet Union has so far re- 
fused to consider this plan as a basis for discussion. 
On their part they proposed that a peace treaty be 



August 3, 1959 



147 



signed on the basis of the two areas into which 
Germany has been divided. Their proposal con- 
tained no specific provisions for tlie reunification 
of Germany. On the contrary, they insisted that 
reunification be worked out by the Federal Re- 
public and the so-called "German Democratic Re- 
public'' within the framework of a confederation 
plan which would have denied for the foreseeable 
future to the population of the eastern part of 
Germany the right of choosing its government 
through free elections. This plan would perpetu- 
ate by formal international agreement the con- 
tinuation in office of the unrepresentative regime 
which is now in power in eastern Germany and 
which holds no proper mandate to speak for all or 
any part of the German people. The more the 
Soviet proposal was expounded the clearer it 
seemed to us that it would result in the permanent 
partition of Germany. 

A refusal on the part of the Soviet Union to dis- 
cuss German reunification and European security 
in terms consistent with the provisions of the 
United Nations Charter calling for free determina- 
tion also blocked progress toward a solution of the 
Berlin crisis which had been precipitated by the 
Soviet Union last November. 

Interim Plan for Berlin 

In planning and establishing the Four Power 
occupation zones for Germany in 1944 and 1945 
the four victorious powers had given Berlin a 
special status intended to last until the conclusion 
of a peace settlement with an all-German govern- 
ment. In line with the original intentions of the 
Four Powers and with the dictates of logic the 
Western Powers considered the natural solution 
of the Berlin problem to be the reunification of 
Germany. However, in view of the fact that the 
Western peace plan provided for a transitional 
period of 214 years before German reunification 
would take place, the Western peace plan also in- 
cluded an interim plan for Berlin wjiich would 
unite the two parts of the city through free all- 
Berlin elections and would thus serve as a model in 
miniature for the reunification of the entire coun- 
try in which the Western peace plan would 
culminate. 

In presenting this interim plan the Western 
Powers emphasized that they must preserve un- 
impaired their ability to protect the integrity of 



148 



the city and to safeguard the population of Berlin 
from pressure and intimidation until reunification 
eliminates the hostile forces by which Berlin is 
encircled. 

We attached particular importance to this mat- 
ter because of the importance which the people of 
Berlin attach to it. In a series of overwhelming 
votes, the last in December 1958, the West Berlin 
voters have expressed their belief that the freedom 
of the city requires the protective presence of 
Western troops, the maintenance of the city's 
economic, financial, and cultural ties with the 
West, and unrestricted access to and from the city 
by land, v^ater, air, and communication channels. 

It is important to note in this connection that 
in the course of the conference Mr. Gromyko 
specifically admitted the validity of Western 
rights in Berlin. 

Owing to the impasse reached by the end of the 
second week of the conference in the discussion 
of general plans for reunification and European 
security, the discussion shifted to the narrower 
question of whether some agreement could be 
reached which would reduce the dangers inherent 
in the Berlin crisis which the Soviet Union had 
precipitated. 

On May 26 I outlined in some detail the West- 
ern proposal for an interim Berlin settlement 
providing for all-Berlin elections, the establish- 
ment of an all-Berlin government, the mainte- 
nance of forces in Berlin by the Four Powers, 
and the guaranteeing of free and unrestricted 
access to Berlin for all persons, goods, and com- 
munications. This proposal was rejected out of 
hand by the Soviet Government. On May 31 Mr. 
Khrushchev said that "the seven-point program 
does not contain a single element for negotiation." 

Soviet Proposal of June 1 

On June 1 Mr. Gromyko then outlined a Berlin 
proposal which was basically a reiteration of the 
Soviet so-called "free city" plan which had been 
spelled out in the Soviet note of November 27, 
1958.= 

This was of course incompatible with the obli- 
gations of the Western Powers toward the popula- 
tion of West Berlin. It would have deprived 
West Berlin of the protection atl'orded by the 
AVestern forces — either by eliminating them or by 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 19, 19r.9, p. St. 

Department of State Bulletin 



reducing them drastically and introducing Soviet 
forces into West Berlin. It would have involved 
a specific tennination of the Western rights in 
Berlin and the establishment of a status for West 
Berlin in which the city would have been entirely 
dependent upon verbal or written assurances ex- 
tended to it by the Soviet Union and the so-called 
German Democratic Kepublic. 

Furthermore, Mr. Gromyko made the accept- 
ance of this new status for the city of West Berlin 
which the Soviet Union had proposed the basic 
condition for discussing any Western proposals on 
the city. 

During the next few days discussions contin- 
ued in private on the Berlin problem; consider- 
able progress was made in isolating the questions 
which each side considered of special importance. 
These discussions were then reflected in a new se- 
ries of more limited proposals which were put for- 
ward in the closing weeks of the first phase of the 
conference. It is worth while summarizing these 
proposals briefly. 

On June 4 and 8 the Western Foreign Minis- 
ters gave Mr. Gromyko talking papers which dis- 
cussed the possibility of supplementary arrange- 
ments in Berlin within the recognized framework 
of Western rights in the city. They indicated 
that they could accept the withdrawal of Soviet 
troops from Berlin, which, it must be pointed 
out, is an offer of no real significance in view of 
the fact that the city is surrounded by some 26 
divisions of Soviet and East German troops and 
vast military installations. They also were will- 
ing to declare their intention not to increase the 
combined total of their own forces in the city. 
They might also be able to reduce their forces to 
the extent that developments in Berlin and the 
maintenance of their responsibilities permitted. 
Measures consistent with fundamental rights and 
liberties might be taken in both parts of Berlin 
to avoid activities which might disturb public or- 
der or seriously affect the rights and interests of 
the several parties. They held that continuing 
rights of access to Berlin, both Allied and Ger- 
man, must be recognized by the Soviet Govern- 
ment, as well as free access between East and West 
Berlin, but were prepared to agree that access pro- 
cedures could be carried out by German person- 
nel on the understanding that existing responsi- 
bilities remained unchanged. Disputes on access 
should be settled between the four governments, 



Mr. Herter's Arrival Statement, July 12 

Press release 513 dated July 13 

The following statement was made hy Secretary 
Herter on his arrival at Geneva on July 12, 1959. 

I return to Geneva to resume our discussions for 
a solution of the problem of a divided Germany 
and a divided Berlin. 

Although I do not come here with high hopes, 

1 believe it is possible, with good will on both sides, 
to reach an agreement. Foremost in our minds of 
course is the freedom and future of the more than 

2 million people of West Berlin. 

Our earlier discussions here had revealed pos- 
sible elements of agreement concerning specific 
arrangements for Berlin. 

I am convinced that the unity of thought and 
action so manifest among the Western Powers in 
our previous discussions will continue in the second 
phase of the conference. 



who could establish a quadripartite commission in 
Berlin to facilitate the settlement of such dis- 
putes. Arrangements agreed on were to remain 
in force until German reunification. 

Soviet Proposals of June 10 and 19 

On June 10 Mr. Gromyko presented new pro- 
posals which he characterized as providing for 
the temporary maintenance of certain Western oc- 
cupation rights in West Berlin for a limited pe- 
riod of 1 year. During this period an all-German 
committee was to be established on a basis of par- 
ity for the Federal Republic and the so-called 
German Democratic Republic to promote greater 
contacts between the two parts of Germany, to 
prepare for German reunification, and to con- 
sider a peace treaty. He further stipulated four 
requirements in West Berlin: the reduction of 
Western forces and armaments to token levels; 
the termination of hostile propaganda against the 
so-called German Democratic Republic, the Soviet 
Union, and other socialist countries; the liquida- 
tion of all alleged organizations for espionage and 
subversion against the so-called German Demo- 
cratic Republic, the Soviet Union, and other so- 
cialist countries; and a ban on atomic or rocket 
installations. The Western Powers pointed out 
that this proposal was unacceptable, apart from 
its unreasonable content, because of its threaten- 
ing nature. It sought to establish a limit of 12 



August 3, 7959 



149 



months for the continued rightful presence of the 
Western Powers in West Berlin. The attempted 
imposition of such a time limit was mimediately 
rejected by the Western Powers. 

On June 16 the Western Powers made addi- 
tional proposals including an assurance they 
would continue to arm their forces in Berlin only 
with conventional weapons. They declared that 
their Governments would from time to time con- 
sider the possibility of reducing such forces if 
developments in the situation permit. They also 
proposed that all disputes which might arise with 
respect to access be raised and settled between the 
four Governments and that a quadripartite com- 
mission be established to examine any difficulties 
arising out of access and to facilitate their settle- 
ment. Unless subsequently modified by the Four 
Powers the arrangements agreed to were to con- 
tinue in force until the reunification of Germany. 

On June 19 Mr. Gromyko proposed the ex- 
tension of tlie time limit specified in this proposal 
of June 10 from 1 year to 18 months. However, 
the new Soviet proposal as presented to tlie For- 
eign Ministers reserved to the Soviet Government 
freedom of unilateral action at the expiration of 
that period. Mr. Gromyko seemed to maintain 
that it was the view of his Government that the 
Western Powers, upon signing such an agreement, 
would acquiesce in the liquidation of their rights 
in Berlin and the abandonment of their responsi- 
bility for maintaining the freedom of West Ber- 
lin. Furthermore, the Soviet Government at the 
highest level declared its intention to conclude a 
peace treaty with the so-called German Demo- 
cratic Republic if no agreement on a peace treaty 
was reached by the all-German committee pro- 
posed within 18 months. The Soviet Government 
has also clearly stated that in its view such a 
treaty would extinguish Western rights in Berlin. 

Since then the Soviet Foreign Minister, in a 
statement on June 28, asked a rhetorical ques- 
tion, "Does not the fact that the Soviet Union 
is proposing to hold new negotiations on West 
Berlin after the expiration of tlie terms provided 
for in the agreement — if by that time the all- 
German committee does not succeed in its work — ■ 
speakfor itself ?" 

The very purpose of drawing up international 
agreements is to avoid reliance on facts tliat speak 
for themselves. Our purpose in the coming nego- 
tiations will be to try to reach understandings 
wliich can later be reduced to writing to minimize 



the danger of subsequent differing interpreta- 
tions. 

I remain convinced that a satisfactory long- 
range solution to the German and Berlin problem 
can be found if we realistically face the dangers 
created by the artificial division of this gi'eat 
coimtry and seek to eliminate them by a plan for 
reunification within the framework of a general 
agreement on security which will guarantee all 
countries of Europe against the dangers of irre- 
sponsible actions endangering the peace. This our 
Western peace plan would accomplish. 

My Government hopes that we will make the 
measure of progress needed to warrant a subse- 
quent meeting of Heads of Government. I be- 
lieve that the best promise of such progress lies 
in an early return to restricted sessions. I propose 
to my colleagues that our next session be private. 



STATEMENT OF JULY 16 

At yesterday's plenary meeting I suggested that 
we end the discussion of whether or not there is 
any essential link between procedures looking to 
solution of the problem of tlie continued division 
of Germany and procedures looking to arrange- 
ments for Berlin to last until reunification of Ger- 
many. Instead, I proposed that we might, with 
greater profit, consider the substance of the Ber- 
lin proposals made by the Western Powoi-s and 
by the Soviet Union. I suggested that when we 
resumed today we should consider these proposals, 
point by point, so that a clear undei-standing of 
each position would be assured and further use- 
ful negotiations made possible. 

I would now like to do just this. 

A convenient starting point is to consider the 
three-power paper on Berlin, handed to the So- 
viet Foreign Minister on June 16, 1959. This 
paper was developed by the Western Powers after 
a detailed and prolonged discussion in private 
sessions with the Soviet Foreign Minister. This 
paper was a genuine effort to meet views expressed 
by the Soviet Foreign Minister on a number of 
occasions. 

As I indicated yesterday, this three-power 
paper was ignored by the Soviet Foreign Minis- 
ter without any discussion of its specific points. 
The alleged reason given by Mr. Gromylio was 
that these proposed arrangements would require 
the U.S.S.R. to reaffirm the occupation rights in 
Berlin of the U.S., the U.K., and France. 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



The fact is that these "Western rights, which on 
a number of occasions have been recognized by 
the U.S.S.Il. as legitimate in origin and continu- 
ing in fact, derive from the war and from solemn 
postwar agreements ratified by the U.S.S.K. 
Nothing that the U.S.S.K. is now being asked to 
state or do would add to or detract from these 
rights, nor from Soviet responsibilities. 

We have gone far to meet an earlier proposal 
of the Soviet Foreign Minister that a solution of 
the Berlin problem should deal witli specific ar- 
rangements. I hope that, in the light of this 
clarification, the Soviet Foreign Minister will 
realize that his earlier reason for ignoring the 
Western proposals was without basis. 

I turn now to the specific elements of the June 
16 paper: 

Limitation of Forces in Berlin 

First, it expressed the willingness of the three 
Western Powers to limit the combined total of 
their forces in Berlin to the present level, which 
is approximately 11,000 men. It proposed that 
forces in Berlin be armed only with conventional 
weapons. 

The Western Powers would also declare that 
their governments would consider from time to 
time the possibility of reducing their forces if 
developments in the situation permitted. 

The Soviet Foreign Minister liad proposed 
earlier that the Western contingents in Berlin be 
reduced to token levels. (The word "token" is 
defined in the English dictionary as "something 
that serves as a symbol, or something given or 
shown as a guarantee of one's authority.") Sur- 
rounded by Communist forces, some 30 or 40 times 
more numerous, a contingent of 11,000 men under 
this or any other definition can only be considered 
a token force. 

And by agi-eeing not to increase — and to con- 
sider possible reductions in — this level, the West- 
em Powers proposed to give further assurance 
that these forces woidd remain but token 
contingents. 

Free Access to West Berlin 

Secondly, the June 16 paper proposed that there 
should continue to be free and imrestricted access 
to West Berlin by land, by sea, and by air, for all 
persons and goods — including those of the West- 
em forces in Berlin. The procedures applicable 



would be those in effect in April 1959. This pro- 
posal should be acceptable to the U.S.S.R. since 
its own proposal of June 19 also specifies that "for 
the duration of the agreement, the communica- 
tions of West Berlin with the outside world will 
be preserved in the pi'esent shape." 

Correspondence between Western and Soviet 
views also appears to exist in connection with 
the three-power proposal for a quadripartite com- 
mission, which would consider any difficulties 
arising in connection with access procedures 
with respect to Berlin. 

Measures To Avoid Disturbing Activities 

Thirdly, the June 16 paper proposed that meas- 
ures be taken consistent with fundamental rights 
and liberties to avoid in both parts of Berlin ac- 
tivities which might either disturb public order 
or seriously affect the rights and interests, or 
amount to interference in the internal affairs, of 
others. 

Mr. Gromyko claims that tensions in Berlin are 
a source of great concern to the Communists. He 
insists that provision must be made for their re- 
duction if there is to be an acceptable solution 
for Berlin's future until Germany's reunification. 

It is common knowledge, the evidence for which 
I have previously cited in some detail, that West 
Berlin is a hotbed of subversive activity. Ac- 
cordingly, the Western proposals for Berlin call 
for reciprocal measures to avoid in both parts of 
Berlin activities which might disturb public 
order. 

Surely the U.S.S.R., with its constant emphasis 
on parity of treatment, will understand the need 
for parity of responsibility in this instance. 

Let me say now that the Western Powers cate- 
gorically rule out of consideration any one-sided 
restraints, as part of a Berlin solution until reuni- 
fication. If there are to be agreed restraints they 
must be reciprocally applied in both pai-ts of this 
city where tensions are alleged to exist. If these 
reciprocal restraints are to be applied in an even- 
handed fashion, our experience with international 
agreements to date suggests that it would be well 
to provide for verification of their fulfillment. 

Possibility of U.N. Role in Berlin 

The Soviet Foreign Minister, in his recent 
statement on June 28, charged the Western Pow- 
ers with paying only lip service to a United Na- 



August 3, 1959 



151 



tions role in connection with Berlin. He then 
said, ". . . when, in the course of the talks, the 
delegations of the Soviet Union and of the G.D.K. 
declared the readiness of their Governments to 
guard West Berlin from all outside interference, 
the Ministers of the Western Powers somehow 
suddenly lost interest in the problem. They did 
not want to speak of the participation of the 
United Nations in the guarantees, although from 
the rostrum they frequently speak of the organi- 
zation's role. But, as we see, speaking about it 
is one thing, and respecting it in practice is 
another thing." 

Even as the Soviet Foreign Minister was 
making this baseless charge, my Government was 
giving serious consideration to the possibility of 
a significant United Nations role in connection 
with Berlin. We may wish later, when detailed 
negotiations begin, to suggest that the Four Pow- 
ers responsible for Berlin consider a request for 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations to 
establish an adequate staff in Berlin, with free ac- 
cess to all parts of the city, for the purpose of re- 
porting on propaganda activities which might 
either disrupt public order or seriously affect the 
rights of others. 

I believe and have reason to hope from recent 
public statements of the U.N. Secretary-General 
that he would be responsive to such a request for 
this form of United Nations participation in a 
Berlin settlement. 

I hope that the Soviet Union will consider this 
possibility of establishing an international scru- 
tiny over one aspect of the life of this city which 
is of such importance to both the Communists and 
the free world. 

Arrangements To Continue Until Unification 

Fourth : The final point on the Western pro- 
posal is the provision that these arrangements con- 
cerning Berlin will continue in force until the 
reunification of Germany. 

This principle was repeatedly accepted by Mr. 
Gromyko in our earlier private discussions. He 
aclmowledged that any agreement reached at the 
conference concerning Berlin should last until 
Germany was unified. But then the Soviet pro- 
posals of June 9 = and 19 apparently changed this 

" The Soviet proposal made in private session on June 
9 was repented in public session on June 10; it is there- 
fore identified with both dates. 



position. It seems to call for an agreement to 
expire after a brief specified period. 

I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this is a point on 
which the true interests of all our countries co- 
incide. Each of our countries has an underlying 
interest in the preservation of peace. And I can- 
not conceive that the cause of peace would be 
served by any agreement which merely insured 
that the Berlin crisis would be revived after a 
short interval. 

We have so far faced two major international 
crises over Berlin — one in 1948, when the U.S.S.R. 
tried to starve the city into submission, and now 
again in 1959. Each of these crises has posed a 
serious threat to peace. Still another crisis in the 
future would revive this danger, perhaps in more 
acute form. Tliis possibility may, in fact, grow 
with each crisis — as tensions over Berlin cumu- 
latively increase. 

And even if war should be avoided, such re- 
curring crises cannot help but prevent that relax- 
ation of tensions which the Soviet Union professes 
to desire. It is impossible to build relations be- 
tween our comitries on a sound and businesslike 
basis if these relations are to be periodically 
thrown into an uproar by Soviet threats to Berlm 
and by the Soviet Union's attempted reopening 
of past agreements covering Berlin. 

I hope that Mr. Gromyko will weigh these 
thoughts carefully, from the standpoint of his own 
country's self-interest, if from no other. I hope 
that this weighing will lead him, as it has led 
me, to conclude that his original view was correct — 
that the accord on Berlin should last until 
reunification. 

Now that the issue of Berlin has been raised 
once more, and now that relations between our 
countries have been profoundly disturbed by this 
fact, we would be remiss in our duty to the peoples 
of the world if we did not settle that issue once 
and for all on a basis that will endure until a 
solution of the German problem is accomplished. 

Conclusion 

These then, Mr. Chairman, are the four main 
points in the Western proposal concerning Berlin : 

1. No increase of forces in Berlin. 

2. Guaranteed free access to Berlin. 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



3. Measures to avoid disturbing activities in 
either part of Berlin. 

4. Agreement that these arrangements should 
last until German unification. 

Taken together, I believe that these four points 
offer a sound basis for successful negotiations at 
this conference. I hope, therefore, that the Soviet 
Foreign Minister will now discuss them — seri- 
ously, substantively, and one by one — so that we 
can get on to an agreement. 

It does not matter whether he does this on the 
sole basis of our proposals or not — so long as ha 
addresses these four points, which seem to be the 
pillars on which any acceptable Berlin agreement 
must rest. 

I hope that he will not avoid discussing these 
points by turning to other subjects — like proce- 
dures for German imification, which we can dis- 
cuss separately if it seems useful at this 
conference. 

I hope that he will not avoid this discussion by 
throwing out bogus slogans like "free city," and 
that he will concentrate on specific improvements 
in the Berlin situation, rather than on changes in 
terminology. 

And finally I hope that he will not avoid dis- 
cussing these points by making generalized and 
misleading attacks on the Western proposal which 
comprehends them — claiming to perceive in that 
proposal requirements and consequences other 
than those spelled out in these four points. 

None of these attempts at evasion would be 
worthy of the serious problems and the overriding 
need which we face. 

The problem is that of devising arrangements 
for Berlin which will preserve the city's freedom 
and guard against future crises over this issue 
until Germany is reunified. 

The need is to fulfill the hopes which peoples 
around the world have placed in this conference 
by reaching a measure of agreement on such 
arrangements, so that by having made real prog- 
ress we can proceed promptly to a meeting of the 
Heads of Government, where other issues can be 
discussed. 

I have tried, Mr. Chairman, to show how the 
problem could be met in a way consistent with the 
interests and honor of all our countries. 



It is for Mr. Gromyko to determine whether 
we can now begin serious negotiations which will 
fulfill the need. 



WESTERN PROPOSAL ON BERLIN, JUNE 16 

1. The Foreign Ministers of France, tlie United Kingdom, 
tlie United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Ue- 
publics have examined the question of Berlin in the desire 
to find mutually satisfactory solutions to the problems 
which have been raised and which derive essentially from 
the division of Berlin and of Germany. They agreed that 
the best solution for these problems would be the reunifica- 
tion of Germany. They recognized, however, that pending 
reunification, the existing situation and the Agreements at 
present in force can be modified in certain respects and 
have consequently agreed upon the following : 

(a) The Soviet Foreign Minister has made known the 
decision of the Soviet Government no longer to maintain 
forces in Berlin. 

The Foreign Ministers of France, the United Kingdom 
and the United States declare that it is the intention of 
their Governments to limit the combined total of their 
forces in Berlin to the present figure (approximately 
11,000) and to continue to arm these forces only with 
conventional weapons as at present. The three Ministers 
further declare that their Governments will from time 
to time consider the possibility of reducing such forces 
if developments in the situation permit. 

(b) The Ministers agreed that there shall continue 
to be free and unrestricted access to West Berlin by land, 
by water and by air for all persons, goods and communica- 
tions, including those of the French, United Kingdom and 
United States forces stationed in West Berlin. The proce- 
dures applicable shall be those in effect in April 1959. 
However, without prejudice to existing basic responsibili- 
ties, these procedures may where it Is not already the 
case be carried out by German personnel. 

The Ministers liitewise reaffirmed that freedom of 
movement will continue to be maintained between East 
and West Berlin. 

All disputes which might arise with respect to access 
will be raised and settled between the four Governments. 
The latter will establish a quadripartite Commission which 
will meet in Berlin to examine any difficulties arising out 
of the application of the present sub-paragraph and to 
facilitate their settlement. The Commission may malte 
arrangements if necessary to consult German experts. 

2. The Ministers consider that measures should be 
taken consistent with fundamental rights and liberties to 
avoid in both parts of Berlin activities which might either 
disturb public order or seriously affect the rights and 
interests, or amount to interference in the internal affairs, 
of others. 

3. The Ministers agreed that unless subsequently modi- 
fied by Four Power agreement these arrangements will 
continue in force until the reunification of Germany. 



August 3, 1959 



153 



President Eisenhower Aci<nowledges 
AFL-CIO Letter on Berlin 

White House press release dated July 15 

The White House on July 15 made public the 
following lett-er from the President to George 
Meany, president of the American Federation of 
Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions. 

July 15, 1959 

Dear Mr. Meant: Thank you very much for 
your letter of yesterday.^ For a long time I have 
been keenly aware and appreciative of the firm 
stand taken by the AFL-CIO in support of the 
government's refusal to abandon either the free 
people of West Berlin or our rights and responsi- 
bilities respecting that city. 

Your present letter should convince everyone, 
including the Soviets, that in the United States 
labor is free — and because it is free, it is part of 
the decision-making process in our country. "When 
free citizens form their conclusions and convic- 
tions on matters that affect America's international 
position, they cannot be divided on the basis of 
vocation, creed or partisan politics. The efforts 
of any outsider to divide America are bound to 
fail when the basic beliefs and the vital interests 
of this nation are at stake. 

I am grateful for your letter because even 
though I have had no doubt in my own heart or 
mind of AFL-CIO solidarity in this matter, I 
salute your entire membership for reaffirming this 
solidarity before the entire world. 

With warm regard, 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
Mr. George Meant 
President 
American Federation of Labor 

and Congress of Industrial Orgardzations 
816 Sixteenth Street, N.W. 
Washington, B.C. 



Letters of Credence 

Guatemala 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Guate- 
mala, Arturo Ramirez Pinto, presented his cre- 
dentials to President Eisenhower on July 13. For 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press re- 
lease 512 dated July 13. 



President Names New Airport 
for John Foster Dulles 

Executive Order 10828 ■ 

Designating the Airport Being Con8TEUCTEd in the 
Counties op Fairfax and Loudoun in the State of 
Virginia as the Dulles International Aispobt 

Whereas there is now being constructed in the counties 
of Fairfax and Loudoun in the State of Virginia, pursuant 
to an act of Congress approved September 7, 1950 (Public 
Law 762; 64 Stat. 770), an international airport which 
will provide facilities for the District of Columbia and its 
vicinity ; and 

Whereas it is desirable that this airport be given an ap- 
propriate and significant name ; and 

Whereas the public service of John Foster Dulles, the 
renowned diplomat and statesman, was dedicated in large 
measure to the ideals of democracy and the cause of free- 
dom and peace throughout the world ; and 

Whereas it is fitting that the international airport being 
built to serve our Nation's Capital should bear the name 
of this distinguished American whose memory is revered 
wherever men cherish democracy and freedom : 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me 
as President of the United States, I hereby desisnate the 
airport now being constructed in the counties of Fairfax 
and Loudoun in the State of Virginia, pursuant to the 
above-mentioned act of Congress, as the Dulles Interna- 
tional Airport ; and such airport shall hereafter be known 
and referred to by that name. 



XJ (-«J • ! • L^XJ0-<U^ A*»0^-N, 



The White House, 
July 15, 1959. 



' Not printed. 



' 24 Fed. Reg. 5735. 



154 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



A New Era in World Trade and Investment 



hy Acting Secretary Dillon'^ 



It is a greiit pleasure to be here with you today 
at the First Annual Chicago World Marketing 
Conference. This conference and the Chicago 
Trade Fair focus attention on Chicago's growing 
importance in international commerce. With the 
opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, products 
from the four corners of the earth can now fuid 
their way with greater ease to the heartland of 
America. At the same time the markets of the 
world have been brought closer to our farms and 
factories. Truly these events herald the opening 
of a new era for Chicago and the huge area it 
serves. The Chicago Association of Commerce 
and Industry is to be congratulated for its far- 
sighted vision in recognizing Chicago's new role 
as the world's largest inland port. 

It is natural that businessmen in the Midwest 
should now take a greater interest in world trade 
and investment patterns. When we look around 
us we find that we are entering upon a new period 
in world trade and investment — an era in which 
the businessmen of Chicago and of our Central 
States have an opportunity to play an increas- 
ingly important role. I should like to discuss the 
nature of this role and how it relates to our na- 
tional interests and objectives. 

The central task of our time is the building of 
a stable and peaceful world order. Vital to that 
objective is the achievement of sustained economic 
growth throughout the free world. Political and 
military arrangements designed for our safety 
rest, in the final analysis, upon economic strength 
and well-being. We must, therefore, accelerate 
our own economic growth and encourage the 
growth of other industrialized free nations as 



' Address made before the First Annual Chicago World 
Alarketing Conference at Chicago, 111., on July 15 (press 
release 518). 



well. We must also intensify our efforts to as- 
sist the free nations in the vast, underdeveloped 
areas of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin 
America. For these nations must share in the 
material progress of the rest of the free world 
if they are to remain independent. 

The leaders of the less developed nations are 
making valiant efforts to raise their peoples' stand- 
ards of living. But in many cases their econo- 
mies are primitive. They lack human skills as 
well as financial and technological resources. And 
they are beset with exploding populations which 
require large additional resources to maintain 
even present living standards. 

Unless these hundreds of millions of people can 
be given reasonable hope for economic progress, 
then political independence — which so many of 
them have tasted for the first time only since 
World War II — can have but little meaning. 
They will be sorely tempted to try shortcuts to 
economic development which purport to offer a 
panacea for all their problems. International 
communism is standing in the wings of this 
drama of human aspirations — ready, willing, and 
able to suggest just such a shortcut. 

If the newly developing countries dissolve in 
chaos or succumb to communism and lose their 
independence, then our own way of life will not 
long endure. For we cannot stand alone in a 
world turned hostile. Unless we help the world's 
underprivileged to realize their mounting expec- 
tations for a better life under free institutions, 
we surely invite our own downfall. 

The task of stimulating international economic 
growth under freedom is of an urgency and mag- 
nitude that dwarfs anything in our peacetime 
history. But we are not alone in this effort. It 
is being increasingly shared by other industrial- 
ized free nations now tliat their economies have 



Augusf 3, 1959 



155 



recovered from the devastation of World War II. 
However, as the most materially advanced mem- 
ber of the free world, we must continue to pro- 
vide leadership. To succeed, we must enlist the 
combined resources of our Government and of 
our private citizens and institutions. It will re- 
quire perseverance and sustained effort over a 
period of many years. But we should not ap- 
proach this task as a grim burden. Instead, we 
should look upon it as an opportunity and 
challenge— one which we are uniquely prepared 
to meet. 

What Government Can Do 

There is much that our Government can do to 
meet this challenge. Our major response is the 
mutual security program. Through its technical 
assistance operations we are helping to create the 
human skills so conspicuously lacking in the less 
developed countries. Through grant assistance 
we are providing some of the funds urgently re- 
quired to maintain stability in the face of the mili- 
tary and economic pressure of the Sino-Soviet bloc. 
The new Development Loan Fund is our princi- 
pal instrument for providing part of the capital 
needed for the basic facilities essential to growth. 

We are also continuing to provide financing 
through the time-tested operations of the Export- 
Import Bank and through our long-term partici- 
pation in the World Bank and International 
Monetary Fund, which are now expanding their 
resources as the result of an American initiative. 
We have taken a leading part in creating the 
Inter-American Development Bank, which will 
soon begin to play an important role in the prog- 
ress of Latin America. Our reciprocal trade 
agreements program helps to insure markets for 
the products which the peoples of the newly de- 
veloping areas must sell in order to live. And we 
are constantly seeking to break down barriers to 
trade through our participation in the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Currently, 
through tax and other incentives, we are explor- 
ing every practicable way to stimulate the flow of 
private American investment, with all of its ac- 
companying technological skills, to the less devel- 
oped countries.^ 



' For statements made before the Hou.se Committee on 
Ways and Means on July 7 by Mr. Dillon and David A. 
Lindsay, Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, see 
Bulletin of July 27, 1959, p. 128. 



Role of Private Enterprise 

Our Government's programs to help promote 
international economic development are critically 
necessary at this juncture in world affairs. In- 
deed, in the case of countries which lack even the 
rudimentary facilities for launching growth, they 
are indispensable. But in the long run Govern- 
ment efforts cannot match the radiating benefits 
which flow to our partners in the free world 
through normal channels of trade and investment. 
Over the years ahead, the most lasting and pro- 
ductive response to the needs of the developing 
nations must come from private enterprise, the 
mainspring of our competitive economic system, 
which has whetted the appetites of the rest of 
mankind by creating the highest living standard 
in all history. 

As American businessmen, the eyes of the world 
are upon you, for you have the capacity to show 
the underdeveloped areas the way out of their an- 
cient poverty. The technological skills and ca- 
pacity which have made it possible for 40 percent 
of the world's goods to be manufactured and con- 
sumed by only 6 percent of its population are 
represented at this conference. It is to you and 
to your counterparts in Western Europe and 
Japan that hundreds of millions of people look 
for the answers to the problems that engulf them 
and their countries. I am confident that you will 
not fail them. For nothing is beyond the capac- 
ity of the combined economic power of the free 
world. 

The fruitful results of free-world cooperation 
are nowhere more evident today than here in the 
area served by the St. Lawrence Seaway. This 
joint Canadian- American venture is one of a se- 
ries of recent developments which are radically 
shaping the future course of international eco- 
nomic relations. The postwar period is now be- 
hind us. Almost without noticing it, we have 
crossed the threshold of a whole new era in world 
trade and investment. 

The opening of this new era has been signaled 
by the dramatic action last December of the ma- 
jor trading countries of Western Europe in mak- 
ing their currencies convertible in international 
trade. This was a landmark in international eco- 
nomic relations which will increasingly benefit 
world trade and investment. 

Thus, after more than a quarter of a century of 
controls, the private trader in world markets can 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



now expect to be able to buy in the cheapest mar- 
ket and to sell in the dearest. We have made 
much progress in recent years in reducing foreign 
trade discriminations against American exports. 
Now, I believe, we can confidently look forward 
to the elimination of the remaining discrimi- 
nations.^ 

Even as we see before us greater opportunities 
for world trade, concern is being expressed over 
the ability of U.S. producers to compete in inter- 
national markets. This concern has largely arisen 
from the fact that last year our exports declined 
substantially from the very high levels of 1957. 

I am sure that there is full realization among 
American businessmen that the increase in the ca- 
pacity of friendly foreign countries to produce 
and export goods in world markets over the past 
several years has been desirable. This develop- 
ment has enabled Western European countries to 
reduce barriers against imports from this coun- 
try and to make their currencies convertible. It 
has put them in a position to join with us in the 
battle for economic development. It is a reflec- 
tion of the growing economic strength of the rest 
of the free world, which American policy has 
helped to promote in our own political and eco- 
nomic self-interest. 

It is clear that the substantial reduction in 
our exports last year has been largely due to 
abnormal and special factors which do not reflect 
upon the competitiveness of American producers. 
It is also clear that we may reasonably anticipate 
an increase in our export trade in the coming 
months. Indeed, increased exports of cotton and 
a few manufactures, notably commercial aircraft, 
should swell our export totals by as much as a 
billion dollars in the next 12 months. Neverthe- 
less, there is no doubt that American business is 
living in a more competitive world than has ex- 
isted for many years. The sellers' market of the 
postwar period is no longer with us, and Amer- 
ican products will move in world trade only if 
American producers are capable of delivering the 
right kind of goods at the right prices. I am con- 
fident that the traditional dynamic and competi- 
tive qualities of American traders will successfully 
meet this challenge of the wider world market 
which lies before us. 



These are the characteristics of the new order 
in free world trade and investment: On the one 
hand, there it a great challenge and a great op- 
portunity to raise the standards of living in the 
less developed areas of the free world. On the 
other hand, thei-e is a strong, resurgent Western 
Europe and Japan, which no longer need to dis- 
criminate against American imports and which 
are ready and willing to carry their full share 
in the effort to promote better living standards 
in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, and Latin 
America. 

Our eventual survival as free people depends 
on our success in meeting this challenge. The 
possibility it offers of a virtually unlimited ex- 
pansion of markets provides an ever-growing op- 
portunity for our traders and investors. Despite 
everything we in Government can do, the key to 
success in this endeavor lies in the hands of pri- 
vate business in Canada, in Japan, in Western 
Europe, and, above all, in the United States. By 
accepting this challenge and energetically enter- 
ing the world markets you will be helping not 
only yourselves but the cause of freedom and lib- 
erty for all mankind. 



Soviet First Deputy Premier 
Concludes U.S. Visit 

White House press release dated July 15 

The White House on July 15 made public the 
following exchange of messages between the Presi- 
dent and Frol R. Kozlov^ First Deputy Chairman 
of the Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 

The President to Mr. Kozlov 

JxJLT 14, 1959 

Deah IVIr. Kozlov : Thank you for the thought- 
ful message which you sent to me on your depar- 
ture from the United States.' I hope that you 
enjoyed your stay in this country and that you 



' For a statement by W. T. M. Beale on "Trade Dis- 
crimination and Currency Convertibility," see ihid., July 
20, 1959, p. 9.5. 



^ Mr. Kozlov visited the United States June 28-July 13. 
He officially opened the Soviet National Exhibition of 
Science, Technology, and Culture at New York, N.Y., on 
June 29 and then visited Camden, N.J., Philadelphia, Pa., 
Washington, D.C., Sacramento and San Francisco, Calif., 
Detroit, Mich., Chicago, 111., and Pittsburgh and Shipping- 
port, Pa. 



4ogwsf 3, 1959 



157 



have returned to Moscow with a better under- 
standing of our people, our institutions, and our 
way of life. It is gi'atifying to know that you have 
been impressed with the desire of the American 
people for peace, a desire which represents their 
strongest mandate to their Government. This 
ardent desire is also inseparably linked with our 
firm belief in the rights of peoples everywhere to 
enjoy peace with justice and freedom. 

I share the hope that the increasing contacts 
between our two countries, which your visit to us 
and the forthcoming visit of Vice President Nixon 
to the U.S.S.R. so well symbolize, will lead to a 
greatly improved mutual imderstanding between 
our peoples. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

His Excellency 
Frol E. Kozlov 

First Deputy Chairman of the Cotmcil of Min- 
isters of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 



Mr. Kozlov to the President 



Jui-T 13, 1959 



Deak Mr. President: On leaving the United States I 
wish to express to you and all Americans who extended 
to us such a warm welcome, my heartfelt gratitude for 
the possibilities accorded us to get acquainted with your 
great country. We are leaving with confidence that the 
American people want peace just as our Soviet people. 
We are profoundly convinced that the expanding con- 
tacts between our countries, including those concerned 
with the Exhibition as well as meetings between states- 
men of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. promote the improve- 
ment of our relations and will undoubtedly have favour- 
able influence on reaching an agreement on international 
problems, the settlement of which is so eagerly expected 
by all people who so unswervingly stand for the preserva- 
tion and strengthening of peace throughout the world. 

P. Kozlov 
First Deputy Chairman U.S.S.R. and Caiinct Ministers 



Carl Sandburg and Edward Steichen 
To Visit U.S. Exhibit at Moscow 

The Department of State announced on July 17 
(press release 526) that Carl Sandburg and 
Edward Steichen would depart for Moscow on 
July 20 for appearances at the American National 
Exhibition, which opens there on July 25. Mr. 



Steichen's photographic exhibit, "The Family of 
Man," will be one of the attractions at the 
exhibition. 

Mr. Sandburg and Mr. Steichen will be in 
Europe until August 26. They will stay in Mos- 
cow until August 5 and then will visit Stockholm — 
where Mr. Sandburg is scheduled to appear at the 
Swedish-American Day celebrations on August 
10 — Paris, and London. 

The United States Information Agency is spon- 
soring Mr. Steichen's trip, and Mr. Sandburg is 
traveling under the auspices of the International 
Educational Exchange Program of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



Progress and Problems 
in Building Peace 

by Llewellyn E. Thompson 
Ambassador to the Soviet Z7?won^ 

I am very glad once more to have the oppor- 
tunity of speaking to the Moscow television audi- 
ence on the occasion of the birthday of my country. 

I have just come from a reception at our Em- 
bassy commemorating this 183d anniversary of the 
United States of America. In addition to your 
own officials and those of many governments rep- 
resented here in Moscow I was pleased to see there 
over 100 private American citizens, who are in 
Moscow as tourists. 

I suspect that never before have there been so 
many unofficial Americans in Moscow on July ith. 
In our eyes they represent a very encouraging 
trend. During the course of last year over 5,000 
such Americans came to the Soviet Union to see 
your cities and to become better acquainted with 
your people and their accomplislunents. This year 
we anticipate that that nixmber will be more than 
doubled. We welcome this development, for we 
continue to believe that mutual trust and mutual 
understanding can come only through appreciation 
of each other's problems, aspirations, and 
successes. 

Unfortunately, many fewer Soviet tourists 
travel to America. In strictly unofficial categorj', 



' Address made on television at Moscow on .July 4. Am- 
bassador Thompson spoke in Hu.ssian. 



158 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe BulleHn 



I should think they must not have totaled more 
than 100 for all of last year. We wish we could 
see more of you in the United States. We like and 
appreciate travelers from foreign lands. Indeed, 
we are a country settled and developed by peoples 
from many parts of the world. 

But since the United States is so far away and 
so few of your countrymen have been able thus far 
to come to visit us, we are particularly pleased to 
bring to Moscow this summer the American Na- 
tional Exhibition. As you already know, your own 
exhibition opened in New York June 30.= Presi- 
dent Eisenhower attached so much importance to 
it that he came in person to the opening ceremonies, 
where Mr. Kozlov^ and Vice President Nixon 
formally opened the exhibit. I am sure it will at- 
tract many thousands of Americans eager to learn 
more about the Soviet Union. 

Our exhibition will open in Moscow on July 25. 
Vice President Nixon will travel from Washington 
to be present on that occasion and to address you 
on television and radio. We hope many of you will 
come to Sokolniki Park durmg the 6 weeks follow- 
ing July 25 to see as much as we can show you of 
life in America. Many of us who fervently hope 
for a relief from the tensions which still exist be- 
tween our countries have been unhappy about the 
misinformation we frequently encounter in the 
Soviet Union as concerns the United States. I 
hope that the exhibition will help Soviet citizens 
obtain a better understanding of my country. 

Last July 4th I spoke to the Moscow television 
audience and referred to the cultural exchange pro- 
gram between our two countries, then just getting 
under way. I think in most respects it has been 
fully as helpful as we had hoped. The 22 Amer- 
ican students who have spent the past academic 
year in Soviet universities are now about to return 
home. All of them have told us how much this 
chance to know your country has meant to them. 
I hope your own students, likewise, at the close of 
the year in the United States, will come back to 
you with the same feeling of profit. 

Other exchanges between us have continued. 
Your Beryozka dancers, the Moisseyev Ballet, and, 
more recently, the Bolshoi Ballet have been enthu- 



' For text of agreement relating to the exchange of 
exhibitions, see Bttlletin of Jan. 26, 1959, p. 132. 
' Frol R. Kozlov, Soviet First Deputy Premier. 



siastically applauded in as many cities of my 
coimtry as they could reach. Our New York 
Philharmonic Orchestra will be hero in August, 
as a continuation of the quality of musical presen- 
tation started in Moscow last year by the Phila- 
delphia Symphony Orchestra. 

In addition, groups of scientists, engineers, ar- 
chitects, musicians, and educators have gone back 
and forth under official progi-ams of ever-widening 
possibilities. 

This, we think, is all to the good. We want to 
see it continue; and to this end we look forward 
to the beginning very soon of new negotiations for 
an extension and broadening of the present pro- 
gram. 

My Government and the American people are 
disappointed that this progress in expanding con- 
tacts between our two countries has not been ac- 
companied by progress in reconciling our political 
differences. We are especially disappointed that 
no significant progress was made toward settle- 
ment of the problem of the continued division of 
Germany and Berlin at the Geneva Conference of 
Foreign Ministers. It would be imrealistic, as 
Vice President Nixon said in his address at the 
opening of the Soviet exhibit in New York, to 
pretend that lack of understanding is the only 
obstacle to peaceful friendship between the Com- 
munist world and those outside its borders. Basic 
conflicts of interest and ideology are not easily 
removed — there is no magic formula. But we do 
seek, through patience and understanding, to find 
agreements that are consistent with the honor and 
interest of both of our countries. 

We believe every people should be governed as 
they themselves want. This is what we ask for 
ourselves — and this is the true meaning of this day 
of independence we are now celebrating — and this 
is what we ask for others. 

We believe this is the road to peace. On this 
principle, and with a desire for constructive con- 
tribution from both sides, we can hope for progress 
in building peace. We are convinced that, al- 
though increased contacts and exchanges cannot 
solve all our problems, they can make an important 
contribution to the removal of misunderstanding 
and mistrust and thus facilitate the settlement of 
political questions which now obstruct the im- 
provement of relations between us. 



August 3, 1959 



159 



U.S. Rejects Soviet Proposal 
on Atom-Free Balkan Zone 

DEPARTMENT STATEMENT 

Press release 507 dated July 11 

The Department of State has noted the declara- 
tion of the Soviet Government handed to the 
United States Ambassador in Moscow on June 
25, seeking a ban of atomic weapons and rockets 
from a zone in the Balkan-Adriatic region. 

This declaration was also sent to the Govern- 
ments of Italy, Turkey, Greece, France, and the 
United Kingdom. While the three governments 
most directly concerned with the Soviet proposal 
will continue as in the past to make their own 
determination in the tradition of fi'ee peoples as 
to the relation of such proposals to their own 
security, this proposal is of concern to the whole 
NATO Alliance. 

This proposal is similar to other Soviet pro- 
posals to accomplish piecemeal the design of ren- 
dering the Western nations incapable of deterring 
aggression. As the NATO Heads of Government 
declared on December 19, 1957,^ and as the North 
Atlantic Council reaffirmed on May 7, 1959: = 

The Soviet leaders, while preventing a general disarma- 
ment agreement, have made it clear that the most modern 
and destructive weapons, including missiles of all Ijinds, 
are being introduced in the Soviet armed forces. In the 
Soviet view, all European nations except the U.S.S.R. 
should, without waiting for general disarmament, re- 
nounce nuclear weapons and missiles and rely on arms of 
the pre-atomic age. 

Kegarding the Soviet suggestion that it, to- 
gether with other great powers, might become a 
guarantor of this zone, it is pointed out that ample 
guarantees of nonaggression already exist in the 
U.N. Charter. Unfortunately experience which 
none should forget has shown us that defensive 
strength within the framework of collective secu- 
rity arrangements remains the essential guarantor 
of peace in the absence of controlled general 
disarmament. 

This Soviet proposal suffers from some of the 
same shortcomings that have characterized other 
Soviet proposals for arbitrarily limited efforts to 
control modern armaments. It does not deal with 
the basic question of continual production and 



' For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 6, 1958, p. 12. 
■ IMd., May 25, 1959, p. 739. 



stockpiling of nuclear weapons by the present nu- 
clear powers nor does it affect the central sources 
of power capable of launching a nuclear attack. 
It is obvious that the range of weapons at the dis- 
posal of the U.S.S.R. makes the concept of an 
atom-free Balkan zone meaningless as far as the 
security of the free nations in that area is con- 
cerned; indeed, as Premier Khrushchev himself 
said recently in Albania, referring to NATO bases 
in Italy, Greece, and Turkey, "These rocket bases 
can be destroyed by rockets launched from the 
territory of the Soviet Union." In addition to 
these considerations, moreover, the United States 
finds it difficult to consider as a serious proposal 
to reduce tensions a suggestion for prohibiting 
nuclear weapons within a given area when the 
Soviet Government has itself recognized that 
there does not exist with present scientific capa- 
bilities any known means of verifying such an 
arrangement. 

It remains the earnest hope of all Western na- 
tions that through negotiation progress can and 
will be made toward general controlled disarma- 
ment on a fair and balanced basis that might 
bring some relief from the pressure and threat of 
armaments. 

Until such measures bear fruit and so long as 
the Soviet Union continues to build up its arsenal 
of modern weapons, the nations of the free world 
cannot surrender their rights or default on their 
obligation to take measures for their adequate 
defense. 



TEXT OF SOVIET DECLARATION 

Unoffleial translation 

In connection with the statements recently of govern- 
ments and statesmen of a number of countries on the 
question of insuring peace and security in the region of 
the Balkans and the Adriatic, the Soviet Government con- 
siders it necessary to state the following : 

Guided by the interests of peace and security in Eu- 
rope, the Head of the Soviet Government, N. S. Khru- 
shchev, as known, introduced a proposal about the crea- 
tion in the Balkans and the region of the Adriatic of a zone 
free of atomic and rocket weapons. This proposal was 
confirmed in the recent joint Albanian-Soviet Declara- 
tion. The Soviet Government is profoundly convinced 
that the refusal of the countries of this region to estab- 
lish on their territories atomic and rocket bases would 
inpct the vital interests of the peojiles of these countries 
and would be a great contribution to the cause of Euro- 
pean security and to the transformation of the Balkans 
and the Adriatic into a zone of tranquillity and peace. 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



The imiiortaiR-e iiml timeliness of this proposal stems 
from the danwrous sitiiatiou for the case of peace which 
at the present lime is developing in this region. As a 
result of pressure on the part of the United States of 
America, the Governments of Turkey and Italy have de- 
cided to establish on their territories American atomic 
and roclvet bases and thus to use the strategic position 
of the Balkan I'euinsula for aggressive purposes. The 
Greek Government also intends to transform Greece into 
an atomic beachliead ; now more than ever before a direct 
threat to peace and security. 

It is natural that the Soviet Union as a .state con- 
tiguous to the Balkan countries and therefore directly 
interested in the preservation and supiwrt of peace in 
tlie Balkans, could not fail to pay attention to such a 
development of events dangerous for its security. At 
the same time the feelings of the Balkan peoples, who are 
opposing the transfoi-mation of the Balkans into the 
breeding ground of a new war and are ever more actively 
supporting the idea of an atom-free zone, are near and 
understandable to the peoples of the Soviet Union. 

The Soviet Government highly values the efforts of 
the Governments of those countries which persistently 
and consistently come out in support of the strengthen- 
ing of peace, for the broadest cooperation among the 
Balkan peoples on the principles of equality, mutual re- 
spect, and non-interference in internal affairs. 

In this connection it is impossible not to note the 
Declaration of the lUmianian Government of June 6, 
1951), in which the proposal is once more advanced for 
the convocation of a meeting of Heads of (iovernment 
of the countries of the Balkan Peninsula for examination 
of urgent questions which concern the countries of this 
region, including consideration of the proposal about 
creating in the Balkans a zone of peace free from atomic 
and rocket weapons. 

The Soviet Government welcomes the Declaration of 
the Governments and statesmen of the People's Republic 
of Albania and of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, who 
are actively advocating the formation of an atom-free 
zone in the Balkans and the region of the Adriatic. 

The Government of the U.S.S.R. observes that the 
Yugoslav Government, as is apparent from the statement 
of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia I'resident 
I. Broz Tito of June S, 1959, also supports the proposal 
for the creation of an atom-free zone in the Balkans and 
the region of the Adriatic. It agrees also that the crea- 
tion of an atom-free zone in the Balkans would be most 
effective if all the countries of the Balkan Peninsula and 
Italy take part in it. 

Along with this, the Soviet Government notes with 
regret that the position of the Governments of Italy, Tur- 
key and Greece is a .serious obstacle in the path of cre- 
ating an atom-free zone. In the situation which is devel- 
oping when the ma.iority of the Balkan countries has de- 
clared themselves for the creation of an atom-free zone 
it would l)e possible to expect that the Governments of 
Italy, Turkey and Greece listen to the sensible voice of 
their neighbors and the peoples of their own countries 
and, while it is still not late, review their positions on 
this question. 

August 3, 1959 

514610 — 59 3 



As for the statements of certain Governments that the 
security of their countries allegedly in tliis case would 
not be sufficiently guaranteed, such apprehensions, inso- 
far as they concern the Soviet Union, are deprived of any 
basis wliatever. In the oi)iiiion of the Soviet Govern- 
ment the creation of an atom-free zone also need not be 
made dependent on whether the countries having signed 
an agreement on this zone will or will not be members of 
NATO or the Warsaw Treaty. 

Confident that the creatiim of an atom-free zone in 
the region of the Balkans and Adriatic would be a signifi- 
cant contribution to the cause of easing international 
tension and strengthening peace and security, the Soviet 
Government declares its readiness to become a guarantor 
of this zone together with the other great powers. 

The Soviet Government appeals to the Governments 
of the United States of America, England, and France in 
every way to aid the creation of an atom-free zone in the 
Balkans and the region of the Adriatic, and also on the 
achievement of an agreement with the interested coun- 
tries on this question, to guarantee together with the 
Soviet Union the securit.v and indeijendenee of the country 
participants of the indicated zone. 

The Soviet Government expresses the hope that the 
countries interested In the creation of an atom-free zone 
in the Balkans and the region of the Adriatic will treat 
with due attention the considerations set forth in the 
present declaration. 



United States Restricts Travel 
of Hungarian Official Personnel 

Press release 492 dated July 7 

The following aide 7nemoire concerning travel 
restnctions on Hungarnan official personnel in the 
United States ivas handed to the Charge d'' Affaires 
ad interim of the Hungarian Legation at 'Wash- 
ington on July 7 ly Albert W. Sherer, Jr., Act- 
ing Director of the Office of Eastei^n European 
Affairs. 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the American Legation in Budapest concerning 
two notes ^ received by the Legation from the 
Hmigarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs on July 
6, 1959 which impose restrictions on travel in Hun- 
gary by persomiel of the American Legation m 
Budapest. 

It is tlie Department's miderstanding that 
henceforth a special pennit will be required from 
the Himgarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs for 
eveiy trip by personnel of the American Legation 
outside of a 40-kilometer radius calculated from 
a starting point at Clark Adam Ter, near the 
center of Budapest. It is the further understand- 



' Not printed. 



161 



ing of the Department that the American Lega- 
tion in Budapest must present to tlie Protocol De- 
partment of the Hungarian Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs a note requesting permission for each trip 
to be performed outside the 40-kilometer zone and 
that such requests must be presented at least 48 
hours (Sundays and holidays not included) prior 
to the time that travel is planned. It is noted 
that these requests must state the name and rank 
of applicants; the purpose, time and precise route 
of travel; the means of transportation, including 
the license number if an automobile is used. It 
is further noted that the Protocol Department of 
the Hungarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs will 
make available passes for trips by American Le- 
gation personnel within the 40-kilometer zone. 

In view of the foregoing restrictions placed 
upon the movement in Hungary of personnel of 
the American Legation in Budapest, the Depart- 
ment of State wishes to inform the Legation of 
the Hungarian People's Republic of the following 
restrictions on the movement of all personnel of 
the Hungarian Legation in Washington and of 
the Hungarian Delegation to the United Nations 
in New York. These restrictions are effective 
immediately. 

(1) Special permission is required from the De- 
partment of State for all travel by personnel of 
the Hungarian Legation outside of a 25-mile ra- 
dius extending from the Zero-milestone located on 
the north side of the Ellipse in Washington, D.C. 

(2) The Hungarian Legation is required to pre- 
sent to the Department of State a note requesting 
permission for each trip by personnel of the Hun- 
garian Legation outside the 25-mile zone. Such 
requests must be presented at least 48 hours (Sun- 
days and holidays not included) in advance of the 
time that such travel is planned. The note must 
state the name and rank of the applicant; the 
names and relationship of any accompanying 
members of the applicant's family; the purpose, 
time and precise route of travel; the means of 
transportation, and the license number in the 
event that travel is perfomied by automobile. 

(3) Special permission is also required from 
the Department of State for all travel by person- 
nel of the Hungarian Delegation to the United 
Nations outside of a 25-mile radius extending 
from Columbus Circle in New York City. 

(4) The Hungarian Legation in Washington 
is required to present to the Department of State 
in Washington a note requesting permission for 



each trip by personnel of the Hungarian Delega- 
tion to the United Nations outside of the 25-mile 
zone in New York City. Such requests must be 
presented at least 48 hours (Sundaj's and holidays 
not included) prior to the time that travel is 
planned. The note must state the name and rank 
of the applicant; the names and relationship of 
any accompanying members of the applicant's 
family; the purpose, time and precise route of 
travel; and the means of transportation, includ- 
ing the license number in the event that travel 
is by automobile. 

(5) The Department of State will inform the 
Legation of the Hungarian People's Eepublic of 
such further regulations governing the movement 
of personnel of the Hungarian Legation and of 
personnel of the Hungarian Delegation to the 
United Nations within the respective 25-mile zones 
in Washington and in New York City as the De- 
partment may deem necessary in the light of the 
manner in which the movement of personnel of 
the American Legation in Budapest within the 
40-kilometer zone in Budapest may be restricted 
by Hungarian authorities. 



Anniversary off President Diem's 
Accession to Office 

White House press release dated July 11 

The White House on July 11 made public the 
following exchange of messages hetxoeen the Pres- 
ident and President Diem of Yiet-Nam. 

President Eisenhower to President Diem 

JuLT 4, 1959 
Dear Mr. President: I extend to you my con- 
gratulations and sincere good wishes on the occa- j 
sion of your fifth anniversary as national leader f| 
of Viet-Nam. 

The world has watched with admiration the 
progress made by Viet-Nam in the live years since 
you assumed leadership. It is now a country 
strong in its determination to preserve its free- 
dom and active in promoting the development of 
its economy. We in the United States are aware 
of your own indispensable role in bringing about 
this remarkable progress. It is a task in which 
we are proud to have been associated with you. 
I wish you, Mr. President, and the people of 



162 



[>epaT\men^ of Sfofe Bulletin 



tlie Republic of Viet-Nam, continued success in 
advancing toward your goal of a better life in 
freedom. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGIIT D. ElSENHO^VER 

President Diem to President Eisenhower 

Saigon, July 9, 1959 
Tin: Prksident 
The White Home 
Washington 

I greath' appreciate your thoughtful message 
of congratulations on the fifth anniversary of my 
accession to office. On this occasion we in Viet- 
Xain remember with deep gratitude the warm 
friendship and active support of the United 
States during the darkest days of our struggle 
against colonialism and communism and are look- 
ing forward to an ever closer friendship and co- 
operation between our two countries in the years 
to come. Please accept my heartfelt thanks for 
your kind message and my most sincere wishes 
for your personal happiness and well-being and 
for the prosperity and welfare of the great Amer- 
ican nation. 

Ngo Dinh Diem 



Mr. Seaton To Attend Opening 
of New Cambodian Highway 

Press release 511 dated July 13 

In response to an invitation from the Eoyal 
Cambodian Government, the President has desig- 
nated Fred A. Seaton, Secretary of the Interior, 
to represent the United States at the formal in- 
auguration of a highway which ali'ords Cambo- 
dia its first direct access to ocean-going trade. 
Secretary Seaton will leave the United States 
July 15 for Phnom Penh, the capital of Cam- 
bodia, where the ceremonies will take place. 

The 130-niile highway connecting the capital 
with a new port being built with French assist- 
ance at Sihanoukville on the Gulf of Siam will 
facilitate the movement of Cambodia's foreign 
commerce and provides access to an area capable 
of substantial economic development. The $33- 
million road represents the major feature of the 
U.S. economic aid program in Cambodia and has 
been officially designated by the Cambodian Gov- 



ernment as "The Cambodian-i\jnerican Friend- 
sliii) Highway." 



Foreign Countries To Be Invited 
to Seattle Exposition 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated July 11 

The President issued a proclamation on July 
10 pursuant to which foreign countries will be 
invited to participate in the World Science-Pan 
Pacific Exposition (Century 21 Exposition), 
which will be held in Seattle from May 1961 to 
October 1962. The Governor of the State of 
Washington, Albert Eosellini, will also issue 
invitations to the several States of the Union to 
take part in the exposition. 

The proclamation is authorized under Public 
Law 85-880, which was approved by the President 
on September 2, 1958. 

The exposition will commemorate the centen- 
nial of the physical fixing of the boundary line 
between the United States and Canada. It will 
also depict the role of science in modern civiliza- 
tion and will express the varied cultures of the 
countries bordering the Pacific Ocean. 



PROCLAMATION 3302 

World Science-Pan Pacifio Exposition 
(Century 21 Exposition) 

AVhereas the World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition 
(Century 21 Exposition), to be held at Seattle, Wash- 
ington, from May 1961 to October 1962, will commemo- 
rate the centennial of the physical fixing of the bound- 
ary line between the United States of America and 
Canada ; and 

Whereas the Exposition will also depict the role of 
sciente in modern civilization and will exhibit the varied 
cultures of the countries bordering the Pacific Ocean ; 
and 

Whereas the Congress, by an act approved September 
2, 1958 (72 Stat. 1703), has authorized the President, 
by proclamation or in such manner as he may deem 
proper, to invite the several States of the Union and 
foreign countries to take part in the Exposition ; and 

Whereas such participation by the several States and 
foreign countries will contribute to the welfare of all 
particii>iints by promoting domestic and international 



• 24 Fed. Reg. 5707. 



August 3, 1959 



163 



commerce and furthering understanding among peoples 
tlirough tlie interchange of scientific and cultural knowl- 
edge ; and 

Whereas the Governor of the State of Washington 
will invite the several States of the Union to take part 
in the Exposition : 

Now, THEBBTOEE, I, DwiQHT D. EiSENHOWEE, President 
of the United States of America, do hereby authorize and 
direct the Secretary of State to invite, on my behalf, 
such foreign countries as he may consider appropriate to 
take part in the World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition : 
Provided, that no Communist de facto government hold- 
ing any people of the Pacific Rim in subjugation shall be 
invited to participate. 

In WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America to 
be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this tenth day of 
July in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

[seal] and fifty -nine, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
eighty-fourth. 



X^ (,!.* ■.■ ^-^"ZJO-tCl^ A.*O^N^ 



By the President: 
Douglas Dillon, 

Acting Secretary of State. 



U.S. Communications Facility 
To Be Established in Pakistan 

Press release 529 dated July 18 

The Governments of Pakistan and of the 
United States on July 18 signed an agreement at 
Karachi formalizing previous arrangements be- 
tween Pakistan and the United States for the es- 
tablishment and operation of a communications 
imit at Peshawar, Pakistan. 

This facility is part of a worldwide U.S. com- 
munications system and will provide a link be- 
tween stations in the Middle East and the Pa- 
cific areas. It is located at sites outside the city 
of Peshawar and is staffed by personnel of the 
U.S. Air Force. A construction program is cur- 
rently under way to provide living and operating 
facilities for the members of this unit. 



Development Loans 

Bolivia 

The U.S. Development Loan Fund on July 9 
announced basic approval and commitment of 



funds for a $1.5 million loan to the Government 
of Bolivia to assist in improving the El Alto Air- 
port at La Paz. For details, see Department of 
State press release 498 dated July 9. 

Korea 

The Development Loan Fund on July 9 an- 
nounced basic approval and commitment of funds 
for a $5 million loan to the Korean Reconstruction 
Bank, owned by the Government of Korea, to help 
finance loans to small private enterprises for the 
foreign-exchange costs of machinery, equipment, 
and services. For details, see Department of State 
press release 496 dated July 9. 

Pakistan 

The Development Loan Fund on July 6 an- 
nounced basic approval and commitment of funds 
for a loan of $4.8 million to the Government of 
Pakistan to cover foreign-exchange costs of con- 
structing landing facilities for large commercial 
jet aircraft at Karachi International Airport. For 
details, see Department of State press release 485 
dated July 6. 

The Development Loan Fund and the Chitta- 
gong Port Commission, a public agency in East 
Pakistan, signed a loan agreement at Washington, 
D.C., on July 10 whereby the DLF will lend the 
Commission $2 million to procure equipment 
needed to enable Chittagong harbor to operate on 
a 24-hour basis. For details, see Department of 
State press release 501 dated July 10. 

Philippines 

The Development Loan Fund and the Bataan 
Pulp and Paper Mills, Inc., a privately owned 
firm in the Philippines, signed a loan agreement 
at Washington, D.C., on July 10 whereby tlie DLF 
will lend $5.3 million to the firm to help establish 
a new plant to make pulp from bamboo. For 
details, see Department of State press release 505 
dated July 10. 

Turkey 

The Development Loan Fund on July 10 an- 
nounced basic approval and commitment of funds 
for a $7 million loan to the ETIBANK of Turkey. 
The sum will be used for extension and improve- 
ment of the electric power distribution networks 
of 15 municipal utility systems in Turkey. For 
details, see Department of State press release 502 
dated July 10. 



164 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Department's Views on Proposed Passport Legislation 



Statement by Deputy Under Secretary Murphy ^ 



We are grateful for the opportunity to speak to 
the members of the committee about the impor- 
tance of passport legislation and particularly 
about the urgent necessity of legislation concern- 
ing the granting of passports to American sup- 
porters of international communism. 

We find it necessary to request such legislation 
because of certain decisions of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. In June 1958, in the Kent- 
Briehl ^ and Dayton ' cases, the Supreme Court 
by a majority of five to four said, in effect, that the 
Secretary of State has never been given the au- 
thority by Congress to deny passports to members 
or supporters of the international Communist 
movement or even to persons whom he has specif- 
ically found are going abroad willfully and know- 
ingly to engage in activities which would advance 
that movement. The Court did not hold that it 
was unconstitutional to deny passports to Com- 
munists but only said that the Secretary lacked 
legislative authority to do so. The Court also 
said that any legislation giving the Secretary such 
authority must carefully j^rotect the constitutional 
rights of citizens. 

Since that time the administration has been ur- 
gently seeking the passage of such legislation by 
the Congress. A year ago this week I had the 
privilege of appearing before your committee to 
testify about the urgent need for legislation em- 
powering the Secretary of State to refuse passports 
to certain supporters of the international Com- 
munist movement.* At that time the administra- 
tion had suggested a comprehensive bill on pass- 
port matters, but it was pointed out to the commit- 
tee that we were not suggesting that particular 
bill reflected the only possible approach to the 
outstanding problems. 



Last year's hearings, before this committee and 
before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, in- 
dicated there was some congressional preference 
for a measure dealing separately with the Com- 
munist problem. Indeed, the House passed such 
a bill in the closing days of the last session. It was 
not acted on by the Senate. 

We still believe a comprehensive measure is 
ultimately desirable. The critical problem at the 
moment, however, is to remedy the total lack of 
legislative authority to deny passports to really 
dangerous participants in the international Com- 
munist conspiracy. Accordingly the Department 
has strongly supported such remedial proposals 
now before the Congress. And these represent 
what we believe is the minimiun required in the 
light of the danger to which the country is ex- 
posed at present. 

In his message to the Congress last year the 
President himself emphasized this danger which 
has continued unabated and makes legislation in 
this field essential. 

No doubt all of us are aware of the problems 
arising as a result of this situation and have an 
opportunity to appreciate the nature and the con- 
spiratorial methods of international communism 
which, as the late Secretary Dulles stated, "seeks 



" Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on July 13 ( press release 509) . 

= Kent V. Dulles, 357 U.S. 116 (1958) . 

» Dayton v. Dulles, 357 U.S. 144 (1958). 

* For text of Mr. Murphy's statement, together with a 
message from the President to the Congress and a letter 
from Secretary Dulles, see Buixetin of Aug. 11, 1958, p. 
250; for a statement made before the Internal Security 
Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary 
on Apr. 29, 1959, by John W. Hanes, Jr., Administrator of 
the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, see ibid.. 
May 18, 1959, p. 723. 



August 3, 1959 



165 



to unify and harmonize the world by gaining 
control of all national governments."® 

Travel Essential to Cominunist Conspiracy 

During my testimony last year it was pointed 
out that the changes in Soviet leadership during 
the past few years have not in any way altered 
the basic tenets and goals of communism as de- 
scribed by Marx and I^nin. 

It is still basic Communist doctrine that all 
non-Communist govenmients must be subverted 
or overthi'own, and international commimism is 
at war with the rest of the world every day and 
in every way. It maintains in every foreign coun- 
ti*y and particularly in the United States a vast, 
well-trained, well-financed, subversive organiza- 
tion solely devoted to winning that war. Some 
members of that organization hold American citi- 
zenship, but their allegiance is not American and 
their loyalty and service is to international com- 
munism. The use of the citizens of "bourgeois'' 
countries is eagerly sought. Contacts with them 
are necessary, and travel by them is essential. 
Party conferences and meetings of a host of front 
organizations throughout the world is an essential 
part of the apparatus. Travel is necessary to 
attend them. 

The efficient operation of any worldwide organ- 
ization requires communication and personal con- 
tact. This is even more true of an organization 
operating secretly and often illegally. Such or- 
ganizations in sensitive matters often fear and 
avoid written communications for obvious rea- 
sons and instead use personal assigmnents and 
personal discipline. The essence of such a con- 
spiracy is secure communication. It is aji ele- 
mental rule of Communists to conmiunicate by 
word of mouth rather than in writing and to avoid 
the usual communications facilities. If their vast 
personal communication network is impaired, 
their organization is placed under a serious handi- 
cap. It is our view that their communication 
should not be facilitated. 

We already have legislation which enables lis 
to control travel into this country by foreign Com- 
munists. To close the gap it is necessary to com- 
plement that legislation with a measure which 
will enable us to deny passports in cei-tain cases, 
thus controlling travel of American Communists 
abroad. 



" Ibid., Dec. 8, 1958, p. 897. 



The situation today is no less acute than it was 
last year. Only recently the Director of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation reported to the At- 
torney General that : 

At the present time the Soviets are Intensifying their 
espionage activities in the United States. They are in- 
terested in all types of intelligence, especially military, 
atomic, missile and relate*! data. Also a revitalization of 
the Party's internal structure is now under way. Leaders 
completely loyal to the Kremlin are in control. The result 
is a renewed party activity aimed at strengthening the 
Communist apparatus. At present, a recruiting program 
is in progress. Xew officers are being selected in the Com- 
munist Party units across the country. The youth or- 
ganization is being vitalized, schools are being held to train 
party leaders, and efforts are under way to increase over- 
all party work. 

Putting the Problem in Perspective 

I would like very briefly to endeavor to put the 
problem of control of Communist travel in proper 
perspective. For the 2 calendar years preceding 
the Supreme Court decisions of last summer, over a 
million passports were issued or renewed. Out of 
this group, 51 were initially and tentatively turned 
down because of their alleged affiliation with the 
Communist movement. These individuals were 
afforded access to a rather elaborate hearing-and- 
appeal machinery. Indeed, since that machinery 
was established in 1952 — a period of 6 years — only 
15 persons have been finally denied passports on 
Communist grounds after they had exhausted their 
administrative remedies. Some others were 
granted passports after hearings, and some did not 
contest the Department's ruling. 

You may ask why, if that represents the scope of 
the problem posed by the travel of Conununists, 
are we so concerned and why do we really need 
congressional authority to do something about it ? 

When our regulations on control of Communists 
were in effect, most of the really active Commu- 
nists refrained from applying for a passport. The 
few who did apply were usually stopped at the 
threshold because they were unwilling to supply 
the Department with a sworn statement concern- 
ing their current and past affiliation with the Com- 
munist Party. 

There can be no doubt about the deterring effect 
of our regulations and the affidavit requirement. 
For, since the Supreme Court decisions of last 
year, the old-line, hard-core Communists have ap- 
plied for and have had to be granted passports. 

The objectives of the desired legislation were 



166 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



apt ]\ described by the late Secretary Dulles to the 
Congress last year, in these words : •* 

I think there can be no doubt in anyone's mind 
that we are today engaged for survival in a bitter 
struggle against the International Conmuinist Movement. 
. . . [This] Movement seelis everywhere to thwart 
United States foreign policy. It seeks on every front to 
influence foreign governments and peoples against the 
United States and eventually by every means, including 
violence, to encircle the United States and subordinate 
us to its will. The issuance of United States passports 
to supporters of that Movement facilitates their travel to 
and in foreign countries. It clothes them when abroad 
with all the dignity and protection that our Government 
affords. Surely, our Government should be in a position 
to deny passports to such persons. 

President Eisenhower, on the same date, added : 

In exercising these necessary limitations on the issu- 
ance of passports, the executive branch is greatly con- 
cerned with seeing to it that the inherent rights of Amer- 
ican citizens are preserved. Any limitations on the right 
to travel can only be tolerated in terms of overriding 
requirements of our national security, and must be sub- 
ject to substantive and procedural guaranties. 

These two messages clearly express both the 
purpose and the limits which we feel the required 
legislation sliould have. In simple terms, we need 
legislative authorization for the Secretary of 
State to deny passports (as appropriate) to per- 
sons who are presently engaging in activities 
knowingly intended to further the purposes of the 
international Communist movement. 



Basis for Passport Denial 

You will notice that I spoke of people who are 
engaging in activities and that I further said 
presently engaging. We think both these matters 
are important. 

We neither seek nor want the authority to deny 
passports because of "associations and beliefs" 
but only because of knowing engagement in activ- 
ities for the purpose of advancing the Communist 
movement. We also do not seek authority to 
deny passports to American citizens who are not 
today a danger to our security, even though at 
some time in the past they may have supported 
the Communist conspiracy. We do believe that 
present membership in the Communist Party or 
present activities under party discipline or under 
the direction or control of the Communist move- 
ment, regardless of any formal affiliation with the 



• Ibid., Aug. 11, 1958, p. 250. 
August 3, 1959 



Communist Party, should be considered as activ- 
ities in furtherance of the international Commu- 
nist movement. "Wlien a person is knowingly en- 
gaging in such activities, he sliould carry the 
burden of demonstrating clearly that he will not 
engage in such activities while abroad. On balance 
this is fair, since the Department first has to show 
that the person is knowingly engaging in such 
activities. 

Past actions alone, of course, should not dis- 
qualify an applicant from receiving a passport, 
although past activities cannot be ignored en- 
tirely in making a determination about the present 
and future. 

If a person does come within those carefully 
defined categories, the Secretary of State should 
be able to deny him a passport without demonstrat- 
ing the specific harm which the applicant may do 
on a specific future trip. Indeed, at the time of 
application, a Communist may have no specific 
trip or mission in mind, and he may not receive his 
orders until long after he receives his passport. 

As a general rule we cannot show in advance 
what a dedicated Communist is going to do on a 
particular trip abroad. We may fuid out many 
years later. We may never know. Communists, 
being a conspiratorial lot, operate in secrecy where 
secrecy is necessary. They do not tell us on their 
passport applications that they seek to subvert 
us. In fact they will undoubtedly swear the op- 
posite if necessary. We may have some uadication 
what a particular Conunimist intends to do abroad, 
but this is the exception rather than the rule. The 
fact is, the more nefarious his purpose, the more 
important his mission, the less likely we are to 
know about it ; and even if we do know we would, 
in all probability, not be in a position to document 
it for the open record. Our foreign intelligence 
depends in large measure upon the close coopera- 
tion with other friendly governments, and we can- 
not afford to prejudice our arrangements in this 
area. We must be able to anticipate harm to our 
foreign relations and our national security. The 
action we take is and should be preventive and not 
punitive. 

Safeguarding Interests of Individual Applicants 

A few words about the often misunderstood but 
important aspect of confidential information. We 
certainly do not seek legislative authority to avoid 
all confrontation and to rely absolutely on con- 

167 



fidential information which the applicant would 
have no opportunity to rebut. On the other hand, 
from our experience and careful analysis of past 
cases we know that legislation which would pre- 
vent us from utilizing any confidential information 
whatsoever or I'equiring full confrontation would 
place the Department in an impossible position 
with regard to Communist passport applicants. 
Such legislation would be meaningless and would 
indeed generate the dangerous illusion that travel 
of Communists was controllable when in actual 
operation it would not be. 

Almost without exception the really dangerous 
cases in the Communist area involve some informa- 
tion from highly confidential sources, the dis- 
closure of the full details of which would serve 
to compromise the source. It is somewhat of an 
anomaly that the more recent, the more meaning- 
ful the information of this type, the less likely we 
are to be able to disclose the source or the full de- 
tails. This is true because the best information, 
the most current intelligence, comes from sources 
within the Communist movement itself. If we 
were placed in the position of having to choose 
between exposing or compromising a current and 
continuing source of information about the activi- 
ties of the Communist conspiracy and issuing a 
passport to an individual member of that con- 
spiracy, the Department would in most cases have 
no alternative but to issue the passport. 

National security often will not permit the sur- 
facing of such valuable sources for the sake of 
individual administrative proceedings. A proce- 
dure which requires it, in effect, guarantees the 
most dedicated and dangerous Communist a right 
to travel. The same situation obtains with re- 
gard to highly sensitive information obtained from 
foreign sources or our own diplomatic and consular 
representatives abroad. 

However, even with regard to this kind of in- 
formation we have not operated, nor do we propose 
to operate, in an unrestricted manner. If the full 
disclosure of information and the sources thereof 
would not, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, 
have a substantial adverse effect upon the national 
security or the conduct of foreign relations, then 
the Department would either disclose both or not 
rely upon the information. Under existing case 
law there must be findings of fact by the Secretary 
of State and these findings must state the extent 
to which they are based upon confidential informa- 



tion and must set forth specifically tl\e reasons why 
such information cannot be fully disclosed. This 
procedure would be continued. Under this require- 
ment the Secretary could hardly, even if he were 
so disposed, render a decision based on malicious 
whisperings. 

In any event the Department is prepared to do 
its utmost to safeguard the interests of the indi- 
vidual applicant. Accordingly it would provide 
the passport applicant with a fair resume of any 
confidential evidence which could not be disclosed 
fully. The applicant would then have adequate 
notice of the points in issue and would be given 
an opportunity to rebut this information. 

I believe that when the Secretary of State as- 
serts that he cannot spread certain information 
on an open record, explains with as much par- 
ticularity as possible the reasons he cannot do so, 
furnishes a fair summary of the information, and 
makes specific findings of fact, we should rely on 
the Secretary's integrity and accept his statement. 

Oath Requirements 

Lastly, there should be legislative approval of a 
reasonable oath requirement as to present or near- 
past Communist Party membership. Of course, 
if we receive legislative authorization to deny 
passports to these persons actively engaged in the 
Communist conspiracy, we would no doubt have 
legal authority to require an appropriate affidavit 
by departmental regulations. We think it de- 
sirable, however, to have a clear expression of 
congressional approval on this subject. 

The oath requirement under our now defunct 
regulations was very helpful to us. So long as 
the requirement is reasonable and pertinent to 
the criteria for the denial of a passport, we see 
no reason why such an affidavit should not be 
furnished in connection with the application. We 
do not believe that it infringes unduly on the 
rights of one seeking a passport to require such 
an affidavit to help expedite the processing of 
applications. We have never employed, nor do 
we seek legislative approval to employ, a so-called 
"test" oath. The affidavit would not have to be 
answered in any particular way in order for the 
applicant to receive a passport. Nor would any 
particular answer cut short the administrative 
procedure open to the applicant. His answer 
would be merely another factor in the considera- 
tion of his case on the merits. All we ask is the 



168 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



right to request a simple statement from the appli- 
cant as a prerequisite to proceeding further with 
the consideration of his case. 

The Bills Under Consideration 

I would now like, with the committee's per- 
mission, to comment briefly on the bills which 
are before you. 

S.1973 

S. 1973 would extend the initial period of 
validity of the passport from 2 years to 3 years, 
making the maximum period of validity 5 years 
instead of 4 years. The Department has ad- 
vised the committee that it favors the enactment 
of S. 1973 into law. This proposal is in general 
accord with the recommendations of the Randall 
report to the President on international travel.' 
This extension of the life of the passport would 
be of considerable benefit to the traveling public 
and, of course, would cut down on the workload 
of the Passport OfBce. Moreover, the 3-year 
period of original validity and the 2-year period 
of renewal conform to the periods of foreign 
residence for loss of nationality by naturalized 
citizens under the Immigration and Nationality 
Act. 

S. 806 

This bill would not only fail to provide legis- 
lative authority to the Secretary of State to deny 
passports to active Communists but would require 
him to issue passports to such persons within 30 
days of application. In addition the bill would 
deprive the Secretary of State of all authority 
over the passport-issuing function on the basis of 
his delegated responsibility for the conduct of for- 
eign relations, authority recently upheld by the 
Court of Appeals and which was not at issue in 
the Supreme Court cases of last Jime. Accord- 
ingly, the Department is strongly opposed to any 
bill which would in effect abolish all autliority 
over the issuance of passports except in time of 
actual hostilities. This bill, we believe, would 
seriously handicap the conduct of our foreign 
relations. 

S. 2287 

The Department's views on S. 2287 were re- 
quested just last week. Although we have not 



' H. Doc. 381, 85th Cong., 2d sess. Clarence B. Randall 
la Special Assistant to the President for Foreign Economic 
Policy. 



had an opportunity thoroughly to analyze the 
bill, it appears to be a revision of S. 2770 intro- 
duced in the 85th Congress. While the preamble 
of this new bill states that it is designed to pro- 
mote the foreign policy of the United States, we 
believe the bill itself would severely restrict the 
existing authority of the Secretary of State to 
act on considerations of foreign policy in the pass- 
port field. 

Since commenting on S. 2770 in the 85th Con- 
gress, there have been no developments that have 
in any way lessened the Department's conviction 
that the Secretary of State may deny passports 
on the basis of anticipated harm to the foreign 
relations of the United States or that have weak- 
ened the Department's opposition to legislation 
depriving the President's chief officer concerned 
with foreign affairs of such authority. In fact, 
the United States Court of Appeals for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia in the case of Worthy v. Herter 
recently upheld the Secretary of State's denial of 
a passport to an individual on the basis of the 
belief that he would travel to areas for which his 
passport was not valid and thereby prejudice the 
conduct of our foreign relations. 

Of no less importance is the failure of S. 2287 
effectively to provide for the denial of passports 
to Communists. Although the bill contains a pro- 
vision for denial of passports on grounds of na- 
tional security, it rather closely follows the 
recommendations of the New York City Bar As- 
sociation report. That report made it clear that 
travel should not be restrained on the basis of 
membership in the Communist party or any other 
organization and that their recommended provi- 
sions envisage an "evidentiary showing that travel 
of a particular individual will constitute a defin- 
able danger to the national security of the United 
States." 

For the reasons I have already discussed, such 
a showing would be virtually impossible to make 
in almost any Communist case or, for that matter, 
even in the criminal-type cases against which S. 
2287 appears to be directed. 

S. 2315 

The Department has strongly supported a sim- 
ilar bill in comments to the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee of the House. We believe that S. 2315 
is a bill which would give the Department the leg- 
islative authority it needs to deny passports to 
those persons currently engaged in Communist 



Augusf 3, 1959 



169 



activities. The Department strongly supports the 
enactment of S. 2315 into law and hopes this com- 
mittee will report it favorably to the Senate. 

The Attorney General has advised me that the 
Department of Justice shares the view of the De- 
partment of State that the enactment of legisla- 
tion along tlie more comprehensive lines of the 
administration's bill in the last Congress would 
be preferable. However, he agrees with us that 
our most urgent current problem in the passport 
field is the lack of congressional authority to deny 
passports to those persons in situations where 
information establishes that their travel abroad 
would constitute a real danger to the United 
States. Accordingly, if the Congress decides to 
enact legislation dealing with this narrower prob- 
lem, the Attorney General informed me that his 
Department joins with the Department of State 
in supporting the provisions of S. 2315 and be- 
lieves it would supply statutory authority found 
lacking by the Supreme Court in tlie Kent-Briehl 
and Dayton cases. 



The Attorney General commented that his De- 
partment might have certain technical questions 
to suggest in S. 2315 in the event the committee 
requests his comment on tlie bill. However, he 
and I were certain from our discussion that there 
would be no important difference of views between 
the Justice Department and the Department of 
State on any such technical points. 

In summary I hope I have made clear the De- 
partment's earnest desire to establish a fair ad- 
ministrative process by which we can achieve a 
balance between danger to the security of the 
United States and the citizen's right not to have 
his freedom of movement unreasonably restricted. 
We seek only the means to protect the United 
States by denying passports to those relatively 
few citizens who are knowingly engaged in the 
activities of the Communist conspiracy and whose 
travel abroad would thus be likely to impair the 
security of the United States. 



Department Urges Ratification of Two Broadcasting Agreements 



FoUoiving is a statement hy W. T. M. Beale, 
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, 
made on July 9 before a subcommittee of the Sen- 
ate Committee on Foreign Relations con~sidering 
the North American Regional Broadcasting 
AgrecTnent (S. Ex. A, 8M Gong., 1st sess.) and 
the U.S.-Mexican Broadcasting Agreement {S. 
Ex. G, 85th Cong., 1st sess.)."^ 



STATEMENT BY MR. BEALE 

Press release 497 dated July 9 

The Department of State appreciates this op- 
portunity to bring again to the attention of the 
committee tiie need for ratification of these two 
standard broadcasting band agreements. We be- 
lieve that the major issues which previously 
caused a postponement of action on advice and 
consent to ratification liave now been resolved and 
trust that a favorable decision can now be made. 
My Department sent a letter = on April 30 to Sen- 
ator Fulbright again supporting the need for the 



United States to become a party to these two 
agreements. 

It is probably unnecessary to reiterate the state- 
ments made previously by representatives of my 
Depai'tment as they are in the committee records, 
but I would like to describe the treaties briefly 
and emphasize a few points. They relate to the 
use of the standard broadcasting band (535 to 
1605 kc.) and are essential to the orderly develop- 
ment of this broadcasting service in each coimtry, 
especially the United States, where there are more 
than 3,500 stations. 

The Noi-th American region consists of the 
Bahama Islands, Jamaica, Canada. Cuba, the 
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, and the 
United States. All of these countries except Haiti 
and Mexico signed the proposed NARBA. Cuba 
and Canada have ratified. If the Ignited States 
now ratifies, the NARBA treaty will come into 
force within 15 days after the deposit of ratifica- 
tion, and it is expected that the i-emaining coun- 



' For background, .see Bulleti.v of Aug. 5. 1957, p. 242, 
' Not printed here. 



170 



Department of State Bulletin 



tries will ratify. Mexico, wliich does not plan to 
adliere to the present NARBA, has entered into 
the pending bilateral agreement with the United 
States, and the Department is informed that, if the 
United States ratifies this agreement during this 
session of Congress, Mexico can ratify in Septem- 
ber. Canada ratified with a reservation in regard 
to Canadian use of power greater than the maxi- 
mum permitted under the NARBA on certain 
channels. This reservation creates no ditKculties 
for the United States since it provides that stations 
on the same or adjacent channels will be protected 
from the increase in power. Moreover, Canadian 
officials discussed this matter informally with 
United States officials prior to making the reserva- 
tion and received assurance that it would not ad- 
versely affect United States interests. 

All parties to that treaty have, in anticipation of 
its coming into force, endeavored to do nothing 
contraiy to its terms during the time since it was 
signed. In certain instances, however, borderline 
cases have permitted apparent deviations for 
which there is no efl'ective legal remedy in the ab- 
sence of the treaty. The longer these deviations 
remain uncorrected, the more others are en- 
couraged to attempt further deviations. It is as 
though traiKc police were withdrawn from a dan- 
gerous stretch of highway. For a while there is 
little change in the traffic situation because the 
travelers expect the police to return. The longer 
they are away, however, the moi'e violations will 
occur even though the laws are still "on the books." 

Because of the passage of time and the continued 
growth of broadcasting in all countries of the 
region, the problems have become even more com- 
plex and the stabilizing influence of the treaties is 
even more essential to their satisfactory solution. 
Those concerned are convinced that they have 
negotiated the best possible agreements under the 
circumstances. In the opinion of my Department 
the effect of continued delay will be the same as 
outright refusal to permit ratification. 

The factors which have, heretofore, raised ques- 
tions about ratification all related to the clear 
channels (classes 1-A and 1-B). At first the 
Clear Channel Broadcasting Service and a few 
fann gi-oups did not wish ratification in the ab- 
sence of an agreement with Mexico on broadcast- 
ing. Later, the United States having concluded 
the agreement with Mexico now before this com- 
mittee, the opposition of the CCBS was with- 



drawn. However, some of those persons operat- 
ing stations only during the daytime on the Mex- 
ican clear channels opposed ratification of the 
agreement with Mexico because it does not meet 
their desires in extending their operations. 

Throughout the protracted negotiations for the 
NARBA and the Mexican agreement, my Depart- 
ment and the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion have worked together very closely. The 
United States broadcasting industry has been fully 
consulted, and many representatives of the in- 
dustry have participated in the negotiations as 
advisers to the United States delegation. We be- 
lieve that the agreements continue to have wide- 
spread support in the industry. 

Neither the Commission nor my Department 
will claim that these agreements fully meet the 
desires of every single standard-band broadcast- 
ing station in the United States. We do believe 
that the stability and the protection from future 
interference that will result will be of benefit to 
all. The negotiation of agreements in this field 
is not a simple matter. The standard broadcast 
band is limited. Each comitry wants more of it 
than can be arranged. The result is, of necessity, 
a compromise. 

I urge the committee to keep in mind the fact 
that without such an agreement there is no assur- 
ance that any channel can be free of interference 
from a foreign station. Without the legal basis 
provided by the agreements there are no agreed- 
upon norms for making station assignments or 
evaluating interference. Thus, in the absence of 
agreement, if interference does occur from foreign 
stations it will be difficult, if not impossible, for 
my Department to protect United States broad- 
casting. We trust tliis committee will find, on full 
review of the facts, that these proposed treaties 
are in the best intei'ests of the United States; that 
they adequately protect the listening public; and 
that they do so with a minimum of change for 
the broadcasting industry of this comitry. 

When my predecessor appeared on behalf of the 
Department at the last hearing he presented a 
brief history of the previous agreements in the 
North American region and of the negotiating 
history of the proposed NARBA and the Mexican 
agreement. This history has been brought up to 
date, and I would like to submit a copy for the 
record at this time. 



August 3, J 959 



171 



NEGOTIATING HISTORY^ 

Negotiating History of the North American Regional 
Broadcasting Agreement, 1950 and the U.S./Mexican 
Broadcasting Agreement, 1957 

The series of negotiations pursuant to the new NAEBA 
were as follows : 

a. Meeting of Technicians at Habana, Cuba, Nov. l-Dec. 
6, 1947. 

b. Trip of Ambassador Albert F. Nufer (State) and 
Commissioner George E. Sterling (FCC) to Habana, Cuba, 
Sept. S-10, 1949 to discuss forthcoming NARBA Conference 
with Cuban Minister of State and other Cuban officials. 

c. First session of the third NARBA Conference, Mont- 
real, Canada, Sept. 13-Dec. S, 1949 (Recessed without 
reaching agreement due to differences between the United 
States and Cuba over station assignments). 

d. U.S. Delegation spent Feb. l-Mar. 24, 1950, in Habana, 
in an unsuccessful effort to reconcile U.S./Ouban 
differences. 

e. Second session of the NARBA Conference, Washing- 
ton, D.C., Sept. 6-Nov. 1.5, 1950 (Agreement reached and 
signed on November 15, 1950, by all iiarties except Mexico 
and Haiti). 

f. A subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee, under the chairmanship of the late Senator Tobey, 
held hearings on the NARBA, July S-9-10, 1953. 

g. A .sulicommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee under the chairmanship of Senator Fulbright held 
hearings on the NARBA and the U.S. /Mexican Broadcast- 
ing Agreement, July 11, 1957. 

The series of negotiations pursuant to the U.S. /Mexican 
Broadcasting Agreement was as follows : 

a. Second session NARBA Conference, Washington, 
D.C., Sept. 6-Nov. 15, 1950 (On October 18, 19.50, Mexico 
withdrew from the Conference, prior to its conclusion and 
without reaching any agreement). 

b. Conference at Mexico City, February 2-9, 1952. 

c. Conference at Washington, D.C., March 29-April 2, 
1954. 

d. Conference at Mexico City, Nov. 4-Dec. 17, 1954. 

e. Conference at Washington, D.C., July 7-28, 1955. 

f. Negotiations by Commissioner Hyde at Mexico City, 
Oct. 16-29, 1956. 

g. Agreement signed at Mexico City, January 29, 1957. 
h. Hearing before subcommittee of the Senate Foreign 

Relations Committee together with consideration of the 
1950 NARBA, July 11, 1957. 

Since the previous hearings the Federal Communications 
Commission has taken the following actions: 

a. Issued Report and Order dated September 19, 1958, 
denying the petition of the daytime operators on clear 
channels which would have permitted their ojieration from 
5 A.M. or sunrise (whichever is earlier) until 7 P.M. or 
sunset (whichever is later). The largest impact of this 
decision affects daytime operators on U.S. clear channels, 
however. 



b. Issued Public Notice dated July 2, 1959, indicating the 
Commission's intention to deny a further petition of the 
daytime operators which would have i)ermittetl their 
operation from 6 A.M. or sunrise (whichever is earlier) 
until 6 P.M. or sunset (whichever is later). The same 
group of oijerators is involved as that mentioned in a. 
above. 



Participation in Wheat and Sugar 
Agreements Supported 

Statement iy Thomas C. Mann 

Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 

My name is Thomas C. iSIann. As Assistant 
Secretary of State for Economic Ati'airs, I am 
appearing before the committee today in support 
of the continued participation of the United States 
in the International "Wlieat Agreement - and the 
International Sugar Agreement.^ 

Botli the wheat and sugar agreements have now 
been in operation for a number of years. The first 
wheat agreement became effective in 1949. United 
States participation in an inteniational sugar 
agreement has an even longer history and goes 
b£ick to 1937. The United States has played a lead- 
ing role in the negotiations toward these commod- 
ity agreements, and we now have considerable 
experience in their operation. These two commod- 
ities seem to be particularly needful of interna- 
tional measures to assure market stability, and it 
is noteworthy that an increasing number of gov- 
ernments are giving their support to these agi'ee- 
ments. 

I do not believe that anyone would contend that 
these agreements have fully solved the problems 
which over the years have troubled international 
trade in these two important commodities. They 
have, however, resulted in greater market stabil- 
ity than would have been possible without them. 
They provide a framework within which trade 
may take place imder internationall}' agreed rules 
and within a price range whicli is agreed as fair 
and equitable by both producers and consumers. 
These agreements are of major significance to 
countries wliich are dependent on export earnings 
from tliese commodities for a substantial part of 



' Submitted by Mr. Beale for the record of the hearings. 
172 



^ Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on July 14 (press release 514). 
- S. Ex. 10, 86th Cong., 1st sess. 
' S. Ex. D, 86th Cong., 1st sess. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



International Wheat Agreement 
Enters Into Force 

Press release 527 dated July 17 

The International Wheat Agreement, 1959, has 
been brought into force as a result of action tal£en 
by interested governments through July 16, 1959. 

The agreement was formulated at the United Na- 
tions Wheat Conference, which concluded at Geneva 
on March 10, 1959. It was open for signature in 
Washinston April 6-24 and was signed during that 
period in behalf of the United States and 34 other 
countries.' It was transmitted to the Senate by the 
President on June 1, 1959, for advice and consent to 
ratification.' On July 15 the Senate gave such ad- 
vice and consent. The instrument of ratification 
constituting acceptance of the agreement by the 
United States was signed by the President on July 
16 and deposited on that date. 

It is provided in article 35 of the agreement that 
it shall be subject to acceptance or accession by 
governments concerned and that instruments of ac- 
ceptance or accession by such governments shall be 
deposited with the United States Government. It 
is provided that part I and parts III to VIII of the 
agreement shall enter into force on July 16 and part 
II on August 1 between those governments which 
have by July 16 accepted or acceded, pursuant to 
sisecified provisions, provided that such governments 
hold not less than two-thirds of the votes of export- 
ing countries and not less than two-thirds of the 
votes of importing countries in accordance with the 
distribution of votes established in articles 24 and 
25. It is provided further that if any of the govern- 
ments concerned gives on or before July 16 a notifi- 
cation of intention to accept or accede, followed by 
the deposit of an instrument of acceptance or acces- 
sion not later than December 1, 1959, in fulfillment 
of that intention, such notification shall be deemed 
to constitute acceptance or accession on July 16 for 
the purposes of article 35. 

Of the nine exporting countries named in article 24 
of the agreement, instruments of acceptance were 
deposited on or before July 16 by three, namely, the 



' Bulletin of June 8, 1959, p. 853. 
" S. Ex. E, S6th Cong., 1st sess. 



United States, Canada, and France, and notifications 
of intention were given on or before July 16 by six, 
namely, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, 
and Sweden. The United States and Canada to- 
gether hold more than two-thirds of the votes of 
exporting countries. 

Of the 30 importing countries named in article 
25 of the agreement, instruments of acceptance or 
accession were deposited on or before July 16 by 
10, namely, Austria, Federation of Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland, India, New Zealand, Norway, Switzer- 
land, Union of South Africa, United Arab Republic, 
United Kingdom, and Vatican City, and notifica- 
tions of intention were given on or before July 16 
by 19, namely, Belgium (for Belgium and Luxem- 
bourg, Belgian Congo, and Ruanda-Urundi), Brazil, 
Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Federal Re- 
public of Germany, Greece, Haiti, Indonesia, Ire- 
land, Israel, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Peru, 
Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Venezu- 
ela. Importing countries which have either depcs- 
ited instruments of acceptance or accession or given 
notifications of intention hold more than two-thirds 
of the votes of importing countries. 

The 1956 wheat agreement, presently in force, 
will expire by its own terms July 31, 1959. The 
International Wheat Agreement, 1959, is a 3-year 
agreement like that of 1956. The objectives of the 
agreement, as stated in article 1, are: (a) to as- 
sure supplies of wheat and wheat-flour to importing 
countries and markets for wheat and wheat-flour to 
exporting countries at equitable and stable prices ; 
(b) to promote the expansion of the international 
trade in wheat and wheat-flour and to secure the 
freest possible flow of this trade in the interests 
of both exporting and importing countries; (c) to 
overcome the serious hardship caused to producers 
and consumers by burdensome surpluses and criti- 
cal shortages of wheat; (d) to encourage the use 
and consumption of wheat and wheat-flour gener- 
ally, and in particular, so as to improve health and 
nutrition, in countries where the possibility of in- 
creased consumption exists; and (e) in general to 
further international cooperation in connection 
with world wheat problems, recognizing the rela- 
tionship of the trade in wheat to the economic sta- 
bility of markets for other agricultural products. 



their livelihood. In contributing to the financial 
stability of such countries, they help to promote 
internationally more stable political conditions 
than might otherwise prevail. 

These agreements serve also another important 
function in international relations. I have in 
mind in tliis connection the fact that the commod- 
ity councils which are established to operate them 
provide forums where the participating countries 
mav review and discuss their difficulties. In thus 



arriving at a common understanding of the causes 
of their difficulties and of how their problems are 
related, such countries, instead of blaming each 
other, are more likely to cooperate further toward 
attaining basic solutions which are of mutual bene- 
fit to all concerned. 

The new wheat and sugar agreements which are 
under consideration contain a number of changes 
which have already been described. We believe 
these changes represent substantial improvements 



August 3, 1959 



173 



and will inci-ease the efficiency of the agreements. from the standpoint of its foreign relations to 

The Department of State believes that it would continue our participation in these agi-eements and 

be to the advantage of the United States both recommends their favorable consideration by this 

from the standpoint of its domestic interests and committee. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings ' 

Adjourned During July 1959 

6th International Electronic and Nuclear Exhibit and Congress . . Rome June 15-July 5 

ICAO Assembly: 12th Session San Diego June 16-July 9 

ICAO Meteorological Operational Telecommunications Network Paris June 22-July 4 

Europe Panel. 

9th International Berlin Film Festival Berlin June 26-July 7 

15th International Dairy Congress London June 29-July 3 

U.N. ECE Special Meeting on Organization and Techniques of Geneva June 29-July 3 

Foreign Trade (including payments). 

FAO Desert Locust Control Committee: 6th Session Rome June 29-July 4 

GATT Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions Geneva June 29-July 11 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 28th Session Geneva June 30-July 31 

Conference on Prevention of Oil Pollution of the Seas Copenhagen July 3-4 

Caribbean Commission: 3d Caribbean Fisheries Seminar St. Maarten, Netherlands An- July 3-8 

tilles. 

IAEA Seminar on Training of Specialists in the Peaceful Use-s of Saclay, France July 6-10 

Atomic Energy. 

I MCO Council: 2d Session London July 6-10 

International Seed Testing Association: 12th Congress Oslo July 6-11 

U.N. Seminar on Urbanization in Latin America Santiago Julv 6-8 

UNESCO/IBE: 22d International Conference on Public Education. Geneva July 6-15 

FAO European Forestrv Commission: 10th Session Rome Julv 7-13 

IBE Council: 25th Session Geneva July 11 (1 day) 

Inter-American Indian Institute: Governing Board Mexico, D.P July 16 (1 day) 

International Wheat Council: 26th and 27th Sessions London Julv 16-19 

PAIGH Directing Council: 4th Meeting Mexico, D.F July 20-30 

In Session as of July 31, 1959 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

PAHO Subcommittee To Study the Constitution and Rules of Washington Apr. 13- 

Procedure. 

Meeting of Foreign Ministers Geneva May 1 1- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 24th Session New York June 2- 

Venice Film Festival Venice July 2- 

ICAO Airworthiness Committee: 3d Meeting Stockholm July 14- 

West Indian Conference: Special Session St. Thomas, Virgin Islands . . July 28- 

Scheduled August 1 Through October 31, 1959 

Caribbean Commission: 28th Meeting St. Thomas, Virgin Islands . . Aug. 8- 

2d General Assembly of the International Union of Physiological Buenos Aires Aug. 9- 

Sciences and 21st international Congress of Physiology. 

Commonwealth Survey Officers: Military Survey and Mapping England Aug. 11- 

Conference. 

Commonwealth Survey Officers Cambridge, England Aug. 17- 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, July 16, 1959. Following i.s a list of abbreviations: EC.\FE 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; FAO, Food and .Agriculture 
Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; I.\E.\, International Atomic Energy .\gency; IBE, 
International Bureau of Education; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee for European Migration; ILO, International Labor Organization; I MCO, Intergovernmontal ftlaritime Consulta- 
tive Organization; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; PAHO, Pan .Vmerican Health Organization: PAIGH, 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations ICducational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization; 
WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 

174 Deparlment of State Bulletin 



FAO Group on Coconut and Coconut Products: 2d Session of Colombo Aug. 17- 

Workiiif; Party on Copra Quality and Grading. 

ITU Administrative Radio Conforonce Geneva Aug. 17- 

ICAO Legal Committee: 12th Session Munich Aug. 18- 

13th Annual Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh Aug. 23- 

Inter-.\merican Council of Jurists: 4th Session Santiago Aug. 24- 

Interparliamentary Union: 48th Conference Warsaw Aug. 25- 

17th International" Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry . . . Munich Aug. 30- 

U.N. Seminar on Judicial and Other Remedies Against Abuse of Buenos Aires Aug. 31- 

Adtninistrative Authority. 

IC.\() Meteorological Division: 5th Session (joint session with Montreal Sept. 1- 

WMO Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology). 

International Union of History and Philosophy of Science: 1st Barcelona Sept. 1- 

General As.scmbly. 

IAEA Conference on the Application of Large Radiation Sources Warsaw Sept. 5- 

in Industry. 

International Astronomical Union: Executive Committee .... Herstmonceux, England . . . Sept. 7- 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: Work- New Delhi Sept. 7- 

ing Party on Earthmoving Operations. 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York Sept. 8- 

Pau American Highway Congresses: Technical Committee of Ex- Rio do Janeiro Sept. 14- 

perts on Planning. 

IAEA Board of Governors Vienna Sept. 15- 

U.N. General Assembly: 14th Session New York Sept. 15- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Bangkok Sept. 15- 

Planning: 5th Session. 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 10th Session . . . Taipei Sept. 16- 

PAHO Directing Council: 11th Meeting Washington Sept. 21- 

11th International Road Congress Rio de Janeiro Sept. 21- 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: Working Party on Geneva Sept. 21- 

Transport of Dangerous Goods. 

IAEA General Conference: 3d Regular Session Vienna Sept. 22- 

FAO Expert Meeting on Fisheries Statistics in North Atlantic Area. Edinburgh Sept. 22- 

FAO International Poplar Commission and 7th International Rome Sept. 23- 

Poplar Congress. 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Inter- Washington Sept. 28- 

national Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation: 

Annual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

ICAO Jet Operations Requirements Panel: 4th Meeting Montreal Sept. 28- 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: 7th Tokyo Sept. 29- 

Session of the Subcommittee on Electric Power. 

PAHO Executive Committee: 38th Meeting Washington September 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 47th Annual Copenhagen Oct. 5- 

Meeting. 

Baghdad Pact Ministerial Council: 7th Meeting Washington Oct. 7- 

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Com- Geneva Oct. 7- 

missioner for Refugees. 

9th International Congress of Vineyards and Wines Algiers Oct. 8- 

South Pacific Commission: 20th Session Noum6a, New Caledonia . . . Oct. 10- 

GATT Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions undetermined Oct. 12- 

ILO Panel of Consultants on Women's Work Geneva . Oct. 12- 

U.N. ECE Timber Committee: 17th Session Geneva Oct. 12- 

lAEA Symposium on Meteorology of Radionuclides Vienna Oct. 14- 

ITU Plenipotentiary Conference Geneva Oct. 14- 

International Conference on Antarctica Washington Oct. 15- 

ILO Building, Civil Engineering, and Public Works Committee: Geneva Oct. 19- 

6th Session. 

U.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians: Working Group Geneva Oct. 19- 

on Statistics of Private Consumption Expenditure. 

ICEM Executive Committee: 13th Session Geneva Oct. 20- 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 32d Session Rome Oct. 22- 

Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Development 

in South and Southeast Asia ("Colombo Plan"): 11th Meeting. 

Officials Meeting Jogjakarta Oct. 26- 

Ministerial Meeting Jogjakarta Nov. 10- 

GATT Contracting Parties: 15th Session Tokvo Oct. 26- 

GATT Working Party on Commodities Tokvo Oct. 26- 

U.N. ECE Committee on Development of Trade and East- West Geneva Oct. 26- 

Trade Consultations. 

U.N. Scientific Advisory Committee New York Oct. 2S- 

FAO Council: 32d Session Rome Oct. 29- 

ICEM Council: nth Session Geneva Oct. 29- 

PAHO Executive Committee: 39th Meeting Washington October 

U.N. EC.\FE Committee on Inland Transport and Communica- Lahore October 

tions: 6th Session of the Railway Subcommittee. 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Copyright Committee: 4th Session . Munich October 



August 3, 1959 US 



Recent Economic Developments in the United States 



Statement hy Christopher H. PhilUps 

U.S. Representative on the U.N. Economic and Social Council ^ 



When we discussed the world economic situation 
a year ago, the prevailing note in this Council was 
one of misgiving and even gloom. Fears were 
expressed that the recession in the United States 
would last much longer and cut much deeper than 
the two mild downturns that the United States had 
previously experienced in the postwar period. The 
impact on the primary producing countries was 
expected to be prolonged and severe. There was 
concern that the gains achieved by the world 
economy during the past decade would be im- 
paired and that future progress would be long 
delayed. 

The Council may recall, Mr. President, that I 
was not among the Cassandras. In my statement 
on the world economic situation last year ^ I pre- 
sented a forthright account of the nature of the 
United States recession which began in September 
1957 and of the factors which contributed to it. At 
the same time, however, I stated that there was 
strong reason to believe that the decline had been 
halted and would soon be followed by recovery. 
The facts have fully justified this optimism. The 
bottom of the recession was reached as early as 
April 1958. Though the contraction was some- 
what sharper than the two previous downswings, 
this recession proved even shorter. The subsequent 
recovery has raised economic activity in the United 
States to new alltime highs. Western Europe, 
which experienced an even milder and briefer set- 
back, has shared in the advance. While prices for 
certain raw materials, particularly those in chronic 
surplus, still remain depressed, for many other 



' Made before the 28th session of the Council at Geneva, 
Switzerland, on July 7. 
" For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 1, 1958, p. 351. 



176 



commodities prices have strengthened, bringing 
prospects of improved export earnings to a large 
number of primary exporting coimtries. 

Commodity Problems 

Before going into more detail regarding recent 
economic developments in the United States, I 
should like to devote some attention to the sub- 
ject of commodity problems, which is the theme 
of part I of this year's World Economic Survey.^ 
If the Council's annual discussion of the world 
economic situation is to achieve its best possibili- 
ties, it must, in my judgment, involve more than 
a report on current economic trends in our indi- 
vidual countries. It should also aflFord us an 
opportmiity for broadening perspectives, for deep- 
ening knowledge and understanding of the factors 
and forces that shape the evolving patterns of 
the world economy, and for reaching a greater 
measure of agreement as to the potentials and 
limitations of proposed courses of action. 

These are undoubtedly the purposes which the 
secretariat had in mind in preparing part I of 
this year's survey. The task that the authors 
undertook was a difficult one. They hare so dis- 
charged it as to merit our thanks and our com- 
mendation. Wiat they have given us is by no 
means light reading. The phenomena with which 
they dealt are so varied and complex as to limit 
the scope for facile generalizations. They have 
striven to be comprehensive and thorough. 
There are indeed some points where the detail 
may appear excessive. Many of us will doubt- 
less have reservations regarding some aspects of 
the analysis. No one, however, who is willing to 
give part I of the survey — and I say this without 



'U.N. doc. E/3244. 



Department of State Bulletin 



J 



any intention of detracting from the merits of 
the general reviews of current economic trends m 
part II — the careful study it deserves can fail to 
gain a fuller comprehension of and deeper insight 
into wliat is really involved in the so-called 
commodity problem. 

If there is one thing that part I should bring 
home to us with overwhelming force, it is that 
the term "commodity problem" is misleading. 
The sui-vey does, it is true, emphasize, as a cen- 
tral problem, what it terms a "lag" in the long- 
term growth of primary commodity trade. The 
survey stresses also, as a dominant short-term 
problem, instability of this trade, which it re- 
gards as adding to and compounding the long- 
term problem. Nonetheless, the survey makes 
abundantly clear that neither over the long term 
nor the short term is there anything approaching 
a single and clear-cut commodity problem of uni- 
versal application. The commodity problem is, 
in other words, a complex of varied and changing 
problems. Many commodities may at times not 
meet with difficulties that press for some re- 
adjustment or remedial action. Where problems 
in this sense are present, they vary widely as 
among commodities, the countries that trade in 
them, and over time. 

With due recognition of the oversimplification 
involved, it will be convenient to follow the sur- 
vey in speaking of a long-term and a short-term 
commodity problem. 

In connection with the long-term problem, the 
concept of a "lag," which the survey develops in 
a number of different comparisons, involves some 
danger. It suggests some bedevilment of the 
world economy, something inherently unsound in 
its development, because the volume of world 
trade in primary commodities has, for example, 
expanded more slowly than woi'ld manufacturing 
output. 

The incautious reader may accept this connota- 
tion, although I feel confident that the authors of 
the survey did not intend to convey it. They 
show clearly that such a lag is due to varied rea- 
sons, including deep-seated technological and 
structural changes in industry. Under these cir- 
cumstances there are no valid grounds for 
believing that the persistence of the lag is any 
evidence of unsound conditions in the world econ- 
omy or for expecting that primary commodity 
trade in the aggregate should expand in constant 



ratio with world manufacturing activity or some 
similar economic phenomenon. 

The survey stresses, as the most significant form 
of lag, the inadequacy of export earnings from 
primary commodities — with a few exceptions, in- 
cluding petroleum and some nonferrous metals — 
to produce the imports needed to help sustain a 
satisfactory rate of economic development. We 
may readily concede that, notwithstanding all 
that may be done to promote primai-y commodity 
trade, this condition may persist for many under- 
developed countries for some length of time. The 
corollary is simply that export earnings may need 
to be supplemented by outside capital. There is 
nothing new in this circumstance, and I doubt 
whether anytliing is gained by characterizing it 
as a "permanent and growing gap in the balance 
of payments." Outside capital has long played 
an important role in the development process, in- 
cluding the development of countries such as the 
United States and Canada, which are now highly 
industrialized. The role it can and must fulfill 
in the present-day world is fully recognized. I 
need not now elaborate the many channels through 
which capital assistance is being directed to the 
less developed areas. The record of my own 
country in this connection is one of wliich the 
Council is fully aware. 

In relation to the short-term commodity prob- 
lem, the survey adds to the already abundant ex- 
pert testimony that a large part of the instability 
in primary commodity markets — whether meas- 
ured by volmne of trade, commodity prices, or 
export proceeds — stems from the business cycle 
in the industrialized countries. 

The postwar world has succeeded in keeping 
industrial fluctuations to moderate dimensions. 
The knowledge and the instruments are available 
for preventing any future downturn going to 
catastrophic depths. We can therefore hope that 
instability in primai-y commodity markets — gen- 
erally speaking — may continue to be held to more 
modest proportions than they sometimes assumed 
in the past. 

To the extent that control of the business cycle 
may still leave a degree of instability detrimental 
to economies heavily dependent upon the export 
proceeds of one or two commodities, there is, I 
believe, a growing willingness to look to diversifi- 
cation of these economies as the soundest economic 
road to follow. Even if diversification should 
not do much to reduce instability, it can materi- 



August 3, 7959 



177 



ally diminish its impact. Diversification, more- 
over, tends to modify the export-import ratio so 
as to ease the long-term commodity problem. To 
be beneficial, diversification must, of course, pro- 
ceed along lines for which an economy is well 
adapted. Promotion of diversification is essen- 
tially part of the process of development. Every 
step taken to advance economic development, 
whether tlii-ougli national or international action, 
contributes accordingly to the lasting ameliora- 
tion of both the short-term and the long-term com- 
modity problem. 

A program of work has been initiated for the 
CICT [Commission on International Commodity 
Trade] which will include a study of the possible 
national and international techniques for dealing 
with fluctuations in primary commodity markets. 
In view of this circumstance and the fact that the 
report of the CICT will be considered under 
another agenda item, I shall refrain from com- 
ment at this time on the subject of commodity 
agreements or other pertinent commodity schemes. 

Recent Experience of the U.S. Economy 

I return now to the subject of the recent experi- 
ence of the American economy. The recession of 
1957-58 has, happily, passed into history. It dif- 
fered from its postwar predecessors not only in 
being both sharper and shorter but in the some- 
what greater contraction that occurred in fixed in- 
vestment. The speed with which activity turned 
upward again after a 9 months' decline attests to 
the inherent recuperative powers of the free U.S. 
economy, aided by the automatic stabilizers that 
have been built into it. Further strength was in- 
fused into the economy by the stimulating meas- 
ures taken through fiscal and monetary policy. 

The American economy has now gone beyond 
recovery into a new expansion. Economic indi- 
cators have risen to new peaks. Look, for ex- 
ample, at the production indexes. Prior to the 
recession the high for the index of total production 
was 146 (taking 1947-49 as 100). During the 
recession the index fell to a low of 126. By May 
of this year it had advanced to 152. The durable 
goods index had climbed still higher, from a re- 
cession low of 131 to no less than 168. 

The expansion has been carried principally by 
a rise in residential construction, in Government 
expenditures, and by a sharp reversal of tlie trend 
in inventories from rapid deciinuilation to some 



degree of accumulation. Personal consumption 
has advanced considerably, in particular the con- 
sumption of durable goods. 

Laggards in the expansion have been exports 
and, to a lesser degree, business investment in plant 
and equipment. The relatively slow advance of 
plant and equipment spending is to be expected 
in view of the great capacity increases that oc- 
curred during the years preceding the recession. 
Nevertheless, recent surveys show that investment 
plans are being revised upward and that an in- 
crease in these expenditures of at least 7 percent 
over 1958 can be anticipated. 

Agriculture may be expected to provide some- 
what less support to the economy than it did in 
1958, when farm prices were rising. The reason 
for this is to be found mainly in somewhat lower 
farm prices and lower Government payments to 
farmers. 

For 2 years prior to the recession, unemployment 
had remained close to 2.8 million, or 4.2 percent 
of the civilian labor force. This was not much 
above the proportion of workers who, in the best 
of times, are changing jobs or looking for first 
jobs. During the recession unemployment in- 
creased to over 5 million, approaching 8 percent 
of the labor force. By comparison with the 
strengtli of the recovery, improvement in tlie em- 
ployment situation was relatively slow. Since last 
March, however, unemployment has dropped 
sharply, falling in May below 5 percent. In manu- 
facturing, weekly hours worked have gone beyond 
the standard 40-hour level and average weekly 
earnings now exceed $90. 

During the past year significant consumer price 
increases have occurred only in the cost of trans- 
portation, chiefly automobiles, and in medical care. 
These increases have been counterbalanced by a 
downtrend in food prices, with the result that the 
consumer price index has remained virtually stable. 
Concurrently the wholesale price index has held 
almost equally stable. 

Despite this stability, inflationary pressures are 
present in the economy. Monetarj^ and fiscal poli- 
cies are being shaped to restrain them, and impres- 
sive warnings of the dangers and evils of inflation 
are being disseminated by leaders in many walks 
of life, from the President downward. My Gov- 
ernment has no fear that by checking inflation it 
may check economic growth. On tlie contrary, 
our economic and fiscal advisers are convinced 



178 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



that inflation can only jeopardize and not assist 
healthy economic expansion. I share fully in this 
conviction. Domestic price stability is, I firmly 
believe, not only compatible with growth but a 
primary element in achieving it. 

The U.S. Balance of Payments 

The Council, I feel sure, would not wish me to 
conclude my remarks on the state of the United 
States economy without some reference to recent 
developments in the U.S. international payments 
situation which have attracted wide attention and 
interest. 

Since 1950, with the single exception of 1957, 
U.S. payments for imports, for investment abroad, 
for military expenditui'es, and for foreign aid 
have exceeded foreign payments to the United 
States. As a result there has been a net accumu- 
lation of dollars by other countries which, in cer- 
tain years, have used part of their dollar balances 
to purchase gold from the United States. This 
development, following a drastic decline in gold- 
dollar reserves of the rest of the world in the early 
postwar years, was a notable reflection of the 
growing strength of the world economy. The 
replenishment of foreign reserves facilitated the 
expansion of world trade, the reduction of trade 
barriers, and a lessening of discrimination against 
dollar goods. 

The U.S. balance-of -payments position in 1957 
involved some special factors. The dominant ele- 
ment was tlie upsurge of U.S. commodity exports 
to a record height. We met abnormal demands 
abroad for agricultural commodities — chiefly cot- 
ton and wheat — and, to relieve shortages follow- 
ing the closing of the Suez Canal, for oil. 

Concurrently with the onset of the recession in 
the United States the situation with respect to 
these temporary factoi-s changed. Foreign grain 
harvests improved ; the need for the accumulation 
of cotton stocks was satisfied ; the Suez Canal was 
reopened ; business activity abroad also slackened. 
Our exports dropped sharply from the swollen 
1957 peak, although they held close to the still 
substantial level of 1956. Imports, meanwhile — 
and this is a point I should particularly like to 
stress — were well maintained. Noteworthy also 
is the fact that we kept up our aid programs. 

Wliile the recession was halted before the mid- 
dle of 1958, accumulations of gold and short-term 
dollar obligations by foreign countries of the free 



world and international institutions amomated to 
over $4 billion, raising their total gold and dollar 
holdings to nearly $37 billion, or twice the post- 
war low of June 1948. Of this increase of $4 
billion, some $2.3 billion represented a gold out- 
flow from the United States — mainly to Western 
Europe. Another billion represented an increase 
in foreign dollar holdings. Tlie remaining mil- 
lions came from new production or other sources 
outside the United States. During the first 5 
mouths of 1959 (to May 20th) there was a fur- 
ther outflow of gold from the United States 
amounting to $34 million. 

The strengthening of reserve positions abroad, 
as a result of the developments I have described, 
helped to make possible the dramatic moves at 
the end of 1958 when several European countries, 
including the United Kingdom, made their cur- 
rencies formally convertible for nonresidents." 
By this convertibility move a substantial advance 
was made toward a sound international monetary 
system. I need hardly mention the importance 
of such a system as a mechanism for facilitating 
the expansion of multilateral world trade, nor the 
global benefits that a healthy trade expansion 
can confer. 

The World Economic Outlook 

The prevailing tone of my statement, Mr. Presi- 
dent, has been one of optimism. There is little 
I need add in further justification of this attitude. 
Wliat are the features of the present economic 
landscape that give us encouragement? In sum- 
maiy they are the following: 

The developed countries generally are progress- 
ing. Their prosperity means good markets for 
the products of the less developed comitries. 
These countries, generally, are also moving for- 
ward though for many of them the rate of ad- 
vance is slower than could be wished. Recognition 
of the vital importance of economic development 
was never greater, more widespread, nor more 
shot through with the resolve to promote all prac- 
tical measures which can contribute to the eco- 
nomic growth of backward economies. Technical 
assistance is expanding. Lessons of self-help are 



* For a statement on "Trade Discrimination and Cur- 
rency Convertibility" made by W. T. M. Beale at the 14th 
session of the Contracting Parties to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade at Geneva on May 11, see 
Bulletin of July 20, 1959, p. 25. 



August 3, 1959 



179 



being learned. Important developments are 
underway in relation to public aid. Eiforts to 
stimulate the flow of private investment are 
strengthening. World trade is progressively being 
made more liberal and more healthily multilateral. 
We live, then, in a world economy stronger now 
than it has ever been in the past. Built into it, 
moreover, is a momentum which warrants bright 
hopes for the future. Men of good will every- 
where can only work and pray that the inter- 
national political climate will be propitious for 
the forward march toward ever-expanding eco- 
nomic goals. 



Togoland Independence 

Statement by Mason Sears 

U.S. Representative on the Trusteeship Council'^ 

The advance of Togoland toward self-govern- 
ment during the last few years has been spec- 
tacular. 

Since World War II — almost overnight — the 
airplane has brought all continents side by side. 
As a result Africa — almost overnight — has be- 
come one of the decisive factors which will shape 
the world's future, although there may be some 
people who do not yet appear to appreciate this 
fact. 

But it is a fact, and one of its features is the 
forthcoming independence of Togoland, which 
after the admission of the Cameroons is expected 
to become the 84th member of the United Nations. 
Nigeria should be the 85th and Somalia the 86th, 
and all in 1960. 

In other words, 1960 will be a big political year 
for Africa. But so will the year after, and the 
year after that, until the full impact of the African 
continent is driven home. 

In the process nobody can be the loser if the 
members of the United Nations — individually and 
collectively and their affiliated organizations — suc- 
ceed in giving proper attention and support to 
those new African states like Togoland whicli will 
be assuming self-government with inevitable regu- 
larity during the next few years. 

Wliile much of the world is torn by the tensions 
and the suspicions of what is called the cold war. 



the continent of Africa is piled high with oppor- 
tunities for Africans to inject new life, new ideas, 
and good will and their latent wealth into the 
international scheme of things. 

That is why we welcome Togoland independ- 
ence, not only for itself but as a symbol of things 
to be expected from Africa and Africans in the 
days to come. Mr. President, as the United States 
delegation indicated yesterday, these are some of 
the reasons why we thank France for what it has 
done to help Togoland and why we hope and 
believe Prime Minister [Sylvanus] Olympio will 
successfully lead his country through the first 
days of its independence toward an ever-improv- 
ing standard of living. 



Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi 

Statement iy Mason Sears 

U.S. Representative on the Trusteeship Council ^ 

Considering all that has been taking place in 
Africa during the last few months— from North 
Africa down to the Congo and on to central and 
southern Africa — it is hard to speak of a specific 
place like the Trust Territory of Euanda-Urundi 
without relating it to the continent as a whole. 
But under the rules and procedures arising out of 
the United Nations Charter it is not permissible 
to stray across certain well-defined boundaries. 

This makes it difficult to speak out as clearly 
and as plainly as one might like. But within the 
rules it is certainly permissible to say that, when 
the record of the closing phase of European trus- i 
teeship in Africa is written, historians will rec- 
ognize the farsightedness of King Baudoin of the 
Belgians and Mr. van Hemelrijck, IVIinister for 
the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. Tliey have won 
the hearts and the confidence of Africans because 
they have understood their problems and have 
sympathized with their aspirations. 

Mr. President, the United Nations visiting mis- 
sion of 1954, on which I was privileged to serve, 
submitted a report on Euanda-Urundi - which at 
the time was considered somewhat controversial. 

This report was very complimentary about the 
numberless contributions which the Belgian Gov- 



' Made before the Council at New York on July 14 
( U.S./U.N. press release 3207 ) . 



^ Made before the Council at New York on June 29 
(U.S./U.N. press release 3201). 
' U.N. doc. T/1168. 



180 



Department of State Bulietin 



ernment was making to the territory in the eco- 
nomic, social, and educational fields. But contro- 
versy arose when the mission expressed the fear 
that the development of political institutions in 
the territory was lagging behind that in some 
other parts of Africa. The mission thought that 
the future stability of the territory would be bet- 
ter safeguarded if the Administering Authority 
could avoid too wide a gap between the political 
development of Ruanda-Urundi and that of other 
neighboring or nearby territories. 

But the events which have been taking place 
since that time have completely dissipated this 
fear. Since that time Belgian policy has demon- 
strated tliat it is capable of exercising a high de- 
gree of flexibility which is enabling it to adapt to 
the growing demands of African nationalism. 

Whereas a few years ago the end of trusteeship 
in Africa was considered to be a generation or 
more away, today it is generally believed that 
there is relatively little time left before the goal 
of self-government or independence is likely to 
be attained in most of the territories. In the case 
of Ruanda-Urundi, because the territory is di- 
vided into the two separate and distinct states, the 
problems involved are of unusual interest and 
complexity. 

Looking toward the future, one can see many 
possible twists and turns in the road ahead. 

For example, will the people be served best by 
promoting the separate development of Ruanda 
and Ur indi, or should they be encouraged to get 
together as a unitary state? 

Again, can the economic and the other benefits, 
which might arise in theory out of a coordinated 
unitary state, be preserved under a federal or- 
ganization in which each state would be sepa- 
rately federated by popular vote with the Belgian 
Congo a neighboring territory? 

Still again, how quickly and in what way 
should the administrative structure of the terri- 
tory which is presently divided between the Bel- 
gian authorities and the Africans be integrated 
and its personnel Africanized? 

Another question is, how soon and by what 
methods can truly African legislatures and subor- 
dinate councils be organized on a democratic basis 
in which the Bhautu and the Batutsi elements of 



the population are democratically and acceptably 
represented? 

Lastly, how rapidly can universal suffrage, the 
foundations for which are already prepared, be 
extended to all elective offices? 

The answer to these and other similar questions 
will determine the future of this most important 
area in Central Africa — an area of 4 million peo- 
ple, which represents the highest density of popu- 
lation on the continent. 

Ordinarily, the United States would like to 
comment on some of these most interesting ques- 
tions, and we would do so were it not for the fact 
that a study group of the Belgian Government 
has just completed its work and will soon report 
its conclusions on most if not all of these matters. 
We shall therefore suspend our comments until 
after the Belgian Government is in receipt of the 
report and we are aware of its contents and its 
influence on Belgian policy. 

In view of the developments which are taking 
place on every border of Ruanda-Urundi, whether 
they result from nationalism or traditionalism, we 
anticipate that the forthcoming report will be not 
only far-reaching in nature but stimulating and 
that it will meet the desires of the responsible 
African leadership in Ruanda-Urundi. 

With respect to the economic situation we be- 
lieve in the rule of thumb that whenever possible 
economic development should be the twin brother 
to political development in the approach of a 
territory toward resiDonsible self-government or 
independence. But here, too, pending publication 
of the study group's report, we have nothing con- 
structive to suggest, particularly as we believe that 
the Belgian Government is doing everything pos- 
sible to build the foundation for an ultimate self- 
sustaining economy for the territory. It is an area 
of great scenic beauty which could truly become 
an African Switzerland, developing from agri- 
culture to tourism to varied industry, just as have 
the Swiss. 

Altogether, Mr. President, it is the opinion of 
the United States delegation that the destiny of 
Ruanda-Urundi, like that of the adjoining Trust 
Territory of Tanganyika, can with a little faith 
and a sincere effort become a stabilizing and en- 
couraging factor in the promotion of responsible 
African self-government far beyond its borders. 



August 3, J 959 



181 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

ITU Administrative Radio Conference 

The Department of State announced on July 
16 (press release 521) the designation of T. A. M. 
Craven, member of the Federal Communications 
Commission, as chairman of the U.S. delegation 
to the Administrative Radio Conference of the 
International Telecommunication Union, which 
will convene at Geneva on August 17. Arthur 
L. Lebel, assistant chief of the Telecommunica- 
tions Division of the Department of State, will 
serve as vice chairman of the delegation. 

The main purpose of the conference is to effect 
a complete revision of the radio regulations, in- 
cluding the table of frequency allocations, the 
preparatory work of which has been in progress 
in the United States for over 2 years. The con- 
ference is scheduled to last for 4 months. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Supplemental income-Tax Convention 
With Belgium Enters Into Force 

Press release 524 dated July IT 

On July 10, 1959, instruments of ratification 
were exchanged at Brussels with respect to the 
convention of August 22, 1957,' between the United 
States and Belgium supplementing the convention 
of October 28, 1948,'^ for the avoidance of double 
taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with 
i-espect to taxes on income, as modified by the sup- 
plementary convention of September 9, 1952.= 

The purpose of the new supplementary conven- 
tion is to facilitate the extension of the 1948 con- 
vention, as modified, to the Belgian Congo and 
the Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi and 
thereby to facilitate investment in those areas. 

The new convention contains five articles. 
Article I amends the defuiition of "Belgian enter- 



' For a message to the Congress from President Eisen- 
hower, a report by the Secretary of State, and text of the 
convention, see Bulletin of Mar. 3, 195S, p. 354. 

' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2833. 



prise" so as to cover any corporation organized or 
created under the laws of Belgium or of the Bel- 
gian Congo and subject to tax under the Belgian 
fiscal law of Jime 21, 1927. Article II precludes 
the Belgian Congo and the Trust Territory of 
Ruanda-Urundi from imposing taxe mobiliere at 
a rate in excess of 15 percent on dividends from 
sources within either of those areas paid to a resi- 
dent or corporation or other entity of the United 
States which does not have a permanent establish- 
ment in such area. Article III makes the exten- 
sion to the Belgian Congo and the Trust Territory 
effective on and after January 1 immediately pre- 
ceding the date on which the United States for- 
mally accepts a Belgian Government notification 
for such extension. Article IV, for clarification, 
defines "overseas territories" in accordance with 
the original intent as applying to any overseas 
territory for the foreign relations of which either 
the United States or Belgium is responsible. 

Article V contains the provisions for ratification 
and exchange of instruments of ratification. As 
a result of these provisions, the supplementary 
convention is effective with respect to taxable years 
beginning on or after January 1, 1959. 

Entry into force of the supplementary conven- 
tion does not, of itself, have the effect of extending 
the operation of the 1948 convention, as modified, 
to the Belgian Congo and the Trust Territory of 
Ruanda-Urundi. Pursuant to article XXII of 
the 1948 convention it is necessary for the United 
States Government to commimicate to the Belgian 
Government a formal acceptance of a notification 
given by the latter. The Belgian Government 
gave such a notification in 1954. Now that the 
supplementary convention of August 22, 1957, has 
been brought into force, it is expected that the 
United States Government's acceptance will be 
communicated to the Belgian Government within 
the next few days. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 

Done at New Yorli .Tune 4, 1054. Entered into force 

September 11, 1!).'")7. TIAS 3S79. 

Notification by I'nitcd Kingdom of extension to: Bar- 
bados, June Ki, 1950. 
Customs convention on temporary importation of private 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 1954. En- 
tered into force December 15, 1957. TIAS 3943. 
Notification by United Kingdom of extension to: Bar- 
bados, June IG, 1959. 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail with final protocol. Done at Ottawa October 3, 
1957. Entered into force April 1, 1959. TIAS 4202. 
Ratifications deposited: New Zealand (including Cook 
Island and Niue, Tokehiu Islands, and Trust Terri- 
tory of Western Samoa), April 6, 1959; Argentina 
(with reservation), Yugoslavia, April 15, 1959; Bye- 
lorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, April 23, 1959; Australia (in- 
cluding Papua, Norfolk Island, Cocos (Keeling) 
Islands, Christmas Island, Heard and McDonald Is- 
lands, Australian Antarctic Territory, and Trust Ter- 
ritory of New Guinea and Nauru), April 29, 1959; 
Austria, May 4, 19.59; France (including Algeria, 
territories represented by the French Overseas 
Postal and Telecommunications Office, and the con- 
dominium of New Hebrides), May 8, 1959; Bulgaria, 
May 13, 1959. 

Shipping 

Convention on the Intergovernmental Maritime Consulta- 
tive Organization. Signed at Geneva March 6, 1948. 
Entered into force March 17, 19.5M. TIAS 4044. 
Acceptance deposited: Ghana, July 6, 1959. 

Trade and Commerce 

Sixth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva April 11, 1957.* 
Signature: Japan, June 24, 19.59. 

Seventh protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva November 30, 
1957.' 
Signature: Japan, June 24, 19.59. 

Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment 
of new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 
31, 19.58.' 
Signatures: India, Japan, June 24, 1959. 

Wlieat 

International wheat agreement, 1959, with annex. Opened 

for signature at Washington April 6 through April 24, 

1959. 

Senate advice and consent to ratification given: July 15, 
19.59. 

Ratified b)/ the President: July 16, 19.59. 

Acceptances deposited: Austria, France, United Arab 
Republic, and Vatican City, July 9, 1959; Norway, 
July l.S, 19.50 : United Kinsdom. July 14, 1959 ; Canada 
and United States, July 16, 1959. 

Accessions deposited: Federation of Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland, July 9, 1959. 

Notifications deposited of intention to accept or accede: 
Sw eden, April 22, 1959 ; Japan, June 23, 1959 ; Greece, 
June 30, 19.59 : Israel, July 6, 1959 ; Brazil and Portu- 
gal, July S, 1959; Saudi Arabia, July 9, 1959; Vene- 
zuela, July 10, 19.59; Italy, July 13, 19.59; Dominican 
Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, and 
Philippines, July 14, 19.59; Australia, Belgium, Den- 
mark, Haiti, Korea, Netherlands, and Spain, July 15, 
1959 ; Argentina, Cuba, Indonesia, Mexico, and Peru, 
July 16, 19.59. 

Entered into force: July 16, 1959, for part I and parts 
III to VIII, and August 1, 1959, for part II. 



BILATERAL 

Belgium 

Convention supplementing the convention of October 28, 
1948 (TIAS 28;i3), for the avoidance of double taxation 
with respect to taxes on income, as modified by the 
supplementary convention of September 9, 1952 (TIAS 
2833). 

Ratifications exchanged: July 10, 1959. 
Entered into force: July 10, 1959. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 



ICA Institute Opens Third Session 

The Department of State announced on July 13 
(press release 510) that 16 staff members of the 
International Cooperation Administration and 2 
officers of tlie Department of State on tliat day 
began a 21 weeks' course in programing at the 
third session of the Institute on ICA Develop- 
ment Programing, conducted for ICA at Wash- 
ington, D.C., by the School of Advanced Inter- 
national Studies of Johns Hopkins University. 

The course, which ends in December, offers a 
special training program to improve the partici- 
pants' effectiveness in dealing with complex tech- 
nical and economic assistance problems in newly 
developing countries. Subject matter includes the 
economic principles of development programing 
and the relationship of political and cultural fac- 
tors to U.S. foreign assistance. All those taking 
the course were selected on the basis of demon- 
strated competence in the teclinical and economic 
assistance fields. 



Bureaus Set Up for Public Affairs 
and Cultural Relations 

Bureau of Public Affairs 

Press release 483 dated July 2 

The Department of State announced on July 2 
the reorganization of the Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, occasioned by the transfer of its cultural 
affairs activities to a new Bureau of International 
Cultural Eelations. 

The Bureau of Public Affairs will now be able 
to devote its attention exclusively to advising the 



August 3, 1959 



183 



Secretary of State on public affairs matters, in- 
forming the American public about foreign policy 
issues and objectives, and providing information 
guidance on foreign policy to the U.S. Informa- 
tion Agency and other Government Departments 
and agencies. 

Andrew H. Berding, Assistant Secretary of 
State for Public Affairs since March 1957, will 
continue to head the Bureau of Public Affairs. 
Edwin M. J. Kretzmann will continue as Deputy 
Assistant Secretary. 

"The streamlining of the bureau will enable 
its officers to take more effective action in the 
great struggle of ideas going on throughout the 
world," Mr. Berding said. "That struggle is in- 
tensifying as the Soviet Union, through political, 
psychological, and economic approaches, is increas- 
ingly seeking to convince the people of the world 
that the victory of communism is inevitable. The 
countries of the free world need to make their 
policies and ideals better known to their own 
and other peoples. More opportunities will be 
sought and created toward this end. If people 
are given more facts in an understandable way 
they will draw the right conclusions." 

The Bureau of Public Affairs will be in con- 
tact through its News Division with American 
and foreign press, radio, TV, and magazine cor- 
respondents on a 24-hour basis. 

Through its Public Services Division, the 
bureau will provide liaison service and informa- 
tion to national nongovernmental organizations, 
handle the speaking engagements of the Depart- 
ment of State, issue publications on various for- 
eign policy matters, and reply to the approxi- 
mately 100,000 letters addressed annually to the 
Department requesting information or offering 
comment. 

The Historical Division will compile and pub- 
lish the volumes on Foreign Relations of the 
United States and other historical studies on 
United States foreign affairs. 

The Policy and Plans Staff will provide guid- 
ance on foreign affairs developments to the U.S. 
Information Agency and other interested Depart- 
ments and agencies. It will work closely with 
the interdepartmental Operations Coordinating 
Board, the chairman of which is the Under Sec- 
retary of State. 

The Mutual Security Information Staff will 
provide information on the mutual security 
program. 



The Public Studies Staff will furnish the De- 
partment and overseas missions analyses of Amer- 
ican public attitudes toward foreign policy prob- 
lems and developments. 

Bureau of International Cultural Relations 

Press release 484 dated July 2 

Reflecting the increased importance of cultural 
and educational activities in the conduct of for- 
eign affairs, a Bureau of International Cultural 
Relations has been established in the Department 
of State. Robert H. Thayer, former U.S. Minister 
to Rumania, will head the new bureau. He is 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for the 
coordination of International Educational and 
Cultural Relations. This is a new position. 

"The Department has recognized the increasing 
importance cultural activities, previously carried 
out by the Bureau of Public Affairs, are coming 
to occupy in international affairs," Mr. Thayer 
said in explaining the establishment of the bureau. 
"The element of human communication has be- 
come vital in the relationships of peoples and na- 
tions. We in the United States are becoming 
increasingly aware of the strength and validity 
of the cultures of other peoples, and they are be- 
coming more interested in understanding us. 
This kind of mutual appreciation is important to 
stability and progress in the world. Cultural 
interchange furthers the kind of understanding 
we seek." 

The educational exchange program under the 
Fulbright and Smith-Mundt Acts and other inter- 
national activities which bring American and for- 
eign students, educators, leaders, specialists, and 
artistic groups together will form the basis of 
the work of the new bureau. 

The bureau will be responsible for the Presi- 
dent's Special International Program for Cul- 
tural Presentations under which 140 groups of 
American performing artists and athletes have 
appeared in more than 90 countries since 1954; 
the exchange program between the United States 
and the Soviet-bloc nations under which 38 Amer- 
ican technical delegations visited the Soviet Union 
and 33 similar Soviet groups visited the United 
States during 1958; the participation of the Gov- 
ernment and American institutions in the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization ; and various other programs of cul- 
tui-al and educational interchange. 



184 



Department of State Bulletin 



The largest activity of the new bureau will be 
the international educational exchange program, 
which includes the educational and cultural ex- 
change programs authorized under the Fulbright 
and Smith-Mundt Acts. This program has spon- 
sored tiie exchange of more than G0,000 persons 
between the United States and more than 85 other 
countries since 1938. 

Other existing State Department units that will 
be part of the new bureau include the secretariat 
of the United States Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange and the Advisoiy Com- 
mittee on the Arts, two public bodies which advise 
the Secretary of State on cultural and educational 
exchange activities; and the Cultural Planning 
and Coordination Staff, which will henceforth be 
called the Cultural Policy and Development Staff. 

Mr. Thayer will also be responsible to the Sec- 
retary of State for the coordination of other Gov- 
ernment activities in the international cultural 
relations field and for liaison and cooperation 
with nongovernmental organizations engaged in 
such activities. 

Saxton Bradford, Deputy Director for Policy 
and Plans, United States Information Agency, 
has been appointed Deputy for Operations to Mr. 
Thayer.' 

Confirmations 

Tbe Senate on July 15 confirmed Lane Dwinell to be 
an Assistant Secretary of State. (For biographic details, 
see press release 472 dated June 29.) 

Designations 

Joel Bernstein as International Cooperation Administra- 
tion representative in Nigeria. (For biographic details, 
see Department of State press release 523 dated July 15.) 

Thomas D. Huff as Executive Officer, Office of Personnel, 
effective June 29. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale h\j the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Waxhington 25, D.C. Address 



' For a list of designations to the Bureau of Interna- 
tional Cultural Relations, see Bulletin of July 6, 19.j9, 
p. 38. 



requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
except in the case of free publications, which may be 
obtained from the Department of State. 

Sample Questions from the Foreign Service Officer Ex- 
amination. I'ub. (i82(). Department and Foreign Service 
Series 87. 37 pp. Limited distribution. 

A booklet containing examples of questions to be found in 
each part of the written examination taken prior to ap- 
pdintmeiit as a Foreign Service officer. 

The Board of Foreign Scholarships — A Report to the 
President on the Educational Exchange Program Under 
the Fulbright Act. I'ub. 6832. International Information 
and Cultural Series 67. 10 pp. Limited distribution. 

This report summarizes the accomplishments of educa- 
tional exchange, discusses the problems faced by the pro- 
gram in 1051), and puts forth the Board's recommendations 
for action toward bolstering, stabilizing, and extending 
the program. 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. TIAS 4186. 
89 pp. 25^. 

Fourth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
annt'xe.s and texts of schedules to the agreement of Oc- 
tober 30, 1947, between the United States of America and 
Other Governments — Done at Geneva March 7, 1955. En- 
tered into force January 23, 1959. 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. TIAS 4197. 
33 pp. 15*. 

Third protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the agreement of October 30, 
1947, between the United States of America and Other 
Governments — Signed at Geneva October 24, 1953. En- 
tered into force Ifebruary 2, 1959. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4207. 
6 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Iran — Signed at Washington March 5, 1957. Entered into 
force April 27, 1959. 

Establishment in Canada of Warning and Control System 
Against Air Attack — Communications Facilities at Cape 
Dyer, Baffin Island. TIAS 4208. 3 pp. 5<?. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Canada. Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa April 13, 
19,59. Entered into force April 13, 1959. Operative retro- 
actively January 15, 1959. 

Army, Air Force, and Naval Missions to Colombia. TIAS 

4210. 4 pp. 5!«. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Colombia, amending agreements of February 21, 1949, as 
extended, and October 14, 1946, as extended. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Bogota February 18 and March 31, 1959. 
Entered into force March 31, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4211. 9 pp. 
10<f. 

Agreement, with exchange of notes and additional note, 
between the United States of .\merica and Ceylon — Signed 
at Colombo March 13, 1959. Entered into force March 13, 
1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4212. 15 pp. 

lOtf. 

Agreement, with memorandum of understanding and ex- 
change of notes, between the United States of America and 
France — Signed at Paris March 21, 1959. Entered into 
force March 21. 1959. 



Aogusf 3, 1959 



185 



Air Transport Services. TIAS 4213. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Canada, amending agreement of Jime 4, 1049, as amended. 
Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa April 9, 1959. En- 
tered into force April 9, 1959. 

Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 4214. 4 pp. 
5«f. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Malaya. Exchange of notes — Signed at Kuala Lumpur 
April 21, 1959. Entered into force April 21, 1959. 

Bahamas Long Rang* Proving Ground— Tracking Station 
on Island of Grand Turk. TIAS 4215. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington March 16 and 
April 16, 1959. Entered into force April 16, 1959. 

Tracking Stations. TIAS 4216. 4 pp. 5(t. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Chile. Exchange of notes — Signed at Santiago February 
16 and 19, 1959. Entered into force February 19, 1959. 
Operative retroactively December 31, 1958. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4217. 3 pp. 
5«!. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Colombia, amending section III of memorandum of under- 
standing accompanying agreement of April 16, 1957. Ex- 
change of notes— Signed at Bogotd January 14 and March 
5, 1959. Entered into force March 5, 1959. 

Defense— Short Range Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) 
Facilities. TIAS 4218. 6 pp. 5<f. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Canada. Exchange of notes — Dated at Ottawa May 1, 
1959. Entered into force May 1, 1959. 

Certificates of Airworthiness for Imported Aircraft. 

TIAS 4219. 5 pp. 5«f. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Austria. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington April 
30, 1959. Entered into force April 30, 1959. 

Guaranty of Private Investments. TIAS 4222. 6 pp. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Nicaragua. Exchange of notes — Signed at Managua April 
14, 1959. Entered into force April 14, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4223. 6 pp. 
5<t. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the United Arab Republic, supplementing and amending 
agreement of December 24, 1958. Exchange of notes. — 
Signed at Cairo May 5, 1959. Entered into force May 
5, 1959. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Shipbuilding Program for 
Danish Navy. TIAS 4226. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Denmark. Exchange of notes — Signed at Copenhagen 
May 8, 1959. Entered into force May 8, 1959. 

Annual and Progressive Reduction in Japanese Expendi- 
tures Under Article XXV 2(b) of the Administrative 
Agreement of February 28, 1952. TIAS 4227. 9 pp. 10<f. 



Agreement between the United States of America and 
Japan. Exchange of notes — Signed at Tokyo April 6, 1959. 
Entered into force April 6, 1959. 

Whaling. TIAS 4228. 5 pp. 5<t. 

Protocol to convention of Deceml>er 2, 1946, between the 
United States of America and Other Governments. Signed 
at Washington November 19, 1956. Entered into force 
May 4, 1959. 



TIAS 4229. 2 pp. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Burma, amending agreement of May 27, 1958. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Rangoon March 11, 1959. Entered 
into force March 11, 1959. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 13-19 

Press releases may be obtained from the News 
Division, Department of State, W^ashington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to July 13 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 483 and 484 of 
July 2, 485 of July 6, 492 of July 7, 496, 497, and 498 
of July 9, 501, 502, and 505 of July 10, and 507 of 
July 11. 

Subject 

Murphy : statement on passport legisla- 
tion. 

ICA institute (rewrite). 

Seaton to represent U.S. at opening of 
Cambodian highway. 

Guatemala credentials (rewrite). 

Herter : arrival statement, Geneva. 

Mann : statement on wheat and sugar 
agreements. 

DLP loan to Korea (rewrite). 

Walmsley named Ambassador to 
Tunisia (biographic details). 

Hanes: statement on refugee legisla- 
tion. 

Dillon: "A New Era in World Trade 
and Investment." 

Mann : statement on P.L. 480. 

DLF loan to Yugoslavia (rewrite). 

Delegation to ITU conference (re- 
write). 

DLF loan to Lebanon (rewrite). 

Bernstein sworn in as ICA representa- 
tive in Nigeria (biographic details). 

Supplementary income-tax convention 
with Belgium. 

DLF loan to Thailand (rewrite). 

Carl Sandburg and Edward Steichen 
depart for U.S. exhibition at Moscow 
(rewrite). 

Status of International Wheat Agree- 
ment, 1959. 

Dillon ; statement on death of Eugene 
Meyer. 

Agreement with Pakistan on communi- 
cations unit at Peshawar. 

♦Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


509 


7/13 


510 
511 


7/13 
7/13 


512 
513 

514 


7A3 

7/13 
7/14 


t515 
»516 


7/14 
7/14 


t517 


7/15 


518 


7/15 


t519 

t520 

521 


7/15 
7/15 
7/16 


t522 
*523 


7/16 
7/15 


524 


7/17 


t525 
526 


7/17 
7/17 


527 


7/17 


*528 


7/17 


529 


7/18 



186 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



August 3, 1959 



Index 



Vol. XLI, No. 1049 



Africa 

Togolund Indi-peiulonce (Sears) Jg" 

TruBt Territory of Ruanda-Urundl (Sears) 180 

Aericulture 

International Wheat Agreement Enters Into Force . . 173 
Participation in Wheat and Sugar Agreements Supported 

(Mann I 1'2 

American Principles. Progress and Problems in Building 

Peace (Thompson) 158 

Asia. Foreign Countries To Be Invited to Seattle Exposl- 

slon (te.\t of proclamation) 163 

BelKium. Supplemental Income-Tax Convention With Bel- 
gium Enters Into Force 182 

Bolivia. Development Loan 164 

Cambodia. Mr. Seaton To Attend Opening of New Cam- 
bodian Highway 163 

Congress, The 

Department Urges Ratification of Two Broadcasting Agree- 
ments (Beaie. text of negotiating history ) 170 

Department's Views on Proposed Passport Legislation 

(Murphy) 165 

Participation in Wheat and Sugar Agreements Supported 

(Mann) 172 

Department and Foreign Service 

Bureaus Set I'p for Public Affairs and Cultural Relations . 183 

Contirmations (Dwinell) 185 

Designations (Bernstein, Huff) 185 

ICA Institute Opens Third Session 183 

Economic Affairs 

Department Urges Ratification of Two Broadcasting Agree- 
ments (Beale, text of negotiating history) 170 

A New Era in World Trade and Investment (Dillon) . . 155 

Recent Economic Developments in the United States 

(Phillips) 176 

Supplemental Income-Tax Convention with Belgium Enters 

Into Force 182 

Educational Exchange 

Bureaus Set Up tor Public Affairs and Cultural Relations . 183 
Carl Sandburg and Edward Steichen To Visit U.S. Exhibit 

at Moscow 158 

Progres.s and Problems in Building Peace (Thompson) . 158 

Europe. U.S. Rejects Soviet Proposal on Atom-Free Balkan 

Zone (text of Soviet declaration) 160 

Germany 

Foreign Ministers Meeting Reconvenes at Geneva ; Secre- 
tary Herter Probes Soviet Intentions (Herter, text of 
Western paper on Berlin) 147 

President Eisenhower Acknowledges AFL-CIO Letter on 

Berlin 154 

Guatemala. Letters of Credence (Ramirez Pinto) . . . 154 

Hungary. United States Restricts Travel of Hungarian 

Official Personnel (text of aide memoire) 161 

International Information 

Bureaus Set Up for Public Affairs and Cultural Relations . 183 
Carl Sandburg and Edward Steiclien To Visit U.S. Exhibit 

at Moscow 158 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings . . 174 
Foreign Ministers Meeting Reconvenes at Geneva ; Secre- 
tary Herter Probes Soviet Intentions (Herter, text of 

Western paper on Berlin) 147 

ITU Administrative Radio Conference (delegation) . . 182 
Recent Economic DevelopMients in the United States 

(Phillips) 176 

Korea. Development Loan 164 

Labor. President Eisenhower Acknowledges AFL-CIO 

Letter on Berlin 154 

Mexico. Department Urges Ratification of Two Broadcast- 
ing Agreements (Beale, text of negotiating history) . 170 

Military Affairs. U.S. Rejects Soviet Proposal on -itom- 

Free Balkan Zone (text of Soviet declaration) .... 160 

Mutual Security 

A New Era in World Trade and Investment (Dillon) . . 155 

Bernstein designated ICA representative in Nigeria . . 185 



Development Loans (Bolivia, Korea, Pakistan, Philip- 
pines, Turkey) 

ICA Institute Opens Third Ses.sion 

Mr. Seaton To Attend Opening of New Cambodian High- 
way 

Nigeria. Bernstein designated ICA representative . 

Non-Self-Governing Territories 

Togoland Independence (Sears) 

Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundl (Sears) 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization. U.S. Rejects Soviet 
Proposal on Atom-Free Balkan Zone (text of Soviet 
declaration) 

Pakistan 

Development Loans 

U.S. Communications Facility To 
Pakistan 



Be Established in 



Passports. Department's Views on Proposed Passport 
Legislation (Murphy) 

Philippines. Development Loan 

Presidential Documents 

Anniversary of President Diem's Accession to Ofiice . 
Foreign Countries To Be Invited to Seattle Exposition . 
President Eisenhower Acknowledges AFL-CIO Letter on 

Berlin 

President Names New Airport for John Foster Dulles . 
Soviet First Deputy Premier Concludes U.S. Visit . . . 



Publications. Recent Releases 

Science. Foreign Countries To Be Invited to Seattle 
Exposition (text of proclamation) 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 

Department Urges Ratification of Two Broadcasting Agree- 
ments (Beale, text of negotiating history) 

International Wheat Agreement Enters Into Force . 

Participation in Wheat and Sugar Agreements Supported 
(Mann) 

Supplemental Income-Tax Convention With Belgium 
Enters Into Force 

U.S. Communications Facility To Be Established in 
Pakistan 

Turkey. Development Loan 

Carl Sandburg and Edward Steichen To Visit U.S. Exhibit 
at Moscow 

Foreign Ministers Meeting Reconvenes at Geneva ; Secre- 
tary Herter Probes Soviet Intentions (Herter, text of 
Western paper on Berlin) 

Progress and Problems in Building Peace (Thompson) 

Soviet First Deputy Premier Concludes U.S. Visit 
(Eisenhower, Kozlov) 

U.S. Rejects Soviet Proposal on Atom-Free Balkan Zone 
(text of Soviet declaration) 

United Nations 

Recent Economic Developments in the United States 

(Phillips) 

Togoland Independence (Sears) 

Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundl (Sears) 

Viet-Nam. Anniversary of President Diem's Accession to 
Ofiice (Eisenhower, Diem) 



Name Index 



Beale, W. T. M . 
Bernstein, Joel 
Diem, Ngo Dinh 

Dillon, Douglas , 
Dwinell, Lane 
Elsenhower, President 



164 
183 



163 
185 



180 
180 



160 

164 

164 

165 
164 

162 
163 

154 
164 
157 

185 
163 

182 

170 
173 

172 

182 

164 

164 



158 



147 
158 



157 
160 



176 
180 
180 

162 



170 

185 
163 
155 
185 
154, 157, 162, 163 



Herter, Secretary 147, 149 

Huff. Thomas D 185 

Kozlov, Frol R 158 

Maiiii, Thomas C 172 

Murphy, Robert 165 

Phillips, Christopher H 176 

Ramirez Pinto, Arturo 154 

Sandburg, Carl 158 

Sears, Mason 180 

Seaton, Fred A 163 

Steichen, Edward 158 

Thompson, Llewellyn E 158 



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Government Printing Office 

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Washington 25, D.C. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



TECHNICAL COOPERATION 



The dramatic story of helping others to help themselves 



Department 

of 

State 



Technical cooperation describes something that is as old as 
humanity itself. Whenever people in one place have found a 
better way of meeting human needs, others have been eager to 
take advantage of the improved device or method, the better food 
crop, the more advanced way of dealing with disease. 

What is new now is that technical cooperation is an important 
activity of governments and of international organizations, a 
tangible expression of common interest among the people of many 
nations. For the first time in history the proven skills and tested 
techniques of the more advanced nations are being harnessed — 
consciously, deliberately, and effectively — to attack economic and 
social problems of the less advanced nations on a broad scale. 

This new pamphlet describes the objectives, methods, and re- 
sults of the technical cooperation program of the United States. 
Examples are given of projects in agriculture, health, education, 
industry, labor, public administration, transportation, community 
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SEP 2 :? 1959 



DEPOSITORY 



Vol. XLI, No. 1050 



August 10, 1959 



HE 
IFFICIAL 
WEEKLY RECORD 
iF 

INITED STATES 
OREiGN POLICY 



FOREIGN MINISTERS CONTINUE DISCUSSIONS ON 
BERLIN AND GERMAN UNIFICATION • Statements 

by Secretary Herter • 191 

SECRETARY HERTER REAFFIRMS U.S. COMMIT- 
MENT TO BERLIN 198 

THE DEVELOPING NATIONS OF THE FAR EAST: 
THEIR RELATION TO U.S. SECURITY • by Assist- 
ant Secretary Parsons 201 

DEPARTMENT'S VIEWS ON ADMINISTRATION OF 

PUBLIC LAW 480 • Statement by Assistant Secretary 
Mann 212 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE SUPPORTS REFUGEE 

LEGISLATION • Statement by /oftn JF. Hones, Jr. .. 215 

ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE: PROGRAMS AND ADMIN- 
ISTRATION • Letters Transmitting Third Interim Report 
of Draper Committee 208 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLI, No. 1050 • Publication 6865 
August 10, 1959 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a iceekly publication issued by the 
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Foreign Ministers Continue Discussions 
on Berlin and German Unification 



Statements iy Secretary Eerier ' 



STATEMENT OF JULY 20 

As indicated in my statement of July 16,^ I had 
hoped tliat we might concentrate on the specific 
elements of an interim agreed Berlin arrangement 
to last until German unification — deferring until 
later in our deliberations further discussion of 
procedures for attaining German imification. 
This had seemed a necessary course since Mr. 
Gromyko had adamantly refused to discuss the 
problem of German reunification when the West- 
ern Powers pressed for earlier consideration of 
this question by the conference. Because of this 
refusal, we had been unable to make progress in 
our discussions of the overall German question 
and had moved on to a review of the situation in 
Berlin. 

The Soviet proposal for a committee of free and 
Communist Germans inteiTupted our discussion 
of measures which might be taken in Berlin. It 
thereby confused two separate issues with conse- 
quent delay in the work of this conference. Mr. 
Couve de Murville had already pointed this out 
at our meetings on July 15 and 16. 

Mr. Gromyko, however, refuses to drop this new 
insistence that we now consider the Soviet pro- 
posal regarding procedures for future efforts to 
achieve German unification. 

Since we agree that this is an important — al- 
though separate — question, I shall today set forth 
a new pi-oposal of the Western Powers as to the 
procedures for promoting German unity which. 



'Made at the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
France, the U.S.S.R.. the United Kingdom, and the United 
States at Geneva, Switzerland. 

^ For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 3, 1959, p, 147. 



given the circumstances, holds the greatest prom- 
ise. I hope to show that this proposal provides 
a sound basis for further consideration by the 
Foreign Ministers of this question, in which we 
have a great and continuing interest. 

Soviet Proposal for Mixed Committee 

To this end, I intend to take advantage of Mr. 
Gromyko's suggestion that we should, if we can- 
not accept his proposal for a mixed committee of 
free and Conmiunist Germans, offer some alterna- 
tive proposal for future discussions of German 
remiification. Before I do so, however, let me 
review briefly where we now stand in our consid- 
eration of this matter. 

The Western peace plan which was first sub- 
mitted to this conference more than 2 months ago ^ 
is a phased plan for achieving German reunifica- 
tion. If accepted by the Soviets, it will most cer- 
tainly lead to early reunification of Germany. 
This plan i^rovides for a mixed German commit- 
tee. This committee would operate withm the 
framework of the most comprehensive progi-am 
yet submitted to solve the problem of German re- 
unification on the basis of free determination by 
the German people. 

The mixed German committee in the Western 
peace plan would be established after the Four 
Powers had taken a final decision on early reuni- 
fication and on the process whereby it could be 
achieved. Its major task would be to prepare a 
draft law providing free elections which would 
be submitted to a plebiscite in both parts of Ger- 
many. If the committee could not agree on such 

'For text, see ibid^, June 1, 1959, p. 779. 



Ai/gwsf 10, 7959 



191 



a law, its members from the Federal Republic and 
East Germany would prepare alternative draft 
laws, to be submitted to a plebiscite as alterna- 
tives. Acceptance by a majority of the population 
of both parts of Germany would be required for 
the approval of a specific electoral law. This pro- 
vision was intended to assure maximum freedom 
of choice for the population of the so-called Ger- 
man Democratic Republic. On the basis of result- 
ing free elections, an all-German assembly would 
be chosen to draft an all-German constitution. 
The all-German government formed on the basis 
of that constitution would be responsible for nego- 
tiating an all-German peace treaty. 

Thus, in the "Western peace plan, the mixed 
German committee would represent one step in a 
truly democratic process whose fulfillment would 
assure German unity in freedom and a peace set- 
tlement with a German government representing 
all of the German people. 

What Mr. Gromyko has done is to pull this one 
feature of the Western peace plan out of its con- 
text, changing its composition and its task, and 
then relating it to the Berlin question in a way 
which distorts the correct approach to both the 
Berlin problem and the problem of Germany as 
a whole. 

The mixed German committee was included in 
the Western peace plan as one of a number of 
important innovations which responded to Soviet 
criticisms of the proposal made by the Western 
Powers at Geneva in 1955. We have no doubt that 
a number of other provisions included in this 
effort to take account of Soviet views would also 
be attractive to the Soviet Government if taken 
out of context. 

Tlae Soviet Union is now suggesting that the 
Western Powers should agree to the isolated estab- 
lishment of a German committee with a time limit 
to its deliberations. This would not be in return 
for Soviet agreement to a plan which would assure 
German unification. It would merely be in return 
for a statement that the Soviet Union, for a very 
limited period of time, would not violate its ex- 
isting solemn commitments with respect to Berlin. 

The U.S.S.R. proposal has, moreover, so altered 
the context of this part of the Western peace plan 
that its acceptance would now perpetuate the 
division of Germany, rather than assure its 
unification. 

The Soviet proposal does not provide for an 
agreed process which would lead to reunification. 



And it is perfectly clear to every one of us in this 
room that unity in freedom would not be the 
clearly accepted goal of all its members. For the 
authorities of the so-called German Democratic 
Republic have made evident time and time again 
that they are not prepared to work out plans 
which would permit reunification on any basis that 
would not result in the communization of the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany regardless of the will 
of the people. Mr. Gromyko has insisted that we 
cannot predict what his German committee would 
achieve. For my part, I can predict with confi- 
dence that, on the basis of available evidence and 
experience and under the conditions proposed by 
Mr. Gromyko, the committee would surely and 
quickly deadlock. 

There is not the slightest hope that the commit- 
tee would call for the selection of an all-German 
government on the basis of free elections. One- 
half of the committee would be composed of repre- 
sentatives of a regime which is aware that free 
elections conducted within its borders would in- 
evitably lead to its disappearance. We can be 
equally sure, on the other hand, that the represent- 
atives of the Federal Republic would not sacrifice 
their freedom by accepting proposals whose 
clearly demonstrated purpose is to imdermine that 
freedom. 

For the reasons which I have just given, the all- 
German committee proposed by the Soviet For- 
eign Minister in his statement to the plenary ses- 
sion of this conference of June 10 and repeated 
by him in his proposal of June 19 is totally 
imacceptable. 

Let me further point out that his proposal 
would constitute a substantial abandonment by 
the Four Powers of their common responsibility 
for the settlement of the German question and the 
reunification of Germany. 

The basic responsibility for the solution of these 
matters, so gravely affecting not only Germany 
but all Europe and indeed all the world, must 
be placed where it belongs — on the representatives 
of France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and 
the United States. This conforms to common 
sense and to the solemn written commitments 
which Prime Minister Bulganin concluded with 
President Eisenhower, Prime Minister Faure, and 
Prime Minister Eden, when the four Heads of 
Government reaffirmed their recognition of this » 
common responsibility at the siunmit conference f 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



in 1955.* It is in the interest of each one of our 
countries that this responsibiHty sliould be ful- 
filled, so that we can be assured that Germany will 
be reunified on terms which strengthen the peace 
of the world. 

The intention of the Soviet proposal, further- 
moi'e, is to obtain an unwarranted measure of 
respectability for the regime which has been im- 
posed upon the people of East Germany. I am 
speaking of the so-called German Democratic Re- 
public. That regime has no mandate from its 
people. It lacks that true independence which 
is a basic attribute of a sovereign state. 

Tlie purpose of the Soviets in putting forward 
the i^roposjil is all too clearly to perpetuate the 
partition of Germany. I repeat, therefore, that 
this proposal is not acceptable. 

Western Proposal for Continuing Discussions 

In rejecting the Soviet proposal for an all- 
German committee, however, the Governments of 
France, Great Britain, and the United States re- 
fuse to abandon their 1-i-year-old effort to achieve 
the reunification of Germany in freedom. This 
is a responsibility which they share with the 
Soviet Union. 

The Western peace plan testifies to our con- 
tinued search for the means to this end. It also 
testifies to our willingness to meet Soviet criti- 
cisms of past plans. Unhappily, Mr. Gromyko 
rejected the Western peace plan, despite its patent 
reasonableness and workability. 

We must not flag in our efforts, notwithstand- 
ing rebuffs, rejections, and obstructions thrown 
up in our path. The German people want reuni- 
fication. Justice demands it. Indeed, all those 
who have a stake in future peace demand it. 

The Foreign Ministers of France, Great Brit- 
ain, and the United States, ever since the So^aet 
Foreign Minister rejected the Western peace plan, 
have been considering how the three of us to- 
gether with our So\'iet colleague could best con- 
tinue to discharge our responsibility for the 
German question as a whole, which includes the 
matter of reunification and a peace settlement 
with Germany. I say a peace settlement with 
Germany, rather than with two parts of Ger- 
many, as the So\dets propose, because there can 
be no peace settlement unless all of Germany is 



•> Jbid., Aug. 1, 1955, p. 176. 



represented in its negotiation by the freely chosen 
goverimient of a reunified Germany. The Soviet 
Union itself recognizes this principle, at least in 
form, when it speaks of a peace treaty with 
Germany — even though what it goes on to pro- 
pose are peace treaties with parts of a divided 
Gel-many. 

The three Western Foreign Ministere have con- 
cluded that there is a sensible and businesslike way 
of continuing a common search for the road to 
reunification and a peace settlement with 
Gel-many. 

Our proposal is as follows : 

The Geneva Conference of Foreign Ministers, as at 
present constitutetl, shall continue in being for the pur- 
pose of considering the German problem as a whole. It 
should also consider questions relating to the extension 
and development of contacts between the two parts of 
Germany. For these purposes the conference shall meet 
from tune to time at such level and at such place as are 
agreed. The conference may also make special arrange- 
ments for the consideration of particular questions 
arising out of its terms of reference as defined above. 

This proposal would enable representatives of 
our four Governments to keep under continuing 
discussion a problem which is of major impor- 
tance to each of us, to the German people, and in- 
deed to peoples throughout the world. It will 
permit a thorough consideration of the Western 
peace plan — the most comprehensive plan yet de- 
veloped for solving the problem of a divided 
Germany. 

It would enable the Four Powers to utilize 
German advisers following the practice adopted 
by the present conference. 

It would provide, by its terms of reference, for 
tliis conference to consider all the subjects which 
the Soviet Foreign Minister cataloged in his pro- 
posal of June 19. He proposed then that the aU- 
German committee 

. . . should promote the extension and development of 
contacts between the German Democratic Republic and 
the Federal Republic of Germany, discuss and work out 
concrete measures for the imification of Germany, and 
consider questions pertaining to the preparation and 
conclusion of a peace treaty with Germany. 

The three Western Powers submit tliis proposal, 
after careful and serious deliberation, in an effort 
to meet the desire of the Soviet Foreign Minister 
that we here agree on a method for continuing 
discussions looking to German unification — but in 
a manner that is consistent with our respective 
responsibilities. The U.S.S.R. Foreign Minister 



August 10, 1959 



193 



has offered to accept any procedure for consider- 
ing the problem of divided Germany whicli is ac- 
ceptable to the Germans. I am informed that the 
procedure here proposed is acceptable to the 
Federal Republic of Germany, the legitimate 
authority representing 51 million Gennans. 

I hope that the Soviet Foreign Minister will 
consider this proposal carefully. Thank you. 

STATEMENT OF JULY 22 

I would like to speak very briefly, on behalf of 
the United States delegation, on one matter. And 
that concerns the linkage which the Soviet Union 
is seeking to establish between the questions of 
German unification and an interim Berlin arrange- 
ment. This matter was referred to again by Mr. 
Gromyko in the speech he has just concluded. 

This attempted linkage illustrates a very real 
difference which, I believe, lies at the root of much 
of the difficulty we are now having in reaching 
agreement at this conference. That difference 
arises out of the basic fact that the free world 
pursues a strategy of consent in international 
affairs, while the Communists pursue a strategy 
of duress. 

For example, the Soviet Union created this 
year's Berlin crisis with a threat that, if the West- 
ern Powers did not accept their Bei'lin proposal 
by May 27, the Soviets would attempt to extin- 
guish Western rights in Berlin. This was an ap- 
plication of the traditional Communist strategy 
of duress. It did not succeed. 

Another Application of Duress 

The Soviet Union is now engaged in another 
application of this strategy of duress in an effort 
to capitalize on the Western Powers' desire to end 
the Berlin crisis. 

The Soviet Union is saying, in effect, that it will 
end the Berlin crisis — for a while — but only at a 
price. That price is Western acceptance of the 
Soviet proposal that the problem of a divided Ger- 
many be put in the hands of a committee of Com- 
munist Germans and free Gennans. We are told, 
at least implicitly, that if this price is not paid — 
if we do not agree to the formation of this com- 
mittee — the U.S.S.R. will try to make our position 
in Berlin impossible. 



If accepted, this Soviet proposal would result 
in still a third, and even more dangerous, applica- 
tion of the strategy of duress. 

The committee of Communist and free Germans 
would be given but a short time to solve a difficult 
problem with which the Four Powers have wres- 
tled unsuccessfully since the war. Failure in its 
task would be assured by the basic fact that the 
leaders of the Soviet Government and of the so- 
called German Democratic Republic have made 
ci-ystal clear that they will never agree to reunifi- 
cation of Germany under conditions which did not 
assure the communization of the Federal Republic. 
Such a committee would have no chance of success. 

Price of Failure 

And what is the price of failure ? 
Significantly, the U.S.S.R.'s proposal for a Ber- 
lin arrangement includes the termination of the 
arrangement at the same time scheduled for the 
expiration of the life of the "mixed