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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





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, -in Public Ubrary 

^ap.MuUcndent ot Documents 

INDEX 

DEPOSITORY 

VOLUME XLII: Numbers 1071-1096 

January 4^ June 27, 1960 



E 

'ICIAL 

EKLY RECORD 

ITED STATES 
lEIGM POLICY 



Issue 






Number 


Date of Issue 


Pages 


1071 


Jan. 4, 1960 


1- 40 


1072 


Jan. 11,1960 


41- 72 


1073 


Jan. 18,1960 


73- 108 


1074 


Jan. 25,1960 


109- 136 


1075 


Feb. 1, 1960 


137- 176 


1076 


Feb. 8, 1960 


177- 224 


1077 


Feb. 15,1960 


225- 268 


1078 


Feb. 22,1960 


269- 312 


1079 


Feb. 29,1960 


313- 348 


1080 


Mar. 7,1960 


349- 396 


1081 


Mar. 14, I960 


397- 432 


1082 


Mar. 21, 1960 


433- 468 


1083 


Mar. 28, 1960 


469- 508 


1084 


Apr. 4, 1960 


509- 544 


1085 


Apr. 11,1960 


545- 584 


1086 


Apr. 18,1960 


585- 632 


1087 


Apr. 25,1960 


633- 676 


1088 


May 2,1960 


677- 720 


1089 


May 9, 1960 


721- 768 


1090 


May 16, 1960 


769- 808 


1091 


May 23, 1960 


809- 848 


1092 


May 30, 1960 


849- 896 


1093 


June 6, 1960 


897- 944 


1094 


June 13, 1960 


945- 980 


1095 


June 20, 1960 


981-1012 


1096 


June 27, 1960 


1013-1048 ^ 


..'^ST05;^v 


'' PUBLIC ) 






\ir,.„,,^-y 













Corrections for Volume XLII 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors in Volume XLII: 

February 8, page 222, left column, third line 
under Telecommunication: The date should read 
"December 22, 1952." 

April 4, page 522, footnote 8: The members of 
the Latin American Free Trade Association are 
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, 
and LTruguay. 

May 9, page 744, right column, 10th line: The 
sentence should begin "Commodore Perry . . . ." 



INDEX 

Volume XLII : Numbers 1071-1096, January 4-June 27, 1960 



Abs. Hermann J., 63, 264 

Academy of Sciences, National, 281 

Achilles, Theodore C, 629 

Acuna Ongay, Alberto, 804 

Adair, Charles W., Jr., 870, 938, 975, 1036 

Aden consular district, transfer of British Somaliland to 

Mogadiscio consular district, 506 
Adenauer, Konrad, 319, 517 

Administrative agreement (1952), U.S.-Japanese agree- 
ment relating to Japanese contributions for U.S. 
services and supplies under article XXV, 309 
Advertising material and commercial samples, interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 
505 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, 300 
Aerial inspection {see also Surprise attack) : 

U.X. operation of system, U.S. proposal for, address 
and statements : Eisenhower, 901, 902, 905 ; Lodge, 
956, 959 
U.S. and Soviet positions, statements : Department, 
819 ; Eisenhower, 852 ; Herter, 816 ; and text of 
Soviet note, 8.53 
Use for intelligence purposes (see also U-2 incident), 
address (Eisenhower), 9(X) 
Aerial photography, reconnaissance, and surveillance. 

See Aerial inspection 
Aeronautical Institute of Technology, agreement with 

^ Brazil to assist in the acquisition of a sub-critical 
assembly for, 1009 
Aeroi^autics and Space Administration, National. See 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Afghanistan : 
ICA loan to purchase aircraft, 831 
Radio regulations (19.59), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
r.S. aid, address and statement: Bunker, 776; Jones, 
611, 615 
Africa {see also individual countries) : 
Apartheid. See Apartheid 

Conference of chief.s of U.S. diplomatic missions and 
principal consular officers of north and west Africa 
at Tangier, Morocco, 974 
DLF loans, 300 

Economic development, need for and challenge of, 
address, resolution, statement: Penfield, 920; 
Phillips. 934; ECOSOC resolution, 937 
Newly independent countries of : 
Challenge to U.S. and the U.N., address, resolution, 
and statement : ECOSOC resolution, 937 ; Phillips, 
934 ; Wilcox 589 

Index, January to June 1960 



Africa — Continued 
Newly independent countries of — Continued 
Developments in and U.S. policy toward, addresses: 

Penfield, 918; Satterthwaite, 680 
Need for education to help solve problems of 
(Thayer), 900 
Progress of independence in, statements: Lodge, 100; 

White, 991 ; Zablocki, 25 
Soviet-bloc activity in {see also Less developed coun- 
tries: Economic offensive), report (Eisenhower), 
815 
Sub-Sahara Africa, National Academy of Sciences 
recommendations for technical aid to, address 
(Kistiakowsky), 281 
U.S. mutual security program in, address and state- 
ments: Dillon, 385, 569, 571; Eisenhower, 373; 
Herter, 377, 576 ; Phillips, 502 ; Riddleberger, 445, 
446, 448, 449, 451, 573, 576 ; Satterthwaite, 603 
Agadir earthquake. .S'ee under Morocco 
Agrarian reform, U.S. views re Cuban policy of, aide 

memoire, 994 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter- American Institute of (GAS), 
convention (1944) on, and protocol of amendment to, 
346, 541 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 
Agreements with : Chile, 309 ; Republic of China, 465 ; 
Finland, G30, 892; Greece, 222; Iceland, 805, 942; 
India, 173, 582, 844, 889; Indonesia, 346; Israel, 
173; Japan, 500; Korea, 105; Pakistan, 506, 805; 
Peru, 506 ; Poland, 392, 393 ; Turkey, 134, 173, 541 ; 
United Arab Republic, 674 ; Uruguay, 105, 265 ; Viet- 
Nam, 466 
Emergency relief aid to: Chile, 966; Lebanon, 559; 

Libya, 962 ; Morocco, 444 ; Somalia, 713 
Food-for-peace program. See Food-for-peace 
Sales for foreign currencies: 
Loans from proceeds, address and letter : Howe, 652 ; 

Rubottom, 697 
Reallocation of certain yen accruing to U.S. under 
agricultural commodities agreements with Japan, 
506 
Report to Congress (Dillon), 462. 463 
Rice sales under Public Law 480, statement (John- 
son), .363 
U.S.-Indian agreement, letter and statements : Eisen- 
hower, 890 ; Herter, 890 ; Lodge, 891 ; White House 
announcement, 889 
Statement (Dillon), 381, 383 
Agricultural surpluses, world, report of 10th session of 
Conference of FAO (Miller), 89 






1051 



Agriculture (see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter- Ameri- 
can Institute of; Agricultural surpluses; and Food 
and Agricultural Organization) : 
Canadian-U.S. joint effort to solve problems of, com- 
munique, 366 
Collectivization in East Germany, forced, statement 

(White), 797 
Commodity trade problems. See Commodity trade 
Farm problem, need for legislation to solve, message 

(Eisenhower), 116 
Institute of tropical and sub-tropical agriculture, 

SEATO consideration of U.S. proposal for, 987 
Land distribution, U.S. views re Cuban agrarian re- 
form, 994 
Latin America, contributions of educational exchange, 
address (Rubottom), 916 
Agriculture, Department of : 
Liberalization of trade restrictions on U.S. exports, 
joint announcement with Departments of Com- 
merce and State, 873 
Operating responsibility for food-for-peace progrram, 

743 

Suspension of services of U.S. fruit and vegetable In- 

.spectors stationed in Cuba, texts of Cuban and U.S. 

notes, 706 

Trade promotion activities, expansion of, interagency 

reiwrt and message : Eisenhower, 561 ; report, 564 

Agriculture Fair, World, India, remarljs (Eisenhower), 

49 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Airmail, provisions of universal postal convention (1957) 

re, 465, 978 
Albania: 

Radio regulations (19.59), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Alejos, Carlos, 1018 
Alessandri, Jorge, 483 
Algeria : 

Principle of self-determination for, U.S. views on pro- 
posed General Assembly resolution, statements 
(Lodge), 100 
Question of, U.S. views concerning, address (Wilcox), 
592 
Aliens, nonimmigrant visas, new regulations, article 

(Pryor), 9 
Almonds, Presidential action re import.s, 339 
Ambassadorial talks (U.S.-Communist China), U.S. pro- 
tests persecution of Bishop Walsh, statements (De- 
partment, Herter), 556 
Ambrose, Myles, 127 

American Battle Monuments Commission, 173 
American Farm School of Salonika, address (Thayer), 

242 
American Foreii/n Policy: Current Documents, Advisory 

Committee report on, 394 
American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, 

address (Herter), 516 
American Republics. See Inter-American, Latin America, 
Organization of American States, Pan American, and 
individual countries 



American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Americans serving overseas, tribute to, remarks (Dillon), 

1009 
Amity and commerce, treaties with : 
Japan, 100th anniversary of exchange of ratifications 

of, article (Parks), 744 
Muscat, Oman, and Dependencies, 942 
Anderson, Charles W., Jr., 34 
Anderson, Robert Bernerd, 264, 427 
Andrade, Victor, 353 
Antarctica : 
Peaceful uses of, treaty regarding, 112, 1009 
Scientific program in : 
Address (Kistiakowsky), 278 

U.S.-Chilean cooperation in, joint announcement, 698 
Anti-Americanism : 

Propaganda in South America, statement (Herter), 490 
U.S. protest to Czechoslovakia for museum exhibition, 7 
Antisubmarine Warfare Research Center, 1022 
Antitrust laws, U.S., ocean shipping practices, meeting of 
governments concerned in grand jury investigation of, 
501 
Apartheid, policy of : 
Address (Wilcox), 592 

Security Council's consideration of, U.S. views concern- 
ing, statements and text of U.N. resolution : Herter, 
551, 644 ; Lodge, 667 ; resolution, 669 
Arab-Israel dispute : 

Refugee problem. See Refugees 
Statement (Herter), 489 
Suez Canal problem. See Suez Canal 
U.N. efforts to resolve, U.S. views, statement (Herter), 
551. 552 
Arab Republic. United. See United Arab Republic 
Arab states, complaint about Premier Ben-Gurion's U.S. 

visit, statement (Herter), 489 
Arab States, League of : 
Agreement with FAO, 93 

Boycott measures against U.S. shipping, letters and 
statement (Dillon, Meany), 834 
Archeological congress, 4th Iranian : 
Remarks (Henderson), 836 
U.S. representative (Henderson), 713 
Argentina : 

Border dispute with Chile, solution of, statement 

(Herter), 549 
Latin American Free Trade Association, 522, 630, 938 
Relaxation of import controls, 874 
Submarine off coast of, statement (Herter), 360 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air Force mission, agreement renewing 1958 agree- 
ment with U.S., 766 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 173 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Submarines, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 766 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 50." 



1052 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Argentina — Continued 
Treaties, agreement!), etc. — Continued 

Whaling convention <l'.H*ii, intematiomil, and proto- 
oA (lUu>H amending, 104<5 
U.S. science officer, appointment, ZC>2 
VUlt of President Eisenhower, 119, 471, 477 
Armaments <»ee alto Disarmament, Missiles, Nuclear 
weapons, and Weapons production program) : 
Exp<jrtation of, seizare of arms or munitions being 

illegallj exiiorted. Executive order, 362 
Gr(/wth of wear»onB te<-hnok,>gj', address (White), 990 
International control and reduction of: 
Address < Rnbottom > , .!i22 
Impfjrtance of scientific advice and eTaliiati<ms to, 

address (Ki.stiakowsky^ 277, 280 
In Latin America : 

Problem of, statement ( Rubottom ) , 627 
Regional conference on, projjosed, addresses: Dil- 
lon. 4.%; Bubottom, 09.5 
Need for: addresses (Eisenhower), 480, 481, 482; 

joint statement (Alessandri, Elsenhower j, 483 
Soviet refusal to agree to, address and statement 

(Herterj, 3.!^, .%8, 359 
U.S. p^^ition, addresses: DIUon, 724, 728; Herter, 

3.^, e.Vi, 636, 638 ; Rubottom, 522 
Western views on, letter and statement : Eaton, .'51.3 : 
ELsenhower, .514 ; text of 5-Power working paper 
on general disarmament, .511 
Need for, message (Eisenhower;, 114 
Armed forces: 
Force level ceiling, proposed, .5-Power working paper on 

general disarmament, 511, fjl2 
Foreign forces in Korea, question of removal of, state- 
ment (Robertson J, 21, 22, 23 
Soviet, proposed reduction in, statement (White), 147 
Armed forces, U.S. : 
Air Force, Security Council rejection of Soviet com- 
plaint of aggression by, statements (Lodge) and 
texts of resolutions, 955 
Bu'lzet request for FY 1961, excerpt from President's 

message to Congress, 204 
Df-f<-;j.sive Btrength, address (Eisenhower), 47 
Di.sa.ster relief provided by : 
Earthquake relief aid and snxiplies ivrorided Mo- 
rocco, 444 
Fl'xjd relief to Brazil, 600 

Soviet soldiers, rescue of, exchange of measages 
(Elsenhower, Khrusbchev), 599 
Force level c-eiling proposed, 5-Power working papter on 

general disarmament. 511, 512 
Military banes, overseas. See ilUitary hofieM 
Military cemeteries, agreement with Belgium concern- 
ing, 173 
Military missions abroad. See Military mis^ons 
Mobility in relation to breadth of territorial waters, 

statement ( Dean ) , 259, 260 
Reduction of, need for, address ( Herter j, 3-!i6, 357 
Statns-of -forces agreement with Japan : statement 
(Herter), 1031; text <rf treaty and related docu- 
ments. 185 
Withdrawal from Morocco, joint communiqtie, 57 



Asia, South Asia, and S'^utbeast Asia (tee aUo Far Eajit. 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, and individual 
C'yuntriet) : 
ColomlKj Plan, 171 

C'/miuunist aggresKlon In. See under Communism 
Ge'ygrapbic regions of, article (Pearcy), 148 
Mass communir-ations in Southeast Asia, I/.S. delega- 
tion U) UNESCO conference on, 171 
Pacific Asian affairs, U.S. role in, address (Parsons), 

4W 
Pr'x^ress and potential in South Asia, address 

(Bunker), 776 
Refugees. See Refugees and disi^laced persons 
Rice exports to Asian countries, U.S. policy, statement 

(Johnson;, .363 
U.K. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 

U.S. representative to 16tb session, 629 
U.S. and 0>mmniilst CJhlna policies in, address ( Jones) i 

782 
U.S. mutual security program in : 
Development Loan Fund : 
Loans in, 300 

Program for FT 1961, proposed, st&tement (Brand), 
4.S3. 454, 4.57 
Message, reixirt, and etat«iients: Dillon, 380, .386; 

Eisenhower, 374, 81.5; Jtmes, 610; Parsons, .532 
Technical cooperation and defense support pr'jgrams 
for FY 1961 in, statement (Riddleberger), 446, 451 
Atlantic Pact. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (nee aUo Atomic Energy 
Agency) : 
Agreements with: Austria, 2®; Chile, .541. Colombia, 
SH3 ; Guatemala, 892 : Indonesia. 1046 ; Ireland, 718, 
766 ; Israel, .3«i ; New Zealand, 674 ; Soviet Union, 
. 279 ; Venezuela, .346 
Protection from radiation, remarks and statement: 

Dean, 256 ; Herter, 283 
Space vehicles, use of, nuclear rockets as propdlants, 

address (Glennanj, 60 
Visit to U.S. of officials ot the Yugoslav Federal Com- 
mission for Nuclear 'Energy, 410, 54(9 
Atomic Energy AgencT, International : 
FAO cooperation agreement with, report (Miller), 93 
Importance of work In Vienna, 599 
Radioactive waste pollution, problem rrferred to, state- 
ment (Dean), 256 
At/jmic Energy Commission, U.S. : 
Budget request for FY l!f61, 209 

Discussions with Yugoslav atomic energy officials, 410, 

d99 

Attorney (JeneraU U.S.. authority for seizure at arms or 

munitions being illegally exported, Execatire order, 

362 

Auditory and visual materials, agreement and protocol 

facilitating international circulation of, $46, 1006 
Australia: 
GaTT consultations, announcement. 527 
Participation with IBRD in development at Indus 

Basin, 442. 443 
Trade restrictions, liberalization at, 441, 874 



Index, January to June J 960 



1053 



Australia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 346 
Property, industrial, convention (1934) for jirotection 

of, extension to territories, 222 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 766 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 103 
Tracking stations, agreement with U.S. for operation 
and establishment of, 429, 541 
Austria : 

15th anniversary of declaration of independence, mes- 
sage (Herter), 858 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Liberalization of imports from dollar areas and OEEC 

countries, 875 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134 ; Switzerland, 630 ; Tunisia, 942 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Research reactor agreements (1956, 1959) with U.S., 

265 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 393 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
Aviation : 
Air navigation facilities in Canada, U.S.-Canadian 

views on charges for use of, 367 
Air transport negotiations with : Mexico, 804, 941 ; 
Netherlands, 120: New Zealand, 888; Philippines, 
665, 804, 1006 ; U.K., 528, 804 
Aircraft : 
C-47 missing in Western Germany, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 906 
Helicopters, cancellation of licenses for export to 

Cuba. Cuban-U.S. notes, 705 
High-altitude flights in Berlin corridor, statements 

(Herter), 488, 489, 490, 492 
Loan to Afghanistan to purchase, 831 
Unauthorized flights over Cuba, U.S. views concern- 
ing, aide memoire, 995 
USAP, airlift of personnel and supplies to disaster 

areas in : Brazil, 600 ; Morocco, 444 
U-2 incident. See U-2 incident 
Liberia, U.S. aid to finance modernization of Roberts 

Field, 666 
NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aeronautical Institute of Technology, agreement with 
Brazil re the acquisition of a sub-critical assembly 
for, 1009 
Air Force missions agreements. See under Military 

missions 
Air navigation equipment, agreement extending 1955 
agreement with Republic of Germany for lease of, 
5S2 



Aviation — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 
505, 673, 1009 

Air transport ( 1946 ) , agreement with the Philippines 
terminated, 506 

Assembly and manufacture in Japan of F-104 type 
aircraft, agreement with Japan, 844 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules 
relating to, 265 

Civil air terminal at USAF base in Bermuda, agree- 
ment with U.K. extending, 1009 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 222, 
265, 505, 978; protocol (1954) relating to amend- 
ments to, 892 

Bacon, Edward A., 996 

Baghdad Pact. See Central Treaty Organization 
Bahamas : 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on the importation of, 
notification by U.K. of extension to, 805 
U.S. -U.K. agreement re application of 1957 agreement 
for establishment of oceanographic station in, 942 
Baig, M. O. A., 428 
Balauee-of-payments problem : 
Addresses and statement : Dillon, 401 ; Lodge, 525 ; 

Martin, 343 
Effect of mutual security program expenditures on, 
report and statements : Dillon, 383, 572 ; Eisen- 
hower, 815 ; Kohler, 620 
GATT discussion of, U.S. views, 938, 1033 
President's economic report to Congress re, excerpts, 
304, 305, 306 
Ballistic missiles. See Missiles 
Baltic States, anniversary of independence, statement 

(Herter), 361 
Barrows, Leland, 766 
Bartholomew, Harlan, (558 
Bases, U.S., overseas. See Military bases 
Bataan Day, ISth anniversary of, message (Eisenhower), 

685 
Bateman, John B., 363 
Beale, W. T. M., 261 
Beam, Jacob D., 556 
Belgian Congo : 

Import-trade policy, 875 

Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Visit of ICA study group, 835 
Belgium : 

Develoiiraent Assistance Group, 1st meeting and dele- ! 

gation, 440, 577 
Territories : 

Belgian Congo. See Belgian Congo 
Ruanda-Uruudi, administration as trust territory, 
statement (Zablocki), 27 
Trade policies, 875 



1054 



Department of State Bulletin 



Belgium — Cout iuued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
American military cemeteries, agreement with U.S. 
concerning, terminating agreements of 1929 and 
1947, 173 
Classified patent applications, agreement with U.S. 

approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 978 
Defense, agreement with U.S. concerning a special 
program of facilities assistance, termination, 892 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions : Israel, 

134 ; Switzerland, 630, Tunisia, 942 
GATT, declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 134 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending an- 
nex B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 38 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 805 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 346 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S. 

relating to, 892 
AVHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
Benelux, trade policies, 875 
Bennett, Elmer F., 250, 441, 442, 974 
Bennett, Jack, 894 
Benson, Charles S., 800 
Berding. Andrew H., 233, 729, 906 
Berlin : 

Situation in : 
Heads of Government meetings. See Heads of 

Government 
Joint U.K., U.S.S.R., and U.S. administration and 
occupation of. Department statement and text of 
1944 agreement, 5.54 
Question of high-altitude flights over Berlin cor- 
ridor, statements (Herter). 488, 489, 490, 492 
Soviet views, addresses : Berding, 732 ; Dillon, 724 
Threat to Berlin, Soviet, statements (Herter), 320, 

322, 323, 947 
U.S. and Western positions : 
Addresses and statements : Berding, 732, Dillon, 

724 ; Hanes, 796 ; Herter, 552 
Foreign Ministers meeting, statement, 684 
NAC communique, 45 

Western Heads of State and Government meeting, 
communique, 43 
West Berlin : 
Medical training center, U.S. aid, statement (Kohler), 

622 
Radio station, Federal Republic of Germany draft 
legislation for, U.S. and Soviet notes concerning, 7 
Right of self-determination in, joint statement 
(Adenauer, Eisenhower), 518 
Bermuda, restrictions on imports from dollar areas, 876 
Bhumibol Adulyadej, 1028 

Biological weapons and warfare. See Chemical 
Black, Eugene R., 63 
Blankin.ship. Byron E., 106 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, member appointed, 800 
Bohlen, Charles E.. 86, 239, 240, 495 



Bolivia : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 353 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

lutor-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 030 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
U.S. aid programs, 280, 625 
Bolster, Edward A., 804 
Bonsai, Philip W., 238, 523 
Braddock, Daniel M., 440 
Brand, Vance, 4.53 

Brasilia, Brazil, 472, 474, 475, 521, 800 
Brazil : 

Coffee, relaxation of GATT import restrictions on, 

statement (Herter), 550 
Efforts to develop managerial talent, address (Rubot- 

tom), 916 
Financial aid to, question of, statements (Herter), 360, 

487, 491 
Flood, U.S. relief aid, 600 
GATT consultations, participation in, announcement, 

527 
ICA education and health programs in, address (Rubot- 

tom), 287 
Latin American Free Trade Association membership, 938 
Minister for External Relations, visit to U.S., 523 
New Capital at Brasilia, address and message re : Eisen- 
hower, 800 ; Rubottom, 521 
Trade policies, 875 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aeronautical Institute of Technology, agreement with 
U.S. re the acquisition of a sub-critical assembly 
for, 1009 
GATT: 
Declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 805 
Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 346 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment 
of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 173, 805 
Health and sanitation program, agreement extending 

1942 agreement with U.S., 393 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Military advisory mission, agreement amending 1948 

agreement with U.S., 500 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of the 1931 
convention, 105 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (19.59), international, 

630 
U.S. destroyers, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 506 
Uranium resources, agreements amending and extend- 
ing 1957 agreement with U.S. for cooperative 
I)rogram for reconnaissance and investigation of, 
1016 
U.S. missile tracking station In, statement (Rubottom), 

629 
U.S. science officer, appointment, 363 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 119, 471, 474 



Index, January to June I960 



1055 



Breadth of territorial sea. See Territorial waters 
British East Africa : 

Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
British Somalilund, transfer of consular district from 

Aden to Mogadiscio, 506 
Broadcasting. See Telecommunications 
Erode, Wallace R., 271, 735 
Budget for 1961, message (Eisenhower), 116 
Bulgaria : 

Minister to U.S., credentials, 147 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

IMCO, convention (1948) on, 844 

Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 629 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 1046 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 5S2 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
U.S. Legation at Sofia, opening of, 542 
U.S. Minister, confirmation, 205 
Bunlier, Ellsworth, 776 
Burgess, W. Randolph, 264 
Burma : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Restrictions on dollar imports, 876 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 

134 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

&30 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 265 
Business Council for International Understanding, es- 

tiiblishmcut of, address (Dillon), 1022 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Radio regulations (1959), 6.30 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 1046 
Byrns, Kenneth A., 1010 

Cabot, Louis Wellington, 743 

Caicos and Turlis Islands, U.S.-U.K. agreement re appli- 
cation of 195G agreement for establishment of ocea- 
nographic station in, 942 
Calendar of international conferences and meetings, 15, 

169, 389, 538, 714, 932 
Cambodia : 

Import policy, 876 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 718 

Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 718 
High seas, convention on, 718 



Ca mbodia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc.^Continued 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

718 
Universal postal convention (1957), 465 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
Cameroun : 

Associate membership in FAO, question of, 88 
Developments in, statement ( Zablocki ) , 26 
Independence from trusteeship of France, 174 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

673 
Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) on, 

265 
FAO constitution, 718 
WHO constitution, 1046 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 766 
U.S. consulate general at Yaounde elevated to Embassy, 
174 
Canada : 
Columbia River Basin, development of. See Columbia 

River Basin 
Development Assistance Group, 1st meeting and dele- 
gation. 440, 577 
Import controls, partial relaxation of, 876 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada). See 

International Joint Commission 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, 5th meeting, delegations and text of com- 
munique, 250, 365 
Participation in Western Foreign Ministers presummit 

meeting on disarmament, 493, 683 
Participation with IBRD in the development of the 

Indus Basin, 442, 443 
Pilotage requirements for oceangoing vessels on the 
Great Lakes, proposed coordination with U.S. in 
establishing, statement (White), U.S. and Cana- 
dian aide memoire. and letters (Rae, White), 417 
Tariff concessions on textiles, renegotiation under 

GATT, 709 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament. See Ten Na- 
tion Conmiittee on Disarmament 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions: Is- 
rael, 134 : Switzerland, 630 
High seas fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, amend- 
ment to annex to international convention (1952) 
on, 1046 
NARBA (lO.^O) and final protocol, 673 
Radio regulations (19.W), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
U.S.-Canadian consultations on wilderness preserves, 

announcement, 739 
U.S.-Canadian cooperation for peace, address (Wiggles- 
worth), 121 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 858, 995 



1056 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Caual Zoue : 

Question of U.S. policy on riglits iu, statement (Ilerter), 

326 
U.S. annunity payment to Panama for rights in, 410 
U.S. program for improvement of relations witli Pana- 
ma in, 798 
Canary Islands tracking station, agreement with Spain 

for establishment of, 518 
Caracas Declaration, statement (Herter),645 
Cargo Preference Act, proposed legislation re, announce- 
ment and exchange of letters (Casey, Dillon), 740 
Caribbean area (see also individual countries) : 
British and French territories, liberalization of import 

controls, 879, 887 
Caribbean Assembly, meeting in Puerto Bico, address 

(Dillon), 435 
Expanded air route schedules recommended, joint U.K.- 

U.S. conference at Barbados, 528 
Export of arms and implements of war to, U.S. policy, 

address (Rubottom), 696 
Tensions in, U.S. note to Cuba concerning, 705 
Casey, Ralph E., 740, 742 
Castiella y Mafz, Fernando Maria, 80, 597 
Catudal, Honor(5 M., 291 

Centennial Year, U.S.-J'apan. 745, 790, 826, 909, 910 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Central America {see also Caribbean area, Latin America, 
and individual countries, Central American common 
market, address and statement, Dillon, 344, 437 
Central Intelligence Agency (see also Intelligence activi- 
ties), duties and responsibility of, address (Dulles), 
411 
Central Treaty Organization : 

5th anniversary, exchange of messages (Baig, Herter), 

428 
Ministerial Council, 8th session : 

Remarks and statements (Herter), 801, 803, 841 
Text of final communique, 802 
U.S. observer delegation, 517, 803 
Purpose of, address (Eisenhower) and joint communi- 
que, 53, 54 
U.S. support of collective security activities, statement 
(Jones), 615, 617 
Ceylon : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

Import controls on dollar goods, relaxation of, 877 

Progress in, address (Bunker), 777 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Exchange of oflScial publications and government 
documents between states, 1958 convention on, 309 
GATT : 

Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Declarations on provisional accessions : Lsrael, 134 ; 

Switzerland, &30 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 
Ill-Brazil, 173 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 465 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Chad, Republic of, associate membership In FAO, 89 
Chapln, Selden, 629 



Charter of the United Nations. See United NatloM 

Charter 
Cheeses, quotas increased on imports of certain cheeses, 

907 
Chemical and biological weapons and warfare: 
Prohibition of production of weapons, 5-Power proposal, 

513 
Threat of, statement (Herter), 360 
Chessman, Caryl, 490 
Chiefs of State and Heads of Government meetings. See 

Heads of Government 
Child, declaration of the rights of the, statement (Ander. 

son) and text of declaration, 34 
Children's Fund, U.N., problem of financing FAO/UNICEF 

projects, report (Miller), 91, 93 
Chile : 
Antarctic scientific program, cooperation with U.S.. in, 

joint announcement, 698 
Educational exchange program with U.S., address 

(Rubottom), 287 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Imports, liberalization of control policy, 877 
Participation in Latin American Free Trade Associa- 
tion, 938 
Proposal for Latin American disarmament agreement 
and border agreement with Argentina, U.S. views 
concerning, statement (Herter), 549 
Student leaders of : 
Letter to President Eisenhower: 
Address (Rubottom), 696 
Text, 656 
U.S. reply, 648 
Visit to U.S., delegation and itinerary, 799 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 309 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of : 

Israel, 582 ; Switzerland, 630 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 38 
Nuclear research and training equipment and ma- 
terials, agreement with U.S. providing for grant for 
acquisition of, 541 
Uranium reconnaissance, agreement extending agree- 
ment with U.S. for a cooperative program, 222 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. relief aid, 966 

Visit of President Eisenhower, 119, 471, 480 
China (see also China, Communist; and China, Republic 
of): 
Area included in Greater China, article (Pearcy), 155 
U.N. representation question, address and statement: 
Herter, 323 ; Parsons, 408 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Soviet-bloc 
countries) : 
Activities in Asia, addresses : Herding, 236 ; Jones, 783, 

787, 788, 789 
Disarmament agreements and discussions, question of 
participation in, statements (Herter), 321, 323, 646 
Exchange of newsmen with U.S., U.S. policy, 789 



Index, January to June I960 



1057 



China, Communist — Continued 

Menace to U.S. national security, question of, statement 

(Herter),3G0 
Objectives, statement (Parsons), 532, 533 
Persecution and imprisonment of Bishop Walsh, state- 
ments (Department, Herter), 556 
Reaction to developments at summit, address (Nixon), 

984 
U.S. embargo on trade with, statement (Mann), 927 
U.S. policy toward, addresses : Hanes, 797 ; Parsons, 405, 
406 
China, Republic of : 

Art exhibition in U.S., 338 

Chinese Communist objectives and policies, address 

(Jones), 784, 785, 788 
Economic development, proposed U.S. aid, message, re- 
port, and statements : Brand, 457 ; Dillon, 384, 461, 
463, 464, 569, 570; Eisenhower, 374; Parsons, 535, 
536 ; Riddleberger, 446, 447, 573 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending agree- 
ment with U.S., 465 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 1046 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. policy toward, address and statement : Herter, 491 ; 
Parsons, 406, 408, 409, 410 
Cholera research project, SEATO, conversion to medical 

research laboratory, 987 
Chong U-kwon, 1018 
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 
Civil defense, importance to foreign policy, remarks 

(Herter), 283 
Civil rights, need for legislation to protect, message 

(Eisenhower), 117 
Claims : 

Against the U.S. : 

Japanese nationals, agreement with Japan relating to 

settlement of, 199, 222 
Philippine war damage claims, proposed U.S. legisla- 
tion to settle, 212 
Spain, agreement concerning claims of Spanish sub- 
contractors relating to construction of military 
bases in, 465 
U.S.: 
Accounts of U.S. citizens in Cuban banks, notification 

to claim, 501 
Rumania, agreement with U.S. relating to settlement 

of, 630. 670 
Yugoslavia, Department announcement on Yugoslav 
decision re 1948 claims agreement, 973 
Claims Settlement Commission, Foreign, 070 
Clappier, Bernard, 264n 
Cleveland's role in international cultural relations, 

address (Thayer), 333 
Clothespins, Pre.<iidpnt's decision against reopening escape- 

rlnusp action on imports of, 339 
Clulow, Carlos A., 353 

Coast Guard, U.S., Jurisdiction In licensing of pilots of 
oceangoing vessels, statement (White), 419, 420 



Coffee : 

International agreements on, address (Rubottom), 288 
Latin American marketing problems, address and state- 
ment : Dillon, 438 ; Herter, 550 
U.S. trade policy concerning, letter (Howe), 653 
Collective security (see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Arrangements for, importance of, addresses and re- 
marks : Eisenhower, 986; Nixon, 983, 984; White, 
991 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. See Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
Europe. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Free world concern for, message (Eisenhower), 112 
Increased contributions from NATO members to, state- 
ment (Kohler), 620, 621 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Mutual security program contributions to, message, re- 
port, and statements : Dillon, 382 ; Eisenhower, 160, 
162, 165, 167, 370, 373 ; Herter, 376, 379 
Near and Middle East. See Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Need for, addresses : Hanes, 794 ; Palmer, 329, 330 
U.S. poUcy and views, address and statement : Gates, ■ 
558 ; Herter, 635 
Colombia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 658 

ICA assistance to 4-H Clubs in, address (Rubottom), 

287 
Imports, restrictions on, 877 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Nuclear training and research equipment and ma- 
terials, agreement with U.S. for acquisition of, 393 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), International, 

630 
U.S. destroyer, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 766 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 430 
Visit of President Lleras to U.S., 441, 699 
Colombo Plan, lOtli anniversary, statement (Herter), 171 
Colonialism, role in development of Africa, address (Wil- 
cox), 591 
Columbia River Basin, development of : 
Negotiations (U.S. -Canadian) for: 

1st meeting, delegations, joint statement (Bennett, 

Fulton), and text of communique, 2,^0, 441 
4th meeting, delegations and text of communique, 
974 
Report of IJC, 126 
Commerce. Sec Trade 
Commerce, Department of: 

Announcement of changes in Netherlands import con- 
trols, 57 
Liberalization of trade restrictions on U.S. exports, 
joint aniiouncoment with Departments of Agrictll- 
tnre and State, 873 
Promotion of U.S. export trade program, message and 
statements: Dillon, 561; Eisenhower, 561; Ray, 
562; report of Interagency Task Force, 563 



1058 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Commerce, Department of — Continued 
Regulatory authority for pilotage on U.S. waters of 
the Great Lakes, proposed legislation, statement 
(White), 418. 419 
Revocation of licenses for export of helicopters to 
Cuha, 705 
Commercial samples and advertising material, Interna- 
tional convention (1952) to facilitate importation, 
505 
Commercial treaties. Sec Trade : Treaties 
Commission for the Con.servation of Shrimp in the East- 
em Gulf of Mexico, appointment of U.S. members, 
842 
Committee for Reciprocity Information : 
Article (Catudal), 296, 297, 298 
Notices, 245, 246, 972 
Committee of Nine, 476, 521 

Committee oj Ten. Sec Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament 
Committee of 21. See Operation Pan America 
Commodity trade problems (see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses) : 
Coffee. See Coffee 
Fluctuations of prices of raw materials, address (Ru- 

bottom), 697 
GATT discussion of, U.S. views, 1033 
Specialized commodity study groups, address (Nichols), 
760 
Common markets : 

Central American common market, address and state- 
ment (Dillon), 344, 437 
European. See European Economic Community ; Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation, Organization for ; and 
European Free Trade Association 
Latin American. See Latin American Free Trade 
Association 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; and Soviet 
Union) : 
Aggression in the Far East, addresses and statements: 
Johnson, 1004 ; Jones, 615, 617 ; Parsons, 404, 406, 
407, 409, 532 
Aggression in the Middle East, U.S. efforts to combat, 
President's 4th report to Congress on the Amer- 
ican Doctrine, 424 
Competition against free world, strength of, address 

(Dulles), 416 
Economic penetration policies. See Less developed 

countries : Economic offensive 
Growth of and influence in Cuba, statement (Herter), 

645, 646 
International, challenge and threat of and efforts to 
combat, addresses, communique, letter, remarks, 
reports, and statements: Berding, 233, 234, 236; 
Dillon, 388, 460, 462, 463, 570, 571, 855, 924; 
Eisenhower, 160, 162, 163, 167, 108, 369, 373, 986; 
Hanes, 792, 793, 795, 796 ; Herter, 78, 375, 378, 566, 
568 ; Howe, 650 ; Kohler, 619, 022 ; Nixon, 983, 984 ; 
Palmer, 330, 331, 3.32; Riddleberger, 445, 440, 448, 
451, 573, .574, 575 ; SEATO communique, 986 ; White, 
989 ; WiKPflesworth. 123 ; Wilcox. 595 



Communism — Continued 

I'ropaganda. iS'ce Propaganda : Soviet 
Subversive activities In Latin America, addresses: Dil- 
lon, 31S ; Rubottom, 289 
Conciliation Commission, U.N., 33, 381 
Conferences and organizations, international (nee also 
subject), calendar of meetings, l,"), 169, 389, 538, 714. 
932 
Congress, U.S. : 

Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 8. 217, 
263, 307, 388, 426. 458. 501, 666, 713, 753, 800, 838, 
931, 1000, 1032 
Foreign Relations Committee: 

Secretary Ilerter's report on Heads of Government 

meeting, 947 
Studies on U.S. foreign policy authorized by, list of, 

273 
Studies on U.S.-Latin American relations, list of, 6^6 
Joint sessions, addresses before : 
King Mahendra of Nepal, 828 
President de Gaulle of France, 771 
President Lleras of Colombia, 701 
Legislation : 
Immigration of refugees to U.S., statement (Ftilton), 

30 
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, quoted, 
address (Glennan), 59 
Legislation, proposed : 

Cultural and technical center in Hawaii, proposed 
establishment, letter (Herter) and excerpt of re- 
port, 130 
Educational exchange program, authority to pay cer- 
tain expenses relating to, letter (Herter), 308 
Freedom-of-navigation amendment to Mutual Secu- 
rity Act, letter (Dillon), 832 
ICJ statute, repeal of U.S. reservation to, letters and 
statements: Eisenhower, Humphrey, 128; Herter, 
227 ; Rogers, 231 
IDA, authorization for U.S. to accept membership in, 

statement (Dillon), 529 
Immigration, liberalization of restrictions, address 

and message : Eisenhower, 659 ; Hanes, 660 
Mutual security program for FY 1961, letter, report, 
and statements : Brand. 453 ; Dillon, 380, 459, 568 ; 
Herter, 375, 566; Jones, 610; Kohler, 618; Parsons, 
532; Riddleberger, 445, 572; Rubottom, 623; Sat- 
terthwaite, 603 
Passports, discretionary authority to Secretary of 

State to deny, statement (Herter), 323 
Pilotage requirements for oceangoing vessels on the 
Great Lakes, statement (White), U.S. and Cana- 
dian aide memoire, and letters (Rae, White), 417 
Sugar Act of 1948, Presidential authority to reduce 
quotas and question of Cuban quota, messages and 
statements : Eisenhower, Garcia, 665 ; Herter, 359, 
493, 553 
Presidential messages and reports. See Eisenhower, 

Dwight D. : Messages and reports to Congress 
Role in development of U.S. foreign policy, address 
(Bohlen), 498 



Index, January fo June J 960 



1059 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 

Senate advice and consent to ratification requested for : 
Importation of educational, scientific, and cultural 

materials, agreement on, statement (Beale), 261 
Law of the sea, conventions on, and optional protocol, 

statement (Dean), 251 
Oil pollution convention (1954), statement (Mann), 

976 
Treaty of mutual cooperation and security with Ja- 
pan, statement (Herter), 1029 
Conservation, convention (1958) on fishing and conserva- 
tion of living resources of the high seas : 
Current actions, 718, 1(X)9 
Statement (Dean), 256 
Conservation of Shrimp in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, 
Commission for the, appointment of U.S. members, 
842 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 

with Muscat, Oman, and Dependencies, 942 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia, 10th anni- 
versary, statement (Herter), 171 
Contiguous zone and territorial sea, convention on, 25.3, 

260, 718, 1009 
Continental slielf, convention on, 258, 718, 1009 
Contingency fund : 
Belief aid funds for Morocco provided by, 444 
Request for appropriations for and importance of, mes- 
sage and statements : Dillon, 384, 386, 924, 926 ; Eisen- 
hower, 374 
Contracting Parties to GATT. See vjider Tariffs and 

trade, general agreement on 
Coolidge report on disarmament, 355, 358 
Cooper, John Sherman, 63 
Copper, investments by U.S. companies in Chile, address 

(Eisenhower), 482 
Costa Rica : 

Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 134 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
U.S. aid in establishment of a career Civil Service, ad- 
dress (Rubottom), 287 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International: 
U.S. delegation to 19th plenary meeting, 940 
Work of, address (Nichols), 760 
Cotton textiles, U.S. and Canadian views on U.S. equali- 
zation payments, 367 
Crouch, Marshall, 363 
Cuba: 
Agreement with Poland re aid, statement (Herter), 644 
Imports, restriction on, 878 
Mining Concessions in, reregistration of, 157 
Prime Minister's statement of nonadbcrence to Rio 
Pact, U.S. views concerning, address and state- 
ment : Herter, 645 ; Rubottom, 694 
Self-determination in, Chilean students' letter to Presi- 
dent Eisenhower and U.S. reply (Fernfindez, Howe, 
Zuniga ) , 054, 057 

1060 



Cuba — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

NARBA (1950) and final protocol, 673 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (19.58), international, 134 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
U.S. -Cuban relations : 
Accounts of U.S. citizens in Cuban banks, notification 

to claim, 501 
Ambassador Bonsai returns to, 523 
Charge in OAS of U.S. involvement in disaster in 

Habana harbor, U.S. note of protest, 1028 
Cuban slander campaign, U.S. protest, text of aide 

memoire, 994 
Firing upon U.S. submarine by Cuban patrol boat, 

U.S. request for explanation, 854 
Negotiations with U.S. on outstanding problems pro- 
posed, texts of U.S. and Cuban notes, 440 
Seizure of property of U.S. citizens, U.S. protests, 

158, 655 
Statements (Herter), 324, 359, 488, 489, 491, 493, 

549, 550, 552, 553, 645, 646 
Sugar quota, question of. See under Sugar 
U.S. aid programs, status of, 629, 962 
U.S. policy towards Cuba, statements (Bonsai, Eisen- 
hower), 237 
U.S. reply to Cuban complaints re revocation of 
export licenses for helicopters, dismissal of Cuban 
naval base employee, and suspension of services of 
U.S. agriculture inspectors, tests of notes, 705 
Cultural and Public Affairs Aspects of the U.S.-Japan 

Centennial, Committee for, 745 
Cultural Presentations, President's Special International 
Program for, work of, addresses (Thayer), 82, 83, 
335 
Cultural relations and programs (see also Educational 
exchange and Exchange of Persons) : 
Addresses ( Thayer ) , 81, 240. 333, 963 
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, estab- 
lishment of, 844 
Chilean student leaders, visit to U.S., 799 
Chinese art exhibition in U.S., 338 
East-West center in Hawaii, proposed establishment, 

letter (Herter) and excerpt of report, 130 
Exhibition of Greek costumes and embroideries in U.S., 

announcement, 599 
Franco-American cultural ties, importance of, address 

(Dillon), 4 
Importiince to U.S. foreign policy, address (Herter), 

1017 
Persian culture, U.S. appreciation of, remarks (Hender- 
son), 836 
SEATO programs. 98, 987 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 

in event of armed conflict, 582 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (19.50) and protocol on the importation of, 
261, 430, 805, 843 
Inter-American cultural relations convention (1936) 
for the promotion of, 913 

Department of State Bulletin 



Cultural relatious and programs — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Visual and auditory materials, agreement and proto- 
col facilitating the international circulation of, 346, 
1(109 
U.S. relations with : 

Greece, address (Herter),517 

Japan, 6G4, 744 

Latin America, address (Eisenhower), and joint 

statement (Alessandri. Eisenhower), 479, 483 
Soviet Union, address (Thayer), 335 
Currency convertibility : 

Guaranty of. See Investment guaranty program 
Liberalization of trade through establishment of, joint 
announcement (Departments of Agriculture, Com- 
merce, and State), 873; statement (Adair), 870 
Customs (sec also Tariff policy, U.S.) : 

Customs unions, GATT rules regarding, article (Catu- 

dal), 203 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 393, 582, 629 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for. 393, 582 
Cutler, Robert, 264 

Cyprus, associate membership in FAO, 88 
Dzechoslovaltia : 
Auti- American exhibit, U.S. protest, 7 
Thomas JIasaryk honored as "Champion of Liberty," 

remarks (Merchant), 494 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Switzerland, 630 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Xvzak, John J., 266 

Dalai Lama. 443 
Davenport, Jarvis D., 221 
Davis, Richard Hallock, 38 
Dean, Arthur H., 251, 504 
Declaration of Montevideo, 486 
Declaration of Santiago, 483, 755, 757 
Defense (see also Mutual defense and National defense) : 
Civil defense, importance to foreign policy, remarks 

(Herter), 283 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with Denmark for interchange 
of, 465 
Special program of facilities assistance, agreements 
terminated with : Belgium, 892 ; Turkey, 892 
defense. Department of: 
Administration of military assistance program, address, 
message, and statement : Dillon, 387 ; Eisenhower, 
371; Palmer, 331, 332 
Budget recommendations for, excerpts from President's 

message to Congress, 202, 204 
Joint announcement with State Department of estab- 
lishment of the office of political adviser to the 
High Commissioner of the Ryukyu Islands, 106 

ndex, January to June 1960 



Defense support: 

Efforts for reduction of, letter, report, and statement: 

Dillon, 459; RiddlelxTgcr, 445, 450; report, 560 
Need for. President's report to Congress, 166 
Obligational authority request for FY 1961, 211 
Program and appropriation request for FY ISKIl, nies- 
.sage, statements: Dillon, 380, 381, 384, 3.S6, 920; 
Ei.seuhower, 372; Herter, 378; Riddleberger, 575 
U.S. aid to Spain, statement (Kohler), 622 
De Gaulle, Charles, 101, 120, 516, 685, 771 
De la Guardia, Erasmo, 658 
Denmark : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

Import controls on dollar-area goods, relaxation of, 878 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on the importation of, 
843 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134 ; Switzerland, 6.30 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for interchange of. 
465 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international. 

630 
Weapons production program, agreemen*- with U.S., 

805, 1009 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 629 
Visit of King Frederik and Queen Ingrid to U.S., 
proposed, 403 
Dennison, Robert L., 45 

Department of Commerce. See Commerce, Department of 
Department of Defense. See Defense, Department of 
Department of Justice. See Justice, Department of 
Department of State. See State Department 
Development assistance. See Economic and technical aid 
Development Assistance Group : 

Addresses and statement : Dillon, 403 ; Martin, 342 ; Sat- 

terthwaite, 689 
1st meeting, delegations and communique, 440, 577 
Development Association, International. See Interna- 
tional Development Association 
Development Bank, Inter-American. See Inter-American 

Development Bank 
Development Loan and Guaranty Fund of the West 

Indies, U.S. assistance to, 582 
Development Loan Fund : 
Activities in Africa, address and statement: Penfield, 

922 ; Satterthwaite, 606 
Authorization and appropriations for, address, message, 
and statements: Brand. 4.53; Dillon, 570, 571, 924, 
925, 999 ; Eisenhower, 209, 210 
Deputy Managing Director, resignation, 430 
Importance in U.S. development aid program, message 
and statements: Dillon, 383, 384, 385; Eisenhower, 
373 ; Herter, 379 
Loans to : Far East, 535, 536 ; less developed countries, 

639 
Methods of financing loans, IDA similarities to, state- 
ment (Dillon), 530,531 

1061 



Development Loan Fund — Continued 
Operations of : 

President's report to Congress, 163, 166 
Summary of, 300, 815 
Relationship to grant economic assistance, letter, report 

(Dillon), 459 
Report to Congress (Eisenhower), 305, 306, 307 
Dictatorships, U.S. policy toward, addresses, letter, and 
report : Eisenhower, 472, 476 ; Howe, 651 ; Rubottom, 
696 
Diefenbaker, John G., 858, 995 
Dillon, Douglas : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
American Foreign Policy Today, 723 
Bankers' study trip to India and Pakistan, U.S. par- 
ticipation in and views on, 63 
Economic aspects of U.S. foreign policy, 399, 679, 855 
European economic talks, 139 
Export trade, U.S. efforts to stimulate and increase, 

561 
Franco-American alliance, cultural ties in, 4 
IDA, U.S. support of membership in, 529 
Inter-American Development Bank, inaugural meet- 
ing, 344 
Investment guaranty agreement with Nepal, remarks 

on signing, 940 
Japanese-U.S. friendship, 909 
Latin America : 

Economic development in, 435 
Sharing common goals with, 315 
Merchant Marine, U.S. foreign policy affecting, 834 
Mutual security program, 380, 568, 924, 997 
Overseas service: 
Challenge of, 1019 

Tribute to Americans serving in, 1009 
Administrative action, redelegation of functions re- 
garding administration of the Mutual Security 
Act, 893 
Confirmation as Alternate Governor of Inter-American 

Development Bank, 264 
Escort of President de Gaulle on U.S. tour, 685 
Letters : 

Freedom-of-navigation amendment to Mutual Secu- 
rity Act, 832 
Grant economic assistance, transmission of report 

on, 459 
Merchant Marine, 834 

Proposed waiver of cargo preference rule on Indus 
project, 741 
Meeting with Development Assistance Group, 577, 579 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under For- 
eign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

l.st Japanese mission to the U.S., article (Parks), 744 
Presentation of credentials: Bolivia, 3.'i3 ; Bulgaria, 
147; Colombia, 6."S: Ethiopia, 1018; Guatemala, 
1018; Iran, 553; Korea, 1018; Panama, 058; 
Turkey, 734 ; Uruguay, 353 
Disarmament (»ee alio Armaments; Armed forces; Nu- 
clear weapons; Missiles; Outer space; Surprise at- 
tack ; and Ten Nation) : 



Disarmament — Continued 

Chilean proposal for, statement (Herter), 549 
Communist China participation in discussions on, 

question of, statements (Herter), 321, 323, 646 
Coolidge report, statements (Herter), 355, 358 
Effect on U.S. economy, question of, statement (Herter), 

360 
French views on, address (De Gaulle), 773 
NAC views on, communiques, 4, 45, 840 
Negotiations : 
Progress of, addresses and statements: Herter, 354, 

358, 489, 636, 638, 646, 647 ; Kohler, 619, 623 
U.N. relationship to, address (Herter), 357 
Soviet position on, addresses and statement: Berding 
230, 731; Dillon, 728; White, 147; Wiggles^vorth, 
124, 125 ; Wilcox, 820 
U.S. and Western positions on, addresses, letter, mes- 
sage, and statement: Berding, 731; Dillon, 728; 
Eisenhower, 48, 53, 112, 114, 128; Hanes, 796; 
Herter, 548, 1016; White, 147, 992; Wigglesworth, 
124, 125 ; Wilcox, 820 
U.S.-Iranian joint communique on, .54 
U.S.-Japanese views on, joint communique, 179 
U.S. reply to Soviet note on, 1018 
Use of funds resulting from : 

Soviet proposal introduced in WHO, U.S. views, 

statement ( Henderson ) , 1007 
U.S. position, addresses : Eisenhower, 486 ; Wilcox, 
867 
Western Foreign Ministers approve report on Geneva 
negotiations in relation to forthcoming summit 
meeting, statement, 494, 684 
Disarmament organization, international, proposed estab- 
lishment, 511 
DLF. See Development Loan Fund 
Dodge, Joseph M., 63, 264 
Dominican Republic : 

Import controls, relaxation of, 878 
Situation in, statements (Herter), 320, 326 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural iiroperty, convention (1954) for protection 

in event of armed conflict, 582 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 38 
Radio regulations (1959) , 630 
Sugar agreement (10.58), international, 134 
Telecommimication convention (1950), international, 
630 
U.S. military assistance program in, status of, state- 
ment (Rubottom), 629 
Double taxation on income, conventions for avoidance of, 
with : 
Japan, protocol supplementing 1954 convention, 892 
U.K., agreement relating to extension to certain British 
territories of 1945 convention, 430 
Dowling, Walter C, 265 
Draper Commitce. See President's Committee To Study 

the United States Military Assistance Program 
Drugs, narcotic: 

Illegal traffic in, U.S.-Mexlcan discussion on control of, 
joint communique, 127 



1062 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Drugs, narcotic — Coutiuued 

Opium, protocol (11)53) regulating the production, trade, 

and use of, 105, 346, 073, 978 
Protocol (1940) amending prior agreements, conven- 
tions and protocols on, 430 
Protocol (194S) bringing under international control 
drugs outside the scope of 1931 convention, 105, 
346, 430 
U.N. Commission on, 15th session, U.S. delegation, 717 
Dulles, Allen W., 411 
Dulles, John Foster, 791, 962, 985, 986 

Earthquake, Morocco. See under Morocco 
Earthquake at Lar, Iran, exchange of messages (Eisen- 
hower, Pahlavi), 798 
East Indies, geographic area of, article (Pearcy), 152 
East-West contacts (see also Cultural relations and Ex- 
change) : 
Addresses : Berding, 733 ; Eisenhower, 903 
Cultural and technical center in Hawaii, proposed es- 
tablishment, letter (Herter) and excerpt of report, 
130 
Designation of Director, East-West Contacts Staff, 430 
East-West Contacts Program, transfer to Bureau of 

European Affairs. 844 
NAC views on. communique, 44 
East- West trade: 
Restrictions on trade with Soviet Union, 239 
U.S. policies, statement (Mann), 927 
Eaton, Fredrick M., 466, 513 
ECA. Sec Economic Commission for Africa 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe 
Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on 

Trade and, 5th meeting, 250 
Economic and Social Council, Inter-American, 69, 523 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Commission on the Status of Women, 14th session, an- 
nouncement, 581 
Documents, list of, 104, 172, 221, 265, 424, 505, 540, 670, 

718, 766, 803 
Economic commissions. See Economic Commission 
Resolution re aid to newly independent states, 937 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Inter-American 
Development Bank, International Bank, International 
Cooperation Administration, International Develop- 
ment Association, Mutual security and other assist- 
ance programs, and United Nations : Technical 
assistance programs) : 
Addresses, letter, message, report, and statements : Boh- 
len, 495; Dillon, 316, 436, 438, 459; Eisenhower, 
112, 113; Hanes, 795: Kohler. 622; Martin. .''.40: 
Riddleberger, 445 ; Rubottom, .521 ; Wilcox, 593, 596 
Aid to : Afghanistan, 831 ; Africa, 502, 605, 607, 608, 689, 
921. 922 ; Brazil. 600 ; Cuba, termination of, 962, 994 : 
Iceland. 250; India, 780; Latin America, 286, 651, 
6.52: Morocco. 600; Nepal, 828; Rhodesia and Ny- 
asaland. Federation of, 1009 ; Somaliland, Trust 
Territory of. 173; Syria. 718; Uruguay, 805; Thn 
West Indips, .582 



Economic and technical aid to foreign countrleH— Con. 
Belgian Congo, ICA study group survey of need for 

technical assistance. 835 
CENTO views on, joint communique, 803 
Health and sanitation agreement with Brazil, 393 
International training center in Hawaii, proposed es- 
tablishment, letter (Herter) and excerpt of report, 
130 
Need for increase In, statement (Dillon) and text of 

resolution, 141, 142, 143, 146 
Postindependence aid to trust territories, statement 

(Zablocki), 28 
Relationship of science to, address (Kistiakowsky), 

277, 280, 281 
Soviet and Soviet-bloc programs. See Less developed 

countries : Economic offensive of 
Type of U.S. administrators needed, address (Dillon), 

1020, 1021 
U.S. policy in the Middle East, President's 4th report 
to Congress on the American Doctrine, 424 
Economic and Trade Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Com- 
mittee on, 5th meeting, text of communique, 365 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., 2d session, state- 
ment (Phillips), 502 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N., 
U.S. representative to 16th session (Mann), confirma- 
tion, 629 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 

Electric Power Committee, ISth session, U.S. delegate, 

221 
Steel Committee, U.S. delegates to 23d session, 171 
U.S. representative to 15th session, confirmation, 743 
Working party on gas problems, U.S. delegate to meet- 
ing of, 172 
Economic Committee, Special. See Special Economic 

Committee 
Economic Community, European. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Economic cooperation (see also Special Economic com- 
mittee) : 
European. See European Economic Community ; Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation, Organization for; 
and European Free Trade Association 
Inter- American (see also Central America, Inter- 
American Development Bank, Latin American 
Free Trade Association, Organization of American 
States, and Operation Pan America), letters (Fer- 
nandez, Howe, Zuniga ) , 649, 651, 656 
Need for, address ( Wigglesworth ) , 125 
Promotion of agreed to in U.S.-Japanese treaty, state- 
ment (Herter), 1030 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan and 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Through United Nations, value in advancement of U.S. 
foreign policy, address (Lodge), 524 
Economic cooperation and development, organization for, 

proposed, relationship to GATT, 1035 
Economic development (see also Economic and technical 
aid) : 
Africa, need for and challenge of, address, resolution, 
statement: Penfleld, 920; Phillips, 934; ECOSOC 
resolution, 937 



Index, January fo June 7960 



1063 



Economic development— Continued 
Asia. See under Asia 
Bankers' study trip to India and Pakistan sponsored 

by World Bank, 63 
Colombia, need for U.S. credit, address and statements: 

Eisenhower, 699 ; Lleras, 700, 703 
Financing of. See Agricultural surpluses. Development 
Assistance Group, Development Loan Fund, Ex- 
port-Import Banks, Inter-American Development 
Bank, International Bank, International Develop- 
ment Association, International Monetary Fund, 
Investment of private capital abroad, and Special 
Fund 
Free-world economic growth, address (Dillon), 399 
Greece, progress of, joint communique, 56 
Importance to U.S. economy and world position, address 

(Dillon), 680 
International cooperation in planning and financing, 
statements (Dillon) and text of resolution, 140, 141, 
143, 145, 146 
Iran, joint communique, 54 
Latin America. See under Latin America 
Need for and problems of. President's message and re- 
ports to Congress, 301, 370, 373, 814 
Relationship to : 
Grant economic assistance, letter (Dillon) and re- 
port, 459, 463 
Political development, statement (Martin), 341 
Population growth, address (Wilcox), 860 
Thai-U.S. cooperation in, address (Johnson), 1001 
U.S. proposals for furthering, statements : Brand, 453 ; 

Riddleberger, 445 
Western Europe, Western Heads of State and Govern- 
ment communique, 43 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical 
aid, Export-Import Bank, International Coopera- 
tion Administration, and Mutual security 
Domestic economy, need for prudence in fiscal policy, 

remarks (Eisenhower), 867, 868 
Foreign economic policy : 
Addresses, message, and statements : 
Bohlen, 495; Dillon, 679; Eisenhower 112, 114; 
Martin, 340; Riddleberger, 445 
European economic talks, statements (Dillon) and 

texts of re.solutions, 139 
Latin America, addresses and report (Eisenhower), 
473, 475, 470, 477, 480, 482, 484 
President's report to Congress, excerpts, 301 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy 
Trade policy. See Trade 
Economic relations, amity, and consular rights, treaty 

with Muscat, Oman, and Dependencies, 942 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council 
Ecuador : 

ICEM membership, 221 

Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Rawinsonde observation station at Guayaquil, agree- 
ment extending 1957 agreement with U.S. for es- 
tablishment and operation, 978 



Ecuador — Continued 
Tracking stations, agreement with U.S. relating to a 
cooperative program for observation of satellitea 
and space vehicles, 506 
Education (see also Cultural relations and programs and 
Educational exchange) : 
Administration program for, message (Eisenhower), 

117 
Africa : 
Aid to Africa In the fields of education and training, 
statements : Riddleberger, 449 ; Satterthwaite, 604 
Special program for Africa, 921 

U.S. universities offering courses on Africa, increase 
of, address (Wilcox), 596 
Board of Foreign Scholarship, appointment to, 800 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, Bureau of, establish- 
ment of, 844 
Foreign languages, need for Americans to learn, ad- 
dress and report : Eisenhower, 473 ; Thayer, 243 
Hellenic University of America, announcement of plans 

for, address (Herter),517 
ICA institute, 4th session, 173 

Latin America, need for an expanded program in, ad- 
dress (Dillon), 439 
NATO science fellowship program, 338, 622, 1006 
Rotary Foundation Fellowship Program, address 

(Berding), 729 
SEATO announcement of research fellowship series, 

98, 987 
Thai development programs, address (Johnson), 1003, 

1005 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on the importation of, 
261, 430, 805, MS 
Visual and auditory materials of an educational, sci- 
entific, and cultural character, agreement and pro- 
tocol facilitating international circulation of, 346, 
1009 
U.N. university, proposed, statement (Erode), 274 
The University and the World Community, address 

(Herter), 1015 
Vocational training center for migrants in Italy, arti- 
cle (Warren), 220 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Agreement on imix)rtation of educational, scientific, 

and cultural materials, 261, 430, 805, 843 
Constitution, 505 

Mass communications in Southeast Asia, U.S. delega- 
tion to conference on, 171 
Task of, remarks (Shuster), 131 

United States National Commission for UNESCO, func- 
tions, 845 
Educational Commission, U.S., agreement amending 1949 
agreement with Turkey for the establishment of, 844 
Educational Exchange, Advisory Commission on, 300 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Education) : 
Advisory Commission on, confirmation of member, 300 
Africa, U.S. program in, addresses: Satterthwaite 
688, 089 ; Wilcox, 590 



1064 



Department ot State Butlelin 



Educational exchange program, international— Con. 
Agreements with: France, 978; Peru, 309; Portugal, 

C30; Thailnud, 393 
Authority to pay certain expenses relating to, letter 

(Herter) and draft bill, 308 
Chilean student leaders, visit to U.S., 799 
East-West cultural and technical center in Hawaii, 
proposed establishment, letter and excerpt of re^ 
port (Herter), 130 
Latin America : 

Importance in, addresses (Rubottom), 519, 521, 912 
Promotion of mutual understanding through, ad- 
dresses and report (Eisenhower), 473, 479, 483, 485 
Poland, Deputy Prime Minister and group to visit 
U.S., 557 

Scope of program, addresses (Thayer), 82, 85, 242. 335 

336 
Thai-U.S. program, address (Johnson), 1003 
Value of, address (Herter), 1016, 1017 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
EFTA. See European Free Trade Association 
Egypt, prevention of Israeli use of the Suez Canal. See 

Suez Canal 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 
Addresses, remarks, report, and statements : 
Chile, relief aid for, 966 
Colombia, visit of President Camargo, 699 
Food-for-peace program, U.S.-Indian agreement, 890 
France, visit of President de Gaulle, 773, 774 
Heads of Government meeting, 899, 904, 906* 
Japan : 

Crown Prince and Princess to visit U.S., 826 

Treaty of mutual cooperation and security between 
the U.S. and Japan, signing of, 181, 183 
Mutual security program, 811, 867, 926 
Nepal, visit of King and Queen to U.S., 830 
Nuclear weapons testing and negotiations at Geneva 

78, 327, 587 
The Search for Peace With Freedom, 75 
SEATO, 6th Council meeting, 986 
Trade, Mutual Security, and Fiscal Responsibility, 

867 

U.S. relations with: American Republics, 351; Ar- 
gentina, 471, 477; Brazil, 471, 474; Chile, 471,'480- 
Cuba, 237; Greece, 55; India, 46; Iran, 52; Uru- 
guay, 471, 483 

U-2 incident, U.S. position on, 851 

Veterans of Foreign Wars memorial dedication, 328 

Visits abroad. See Visits abroad, infra 
Correspondence and messages : 

Agadir earthquake. 000 

Bataan Day, 18th anniversary, 685 

Brazil, inauguration of new capital, 800 

CENTO Ministerial Council, 8th session, 801 

ICEM's millionth migrant, 860 

ICJ compulsory jurisdiction and disarmament, views 
on, 128 

Iran, sympathy to victims of earthquake at Lar, 798 

Korea, retirement of Dr. Rhee, 859 

NATO Ministerial Council meeting, Istanbul, 839 

Netherlands gift to U.S., 911 

New Year's greeting to Soviet people, 119 

'ncfex, January to June 7960 

663140—60 3 



Eisenhower, Dwight D.-Contlnued 
Correspondence and me.ssage.s— Continued 

Sugar „uota, telegram to Philippine President, 666 
hummit meeting, proposed, 44, 77 
Ten nation disarmament conference, 514 
U.S.-Japan Centennial Year, 826 
U.S. Navy rescue of Soviet soldiers, exchange of mes- 
sages with Chairman Khrushchev, 599 
Venezuela sesquiceutennlal, 799 

Wool-fabric imports, determination of tariff quota, 
368 

Decision on imports of almonds, clothespins, and safety 

pins, 339 
Executive orders. .S'cc Executive orders 
Goodwill trips, address (Herter), 639 
Meetings with (see also Visits abroad, infra) : 
Chancellor Adenauer, text of joint statement, 517 • 
General Franco of Spain, 56 
Heads of Government and Chiefs of State meetlngfi. 

See Heads of Government 
King Mohammed V of Morocco, 57 
President Bourguiba of Tunisia, 56 
Seisaku Ota, Chief Executive of the Ryukyu Islands 
967 
Messages and reports to Congress : 
American Doctrine to promote peace and stability 

in the Middle East, 4th report on, 424 
Budget message, excerpts, 202 
Economic report, excerpts, 301 
Export trade, program for expansion of, 560 
Mutual security, 16th semiannual report on and pro- 

gram for FY 19G1, 159, 369, 837 
State of the Union, 111 

Travel regulations, international, quoted, 10 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Proposed visits to : 
Korea, 685 
Japan, 181, 685 

Soviet Union, plans for and cancellation of 78 147 
951 
Visits abroad, addresses, joint communiques and dec- 
larations, and statements: Argentina, 477; Brazil; 
Chile. 480; Greece, 54; India, 46; Iran, 52; Latin 
America, 119, 439, 471, 519; Morocco, 57; Portugal 
556, 789, 907; Spain, 56, 598; Tunisia, 56; Uruguay' 
483 
Electric Power, 18th session of ECB Committee on, U.S. 

delegate, 221 
El Salvador : 

Imports, policy concerning, 878 

Inter-American Development Bank, inaugural meeting, 

statements (Dillon), 344 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement es- 
tablishing, with annexes, 134 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 430, 718 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of the 1931 
convention, 346 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production. 

trade, and use of, 346 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

1065 



El Salvador — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Telecommuuication convention (1959), international, 

630 
U.S. Air Force mission, agreement continuing in 

force agreement of 1957, as amended, 309 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

105 
"WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
Emergency Force, U.N., 99. 424, 426 
Esenbel, Melih, 734 
Espionage, Soviet activities, statements (Lodge), 956, 

958, 959 
Estonia, anniversary of independence, statement 

(Herter), 361 
Ethiopia : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1018 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 582 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. aid to, address and statement: Penfleld, 921; 
Satterthwaite, 606, 609 
Europe (sec also individual countries) : 
Aid to Africa, 923 
Collective security. See North Atlantic Treaty 

Organization 
Eastern Europe, U.S. trade policy, statement (Mann), 

927, 928 
Economic cooperation. See Economic Commission for 
Europe, European Economic Community ; European 
Economic Cooperation, Organization for ; European 
Free Trade Association ; and Special Economic 
Committee 
Refugees. See Intergovernmental Committee for 

European Migration and Refugees 
Role of U.S. and Canada in European trade organiza- 
tions, communique regarding, 367 
Trade restrictions, reduction of, statement (Adair), 871 
U.S. mutual security program in, 370, 372, 378, 382, 383, 

618, 815 
Western Europe : 

Economic situation. Western Heads of State and 

Government communique, 43 
Postwar economic recovery in, addresses : Bohlen, 

496 ; Dillon, 399, 400 
U.S. military assistance to, address (Palmer), 330, 
331 
European Economic Community : 
Commission of, participation in Development Assistance 

Group meeting, 440, 577 
Economic aid to overseas territories of member 

countries, 383 
Effect of common tariff rate on U.S. and Canadian 

exports to, 367 
GATT: 

Negotiations with Contracting Parties, 969 
Relationship to, article (Catudal), 291, 292, 293, 294, 
298 



European Economic Community — Continued 

Relationship to other European organizations, statement 
(Dillon), 140, 143, 145, and text of resolution, 146 
Trade policies of, U.S. views concerning, 401, 403, 1034 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for : 

Canadian and U.S. support of, joint statement 

(Adenauer, Eisenhower), 518 
Reorganization, proposed : 

Address and statements (Dillon), 141, 142, 144, 145, 

402, 682, 858 
Relationship to GATT, 1035 
Text of resolution, 146 
Spain, membership in, 56 

U.S. member of OEEC reorganization study group, 
announcement, 264 
European Free Trade Association : 
16th session of GATT Contracting Parties review, 938, 

1033 
Tariff policies of, address (Dillon), 402, 403 
U.S. views, statement (Adair). 975 
Evans, Allan, 1023 

Exchange agreement, U.S. -Soviet Union, in cultural, tech- 
nical, and educational fields, extension for 2 years, 
address (Thayer), 335 
Exchange of persons (see also Educational exchange 
program) , U.S. programs with : 
Greece, address (Herter), 517 
Latin America, addresses and report to the Nation: 

Dillon, 438 ; Eisenhower, 473, 479, 483 
Soviet Union, statement (Lodge), 960 
Executive orders : 

Arms, seizure of arms or munitions being illegally 

exported (10863), 362 
Designations as public international organizations : 
lADB (10873), 717 
PAHO (10864), 580 
SEATO (10866), 581 
Exhibits : 

Chinese art in U.S., 338 

Greek costumes and embroideries in U.S., 599 
Export-Import Bank : 

Increase in capital, address (Rubottom), 521 
Loans in : Africa, 922 ; Latin America, 288, 317, 437, 651 
Plans for FY iSe;, 212 

President's economic report to Congress, 306, 307 
Program of guaranties, inauguration of, message 
(Eisenhower) and report of Interagency Task 
Force, 560, 563 
Promotion of U.S. trade, statement (Dillon), 530, 531 
Export Promotion Task Force, Interagency, 562 
Exports (see also Balance-of -payments ; Tariffs and trade, 
general agreement on : atid Trade) : 
Arms or munitions being illegally exported, seizure 

authorized by Executive order, 362 
Helicopters, cancellation of licenses for export to Cuba, 

exchange of notes, 705 
Latin American, problem of flnctiuition of prices, 

address (Eisenhower), 473 
Promotion i)r(>graiii for expansion of, address, message, 
and statements : Dillon, 401, 561, 681 ; Eisenhower, 
560; Ray, 562; report of Interagency Task Force, 
563 



1066 



Department of State BuUetin 



Exports — Continued 
Rice exports to Asin, U.S. policy, statement (Johnson), 

363 
Security controls, statement (Mann), 927 
Surplus of, dependence of national security upon, 

address (Dillon), 855 
U.S. -Soviet competition in third countries, statement 
(Mann), 930 
Expropriation of property {see also Investment guar- 
anty), 317, 994 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
Far East (see also Asia and individual countries) : 
Economic development, Japanese contributions, remarks 

(Dillon), 911 
Communist aggression in, addresses and statements: 
Johnson, 1004; Jones, 615, 617; Parsons, 404, 406, 
407, 409, 532 
Progress achieved in, address (Berding), 237 
Relationship of U.S.-Japanese treaty of mutual coopera- 
tion and security to, joint communique, 180 
Fascism, challenge of, address (Wigglesworth), 121 
Faupl, Rudolph, 1008 
Federation of Students of Chile: 
Letter to President Eisenhower and U.S. reply (Fer- 
nandez, Howe, Zuniga ) , 648 
Visit of leaders to U.S., 799 
Ferguson, John C, 842 
Fernandez, Patricio, 648, 656, 799 
Finance Corporation, International, 531, 629 
Financial Problems, National Advisory Council on Inter- 
national Monetary and, 422 
Fingerprinting, nonmmiigrant visa applicants, require- 
ment waived, article (Pryor), 11 
Finland : 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Import-control policy, 879 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 630, 

892 
GATT: 
Declarations on provisional accessions of : Israel, 

134; Switzerland, 630; Tunisia, 942 
Declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; Yugo- 
slavia, 134 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 393 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 222 
WHO constitution, amendments, 978 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 265 
Fiscal affairs, U.S. need for prudence in, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 867, 868 
Fish and fisheries: 
Commission for the Conservation of Shrimp in the East- 
ern Gulf of Mexico, appointment of U.S. members, 
842 
Fishery limits, U.S. delegation to 2d U.N. conference 

on, 504 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the high 
seas, convention on, 252, 254, 256, 718, 1009 



Fish and FLsheries— Continued 

North Pacific Ocean, amendment to annex to interna- 
tional convention (1952) on the high seas flsberlcs 
of, 1046 
Tropical Tuna Commission, Inter-American, U.S. com- 
missioner, appointment, 757 
Flsk, James B., 79 
FitzGerald, Dennis A., 174, 266 
Flemming, Arthur S., 842 
Flood relief to Brazil, U.S., 600 
Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 
Constitution, 718 
Methods of increasing world food production, address 

(Wilcox), 805 
Resolution on f reedom-from-hunger, 97 
10th session, report and statement (Miller) and text 
of resolution, 88 
Food-f or-peace program : 

Appointment of coordinator (Paarlberg), 743 
Remarks (Eisenhower), 50 

U.S.-Indian agreement under, letter and statements: 
Eisenhower, 890; Herter, 890; Lodge, 891; White 
House announcement, 889 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, adjudication of 

American claims against Rumania, 670 
Foreign currency. See Agricultural surpluses, U.S. : 

Sales ; and Currency convertibility 
Foreign economic policy. See under Economic policy and 

relations 
Foreign Ministers meeting, Geneva, 1959, Soviet rejection 
of Western peace plan proposal, statement (Herter), 
948 
Foreign Ministers of Western Powers, Washing;ton 
meeting : 
Arrangements for, 493 

Presummit discussions, texts of agreed press state- 
ments, 683 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, Advi- 
sory Committee report on, 394 
Congressional documents relating to. iSee under 

Congress 
DLF an instrument of, statement (Brand), 453, 456, 457 
Foreign economic policy. See under Economic poUcy 

and relations 
Legislation. See under Congress 
Objectives of, addresses: Dillon, 723; Hanes, 791 
Principles of, statement (Herter), 78 
Relationship to: 
Effective civil defense program, remarks (Herter), 

283 
IDA, statement (Dillon), 529 
Role of intelligence and science in, addresses, article, 
statement : Erode, 271, 735 ; Evans and Gatewood, 
1023 ; Kistiakowsky, 276 
Studies on U.S. foreign policy, list of, 273 
Trends of addre.ss (Herter), (■>35 
Foreign Relations, volumes on, Advisory Committee report 

on, 393 
Foreign Relations Committee, Senate, 273, 626, 947 



Index, January to June 1960 



1067 



Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 

Ambassadors and Minister, appointment and confirma- 
tions, 69, 265, 266, 629, 766 
Budget request for expanded program for FY 1961, 212 
Conference of chiefs of missions and principal consular 
officers of north and west Africa at Tangier, Mo- 
rocco, 974 
Consular district changes : 
British Somaliland from Aden to Mogadiscio, 506 
Zanzibar Protectorate from consulate at Nairobi, 
Kenya, to Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, 69 
Consulate at Izmir, Turkey, elevation to consulate 

general, 1010 
Consulate at Lom6, Togo, elevation to Embassy, 806 
Consulate general at Yaounde, Cameroun, elevation to 

Embassy, 174 
Embassy at Benghazi, Libya, transfer to Tripoli, 266 
Embassy office at Murree, Pakistan, establishment of, 

309 
Intelligence activities of officers of, article (Evans, 

Gatewood), 1025, 1026 
Legation at Sofia, Bulgaria, opening of, 542 
Personnel serving overseas, remarks (Dillon), 1009 
Political adviser to the High Commissioner of the 

Ryukyu Islands, appointment, 106 
Resident consuls assigned to Blantyre, Nyasaland, and 

Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia, 38 
Science officers : 
Appointments, 363 

Attach^ program, statement (Erode), 275 
Need for training of, statement (Kistiakowsky), 282 
Trade promotional activity, reemphasis upon, message 
and interagency report : Eisenhower, 561 ; report, 
563, 565 
Training for, address (Dillon), 1021 
U.S. representative on the lA-ECOSOC, appointment, 

69 
Visa issuance, role of officers, article (Pryor), 14 
Forestry Research Institute, Latin America, agreement 
between FAO and Venezuela for establishment of, 93 
Fossum, Charles P., 430 
Four Power conference. See Heads of Government and 

Chiefs of State meeting 
France : 
Algeria : 

Declaration of principle of self-determination for, 

statements (Lodge), 100 
Relationship with, address ( Wilcox), 592 
Cameroun. See Cameroun 

Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 
Foreign Ministers meetings. See Foreign Ministers 
Franco-American alliance, cultural ties in, address 

(Dillon), 4 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Heads of Government meetings. See Heads of 

Government 
ICJ, self-judging reservation to, statements (Herter, 
Rogers), 229, 232 



France — Continued 
Liberalization of restrictions on dollar imports, 86, 871, 

874, 879 
Nuclear weapons information, question of U.S. sharing 

with France, statement (Herter), 361 
Participation in Development Assistance Group meet- 
ing, 440, delegation, 577 
Relationship with Mali Federation, address (Wilcox), 

591 
Togo. See Togo 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 
and extending 1948 agreement with U.S. for financ- 
ing, 978 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Switzerland, 630; Israel, 134; Tunisia, 942 
GATT, declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Visit of President de Gaulle to U.S. : 
Announcements of, 120, 516 
Designation of escort officer, 685 
Exchange of greetings and toasts, address, joint com- 
munique, and remarks : communique, 771, De 
Gaulle, 771, 774 ; Eisenhower, 773, 774 ; Herter, 775 
Franks, Oliver, 63, 264 
Freedom, address and remarks: Eisenhower, 50, 55, 328; 

Rubottom, 2S5 
Freedom-f rom-hunger campaign : 
Address (Wilcox), 865 

FAO plans for, U.S. views, report and statement 
(Miller) and text of resolution, 91, 94 
Freedom of choice, address (Thayer), 963 
Freedom of information, statement (Phillips), 102 
Free Trade Association, European. See European Free 

Trade Association 
Free Trade Association, Latin American. See Latin 

American Free Trade Association 
French Community, Overseas States of the : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
French Overseas Territories : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 

Fruit and fruit products, agreement amending 1958 

agreement with U.K. relating to sale to U.K. for 

sterling, 430 

Fruit and vegetable inspection, suspension by U.S. in 

Cuba, texts of notes, 707 
Fujiyama, Aiichiro, 179, 1.S3. 996 
Fulton, E. D., 250, 441, 442, 974 
Fulton, James G., 28 

Gabon Republic, associate membership in FAO, 89 

Garcia, Carlos P., 665 

Gas problems, meeting of ECE working party on, U.S. 

delegate, 172 
Gates, Thomas S., 557 
Gatewood, R. D.. 1023 



1068 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



GATT. Sec Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly, U.N. : 

Documents, list of, 37, 69, 104, 172, 300. 429. 602, 718, 

705 
14th session, accomplishments of, statement (Lodge), 

99 
Geneva conferences on law of the sea, statement 

(Dean), 2.^1, 259 
Hungarian delegation credentials, statements (Lodge), 

17 
Korean question, efforts to resolve, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Robertson), 19 
Palestine refugee problem, U.S. views, statements 

(Hancher), 31 
Problem of Lebanon and Jordan, actions re, report to 

Congress (Eisenhower), 424, 425 
Resolutions : 

Korean question, 24 
Palestine refugee problem, 34 
Peaceful uses of outer space, 68 
Rights of the child, 36 
Rights of the child, efforts to protect, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Anderson) and text of declaration, 34 
Self-determination for Algeria, proposed resolution 
concerning, U.S. views on, statements (Lodge), 100 
Geneva conference (1954) on Korean question, principles 

of settlement quoted, .statement (Robertson), 20 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests : 
Inspection and control system, problem of, U.S. and 
Soviet positions, statements (Herter), 493, 548, 
642, 645 
Moratorium on tests, proposed, statements (Herter), 

642, 646 
Question of Communist Chinese participation in the 

agreements made, 321, 323 
Release of verbatims and agreed documents on, 765 
Reopening of negotiations, message (Eisenhower), 112 
Soviet proposals, U.S. views concerning, statement 

(Herter), 547 
Status of negotiations, 354, 356, 361, 547, 550, 551, 587, 

636 
Studies on detection and identification of underground 
explosions : 
Research program to improve, U.S. delegation, 892 
Technical working group 2, U.S. reply to Soviet 
position on report of, 78 
U.S. objectives and problems of attainment, address 

(Wilcox),821. 823, 824 
U.S. proposal for ending tests, statements (Eisenhower, 

White House), 327 
Visit of Prime Minister Macmillan to U.S. to discuss. 
547, 587 
Geneva conferences on law of the sea, U.N., statement 

(Dean), 251, 259 
Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1924), 

statement (Anderson), 35 
Geneva wool-fabric reservation, 367, 368 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and pun- 
ishment of the crime of. 393, 582 
Geographic Regions of Asia : South and East, article 
(Pearcy), 148 



Germany : 
Berlin. See Berlin 

Question of veto power of Federal Republic of Ger- 
many on decisions made concerning, statement 
(Herter), 491 
Reunilication of : 

Foreign Ministers meeting. Western, statement, Q&i 
Joint statement (Adenauer, Elsenhower), 518 
NAC communique, 840 
Proposed plebiscite to decide, question of, statements 

(Herter), 641, 647 
Statements (Herter). 320, 322, 323, 488. 491, 492, 637, 

641, 04,5, 947 
Western and Soviet views, addresses and statements : 

Herding, 732 ; Dillon. 724 ; Herter, 637, 947 
Western Heads of Government and Chiefs of State 
meeting, communique, 43 
Warsaw Pact declaration re, statement (White), 284 
Zones of occupation. Department statement and text of 
1944 agreement, 554 
Germany, East: 
Allied military mission.?' passes to travel in, statement 

(Herter), 360 
Forced collectivization of agriculture, U.S. condemna- 
tion of. statement (White), 707 
Soviet domination of, address (Dillon), 724 
Soviet threat of separate peace treaty with, statements 
(Herter), 320, 322, 323, 4SS, 492, 949 
Germany. Federal Republic of (see also Berlin) : 
Heads of Government meetings. See Heads of Gov- 
ernment 
Issuance of white book on forced collectivization of 
agriculture in East Germany, statement (White). 
797 
Liberalization of import controls, 879 
Participation in Development Assistance Group meet- 
ing, 440, 577 
Participation with IBRD in the study and develop- 
ment of the Indus Basin, 63, 442, 443 
Presummit meeting with Western Foreign Ministers in 
Washington, approval of interim report on Ger- 
many, including Berlin, 493, 684 
Radio station in West Berlin, draft legislation for es- 
tablishment of, U.S. and Soviet notes concerning, 7 
Soviet charges against, address (Herter), 638 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air navigation equipment, agreement extending 1955 

agreement with U.S. for lease of, 582 
Emden-Cherbourg-Horta submarine telegraph cable, 
agreement with U.S. relating to the return to Ger- 
man ownership, 582 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Switz- 
erland, 6.30, 892 
GATT, 6th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules. 805 
Narcotic drugs : 

Opium, protocol limiting and regulating produc- 
tion, trade, and use of, application to Land 
Berlin, 978 
Protocol (1946) amending prior agreements, con- 
ventions and protocols on, application to Land 
Berlin, 430 



Index, January fo June 7960 



1069 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Narcotic drugs — Continued 

Protocol (1948) bringing under international con- 
trol drugs outside scope of 1931 convention, ap- 
plication to Land Berlin, 430 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 766 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 265 
Visit of Chancellor to U.S., 319, 517 
Ghana : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Liberalization of import controls on dollar-area goods, 

879 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Establishment of regional FAO oflBce for Africa, 

agreement with FAO relating to, 93 
GATT: 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of arti- 
cle XVI :4 and procfes- verbal extending the valid- 
ity of, 805 
Declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 134 
Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Protocol relating to negotiations for new .schedule 

Ill-Brazil, 805 
6th and 7th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to tests of schedules, 805 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 173 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Visual and auditory materials, agreement and pro- 
tocol facilitating international circulation of, 1009 
U.S. aid, 921 
Glennan, T. Keith, 58 
Gore-Booth, Paul, 264jt 
Grady, John J., 394 

Grain, U.S. grant to Libya for drought relief, 962 
Grand Cayman Island, rawinsonde observation station 
on, agreement amending and extending 1958 agree- 
ment with U.K. for establishment and operation, 430 
Grant assistance: 
Efforts for reduction of, letter ( Dillon ) and report, 459 
Latin America, program in, statment (Rubottom), 628, 

629 
U.S. proposed program for FY 1961 and appropriations 
requests for, statements : DUlion, 381, 384, 385, 569 ; 
Riddleberger, 451, 575 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Greece : 
American Farm School of Salonika, 242 
America's debt to, address (Herter), 516 
Exhibit of Greek costumes and embroideries, in U.S., 

announcement, 590 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Import-control policy, 880 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 222 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 
134 



Greece — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 
approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 942 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Jones), 

614, 617 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 55 

Visit of President of Greek Parliament to U.S., 365 
Guantanamo Naval Base, Cuba, dismissal of employee, 

text of U.S. and Cuban notes, 706 
Guaranty of private investment. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Guatemala : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1018 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 38 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
convention (1944) on, protocol of amendment to, 
541 
Nuclear training and research equipment and 
materials, agreement with U.S. for the acquisition 
of, 892 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 173 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
978 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment and confirmation, 69, 265 
Guayaquil, rawinsonde observation station, agreement 
extending 1957 agreement with Ecuador for estab- 
lishment and oi>eration, 978 
Guinea : 

Membership in FAO, 88 
UNESCO, constitution, 506 

Habana harbor, explosion of ship in, U.S. rejection of 
Cuban charge re, statements (Herter), aide memoire, 
and note, 488, 489, 995, 1028 
Habomai Island, question of Soviet return to Japan, state- 
ment (Herter), 325 
Hagerty, James C, 547, 905, 906 
Hahn, Lorena B., 581 
Haiti : 

Import-control policy, 880 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Compulsory settlement of disputes, optional protocol 

of signature concerning, 805 
Continental shelf, convention on, 718 
Exchange of 3d-party messages between radio 

amateurs, agreement with U.S. for, 173 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the 

high seas, convention on, 718 
High seas, convention on, 718 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 
718 
U.S. special assistance program in, statement 
(Rubottom), 626 
Hancher, Virgil M., 31 
Hanes, John W., Jr., 218, 660, 791 



1070 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Hare. Raymond A., 265 

Harvard University conference on U.S.-Soviet cultural 

relations, address (Thayer), OW 
Hawaii, cultural and technical center, proposed establish- 
ment, letter (Uerter) and excerpt of report, 130 
Heads of Government and Chiefs of State meeting: 
Arrangements for : 
Conference proposed by Heads of State and 

Government, 43 
Exchange of letters re date of (Eisenhower, 

Khrushchev), 77 
Planning and prospects for success, address and 
statement: Berding, 233, 236; Herter, 358, 549, 
552 
Coordination of views on issues to be negotiated : 
CENTO views on, remarks (Herter) and final 

communiiiue. 801, 802 

Foreign Ministers of Western Powers meeting at 

Washington, texts of agreed press statements, 493, 

683 

NATO Council views and communiques on, 44, 840, 907 

Presidents of U.S. and France confer, address 

(De Gaulle) and joint communique, 771 
Statements re : Berding, 729 ; Eisenhower, 839 ; 
Herter, 320, 322, 323, 549, 552, 638, 641, 841 ; Kohler, 
619 
Paris meeting : 

Arrival statement (Eisenhower), 904 
Collapse of : 

Premier Khrushchev's ultimatum and remarks re, 

statements : Eisenhower, 904 ; Herter, 993 
Statement (Hagerty), 905 

TV-radio address to Nation re (Eisenhower), 899 
Western communique re, 905 
France, U.K., and U.S. Chiefs of State and Foreign 
Ministers consult re, statement (Berding, Hagerty), 
906 
Statement on departure from (Eisenhower), 906 
Results of, address (Nixon), 983, 984; SEATO 

communique, 986 
Secretary Herter's report to Senate Foreign Relations 

Committee on, 947 
Welcome on return to Washington, remarks 
(Eisenhower), 906 
Heads of State and Government, Western, Paris meeting, 

communique, 43 
Health and sanitation : 
Cooperative program agreement with Brazil, extending 

1942 agreement, 393 
PAHO, history and functions of and designation as a 
public international organization. Executive order, 
580 
WHO, constitution and amendments to arts. 24 and 25, 
405, 582, 629, 1046 
Health Organization, World. See World Health 

Organization 
Hefner, Frank K., 38 
Hellenic University of America, announcement of plans 

for, address (Herter), 517 
Hemolsky, Sidney L., 709 
Henderson, Horace E., 1007 
Henderson, Loy W., 713, 836 



Henry, Hall M., 172 
Herter, Christian A. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Allied military missions' passes to travel In Eaot 

Germany, 360 
Apartheid policy of South Africa, U.N. Security 

Council consideration of, 551 
Arab-Israel problem, 489 
Argentina, submarine off coast of, 360 
Baltic States, anniversary of independence, 361 
Berlin, problem of, 552 
Berlin corridor, high-altitude flights In, 488, 489, 490, 

492 
Biological warfare, threat of, 360 
Bishop Walsh, U.S. protests Communist China's 

imprisonment of, 5.'i6 
Brazil, question of financial aid to, 300, 487, 491 
Canada, visit of Prime Minister Diefenbaker, 996 
Canal Zone, U.S. and Panamanian rights in, 326 
Capital punishment, protests concerning the 

Chessman case, 490 
CENTO. U.S. support of, 801, 803 
Chilean proposal for partial disarmament and border 

agreement with Argentina, 549 
Colombo Plan, 10th anniversary, 171 
Communist China, question of menace to U.S. 

national security, 360 
Coolidge committee report on disarmament, 355, 358 
Cuba, U.S. relations with, 324, 359, 488, 489, 491, 

493, 549, 550, 552, 553, 645, 646 
Disarmament: 

Effect on U.S. economy and national security, 354, 
360 

Progress of negotiations on, 321, 323, 358, 489, 636, 
638, 640, 647 
Dominican Republic, situation in, 320, 326 
Fallout danger in relation to foreign policy, 283 
France, U.S. relations with, 775 
Germany, problem of reunification of, 320, 322, 323, 

488, 491, 492, 637, 641, 645, 947 
Greece, America's debt to, 516 
Heads of Government and Chiefs of State meeting, 

320, 322, 323, 358, 549, 552, 638, 641, 841, 947, 993 
ICJ, U.S. reservation to compulsory jurisdiction of, 

227 
Inter-American cooperation, 754 
Japan, treaty of mutual cooperation and security, 

1S3, 490, 1029 
John Foster Dulles, 1st anniversary of death, 902 
Korean-Japanese problems, U.S. interest in the settle- 
ment of, 549 
Latin America, need for public and private capital In, 

487, 491, 492 
Matsu and Quemoy Islands, U.S. policy, 491 
Missiles, U.S. and Soviet progress in, 325 
Mutual security program for FY 1961, views con- 
cerning, 375, 566 
NATO Ministerial meetings: Istanbul, 840; Paris, 3 
Nonintervention, Latin American interest in U.S. 

adherence to, 491 



Index, January to June 1960 



1071 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Nuclear weapons : 
Question of sharing information with allies, 321, 

324, 361 
Scientific investigations of methods of detection of, 

54S, 552 
Testing of, 323, 325, 493, 547, 548, 550, 551, 553, 
642, 645 
Outlooli; for 1960 in foreign affairs, 78 
Passports, legislation concerning, 323 
Polish-Cuban aid agreement, 644 
Premier Khrushchev's remarks re the summit, 993 
President Eisenhower's visit to Latin America, 487 
Racial questions, 551, 644 

Rio Treaty, question of Cuban adherence to, 645 
SEATO, 6th Council meeting, 985 
Sovereignty in outer space, 643 
Soviet repudiation of commitment to return certain 

islands to Japan, 325 
Spac-e exploration, U.S. and Soviet progress in, 324, 

325 
Suez Canal problem, U.N. efforts to resolve, 551, 552 
Sugar legislation, 359, 553 
U.S.-Indian agreement for the sale of foodstuffs to 

India, 890 
The University and the World Community, 1015 
Welcome to Prime Minister Macmillan, 588 
Tear of Progress Toward Peace, 635 
Correspondence and messages : 
Austria, 15th anniversary of declaration of independ- 
ence of, 858 
CENTO, 5th anniversary, 428 
Cultural and technical center in Hawaii, proposed 

establLshment, 130 
Educational exchange program, authority requested 
of Congress to pay certain expenses relating to, 308 
Japan, tidal-wave damage to, 996 
Japan-U.S. Centennial Year, 790, 827 
Tibet, U.S. views re problem of, 443 
Meetings with : 

NATO Ministerial meeting, 517 

SEATO Council of Ministers, 6th meeting of, 976, 985 

Spanish Foreign Minister, text of joint communique, 

exchange of greetings, .'597 
Brazilian Minister for External Relations, text of 

joint communique, 523 
CENTO Ministerial Council, 517 
Japanese Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign 

Affairs, 179 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and 

Economic Affairs, 305 
National .Xdvisory Committee on Inter-American 
Affairs, 4lh meeting of, 815 
Mexican 1900 celebrations, head of U.S. delegation to, 

1027 
National Press Club certificate of appreciation, 361 
News conferences, tninscrljits of, :!20, 358, 487, 547, 641 
IIIckerKon, John 1)., 'JG5 
HiKh CoinnilHsloner for Refugees, U.N. : 
Aid to Euroiiean refugees, article (Warren), 219, 220 
U.S. contributions to program of, M. 10-16 

1072 



High seas, convention on the, 255, 718, 1009 
Holy See. See Vatican City 
Honduras : 

Imports, policy re, 881 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Exchange of radio communications between amateur 
stations on behalf of 3d parties, agreement with 
U.S. relating to, 582 
ICJ statute, declaration recognizing compulsory ju- 
risdiction, 766 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Inter-American Institute of Sciences, protocol of 

amendment to convention (1944) on, 346 
U.S. Air Force and Army missions, agreement con- 
tinuing in force and amending 1950 agreement 
with U.S., 1009 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 265 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
Housing and Planning Center, Inter-American, activities 

of, address ( Herter ) , 756 
Howe, Walter, 648 
Human rights : 
Apartheid. See Apartheid 
Respect for, addresses and statements, 474, 477, 478, 

483, 484, 486, 664 
Rights of minorities, U.S. efforts to defend, statement 

(Herter), 551 
Rights of the child, U.N. efforts to protect, statement 

(Anderson) and text of declaration, 34 
U.S. support of U.N. Charter principle of, statements 

(Lodge), 667, 668 
Venezuelan charge of violation by Dominican Repub- 
lic, statements (Herter), 320, 326 
Humphrey, Hubert H., 129 
Hungary : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Universal postal convention (1957), 978 
U.N. Hungarian delegation credentials, statements 

(Lodge), 17 
U.S. lifts restrictions on travel to, 797 
Hyde Park declaration, address (Wigglesworth), 122 

lADB. See Inter- American Development Bank 
IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American Economic and Social 

Council 
IBRD. Sec International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
Iceland : 

Import licensing requirements, 881 
Special assistance loan by U.S., 250 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 805, 

942 
Radio regulations (1059), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), International, 
630 

Department of Stale BuUetin 



Iceland — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Whaling convention (1946), international, amend- 
ments to schedule, 222 
U.S. Ambassador, coiiflrmation, 26(> 
ICKSI. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IGY. See International Geophysical Year 
IJC. See International Joint Commission 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration : 
Restrictions, proposed liberalization of, message (Eisen- 
hower), 659 
U.S. immigration policy, review of and proposed 
changes, address (Hanes), 6(50 
Imports (see also Customs; Tariff policy, U.S.; Tariffs 
and trade, general agreement on; aii4 Trade) : 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention (1944) to facilitate importation, 
505 
Dollar-area imports, relaxation of restrictions on : 
Addresses and statements: Adair, 870; Dillon, 401, 

402, 8»4, 856 
By: Australia, 441; France, 86; Italy, 249; Nether- 
lands, 57 ; Portugal, 249 ; U.K.. 249 
Consultations with Venezuela re, 559 
Joint announcement by Departments of Agriculture, 
Commerce, and State and country summary, 873 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) on importation of, 261, 430, 805, 843 
U.S.-Canadian views on import restrictions, 366, 367 
Imru, Mikael, 1018 
Income tax, conventions for avoidance of double taxation. 

See Double taxation 
Independence, movement toward in Africa, addresses 
and statements: Lodge, 100; Satterthwaite, 603; 
White, 991 ; Wilcox, .5!>4 ; Zablocki, 25 
India : 
DLF loans, 300 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Indus River Basin. See Indus River Basin 
Progress in, address (Bunker), 776 
Restrictions on imports from dollar areas, partial re- 
laxation of, 881 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 173, 

582, 844, 889 
GATT: 

Declarations on provisional accessions of : Switzer- 
land, 630 ; Tunisia, 942 
Declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; Yugo- 
slavia, 134 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 805 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 346 



India — Continued 
Treaties, agreementu, etc. — Cuntinup<l 
Universal postal couvontion (19.'i7), 4«.'> 
WHO constitution, anioiidmentH to, 582 
U.S. aid programs In, address and statemiMilK : Itiinker, 
776; Dillon, .'.6'J, 570; Hcrter, .''i07 ; Jones, 012, «1« ; 
Riddleberger, 440, 447, 573 
U.S. science oflBcer and deputy, appointments, 302, .'i03 
Visit of bankers to study eciinoniic cotidllions and pro- 
grams in, announcements and statements re, 0:{. 
264 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 40 
Indochina, meanings of term, article (Pearcy), 152 
Indonesia : 
Economic and political problems of, address (Jones), 

784, 785, 787, 788 
GATT consultations, 527 
Import-control jM>licy, 881 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, ag^reement amending 

agreement with U.S., 346 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Swit- 
zerland, 630 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (19.59), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international. 

630 
Research reactor agreement with U.S. for coopera- 
tion in civil uses of atomic energy, 1046 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 134 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
Indus River Basin : 

Negotiation of treaty between India and Pakistan con- 
cerning distribution of waters, 442 
Relationship of DLF to IBRD in the development of. 

453 
U.S. aid, proposed waiver of cargo preference rule re, 
announcement and exchange of letters (Casey, 
Dillon), 740 
World Bank development project, U.S. participation in 
plans for, address, announcement, and statements : 
announcement, 442 ; Bunker, 777 ; Dillon, 380, .")69, 
570 ; Eisenhower, 374 ; Herter, .567 ; Jones, Oil, 010 ; 
Riddleberger, 573 
Industrial property, convention (1934) for protection of. 

38, 222, 430 
Industrialized countries, implications of Soviet trade 

relations with, statement (Mann), 929 
Inflation, problem of, address and message: Dillon, 439; 

BLsenhower, 116 
Information Activities Abroad, President's Committee on, 

appointment of, 365 
Information activities and programs: 
Budget request for fiscal 1961, 212 

Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment on the importation of, 201, 430, 805, 843 
Importance of freedom of information, statement 

(Phillips), 102 
Language instruction and translation and exchange of 

books, address (Thayer), 336 
President's Committee on Information Activities 
Abroad, appointment of, 305 



Index, January to June I960 

563140—60 i 



1073 



Informatiou Agency, U.S. See United States Information 

Agency 
Ingle, Robert M., 842 
Ingrid, Queen of Denmark, 403 

Intelligence activities (xee also Central Intelligence 
Agency) : 
Estimating intelligence and national security, address 

(Dulles). 411 
Need for intelligence information, address and state- 
ments: Eisenhower, 851, 899, 900; Lodge, 960; 
U.S. note re, 852 
Relationship to national security, article (Evans. Gate- 
wood), 1023 
Soviet activities, statements (Lodge), 956, 958, 959 
U.S. position, statement (Eisenhower). 905 
Intelligence Board, U.S., organization and worlj of, ad- 
dress and article : Dulles, 413, 415 ; Evans, Gatewood, 
1024 
Interagency Export Promotion Task Force, 562 
Inter-American Affairs, National Advisory Committee on : 
4th meeting of, 815 

Functions of, address (Rubottom), 519 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention for the pro- 
motion of (1936), 913 
Inter-American Development Bank : 
Agreement establishing, with annexes, 37, 134, 465 
Board of Governors, announcement of 1st meeting, 2(53 
Budget plans of, 211 

Designation as public international organization, Exec- 
utive order, 710 
Functions of, addresses: Dillon, 316, 436; Rubottom, 

288 
Inauguration of, remarks and statements : Anderson, 

427 ; Dillon, .344 
Organization and establi.shment of, U.S. participation 
In, address, statements, and reports : Dillon, 531 ; 
Eisenhower, ,306, 307. 371, 472, 482; Herter, 377. 
487, 491 
U.S. offlcial.s, confirmation (Anderson, Culter, Dillon), 
264 
Inter-American Economitr and l^ocial Council, 69, 523 
Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, activities 

of, address (Herter) , 756 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (OAS), 
convention (1944) on and protocol of amendment to. 
346. 541 
Inter-American system : 
Definitions of. letters (Fernilndez. Howe, Zuniga), 649, 

6,50 
70th year of. address (Herter), 754 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, appointment 

of U.S. commissioner, 757 
Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements: 
Article (Cntudal), 206, 297, 298, 299 
NoHce.s, 247, 971 
Intcricovernnientnl Commltlce for European Migration: 
Council and executive committee, 11th and 13th ses- 
sions, article (Warren), 218 
Millionth migrant honored, announcement and letter 
(P:iHenhower). Hr,<.) 
Intergovernnienlal Maritime CNmsultative Organization, 
convention (1048) on, 505, 029. 805, 843 

1074 



International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
{see also International Development Association) : 
Administration of Indus River project. See Indus 

River 
Aid to Chile, address (Eisenhower), 482 
Capital subscriptions, report to Congress (Eisenhower), 

306 
DLF coordination of efforts with, statement (Brand), 

453, 457 
Financial statements, 299, 939 
Increase in U.S. contribution to, address (Rubottom), 

521 
Visit of bankers to India and Pakistan to study eco- 
nomic conditions and needs, 63, 264 
International Cooperation Administration {see also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
and Mutual security) : 
Activities in Latin America, addresses : Rubottom, 

287, 288, 914, 915 
Administration of : 

Certain functions under Mutual Security Act, 165, 

166, 167, 445, 893 
Emergency relief aid to Lebanon, 559 
Project to modernize airfield in Liberia, 666 
Deputy Director for Management, confirmation 

(Grady), 394 
Deputy Director for Operations, appointment and con- 
firmation (FitzGerald), 174, 266 
Elncouragement of investment of private capital 

abroad, 815 
4th session of ICA institute, 173 

Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Loans to Afghanistan for the purchase of planes, 831 
Operations Missions, designation of directors to: 
Colombia, 430; Israel, 310; Lebanon, 430; Para- 
guay, 38 
Personnel serving overseas, address and remarks : 

Bohlen, 499 ; Dillon, 1009 
Regional Director for the Near East and South Asia, 

apix)intment (Bennett), 894 
Relief supplies to Morocco, 444 
Science and technology teams in underdevoloped areas, 

statement (Brode), 274 
Technical assistance programs of, address (Thayer), 

84, 85, 336 
Visit of study group to Belgian Congo, 835 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, U.S. delegation 

to 19th plenary mating, 940 
International Court of Justice: 
Settlement of disputes under jurisdiction of, optional 
protocol to law of the sea conventions, statement 
(Dean), 259 
Statute of : 
Compulsory jurisdiction, proposed repeal of U.S. 
reservation to, message, letters, and statements: 
Eisenhower. 117, 128; Herter, 129, 227; Humphrey, 
129; Rogers, 231 
Current actions, 766 
International Development Association : 
Articles of agreement, 345, 503, 629 

Department of State Bulletin 



International Development Association — Ooutliiuetl 
I'roposed organization and establisluueut of, addresiseti, 
message, and report : Dillon, 1000; Eisenhower, 211, 
306, 307 ; Lodge, 325 
U.S. membership in and subscription to, proposed, 

address and letter : Bohlen, 500 ; Elsenhower, 422 
Belationship to U.S. foreign policy objectives, statement 

(Dillon), 529 
U.S. support of, addresses, message, report, and state- 
ment: Dillon, 383, 400, 436; Eisenhower, 306, 307, 
371 
International disarmament organization, proposed estab- 
lishment of, 511 
International Finance Corporation: 
Articles of agreement, 629 
Purpose of, statement (DiUon), 531 
International Geophysical Tear : 
Research activities, continuation of, statement (Lodge) 

and text of U.N. resolution, 67, 68 
Space activities initiated during, continued cooperation 
in, address (Glennan), 61, 62 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 
Columbia River system, development of, preliminary 

study and reports on, 126, 250, 441 
U.S. Commissioner (Bacon), appointment, 996 
International labor conference, U.S. delegates to 44th 

session, 1008 
International law (.see also International Court of 
Justice) : 
Law of the Sea. See Law of the Sea 
Need for development of, address (Wilcox) , 824 
Bights of U.S. citizens in Cuba, protection of, statement 
(Eisenhower), 238 
International Law Commission, U.N., draft report on law 

of the sea, statement (Dean), 252, 254 
International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 
Organization and functions of, address (Nichols), 758 
Terms of reference, 761 
International Materials Policy Commission, President's. 

652, 657 
International Monetary Fund (see also International 
Bank) : 
Brazil, question of aid to, statement (Herter), 491 
Increase in U.S. subscription to, address and report : 
Eisenhower, 306; Bubottom, 521 
International Organizations Immunities Act (1945), pro- 
visions, 579, 580, 716 
International organizations {see also subject), calendar 
of international meetings, 15, 169, 389, 538, 714, 932 
International peace force, U.N. Charter proposal, U.S. 

support of, address ( Herter ) , 640 
Investment guaranty program : 
Agreements with: Argentina, 173; El Salvador, 430. 

718 ; Korea, 506 ; Nepal, 940, 942 
Statement (Brand), 4.54 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, need for and problems re, address (Penfield), 

922 
Deferment of tax on incomes earned in less developed 

areas, proposed, statement (Phillips), 503 
Foreign policy objectives, role in furthering, address 
(Dillon), 402 



Investment of private capital abriwd— Continue*! 

Latin America, addresses, letter, rei>ort, and Htute- 
ment: Dillon, 317, 437, 439; Elsenhower, 472, 476. 
476, 477, 482, 484 ; Howe, 052, O.'iS ; Bubottom, 287. 
521, 624, 625, 097 
Need of in newly developing countries, address (Dil- 
lon), 858 
Plans for expansion in FY 1901, address, message, 
report, and statement: Dillon, 464; I'.isenhower, 
212 : Martin. 342, :i43 ; Wilcox, 8<i« 
Protection of. See Investment guaranty program 
U.S. encouragement and support of (sec also Double 
taxation), address, report, and statement: Brand, 
454, 456, 457 ; Eisenhower, 815 ; Johnson, 1003 
Iran : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 553 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Earthquake at Lar, exchange of messages (Eisenhower, 

Pahlavi), 798 
4th Congress of Iranian Art and Archeology, 713, 836 
Imports, policy concerning, 881 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1949) and protocol for facilitating Interna- 
tional circulation of, 346 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, 

trade, and use of, 346 
Property, industrial, convention (1934) for protection 

of, 38 
Radio regulations (1959), 630, 844 
Reciprocal trade agreement (1943) with U.S., tempo- 
rary waiver of article VI re commercial profits 
taxes. Department announcement and U.S. note, 
843, 844 
Telecommimication convention (1959), international, 

630 
White slave traffic, protocol (1904) and convention 

(1910) for suppression of, 465 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. denies change in policy toward, 201 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Jones), 

615, 617 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 52 
Iraq: 

Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Universal postal convention (1957) , 465 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
Ireland : 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 265 
Nuclear research and training equipment, agreement 

with U.S. for acquisition of, 718, 706 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 134 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Israel : 
Arab states protest Premier Ben-Gurlon's visit to U.S., 
statement (Herter), 489 



Index, January to June 1960 



1075 



I srael — Continued 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Import -control policy, 882 

Problem of passage of Israeli ships through Suez Canal, 

letter and statements: Dillon, 832, 834; Herter, 

321, 324, 551. 552 ; Jones, 613 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 173 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S., 346 
Exchange of international and official publications 
and of government documents, 1958 conventions on, 
309 
GATT, declarations on provi.«ional accessions of: Is- 
rael, 134, 430, 582, 805 ; Tunisia, 942 
GATT, declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (19.59), G30 
Telecommunication convention (19.59), international, 

630 
Universal postal convention ( 1957 ) , 465 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Jones), 

611, 613 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 310 
Italy : 
Development Assistance Group meeting, attendance at, 

440, 577 
Financial provision for addition to FAO headquarters 

building. 93 
Liberalization of import controls, 249. 882 
Participation in ten nation disarmament conference, 

45, 511 
Presummit meeting with Western Foreign Ministers, 

493, 684 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel. 1.34 : Switzerland. 030 
GATT, declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 1.34 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Technical aid to Trust Territory of Somaliland, 
agreement amending and extending 1954 agree- 
ment with U.S., 173 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
U.S. submarines, agreement amending 19.54 agreement 
with U.S. for loan of, 346 
Trust Territory of Somaliland. Ser Somalia 

.I.'imalca. rawinsondu ob.servatiim station on, agreement 
amending and extending 19.58 agreement with U.K. 
for establishment and operation. 430 

Jamison, Kdward A., 266 

.lapan : 

Attendance at Development Assistance Group meeting, 

4-10, 577 
iHt Japanese diplomatic mission to U.S., article 

(Parks I, 714 
GATT ciinsullalions, announcement, 527 
Liberal izat Ion of Import controls, 882 
Postwar recovery of, addres.ses : Dillon. 399, 400 ; Jones 

7K.'!. 7K7. 7'^v 

1076 



Japan — Continued 

Problems with Korea, question of U.S. role in settle- 
ment of, statement (Herter), 549 
Proposed visit of President Eisenhower, 181, 685 
Soviet repudiation of commitment to return islands of 
Habomai and Shikotan to, statement (Herter), 325 
Technical and military aid to, U.S. plans for 1961, state- 
ment (Parsons), 537 
Tidal-wave damage, exchange of messages re 

(Fujiyama, Herter), 996 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 506 
Assembly and manufacture in Japan of F-104 type 

aircraft, agreement with U.S., 844 
Double taxation on income, protocol to 1954 conven- 
tion with U.S. for avoidance of, 892 
Financial contributions for U.S. services and 
supplies, agreement amending agreement of 1959 
relating to administrative agreement of 1952, 309 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Switzerland. 892 
High seas fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, 
amendment to annex to international convention 
(1952) on, 1046 
Mutual cooperation and security, treaty with U.S. 

See Mutual cooperation and security 
Mutual defense assistance, understanding revising 

1954 agreement with U.S., 222 
Radio regulations (19.59), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 430 
Technical assistance training program in, agreement 

with U.S., 673 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 222 
U.S. deputy science officer, appointment, 363 
U.S.-Japan Centennial Year, 745, 790, 826, 909, 910 
U.S. relations with {see also Mutual cooperation and 

security), remarks (Parsons), 6(>4 
Visit of Crown Prince and Princess to U.S., proposed, 
statement (Eisenhower), 826 
Jaroszewicz, Piotr, 557 
.Johnson. U. AlexLs. 363. 1001 
Johnson Act of 1934, re extension of credit, 928 
Joint Commission (U.S. -Canada), International. See 

International Joint Commission 
Jones, G. Lewis, 610 
Jones, Howard P., 782 
Jordan : 

Crisis in. U.N. actions re. President's report to Congress, 

424, 425 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international. 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Jones), 
614 
Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, 911 
Justice, Department of: 

Exercise of authority for seizure of arms or munitions 
being illegally exported, Executive order, 362 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



Justice, Department of — Continued 

Grand jury investigation of ocean sbiiiping practices, 

meeting of governments concerned, 501 
Recommendation for repeal of U.S. reservation to ICJ 
compulsory jurisdiction, statement (Rogers), 232 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 

Kelly, Charles S., 739 
Kennedy, John F., 63 
Kenya : 

Sugar agreement (1958), international, 805 
Withdrawal of Zanzibar Protectorate from consular 
district of Nairobi, 69 
Khrushchev, Nikita S., 77, 119, 599, 901, 948, 993 
Kishi, Nobusuke, 179, 182, 183 
Kistiakowsky, George B., 276 
Kohler, Foy D., 266, 618 
Korea : 
Reunification of, U.N. actions regarding, statement 

(Robertson) and text of resolution, 18, 24 
UNO operation, address (Wiggles worth), 123 
Korea, Republic of : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1018 
Communist aggression against, address and statements : 
Parsons, 405, 407, 410; Robertson, 18, 20, 24; 
Wigglesworth, 123 
Problems with Japan, question of U.S. role in settle- 
ment of, statement (Herter), 549 
Retirement of Dr. Rhee, letter and statement (Eisen- 
hower, Rhee ) , 859 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 

agreement with U.S., 105 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 506 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 766 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
U.S. naval vessels, agreements with U.S. for the loan 

of, 346, 766 
Universal postal convention (1957), 978 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

430 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
U.S. aid, 461, 403, 535 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 2C5 
Visit of President Eisenhower, announcement, 685 
Kubitschek de Oliveira, Juscelino, 474 
Kuter, Laurence S., 124 
Kuwait : 
Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

1009 
Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) on, 978 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, 1046 

Labor : 

International labor conference, U.S. delegates to 44th 
session, 1008 



Labor — Continued 

Labor dispute at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba : 
Statement (Herter), 553 
Texts of U.S. and Cuban notes, 700 
Labor-management problems, message (Elsenhower), 

115 
Support of U.S. international objectives, importance of, 
address (Dillon), 723, 726 
La Couhre, explosion of, 995, 1028 

Lafayette Fellowship Foundation, address (Dillon), 4 
Lafer, Horacio, 523 
Laos : 

Telecommimication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 844 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
Lar, Iran, exchange of messages (Eisenhower, Pahlavl) 

on earthquake, 798 
Latin America {see also Inter- American, Organization. of 
American States, Operation Pan America, Pan Amer- 
ican, and individual countries) : 
Capital punishment, protests concerning the Chessman 

case, statement (Herter), 490 
Common goals shared with U.S., address (Dillon), 315 
Common markets. See Central America and Latin 

American Free Trade Association 
Communist subversive activities in, addresses: Dillon, 

318; Rubottom, 289 
Development of resources through cooperation, address 

(Rubottom), 285 
DLF loans, 300, 457, 458 

Economic development (see also Committee of Nine and 
Operation Pan America) : 
Addresses, remarks, report, and statement : Anderson, 
427; Dillon, 435; Eisenhower, 471, 475, 478, 481, 
482 ; Herter, 487, 491, 492 
Joint declaration (Eisenhower, Frondizi) and state- 
ment (Alessandri, Eisenhower), 480, 483 
Forestry Research Institute, agreement between FAO 

and Venezuela for establishment of, 93 
Senate Foreign Relations Commitee studies on U.S.- 
Latin American relations, list of, 626 
Trade relations with U.S. See under Trade 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Rubot- 
tom), 623 
U.S. relations with, addresses and letter: Eisenhower, 

351 ; Howe, 648 ; Rubottom, 519, 630, 693 
Visit of President Eisenhower : 
Purposes of, 119 

Reception accorded him, statement (Herter), 487 
Report to Nation, addresses and joint declarations, 
471 
Latin American Free Trade Association: 

Establishment of, addresses (Rulwttom), 289, 522, 630 

Relationship to GATT, 1034 

16th session of GATT Contracting Parties to discuss, 

938 
U.S. support of, address, report, and letter : Eisenhower, 
473, 482, 483; Howe, 651 
Latvia, anniversary of independence, statement (Herter), 

361 
Lavan, Peter I. B., 307 



Index, January fo June 7960 



1077 



Law, international. See International Court of Justice, 

International law, and Law of the sea 
Law Commission, International, draft report on law of 

the sea, statement (Dean), 252, 254 
Law Day, 1960, proclamation, 201 
Law of the sea : 

Compulsory settlement of disputes, optional protocol of 

signature, 805 
Conventions and optional protocol on, Senate ratifica- 
tion requested, statement (Dean), 251 
Conventions on, 718, 766, 1000 

U.N. conference on, 2d, announcement of U.S. delega- 
tion, 504 
Lead and zinc problem: 
Efforts to solve : 
Address (Nichols), 758 

Text of joint U.S.-Canadian communique, 366 
U.S. trade policy concerning, letter ( Howe) , 654 
Lead and Zinc Study Group, International : 

Orzanization and functions of, address (Nichols), 758 
Terms of reference, 761 
League of Arab States : 
Agreement with F'AO, 93 

Boycott measures against U.S. shipping, letters and 
statement (Dillon, Meany), 834 
Lebanon : 
Crisis in, U.S.-U.N. actions, report to Congress (Eisen- 
hower), 424 
Drought relief aid to, 559 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 393 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 430 
Lehmann, Glenn, 835 

Lend-lease negotiations with Soviet Union, 86, 239 
Lend-lease program, forerunner of future U.S. aid pro- 
grams, address (Bohlen), 496 
Less developed countries {see also Newly developing 
countries) : 
Aid to {see also Economic and technical aid), address 

(Bohlen), 408. rm 
Economic development of {sec also Economic develop- 
ment), Heads of State and Government views on, 
communique, 43 
Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc 
countries and U.S. efforts to counter, addresses, 
report, and statements: Bohlen, 498; Dillon, 679, 
680; Elsenhower, 815; Hanes, 795; Herter, 377; 
Jones, 615, 617; Mann, 930; Martin, 342; Penfield, 
923 ; SattiTthwaite, 691 
Education, needs in the field of, address (Kistiakow- 

sky), 281 
Expansion of export earnings of, GATT efforts to- 
ward, 1035 
Populniii.n growth In, address (Wilcox), 861 
U.N. technical assistance programs. See under United 
Nations 

U.S.-Japanese views on development of, joint com- 
munique, ISO 

1078 



Less developed countries — Continued 

U.S. mutual security program in, addresses, report, and 
statement: Eisenhower, 160, 163, 166, 812, 813; 
Herter, 639 ; Riddleberger, 445 
Lewandowski, Bohdan, 557 
Liberia : 

U.S. aid to finance modernization of airfield in, 666 
U.S. relations with, address (Satterthwaite), 687 
Librarians, USIS, training of, address (Rubottom), 917 
Libya : 

Drought relief, U.S. grant of grain, 962 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
U.S. Embas.sy at Benghazi transferred to Tripoli, 266 
U.S. mutual security program in, address and state- 
ment : Penfield, 921 ; Satterthwaite, 607, 60S, 609 
Liggit, C. Reed, 310 
Lincoln, Abraham, 315, 316, 319 
Lithuania, anniversary of indei)endence, statement 

(Herter), 361 
Littlewood, William H., 363 
Lleras-Catuargo, Alberto, 441, 699 

Loans, U.S. See Development Loan Fund, Export-Im- 
port Bank, and International Cooperation Admin- 
istration 
Lodge, George C, 1008 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, address, letter, and statements : 
General Assembly, 14th, accomplishments of, 99 
Hungarian U.N. delegation credentials, 17 
Mutual Aid Through the United Nations, 524 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, U.S. views on proposed 

U.N. resolution re, 64 
South Africa, U.S. support of U.N. principles in, 667 
Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression in the Security 

Council, 955 
U.S.-Indian agreement for the sale of foodstuffs to 
India, 891 
Luxembourg : 

Trade policies of, 875 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 430; Switzerland, 630 
Radio regulations (1959) , 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 105 
Universal postal convention (1957), 465 

MacKnight, Jesse M., 806 

Macmillan, Harold, 587 

Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva, King of Nepal, 232, 

640, 827 
Malagasy Republic, associate membership in FAO, 89 
Malaria, WHO campaign against, 800, 866 
Jlahiy, regional concepts of, article (Pearcy), 153 
Malaya, Federation of: 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

Restrictions on imiKirtation of dollar-area goods, liber- 
alization of, 883 

Department of State Bulletin 



Maliiyn, Federation of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

505 
GATT, protocol relating to establishmeut of new 

schedule III-Brazii. 173 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
Mali, Federation of, relationship with France, address 

(Wilcox), 591 
Mallory, Lester D., 69 
Mann, Thomas C, 629, 8(H, 940, 927, 976 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention (ItMS) on, 505, 629, 805, 843 
Maritime problems. See Ships and shipping 
Market disruption, avoidance of, GATT discussion, 1034 
Marshall plan, achievements of, 160, 497 
Martin, Edwin McCammon, 174, 340 
Masaryk, Thomas, 494 

Matsu and Quemoy Islands. See Taiwan Straits situation 
Maurer, Ely, 266 
McCollum, Robert S., 218 
McConaughy, Walter P., 265 
McElroy, Neil H., 330 
McHugh, J. Laurence, 757 
McKay, Douglas, 996 
McKernan, Donald L., 842 
McXaughton, Gen. A. G. L., 126 
Meany, George, 835 
Meloy, Francis E., Jr., 266 
Menapace, Robert B., 430 
Menshikov, Mikhail Alekseevich, 86, 240 
Merchant, Livingston T., 184, 213, 266, 494 
Merchant Marine, U.S., restatement of U.S. foreign policy 

affecting, letter and statement (Dillon), 834 
Mexico : 

Air transport services, exchange of views with U.S. re, 

804, 941 
Import-control policy, 883 
Latin American Free Trade Association membership, 

938 
Monterrey Instituto Tecnol6gico, 914 
Narcotic drugs, U.S.-Mexican discussions on control of 

traffic in, joint communique, 127 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 

li-shing, with annexes, 134 
Radio broadcasting in standard broadcasting band, 

agreement (19.57) with U.S., 430, 541 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Tracking stations, agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 805 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
134 
U.S. participation in 1960 celebrations, 1027 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East and individual 

countries 
Miernik, Stanislaw, 557 



Migration, European, Intergnverniiiontal Cotiimlttee for. 
See Intergovernmental Commlttoo for European 
Migration 
Military assistance {see also Military miaslonR, Mutual 
defense, and Mutual security) : 
Appropriation reque.sts for FY llKil, nddresHCH, mes- 
sages, and statements : Bolilen, 499 ; Dillon, 380, 
382, 384, 387, 569, 924, 92.''., 998; Elsenhower, 20-1, 
205, 208, 370, 371, 837; Ilerter, 378; Kohlcr, (!20; 
Parsons, 5.35 ; Satterthwaite, 609 
President's report on program and recommendations to 

Congress, 160, 102, 165, 167 
Role in maintenance of U.S. security, addresses and 
statement : Dillon, 1020 ; Eisenhower, 352 ; Gates, 
558 ; Hanes, 794 ; Palmer, 329 
U.S. policy in : 

Far East, address (Parsons) , 405, 406 

Latin America, address and statement (Rubottom), 

626, 695 
Middle East, President's 4th report to Congress on 

the American Doctrine, 424 
Near East and South Asia, statement (Jones), 615, 
616, 617 
Military bases, U.S., overseas : 
Agreements with : 

Japan, statement (Herter), 1031 

Philippines, U.S. relinquishment of Olongapo and ad- 
jacent areas, 105 
Spain, for settlement of claims of Spanish subcon- 
tractors for construction of, 465 
U.K., civil air terminal at USAF base in Bermuda, 
agreement re, 1009 
Dismissal of employee at U.S. naval base in Cuba, 553, 

706 
Facilities in Libya and Morocco, importance of, state- 
ment (Satterthwaite), 607, 608 
Military cemeteries, agreement with Belgium concerning, 

173 
Military missions, U.S. : 

Air Force mission agreements with : Argentina, 766 ; 

Brazil, 506 ; El Salvador, 309 ; Honduras, 1009 
Army mission agreement with Honduras, 1009 
Miller, Clarence L., 88 
Miller, Edward T., 504 

Mining concessions in Cuba, registration of, 157 
Missiles : 

Ballistic missile early warning station, U.S.-U.K. agree- 
ment establishing in United Kingdom, ."JOl, 393 
Control of, proposed, 5-Power working paper on general 

disarmament, 512, 513 
Intelligence information concerning, address (Dulles), 

411, 412, 414, 415 
Soviet and U.S. progress, address and statements: 

Herter, 325 ; Kistiakowsky, 277 
Tracking stations. See Tracking stations 
U.S. missile program, addresses, messages, and state- 
ment : Eisenhower, 115, 205, 3.52 ; Gates, 557, 558 ; 
Glennan, 60 
Missionaries, educational service performed in Africa, 

address (Satterthwaite), 687 
Mogadiscio, transfer of British Somaliland from Aden to 
Mogadiscio consular district, 506 



Index, January fo June J 960 



1079 



Mobammed V, King of Morocco, 600 
Monaco : 

Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Monetary and Financial Problems, National Advisory 

Council on International, 422 
Money orders, postal, convention with St. Christopher 

Nevis and Aiiguilla for the exchange of, 892 
Monterrey Institute Tecnoldgico, 914 
Montevideo, Treaty of, 1034 
Montgomery, Parker G., 430 
More, Bolard, 174 
Morocco : 
Agadlr earthquake: 
Emergency relief to, 444 
Exchange of messages (Eisenhower, Mohammed V), 

600 
U.S. city planner to aid in Agadir reconstruction, 658 
Conference of chiefs of U.S. diplomatic missions and 

principal consular oflScers at Tangier, 974 
Economic development, U.S. loans for, 600 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Radio regulations (19.59), 6.30 
Telecommunication convention (19.59), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. mutual security program in, statement (Satter- 

thwaite),607, 609 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 57 
MSP. See Mutual security 
Muccio, .John J., 69, 265 
MuUin, Howard J., 171 
Munro, Mrs. Alison, 804 
Mnnro, I>eslie, 17 

Muscat. Oman, and Dependencies : 
Treaty of amity, economic relations, and consular 

rights with U.S., 942 
Treaty of amity and commerce (1833), with U.S., 
termination, 942 
Mutual Assistance Treaty of Rio de Janeiro. See Rio 

Treaty of 1947 
Mutual cooperation and security, treaty with .Tapan: 
Advice and consent of Senate requested, statement 

(Herter), 1029 
Current action, 222 
Remarks and statements: Berding, 237; Dillon, 909, 

910; Herter, 490; Parsons, 665 
Signing, plans for, remarks and statements: 105, 181 
Texts of joint communique, treaty, and related docu- 
ments. 179, IM 
Mutual defense (xre alxo Collective security) : 

Canadn-tl.S. cooi)oration in matters relating to, address 

(Wigglesworth), 121 
Spanlsh-U.S. efforts in, joint communique, 597 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Military 
missions; Ships and shipping; U.S. naval vessels; 
and Weapons production program) : 
AgrfH-ments with : 
Holgluni. agreement amending annex B of 1950 

ngrcrnipnt, ^H 
Japan, understanding revising 1954 agreement, 200, 
222 

1080 



Mutual defense assistance agreements — Continued 
Agreements with — Continued 

New Zealand, understanding concerning 1952 agree- 
ment, 766 
Turkey, agreement establishing a facility for repair- 
ing and rebuilding M-12 range finders, 38 
U.S. bilateral treaties in the Far East, address (Par- 
sons), 405 
Mutual defense treaties and arrangements. See Central 
Treaty Organization, Mutual cooperation and se- 
curity. Mutual security. North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization, Organization of American States, and 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Mutual Security Act of 1954 : 

Administration of, redelegation of certain functions, 

893 
Amendments (1960), statement on signing (Eisen- 
hower), 926 
Freedom of navigation amendment, proposed, letter 

(Dillon), 8.32 
Programs carried out in the Middle East, President's 

report to Congress, 426 
Waiver of cargo preference rule, proposed amendment, 
letters and statement (Casey, Dillon), 740 
Mutual security and other assistance programs {see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Collective security. Economic 
and technical aid. Military assistance, and Mutual 
defense) : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : Dillon, 318, 997 ; 
Eisenhower, 352, 811, 867, 868; Herter, 566; Wil- 
cox. 863 
Appropriations and authorizations for FT 1961, ad- 
dresses, messages, and statements : Bohlen, 495, 
499; Dillon, 380, 385. 568, 924; Eisenhower, 202, 
210, 369. 373. 837, 903, 926 ; Herter, 375, 377, 379 ; 
Riddleberger, 572 
Background references on MSP for 1901. 604 
Excerpts from President's economic report to Congress, 

306 
Importance of. addresses and statement : Dillon, 682, 

85S; Herter. 9.54; Palmer, 329. 331, 332 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
President's semiannual reports to Congress on, ex- 
cerpts. 159, 814 
Programs in : 
Africa, address and statement: Penfield, 921; Satter- 

thwaite, 603 
Europe, statement (Kohler),618 
Far East, statement (Parsons). 532 
Latin America, statement (Rubottom). 623 
Mutual understanding, crusade for, address (Thayer), 

240 
Mutual understanding in the Americas, President's report 
to Nation, addresses, joint declarations and state- 
ments, 471 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

Nakicenovic, SlolmdMn, 411, .590 

NARBA. Sec North American regional broadcasting 

agreement 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 



Deporfmenf of State Bulletin 



I 



NASA. Sec National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration 
National Academy of Sciences, recommendations for 
strengthening science and technology In sub-Sahara 
Africa, address (Klstinkowsky), 281 
National Advisory Committee on Inter- American Affairs : 
4th meeting of, 815 

Functions of, address ( Rubottom ) , 519 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 
and Financial Problems, special report on IDA, letter 
of transmittal to Congress (Eisenhower), 422 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration : 
Administration of Project Mercury tracking stations to 

monitor space research, 518 
Establishment of and program objectives, address 

(Glennan), 59 
U.S.-British cooperative scientific program of space 

research, announcement of, 284 
U-2 incident. See U-2 incident. 
National Commission for UNESCO, U.S., 845 
National Committee for the Prevention of Pollution of 

the Seas by Oil, U.S., 977 
National defense and security (see also Collective se- 
curity. Defense, Intelligence activities, Mutual de- 
fense, and Mutual security) : 
Defense establishment, status of, address (Eisen- 
hower), 902 
Export controls, statement (Mann), 927 
Findings under trade agreements legislation re, ex- 
cerpts from President's message to Congress, 306 
Military capability for retaliation, remarks (Herter), 

283 
Military communications test alert, address (Eisen- 
hower), 899 
Preservation of, address (Berding), 233, 236 
Relationship to U.S. disarmament efforts, address 

(Herter), 354 
U.S. programs for, message and statements : Eisen- 
hower, 204 ; Gates, 557 
National Gallery of Art, showing of Chinese art exhibit, 

338 
National Science Foundation, NATO science fellowship 

program, announcement of, 338 
National security. See National defense and security 
National Security Act of lO^T, 411 
National Security Council, responsibility of CIA to, 411, 

415, 416 
Nationalism : 
Africa, U.S. policy toward movement in, address (Sat- 

terthwaite), 687,692 
Development of, address (Hanes), 792 
Far East, Communist threat to, address (Parsons), 404 
Latin America, problems of, address (Dillon), 318 
Southeast Asia, developments in, address (Jones), 786 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Natural gas, U.S.-Canadian views on imports of, 366 
Near and Middle East (.see also Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion and individual countries) : 
American Doctrine to promote peace and stability In, 

President's 4th report to Congress, 424 
DLF loans, 300 
Refugee problem. See Refugees and displaced persons 

Index, January fo June 1960 



Near and Middle East — Continued 
Suez Canal. Sec Suez Canal 

U.S. mutual security program in, .statement (Jones), 
610 
Negotiations with the Soviet Union. See under Soviet 

Union 
Nelson, Ilarold S., 430 
Nepal : 
Progress in, address (Bunker), 770, 777 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 940, 942 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Visit of King Mahendra and Queen Ratna to U.S., 232, 
640, 827 
Netherlands : 

Civil aviation consultation with U.S., joint statement, 

120 
Gift of monument to U.S., exchange of messages 

(Eisenhower-Juliana), 911 
Liberalization of import controls, 57, 883 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of 

Israel, 134; Switzerland, 630 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Rawinsonde observation stations, agreement extend- 
ing 1956 agreement with U.S. for establishment 
and operation of, 134 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 582 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S. 
relating to, 673 
Neutrality, African policy, address (Penfield), 923 
New York City 1964 World's Fair, 244 
New Zealand : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

Liberalization of import controls, 883 

Participation with IBRD in the development of the 

Indus Basin, 442, 443 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreement, discussions with U.S. re, 888 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 

134 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Mutual defense assistance, understanding concerning 

agreement (1952) with U.S., 766 
Nuclear research and training equipment, agreement 

with U.S. for the acquisition of, 674 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
Newly developing countries {see also Less developed 
countries) : 
Communist penetration through propaganda and aid 
programs, address and statement (Dillon), 855, 924 
Industrialized free-world aid to, address (Dillon), 399, 
400, 402, 403 

1081 



Newly developing countries — Continued 

Japanese contribution, remarks (Dillon), 911 

Need for outstanding U.S. representatives in, address 

(Dillon),1020, 1021, 1022 
Opportunities for cooperation to aid, statement (Phil- 
lips) and ECOSOC resolution, 934 
Problems confronting, message and addresses: Eisen- 
hower, 112, 113; Penfield, 918; Wilcox, 589 
U.S. mutual security program in, addresses (Dillon), 
682, 683, 726 
News correspondents, U.S. policy of passport validations 

for visits to Communist China, 789 
Nicaragua : 

Import-control policy, 883 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, declaration on the provisional accession of 

Israel, 134 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 105 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Sugar agreement (1958), International, 430 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Nichols, C. W., 758 
Nielsen, Waldemar A., 305 
Nigeria : 

Associate membership in FAO, 88 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 505 
Nixon, Richard M., 181, 976, 983 
Nonalinement, Nepalese policy of, address (Mahendra), 

829 
Noninterference, U.S.-Nepalese views, joint communique, 

828 
Nonintervention in American Republics : 
Adherence to principle of: 

Addresses and report (Eisenhower), 472, 476, 477, 481 
Joint statement (Alessandri, Eisenhower), 483 
U.S. policy in : 
Cuba, statement (Eisenhower), 238 
Latin America, statement (Rubottom), 628 
U.S. support of principle of, addresses and letter: 
Eisenhower, 353; Howe, 648, 650, 655; Rubottom, 
520, 694, 696 
Non-self-governing territories. Bee Ryukyu Islands and 

Trust territories 
Nordness, Nedville E., 978 

North American Air Defense Command, joint U.S.- 
Canadian command, address (Wigglesworth), 123 
North American regional broadcasting agreement (1950) 

and final protocol, 430, 541, 673, 734, 805 
North Atlantic Council (see also North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization) : 
Long-rnnge NATO planning, proposed program of, 

address (Ilertcr), 0.30 
Ministerial meeting, Istanbul, 517, 839 
Ministerial meeting, Paris, 3, 44 

Permanent Council meeting, text of communique, 907 
Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, appointment of. 



45 



1082 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see also North At- 
lantic Council) : 
Antisubmarine warfare research center, participation 

of 9 NATO countries in work of, 1022 
Civil emergency planning, remarks (Herter), 284 
Defense tasks of, address (Wigglesworth), 123, 124 
Franco-American alliance in, address (Dillon), 6 
Increase in defense expenditures by members of, address 

(Dillon), 1000 
Joint cost sharing arrangements, 370, 372, 378, 382 
Military strength, importance of, address (Herter), ()36 
Nuclear weapons stockpile, address (Wigglesworth), 

124 
Participation of Secretary General in Western Foreign 
Ministers presummit discussions at Washington, 
493, 685 
Role of Greece in, address (Herter), 516, 517 
Science fellowship program, 338, 1006 
Treaty of nonaggression between NATO and Warsaw 

Pact, proposed, statement (White), 284 
U.S. aid, 160, 162, 168, 330, 331, 618, 620 
U.S. policy toward, statement (Herter), 3 
North Pacific Ocean, high seas fisheries of, amendment 
to annex to international convention (1952) on the 
high seas fisheries, 1046 
Norway : 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

ICJ, self-judging reservation invoked by, statements 

(Herter, Rogers) , 229, 232 
Liberalization of import controls, 884 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134; Switzerland, G30; Tunisia, 942 
GATT, declarations on relations with Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (1959) , 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

G30 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy and Nuclear weapons 
Nuclear research and training equipment and materials, 
agreements for the acquisition of, with : Chile, 541 ; 
Colombia, 393; Guatemala, 892; Ireland, 718, 766; 
Israel, 346 ; New Zealand, 674 
Nuclear weapons : 
Control and inspection of, addresses : Berding, 730, 731, 

732 ; Herter, 354, 355, 356 ; Wilcox, 821. 823, 824 
NATO stockpile, address (Wigglesworth), 124 
Prohibition of the production and use of : 
Address (De Gaulle), 772, 773 
5-l*ower working paiier, 512, 513 
Sharing of U.S. information with allies, question of, 

statements (Herter), .321, .324, .361 
Tests, suspension and discontinuance of : 
CENTO views on, 802 
Geneva conference on. See Geneva conference on the 

discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Soviet proposal for banning of tests on the high seas, 
statement (Dean), 255 
Tests, U.S.-Japanese views on, joint communique, 179 

Deporfmenf of S/ofe Bulletin 



Nuclear weajMjns — Continued 
Tests, underground : 

Detection and identification of : 

Discussions re (U.S. -U.K.). statements: Hagerty, 

&47 ; Ilerter, 547, 550, 551, 553 
Joint declaration ( Eisenliower. Macniillan) and 

statement (Uerter) re, 5S7, 588, 637 
Research proposal to U.K. and U.S.S.R., 327, 328, 

892 
U.S. program of research in, 819 
Question of invitation to Soviets to observe, state- 
ment (Ilerter), 323, 325, 326 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
Oeeanograpliic research stations in Turks and Caicos 
Islands and Bahama Islands, agreements re appli- 
cation of agreements with U.K. for establishment, 
942 
OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for 
Ogdensburg agreement, address (Wigglesworth), 122, 126 
Oil: 
Deposits beneath the seas, need to protect, statement 

(Dean), 258 
Oil pollution convention (1954), support of U.S. 

acceptance, statement (Mann), 976 
U.S.-Canadian views on imports of, 366 
Oman, Muscat, and Dependencies. See Muscat 
"Open-skies" proposals. See Aerial inspection 
"Open societies," U.S. goal, address (Eisenhower), 902 
Operation Pan America : 

Addresses, joint communiques, statements, and report : 

Eisenhower, 472, 476 ; Eisenhower and Alessandri, 

483 ; Eisenhower and Kubitschek, 474 ; Herter, 756 ; 

Herter, Lafer, 523 

Attack on economic ills, address (Dillon), 318 

Committee of 21 economic studies, address (Rubottom), 

288 
U.S. support of, addresses : Dillon, 438 ; Rubottom, 521 
OPEX (operational and executive personnel) project, 

U.N., 594, 922, 935» 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, and 

use of, 105, 346, 673, 978 
Organization for economic cooperation and development, 

proposed, relationship to GATT, 1035 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation. See 

European Economic Cooperation 
Organization of American States (see also Rio Treaty) : 
Accomplishments of, address (Herter), 754, 756, 757 
Activities and economic functions of, address and letter : 

Howe, 649 ; Rubottom, 288, 289 
Agricultural exchange programs, 916 
Colombia-U.S. affirm joint support of, address and 

statements : Eisenhower, 700 ; Lleras, 700, 701 
Cuban charge of U.S. involvement in disaster in Ha- 

bana harbor, text of U.S. note of protest, 1028 
Inter- American defense force, proposed, statement (Ru- 
bottom), 628 
Inter- American Economic and Social Council : 
Appointment of U.S. representative to, 69 
Economic surveys being made by, joint communique 
(Herter, Lafer), 523 



Organization of American States — Continued 

Role in providing collective security in the American 

states, address (Rubottom), 520 
Technical assistance program of, U.S. participation in, 
message and statement: Dillon, 385; Eisenhower, 
373 
Value and support of: addresses and report (Eisen- 
hower), 473, 475, 481, 486; joint statement (Eisen- 
hower, Kubitschek), 474 
Venezuelan accusation against Dominican Republic of 
violation of declaration of Santiago, statements 
(Herter), 320, 326 
Ota, Seisaku, 967 
Outer space : 
Cooperation in international exploration, address 

(Glennan), 58 
Joint U.S.-British program, 284 
Peaceful uses of : 
Need for safeguards : 
Address and statement: Eaton, 515; Wilcox, 821, 

823 
5-Power working paper on disarmament, 511, 512, 
513 
U.N. activities regarding, statements (Lodge) and 
General Assembly resolution, 64, 99 
Question of sovereignty in, statement (Herter), 643 
Relationship to international relations, statement 

(Merchant), 213 
Tracking stations. See Tracking stations 
U.S. and Soviet progress in, statements (Herter), 324, 

325 
U.S. developments in the field of, messages and address : 
Eisenhower, 114, 115, 202, 204 ; Kistiakowsky, 277 
Outer Space, U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful 

Uses of, 215, 279 
Overseas service, challenge of, address (Dillon), 1019 

Paarlberg, Don, 743 

Pacific Islands, trust territories : 

Samoa, progress in, statement (Zablocki), 27 
U.S. administration in, statements (Nucker), 1036 
Page, Edward, Jr., 265, 542 
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, 798 
PAHO. See Pan American Health Organization 
Pakistan : 

DLF loans to, 300 

GATT consultations, announcement, 527 

Imports, relaxation of restriction on, 884 

Indus River Basin. See Indus River Basin 

MSP program for FY 1961 in, statements : Brand, 457 ; 

Jones, 615, 617 ; Riddleberger, 440, 447 
Progress in, address (Bunker), 777 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 506, 

805 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 582 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582. 
U.S. defense support program in, report (Dillon), 461, 
463 



Index, January to June 1960 



1083 



Pakistan — Continued 

U.S. Embassy office at Murree, establisliment of, 309 
Visit of banlters to study economic conditions and 
programs in, announcements and statements re, 63, 
264 
Palestine Concilation Commission, U.N., 33, 381 
Palestine refugees. See Refugees 
Paley Report, 652, 657 
Palmer, Gardner E., 978 
Palmer, W. B., 329 
Pan American Day, OAS celebration of, address (Herter), 

754 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1960, 

proclamation, 319 
Pan American Health Organization, designation as public 

international organization. Executive order, 579 
Panama : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 658 

Annuity payment by U.S., 410 

Relations with U.S. in operations of Canal Zone, 

program for improvement of, 798 
Sovereignty in Canal Zone, statement (Herter), 326 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 222 
Inter- American Development Banlj, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 173 
Wheat agreement (19.09), international, 265 
Panama Canal Company, employee benefits to be given 

Panamanians in Canal Zone, 798 
Paraguay : 

Imports, policy re, 884 

Latin American Free Trade Association membership, 

938 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 38 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 38 
Parcel post, U.S. agreement with Zanzibar re, 393, 674 
Parker, Cola G., 1008 
Parks, E. Taylor, 744 
Parsons, J. Graham, 404, 532, 664 
Passports : 
Discretionary power of Secretary of State to deny, 

statement (Herter), 323 
Renewal procedures for expired passports and visas, 

article (Pryor), 13 
Restrictions on travel to Communist China, address 

(Parsons), 408 
Restrictive endorsement re Hungary canceled, 797 
Validation of passports of U.S. correspondents to travel 
In Communist China, 789 
Patents : 
Applications, classified, agreements approving proce- 
dures for reciprocal filing of, with: Belgium, 978; 
Greece. 942 ; Turkey, 541 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
puniospH, agreement with Denmark for interchange 
of, 405 



Peace : 

Addresses, remarks, and statement: Berdlng, 233; 
Eisenhower, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 75, 476, 477, 
478, 480, 481, 484 ; Herter, 358 
Economic cooperation for, address (Wigglesworth), 

125, 126 
Need for maintenance of, address (Wilcox), 823 
"Peace Through Understanding," theme of 1964 New 

York World's Fair, 244 
Peaceful cooperation, remarks (Shuster), 131 
Relationship of mutual security program to, message 
(Eisenhower), 369 
Peace force, international. See under United Nations 
"Peaceful coexistence," Communist interpretation and 
practice of, addresses : Berding, 234 ; Dillon, 679, 727 ; 
Shuster, 131 : White, 993 
Pearcy, G. Etzel, 148 
Penfield, James K., 918 
Perkins, Dexter, 393»t 

Permanent Joint Board on Defense (Canada-U.S.), suc- 
cess of, address (Wigglesworth), 122 
Perry Expedition of 1853-54, article (Parks), 744, 751 
Peru : 
Imports, policy re, 884 
Latin American Free Trade Association membership, 

938 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 506 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S. 

for financing, 309 
6ATT: 

Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 1,'?4 
Declarations on provisional accessions of: Israel, 

1,34 ; Switzerland, 630 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 

Ill-Brazil, 173 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of sched- 
ules, 7th protocol, 134 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 582 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, with annexes, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Rawinsonde observations station, agreement extend- 
ing 1957 agreement with U.S. for establishment and 
operation at Lima, 506 
Telecommunication convention (19,59), international, 

630 
U.S. vessels, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 541 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 629 
Petroleum. See Oil 
Philippines : 

Air transport negotiations with U.S., 665, 804, 1006 
Bataan Day, 18th anniversary of, message (Eisen- 
hower), 685 
Community development project in, statement (Riddle- 

berger), 4.52 
Emergence as an independent nation, address (Jones), 

783, 787, 788 
Import-control policy, 884 
Meaning and use of term, article (Pearcy), 154 



1084 



Deporfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Philippines — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., terminated, 500 
Olongapo and adjacent areas in U.S. naval base, 

agreement for the U.S. relinquishment of, 105 
Radio regulations (1959), G30 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 582 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 582 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 265 
U.S. sugar quota, exchange of messages (Eisenhower, 

Garcia), 665 
War damage claims against U.S., 212 
Phillips, Christopher H., 102, 502, 934 

Pittsburgh, University of, participation in the interna- 
tional exchange program, address (Herter), 1017 
Poland : 

Aid agreement with Cuba, statement (Herter), 644 
Deputy Prime Minister and group to visit U.S. under 

educational exchange program, 557 
GATT, relations with Contracting Parties, 245, 248, 

942 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, supplemental agreement 

with U.S., 392, 393 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion, 505 
GATT, declaration on relations with, 942 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 805 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 582 
U.S. exports to, 928 
Pollution of the seas by oil, convention (19.54) for the 
prevention of, support of U.S. acceptance, statement 
(Mann), 976 
Population growth: 

Asia, article (Pearcy), 148, 149, 151, 157 

Latin America, addresses (Dillon), 316, 436 

MSP efforts to meet challenge of, President's report to 

Congress, 161 
Xeed for economic development to meet, address (Wil- 
cox), 860 
Relation to increase in food supply, report (Miller), 90 
U.S. metropolitan areas, problem of rapid growth of, 
message (Eisenhower), 117 
Portugal : 
Accession to GATT, consideration of, 1033, 1035 
Import restrictions on goods from dollar area, relaxa- 
tion, 249 
Participation in Development Assistance Group meet- 
ing, delegation, 440, 577 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S. 

for financing, 630 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 



Portugal — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Sugar agreement (19.08), international, 766 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Wheat agreement (19.09), international, .309 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 550, 780, 907 
Portuguese Overseas Provinces: 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Postal agreements and conventions : 
Parcel post, agreement between U.S. and Zanzibar, 393, 

674 
Postal money orders, convention (1959) with St. Chris- 
topher Nevis and Anguilla for the exchange of, 892 
Universal postal convention (1057), with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re- 
garding airmail with final protocol, 465, 978 
Powers, Francis Gary, 852, 853 
President's Committee on Information Activities Abroad, 

appointment of, 365 
President's Committee To Study the United States Mili- 
tary Assistance Program (Draper Committee) : 
Address and report : Dillon, 998 ; Eisenhower, 161, 165 
Recommendations of, address and message : Eisen- 
hower, 371, 372 ; Palmer, 331, 332 
President's International Materials Policy Commission, 

652, 657 
President's Special International Program for Cultural 
Presentations, work of, addresses (Thayer), 82, 83, 
335 
Press, Frank, 892 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Private enterprise, role in expansion of U.S. domestic and 
foreign trade, address, message, and statements : Dil- 
lon, 562 ; Eisenhower, 561 ; Ray, 562 ; report of Inter- 
agency Task Force, 563; Rubottom, 286 
Proclamations by the President : 

Cheeses, increasing import quotas on (3347), 968 

Law Day, 1960 (3330), 201 

Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1960 

(3333), 319 
United Nations Day, 1960 (3341), 588 
United States of America-Japan Centennial Tear 

(3349), 910 
World Trade Week, 1960 (3346), 869 
Project Mercury. See Tracking stations 
Project Vela, 819 
Propaganda : 
Cuban, U.S. protest against and efforts to counteract, 
statement (Herter), 549; text of aide memoire, 994 
Soviet : 
Attacks on U.S. treaty of cooperation with Japan, 

statement (Herter), 490 
Compaigns, address (Berding), 731, 733 
NAC views, communique, 840 
U.S. views concerning, remarks (Shuster), 133 
Use of C-2 incident, statement (Lodge), 9.08 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) for protection In 
event of armed conflict, 582 



Index, January to June I960 



1085 



Property, industrial, convention (1934) for protection of, 

38, 222, 430 
Property, rights, and interests of U.S. citizens (see also 
Claims: U.S.) : 
Cuban seizure of. See under United States citizens 
Latin America, interests of U.S. Investors In, addresses 
(Dillon), 317, 437, 439 
Pryor, Mrs. Hallie Mae, 9 
Public Law 480. See Agricultural surpluses 
Publications: 
Congress : 

Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 8, 217, 
2(53, 307, 388, 426, 458, 501, 666, 713, 753, 800, 838, 
931, 1006, 1032 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee studies on: 
U.S. foreign policy, list of, 273 
U.S. Latin American relations, list of, 626 
Exchange of international and official publications and 
of government documents, 1958 conventions on, 309 
Scientific and technical material, need for publication 

and exchange of, address (Erode), 736, 737 
State Department: 
Foreign Relations, volumes on. Advisory Committee 

report on, 393 
Lists of recent releases, 38, 70, 106, 174, 222, 266, 466, 
506, 542, G74, 806, 894, 942, 1010 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 37, 69, 104, 
172, 221, 265, 300, 429, 505, 540, 602, 670, 717, 765, 
803, 1008 
Verbatims and agreed documents on Geneva conference 
on the discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests, 
release of, 765 
Verbatims of the conference of the Ten Nation Disarma- 
ment Committee, release of, 819 
Puerto Rico : 
U.S. technical cooperation program in, address (Dil- 
lon), 436, 438 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 119 



Queen Juliana, 911 
Quetico-Superior Committee, 



739 



Rabasa, Cscar, 127 

Race relations problems. See Apartheid 

Radio. See Teleconmiunications 

Rae, liruce, 888 

Rae, Saul F., 421 

Haiia. Subarna S. .T. B., 940 

Uaiulall, Harold M., 69 

Ratna Rajya Lakshml Shah, Queen of Nepal, 232 640 
827 

Raw materials, U.S. pricing policy, address and letters : 
Fernandez, Howe, Zuniga, 652, 6.57; Rubottom, 697 

RawlnsoMdo observation stations, agreements re estab- 
lishment and operation of, with : 
Ecuador, extending in.'u agreoniont, 978 
Peru, oxteiidlng I'Xn ngrcemcnt, .506 
Nflbcrlands, extending 19.56 agreement, 134 
f.K. extending and amending 1958 agreement, 430 

Ray, Philip A., .562 

Reciprocity Informntlon, Committee for. Bee Committee 
for Riviproclty Information 

1086 



Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Refugees and displaced persons («ee also Intergovern- 
mental Committee for European Migration) : 
Arab refugees, U.S. and U.N. aid and efforts to solve 
problem of : 
Statements: Dillon, 381, 385, 569, 571; Fulton, 29; 
Hanches, 31 ; Jones, 611, 612 

Text of General Assembly resolution, 34 
India- Pakistan refugees, address (Bunker), 778 
Responsibility for aiding, statement (Fulton), 28 
U.S. admittance through liberalization of immigration 
laws, proposed, address and message : Eisenhower, 
659, 660 ; Hanes, 662, 663 
World Refugee Year, U.S. contributions to, 29, 30, 708, 
1046 
Reinhardt, G. Frederick, 266 

Relief and rehabilitation. See Agricultural surpluses : 

Emergency relief and Morocco: Agadir earthquake 

Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees, U.N., 

29, 31, 611, 613 
Research («ee also Atomic energy, peaceful uses of; Nu- 
clear weapons; Outer space; Science; and Tracking 
stations) : 
Antisubmarine warfare research center, establishment 

and U.S. financing of, 1022 
Budget request for fiscal 1961, excerpt from President's 

message to Congress, 202 
Cooperation in international research programs, ad- 
dress (Brode),735 
Intelligence and research, article (Evans, Gatewood), 

1023 
U.S. scientific, question of areas of priority for, address 
and statement : Erode, 271, 274 ; Kistiakowsky, 281, 
282 
Research reactor agreements concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy, with: Austria, 265; Indonesia, 1046; 
Venezuela, 346 
Rhee, Syngman, 859 

Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 
Associate membership in FAO, 89 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Relaxation of import controls, 885 

Resident consuls assigned to Lusaka and Elantyre, 38 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: Is- 
rael, 134 ; Switzerland, 630 
Technical cooperation agreement between U.S. and 

U.K., application to the Federation, 1009 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 393 
Rice: 

U.S.-Indian agreement for sale to India, 889 
U.S. policy on exports to Asia, statement (Johnson), 
363 
Richmond. Alfred C, 893 
Riddlcberger, James W., 445, 572 
Rife, David C, 363 
RioTreaty of 1947: 
Commitment to, address, report and joint statement: 
Eisenhower, 472, 481 ; Eisenhower, Kubitschek, 474 

Department of State Bulletin 



Rio Treaty of ItMT — Continued 

I'eaceful settlement of disputes through appliealiou of, 

address (Ruhotlom), C!)4 
Provision for protection of sovereignty of an American 

state, address tUubottom), uliO, 522 
Question of Cuban adherence to, statement (llerter), 
t>45, 045ii 
Roa, Raiil, 440 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 37, 393, 

505 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 393, 582, 629 
Roberts Field, Liberia, modernization of, 666 
Robertson, Walter S., 18 
Rockefeller Foundation, aid to agriculture in Latin 

America, address (Rubottom), 916 
Rodopoulos, Constantine, 365 
Rogers, William P., 231 
Rome, treaty of, 292 
Romulo, Carlos P., 804 

Rotary Foundation Fellowship Program, 729 
Rountree, William M., 310 
Rowell, Edward J., 717 
Ruanda-l'rundi, Trust Territory of : 

Problems of administration, statement (Zablocki), 27 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Rubber : 

International Rubber Study Group, work of, address 

(Nichols), 761 
Synthetic, effect on natural rubber industry, statement 
(Erode), 273 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., addresses and statement: 
Importance of educational exchange in American 

Republics, 912 
Latin America, progress through cooperation, 285 
Latin America, U.S. relations with, 519, 630, 693 
Mutual security program in Latin America, 623 
Rumania : 

Expansion of trade with U.S., 671 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Claims, agreement with U.S. relating to settlement of, 

630, 670 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 629 
Ruritan, 240)t, 243, 244 
Russell, Charles H., 38 
Ryukyu Islands : 

Chief Executive, meeting with President Eisenhower, 

967 
High Commissioner, appointment of political adviser 
to, 106 

Safety of life at sea : 
Convention (1948) on, 766 

International conference on, U.S. delegation chairman 
and vice chairman, 893 
Safety pins, Presidential action re imports, 3.39 
St. Christopher Nevis and Anguilla, convention with U.S. 
for the exchange of postal money orders, 892 

tndex, January fo June 7960 



St. Lawrence, Joseph, 835 

San Marino, convention (1934) for the protection of 

industrial projjerty, 430 
Sanz de Santamarfa, Carlos, 658 
Satellites, earth circling (see also Outer space) : 
Observation and tracking of. See Tracking stations 
Photographing from, statement (Herter), (543, 644 
U.S.-British joint earlh-satellite program, 284 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, 603, 689, 974 
Saudi Arabia : 

Radio regulations (1059), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Schramm, Wilbur, 171 

Science (see also Atomic energy, Nuclear weapons. Outer 
space, and Research) : 
Antarctic scientific program, joint announcement of 

U.S.-Chilean cooperation in, 098 
Antisubmarine research center, scientific council of, 

1023 
Benefits from advancement in, address (Eisenhower), 

479 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on the importation of, 
261, 430, 805, 843 
Engineering and science in Latin America, contribu- 
tion of educational exchange to, address (Rubot- 
tom), 914 
Interdependence of science and national policies, ad- 
dress (Erode), 735 
International conference of scientists, proposed, U.S. 
views, statement (Lodge) and text of General As- 
sembly resolution, (54 
NATO program, 338, 622, 1006 
Progress of, address (Hanes), 793 
Role and impact on U.S. foreign policy, address and 

statement : Erode, 271 ; Kistiakowsky, 276 
Scientific Intelligence, Office of, address (Dulles), 411 
State Department science program, appointments of 

science officers, 362 
Visual and auditory materials of an educational, scien- 
tific, and cultural character, agreement (1949) 
and protocol facilitating international circulation 
of, 346, 1009 
Science Foundation, National, 338 
Sciences, National Academy of, 281 
Sea, law of the. See Law of the sea 
Sea Poacher, U.S.S., 854 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Secretariat, U.N., 100 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Consideration of apartheid policy of South Africa, U.S. 
views concerning, statements : Herter, 551, 644 ; 
Lodge, 667 
Consideration of Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression: 
statements (Lodge) and texts of Soviet draft reso- 
lution and Four Power resolution, 955 
Documents, lists of, 37, 172, 300, 429, 602, 717, 765, 
1008 

1087 



Security Council, TJ.N.— Continued 
Resolutions : 
Maintenance of peace and security and reduction of 

tensions, 961 
Racial situation in the Union of South Africa, 669 
Seed Year, World, designation of by FAO, report (Mil- 
ler), 91 
Self-determination : 
Algeria, U.S. position on, statements (Lodge), 100 
Right of Cuba to, letters (Ferni'indez, Howe, Zuniga), 

6.>1. 6."." 
Soviet and Western views on, address (Herter), 638 
Tibet, U.S. support of, exchange of messages (Dalai 

Lama, Herter), 443 
U.S.-Tunisian views on, joint communique, 56 
Senegal, Republic of, associate membership in FAO, 89 
Sessions, Edson O., 265 
Shikotan Island, question of Soviet return to Japan, 

statement (Herter), 325 
Ships and shipping (see also Law of the sea and Suez 
Canal) : 
Antisubmarine Warfare Research Center, 1022 
Boycott of U.S. shipping by Arab League, letters and 

statement (Dillon, Meany), 834 
Cargo Preference Act, proposed legislation re, an- 
nouncement and letters (Casey, Dillon), 740 
Freedom-of-navigation amendment to Mutual Security 

Act, letter (Dillon), 832 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 505, 629, 805, 843 
Ocean shipping practices, meeting concerning grand 

jury investigation of, 501 
Oil pollution convention (1954), statement (Mann), 976 
Pilotage requirements for oceangoing vessels on the 
Great Lakes, proposed, statement (White), U.S. 
and Canadian aide memoire, and letters (Rae, 
White), 417 
Safety of life at sea : 
Convention (1948) on, 766 
International conference on, 893 
U.S. naval vessels: 

Lease to Chile for use in joint scientific program in 

Antarctica, 698 
Loan of, agreements for : Argentina, 766 ; Brazil, .506 ; 
Colombia, 766; Italy, 346; Korea, 346, 766; Peru, 
.'■>41 
Submarine, Cuban attack on, 854, 995 
Shrimp in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, Commission for 
the Conservation of, appointment of U.S. member, 
842 
Shuster, George N., 131 
Singapore, State of, relaxation of import restriction on 

dollar-area goods, 885 
SIno-Soviot alliance, addre.ss and statement (Parsons), 

40.-., 409. ,'-..33 
Slrikit, Queen of Thailand, 1028 
Slscoe, Frank G., 430 

Slavery protocol (1904) and convention (1910) for sup- 
pression of while slave traflBc, 4(55 
Smith, C. Alphonso. 978 
Snow, William P., 205 
Bomnlln : 

Approaching Independence, problems of, statement 
(Znt.l(K-kl). 20 



Somalia — Continued 
Associate membership in FAO, 88 
Budgetary deficit in, addre.ss (Wilcox), 593 
Technical cooperation program, agreement amending 
and extending agreement between U.S. and Italy, 
173 
U.S. relief aid for drought victims, 713 
U.S. special assistance program to aid economic develop- 
ment in, statement (Satterthwaite), 606 
Soudanese Republic, associate membership in FAO, 89 
Soumela, Arnie J., 757 

South Africa, Union of. See Union of South Africa 
South America. See Central America, Latin America, 

atid individual countries 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia and individual 

countries 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Collective security provision, address (Parsons), 405 
Designation as public international organization. 

Executive order, 580 
Research fellowship series, announcement of, 98 
Role in Southeast Asia, address (Johnson), 10O4 
Sixth Council meeting : 
Address and remarks : Eisenhower, 986 ; Herter, 985 ; 

Nixon, 983 
Announcement re, 364 
Communique, 986 

Delegations, leaders of national delegations and U.S. 
delegaHou, 976, 988 
U.S. membership to promote mutual security, statement 
(Parsons), 533 
South-West Africa, Territory of: 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 346 
Sovereignty, outer .space, question of, statement (Herter), 

643 
Soviet-bloc countries (see also Communism ; Germany, 
East; Soviet Union; and individual countries) : 
Activities in Africa, statement (Satterthwaite), 606, 

607, 609 
Declaration by Warsaw Pact countries, statement 

(White), 2^ 
Economic offensive. See under Less developed 

countries 
Sino-Soviet alliance, address and statement (Parsons), 

405, 409, 533 
Trade, U.S. policies and implications of, statement 
(Mann), 927 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Soviet-bloc countries, and 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Armaments, refusal to agree to international control 
and reduction of, address and statement (Herter>, 
354, 358, 359 
Armed forces : 

Announcement of proposed reductions, statement 

(White), 147 
Force level ceiling for, 5-Power proposal, 511, 512 
Baltic States, forcible incorporation into U.S.S.R., 
statement (Herter), 361 



1088 



Deparfment of Sfate Bulletin 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Berlin situation, ^'^r under Berlin 

Cancellation of proposed visit of President Eisenhower, 
78, 147, 951 

Complaint of U.S. aggression, Security Council rejec- 
tion, 955 

Cultural exchange agreement with U.S., address 
(Thayer), 335 

Disarmament. Sec Disarmament 

Economic challenge and growth of, addresses and state- 
ment : Dillon, 31)9, 679, 680, 855 ; Martin, 340 

Economic offensive in less developed countries. See 
under Less developed countries 

Espionage activities against U.S., statements (Lodge), 
956, 95S, 959 

Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. Sec Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 

German problems. See Germany 

Heads of (Jovernment meeting. See Heads of 
Government 

Intervention in Hungary, statement (Lodge), 17 

Korean reunification, obstruction of, statement (Rob- 
ertson), 18 

Law of the sea, Soviet views concerning, statement 
(Dean), 253, 254, 255, 258 

Lend-lease tallss with U.S., resumption and discontinu- 
ance of, 86, 239 

Military programs, assessment of, address (Dulles), 
414 

New Year's greetings, exchange with U.S., 119 

Negotiations with (see also Heads of Government) : 
Addresses and statement: Berding, 233, 235, 729; 
Eisenhower, 901, 902 ; Herter, 635, 636, 637 ; Kohler, 
619, 623 ; 
NAC communique, 840 

Nuclear weapons and tests. See Nuclear weaiwns 

Outer space, achievements in, address and statements : 
Glennan, 59. 60; Herter, 324, 325; Merchant, 213, 
214, 21G 

Passes to Allied military missions to travel in East 
Germany, question of, statement (Herter), 360 

"Peaceful coexistence," Soviet views, addresses and 
remarks : Berding, 234 ; Dillon, 679, 727 ; Shuster, 
131 ; White, 993 

Postwar European economic recovery, Soviet attitude, 
address (Bohlen),497 

Premier Khrushchev, 77, 119, 599, 901, 948, 993 

Propaganda. Bee under Propaganda 

Repudiation of commitment to return islands of Habo- 
mai and Shiliotan to Japan, statement (Herter), 
325 

Rescue of Soviet soldiers by U.S. Navy, exchange of 
messages (Eisenhower, Khrushchev), 599 

Scientific programs, policies in the promotion of, ad- 
dress (Erode) , 735, 738 

Sino-Soviet alliance, address and statement (Parsons), 
405, 409, 533 

Surprise attack, question of, statements (Gates), 557, 
558 

Threat of military force in the settlement of interna- 
tional issues, remarks (Herter), 283, 284 



Soviet I'nion — ConliniuHl 
Trade policies and relatlcms, 239, 928 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, ixsaceful uses of, agreement with 

U.S., 279 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary imjiortation of, 393 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 582 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning custom facili- 
ties for, 393 
U.N. aid programs, Soviet attitude toward, address 

(Lodge), .526 
U.S. relations with, address (Herter), 1016 
U-2 incident. See U-2 incident 
Space activities. See Outer space 
Spain : 
Accession to GATT, consideration of, 1033, 1035 
Trade liberalization program, 885 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims of Spanish subcontractors of U.S. military 

bases, agreement with U.S. for settlement, 465 
IFC, articles of agreement, 629 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Tracking station, agreement with U.S. for the estab- 
lishment of a Project Mercury facility on the 
island of Gran Canaria, 518, 630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
U.S. defense support to, statement (Kohler), 622 
Visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs to U.S., 80, 597 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 56 
Special assistance : 
Allocation of funds for malaria eradication during 1st 

half of FY 1900, 815 
Appropriations for FY 1961, request for, messages and 
statements : Eisenhower, 211, 384 ; Dillon, 373, 926 
Efforts toward reduction of, letter, report, and state- 
ment : Dillon, 459 ; Riddleberger, 450 
Functions of. President's report to Congress, 166 
Loan to Iceland, 250 

Programs in Africa, address and statements: Dillon, 
569, 571 ; Herter, 567 : Riddleberger, 573, 576 ; Sat- 
terthwaite, 604, 006, 608, 689 
Programs in Latin America, statement (RulKittom), 
625 
Special Economic Committee, Paris meeting of : 
Address and statements (Dillon), 139, 140, 145, 403 
Proposal for, 43 

Purpose of, .statement (PhilUps), 502 
Texts of resolutions, 146 
Special Fund, U.N., 99, 525, 593, 865 
Specialized agencies, U.N., U.S. contributions, addresses: 

Bohlen, 500 ; Rubottom, 920 
Spinks, Charles N., 105 
Sprague, Mansfield D., 365 
Sproul, Allan, 204 

Stanford Research Institute report on impact of science 
on U.S. foreign policy, statement (Erode), 271 



Index, January fo June I960 



1089 



Stassen, Harold, 359 

State Department {see aUo Foreign Service and Inter- 
national Coojjeration Administration) : 
Administration of mutual security program : 
Redelegation of certain functions, 893 
Statement (Dillon), 387 
Appointments and designations, 38, 69, 105, 106, 174, 

266, 430, 978 
Assistant Secretary of State (Kohler), confirmation, 

266 
Budget, growth of, address (Bohlen), 495 
Conference at Harvard University on U.S.-Sovlet cul- 
tural relations, 964 
Confirmations, 265, 266, 629 

Counselor of the Department of State (Achilles), con- 
firmation, 629 
Deputy Under Secretary of State (Hare), confirmation, 

265 
Establishment of oflSce of political adviser to High 
Commissioner of the Ryukyu Islands, announce- 
ment, 106 
Organization and activities : 
Asian and Far Eastern aflfairs, jurisdictions, article 

(I'earcy), 156 
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, estab- 
lishment of, 844 
Bureau of International Cultural Relations, activities 

of, address (Thayer), 82, &i 
Exchange of persons program, authority requested 
of Congress to pay certain expenses relating to, 
letter (Herter), and draft bill, 308 
Intelligence information, ofiices and bureaus respon- 
sible for gathering, article (Evans, Gatewood), 
1023 
Passports. See Passports 

Science program, appointments and functions, 275, 
362 
Publications. See under Publications 
Under Secretary for Political Affairs (Merchant), con- 
flrnmtion, 266 
State of the Union message, 111 
Status-of-forces agreement with Japan, 185, 195, 222, 

1031 
Steel Committee (ECE), U.S. delegates to 23d session, 

171 
Sterling, John Ewart Wallace, 300 
Stljkel, E. G., 120 

Stocltholm convention. See European Free Trade Asso- 
ciation 
Strategic materials, stockpiling of, excerpts from Presi- 
dent's biidgot message to Congress, 209 
Suchowlak, Bohdan, 557 
Sudan : 
Economic and jmlitical situation in, statement (Satter- 

thwalte), 606 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil avinllon, protocol relating to amendments to 

International convention on, 802 
Radii) ro;;iilnllon.') (lO-IO), 630 

Telecomnuinlcatlon convention (1959), international 
030 

Tnlograph rpgulnllons (Geneva revision, 1958), 393 
1090 



Sudan — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Universal postal convention (1957), 978 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
Suez Canal, U.S. views on freedom of transit through, 
letter and statements : Dillon, 832, 834 ; Herter, 321, 
324, 551, 552 ; Jones, 613 
Sugar : 
International sugar agreement (1958), 134, 173, 430, 

766, 805 
Sugar Act of 1948 : 
Question of quotas under : 
Cuban representations concerning, aide memoire, 

994 
Recommendations to Congress re and question of 
Philippine quota, exchange of messages (Eisen- 
hower, Garcia), 665 
Statements (Herter), 359, 493, 553 
U.S. trade poUey concerning, letter (Howe), 653 
Summit meetings. See Heads of Government 
Supreme Allied Command, Atlantic : 
Appointment of, 45 

Establishment of Antisubmarine Warfare Research 
Center, 1022 
Supreme Court, ruling concerning the issuance of pass- 
ports, statement (Herter), 323 
Suritis, Andrejs, 859 

Surprise attack, prevention of (see also Aerial insi)ec- 
tion) : 
Measures to assure effective inspection procedures, 
proposed : 5-Power working paper on disarma- 
ment, 512; statement (Eaton), 515 
Negotiations for safeguards to prevent, progress of, ad- 
dress (Herter), 354, 356 
Relation of U-2 incident to, statements: Department, 

818 ; Herter, 816 
U.S. defenses against, statements (Gates), 557, 558 
Sweden : 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Import-control policy, 885 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134; Tunisia, 942; Switzerland, 630 
GATT, declarations on relations with : Poland, 942 ; 

Yugoslavia, 134 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 173 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
U.S. deputy science officer, appointment, 363 
Switzerland : 
Imports, policy re, 885 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Switz- 
erland to : 
Current actions, 630, 892 

U.S. acceptance of declaration on Swiss accession, 
exchange of notes, 601 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Rociiinicnl trade agreement (1936) with U.S., agree- 
ments concerning, 87, 134, 630 

Department of State Bulhtin 



Switzerland — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Telecommunication convention (lOHK), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 629 

Taiwan Straits situation {see also China, Republic of) : 

Development of, address (Parsons), 400, 407, 409, 410 

U.S. policy toward, question of, statement (Herter),491 

Tanganyika, Trust Territory of : 

Consular district of Dar-es-Salaam to include Zanzibar 

Protectorate, 69 
Progress toward independence, statement (Zablocki), 

27 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 805 
Tariff Commission, U.S., duties of, article (Catudal) 

296, 297, 298 
Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs; and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Almonds, clothe.spins, and safety pins. Presidential ac- 
tions re imports, 339 
Cheeses, increase in import quotas on, 907 
■Wool-fabric imports, determination of tariff quota, an- 
nouncement and letter (Eisenhower), 367 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Coffee, Brazilian proposal that GATT import restric- 
tions be relaxed, statement (Herter), 550 
Conference of 1960-61 : 

Preparation for, report and article : Catudal, 291 ; 

Eisenhower, 306 
U.S. participation, notices inviting views re, 968 
Consultations under articles XII, XIV, and XVIII :B 
re import restrictions for balance-of-payments rea- 
sons, announcement, 527 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI :4 and proc&s-verbal extending the validity of, 
805 
Declarations on provisional accessions of: Israel, 134, 
430, 582, 805; Switzerland, 630, 892; Tunisia, 247, 
942 
Declarations on relations with : Poland, 247, 942 ; Yugo- 
slavia, 134, 346 
Discriminatory trade restrictions, need for the elimi- 
nation of, message and statement : Eisenhower, 560 ; 
Adair, 871 
Most-favored-nation provisions, U.S. support of, address 

(Dillon), 857 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule Ill- 
Brazil, 173, 805 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

6th and 7th protocols on, 134, 805 
Relationship of European economic organizations to, 
statements (Dillon) and text of resolution, 141, 
142. 144, 14.5, 146 
Renegotiation by Canada of textile concessions, 709 
16th session of Contracting Parties : 

Convening of. Department announcement, 938 
Review of, 10.33 
Statement {Ad,iir),975 
Switzerland, U.S. acceptance of declaration (1958) on 
Swiss relations with, exchange of notes, and agree- 
ment with U.S. re, 601, 630 



Taxation : 

Commercial profits taxes, temporary waiver of article 
VI in U.S.-Iran reciprocal trade agreement, 843 844 
Double taxation. Sec Double taxation 
Incentives to stimulate private Investment abroad, 

statement (Phillips), 503 
Latin America, problem of, address (Dillon), 437, 439 
Teachers, need for more in Latin America, address (Ru- 

bottom),915 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid and Mutual security 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical assistance training program, agreement with 

Japan, 673 
Telecommunications (see also Tracking stations) : 
Communication advanced by outer-space observation, 

address ( Gleunan ) , 59, 60, 62 
Mass communication in Southeast Asia, U.S. delegation 

to UNESCO conference on, 171 
Radio and television satellites, international coopera-' 

tion in use of, statement (Lodge), 64, 67, 68 
Radio frequencies for space communication and re- 
search, statement (Merchant), 215 
SEATO meteorological communications project, 987 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Broadcasting agreement (1950), North American re- 
gional (NARBA) , 430, 541, 673, 734, 805 
Emden-Cherbourg-Horta submarine telegraph cable, 
agreement with Republic of Germany relating to 
return to Gemian ownership of, 582 
EJxchange of radio communications between amateur 
stations on behalf of 3d parties, agreements with : 
Haiti, 173 ; Honduras, 582 ; Venezuela, 173 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 
105, 134, 173, 222, 346, 393, 505, 582, 629, 844, 1046 
International telecommunication convention (1959), 

with annexes and final protocol, 630 
Radio broadcasting in standard band, agreement 

(1957) with Mexico and annexes, 430, 541 
Radio regulations (1959), with appendixes and pro- 
tocol, 630, 844 
Voice of America broadcasts to Latin Americaj resump- 
tion of, statement (Herter), 549 
West Berlin radio station, U.S. and Soviet notes con- 
cerning F.R.G. draft legislation for, 7 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) 
annexed to international telecommunication conven- 
tion (19.52), with appendixes and final protocol, 103, 
134, 173, 222, 346, 393, 505, 582, 629, 844, 1046 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament : 
Address (Herter), 354, 355 

Conference of. See Ten nation disarmament conference 
Relationship to the U.N., address (Wilcox), 820 
Soviet disarmament proposals referred to, 1018 
Western members of Committee propose disarmament 
meeting, 45 
Ten nation disarmament conference : 

Five-power worliing paper on general disarmament, 511 

Letter (Ei-senhower), 514 

Remarks and statement : Eaton, 513 ; Herter, 282 

U.S. delegation, 466 

Verbatim documents of, released, 819 



Index, January to June 1960 



1091 



Ten nation disarmament conference — Continued 

Western arms reduction program, address (Herter), 

637. 640 
Western Foreign Ministers approve report on Geneva 
negotiations in relation to forthcoming summit 
meeting, statement, 684 
Terman, Frederick Emmons, 800 
Territorial waters : 
Breadth of territorial sea, U.S. delegation to 2d U.N. 

conference on, 504 
Continental shelf, convention on, 258, 718, 1009 
Convention on the territorial sea and the contiguous 
zone, 253, 260, 718, 1009 
Textiles: 
Cotton, U.S. equalization payments, views on, 367 
Tariff concessions by Canada, renegotiation of, 709 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, quota on imports, 267 
Thailand : 
Development of and relations with U.S., address (John- 
son), 1001 
Import policy, 886 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Educational exchange programs, agreement amend- 
ing 1950 agreement with U.S. for financing of, 
393 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 222 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 465 
U.S. rice export ix)licy, statement (Johnson), 363 
Visit of King and Queen to U.S., 364, 1001, 1028 
Thayer, Robert H., 81, 240, 333, 844, 963 
Theatrical arts, development through cultural diplomacy, 

ad<lress (Thayer), 82 
Tlionipson, Tyler, 266 
Tit)l)ett.s, Margaret Joy, 835 

Tibet, problem of self-determination for, exchange of mes- 
sages (Dalai Lama, Herter), 443 
Togo: 

Associate membership in FAO, question of, 88 
Developments in, statement (Zablocki), 26 
U.S. consulate at Lom^ elevated to an Embassy, 806 
WHO constitution, lOJO 
Touring. Sec Travel, international 
Tracking stations (Project Mercury) : 
Agreements for cooperation in the establishment and 
operation of, with : Australia, 429, 541 ; Ecuador, 
rAfC, ; Mexico, 805 ; Spain, 518, 630 
Brazil, U.S. missile tracking facilities in, statement 
( Rubottom ) , 629 
Trade (sec also Agricultural surpluse.s. Commodity trade, 
Cu.stoms, Economic policy, Exports, Imports, Tariff 
policy, (inil Trade agreements) : 
Canada, 5th meeting of Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee 
on Trade and Economic Affairs, text of communi- 
que, 250, 305 
Fairs, Increased participation of U.S. In, Interagency 
report and message : Eisenhower, 561 ; report, 5G5 
International trade: 
Development of: 
OATT program for, 10.35 

1092 



Trade — Continued 

International trade — Continued 
Development of — Continued 

Heads of State and Government views, 43 
Need for, address (Wilcox), 866 
Report ( Eisenhower) , 301 
Statement (Martin), 343 
Problems of, discussions at European economic talks, 

statement (Dillon) and texts of resolutions, 139 
World Trade Week, 1960, proclamation, 869 
Japanese-United States, joint communique and remarks 

(Dillon), 180,910 
Latin American-U.S. : 

Addresses, letter, and statement: Dillon, 316; Howe, 

653 ; Rubottom, 287, 624, 697 
Increase in, address (Eisenhower), 484 
Reciprocal policy, address (Dillon), 438 
Rumania, U.S. trade relations with, 671 
Sino-Soviet bloc (see also Less developed countries: 
Economic offensive), U.S. policies re and implica- 
tions of, statement (Mann), 927 
Soviet Union, proposed trade agreement with, U.S. and 

Soviet positions re, 239, 928 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Amity and commerce, treaty with Japan, 100th anni- 
versary of exchange of ratifications, article 
(Parks), 744 
Amity and commerce, treaty with Muscat, Oman, 

and Dependencies, 942 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tion of, 505 
Trade agreements. See under Trade agreements pro- 
gram 
U.S. foreign trade, national program for expansion of, 
addresses, interagency report, message, and state- 
ments : Dillon, .561, 081 ; Eisenhower, 560, 813, 867, 
868 ; Ray, 562 ; report, 563 
Vessels on Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, des- 
ignation of "restricted waters" requiring licensed 
pilots, proposed legislation, statement (White), 
419 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on : 
Article (Catudal), 296, 297, 298, 299 
Notices, 247, 971 .. 

Trade agreements program, U.S. (see also Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Reciprocal trade agreements with : Iran, 843, 844 ; 

Switzerland, 87, 134, 630 
Trade Agreements Act of 1934 and extensions : 

Delegation of authority to the President, article 

(Catudal), 295, 206 
Restrictions on trade with Soviet Union, 928 
Trade centers and fairs, establishment of and participa- 
tion in, interagency report and message : Eisenhower, 
561 ; report, .565 
Trade Policy Committee, duties of, article (Catudal), 296, 

298 
Travel, international (see also Aviation and Passports) : 
Communist China : 

Exchange of accredited newsmen, U.S. policy, 789 
U.S. restrictions on travel to, address (Parsons), 408 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Travel, internatlonnl — Conlinued 

Kast lieiiiiiuiy, Allied military nilssioQs' passes to 

truvol in, statement ( llorter) , 360 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1054) on 

teinp<irai\v iniiiortation of, Sli:?, 5S2, (i20 
llaiiid transiiorUition, effect on geographic concepts, 

address (White), 089 
Road traffic, convention (1049) on, with annexes, 37, 

393, 505 
To U.S. : 

Xonimmignint visas, new regulations, article 

(I'ryor), 9 
Tourism, promotion of, interagency report and mes- 
sage : Eisenhower, 501 : report, 504, 505 
Touring, convention (1054) concerning custom facilities 
■ for, 393, 582 

U.S. restrictions on travel to Hungary lifted, 797 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international (for specific 
treaty, see cottntry or subject) current actions on, 
37. 105, 134, 173, 222, 265, 309, 346, 303, 430, 465, 505, 
541. 582, 629, 673, 718, 766, 805, 843, 892, 942, 978, 1009, 
1046 
Tropical Tuna Commission, Inter-American, U.S. commis- 
sioner, appointment, 757 
Trust territories, U.N. (see also individual territory) : 
Africa : 
Developments in African territories, address ( Satter- 

thwaite),601 
Impact of trusteeship system on continent of, address 
(Wilcox), 501 
Progress in, statement (Zablocki), 25 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. : 

Consideration of U.S. report on administration of Pa- 
cific islands trust territory, statements (Nucker), 
1036 
Do<:-uments, lists of, 265, 541 
Tunisia : 

Import-control policy, 886 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 245, 

942 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1950), international, 

630 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 078 
U.S. aid, 607, 608, 609, 921 

Visit of President Eisenhower, joint communique, 56 
Turkel, Harry R., 69 
T\irkey : 

Ambassador to U.S.. credentials, 734 
GATT consultations, announcement. 527 
Import-control policy, 886 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

(Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 134, 
173, 541 
Defense, agreement with U.S. relating to a special 

program of facilities assistance, termination, 892 
GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134 ; Switzerland, 630 
IMCO, convention (1048) on, 805 



Turkey — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Mutual defense assistance, atrreement with U.S. for 
establishing a facility for repairing and rebuild- 
ing M-12 range finders, 38 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 
ap|)r()viiig procedures for reciprocal filing of, 541 
Radio regulations (1059), 030 
Telecommunication convention (1959), International, 

630 
U.S. Educational Commission, agreement amending 

a;;reement (1049) for the establishment of, H-l-i 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S., 
802 
U.S. consulate at Izmir raised to consulate general, 

1010 
U.S. mutual security program in, 461, 4(53, 614, 615, 

617 
U-2 plane based at Adana, statements : Department, 
818; NASA, 817; U.S. note to U.S.S.R., 818 
Turks and Caicos Islands, U.S.-U.K. agreement re appli- 
cation of 1056 agreement for establishment of ocea- 
nographic station in, 942 

U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 
U-2 incident : 

Downing of U-2 plane : 

Statements : Department, 818 ; Herter, 816 ; 

NASA, 817 
U.S. note to Soviet Union, 818 
Report to : 
Nation, TV-radio (Eisenhower), 900 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee (Herter), 950, 
951 
Suspension of flights over U.S.S.R., statements: Eisen- 
hower, 905 ; Lodge, 956, 959, 961 
U.S. and Soviet positions, statement (Eisenhower) and 
texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 851 
Uganda, sugar agreement (1958), international, 805 
Ugly American, The, 86.3 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (see also Soviet 
Union) : 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Underdeveloped countries. See Less developed countries 

and Newly developing countries 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Union of South Africa : 
Apartheid ix)licy. See Apartheid 
Import-control policy, 887 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134 ; Switzerland, 892 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating production, trade, 

and use of, 673 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 346 



Index, January to June I960 



1093 



Union of South Africa — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Universal postal convention (1957), 978 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Arab Republic : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 674 
Economic development assistance and technical co- 
operation, agreement with U.S. for extension of aid 
to Northern (Syrian) Region, 718 
Radio regulations (1959), 030 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
■WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 266 
United Kingdom : 
Attendance at Development Assistance Group meeting, 

440, 577 
British Somaliland, transfer of consular district from 

Aden to Mogadiscio, 506 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Civil aviation discussions with U.S., .528, 804 
Disarmament. See Disarmamont 
Foreign Ministers meetings. See Foreign Ministers 
Geneva conference for the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Gevena conference for the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 
Heads of Government meetings. See Heads of Govern- 
ment 
Liberalization of restrictions on imports from the dollar 

area, 249, 871, 874, 886 
Participation with IBRD in the study and development 

of the Indus Basin, 63, 442, 443 
Space research, joint program with U.S., 284 
Tanganyika. See Tanganyika 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 1000 
Ballistic missile early warning station, agreement 

with i;.S. re establishment, 391, 393 
Civil air terminal at I'SAF base in Bermuda, agree- 
ment with U.S. extending, 1009 
Double taxation on income, convention (1945) for 
avoirtauie of, extension of agreement with U.S. 
to certain territories, 430 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on the importation of, 
notification of extension to the Bahamas, 805 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 718 
Fruit and fruit products, sale of to U.K. for sterling, 
agreement amending agreement (1958) with U.S., 
4.'50 
GATT: 

Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
Declarations on provisional accessions of: Israel, 

1.34; Switzerland, 6,30 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 
III— Brazil, 173 
High seas, convention on the, 718 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 505 
Oceanographlc rcsean-h stations In Bahamas, Turk.s, 
and f'lilcoM IslandH. agreements with U.S. re, 942 
RiifUo regulations (19.")9). 0.30 

1094 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Rawinsonde observation stations, agreement amend- 
ing and extending 1958 agreement with U.S. re- 
lating to the establishment and operation of sta- 
tions on Jamaica and on Grand Cayman Island, 430 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 37, 393, 505 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, notification 
of extension to Kenya, Tanganyika, and Uganda, 
805 
Technical cooperation agreement (1951) with U.t3., 
ajiplication to Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasa- 
land, 1009 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

718 
Wheat, agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
application to Isle of Man and the Bailiwick of 
Guernsey, 105 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 

U.S. deputy science oflicer, appointment, 363 

Zanzibar Protectorate, Islands of, change in consular 
district, 69 
United Nations : 

Aerial surveillance, U.S. proposal. See under Aerial 
inspection 

Africa and the U.N., address (Wilcox), 589 

Aid programs of the U.N. and its specialized agencies, 
U.S. support of, address (Bohlen), 500 

Charter. See United Nations Charter 

Chinese representation question : address and state- 
ment : Herter, 323 ; Parsons, 408 

Contributions toward a peaceful world order, address 
(Herter), 639 

Documents, lists of, 37, 69, 104, 172, 221, 265, 300, 429, 
505, 540, 602, 670, 717, 765, 803, 1008 

Economic commissions. See Economic Commission 

General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Human rights activities. See under Human rights 

Hungarian delegation credentials, statements (Lodge), 
17 

International machinery for settlement of disputes, U.S. 
cooperation in development of, address (Dillon), 
728 

International peace force, proposed, addresses, state- 
ment, and 5-Power working paper on general dis- 
armament : Eaton, 515 ; Herter, 640 ; Wilcox, 824 ; 
working paper, 515 

Latin America-U.S. cooperation in, addresses (Eisen- 
hower) , 475, 481, 486 

Law of the sea, announcement of 2d U.N. conference 
on, 504 

Nepalese relations with, address (Mahendra), 829 

Outer space («ee aJso United Nations Ad Hoc Commit- 
tee on the Peaceful Uses of) : 
U.N. activities re, statement (Lodge) and General 

Assembly resolution, 64 
U.S. support of U.N. activities re, 214 

Relationship to International Lead and Zinc Study 
Group, address (Nichols), 759, 762 

Secretariat, management survey of, statement (Lodge), 
100 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations — Continued 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Specialized agencies (see also name of agency), ad- 
dresses : Hohleu, 5(K) ; Rubottom, 920 
Suez Canal i)roblem, efforts to settle, letter and state- 
ments : Dillon, 833 ; Herter, 321, 551, 552 
Technical assistance programs : 
Expanded program of : 
Addresses, message, and statements : Dillon, 385 ; 

Eisenhower, 373 ; Penfield, 922 ; Phillips, 936 
FAO program of work in cooperation with, report 

(Miller), 89,93 
Multilateral economic programs, advantages of U.S. 
participation in, address (Lodge), 524 
Special Fund, 99, 525, 593, 865 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trustee- 
ship Council 
University, proposed, statement (Erode), 274 
U.S. Committee for the United Nations, appointment 

of chairman of, 367 
U.S. financial contributions to, address and statement: 
Phillips, 503 ; Satterthwaite, 692 ; Wilcox, 863, 864 
U.S. policy toward, address (Hanes) , 794 
United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses 
of Outer Space, address and statement: Kistiakow- 
sky. 279 : Merchant, 215 
United Nations Charter : 

Human rights provisions, statements (Lodge), 667, 668 
Japan and U.S. reaffirm ohligations under, statement 

(Herter), 1030 
Settlement of disputes in accordance with, proposed, 
letter and statements: Eaton, 515; Eisenhower, 
514 ; White, 284 
United Nations Children's Fund, 91, 93 
United Nations Command (Korea), address and state- 
ment : Robertson, 20, 21, 22 ; Wigglesworth, 123 
United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs, 15th ses- 
sion, Geneva, U.S. delegation, 717 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 14th 

session, U.S. delegation, announcement, 581 
United Nations Conciliation Commission, 33, 381 
United Nations Day, 1960, proclamation, .588 
United Nations economic commissions. See Economic 

Commission 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
Unite<l Nations Emergency Force : 

Continued maintenance of, statement (Lodge), 99 
U.S. support of and contributions to. President's report 
to Congress, 424, 426 
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. See 

Food and Agricultural Organization, U.N. 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See 

High Commissioner 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 

Refugees, 29, 31, 611, 613 
United Nations Special Fund, 99, 525, 593, 865 
United Nations Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship 

Council, U.N. 
United States Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic 
Energy Commission 

Index, January to June I960 



United States citizens and nationals : 
Accounts frozen in Cuban banks, notincation to claim, 

501 
Claims. See Claims : U.S. 

Interment of American nationals in Belgium, termina- 
tion of agreement with Belgium relating to, 173 
Protection of : 
Persons : 
Request to Soviet Government to interview Francis 

Gary Powers, texts of notes, 852, 853 
Responsibility of State Department, statement 

(Dillon), 835 
U.S. Ambassador protests Communist China's per- 
secution of Bishop Walsh, statements (Depart- 
ment, Herter), 550 
Property rights in Cuba : 

Confiscation of, letter and statements : 

Herter, 489, 550 ; Howe, 655 
Negotiations on outstanding problems proposed, 

texts of U.S. and Cuban notes, 440 
U.S. protests seizure of, 158, 994 
United States Committee for the United Nations, appoint- 
ment of chairman, 367 
United States Information Agency : 

Africa, operations in, address (Wilcox), 596 

Book and library projects in Latin America, address 

(Rubottom), 917 
Personnel serving overseas, remarks (Dillon), 1009 
Plans for expansion in FY 1961, 212 
Voice of America, resumption of broadcasts to Latin 

America, statement (Herter), 549 
Work of, address (Thayer), 336 
United States Intelligence Board, organization and work 
of, address and article: Dulles, 413, 415; Evans, 
Gatewood, 1024 
United States National Commission for UNESCO, func- 
tions, 845 
United States National Committee for the Prevention of 

Pollution of the Seas by Oil, 977 
United States of America-Japan Centennial Year, 74.5, 

790, 826, 909, 910 
United States Operations Missions. See under Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration 
Universal Declaration of Himian Rights, U.N., influence 

of, statement (Anderson), .35 
Universal postal convention (1957), with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re 
airmail, with final protocol, 465, 978 
University, role in world community, address (Herter), 

1015 
UNRWA. See Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 

Refugees, U.N. 
Uranium resources, investigation of, agreements with: 

Brazil, 1046 ; Chile, 222 
Uruguay : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 353 
GATT consultations, announcement, 527 
Import-control policy, 887 
Latin American Free Trade Association membership, 

938 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 105, 
265 

1095 



Uruguay — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 134 
GATT. declarations on the provisional accessions of: 

Israel, 134 ; Switzerland, 630 
Technical cooperation agreement (1956) with U.S. 

superseding agreement of 1951, 805 
Inter-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, 465 
Radio regulations (19.59), 630 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
630 
Visit of President Eisenhower, 119, 471, 483 

Van Hollen. Christopher, 310 
Vass, Laurence C, 120, 804, 888 
Vaticiin City : 

International telecommunication convention (1959), 

630 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Universal postal convention (1957), 978 
Vegetable and fruit inspection, suspension by U.S. in 

Cuba, texts of notes, 707 
Venezuela : 

Import-control policy and consultations with U.S. re, 

559, 888 
Sesquicentennial of independence, message (Eisen- 
hower), 799 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, research and power reactor agree- 
ments with U.S., 346 
Exchange of communications between amateur sta- 
tions on behalf of 3d parties, arrangement with 
U.S., 173 
Intpr-American Development Bank, agreement estab- 
lishing, 465 
Latin American Forestry Research Institute, agree- 
ment with FAO for establishment of, 93 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Wheat agreement (19.59), international with annex, 
430 
Violation of human rigbt.s charge against Dominican 
Republic, statements (Ilerter), 320, 326 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 

Veterans, dedication of Veterans of Foreign Wars me- 
morial, remarks (Eisenhower), 328 
Vlet-Nam : 

Defense support program in, report (Dillon), 461, 403 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

AgrlfuUnral commodities, agreement supplementing 

and amending 19.59 agreement with U.S., 466 
Telecommunication convention (19.59), international, 

630 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 465 
WHO constitntion, Mnicndinents to, 629 
Visas (urn film) I'nssimrts), nonimmigrant visas, new 

regulations, article (Pryor), 9 
Vlsiml and auditory materials, agreement and protocol 

f«<'lllnllng international rlrcnlatlon of, 346, 1009 
Voice of America, broadcasts to Latin America, resump- 
tlrm of, statement (Ilerter), 549 

1096 



Voroshilov, Kliment Efremovich, 119 
Voutov, Peter G., 147, 542 

Wagner, Robert F., 244 

Walsh. James Edward, 556 

Walter, Francis E., 218 

Wanamaker, Temple, 266 

Wang Ping-nan, 556 

War damage, guaranty against losses from. See Invest- 
ment guaranty program 

Warren, George L., 218 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks (U.S.-Communist China), 
U.S. Ambassador protests Communist China's perse- 
cution of Bishop Walsh, statements (Department, 
Herter),556 

Warsaw Pact : 

Declaration concerning separate peace treaty with East 

Germany, statements (Herter ) , 320, 322 
Proposal for nonaggression treaty with NATO, state- 
ment (White), 284 
Watson, Earnest C, 362 

Weapons production programs, agreements with: Bel- 
gium, 892; Denmark, 80.5, 1009; Netherlands, 673; 
Turkey, 892 
Weather ( see a/.so Rawinsonde) : 

Forecasting, use of satellites in, address and stater 

ments : Glennan, 59 ; Herter, 643 ; Lodge, 67 
Meteorological tests, agreement with Argentina for U.S. 

Air Force mission to conduct, 766 
NASA upper atmosphere air research program, 817 
Weber, Eugene W., 126 
Weber, Neal, 362 
Wells, Harry W., 363 
West Indies, The : 

Financial agreement with U.S., signing of, 582 
Liberalization of import-trade policies, 887 
U.S. special assistance program in, statement (Ru- 
bottom), 626 
Western Foreign Ministers meeting, Washington, 493, 

683 
Western Heads of State and Government, Paris meeting, 

communique, 43 
Whaling convention (1946), international, amendments 

to schedule and protocol amending, 105, 222, 1046 
Wheat : 

International wheat agreement (1959), with annex, 

105, 134, 265, 309, 430, 978 
U.S. -Indian agreement for sale to India, 889 
Wheat Utilization Committee, 743 
White, Ivan B., 417, 422, 489 
White, Lincoln, 147, 284, 645n, 797 
White slave traffic, protocol (1904) and convention (1910) 

for suppression of, 465 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wigglesworth, Richard B., 121 
Wilcox, Francis O., 589, 820, 860 

Wilderness preserves, U.S.-Canadian consultations con- 
cerning, announcement, 739 
Women. U.N. Commission on the Status of, 14th .session, 

U.S. delegation, .581 
Woolen and worsted fabrics, tariff quota on imports, 
announcement and letter (Eisenhower), 367 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



i 



World Agriculture Fair, ludia, remarks (Elsenhower), 

49 
World Knuk. See International Bank 
World Food Congrress, proposed, stjitement (Miller) and 

text of resolution, 97. 1)8 
World Health Organization : 

Constitution of and amendments to arts, 24 and 25, 

•165, 5S2, 629, 978, 1046 
Success in combatting disease, address (Wilcox), 860, 

866 
13th Assembly, U.S. delegation, apiwintment of, and 
statement (Henderson), 842, 1007 
World Refugee Year (see also Refugees and displaced 
persons) : 
Article and message: Eisenhower, 660; Warren, 219, 

220 
U.S. contributions to, 29, 30, 708, 1046 
World Seed Year, designation of by FAO, report (Miller), 

91 
World Trade Week, 1960, proclamation, 869 
World's Fair, New York City, 196i, 244 
Worsted and woolen fabrics, tariff quota on imports, an- 
nouncement and letter (Eisenhower), 367 
Wright, Jerauld, 45 

Yemen, U.S. Minister, confirmation, 266 

U.S. Minister, confirmation, 266 
Yoshida, Shigeru, 909 



Yugoslavia : 

Claims against, Department announcement on Yugo- 
slav decision re 1948 claims agreement with U.S., 
973 
GAIT consultations, announcement, 527 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) on, 

505 
GATT, declaration on relations with Contracting Par- 
ties, 134, 346 
IMCO, convention (1948) on, 629 
Radio regulations (1959), 630 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

630 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 346 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 978 
U.S. technical cooperation program in, statement (Koh- 

ler),622 
Visit of otScials of the Yugoslav Federal Commission 
for Nuclear Energy to U.S., 410, 599 

Zablocki, Clement J., 25 

Zahedi, Ardeshir, 553 

Zanzibar, parcel post agreements with U.S., 393, 674 

Zinc. See Lead and zinc 

Zolotas, Xenophon, 264n 

Zuniga, Eduardo, 658 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Publication 7004 

Released October 1960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 0.S. Government Printing OtSce 
Washington 25, D.C. — Price 30 cents 



U.S. COVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1960 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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Vol. XLII, No. 1071 January 4, I960 

NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL BEGINS MINISTERIAL 

MEETING • Statement by Secretary Herter and Text 

of First Communique 3 

IMPORTANCE OF CULTURAL TIES IN FRANCO- 
AMERICAN ALLIANCE • by Under Secretary Dillon . 4 

U.N. REAFFIRMS PRINCIPLES ON UNIFICATION OF 

KOREA • Statement by Walter S. Robertson and Text of 
Resolution lo 

U.N. VOTES TO CONTINUE ASSISTANCE TO PALES- 
TINE REFUGEES • Statement by Virgil M. Rancher 
and Text of Resolution 31 

NEW NONIMMIGRANT VISA REGULATIONS • Article 

by Hallie Mae Pryor 9 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Uoston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 1 1960 



Vol. XLII, No. 1071 • Pubucation 6924 
January 4, 1960 



DEPOSITORY 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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U' rrprliiled. Cllatlon of the DKrAniMENT 
or Ktatk Bi'LLETiN as the source will be 
spprcclatcd. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on de- 
velopments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions and on the work of the Depart- 
men t of State and the Foreign Seriice. 
The BULLETIN includes selected press 
releases on foreign policy, issued by 
the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made 
by the President and by the Secretary 
of State an<l other officers of the De- 
partment, as ivcll as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
an€l the functions of the Department. 
Information is included concerning 
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Publications of the Department, 
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North Atlantic Council Begins Ministerial Meeting 



FoUoxcing is a statement made hy Secretary 
Ilerter on his arrival at Paris on December 13, 
together with the text of a communique issued hy 
the North Atlantic Council on December 17 at 
the close of the first pai't of its regular semi- 
annual Ministerial Meeting, lohich was held at 
Paris December 15 to 17. 



SECRETARY HERTER'S ARRIVAL STATEMENT, 
DECEMBER 13 

Once again the Foreign, Defense, and Finance 
Ministere of the NATO countries will meet here 
in Paris.' On December 18 I will meet President 
Eiseiiliower in Toulon and accompany him to 
Paris for the heads-of-government meeting be- 
ginning the following day. 

At the meeting of the NATO Coiuicil this year 
we will consider the state of our Alliance and of 
our defenses and will discuss the international 
situation, including plans for a summit meeting. 

In considering the international situation, our 
assessment should be a realistic one. The sense 
of crisis appears io have lessened of late. We 
welcome this, but it remains to be seen whether 
the Soviet Union is prepared to negotiate seri- 
ously to reach equitable settlements of major 
issues. It would be a grave error to base our plans 
for the future on a more optimistic appraisal than 
is warranted by the facts. 

The defensive strength of the NATO Alliance 
and its further improvement continues to be of 
fundamental importance. Tlie economic strength 
and material well-being of the NATO member 
countries have grown substantially even wliile 
NATO has made steady progress in building its 
defenses. This fact testifies to the vitality and the 



' For a departure statement by Secretary Herter and 
an announcement of the U.S. delegation, see Bulletin 
of Dec. 2S, 1959, p. 934. 



energy of the peoples whose security and well- 
being our Alliance serves. I am confident these 
same qualities will also serve our common needs 
in the future. 

With respect to the United States, let me say 
that we have always given our full support to 
NATO. This continues to be our policy. The 
United States will, as it always has done, dis- 
charge its responsibilities in NATO and carry its 
fair share. 



FIRST COMMUNIQUE, DECEMBER 17 

Press release 865 dated December 18 

The North Atlantic Council began its regular 
Ministerial session in Paris on December 15. At 
the opening meeting, which marked the inaugu- 
ration of the permanent headquarters of NATO 
at the Porte Dauphine, statements were made by 
M. Michel Debre, Prime Minister of the French 
Eepublic, and Mr. Halvard Lange, President of 
the Comicil and Norwegian Minister for Foreign 
Affairs. 

The Council devoted three days to a thorough 
discussion of the affairs of the Alliance, beginning 
with a review of the international situation. The 
Ministers imanimously reaffirmed their confidence 
in the North Atlantic Alliance, and agreed that 
it will remain indispensable during the coming 
years. They instructed the Permanent Coimcil 
to undertake long-tenn planning, to cover the next 
ten years, on the objectives of the Alliance in the 
political, military, scientific and economic fields, 
and in regard to arms control. 

The CoiuicLl also agreed that various economic 
problems, as they relate to NATO, should form 
the subject of further study in the Permanent 
Council. 

The Council examined the military situation. 
It took cognizance of the fact that Soviet military 
strength continues to grow. Current NATO de- 



January 4, I960 



fense plans therefore remain valid. In view of 
this, and in the light of the Annual Eeview, the 
Ministers agreed that a determined etiort is re- 
quired to guarantee the necessary strength of the 
Alliance. They expressed confidence that on the 
basis of the progress already achieved and in view 
of favorable economic developments in most 
NATO countries, tliis essential task is certainly 
within the ability of the Alliance as a whole. 

Tiie Council reaffirmed that general and con- 
trolled disarmament remains the goal of the West. 
Every opportunity will be taken to make progress 
in tliis direction. Until this goal is acliieved, how- 
ever, the Alliance cannot afford to neglect the 
measures necessary for its security. 

The Ministei-s had a full discussion on the forth- 



coming negotiations between East and West and 
agreed on the procedures whereby NATO will 
continue to participate in the preparations for 
these negotiations. The Council will resume these 
discussions on December 22, after the meeting of 
Heads of Govermnent, and a second communique 
will then be issued. 

The Council concluded by expressing the hope 
that the negotiations between East and West will 
advance the solution of important problems and 
thus serve the ideals of peace and security which 
the Alliance has always upheld and defended. 

At the invitation of the Turkish Government the 
next Ministerial session of the Council will take 
place in Istanbul in May, 1960. 



Importance of Cultural Ties in Franco-American Alliance 



by Under Secretary Dillon^ 



We in the Department of State applaud the 
outstanding contribution which the Lafayette Fel- 
lowship Foundation is making to the long and 
cherished tradition of Franco- American friend- 
ship and cooperation. Today's pressing need to 
strengthen free-world unity calls for ever-closer 
ties between the American people and the great, 
liberty-loving people of France. The Lafayette 
Foundation, through its scholarship program for 
exceptionally gifted French graduate students, is 
immeasurably enhancing this relationshij). 

Lafayette fellows are offered an opportunity to 
acquire a broad knowledge of the United States 
and of the lives and aspirations of our citizens. 
They are exposed to our uniquely productive eco- 
nomic system. They are eyewitnesses to our po- 
litical and civic activities. They participate in 
our ciillnial affiiii-s and learn to appreciate the 
spiritual and moral values we hold so dear. 

' Address mnde before the Ivnfayette Fellowship Foun- 
dntlon nt New York, N.Y., on Dec. 15 (press releiise 85!)). 
On thlH opciislon Mr. Dillon received the Lafayette Gold 
Me<lnl Award as a "statesman and diplomat who has 
de<licated his life and career to the finest tradition of 
democratic friendship." 



Although this program is only 4 yeare old, I 
am confident that we will soon see the day when 
Lafayette fellows will be numbered among the 
active leaders of France's social, economic, and 
political life. By sending back to France a suc- 
cession of potential leaders who have a full vmder- 
standing of the United States and its people, the 
Foundation is rendering an invaluable service to 
both nations. 

There has never been a time in history when 
there was greater need for better understanding 
between all nations and all peoples. Indeed, mu- 
tual understanding is an imperative of 20th cen- 
tury existence if we are ever to ease the tensions 
which beset today's sorely troubled and sadly 
divided world. The ties which bind France and 
the United States together are a shining example 
of an admirable alliance in which understanding 
goes hand in hand with mutual respect and warm 
friendship. 

These ties have been formed over a period of 
nearly 200 years by ideals commonly held, by 
experiences commonly shared, and by bloodshed 
in a common cause. Thev have been strengthened 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



by ail iiitcrcliaiipe of opinions and customs and by 
a continuinfi and lively interest, in each other's 
language and culture. 

French Influence in America 

Frencli inlluenco has been strong in America 
since the early days of tlie exploration and coloni- 
zation of the continent. It is to French explorers, 
such as Jacques Cartier, Samuel de Champlain, 
Robert de La Salle, Louis Joliet, and the French 
missionaries — of whom Pcre Marquette is an out- 
standing example — that we owe the exploration of 
the Great Lakes region and the IMississippi basin. 
The memory of these French explorations lives on 
in ringing place names : Detroit, Des Moines, Vin- 
cemies, Terre Haute, Fond du Lac, and a host of 
others. Pere Marquette alone has given his name 
to a great university, a railway system, a river, two 
counties, and five towns and villages. 

During colonial days another strong current of 
French influence was evident in the successive 
waves of Huguenot immigrants who settled along 
the Eastern seaboard from New England to the 
Carolinas. The Huguenots were mostly artisans 
and tradesmen, and, through their loiowledge and 
skills, they contributed significantly to the build- 
ing of colonial Amei-ica. 

As our American Eevolution developed, our lead- 
ers drew inspiration and encouragement from the 
French philosopliere of the 18th century. In par- 
ticular, the political theories propounded by Mon- 
tesquieu in his remarkable work UEspnt des Lois 
had a profound influence on the framers of the 
American Constitution. The extent of the politi- 
cal, military, and material assistance furnished by 
France to the Revolutionary American Colo- 
nies — in one of the earliest, "foreign aid" pro- 
grams — is too well known to require elaboration 
here. We have a perpetual reminder in the serene 
and lovely Lady of Liberty presented to us by 
France, who marked her 75th anniversary in 
New York Harbor last July. 

A quarter of a centnrj' after our liberty had 
been won with the help of French troops led by 
Lafayette and Rochambeau, there occurred an 
episode which provides a deep insight into the 
character of the great Frenchman whose name is 
proudly borne by tliis foundation. When the Ter- 
ritory of NeAv Orleans — which the French had 
begun to colonize nearly a hundred years before — 
became a part of the Union in 1803, tlie United 



States Congress granted a tract of land to General 
Lafayette. Through an inadvertence, a portion 
of that same tract was later granted to (he Cor- 
poration of New Orleans. Lafayette was assured 
by eminent jurists that ho was in the right and 
was urged to put forth his claim. To wliich that 
gallant soldier replied: 

I cannot consent even to Inquire Into the validity of 
my title. It was gratuitously be.ftowed by Congress, 
and It is for them to say what was given. I cannot for 
a moment think of entering into litigation with any 
public body in the United States. 

On the tract that Lafayette so gracefully relin- 
quished was built the city of New Orleans. To 
this day the citizens of New Orleans take justifi- 
able pride in their French heritage. For the 
French epoch has left behind an indelible imprint 
on their architecture, customs, cuisine, and family 
names. 

In recent times French influence in the United 
States has been exercised primarily through art- 
ists, writers, and teachers of both nations. 
Since the early days of this century, when the 
Paris school of painting gained undisputed pri- 
macy, American artists have flocked to that lovely 
city. Many American writers, and particularly 
those of the generation which came to maturity 
between the two world wars, found in Paris the 
intellectual and artistic atmosphere most congen- 
ial to their work. Since the last war the number 
of American students enrolled in French univer- 
sities — more than a thousand annually — has been 
larger than that from any other foreign country. 

The number of French students in this country 
is growing and now averages about 600 each year. 

French continues to be one of the most popular 
foreign languages in American universities and 
colleges. From a study of the language many 
American students are able to move on to a first- 
hand acquaintance with the great classics of 
French literature. The works of French drama- 
tists, from MoliSre and Rostand to Sartre, are pro- 
duced on Broadway and by little theater groups 
across the country. The output of France's mo- 
tion picture studios has always found an apprecia- 
tive audience here, and many French entertainers 
and popular ballads are almost as well known on 
Main Street as they are along the Champs Elysees. 

The French have enriched our American social 
fabric in another significant manner. Tliey have 
brought us a certain grace and joy of living. Our 



January 4, I960 



Puritan and pioneer ancestors had many excellent 
qualities, but urbanity and ofaiety were not con- 
spicuously among them. Thanks in good part to 
Frencli influence over the years, we have a more 
cosmopolitan outlook on life. Certiiinly French 
influence can be found everywhere about us: on 
our restaurant menus, on the dining tables of our 
homes, in our sliops and fashions, our art and 
arcliitecture and interior design, and in our every- 
day conversation and humor. 

Two-Way Cultural Avenue 

From the earliest days of our Franco-American 
friendship the flow of influence and ideas between 
the two countries has been reciprocal. The archi- 
tects of that monumental event of history, the 
French Revolution, owed much to tlie earlier 
American Revolution. In 1789 Thomas Paine 
said, ''Tlie principles of America opened the Bas- 
tille." In recognition of the mfluence of the 
American experiment on the French Revolution, 
Lafayette sent the key of the Bastille to George 
Washington, who accepted it as "a token of the 
victory gained by lilxM-ty." 

After (he revolutionary periods, the lieavy traf- 
fic in words and ideas was maintained. French- 
men who have come to our shores have been eager 
to weigh our qualities and to draw parallels be- 
tween the two democracies. Such brilliant ob- 
servers of tlie American scene as De Tocqueville 
stimulated French interest in the United States. 
More recent literary explorers have been Andre 
Siegfried and Andre Maurois. Jacques Maritain, 
who has lived among us for nearly a quarter of a 
century, lias elocjuently expressed faith in tlie 
United States as "a country entirely turned 
toward the future, not the past." 

Tliis two-way cultural avenue made the novels 
of Fenimore Cooper as familiar 1o tlie French 
turn-of-the-century schoolboy as were the works 
of Dumas to his American contemporary. In our 
own days the plays of Arthur Miller and Tennes- 
see Williams, the novels of Hemingway and 
Faullcner, are accorded a respectful and searching 
attention in France — an attention given to few 
otiicr foreign writers. We reciprocate with our 
iiilerest in such modern French writers as Gide, 
Camus, Rolland, and Mauriac. 

Perhaps one of the most golden pages in this 
liistory of cullural exchange was written during 
France's dark days of I'JiO, when more than a 



hundred French artists, professors, and scholars 
came to this country, where they were able to keep 
the vitality of French thought and culture alive 
and free. Many accepted teaching and research 
assignments at leading American imiversities. 
Others formed, at the New School for Social Re- 
search in this city, the nucleus of what has since 
become the French University in New York. 

U.S. Aware of France's Resurgent Strength 

In discussing Franco-^Vmerican cultural ties I 
cannot help recalling that in the past certain of 
our French friends have taken us to task for what 
they believed, rightly or wrongly, was our pre- 
occupation with the material aspects of civiliza- 
tion and the day-to-day practicalities of interna- 
tional relations. Today, as I learned during my 
all-too-brief visit to Paris,^ some of these same 
friends feel that we are being overly sentimental 
aliout their country. They fear that concentra- 
tion on past glories may be causing us to overlook 
the realities of the new France. 

I can assure our friends that their concern is un- 
warranted. We are well aware of France's re- 
surgent strength. Over the past 10 years French 
industrial production has grown at a prodigious 
rate. In the last 5 years alone industrial output 
has increased by nearly 50 percent. 

At a time when the Soviet Union is talking of 
the supposed "decadence" of the Western democ- 
racies and is seeking to project its own image to 
the newly developing coimtries as the ideal blue- 
print for rapid industrial growth, it is important 
that France's remarkable recovery has proceeded 
at a pace at least equaling that of the Soviet 
Union and that it has been achieved within the 
framework of a society erected on the ideals of 
individual liberty and human dignity. This is 
eloquent testimony that fi'eedom, not tyranny, is 
the M-ave of the future. 

France is the oldest ally of the United States. 
This alliance has survived nearly two centuries of 
wai's and revolutions and is today one of the 
foundations of the foreign policies of both our 
countries. Today our alliance has a new form, 
that of the Atlantic Pact, in which — for the first 
time during peacetime— France and the United 



^ Mr. Dillon was at Paris Dec. 11-14 during a visit to 
Euroiie for discussions with economic officials. For an 
iinnouncenient of his itinerary, see Bulletin of Dec. 14, 
in.'O, p. 802. 



Department of State Bulletin 



States find tlioinsolves associated in an organiza- 
tion for the defense of tlieir common patrimony, 
both territorial and spiritual. It is lilting that 
France was chosen as the seat of NATO and that 
an American has been chosen as its military com- 
mander. For both countries have been among the 
most ardent defenders, propagatoi-s, and practi- 
tioners of those ideas which the Atlantic Pact is 
designed to protect. 

As always, wc look upon France as a stanch 
friend and ally. AVe fully recognize and welcome 
the industrial and economic rebirth that is taking 
place in France. Our tourists, students, and 
young arti.sts will continue to be drawn to France 
as the repository of a great culture. In truth, 
the reality of France today is the sum and total 
of qualities both old and new which give her a 
unique and influential place in world affaire. 
And today, more than ever before, we realize the 
importance of cultural ties in cementing our 
alliance. 

I regret tliat my good friend. Ambassador 
Herve Alphand, was called to Paris and is unable 
to be with us tonight. For I can think of no bet- 
ter way of stressing the value of French-Ameri- 
can cultural interchange than by quoting from 
one of his recent speeches. He said : 

Tho unique brotherhood which, for nearly two centu- 
ries, has bound our two countries together in the political 
field, obtains also in the cultural field, and it is hard to 
imagine how one could exist without the other. 

By exerting its efforts to achieve ever-closer 
relations, the Lafaj^ette Foundation is not only 
serving the best interests of France and the 
United States but also the cause of hiunan free- 
dom everywhere. 



U.S. Protests to Czechoslovakia 
on Anti-American Exiiibit 

Press release 855 dated December 15 

The U.S. Embassy at Prague delivered the fol- 
lowing note to the Czechoslovak Government 
on Decemherl'2. 

The Government of the United Stat&s is sur- 
prised to learn of an exhibit displayed at the 
Klement Gottwald Museum in Pragize. This ex- 
hibit contains a number of items highly offensive 
to the United States Government since they are 
false in content and markedly anti- American in 



character. The exhibit includes, for example, a 
photograph of twelve severeil human heads 
lying on the ground, with a caption : "American 
head hunters and their helpers. The methods of 
colonialists do not change." Another part of the 
display refei-s to General MacArthur as a "mass 
murderer". 

An exhibit of this character could not be dis- 
played without the sanction of Czechoslovak au- 
thorities. Such an exhibit is clearly inconsistent 
with repeated statements by the Czechoslovak 
Government of its desire to improve Czechoslovak- 
United States relations and st>ems deliljerately 
calculated to worsen rather than ease the inter- 
national atmosphere. 



U.S. Replies to Soviet Protest 

on German Draft Radio Legislation 

Folloioing is an exchange of correspondence be- 
tween the United States and the U.S.S.R. conceiv- 
ing Gei^man draft J-egisla.tion providing for the 
establishment of a central radio network loith 
headquarters in West Berlin. 



U.S. NOTE OF DECEMBER 15 > 

The Government of the United States received 
the Soviet Government's note of November 11, 1959 
with some surprise, for it appears to have been 
prompted by certain misapprehensions about 
those procedures and safeguards which have long 
been in effect regarding the application of Fed- 
eral German legislation and the operation of Fed- 
eral German agencies in Berlin. The importance 
which the United States, as one of the occupying 
powers, attaches to the maintenance of the special 
status of Berlin has been dealt with in numerous 
commmiications to the Soviet Union. 

The Government of the United States wishes 
to reaffii-m the principle of four power responsi- 
bility for Greater Berlin and notes that the 
desire of the Soviet Government to avoid interfer- 
ence with Berlin's special status is reflected in the 
reference note. 

In view of the experience of the past ten years, it 



' Delivered to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs by 
the American Embassy at Moscow on Dec. 15 (press re- 
lease S61 dated Dec. 16). 



January 4, I960 



seems superfluous to remind the Soviet Govern- 
ment of the arrangements wMch the occupation 
authorities have long kept in force to insure that 
the relationships of the German Federal Eepublic 
and Berlm are compatible with the special status 
of the city. The Government of the United States 
is not aware that any proposal raised to date for 
the establislmient of a Deutsclilandfunk contains 
features which are incompatible with the special 
status of Berlin. 

In view of the foregoing, the Government of 
the United States believes that the considerations 
expressed by the Soviet Union in its note are not 
valid. 



SOVIET NOTE OF NOVEMBER 11 > 

Unofficial translation 
92/OSA 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics considers it necessary to draw the attention of the 
Government of the United States of America to the fol- 
lowing question : 

On 30 September the Government of tlie FRG [Federal 
Republic of Germany] approved and sent to the Bundestag 
for its consideration draft legislation on radio broad- 
casting which provided for the establishment in West 
Berlin of the West German radio station "Deutschland- 
Funk". According to the draft legislation the radio sta- 
tion would be run by representatives of the FRG and of 
the Laender. 

This decision of the Government of the ^RG is illegal 
because it is incompatible with the existing statute of 
West Berlin. As is generally known — and was confirmed 
by the participants of the Geneva Conference of Foreign 
Ministers — West Berlin has never been a part, and is not 
now a part, of the state territory of the FRG, cannot be 
governed by organs of the Federal Government, nor does 
the jurisdiction of FRG authorities extend to it. 

It must be noted that this is not the first time the Gov- 
ernment of the FRG has attempted illegal interference in 
the internal affairs of West Berlin. The Soviet Govern- 
ment has already called the attention of the Government 
of the USA to this fact, particularly in connection with 
the holding of elections in West Berlin for president of 
the FRG. Recently the authorities of the FRG again 
selected West Berlin as a place for holding elections, for 
purposes of show— this time for president of the West 
German Bundosrat. 

The creation of the radio station in West Berlin now 
being undertaken by the Government of the FRG cannot 
be looked upon as other than an attempt to intensify sub- 
versive activity and hostile propaganda from the territory 



' Handed to American Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thomp- 
Bon at Moscow by Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister V. S. 
BemcnoT. 



of West Berlin, which testifies to its lack of desire to 
take into consideration the readiness expressed by par- 
ticipants of the Geneva Conference to resolve the ques- 
tion of not permitting such activity. 

The plan for the creation of a West German radio sta- 
tion in West Berlin, in the center of another state, clearly 
has as its purpose the intensification of hostile activity 
against the German Democratic Republic. The Soviet 
Government considers the aforementioned activities of 
the Government of the FRG as a new provocation which 
is calculated to make the atmosphere in Berlin and all 
of Germany more tense and to fan the flames of the "cold 
war" in the center of Europe. The activities of the Gov- 
ernment of the FRG cannot be considered as anything 
but a premeditated attempt to interfere with the success- 
ful conclusion of forthcoming negotiations on the Berlin 
question at a time when more favorable foundations for 
the attainment of an agreement on West Berlin have been 
created as a result of conversations between the Chair- 
man of the USSR Council of Ministers N. S. Khrushchev 
and the President of the USA D. Eisenhower. 

In connection with the foregoing the Soviet Govern- 
ment expects that the Government of the USA — which 
has repeatedly declared that it, together with the Gov- 
ernments of Great Britain and France, bears responsibil- 
ity for the situation in West Berlin — will take the neces- 
sary measures to preclude the possibility of the authorities 
of the FRG conducting such illegal activities with respect 
to West Berlin. 

Similar notes are also being sent by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to the Governments of Great Britain and France. 

Moscow, November 11, 1959 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 1st Session 

Discussion of Activities of Panama Canal Company. 
Hearing before the House Merchant Marine and Fish- 
eries Committee. April 14, 1959. 9 pp. 

Agreement for Cooperation Between the United States 
and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Hearing 
before the Subcommittee on Agreements for Cooperation 
of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. June 30, 
1959. 94 pp. 

Passport Reorganization Act of 1959. Hearings before 
the Special Subcommittee of the Senate Government 
Operations Committee. August 26-September 1, 1959. 
508 pp. 

Rio Grande International Storage Dams Project : Pro- 
posed Amistad Dam and Reservoir (formerly known 
as Diablo Dam ) . Report of the International Boundary 
and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, 
linited States Section. S. Doc. 65. September 9, 1959. 
l."),3 pp., with charts and maps. 

United States Foreign Policy : Developments in Military 
Technology and Their Imi)act on United States Strat- 
egy and Foreign Policy. A study prepared at the request 
of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by the 
Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research, the 
Johns Hopkins University. No. 8. December 6, 1959. 
120 pp. [Committee print.] 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



New Nonimmigrant Visa Regulations 



hy Hallie Mae Pryor 



The Department of State announced recently 
that it had issued new regulations designed to 
speed the issuance of visas to aliens who want to 
visit the United States.* The regulations, with a 
delayed effective date of January 1, 1960, were 
published in the Federal Register of August 18, 
1959,= thus giving more than 4 months' advance 
notice to those interested persons who wished to 
comment or offer suggestions on the new provi- 
sions. Conmients were also specifically invited 
from the Federal Bar Association, the American 
Bar Association, and the Association of Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Lawyers. 

The first general regulations governing the is- 
suance and refusal of visas were issued by the 
Visa Office on June 13, 1946, and became effective 
September 10, 1946. These regulations were pub- 
lished pursuant to section (3) (A) of the Adminis- 
trative Procedures Act of June 11, 1946, which 
required every agency to separately state and cur- 
rently publish in the Federal Register substantive 
rules adopted as authorized by law. Published 
as part 61 of title 22, these regulations were com- 
prehensive in nature and laid down the basic pat- 
tern wliich has since been followed in the issuance 
of all visa regulations. With minor amendments 
and a change in 1948 in the part number to 42, 
they remaine<l in effect until the regulations issued 
pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act 
were published on December 19, 1952. 

"WHiile tlie Department claims exemption from 
the provisions of section 4 of the act requiring 
advance notice of proposed rulemaking, the Visa 



' Bulletin of Sept. 7, 1959, p. 349. 

' 24 Fed. Reg. 6678. 

' Persons wishing to receive the Visa Office Bulletin 
may have their names placed on the mailing list upon re- 
quest to the Visa Office, Department of State, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C. 



Office does publish advance notice of such amend- 
ments whenever there appears to be sufficient pub- 
lic interest. Such was the case of an amendment 
requiring certain additional information to be 
submitted in connection with applications for 
crew-list visas. 

Furthermore, visa regulations contain a consid- 
erable amount of interpretive material. For ex- 
ample, much of the material contained in section 
41.91(a) (9), (10), and (12) was formerly con- 
tained in administrative instructions but has now 
been incorporated into the regulations. Sections 
41.25 (b) and (c), 41.40(b), 41.55(c), and 41.91 
(a) (28) also contain intei-pretations. Tliis ma- 
terial is included in the regulations to keep the 
public informed of the statutory and regulatory 
constructions of the Department, since there are 
no published decisions on visa matters and very 
few visa questions find their way into the courts. 
The Visa Office Bulletin also serves to keep the 
public informed with regard to interpretations of 
the immigration laws made by the Department.' 

Simplification of Procedures for Issuing Visas 

During the last 5 years remarkable progress has 
been made in the simplification and liberalization 
of the procedures governing the issuance of non- 
immigrant visas. On March 30, 1954, in his mes- 
sage to Congress on the foreign economic policy 



• Mrs. Pryor is chief of the Regvlations 
Branch of the Visa O^ce, Department of 
State. This article is based on an address 
which she made before the Federal Bar As- 
sociution at Washington, D.C, on November 
18. 



January 4, 1960 



of the United Stat«s, the President stressed the 
cultural and economic importance of mternational 
travel and stated : * 

Meanwhile, in the executive branch, I shall instruct 
the appropriate agencies and departments, at home and 
abroad, to consider how they can facilitate international 
travel Thev will be asked to take action to simplify 
governmentai procedures relating to customs, visas, pass- 
ports, exchange or monetary restrictions and other regu- 
lations that someUmes harass the traveler. 

A directive was subsequently issued by the 
President to the Departments of State, Conunerce, 
Justice, and the Treasuiy on May 26, 1954, re- 
questinjr that the action indicated in the message 
be taken. In complying with the President's di- 
rective the Department has initiated a systematic 
program of expediting the documentation of bona 
fide noniimnigrants consistent with the immigra- 
tion laws and regulations, particularly those pro- 
visions relating to the security of the United 
States. 

The first and perhaps the most significant 
change was a regulatoiy amendment published 
on June 30, 1955, wliich permitted all bona fide 
nonimmigrants to be issued nonimmigrant visas 
and to have their names entered or retained on a 
quota or subquota waiting list with the exception 
of (1) exchange visitors, (2) aliens who willfully 
violated tlieir nonimmigrant status while in the 
United States, and (3) aliens who had been de- 
ported from the United States and had not been 
granted permission by tlie Attorney General to 
reapply following deportation. Under the regu- 
lation us amende<l a consular oiRcer will issue a 
nonimmigrant visa to an alien registered on a 
q)iot a registration list if he is satisfied that for the 
purpose of the visit presently contemplated the 
alien is a bona fide nonimmigi-ant ; that is, he can 
and will depart from the United States upon the 
conclusion of his tcmporarj' stay in this country. 
It was thus recognized that an alien might qualify 
as a nonimmigrant for the purpose of making one 
or more trips to the United States even though 
he might have an eventual intention of immigrat- 
ing to f liis country. The regulations provide that 
the names of aliens who violate their nonimmi- 
grant status in the Unite<l States will be removed 
from the registration list and may not be rein- 
stated under their original priority. 
Sinuiltaiicously with tlio publication of tliis reg- 

' HUI.I.ETIN of Apr. n, 15)54, p. 602. 



idation the period of maximum validity of non- i 
immigrant visas was extended from 24 to 48 I 
months in cases of aliens who are nationals or 
stateless residents of foreign countries whose gov- 
ernments issue visas to U.S. nationals in a similar 
class valid for an equivalent period or whose gov- 
ernments do not require visas of U.S. nationals in 
a similar class visiting that country. Sections 221 
(c) and 281 of the act require that, insofar as prac- 
ticable, the validity of nonimmigrant ^Hsas and 
the fees charged therefor shall be governed by 
reciprocity. Under the statute visa requirements 
may be waived on a reciprocal basis only for na- 
tionals of foreign contiguous territory or adjacent 
islands so that the United States cannot recipro- 
cate fully if a foreign country does not require 
\nsas of U.S. nationals proceeding to that country. 
The Department can, however, issue to nationals 
of such countries nonimmigrant visas valid for 4 
years and an unlimited number of applications for 
admission without fee. The regulations published 
on June 30, 1955, also provided that nonimmigrant 
visas could be revalidated any number of times 
without a foniial application up to a period of 
validity not extending more than 4 years from the 
date of original issuance. 

Following publication of these regulations, the 
Department made representations to the govern- 
ments of foreign countries in an efi'ort to obtain a 
liberalization of their treatment of American citi- 
zens entermg those countries as nonimmigrants 
with respect to the validity of nonimmigrant doc- 
umentation and the visa fees charged. As a result 
of this effort there are now 65 countries which 
either issue 4-year nonimmigrant visas to U.S. 
citizens free of charge or do not require visas at 
all of U.S. citizens -^-isiting those countries, and 
the United States in turn issues 48-month no-fee 
visas to nationals of these coimtries. 

Combined Business and Pleasure Visa 

Early in 1956 the Department authorized con- 
sular officers to issue a combined B-1 and B-2 visa 
to aliens who might wish to make several entries 
into the United States, some entries for business 
and some for pleasure. If the countiy of which an 
applicant for this type of visa is a national charges 
a fee for either a b\isiness or pleasure visa, the 
consular officer must charge an equal fee. The De- 
partment also provided at that time that a visa 
valid for two applications for admission might 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



be issued to an alien who intended to make more 
than one entry into tlie United States in the coui-se 
of a single journey regardless of the practice of 
the applicant's country in documenting!: American 
citizens. It was felt that, in view of the i-eciproc- 
ity reijuirements of the law, not more than two 
entries could be permitt«i in such a case, but it 
W!us thoujxht that Conirress certainly intended that 
an alien who wanted to make a visit to the United 
States and proceed briefly to Canada, Mexico, or 
some other nearby country and then return to his 
homeland thi-ough the United States should l)e 
pemiitted to do so without tlie necessity of apply- 
ing for a new visa in a country in which he has 
no ties. 

Prior to 1957 the law required tliat all nonimmi- 
^ants, except certain foreigii srovernment and 
international organization officials, be finger- 
printed in connection with their visa applications. 
As a result of strong recommendations by the 
President and the Department, the Congress pro- 
^'ided in sex"tion 8 of the act of September 11, 
1957, that the Secretary of State and the Attorney 
General should have authority to waive finger- 
printing of foreign nationals in nonimmigrant 
visa cases on a reciprocal basis. Although at the 
time of the enactment of this legislation several 
foreign countries fingerprinted U.S. citizens enter- 
ing those countries as nonimmigi-ants, these 
requirements were eliminated as a result of repre- 
sentations made by our embassies; and at the 
present time we do not fingerprint nonimmigrant 
visa applicants of any nationality. Thus the 
reciprocal statutory pro\asions relating to the 
validity of nonimmigrant \asas, the fees charged 
for visa issuance, and fingerprinting of nonimmi- 
grants have not only facilitated travel to the 
United States of alien nonimmigi-ants but have 
also enabled the Department to obtain concessions 
for U.S. citizens traveling abroad which have 
freed such travel from certain fairly serious 
annoyances. 

During these years the Department also under- 
took to standardize noninunigrant visa procedures. 
A standardized preliminary nonimmigrant ques- 
tionnaire was developed for use in cases in which 
there is question as to the bona fide nonimmigi'ant 
status or the eligibility of a nonimmigrant visa 
applicant to receive a visa. The form is also used 
in cases in which an alien resides at a considerable 
distance from the considar office and it is therefore 



necessary to conduct the preliminary processing 
of the cnse by mail. The odicial noninunigrant 
visa application form was revised and siniplilied 
and now consists of a three-by-five card designed 
for use as an index card by the consular office. It 
requires completion of api)roximaleIy 10 items of 
infonnation, most of which are required by stat- 
ute, and is completed in single copy only. 

Principal Changes in tiie Regulations 

The Department has attempted, in the new non- 
immigrant visa regulations which will become 
effective on January 1, 1960, not only to stream- 
line the processing of nonimmigrant visa applica- 
tions but to make as easily accessible and as clear 
and unambiguous as possible the information 
which consular officers must have in order to exer- 
cise the visa function properly. Significant 
changes made in the new regulations are listed in 
Visa Office Bulletin No. 45. 

One of the important editorial changes in the 
new regulations is the avoidance of all repetitions 
of the statute. In earlier regulations certain pro- 
visions of the law were included without any 
distinction being made between statutory and reg- 
ulatory requirements. For example, with regard 
to students, the regulations formerly provided in 
part that an applicant for a student visa must 
establish that (1) he has a residence in a foreign 
country which he has no intention of abandoning, 
(2) he is a bona fide student qualified to pursue 
and is seeking to enter the United States tem- 
porarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing a 
full course of study as prescribed by the institu- 
tion of learning to which he is destined, and (3) 
he will attend and has been accepted by an insti- 
tution of learning approved by the Attorney Gen- 
eral as evidenced by the presentation of a Form 
1-20. The first requirement is statutory, the sec- 
ond is in part statutory and in part regulatory, 
the third regulatory; but there was no indication 
to this effect in the regulations themselves. Now 
the regulations say "an alien shall be classifiable 
as a nonimmigrant student if he establishes to the 
satisfaction of the consular officer that he qualifies 
under the provisions of section 101(a) (15) (F) of 
the Act and that'''— and then follow on with the 
regidatory requirements which implement the 
statute. 

Experience demonstrated that those using the 
earlier regulations, knowing that statutory pro- 



January 4, J 960 



n 



visions -were included in the regulations, might 
have felt that they could be governed by the regu- 
lations alone and need not refer to the statute. 
Since all applicable provisions of the law could 
not be put in the regulations, important statutory 
requirements might be overlooked. Now it is clear 
from the regulations themselves that the law must 
first be consulted and then the regulations. Con- 
sular officers have a complete collection of all 
statutes, treaties. Presidential proclamations, and 
Executive orders bearing upon immigration. 

Other editorial changes include the expansion 
of the section on definitions, which now contains 
all definitions of terms which are used in more 
than one section of the regulations and an in- 
creased use of cross references. 

The regulations are organized so that they fol- 
low as closely as possible the sequence in which a 
visa application is normally processed. Wlien an 
individual makes application the consular officer 
must first determine whether he is a person to 
whom a visa can be issued and whether a visa is 
necessary. Therefore, the first sections deal with 
the documentation of nationals, claimant na- 
tionals, and former nationals of the United States, 
and the waivers of passport and visa require- 
ments. Next, the consular officer wants to know 
whetlier the alien is a nonimmigrant and, if so, 
what classification is appropriate. So the classifi- 
cation sections follow. Sections dealing with the 
ineligible classes and the provisions under which, 
in exceptional cases, visas may be issued to aliens 
falling within certain of these classes, the types of 
visas which may be issued, whether diplomatic, 
official, or regular, the procedure to be followed by 
the alien in applying for his visa, and the pro- 
cedure for issuing or refusing the visa or revoking 
a previously issued visa follow in logical sequence. 

Other Innovations 

Tlio nonimmigrant regulations did not previ- 
ously contain information on ineligible classes. 
Tliese provisions were contained in the immigrant 
regulations and were made part of tlie noninmii- 
grant regulations by cross-reference only. Now 
there is a complete discussion of tlie ineligible 
classes in this part, and all of the exceptions for 
nonimmigrants are carefully pointed out in this 
section of the new regulations. 

Another innovation is the inclusion of sections 
41.10U, 41.102, and 41.104 on the types of non- 
12 



immigrant visas. Formerly thei'e was a separate 
part, part 40, dealing with diplomatic visas only, 
whicli gave rise to a number of misconceptions. 
Many persons thought that a diplomatic visa 
could be issued only to an alien classifiable as a 
foreign goverimaent official, that is, one coming 
to the United States on business for his govern- 
ment, or to an official of an international organ- 
ization coming on business of the organization. 
However, this is not the case. Diplomatic and 
official visas are visas of courtesy which entitle 
the applicant to certain privileges in connection 
with his visa application, such as exemption from 
the requirement of personal appearance, subinis- 
sion of a photograph, and, on a reciprocal basis, 
from payment of visa fees. By comity the bearer 
of a diplomatic or official visa is usually accorded 
preferential treatment at ports of entry. 

The issuance of this type of visa has, however, 
nothing to do with the granting of diplomatic 
privileges and immunities to persons who are 
acting in a representative caj^acity for foreign 
governments or inteniational organizations. 
Diplomatic and official visas may be issued to 
persons falling within the categories listed in 
sections 41.102 and 41.104 even though they may 
be entering as students or on pereonal business 
or pleasure, or as exchange visitors. Such per- 
sons would be issued a diplomatic or official F 
visa if coming as students, diplomatic or official 
B visas if coming on business or pleasure, or 
diplomatic exchange-visitor visas if entering as 
participants in a designated exchange-Ansitor 
program. 

Oath Requirement Eliminated 

The requirement that an oath be administered 
in connection with an application for a nonimmi- 
grant visa has been eliminated. "Wliile the elimi- 
nation of the oath simplifies to a certain extent 
the visa-issuing process, it does not in any way 
represent a relaxation of the requirements to be 
met by visa applicants. The preliminary non- 
immigrant visa application form lists the classes 
of aliens who are barred from permanent admis- 
sion into this coimtry. These classes include 
aliens who seek to procure or have sought to pro- 
cure, or have procured, a visa or other documenta- 
tion for enti-y into the United States by fraud 
or by willful misrepresentation of a material fact. 

The nonimmigrant visa application form is 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



now revised to substitute the following language 
for the former jurat : 

I declare under the penalties prescribed by law tbat 
the iuforuintion eontaiued in this aiiplication, inc-ludinK 
any statements made a part thereof, has been examined 
by me and is true, correct and complete to the best of 
my knowle<lge and belief and that 18 USC 1()01 has 
been explained to me." 

It is believed that i-equiring a visa applicant to 
sigit the foregoing statement and explaining the 
penalty provisions of the law will afford adequate 
safeguards against the making of false statements 
in nonimmigrant visa applications. Experience 
has demonstratetl that persons who are attempt- 
ing to effect a fraudulent entry into the United 
States have little hesitancy in swearing to state- 
ments wliich are not true. On the other hand, 
many sincere and conscientious persons are of- 
fended by the requirement that they take an oath 
to the truth of the statements contained in their 
visa applications, particularly in view of the fact 
that foreign countries generally do not require an 
oath of American citizens or others desiring to 
proceed temporarily to those countries. "VVliile the 
oath has been eliminated in connection with non- 
immigrant visa applications, the Department is 
continuing to emphasize the importance and 
dignity of the oath in connection with immigrant 
visa applications. 

Revalidation and Transfer of Visas 

The provisions of 41.125 and 41.126 relating to 
the revalidation and transfer of visas are of con- 
siderable interest to anyone concerned with the 
problems of aliens who enter the United States 
as nonimmigrants for fairly extended periods of 
time, such as students and exchange visitors, and 
who desire to make trips to nearby countries and 
return. Tliere are still some coimtries which issue 
single-entry visas valid for only a limited period 
of time to American citizens proceeding to those 
coimtries as students or for other cultural pur- 



' 18 USC 1001 reads as follows : 

"Whoever, in any matter within the jurisdiction of any 
department or agency of the United States knowingly 
and willfully falsifies, conceals or covers up by any 
trick, scheme, or device a material fact, or makes any 
false, fictitious or fraudulent statements or representa- 
tions, or makes or uses any false writing or document 
knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious or 
fraudulent statement or entry, shall be fined not more than 
$10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both." 



poses. We must, therefore, reciprocate with the 
issuance of visas simihu-ly limited. Interestingly 
enough, these countries are, in many instances, 
ones which send a large contingent of students and 
exchangees to the United States; for example, 
Brazil, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Peru, and 
the United Arab Republic. 

Canada, Mexico, and other nearby countries 
will not admit an alien who is in the United States 
in a nonimmigrant status unless that alien has 
in his possession a document valid for reentry into 
the United States. An alien who has a single- 
entry visa, or whose visa has expired, or whose 
passport has expired and must be surrendered to 
the appix)piiate authorities of his own govern- 
ment for issuance of a new pjussport is not in a 
position to meet this requirement. Under prior 
regulations the visa could not be revalidated or 
transferred imless the alien was abroad and 
within the jurisdiction of the consular office to 
which he applied for a revalidation or transfer of 
his visa. 

Under the new regulations consular officers may 
in their discretion waive the personal appearance 
of an applicant for revalidation or transfer of a 
nonimmigrant visa and the alien need not be 
within the consular district at the time of such 
application. Therefore an alien in the United 
States with a nonimmigrant visa limited by reci- 
procity may mail his passport containing the 
visa — or a new passport with a statement from the 
consular authorities of his own government to the 
effect that liis passport containing a valid U.S. 
visa has been taken up by those authorities and 
replaced with a new passport — to the consular 
office which issued his original visa and request a 
revalidation or transfer. If the consular officer 
is satisfied that the alien is maintaining nonimmi- 
grant status in the United States and is otherwise 
qualified, he may revalidate or transfer the visa 
and return it by mail to the alien in the United 
States. It is beHeved that this procedure will 
prove to be a satisfactory solution to what has 
previously constituted an insuperable obstacle to 
the travel of many foreign students and exchange 
visitors to nearby countries. 

Review of Visa Refusals 

Applicants for visas are afforded ample protec- 
tion under the new regulations against arbitrary 
or mijustified refusal. Tlie provisions of section 



January 4, I960 



13 



41.130(c) continue a procedure which has been the 
regular practice of the Department but wliich has 
never been stated so fully in regulations. The De- 
partment has in the pjiat, at the request of an in- 
terested person, called upon consular officers to 
submit reports in cases in which there is any indi- 
cation tiiat a \'isa may have been refused errone- 
ously. The Department may not, of course, direct 
a consular officer to issue a visa in any case, but it 
can give the consular officer the benefit of its ad- 
visory opinion, and, if an error in interpretation 
of law has been made, the Department's ruling is 
binding. 

Section 41.90 provides that a visa is to be re- 
fused only upon a ground specifically set out in 
the law or regulations issued thereunder and fur- 
ther provides that consideration is to be given to 
any evidence submitted indicating that the gromid 
for a prior refusal of a nonimmigrant visa may no 
longer exist. Thus there is no room for arbitrary 
visa refusals or for the exercise of whim or fancy. 

Tlie provisions of section 41.130(b), althougli 
reflecting longstanding practice, have now for the 
fii-st time l)een put in regulatory form. Under 
this section the Department or the princijial con- 
sular officer at a post may request review of a case 
and final action by a consular officer other than 
the one who originally considered the application. 

Other protections afforded to visa applicants in 
the new regidations are contained in sections 41.91 
(c)(2) and 41.111(a). 

Under the provisions of section 221(g) (2) of 
the act a visa nuist lie refused (1) if the alien's 
application fails to comply with the provisions of 
the act; that is, if the applicant fails to furnish 
the information required to be included in the 
application by the act or regulations; (2) if the 
application contains a false or incorrect statement 
wliicli does not constitute a ground of ineligibility 
under section 212(a)(9) or (1!)) of the act; (3) 
if the application is not supported by the docu- 
ments required by the act or i-egulations; (4) if 
the applicant refuses to be fingerprinted when 
fingerprinting is required; or (.5) if the applica- 
tion otherwise fails to meet the specific require- 
ments of the act for reasons for which the 
applicant is responsible. 

Section 41.91(c)(2) points out that these 
grounds of refusal do not constitute a bar to the 
reconsideration of the application upon compli- 



14 



ance with statutory or regulatory requirements 
or to the consideration of a subsequent applica- 
tion submitted by the same applicant. Section 
41.111 (a) , which gives the consular officer author- 
ity to require such documents as he may consider 
necessary to establish the alien's eligibility to re- 
ceive a nonimmigrant visa, also provides that all 
documents submitted and any other evidence 
adduced by tlie alien is to be given consideration 
by the consular officer, including briefs submitted 
by attorneys or other representatives. The latter 
provision was inserted at the specific request of 
an attorney who felt that sufficient attention had 
not been given to arguments wliich he had sub- 
mitted in behalf of a client. Consular officers 
must, of couree, be governed by what they con- 
sider to be the applicant's intention as expressed 
in his own statements and actions, but they will 
give consideration to supporting statements made 
by attorneys or other representatives of the visa 
.applicant. 

In the new regulations effective January 1 the 
Department of State has evidenced its interest not 
only in expediting and facilitating nonimmi- 
grant travel to the United States but in insuring 
that evei-y applicant who is legally eligible to 
receive a nonimmigrant visa will receive that visa. 
The Foreign Service officers who represent the 
United States abroad are well equipped to cai-ry 
out these objectives. They not only are trained 
in the basic economic and political structure of 
the country to which they are assigned but also I 
are thoroughly acquainted with the customs and 
characteristics of tlie people with whom they are 
dealing. Experience with nationals of many 
foreign countries enables Foreign Service officers 
to develop an understanding of these people which 
is of invaluable assistance in making the deter- 
minations required in the issuance of nonimmi- 
grant visas. Through the Foreign Service 
Institute Visa Training Coui*se and the Corre- 
spondence Course in visa work they are constantly 
improving their knowledge and understanding 
of the immigration laws and regulations. Fur- 
ther, the Visa Office has adopted a systematic plan 
for continuing review and improvement of the 
regulations themselves and the instructions dis- 
tributed to the field for the guidance of consular 
officers in the administration of the immigration 
laws. 



Dapartment of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar off International Conferences and Meetings 



Adjourned During December 1959 

ITU Administrative Radio C'onfiTpnce 

U.N. General Assembly: 14th Session 

ITU Plenipotentiary Conference 

Conference on Antarctica 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: 11th Ses- 
sion. 

U.N. Seminar on Evaluation and Utilization of Population 
Census Results. 

ICAO Facilitation Division: 5th Session 

U.N. ECAFE Seminar on Management of Public Industrial 
Enterprises. 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 10th Special Session 

1st FAO International Meeting on Date Production and Pro- 
cessing. 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 19th Session (and Working 
Parties) . 

FAO Plant Protection Committee for Southeast Asia and 
Pacific Region: 3d Meeting. 

International Criminal Police Organization: 28th General 
Assembly. 

U.N. Special Fund: 3d Session of Governing Council .... 

Caribbean Commission: 29th Meeting 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee .... 

South Pacific Commission: Study Group on Filariasis and 
Elephantiasis. 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 28th Session (resumed) . 

U.N. ECE Coal Trade Subcommittee: 44th Session .... 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee: 48th Session 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: 19th Session . . . 

FAO International Rice Commission: Working Party on Rice 
Production and Protection. 

FAO International Rice Commission: Working Party on Rice 
Soil, Water, and Fertilizer Practices. 

U.N. ECAFE Railway Subcommittee: 6th Session; andWork- 
ing Party of Railway Mechanical Engineers. 

NATO Council: 24th Ministerial Meeting 

U.N. ECE Experts on Concentration of Workings and Mech- 
anization in Coal Mines. 

Meeting of Heads of Government (France, Germany, United 
Kingdom, United States). 



Geneva Aug. 17-Dec. 22 

New York Sept. 1.'>-Dec. 12 

Geneva Oct. 14-Dec. 22 

Washington Oct. 15-Dec. 1 

Geneva Nov. 30-Dec. 4 

Santiago Nov. 30-Dec. 18 

Rome Dec. 1-19 

New Delhi Dec. 1-11 

New York Dec. 2 and 14 

Tripoli Dec. 5-10 

Geneva Dec. 7-11 

New Delhi Dec. 7-12 

Paris Dec. 8-10 

New York Dec. 8-10 

Cayenne, French Guiana . . . Dec. 9-16 

New York Dec. 11 (1 day) 

Noumea, New Caledonia . . . Dec. 12-24 

New York Dec. 14-15 

Geneva Dec. 14-15 

Geneva Dec. 14-15 

Geneva Dec. 14-18 

Peradeniya, Ceylon Dec. 14-19 

Peradeniya, Ceylon Dec. 14-20 

Lahore Dec. 14-22 

Paris Dec. 15-17,22 

Geneva Dec. 15-18 

Paris Dec. 19-21 



In Session as of December 31, 1959 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests . . 



Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 



Scheduled January 1 Through IVlarch 31, 1960 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: Bangkok Jan. 4- 

Seminar on Aerial Survey Methods and Equipment. 

U.N. ECAFE Intraregional Trade Promotion Talks .... Bangkok Jan. 5- 

ICEM Executive Committee: 14th Special Session Geneva Jan. 5- 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Dec. 17, 1959. Asterisks indicate tentative places or dates. 
Following is a list of abbreviations: CENTO, Central Treaty Organization; CCITT, Comit6 consultatif international 
t61<5graphique et t^ldphonique; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission 
for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; IBE, International Bureau of Education; ICAO, 
International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration- ILO, Inter- 
national Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; ITU, International 
Telecommunication Union; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; 
U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United 
Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization. 



January 4, I960 



15 



Calendar off International Confferences and Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled January 1 Through March 31, 1960 — Continued 

GATT Group of Experts on Temporary Admission of Profea- Geneva Jan. 11- 

sional Equipment. 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: New York Jan. 11- 

7th Session. 

U.N. ECOSOC Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimina- New York Jan. 11- 

tion and Protection of Minorities: 12th Session. 

IAEA Board of Governors Vienna Jan. 12- 

WHO Executive Board: 25th Session Geneva Jan. 12- 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee and Working Parties Geneva Jan. 12- 
GATT Panel on Antidumping Duties Geneva Jan. 18- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: 3d Session Bangkok Jan. 18- 

U.N. ECE Working Group on Industrial Statistics Geneva Jan. 18- 

UNESCO Meeting on Development of Information Media in Bangkok Jan. 18- 

Southeast Asia. 

U.N. ECE /Id Hoc Working Party on Gas Problems .... Geneva Jan. 20- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources: Bangkok Jan. 23- 

12th Session. 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 3d Meeting Moscow Jan. 25- 

SEATO Preparatory Conference for Heads of Universities Bangkok Jan. 25- 

Seminar. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade . Geneva Jan. 25- 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 1st Meeting . . . Geneva Jan. 25*- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 25th Session New York Jan. 25- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 2d Session Tangier Jan. 25- 

3d ICAO African-Indian Ocean Regional Air Navigation Meet- Rome Jan. 26- 

ing. 

U.N. ECE Electric Power Committee Geneva Jan. 27- 

CENTO Scientific Council Tehran Jan. 30- 

FAO Asia- Pacific Forestry Commission: 5th Session .... New Delhi Feb. 8- 

ILO Meeting of Experts on Employment Objectives in Eco- Geneva Feb. 9- 

nomic Planning. 

IBE Executive Board Geneva Feb. 15- 

Commission for Technical Cooperation in Africa South of the Tananarive, Madagascar . . . Feb. 15- 

Sahara. 

GATT Panel on Subsidies and State Trading Geneva Feb. 15- 

U.N. Commission on Permanent Sovereignty Over Natural New York Feb. 16- 

Resources: 2d Session. 

ILO Governing Body: 144th Session Geneva Feb. 17- 

U.N. Economic Commission for the Far East: 16th Session . . Karachi Feb. 17- 

FAO Group of Experts on Rice Grading and Standardization: Saigon Feb. 19- 

5th Session. 

I MCO .(4d Hoc Committee on Rules of Procedure London Feb. 20- 

FAO Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Saigon Feb. 22- 

Rice: 4th Session. 

Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission: Annual Meeting . San Josfi Feb. 23- 

ICAO Special Meeting on European- Mediterreanean Rules of Paris Feb. 25- 

the Air and Air Traffic Control Communications. 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 16th Session . Geneva Feb. 29- 

FAO Government Experts on Use of Designations, Definitions, Rome February 

and Standards for Milk and Milk Products. 

IMCO Council: 3d Session London March 2- 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 5th Meet- Lima March 7- 

ing of the Technical Advisory Council. 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee .... New York March 7- 



Bangkok March 8- 

Geneva March 14- 

The Hague March 17- 

Geneva March 17- 



U.N. ECAFE Conference of Asian Statisticians: 3d Session 
GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade . 
5th ICAO North Atlantic Ocean Stations Conference . . . 

2d U.N. Conference on Law of the Sea 

ILO Committee of Experts on Application of Conventions and Geneva March 21- 

Recommendations: 30th Session. 

ITU CCITT Working Party 43 (Data Transmission) .... Geneva March 21- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and Singapore March 21- 

Handicrnft Marketing/Canning and Bottling of Fruit and 

Food in Cooperation with FAO. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade . . Geneva March 28- 

UNESCO Executive Board: 56th Session Paris March 28- 

UNESCO Meeting of Administrators on Technical and Voca- Accra, Ghana March 28- 

tional Education in Africa. 
U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 14th Ses- Buenos Aires March 28- ^ 

sion. 
GATT Renegotiation of Wool-Fabric Agreements Geneva March or April 



.16 Department of State Bulletin 



U.N. Agrees To Take No Decision 
on Hungarian Credentials 

Folloioing are two statements made by Henry 
Cabot Lodge, UjS. Representative to the General 
Assembly, on the credentials of the Hungarian 
delegation to the United Nations. 



STATEMENT IN CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE, 
DECEMBER 9 

U.S. delegation press release 3339 

Mr. Chairman, since the 1956 revolution of tlie 
Hungarian people every General Assembly ses- 
sion has refused to accept the credentials submit- 
ted by representatives of the present regime in 
Hungar}'. By taking no decision on their cre- 
dentials, the General Assembly has placed the 
Hungarian representatives in a provisional status. 
They are thus on notice that the Assembly in- 
tends to continue to watch the situation m Hun- 
gaiy closely. 

Since the present regime continues its defiance 
of all efforts of the United Nations designed to 
bring about an amelioration of conditions in 
Hungary, the United States believes that this 
Assembly also should refuse to accept the creden- 
tials of the Hungarian delegation. 

I therefore move, Mr. Chairman, that this com- 
mittee take no action on the credentials submitted 
on behalf of the representatives of Hungary. 

The United States believes that the Soviet 
Union and the present Hungarian regime give us 
no alternative but to adhere to this procedure. 
For that reason, Mr. Chairman, the United States 
moves that the Credentials Committee take no 
decision on the credentials of the Hungarian 
delegration. 



STATEMENT IN PLENARY, DECEMBER 10 

U.S. delegation press release 3343 

The United States supports the report of the 
Credentials Committee.^ This committee has 
again recommended tliat the General Assembly 



take no decision on the credentials submitted on 
behalf of the Hungarian delegat ion. 

Tins reconimeiulatioii goes back to the 1956 
revolution, when the firet and second emergency 
special sessions of the General Assembly decided 
to place the representatives of the present Hun- 
garian authorities in a provisional status by tak- 
ing no decision on their credentials. In view of 
the continuing occupation of Hungary by foreign 
armed forces and the unremitting repression of 
the Hungarian people, all subsequent sessions of 
the General Assembly have likewise refused to ac- 
cept the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. 

Last year the General Assembly again con- 
demned the defiance of United Nations resolu- 
tions on Hungary and declared that it would con- 
tinue to be seized of the situation in Hungary.'' 
Sir Leslie Mmiro was appointed as the United 
Nations Special Representative for the purpose 
of reporting on the implementation of the Gen- 
eral Assembly's resolutions. In his report sub- 
mitted on November 25, 1959,^ Sir Leslie Munro 
said: 

In the course of the past year, no evidence has been 
forthcoming of any basic change in the Hungarian 
situation. . . . 

The Soviet Union is continuing its armed inter- 
vention in Hungary. The present Hungarian au- 
thorities are still persecuting the participants in 
the 1956 national uprising. The Soviet Union 
and the Hungarian authorities continue to defy 
the resolutions of the General Assembly. 

In the light of these facts the Assembly has 
just voted to renew Sir Leslie Miuiro's mandate.* 

The United States believes that in the light of 
these facts the General Assembly is now obliged 
to accept the recommendation of the Credentials 
Committee and, in doing so, to refuse to accept 
the credentials of the Hungarian delegation.* 



' U.N. doc. A/4.34G. 



' For statements by Ambassador Lodge and text of 
resolution, see Bulletin of Jan. 12, 1959, p. 55. 

' U.X. doc. A/4304. 

* BtuxETiN of Dec. 28, 1959, p. 942. 

•^The General Assembly in plenar.v session on Dec. 10 
approved the report of the Credentials Committee by a 
vote of 72 to 1, with 1 abstention. 



January 4, 7960 

534798—60 3 



17 



U.N. Reaffirms Principles on Unification of Korea 



Statement hy Walter S. Rohertson 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ' 



Once again, as for 12 years past, this committee 
holds in its hands one of the most solemn respon- 
sibilities ever entnisted to the United Nations, the 
hope of unity, freedom, and a just peace for the 
31 million people of Korea, 

This is a stubborn problem. The Korean people, 
now as always, ardently desire that their country 
should be restored to its historic vmity and inde- 
pendence. Year after year the United Nations, 
by large and repeated majorities, has expressed 
the same unwavering desire on the part of the 
community of nations. Yet, through .3 tragic 
years of Communist aggression and war and then 
through 6 years of fruitless negotiation, the prob- 
lem has remained. 

The root of the problem is simple. The Com- 
munist authorities who have fastened an alien 
tyranny on north Korea refuse to relax their grip 
and refuse to consider unification of tlie country 
except on conditions which would once again lay 
all of Korea open to Communist military attack. 
In pursuit of this policy they even deny the United 
Nations' right to concern itself with tliis matter. 

We may be forgiven for wondering what the 
authoi-s of this injustice are thinking. Perhaps 
they are hoping that the free nations will forget 
about Korea. Perhaps they hope, by the mere 
passage of time, the outlines of this problem will 
become fuzzy in our eyes and the United Nations 
will l)egin to suffer from a sort of moral deafness 
in which "might" and "right" sound like the same 
word. They might then hope to overwhelm the 
Korean people and conquer all of Korea witliout 
the community of nations daring to intervene. 
Such a situation should give every small, free na- 
tion in the world reason to fear for its life. 



'Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on Nov. 
23 (U.S. delegation press release 3309) . 



But, if that is really the hope of the Communist 
leaders, they should stop deceiving themselves. 
The United Nations has stood by Korea for 12 
years, and it is not going to give up now. The 
great majority of nations represented in this room 
are not held together by the iron discij^line of an 
ideology but are held together by something far 
more profound: our allegiance to the United Na- 
tions Charter and to the world of decency for 
which it stands. 

History of Korean Question 

Now let us recall briefly the facts of the Korean 
question and especially the developments since the 
General Assembly last considered it a year ago. 

On December 1, 1943, at Cairo, President Eoose- 
velt. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and Prime 
Minister Churchill declared that Korea should 
become free and independent. This pledge was re- 
affirmed by the same three powers at Potsdam on 
July 26, 194.5. The Soviet Union, upon its entry 
into the war against Japan, subscribed to the Pots- 
dam declaration and reaffirmed this pledge at Mos- 
cow on December 27, 1945. At that time, in fact, 
the Foreign Ministers of the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union went a 
step further and agreed that a provisional Korean 
democratic government should be set up for all 
Korea, with a view to the reestablislunent of 
Korea as an independent state. 

When this ^foscow agreement was reached the 
(^onuuunists were already seeking to make penna- 
nont tlie division of Korea which had been in- 
tended purely for the purpose of accepting the 
surrender of Japanese troops in Korea. In Sep- 
tember 1945, by agi'eement among the Allied 
Powers, the surrender of Japanese troops in Korea 
was accepted by United States military forces 



18 



Department ot State Bulletin 



south of the 38th parallel and by Soviet forces 
nortli of tlie :^Sth parallel, linmediatoly after the 
surrender tlie Anieriean Military Command in 
Korea approached the Soviet Command in order 
to develop a joint policy for the administration of 
the whole country. Tlie Soviet autliorities re- 
fused to cooperate. Instead they set up their own 
occupation zone north of the 3Sth parallel. Thus 
the Korean nation was cut in two. 

Immediately and repeatedly the United States 
sought to persuade tlie Soviet Union to honor its 
agreement and end the arbitrary division of 
Korea. At the conference of the Foreign Min- 
isters in Moscow in December 1945, the Soviet 
T'nion agreed to set up, with the United States, a 
.Toint Conunission in Korea to work out the long- 
range political and economic prol)lems, including 
the establishment of a provisional democratic 
structure for all of Korea. This Commission held 
24 meetings, beginning in March 1946, and accom- 
plished nothing. 

A joint conference was also .set up to deal with 
inunediate and pressing problems. It first met in 
.ranunry 1946. In it the Ignited States proposed 
a series of measures, including the imification of 
key public utilities and uniform fiscal policies. 
The Soviet authorities rejected these proposals. 
Limited agreements were reached on exchange of 
mail, radio frequencies, and other minor fields, but 
even these jiroved impossible to carry out. The 
joint conference soon disbanded. 

Despite these frustrations the United States, in 
the spirit of the charter, refused to give up trying 
for a negotiated solution. Secretary of State 
George C. Marshall took the matter up directly 
with Foreigii Minister ]Molotov. As a result, the 
Joint Commission reassembled, but the deadlock 
continued. 

Later our Acting Secretary of State, Robert A. 
Lovett, called for a four-power conference to con- 
sider the implementation of the JIoscow agree- 
ment. Again the Soviet L^nion refused. 

Korean Question Submitted to U.N. 

Thus it became clear that bilateral talks could 
accomplish nothing further. At that point the 
United States, in accordance with the charter, sub- 
mitted the Korean question to the United Nations. 

Tlie General Assembly considered the matter 
at its second se.ssion in 1947. On November 14 it 
decided to establish the Ignited Nations Tempo- 



rary Commission on Korea. It recommended 
that elections be lield on tlie basis of ad\ilt suf- 
frage and secret ballot in all of Korea. 

The nine-nation Ignited Nations Commission 
went to Korea. The Soviet authorities in the 
north refused to permit it to carry on its func- 
tions. Tlie Commission tlien proceeded to hold 
elections in the southern part of Korea. These 
elections, held on ifay 10, 1048, covered an area 
inhabited by approximately two-thirds of the Ko- 
rean population. On August 23 a democratic con- 
stitution was promulgated in the Republic of 
Korea. 

The General Assembly, in its resolution of De- 
cember 12, 1948, certified that the government thus 
formed in Korea was "based on elections which 
were a valid expression of the free will of the 
electorate of that part of Korea" and added that 
"this is the only such Government in Korea." 

In September 1948 the Soviet authorities estab- 
lished a puppet regime in the northern part of 
Korea. I say "puppet" advisedly, because by its 
very origin this regime had not a shred of inde- 
pendence. 

The key leaders in the so-called "Democratic 
People's Republic of Korea" were Soviet citizens 
of Korean ancestry. They or their parents were 
Koreans who migi-ated into Soviet Asia during the 
period of Japanese control over Korea. The So- 
viet occupation authorities brought into north 
Korea, in 1945 and 1946, a number of these Soviet- 
Koreans. Tliese men became the backbone of the 
new north Korean puppet regune. Tliey were, in- 
stalled, usually as %ace. ministers, in eveiy ministry, 
in the Communist Party apparatus, and in key 
positions in the armed forces. Among them were 
the present "Premier," who goes by the name of a 
legendary Korean patriot of long ago, Kim II 
Sung. About 1930 he migrated into Soviet terri- 
tory and became a Soviet army oflScer. Also 
prominent among the Soviet- Koreans were Ho Ka 
I, who became the vice chairman of the powerful 
Commmiist "Korean Labor Party" and who had 
once been a Communist Party official in the Soviet 
Republic of Uzbekistan ; and another was General 
Nam U, a one-time Soviet army officer who became 
notorious as the chief Korean negotiator at Pan- 
niunjom. 

Such were the men who, imder Soviet ordei"s. 
founded the regime which calls itself the "Demo- 
cratic People's Republic of Korea" — and who still 
run it today. 



January 4, 1960 



19 



In June 1950 after the United States forces had 
been withdrawn from Korea, tliis same north Ko- 
rean regime launched an armed attack against the 
Kepublic of Korea. For this act it was branded 
as an aggressor by the Security Council and the 
General Assembly of the United Nations. Dur- 
ing the Korean hostilities this regime violated es- 
tablished principles governing the treatment of 
prisoners of war and carried out atrocities against 
military personnel of the United Nations forces 
and against Korean civilians. It has defied the 
United Nations and has demonstrated through its 
actions its contempt of the charter. No wonder, 
Mr. Chairman, that this regime in north Korea 
has not achieved recognition by a single govern- 
ment of the world outside the Conunmiist bloc. 

Armistice Agreement and Geneva Conference 

After o years of war and 2 years of negotiation, 
the Korean fighting ended with the Armistice 
Agi'eement of July 1953. 

Throughout the 6 years since that agreement 
was signed, the Communists have violated it 
grossly and continuously. They completely frus- 
trated the supervisory machinery by making in- 
spection impossible in north Korea. They 
strengthened their fortifications and brought in 
modern weapons ]irohibited by the Armistice 
Agreement. And they heartlessly refused to ac- 
count for thousands of Korean and United Na- 
tions persomiel missing m action. 

I pause at this point, Mr. Chairman, to renew 
this appeal to the Communist authorities — an ap- 
peal which our representatives at Panmunjom 
have made many times: 

The United Nations Command long ago gave 
you the names of 2,047 militai-y personnel of the 
United Nations Command who are still missing 
and not accounted for. Of these names, 451 are 
those of Americans. We know from your own 
propaganda that some of these individuals at one 
time were alive and in youi* hands as prisoners of 
war. Under the Korean Armistice Agreement 
you are obliged to accomit for all of these men and 
to repatriate any who are still alive. In the name 
of simple humanity to the families of these men, 
the United States again appeals to you to honor 
your obligation. 

Mr. Chiiii-man, the Korean Armistice Agree- 
ment also included a reconmiendation for a politi- 
cal conference to be held witliin 90 days. By Au- 



gust 1953 the General Assembly had completed 
its arrangements to participate in this conference, 
but it was not untd 9 months later that the Com- 
munists, after having remilitarized north Korea 
in defiance of the Armistice Agreement, sat down 
with the United Nations membei-s at Geneva in 
AprU 1954. 

The United Nations members in that Geneva 
conference made every effort to obtain agreement 
which would lead to the establishment of a uni- 
fied, democratic, and independent Korea. They 
enunciated two fundamental principles which 
nmst provide the basis of a Korean settlement 
consistent with the objectives of the United 
Nations.- These principles are: 

1. The United Nations, under its Charter, is fully and 
rightfully empowered to take collective action to repel 
aggression, to restore peace and security, and to extend 
its good offices to seeking a peaceful settlement in Korea. 

2. In order to establish a unified, independent and dem- 
ocratic Korea, genuinely free elections should be held 
under United Nations supervision, for representatives in 
the national assembly, in which representation shall be 
in direct proportion to the indigenous population in 
Korea. 

The Communist participants refused to agree to 
any arrangements which would guarantee that 
elections for reunification would be carried out in 
genuine freedom. Their proposals would have 
provided the Communist side with an absolute 
veto over the conduct of the elections. They pro- 
posed an all-Korean election commission on which 
they demanded that north Korea, with its pojiula- 
tion of 9 million, should be given the same num- 
ber of members as south Korea, whose population 
is 22 million. They also demanded that all deci- 
sions in the commission be made on the basis of 
mutual agreement — in other words, they wanted 
the veto power. 

Further, the Communists denied the competence 
of the United Nations to deal with the Korean 
question. Thus they sought to undermine the 
United Nations as an instrument for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and prevention of 
aggression. 

The United Nations representatives at Geneva 
refused to compromise the principles for which 
their countries had fought on the battlefields of 
Korea. Faced with a rigid Communist position 
frustrating all prospects for honorable agreement, 



- For text of a IG-uation declaration issued at Geneva on 
June 15, 1954, see Bxh-letin of June 28, 1954, p. 973. 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



tliey accepted the fuct that tlie conference had 
failed. 

In tlie 4 years tliat followed the General Assem- 
bly repeatedly urged, by overwhelming vot<?s, that 
negotiations be resimied on the basis of established 
United Nations principles, but the Conununist side 
remained inflexible. 

Latest Exchange of Communications 

Tlien, in February 1958, a new exchange of state- 
ments and communications began. I shall review 
it in some detail because it sliows the lengths to 
which the states participating in the United Na- 
tions Command have gone in their search for 
progress on the Korean question. 

1. The exchange began on February 5, 1958, 
with a statement by the north Korean regime ad- 
vancing certain proposals for the reunification of 
Korea. These proposals were transmitted to the 
governments which took part in the U.N. Com- 
mand in Korea. The Chinese Communists en- 
dorsed them in a statement 2 clays later. The pro- 
posals were two: that all foreign forces should 
first be withdrawn from Korea and that thereafter 
elections should be held under "the supervision of 
a neutral nations organization" — a phrase which 
I shall discuss later in this statement. 

2. Two weeks later the Communists announced 
that the so-called Chinese People's Volunteers 
would be withdrawn from north Korea by the end 
of 1958 and called on the governments of the 
United Nations Command to withdraw their forces 
from south Korea. 

3. The 16 member states which represent the 
United Nations in these negotiations replied ^ to 
these statements by welcoming the announced in- 
tention of the Chinese Communists finally to with- 
draw their forces, as they had been called upon to 
do year after year by resolutions of the United 
Nations General Assembly. We requested a clari- 
fication of the Communist views on the principles 
of free elections. We asked specifically whether 
these principles provided for supervision of elec- 
tions by the United Nations and whether repre- 
sentation in the National Assembly would be pro- 
portionate to the indigenous population in all 
parts of Korea. Our reply was intended to afford 
the Communists an opportunity to show whether 
they had any serious intention of moving ahead 
on the question of Korean reunification. 



4. In their reply of May G* the Chinese Com- 
munists again brushed aside the (luestion of (lie 
principles on which elections should bo held. 
They restated their position that the withdrawal 
of United Nations forces from south Korea was a 
prerequisite to any steps leading to the reunifica- 
tion of Korea. 

5. The United Nations was frankly disappointed 
by this Chinese Communist reply. It seemed to 
leave little room for hope. However, on July 2 
we sent another communication' to the Chinese 
Communist regime, in whicli we again welcomed 
the announcement that the Chinese Communist 
troops were to be withdrawn from north Korea. 
We expressed our disappointment that the Chinese 
Conununists' announcement of May 6 had not 
answered our question about the principles under 
which the elections would be held. We pointed 
out that further withdrawal of United Nations 
forces without any previous arrangement for the 
proper settlement of the Korean question would 
not be calculated to lead to the reduction of tension 
in the Far East and, indeed, such action would 
remove one necessary guarantee which exists 
against further aggression in Korea. We em- 
phasized that we wished to see a genuine settle- 
ment of the Korean question in accordance with 
the United Nations resolutions. We concluded by 
stating that the governments participating in the 
United Nations Command were prepared to with- 
draw United Nations forces when the conditions 
for the lasting settlement laid down by the Gen- 
eral Assembly had been fulfilled. 

6. On November 10 a Chinese Communist com- 
munique again called for the withdrawal of 
United Nations troops from south Korea. They 
again stated that after withdrawal of all foreign 
forces all-Korea free elections could be held under 
the supervision of a "neutral nations organiza- 
tion." And again they did not elaborate. 

7. The United Nations members replied ' to this 
note by transmitting the General Assembly reso- 
lution of 14 November 1958, which had been 
adopted by a vote of 54 to 9. As the committee 
will recall, this resolution urged the Communist 
authorities to accept United Nations objectives and 
to agree to genuinely free elections under the 
principles endorsed by the General Assembly. 



• For text of note, see ibid., May 5, 1958, p. 735. 



• T'.N. doc. A/.3821. 

" For text, see r.ci-LETi.N of .July 28, 1958, p. 15.3. 

• For text of note, see ibid., Dec. 22, 1958, p. 1004. 



January 4, 1960 



21 



8. Finally, on March 4, 1959, the Chinese Com- 
munists restated the demands for the withdrawal 
of foreign troops from Korea and argued that "the 
United Nations has been reduced to a belligerent 
in the Korean war and lost all competence and 
moral authority to deal fairly with the Korean 
question. Therefoi'e, any resolution on the 
Korean question is unilaterally null and void." 

On that note of defiance the Chinese Com- 
nuniists ended this lengthy exchange of com- 
munications. 

Main Communist Demands Examined 

Mr. Chairman, from this whole record it is 
clear that the Communists have no present desire 
to move forward to the settlement of the Korean 
problem on any terms short of surrender by the 
United Nations. 

If we examine their main demands in detail, we 
can see that this is ti-ue. They have insisted upon 
three things. 

First, they insist that the United Nations Com- 
mand shoidd withdraw its troops from Korea be- 
fore there can be any agreement on the terms or 
methods of unification. 

Second, they insist that "the United Nations has 
been reduced to a belligerent in the Korean war 
and lost all competence and moral authority to 
deal fairly with the Korean question.*' 

Third, they propose that all-Korean elections, 
after the United Nations troops have been witli- 
drawn from Korea, should be held under the super- 
vision of a "neutral nations organization." 

Let me take up these three points in turn. 

Demand for Withdrawal of U.N. Troops 

1. To withdraw the protection of United Na- 
tions troops from the Republic of Korea, before 
the Korean question has been solved in accordance 
with United Nations principles, would leave Ko- 
rea once again exposed to the threat of renewed 
Communist aggre.ssion. None of us will forget 
what happened within months after the United 
States withdrew from Korea in 1949. Even 
though the Soviet Union had announced that its 
forces too had been withdrawn, this statement 
could not be verified through the barrier of secrecy 
surrounding north Korea. In any case it is known 
that before their announced withdrawal the So- 
viet forces had trained north Korean forces 
amounting to between 50,000 and 60,000 troops 



and that, between then and the aggi-ession of June 
1950, these same Korean forces, heavily armed, 
had grown to between 150,000 and 180,000 men. 
And we know also that senior Soviet officere were 
with the Korean armed forces in the guise of "ad- 
visere" at the time the aggression was launched. 

Meanwhile the United States forces had left 
the mainland — some of them to Japan and most of 
them across the 11,000 miles of the Pacific to the 
continental United States. Wlien the aggression 
began and the United Nations answered the call 
to help the Republic of Korea, despite all we could 
do the aggressors were able to overrun most of the 
peninsula, inflicting untold havoc and suffering 
on the civilian population, before the United Na- 
tions counteroffensive could be organized. 

Today again the north Korean armed forces are 
large and heavily armed — this time in gross viola- 
tion of the Armistice Agreement. Today, as al- 
ways, they have the advantage of a Communist 
hinterland just beyond the Yalu River, across 
which supplies and reinforcements can be sent to 
support a new aggression. The Ignited States has 
not forgotten the words of Chou En-lai, the 
Chinese Communist Premier, at the time his "vol- 
unteers" were allegedly withdrawn from north 
Korea last year, when he pledged to his Communist 
comrades in north Korea that this withdrawal did 
not mean that the Chinese people "have forsaken 
their international duty to the Korean people." 
These words, coming from a regime which has re- 
peatedly refused to forswear the use of force as an 
instrument of its foreign policy, carry ominous 
military implications. 

Already, since the armistice, United Nations 
troops in Korea have been greatly reduced. They 
include two United States divisions, a Turkish 
brigade, a Thai companj', and small liaison groups 
from other countries. As the Communists have 
been told many times, the United Nations members 
are prepared to withdraw their remaining forces 
from Korea when conditions for a lasting settle- 
ment have been fulfilled. A withdrawal under 
present conditions could lead to onlj^ one solution 
of the Korean question — Communist conquest. 

Question of U.N. Competence 

2. I now come to the second Communist con- 
tention — that tlie United Nations is a mere "bel- 
ligerent" in Korea and has thus "lost all com- 
petence and moral authority to deal fairly with the 
Korean question." 



22 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Even for the Chinese Communists, tliis state- 
ment is a masterpiece of ofVrontery. It is as if a 
policeman who liiiil come to quell a riot should be 
told by the chief rioter, "You have no authority 
here — you're just another rioter." 

If this contention wei-e to be accepted, we would 
have to give up all ideas of justice in the affaire 
of nations. We would have to admit that the him- 
tlreds of thousands of deaths and wounds borne by 
I'uited Nations soldiers in Korea, including large 
numbers of soldiers of my own country, had been 
su tiered for the sake of an illusion. 

The only possible rejoinder to such an outra- 
geous statement is to reassert the principle re- 
peatedly endoreed by the General Assembly: 

The United Nations, under its Charter, is fully and 
rightfully empowered to take collective action to repel 
aggression, to restore jieace and security, and to extend 
its good offices to seeking a peaceful settlement in Korea. 

^'■Xentral Nations Supervision''' of Elections 

3. Finally we come to the third Communist pro- 
posal — all-Korean elections to take place at some 
time after the protection of United Nations troops 
liad been removed and to be held imder the super- 
vision of a "neutral nations organization.'* 

If what the Communists want is genuinely 
neutral supervision^in other words, impartial 
supervision — that impartiality could easily be 
found among the 82 membere of the United Na- 
tions, who have arranged for supervision of more 
than one election. But the Communists arbi- 
trarily rule out the United Nations and call for 
supervision by so-called "neutral nations." 

When tlie Communists chose this phrase they 
must have thought the United Nations had a very 
short memory. We have already had experience 
of "neutral nations supervision" in Korea, which, 
I should point out, in fact consisted of two genuuie 
neutrals and two Communist members. In actual 
operation the Commmiist members have been any- 
thing but neutral. As a consequence the Commis- 
sion has been unable to fill the role intended by the 
Armistice Agreement. 

It is this past experience which is our only guide 
in interpreting the phrase "neutral nations" in 
t he new Communist proposals. It is hard to avoid 
the conclusion, in pondering this stubborn Com- 
munist i^sistance to fi-ee elections, that the au- 
thorities in control of north Korea are afraid to 
let the people in north Korea express their true 
feelings in an honest vote. 



After the most careful examination of those 
three Connnunist propo.sals, the United Nations 
has Ix'cn unable to find anything in them which 
suggests a concession or a willingness to reach a 
reasonable settlement. The proposals are not 
concessions at all; they are simply one-sided 
demands. 

U.S. Sponsors Resolution Embodying U.N. Principles 

In such circumstances, ilr. Chairman, the 
United States believes that the wise course for the 
United Nations is to stand fast on tlie principles 
which we have supported from the beginning and 
which we Ivnow to be right : 

First, the right — and, in fact, the duty — of the 
United Nations to seek a just settlement of the 
Korean question in harmony with the principles 
of the charter and to extend its good offices for 
that purpose ; 

Second, the requirement of genuinely free elec- 
tions throughout Korea, to be held under United 
Nations supervision, and the election of a na- 
tional assembly in which representation shall be 
directly proportionate to the indigenous popula- 
tion in all parts of Korea. 

These principles are once again embodied in a 
draft i-esolution which will be submitted to this 
committee.^ The United States is sponsoring this 
draft, together with other members. We urge its 
adoption as the wisest course ojjen to the General 
Assembly at this time. 

The Cause of a Free and United Korea 

Mr. Chairman, I conclude. Wlien an injustice 
is long continued and when the perpetrator of the 
injustice is stubborn, those who have upheld jus- 
tice may be tempted to grow weary of the struggle. 
They may also attribute to the ofi'ender far more 
control over the forces of history than he actually 
possesses. And naturally that is what the offender 
hopes will happen. 

Yet in fact the cause of a fre« and united Korea 
is a lively cause. The Republic of Korea is a go- 
ing concern. The devastation of war is largely 
repaired. As the latest report of the United Na- 
tions Commission for the Unification and Rehabili- 



' U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.245 ; adopted In Committee I on 
Nov. 27 by a vote of 49 to 9, with 19 abstentions. 



January 4, ?960 



23 



Resolution on the Korean Question ' 

The General AssemWy, 

Having received the report of the United Na- 
tions Coiniuission for the Unification and Rehabili- 
tation of Korea, 

Reaffinning its resolutions 112 (II) of 1-1 No- 
vember 1947, 195 (III) of 12 December 1948, 293 
(IV) of 21 October 1949, 376 (V) of 7 October 1950, 
811 (IX) of 11 December 1954, 910 A (X) of 29 
November 1955, 1010 (XI) of 11 January 1957, 
1180 (XII) of 29 November 1957 and 1264 (XIII) 
of 14 November 1958, 

Rioting that, despite the exchange of correspond- 
ence between the communist authorities concerned 
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland on behalf of the Governments of 
countries which have contributed forces to the 
United Nations Command in Korea, in which these 
Governments expressed their sincere desire to see 
a lasting settlement of the Korean question in ac- 
cordance with United Nations resolutions and their 
willingness to exi)lore any measures designed to 
bring about reunification on this basis, the com- 
munist authorities continue to refuse to co-operate 
with the United Nations in bringing about the 
peaceful and democratic solution of the Korean 
problem. 

Regretting that the communist authorities con- 
tinue to deny the competence and authority of the 
United Nations to deal with the Korean question, 
claiming that any resolution on this question adopted 
by the United Nations is null and void, 

Noting further that the United Nations forces 
which were sent to Korea in accordance with reso- 



lutions of the United Nations have for the greater 
part already been withdrawn, and that the Govern- 
ments concerned are prepared to withdraw their 
remaining forces from Korea when the conditions 
for a lasting settlement laid down by the General 
Assembly have been fulfilled, 

1. Reaffirms that the objectives of the United Na- 
tions in Korea are to bring about, by peaceful means, 
the establishment of a unified, independent and 
democratic Korea under a representative form of 
government, and the full restoration of interna- 
tional peace and security in the area ; 

2. Calls upon the communist authorities con- 
cerned to accept these established United Nations 
objectives in order to achieve a settlement in Korea 
based on the fundamental principles for unification 
set forth by the nations participating on behalf of 
the United Nations in the Korean Political Confer- 
ence held at Geneva in 1954, and reaflirmed by the 
General Assembly, and to agree at an early date on 
the holding of genuinely free elections in accordance 
with the principles endorsed by the Assembly ; 

3. Requests the United Nations Commission for 
the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea to con- 
tinue its work in accordance with the relevant reso- 
lutions of the General Assembly ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to place the 
Korean question on the provisional agenda of the 
fifteenth session of the General Assembly. 



'U.N. doc. A/RES/1455(XIV) (A/C.l/L.a45) ; 
adopted In plenary session on Dec. 9 by a vote of 
54 to 9, with 17 abstentions. 



tatioit of Korea ^ clearly shows, its economy is ex- 
panding and improving in spite of the handicaps 
of the division of the country. It has had political 
controversies, but its citizens have also a civil and 
religious freedom which does not exist in north 
Korea. The morale and courage of the people in 
the Republic of Korea continue high. The support 
of the United Nations, including the forces of the 
United Nations Command which still stand guard, 
remains firm and unwavering. The recognition 
of 40 states of the free world, membership in 9 
United Nations specialized agencies, and the sup- 
port of tlie vast majority for the Republic of Ko- 
rea's membership in the United Nations itself, 
show how this young nation has established itself 
in the family of nations. 



' U.N. doc. A/4187/Corr. 1. 



We cannot tell what stresses exist behind tlie 
screen of Conmuinist secrecy in north Korea. It is 
perfectly obvious that the people in that part of the 
country, under Communist rule, are far worse off 
than in the south and that they yearn for freedom. 

I do not for a moment suggest that the working 
of these forces will quickly make the Communists 
change their stand. Their strength and their 
rigidity are obvious. But I do suggest that the 
long-range prospects of the Republic of Korea are 
good. I^et us of the United Nations do nothing to 
dim those prospects. Let us not bexjome tired of 
true principles merely because the problem before 
us is not ripe for a solution. The time will come, 
as it has come in many other cases of justice long 
deferred in many parts of the world. What is 
essential is that the supporters of justice shall keep 
faith with their principles. 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



Never was this fidelity to principle more neces- 
sary for the United Nations than in the case of 
Korea, in which the United Nations has had an 
active responsibility from the beginning. If wo 
remain true to the charter in our stewardship of 
the Korean question, we will find that in tltis case, 
too, there is no more powerful force working in the 
minds of men than the desire for a future of free- 
dom and justice. 

Let us keep that future open for the Korean 
nation. 



Development Toward Independence 
in the Trust Territories 

Statement by Clement J. Zdblocki 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

The President of the 13th session of the General 
Assembly vei-y aptly labeled the deliberations 
over which he had presided as "the African 
session." As members recall, the 13th session 
continued over into the spring of 1959 and 
reached important decisions on the Cameroons 
under French and United Kingdom administra- 
tions. With this in mind, it would seem to my 
delegation that the 14th session could appropri- 
ately be called the "second African session." 
Certainly most of our thoughts, words, and 
efforts this year have been directed to the second 
largest continent, which is developing so rapidly 
and from which the forebears of so many dis- 
tinguished American citizens have originated. 

Mr. Chairman, the report of the Trusteesliip 
Council,^ which we have before us, is a truly his- 
toric document. For the very last time we meet 
here to discuss a report wliich includes Cameroun 
under French administration, Togoland under 
French administration, and SomalUand under 
Italian administration. Next year representatives 
of these countries will be sitting among us, con- 
tributing to our discussion of developments in 
Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi, the only re- 
maining trust territories in Africa other than the 
British Cameroons. My delegation has already 
congratulated representatives of the three trust 



' Made in Committee IV (Trusteeship) on Xov. 11 
(U.S. delegation press release 328C) . 
' U.N. doc. A/4100. 



territories, as well as those of the Administering 
Authorities, on the attainment of tlie ol)jectiviM 
of the international trusteeship system, and my 
Government is looking forward to i-eafHrniing our 
sentunents in a more formal manjier on tlio dates 
when Cameroun, Togo, and Somalia join the 
ranks of free and independent nations. 

Independence of Africa 

I would like at this time to point out again 
that the progressive development toward inde- 
pendence or self-government in Africa is one 
which the American people applaud whole- 
heartedly. As a people we have always been un- 
easy when the freedom of others has been en- 
trusted to us, if only because of our own history 
and traditions. We have, therefore, consequently 
attempted to bring the territories for which we 
have been responsible as quickly as possible to 
full self-government. The American people are, 
I believe, peculiarly fitted to understand tlie 
aspirations for freedom of other peoples. The 
history of the United States is in a very real 
sense the story of the contribution of successive 
mmority groups, who came here to escape tyranny 
or poverty, spent at times a difficult period of 
adjustment, and finally emerged as fully equal 
and valued members of our society. 

Mr. Chairman, we believe the issue of self- 
government in Africa is, in the main, one whicli 
does not di^-ide the peoples of the West. Tliere is 
division on methods and timing but not on objec- 
tives. We believe the record of progress, reflected 
in the composition and attitude of this committee, 
speaks for itself. 

Moreover, sir, I doubt that the central issue 
of independence of dependent territories divides 
this committee as deeply as might be thought by 
a casual observer. Some believe progress toward 
independence cannot be too rapid; others that 
haste has its inherent dangers. And yet it is 
surprising how often, on essentials, this commit- 
tee adopts resolutions by overwhelming majorities. 

Of course we must add somewhat woefully 
that we have made haste slowly in the committee 
this year. Nevertheless we continue to hope that 
this situation will soon be remedied in a series of 
productive night sessions. 

I would now like to turn to specific trust 
territories. 



January 4, 1960 



25 



Cameroun 

111 less than 53 clays, Mr. Chairman, Cameroun 
under French administration will become fully 
independent. We hope this happy occasion will 
be the signal for full national reconciliation. 
However, it is difficult in the extreme to bring 
together a government, the custodian of civil 
order, and an external opposition determined to 
use force to achieve its objectives. My delegation 
believes that the framework of present laws in 
Cameroun permits any citizen of good faith to re- 
turn and seek elective offic*. We think the 
course of the elections held on April 12, which 
resulted in the election, among others, of Mr. 
[Theodore] Mayi-Matip, is fair and reasonable 
proof of this proposition. It is our most earnest 
hope that resort to violence shall cease and that 
all elements of the population will see the enor- 
mous advantage of working together for the good 
of their country. 

Mr. Mayi-Matip is with us today. We would 
have been only too happy to welcome here as 
well the Prime Minister of Cameroun, Mr. [Ama- 
dou] Ahidjo. However, it is, of course, obvious 
that the Prime Minister must give precedence to 
liis country's preparations for independence. In 
any event Mr. Ahidjo could not have had more 
able and effective spokesmen than the distin- 
guished delegate of France, Mr. [Jacques] 
Koscziusko-Morizet, and the eminent poet, states- 
man, and parliamentarian [Leopold Sedar Seng- 
hor] who is President of the Assembly of Mali. 
We would like to thank Mr. Koscziusko-Morizet 
and Mr. Senghor for their extremely valuable 
contributions to this debate. 

Togoland 

My delegation also welcomed the contribution 
of Mr. Paulin Freitas, Minister of State for Inte- 
rior, Information, and the Press of the Republic 
of Togo. The information ho brings us is wel- 
come, particularly with regard to recent political 
developments. On the other hand we regret that 
applications for assistance made under the Ex- 
panded Program of Technical Assistance have not 
been satisfied more rapidly, and we will support 
his suggestion that the committee lend its moral 
authority to reinforce these requests of the Gov- 
ernment of Togoland. 

Mr. Chairman, I am sure that many delegates 
have felt keenly the absence here, for the first time 



in many years, of Prime Minister Sylvanus Olym- 
pio. I hope Mr. Paulin Freitas will take back 
with him a sense of the deep affection we all have 
for his country and for its distinguished Prime 
Minister. 

Somaliland 

Fortunately imminent independence for Somali- 
land has not deprived us of old friends. We are 
pleased to see among us, as members of the Italian 
delegation, the Minister of National Economy, 
Haji Farrah, and his colleagues from Somalia. 
My delegation was very much interested in the 
infonnative statement delivered by the distin- 
guished delegate of Italy, my good friend Mr. 
[Girolamo] Vitelli, Vice President of the Trustee- 
ship Council. 

We all realize, Sir. Chairman, that Somalia will 
enter independent life with formidable problems. 
Despite this, we are confident that one of the two 
most serious problems, that of economic aid, has 
been solved, as the statement by the Italian dele- 
gate made clear, by offers already made by Italy, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. My 
delegation has also noted with satisfaction that the 
Government of the United Arab Republic, tlirough 
its representative on the Trusteesliip Council, 
offered to continue grantmg scholarships to 
Somalia after independence and to supply doctors 
and other experts. 

The other basic problem facing Somalia con- 
stitutes a separate item on our agenda, and I will 
therefore not comment on it in any detail at this 
time. In brief, it is highly desirable that the trust 
territoi-y — and indeed a trust territory with a 
very special status — should acliieve independence 
with its frontiers clearly define-d. 

The problem of the unsettled frontier becomes 
all the more acute as the result of the desire of 
the inhabitants of the territory, as expressed by a 
resolution adopted by the Legislative Assembly of 
Somalia on August 25, IDSO,' to achieve independ- 
ence earlier than foreseen by the trusteeship agree- 
ment. We hope the General Assembly will raise 
no objection to the realization of this desire 
through an appropriate resolution.* 



' For text, see U.N. doc. A/4262. 

' For text of a resolution conperning plans for proclama- 
tion of Somalia's indepondenee on July 1, 1960, which 
was unanimou.sly adopted by the General Assembly on 
Dec. 5, see TI.N. doc. A/4:?20 (draft resolution X). 



26 



Department of Sfofe BuUetin 



Tanganyika 

Mr. C'luunnan, we luive listened with great in- 
tei'est to the information supplied to the coinmitfeo 
by the distinfjuished dcle<;ato of tlie United King- 
dom. Wo hope the committt>e will take tlie occa- 
sion alTordcd by the pi-esent debate to congratulate 
the Administering Authority for its achievements 
during the past year. F'or its part, my delegation 
would like to reiterate the words of the U.S. Rep- 
resentative to the Trusteeship Council,' who .said 
on February C, 1959, that the United States 

. . . has high hoites thnt the fluni chapters in the de- 
pendent life of Tanganyika will be as successful as they 
have been in other territories which have been so succes.s- 
fiilly administered by the British Government. 

Developments which have taken place since the 
Trusteeship Council discussed Tanganyika have 
only added to these hopes. We have already ap- 
plauded the st^itement in October 1958 by Gov- 
ernor Sir Richard Tunibull that, when self-gov- 
ernment is attained, the legislative and executive 
sides of the government are likely to be predom- 
inantly African. We believe the surest giiarantee 
of the rights and interests of the "minoritj' com- 
mimities" is the good will of the majority and 
the realization by all groups that self-interest 
dictates the closest continued cooperation. The 
constitution of a Council of Ministers on July 1, 
1959, with elected imoiEcials ^ is certainly a step 
which can only increase mutual confidence and 
good will. Similarly the results of the two-stage 
elections ending in February of this year have 
also contributed to the great spirit of coopera- 
tion wliich appears to exist in the ten-itory. 

Mr. Chairman, I have already mentioned the 
jirofound and happy impact on developments in 
Tanganyika of Governor Sir Richard Tunibull; 
I would like to add a word of praise for the other 
partner in tliis fruitful dialog. The Tanganyika 
African National Union is one of the largest and 
most effective political organizations in Africa; 
it is also one of the most realistic and ably led 
political groups on the continent. The leader of 
TANU, Mr. Julius Nyerere, who is well known in 
the United Nations, has shown statesmanship of a 

' For a statement by Mason Sears, see BtJixETiN of Mar. 
9. 19.-)0, p. S'A. 

' The term "unofficial" refers to council members who 
may be appointed or elected, primarily to represent 
Indigenous population!}. 



high order, which augurs well for the future of 

his country. 

Ruanda-Urundi 

It, had been the intention of my delegation to 
comment in some detail on developments in the 
other remaining African trust territory, Ruanda- 
Urundi under Belgian administration. In view 
of the fact that an important policy pronounce- 
ment is expected shortly from the Belgian Gov- 
ernment, my delegation will not comment now but 
may return to this subject at a later date. 

Questions of policy aside, my delegation would 
like to pay tribute to the lucid and sympathetic 
analysis of conditions in the territory given us 
yesterday by the distinguished delegate of Bel- 
gium, Governor [A.] Claeys Bouuaert. Few men 
know the territory as well as he does or have a 
more liberal approach to its problems. We all 
understand that what he called the "ethnicosocial 
structure"' of Ruanda-Urundi is likely to compli- 
cate development in all fields. My Government 
believes that the Administering Authority is doing 
its best to facilitate a smooth transition from a 
quasi-feudal to a modern social order, but we know 
that difficulties are bound to arise. We hope that 
everyone concerned, starting with the peoples of 
the territory and including the members of this 
committee, will do nothing to exacerbate existing 
and possible future difficulties. 

Pacific Territories 

Turning to the trust territories in the Pacific 
area which come under the supervision of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, I wish merely to comment on our 
pleasure at hearing the statement made a few days 
ago by the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Mr. 
Walter Nash. Our deliberations were graced by 
his presence, and the information he has given us 
is heartening. 

We concur wholeheartedly with the Prime Min- 
ister's statement that Western Samoa "has made 
amazing progress since 1945." If that progress 
has on occasion appeared somewhat unbalanced, 
in that primary stress was given political rather 
than economic and educational development, we 
were jjleased to learn that efforts are now being 
made to accelerate progress in tlie other two fields. 
The progress achieved has made it possible finally 
to establish a tentative timetable for the termina- 
tion of trusteeship. 



January 4, 1960 



27 



Postindependence Aid to Trust Territories 

Mr. Chairman, I do not wish to comment in any 
greater detail on the report of the TriLsteeship 
Coiuicil. My Government participates fully in the 
work of the Council, and we have already com- 
mented fully on developments in each of the trust 
territories. 

Before concluding, I would like to state briefly 
our views on the statement made before this com- 
mittee on Thursday [November 5] by the dis- 
tinguished President of the Trusteeship Coimcil, 
Ambassador [Max H.] Dorsinville of Haiti. No 
one in recent years has contributed more to the 
work of the Council or of this committee. Am- 
bassador Dorsinville informally proposed the crea- 
tion of a "small conmiittee" to study, together 
with the United Nations Secretariat and the secre- 
tariats of the specialized agencies, means of bring- 
ing assistance, if they request it, to the former 
trust territories. The results of this study would 
be communicated to the 15th session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

I am sure that no one will misunderstand the 
meaning of this proposal. Trust territories, when 
they achieve independence, are in exactly the same 
juridical category as any other sovereign state. As 
we understand the distinguished delegate of Haiti, 
however, the United Nations will continue to have 
a special interest and even moral responsibility to 
assist former trust territories if they should re- 
quest such assistance. We believe this view is 
sound; developments in the trust territories cer- 
tainly have been profoimdly influenced by recom- 
mendations of the Trusteeship Council and the 
General Assembly. The United Nations therefore 
is in some degi-ee responsible for the conditions 
under which tiiist territories achieve independ- 
ence. 

Our difficulties with this proposal are of another 
order entirely. If a study gTOup is to report to the 
15th session, almost a full, crucial year will have 
passed before the needs of several of the trust 
territories can be dealt with. We would prefer 
to see effective action taken as rapidly as possible. 
My delegation would support a resolution inviting 
the Secretary-General to appoint higli-ranking 
economic experts to a.ssist the newly independent 
states, formerly trust territories, if they so desire, 
to plan and coordinate their development pro- 
grams. We realize that the Secretary-Greneral is 
already empowered to do this. However, a resolu- 

28 



tion to this effect would be a concrete expression ■ 
of the Assembly's desires in this matter, which 
would facilitate the Secretary-General's task in a • 
field where demands for assistance needs far out- 
weigh the means available.^ 

At the same time we believe that existing facili- 
ties of the United Nations might be more fully 
utilized by the emerging trust territories. We 
would hope that the emerging trust territories 
might take advantage of United Nations facilities 
at the earliest opportmiity, so that when these 
countries attain independence they will have readi- 
ly available to them on a continuing basis the 
counsel of experienced specialists already on the 
spot. 

Mr. Chairman, that is what I have to say at 
this stage of the debate. As long as all the Ad- 
ministering Authorities have not spoken and pe- 
titionere continue to be heard, my delegation de- 
sires to reserve the right to speak again on some 
of these specific subjects, if it should find it 
necessaiy. 



The Responsibility of Aiding 
tiie World's Refugees 

Statement hy James G. Fulton 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

This is a pleasant and a heartwarming occasion. 
Here are the peoples of the world accepting respon- 
sibility for something that is on the world's con- 
science. The refugees are looking today to see 
what we are doing about it. I would say that, f i-om 
my point of view, it is a very hopeful occasion. 
As I look around and see the nations that are here, 
I want to compliment the people who have repre- 
sentatives of their governments pi-esent on this 
pleasant occasion and to compliment the ones that 
are increasing their contributions, because it is 
a hopeful sign. 

I believe that we should have the world a good 



' For text of a resolution sponsored by the United States 
on assistance to territories emerging from a trust status 
and newly independent states, see U.N. doc. A/4320 (draft 
resolution VII). The resolution was unanimou.sly adopted 
in plenary session on Dec. 5. 

1 Made at the U.N. Pledging Conference for Extra- 
Budgetary Funds on Dec. 10 (U.S. delegation press re- 
lease 3342). 

liGpat^men\ of State Bulletin 



world not only for the settled peoples of the 
world, no matter where they are, but for these un- 
settled people. These refugee families should 
be able to have the same progress, security, and 
hope as the rest of us. 

I have always been interested in refugees per- 
sonally. As a Member of the United States Con- 
gress, I was — in the SOth Congress, some time 
ago — the chairman of the Subcommittee for Ref- 
ugees of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. I 
think it is alwaj's interesting to hear people who 
have had personal experience. After "\\\)rld War 
II on several occasions during several years, I 
have been in more than a hundred refugee camps 
of all types, sizes, and descriptions. And I am 
one of that great body of the American people that 
have opened their homes and have sponsored refu- 
gees. As a matter of fact I have a refugee who 
works with me here this morning, a fine young 
person who is ambitious. They are the kind of 
people that live up to what we want in the world. 
I would say to you they are a resource of the 
world that we should not overlook. They are not 
only a human resource, but they are an industrial 
and a people's resource. For example, in the 
United States of America I am veiy glad to report 
to you that the refugee population, the new United 
States citizens taken from this group, are our most 
law-abiding group of citizens. Secondly, they 
are the healthiest group of our citizens, and, I 
might say, they are certainly an active group. 

Today we have the opportunity to show by 
deeds — by money contributions from each of our 
peoples— the concern felt by all peoples of con- 
science and good will for these refugees. 

This is World Refugee Year. It is therefore 
fitting that each country here represented make a 
real effort to help. Our United States people wel- 
come this help and welcome the cliance to join 
with all of you in helping to pro\nde it. 

I am reminded of a Polish proverb that has al- 
ways had a great influence on me, and that is the 
old proverb that says about a village that, if every- 
body will sweep his own doorstep, the whole 
town will be clean. 

If we all do our share on this, we will be able to 
have a clean world, a clean town, and clean refu- 
gee camps, because the refugees will have been 
provided homes. We must provide permanent 
homes for the refugees who are homeless through 
no fault of their own. We must make special ef- 



forts to work toward permanent solutions of these 
problems, and we must intensify our programs of 
international assistance to meet immediate needs. 



U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees 

I turn now to the United Nations Relief and 
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees. 

It is with pleasure that I am able to announce 
on behalf of the United States Government a 
pledge of $23 million on behalf of the American 
people to UNRWA for the fiscal year period end- 
ing on June 30, 1960. This pledge is for the relief 
and rehabilitation progranxs which have now been 
combined in one budget. Payments against this 
pledge will as heretofore be made to an extent nof 
to exceed 70 percent of the total government con- 
tributions to UNRWA. I believe we American 
people are doing our share in this regard. 

In past years the United States has provided 70 
percent of UNRWA's governmental contributions. 
This proportion of contribution by the United 
States must be considered for the present, and it 
must be for present purposes rather than a per- 
manent fixed arrangement. We feel that it should 
not be considered a commitment on future pro- 
portions Ijecause those will be made in the good 
judgment of our Government and our people. 
The United States believes that with the renewed 
life of UNRWA for another 3 years,^ it is timely 
to suggest that a substantially increased portion 
of the costs for the continuation of the agency's 
support to Palestine refugees should be borne in 
the future by other members of the United 
Nations. 

We hope that more peoples can through the 
governments of member states give more in pro- 
portion to their resources. We member states 
must search our o^vn consciences in the knowl- 
edge that a million human beings are in very real 
need. 

In planning for the years immediately ahead I 
would like to undei-score a vital consideration. 
The food, shelter, and medical needs of the Pales- 
tine refugees have first call on the funds available 
to the Agency. After tliese needs are satisfied, 
whatever funds may be left are allocated to voca- 
tional training and scholarsliip programs as well 
as self-support projects of various types. These 
are the veiy programs that give hope for a pro- 



' See p. 31. 



January 4, I960 



29 



ductive fiitui-e to the refugees, particularly to 
the majority of the refugees who are children and 
ambitious young people. Due to lack of funds 
these jjrograms have been moving in starts and 
suspensions. They have been drastically reduced 
and at times practically abandoned. With the 
Palestine refugee population increasing by over 
30,000 each year, as births outnmnber deaths, the 
f mids to continue and expand these forward-look- 
ing programs become more and more essential. 
Thus greater contributions are needed, and the 
United States urges all member states to join in 
contributing generously to this worthy cause. 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 

I would like to turn to the program of the 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 

The United States has been deeply gratified to 
obseiwe the constructive and energetic measures 
which the High Commissioner has adopted in 
carrying out his programs of aid to the refugees 
imder his care. His tireless efforts and the high 
goals he has set have intensified the interest and 
activities of many governments and peoples and 
of many voluntary organizations in this impor- 
tant year for world refugees. We should not 
overlook the voluntary organizations of people 
and groups in many of our countries. 

I am pleased to announce a United States 
pledge of $1,100,000 toward the High Commis- 
sioner's regular i^rogram for 1960. This sum will 
be made available, as in the past, to the extent it 
represents no more than 33l^ percent of the total 
contributions made by goverimients to that 
program. 

In addition the United States has allocated 
$1,070,000 to special projects which the High 
Commissioner has undertaken or plans to under- 
take this year in connection with World Refugee 
Year, which I would like to speak about in a little 
more detail. 

World Refugee Year 

I would like to stress that the United States 
Government is intensely interested in assuring the 
success of tiie World Refugee Year. President 
Eisenhower has issued a special proclamation " to 
the American people calling for a far-reaching 
effort on the part of organizations and citizens 



to acliieve its purposes. The United States has 
pledged special contributions of $4 million toward 
the purposes of the World Refugee Year over 
and above its regular yearly contributions of some 
$40 million to various refugee programs. These 
additional contributions are being administered 
either through the High Commissioner's Office, 
as I have already indicated, or through other gov- 
ernmental channels, or through voluntary agen- 
cies with long expei'ience in the administration 
of refugee and assistance programs. 

I should point out to you that not all people 
of the United States are well to do and that these 
contributions are coming from our taxpayers big 
and little, large and small, and many of them ai^e 
very hard-working people, so that it comes out of 
their family budgets. 

To mention a few examples of programs that 
have been helped by the United States Govern- 
ment this year as part of the World Refugee 
Year: 

—$600,000 has been made available to the High 
Commissioner as an additional contribution for 
the camp-clearance program. 

— $100,000 for refugees of Greek ethnic origin. 

— $600,000 has been made available to assist the 
rehabilitation of European refugees living out- 
side of camps in Europe, to be administered 
through voluntary agencies. 

— A sum of $800,000 has been contributed for 
European refugees arriving in Hong Kong from 
the mainland of China. $730,000 of this is to be 
administered by the Intergovernmental Commit- 
tee for European Migration and $70,000 by the 
High Commissioner. 

—Another $800,000 has been allocated for 
Chinese refugees in Hong Kong and Macau, to 
be administered by the Hong Kong colonial gov- 
ernment and by established vohmtary agencies. 

— Another contribution of $300,000 has been 
made available to the High Commissioner for the 
relief of Algerian refugees in Tunis and Morocco. 
This cash sum is in addition to contributions of 
agricultural commodities for emergency relief for 
Algerian i-efugees, amounting in value, over a 
2-year period, to $7 million. 

Recent legislation passed by tlie United States 
Congress,* of which I am a member, has provided 



' For text, see Bulletin of June 15, 1959, p. 875. 



30 



* For au article on "Immigration Legislation, 19.50" by 
Frank L. Auerbach, see ibid., Oct. 26, 1959, p. 600. 

Department of State Bulletin 



for tlie entry into the United States of some 61,000 
pei-sons on a nonquota basis, and from 4,00(1 to 
12,000 visjis are expiH'loil to ho. issued to relatives 
of pei-sons previously admitted under earlier refu- 
gee legislation. The United States Congress has 
extended legislation whereby refugees sutlering 
from tuberculosis may join close relatives in the 
United States, as well as legislation allowing for 
the admission of orphans and adopted children. 
These are measures which will directly benefit 
some of the most unfoi-tnnate cases among the 
refugees. I am particularly pleased to hear rep- 
resentatives this morning speak of their expanded 
efforts and how they are taking care of some of 
the most unfortunate cases. 

The programs of nongovernmental organiza- 
tions in the "World Refugee Year within the 
United States have also gone forward vigorously. 
The fine United States Committee for Refugees, 
formed just a year ago, has brought together 
prominent civic-minded citizens from all sections 
of American life in this worthy effort.^ The com- 
mittee is working in close coordination with the 
many American voluntary agencies traditionally 
successful and active in rendering heart-warming 
refugee assistance. These programs over the years 
have made immeasurable contributions in terms of 
effort and resources in the cause of refugees. A 
target goal of $20 million has been established for 
contributions from our United States private citi- 
zens over and above the sums normally being 
contributed. 

Activities on behalf of refugees undertaken 
during the World Refugee Year are a cause of 
great satisfaction to us, and we want to share 
those with the other peoples whose representatives 
are here today. These activities should not result 
in undue optimism or complacency. "We know the 
"World Refugee Year cannot solve all refugee 
problems. Its major potential, though, is in re- 
ducing human suffering and increasing human 
hope, and these are certain goals that can be 
achieved. Its greatest value lies in the fact that 
the World Refugee Year is a symbol of the con- 
certed desire and will of peoples of friendly na- 
tions to continue and to intensify their efforts to 
help the millions of refugees throughout the world 
who are now patiently waiting with their families 
for pennanent homes. These families are suffer- 

'For background, see ibid.. May 18, 1959, p. 709, and 
June 1.5, 1959, p. 872. 



ing from loss of ordinary opportunities for a con- 
structi\e life and even for existence on decent 
levels. 

Our combined effoi-ts of the nations will go far 
to solve their basic human problems. However, 
the best efforts of all of us are es.sential if wo 
are to begin to meet these pressing human needs. 
We in our United States delegation— and may I 
on behalf of the American people— ask you to join 
with us in helping make this a good and under- 
standing world, with security and progress for the 
refugees, too. 



U.N. Votes To Continue Assistance 
to Palestine Refugees 

Following are two statements made in the Spe- 
cial Political Committee by Virgil M. Tlancher^ 
U.S. Representative to the General Assembly, dur- 
ing debate on the U.N. Relief and Works Agency 
for Palestine Refugees in the Near East {UN- 
RWA), together with the text of a resolution 
adopted in plenary session on December 9. 

STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 20 

U.S. delegation press release 3300 

I have asked for the floor today to make a few 
general remarks in the hope that they will con- 
tribute in a positive way to the further develop- 
ment of this debate. In doing so, I wish to reserve 
the right to inteiwene again at a later stage. 

Before turning to the item on our agenda, Mr. 
Chairman, I would like to express on behalf of 
the United States Government our profound shock 
and regret at the tragic death of Mr. Leslie Carver 
[Acting Director of UNRWA]. His unstinted 
devotion to the cause of the United Nations con- 
stituted service of the highest order. He will be 
sorely missed. 

The debate which has been initiated in this com- 
mittee on the Palestine refugee problem, a debate 
which has been going on for 11 years, now pro- 
vides each member with an unusual opportunity — 
indeed, an awesome challenge — to contribute to 
the best possible decision with respect to the future 
welfare of the one million Arab refugees. The lot 
of these individuals, about half of whom are chil- 
dren or adolescents, and their future should be 



January 4, 1960 



31 



uppermost in our miiids as the debate proceeds. 

Over the last decade this problem has been ex- 
amined and reexamined. A nmnber of those ex- 
aminations have tended more to generate or re- 
charge emotions than to stimulate reasoned 
responses. In the interest of the refugees them- 
selves, and in the interests of stability and prog- 
ress in the Near East, it is important that we — 
all of us — face the facts of this grave situation in 
a constructive spirit. The United States delega- 
tion is impressed with the relatively moderate tone 
of most of the statements we have heard thus far 
in the committee. 

UNRWA's mandate is due to expire on June 30 
of next year. At the same time we are faced 
with a relentless increase — more than 30,000 annu- 
ally — in the number of refugees. An inescapable 
corollary is that the already very heavy costs and 
responsibilities will continue to increase if some 
progress is not made promptly on the fundamental 
elements of the problems. 

No Real Progress Yet Made 

We have before us two reports. At the request 
of the last General Assembly the Secretary-Gen- 
eral has prepared a report entitled "Proposals for 
the Continuation of United Nations Assistance 
for the Palestine Refugees." ^ We all owe him a 
debt of gratitude for the effort and imagination 
which have gone into that report. Certainly the 
Secretaiy-General's report merits our careful 
study. While we cannot subscribe to all of the 
recommendations it contains, we do believe that 
there are several, such as rectification of the relief 
rolls, which, if implemented, would be appropri- 
ate and would promote the interest of the refugees. 

We have also given careful consideration to the 
annual report of the Director of the agency ^ con- 
cerning the operations and activities of UNRWA 
during the past year and setting forth the antici- 
pated budgetary requirements for the duration of 
the mandate, as well as for the care of the refugees 
during the remainder of 1960. 

On tho basis of these reports and a review of 
the liistory of this issue, we can see the clear out- 
lines of the problem as it exists today. And it is 
with deep regret that we must conclude that no 
real progress has been made toward a f luidamental 



solution of the refugee problem. I think everyone 
here will agree with this conclusion. My delega- 
tion believes that the cause of the refugees them- 
selves is best served by lookhig ahead. We 
recognize fully that this is an extremely complex 
problem and a solution is not easy. We do not 
pretend to have a pat answer. However, assum- 
ing that all concerned endeavor to approach this 
problem i-ationally and with a degree of i-ecep- 
tivity to constructive ideas, progress can be made. 

Tlie United Nations Relief and Works Agency, 
for lack of funds and other reasons, has unfortu- 
nately been able really to perform only the "relief" 
part of its mandate. Tlais year's report of the Di- 
rector, like those of his predecessors, states that 
there has been little or no progress in the ex- 
tremely important "works" aspects of the Agency's 
responsibilities. 

'Wlien the U.N. agreed to extend the life of the 
agency 5 years ago,^ it was expected that some 
progress would be made during the ensuing period 
in relaabilitating the refugees and helping them to 
become self-supporting. The United States at 
tliat time made clear its expectation that progress 
would be achieved on large-scale projects designed 
to benefit the refugees and the countries concerned. 
We have noted with regret that such expectations 
have not been realized. Only a few programs 
have been implemented. I am referring particu- 
larly to the vocational training programs. These 
programs liave proved eminently successful, but 
unfortimately only a very limited number of ref- 
ugees have benefited from them. 

In the past the United States has earnestly tried 
to help the parties principally concerned to find 
a satisfactory solution. In August of 1955 the 
late Secretary of State, Jolin Foster Dulles, pro- 
posed that the refugees be enabled to resume a 
life of dignity and self-respect through repa- 
triation or resettlement.* He pledged that the 
United States would support some form of inter- 
national loan which would facilitate Israel's pay- 
ment of compensatioi\ to those refugees choosing 
resettlement and tliat the United States would 
contribute to a realization of development proj- 
ects. President Eisenhower in 1957 reaffirmed 



' U.N. doc. A/4121 and Corr. 1. 
' U.N. doc. A/4213. 



' For U.S. statements nnd text of resolution, see Buir 
LETIN of .Ian. 3, l<.)r,-,. p. 24. 
' Jhid., Sept. 5, 1955, p. 378. 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



these proposals.' Tliis interest of the Umted 
States Government and of its citizens in the care 
and in the future \vell-boin<j; and happiness of the 
Palestine refugees remains undiminished. 

The United Stat<>s is fully aware that the Pales- 
tine refugee problem is unlikely to be solved by 
the time UNRWA's mandate expires. We are 
fully aware that intoniutional sup])ort for these 
refugees undoubtedly must continue after June 
30, 1960. 

U.S. Urges Constructive Action 

Having said these things, I should like to say 
also that action limited to the mere extension of 
UNRTVA's mandate is not, in our judgment, a 
satisfactory way to serve the long-term interests 
of the refugees. There should be something more 
than this. Surely it is not unreasonable to hope 
that other constructive steps may also be taken. 

We must not allow ourselves to despair of hope 
for progress. We must not consign a million per- 
sons to indefinite subsistence living, almost de- 
void of possibilities for taking useful and self- 
supporting roles in society. My Government 
believes that the present is, perhaps, a unique 
opportimity for clear reaffirmation, on the part of 
governments most, dii-ectly concerned and all other 
states motivated by peaceful and humane inten- 
tions, that something constructive can and will be 
done about this problem. We would hope that 
friendly candor and wise imagination would play 
the dominant roles in this discussion. 

We trust that from this committee's delibera- 
tions will come realistic suggestions as to how 
progress toward the ultimate i-esolution of this 
refugee problem can be insured. We welcome the 
constructive spirit with which delegations such as 
Ceylon and India have approached this debate. 
We shall continue to give sympathetic considera- 
tion to any suggestion, whether related to the 
PCC [Palestine Conciliation Commission], a new 
commission, or any other possibility, which might 
help move us toward a resolution of the problem. 
We also welcome the timely reminder by the dis- 
tinguished delegate of India that the General As- 
sembly has consistently held to the principle that 
the I'alestine refugees be given a choice of repatri- 
ation or compensation. 



The United States, as one of the major contrib- 
utoi-s to the relief of the Palestine refugees tiius 
far, certainly would welcome consideration of 
sincere and constructive proposals from any quar- 
ter. We favor fuller examination and amplilica- 
tion of various proposals which iiave already Ix'en 
made, especially of the indications of growing 
willingness to make new attcmjits to solve some 
of the divisive questions of the Near East. We are 
hopeful that still more specific recommendations 
will be heard in the course of tiie debate. The 
United States will always do its part in any 
United Nations effort which has as its goal a 
brighter future for the Palestine refugees. 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 7 

U.S. delegaUon press release 3335 

As you are aware, discussions have been taking 
place outside the committee during the past week 
on a resolution dealing with Palestine refugees. 
I am pleased to say that the revised resolution 
which has been tabled by the distinguished rep- 
resentatives of Pakistan and Indonesia " has the 
full support of the United States. While it lacks 
certain provisions that my delegation would like 
to have seen included, this resolution adequately 
reflects those progressive elements on which we 
believe general agreement could be reached at this 
juncture. 

I will comment only briefly on the details of the 
text. However, I do wish to point out that it 
represents a compromise and, as such, a delicate 
balance which we trust will not be upset by the 
discussions here today. 

We believe that the extension of tlie Agency's 
mandate for 3 years is realistic. The United 
States is pai-ticularly pleased that this resolution 
calls for appropriate action with regard to the 
pressing need for a rectification of the relief rolls. 

It is the sincere hope and intention of the United 
States, as a member of the PCC, that in its further 
etTorts tlie Commission will seek the just and 
peaceful implementation of paragraph 11 of Reso- 
lution 19i (III) and will find that the states 
principally concerned are willing to face the prob- 
lem in a spirit of acconunodation. It should not 
be overlooked that the PCC already has done 
much constructive work in identifying and evalu- 



° For text of President Eisenhower's message to Con- 
gress on the Middle East, see ibid., Jan. 21, 1957, p. 83. 



• U.N. doc. A/SPC/L. 38/Rev. 1. 



January 4, I960 



33 



ating the properties left by some of the Palestine 
refugees. 

We are hopeful that the good wishes of all mem- 
ber states -will go to the PCC in its further search 
for realistic and constructive forward steps. 

In concluding these brief remarks let me obsei-ve 
that the general tenor of tliis debate has indicated 
the great desire of the majority of United Nations 
members to do something positive, to do some- 
thing promptly, about this problem. The United 
States is convinced that something can be done. 
We must not allow ourselves to fall into an atti- 
tude of listless resignation. It is therefore our 
hope that during the coming months members 
will actively assist, in every appropriate way, in 
the search for a just and peaceful solution. My 
delegation also fervently hopes that member states 
will underline the support, so widely voiced here, 
for tlie continuation of UNRWA by substantially 
increased pledges of financial support for the 
Agency. 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION ' 

The General Asscmbl!/, 

Recalling its resolutions 194 (III) of 11 December 1948, 
302 (IV) of 8 December 1949, 393 (V) of 2 December 1950, 
513 (VI) of 26 January 1952, 614 (VII) of 6 November 
19.52, 720 (VIII) of 27 November 19.53, 818 (IX) of 4 De- 
cember 1954, 916 (X) of 3 December 19.55, 1018 (XI) of 
28 February 1957, 1191 (XII) of 12 December 1957, and 
1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, 

'Noting the annual report of the Director of the United 
Nations Relief and Works Agency, in particular the ex- 
piration of the Agency's mandate on 30 June 1960, 

Noting the recommendation of the Secretary-General 
and the Director of the Agency for the continuation of 
the Agency, 

Noting iiith deep regret that repatriation or compen- 
sation of the refugees, as provided for in paragraph 11 of 
General Assembly resolution 194 (III) has not been 
effected, and that no substantial progress has been made 
in the programme endorsed in paragraph 2 of resolution 
513 (VI) for the reintegration of refugees either by repa- 
triation or resettlement and that, therefore, the situation 
of the refugees continues to be a matter of serious concern, 

Ilainng reviewed the budget and noting with concern 
that contributions from Member States are not sufficient, 

Recalling that the Agency, as a subsidiary organ of the 
United Nations, enjoys the benefits of the Convention on 
the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, 

1. Decides to e.xtend the mandate of the United Nations 
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 



'A/RES/14.56(XIV) (A/SPC/L.SS/Rev. 1) ; adopted in 
plenary session on Dec. 9 by a vote of 80-0-1 (Israel). 



Near East for a period of three years veith a review at 
the end of two years ; 

2. Requests the Governments concerned to co-operate 
with the Agency in efforts to rectify the situation described 
in paragraphs 17 and 18 of the Director's report ; 

3. Requests the Director of the Agency to arrange with 
the host Governments the best means of giving effect to 
the proposals contained in paragraph 47 of his report ; 

4. Requests the Palestine Conciliation Commission to 
make further efforts to secure the implementation of 
paragraph 11 of General Assembly resolution 194 (III) ; 

5. Directs attention to the precarious financial iwsition 
of the Agency and urges Governments to consider to what 
extent they can contribute or increase their contributions 
so that the Agency can carry out its programmes ; 

6. Directs the Agency to continue its programme of 
relief for the refugees, and, in so far as is financially 
possible expand its programme of self-support and voca- 
tional training; 

7. Expresses its thanks to the Director and the staff 
of the Agency for their continued faithful efforts to carry 
out the mandate of the Agency, and to the specialized 
agencies and the many private organizations for their 
valuable and continuing work in assisting the refugees. 



United Nations Proclaims Declaration 
of Rights of Child 

FoUowing is a statement rrwde in Committee 
HI {Social, HimrMnitarian, and Cultural) on Sep- 
tember 28 hy Charles W. Anderson, Jr., U.S. Rep- 
resentative to the General Assemhly, together with 
the text of the Declaration of the Rights of the 
Child proclmmed in plenary session on November 
20. 



STATEMENT BY MR. ANDERSON 

U.S. delegation press release 3230 

Tlie question of the Draft Declaration of the 
Eights of the Child has already been considered in 
the United Nations for many years — by the Social 
Commission, the Economic and Social Council, and 
the Commission on Human Rights. Tliere has 
finally emerged the draft declaration which the 
2Sth session of the Economic and Social Council 
has transmitted for our consideration.^ 

The drafting of tliis declaration has taken a 
good deal of time and has, as Ambassador L<)pez 
[Salvador P. Lopez, Pliilippines] pointed out at 
our last meeting [September 25], already involved 
tlie ellorts of 28 nations. I am liopcful Ihat it will 



' U.N. doc. E/3229, chapter VII, par. 197. 



34 



Department of Sfofe Buffefi'n 



be possible for this coininitt<H» to complete consid- 
eration of the declaration at this session. 

In my view the declaration does not raise such 
problems as to make the goal of its early comple- 
tion unattainable. The statements which were 
made last Friday underline the basic agreement 
which exists among us on this point. And cer- 
tainly we are all agreed on the importance of the 
declaration itself. It seems to me, therefore, that 
the Third Committee, in having the opportunity 
to complete the declaration this j'ear, can make a 
tremendous contribution to the betterment of the 
world's children. Moreover, to complete the dec- 
laration at this session can only reflect great credit 
upon the Third Committee itself and upon the 
General Assembly as a whole. 

The Geneva Declaration of the Eights of the 
Child, adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, 
was the first collective expression by the world 
connnunity of its concern for children. It was to 
bring this declaration up to date that the Social 
Commission of the United Nations undertook its 
reexamination in 1947. Tlie 1924 declaration was 
short and concise. These are qualities which we 
feel might be maintamed. The draft declaration 
which has been transmitted to us by the Economic 
and Social Council contains all the basic elements 
relating to the well-being of children. It has not, 
however, succeeded in retaining the qualities of 
brevity and conciseness which we would like to see. 
A declaration should contain principles only, and 
these principles should be set fortli in simple, clear 
langujige which can be easily understood by every- 
one. These principles should not be obscured by 
a detailed elaboration of the application of each 
principle. 

Madam Chairman, my delegation can in fact 
accept the Draft Declaration of the Eights of the 
Child in the form it has been transmitted to us. 
We shall, nevertheless, give careful consideration 
to those proposals made by other delegations with 
I view to arriving at as clear and concise an ex- 
pression as possible of the principles now embodied 
in that declaration. My distinguislied colleague 
from the United Kingdom, Lady Petri e, alluded 
lust Friday to the statement made before the 28th 
session of the Council by Miss Moser of the Inter- 
national Union for Child Welfare. Miss Moser, 
you will recall, said that the draft declaration now 
before us is six times longer than the 1924 Geneva 
declaration. Slie went on to say that the value of 

January 4, I960 



the 1924 declaration lay in its directness, brevity, 
and acceptability. In associating ourselves with 
the views expressed by the United Kingdom dele- 
gate and Miss Moser, wo remain confident that it 
will be possible for this committee to arrive at a 
text which will both universally commend itself 
for the thoughts whicli it embodies and for the 
clarity with which these thoughts are expressed. 

Eleven years ago the General Assembly adopted 
the Universal Declaration of Human Eights. 
That declaration took a long time in drafting and 
was not adopted without a good deal of debate. 
At that time there wei-e those, Madam Chainnan, 
who deprecated the value of that declaration on 
the basis that, since it was no more than a declara- 
tion and therefore had no legally binding force 
on member states, it would not be of any practical ' 
use. The short history of the Universal Declara- 
tion of Himian Eights has proven these views to 
be mistaken. The Universal Declaration of Hu- 
man Eights, altliough of course not binding in 
law on states members, has had an influence ex- 
ceeding perhaps even the highest expectations of 
those who were its most ardent advocates. The 
declaration has served both as an example and as 
a goal. But, more than that, it has also been in- 
corporated in the constitutions of several coun- 
tries represented in this chamber. It has served 
as a model for national legislation. It has even 
been cited in court decisions. In sum, the Univer- 
sal Declaration of Human Eights has been a very 
powerful influence in advancing human rights in 
many countries. 

Madam Chairman, there can be no question as 
to the contribution such a declaration as the Draft 
Declaration of the Eights of the Child can make. 
Fii-st, adopting it, we can reaffirm the fundamental 
conviction of all of us that mankind owes the 
child the best it can give. Second, having seen 
the moral impact on the world which the Uni%'ei"sal 
Declaration of Human Eights has had, we can 
reasonably hope that the draft declaration can 
reinforce some of the principles contained in the 
Universal Declaration of Human Eights. And 
finally, in time to come, like the Universal Decla- 
ration, the Draft Declaration of the Eights of 
the Child will serve as a model for national legis- 
lation and as a guide for action to be taken on a 
national and local level with respect to the well- 
being of children. 

You can depend on the full cooperation of my 



35 



I- 



delegation, Madam Chairman, in reaching lan- 
guage which will be acceptable to all, concise, 
meaningful, and of which we can all be proud. 



morally, spiritually and socially in a healthy and normal 
manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity. In 
the enactment of laws for this purpose, the best interests 
of the child shall be the paramount consideration. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

Declaration of the Rights of the Child 
Preamhle 

"Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have, in the 
Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human 
rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, 
and have determined to promote social progress and better 
standards of life in larger freedom, 

Whereas the United Nations has, in the Universal Decla- 
ration of Human Rights, proclaimed that everyone is en- 
titled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, 
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, 
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or 
social origin, property, birth or other status, 

Whereas the child, by reason of his physical and mental 
immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including 
appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth. 

Whereas the need for such special safeguards has been 
stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the 
Child of 1924, and recognized in the Universal Declaration 
of Human Rights and in the statutes of specialized agen- 
cies and international organizations concerned with the 
welfare of children. 

Whereas mankind owes to the child the best it has to 
give, 

'Now therefore. 

The General AssemMy 

Proclaims this Declaration of the Rights of the Child 
to the end that he may have a happy childhood and enjoy 
for liis own good and for the good of society the rights 
and freedoms herein set forth, and calls ui)on parents, 
upon men and women as individuals, and upon voluntary 
organizations, local autliorities and national Governments 
to recognize these rights and strive for their observance 
by legislative and other measures progressively taken in 
accordance with the following principles : 

Principle 1 

The child shall enjoy all the rights set forth in this 
Declaration. Every child, without any exception what- 
soever, shall be entitled to these rights, without distinc- 
tion or discrimination on account of race, colour, sex, 
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or 
social origin, property, birth or other status, whether of 
himself or of his family. 

Principle 2 

The child shall enjoy special protection, and shall he 
given opportunities and facilities, by law and by other 
means, to enable him to develop physically, mentally. 



•U.N. doc. A/RES/138G (XIV), adopted unanijnously 
In plenary session on Nov. 20. 

36 



Principle S 

The child shall be entitled from his birth to a name and 
a nationality. 

Principle 4 

The child shall enjoy the benefits of social security. 
He shall be entitled to grow and develop in health ; to 
this end, special care and protection shall be provided 
both to him and to his mother, including adequate pre- 
natal and post-natal care. The child shall have the right 
to adequate nutrition, housing, recreation and medical 
services. 

Principle 5 

The child who is physically, mentally or socially handi- 
capped shall be given the special treatment, education 
and care required by his particular condition. 

Principle 6 

The child, for the full and harmonious development of 
his personality, needs love and understanding. He shall, 
wherever possible, grow up in the care and under the re- 
sponsibility of his parents, and, in any ca.se, in an atmos- 
phere of affection and of moral and material security ; a 
child of tender years shall not, save in exceptional cir- 
cumstances, be separated from his mother. Society and 
the public authorities shall have the duty to extend par- 
ticular care to children without a family and to those 
without adequate means of support. Payment of State 
and other assistance towards the maintenance of children 
of large families is desirable. 

Principle 7 

The child is entitled to receive education, which shall 
be free and compulsory, at least in the elementary stages. 
He shall be given an education which will promote his 
general culture, and enable him, on a basis of equal op- 
portunity, to develop his abilities, his individual judge- 
ment, and his sense of moral and .social responsibility, and 
to become a useful member of society. 

The best interests of tlie child shall be the guiding 
principle of those responsible for his education and guid- 
ance; that responsibility lies in the first place with his 
parents. 

The child .shall have full ojiportunity for play and recre- 
ation, which should he directed to the same purposes as 
education ; society and the public authorities shall en- 
deavour to promote the enjoyment of this right. 

Principle S 

The child shall in all circumstances be among the first 
to receive protection and relief. 

Principle 9 

The child shall be protected against all forms of neglect, 
cruelty and exploitation. He shall not be the subject of 
traffic, in any form. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



» 



Tilt' child slinll not be ailniitted to omployment before 
au apinopriate miiiiinuiu a^e; lie shall in no case be 
caused or permitted to engatje in any occnpation or em- 
ployment which would prejudice his health or education, 
or interfere with his physical, mental or moral develop- 
ment. 

Prinoiple 10 

The child shall be protected from practices which may 
foster racial, religious and any other form of discrimina- 
tion. He shall he hrouulit up in a spirit of understand- 
ing, tolerance, friendship among peoples, peace and 
universal brotherhood, and in full consciousness that his 
enerjiy and talents should be devoted to the service of 
his fellow men. 

Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ' 



Security Council 

Letter Dated 3 December 1959 From the Permanent Rep- 
resentative of Paliistan Addressed to the President of 
the Security CouncU Concerning Kashmir. S/4242. 
Deceml)er 3, 1959. 2 pp. 

General Assembly 

United Nations International School. Report by the Sec- 
retJiry-General. A/4293. November 21, 19.59. 14 pp. 

Budget Estimates for tJie Financial Year 1900. Revised 
estimates resulting from General Assembly resolution 
i;i7(> (XIV) of 17 November 1959 on the annual prog- 
ress report of the United Nations Scientific Committee 
on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for 1959. Twenty- 
ninth report of the AdvLsory Committee on Administra- 
tive and Budgetary Questions to the General Assembly 
at its 14th .session. A/4295. November 23, 1959. 3 pp. 

Budget Kstimates for the Financial Tear 19C0. Major 
maintenance and capital improvement programme at 
Headquarters. Thirtieth report of the Advisory Com- 
mittee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions to 
the General Assembly at its 14th session. A/4296. 
November 23, 1959. 3 pp. 

Proposed Amendments to Certain Provisions of the Pen- 
sion Scheme Regulations of the International Court of 
.Tustice. Report of the Fifth Committee. A/4297. 
November 24, 19.59. 4 pp. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1960. Section 
17. Social activities. Thirty-first report of the Ad- 
visory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions to the General Assembly at its 14th session 
A/4300. November 24, 1959. 21 pp. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 19C0. Depart- 
ment of Economic and Social Affairs: Organizational 
changes and review of internal procedures relating to 
the technical assistance programme. Thirty-second re- 
1 |>rt of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and 
budgetary Questions to the General Assembly at its 
14th session. A/4302. November 25, 1959. 7 pp. 

Question of Hungary. Report of the United Nations 
Special Representative. A/4304. November 25, 1959 
15 pp. 



Un ted Nations Emergency For<-e. Manner of finandnK 
the force : report of the Secretury-General on co.iHulta 
tions with governments of menilxT states, t'orriiren- 
dum. A/4170/Corr. 2. November 2.5, 19.59 i,, "'"*•'" 

Construction of the United Nations Building In Santi- 
ago, thde Reiiort of the Fifth (Vnnndttee. A/4300 
NovemlHT 30, 19,59. 4 pp. /'ow. 

The Korean Question : Report of the United Nations Com- 
mission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Ko- 

w-?n iTo' f '^^ ^'''■^' Committee. A/4307. Novem- 
i>er ,W, 1959. 5 pp. 

Supplementary Estimates for the Financial Year 1959 
dart II). Thirty-fourth report of Uie Advisory Com- 
mittee on .-Vdministrative and Budget4iry Questions to 
the General Assembly at its 14th session. A/4308 No- 
vember 30. 19.59. 3 pp. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 1960. Revised 
estimates in resi>ect of the fourteenUi session of the 
Commission on the Status of Women, to be held at 
Buenos Aires. Thirty-fifth report of the Advisorv Com- 
mittee on Administrative and BudgetJiry Questions to 
the General Assembly at its 14th session. A/4310 De- 
cember 1, 19.59. 2 pp. 

Reservations to Multilateral Conventions : the Convention 
on Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organi- 
zation. Report of the Sixth Committee. A/4311 De- 
cember 1, 1959. 13 pp. 

Economic Development of Under-developed Countries. 
Report by the Secretary-General on measures taken 
by the governments of member states to further the 
economic development of underdeveloped countries in 
accordance with General Assembly resolution 1316 
(XIII ) . Additional replies from governments— France 
A/4220/Add. 3. December 1, 1959. 22 pp. 

Report of the Trusteeship Council: Offers by Member 
States of Study and Training Facilities for Inhabitants 
of Trust Territories— Report of the Trustee.ship Coun- 
cil. Report of the Fourth Committee. A/4320. De- 
cember 3, 1959. 45 pp. 

Question of the Frontier Between the Trust Territory of 
SomalUand Under Italian Administration and Ethiopia. 
Report of the Ethiopian Government on the progress of 
the negotiations between the Governments of Ethiopia 
and Italy, with tie assistance of the independent person 
concerning tie terms of reference for arbitration as pro- 
vided in General As,sembly resolution 1345 (XIII) of 13 
December 1958. A/4323. Dec. 3, 1959. 44 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



1 nnted materials may be secured in the United States 
r<ia the International Documents Service, Columbia Unl- 
cisity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. Other 
iiatcrials (mimeographed or proce.ssed documents) may 
■I' consulted at certain libraries In the United States. 

fanuary 4, 1960 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention on road traflic, with annexes. Done at Geneva 
September 19, 1949. Entered into force March 26. 1952. 
TIAS 2487. 

Notification by United Kingdom of application (subject 
to a declaration) to: Malta, November 'Jii, 19.59. 

Finance 

Agreement establishing the Inter-American Development 

37 



Bank, with annexes. Done at Washington April 8, 1959.' 
Signed and acceptances deposited: Dominican Republic, 
Guatemala, Paraguay, December 16, 1959 ; Chile, De- 
cember 17, 1959. 

Property 

Convention for the protection of industrial property. 
Signed at London June 2, 1934. Entered into force 
Augu.st 1, 1938. 53 Stat. 1748. 
Adherence effective: Iran, December 16, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

Belgium 

Agreement amending annex B of the mutual defense as- 
sistance agreement of January 27, 1950 (TIAS 2010). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Brussels October 27 
and December 1, 1959. Entered into force December 1, 
19.59. 

Turkey 

Agreement for the establishment of a facility for repair- 
ing and rebuilding M-12 range finders in Turkey. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Ankara November 30, 
19.59. Entered into force November 30, 1959. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resident Consuls Assigned 
to Lusaka and Blantyre 

fresB release 860 dated December 16 

The Department of State announced on December 16 
that resident consuls will be assigned to Lusaka, North- 
ern Rhodesia, and to Blantyre, Nyasaland. In each 
case the resident consul will be a member of the staff 
of the consulate general at Salisbury. The resident 
consuls will be available to perform notarial and other 
consular services. The resident consul at Lusaka is ex- 
Ijected to arrive there in January 1960; the office of the 
resident consul at Blantyre is to be opened in February 
1960. 



Designations 

Richard Il.'illock Davis as Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for European Affairs, effective December 11. (For bio- 
graphic details, see Department of State press release 
803 dated December 16.) 

Frank K. Hefner as Deputy Director, Office of Inter- 
national Financial and Development Affairs, effective 
December 13. 

Charles H. Russell as Director, U.S. Operations Mis- 
sion, Paraguay, effective December 15. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release 857 dated 
Decenilior 15.) 



' Not in force. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, V.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, B.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ot' 
tained from the Department of State. 

The Republic of China. Pub. 6844. Far Eastern Series 
81. 63 pp. 25((. 

This pamphlet is a description of the present territorial 
base of free China, its history, and its resource.?. It is 
an account of the progress made by the Republic of China j 
since 1949 and its prospects for the future. 

Mutual Security in Action— Viet-Nam. Pub. 6896. Far 
Eastern Series 83. 14 pp. 10^. 

A fact sheet discussing the country, government, economy, 
and the role of U.S. assistance. 

Mutual Security in Action — Jordan. Pub. 6897. Near 
and Middle Eastern Series 44. 10 pp. 10^. 

A fact sheet discussing the country, government, and the 
U.S. military and economic assistance programs. 

Mutual Security in Action — Turkey. Pub. 6898. Near 
and Middle Eastern Series 45. 16 pp. 10(}. 

A fact sheet discussing the country, government, economy, 
and U.S. military and economic assistance. 



Mutual Security in Action — the Philippines. 

Far Eastern Series 84. 12 pp. 10(^. 



Pub. 6908. 



38 



A fact sheet discussing the country, government, economy, 
and the role of U.S. assistance. 

Mutual Security in Action — India. Pub. 6910. Near and 
Middle Eastern Series 46. 20 pp. 100. 

A fact sheet discussing the country and its people, gov- 
ernment, economy, and U.S. assistance. 

Mutual Security in Action — Spain. Pub. 6913. European 
and British Commonwealth Series 58. 14 pp. 100. 

A fact sheet discussing the country, history, government, 
economy, and the role of U.S. assistance. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4311. 5 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Brazil, amending agreement of December 31, 19,56, as 
corrected and amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at 
Washington September 2. 1959. Entered into force 
September 2, 1959. 

Surplus Property — Sale of Excess Military Property in 
Taiwan. TIAS 4312. 11 pp. 10^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
China. Exchange of notes — Signed at Taipei July 22, 
19.59. Entered into fiirce July 22, 19.59. 

Atomic Energ>'— Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4313. 
5 pp. 5tf. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
France, amending agreement of June 19, 19.56, as 
amended — Signed at Washington July 22, 1959. Entered 
Into force September 22, 1959. 

Department of Slafe Bulletin 



January 4, 1960 Index 



Vol. XLII, No. 1071 



38 
38 



38 



38 



Africa. Development Toward Independence in the 
Trust 'PeiTitorit's (Zablot'ki) 

Congress, The. Congrossionnl Documents Relating 
to Foreign Policy 

Czechoslovakia. U.S. Protests to Czechoslovakia 
on Anti-American Exhibit 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Davis, Hefner, Russell) 

Resident Consuls Assigned to Lu.saka and Blantyre 

Economic Affairs. Hefner designated deputy di- 
rector. Office of International Financial and De- 
velopment Afl"airs 

Educational Exchange. Importance of Cultural 
Ties in Franco-American Alliance (Dillon) . . 

Europe. Davis designated deputy assistant secre- 
tary for European affairs 

France. Importance of Cultural Ties in Franco- 
American Alliance (Dillon) 4 

Germany. U.S. Replies to Soviet Protest on Ger- 
man Draft Radio Legislation (texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes) 7 

Health, Education, and Welfare. United Nations 
Proclaims Declaration of Rights of Child (Ander- 
son, text of resolution) .34 

Hungary. U.N. Agrees To Take No Decision on 
Hmigarian Cretleutials (Lodge) 17 

International Organizations and Conferences. 

Calendar of International Conferences and 
Meetings 15 

Korea. U.N. ReatBrms Principles on Unification of 

Korea (Robertson, text of resolution) .... 18 

Middle East. U.N. Votes To Continue Assistance to 

Palestine Refugees (Rancher, text of resolution) 31 

Mutual Security. Russell designated director, 

USf>M, Paraguay 38 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Development To- 
ward Independence in the Trust Territories 
(Zablocki) 25 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North At- 
lantic Council Begins Ministerial Meeting (Her- 
ter, text of communique) 3 

Paraguay. Russell designated director, USOM . . 38 

Passports. New Nonimmigrant Visa Regulations 

(I'ryor) 9 

Publications. Recent Releases 38 

Refugees 

The Responsibility of Aiding the World's Refugees 

(Fulton) 28 

U.N. Votes To Continue Assistance to Palestine 
Refugees (Hancher, text of resolution) ... 31 

Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of. Resident 
Consuls Assigned to Lusaka and Blantyre . . 38 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 37 

r.S.S.R. U.S. Replies to Soviet Prote.st on German 
Draft Radio Legislation (texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes) 7 



United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 

The Responsibility of Aiding the World's Refugees 
(Fulton) 

U.N. Agrees To Take No Decision on Hungarian 
Credentials (Lodge) 

United N:itious Proclaims Deelaralion of Rights of 
Child (.Vnderson, text of resolution) .... 

U.N. Re.itlirms Principles on Unification of Korea 
(Robertson, text of resolution) 

U.N. Votes To Continue Assistance to Palestine 
RelugMs (Hancher, text of resolution) . . . 

Name Index 

Anderson, Charles W., .Jr 

Davis, Richard Hallock 

Dillon, Douglas 

Fulton, James G 

Hancher, Virgil M 

Hefner, Frank K 

Herter, Secretary 

Lotlge, Henry Cabot 

Pryor, Hallie Mae 

Robertson, Walter S 

Russell, Charles H 

Zablocki, Clement J 



37 
28 
17 
34 
18 
31 



34 
38, 

4 
28 
31 
38 

3 
17 

9 
18 
38 
25 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: December 14-20 


Press relef 


ises may be obtained from the Office of 


News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. | 


No. Date 


Subject 


855 12/15 


Note on anti-U.S. exhibit at Prague. 


t856 12/15 


U.S.-Iudia joint communique. 


*857 12/15 


Russell designated USOM director, 




Paraguay (biographic details). 


t858 12/15 


U.S.-Iran joint communique. 


859 12/15 


Dillon : Lafayette Gold Medal Award 




dinner. 


860 12/16 


Resident consuls assigned to Northern 




Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 


8G1 12/16 


Note to U.S.S.R. on German draft 




radio legislation. 


t862 12/16 


U.S. -Greece joint communique. 


*863 12/16 


Davis designated Deputy Assistant 




Secretary for European Affairs (bi- 




ographic details). 


1864 12/17 


U.S. -Tunisia joint comnumique. 


865 12/18 


North Atlantic Council communique. 


t8(i7 12/19 


Dillon : IBRD announcement of visits 




to India and Pakistan. 
;d. 


♦Not printc 


tHeld for 


a later issue of the Bulletin. 



U.S. COVERNMENT PRINTIN8 OFFICEi tSCO 



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DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D.C. 



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PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, S300 

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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



How Foreign Policy Is Made 



Who makes our foreign policy and how is it made? Who 
decides what tlie Nation shall do in its relations with the rest of 
the world and how are decisions reached? 

These questions are discussed in a new edition of the popular 
Department of State publication, How Foreign Policy Is Made, 
This short, illustrated pamphlet describes briefly and directly 

. . . the role of the President 

, . . the role of Congress 

. . . the role of the oflScial household 

. . . the composition and task of the National Security 
Coimcil 

. . . the functions and organization of the Department of 

State 

. . . the effect other nations may have on our policy making 

. . . the basic part played by our citizenry in determining 
foreign policy decisions 



PubUcation 6892 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



I 




I 




Vol. XLII, No. 1072 



January 11, 1960 




ITED STATES 
REiGN POLICY 



WESTERN HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT 

MEET AT PARIS • Texts of Communiques and Let- 
ter to Soviet Premier Khrushchev on East-West Summit 
Meeting 43 

NATO FOREIGN MINISTERS CONCLUDE MEETING 

AT PARIS • Text of Communique 44 

PRESIDENT EISENHOWER COMPLETES VISITS TO 
11 COUNTRIES IN EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST, 

SOUTH ASIA, AND AFRICA • Texts of Commu- 
niques and Major Addresses 40 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERA- 
TION IN SPACE EXPLORATION • by T. Keith 

Glennan ^" 

U.N. SETS UP NEW COMINIITTEE ON PEACEFUL 
USES OF OUTER SPACE; DECIDES TO CON- 
VENE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFER- 
ENCE • Statement by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge 
and Text of Resolution "4 

For index see inside back cover 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 i I960 



Vol. XLII, No. 1072 • Publication 6928 
January 11, 1960 



DEPOSITORY 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government I'rintlng OlBce 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Prick; 

62 Issues, domestic $8.60, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 2S cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Departmknt 
o» State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on de- 
velopments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions and on the tcork of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Foreign Service. 
The BULLETIN includes selected press 
releases on foreign policy, issued by 
the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made 
by the President and by the Secretary 
of State and other officers of the De- 
partment, as tvell as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
and tlie functions of the Department. 
Information is included concerning 
treaties and international agreements 
to which the United States is or may 
become a parly and treaties of general 
internationitl interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and leg- 
islative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Western Heads of State and Government Meet at Paris 



Following are texts of frco communiques issued 
at Paris an December 21 at the close of the meet- 
ing of the Heads of State and Government of 
France, Germany, the United Kingdo^n^ and the 
United States, lohich was held at Paris and. 
Raurnhvuillet December 19-21, together with the 
text of a letter from President Eisenhoioer to 
Soviet Premier Nihita S. Khrushchev, proposing 
an East-West stimmit meeting. 



SPECIAL COMMUNIQUE ON ECONOMIC SITUA- 
TION 

Press release 866 dated December 21 

The Heads of State and Government have dis- 
cussed the important changes tliat have taken 
place in the international economic situation. 
Kecotrnizing the great economic progress of West- 
em Europe, they have agreed that virtually all 
of the industrialized part of tlie free world is now 
in a position to devote its energies in increased 
measure to new and iniix>i-tant tasks of coopera- 
tive endeavor with the object of: (A) Furthering 
the development of the less developed countries, 
and (B) pursuing trade policies direct-ed to tlie 
sound use of economic resources and the mainte- 
nance of harmonious international relations, thus 
contributing to growth and stability in the world 
economy and to a general improvement in the 
standard of living. In their view these coopera- 
tive principles should also govern the discussions 
on commercial problems arising from the existence 
of European economic regional organizations, 
which are or will be constituted within the frame- 
work of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, such as the European Economic Com- 
munity and the European Free Trade Association. 
Their relations both with other countries and with 
each other should be discussed in this spirit. 

The Heads of State and Government, recog- 

ianiiaty 11, I960 



nizing that the metliod of furthering the.se prin- 
ciples requires intensive study, have agreed to 
call an informal meeting to be held in I'aris in 
the near future. They suggest that the membei's 
and participants of the Executive Committee of 
the OEEC [Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation] and the governments whose na- 
tionals are members of the Steering Board for 
Trade of the OEEC should be represented at 
this meeting. 

It is proposed that an objective of such a gi'oup 
should be to consider the need for and methods 
of continuing consultations dealing with the 
above-mentioned problems. 



FINAL COMMUNIQUE 

Presa release 869 dated December 21 

The President of the United States of America, 
the President of the French Republic, the Prime 
Minister of the United Kingdom and the Chan- 
cellor of the Federal Republic of Germany met in 
Paris and at Rambouillet on the 19th, 20th and 
21st of December, 1959 and exchanged views on 
various subjects of common interest. 

In the course of these meetings consideration 
was given to the views expressed by the member 
governments of the North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization at the meeting of the Council held in Paris 
from the 15th to the 17th of December.^ 

Among the subjects discussed were East-West 
relations, disarmament and problems relating to 
Germany including Berlin. On the last point the 
Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the 
principles set forth in the Four Power communi- 
que of December 1-1, 1958,'- and in the declaration 



' For toxt of a NATO communique of Dec. 17, see Bxji/- 
i.ETiN of Jan. 4, l!)."i9, p. 3. 
' For text, see ibUI., Dec. 29, 1058, p. 1041. 

43 



I- 



of the North Atlantic Council of December 16th, 
1958 on Berlin.^ 

The Heads of State and Government agreed on 
the desirability of a Four Power conference with 
the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The pur- 
pose of this conference would be to consider a 
number of questions of mutual concern. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower, General de Gaulle and Mr. Mac- 
millan have sent letters to Mr. Khrushchev pro- 
posing such a meeting beginning on the 27th of 
April in Paris. These letters were delivered in 
Moscow this morning. The texts are being im- 
mediately released. The Heads of State and 
Government have agreed on the procedures to be 
followed in preparation for the proposed meeting 
and have issued the necessary directives to this 
end. 

The North Atlantic Council will be informed 
of the results of the present conversations at the 
Ministerial meeting which will take place on the 
22nd of December, and the Council will be regu- 
larly consulted during the course of the prepara- 
tory work. 

The Heads of State and Government express the 
hope that the proposed conference will contribute 
to the strengthening of peace with justice. 



LETTER TO MR. KHRUSHCHEV ON EAST-WEST 
MEETING 

December 21, 1959 

Dear Mr. Chairman : As you are aware I have 
just met with President de Gaulle and Prime Min- 
ister Macmillan. Among the subjects we dis- 
cussed was the possibility of our having a meeting 
with you to consider international questions of 
mutual concern. 

We agreed that it would be desirable for the 
four Heads of State or Government to meet to- 
gether from time to time in each other's countries 
to discuss the main problems affecting the attain- 
ment of peace and stability in the world. I there- 
fore wish now to express my readiness to meet with 
you, President de Gaulle and Prime Minister 
Macmillan at the earliest feasible time. In view 
of the engagements of all of us, as tliey are known 
to me, we had thought that the opening date for 



the proposed conference could be April 27 and that 
Paris would be the most appropriate place for the 
first meeting. 

I very much hope that this proposal is accept- 
able to you. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



NATO Foreign IVIinisters 
Conclude Meeting at Paris 

Following is the text of a comynunique issued at 
Paris on Decemher 22 at the close of the final ses- 
sion of the Ministerial Meeting of the North 
Atlantic Council.^ 

Press release 871 dated December 22 

The North Atlantic Council completed its 
Ministerial Session on December 22. 

The Council heard an account by the Minister 
for Foreign AiJairs of France, speaking on behalf 
of the Governments of the United States, France, 
the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic 
of Germany, of the conclusions reached by the 
Heads of State and of Government during their 
discussions in Paris from the 19th to the 21st of 
December in regard to East-West relations. 
During the detailed discussions which followed, 
the Council recognized that the views expressed 
by the four Governments fully reflected those 
which had been expounded by its members on 
December 15th. The Council gives its full support 
to the position adopted by the four Governments. 

The Council takes note of the arrangements pro- j 
posed to the Soviet Government for the opening 
of negotiations in Paris in April. It agrees with 
the arrangements made to secure full consultation 
with all member Governments during the prepara- 
tion of these negotiations and undertakes to play 
a constructive part in ensuring their success. It 
instructed the Permanent Council to ensure that 
member Governments are informed and consulted, 
and to make the necessary arrangements to that 
end. 

The Council heard a report from the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs of Italy, on behalf of the five 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 5, 1959, p. 4. 



44 



' For text of a communique issued at the close of the 
first part of the Ministerial Meeting, see Bulletin of Jan. 
4, 1960, p. 3. 



DepattmeM of Sfofe Bulletin 



Western members of the Committee of Ton on 
Disarmament (Canada, France, Italy, the United 
Kingdom aiid tiio United States), regarding 
the decisions taiien by them. It agrees with 
tlie live Governments that March 15th sliould be 
proposed for the meeting of this Committee. It 
approves tiio arrangements made in regard to 
prior consultations, and instructs the Permanent 
Council, calling as it desires upon the NATO mili- 
tary authorities, to consider what further assist- 
ance it can give to the consideration of plans for 
controlled disarmament. 

Wliile welcoming the new prospects of negotia- 
tions and agreement, the Council thinks it neces- 
sary to reaflirm the principles whicli it set out in 
its statement on Berlin on the ICth of December, 
1958,^ and to emphasize once again that the Alli- 
ance must remain vigilant and strong. The Coun- 
cil sluires the hope of the Heads of State and of 
Government that the forthcoming conference will 
contribute to the strengthening of peace with 
justice. 



R. L. Dennison Appointed Supreme 
Allied Commander, Atlantic 

Following is the text of an amwuncement hy 
the North Atlantic Council ivhich was released 
hy the White House on December £3. 

The North Atlantic Council appointed Admiral 
Robert L. Dennison, United States Navy, as Su- 
preme Allied Commander, Atlantic, to succeed 
Admiral Jerauld Wright. The Council had been 
informed of the contents of a letter ^ from the 
President of the United States of America to 
the Secretary General of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization and Chairman of the Perma- 
nent Council, in which the President asked the 
member governments to agree to release Admiral 
Wright, who had requested retirement from the 
United States Navy on March 1, 1960. 

The Council agreed with great regret to release 
Admiral Wright from his assignment as Supreme 
Allied Commander, Atlantic, a position which he 
had held since being appointed by the Council on 
April 12, 1954. They expressed to Admiral 



AVright, in the name of the governments repr&- 
sented on the Council, lasting gratitude for the 
distinguished service rendered by him. 

The Council requested the President of the 
United States of America to nominate an officer 
of the United States Navy for appointment by the 
Council as Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, 
to succeed Admiral Wright. This request Wiis 
transmitted to the President of the United States, 
who informed the Council of his nomination of 
Admiral Dennison for consideration by the Coun- 
cil as successor to Admiral Wright. 

At its meeting the Council adopted a resolution 
appointing Admiral Dennison as Supreme Allied 
Commander, Atlantic, as successor to Admiral 
"Wright, with the same powers and functions. 
The appointment is to become ell'ective February 
29, 1960. 

Admiral Dennison is currently serving as Com- 
mander in Chief, United States Naval Forces, 
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, a position 
he has held since March 31, 1959. He previously 
served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations 
(Plans and Policy) and commanded the United 
States First Fleet. 



Western Foreign Ministers Propose 
Disarmament Meeting in March 

Following is the text of a communique issued at 
Paris on December 21 by the foreign ministers of 
Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States. 

Press release 886 dated December 30 

The Foreign Ministers of Canada, France, Italy, 
the United Kingdom and the United States met 
in Paris on December 21. These five countries are 
members of the 10-nation Disarmament Commit- 
tee, the formation of which wiis referred to in the 
communique issued on September 7, 1959,' by the 
Governments of France, the United Kingdom, 
the United States of America and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Eepublics. 

The five Foreign Ministers agreed that they 
would suggest to the other states members of the 



' For text, see Hid., Jan. .5, 1959, p. 4. 
' Not printed. 



' BUI.LETIN Of Sept. 28, 1959, p. 438. 



January 11, 1960 



45 



10-nation Disarmament Committee that the Com- 
mittee should begin its work on or about March 15, 
1960, at the agreed location, Geneva, subject to the 
agreement of the Swiss Government.'' They 
agreed to inform the Secretary General of the 
United Nations of this proposal. 
It was further agreed that the representatives of 



their governments should plan to convene at 
Washington in January to prepare for the meet- 
ing of the 10-nation Disarmament Committee. In 
the couree of their deliberations they will take into 
account the views of the North Atlantic Council 
which will be kept fully informed of the progress 
of their work. 



President Eisenhower Completes Visits to 11 Countries in Europe, 
Middle East, South Asia, and Africa 



President Eisenhower retv/rned to Washington 
on Deceviber 22 from, a 3 weeks' trif to Eu-rope, 
the Middle East, So^ith Asia, and Africa. At 
Paris the Presidetit attended a meeting of the 
Western Heads of State and Government Decem- 
her 19-21} 

For texts of communiques released following 
President Eisenhower's visits to Italy, Turkey, 
Pahistan, and Afghanistan, see Bulletin of Decem- 
ber 28, 1959, page 931. Following are texts of 
addresses he made in India, Iran, and Greece, to- 
gether with joint co7nm,uniques issued at the close 
of his visits in each of these countries and in 
Tunisia, Spain, and Morocco. 

ADDRESS TO INDIAN PARLIAMENT, 
NEW DELHI, DECEMBER 10 

White House (New Delhi), press release dated December 10 (as 
delivered text) 

It is with a sense of Iiigh distinction that I 
accepted the invitation to address you. I deem 
this a great personal honor and a bright symbol 
of the genuine friendship between the peoples you 
and I represent. 

I bring to this nation of 400 million assurance 
from my own people that they feel that the welfare 
of America is bound up with the welfare of India. 
America shares with India the deep desire to live 
in freedom, human dignity, and peace with 
justice. 

A new and great opportunity for tliat sort of 
life has been opened up to all men by the startling 

"VoT the ni.ixiiiitiiioiit of FrtKirick M. Katon us chair- 
man of the U.S. delegation, see ihid.. Dee. 21, l!).">i), p. 902. 
' See p. 43. 



46 



achievements of men of science d.uring recent 
decades. The issue placed squarely before us to- 
day is the purpose for which we use science. 

Before us we see long years of what can be a 
new era — mankind in each year reaping a richer 
liarvest from the fields of earth, gaining a moi"e 
sure mastery of elemental power for human bene- 
fit, sharing an expanding commerce in goods and 
in knowledge and wisdom, dwelling together in 
peace. 

But history portrays a world too often tragically 
divided by misgi\nng and mistrust and quarrel. 
Time and again govenm:ients have abused the 
fields of earth by staining them with blood and 
scarring them with the weapons of war. They 
have used a scientific mastery over nature to win 
a dominance over others — even made commerce an 
instrument of exploitation. 

The most heartening, hopeful phenomenon in 
the world today is that people have experienced a 
great awakening. They se« the evils of the past 
as crimes against the moral law, injuring the of- 
fender as well as the victim. They recognize that 
only imder the rule of moral law can all of us 
realize our deepest and noblest asi)irations. 

One blunt question I put to you and to all — 
everyone, everywhere — who, like myself, share re- 
sponsibility assigned to us by our people: Must 
we continue to live with prejudices, practices, and 
policias that will condemn our children and our 
children's children to live helple.s,sly in the pattern 
of the past — awaiting possibly a time of war- 
borne obliteration ? 

We all fervently pray not. Indeed, there can 
be no statesmanship in any person of responsibility 
who does not concur in this worldwide prayer. 

Department of State Bulletin 



()vt>r iiKist of the cartli men and women are de- 
termhunl tliat llie conforenco Uble sliall replace the 
propajranda mill; international exchange of 
knowledge shall succeed the international trade 
in threats and accusations; and the fertile works 
of peace shall supplant the frenzied race in arma- 
ments of war. 

Moving Into a Better Era 

Our hope is that we are moving into a better 
era. For my part, I sliall do all I can, as one 
human working with other humans, to push 
toward peace, toward fi-eedoni, toward dignity and 
a wortliy future for every man and woman and 
child in tlie world. 

If we — and especially all those occupying posi- 
tions of re-sijonsibility — give all that is witliin us 
to this cause, the generations that follow us will 
call us blessed. Should we sliirk the task or 
pursue the ways of war — now become ways to 
annihilation and race suicide — there may be no 
generations to follow us. 

I come here representing a nation that wants not 
an acre of anotlier people's land; that seeks no 
control of another people's government ; that pur- 
sues no program of expansion in commerce or 
politics or power of any sort at another people's 
expense. It is a nation ready to cooperate toward 
achievement of mankind's deep, et-emal aspira- 
tions for peace and freedom. 

And I come here as a friend of India, speaking 
for 180 million friends of India. In fulfilling a 
desire of many years I pay, in pei-son, America's 
tribute to the Indian people, to their culture, to 
their progress, and to their strength among the 
independent nations. 

All humanity is in debt to this land. But we 
Americans have, with you, a special community of 
interest. You and we from our first days have 
sought, by national policy, the expansion of 
democracy. You and we, peopled by many strains 
and races speaking many tongues, worshipping in 
many ways, have each acliieved national strength 
out of diversity. And you and we never boast 
that ours is the only way. We are conscious of 
our weaknesses and our failings. We both seek 
the improvement and betterment of all our citi- 
zens by assuring that the state will serve, not mas- 
ter, its own people or any other people. Above 
all, our basic goals are the same. 

Ten years ago your distinguished Prime Min- 



ister [Jawaharlal Nehru], when I was his host at 
Columbia I'niversity in New York, said: 

I'olitlcal subjection, racial luequallty, economic 
misery— these are the evils we have to remove If we 
would assure peace. 

Our Republic, since its founding, has been com- 
mitted to a relentless, ceaseless fight agauist those 
same three evils: political .subjection, racial in- 
equality, economic misery. Not always has 
America enjoyed instant success in a particular 
attack on them. By no means has victory been 
won over them, and indeed complete victory can 
never be won so long as human nature is not trans- 
formed. But in my country, through almost 200 
years, our most revered leaders have been those 
who have exhorted us to give of our lives and our 
fortunes to the vanquishment of these evils. And 
in this effort for the good of all our people we 
shall not tire nor cease. 

Ten years have passed since Mr. Nehru spoke 
his words. The pessimist might say that not 
only do the three evils still infest the world — 
entrenched and manifold — but that they will 
never lose their virulence. And the future, he 
might conclude, will be a repetition of the past — 
the world stumbling from crisis in one place to 
crisis in another, given no respite from anxiety 
and tension, forever fearful that inevitably some 
aggression will blaze into global war. 

Thus might the pessimist speak. And were 
we to examine only the record of failure and 
frustration, we all would be compelled to agree 
with him. 

We Americans have known anxiety and suf- 
fering and tragedy, even in the decade just past. 
Tens of thousands of our families paid a heavy 
price that the United Nations and the rule of 
law might be sustained in the Republic of Korea. 
In millions of our homes there has been, in each, 
the vacant chair of absent men, a son who, per- 
forming his duty, gave some of the years of his 
youth that successful aggression might not come 
to pass. The news from near and distant places 
that has reached us in America through these 10 
yeai-s has been marked by a long series of harsh 
alarms. 

These alarms invariably had their .source in 
the aggressive intentions of an alien philosophy 
backed by greiit military strength. Faced with 
this fact, we in America have felt it necessary to 
make clear our own determination to resi-st ag- 
gression through the provision of adequate armed 



January 11, 7960 



47 



forces. These forces serve us and those of our 
friends and allies who, like us, have perceived 
the danger. But they so serve for defensive pur- 
poses only. In producing this strength we be- 
lieve we have made a necessary contribution to a 
stable peace, for the present and for the future 
as well. 

Historically and by instinct the United States 
has always repudiated and still repudiates the 
settlement by force of international issues and 
quarrels. Though we will do our best to provide 
for free-world security, we continue to urge the 
reduction of armaments on the basis of eifective 
reciprocal verification. 

And contrasting with some of our disappoint- 
ments of the past decade and the negative purposes 
of security establishments, Americans have par- 
ticipated also in triumphant works of world prog- 
ress, political, technical, and material. We believe 
these works support the concept of the dignity 
and freedom of man. These hearten America 
that the years ahead will be marked by like and 
greater works. And America watches with 
friendly concern the valiant efforts of other na- 
tions for a better life, particularly those who have 
newly achieved their independence. 

Tribute to Indian People 

Ten years ago India had just achieved independ- 
ence, wealthy in courage and determination but 
beset with problems of a scale and depth and num- 
bers scarcely paralleled in modern liistory. Not 
even the most optimistic of onlookers would then 
have predicted the success you have enjoyed. 

Today India speaks to the other nations of the 
world with greatness of conviction and is heard 
with greatness of respect. The near conclusion 
of her second 5-year program is proof that the 
difficulty of a problem is only the measure of its 
challenge to men and women of determined will. 
India is a triumph that offsets tlie world's failures 
of the past decade, a triumph that, as men read our 
history a century from now, may offset them all. 

India has paced and spurred and inspired men 
on other continents. I^et anyone take a map of 
the earth and. place on it a flag wherever political 
subjection has ended, racial prejudice been re- 
duced, economic misery at least paitially relieved 
during the pasl 10 years. He will find evidence 
in the cluster of these flags that the 10 years past 



may well have been the 10 most fruitful years in 
the age-old fight against the three evils. 

Because of these 10 years, today our feet are 
set on the road leading to a better life for all men. 

'V\niat blocks us that Ave do not move forward 
mstantly into an era of plenty and peace? 

The answer is obvious : We have not yet solved 
the problem of fear among the nations. The con- 
sequence is that not one government can exploit 
the resources of its own territory solely for the 
good of its people. 

Governments are burdened with sterile expendi- 
tures, preoccupied with attainment of a defensive 
military posture that grows less meaningful 
against today's weapons carriers. 

Much of the world is trapped in the same vicious 
circle. Weakness in arms often invites aggres- 
sion or subversion or externally manipulated revo- 
lutions. Fear inspired in others by the increasing 
militaiy strength of one nation spurs them to con- 
centrate still more of their resources on weapons 
and warlike measures. The arms race becomes 
more universal. Doubt as to the true purpose of 
these weapons intensifies tension. Peoples are 
robbed of opportunity for their own peaceful de- 
velopment. The hunger for a peace of justice 
and good will inevitably becomes more intense. 

Search for Disarmament 

Controlled, universal disarmament is the im- 
perative of our time. The demand for it by the 
hundreds of millions whose chief concern is the 
long future of themselves and their children will, 
I hope, become so universal and so insistent that 
no man, no government anywhere, can witlistand 
it. 

My Nation is committed to a ceaseless search 
for ways through which genuine disarmament 
can be reached. And my Government, even as I 
said more than 6 years ago, in April of 1953,^ still 
"is ready to ask its people to join with all nations 
in devoting a substantial percentage of the savings 
achieved by disarmament to a fund for world aid 
and reconstruction." 

But armaments of themselves do not cause wars; 
wars are caused by men. 

And men ai-e influenced by a fixation on the past, 
the dead past, witli all its abuses of power, its 
misuses of responsibility, all its futile convictions 
that force can solve any problem. 



' Bulletin of Apr. 27, 1953, p. 599. 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



In the name of Immanity, can wo not join in 
a o-year or a 50-year plan against mistrust 
and niisgivin<» imcl lixations on the wronjjs of tho 
past? Can we not apply ourselves to the re- 
moval or reduction of the causes of tension that 
exist in the world? All these are the creations 
of governments, cherished and nourished by gov- 
ernments. The peoples of the world would never 
feel them if they were given freedom from propa- 
ganda and pressure. 

Permit mo to cite two simple examples from my 
own experience. As President of the United 
States, I welcomed into our Union last year a new 
sovereign State — Hawaii — peopled by all the races 
of the e^irth, men and women of that new State 
having their ancestral homes in Asia and Africa 
and Europe, the two Americas, the islands of the 
earth. Those peoples are of every creed and color, 
yet they live together in neighborly friendliness, 
in mutual trust, and each can achieve his own 
good by helping achieve the good of all. 

Hawaii cries insistently to a divided world that 
all our differences of race and origin are less than 
the grand and indestructible unity of our common 
brotherhood. The world should take time to lis- 
ten with attentive ear to Hawaii. 

As president of Columbia University, every 
year we welcomed to its campus [young people] 
from every continent, from almost every nation 
that flew a flag — and some tribes and colonies not 
yet free. In particular there still lives in my 
memory, because of their eagerness and enthusi- 
asm for learning, the presence of hundreds of 
young people from India and China and Japan 
and the other Asian countries that studied among 
us, detaclied from any mutual prejudice or any 
fixation over past wrongs — indeed, these vices are 
not easily discernible among the young of any 
people. 

These two simple things from my own experi- 
ence convince me that much of the world's fear, 
suspicion, prejudices, can be obliterated. Men and 
women everywhere need only to lift up their eyes 
to the heights that can be achieved together and, 
ignoring what has been, push together for what 
can be. 

Xot one wrong of years ago that still rankles, 
not one problem that confronts us today, not one 
transitoiy profit that might be taken from an- 
other's weakness, should distract us from the pur- 
suit of a goal that dwarfs every problem and 
wrong of the past. 

January II, I960 



We have the strength and the means and the 
knowledge. May God inspire us to strive for the 
worldwide will and the wisdom that are now our 
first needs. 

In this great crusade, from the history of your 
own nation, I know India will ever be a leader. 

REMARKS AT AGRICULTURE FAIR, NEW DELHI, 
DECEMBER 11 

White House (New Delhi) press release dated December 11 (as 
delivered text) 

I am signally honored by the invitation to join 
President [Rajendra] Prasad at the opening of 
the World Agriculture Fair — the first such fair as 
this ever held. And it is entirely right that it be 
held here in India. For this nation recognizes in 
agriculture the fundamental occupation of man 
and the chief assurance of better living for its 
citizens. 

My own country was quick to accept when in- 
vited to participate in this historic event. And 
today I am particularly honored that India's Chief 
of State will be with me when, in a few minutes, 
I officially open the United States exhibit at the 
fair. Indeed, the occasion of this fair gave me 
the very fuiest reason I could think of to make 
this the time of the visit to India that I had long 
determined upon. 

At this American exhibit all visitors can see 
how we Americans have managed the soil of our 
land so that our people might live well for them- 
selves and have enough food left over to help 
others. Our way is not necessarily the best, even 
for us, but here we depict in the American exhibit 
American agriculture as it is. We do have a 
natural pride in what we have accomplished by a 
creative imion of human spirit, fertile earth, and 
inventive science. But, beyond this, we see in mod- 
ern agriculture a most effective instrument for a 
better life among all men. "Mela USA" points 
up its use for that high purpose. 

On the personal side, I visit this fair with keen 
interest. As a boy and young man I grew up in 
the heart of the American farmland. A long- 
held ambition during my professional years — not 
always too well concealed — has been to return to 
the farm. And I plan to be a farmer — when my 
present form of occupation comes to a close. So, 
I have a keen interest in spending a bit of time at 
this fair, where so many nations present their 
achievements in methods and techniques and ways 
of agriculture. I shall see here much that is new 
to me. Many of these things are probably im- 

49 



proveraents on what I have seen or done in the 
past, and I hope I am still not too old to learn. 

For a moment I hope you will indulge me as 
I suggest some thoughts on liow f ootl can help all 
of us achieve better lives in a world of justice and 
peace. 

Today we have the scientific capacity to abolish 
from the world at least this one evil; we can 
eliminate the hunger that emaciates the bodies of 
children, that scars the souls of their parents, that 
stirs the passions of those who toil endlessly and 
earn only scraps. 

Men, right now, possess the knowledge and the 
resources for a successful worldwide war against 
hunger — the sort of war that dignifies and exalts 
human beings. The different exhibits in this 
whole fair are clear proof of that statement. 

Theme of American Exhibit 

The call to that genuinely noble war is enun- 
ciated in tlie tlieme of the American exhibit: 
"Food — Family — Friendship — Freedom." 

Into these four words are compressed the daily 
needs, the high purposes, the deep feelings, the 
ageless aspirations that unite Indians and Ameri- 
cans under one banner — the banner of human 
dignity. 

Here are four words that are mightier than arms 
and bombs, miglitier tlian machines and money, 
mightier than any empire that ruled the past or 
tlireatens the future. 

Here are four words that can lift the souls of 
men to a high plane of mutual effort, sustained 
effort, the most rewarding effort that can be 
proposed to mankind. 

First — Food — that our bodies may be fit for 
every task and duty and service; our minds free 
from tlie fear of hunger; our eyes, undimmed by 
tlie tragedies of famine, searching out new hori- 
zons; our aspirations not frustrated by failure of 
crop or catastroplie of weather. 

Family — that in our homes there may be decent 
living and bright hope, cliildren no longer doomed 
to misei-y in peace and sudden death in war, their 
elders no longer biokon by want and sorrow 
beyond their control to mend or cure. 

Friendship — that among all the peoples of 
earth tlie darkness of ignorance and fear and 
distrust will dissolve in the light of knowledge 
and understanding. The time has come wlien we 



must all live together for our mutual betterment 
or we shall all suffer harsh, possibly the final, 
penalty. 

Freedom — that on all continents and islands of 
the earth every man and woman of good will and 
good life may make the proudest of human boasts : 
"I am free, slave to no tyranny imposed by other 
men, by the accident of birth, by the whims of 
circumstance." 

Presenting the Role of Agriculture 

The American exhibit at this fair presents the 
role we feel agriculture can play in furtherance of 
a healthy, fruitful, peaceful world where the 
families of all nations can live in freedom from 
fear of famine and war. 

In no wise whatsoever is the American exhibit 
an attempt to portray our agricultiu-e as 
superior to any other. Through centuries of liv- 
ing with the soil and streams, the environment and 
climate of their own lands, people have learned 
adjustments and adaptations peculiarly suited to 
their own circumstances. 

What we do present here are ways in which 
American farmere multiplied their productivity, 
the fertility of their fields, the vigor and the 
value of their livestock. 

In this exhibit visitors will see the teclmiques, 
the changes in old methods, the applications of 
new discoveries that have best served America's 
particular requirements. Modified to fit your 
needs and your circumstances, it is our hope that 
they might be of value to you. 

Of course, they cannot work miracles overnight, 
in any land. But, with each harvest, they may 
help to bring every people using them closer to a 
dependable self-sufficiency. 

Food for Peace 

Early this year, I set in motion a new program 
"to explore anew with other surplus-producing 
nations all pi'acf ical means of utilizing the various 
agricultural surpluses of each in the interest of 
reinforcing peace and the well-being of friendly 
peoples througliovit the world — in short, using 
food for peace."' •' 



' For text of Prosidont Eisenhower's siwcial message to 
Congress on agricuUnre, see II. I)oo. 5'.), 8Cth Cong., 1st 
sess. ; for an address on food for ix>ai'e by Don Paarlberg, 
SiJecial Assistant to the President, see Bulleti.n of Nov. 
!). 1!)59, p. 672. 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



In keeping with this program my Government 
iind the (iovernment of India liave been working 
together. Whatever strengt liens India, my people 
are convinced, strengt liens us, a sister republic 
dedicated to peace. This great nation of 400 mil- 
lion people, rich in culture and history, courageous 
in the re,soIve to l)e free and strong, is a mighty 
influence for an enduring and just peace in the 
world. And this is true of every nation so 
courageous, so determined, so insjiired as is India. 

With them we shall continue to cooperate to 
achieve a world free from the pangs of hunger, in 
which families live full and prosperous lives, 
where friendship among nations replaces fear and 
suspicion, and ^\ here men are free in the pursuit 
of happiness. 

TJKUik you for the great honor you have done 
me bv invitinjr me here. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, NEW DELHI, 
DECEMBER 14 

Press release 856 dated December 15 

At the invitation of the Government of India, 
the President of the United States of America 
paid a visit to India, lasting from December 9 to 
14. President Eisenhower received on his arrival 
in New Delhi a warm and cordial welcome, marked 
by popular enthusiasm and gooti will. Througli- 
out his staj' and wherever he went, these friendly 
manifestations of good will were repeated by mil- 
lions of Delhi citizens and others who had come 
to Delhi to join in this welcome. 

During his strenuous four-day visit, President 
Eisenhower fulfilled a number of public engage- 
ments. He addressed members of the Indian 
Parliament, received an honorary doctorate of 
laws from the University of Delhi, participated in 
the inauguration of the World Agriculture Fair, 
attended a civic reception on behalf of the city of 
Delhi and visited rural areas near Agra. In thus 
fulfilling a desire of many years, the President was 
deeply touched by the warmth of the welcome ex- 
tended to him by the people of India, by the gen- 
erous hospitality of the Government and the 
excellence of the arrangements made for him. 

The President was impressed by the vitality of 
India's democratic institutions, of Parliament, 
press and university, and by India's strength of 
spirit combined with practical idealism. He saw 



how India, like the United States, has created na- 
tional strength out of diversity, neither country 
boasting that tiieirs is the only way. He confinned 
the bond of shared ideals i)etween India and the 
ITnited States, their identity of objectives, and 
their common quest for just and lasting peace. 

President Eisenhower met tlie Pre,sident of 
India, the Prime Minister and other members of 
the Government of India. He and the Prime Min- 
ister had intimate talks in wliicli tliey reviewed 
the world situation and exchanged views on mat- 
ters of mutual interest. Among other things, the 
President told the Prime .Minister tliat he was 
happy to report to him that all the leaders of the 
countries he had visited during liis recent jouniey 
had expressed to him the hope tluit [jrobleins in- 
volving one form or another of conflict of interest 
or views could be solved by peaceful methods of 
conciliation. He said that this was true in Italy, 
Turkey, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The Presi- 
dent found this heartening and in harmony with 
his own thinking. He did not wish in any way 
to minimize the importance of or the inherent 
difficulties involved in some of the problems. The 
spirit he found was good and forward-looking. 

The Prime Minister expressed gratification and 
pleasure at President Eisenhower's visit to India, 
and thanked him for the warmth and generosity 
of the sentiments he had expressed. He assured 
the President of the wholehearted support of In- 
dia in his unremitting efforts in the cause of world 
peace. India hereelf is dedicated to a policy of 
peace and has been steadfast in her conviction 
that differences between nations should be i-e- 
solved peacefully by the method of negotiation 
and settlement and not by resort to force. She 
has consistently pureued this policy in relation 
to problems of this nature affecting her and other 
countries. The Prime Minister gave President 
Eisenhower a review of the major aspects of some 
of these problems and of recent developments in re- 
gard to them. The Prime Minister also referi-ed 
to the great effort that India was making, through 
her five-3'ear plans, to develop the country, both 
in regard to agriculture and industrj', so as to 
raise the living standards of the people as rapidly 
as possible. To this great task, involving the fu- 
ture of 400 million people. India was devoting 
herself with all her strength and will. 

The President and Prime Minister expressed 
their deep satisfaction at the friendly and cordial 



January 11, I960 



51 



relations existing between their two countries, and 
their firm belief that their common ideals and ob- 
jectives and their quest for peace will ensure the 
maintenance and development of the strong ties 
of friendship between the two countries. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower's visit to India has afforded the 
welcome opportunity of a meeting between the 
Presidents of the two countries, and for the re- 
newal of the friendship between him and the 
Prime Minister of India. He was happy to meet 
other members of the Government, as well as 
men and women, young and old, in city and vil- 
lage. Parliament and university, and to bring to 
them, personally, assurance of the genuine friend- 
ship of the people of tlie United States for the 
people of India and their sincere and continuing 
interest in India's welfare. To the people of In- 
dia, this visit, which had been long hoped for, has 
given the opportunity for the demonstration of 
the sincere friendship, good will and sympathy 
which they feel for the people of the United 
States. 



ADDRESS TO IRANIAN PARLIAMENT, TEHRAN, 
DECEMBER 14 

White House (Tehran) press release dated December 14 (as 
delivered text) 

The honor you do me with this reception in your 
handsome new Senate building is a clear indica- 
tion of the high mutual regard which the Iranian 
and American peoples have for each other. 

Personally, I am deeply touched by your wel- 
come. 

We know that people, by meeting together, even 
if for a limited time, can strengthen their mutual 
understanding. To increase this mutual under- 
standing has been one of the purposes of my trip 
to Iran, as it has been to the other coimtries in 
which I have stopped along the way. 

My conversation this morning with His Imperial 
Majesty, this convocation, my knowledge of the 
state of relations between our two countries — and 
indeed, the cordial warmth of the reception that I 
received upon the streets of your beautiful city — 
have all been heartening assurances that our two 
countries stand side by side. This visit reinforces 
my conviction that we stand together. We see eye 
to eye when it comes to the fundamentals which 
govern the relations between men and between 
nations. 



The message I bring you from America is this : 
We want to work with you for peace and friend- 
ship, in freedom. I emphasize freedom, because 
without it there can be neither true peace nor last- 
ing friendship among peoples. 

Consequently, Americans are dedicated to the 
improvement of the international climate in which 
we live. Though militarily we in America devote 
huge sums to malce certain of the security of our- 
selves and to assist our allies, we do not forget 
thal^ — in the long term — military strength alone 
will not bring about peace with justice. The 
spiritual and economic health of the free world 
must be likewise strengthened. 

Basic Aspirations of Humanity 

All of us realize that while we must, at what- 
ever cost, make freedom secure from any aggres- 
sion, we could still lose freedom should we fail 
to cooperate in progress toward achieving the 
basic aspirations of humanity. The world strug- 
gle in which we are engaged is many sided. In 
one aspect it is ideological, political, and military; 
in others it is both spiritual and economic. 

As I well know, you, and the people of Iran, 
are not standing on the sidelines in this struggle. 

Without flinching, you have borne the force 
of a powerful propaganda assault, at the same 
time that you have been working at improving the 
living standards in your nation. 

The people of Iran continue to demonstrate that 
quality of fortitude which has characterized the 
long annals of your history as a nation. I know I 
speak for the American people when I say we are 
proud to count so valiant a nation as our partner. 

Your ideals, expressed in the wise and mature 
literature of your people, are a source of enrich- 
ment to the culture of the world. By true coopera- 
tion with your friends — and among these America 
considers herself one — we can proceed together 
toward success in the struggle for peace and 
prosperity. 

Through trust in one another, we can have trust 
in the fruitful outcome of our efforts together to 
build a brighter future. 

Tliis future — the world we will hand on to our 
children and to our grandchildren — must occupy 
our thinking and our planning and our working. 
The broad outline of our goal is, I think, clear to 
evei-yone — to achieve a just peace in freedom. 



52 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



But peace will bo witliout real meaning — it may 
even be unattainable — until the peoples of the 
world have linally overcome the natural enemies of 
humanity — hunger, privation, ami disease. The 
iVmerican people have engaged considerable re- 
sources in this work. I am proud of the many 
dedicated American men and women who have 
gone out into the world with the single hope that 
they can ease the pain and want of othei-s. 

Some of them are at work in Iran, and I have 
heard that the people of Iran have found these 
efforts beneHcial. 

Of course, their work is effective only because 
the Government of Iran has sturdily shouldered 
its responsibilities for tlie development of the 
country. There are reports of significant accom- 
plishments throughout the length and breath of 
your land. 

Achieving an Agreement on Disarmament 

America rejoices with you that this is so. On the 
long and difficult climb on the road to true peace, 
the whole world must some day agree that suspi- 
cion and hate should be laid aside in the common 
interest. 

Here, I think, is our central problem. I know 
that you, too, and all men of good will, are de- 
voting thought and energy to the practical and 
realistic steps to this great objective. 

One such practical step is, of course, an enforce- 
able agreement on disarmament, or, to be more 
exact, arms reduction. To achieve this, the govern- 
ments of the world have chosen a primary instru- 
ment, the United Nations. 

It could seem that, as the realities of the awful 
alternative to peace become clearer to all, signifi- 
cant progress in the safeguarded reduction of the 
arms burden can be made. To such a realistic be- 
ginning, there is no feasible alternative for the 
world. 

In the meantime, we cannot abandon our mutual 
effort to build barriers, such as the peaceful barrier 
of our Central Treaty Organization, against the 
persistent dangers of aggression and subversion. 
Tliis organization, CENTO, has no ulterior or 
concealed purpose; it exists only to provide 
security. 

Such an effort erects a shield of freedom for our 
honor and for our lives. With such a shield, we 
preserve the cherished values of our societies. 

To be sure, the people of Iran need no reminder 



of these simple facts. Only yesterday you cele- 
brated the anniversary of the day on which justice 
triumphed over force in Azerbaijan. The full 
weiglit of world public opinion, as represented in 
the United Nations, supported you in tliose difficult 
times. It will always support the rights of any 
people threatened by external aggression. 

Impulse Toward Rule of Law 

Justice — the rule of law — among nations has not 
yet been effectively established. But in almost 
every nation in the world there is a great awaken- 
ing to the need for such a development. Certainly 
this is true among the free nations. Because there 
is such an awakening, the act of any government 
contrary to the rights of mankind is quickly re- 
sented and keenly sensed by people everywhere. 

This is the wellspring of our hope. This is why 
we are right to believe as we do — despite centuries 
of human turmoil and conflict — that true peace 
can and will one day be realized. 

The impulse toward justice, toward the recogni- 
tion of the worth and dignity of each and every 
human being, will not be denied. This is the main- 
spring of the movement toward freedom and 
peace. 

Now, may I offer my heartfelt thanks for the 
opportunity you have given me to speak to j'ou, 
and through you, the representatives of the people 
of Iran, to your entire nation. 

You have conferred upon me an honor which I 
shall always remember. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, TEHRAN, DECEMBER 14 

Press release 858 dated December 15 

President Eisenhower visited Iran on December 
14, 1959. The President and his party were wel- 
comed warmly by the Iranian people. The feel- 
ings of the Iranian people shown during this 
significant visit demonstrated again the strength 
of the ties between the Governments and people of 
Iran and the United States. 

The visit attested to the confidence of both coim- 
tries that their cooperation is of benefit both to 
themselves and to the world. 

During the visit talks were held at the palace of 
His Imperial Majesty [Mohammad Eeza Pahlavi] 
between the two leaders, assisted by Prime Min- 
ister [Manuchehr] Eqbal, Foreign Minister 



January II, I960 



I 



53 



[Abbas] Aram, Ambassador [Kobert] Murphy 
and Ambassador [Edward T.] AVailes. 

The President addressed a joint session of the 
Iranian Parliament. His Imperial Majesty and 
the President discussed the CENTO [Central 
Treaty Organization] alliance and both em- 
phasized the importance of CENTO in preserving 
stability and security in the area. 

They reiterated the determination of their Gov- 
ernments to support CENTO and further recog- 
nized the usefulness of their bilateral agreement ' 
while, of course, continuing to participate in the 
action of the United Nations for the furtherance 
of world peace. Both leaders emphasized tlieir 
adherence to the goals of peace and freedom. 

In the course of their talks the world situation 
was reviewed. Both leaders expressed their belief 
in the principles of negotiation as a means of find- 
uig just and peaceful solutions to problems which 
arise between nations. 

It was agreed that disarmament with adequate 
controls should be sought in the interest of lasting 
peace. 

His Imperial Majesty and the President also 
exchanged views on various problems, especially 
those relating to the Middle East. The Presi- 
dent recognized the significant contribution Iran 
is making to the stability of this important world 
area. 

His Imperial Majesty outlined the economic and 
social progress achieved in Iran and expressed 
appreciation for the help given by the American 
people. 

The President congratulated His Imperial 
Majesty on the service which Iran is rendering the 
free world, and for his vigorous effort to sustain 
stability and to further economic development. 

The President noted that such programs under- 
taken by Iran have the objective of creating a more 
bountiful life for the Iranian people. 

President Eisenhower also expressed interest 
in the steps His Imperial Majesty is taking to 
promote social progress. The President said that 
the United States intends to continue to assist Iran 
in the mutual interest of both nations. 

The President took the opportmiity to express 
the admiration of the people of the United States 
for the brave stand of the Iranian people and Gov- 
ernment in the face of outside pressure. 



* Bulletin of Mar. 23, 1959, p. 416. 
54 



ADDRESS TO GREEK PARLIAMENT, ATHENS, 
DECEMBER 15 

White House (Athens) press release dated December 15 (as 
delivered text) 

I am greatly honored that I have been invited 
to speak before this distinguished Parliament. 
Greatness and grandeur are all about us — great- 
ness and grandeur of ideas and ideals that were 
born and fii-st enunciated nearby, of men foi'ever 
memorable who walked and lived here, of a peo- 
ple whose valor and vitality and wisdom are writ- 
ten large on the human record. 

Your present Government and its leaders, your 
distinguished Prime Minister, are producing a 
record of achievement that makes them worthy 
successors to their illustrious predecessors. 

I represent in this place 180 million men and 
women who with you of Greece share the golden 
legacy of culture and civilization bequeathed by 
your forebears to the Western World. We Ameri- 
cans, with you Greeks, are fellow heirs to the glory 
of Greece. 

In this city of Athens more than a score of cen- 
turies ago, democracy — in its principles and in 
its practices — first won the hearts and minds of 
men. This house of free representative govern- 
ment symbolizes the vigor of modem democracy 
in its ancient birthplace, demonstrates that tlie 
will of men to be free is im]5erishable. 

In our common dedication to the ideals of de- 
mocracy our two countries — America and 
Greece — feel a basic kinship. An ^Vmerican can 
feel as much at home here as in Washington 
or Abilene, my own village, or Brooklyn, just as 
Greeks quickly find themselves at home in those 
three places in America. 



Salute to Greek People 

To this Parliament I come with a message of 
admiration and respect from the American people 
to the Greek people, and for the light of inspira- 
tion that shone out, in our own day, to all the free 
world from this land and its islands. 

You have jjroved yourselves fearless in defense 
of your independence, tireless in your attack on 
the evils of hardship and privation, ready for sac- 
rifice that your children might enjoy a brighter 
day. And, l)eset with hardship and ditllculty at 
home, you joined in cooperation witli tlie other 
countries of the Atlantic Alliance for mutual de- 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



fense and security. Your cxpoditionnrj' force to 
Korea, by its valor and lieroism, Iiciped sustain 
tlie rule of law and the United Nations in that 
divided nation. 

The American people and, I am sure, all the 
free peoples of the world salute you, valiant and 
worthy heirs to the Greek traditions. 

Peace and Friendship in Freedom 

And now, briefly, permit me to speak on a cause 
close to my heart — close, I hope, to the hearts 
of all who believe in the brotherhood, the dignity, 
the divine origin and destiny of man as a child 
of God, created in His image. The cause is : Peace 
and friendship in freedom. 

The Greek and American peoples share a com- 
mon and deep devotion to peace. We share fur- 
ther the conviction that we must sustain the con- 
ditions imder which the goal of ^Jeace may be 
pui-sued efi'ectively. 

We must be strong militarily, economically — 
but above all, spiritually. By developing and 
jn-eserving such strength — by forever repudiating 
the use of aggressive force — we shall win the sort 
of peace we want, with friendship in freedom. 

I mean peace that is creative, dynamic, fostering 
a world climate that will relieve men and their 
governments of the intolerable burden of arana- 
ments, liberate them from the haunting fear of 
global war and imiversal death. 

I mean friendship that is spontaneous and warm, 
welling up from a deep conviction that all of us 
are more concerned with the bettering of our cir- 
cumstances, giving our children wider opportunity 
and brighter promise, than in destroying each 
other. 

I mean freedom in which, under the rule of 
law, every human will have the right and a fair 
chance to live his own life, to choose his own 
path, to work out his own destiny, that nations 
will be free from misgivings and mistrust, able 
to develop their resources for the gootl of their 
people. 

To this cause of peace and friendship in free- 
dom, Greeks are contributing all their hearts and 
minds and energies. Joined with the free men 
of the world, they can help mankind at long last 
to enjoy the fullness of life envisioned by the 
sages of ancient Greece. 

Honorable Members of Parliament, I want to 
assure you again of the very deep sense of distinc- 



tion that I feel in the invitation to addre.ss you. 
I feel tliat hero I am with men who, like myself 
and all other Americans, love pe^ico and fi-eedom 
and want to work with you for it. 



JOINT COIVIMUNIQUE, ATHENS, DECEMBER 15 

Prese release 862 dated December 16 

On the occasion of his official visit to Greece 
on the 14th and 15th of December, the President 
of the United States, Mr. Dwight P:isenhower, 
concluded talks with the Prime Minister of Greece, 
Mr. Constantine Caramanlis. Present at the talks 
were the American Ambassador, Mr. Ellis O. 
Briggs, and the Under Secretary of State, Mr. 
Robert Murphy, and on the Greek side the Deputy 
Prime Minister, Mr. Panayotis Kanellopulos, and 
the Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. 
Constantine Tsatsos. 

The President expressed his warm appreciation 
of the hospitality extended by Their Majesties, 
King Paul and Queen Frederika, and of all the 
Greek people. 

The talks covered a wide range of general and 
specific topics of common interest to both coun- 
tries. Both countries affirmed their faith in the 
principles of the Charter of the United Nations 
and their staunch support of the objectives of 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which, 
based on the solidarity of its members, aim at the 
firm establishment of security and peace with 
justice. The relaxation of world tensions was 
discussed in this spirit. 

The Greek Prime Minister expressed his deep 
appreciation for the great endeavor for peace 
undeitaken by President Eisenhower. Both 
agreed that the consolidation of world peace must 
be pui-sued in such a way as to guarantee the in- 
dependence of all nations and the freedom of the 
individual. 

Historic instances in which both countries stood 
side by side in hard stniggles were recalled. In 
this context the importance of Greece in the 
common defense effort was recognized. 

Oi)inions were exchanged concerning those parts 
of the world of particular interest to Greece. 
Careful account was taken of her special position 
in the Balkans. The general situation in this 
area, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean, was 
examined. It was agreed that the two Govern- 



January ?J, J 960 



55 



ments should exchange views on matters of mutual 
concern involving these areas. 

The Greek Prime Minister expressed the grati- 
tude of the Greek people for the enduring interest 
and help being extended by the American people. 
He also explained to the President the problems 
the country faces in seeking to raise the standard 
of living of the Greek people, and maintaining the 
obligations and responsibilities of its position in 
the defense structure of the free world. 

President Eisenhower, recognizing the special 
economic and social conditions of Greece, ex- 
pressed his admiration for the improvement being 
accomplished by the country, and reaffirmed the 
interest of the American people in the security 
and economic development of Greece generally. 

It was recognized that improvement in the 
standard of living in the economically less- 
developed countries constitutes a vital element in 
the consolidation of international peace. 

The conversations were held in an atmosphere 
of deep sincerity and warm cordiality, such as 
have traditionally characterized the relations of 
the two countries, and which were so happily 
confirmed by the visit to Greece of the President 
of the United States. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, TUNIS, DECEMBER 17 

Press release 884 dated December 17 

President Eisenhower and President [Habib] 
Bourguiba, accompanied by their advisers, met at 
La Marsa on December 17. 

The two Presidents reviewed in general terms 
the international situation in a spirit of frankness 
and cordiality. Their discussions centered on the 
necessity to continue the progress which is now 
being made towards strengthening of peace and 
the reduction of the causes of international tension. 

In this connection, they examined the situation 
created by the difficulties in Algeria. They agreed 
that the fact that a solution has not yet been 
achieved is a cause of grave concern. 

They agreed tliat the achievement of self- 
detennination by African and Asian people is one 
of the most important events of our times. Tliey 
welcomed the opportunity offered for the evolu- 
tion of new relationships and the improvement of 
old ones basetl on a common attachment to funda- 
mental principles of human rights and dignity. 

President Eisenhower and President Bourguiba 



expressed their conviction that the efforts by 
nations to consolidate the peace necessitate in- 
creased support from the more industrialized 
nations for countries in the course of developing 
their economies. 

The conversations between the two Presidents 
revealed a wide area of understanding of the 
problems raised. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, MADRID, DECEMBER 22 

Press release 876 dated December 28 

The President of the United States and the Chief 
of the Spanisli State [General Francisco Franco] 
this morning concluded a series of conversations 
in which they were joined by other officials of 
both governments. 

The President reviewed the purposes which had 
led him to undertake his goodwill tour and the 
results which he hoped would be achieved. He 
gave the Chief of State a review of his trip, in- 
cluding the Western Summit Conference. The 
talks, which covered a wide variety of other inter- 
national matters of interest to both countries, 
were conducted in an atmosphere of cordiality and 
understanding. 

The President and the Cliief of State discussed 
the President's planned visit to the Soviet Union 
next year and confirmed their views as expressed in 
their exchange of letters of last August " that such 
consultations to improve the climate of relation- 
ships would be beneficial, although a firm defense 
posture should be maintained. 

Gratifying progress was noted in the implemen- 
tation of the Economic and Defense Agreements 
signed by the United States and Spain on Septem- 
ber 26, 1953. These agreements are based on a 
recognition of the necessity for efforts on the part 
of both countries to achieve the common goal of 
world peace and stability. 

During these conversations Spain's admission 
to the Organization for European Economic Co- 
operation was mentioned with satisfaction, and 
the President expressed his good wishes for the 
success of the Spanish economic stabilization 
program. 

Tlie conversations served as another indication 
of tlie friendly ties between the Spanish and 



' For texts, see ihid., Sept. 21, 1959, p. 404. 



56 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



American peoples and sti-en<?(lienod tlie bonds of 
cooperation that exist between tl>o two countries. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, CASABLANCA, 
DECEMBER 22 

PrtBs release 878 dated December 28 

The meeting between the President and His 
Majesty [Mohammed V, King of Morocco] took 
place on December 22, 1959, at CasabLanca, and 
lasted from 1500 to 1700 and took place in an 
atmosphere of cordiality which is characteristic 
of the relations which arise from the traditional 
friendsliip which has never ceased to exist be- 
tween the United States of America since the 
proclamation of their independence and their rec- 
ognition by the Kingdom of Morocco. 

In the course of this interview the two Chiefs of 
State first of all examined the world situation and 
the problems which arise therefrom. 

They rejoice in the relaxation of international 
tensions and while reaffirming their faith in the 
great values of the freedom of peoples and the 
dignity of men, they feel that any initiative of a 
nature to lead to the consolidation of peace and 
ensure international cooperation, should be en- 
couraged. 

His Majesty drew President Eisenhower's atten- 
tion to the multiple bonds which unite Morocco 
and other Arab countries and make it sensitive 
to everything which affects them. 

His Majesty emphasized the vital importance to 
Morocco of the end of the war in Algeria, in view 
of the profound repercussions which this has on 
the national life of Morocco and its international 
relations. 

The two Chiefs of State noted with great satis- 
faction the positive character of the political evo- 
lution of the Algerian problem, and rejoice in the 
progress accomplished towards a peaceful solution 
of this problem through the acceptance by the in- 
terested parties of the principle of self-determina- 
tion and recourse to consultation. 

His Majesty the King of Morocco and the 
President of the United States have welcomed the 
opportunity provided by the President's brief 
visit to Morocco to renew their warm personal 
friendship and, with the time available, review 



questions of interest to them. Their exchange of 
views strengthened their already deep confidence 
in tiie possibilities of fruitful cooperation between 
nations such as Morocco and tlie United States, 
sharing common goals of peace and justice among 
men and guided by (he same basic principles of 
national conduct. This was specifically revealed 
in their discussions of the withdrawal of United 
States forces from Morocco, and they were greatly 
encouraged by the progress that has been made 
since His Majesty's visit to Washington in 1957. 

Preliminary preparations for tlie departure of 
United States forces from Morocco will begin in 
the immediate future, and it is agi-eed between His 
Majesty the King of Morocco and the President 
of the United States of America, that United 
States forces will be withdrawn by the end of 
1963. In this connection, immediate steps will be 
taken to release the airfield at Ben Slimane (Boul- 
haut). This will be achieved not later than 
March 31, 1960. 



Netherlands Eases Controls 
on U.S. imports 

The DepartTnent of Commerce and the Depart- 
ment of State {press release 873) released the 
following joint statement on December 24. 

Import restrictions will be removed from 12 
more items by the Netherlands Government on 
January 1, according to the Bureau of Foreign 
Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce. 

This is the latest in a series of actions which 
have abolished discriminatory treatment of U.S. 
goods and liberalized an overwhelming majority 
of Dutch imports. Although the products to be 
decontrolled in January have been subject to im- 
port quotas, the quotas appear to have been ad- 
ministered in such a way that the flow of U.S. 
exports to the Netherlands was not impaired. 

The commodities affected include seed rye and 
certain types of rice, fats, sugars, acids, soaps, 
coopers' wares, and glassware. The commodities 
concerned in this action will be reported in detail 
in the Foreign Commerce Weekly dated December 
28. 



January 11, I960 



57 



Opportunities for International Cooperation in Space Exploration 



by T. Keith Glennan 

Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. '■ 



It is an honor to speak from this platform to- 
night. I am particularly grateful for the oppor- 
tunity to bring to the members of this distinguished 
audience a brief discussion of our national space 
program. As citizens, you should be aware of the 
problems and promises that challenge the Nation 
in the field of space exploration. As members and 
friends of the World Affairs Council, you will be 
interested, I am sure, in the possibilities for useful 
and effective international cooperation that reside 
in this new area of scientific activity. 

As one of my colleagues has put it, when one 
considers the vast distances of the solar sys- 
tem— 93 million miles to the sun ; 26 million miles 
to Venus, the nearest planet; 3,680 million miles 
to Pluto — and when one catalogs the problems 
to be solved and the new knowledge that is needed 
in almost every branch of science and technology 
from magnetohydrodynamics to cosmology, from 
materials to biology and psychology, the magni- 
tude of the task before us becomes apparent. It 
is a task that challenges the peoples of the earth 
as a whole. There is room for cooperation of men 
of many skills and of nations large and small. 

In this context of viewing space research as an 
instrument for tlie development of meaningful 
cooperation between nations, let me first describe 
the program of the United States. I will then 
tell you what I know of the program of the Soviet 
Union. P'inally, I shall discuss the manner in 
which international cooperation is beginning to 
develop. In doing this I shall borrow liberally 
from reports and papers presented at international 



'Address made before the World AtTairs Council at 
Pasadena, Calif., on Pec. 7. For statements made in the 
U.N. General Assembly by Ambassador Henry Cabot 
I-odge repiarding the Committee on the I'eaceful Uses of 
Outer Si)ace, see p. 64. 



58 



meetings which have been held in the last several 
months. 



Interest of Man in Outer Space 

The interest of man in outer space began long 
ago among uncivilized peoples to whom the face 
of the sky was clock and almanac; the celestial 
bodies, objects of worship. Exploration was at 
first by visual observation, later aided by armillary 
spheres and quadrants, and still later by more 
precise measuring instruments, telescopes, and 
spectroscopes. The information obtained was that 
borne by the light that was transmitted from the 
distant celestial object through the atmosphere 
to the observing instrument on the ground. In 
recent years the light waves have been supple- 
mented by radio waves as carriers of information 
from the stars and planets. 

Men of many nations have contributed through 
the centuries to the exploration of space by the 
methods of astronomy. The history of advances 
in astronomical knowledge and technique in- 
cludes the records of Chinese, Babylonians, 
Greeks, Arabians, and of nearly every nation of 
the modern world. International cooperation was 
early recognized as essential and beneficial: the 
countless number of the stars and the vastness of 
space present mankind with a truly global task. 

The picture of the universe obtained by the 
astronomers early stirred the imagination of men 
to speculate about the existence of life elsewhere 
in the universe, about means of communication 
with distant stars, and, in the last centuries, about 
the possibility of the travel of man to the moon 
and planets. Some sought to apply the science 
and engineering of their day to describe the 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



vohiclcs to be used. For exiimple, Jules Veme 
published in 18«r) in Fram the Karth to the Moon 
a dest-ription of a ^in-launolied projectile ciirry- 
mg passengers to orbit tiie moon. Today we have 
taken the tirst steps to brin<; tliis inspired vision 
to reality. The exploration of space by unmanned 
vehicles carrying scientific apparatus began on 
October 4, 1957; exploration by man will follow 
in due course. 

Now that date— October 4, 1957— did something 
more than nuirk the successful launching of a 
satellite into an orbit around the earth by the 
Soviet Union. It brought this Nation to its feet 
in a sort of bewilderment. How had this come 
about i. Our leadership in science and technology, 
our genius for applying new knowledge gained 
through research to the solution of the problems 
of mankind— these were being challenged, and in 
a most dramatic way. Initial reactions of skep- 
ticism began to give way to a sober realization 
that space research was more than a scientific 
activity. In the hands of a determined and able 
competitor, it was a mighty instrument for propa- 
ganda and a symbol of international prestige. 

Establishment of NASA 

In mid-1958 the National Aeronautics and Space 
Act 2 was signed into law and the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration was established. 
The act begins with a declaration of policy and 
purpose which reads thusly : 

The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of 
the United States that activities in space should be de- 
voted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. 

It also declares that, 

The aeronautical and space activities of the United 
States shall he conducted so as to contribute materially 
to (among other objectives) cooperation by the United 
States with other nations and groups of nations in work 
done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application 
of the results thereof. 

I think I will not take the time tonight to 
describe the growth of NASA to you. We do 
have in o{>eration several large research centers, 
three of which are located in California. One of 
these is well known to this audience— the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory operated by Cal Tech 
under contract to NASA. The Congreas being 
willing, we will add to our research center roster 



'Public Law 85-568. 
January 11, 1960 



in mid-March the Huntsville, Alabama, group 
under the direction of Dr. Wernher von liraun. 
By June au, 19(10, wo will employ more than 15.000 
people in the Govennnent-operated centers alone. 
The Pioi)ulsion LaboratorA- complement of able 
people adds another 2,400 to that total. Our 
budget last year totaled $;5;J5 million, and this 
year the Congress appropriated $501 million for 
our use. We are in the middle of budgetary dis- 
cussions for the 1961 fiscal year, and I can say 
only tliat our resources for the next fiscal year 
will be larger by a significant amount. 

U.S. Space Activity Objectives 

Now as to our program— and here I must conj- 
press a 2-hour discussion into a 5-minute sum- 
mary—let me say that it includes research in 
most of the areas of the physical sciences and in 
certain of the areas of the life sciences. One of 
the principal objectives of current space activ-ity 
is the study of the space environment by the un- 
dertaking of scientific experiments using sounding 
rockets, manmade earth satellites, manmade 
planets, and deep-space probes. In the United 
States we have used the term "space science" as 
a shorthand expression for experiments in physics, 
chemistry, bioscience, astronomy, astrophysics, 
and geophysics. All of these space-science experi- 
ments will employ instruments transpoited into 
the ujjper atmosphere and outer space. 

The NASA objectives include the investigation 
of the uses of earth satellites to perform more 
efficiently and effectively some tasks which are 
now carried out by the other means and to perform 
other tasks which cannot be done at all with 
present means. The applications which seem most 
promising at present are those directed toward 
weather observation, analysis, and forecasting on 
a global scale; the improvement of long-distance 
radio communication; the study of tlie size and 
.shape of the earth and of the distribution of land 
masses and water; and all-weather global naviga- 
tion. It is believed that such applications brought 
to successful fruition will improve the well-being 
of mankind everywhere. 

NASA program objectives, presumably like 
those of other countries, include, too, the orderly 
development of means for the manned exploration 
of space. En route to the long-range objective of 
manned exploration of the solar system are the 



59 



temporary ballistic flights of man into space and 
return (already accomplished with animals) ; 
manned flight for one or a few circuits in the 
simplest vehicle in an orbit well below the level of 
the Great Radiation Belt; maimed flight in ad- 
vanced maneuverable vehicles, in larger satellites 
carrying several men, in permanent manned orbit- 
ing space laboratories; manned flight to the 
vicinity of the moon and return to earth; and 
manned landing on the moon and return. 

NASA's present project in this field, Project 
Mercury, has been repeatedly described in the in- 
ternational public and technical press. Its suc- 
cessful completion requires the cooperation of 
several countries in permitting the installation and 
assisting in the operation of portable tracking 
radars, communication stations, and telemetry re- 
ceiving stations at suitable points along the in- 
tended course. Negotiations currently under way 
promise that this cooperation will be forthcoming 
generously. 

Even the first steps in the manned exploration 
of space are very expensive, as may be inferred 
from the presently estimated cost of Project 
Mercury of $250 million or more. The resources 
required for the advanced missions I have men- 
tioned may well demand a worldwide collabora- 
tion. Thus this activity may serve to give a true 
measure of man's response to the challenge to dis- 
cover and explore the new frontier of our day. 

Rocket and Vehicle Development 

In order that the programs just discussed can 
be carried out at an ever-increasing level of com- 
plexity and scientific significance, it has been 
obvious that launching vehicles and space propul- 
sion systems must be provided. An early task of 
NASA, then, was the planning of a program of 
rocket and vehicle development in cooperation 
with the Department of Defense. Such a program 
must provide for the flying of all the desired mis- 
sions with a minimum number of new rockets 
and new vehicles. As in other countries, our 
present launching vehicles are assembled from 
rockets developed in the ballistic missile program 
and available smaller rockets. For the increased 
thrust that we so much require for future missions, 
two new developments have been started in the 
United States. The first of these is being de- 
veloped by Dr. von Braun and his people — the 
Saturn vehicle — a cluster of eight existing rocket 



engines to give a capability of about 1^ million 
pounds of thrust. The second is a single-chamber 
rocket engine of li/o million pounds' thrust under 
development by the Rocketdyne Division of North 
American Aviation. It is expected that this 
engine can be clustered to give 6 million pounds' 
thrust or more. 

In addition to these first-stage booster rockets, 
several upper-stage rockets are under development, 
including some using high-energy fuels. In addi- 
tion nuclear rockets are under development by the 
AEC [Atomic Energy Commission] and NASA 
along with the general application of nuclear 
energy for auxiliary power in space vehicles. 

Of particular interest to other countries may be 
the launching-vehicle system under development 
by NASA and known as the Scout. This is a 
four-stage, solid-propellant, satellite-launching 
vehicle that will carry 150 to 200 pounds into an 
orbit 300 miles above the earth's surface. It will 
be more economical than existing vehicles; hope- 
fully it will cost no more than $600,000 per firing. 
We expect to use this vehicle, if its development is 
a success, in early international cooperative pro- 
grams. 

Now there is no point in launching a satellite 
or an experiment toward the moon or the planets 
if we have no means of tracking the space experi- 
ment and acquiring from it the information col- 
lected by the various sensors carried aloft. Thus 
we have had to build a network of tracking and 
data acquisition stations that today covers most 
of the globe. Fortunately we inherited some sta- 
tions from the activities carried on under the In- 
ternational Geophysical Year program and thus 
were able to launch a good many useful experi- 
ments during the past year without waiting for 
the construction of the stations necessary to com- 
plete the network. 

The Russian Program 

Now, what of the Russian program? I suspect 
that most of you know more about it than you 
do of our own. From information given us by a 
variety of sources — some of tliem Russian — it ap- 
pears that they have assigned their top scientists 
and engineers to this new field. They possess 
rockets that are estimated to be twice as powerful 
as our largest— the Atlas intercontinental ballis- 
tic missile. They have launched three successful 
satellites and three deep-space probes. One of 



60 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



these now orbits the sun, another landed on the 
moon, and the tliird photograplicd the far side of 
the moon as it went into an orbit tliat initially 
linked tiie moon and the earth. Xotiiing has been 
said by the Russians about their failures, whereas 
our failures, as well as our successes, are promi- 
nently displayed for all the world to see. But it 
does seem that their space-vehicle system is highly 
reliable, sugjiestinj; that they have fired it much 
more frequently than any of the variety of sys- 
tems we have been forced to use thus far. 

As to scientific i-esults to date, it is the opinion 
of knowledgeable scientists that we liave done as 
well or better than the Russians. They have been 
able to couple spectacular technological accom- 
plishments with useful scientific experiments, 
whereas our more modest technological efforts — 
because of our lack of i-eliable launching vehicles 
of high thrust — have turned up really significant 
amounts of new and important scientific informa- 
tion. 

More important to the Soviet Union than their 
scientific achievements, however, has been the fact 
that thej' have been successful in making their 
spectacular space accomplishments appear to many 
nations as a valid measure of their sophistication 
in all branches of science and technology. More 
recently they have been active and successful in 
creating the impression that their achievements 
in space research and exploration are a valid meas- 
ure of the strength of their Communist system as 
compared to our democratic way of life. All in 
all, the Soviet Union has made and is making hay 
while the sun shines on their satellites and lunar 
probes. 

International Cooperation 

Now let me turn t-o the matter of international 
cooperation as we see it today. You will recall 
my reading that section of the space act governing 
our activities that encourages us to develop pro- 
grams of international cooperation. An Office of 
International Programs was established by NASA 
in November 1958. Exploi-atoi-y talks were con- 
ducted with the scientists of other nations, and a 
pattei'n for cooperation was established with the 
blessing of the scientific community. We are now 
quite completely occupied with discussions with a 
dozen groups from as many countries interested in 
associating themselves with the United States 
program. 



It might be well for me to describe to you some 
of the activities which may form the basis for 
international cooperation and which arise from 
thi> global nature of rasearch in space. The desir- 
able types of activity, it seems to me, are exchanges 
of scientific and technical information and data, 
exchanges of scientists, coordinated programs of 
observation and experimentation, and cooperative 
programs of space exploration. 

Exchange of information in its usual form con- 
sists of the exchange of publications and the hold- 
ing of international scientific meetings. In the 
space activities initiated during the IGY it was 
found desirable to exchange information on the 
planning of experiments, to give prompt notice of 
launchings, early information on orbits, and such 
other data as would permit participation of others 
in observations of scientific value. It is the desire 
of the United States to progress toward the com- 
plete reestablishment of these procedures. 

It has been remarked earlier that space science 
is not a new scientific discipline but comprises the 
use of new tools of experimentation by trained sci- 
entists in physics, geophysics, astronomy, and 
similar established fields. The exchange of sci- 
entists between countries permits a more rapid 
transfer of the new techniques than can be accom- 
plished by publications or presentation of papei"S. 
NASA has established a few fellowships available 
to scientists of other countries and has provided 
research opportunities to a few guest scientists. 
Exchange of scientists in addition to providing 
training in new techniques may also be used for 
substantive participation of senior scientists in 
cooperative programs. 

It is obviously desirable that national programs 
in the space field be coordinated to avoid unde- 
sired duplication and to provide the enhanced in- 
crease in knowledge that comes from coordinated 
efforts. This coordination was well done under 
CSAGI [Comite special de I'annce gcophysique 
internationale], the nongovernmental interna- 
tional committee for the IGY,^' and we look for- 
ward to the early establishment on a more perma- 
nent basis of tlie Conunittee on Space Research to 
continue coordination of basic scientific research 
in the space field. There is need for coordination 
in program planning and in tlie execution of cer- 



I 



January IJ, 7960 



' For an article on "The International Geoiili.vsical Yenr 
in Rctrospett" by Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., see Uuixetin 
of May 11, lOijg, p. 682. 

61 



tain programs. Activities in the tracking of satel- 
lites and in the reception of telemetered data, in 
research on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere 
by means of sounding rockets launched simul- 
taneously in various parts of the world, in investi- 
gation of the ionosphere by observation of radio 
signals from satellites, and in laboratory and theo- 
retical research in areas supporting space activities 
are examples of program areas in which interna- 
tional coordination would be most productive. 

Joint Exploration of Space 

The ultimate step in international cooperation is 
joint participation in a single program, with parti- 
cipation of scientists of two or more countries in 
the design of experiments and in the preparation 
of payloads for rockets, satellites, and space 
probes. As I have said, discussions are under way 
between NASA scientists and their colleagues 
from other countries with the view of beginning 
act ivities of tliis type. 

As a matter of fact, the international character 
of cooperative space activities in which we are en- 
gaged is already broad. Our radio and optical 
tracking network is composed of stations located 
in, and often operated by scientists and teclinicians 
of, Argentina, Australia, Chile, Ecuador, India, 
Iran, Peru, Spain, and South Africa. Other co- 
operating stations are situated in England, "West 
Germany, and Japan. The new Project Mercury 
tracking stations will expand this list to include 
additional countries to the south and in Africa, 
along the planned orbit of the manned capsule. 

Beyond this, tentative arrangements for sub- 
stantial programs of joint exploration of our 
spatial environment have already been made with 
the United Kingdom and Canada. Additional 
cooperative programs have been proposed by a 
number of Pacific and European national space 
committees. These are substantive proposals, in 
which each nation will make its own scientific and 
technical contribution in a truly joint effort to- 
ward mutually agreed objectives. The prepara- 
tion and execution of these programs will not be 
accomplished in a few weeks or even months, but 
the acliievenient of tlieir objectives, witli the at- 
tendant scientific interchange, will enrich all. 

As an evidence of our interest in international 
cooperation, we would be most happy to oiler the 
services of our tracking network in support of 



the scientists of the Soviet Union when and if 
that nation undertakes a manned space-flight 
program. Data could be acquired and transmitted 
in its raw state to the Academy of Sciences in 
Moscow. A precedent for this sort of thing has 
been established in the IGY operation when the 
United States supplied to the Soviet scientists, as 
of July 1959, some 46 tape recordings of Sputnik 
I, II, and III. Should special recording or data 
read-out equipment be required, I am sure that 
we would be happy to provide them or to utilize 
equipment furnished by the Soviet scientists. In 
such a cooperative venture we could help them to 
keep in continuous or essentially continuous 
contact with their astronaut. 

Efforts Toward Common Understanding 

Ladies and gentlemen, it has been my lot to be 
associated with exciting new ventures through- 
out most of my life. As I look back over the 
years, it seems that I have been happiest and have 
worked most diligently when the activity in which 
I was engaged had a vital role to play in the 
affairs of men. Thus my association with the 
Atomic Energy Commission was important to me 
because I was convinced, early in that association, 
that our nuclear weapons strength was the one 
most powerful deterrent to the initiation of a 
shooting war by another great power. Xow I find 
myself in this exciting, difficult, and important 
field of space research. To me, one of its greatest 
appeals is tlie opportunity it offers for the de- 
velopment of a soiuid progi-am of internatior.al 
cooperation in the science and technology neces- 
sary to the exploration of outer space. 

After all, science is truly an international 
language. And space is an all-pervasive arena 
with plenty of challenge for anyone who possesses 
the curiosity and energy to attempt the solution 
of its mysteries. 

To explore space to gain knowledge of tlie physi- 
cal univei-se in which man lives; to explore space 
as a demonstration of his mastery of advanced 
tecluiologj' ; to open space to his own travel to 
satisfy his desire to see and experience for himself ; 
to explore applications of space teclmology to 
improve worldwide comniunications and weatlier 
forecasting — all of these aims reflect as in a miri'or 
the desires of men everywhere. 

Out of the efforts of the dedicated and inspired 
men of all nations may yet come that common 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



understaiulinjr and mutual trust that will break 
the hx^kstep of suspicion and distrust that divides 
tho world into separate cnnips today. AVhatever 
the outcome, we cannot fail to make the ett'ort. 



U.S. Welcomes Bankers' Study Trip 
to India and Pakistan 



under-developed countries are in the best interest 
of the United States, but are also necessary for 
the prrowth of democratic values in the World. 

This assistance cannot be. provided wholly by 
the United States, and should be a joint venture by 
all industrialized free countries. 

We hope this Mission may provide a |)attern 
for other countries seeking economic growth. 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY DILLON 

Press release 867 dated December 19 

I was delighted to hear the announcement today 
[December 19] by Mr. Eugene R. Black, President 
of the World Bank, that Mr. Hermann J. Abs 
of Germany, Sir Oliver Franks of the United 
Kingdom, and Mr. Joseph M. Dodge of the United 
States had accepted his suggestion that tliey join 
in paying a visit to India and Pakistan early next 
year to become acquainted with the economic 
conditions and programs there. The United 
States Government greatly welcomes this initia- 
tive. The idea of employing visits such as this to 
achieve broader understanding in the West of the 
economic position and problems of India and 
Pakistan was contained in a resolution approved 
by the United States Senate on September 10, last, 
which was sponsored by Senators Jolin F. Ken- 
nedy and John Sherman Cooper.^ Similar resolu- 
tions were sponsored in the House of Representa- 
tives by Chester Bowles, James G. Fulton, and 
Chester E. Merrow. I am sure that the viewpoints 
Mr. Dodge will hear and the insight he will derive 
from his trip will make an important contribution 
to discussions in this country regarding the prob- 
lems of India and Pakistan. 



JOINT STATEMENT BY SENATORS KENNEDY 
AND COOPER 3 

We are delighted by tiie initiative taken by the 
World Bank to carry through the concept of the 
Senate Resolution, which calls for a study by 
powerful western countries of the economic prob- 
lems and needs of India and Pakistan. 

Higher living standards and economic growth of 



WORLD BANK ANNOUNCEMENT 

Eugene R. Black, President of the World Bank, 
announced on Decemljer 19 that he had suggested 
to Sir Oliver Franks, chairman of Lloyds Bank 
Ltd. of London, England, Dr. Hermann Abs, 
chairman of the Deutsche Bank of Frankfurt, Ger- 
many, and Joseph M. Dodge, chairman of the 
Detroit Bank and Tioist Co. of Detroit, Mich., 
that they visit India and Pakistan to study eco- 
nomic conditions there and to acquaint themselves 
with the current and planned development pro- 
grams in the two countries. Mr. Black said that 
he was convinced of the need for wider under- 
standing in the industrially developed countries 
of the problems confronting the less developed 
ai'eas of the world and expressed the belief that 
visits such as this by prominent members of the 
business and financial communities of the indus- 
trial countries could make an important contribu- 
tion to that end. Sir Oliver Franks, Dr. Abs, and 
Mr. Dodge have accepted Mr. Black's suggestion 
and are planning to make the trip during next 
February and March. 

Mr. Black's suggestion was made after consulta- 
t ion with the Governments of India and Pakistan, 
who have welcomed the idea and will give the 
members of the group every opportunity to leani 
about the major issues involved in the economic 
development of their countries. The Govern- 
ments of the United States, tho United Kingdom, 
and Germany have also been kept fully informed. 



' Senators Kennedy and Cooper coautliored S. Con. 
Res. 11, To Invite Friendly and DcmocTatic Nations To 
Con.sult With Countries of South .\sia. 

'Released simultaneously with World Bank nnuounce- 
inent of Dec. 19. 



January 11, 1960 



63 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.N. Sets Up New Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space; 
Decides To Convene International Scientific Conference 



Following is a statement made in Committee I 
{Political and Security) on December 10 ly 
Henry Gahot Lodge, U.S. Representative to the 
General Assembly, together with the text of a 
resolution adopted in plenary session on December 
12. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR LODGE 

U.S. delegation press release 3345 

Two years ago the first manmade eai'th satellite 
was placed in orbit. A succession of satellites has 
followed. These have advanced man's scientific 
knowledge and demonstrated new techniques for 
communications and meteorology. Some space 
probes have escaped beyond orbits around the 
earth. Notably, the Soviet Union has reached the 
moon, and some probes have coursed far beyond. 
Animals have penetrated outer space as passengers 
aboard space vehicles and returned safely; man 
will doubtless follow soon. 

The events of the past 2 years are starting to 
make clear the promise and the problems confront- 
ing man as he ventures into outer space. These 
beginnings challenge man's political and tech- 
nological inventiveness. It is a prime task of 
governments and of the United Nations to see to 
it that political progress keeps pace with scientific 
change. Unless this is done the world runs the 
serious risk of relying on political institutions and 
arrangements that are outmoded and inadequate. 

The Rationale of international Cooperation 

In surveying what has happened so far in man's 
activities relating to outer space and in planning 
for the future we ought to inquire very candidly 
into the rciusons for international cooperation in 
outer space and into the purposes which the United 



64 



Nations can serve in this connection. I believe 
there are several important reasons and purposes 
for cooperation through the United Nations. 

First, outer space is not the concern of one na- 
tion or of only a few. It is of interest to all. 
Fairness demands that there be an equitable shar- 
ing of benefits that may be derived from all opera- 
tions in this new realm and of the burdens in 
carrying them on as well. Outer space cannot be 
anyone's private preserve. The idea of partner- 
ship in outer space has secured acceptance by mem- 
ber states of the United Nations, without regard 
to their differing social and political philosophies. 
United Nations discussion during the last 2 years 
has emphasized the principle of openness and 
availability of outer space. International cooper- 
ation through the United Nations is surely an ap- 
propriate means for putting this principle into 
practice. 

Secondly, cooperation among countries will in- 
evitably be necessary for accomplishing many de- 
sirable projects in outer space. For example, if 
such projects require worldwide tracking or tele- 
metering equipment or launching sites in certain 
geographical locations, or if their cost is too high 
for any one nation to liear, they will be literally 
impossible without international cooperation. For 
still other space activities, such as radio and tele- 
vision satellites, even though international cooper- 
ation may not be absolutely necessary, it will be 
required for maximum efficiency and usefulness. 
In general, joint enterprises in outer space will 
prove more effective than the efforts of any single 
nation, since each nation can contribute what it has 
in abundance or does best at any given time. Al- 
ready other countries have their contributions to 
make and will develop greater capabilities in the 
future. If the knowledge of the more advanced 
nations is diffused, the abilities of all nations can 

Department of State Bulletin 



be developed more quickly and brought in(o play. 
T]u-ou<j;li orgunized international cooperation the 
contributions and capabilities of each country can 
be made most effective. 

There is a very practical reason for interna- 
tional cooperation in outer space. Without it, the 
manifold activities being progressively undertaken 
would begin to conflict and to frustrate each other. 
For example, the radio spectrum for space com- 
munications could become overcrowded and hope- 
lessly confused. 

There is still another reason to which we should 
pay the most serious attention. The cloud of an 
infinitely devastating nuclear war hangs over all 
nations. Jlen have learned how to accomplish 
worldwide destruction. Will they be able to for- 
bear from aggressive use of force, bringing all-out 
nuclear war in its train? The United Nations 
and its machinery were expressly designed to pre- 
vent such a catastrophe. Govermnents continue 
to seek means for bringing unlimited competition 
in armaments under control and for instituting 
effective measures of disarmament. Working to- 
gether on the challenges of outer space can provide 
governments with experience in regulating space 
activities that may prove valuable in the area of 
disarmament as well. 

In sum, international cooperation in the explo- 
ration of outer space offei-s an avenue along which 
nations may approach mutual understanding and 
peace. Working together on the great challenges 
of explorat ions beyond the confines of earth can 
create a new perspective in which national bound- 
aries and national rivalries recede in importance. 
Common efforts in the conquest of space can forge 
a community of interest. Where community of 
interest is strong enough, there is unity of spirit 
and harmony in action. A new opportunity now 
presents itself for the operation of these forces. 
We should give it generous scope. 

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee 

The Genera] Assembly now has before it the 
report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful 
Uses of Outer Space,' which was established at the 

' U.N. dor. A/4141 ; for a statement by Mr. Lodge on the 
draft report of the Ad Hoc Committee, see Bulletin of 
July 27, 1959, p. 1.38 : for statements by U.S. representa- 
tives to the Ad Hoc Committee, see ibid., June 1."), 1959, 
p. 883, and June 29, 1959, p. 972. 

January 11, I960 



13th session.^ That Committee, under the able 
chairmanship of Ambassador [KotoJ Matsuduira, 
has done valuable work. The United Slates fully 
endorses (he Conunittee's careful and constructive 
report contained in document A/4141. I should 
like now to outline some suggest ions as to the next 
steps to be taken by the United Nations in follow- 
ing up the Committee's work. 

The Ad Hoc Committee, in the conclusions to 
that part of its report written in response to par- 
agraph 1(b) of Resolution 1348 (XIII), propos<>d 
the establishment of a General Assembly commit- 
tee, compased of representatives of member states, 
to perform three kinds of functions. These are 
the following: (1) study of practical and feasible 
measures for facilitating international coopera- 
tion, including those indicated by the Ad Hoc 
Committee in its report under paragi-aph 1(b) of 
last year's resolution; (2) consideration of means, 
as appropriate, for studying and resolving legal 
problems which may arise in carrying out pro- 
grams for the exploration of outer space; (,3) re- 
view, as appropriate, of the subject matter en- 
trusted by the Assembly to the Ad Hoc Committee 
in Resolution 1348 (XIII). 

Steps To Be Taken by U.N.: The Draft Resolution 

Now, Mr. Chairman, today, along with a group 
of other cooperating states, we have submitted a 
draft resolution,^ which will soon be on the table, 
designed to set up a committee. The members of 
that committee would be: Albania. Argentina, 
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, 
Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, India, 
Iran, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico. Poland. 
Rumania, Sweden, U.S.S.R.. U.A.R., U.K., and 
U.S. The purpose of this committee would be 
as follows : 

(a) to review, as appropriate, the area of in- 
ternational cooperation and study practical and 
feasible means for giving effect to programs in 
the peaceful uses of outer space which could ap- 
propriately be undertaken under United Nations 
auspices; and 

(b) to study the nature of legal problems which 
may arise from exploration of outer space. 

As indicated by the Ad Hoc Conunittee in the 

' For background and text of resolution, .see ibid., Jan. 
5, 1909, p. 24. 
" U.N. doc. A/C.l/Ii.247. 

65 



concluding pai-agraph of its report, we think it is 
clearly appropriate for the specialized agencies 
of the United Nations to continue to pursue lines 
of endeavor within their competence in regard to 
outer-space activities. We think those agencies 
will naturally wish to include in their reports to 
the United Nations information on their activi- 
ties in connection with outer space. It may be that 
the General Assembly, from time to time, will 
wish to address requests or recommendations to 
one or more of these agencies for specific under- 
takings in the outer-space field. 

I should like now to comment briefly on the 
composition of the proposed United Nations Com- 
mittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Last 
year, despite earnest efforts, we were not able to 
reach unanimous agreement in the General As- 
sembly on the membership of the Ad Hoc Com- 
mittee. Subseciuently, some members of that 
Committee declined to participate in its delibera- 
tions. That was regrettable. 

We have sought this year to find a composition 
which would command agreement on all sides. 
Through many weeks of patient negotiations the 
United States has sought this objective. Agree- 
ment with the Soviet Union has at length been 
reached. I hope that the fruits of this agreement 
will justify the work and tlie concessions involved 
in reaching it. The United States delegation 
trusts that the agreement is a favorable augury 
for international cooperation through the United 
Nations. 

Promoting International Scientific Cooperation 

Wliat substantive activities should the new 
Committee fii-st consider? Without wishing to at- 
tempt a definitive listing of activities, the United 
States would like to outline its views on steps in 
two broad areas which were mentioned by the Ad 
Hoc Conmiittee and in which early concentration 
of effort should prove constructive. The first of 
these areas is tliat of international scientific and 
technical cooperation. The second is that of ap- 
propriate regulation of man's activities in outer 
space. 

An hitemaf tonal Conference of Scientists 

With r&spect to facilitating international scien- 
tific cooperation, no more appropriate initial step 
could be taken than to review and exchange e.\- 
perience with respect to tlie outer-space activities 

66 



conducted to date. The Soviet Union's proposal 
that an international conference to this end be 
held under the auspices of the United Nations 
offers a promising starting point. The United 
States has welcomed this proposal^ as a sign of 
the Soviet Union's willingness to share with the 
rest of the world the data resulting from its 
achievement in outer space. 

An international conference would be in keep- 
ing with the emphasis placed by the Ad Hoc Com- 
mittee on the desirability of openness in the con- 
duct of outer-space activities. The conference 
would serve as a valuable meeting ground for 
scientists actively engaged in outer-space activi- 
ties and others actively interested in the results of 
these activities. It would usefully supplement ex- 
changes already initiated by the international 
scientific community, in particular the activities 
of the Committee on Space Research of the Inter- 
national Council of Scientific Unions, which has 
for some time been planning a space-science sym- 
posium to be held in January 1960. 

To be meaningful, of course, such a space con- 
ference must go beyond mere repetition of the 
limited exchanges already had or scheduled within 
the scientific community. Thus the United States 
believes that the scope of the proposed conference 
should include not only space sciences, so well 
covered by exchanges in scientific forums, but also 
engineering and technological aspects, propulsion, 
vehicles, guidance problems, and many other sub- 
jects of interest to nations which have not yet be- 
gim their own space programs. 

The new Committee, then, should, the United 
States thinks, give early attention to arrange- 
ments for convening an international conference 
of members of the United Nations and of the 
specialized agencies. 

Members of this committee will note that the 
draft resolution submitted by the cosponsoring 
delegations does not contain an}' provision speci- 
fying who will participate in the scientific con- 
ference. That matter of participation is covered 
in an aniendnient^ which will l)e submitted by the 
delegation of Belgium. That amendment would 
insert, at the appropriate place, the words: "of 



' For a stateiiu'nt by Mr. l.oilgc, see Buuj-.n.N of Nov. 2, 
1959, p. 651. 

" U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.248. The amendment was approved 
in Committee I on Dec. 12. 

Department of State BuUetin 



interesteii Meinlnji-s of llie United Nations niul of 
tlie siK^ciiili/.ed :i<rfiu'ii>s." The auKMuIecl pai-a- 
fXriiI)li would read as follows: 

Deddes to convene in liKlO or r.itil. uiulcr the auspices 
of the fnitod Nations, iin international soientilio con- 
ference of interested Members of the United Nations and 
of the si)ecialize<l agencies for tlie exchange of exiwrience 
in the peaceful uses of outer space. 

The United States supports this amendment, 
and we trust this Committee will incorporat-e it in 
the resolution by a decisive majority, in accoi-dance 
with the United Nations precedents on the calling 
of international conferences. This is the lan- 
guage which is, one might say, standard i^ractice. 

There are other possibilities for international 
scientific cooperation which can profitably bo ex- 
plored by the new United Nations Committee. 

World Data Centers 

The establishment and oi)eration of world data 
centers during the International Geophysical 
Year gave organization and unity to the scientific 
world in its quest for laiowledge about the uni- 
verse. This development constituted an impor- 
tant political phenomenon. The world data 
centers have continued to process and disseminate 
information obtained from space activities since 
the conclusion of the International Geophysical 
Year. The Ad Hoc Committee's report calls at- 
tention to the need for extending the number 
and scope of such centers. We think the new 
Committee could usefully study this question, 
consulting with the appropriate mechanisms of 
the scientific community, and provide recommen- 
dations on support of an expanded system for 
collection and distribution of data. It is to be 
hoped that participating countries will agree to 
the prompt and automatic transmi.ssion to the 
world data centers of all scientific information 
obtained liy spacecraft and related data necessary 
for scientific understanding. 

Laimchings Under International Auspices 

The Ad Hoc Committee pointed out that instru- 
mentation of a scientific payload as a coo})erative 
endeavor would provide a means of bringing more 
deeply into spac« research and engineering those 
scientists who would not otherwise have the op- 
portunity of performing experiments in space. 
Several projects of this type are already under 
Tway among the world's scientists, and we believe 
Ithat it would be fruitful for the new Connnittee 



to give thought to the jjolentialities of this 
promising and growing form of cooperat ion. The 
Uniteil States, for its pari, is always prepared to 
discuss the possibility of making available ec|uip- 
ment and facilities for launchings of tiiis char- 
acter. 

Weather and Coinmurdcations Satellites 

The United States would like to see inter- 
national cooperation in space activities carried 
beyond the activities of piu-e research to facilitate 
the conduct of international programs calling for 
joint elfoit \\\ aresis of practical application of 
sptvce science. The value of improved weather 
forecasting and of the creation of additional and 
more effective chaimels for worldwide comnnmi- 
cation is evident. Another beneficial field of ap- 
plication is navigational satellites. We should 
like to see a ciu-eful international study made of 
the best plans for adapting these various possi- 
bilities of the new sciences to practical applica- 
tion for the benefit of all peoples. 

Study of Appropriate International Regulation 

The international community should also at 
this time, we believe, give attention to the con- 
sideration of appropriate steps to regidate man's 
activities in outer space. I do not mean by this 
to suggest that now is the time to attemp.t any 
general codification of space law. As staled in 
the Ad Hoc Committee's report, a comprehensive 
code is neither practicable nor necessarj- in the 
present stage of knowledge and development of 
space activities. 

The Ad Hoc Committee stated, in paragraph 9 
of its report, under part 1(d) of tlie 1958 msolu- 
tion, that the law has begim to recognize or de- 
velop a rule that outer space is, on conditions of 
equality, freely available for exploration and use 
by all in accordance with existing or future in- 
ternational law or agreements. The United States 
supports this view. A concept of freedom of space, 
however, does not mean that we can overlook the 
many practical problems arising from the opera- 
tion of space vehicles which were pointed out by 
both the scientific and legal experts of the Ad Hoc 
Committee. Therefore it seems clear that the new 
Committee should tuni its attention to possible 
practical measures for dealing witii practical 
problems. 



lanuary 11, 1960 



67 



Identification of Orbital Objects 

"We believe that the new United Nations Com- 
mittee should study means for providing an ap- 
propriate system of identification for all objects 
placed in orbit aromid the earth. The new Com- 
mittee could also usefully consider means that 
might be adopted either for the removal of spent 
satellites from orbit or at least the termination 
of their radio transmissions when their usefidness 
is ended. 

Celestial Bodies 

Only this autumn an unmanned space probe to 
the moon was made. It is not too early to start 
thinking now about the i-egime which ought to 
be applied to international relations with respect 
to celestial bodies. In this regard the United 
States believes that man's entry into outer space 
is a concerted midertaking of earth as a whole and 
that scientific progress should proceed in har- 
mony among the nations. 

Other Topics 

Our mentioning these selected topics is not to 
suggest that other legal problems identified in the 
Ad Hoc Committee's report should be neglected. 
Quite the conti-ary. In some cases, as with the 
allocation of radio frequencies, it is our hope and 
expectation that tlie work of an existing agency — 
in this case the International Telecommunication 
Union — will proceed to a satisfactory conclusion. 
In other cases, as with the problem of liability for 
injury or damage caused by space vehicles or the 
pi-oblem of reentry and landing of space vehicles, 
the new United Nations Committee may wish to 
give early attention to specific procedures or 
means for starting to cope with these mattei-s. 

Relationship to Disarmament 

The United States, along with other countries, 
has long recognized the potential use of outer 
space for hostile purposes. Nearly 3 years ago we 
proposed ' a study of means to assure the use of 
outer space for peaceful purposes only. I wish to 
repeat that the United States remains ready to 
study the outer-space sector separately and does 
not insist that it bo treated as part, of a more in- 
clusive program for disarmamenl. 

We recognize the vital importance of progress 
in disarmament negotiations. It is for that reason 



that we have undertaken, along with a group of 
other countries, to enter into renewed discussions 
in the near future.'' Hopeful as we are of reach- 
ing significant agreements on disarmament, which 
can lead in the end to a safer and happier world, 
we realize from experience that the making and 
carrying out of effectual agreements to disarm are 
painstaking and time-consuming. We do not 
wish to see international cooperation on the peace- 
ful uses of outer space delayed because of this fact. 

Conclusion 

Mr. Chairman, let me conclude by saying that 
the nations of the world look into the future, and, 
as they look into the reaches of space, they con- 
front an unprecedented opportunity. The fate of 
human activities in space and indeed the fate of 
the peoples of the earth lie in the hands of the 
community of nations. The occasion is new. The 
challenge is unprecedented. Let us rise to the 
occasion.^ 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION 



The General Assemtly, 

Recognising the common interest of mankind as a whole 
in furtliering the peaceful use of outer space, 

Believing that the exploration and use of outer space 
should be only for the betterment of mankind and to the 
benefit of States irrespective of the stage of their economic 
or scientific development, 

Desiring to avoid the extension of present national 
rivalries into this new field. 

Recognizing the great importance of international co- 
operation in the exploration and exploitation of outer 
space for peaceful purposes. 

Noting the continuing programmes of scientific co-oper- 
ation in the exploration of outer space being undertaken 
by the international scientific community. 

Believing also tliat the United Nations should promote 
international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer 
space, 

1. Establishes a Committee on the Peaceful Uses of 
Outer Space, consisting of Albania, Argentina, Australia, 
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslo- 
vakia, France, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, 
Lebanon, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Sweden, the Union of 



' Iliid.. Feb. 11, 1957, p. 225. 



68 



• Scm; p. 4.^. 

" For an address on "Opportunities for International 
Cooperation in Space Exploration" by T. Keith Glennan, 
see p. .W. 

•U.N. doc. A/RES/1472(XIV) (A/C.1/L.247, as 
amended) ; adopted unanimously in plenary session on 
Dec. 12. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Socialist Republics, the Uniteil Arab Republic, the 
Uulteil Kingiloiu of Great Hritain and Northern Ireland 
and Uie United States of America, whose members will 
serve for the years liKiO and I'Ml, and requests the 
Committee: 

(a) To review, as approi)riate, the area of international 
co-operation, and to study practical and feasible means for 
giving effect to programmes iu the peaceful uses of outer 
space which could appropriately be undertaken under 
United Nations auspices. Including, inter alia: 

(i) Assistance for continuation on a permanent basis 
of the research on outer space carried on within 
tlie framework of the International Geophysical 
Year ; 

(ii) Organization of the mutual exchange and dis- 
semination of information on outer space research ; 

(iii) Encouragement of national research programmes 
for the study of outer space, and the rendering 
of all possible assistance and help towards their 
realization ; 

(b) To study the nature of legal problems which may 
arise from the exploration of outer space ; 

2. Requests the Committee to submit reports on its ac- 
tivities to the subsequent sessions of the General Assembly. 



The General Assetnblj/, 

'Noting icith satisfaction the successes of great signi- 
ficance to mankind that have been attained in the explora- 
tion of outer si)ace in the form of the recent launching 
of artificial earth satellites and space rockets. 

Attaching great importance to a broad development of 
international co-operation in peaceful uses of outer space 
in the interests of the development of science and the im- 
provement of the well-being of peoples, 

1. Decides to convene in 1960 or 1961, under the aus- 
pices of the United Nations, an international scientific 
conference of interested Members of the United Nations 
and of the specialized agencies for the exchange of ex- 
perience in the peaceful uses of outer space ; 

2. Requests the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of 
Outer Space, established in resolution A above, in consul- 
tation with the Secretary-General and in co-operation 
with the appropriate specialized agencies, to work out pro- 
posals with regard to the convening of such a conference : 

3. Requests the Secretary-General, in accordance with 
the conclusions of the Committee, to make the necessary 
organizational arrangements for holding the conference. 



Additional replies from governments — nominican Re- 
l>iiblic. A/-12i;(l/Add. 4. Dwember 2, l!)."i!l. :{ pp. 
Question of llie I'ronticr Hetwccn llie Trust Territory of 
Sonialiland Under Italian Administration and Ethiopia. 
Note by the Secretary-tieneral. A/4320. iJecember 3 
1!).">!I. 1(1 pp. 

Economic Development of Under-developed Countries : Re- 
port of the Economic and Social Council (Chapteni 
II, III, IV and V). Report of the Second Committee. 
A/-1321. Deceml)er 4, I'jr.a. 05 pp. 

Budget Kstiniates for the Financial Year 1!KK). Report of 
tlie Fifth Committee. A/4336. December 4, 1959. 03 
pp. 

The Korean Question : Report of the United Nations Com- 
mission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea. 
Note verliale dated December 5, 1U.')9, from the Soviet 
delegation addressed to the Secretary-GeneraL A/4338. 
December 5, 1959. 7 pp. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Change in Consular District 

for Islands of Zanzibar Protectorate 

Department notice dated December 17 

The consular district of Nairobi, Kenya, has been 
changed to reflect the withdrawal of the island portions 
of the Zanzibar Protectorate (Zanzibar and Pemba Islands 
and adjacent islets) from the jurisdiction of the consu- 
late general at Nairobi and their inclusion in the consular 
district of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, effective Novem- 
ber 1, 1959. 



Recess Appointments 

The President on December 24 appointed John J. Muccio 
to be Ambassador to Guatemala, vice Lester D. Mallory, 
resigned. (For biographic details, see Department of 
State press release 875 dated December 24.) 



Designations 

Lester D. Alallory as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Inter- American Affairs, effective December 21. (For an 
exchange of letters between President Eisenhower and 
Mr. Mallory on his resignation as Ambassador to Guate- 
mala, see White House press release dated October 28.) 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

General Assembly 

i; onomic Development of Under-developed Countries. 
Report by the Secretary-General on measures taken by 
the governments of member states to further the eco- 
nomic development of underdeveloped countries in ac- 
cordance with General Assembly resolution 1316 (XIII) . 

January 7 7, 7960 



I 



Appointments 

The President on Decemlier 24 ajipointed Harry R. 
Turkel to be U.S. Representative on the Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council of the Organization of 
American States, with the personal rank of ambassador, 
vice Harold M. Randall. (For biographic details, see 
Department of State press release 874 dated December 
24.) 



69 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

J or x'llr I'll th, Sii/,' liiili iidi ill of DiiriniKnl y. U.S. Uov- 
rnimrnt l''rinti)i(j Offirr. W'lxhhiaton ~'.i, D.V. Addrr.tn 
rciiuiiitx ilirci-t to tlir Siiiii-riiilriiilrvt (if Doriimint.i. iJ-- 
Cfpt in the nine uf frir iiitblirntUntu, whifh miiij tie 
ohldini-d from the Dcpnrlmi-nt of Stittr. 

Atomic Energy— Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS4.!H. 

Atrreeiiient between the I'nited St.-ites nf Ainerica ami the 
Federal Ueimlilic of Germany, aiueiuiiiif; aureeiiient of 
July ;?. l!tr>7. Signed at Washington July 22. lU.^n. 
Kniered into force September 22, lit.")',*. 

Parcel IVst. TIAS 4315. 2.'5 pi>. 15(?. 

Agreement and regulations of execution between the 
United States of America and the United Arab Keiiublic. 
Signed at Cairo Dtn-ember :«>, l!»."s, and at Washington 
January 13, lO.'iO. Entered into force October 1, It*".!!. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. TIAS 431G, 2 pp. Tx*. 
Agreement between the United St;ites of America and 
Norway, amending annex C to the agreement of Janu- 
ary 27, 1!>.",0. Exchange of notes— Dated at Oslo August 
3l"and Sci)tember !), l'J.")0. Entered into force September 
•J, ]!l.-.lt. 

Atomic Energy- Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4.;lT. 
3 pp. .^«0. 

Agreement iM-twecn the United States of America and 
I'.elgivnn, amen<ling agreement of June l.'i, lit;"!, as 
aniendi'<I. Sigmtl at Washington July 22, lOGl*. Entered 
into force Se)ilcmber 2'.t, 11»5'.>. 

United States Educational Foundation in India. TIAS 
4;',is. 4 pp. rx*. 

Agreement belween the United Stales of America and 
India, .•imendhig agreement of February 2, VXM. as 
amcmie<l. Kxchange of nnti's— Dated .-it .New Delhi J;in- 
uary .''.ll and February li, l!l.''.t. Kntercd iiitu I'nrcc I'cbru- 
aryC, I'.C,'.). 

Passport Visas. TI.\S LilK. ."i i>p. ."«'. 
Airrccment liclwecn the I'niled Stales of America and 
Nicaragua. U/Xcliange of notes— Dated at Managua July 
fi, ScpKMnber 3(», and (iihihcr 22. T.l.Vi. Knlcrcd iiiln 
force October 22, 1 '.».".">. 

Defense — Maintenance of Ilaines-Fairbanks Pipeline. 
TIAS 432(1. 2 iMi. ■',(•. 

.\greement between the I'liilcsl St.'ilcs of .\aicrica and 
Canad.-i. extiMiding agrceiiiciit of .l.mu.iry l(i and 17. Ill.'i7. 
Exchange of notes — Date(l at Ottawa August 17 and 2(i. 
1!l.'l>. [entered into force August 20. ll»."iil. Oper.-ilivc 
relroactivcly .Inly 1, l!i."iS. 

Conservation of Shrimp. T1.\S l.';2l. 10 pl' !•*'•' 

Ciinvcniidn bclwccn Ihc Iniled Stales of .\merica and 
Cub.-i. Signe<l .al llaliana .Vugii'il l.'i, \'X>s. ICnicred into 
fori'c Se|]|endier 4, III.V.*. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — .\ssurances. T1.\S l.;22 2 
pp. .%-'. 

.\i;rc-cii.cnl bctwci'ii Ihc Inilcd Slalcs of .\mcri( ;i and 
India i;\ibam;c i.r m.li'^ Siu'nc(l .-il New Delhi .\|iiil Id. 
and I mbci- IT. Ili.'is, Ijiicrcd iiitn f.ircc December 17. 

i;i.-.s 



Foreign Service Personnel — Free-Entry Privileges. TIAS 
43Z3. "> pp. int- 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Venezuela. Exchange of notes — Dated at Caracas April 
7 and 17, 10."',». Entered into force April 17, ltC)t>. 

General -Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. TI.\S 4324. 

10 pp. 10c. 

Seventh protocol of supplementary concessions to agree- 
ment of October 30, l'.>47. Done at Bonn February 19, 
1!)."7. Schedule for AiL^tria entered into force Septem- 
ber 1. li>."i.s;: schedule for the Federal Reimblie of Ger- 
many entered iiilo force August 21, 11K")9. 

Special Economic Assistance. TIAS 4325. 3 pp. 5i?. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Hunna. Exchange of notes — Signed at Rangoon June 

24. 1959. Entered into force June 24, 1959. 

Economic Cooperation. Tl.VS 4320. 2 pp. 5?*. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Burma, amending agreement of March 21, 1957. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Rangoon September 12, 1959. En- 
tered into force Septeiidicr 12, 1951t. 

Commission for Exchange of Students and Professors. 

TIAS 4327. 11 pp. \0<i. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the United .\rab Republic. Signed at Cairo September 
28, 1959. Entered into force Septend)er 2fS. 1959. 

Surplus Property — Sale in Korea of Excess Military 
Property. TIAS 4.32.S. 1.") pp. lo?. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the Republic of Korea. Signed at Seoul October 1. 19.V.I. 
With memorandum of iuteriu-etation and understanding. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TI.\S 432tt. 4 pp. ,V 

Agreement between the United Stales of America and 
I'eru, amending agreement of .Vjiril 9. 195.S, as amendeii. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Lima September 11 .-nid 

25, 19.59. Entered into force September 2,5, 1959. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 21-27 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of New.s, Department of State. Washington 2.5, D.C. 

Releases issued jirior li> Dei'eniber 21 which i\\>- 
pear in this issue of the Btn.i.F.TiN are Nos. 8.56 and 
,S5S of December 15, ,S()2 of December Iti, S(i4 of 
DecemlKU- 17, and St.',' cf December 19. 

No. Date Snbjcct 

Mil) 12 21 Weslcrn beads-of-gciverniiicnt com- 

iiiuni(iuc. 
*.si;s ll' jl Kdui-alional I'Xch.angc (I.alin .\nier- 
iia I. 
Si'.O I'J 21 Wi'sleni heads. of-govcriimenl com- 

miiliii|ue. 
IsTO 12 22 Ollice of l'.>lilical .\dvise:- Id High 
t 'ominissioiier of Uyukyu Islands. 
s71 12 22 Ncirlh .\llanlic Council cunuauiiicine. 
:s72 12 21 r.S. U.S. S.R. lend-lease negoliations. 
ST:. 12 24 Nelheilands I'ases imjiorl controls. 
S74 12.24 Turliid aiil>oinled U.S. re|iresenlative 
i>n liiler-.\merican Economic and 
Social Council ( biegr.-ipbic delails). 
'■S7.~i I'J -J 4 .Muiiio appointed .•imlia.ssador to 
Gualeaial:! ( biograiihic details). 



' N ■: p-tiiicil. 

Illi'ld for a later issue of the I!iii i.ktix. 



70 



Dcpo.'f ;;'cri/ o.^ Sfcife BvUetin 



January 11, 1960 



Index 



Vol. XLII, No. 1072 



Africa. Chiiuge in Consular District for Islnmis of 
Ziiiizibur I'rotectonite (>!) 

Agriculture. I'residont Eisenhower Conii)letes Visits 
to 11 Countries in Euroi)e, Middie East. South Asia, 
and Afrini (text of address at agriculture fair, 
New I>elhi) 40 

American Republics 

Mailory designate<l deputy assistant secretary, Inter- 
Americau Affairs C!) 

Turkel apiwinted I'.S. reineseutative, lA-ECOSOC . GO 

Congress, The. U.S. Wel<-onies Hankers' Study Trij) 
to India and Pakistan (Cooper, Dillon, Kennedy) Qii 

Department and Foreign Service 

A|)iR>intnienti! (Turkel) tiO 

Change in Consular District for Islands of Zanzibar 
Protectorate 69 

Designations (Mailory) 69 

Recess Apiwintments (Muccio) 69 

Disarmament 

NATO Foreign Ministers Conclude Meeting at Paris 
(text of communique) 44 

Westei-n Foreign Ministers Propose Disarmament 
Meeting in March (text of communique) .... 45 

Economic Affairs 

Netherlands Eases Controls on U.S. Imports ... 57 
Turkel appointed U.S. representjitive, lA-BCOSOC . 69 
U.S. Welcomes Bankers' .Study Trip to India and 

Pakistan (Cooper, Dillon, Kennedy) 63 

Western Heads of State and Government Meet at 

Paris (Eisenhower, texts of communiques) ... 43 
France. Western Heads of State and Government 

Meet at Paris (Eisenhower, texts of conmiu- 

uiques) 43 

Germany 

NATO Foreign Ministers Conclude Meeting at Paris 
(text of communique) 44 

Western Heads of State and Government Meet at 
Paris (Eisenhower, text,s of communiques) ... 43 

Greece. President Eisenhower Completes Visits to 11 
Oiuntries in Euroi)e, Middle East, South Asia, and 
Africa (Eisenhower, texts of joint communiques) 46 

Guatemala. Muccio appointed Ambas-sador .... 69 

India 

Pre.sident Eisenhower Completes Visits to 11 Coun- 
tries in Europe, Middle Ea.st, South Asia, and 
Africa (Ei.senhower, texts of joint communiques) . 40 

U.S. Welcomes Bankers' Study Trip to India and 
Pakistan (Cooper, Dillon, Kennedy) 63 

International Information. Opportunities for Inter- 
national Cooperation In Space Exploration (Glen- 
nan) .W 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Turkel appointed U.S. representative, lA-ECOSOC . 69 

U.S. Welcomes Bankers' Study Trip to India anil 
Pakistan (Cooper, Dillon, Kennedy) ()3 



Iran. I'resident Ei.senlinwer Conipletes Vl.sil.s to 11 
Countries in Europe, .Middle East, South .\siu, and 
Africa ( Ei.senhower. texts of joint couimuril(|ue.s) 4«l 

Military Affairs. K. L. Dennison Aitpoinled Supreme 
.\lliiMl Commander, Atlantic 4'> 

^lorocco. President Ei.senhower Completes Visits to 
11 Countries in Euroiw, Middle East, South Asia, 
and Africa (Eisenhower, texts of Joint commu- 
niques) 40 

Xefherlands. Netherlands Eases Controls on U.S. 
Imports 57 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 

NATO Foreign Ministers Conclude Meeting at Paris 
(text of communique) 44 

R. L. Dennison Appointetl Supreme Allied Com- 
mander, Atlantic 45 

Pakistan. U.S. Welcomes Bankers' Study Trii) to 
India and Pakistan (Cooper, Dillon, Kennedy) . 63 

Presidential Documents. President Eisenhower 
Completes Visits to 11 Countries in Europe, Middle 
East, South Asia, and Africa 46 

Publications. Recent Rclea.ses 70 

Science 

Opiwrtuuities for International Cooperation in Space 
Exploration (Glennan) 58 

U.N. Sets Up New Committee on Peaceful Uses of 
Outer Space; Decides To Convene International 
Scientific Conference (Lodge, text of resolution) . 64 

Spain. President Eisenhower Completes Visits to 11 
Countrias in Europe, Middle East, South Asia, and 
Africa (Eisenhower, texts of joint communiques) . 46 

Tunisia. President Eisenhower Completes A'isits to 
11 Countries in Europe, Middle East, South Asia, 
and Africa (Eisenhower, texts of joint comnni- 
niques) . . • 46 

U.S.S.R. Western Heads of StJite and Government 
Meet at Paris (ELsenhower, texts of commu- 
niques) 43 

United Kingdom. Western Heads of State and Gov- 
ernment Meet at Paris (Eisenhower, texts of com- 
muniques) 43 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 69 

U.N. Sets Up New (Jommittee on Peaceful Uses of 
Outer Space; Decides To Convene International 
Scientific Conference (Lodge, text of resolution) . 64 

Name Index 

Coojjer, John Sherman 63 

Dennison, Robert L 45 

Dillon, Douglas 63 

Eisenhower, I'resident 43, 46 

Glennan, T. Keith 58 



Kennedy, John F . 
Lodge, Henry Cabot 
Mailory, Lester D 
Muccio, John J . . 
Tuikel, Harrj- R . . 



63 
64 
69 
69 
69 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLII, No. 1073 



January 18, 1960 



£ 

nciAL 

EKLY RECORD 

ED STATES 
iEIGN POLICY 



FOUR POWERS AGREE ON MAY 16 AS DATE FOR 

SUMMIT MEETING • Exchange of Messages Beticeen 
President Eisenhotcer and Premier Khrushchev 77 

THE SEARCH FOR PEACE WITH FREEDOM • Re- 

marks by President Eisenhoiver 7d 

THE OUTLOOK FOR 1960 IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS 

• Statement by Secretary Herter 78 

COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLES. THE 
CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY • 6.v 

Robert U. Thayer 81 

A REVIEW OF THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S FOOD 
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CONFERENCE OF THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 

ORGANIZATION • Report ami Statement by CU,rence L. 
Miller and Text of Resolution on Freedoni-From-IIunger 
Campaign 88 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 1 1960 



Vol. XLII, No. 1073 • Publication 6930 
January 18. I960 



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\ 



The Search for Peace With Freedom 



Remarks hy President Eisenhower ^ 



Fellow Americans, at liome and overseas; 
friends of America; workers for a just peace, 
wherever you may be in the world, whatever your 
race or flag or tongue or creed : 

Once again I have the privilege of lighting the 
Pageant of Peace tree on the eve of the Christmas 
season. This is the season when men and women 
of all faiths, pausing to listen, gain new heart 
from the message that filled the heavens over 
Betldehem 2,000 years ago — Peace on earth, good 
will to men. 

Every Christmas through the long marcli of 
centuries since then, the message has been echoed 
in the hopes and prayers of humanity. 

This Christmas, for me at least, those words 
have clearer meaning, sharper significance, more 
urgent counsel. 

Last night I came home from a trip that carried 
me to three continents, Africa and Asia and 
Europe.- I visited 1 1 countries, whose populations 
total a quarter of all mankind. 

I wish that every American — certainly every 
American recognized by his fellows as a leader in 
any field — and every leader in the countries of the 
West could see and hear what I have seen and 
what I have heard. The mutual underetanding 
thereby created could in itself do much to dissolve 
the issues that plague the world. 

My trip was not undertaken as a feature of 
normal diplomatic procedures. It was not my 
purpose either to seek specific agreements or to 
urge new treaty relationships. My purpose was 



' Made at the ceremonies opening the Christmas Pageant 
of Peace at Washington, D.C., on Dec. 23 (White House 
press release). 

' For bacliground, see Bulletin of Dec. 28, 1959, p. 931, 
and Jan. 11, 1960, p. 46. 



to improve the climate in whicli diplomacy might 
work more successfully — a diplomacy that seeks, 
as its basic objective, peace witli justice for all 
men. 

In tlie crowds that welcomed my party and me 
I saw at close hand the faces of millions. Many, 
indeed most, were poor, weary, worn by toil ; but 
others were yomig, energetic, eager — the children, 
as always, bright and excited. 

The clothes of a few were as modern as today's 
Paris ajid New York ; of others, as ancient as the 
garb of Abraham, often soiled and tattered, al- 
though sometimes colorful and romantic to the 
American eye. 

They were Buddhist and Muslim and Hindu 
and Christian. 

But, seeing them massed along coimtry roads 
and city streets from the eastern shore of the At- 
lantic to Karachi and Delhi, three tilings, it 
seemed to me, united them into one fiunily : 

Tlie first, their friendship for America and 
Americans ; 

The second, their fervent hope — too long frus- 
trated — for betterment of tliemselves and of their 
children ; 

And third, their deep-seated hunger for peace 
in freedom. 



Key to Betterment of Peoples 

Of this last, permit me to speak first. It must 
come first. The assurance of peace in freedom 
is the key to betterment of peoples everywhere, 
and in a just peace friendship between all peoples 
will flourish. 

I assure you that all the people I saw and visited 
want peace. Nothing in human affaira can be 
more certain than that 



January 18, J 960 



75 



I talked with kings and presidents, prime min- 
isters, and hiunble men and women in cottages 
and in mud huts. Their common denominator 
was their faith that America will help lead the 
way toward a just peace. 

They believe that we look and work toward tlie 
day when the use of force to achieve political or 
commercial objectives will disappear, when each 
coimtiy can freely draw on the culture, wisdom, 
experience of other countries and adapt to its own 
needs and aspirations what it deems is best and 
most suitable. 

They understand that we look and work toward 
the day when tliere can be open and peaceful 
partnership — communication — interchange of 
goods and ideas l)etween all peoples, toward the 
day when each i>eopl6 will make its maximum con- 
tribution toward the progress and prosperity of 
the world. 

Such is the world condition which we and all 
the peoples I visited hope — and pray — to see. 

Our concept of the good life for humanity does 
not require an inevitable conflict between peoples 
and sysiems, in which one must triumph over tlie 
other. Nor does it offer merely a bare coexistence 
as a satisfactory state for mankind. After all, an 
uneasy coexistence could be as barren and sterile, 
joyless and stale a life for human beings as the co- 
existence of cellmates in a penitentiaiy or a labor 
camp. 

Help and Strength for the Cause of Freedom 

We believe that history, the record of human 
living, is a great and broad stream into which 
should pour the richness and divei-sity of many 
cultures, from which emerge ideas and practices, 
ideals and purposes, \ii\k\ for all. We believe 
each people of the human family, even the least 
in numlwr and (lie most primitive, can contribute 
something to a developing world embracing all 
peoples, enhancing the good of all peoples. 

But we recognize — we must recognize — that in 
tlie often fierce and even ^-icious battle for sur- 
vival — against weather and disease and poverty — 
some peoples need hclj). Denied it, they could 
well Income so desperate as to create a woi-ld 
catastrophe. 

Now, in tlio ultimate sense, a nation must 
achieve for itself, by its heart and by its will, tlie 

76 



standard of living and the strength needed to 
progress toward peace with justice and freedom. 
But, where necessai-y resources and technological 
skills are lacking, people must be assisted, or all 
the world will suffer. 

In the past America has been generous. Our 
generosity has been greeted with gi'atitude and 
friendship. On my trip many millions cried and 
shouted their testimony to that fact. 

No count i-y I visited is short on the gi-eatest of 
all resources — people of good heart and stout will. 
xVnd this is especially true of the yomig. Almost 
every coiuitry is, however, short on the teclmical 
knowledge, the skills, the machines, the tech- 
niques — and the money — needed to enable their 
l>eople fully to exploit the natural resources of 
tlieir lands. 

Of course, money alone camiot bring about this 
progress. Yet America's own best interests — our 
own hopes for peace — require that we continue 
our financial investment and aid and persuade all 
other fi-ee nations to join us, to the limit of their 
ability, in a long-term program, dependable in its 
tenns and in its duration. 

But more importantly — in the spirit of the 
Christmas season, that there may be peace on earth 
and good will among men, we must as indi\'iduals, 
as corporations, labor unions, professional soci- 
eties, as communities, multiply our interest, our 
concern in these peoples. They are now our wann 
friends. They will be our stout and strong part- 
ners for peace and friendship in freedom — if they 
are given the right sort of help in the right sort 
of spirit. 

The ^Vmerican Government and our allies i>ro- 
\'ide the defensive strength against aggi-e.ssion 
that permits men of good will to work together 
for i^eace. Such strength is an absolute require- 
ment until controlled and safeguarded disarma- 
ment allows its reduction, step by step. 

Protected by our defensive strength against 
\iolent disru[)tion of our peaceful efforts, we are 
ti-ying to produce a workable, practical program 
that will make eacli succeeding Christmas a little 
closer in spirit, and reality to the message of the 
Ih-st Christmas long ago. 

Tliis is not a matter of charity for the poverty- 
stricken nor of easing our own consciences through 
doles for the distressed. The help we give to our 
friends is help and strength for the cause of free- 

Deparlment of Sfafe BuUefin 



dom — i\jnericAn fi-eedom, us well aa freedom 
throufrhout the world. 

In -rivinfr it, we must l>e hardheaded but un- 
derstanding', enlightened in our own interest but 
sympathetic and generous in the interest of our 
friends. 

Together we should consider all the ways ami 
the fonns such help might take. I fervently 
hope that in this Christmas season each of you 
who is listening will give thought to what you 
can do for another liuman, identical with you in 
his divine origin and destiny, however distant in 
miles or poor in worldly estate. 

"With tiiat hoi)e, with that prayer, I wisli you 
all happiness and peace in this season as I light 
the Xation's Chi-istmas tree for the Pageant of 
Peace. 

Meriy Christmas ! 



Four Powers Agree on May 16 
as Date for Summit Meeting 

On December 21 France, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States proposed to the Soviet 
Union that an East-West summit meeting begin 
at Parifi on April 27} Following is a subsequent 
exchange of messages between President Eisen- 
hower and NikitaS. Khrushchev, Chairman of the 
Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics. 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO MR. 
KHRUSHCHEV 

White House {.\iigusta, Ga.) press release dated December 29 

December 20, 19.5!) 
Dear Mr. Chairman : I note with satisfaction 
that you have agreed to participate in a Summit 
meeting of the Four Powers in Paris which Prime 
Minister Macmillan, President de Gaulle and my- 
self proposed to you. I can well understand the 
difficulty of arriving at a date commonly accept- 
able to tJie four of us. 

I have been in touch with Prime Minister Mac- 
millan and President de Gaulle in regard to tlie 
alternative dates which you suggest. Unfortu- 

'For text of a letter from President Eisenhower to 
Soviet Premier Khrushchev, see Bulletin of Jan. 11, 
1960, p. 44. 



nately, due to other engagements, both President 
de Gaulle and I would not find it possible to meet 
on April -2.1. I further undei-stand that Prime 
Minister Macmillan has prior commitments which 
run from May ;5 until mid-May. 

Provided that this is acceptable to you, the best 
arrangement would seem to be for the meeting of 
the Four Powers to open in Paris on May 16. 

I trust, Mr. Chainnan, that this will notpi-esent 
any difficulties to you and that we may agree Xo 
meet in Paris on that date. 



Sincerely, 



DwKiiiT D. Eisenhower 



ianvary 18, I960 



MESSAGES OF PREMIER KHRUSHCHEV TO 
PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

Letter of December 25 

Unofficial translation 

Dear Mr. President: I have received yonr letter in 
which yon confirm your readiness to take i>art in a sum- 
mit meeting of the Four Powers and communicate the 
understanding reached on this question between you. 
Prime Minister Macmillan and President de Gaulle. First 
of all I wish to express my deep satisfaction that you. 
Prime Minister Macmillan and President de Gaulle con- 
sider it desirable for the discussion of the main interna- 
tional problems from time to time to arrange a meeting 
at tlie highest level of the countries taking part in such a 
meeting. 

The Soviet Government can only welcome such a dec- 
laration. We have always considered that it Is exactly 
through the personal meetings of statesmen on the highest 
level that urgent international problems can be resolved 
in the most effective manner. 

The Soviet Government exi)resses it.s readiness for con- 
ducting the summit meeting in Paris. 

Unfortunately the date named for this meeting of April 
27, 11K50, is not convenient for tlie Soviet Government. In 
connection with this, we would like to suggest as a possi- 
ble date for this meeting the 21st of April or the 4th of 
-May 1960. 

The Soviet Government hoi)es that one of these dates 
will be acceptable for the Government of tlie Unite<l 
States of -Vmerica as well as for the Governments of 
Great Uritain and France and that its propositi will not 
make any difficulty in the choice of a definitive date for 
the meeting of the Heads of Government. 

I hope, Mr. President, that these con.slderatlons will 
be aweptnble to you. 
With warm regarda 

N. Khrushchev. 
The Kremlin, Moscow, December Z5, 1959. 



77 



Letter of December 30 

Unofflelal translation 

])KAii Mi:. I'KKsrDF.NT : I riMvivi^I your letter of Decem- 
ber 2*.) in which you express yourself in favor of a summit 
nieetiu'.; of tlie Four Towers in Paris lieffinninK May Hi. 
IIXJO. 

Tlie Soviet (lovernment considers this date aweptable. 

It is now possible to note with sati.sfaetion that as a 
result of the joint <'on.sultations among the Governments 
of tlie Four Powers liiial agreement has been reachtnl on 
(he date and plai'c for convening a summit conference. 

N. Khrushchkv 

TiiK KuKMi.l.v, .\t(ixritir, lUcrDihrr SO, 19.')f>. 



The Outlook for 1960 
in Foreign Affairs 

Stdtiiiu'tif h)/ S, rrt'/iiri/ Ilrrfc)' 

Press ri'lcas(> KST dnteii Di't-r-mlior HI 

l!H'i(i will lie .■111 pventfiil year in the Held of 
foi-cii^ii all'aiis. President Eisenhower is consid- 
erincr mak-ino more, trips to otlier countries \)Yo- 
vided liis sclu'.chde ])eniiits.' He plans to return 
the visit of Mr. Klinislu'hev to this country by 
tnivelinif to the Soviet Union, jiroliably in Jiuie. 

'We e.\]iert to he iiosts (o a number of distin- 
ojuisiied statesmen during tht^ course of tlie year; 
in fad, in the first few months Pi-inie Ministei' 
Kislii of .I;i]ian, I'l-esident Llerns of Colombia, 
Pi'csident. de (JauUe of Fi-ance, and the Kin<r of 
Nepal, aniono; othei-s, will visit us. 

Now sclieduleil for some time in May, there will 
be an East-A\'est summit meeting. 

'I'liroiiiihoiit the year we shall face pi'eat chal- 
leiifxes. V\'v and our allies will explor(> with the 
Soviet Pnion possibilities for reachiiio- poliiical 
settlements. We will eturaii'e in redoubled efForls 
to make |)roo:ress on arms control. W(> will keep 
U]) our proo-ranis to as,sist dexeloplno; nalioiis to 
progress in ficedom. 

Fn tlie midst of all this activity it is imporlani 
for us all, as .\ iiiericaiis, to beai- two things in 
mind : 

Fii-st, despit»> a new almosph(M•(^ of hopefulness 
foi- I be solution of world problems, there lia.s, in 
fact, been no leal change in Commimist inten- 

' For texts of a(l(lress<-s, slalcuienls. and joint com 

muni.ines from Presjih-nl l';i.s(>nhower"s II -nation |ii|.. 

Dec :! -J'J, l!i.-,ii, see Ilri.iiiiN ef I )(^-. js. i;i."i'.l. p IKtl. 
and .1.111 I 1, I'.ico, |i III. 



78 



tions. So far, deeds have not followed upon 
peaceful words. Thus, though willing and ever 
ready to negotiate, we must not let down our 
guard. More than ever, in a period of some hope, 
it is essential to maintain our defenses. Also, if 
we are to arrive at solutions to world problems, 
we must realize that these do not come easily — 
they may well take generations to accomplish. 

Secondly, we must go forward from the experi- 
ence of the President's recent trip which has 
headlined through the world the concern of the 
United States for peace and friendship in free- 
dom. This princijile is now recognized by hun- 
dreds of millions of people. Our task in lOfiO and 
the years ahead is to help convert this principle 
from ait expression of tiuxious hope into a state- 
ment of actual fact. 

In till our foreign relations we will try to carry 
out Americtv's role of res]ionsibility to the free 
world. We will try to demonstrate America's 
deilication to the cause of individual dignity and 
freedom. 



U.S. states Position on Atom Ban, 
Refutes Soviet Statement 

STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

Wliitf Hnusf {,\iigusta, (Ja.l jircs.s ri-loase dated DeCfmber 2t* 

The negotiations with i'i's|)ei-t to tlit> cessation 
of nuclear testing lia\e now been in progress for 
1 [ inniiihs. A\"liilc now i-ecesscd. they will soon Ik> 
resiinifd. \o satisfactory aoiceiiieiit is yet in 
sight. The prospects for siti'li an agre^'uient have 
been injured by the recent unwillingne.ss on the 
])art of the politically guided ."soviet exjierts to 
gi\e serious scieiit ilic considerat ion to the efl'ective- 
nchs of seismic teclini(]iies for the di>tection of 
niideigi'ouiid nuclear explosions. Indeed the at^ 
ini)S]ilicre of the talks has been clouded by the 
iiitemperate and lechnic.ally unsup])ortal)le Soviet 
annex to the rc])ort of (he technical experts. The 
distinguished .\meiican group of scientists who 
composed the United .St att>s delegat ion will make 
public from the Ncrbatim rei-ords of I he confer- 
ence the facts which will completely rcd'iite this 
.'>o\ iel d(H-iiiiieiit . 

\\v will resume negotiations in a continuing 
si)iril of seeking to i-each a safeguarded agree- 



Departmcnf of Slate Bulletin 



inent. In the meantime, the voluntary moratorium 
on testing will expire on I)ewmbor31.' 

Although we consider oui-selves free to resume 
nuclear weapons testing, we shall not resume nu- 
clear weapons tests without announcing our in- 
tention in advance of any i-esumption. During 
the period of voluntary suspension of nuclear 
weapons tests the United St^vtes will continue its 
active program of weapon research, development 
and laboratory-type experimentation. 

REPLY TO STATEWENT BY SOVIET EXPERTS 

Press release 884 dated December 29 
Department Announcement 

Technical Working (Jroup 2, which examined 
problems relating to detection and identification 
of seismic events, concluded its work on December 
18 and reported to the Geneva Conference on the 
Discontinuance of Nuclear "Weapon Tests on 
December 19. Annex II of the "Working Group 
report ^ is a ''Statement by the Soviet Experts." 
This intemperate and teclmically unsupportable 
Soviet annex, inunediately after it was read to the 
conference, was refuted by Dr. James B. Fisk, 
chairman of the U.S. teclmical group. The text 
of Dr. Fisks statement of December 19 is 
attached. 



Excerpt from Verbatim GEN/DNT/PV. 150 (December 
19, 1959) 

Mr. Fisk (United States of America) : I had hoi)ed that 
we would not be called uiMin today to re-arjjue our cases, 
particularly sinc-e I understand that the annexes to the 
report which we have submitted to you today are to be 
published, and particularly also because these questions 
have been so thoroughly covered in the verbatim records. 

However, since Dr. [B. K.] Federov has read his in- 
correct, distorted and misleading statement, I feel that the 
record would be lopsided if I did not make a few moderate 
comments on behalf of the United .States delegation. 

Mr. Fe<lerov lias referred to a large number of very 
highly technical and complicated matters. I do not pro- 
pose to comment on all of them, for the reasons that I 
have cited. There are, however, a few which deserve 
comment at this time. 

Mr. Federov has returned once again to the argument 
which he has used persistently throughout our meetings — 



' For background, see BmxETl.v of Sept. 14, 1959, p. 374. 
* Doc. GEN/DNT/TWG. 2/9, released at Geneva Dec. 

I'J, 1959. 



naim-Iy, the arKtiment that the new data based on the 
Hardtack e.\i>erlments are Invalid because they In effect 
do not represent u test of the system re<'onimeuded by the 
Geneva Conference of KxihtIs. I should like to observe 
that that as.sertlon is irrelevant. I would, furthermore, 
observe that the Instruments which were used In the 
Hardtack experiments have been conclusively shown. In 
the course of the meetings of the Twhnlcal Working 
Group, to be suiwrior to those which we understand were 
recommended by the Conference of Experts.' .Mr. Fed- 
erov challenges us becau.se not every one of the total 
number of seismographs u.sed in the Hardtack exjK-ri- 
ment.s was usetl in every exi)erlment. This has no essen- 
tial bearing on the results. I would simply observe tiat 
sixtiH-n seismographs, well calibrated and well placed, 
for any one of the.se underground explosions, are a rather 
unusually large number and the data from them are 
good, relevant and complete. 

Mr. Federov charges us with changing the source dat« 
as a matter of whim. I should like to remind him that 
the source data are the seismogrums themselves. Many 
of them have been available to the Soviet delegation for 
a number of months. In the first few meetings of the 
Tec'hnieal Working Group, 2,50 were made available to 
the Soviet delegation. Those are the source data. If 
the Soviet scientists are willing to do their own home- 
work, they have available every bit of data that we have 
laboured on for so long. 

Mr. Federov says that we introduced new data at the 
nineteenth meeting of the Working Group. That is an 
absurd statement. I should like to observe that it was 
only at last, at that nineteenth meeting, that we cotild 
even bring Mr. Federov to discuss on a technical basis 
the very important question of first motion. Further- 
more, what he calls new data were obtained by measur- 
ing the very seismograms that had been made available 
to the Soviet delegation earlier. 

I should now like to make some remarks about the final 
report of the United States delegation concerning the 
work of the Technical Working Group. 

In accordance with the Group's terms of reference, the 
United States delegation bases its reiMirt on all scien- 
tifically valid conclusions concerning the detection and 
identification of nuclear events ba.sed on new studies and 
data, whether such conclusions would lead to improve- 
ments of the system or would lejid to an assessment which 
would make the system api>ear Ic.'ss effe<'tive. It is our 
view that mentioning only the potential improvements in 
the final conclusions on this subject would mislead the 
Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon 
Tests concerning the pre.sent technical status of the pos- 
sible control system. 

One of the imi)ortant conclusions in the swiion of our 
report on new data deals with the so-calle<l first motion 
problem — that is, the direction in which a seismic needle 
would swing as a first resiwnse to a seismic disturbance. 
This direction was considered by the Conference of Ex- 
perts in 19.>8 to be the primary tool for discriminating 



' For background, see Bulleti.v of Sept 22, 1958, p. 452, 
and Jan. 26, 1959, p. 118. 



January 18, J 960 



79 



between earthquakes and explosions. The conclusion 
drawn by the United States delegation, based on new 
data, is that this method of discrimination is much less 
effective than had been thought. 

A further important conclusion in that section concerns 
the possibility of concealment of underground nuclear 
explosions by detonating such explosions in a very large 
cavity in salt or hard rock. It was shown theoretically 
that the seismic signal of a given explosion under these 
conditions could be reduced three hundredfold or more as 
compared to the signals produced in the Nevada tests. 
Consequently, explosions could be made to look smaller 
by this factor and thus be much harder to detect and 
locate. 

Another item of the si^me section deals with a subject 
to which Mr. Federov has given such attention — that is, 
the estimate of the nimiber of earthquakes which would 
be exi)ected to be detected and located by the system. 
The conclusion is thiit the estimates of .such a number are 
very uncertain but that about 15,000 earthciuakes per 
year would be located by the system over the whole world, 
corresponding to earth movements produced by nuclear 
explosions of more than one kiloton. For larger explo- 
sions, such as 20 kilotons, the number of equivalent earth- 
quakes is about 2.000 world-wide. 

All delegations concurred in the se<-tion on seismic 
improvements, and I do not believe that it needs any 
further comment. However, much work and research 
must be done to make these new methods effective. 

We then have a section on criteria based on objective 
instrument readings which could be used by the control 
organization in determining the eligibility of detected and 
located seismic events for insi)ection. Agreement was 
not reached on that .section. It is the United States dele- 
gation's view that .such criteria must be formulate<l so 
that a large number of explosions would not be classified 
as natural earthquakes and that the criteria must be based 
on well established technical information. Unfortunately, 
the resulting criteria classify only a small fraction of the 
seismic events as natural earthquakes, leaving a large 
number eligible for insj)ectiou. It was the Soviet dele- 
gation's view that criteria must be sijecified by the Work- 
ing Group which would remove a large fraction of the 
seismic events fnmi eligibility for inspection by identify- 
ing them as na.tural earthquakes. However, it is the 
United States delegation's view that this is impossible 
within present te<-hnical knowledge. In fact, the criteria 
proposed by the Soviet delegation woiild have classified 



such events as the recent United States underground 
nuclear test explosions, which ranged up to 19 kilotons in 
yield, as natural earthquakes and thus would have made 
them ineligible for insi)ection. It is the United States 
delegation's view that as scientific knowledge progresses 
more useful criteria can be formulated in the future. 

We recognize that there is a great deal of additional 
seismic information available, as listed in a substantial 
section of our report, but that information is not suffi- 
ciently complete to be formulated into specific criteria. 
The United States delegation feels that such auxiliary 
information should be very useful if evaluated in a com- 
petent technical manner in connection with a particular 
.seismic event. 

The problem of the formulation of criteria is a strictly 
technical problem. If technical knowledge permits one 
to identify a large fraction of seismic events as earth- 
quakes, then it is clearly a great advantage to the control 
system. If technical knowledge does not permit that, 
then seismic events must remain eligible for inspection. 
Determination of the means of selecting events to be 
insi>ected must be left for further consideration by tbe 
main Conference. 



Foreign Minister of Spain 
To Visit United States 

Press release 879 dated December 29 

The Foreign Minister of Spain, Fernando 
Maria Castiella y Maiz, has accepted the invita- 
tion of tlie Secretary of State to make an official 
visit to Washington from Marcli 22 through 
March 24, 1960. The Secretai-y expressed his in- 
terest in having the Foreign Minister visit "Wash- 
ington when they met in Ix)ndon on August 31, 
1959.^ 

During the 3 days he will l>e in Washington, the 
Foreign Minister will exchange views with the 
Secretary of State and other U.S. officials on cur- 
rent aspects of Spanish-United States relations 
and matters of mutual interest to both countries. 



' Bulletin of Sept. 21, l!»r>!t. p. 404. 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



Communications Between Peoples, the Clialienge of Cultural Diplomacy 



by Robert H. Thayer^ 



We are on this '2!>tli day of December on the 
threshold of an exciting new decade, tlie decade 
of the sixties. The next 10 years ai-e going to be 
years of astonnding and dramatic clianges. The 
raj)id progress Iwing made in all fields of science 
is bound to affect very deeply the individnal as 
well as the national lives of the j^eoples of the 
whole world. 

We in the United Stat-es have an obligation as 
individuals and as a nation to assert leadership 
in seeing that these changes take place in a way 
that will bring greater fullillment to life in a 
world of peace. We must be on the aleit not to 
lose the basic principles of our great heritage in 
this process of change, and at the same time we 
must, take care not to cling to concepts that have 
lost their validity. 

This is particularly true in the field of inter- 
national relations, where, I submit, new concepts 
are needed if we are to succeed in establishing 
and maintaining with the people of the rest of 
the world the mutual imderstanding necessaiy to 
prevent a war that coidd destroy civilization. 
These new concepts include what I have teniied 
"cultural diplomacy," as distuiguished from the 
military, political, and economic diplomacy of 
the decades behind us; and cidtui'al diplomacy, if 
it is to be effective, requires close association l)e- 
tween the government and the academic commu- 
nity. I have, therefore, a profound sense of 
professional comradeship with all of you here to- 
day, for we have much in common in our respec- 



' Address made before a joint meeting of the American 
Educational Theater A.isociatlou and the Speech Associa- 
tion of .Vmerica at Washington, D.C., on Dec. 2ft (press 
release 880). Mr. Tha.ver is Si>ecial Assistant to the 
Secretary of State for the Coordination of International 
Educational and Cultural Relations. 



tive fields of education and foreign affairs, and 
there is an urgent need today for us to draw closer 
together. 

The key word that links lx)th our worlds is 
"communication." As teachers of speech and the 
dramatic arts, you are dealing with communica- 
tion in its most dynamic form — the form that 
throughout history has provided man with one of 
the most effective outlets for liis social conscious- 
ness. As the head of the State Department's 
Bureau of International Cultural Relations, I am 
concerned with comiumiication between peoples — 
the masses of people who collectively form nations 
with distinctive languages, histories, social and 
economic developments, and cultural patterns. 

Oncei commiuiications are established, whether 
across footlights or from the rostriun or across 
continents, you and I have the same primary objec- 
tive — the achievement of a basic understanding of 
the emotions, aspirations, problems, and cultiu"al 
heritage of people, whether they be hundre^ls of 
millions of Asians seeking social and economic 
justice or a group of playwrights or sjieakers 
pleading for the same cause. 

Broadening of International Horizons 

International ciillural relations have come to 
tlie forefront during the past decade in the form 
of a challenge to our ability to communicate as a 
nation. I would like to talk to you about this 
rai)idly expanding lield of conununications today 
and show you how the Government and the uni- 
versities can cooperate to work for the national 
interest in the decade to come. 

Al)out 30 years ago the governments of the 
world, especially ours, })aid little attention to 
international cultural relations, an area of hmnan 
endeavor properly left to the scholars, artists, and 



January 78, 1960 



81 



peripatetic concert soloists. Since then — espe- 
cially since the outbreak of the Second World 
^Yar — governments have come to appreciate inter- 
national cultural activities as imix>rtant factore in 
the overall conduct of foreign affairs. Why have 
sovereign states broadened their international 
horizons beyond their traditional political, eco- 
nomic, and military fields of activity ? There are 
three primaiy reasons, all of which are closely 
linked. 

Firet, the power of the people to influence offi- 
cial policy has gi-own in all parts of the world. 
Tlie masses, whether at the ballot box or at the bar- 
ricades, are making their voices heard and their 
desires understood. 

Second, the tecluiical means of international 
communication have developed in phenomenal 
fashion. The airplane, the radio, the cinema, the 
low-priced book — all of these have made it possi- 
ble for the people of one coiuitry to reach the peo- 
ple of other coimtries swiftly and in depth. 

Thii-d, world events have made sovereign na- 
tions politically, economically, and militarily in- 
terdependent. The hiatus between domestic and 
foreign policy has almost disappeared. Inde- 
pendent countries — the powerful and the weak, the 
large and the small, the developed and under- 
developed — must adjust themselves to unprece- 
dented and complex interrelationships. 

Thus, with the masses taking their place in the 
sun and with sovereign states finding it impossible 
to stand alone, connnimi cat ions l>etweeu peoples — 
cultural relations — have come to mean many im- 
poilaiit things to many governments. 

What do they mean to your Govennnent? For 
the United States, the challenge to our ability to 
communicate as a nation of 180 million people is 
part and parcel of our stniggle to achieve a lasting 
peace with social justice and dignity for the indi- 
vicbial. Wo ai'o a nation with a message to convey 
and iussislaiice to gi\-o to tlie peoples who desire a 
gi-eafer sliare of tlie world's economic and social 
wealth. Cultural relations, properly focused and 
conducted, can help us to convey our message and 
give our assistance in a mamier that is clearly 
undei-stootl, both as to motivation and objectives. 
Cultural relations can also help us to undei-stand 
the cultural accomplislimenfs of otliei- peo])les, so 
that our world ieadei-sliip may be exercised with 
compiussion and respect for foreign values and 
aspirations. 



Unfortunately cultural relations can be used to 
promote international villainy as well as imder- 
standing. The radio that canies the voice of 
friendship can also carry the voice that hai^ps on 
national fears, evokes ancient prejudices, and in- 
flames smoldering passions. Cheaply printed 
books can carry lies as well as the truth. The 
cinema can convey political dogma as well as ar- 
tistic achievement. 

Therein lies the challenge to this Nation's ability 
to communicate witli the other peoples of the 
world. The message we have is dynamic, but the 
barriers we have to breach are formidable. The 
Government is active in the field of international 
cultural relations as a partner with the American 
people in the fulfillment of a task that is vital to 
our national welfare — the development between 
peoples of an atmosphere of mutual tiiist and re- 
spect, within which sovereigii states may resolve 
their differences without resorting to force. 
From a long-range point of view I can think of 
nothing more important to our national well-being 
than cultural diplomacy. 

Let me review for you briefly the latest develop- 
ments in the field of Govermnent-sponsored in- 
ternational cultural activities. 

Within the Department of State, the Bureau 
of International Cidtural Kelations was estab- 
lished last summer to provide higli-level policy 
direction to the established cultural exchange pro- 
grams. These include the well-known Inter- 
national Educational Exchange Program, which 
provides for the exchange of approximately 6,500 
students, professoi"s, teachers, leaders, and spe- 
cialists between the United States and more tlian 
100 other countries each year; the President's 
Special International Program for Cidtural Pres- 
entations, which assists groups of American per- 
forming artists and atliletes to appear in other 
countries of the world; the special cultural, tech- 
nical, and educational exchange program with the 
Soviet-bloc countries of Eastern Europe; and the 
cari-ying out of the United States share in the im- 
portant work of UNESCO [United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. 

The American Educational Theater Abroad 

Hero 1 woidd like to inject a note of commen- 
dation to those of you who have jiarticipated in our 
exchange program as lecturers in the fields of 
drama and the theater ai-ts at foreign univei-sities. 



82 



Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Among otliei-s, some of your colleagues who did 
outshmdiug jobs abroad last year include Dr. 
Frank A. Mc.Mullan of Yale Univei-sity, who 
made many friends for the United States among 
the intellectual elite of Chile: Dr. Francis C. 
Strickland of Stanford University, who was very 
well liked in Finland; and Dr. Fanin S. Belcher 
of West Virginia State College, who tauglit drama 
to enthusiastic Iranian student^s at the Univei-sity 
of Tehnin, despite the frustrations of pi-imitive 
working conditions. 

All of these people proved that coui-ses in the 
theater arts involve a great deal more rapport be- 
tween the pi-ofessor and both his students and his 
host community than courees in other subjects. 
This is a veiy important factor in the achieve- 
ment of real exchanges of views between our gran- 
tees and the people they meet abroad. The pro- 
fessor of drama who directs his students in the 
production of a play is in an excellent position to 
represent his own coimtry and culture in depth. 
I would like to see more of you apply for grants 
to lecture abroad under the Fulbright and Smith- 
Mundt programs. 

Just one warning, however. Those of you who 
do go abroad are in for a lot of surprises. The 
educational theater abroad is not the same as in 
the United States. In Santiago, Chile, Dr. Frank 
McMullan found that the theaters of the Univer- 
sity of Chile and the Catholic T^niversity are af- 
filiated with those schools in name only. In effect, 
tliey are highly professional repertory theatei-s 
comparable to the Comedie Franc;aise in Paris and 
the Old Vic in London. Professor McMullan's 
productions of Look Homeward, Angel and Th^, 
Taming of the Shrew were extremely well re- 
ceived. His biweekly lectures on acting and di- 
recting were attended by authoi-s, composers, 
poets, and painters in addition to the regular con- 
tingent of professors and students from the 
schools. All of these activities earned him a prize 
as the "Best Director of 1958" from the Chilean 
National Association of Theater Critics. 

At the same time, on the other side of the world 
in Iran, Professor Fanin Belcher was directing 
his students in a prcxluction of Home of the Brave 
without blackboard or chalk, in a utility i-oom 
heated by an inadequate pot-bellietl stove, with 
continuous interruptions from ping-pong players 
and afternoon tea drinkers. 

Both of these gentlemen made outstanding con- 
January 18, I960 



tributious to international understanding in cul- 
tural environments far ditrei-ent from the aca- 
demic life back home. 

The ditl'ei-cnces between the educational theater 
in the Unite<l States and those abroad have IxHsn 
made even more appaiviit to us in the Pivsident's 
Special Inteniatiomil Program for (^dtural Pres- 
entations. As you know, we have sent sevcraJ 
AETA-affiliated uiuversity theater groups on 
foreign tout's under this program. These have in- 
cluded the Wayne State Univei-sity Theater Group 
that visited India; the Catholic University and 
University of Minnesotii Theatei-s that toui-ed 
LatiTi America ; and the Florida A. and M. group 
that performed in Africa. 

These tours were received with genuine wannth 
and helped to dispel the myth of America's pre- 
occupation with materialistic objectives. Never- 
theless, we have found that thei'e is not a clear 
understanding abroad of the exact status of the 
amateur vei-sus the professional in the United 
States. Vei-y often our university theater groups 
abroad have been judged by the same critical 
standards used for companies like the Old Vic and 
the Comedie Fran^aise. Tliis factor, adde<l to the 
problems of limited budgets, makes it difficult for 
us to plan to use the educational theater abroad on 
a large scale. We have found, especially in coun- 
tries where little English is laiown or spoken, that 
musical and dance presentations have a broader 
impact. 

Nevertheless I have been particularly struck by 
the efforts your own organization is making to ex- 
tend the influence and knowledge of ^Vmerican 
theater abroad. I understand that univereity-to- 
univei-sity relationships exist between a number 
of academic institutions in the United States and 
abroad. I certainly wish to encourage you to con- 
tinue and expand this type of activity. It consti- 
tutes not only a welcome addition to the limited 
efforts that our Government can make in telling 
our cultural story abroad but broadens your com- 
nuuiity of interest and contributes to your tech- 
niqiies as well. 

Despite the financial and other limitations I 
have already mentioned, I am certain that in the 
future tliere will l)e opportunities for some of your 
theater groups to travel al)i-()ad under the Presi- 
dent's Program. Meanwhile we woidd welcome 
your advice and co>msel concerning the problems 
that beset us in the export, of American theater. 



83 



I- 



1 hope that you will continue to increase your 
efforts to develop ways and means of your own to 
tell the story of America's academic theater to the 
world The Bureau of International Cultural 
Kelations and I stand ready to help in any way 
we can. 

Coordinating Overseas Cultural Activities 

In addition to the supendsion and direction of 
the State Department's cultural exchange pro- 
grams, I am responsible for coordinating the over- 
seas cultural activities of 15 Government agencies 
and for serving as a focal point for cooperation 
between the Government and the many private 
institutions and organizations active in this field. 
Since assuming my present position in the State 
Department, I have not ceased to be amazetl at, the 
vast munber of organizations and indmduals 
directly concernexl with projects that have a pro- 
nounced cultural impact abroad. 

Within the Goveniment you have the State 
Department's programs; the programs of the 
United States Information Agency, including the 
establishment and maintenance of American li- 
braries abroad ; the support of binational centers ; 
the translation and distribution of books, and 
English-language training courses; the technical 
cooperation progi-ams of the International Coop- 
oration Administration, under which 8,000 foreign 
citizens come to the United States each year for 
training and 3,500 American technicians go 
abroad to teach skills to the peoples of other 
countries; the Defense Department's military 
assistance programs, which have brought more 
tlian 9,000 high-ranking militaiy officials to the 
United States since 1950 ; the exchanges of publi- 
cations and other materials between the Libraiy of 
Congress, the Smitlisonian Institution, and the 
national libraries and institnt ions of other coun- 
tries; the exchanges of research materials on tlie 
peaceful uses of atomic energy Iwtween our 
Atomic Energy Commission and corresponding 
agencies abroad ; the International Trade Fairs of 
the Department of Commerce; and many others. 
In the private sex^tor hundreds, and perhaps 
thousands, of separately sponsored international 
cultural programs are in existence. All sectore 
of our society are iinolved, including univei-sitics, 
business firms, foundations, missionaiy groups, 
civic organizations, and service clubs. The pro- 
grams vary in size and scope from tlie large-scale 



84 



exchange-of-persons projects of the Ford, Rocke- 
feller, and Carnegie Foundations to the scholar- 
ship progi-ams of Rotaiy Inteniational, the pen- 
pal exchanges sponsored by the Student Forum on 
International Relations, and the work-camp activ- 
ities of the American Friends Serrice Committee. 
All of these progi-ams, both public and private, 
are contributing to the creation of an image of 
America abroad. My job is to emphasize this 
commonly shared factor and to help all of the 
policymakei-s and planners focus their programs 
toward the objective of creating an innige tliat is 
ti-uthful, matui-e, and underetandable. 

How are we working to coordinate Government 
programs and to achie\e cooi>eration between the 
Government and pri\-ate enterprise in this field ? 
xVs we see it in the Bureau of International Cul- 
tural Relations, there are tliree main goals to be 

reached. 

First, we must gather all the facts and find out 
what everyone is doing in this field in both the 
public and private sectors. Once we have our 
facts, and can keep tlieiu current, we must distrib- 
ute them for the benefit of interested individuals 
and organizations. AVithin the bureau we have 
taken steps to achieve this objective by establish- 
ing a clearinghouse that is gathering information 
and is just beginning to issue reports on American- 
sponsored international cultural activities on a 
countiy -by-country basis. 

Second, we liope to set up a single coordinating 
mechanism which will make it easy for Govern- 
ment agencies and private organizations to ex- 
change ideas and information about what they 
are doing. Toward this end we are arranging 
monthly meetings of policy planners representing 
all Government agencies active in cultural rela- 
tions in the five main geographic areas of the 
worid: Europe, South America, Africa, the 
Middle East, and the Far East. Exchanges of 
information and ideas take place at these meet- 
ings, which are followed by area forums to which 
nongovenimental agencies are invited. We have 
alreadv gotten our regular meetings on the Far 
East and Africa under way, and we plan to 
organize our other regional groups in the near 

future. 

Tliird, we believe tluit we have a responsibility 
for initiating activities to solve some of the broad 
problems of common concern to all groups active 
in this field. East April the Department of State 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Buthtin 



sponsored a conforiMK'e on iiittM'imlioiial iHliication 
at St. .loliu's (\)lle<>'e in Annapolis. Tiie confer- 
ence l>rou<iht lojri'ther representatives of tlie 
universities, tlie (lovennnent, and the great fonn- 
ilations for 2 ilays of <;eneral discussions aijout 
the orientation of our ovei-seas programs and liie 
role of the American university in inteiMiational 
education. 

Need for Basic Appraisal 

Tlie delegates to the Annai)olis conference gen- 
erally agreed tiiat there is a net'd for a piiilosophy 
of international cultural relations; that we must 
mohilize ovir national educational resources; and 
that long-range planning is required for inter- 
national educjitional prognuns. 

AVhat about tlie role of the American tuiiversity 
in this rapidly changing myriad of world events? 
The conferees at Annapolis sensed a less than ade- 
quate response to the Nation's worldwide respon- 
sibilities on the part of our academic circles. 

American institutions of higher learning form 
a nucleus around whicli most of our international 
cultural and economic efforts tuni at the present 
time. The International Cooperation Adminis- 
tration has entered into $77 million worth of con- 
tracts with American universities to hel}) carry 
out a variety of technical assistance projects. 
Al>out 47,000 foreign students were eni-olled at 
^Vuierican colleges last year. According to a sur- 
vey of the Institute of Research on Overseas Pro- 
grams at Michigan State Fnivei-sity, 184 Ameri- 
can universities were conducting 382 international 
progi-ams during the 1957-o8 academic year. It 
goes without saying tliat the lifeblood of our In- 
ternational Educ<ational Exchange Program is 
the wholehearted coopei-ation and participation 
of the American academic communitj'. 

But yet, despite this tremendous burden I>eing 
carried by our schools, there seems to l)e a need 
for a basic appraisal of where we are 1 leaded. 
There are some important questions tliat still 
haven't been answered : 

Can universities answer the demand from 
Africa, Asia, and Latin America for increased 
enrollments of foreign students in view of the 
pressures of limited budgets and an expanding 
school population? 

Is our educational system properly geared to 
the development of a citizenry that will i)e able 
to fulfill the Nation's international rasponsibili- 

January 78, I960 



lies with tact and understanding? According to 
surveys I have seen, 1 percent of our population 
is serving abroad for military, business, academic, 
govermnental, .scientific, and religious puriM)ses. 
How many of these people are aware of their 
cultural missions in addition to their primary 
tasks? Not enough, I'm afraid. 

Will our entire popidation have the worlil out- 
look necessaiy to support a massive effort, to assist 
the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America 
in their struggle for higlier economic and social 
standards? 

These are the questions that should be carefully 
pondered by the academic world. I feel they de- 
serve consideration with a sense of urgency. 

As a result of the excellent rapport establishe<l 
at the Annapolis conference last April, I rec- 
onnnended that a detailed study be made of the 
relationship of the world of higher learning to 
our international responsibilities. With the finan- 
cial assistance of the Ford Foundation there has 
been established an independent Committee on the 
Imiversity and World Affairs composed of aca- 
demic, governmental, and foundation leadei-s. 
The Committee will issue a reix>rt next summer 
which we liope will serve as an impetus to fin-ther 
cooperative study and action by all interested sec- 
tors of our societj-. 

These are some of the developments which we 
in Government with your help ai-e sponsoring in 
the building of cultural dii)lomacy. They are, I 
believe, an important contribtilion to the perfec- 
tion of communications between the people of the 
United States and the people of the rest of the 
world. 

Three Essential Types of Communication 

It seems to me that there are three main types 
of communication that are absolutely essential to 
us today. First of all, comnuniication through 
language — so that people can speak and read and 
listen and learn from tlie .sound of human lips 
and the sight of tlie wi'itten word. It is absolutely 
vit;il today that every American ciiild learn to 
s|)eak at least one, if not two, languages other 
than his own. I hojje to get this message across 
to the teachers of every elementary and secondary 
school in this country, and I hope that some day 
part of the regular curriculum of speech education 
will include the necessity of making speeches in 
a foreign language as well as our own. In any 



85 



event, we must continue an aggressive, dynamic 
campaign to encourage teaching and the learning 
of foreign hxnguages in this country. 

Then tliere is conununication through the com- 
mon bond of the arts, the music, the song, and the 
drama. You are all making a fine and continuous 
contribution in this field. 

Finally, there is communication through per- 
sonal presence— made easier today through the 
wonders of modem transportation— coimnunica- 
tion by confrontation, if you will, when seeing is 
believing and where pe-oples learn of each other 
at first hand by sharing in each other's lives within 
each other's environment. We in America must 
rid ourselves of the psychological bloc many of 
us have about foreignei-s. We must wake up to 
the fact that in the sixties our neighbor are not 
those who live in the next house or the next town 
or the next State ; our neighboi-s are those who live 
in Asia and Africa and Europe and Latin Amer- 
ica, and we nnist be ready and willing to greet 
them and treat them not as foreigners but as close 
associates in a free world. 

Modem transportation will surely bring the 
farthest comers of the earth within the reasonable 
reach of evei-y American citizen — and also of every 
member of the hierarchy of international com- 
mimism. At the same time the forces of freedom 
have brought into being new nations and new 
movements amongst peoples for independence and 
sovereignty which cannot be denied. Interna- 
tional communism is avidly wooing these nations 
and peoples with every possible fomi of seductive 
comnnmication. We of the free world have a very 
great responsibility and obligation to conununicate 
to these people an underetanding of what it means 
to live in freedom. This responsibility is yours 
and mine, and carrying it out effectively is a task 
that will demand the pioneering spirit which has 
always been Ajnerica's and which, God willing, 
will always remain so. 



U.S.-Soviet Lend-Lease Talks 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 2i (press release 872) that the Soviet Govern- 
ment has agreed to a United States proposal that 
negotiations on the unsettled Soviet lend-lease 
account should begin at Washington on Januai-y 
11, 19G0. 



Charles E. Bohlen, Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State, will represent the United States 
in these negotiations. Ambassador ISIikhail A. 
Menshikov will represent the Soviet Union. 



U.S. Welcomes Additional 
French Trade Liberalization 

Department Statement 
Press release 881 dated December 29 

Tlie United States welcomes the December 24 
announcement that the French Goverimient on 
January 1, 1960, will remove quantitative restric- 
tions on imports of a wide range of dollar goods. 
This action, which aceords with the GATT objec- 
tives of i-emoving discrimination in trade among 
GATT countries, follows similar steps taken Sep- 
tember 26' and November 5, 1959. It goes far 
toward placing U.S. exporters on an equal basis 
with exporter from other comitries in competuig 
in the French market. 

As a result of this most recent liberalization 
move, French coi^sumere will be able to buy many 
United States goods whose importation has been 
curt.ailed by quota restrictions for many yeare. 
The products freed of quota limitations include 
cotton textiles, work clothing, wool and rayon 
clothing, nylon and other synthetic fabrics, acrylic 
fibers and thread, tires, photogi-aphic color fihn 
and paper, washing nuichines, phonograph rec- 
ords, many chemicals, certain macliine tools, 
wheeled tractoi-s, bourbon whisky, honey, light 
beei-s, dried or smoked fish, fatty acids, and 
numerous other goods. In addition, passenger 
automobiles and tmcks with cylinder capacity of 
3 litei-s and less are f i-eed fi-om import restrictions. 
Higher powered \ehicles had been previously 
liberalized in September. 

The action significantly reduces French discrim- 
ination against dollar goods and is an important 
step toward the United States goal of complete 
elimination of such trade discrimination. The 
United States Government hopes that France will 
continue to make rapid progress in removing 
remaining lestrictions, which include some impor- 
tant, agricultural products. 



' For a Depnrtment statement of Oct. 1, see Bulletin of 
Oct. 10, li)59, p. r>.''.0. j 



86 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



Schedule I Nomenclature Changed 
in U.S.-Swiss 1936 Trade Pact 

BACKGROUND 

'1"1r' Swiss (ioveriuneiit lias placod into eflVot a 
nuHleni tarill' s^'lioihile, iisiiio; tlie l?russcls nomen- 
clature, effective January 1, 1960. In this connec- 
tion the Swiss liave adapted tlie lanfi:ua^e of the 
scliedule of taritf concessions <x ran ted to the 
I'nited States in 1936 to the language of the new 
tariff. This adaptation is limited to clianges in 
taritf numl)ei-s and de-scrijitions of tariff items but 
ckx^s not involve any changes in rates of duty on 
tariff concessions given by Switzerland to the 
United States. 

On December 30, 1959, the United States and 
Switzerland exchanged notes governing the entry 
into force of tlie new nomenclature of the Swiss 
schedule of t^iriff concessions to tlie 1936 U.S.- 
Swiss bilateral trade agreement, as supplemented, 
still in effect. The new Swiss schedule I to tlie 
agreement, authentic in both the English and 
French languages, was annexed to the Swiss note 
presented to the United States on December 30, 
1959. The Swiss note, including the annexed 
schedule I, and the United States reply entered 
into force on January 1, I960, to coincide with the 
entiy into force of tlie new Swiss tariff. 

U.S. tariff concessions granted to Switzerland 
under the bilateral agreement are not affected by 
the exchange of notes, and no new tariff conces- 
sions on the part of the United States are 
involved.^ 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 

December 30, 1959 

Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge 
receipt of your note of totlay's date in wliich you 
set forth the underetanding of the Government of 
the Swiss Confederation of conversations which 
have been held between representatives of the 
Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the Swiss Confederation with 



' Copies of the new Swi.ss schedule may be seen at the 
field officea of the Department of Commerce, and individ- 
ual copies may be obtained, as long as the supply lasts, by 
writing to European Division, Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce, Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D.C. 



respect to th(< transposition of Schedule I to the 
existing trade agi-eement between the United 

States and the Swiss Confederal inn, as supple- 
mented, and which reads as follows: 

[For text, see Swiss note which follows.] 
In reply, I am happy to inform you that the 
Government of the United States concurs in the 
undei-standing as set forth in your note and 
that your note, including the Schedule I annexed 
thereto, and this reply shall enter iiit/> force on 
Januai-y 1, 1960. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 



W. T. M. Beale 



His Excellency 
Henry de Torrent, 
Ambassador of Switzerland. 



TEXT OF SWISS NOTE 

Washington, D.C. 

December 30, 1959 

Sib : I have the honor to refer to conversations which 
have been held between representatives of the Govern- 
ment of the Swiss Confederation and the Government of 
the United States of America with resjiect to Schedule I 
to the existing trade agreement between the Swiss Con- 
federation and the United States of America, as 
supplemented. 

It is the understanding of the Government of the Swiss 
Confederation that, in order to reflect the nomenclature 
of the revised tariff of the Swiss Confederation, a trans- 
position to the new nomenclature has been made in 
Schedule I, and that it is mutually agreed that the Sched- 
ule I, being equally authentic in the English and French 
languages, annexed to this note ' shall rei)lace Sche<lule I 
annexed to the 1936 trade agreement, as supi)lemented. 

I have the honor to propose that the Govenunent of tie 
Unite<l States reply in the very near future concurring 
in the foregoing, and that the exchange of notes shall 
enter into force on January 1, 1960. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my highest 
consideration. 

H. DB Toerent£ 

The Honorable 
Christian A. Herteb 
The Secretary of State 
Wanhiiif/toii 25, D.C. 



' Not printed here. 



ianuary 18, I960 



87 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



A Review of the State of the World's Food and Agriculture 

TENTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, 
ROME, OCTOBER 31 NOVEMBER 20, 1959 

by Clarence L. Miller 



REPORT ON TENTH SESSION 

The 10th session of the Conference of the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions (FAO) was held at the Organization's head- 
quarters at Rome, Italy, from October 31 to No- 
vember 20, 1959. The Conference, which meets 
biennially, is the govei-ning body of the Organiza- 
tion, and as such it had before it many questions 
for decision, includmg approval of the program of 
work and budget for 1960-61, election of a number 
of officials and committees, election of new and as- 
sociate member countries, decisions on several 
constitutional and adjninistrative mattei-s, and 
consideration of some special topics. In addition, 
the Conference provided a forum for reviewing 
the state of food and agricidture in the world. 

This report contains a brief surmnary of some of 
the major actions of the Conference in these sev- 
eral categories. 

Elections and Appointments 

B. II. Sen of India, wlio had served for 3 years as 
Director (xeneral, was reelected for a further 4 
years. I^ouis Maire of Switzerland was elected 
Independent Chairman of the FAO Council for 
2 years, r('i)l;icing S. A. Hiisnie of Pakistan, who 
had completed two 2-year terms. 



• .]//■. Miller is the Assistant Secretary for 
Marketing and Foreign Agriculture, Depart- 
msnt of Agriculture, and was the U.S. Dele- 
gate to thn FAO Conference. 



During 1960 the following 25 countries will 
occupy seats on tlie FAO Council : Brazil, Canada, 
Chile, Colombia, Cuba, France, Germany, Ghana, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, 
Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nor- 
way, Pakistan, Portugal, Thailand, United Arab 
Republic, United Kingdom, and United States. 
In 1961 Australia and Denmark will take up 
membei-ship in the Council, while New Zealand 
and Norway will drop out. 

Max Myers of the United States served as chair- 
man of Connnission I (World Food and Agri- 
cultural Situation), and Ralph W. Phillips of the 
United States Wiis elected rapporteur of Commis- 
sion II (ProgTam of Work and Budget).' 

New Memberships 

The Republic of Guinea was elected to member- 
ship, bringing the total membership of FAO to 
77 countries. Membership was also gi-antetl to 
Cyprus, Nigeria, Somalia, Cameroun, and the Re- 
public of Togo, effective when the trusteeship ends 
or full independence is reached in each case and 
when tlie appropriate instrument of acceptance is 
submitted. Until they assume full memberehip 
they would be granted the status of associate mem- 
bership as specified in article II, paragraphs 3 and 
4, of tlie constitution. (Cameroun and the Re- 
public of Togo declined this slatus.) Tims, pre- 
sumably, by some time in 1960, the membei-ship of 
FAO will have risen to 82 comitries. Associate 



' For names of other members of the U.S. delegation, see 
Bulletin of Nov. 16, 1959, p. 732. 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



mcmbei-sliip was also granted to the Republic of 
Chad, the Republic of (ial)on, the Atalfruche Re- 
public, the Fetieration of Rhodesia and Nyasa- 
land, the Republic of Senegal, and the Soudanese 
Republic. 

Program of Work and Budget 1960 61 

^\J1 se^ients of the Organization's regular pn)- 
grani of work were re\ic\\ed, together with 
related activities carried out under the Expanded 
Technical Assistance Program (ETAP) and in 
projects supported by the Special Fund. The 
progrtun of work includes activities in the follow- 
ing technical and economic fields: (1) land and 
water development, (2) plant production and pro- 
tection, (3) animal production and health, 
(4) fisheries, (5) forestry, (6) nutrition and 
home economics, (7) rural institutions and serv- 
ices, (8) statistics, (9) commodities, and (10) eco- 
nomic analysis. The proposals for work in these 
fields were considered generally sound and were 
approved, together with activities relating to the 
appliciitions of atomic energy in FAO's fields of 
interest and those relating to public information, 
publicutions, the library, and rural legislation. 

A budget of $21,536,850 was approved for the 
bienniura 1960-61. After deducting a payment 
of $2,556,800 to cover the contribution of tlie 
E.xpanded Technical A.ssistance Progi-am toward 
the FAO headquarters costs of this progi-am for 
the 2 years and anticipated miscellaneous income 
of $529,050, the assessment budget to be contrib- 
uted bj' member governments is $18,451,000 for 
the biennium, or $9,225,500 annually. The U.S. 
percentage contribution remains at 32.51 percent. 

The budget includes financial provision for the 
final stages of an internal reorganization of FAO 
which had been approved earlier by the Council. 
Accordingly, the Organization now has four 
major segments, a technical department, an eco- 
nomias department, a department of public 
relations and legal affairs, and a division of 
administration and finance. Each of the three 
departments is headetl by an Assistant Director 
General, who works under the supervision of the 
Director General and the Deputy Director 
General. 

The technical department includes seven divi- 
sions, corresponding to the first seven subject- 
matter areas mentioned above. In addition there 

January 18, 7960 

B35897— 60 8 



is an atomic energy branch attached to the office 
of the Assistant Dii-ector General. 

The economics dcparlnienl is composed of tliree 
divisions, cormspondiiig to the fields of work 
numbered 8, 9, and H) above. 

Within the office of tJie Director General there 
is a i)r<>grarn and biidgel^ry H-rvicc whicii a.ssists 
the Director General, the Deputy Director Gen- 
eral, an<I the deparhnents on matters of a pro- 
graming and budgetary nature that require 
centralized attention. 

State of Food and Agriculture 

The Conference noted that in 1958 a 4 percent 
increase in world agricultural production had 
followed the temporary pause in expansion in the 
I)revious year. Information aviiilable indicated a 
further rise in production in 1959, although prob- 
ably not as great as in 1958. 

As in previous years, however, little of the in- 
crease in production had moved into consumption. 
The large cereal crops of 1958, especially in the 
United States, had led to a sharp rise in the unsold 
stocks of wheat and coarse grains. There iiad also 
been a marked increase in stocks of coffee and 
sugar. Thus, while the e<5onomically advanced 
countries were able to increase production rather 
rapidly, the less developed countries found it diffi- 
cult to achieve major increases; nor could they 
afford to import sufficient food to insure adequate 
nutrition for their rapidly growing populations. 

Although the world food problem is partly a 
problem of distribution, and although the avail- 
ability of surplus stocks on concessional terms had 
proved of great value in many ciises, the recent 
virtual disappe^irance of stocks of dairy products 
for use in nutritional programs had demonstrated 
that nutritional improvement could not be ba.sed 
securely on the assumption that surplus stocks 
would always exist. As at its session in 19.57,' 
therefore, the Conference again emphasized that, 
in spite of tlie continued existence of suri>lu8 
stocks, in the long run the le.ss develoi)ed countries 
could overcome the twin problems of rural poverty 
and inadequate food supplies only by building up 
their own agricultures and developing balanced 
economies. 



' For an article on the ninth session of the FAO Confer- 
ence, see md., June 23, 1968, p. 1066. 

89 



Except in a few countries the increase in food 
production seemed to have done little to check the 
rise in the cost of food to consumers, and retail 
food prices had generally continued their slow 
rise during 1958. In most of the more developed 
countries this had occurred largely because of the 
increasing cost and complexity of marketing serv- 
ices. In many of the less developed countries, with 
low agricultural productivity, where population 
and tlie demand for food were rising quickly, food 
prices had tended to increase faster than the cost 
of living as a whole. 

The average annual increase in world food pro- 
duction had recently been only about 0.5 percent- 
age points above the average population growth 
of 1.6 percent, in contrast to the margin of some 
1.5 percent that had been achieved in the earlier 
part of tlie postwar period. The Conference ex- 
pressed its concern at the slackening in the increase 
of production in relation to population that had 
taken place in the less developed regions during 
the last few years. In the less developed regions 
as a whole the average annual margin over popu- 
lation growth was estimated to have fallen from 
nearly 2 percent in the earlier postwar period to a 
little under 1 percent in more recent years. Latin 
America was the only one of the less developed 
regions where food production was expanding 
faster than before. 

The rate both of population growth and of pro- 
duction increase had naturally varied sharply 
from country to country. Examples included 
India, where population was increasing by 1.9 per- 
cent per year and the expansion of production had 
been stepped up from an annual average of 2.8 
percent under the first 5-year plan to 3.9 percent 
during the first 3 years of the second plan; Chile, 
where the rates were estimated as 2.5 percent for 
population and 1.7 percent for production; and 
Pakistan, where food production had recently 
shown little increase in the face of an annual pop- 
ulation growth of 1.6 percent. In several Far 
Eastern countries and in parts of Latin America 
and Africa the increase in j^roduction had recently 
fallen beliind or was barely keeping pace with the 
accelerating growth of population. 

Furthermore, in both the Far East, where the 
wartime setback to production had been particu- 
larly severe, and in Latin America, where the 
population was growing especially rapidly, per 
capita food production was still somewhat below 



the average prewar level, while in Africa, too, it 
appeared recently to have fallen back to approxi- 
mately that level. Because of smaller exports or 
larger imports, per capita supplies of food avail- 
able for consumption in each of the less developed 
regions were slightly higher than before the war. 
Nevertheless, the widespread poor harvests of 1957 
had demonstrated that the immediate situation re- 
mained precarious. 

The Conference noted with concern the deteri- 
oration in the terms of trade for agricultural prod- 
ucts on world markets, which had had serious 
effects for agricultural exporting countries. For 
example, in comparison with the average for the 
relatively stable 2-year period of 1952 and 1953, 
the terms of trade for agricultural products, as 
measured by their purchasing power for manu- 
factured goods, had fallen by some 20 percent. 
Agricultural exporters in general had therefore 
not benefited at all from an increase of about 19 
percent in the volume of their shipments from 
1952-53 to 1958. For the less developed regions 
of the world the volume of agricultural exports 
had increased by 15 percent during this period, 
but their real value had declined by about 3 per- 
cent. Real prices of agricultural products as a 
whole, however, were still appreciably higher than 
during the period of depression immediately be- 
fore the war. 

The relatively unfavorable economic position of 
fann populations, which had lower levels of liv- 
ing, in both goods and services than urban popula- 
tions, received considerable attention in the discus- 
sions. It was pointed out that a part of this 
difSculty was due to the farmer's position as a 
primary producer, since fluctuations in the prices 
of primary products were wider than they were 
in the prices of industrial products. This was 
particularly evident in underdeveloped countries 
which depended on the production of one or two 
agricultural products for sale in the world mar- 
ket. However, it was pointed out that even in the 
United States farm income, as a proportion of na- 
tional income, had been falling rather steadily. 

The difficult position of fanners as a group 
poses a number of serious problems for those 
countries trying to obtain more rapid develop- 
ment of their economies. The lack of capital and 
the extreme difficulty of creating savings from 
jwpulations whose level of existence is extremely 
low were stressed. One obvious conclusion was 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



tlie necessity of obtaining capital from more 
liigliiy developed countries if any substiuiliul 
measure of economic growth is to be obtained by 
the underdeveloped countries. It was also pointed 
out, liowever, that capital alone could not bo ex- 
pected to overcome the handicaps of malnutrition, 
illiteracy, and lack of teclmical skills. 

Government policies in rejxard to afrricultural 
price stabilization and support also received a 
great deal of attention. A set of guiding prin- 
cii)les which had been developed by a panel of ex- 
perts in accord with a Conference decision in 1957 
brought out some decided differences of opinion, 
and this matter will be given furtlier attention in 
the Council's Conunittee on Commodity Problems 
and in future sessions of the Conference. There 
was a lengthy discussion of commodity problems, 
including the work of the Committee on Commod- 
ity Problems and its subsidiary groups, particu- 
larly the Washington Subcommittee on Surplus 
Disposal. A high degree of interest in and sup- 
port for activities in this field was evident. Fu- 
ture benefits also would seem to be assured if an 
appropriate degree of support and interest can be 
maintained in relation to the increasing and better 
informed participation of underdeveloped coun- 
tries in this work. 

Special Topics 

Several topics received special consideration in 
the Conference. Most of these were related either 
to past or proposed activities in the regular pro- 
gram of work or to activities that might supple- 
ment that program. 

The Conference designated 1961 as a World 
Seed Year, and during 1959-61 a campaign will 
bo conducted to emphasize the advantages of im- 
proved seed and to encourage the less developed 
countries to undertake more adequate seed im- 
provement and distribution programs. 

FAO's work to date on the survey and appraisal 
of resources was approved. It was agreed that 
FAO's role should continue to be that of develop- 
ing methodology and advising countries regarding 
its use, leaving to countries the task of surveying 
and appraising their own resources and planning 
for the most efficient use. It was also agreed that 
plans for evaluation of the work done thus far 
were satisfactory, but it was left to the 11th ses- 
sion of the Conference to determine the future of 
the project within FAO's program of work. 



In a discussion of relations between FAO and 

the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICKF), 
financial problems received particular attention. 
The only basic point of difference that emerged 
related to tlio principles upon which the two or- 
ganizations had based their policies to date. P'AO 
has operated on the principle that the adminis- 
trative and operational costs of projects should be 
met by the budgets for the programs to which 
they were related — in other words, that the full 
cost of a pi-ogram should be tlio subject of action 
by one legislative body. If dill'erent legislative 
bodies allocate funds for different parts of a pro- 
gram or project, it is inevitable tiiat at times short- 
falls will result on one hand or the other. UNI- 
CEF has based its approach on the principles thut 
financing and functional responsibility siiould go 
hand in hand and that one international organiza- 
tion should not transfer funds to another inter- 
national organization. Thus, it is argued that, 
if FAO has the responsibility for the subject- 
matter side of a project, it should cover the cost 
of any work on that side of the project. It is 
argued also that UNICEF is not in fact a fuTid, 
like ETAP and the Special Fund. So long as 
these divergent principles govern the policy de- 
cisions of the two bodies, a reasonable solution to 
the problem is hardly possible. 

The Conference expressed appreciation to the 
UNICEF Executive Board for its action in mak- 
ing available up to $238,000 in 1960 to cover the 
costs of project pei-sonnel that could not be met 
from ETAP funds and for its willingness to con- 
sider extending this interim arrangement through 
1961. It also endorsed the plan for the Director 
General of FAO and the Executive Director of 
UNICEF to hold discussions aimed at finding 
possible solutions to the long-term problem. It 
was recognized that the questions of principle 
could be resolved only by governments and that 
the governments which participate in both FAO 
and the UNICP^F Executive Board should be 
urged to study the problem airefully and to insure 
that tlieir respective representatives followed the 
same line in each governing body, thus making it 
possible for the governing bodies to arrive at 
agreed policies based on principles that are ac- 
cepted in both organizations. 

The Conference considered the Director Gener- 
al's proposal for a "Freedom-From-Hunger Cam- 
paign." It endorsed a campaign extending from 



January 18, 7960 



91 



1960 to 1965 under the general leadership and 
coordination of FAO and with the participation 
of member govemments of FAO, the United Na- 
tions, the specialized agencies, and IAEA; the 
agencies themselves; international nongovernmen- 
tal organizations having consultative status with 
FAO, the United Nations, or the other specialized 
agencies; religious gi-oups; and private organiza- 
tions witliin member countries. The Conference 
also emphasized that objex^tives of the campaign 
can be reached only if the less developed countries 
develop effective and useful action projects; au- 
thorized establishment of a campaign trust fund 
to which voluntary contributions from participat- 
ing member governments, international nongov- 
ernmental organizations, religious groups, private 
foundations, and organizations could be made; 
established an advisory campaign committee of 
10 member govemments (appointed by the Coun- 
cil), a subcommittee on research, and an advisory 
committee of nongovernmental organizations; re- 
quested the Director General to make appropriate 
reports to the Council and proposals to the Con- 
ference for possible inclusion of funds in the 1962- 
63 budget; and requested the Council to keep the 
campaign under review and present proposals and 
comments to the next Conference. 

The Conference had before it a "Forward Ap- 
praisal" covering the period 1959-64, which had 
been prepared by the Director General at the in- 
vitation of ECOSOC. Similar appraisals have 
been prepared by the United Nations and other 
specialized agencies as a basis for consideration 
by ECOSOC of trends and inteiTelationships in 
the economic and social activities of the U.N. 
agencies. The Conference noted the great impor- 
tance attached to work in the fields falling within 
FAO's tenns of reference ; commended the Direc- 
tor General for the careful analysis he and his 
staff had made; indicated general agreement with 
the priorities proposed, noting that they indicated 
a trend which I'eflected the need for greater atten- 
tion to agricultural and food problems; pointed 
out that those priorities could only bo considered 
as general guidelines and would need careful re- 
view in the light of the budget level which may 
bo approved for the years involved; made it very 
clear that the Conference in no way endorsed the 
proposal for a 70 percent increase over the 3-year 
period and that, in fact, it was not prepared at 
that stage to indicate any specific level of increase 



that member govemments might support for 
1962-63 and later bienniums; and authorized the 
transmittal of the "Forward Appraisal" docu- 
ments to ECOSOC, together with the comments 
summarized above. 

Three other special topics — social welfare, 
Mediterranean development, and agrarian re- 
form — were also discussed. The first two of tliese 
were projects authorized by the Conference in 
1957, and there were no proposals for further ex- 
penditures by FAO on these projects. There was 
unusually wide interest in the discussion of 
agrarian reform.^ The general tenor of the state- 
ments, with a few exceptions, was on the practical 
technical aspects of "land reform" or "agrarian 
reform." The Director General set the tone by 
his initial statement reminding the Conference 
that policy decisions in the field of agrarian re- 
form are the prerogatives of governments, while 
FAO's part is to furnish member govemments 
with technical analysis and background informa- 
tion and to function as a clearinghouse of experi- 
ence and information. The Conference recognized 
the importance of agrarian reform in many coun- 
tries and stressed the need for thorough planning, 
adequate land distribution, and proper implemen- 
tation of programs. It also noted that measures 
of agrarian reform must take into account the 
need for maintaining and improving the level of 
agricultural production, as well as the provision 
of adequate supplementary services, such as credit, 
marketing facilities, cooperatives, and extension. 
The Conference endorsed expanded assistance to 
govemments in Latin America and southeast 
Asia. 

Constitutional and Administrative Matters 

Among the many constitutional and adminis- 
trative matters which the Conference acted upon, 
the most significant were these: 

An amendment to the constitution, proposed by 
the United States, was adopted, which provides 
that decisions on the level of the budget shall be 
taken by a two-thirds nuijority of the votes cast 
instead of a simple majority. 

Another amendment transfers from the rules to 



" For a U.S. statement on agrarian reform made before 
the Conference on Nov. by Deputy Assistant Secretary 
of State Horace B. Henderson, see ibid., Dec. 14, 1959, 
p. 887. 



92 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



iiii iirticle of the constitution a pmvision requinnp 
IJO days' notice to nienilxT fjovcrnnients before a 
])r<>pos;il foi' aniondin^ tlio constitution can l>o 
considcivd. 

A third aniendinent incivnses the nuinhcr of 
-cats on tiie FAO Council from 24 to 25. 

Ciiaufrcs in the rules include one designed to 
-iMi|)lify nuiltiple-election procedures in the Coun- 
lil. The (Conference also decided that there should 
he only one policy <!:overniii<r both the nuMnbcrship 
of nonnienibei-s of F'AO in conunwlily stud,y 
<rrou]>s and observers at FAO meetings. In this 
connection it decided that nonnienibcrs participat- 
ing in study jrroups should contribute to their sup- 
[joit. that fonner uiembei-s in arrears could par- 
ticijjate only after payiufr those arreai-s or after 
the Conference had approved arraufrenients for 
the settlement thereof, and that authoi-ity for ap- 
l)roval of pai'ticipation by nonmcmbers of FAO 
in subsidiaiy bodies of the Committee on Com- 
modity Problems should rest with the (\nincil. 

An agreement between FAO and the Govern- 
ment of Ghana providing for a regional office for 
Africa at Accra was approved. An agreement 
with the Government of Venezuela was approved 
for &stablishing a Latin American Forest ly Re- 
search Institute under the provisions of ai-ticle XV 
of the constitution. The establishment of re- 
gional forestry conunissions in North America 
(Canada, United States, and Mexico) and in 
Africa was authorized. 

The Conference adopted a set of "guiding lines 
regarding relationship between FAO and Inter- 
Govcnmiental Organizations" and approved, in 
the light of these ''guiding lines," an agi-eement 
between FAO and the League of Arab States. 
Although tliis a^^reement had been the subject of 
con.siderable discussion in earlier meetings, it was 
adopted by the Conference in an atmosphere of 
hannony. 

A cooperation agreement between FAO and the 
International Atomic Energy Agency was 
approved. 

The Government of Italy had made financial 
provision for consti-uction of a new wing to the 
FAO headquarters building, and during the 10th 
ses.sion of the Conference the President of Italy 
laid the coraei-stone. It is exi^ected that the new 
wing will be ready for occupancy by mid-1961. 

With i-egard to the liead(iuartei-s co.sts of the 
Expanded Technical Assistance Program, the 



Conference ajjproved the inlerim arraMgcmciit for 
]!»(;() (;i by wiiich FAO will bo reimbui-sed fmni 
ETAP funds for licad(|iiurlcrs costs and also rcaf- 
lirnied its earlier posil ion, and t luit of the Coiuicil, 
that these costs should continue to be a charge 
against ETAP funds inslead of being incorpo- 
rated in the regular FAO budget. 

General Observations on the Conference 

Tiie lOlli session of tlic FAO Conference was 
the most .substantive, orderly, and businesslike 
session held to date. This no doubt resulted from 
a iuunl)er of factors, among whii-h were the 
following : 

(a) The very thorough preparatoi7 work done 
by the Council, its Pi-ogram Committee, Finance 
Committee, and Connnitfee on Commodity Prol)- 
lems, and the FAO/UNK'EF Joint * Policy 
Connnittee ; ^ 

(b) The fact tJiat the level of the budget was 
not a major issue; 

(c) The lack of major differences on constitu- 
t ional or organizational mattei-s, and the fact that 
political i.ssues were relatively moderate in scope 
and intensity; 

(d) The quality of the documentation, which 
on the whole, was well prepared; and 

(e) The increasing experience of the staff and 
many of the delegations. 

The overall organization of the Conference, 
while it still had some defects, was the l)est that 
has been achieved tlms far. Most di.scussions — 
other thiin general statements by heads of dele- 
gations and final decisions and adoption of sec- 
tions of the Conference report — were carried out 
in the commissions. 

Perhaps the main problem facing FAO in the 
ycai-s ahead is that of insuring that the Organiza- 
tion remain an instrument of its memlx-r govern- 
ments. FAO should be developed further as an 
international forum in which countries can ex- 
change information and ideas and plan for com- 
mon or coordinated action. The United States 
does not l)elieve that the Food and Agriculture 
Organization should become an operating instru- 
ment for carrying out piojects of one couiUry, or 

' For a reiwrt by Ralph V>'. Phillips on tlie first meeting 
of the .Joint rolicy Committee, see ibid., Mar. !», 1».j9, p. 
.3.50. 



January 18, 1960 



93 



of small groups of countries, or of individuals 
■with particular interests to promote. 

STATEMENT ON FREEDOIVl-FROM-HUNGER 
CAMPAIGN > 

Many of the delegates to this Conference are 
aware that we, in our statements to the 29th and 
31st sessions of the FAO Council, generally ac- 
cepted the idea of the campaign suggested by the 
Director General. My Government has followed 
the development of ideas regarding tliis campaign 
very closely since the proposal was first brought 
forward; also, we had the opportunity of par- 
ticipating in the Council's Ad Hoc Coimuittee 
which worked with the Director General in pre- 
paring suggestions for consideration by the 31st 
session of the Council. Even at the risk of some 
repetition, I should like to now restate our posi- 
tions regarding various important aspects of the 
proposal. 

We appreciate the importance of the problems 
to which the campaign is expected to direct at- 
tention. There can be no question of the great 
need for finding ways of providing more adequate 
nutrition to the large portion of the world's popu- 
lation which may now be considered as inade- 
quately fed. We recognize, too, that this problem 
is apt to become more intense as the population 
upsurge contmues. We have supported FAO's 
efforts to deal with these problems from the time 
the Organization was founded, and we will con- 
tinue to do so. Our comments today, which are 
directed toward the proposals contained in the 
document " before us, are intended to be construc- 
tive and in tlie interest of developing and strength- 
ening FAO as an organization in the service of 
its member countries. With this in mind, I should 
like to make the following points : 

Proposals for Specific Activities 

1. We are pleased to note that progress is being 
made toward the development of more specific 
suggestions regarding tlie content of the proposed 
campaign. Tliose of you who heard our earlier 
statements will recall that one of our preoccupa- 
tions was that this should be a campaign of sub- 



"Miide liy Mr. Miller before a plenary ses.slon of the 
Conference on Nov. 10. 
• FAf) doc. C/51t/l">. 



stance and not one aimed at merely publicizing 
the problems involved in achieving better nutri- 
tion for all. 

2. We are in general agreement with the find- 
ings of the Ad Hoc Committee. The Ad Hoc 
Committee, however, could only go a limited way 
in defining the nature and content of the campaign 
and much remains to be done before there is a 
clear understanding of the manner in which the 
campaign would be carried out and just what 
activities would be undertaken by governments, 
by FAO, and by other organizations, both inter- 
governmental and nongovernmental. 

3. The proposals for specific activities or types 
of activities as set fortli in the document under 
consideration are helpful and provide a basis for 
further discussions. However, the suggestions, 
and particularly those regarding activities to be 
undertaken by member governments, are quite 
general in nature. Comitries, as well as organi- 
zations that might participate, must do a great 
deal of spade work before anything resembling a 
constiiictive and cohesive campaign can be ex- 
pected to emerge. 

4. Perhaps our greatest preoccupation with the 
proposals now before us, including those relating 
to financing, is that they tend imduly to emphasize 
what the FAO stafl' will do rather than what gov- 
ernments will do. It has been our feeling from 
the beginning that the major tasks of the cam- 
paign must fall iipon member governments if 
productive work is to be accomplished and if the 
campaign is to achieve the success we would all 
wish it to have. In this context we visualize 
FAO's role as that of stimulator and coordinator 
and that the FAO staff would actually undertake 
relatively little additional substantive work. 
Rather, we hope that the campaign will 
strengthen the regular work of FAO and not com- 
pete with it. This concept was, I believe, clearly 
in the minds of the Ad Hoc Committee and is em- 
phasized in paragraph 11 of that conunittee's 
report. 

5. In view of the responsibility which must 
fall on governments if there is to be a successful 
campaign, we are not at all clear as to the basis of 
the estimates for the cost of the campaign itself. 
In (his connection I would recall that the Dii-ec- 
lor General in his statement to the Council in Jime 
intimated that he felt that perhaps as much as 
$2 million would be necessary in a special fund in 



94 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



order to carry out a successful cumpaipn. In the 
interval lH>t\veiMi June ami the issuance, at the be- 
<rinnin<; of Auj^ust, of the Conference document 
we ai'e now considering, this figure was increased 
to something of the order of $10 million to $13 
million. At the Siime time we are given no clear 
indication in the document as to the purposes for 
which the contributions, and particularly the $4 
million which might be contributed by govern- 
ments over a 6-year period, would be used. Tliis 
would represent a substantial increase in the con- 
tributions of governments to FAO"s program, and, 
since contributions would presumably be on a 
vohuitan' basis, it is by no means certain that all 
menil)er governments would be prepared to share 
in these contributions. 

My own Government is not now in a position 
to make an additional contribution to the Organi- 
zation, and it may be tliat many other govern- 
ments will find themselves in the same position. 
With regard to the possibilities of finance from 
nongovernmental organizations, we should like to 
know from those organizations themselves just 
how far they might go in meeting the figure of 
$1 million to $1.5 million per year over a G-year 
period, or a total of $6 million to $9 million. 

6. I recognize that FAO could utilize additional 
fluids to good advantage for certain asjiects of the 
campaign. Also, my Government does not see 
any objections to the setting up of a fund to which 
nongovernmental organizations and foundations 
might contribute. Some governments also might 
wish to make special contributions, in line with the 
thinking of the Ad Hoc Committee when it sug- 
gested that "governments might make an initial 
contribution to this fund." However, I believe 
that anytliing that resembles a special levy against 
governments, either for a single year or over a 
period of j'eare, would not be an acceptable ap- 
proach. This may be primarily a question of 
wording, and we would be happy to assist in arriv- 
ing at a suitable wording to describe the financial 
and budgetary aspects of the campaign. 

Special Activities as Contributions to Campaign 

7. Even though we have doubts regarding the 
obtaining of special financing at the level sug- 
gested by the Director General, we do not believe 
that this should be a serious roadblock in the de- 
velopment of the campaign. In fact, a large fund 
in the hands of FAO might itself be a roadblock 



in developing a real worldwide campaign, since it 
would teiul to overemphasize what the FAO staff 
would bo doing as compared with those essential 
parts of the campaign which only governments 
and private organizations can and should do. 

Therefore I should like to emphasize again the 
imi)ortance we attach to the development of an 
approach which encourages each government to 
undertake one or more activities which that gov- 
ernment is prepared to have regarded as its con- 
tribution to the overall campaign. In this 
connection I should point out that oui- Govern- 
ment made available to the Ad Hoc Committee 
a series of suggestions regarding the types of ac- 
tivities which governments, and in some cases 
organizations, might undertake. That list of sug- 
gestions was not in any way intended to be a list 
of things all of which each counti-y should under- 
take. Rather, it wixs merely a series of sugges- 
tions which, taken with suggestions from other 
sources, might indicate to governments the types 
of special projects they could undertake as con- 
tributions to the campaign. 

Thus, one government might undertake only one 
or two special activities; another government 
might undertake three or four. In areas where 
several governments undertook work in the same 
field, FAO could perform a useful function in 
keeping each of them informed of the action con- 
templated by the otliere and in arranging for 
coordination where that was deemed desirable. 
By this approach a whole series of activities might 
be undertaken around the world which could have 
a vei-y large total effect on the improvement of 
agriculture and human nutrition. In this respect 
we visualize the campaign as something which 
might be developed along the same general lines 
as those followed in the International Geophysical 
Year. 

Phasing, Organizing, and Planning 

8. The document before us contains some pro- 
posals regarding the phasing and the organization 
of the campaign. The suggested phasing seems 
to us satisfactory, although to some degi'ee it is 
necessary to withhold judgment until the full na- 
ture and content of the campaign becomes more 
apparent. We endorse the proposal for a special 
campaign committee, consisting of member gov- 
ernments, which would advise the Director Gen- 
eral on the development of the campaign. Tliis 



January 18, I960 



95 



coiniiiitt€« might function under the aegis of the 
Council. "We are also in general agreement with 
the idea of a research advisoiy committee. How- 
ever, to avoid confusion and to insure that re- 
search projects are properly coordinated witli 
other phases of the campaign, we believe that the 
research group should be an advisory subcommit- 
tee of the main campaign committee. We ai-e also 
in favor of the proposal for an advisory commit- 
tee of those nongovernmental organizations which 
have recognized status with FAO, assuming that 
those organizations do expect to participate in 
and contribute to the campaign. 

9. I should like to mention one other problem 
which causes us some concern. A campaign of 
the scope of the one proposed will involve a great 
(leal of work if it is to be successful. It is hoped 
that most of tliat woi-k would be done by member 
governments or nongovernmental organizations. 
At the same time FAO would be carrying forward 
its regular program of work as well as its techni- 
cal assistance programs, which, of course, have 
the same objectives as does the campaign. Some 
additional workload would inevitably be placed 
upon the FAO staff. We are eager to insure that 
tlie campaign is so planned and so developed that 
this extra workload is kept to a minimum and 
that the regular program of work will he dis- 
rupted as little as possible. 

This Conference will approve a regular pro- 
gi-am of work for the next 2 years. It is a sub- 
stantial program and will provide a full work- 
load for the staff. There are in it certain changes 
in emphasis whereby it will contribute more effec- 
tively to meeting the needs of member govern- 
ments. Certain other changes may be made in 
subsequent biennial programs also aimed at giving 
more effective service to member governments. 
This we believe to be a sound appi-o:ich. At the 
same time we would consider it very unfortunate 
if such largo demands were placed on the staff 
members for special activities in connection with 
the proposed campaign which are not included in 
tlie approved program of work that they would 
1)0 unable to implement a substantial portion of 
tlie activitie,s agi-oed to by this ConfeiTuce. In 
other words, we should not, in our zeal to assist 
member governments in one respect, cut off or 
diminish the assistance which the Organization is 
in position to give under its regular progi-am of 
work. Perhaps our apprehension arises fix)m the 



lack tiius far of a clearcut, carefully costed pro- 
gram of work for the campaign, including a clear 
indication of the extent to which the regular .staff 
would be called upon to participate. 

10. Just a brief word regarding the title. We 
believe that the title selected should be one that is 
positive, does not create false Iiopes, appeals to 
reason rather than emotions, ajid is readily trans- 
latable into the three official languages. We be- 
lieve that the present proposal, i.e. "Freedom- 
From-Hunger Campaign," constitutes a substan- 
tial improvement over the initialh' proposed title, 
''Free the World from Hunger Year." We would 
have prefeiTed a title such as "International Food 
Campaign," but on this question we would be pre- 
pared to accept "Freedom-From-Hunger Cam- 
paign" if a majority of the member countries feel 
that tliere is no better alternative. 

U.S. Support of Campaign 

11. Finally, I would like to indicate that the 
United States is prepared to support, the Ciimpaign 
in various ways. Some of the possibilities include 
distribution of infonnational materials and pub- 
lications in our country on as broad a basis as the 
supplies permit: stimulation of public discussion, 
pai'ticularly on the land-grunt-college and univer- 
sity campuses, in farm organization groups, and 
in other groups which have definite interests in 
food problems; participation in research projects 
insofar as these are of direct interest to and can 
be fitted into existing i)rograms of our Federal 
and State institutions; and continuing to give sup- 
jiort to activities in other comitries through U.S. 
bilatei'al activities within the framework of con- 
tinuing programs. In addition I should say that 
we are prepared to participate in the special cam- 
paign committee and a subcommittee to advise on 
research activities if the Conference agrees to the 
establishment of these bodies and requests us to 
participate, thus assisting in the further planning 
and development of tlie campaign. 

I hope, Mr. Chairman, that I have been able to 
make it clear that we of tbe United States delega- 
tion do believe that the campaign can make sub- 
stantial contributions to tlie solution of the world 
food problems and tliat we are prepared to par- 
ticipate in it. If I have appeared to take a ques- 
tioning attitude on some points it is because we in 
the United States delegation believe sincerely that 
the campaign can be really effective only if it is 



96 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



I 



developed primarily as an lu-tivity of goveniinents 
and that the main i-esponsihility for action must 
rest with the meml>er •rovernments. Wo feel that 
an attempt, to develop the campaign on any other 
basis could only lead to inetrective action and 
frustration. I hoixs tiierefore, that we can agi-ee 
on a positive approach along the general lines I 
have tried to set forth. 

Proposals Regarding Resolution 

Now, Mr. Chainnan, in the light of the fore- 
going comments, I should like to suggest that this 
Conference adopt a resolution along the followiu"- 
Imes: 

Fii-st, the resolution should recognize that FAO 
is, accoixling to its constitution, the principal 
agency witliin the United Nations family of 
agencies for the promotion of international coop- 
eration designed to achieve the objectives of the 
|)roposed campaign. 

Second, the resolution should also recognize the 
urgency and importance of increased national 
efforts toward these objectives, in view of the 
growing needs for food and agi-icultm-al products 
as a result of the expansion in world population. 

Tliird, the resolution might include decisions 
aimed at: 

(a) authorizing an international campaign 
beginning in 1960 and culminating in a World 
P'ood Congress, perliaps in 1963, and in a review 
of the final a<?«omplislunents of the campaign in 
the FAO Conference in 1965; 

(b) establishing a sijecial campaign conunittee 
comix)sed of representatives of jjerhaps 10 mem- 
ber govenmients, which would serve until the 11th 
session of the Conference and would exercise gen- 
eral oversight o\er the campaign on tehalf of 
the Council and the Conference: 

(c) establishing a research subconnnittee, com- 
posed also of perliaps 10 countries, on the under- 
standing that countries would supply individuals 
selected for their competence and experience in 
agricultural research (This group would sei-ve as 
a siilK'ommitteo, of the special campaign cx>mmittee, 
and would likewise .serve until the 11th .session of 
the Conference. ) ; 

(d) authorizing the Director General to l)egin 
preparations of basic studies just as soon as these 
proposals had been reviewed by the i-esearch sub- 
committee and the sfxicial campaign committee 
and the funds were available to cover the costs; 

January 18, 1960 



(e) authorizing the ewtablisliment of a cam- 
l>aign fund to be administered in occoi-d with 
FAO's financial regulations and to which nongov- 
ernmental organization.s, private foundations, and 
individuals, as well as, in some cases, member 
governments, might make voluntary contributions 
for purposes to U^ agreed uiK)n by the special 
campaign committee. 

Fourth, the resolution should authorize the 
Director General to invite the cooperation of the 
United Nations and other agencies in the U.N. 
family of agencies in those aspects of the cam- 
paign falling within their tenns of reference and 
of interest to them. 

Finally, the resolution should i-equest the Coun- 
cil to keep the campaign under review, to receive 
reports from the special campaign committee and 
its research subcommittee, and to present to the 
11th session of the Conference a detiiiled report on 
the then current status of the campaign and on 
proposed further ac.ti\-ities and their financial 
implications. 

I make these, suggestions, Mr. Chairman, not as 
a formal i-esolution but rather to provide the 
framework for a i-esolution which can be pre- 
pared at a later stage, when the precise nature of 
this Conference's conclusions are evident. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION ' 

Freedom-From-Hunoeb Campaign 
The Conference 
Considering that 

(a) a large part of the world's population .still does 
not have enough to eat, and an even larger part does not 
get enough of the right kinds of food, 

(b) the increase in food prcxluction only barely exceeds 
[wpulation growth, 

(c) the incre-ase in food production i)er capita is least 
marked in the less develoixnl parts of the world, 

(d) food production in developed countries is being 
held back by llmite<l marketing iiossibilitles abroad and 
that even so, 8uri)lusos of some coniniixlities have accum- 
ulated in some countries, and 

(e) under its Constitution F.VO is the principal agency 
within the United .Nations family of international agen- 
cies resi)onsible for the en<'ouragement of and aid to 
countries in raising levels of fixxl prfHluctlon, consump- 
tion, and nutrition. 

1. Wch'umci and apiirovcH the projwsal for a Freedom- 
from-Hunger Campaign along the general lines suggestetl 
by the Pirector-General : 



' Adopted unanimously in plenary session on Nov. 20. 



97 



2. Ej^prenses appreciation of the cooperation in tlie 
Campaign promised by tlie United Nations and tlie si)e- 
cialized agencies; 

3. Authorises an international "Freedom-from-Hunger 
Campaign" extending from 1060 through 1965, under the 
leadership and general coordination of FAO and with 
invitations to participate, as appropriate, and approved 
by FAO, to (i) member countries of FAO; (ii) member 
countries of the U.N. and the U.N. specialized agencies, 
and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) , and 
to these agencies themselves; (iii) international non- 
governmental organizations having established consulta- 
tive relationship with FAO, the U.N., or the other spe- 
cialized agencies; (iv) religious groups; and (v) in- 
dividuals and private organizations within the member 
countries specified in sections (1) and (ii) above: 

4. Emphasizes that the objectives of the Campaign can 
only be reached if the less developed countries develop 
effective and useful action projects to this end, and that 
the formulation and vigourous prosecution by them of such 
projects will increase the support for the Campaign in 
the more highly developed countries ; 

5. Approves the creation of a Freedom-from-Hunger 
Campaign Trust Fund, to be admihisteretl in accordance 
with FAO's regulations, and for purposes and activities 
involved in the Campaign ; 

6. Authorizes the Director-General to appeal for vol- 
untary contributions to : 

(a) Member countries as specified in paragraph 3 (1) 
and (ii), 

(b) International non-governmental organizations, 
((•) Religious groups, 

(d) Private foundations or organizations in such mem- 
ber countries ; 

7. (a) Authorizes the Director-General, in the case of 
countries whose govermuents are not in a position to 
contribute directly to the Tru.st Fund, to discuss with 
these governments other ways in which they might be 
able to support the Campaign ; 

(b) Invites each member country to set up or utilize 
ai)propriate national bodies to promote and coordinate 
the Campaign in that country ; 

(c) Authorizes the Director-General to carry on the 
Campaign with the funds available, in consulUition with 
the Advisory Campaign Committee mentioned in para- 
graph 9 below ; 

8. A uthnrizes the Director-General to make preparations 
for a World Food Congress in l!)i;3 just before the FAO 
Conference, on the 20th anniversary of the Hot Springs 
Conference, when the Campaign will reach its climax; 

9. Establishes an Advisory Campaign Committee com- 
posed of the representatives of ten member countries 
to he designated by the Council, plus the chairmen of the 
Council, the Program Committee and the Finance Com- 
mittee, as ex officio members, this Committee to serve 
until the Eleventh Session of the Conference with the 
following terms of reference: 



98 



to advise and assist the Director-General in the develop- 
ment of a detailed program for the Campaign, taking 
into account the suggestions made by the Director-General 
to the Tenth Session of the Conference and the observa- 
tions thereon by the Conference at that Session, and to 
reixirt to the Council, and to establish a sub-committee 
of technical and economic experts on research needs and 
projects under the Campaign, selected for their compe- 
tence and experience in various fields of work of FAO ; 

10. Authorizes the Director-General, after consultation 
with the Advisory Campaign Committee, to convene such 
meetings of representatives of governments or of such 
bodies mentioned in 7(b) above as have been established, 
as may be considered by the Committee and the Director- 
General to be necessary or desirable, in order to review 
the progress and financial position of the Campaign ; 

11. Authorizes the Director-General to invite the non- 
governmental organizations si)ecifie<l in para. 3 sub-head 
(iii) to participate in an Advisory Committee of non- 
governmental organizations, which shall on request con- 
sult with the Director-General and with representatives 
of other cooperating international organizations concern- 
ing plans for the Campaign and the activities of non- 
governmental organizations in assisting in the Campaign, 
at the same time providing an opportunity for the organi- 
zations represented to consult with one another ; 

12. Requests the Director-General (a) to prepare re- 
ports to the Council concerning the detailed development 
of the Campaign and to present to the Conference in 
1961 a detailed report on the current status of the Cam- 
paign and on proixtsed activities and their financial im- 
plications and (b) to include in his financial proposals to 
the Eleventh Session of the Conference, separate provision 
for such funds as he may consider necessary to meet that 
portion of the FAO expenses for the Campaign for the 
1962/63 biennium as cannot be covered out of the Cam- 
paign Trust Fimd ; 

13. Requests the Council to keep the progress of the 
Campaign under review, to review reports from the Ad- 
visory Campaign Committee, and from the Program and 
Finance Committees on the prt>gress of tlie Campaign 
and its relation to the other work of FAO, and to present 
to the Conference its comments and suggestions on the 
further development of the Campaign. 



SEATO Announces 1980-61 
Research Fellowship Series 

Press release 877 dated December 28 

For tlie 4rth consecutive year, the Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization is oifering a number 
of postdoctoral rosea rcli fellowships to estab- 
lished scholars of the iiieinber states. 

The object of the SEATO fellowship j)rogram 
is to encourage study and research of such scx^ial, 



Deparftnent of State Bulletin 



economic, political, cultviral, scientific, and educa- 
tional prohlt'ins as <rivo insiplit into the pi-esent 
needs and futuro development of the southeast 
Asia and southwest Pacific areas. 

Grants ai-e normally for a period of 4 to 10 
months and include a montiily allowance of $400 
and air travel to and from the countries of re- 
seaix'h. Candidates are selected on the basis of 
special aptitude and experience for carrying out 
a major reseai-ch project. Academic qualifica- 
tions, professional exiKn-ience beyond graduate 
level, and published material are taken into 
account. 

The competition for the awards for the 1960- 
61 academic year is now open. American citizens 
may apply to the Conmiittee on International Ex- 
change of Persons, Conference Board of Associ- 
ated Research Coimcils, 2101 Constitution Ave., 
Washington 25, D.C. American candidates for 
the awards are selected by the Department of 
State, with SEATO selecting the final award 
winners. 

A total of 33 awards were made during the 
first 3 years of the SEATO fellowship program. 
The member states of SEATO are Australia, 
France, Xew Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, 
Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. 



Accomplishments of 14th Session 
of U.N. General Assembly 

Statement hy Henry Cabot Lodge 

U.S. Representative to the United Nations'^ 

1. From the standpoint of the tough fiber of the 
United Nations — of its ability to function con- 
tinuously through fair weather and foul— mi- 
doubtedly the most significant accomplishment of 
the 14th General Assembly was the decision to 
continue to finance the United Nations Emergency 
rorce,= which is keeping the peace in the Gaza 
Strip and at the entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba. 
The vote was actually larger than last year — a 
most encouraging sign of steadfastness. 



' Release<l to the press following remarks made by Am- 
bassador Lodge before the United Nations Corresix)ndents 
Association on Dec. l."> (U.S. delegation press release 
3349). 

' Bulletin of Dec. 21, 1959, p. 919. 



This was achieved in spite of the Soviet Union's 
continued default on this prime oi)ligulion both of 
law anil of honor, in spite of tJie strong human 
tendency to lose interest in something which is 
no longer dramatic, and in spite of the i-oal diffi- 
culty wliich many states have in finding the money. 

That all these factoi-s should have In-en overcome 
is a tribute to the awarene.ss of the United Nations 
that failure to continue UNEF would speedily 
create a dramatic — and dangerous — situation. 

2. From the standpoint of the abilily of the 
Soviet Union and the United States to reach agree- 
ment, the resolution creating the new United Na- 
tions Committee on Outer Space ^ is, I believe, the 
most substantial achievement in the 14 years that 
the United Nations has been in existence. Out6r 
space, certainly, should be a field in which earth- 
bound international difFerences are left behind 
and in whicli men work together for the common 
good. 

It is particularly pertinent that agreement to 
create this Committee only came about after pro- 
longed and arduous negotiations, showing that an 
efficient working arrangement between the TTnited 
States and the Soviet Union will not be achieved 
merely by waving a wand or by wishful thinking. 
Only by long, hard work will such agreements be 
hammered out. The differences between the two 
nations are real differences — and not merely mis- 
understandings. They reflect not only such usual 
factors as geography and economics but, in addi- 
tion, a different view of the world and of the na- 
ture of man. To bring about a relatively efficient 
working arrangement under such circumstances is 
a prickly business. But in this shrinking world 
the effort must lie made. 

3. From the standpoint of the less developed 
countries — and of human freedom — a very signi- 
ficant development was the increased money which 
member states have pledged fo the United Nations 
Special Fund ' for i(s second year. This is the 
fund which, under the direction of Paul Hoffman, 
makes preinvestment surveys and promotes tech- 
nical education in the newly developing countries. 
The future of those countries, inhabited by over a 
billion human beings, presents a challenge even 
more difficult and more pressing than the Com- 
munist menace. 



" See ibid., ,Ian. 11, 19«0, p. (H. 

' For a statement on progress of the Fund, see tfttd., 
Nov. 9, 19.^9, p. 689. 



January 18, 7 960 



99 



The money for the Fund's second year will be 
about 50 percent more than the $26 million which 
it had for its first year. Every dollar of preinvest- 
ment work by the Special Fund can pave the way 
for hundreds of dollars in capital investment. 
Thus it can give these peoples new hope that they 
can conquer poverty without resorting to the 
totalitarian methods of communism. 

The increase in the Special Fund is therefore a 
sign that United Nations members are aware of 
the trend of the future. 

4. From the standpoint of the future of the 
United Nations were decisions affecting two 
United Nations trust territories in Africa. 
Somalia will become independent on July 1, 1960. 
Also, the people of the British Cameroons will 
vote in 1960 or 1961 on which of their two neigh- 
bors they will join — Nigeria or Cameroun, both 
about to become independent.'* These steps are 
part of the movement toward independence which 
is sweeping Africa and which, in 1960 alone, will 
bring at least four new African nations into the 
United Nations — and still others in succeeding 
years. 

These new nations will not only add to the mem- 
bership of the United Nations; they will also 
bring new viewpoints to bear on the problems of 
the world. For the United States, which has more 
people of African Negro descent in it than any 
other country in the world except Nigeria, this is 
a particularly welcome prospect. 

5. Then the 14th General Assembly passed a 
resolution protesting the Cliinese Communist 
wholesale murder of the people of Tibet.'^ 

6. The Assembly continued to voice the protest 
of civilized mankind against the brutalization of 
Hungary — and did so by a large vote.' 

7. Communist China was once again kept out 
of the United Nations.* 

8. The Czech attempt to promote its candidacy 
for the 1.5th General A.'sembly by means of an 
Assembly resolution was defeated. 

9. The Palestine refugee progi-am, with its great 



" For background, see ibhl., of \ov. 1(!, 1!)."9. p. 730. .iiid 
Jan. 4, 1900, p. 2.1. 

" Ibid., Nov. !), 19.-9, p. (!S:!. 
' IbUl., Dec. 2S, 19r,9, p. 942. 
' Ibitl., Oct. 12. 19.-)!(, p. r,i7. 



expense and its many difficult problems, was 
extended.' 

10. An expert management survey of the United 
Nations Secretariat was authorized to help the 
Secretary-General get the maximum efficiency at 
the least cost. Such a "Hoover Commission" type 
of operation — the first complete outside review in 
the Secretariat's 14-year history — is a necessity in 
view of the growing nieml>ership of the United 
Nations and the increased workload of the Sec- 
retariat. 

11. A imiversal declaration on the rights of 
the child was adopted, reflecting concepts of human 
rights held by many nations, including the United 
States.^" 

There were many other worthwhile accomplish- 
ments, but the above were outstanding as they 
affect the United Nations' future and its ability 
to survive and to meet its responsibilities. 



General Assembly Fails To Adopt 
Resolution on Algeria 

Statements hy Heni'y Cabot Lodge 

U.S. Representative to the General Asseiribly 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 2> 

It is evident from wliat has been said in this 
committee on the Algerian question that there 
exists a spirit of conciliation. Such a spirit is in- 
dispensable to any early solution of the problem. 
The United States welcomes this spirit. 

We favor a just, peaceful, and democratic solu- 
tion. "We are anxious to see an end to violence and 
bloodshed. We hope tliat effect will be given to 
the aspirations of the people of Algeria by 
peaceful means. 

"\A'e favor the use of every appropriate means 
by tliose principally concerned, and early steps 
by them, to bring about a peaceful settlement. 
Clearly no solution is possible without good faith 
and restraint by all concerned. 

A prospect for peace has been made evident. 



"/6irf., Jan. 4,19«0,p. 31. 
" Ibid., p. 34. 

'Made in Committee I (Political and Security) (U.S. 
delegation press release 3323). 



TOO 



Department of State Bulletin 



But to make tlmt prospect into a reality is not 
easj'. The bitterness of conflict, the shaiiow of 
fear, and the gnawing worry of uncertainty all 
add to the inherent complexities of tlie problem. 

On Septemlier 16 the President of tlie P'rencli 
Kepubiic, (ieneral Charles de Gaulle, made a far- 
reaching and signilicant declaimtion concerning 
the problem of Algeria. To be sure, this state- 
ment must be read lus a whole, but there are certain 
points which the United States believes deserve 
si)ecial emphasis and attention during our dis- 
cussion here. 

First, General de Gaulle made clejir the inten- 
tion of France to solve the problem of Algeria 
by permitting the Algerian people a free choice as 
to their future. The application to Algeria of the 
principle of self-determination was thus recog- 
nized sijecifically. The United States welcomed 
this declaration. In General de Gaulle's words: 
"We can now look forward to tlie day when the 
men and women of Algeria will be in a position to 
decide their ovn\ destiny, once and for all, freely 
and in the full knowledge of what is at stake." 

Prasident Eisenhower stated in his press con- 
ference on September 17:= "It is a far-reaching 
declaration, containing explicit promises of self- 
determination for the Algerian peoples and as 
such, completely in accord \\'ith our hopes to see 
proclaimed a just and liberal program for Algeria 
which we could supjwrt." 

The United States was also encourage<l by the 
responses which General de Gaulle's proposals 
evoked. They indicate awareness that a significant 
new commitment has been made — a commitment 
which furnishes a basis for concrete discussions. 

It was in the liglit of General de Gaulle's his- 
toric declaration, furthermore, that Secretary of 
State Herter said on September 22= tliat the 
United States "naturally hopes that no action will 
be taken here which would prejudice the realiza- 
tion of a just and peaceful solution for Algeria 
such as is promised by General de Gaulle's far- 
reaching declaration with its provision for self- 
determination by the Algerian people." 

To this end the United States hopes that the 
members of this committee will see the wisdom of 
avoiding a resolution which could prejudice a 
solution of the Algerian problem. 

The speeches made here — in and of them- 

' Bulletin of Oct. 12, 1959, p. 500. 



selves— will have an effect on those principally 
concerned. It mu.s-t also be clear that recent 
statements by those i)rincipally conceniexl offer 
real hope that a just, i>eaceful, and deuux-ratic 
solution can soon l)e found. And it mu.st also be 
apparent that the sense of this debate is that those 
principally concerned should make early use of 
even- appropriate means to achieve a solution. 

Wo hoi)e, therefore, Mr. Ciuiinnan, that these 
considerations will be weighe<l carefully before 
l)rf)posals are introduced and pressed to a vote. 
Injudicious action here risks bringing in extrane- 
ous factoi-s which might endanger the chances for 
direct, negot iations. At sucii a moment as this the 
utmost caution is not only warranted; it is 
essential. 

We ciui understand why some delegations seek 
to impart, further momentum to what they al- 
ready admit are favorable developments. But if 
such membei-s look at the present situation care- 
fully — as they must— they will surely conclude 
that we are at the thresliold of one of tliose historic 
occasions in which those principally concerned 
should be unhampered and allowed to seek direct 
solutions. 

The United States continues to believe that in 
the interests of all concerned moderation, re- 
straint, and patience should be the watchwords. 
It is in this spirit that the United States will con- 
duct itself during the remainder of this debate.'' 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 12 < 

In my statement in committee December 2 I 
referred to the far-reaching and significant decla- 
ration conceniing the problem of Algeria made 
on September 16 by General de Gaulle. I s;ud 
that there are now real hopes that a just, peace- 
ful, and democratic solution of this problem can 
soon be found. I then expres.sed the hope that 
the General Assembly would see the wisdom of 
avoiding a resolution which could i)ivjudice the 
solution of the Algerian problem, emphasizing our 



'On Dop. 7 Committee I iu1<m>Ip<1 by n vote of .^ to 26 
(U.S.), with 17 abstentions, Resolution A/C.1/L.246, 
which iirgod "tbo two imrties concerneil to entor into 
pourparlers to determine the conditions nece.-isary for the 
iiii|ilpiiiont;ition as enrly ns possilile of the rinlit of self- 
determination of the Algerian people, including conditions 
for a cease-fire." 
'Made in plenary (U.S. delegation press release 3:!46). 



January 18, 7960 



101 



belief that moderation, restraint, and patience 
should be the watchwords. 

Guided by these considerations, we carefully 
examined the revised resolution on Algeria on 
which the General Assembly has just voted.^ The 
United States did not vote in favor of this reso- 
lution, since we believe that, notwithstanding the 
modifications wliich it contains, it is not likely to 
be helpful in promoting an early and just solu- 
tion. Moreover, this resolution also fails to take 
into account the most significant development on 
this question since it has been before the United 
Nations, that is, the forward-looking proposals 
of General de Gaulle. 

This resolution, however, embodies two prin- 
ciples which are of fundamental importance in 
our history and tradition : the principle of self- 
determination and the principle of seeking solu- 
tions to difficult problems through peaceful means. 
These principles we strongly endorse. 

The United States therefore abstained in the 
vote on this resolution. 

I should like to add in closing that the United 
States Government reaffinns its conviction that 
the forward-looking declaration of General de 
Gaulle offers the best prosjjects for a peaceful, just, 
and democratic solution of the Algerian problem. 



Freedom of Information 

Statement iy Christopher H. Phillips ^ 

This, as you know, is my fii-st opportunity to 
address the Third Committee and, may I say at 
the outset, a most welcome opportunity. Though 
my duties require me to devote most of my time 
to the Second Committee, I am by no means im- 
familiar with the work of your conunittee. As 
the United States Representative on the Economic 
and S(K'ia] Council, I am, of course, equally con- 

■'A revised resolution introduced liy Pakistan (A/L. 
276) urging "the holding of pourparlers with a view to 
arriving at a peaceful solution on the basis of the right 
to self-determination, in accordance with the principles 
of the Charter of the United Nations" failed on Dec. 12 
to obtain the two-thirds majority vote necessary for adop- 
tion ; the vote was 31) to 22, with 20 abstentions (U.S.). 

'Made in Committee III (Soc-ial, Ilumanitariiin, and 
Cultural) of the U..\. General Assembly on Dec. 1 (U.S. 
delegation press relea.se 3:{21). Mr. Phillips is U.S. Rep- 
resentative on the U.N. Economic and Social Council. 



cemed with both the economic and social activities 
of the United Natioios. 

Quit« frankly, we had not intended to intervene 
at this particidar juncture in the debate. We 
would have preferred to hear the views of many 
more delegations than time has allowed thus far. 
We are doing so, however, because many delega- 
tions, botli privately and publicly, have asked for 
our views and have urged us to express them at 
this time. 

I think one of the most difficult problems in- 
volved in a consideration of freedom of informa- 
tion is to amve at a meaning of freedom of 
information which is both precise and acceptable 
to all. For example, freedom of information to 
one may mean state control of the press, to another 
license, and yet to another a point somewhere in 
between. We have clearly seen this to be tlie case 
during the debate this year. Moreover, the course 
of the debate so far has revealed serious miscon- 
ceptions about the U.S. attitude toward freedom 
of information. For this reason, I would like to 
devote the next few minutes to a clear exposition 
of our position on this complex and highly impor- 
tant subject. 

The U.S. Position 

Freedom of information in the United States is 
recognized as a cornerstone of liberty, as it is in 
every country which believes in freedom for the 
individual. The need to know, to be informed, is 
a deep-seated urge in all mankind. It is more 
than a need ; it is a hunger for facts and ideas, a 
hunger for the means to think and to understand 
events and situations. The urge is to listen as well 
its to speak, to learn as well as to tesvch, to judge 
the fact as well as to plan the action. Only as 
men and women are able to satisfy this hunger can 
they feel they are valued fully as human beings. 
The right to know is a part of hinnan dignity ; the 
right to seek the truth is a foundation of liuman 
freedom. 

It is for this reason that any withholding of 
information instantly arouses su.spicion. Censor- 
ship breeds only fear and insecurity. Within 
nations such limitations imdermine confidence; 
between nations tliey jeopardize i)eace. Full ac- 
cess to the news is the onlj- basis on whicli we can 
hope to build strong democracies and popular 
understanding of and .support for a strong United 
Nations. 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



This lias been said beforo, but it ouinot be said 
too often. Ijrnoranoe and false report have lon<i 
been recognizod a.s tho shackles by wiiich tyrants 
luid dictntore control the peoples under their rule. 
In a fitv soiMety there is sinyial oiuse to keep up 
with the course of events. Whei-ever the ultimate 
decisions rest with the i^eople, it is obvious that 
intellifrent decisions can bo made only in the lijrht 
of ailequate knowledge. As a practical matter, 
this means full and rapid access to all possible 
news — in the daily pi-e,s.s, through radio and all 
other media of information. 

On this point Thomas Jefferson, the author of 
our Declaration of Independence, felt strongly on 
the necessity for information in a government of 
the people. He once wrote that if he were forced 
to choose between a government without news- 
paper, on the one hand, and newspafjere without 
government, on the other, he would not hesitate to 
l>refer the newspapci-s. Jeffei-son maintained tliis 
view even though he was severely criticized in the 
press. I need hardly point out that no United 
States President since that time has escaped the 
shaq7 barb of hostile press criticism and that such 
criticism has often been unfair and unfounded. 

There can be no question of the importance the 
United States attaches to freedom of information. 
Our belief in this freedom is implicit in our system 
of education, in the tremendous variety of our 
newspapers and our broadcasting systems, our 
magazines, and all other media of communication. 
Our aim is laiowledge for eveiyone with sources 
sufficient that each may seek the truth for himself. 
I^et me stress this again. Onlj' through sufficient 
sources of information can the individual be in po- 
sition to decide for himself what is true. In this 
we believe that we are at one with all other free 
peoples in the United Nations. 

Framework for News Media Development 

There are also wide areas of agreement we share 
with other countries on the means by which free- 
dom of information can be achieved. We are in 
agreement on the need to develop news media of 
all kinds; it is academic to expect adequate infor- 
mation in aretis which lack sufficient media and 
opportunities for training journalists. With this 
in mind, the United States delegation to the last 
session of the Human Rights Commission cospon- 
sored a verj- important resolution with Ceylon, 



India, Iran, Italy, Me.xico, and the Philippines. 
This lesolution reciuested a report from the Sec- 
rotary-(ieneral which infer alia would review the 
problems encountered in providing to underd©- 
veloi)ed countries technical assistance in the infor- 
mation field. This resolution was adopted by a 
large majority both in the Commission and sub- 
sequently in the Council.^ But let us not forget 
that there would Ije little point to providing media 
and training journalists if the free flow of infor- 
mation is then hampered by censorship, jamming, 
or other artificial barriers. 

The United States attitude toward freedom of 
speech and press is based on constitutional guar- 
antees which prohibit the passage of legi.slation in- 
fringing these rights. This is provided in the 
first amendment, in the section known as our Bill 
of Rights. It says simply that "Congress shall 
make no law . . . abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press ....'' Tliis amendment 
has been in force for more than 100 years. It has 
kept our media of information free from Govern- 
ment control and regulation. This is the frame- 
work in which our great newspapers and radio and 
television systems have developed: while they re- 
spect and conform to laws forbidding libel, ob- 
scenity, and other infringements on public order, 
they know that these cannot be used to justify cen- 
sorship or interference in presenting facts and 
opinion. 

You may argue that this prohibition indicates 
a distnist of authority. I would say quite o]:)enly 
that this is the case. Our feeling goes back to tlie 
days before we became an independent nation, 
when our newspapers often had to be licensed and 
were at the mercy of foreign governoi-s. We have 
learned to fear any attempt, direct or indirect, to 
control freedom of information, lest it lead to sup- 
pression and tyranny. We have learned the hard 
way, if I may borrow a popular phrase, that no 
government, however good or highly motivated, 
should be trusted with power over the rights of 
evei-y individual to know and to think. We have 
learned also the two reasons why this is so: fii-st, 
that governments may change, and second, that 



' For text of the resolution a<lo|)ted on Apr. 'M in tiie 
Economic and Social Council, see U.N. doc. E/UHS/718 
(XXVII) ; for a statement made by Mr. Phillips in the 
ECOSOC meeting on Apr. 20, see Blli.ktin of July G. 1059, 
p. 26. 



January 18, 1960 



103 



men may grow lazy in their own defense against 
authority. 

It has been suggested that such freedom gives 
rise to abuses. Of course freedom of any kind 
carries with it the possibility of abuse, but this is 
hardly justification of denial of the freedom. We 
should be careful, moreover, not to confuse real 
abuses with the legitimate reporting of news 
wliich, thougli accurate, deeply offends an in- 
dividual or a nation. 

Admitting to the possibility of abuse under a 
genuinely free press, we would do well to get a real 
perepective on the subject. INIany of the state- 
ments so far made have implied that abuses can 
only occur in a tmdy free press. This is far from 
the truth. Few members of this committee need 
be reminded that some of the most vicious abuses 
of information media occur under systems in 
which freedom of information is either rigidly 
controlled or nonexistent. Tliere, through com- 
plete government monopoly of all information 
media, news is manipulated and the "big lie'' tech- 
nique employed as official government policy. 

We could, of couree, with considerable eil'ective- 
ness, cite examples of the most extreme abuse of 
press media under such circumstances. But 
surely such tactics do not contribute to a produc- 
tive consideration of the business before us. For 
our part, therefore, we will refrain from indulging 
in such tiictics. 

Madam Chainnan, I have tried to present 
something of the philosophy of my Govennnent 
on freedom of information. Before concluding. 
I wish to make a few brief remarks on the Con- 
vention on Freedom of Infonnation now before 
us.^ As all of you know, we have not in the past 
felt that the proposed convention is an adequate 
or effective means of protecting the infornnition 
media of our time or of promoting the riglit of 
everyone to full and free access to the facts. We 
continue in tliis belief, because we have se«n noth- 
ing to convince us to the contrary — to con^nnce us 
that international legislation of this type is in fact 
the way to achieve progress. At the same time 
we are fully aware that many other delegations 
do not agree with us and, indeed, that they do 

*U.N. doc. A/AO.42/7, annex. Only a iwrtion of this 
convention was consklprwl in tho 14th General Assembly ; 
on 1)<H'. 10 (A/RES/14,'59(XIV)) the Assembly (lec-ide<l 
"to give priority to this Itenv at its fifteenth session." 



attach the greatest importance to the adoption of 
this convention. Out of respect to them, I wish 
to assure you that my delegation will not attempt 
in any way to imiJede the progress on the conven- 
tion. Moreover, because my Government attaches 
the greatest importance to freedom of informa- 
tion, my delegation will take part in the debate 
on each article and will, to the utmost of its abil- 
ity, strive to make a constiiictive and valuable 
contribution toward reaching agreement on lan- 
guage acceptable to the majority. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography* 

General Assembly 

Question of the Frontier Between the Trust Territory of 
Somaliland Under Italian Administration and Ethiopia. 
ReiKjrt of the Italian Govennnent on the measures 
talien to give effect to General Assembly resolution 
1345 (XIII) of 13 December 1958. A/4324. December 
3, 10.-.!). .".O pp. 

The Future of tlie Trust Territory of the Canieroous 
Under Unite<l Kingdom Administration : Report of the 
United Nations Plebiscite Commissioner on the Plebi- 
scite in the Northern Part of the Territory. State- 
ment made by the U.K. representative at the 988th meet- 
ing of tlie Fourth Committee. A/C.4/438. December 
7, 1959. 12 pp. 

The Future of the Trust Territory of the Cameroons 
Under United Kingdom Administration : Report of the 
United Nations Plebiscite Conunissioner on the Pleb- 
iscite in tlie Northern Part of the Territory. State- 
ment made by the U.N. Plebiscite Commis-sioner at the 
989th meeting of the Fourth Committee. A/C.4/439. 
December 7, 1959. 16 pp. 

Economic and Social Council 

Status of Women in Family Law. Report of the Secre- 
tary-General based on replies from governments to part 
III of the Questionnaire on the Legal Status and Treat- 
ment of Women. Addendum. E/CN.6/185/Add. 17. 
November 11, 19.-9. 31 pp. 

L^nited Nations Programme of Technical Assistance. 
Report of the Secretary-General on programs of 
technical assistance financed by the regular budget. 
Corrigendum. E/TAC/95/Corr. 1. JS'ovember 20, 1959. 
Ip. 

Conmiission on Human Rights. National Advisory Com- 
mittees on Human Rights. Note by the Secretary-Gen- 
eral. E/CN.4/791. November 23, 1959. 4 pp. 

Draft (Convention and Draft Recommendation on the Age 
of Marriage, Consent to Marriage and Registration 
of Marriages. Report by the Secretary-General pre- 
pared in accordance with ECOSOC resolution 722 
B (XXVIII). E/CN.6/353. November 23, 1909. 9 pp. 



' Printed materials ma.v be secured in tlie United States 
from the International Documents Service. Columbia 
University Press, 2900 Broadway. New York 27, N.Y. 
Other materials (miiiiw.grapluMl or processed documents) 
may be consulted at certain liliraries in the United States. 



104 



Deparfment of Stafe Bullefin 



Commission on the SUitiis of Women. Property Rlglits of 
Women. Supplementary report by tile Se<^'retary-Gen- 
eral. E CX.O/liOS/Add. 5. November 30, lOT)'.). 11 pp. 

OrKimizutiou nuil Oi)er«tion of the lOt'ononilc and Scx-lal 
Council. Letter diittnl November 27. 1909, from the 
permanent representative of Mexico to the United Na- 
tions addres.sed to the Secretary-General. E/3310. 
December 2, l!)j». 1 p. 

OrKanlzatiim and Operation of the Economic and SiK-ial 
Council. Note by the Secretary-General. E/3311. De- 
cember 2. I!>ri0. 3 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Japan Sign Treaty 
of Cooperation and Security 

I'ress release 8S3 dated December 29 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 29 that the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation 
and Security l)etween Japan and tlie United States 
will be signed at tiie "\Miite House on January 19.^ 
Following the signing ceremony, Prime Minister 
[Xobusuke] Kislii and Foreign Minister [Aii- 
ciiiro] Fujiyama will meet with President Eisen- 
liower and Secretary Herter. Prime Minister 
Kishi and tlie Japanese delegation for the signing 
of the new treaty will also be guests at a "\^1iite 
House luncheon on January- 19 in their honor. 

During the afternoon of January 19, Prime 
Minister Kishi and Foreign Minister Fujiyama 
will meet witli Secretary Herter at tiie Depart- 
ment of State. 



Current Actions 



1 rotocol for limiting and riKulntiiiK the cultivation of 
the iM.ppy plant, the production of. Inlematlonal and 
wholesale trade in, and u.se of oi.lum. Dated at New 
York June 2:t, l!»r)3.' 
Accession dipogitvd: Nicaragua, December 11, 1050. 

Teiecommunicatlon 

Telegraph re^'ulations (Geneva revision, WW) annexed 
to the International telc<-omniunlcatlon convention of 
December 22. l!K-.2 (TIAS .•{2G({), wilb api«.mllxe.s and 
flnal protocol. Done at Geneva NovemlK-r 2!t 1058 
Entere<l Into force .January 1, 1««<). 

Notification of approia/; Au.stralia. Novemlier tl. 1!».W- 
Luxembourg (with reservations j , October 20, 1050. 

Whaling 

Amendments to paragraphs 1(a), 4(1), r,. G(3), 7(a), 1(! 
and 17(c) of the sche<lule annexed tf) the International 
whaling convention of 104(5 (TIAS 1849). Adopted at 
the 11th meeting of the International Whaling Commis- 
sion, London. .June 22-.Iuly 1. llt.lO. Entered into force 
October 4, l!»r)9, with the exception of amendment to 
paragraph 4(1). 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement 1050, with annex 
Oiiene<l for signature at Washington April 6 through 
24, 19.->9. Entere<i into force JiUy 10, 1959, for imrt I 
and parts III to VIII, and Augu^st 1, 1959, for part II 
TIAS 4302. 

Accession deposited: El Salvador, December 15, 1959. 
Xutificiition rrccireil Dccrmhir i>'l. l<).',<t, from Vnitcd 

Kingdom of application to: Isle of Man and the 

Bailiwick of Guernsey. 



BILATERAL 

Korea 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of .June 30, 1950 (TIAS 42.56). Effec-ted by ex- 
change of notes at Seoul October 12 and December 11, 
1959. Entered into force December 11, 1959. 

Philippines 

Agreement relating to the relinquishment of Olongapo 
and adjacent areas, with annex. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Manila December 7, 1950. Entered into 
force December 7, 1050. 

Uruguay 

Agreement supplementing the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 20, 1959, as supplemented 
(TIAS 4179, 42;i8, and 4356), with exchange of notes. 
Signed at Montevideo December 1. 1050. Entered into 
force December 1, 1050. 



MULTILATERAL 
Narcotics 

I'rolocol bringing mider international control drugs out- 
side the scope of the convention limiting tlie tii;iniifac- 
ture and regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs 
conclude<l at Geneva .July 13, 1931 (4S Stat. 1.543), as 
amende<l (61 Stat. 22.30: 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Paris 
November 10, 1948. Enteretl into force December 1, 
1949. TIAS 2308. 
Acceptance deposited: Brazil, December 0, 1059. 



' For a statement of Dec. 2 by President Eisenhower 
regarding the negotiations with .Japan, .see Buli.cti.n of 
Dec. 21, 1059, p. 'Ml. 




Designations 

Charles N. Spinks as Director, Office of Research and 
Analysis for Asia, effective December 22. 



' Not in force. 



January 18, 1960 



105 



Appointment of Political Adviser 
to High Commissioner of Ryukyus 

Press release 870 dated December 22 

The Departments of State and Defense on De- 
cember 22 announced tlie establishment of the 
office of Political Adviser to the High Commis- 
sioner of the Ryukyu Islands, Lt. Gen. Donald P. 
Booth. 

Byron E. Blankinship, a career Foreign Serv- 
ice officer and heretofore the American consul 
general at Naha in the Ryukyus, has been ap- 
pointed to the new position. Mr. Blankinship 
will assume his new duties on January 1, 1960. 

The new office has been established as the out- 
gro^vth of lengthy discussions between the Depart- 
ments of State and Defense.. The consul general 
at Naha has hitherto acted concurrently as foreign 
relations consultant to the High Commissioner. 
The new arrangement divorces the senior repre- 
sentative of the Secretary of State in the Ryukyus 
from consular duties and permits him to devote 
full time to the responsibilities of this new office. 
The American consular unit at Naha will continue 
to perform the normal functions of a U.S. consular 
post. 

The assigmnent of a political adviser to top- 
level Defense Department officials elsewhere in 
the world has proved effective in insuring the 
closest possible working relationship between the 
Departments of State and Defense in areas where 
activities of the latter Department directly affect 
the conduct of U.S. foreign relations. 

The Ryukyu Islands constitute one of the most 
important strategic outposts in the interlocking 
system of the free world's defenses. The treaty 
of peace with Japan ' gave to the United States 
the right to exercise all and any powers of admin- 
istration, legislation, and jurisdiction over these 
islands. 

In his Executive order of June 5, 1957,^ the 



President delegated this authority to the Secretary 
of Defense, on whose behalf the High Commis- 
sioner directs and heads the civil administration of 
the area. In the same Executive order the Presi- 
dent also charged the Secretary of State with the 
responsibility for the conduct of relations with 
foreign countries and international organizations 
with respect to the Ryukyus. The political ad- 
viser will serve as the field representative of the 
Secretary of State in the discharge of this respon- 
sibility and will provide ready access for the High 
Commissioner to the worldwide facilities of the 
diplomatic and consular services of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



PUBLICATIONS 



' For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 27, 1951, p. 349. 
' For text, see ibid., July 8, 1957, p. 55. 



Recent Releases 

Foj- sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob-/ 
tained from the Department of State. 

Air Traffic Control Services — Birkenfeld High Altitude 
Facility. TIAS 4330. 6 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the Federal Republic of Germany. Signed at Bonn Oc- 
tober 1, 1959. Entered into force October 1, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4331. 2 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Pakistan, amending agreement of November 26, 1958, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Karachi Oc- 
tober 7 and 8, 1959. Entered into force October 8, 1959. 

Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information 
for Defense Purposes — Filing Classified Patent Applica- 
tions. TIAS 4332. 7 pp. 10(*. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Netherlands. Exchange of notes — Signed at The Hague 
October 8, 1959. Entered into force October 8, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4333. 3 pp. 5^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Arab Republic, amending agreement of Decem- 
ber 24, 1958, as supplemented and amended. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Cairo October 14, 1959. Entered into 
force October 14, 1959. 



106 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



I 



January 18, 1960 I n 

Agriculture. A Review of the State of the Worhis 
Food and Agriculture (Miller, text of resolution) . 88 

Algeria. Genenil Assembly Fails To .\dopt Resolu- 
tion on .\lgeria (Unige) 100 

American Principles. The Outlook for I960 in For- 
eign Affairs (Horter) 78 

Asia. Spinks designated director, Office of Research 
and Analysis for Asia 105 

Atomic Energy. U.S. States Position on Atom Han ; 

Refutes Soviet Statement (Eisenhower, Fisk) . . 78 
Claims. U.S.-Soviet Lend-Lease Talks 86 

Cultural Exchange. Communications Between Peo- 
ples the Challenge of Cultural Diplomacy 
(Thayer) 81 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointment of Political Adviser to High Commis- 
sioner of Ryukyus 106 

Designations (Spinks) IO5 

Economic Affairs 

S<-hedule I Nomenclature Changed in U.S.-Swiss 1936 

Trade Pact (texts of notes) 87 

U.S. Welcomes Additional French Trade Liberaliza- 

t'oa 86 

Educational Exchange. SEATO Announces 1960-61 

Research Fellowship Series 98 

France 

General Assembly Fails To Adopt Resolution on Al- 
geria (IxKlge) 100 

U.S. Welcomes Additional French Trade Liberaliza- 

^"'" 86 

International Information 

Communications Between Peoples, the Challenge of 

Cultural Diplomacy (Thayer) 81 

Freedom of Information (Phillips) IO2 

International Organizations and Conferences 
A Review of the State of the World's Food and Agri- 
culture (Miller, text of resolution) 88 

U.S. States Position on Atom Ban; Refutes Soviet 

Statement ( Ei.senhower, Fisk) 78 

Japan. U.S. and Japan Sign Treaty of Cooperation 
and Security j^g 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Appointment of Po- 
litical Adviser to High Commissioner of RyukyiLs . 106 

Presidential Documents 

Four Powers Agree on May 16 as Date for Summit 
Meeting __ 

The Search for Peace With Freedom .75 

Publications. Recent Relea.ses 106 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. SEATO An- 
nounces 1960-61 Research Fellowship Series . . 98 

Spain. Foreign Minister of Spain To Visit United 
'^fat'^ 80 

Switzerland. Schedule I Nomenclature Changed in 
U.S.-Swiss 1936 Trade Pact (texts of notes) . . 87 



^^^ Vol. X MI. No. 1(173 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions ^^^ 

SchiHlule I .N'oiiiciiclature Changed in U.S.-Swiss 193«i 

Trade Pact (texts of notes) .... 87 

U.S. and Jaimn Si«n Treaty of Co<iperatlon and 

^'"■"^'fy 105 

U.S.S.R. 

Four Powers Agree 01. May 16 as Date for Summit 

Meeting (Eisenhower, Khnishchev) ... 77 

U.S.-Soviet Lend-I>ease Talk.9 . . . . ! 86 

U.S. States Position on Atou) Ban; Itefutea Soviet 

statement (Ei.senhower, Fisk) 73 

I'nited Nations 

A(yon,pIislimeuts of 141 h Session of U.N. General 
Assembly (Lodge) .... m 

Current U.N. Documents .....'. 1^ 

FretHlom of Infonnation (Phillips) 102 

General Assembly Fails To Adopt Resolution on Al- 
geria (Lodge) j(j^ 

Name Index 

Blankin.ship, Byron E ^qq 

Castiella y Maiz, Fernando Maria 80 

Eisenhower, President . . ' " ' 7r. 77 70 

Fisk, James B '. ' ' ' ' ' ' Ik 

Herter, Secretary ■ ■ ■ . 78 

Khrushchev, Nikita S . 77 

IxKlge, Henry Cabot ....■."; ." / ; / ; 99, 100 

Miller, Clarence L 88 

Phillips, Christopher H .....,]' ' 102 

Spinks, Charles N . . ,„- 

Thayer, Robert tl ...'.'.'.'.'.'.'..[[ i^ 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 28-January 3 

Pres.? releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 2.5, DC 

Release Lssued prior to December 28 which ap- 
pears in this Lssue of the Bulletin is No. 870 of 
December 22. 

Subject 

U.S.-Spain joint communique (print- 
ed in Bulletin of Jan. 11) 

SEATO fellowships. 

U.S.-Morocco joint communique 
(printed In Bulletin of Jan. 11). 

Visit of Spanish Foreign Minister. 

Thayer: AETA and Speech Associa- 
tion of America. 

Additional trade liberalization by 
France. 

Delegates to Cameroun Independence 
ceremonies and inauguration of 
President Tubman of Liberia. 

Announcement of treaty signing witJi 
Japan. 

Reply to Soviet experts In Geneva 
technical group. 

IJC report on Columbia River Basin. 

Five-power communique on disarma- 
ment committee (printed in Bui, 
LETIN of Jan. 11). 

Herter: "The Outlook for 1960 in 
Foreign Affairs." 

•Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


876 


12/28 


877 
878 


12/28 
12/28 


879 

880 


12/29 
12/29 


881 


12/29 


♦882 


12/29 


883 


12/29 


884 


12/29 


t8a5 
886 


12/30 
12/30 



887 12/31 



u.s covEaxMiHT HiiiriM oFricii iita 




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THE SUBCONTINENT OF SOUTH ASIA 

Afghanistan • Ceylon • India • Nepal • Pakistan 

Lvin<i- on the edge of the free world, toiiclied by the power of 
Coininunist Central Asia, the subcontinent of South Asia today has 
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SOUTHEAST ASIA 

Area of Challenge, Change, and Progress 

From the isolation imposed by geography and a colonial pattern 
of control, most of the lands and peoples of Southeast Asia have re- 
cently been thrust into the midst of international politics mainly as 
a result of national movements which led them to independence. This 
15-page illustrated pamphlet discusses the problems of this sudden 
transformation, and contains background information on tlie geogra- 
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Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaya, the Philippines, Thailand, and 
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HE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Ri 



lAL 

UaLY RECORD 



Vol. XLII, No. 1074 



January 25, 1960 



THE STATE OF THE UNION e Ad<lrr.s of the President 

to the Congress HI 

PRESIDENT EXPRESSES VIEWS ON WORLD COURT 

AND DISARMAMENT • Exchange of Letters Between 
President Eisenhower and Senator Hubert H. Humphrey . . 128 

CANADIAN-UNITED STATES COOPERATION FOR 

PEACE • by Ambassador Richard B. Wigglesworth .... 121 

THE TASK OF PEACEFUL COOPERATION • Remarks 

by George N. Shusler 131 



STATES 
IREIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 1 1960 



Vol. XLIl, No. 1074 • Pcbucation 6934 
January 25, 1960 



DEPOSITORY 



For sale by the Pupcrlntcnrtenl of Docuinciits 

U.S. Governnicm )'rlrUnp Ofllce 

Washington 24, D.C. 

rniCE: 

82 Usucs, domestic $8.M, foreign $12.26 

Single copy, a cents 

The print Inp of thl? publication hns been 
approved by the Dlrcrtor of the Bureau of 
the Euilpel (January 20, 1958). 

I>lote: Contents ol this publication arc not 
copyrlchtoil nn<l Items conlnlncd herein niny 
be reprlnte<l. Citation of llie Department 
Of STATE DULLETIN (IS the sourcc Will be 
appreclatc<l. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the tcork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by tlte President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and llu- func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of tlie Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in tlie field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The State of the Union 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



Mr. Pkf.sidext, Mr. Si'eaker, ilEMHEUs of the 

86th Congress, My Fellow Citizens : 
Seven j-e^ii-s ago I entered my pi-esent office with 
one long-held resolve overi'iding all others. I 
was then, and remain now, determined that the 
United States shall become an ever more potent 
resource for tlie cause of peace — realizing that 
peace cannot be for oui-selves alone, but for peo- 
ples eveiTwhere. This detennmation is, I know, 
shared by the entire Congress — indeed, by all 
Americans. 

My purpose today is to discuss some features of 
Amei-ica's position, both at home and in lier rela- 
tions to othei-s. 

First, I pomt out that for us, annual self-exam- 
ination is mude a definite necessity by the fact 
that we now live in a divided world of uneasy 
equilibrium, with our side committed to its own 
protection and against, aggi-ession by the other. 

With both sections of this divided world in pos- 
session of unbelievably destiiictive weapons, 
mankind approaches a state where mutual 
annihilation becomes a possibility. Xo other fact 
of today's world equals this in importance — it 
colors everj'thing we say, plan, and do. 

There is demanded of us vigilance, determina- 
tion, and the dedication of whatever portion of 
our resources that will provide adequate security, 
especially provide a real deterrent to aggression. 
These things we are doing. 

All these facts emphasize the importance of 
striving incessantly for a just peace. 

Only through the strengthening of the spiritual. 



•H. Dw. 241, SGth Cong., 2d sess. President Eisen- 
hower read a sliglitly condensed version of the message 
before a joint session of the Congress on Jan. 7. 



intellectual, economic, and defensive resources oi 
the free world can we, in confidence, make prog- 
ress toward this goal. 

Second, we note that recent Soviet depoilment 
and pronouncements suggest the possible opening 
of a somewhat less strained period in the relation- 
ships between the Soviet Union and the rest of the 
world. If these pronouncements be genuine, there 
is brighter hope of diminishing the intensity of 
past rivalry and eventually of substituting persua- 
sion for coercion. Whether this is to become an 
era of lasting promise remains to be tested by 
actions. 

Third, we now stand in the vestibule of a vast 
new technological age — one that, despite its capac- 
ity for hiunan destruction, has an equal capacity 
to make poverty and human misery <)I)sol('lo. If 
our efforts are wisely directed — and if our unre- 
mitting efforts for dependable peace begin to 
attain some success — we can surely become partic- 
ipants in creating an age characterized by justice 
and rising levels of human well-being. 

Over the past year the Soviet Union has 
expressed an interest in measures to reduce the 
common peril of war. 

While neither we nor any other free world 
nation can permit ourselves to be misleil by 
pleasant promises imtil fhey are tested by per- 
formance, yet we approach this apparently new 
opportunity witli the utmost seriousness. We 
must strive to break the calamitous cycle of frus- 
trations and crises which, if uncliecked, could 
spiral into nuclear disaster; the ultimate insanity. 

Tliough the need for dejiendable agreements to 
assure against resort to force in settling disputes 
is apparent to both sides yet as in other issues 
dividing men and nations, we cannot expect 



January 25, J 960 



111 



sudden and revolutionary results. But we must 
find some place to begin. 

One obvious road on which to make a useful 
start is in the widening of communication between 
our two peoples. In this field there are, both 
sides willing, countless opportunities — most of 
them well known to us all — for developing mutual 
understanding, tlie true foundation of peace. 

Another avenue may be through tlie reopening, 
on January 12, of negotiations looking to a con- 
trolled ban on the testing of nuclear weapons. 
Unfortunately, tlie closing statement from the 
Soviet scientists who met with our scientists at 
Geneva gives the clear impression that their con- 
clusions have been politically guided.- Those of 
the British and American scientific representa- 
tives are their own freely formed, individual and 
collective opinions. I am hopeful that, as new 
negotiations begin, trutli — not political opportun- 
ism — will guide the deliberations. 

Still another field may be found in the field 
of disarmament, in which the Soviets have pro- 
fessed a readiness to negotiate seriously.^ They 
have not, however, made clear the plans they may 
have, if any, for mutual inspection and verifica- 
tion — the essential condition for any extensive 
measure of disarmament. 

There is one instance where our initiative for 
peace has recently been successful. A multi- 
lateral treaty ^ signed last month provides for the 
exclusively peaceful use of Antarctica, assured 
by a system of inspection. It provides for free 
and cooperative scientific research in that con- 
tinent, and prohibits nuclear explosions there 
pending general international agreement on the 
subject. I shall transmit its text to the Senate for 
consideration and approval in the near future. 
The treaty is a significant contribution toward 
peace, international cooperation, and the advance- 
ment of science. 

Tlie United States is always ready to partici- 
pate witli tlic Soviet Union in serious discussion 
of these or any other subje^-ts that may lead to 
peace with justice. 

Certainly it is not necessaiy to repeat tlnit tlie 



'For a U.S. rcjily to a statoinent of the Soviet delega- 
tion, .see Bulletin of .Tan. 18, 1960, p. 78. 

' For text of a couiinunique issued by the Foreign Min- 
isters of Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States at I'aris on Dec. 21, .see ihitl., Jan. 11 
19C0, p. 45. 

♦For text, see ibid., Dec. 21, 1959, p. 012. 

112 



United States has no intention of interfering in 
the internal atfairs of any nation; by the same 
token we reject any attempt to impose its system 
on us or on other peoples by force or subversion. 

This concern for the freedom of other peoples 
is the intellectual and spiritual cement which has 
allied us with more than 40 other nations in a 
common defense effort. Not for a moment do 
we forget that our own fate is firmly fastened 
to that of these countries; we will not act in any 
way which would jeopardize our solemn commit- 
ments to them. 

We and our friends are, of course, concerned 
with self-defense. Growing out of this concern 
is the realization that all people of the free woi'ld 
have a great stake in the progress, in freedom, 
of the uncommitted and newly emerging nations. 
These peoples, desperately hoping to lift them- 
selves to decent levels of living must not, by our 
neglect, be forced to seek help from, and finally 
become virtual satellites of, those who proclaim 
their hostility to freedom. 

Tlieir natural desire for a better life must not 
be frustrated by withholding from them neces- 
sary technical and investment assistance. Tliis is 
a problem to be solved not by America alone, but 
also by eveiy nation cherishing the same ideals 
and in position to provide help. 

In recent years America's partners and friends 
in Western Europe and Japan have made great 
economic progi-ess. Their newly found economic 
strength is eloquent testimony to the striking suc- 
cess of the policies of economic cooperation which 
we and they have pursued. 

The international economy of 1960 is markedly 
different from that of the early postwar yeare. 
No longer is the United States the only major 
industrial country capable of providing substan- 
tial amounts of the resources so urgently needed 
h\ the newly developing countries. 

To remain secure and prosperous themselves, 
wealthy nations must extend the kind of coopera- 
tion to the less fortunate members that will in- 
spire hope, confidence, antl jirogi-ess. A rich 
nation can for a time, without noticeable damage 
to itself, pursue a course of self-indulgence, ma]i- 
ing its single goal llic material ease and comfort 
of its own citizens — thus repudiating its own spir- 
itual and material stake in a. peaceful and pros- 
perous society of nations. But the enmities it will 
incur, the isolation into which it will descend, and 

Department of Sfafe Bullefin 



tliP internal moral, spiritual, economic, and politi- 
cal softness that will be enffcmlered, will, in the 
Ii>nj^ term, hrinj; it to disaster. 

America did not become great through softness 
and self-indulgence. Her miraculous progres.s 
and aciiievements (low from otlier (pialities far 
more worlliy and substantial — 

Adherence to princi[)les and motluMls consonani 
with our i-eligious pliilosophy; 

A satisfaction in iiard work; 

Tlie readiness to sacriiice for worthwliile causes; 

The courage to meet every challenge; 

The intellectual honesty and capacity to recog- 
nize tiie true patji of her own best interests. 

To us and to every nation of the free world, rich 
or poor, the,se qualities ai-e necessary today as 
never before if we are to march together to irreater 
security, prosperity, and peace. 

I believe the industrial countries are ready to 
participate actively in supplementing the elforts 
of the developing nations to achieve progi-ess. 

The inunediate need for this kind of cooperation 
is underscored by tlie strain in our international 
balance of payments. (3ur surplus from foreign 
business ti-ansactions hius in recent yeai-s fallen 
substantially short of the expenditures we make 
abroad to maintain our militaiy establishment.s 
overseas, to finance private investment, and to 
]irovide assistance to tlie less developed nations. 
In 10.")9 our deficit in balance of payments ap- 
proached !^-l; billion. 

(Continuing deficits of anything like this magni- 
tude would, over time, impair our own economic 
growtli and check the forward progress of the 
fi'ee world. 

We must meet this situation by promoting a ris- 
ing volume of ex))orts and woi-ld trade. Fuither, 
wo mu.st induce all industrialized nations of the 
free world to work together to help lift the 
scourge of poverty from less fortunate nations. 
This will provide for better sharing of this burden 
and for still further prolital>le trade. 

Xew nations, and others struggling with tlie 
problems of development, will progress only, re- 
gardless of any out.side help, if they demonstrate 
faith in their own destiny and pos.sess the will and 
use their own resources to fulfill it. ^Moreover, 
progress in a national transformation can be only 
gradually earned ; there is no easy and quick way 
to follow from the ox cart to the jet plane. But, 
just as we drew on Europe for assistance in our 



c-arlier yeai-s, so now do those new and emerging 
nations that have this faith and determination de- 
serve help. 

Over the last 15 yeiu-s, 20 nations have gained 
political independence. (~)lhei-s are doing so each 
year. Most of them are woefully lacking in tech- 
nical capacity and in investment capital; without 
free-world support in thes(^ matters they cannot 
ellectively progress in freedom. 

Respecting their need, one of the major focal 
points of our concern is the south Asian region. 
Here, in two nations alone, arc almost 500 million 
people, all working, and working hard, to raise 
their standards, and, in doing so, to make of them- 
selves a strong bulwark against the spread of an 
ideology that would destroy liberty. 

I cannot exi>re,ss to you the dej)th of my con- 
viction that, in our own and free- world interests, 
we must cooperate with others to help these people 
achieve their legitimate ambitions, as expressed 
in their different multiycar plans. Through the 
World Bank and other instrumentalities, as well 
as through individual action by eveiy nation in 
position to help, we must squarely face this 
titanic challenge. 

All of us must realize, of course, that develop- 
ment in freedom by the newly emerging nations, 
is no mere matter of obtaining outside financial 
assistance. An indispensable element in this proc- 
ess is a strong and continuing determination on 
the part of these nations to exercise the national 
discipline necessaiy for any sustained develop- 
ment period. These qualities of detei-mination are 
particularly essential because of the fact that the 
process of improvement will necessarily be grad- 
ual and laborious rather than revolutionary. 
Moreover, eveiyone should be aware that the de- 
velopment process is no short-term phenomenon. 
Many yeai-s are required for even the most favor- 
ably situated countries. 

I shall contiinie to urge t!ie American people, 
in the interests of their own security, prosperity, 
and peace, to make sure that their own part of 
tiiis great project be amply and cheerfully sup- 
ported. Free-world decisions in this matter may 
spell the difference between world disaster and 
world progress in freedom. 

Otlier countries, some of whidi I visited last 
month," have similar needs. 



'Blu.ktin of Dec. 28, 1959, v- "•••'^l. aiul .Tan. 11, 19C0, 
p. -40. 



January 25, J 960 



113 



A common meeting groimd is desirable for those 
nations which are prepared to assist in the devel- 
opment effort. During the past year I have dis- 
cussed this matter with the leaders of several 
western nations. 

Because of its wealth of experience, the Organi- 
zation for European Economic Cooperation could 
help with initial studies needed.'^ The goal is to 
enlist all available economic resources in the indus- 
trialized free world — especially private investment 
capital. But I repeat that this help, no matter 
how great, can be lastingly effective only if it is 
used as a supplement to the strength of spirit and 
will of the people of the newly developing nations. 

By extending this help Me hope to make pos- 
sible the enthusiastic enrollment of these nations 
under freedom's banner. No more startling con- 
trast to a system of sullen satellites could be imag- 
ined. If we grasp this opportunity to build an 
age of productive partnership between the less 
fortunate nations and those that have already 
achieved a higli state of economic advancement, 
we will make brighter the outlook for a world 
order based upon security, freedom, and peace. 
Othei-wise, the outlook could be dark indeed. We 
face what may be a turning point in history, and 
we must act decisively. 

As a nation Ave can successfully pursue these 
objectives only from a position of broadly based 
strength. 

No matter how earnest is our quest for guaran- 
teed peace, we must maintain a high degree of 
military effectiveness at the same time we are 
engaged in negotiating the issue of arms reduc- 
tion. Until tangible and mutually enforceable 
arms reduction measures are worked out, we will 
not weaken the means of defending our institu- 
tions. 

America possesses an enormous defense power. 
It is my studied conviction that no nation will 
ever risk general war against us unless we should 
be so foolish as to neglect the defense forces we 
now so powerfully support. It is worldwide 
knowledge tliat any nation wliicli might be 
tempted today to attack the United States, even 
though our country might sustain great losses, 
would itself promptly suffer a terrible destruction. 
But T oiu-c. again assure all peoples and nil nations 



' Vor text (if a <-oiiiiiinnl(iue issuod by the Western heads 
of (,'iiveniiiieiit iit I'aiLs on Dee. 21, see ihid., Jan. 11, 
T.mo, I). 43. 



that the United States, except in defense, will 
never turn loose this destructive power. 

During the past year our long-range striking 
jDower, unmatched today in manned bombers, has 
taken on new strength as the Atlas interconti- 
nental ballistic missile has entered the operational 
inventoi-y. In 14 recent test laimchings, at ranges 
of over 5,000 miles. Atlas has been striking on an 
average within 2 miles of the target. This is less 
than the length of a jet runway — well within the 
circle of total destruction. Incidentally, there 
was an Atlas firing last night. From all repoiis 
so far received, its performance conformed to the 
high standards I have described. Such perform- 
ance is a great tribute to American scientists and 
engineers, who in the past 5 years have had to 
telescope time and technology to develop these 
long-range ballistic missiles, where America had 
none before. 

This year, moreover, growing numbers of nu- 
clear-powered submarines will enter our active 
forces, some to be armed with Polaris missiles. 
These remarkable ships and Aveapons, ranging the 
oceans, will be capable of accurate fire on targets 
virtually anywhere on earth. Impossible to 
destroy by surprise attack, they will become one 
of our most effective sentinels for peace. 

To meet situations of less than general nuclear 
war, we continue to maintain our carrier forces, 
our many service units abroad, our always ready 
Army strategic forces and Marine Corps divi- 
sions, and the civilian components. The continu- 
ing modernization of these forces is a costly but 
necessary j^rocess, and is scheduled to go forward 
at a rate which will steadily add to our strength. 

The deployment of a portion of these forces 
beyond our shores, on land and sea, is persuasive 
demonstration of our determination to stand 
shoulder-to-shoulder with our allies for collective 
security. Moreover, I have directed that steps be 
taken to program our military assistance to these 
allies on a longer I'ange basis. This is necessaiy 
for a sounder collective defense system. 

Next I refer to our program in space exploration, 
which is often mistakenly supposed to be an in- 
tegral part of defense research and development. 

We note that, first, America has made great 
contributions in the jiast 2 years to the world's 
fund of knowledge of astrophysics and space 
science. These discoveries are of present interest 
cliiefly to the scientific community; but they are 



114 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



important foundation stones for more extensive 
exploration of outer space for (lie iildnialf hiMipfit 
of all mankind. 

Second, our military missile pro{,naiii, ^'oinjr 
forward so successfully, docs not suller from our 
present lack of very large rocket engines, which 
are so nec^ssaiy in distant space exploration. I 
am assured by experts that the thrust of our pres- 
ent missiles is fully adequate for defense require- 
ments. 

Third, the United States is pressing forward 
in the development of large rocket engines to 
place vehicles of many tons into space for ex- 
ploration purposes. 

Fourth, in the pieantime, it is necessary to re- 
member that we have only begun to probe the 
environment immediately surrounding the earth. 
Using launch systems presently available, we are 
developing satellites to scout the world's weather; 
satellite relay stations to facilitate and extend 
communications over the globe; for navigation 
aids to give accurate bearings to ships and air- 
craft; and for perfecting instruments to collect 
and transmit the data we seek. This is the area 
holding the most promise for early and useful 
applications of space technology. 

Fifth, we have just completed a year's experi- 
ence with our new space law. I believe it deficient 
in certain particidars and suggested improve- 
ments will be submitted to the Congress shortly. 
The accomplishment of the many tasks I have 
alluded to requires the continuous strengtliening 
of the spiritual, intellectual, and economic sinews 
of American life. The steady purpose of our so- 
ciety is to assure justice, before God, for every 
individual. We must be ever alert that freedom 
does not wither through the careless amassing of 
restrictive controls or the lack of courage to deal 
boldly with the giant issues of the day. 

A year ago, when I met with you, the Nation 
was emerging from an economic downturn, even 
though the signs of resurgent prosperity were not 
then sufficiently convincing to the doubtful. To- 
day our surging strength is apparent to everyone; 
1960 promises to be the most prosperous year in 
our history. 

Yet we continue to be afflicted by nacgino- 
disorders. 

Among cun-ent problems that require solution 
participated in by citizens as well as Government 
are — 

January 25, I960 



The need to protect the public interest in situa- 
ti()Ms of prolonged lalwr-management stalemate; 

The persistent refusal to come to grips with a 
critical problem in one sector of American 
agi-iculture; 

The continuing threat of inflation, together 
witli the persisting tendency toward fiscal 
irresponsibility; 

In certain instances the denial to some of our 
citizens of equal [)rotection of the law. 

Every American was disturbed bv tlie pro- 
longed disimte in the steel industry and the pro- 
tracted delay in reaching a settlement. 

We are all relieved that a settlement has at last 
been achieved in that industry. Percentagewise, 
by this settlement the increase to the steel com- 
panies in employment costs is lower than in any 
prior wage settlement since World War II. It fs 
also gratifying to note that despite the increase 
in wages and benefits several of the major steel 
producers have announced that there will be no 
increase in steel prices at this time. The national 
interest demands that in the period of industrial 
peace which has been assured by the new contract, 
both management and labor make every possible 
effort to increase efficiency and productivity in 
the manufacture of steel so that price increases 
can be avoided. 

One of the lessons of this story is that tJie po- 
tential danger to the entire Nation of longer and 
greater strikes must be met. To insure against 
such possibilities we must of course depend pri- 
marily upon the good commonsense of the re- 
sponsible individuals. It is my intention to 
encourage regular discussions between manage- 
ment and labor outside the bargaining table, to 
consider the interest of the public as well as their 
mutual interest in the maintenance of industrial 
peace, price stability, incentive for continuous in- 
vestment, and economic growth. Both the Exec- 
utive and the Congress will, I know, be watching 
developments with keenest interest. 

To me, it seems almost absurd that the United 
States should recognize the need, and so earnestly 
to .seek, for cooperation among the nations unless 
wo can achieve voluntary, dependable, abiding co- 
operation among the important segments of our 
own free society. Without such cooperation we 
cannot prosper. 

Failure to face up to basic issues in areas other 
tlian those of labor-management can cause serious 



115 



strains on the firm freedom snjj ports of our 
society. 

Agriculture is one of these areas. 

Our basic fann laws were written 27 years ago, 
ill an emergency effort to redress hardsliip caused 
by a worldwide depression. They were con- 
tinued — and their economic distortions intensi- 
fied — during World War II in order to provide 
incentives for production of food needed to sus- 
tain a war-torn world. 

Today our farm problem is totally different. 
It is that of effectively adjusting to the changes 
caused by a scientific revolution. When the orig- 
inal fami laws were written, an hour's farm labor 
produced only one-fourth as much wheat as at 
present. Farm legislation is woefully out of 
date, ineffective, and expensive. 

For years we have gone on with an outmoded 
system which not only has failed to protect farm 
income, but also has produced soaring, threaten- 
ing surpluses. Our farms have been left ijroduc- 
ing for war while America has long been at peace. 

Once again I urge Congress to enact legislation 
that will gear production more closely to markets, 
make costly surpluses more manageable, provide 
greater freedom in farm operations, and steadily 
axjhieve increased net farm incomes. 

Another issue that we must meet squarely is 
that of living within our means. This requires 
restraint in expenditure, constant reassessment of 
priorities, and the maintenance of stable prices. 

To do so we must prevent inflation. Here is 
an opponent of so many guises that it is sometimes 
difficult to recognize. But our clear need is to 
stop continuous and general price rises — a need 
that all of us can see and feel. 

To prevent steadily rising costs and prices calls 
for stern self -discipline by every citizen. No 
person, city. State, or organized group can afford 
to evade the obligation to resist inflation, for 
every single American pays its criiDpling tax. 

Inflation's ravages do not end at the water's 
edge. Increases in prices of the goods we sell 
abroad threaten to drive us out of markets that 
once were securely ours. Whetlier domestic 
prices, so high as to be noncompetitive, result 
from demands for too-high profit margins or 
from increased labor costs that outrun growth in 
productivity, tlio final result is seriously damag- 
ing to the Nation. 

We must light inflation as wo would a fire that 



imperils our home. Only bj' so doing can we pre- 
vent it from destroying our salaries, savings, pen- 
sions, and insurance, and fi'om gnawing away the 
very roots of a free, healthy economy and the 
Nation's security. 

One major method by which the Federal Gov- 
ernment can counter inflation and rising prices is 
to insure that its expenditures are below its 
revenues. The debt with which Me are now con- 
fronted is about $290 billion. With interest 
charges alone now costing taxpayers about $9% 
billion, it is clear that this debt growth must 
stop. You will be glad to laiow that despite the 
unsettling influences of the recent steel strike, we 
estimate that our ac<'ounts will show, on June 30, 
this year, a favorable balance of approxhnately 
$200 million. 

I shall present to the Congress for 1961 a bal- 
anced budget. In the area, of defense, expendi- 
tures continue at the record peacetime levels of 
the last several years. With a single exception, 
expenditures in eveiy major category of health, 
education, and welfare will be equal or greater 
than last year. In space expenditures the 
amounts are practically doubled. But the over- 
all guiding goal of this budget is national need — 
not response to specific group, local or political 
insistence. 

Expenditure increases, other than those I have 
indicated, are largely accounted for by the in- 
creased cost of legislation previously enacted. I 
repeat, this budget will l)e a balancetl one. Ex- 
penditures will be $79,800 million. The amount 
of income over outgo described in the budget as 
a surplus to be applied against our national debt 
is $4,200 million. 

Personally, I do not feel that any amount can 
be properly called a surplus as long as the Nation 
is in debt ; I prefer to think of such an item 
as a reduction of our children's inherited mort- 
gage. And once we have established such pay- 
ments as normal practices we can profitably make 
improvements in our tax structure and thereby 
truly reduce the hca^'j' burdens of taxation. In 
any event this one reduction will save taxpayers 
each year ai:)proximately $200 million in interest 
costs. 

This favorable balance will help case pressures 
ill our credit and cajiital markets. It will en- 
hance the confidence of people all over the world 
in the strength of our economy and our currency 



116 



Department of State Bulletin 



and in our individual and collective ability to be 
fiscally ix'sponsible. 

In the manajieinent of tlie luige public debt the 
Treasury is unfortunately not free of artificial 
barriei"s. Its ability to deal with the tlifficult 
problems in tiiis field has l>een weakened "greatly 
by the unwillingness of the Congress to remove 
archaic i-estrictions. The need for a freer Iiand 
in debt, management is even more urgent today 
because the costs of the undesirable financing 
practices which the Ti-easury has been forced into 
are mounting. Komoval of this roadblock has 
high priority in my legishitive reconunendations. 

Still another issue relates to civil rights 
measui'es. 

In all our hopes and plans for a better world 
we all recognize that provincial and racial preju- 
dices must be combatted. In I lie long perspective 
of history, the right to vote has been one of the 
strongest pillare of a free society. Our firet 
duty is to protect this right against all encroacli- 
ment. In spite of constitutional guarantees, and 
notwithstanding much progress of recent years, 
bias still deprives some persons in this counti-y 
of equal protection of the laws. 

Early in your last session I recommended legis- 
lation which would help eliminate several prac- 
tices discriminating against the basic rights of 
Americans. The Civil Rights Commission has 
developed additional constructive recommenda- 
tions. I hope that these will be among the mat- 
ters to be seriously considered in the current 
session. I trust that Congress will thus signal to 
the world that our Government is striving for 
equality under law for all our people. 

Each year and in many ways our Nation con- 
tinues to undergo profound change and growth. 

In the past 18 months we have iiailed the entry 
of two more States of the Union — Alaska and 
Hawaii. We salute these two western stai"s. 

Our vigorous expansion, which we all welcome 
as a sign of health and vitality, is many-sided. 
We are, for example, witnessing explosive growth 
in metropolitan areas. 

By 1975 the metropolitan areas of the United 
States will occupy twice the territory they do 
today. The roster of urban problems with which 
they must cope is staggering. They involve water 
supply, cleaning the air, adjusting local tax sys- 
tems, providing for essential educational, cultural, 
and social services, and destroying those condi- 
tions which breed delinquency and crime. 



In meeting tliese, we must, if wo value our 
iiistoric freedoms, keep williin the tratlitional 
framework of our Federal system with powers 
divided between tiie National and State CJovern- 
ments. Tiie uniqueness of this system may con- 
found the casual observer, l)u( it has worked efTec- 
lively for ne^irly l'OO yeai-s. 

I do not doubt that our urban and other i>or- 
plexing problems can be solved in the traditional 
American method. In doing so we must realize 
that nothing is really solved, indeed ruinous tend- 
encies are set in motion by yielding to tlie decep- 
tive bait of the "easy" Federal tax dollar. 

Our educational system provides a ready 
example. All recognize the vital necessity of 
having modern school plants, well-qualified and 
adequately compensated teachers, and of using the 
best possible teaching techniques and curriculums. 

We cannot be complacent about educating our 
youth. But the route to better trained minds is 
not through the swift administration of a Federal 
hypodermic or sustained financial transfusion. 
The educational process, essentially a local and 
personal responsibility, cannot be made to leap 
ahead by crash, centralized governmental action. 

The administration has proposed a carefully 
reasoned program for helping eliminate current 
deficiencies. It is designed to stimulate classroom 
construction, not by substitution of Federal dol- 
lars for State and local funds, but by incentives to 
extend and encourage State and local efforts. 
This approach rejects the notion of Federal domi- 
nation or control. It is workable, and should 
appeal to every American interested in advance- 
ment of our educational system in the traditional 
American way. I urge the Congi-ess to take 
action upon it. 

There is one other subject concerning which I 
renew a i-ecommendation I made in my state of 
the Union message last January.' I then advised 
the Congress of m}' purpose to intensify our 
efforts to replace force with a rule of law among 
nations. From many discussions abroad, I am 
convinced that purpose is widely and deeply 
shared by other peoples and nations of the world. 

In the same message I stated that our efforts 
would include a reexamination of our own relation 
to the International Court of Justice. The Court 
was established by the United Nations to decide 



' Ibid., Jan. 26. 1959, p. 115. 



January 25, I960 



117 



international legal disputes between nations. In 
1946 we accepted the Court's jurisdiction, but sub- 
ject to a reservation of the right to determine 
unilaterally whether a matter lies essentially 
within domestic jurisdiction. There is pending 
before the Senate a resolution which would repeal 
our present self-judging reservation.^ I support 
that resolution and urge its prompt passage. If 
this is done, I intend to urge similar acceptance of 
the Court's jurisdiction by every member of the 
United Nations. 

Here perhaps it is not amiss for me to say a per- 
sonal word to the Members of the Congress, in tliis 
my final year of office, a word about the institu- 
tions we respectively represent and the meaning 
which the relationships between our two branches 
has for the days ahead. 

I am not unique as a President in having 
worked with a Congress controlled by the opposi- 
tion party — except that no other President ever 
did it for quite so long. Yet in both personal and 
official relationships we have weathered the stomis 
of the past 5 yeai-s. For this I am deeply 
grateful. 

My deep concern in the next 12 months, before 
my successor takes office, is with our joint con- 
gressional-executive duty to our own and to other 
nations. Acting upon the beliefs I have expressed 
here today, I shall devote my full energies to the 
tasks at hand, whether these involve travel for 
promoting greater world understanding, negotia- 
tions to reduce international discord, or constant 
discussions and communications with the Con- 
gress and the American people on issues both 
domestic and foreign. 

In pursuit of these objectives, I look forward 
to, and shall dedicate myself to, a close and con- 
structive association with the Congress. 

Every minute spent in irrelevant interbranch 
wrangling is precious time taken from the intelli- 
gent iniliatioii and adoption of coherent policies 
for our national survival and progress. 

"We seek a common goal — brighter opportunity 
for our own citizens and a world peace with 
justice for all. 

Before us and our friends is the challenge of 
an ideology which, for more than four decades, 
has trumpeted abroad its purpose of gaining ulti- 
mate victory over all forms of government at 
variance with its own. 



I'lir liMckgrouiul, see p. 128. 



We realize that however much we repudiate 
the tenets of imperialistic commimism, it repre- 
sents a gigantic enterprise. Its leadere compel its 
subjects to subordinate their freedom of action 
and spirit and personal desires for some hoped- 
for advantage in the future. 

The Communists can present an array of ma- 
terial accomplisliments over the past 15 years that 
lends a false persuasiveness to many of their glit- 
tering promises to the micommitted peoples. 

The competition they provide is formidable. 
We so recognize it. 

But in our scale of values we place freedom 
first. Our whole national existence and develop- 
ment have been geared to that basic concept and 
is responsible for the position of free-world lead- 
ei-ship to which we have succeeded. It is the 
highest prize that any nation can possess ; it is one 
that communism can never offer. And America's 
record of material accomplislunent in freedom is 
written not only in the unparalleled prosperity of 
our own Nation, but in the many billions we have 
devoted to the reconstruction of free-world econ- 
omies wrecked by World War II and in the effec- 
tive help of many more billions we have given in 
saving the independence of many others threat- 
ened by outside domination. Assui-edlj' we have 
the capacity for handling the problems in the 
new era of the world's history we are now 
entering. 

But we must use that capacity intelligently and 
tirelessly, regardless of personal sacrifice. 

The fissure that divides our political planet is 
deep and wide. 

We live, moreover, in a storm of semantic dis- 
order in which old labels no longer faithfully 
describe. 

Police states are called "people's democracies." 

Armed conquest of free people is called "libera- 
tion." 

Such slippery slogans make difficult the prob- 
lem of communicating true faith, facts, and be- 
liefs. 

We nuist make clear our jieaceful intentions, 
our aspirations for a better world. To do so, we 
nmst use language to enligliten the mind, not as 
tlie instrument of tlie studied imiuendo and dis- 
torter of truth. 

And we must live by what we say. 

On my recent visit to distant lands I found 
one statesman aft-er another eager to tell me of 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



tlie elements of their government tJiat had been 
borrowed from our American Constitution, and 
from tlie indestructible ideals set forth in our 
Declaration of Indejiendence. 

As a nation we take pride tliat our own consti- 
tutional system, and the ideals which sustain it 
have been long viewed as a fountainhead of 
freedom. 

B}' our every word and action we must strive 
to make ourselves worthy of this trust, ever mind- 
ful tiiat an accumulation of seemingly minor 
encroaclmients upon freedom gradually could 
break down the entire fabric of a free society. 

So persuaded, we shall get on with the task 
before us. 

So dedicated, and with faith in tlie Almighty, 
humanity shall one day achieve the unity in free- 
dom to whicli all men have aspired from the dawn 
of time. 

DwiGUT D. Eisenhower. 
The White House, January 7, 1960. 



President Eisenhower To Visit 
Soutli America 

White Nome Statement 

White House press release dated January 6 

The President, accompanied by j\Irs. Eisen- 
hower, plans to visit Brazil, February 23-26; 
Argentina, February 26-29; Chile, February 29- 
March 2: and Uruguay, March 2-3; with brief 
stops in Puerto Eico. 

The President, in visiting the four southern- 
most countries of our neighboring continent, is 
partially fulfilling his long-held desire personally 
to travel in South America, to meet the people, 
and to renew friendships with the leaders of the 
nations so closely allied with the United States 
in the Organization of American States. The 
President hopes that his visit will serve two 
purposes : 

Publicly reflect his deep interest in all the coun- 
tries of the Xew World, and 

Encourage further development of the inter- 
American system, not only as a means of meeting 
the aspirations of the peoples of tiie Americas 
but also as a further example of the way all 
peoples may live in peaceful cooperation. 



United States and Soviet Union 
Exchange New Year Greetings 

White House (Augusta, Oa.) press release dated JuDuary 4 

77(e White House on Janua'ry ^ made public 
the foJloioing exchange of messages between the 
President and Nikita 8. Khrushchev, Cliairman 
of the Council of Ministers, and Kliment Efremo- 
vich Voroshilov, Chairman of the Presidium of 
the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Repuhlics. 

The President to Mr. Khrushchev and Mr. Voroshilov 

January 2, 1960 

On behalf of the American people, I thank you 
for your kind New Year's message. I share the 
hope which you have expressed for a further im- 
provement in the relations between our two coun- 
tries. The United States seeks tlie achievement 
of a just and lasting peac« in a world where all 
questions are settled by peaceful means alone. I 
can assure you that my Government will con- 
tinue its best efforts to reach that goal. Please 
accept my good wishes for you and j'our families 
and the people of the Soviet Union for the coming 
year. 

Dwight D. Eisenho^ver 

Mr. Khrushchev and Mr. Voroshilov to the President 

December 31, 1959 

On the eve of the New Year we send to you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, and to the people of the United States of America 
sincere greetings and best wishes from the peoples of the 
Soviet Union and from ourselves personally. It is pos- 
sible to note with deep satisfaction that in the past year 
there were undertaken joint efforts in the search of ways 
for closer relations of our States, for ensurance of such 
a situation in which the unresolved international ques- 
tions would be decided by peaceful means onl.v. Entering 
the New Year, we would like to hojie sincerely that these 
joint efforts will guarantee a new triumph of reason, and 
that a start will be made to solve the most important 
problem of our times — the general and complete disarma- 
ment and the liberation of mankind from the burden of 
armament. 

Let this Xew Year be the year of a further improve- 
ment in the relations between our countries. The realiza- 
tion of this hope which is so dear to the hearts of both 
the Soviet and American peoples would undoubtedly bring 
nearer the time when, thanks to the efforts of both coun- 
tries, the relations between fheni conld be built on the 
foundation of enduring friendship and mutually advan- 
tageous cooperation for the good of our nations, for the 



January 25, 1960 



119 



good of peace in the entire world. It is exactly in this 
way that we evaluate the meaning of exchange visits by 
the leading statesmen of both countries. These meetings 
make it possible to ensure that historical turning point 
in the relations between our countrie.s, as well as in the 
international situation as a whole, which leads to the 
deliverance of all people from the dread of a new war. 
With best wishes for happiness and health to you per- 
sonally and to your entire family. 

N. Kheushchev 

K. VOROSHILOV 



United States and Netherlands Hold 
Civil Aviation Consultation 

Press release 3 dated January 6 

The following state7n€nt vyas issued jointly by 
the Department of State and the NetherJand>< 
Embassy at Washhigton 011 January 6. 

A civil aviation consultation between i-epresent- 
atives of the Governments of the United States 
and the Netherlands will begin in Washington 
on Januai-y 7 to consider the request of the Neth- 
erlands Government for a route authorizmg air 
services between the Netherlands and Los Ange- 
les. Tlie request for the consultation was made 
several montlis ago by the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment. 

Under tiie existing Air Transport Services 
Agreement of April 1957,' KLM Royal Dutch 
Airlines operates on separate routes to New York 
and Houston from the Netherlands and to Miami 
and New York from the Netherlands Antilles. 
United States airlines are authorized to operate 
to Amsterdam, Surinam, the Netherlands Antilles 
and beyond to points in tliird countries. 

The Netherlands Delegation is headed by Mr. 
E. G. Stijkel, State Secretary for Transpoit and 
Waterways. Other members of the Delegation 
are: Mr. H. J. Spanjaard, Director of Civil Avia- 
tion, Ministry of Transport and Waterways; Dr. 
J. C Kruishecr, Economic Minister, Netlierlands 
Embassy; Mi-. J. C. Nieuwenhuysen, Deputy 
Transportation Adviser, Minis! ly of Foreign Af- 
fairs; Mr. F. J. II. Barend, Ivopresciitalive of (he 
Government of Surinam; Mr. E. D. Baiz, Repre- 

' For text, see Bulletin of Jlay 6, 1957, p. 747. 



sentative of the Government of the Netherlands 
Antilles; Dr. L. H. Slotemaker, Executive Vice 
President, ICLM Royal Dutch Airlines; Mr. M. 
Mourik, Second Commercial Secretary, Nether- 
lands Embassy. 

The United States Delegation is headed by 
Mr. Laurence C. Vass, Director, OfRce of Trans- 
port and Communications, Department of State. 
Otlier members of the Delegation are : Mr. G. Jo- 
seph Minetti, Member, Civil Aeronautics Board; 
Mr. Bradley D. Nash, Deputy Under Secretary 
for Transportation, Department of Commerce; 
Mr. Theodore Hardeen, Jr., Administrator, De- 
fense Air Transportation Administration, De- 
partment of Commerce (Alternate) ; Mr. Joseph 
C. Watson, Associate Director, Bureau of Air 
Operations, Ci^^l Aeronautics Board; Mr. James 
C. Haahr, Chief, Air Transport. Relations, Avia- 
tion Division, Department of State; Mr. Robert 
M. Beaudry, Economic Officer, Swiss-Benelux 
Affairs, Office of Western European xVffairs, 
Department of State; Mr. William Klima, Inter- 
national Division, Civil Aeronautics Board; Mr. 
Paul Reiber, Air Transport Association (Ob- 
server) . 



President de Gaulle To Visit U.S. 

White House press release dated January 6 

The Wliite House announced on January 6 that 
the President of the Republic of France, General 
Charles de (Jaulle, M-ill pay a state visit to the 
United States during the spring. It is planned 
that President de Gaulle will arrive at Washing- 
ton from Canada on April 22 and remain there 
until April 25. Thereafter, he will spend a day 
in New York City and will complete his visit by 
spending approximately 3 days in other cities in 
the United States. The exact itinerary has not 
yet been developed. 

President Eisenhower is particularly pleaseti 
tli:it he will have tlie opportunity of receiving 
President de Gaulle in Washington not only to 
renew his friendship with his comrade-in-arms 
and friend but also to have the occasion officially 
of receiving tlie Chief of State of (lie nation 
wliicli is tlie oldest ally and fritMid of our country. 



120 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



Canadian-United States Cooperation for Peace 



hy Richard B. Wiggle^worth 
Ambassador to Canada ^ 



II me fait un grand plaisir d^etre ici aujourd^hui^ 
et je vous remercie de voire aiTnahle invitation. 
Je suis tres heureux d''etre a Montreal et d^avoir 
le privilege de rencontrer les memhres de votre 
Club et leurs amis. 

J^ai eu Voccasion pendant les dei'niers m,ois de 
voyager quelques 2ofi00 milles en tcrre canadienne 
d'un ocean a V autre, de reticent rer un grand nom- 
bre de vos concitoyens et de me familiariser avec 
V08 traditions, vos aspirations, et vos convictions. 

T^Hiat I have learned from my travels in Canada 
has impelled me inevitably to reflect on the close- 
ness between Canadian aims and the aims of my 
own country. 

Our relationship prompts me to discuss today 
some aspects of Canadian-United States coopera- 
tion for peace. I do so because the nature of this 
cooperation is, I think, often obscured. It is ob- 
scured on the one hand by platitudes and on the 
other by the very complexities of security in the 
modern world. The result is a lack of apprecia- 
t ion of its unique character and the circumstances 
tiiat brought it about. 

Were I an historian I probably would start 
with the Rush-Bagot agreement of 1818, which 
freed our Great Lakes of warships. And I would 
give considerable attention to World War I and 
the contribution our two countries made to turn- 
ing back that onslaught against our security. 

I shall limit myself, however, to the last quar- 
ter of a century. I shall do so because it seems 
to me that our joint response to the dangei-s of 
these years has been different both in ilegree and 
in kind from the alliances and pacts that we find 

' Address made before the Montreal Canadian Club, 
.Montreal, Canada, on Dec. 14. 



as a general rule in the history of international 
relations. 

The old saying that "the enemy of my enemy is 
my friend"' is of course totally inadequate to de- 
scribe the depth and strength that characterize our 
cooperation. I am not concerned with the super- 
ficial similarities or difTerences that one may find 
between us and between our countries. I speak of 
something more profoimd. I would like to outline 
the cooperation between our countries during the 
past 25 years and to emphasize its significance to 
the security of the free world. 

Response to Fascism 

Fascism, the first of the two great challenges of 
the past 25 years, took the form of military 
aggression. 

Though the Fascists used the tools of propa- 
ganda and the "big lie" with a thoroughness never 
before witnessed, our danger was a familiar one. 
We were faced, for the most part, with a classic 
war of men, maneuver, and materiel. No matter 
how hard or how costly the effort required of us, 
we understood immediately the kind of response 
the threat dictated. Only by war could fascism 
take our freedom. 

We shared an enemy, and we shared a continent. 
That akme was enough to insure unit}- of action. 
We also shared the raw materials and the indus- 
trial capacity with which to build the comple.x 
machinery of modem war. And we sensed that 
if we did not put these resources together to a 
degree never before known in international af- 
fairs, our efForts might be not only inefficient but 
not enough. 

Our joint action was possible only because we 



January 25, J 960 



121 



had shared many years of mutual respect and good 
faith as -well. Anyone who looked for pillboxes 
along our common border would have known that. 

The conviction that North America is more than 
a geographic concept did not grow overnight. 
Throughout the thirties, as foreign places many 
of our people had never heard of — MaJichuria, 
Ethiopia, the Sudetenland, Danzig — took over tlie 
front pages of our newspapers, the idea slowly 
and spontaneously spread. 

I think particularly of President Roosevelt's 
address at Chautauqua, New York, on August 14, 
1936: 

Our closest neighbors are good neighbors. If there are 
remoter nations that wish us not good but ill, they know 
that we are strong ; they Isnow that we can and will de- 
fend ourselves and defend our neighborhood. 

Or the President's words at Kingston, Ontario, 
on August 18, 1938 : 

I give to you assurance that the people of the United 
States will not stand idly by if domination of Canadian 
soil is threatened by any other empire. 

I also think of an address by Prime Minister 
Mackenzie King at Woodbridge, Ontario, on 
August 20, 1938 : 

We too have our obligations as a good friendly neighbor, 
and one of these is to see that, at our own instance, our 
country is made as immune from attack or possible in- 
vasion as we can reasonably be expected to make it, and 
that, should the occasion ever arise, enemy forces should 
not be able to pursue their way either by land, sea or air, 
to the United States across Canadian territory. 

This growing awareness of our common danger 
and our common responsibilities led to our first 
great joint decision. I quote from the Ogdens- 
burg agreement of August 18, 1940 : ^ 

The Prime Minister and the President have discussed 
the mutual problems of defense in relation to the safety 
of Canada and the United States. 

It has been agreed th^it a Permanent Joint Board on 
1 >cf ense sliall be set up at once by the two countries. 

Tliis Permanent .Joint Board on Defense shall commence 
immediate studies relating to sea, land, and air problems 
including personnel and materiel. 

It will consider in the broad sense the defense of the 
north half of the Western Hemisphere. 

This Permanent Joint Board was from the be- 
ginning an uiiqiuililied success. As you know, it 
still contributes greatly to the cooperation between 



our two countries in respect to the defense of the 
North American Continent. 

The second great step in this period of our com- 
mon efforts, the Hyde Park declaration of April 
20, 1941," was in a sense even more far reaching 
than the decision at Ogdensburg. I quote from it 
liere because it illustrates the degree of cooperation 
whicli we were to attain : 

Among other important matters, the President and the 
Prime Minister discussed measures by which the most 
prompt and effective utilization might be made of the 
productive facilities of North America for the purposes 
both of local and hemisphere defense and of the assistance 
which in addition to their own programs both Canada and 
the United States are rendering to Great Britain and the 
other democracies. 

It was agreed as a general principle that in mobilizing 
the resources of this continent each country should pro- 
vide the other with the defense articles which it is best 
able to produce, and, above all, produce quickly, and that 
production programs should be coordinated to this end. 

It would serve no useful purpose to discuss 
"World War II in any detail today. Many of you 
were in that war and remember well the first des- 
perate years, then the great sweeps of the Allied 
armies, the ever-increasing flow of men and mate- 
riel, the billions in aid to our Allies from our two 
countries, and the victories that followed. 

It is possible that some of you were among those 
Canadians who received parachute training at 
Fort Benning, Georgia. Or perhaps you were in 
Manitoba teaching United States soldiers the 
techniques of fighting in cold weather. Perhaps 
you flew fighter cover for our Flying Fortresses, or 
it may be that as you moved north in Italy you had 
close air support from United States airmen. 

And I would remind you that when Pearl Har- 
bor was attacked there were more than 16,000 
United States citizens in Canadian uniform. And, 
strange as it may seem, by the time the United 
States had declared war on Japan, Canada liad 
already done so. 

Tlie Ogdensburg agreement acknowledged our 
responsibilities to each other. As we disbanded 
our armies after the war and reconverted our fac- 
tories to peacetime production we recognized new 
responsibilities. Our world grew smaller; our 
obligations grew greater. Our vigorous adher- 
ence to the charter of the United Nations is proof 
of our acceptance of these new responsibilities and 
of our allegiance to free men everywhere. 



' For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 24, 1940, p. l'>4. 
122 



' For text, see ihid., Apr. 2(i, 1941, p. 494. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Military Response to Communist Imperialism 

The second j::reat ilanjrer of our time — interna- 
tional communism — became a reality in the years 
after the war. One aspect only of tliis new threat 
to the free Morld was militai-y, but that aspect had 
to be faced lirst. We could not build for a world 
of free men without insuring that men would be 
free. 

Our two Governments decided that it would be 
unwise to destroy the coordination we had so care- 
fully built, but they recognized that this coordina- 
tion had a wider frame of reference. I quote from 
a joint statement of February 12, IQiT,-* released 
simultaneously in Ottawa and Washington : 

In the interest of efficienc.v and economy, each Govern- 
ment has decided that its national defense estal)lishment 
shall, to the extent authorized by law, continue to collab- 
orate for peacetime joint security purposes. . . . 

It has been the task of the Governments to assure that 
the close security relationship between Canada and the 
United States in North America will in no way impair but 
on the contrary will strengthen the cooperation of each 
country within the broader framework of the United Na- 
tions. 

I do not recall that this statement received very 
much attention at the time. After all, the dead- 
liast war in history was barely over. The world 
had surely learned, at least for a time, the disas- 
trous consequences of aggression. 

But it was an uneasy time. For example, why 
would an ally, presumably grateful for Canadian 
assistance, operate a spy ring in Canada ? Was the 
Communist coup in Czechoslovakia really a domes- 
tic issue of no consequence to the rest of the world? 
Were the outlaws who sought to overrun the main- 
land of China really only peaceful agrarian 
reformers ? 

Then came the Berlin blockade. 

Even the most wishful thinkers were forced to 
concede that the free world was faced again with 
possible disaster. The new threat demanded a 
whole series of new responses. In the military 
sphere they followed one another in quick se- 
quence. 

To counter the threat of armed aggression in 
Europe, tlie North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
was born. To counter the Communist invasion of 
south Korea a United Nations military force was 
formed for the first time in history, to protect a 
nation from aggression. 



It is unne^-essary to dwell upon the Korean war. 
Our wounils are too fresh and our memories too 
full. But when we remember the cost in blood 
and trea.suro of that action, wo must also remem- 
ber its purpose and the result. More than 9 years 
after the invasion began, the Kepublic of Korea 
is still free. 

Tlie war also reinforeed a lesson we had leanied 
the hard way. The troops which invaded Man- 
churia fought on to Nanking, Singapore, and the 
Aleutians. The troops that marched into the 
Rhineland marched on to Paris, Athens, and 
Stalingrad. But the Conmiunists who invaded 
south Korea have not fought their way to Aus- 
tralia or Japan, or to British Columbia or 
California. 

We stood together, and under the flag of the 
United Nations we fought together. We were de- 
termuied and united. 

Surely others, too, learned a lesson from Korea. 
It is not likely that our determination to defend 
the free world will again be taken lightly. 

But before this bitter war was over. North 
America itself faced the threat of aggression. The 
possibility of bombers from across the Arctic was 
no longer merely a classroom exercise in military 
theory. 

Our joint response was the Pinetree Line, the 
Mid-Canada Line, the Distant Early Warning 
Line, and finally, on August 1, 1957, the announce- 
ment, already commimicated to NATO, that Can- 
ada and the United States plaiuied to operate their 
systems of air defense under an integrated joint 
command responsible to the Chiefs of Staff of both 
countries.^ 

We now know this command as NORAD — the 
North American Air Defense Command — and I 
regret that it is impossible for all the citizens of 
both our countries to visit its headquarters at Col- 
orado Springs and its ever-ready fighting units 
across this continent and at sea. It is a splendid 
example of our cooperation at the service level. 

To speak of NORAD today is to speak of a 
force of over 200,000 men, not to mention their 
equipment and augmentation forces. It is a com- 
pliment to the quiet eiBciency of NORAD under 
the leadership of our General [Laurence S.] Kutor 
and your Air Marshal [Charles R.] Slemon that 
so many of us take it for granted. 



* For text, see ibid., Feb. 23, 1947, p. 361. 
January 25, J 960 



' For text of joint statement, see ibid., Aug. 19, 1957, 
p. 306. 



123 



Wliat ail- defense did we have 10 years ago? 
One radar squadron and two giin battalions, ac- 
cording to General Kuter. A far cry from the 
radar, supersonic interceptors, the surface-to-air 
missiles, and the electronic computers that guard 
us today. 

We hope the effectiveness of NOKAD is never 
tested in battle. We shall never know to what 
degree its strength has already deterred the ambi- 
tions of those who might otherwise have been 
tempted to try to destroy us. 

But jet aircraft and the BOMAKC are no match 
for intercoiitinental ballistic missiles. Nor are 
they supposed to be. Will NORAD, then, as some 
say, soon outlive its usefulness ? 

I am not a military expert ; so I will let an ex- 
pert speak for me. General Kuter addressed the 
NATO Parliamentarians Conference in W^ashing- 
ton a few weeks ago. I quote : 

Let me say here that we believe that the manned 
bomber will be a serious threat for a long time to come. 

We are told that the missile will ultimately become the 
primary threat, but even so it will be a mixed threat, and 
the bomber will still be used against pinpoint or hardened 
targets, for mopup operations, or for a variety of situa- 
tions which demand human intelligence and judgment on 
the spot. 

We are also convinced that the subsonic attaclv — on the 
deck — at very low altitude — will remain a threat 
indefinitely. 

But when the day does come that interconti- 
nental missiles are the primary threat, will 
NORAD be helpless to deal with them? Wliat 
is being done to insure that we can defend our- 
selves and strike back? I quote once more from 
General Kuter's address : 

Another major area in which we are now working is 
that of defense against missiles. 

We are installing now in the far north a missile warn- 
ing system entitled the "Ballistic Missile Early Warning 
System"— short title, ISMIOWS. 

These are enormous fan-beam radars which will give us 
not only warnings l)Ut an approximate idea of a missile 
impact area. 

We are working vigorously in perfecting an antimissile 
missile. . . . And we have every confidence that free- 
world scientific and military capability is more than a 
match for anything communism may throw at us. 

That is why we believe tliat when the missile becomes 
an operational tlireat in significant numbers we will 
have a system to counteract it. Tlie stakes are too high 
to fail now. 

Speaking also at the same NATO Parliamen- 
tarians Conference Admiral [Jerauld] Wright, 



the NATO Atlantic coimnander,^ emphasized the 
vital importance of the military task which con- 
fronts us today as partners and allies. He 
stressed the fact that there are three basic defense 
tasks which must be accomplished by NATO : 

1. the defense of Europe ; 

2. the defense of North America ; 

3. the defense of the Atlantic. 

No one of these, he said, can be defended in 
isolation : 

Europe could not be defended without the retaliatory 
capability and the logistic and military reinforcement 
capacity of North America. 

The defense of North America would be made im- 
measurably more difficult if Europe should fall. 

And neither could be defended if we lost control of our 
trans-Atlantic lines of sea communication between the 
two. 

"Our basic and fundamental military task," he 
added, "is the prevention of war by our strength: 
strength to retaliate and strengtli to defend." 

Before I end my discussion of our responses to 
the military threat posed by international com- 
munism, I should like to say a few words about 
one of the means of our defense that weighs 
heavily on us all — nuclear weapons. I think 
it might be useful to begin with an examination 
of the circumstances that require our possession of 
these weapons. 

Shortly after their meeting in Paris in Decem- 
ber 1957, the NATO Heads of Government issued 
a communique, from which I quote: ' 

The Soviet leaders, wliile preventing a general disarma- 
ment agreement, have made it clear that the most modern 
and destructive weapons, including missiles of all kinds, 
are being introduced in the Soviet armed forces. In the 
Soviet view, all European nations except the U.S.S.R. 
should, without waiting for general disarmament, re- 
nounce nuclear weapons and missiles and rely on arms 
of the pre-atomic age. 

As long as the Soviet Union persists in this attitude, we 
have no alternative but to remain vigilant and to look to 
our defences. We are therefore resolved to achieve the 
most effective pattern of NATO military defensive 
strength, taking into account the most recent develop- 
ments in weapons and tochni(iucs. 

At that meeting the Heads of Government 



° For an announcement of the designation of Adm. 
Robert L. Dennison to succeed Admiral Wright as 
Supreme Allied Connnandcr, .Vtlantic, see ibid., Jan. 11, 
1".)(!0, i>. 45. 

' Yor text, see ihkl., .Jan. G, l',).")S, p. 12. 



124 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



agreed tliat the overwlielining numerical superior- 
ity of tlie Soviet armed forces— better than 80 
Russian divisions directly facing Western 
Europe— required tliat tlie NATO shiekl forces 
have a nuclear capability. 

Accordingly a series of agreements was con- 
cluded under the terms of which weapons capable 
of carrying nuclear warheads were made avail- 
able to certain NATO countries. The warheads, 
which would be used only to meet aggression, re- 
mained in the custody of the United States. 
When the North Atlantic Council announced the 
conclusion of these agreements on May 7, 1959," 
it specifically quoted from the North Atlantic 
Council's communique of May 3 two years before.' 
I quote: 

Pending an acceptable agreement on disarmament, no 
power can claim the right to deny to the Alliance the pos- 
session of the modern arms needed for its defence. If, 
however, the fears professed by the Soviet Union are 
sincere, they could be readily dissipated. All that is 
needed is for the Soviet Union to accept a general dis- 
armament agreement embodying effective measures of 
control and inspection within the framework of the pro- 
posals made on numerous occasi(ms by the Western Pow- 
ers, which remain an essential basis of their policy. 

The Communists have tried to convince us that 
should we disarm unilaterally there would be no 
tension between them and the free world. They 
are right: there would be no free world. 

It is clear, I think, no matter how profound our 
regret, that we must maintain a nuclear delerrent 
until a nuclear deterrent is no longer required. 
We have no choice. Thus, to give NATO's de- 
fense posture both breadth and flexibility, it was 
necessary to arm our shield forces with nudeai'- 
capable weapons. 

Nevertheless, in so arming our forces, it was also 
necessary to observe our obligation to reason and 
to humanity, to inhibit any increase in the number 
of holders of the warheads themselves. This obli- 
gation is embodied in an act of the United States 
Congress.'" I do not think any reasonable man 
underestimates the danger this law sought to 
minimize. 

How much greater the danger under which we 
live would become if 10 or 50 nations had nuclear 
weapons for u.se as they chose. To have them 



1 



' Ibid., May 2.5, 19.59, p. 7.39. 

• For text, see ibid., May 27, 19.57, p. 840. 

" Atomic Energy Act of 19.54, as amended. 

January 25, J 960 



ready for defensive use and to insure that tlieir use 
will be for defense only presents a dilemma we can 
Ignore only at our peril. I submit (hat the solu- 
tion we have found for our dilenmia is a wise one. 
The free world has the necessary military strength 
today. 

Speaking in this connection about a year ago 
President Eisenhower stated," "As of today [we 
have the necessary power to] present to any poten- 
tial attacker who would unleash war upon the 
world the prospect of virtual annihilation of his 
country." And he added, "Every informed gov- 
ernment knows this. It is no secret." This mili- 
tary strength has preserved the peace of the world 
in recent years. 

It is of course our deepest wish that all nations 
may disarm, but disarmament is not a one-way 
•street. It is po.ssible only in the event of effective 
international inspection and control. Wliile there 
is a mailed fist anywhere, the free world must con- 
tinue to bear the necessary armor. If we have it, 
we may not need it. If we need it and do not have 
it, we shall never need it again. 

Economic Cooperation for Peace 

I have emphasized the vital importance of Ca- 
nadian-United States cooperation to the defense 
of the free world. I believe, however, I would 
leave an unbalanced picture if I did not at least 
briefly touch on a no less vital element in maintain- 
ing peace. That element is free-world economic 
cooperation. 

Militaiy strength alone will not sichieve our 
objectives. Much more is i-equired to end the cold 
war and to build the international understanding 
and confidence essential to world peace. 

Millions of people in Asia and Africa are today 
struggling to throw ofi" the yoke of poverty and 
miseiy under which they have existed .so long. 
Some of thom are determined to attain a better 
standard of living, cost what it may — even, if nec- 
essary, at the expense of freedom. 

If freedom, security, and world peace are to be 
i-ealized, the reasonable aspirations of these people 
must be furthered. Tlie offensive must be main- 
tained against hunger, disea.se, and privation. 

The United States, Canada, and the free world 
took the initiative in this field long before the 
Conuniiiiists had ever thought of a foreign aid 



" BtTLLETiN of Jan. 27, 1958, p. ll."?. 



125 



program. AVe are fighting these ancient miseries 
which offer such fertile ground for communism's 
favorite technique of political subversion and eco- 
nomic penetration. 

Aid alone will not bring the victory over pov- 
erty and hunger. People must have within their 
own hands the means of self-support in dignity 
and freedom. This can be assured only if the 
world's trade is founded on principles which pro- 
mote expansion and provide opportunity. Canada 
and the United States have led the world toward 
these principles ever since the end of "World 
War II. 

The freedom preserved through defensive 
strength must not be lost to ignorance and hun- 
ger. Yes, we have guns for the defense of the free 
world, but we also have engineers, technicians, and 
surgeons, and food, and the certainty that all men 
wish to be free. And we are determined through 
understanding and cooperation to build lasting 
confidence and friendship which are so vital in 
this troubled world. 

The Future 

We have come a long way since the agreement 
at Ogdensburg. The world has changed and with 
it our responsibilities have changed — our responsi- 
bilities to ourselves and to all those who respect the 
charter of the United Nations. 

But some things have not changed. When I 
mentioned a few minutes ago some of the things 
we share, my list was incomplete. I left out per- 
haps the most important things of all: the belief 
that peace and freedom are possible for all men 
and the hope that the door to peace and freedom 
may bo opened as a result of our strength in 
cooperation. 

My travels and observations during the past 
year have served to underline for me the great 
contribution which the cooperation between our 
two nations has made to the peace and security of 
the free world. They have also served to under- 
line the vital importance of our continued cooper- 
ation for peace in the period which lies ahead. 

May I add that what we have done for ourselves 
we have done for all free men. And what we have 

done for the security of the free world we have 

done for ourselves. 

There is si ill much to do. Perhaps there always 

will be. But I am sure we will do it together. If 

we do not, it will not be done at all. 



126 



To paraphrase the words of your distinguished 
Prime Minister [John George Diefenbaker] at 
ceremonies in Prince Albert which I was privi- 
leged to attend : The price of peace is cooperation 
and the prize of cooperation is peace. 



IJC Reports on Development 
of Columbia River Basin 

Press release 885 dated December 30 

The Department of State annomiced on Decem- 
ber 30 that the International Joint Commission 
has submitted to the Govermnents of the United 
States and Canada its report on "principles for 
detei-mining and apportioning benefits from coop- 
erative use of storage of waters and electrical 
interconnection within the Colmnbia River sys- 
tem." The report was made public on December 
30 at Washington and Ottawa. 

In January 1959 the two Govermnents requested 
the Commission to make a special report on the 
determination and allocation of benefits which 
might result from the cooperative development of 
the Columbia River system with particular regard 
to electrical generation and flood control.^ 

In receiving the report the Department of State 
expressed appreciation for the constructive efforts 
of the members of the International Joint Com- 
mission and the fact that the Commission was able 
to reach agreement on its recommendations. The 
Acting Chairman of the U.S. Section is Eugene 
W. Weber, and the Chainnan of the Canadian 
Section is Gen. A.G.L. McNaughton. The other 
Canadian Commissionei-s are Donald L. Stephens 
of Winnipeg and Lucien Dansereau of Montreal. 
The other U.S. Commissioner is Francis Adams. 
The Department of State recalled the contribution 
which the late Gov. Doughis McKay made to the 
Commission's work as Chainnan of the U.S. 
Section. 

The Commission's report is now under study by 
appropriate officials in tlie U.S. and Canadian 
Governments with a view to its usefulness as 
guidelines in negotiation of an agreement covering 
specific projects and cooperative arrangements 
in the Columbia River Basin. After consultation 
with the appropriate congressional committees 
the Department of State will consult further 



' Bulletin of Feb.l6, 1959, p. 243. 

Department of State Bulletin 



witli the Canadian Department of External 
Allaii-s concerning the commencement of treaty 



negotiations, 



A similar announcement was made simultane- 
ously at Ottawa. 



U.S. and Mexican Officials Discuss 
Control of Illegal Drug Traffic 

Following is the text of a joint communique 
released at Washington on January 5 at the eon- 
elusion of a 2-day meeting of delegations from 
Mexico and the United States. 

Pres8 release 2 dated January 5 (revised) 

In view of the fact that illicit production, 
traffic and use of narcotic drugs constitutes a 
world problem as well as a problem wliich affects 
Mexico and the United States alike and upon the 
invitations of the United States, delegations of 
tlie Governments of the United States and Mexico 
met in Washington, D.C., on January 4 and 5, 
1960, to explore, informally, ways and means of 
intensifying the campaign against illicit traffic 
in narcotics in accordance with existing inter- 
national treaties and the domestic legislation of 
tlie two countries. It was agreed tliat this cam- 
paign oii'ei-s a most fruitful opportunity for 
int«mational cooperation as is explicit in interna- 
tional treaties on narcotics to whicli both coun- 
tries are parties and in their membei-ship in the 
Unit«d Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs. 
It was also agreed that, in the spirit of mutual 
understanding and respect which characterizes 
the friendly relations of the two countries, the 
two Governments would continue to make their 
best efforts to fuul appropriate measures to com- 
bat more effectively the traffic in illegal drugs, in 
addition to the implementation of provisions of 
international treaties on tlie subject tliat eacli 
Government is observmg to tlie best of its ability. 
In this connection the Chief of the American 
Delegation stated that his Government is pre- 
pared to offer its facilities in the training of per- 
sonnel and the use of scientific and technical 
equipment, if the Mexican Government should so 
desire. 

On this basis each delegation stated their con- 
viction that their Governments would continue 
to encourage closer cooperation between Federal, 



State and municipal officials of tlie two comune.s 
who are engaged in the figlit against the nefar- 
ious activities of narcotic, criminals in tlie two 
countries. It was noted that tiie general public 
is fi-equently unaware of tiie operations of com- 
petent authorities in the narcotics (iold liecaiise 
of the necessarily confidential nature of enforce- 
ment methods. 

There was complete recognition that the drug 
traffic between the two countries involves tiie 
illicit production, distribution or transit of nar- 
cotic dnigs in Mexico and the illegal sale and use 
of or addiction to those drugs in tlie United 
States. In this connection the Chief of tiie Mexi- 
can Delegation called attention to the fact that 
since 1947 a national campaign has been carried 
out in Mexico with the cooperation of all levels 
of goverimient to combat the illicit cultivation, 
traffic or transportation of narcotic drugs. The 
Chief of the American Delegation commented 
that the United States has increased the number 
of customs and narcotics agents in the areas near 
the border and is prepared to enter into a coopera- 
tive training program for the enforcement 
agents of both countries. 

Tlie members of both Delegations stressed the 
need for continuous public eidightenment regard- 
ing the seriousness of the drug problem, especially 
in areas of widespread addiction, and the impor- 
tance of wholehearted support of the people in 
supporting such measures as have a reasonable 
likelihood of eliminating the violatoi-sof narcotics 
laws — the perpetrators of the most abominable 
crime against the health and welfare of our 
communities. 

Mexican Delegatiati: 

Lie. Oscar Rabasa, Chief of Delegation, Director in Chief 
for American Affairs and the Foreign Service, Ministry 
for Foreign Relations, and Permanent Representative 
of Mexico to the United Nations Commission on 
Narcotics 

Lie. Juan Barona Lobato, Assistant to the Attoraey Gen- 
eral of Mexico 

Lie. Santiago Ibaiioz Llamas, Chief Inspector of Immigra- 
tion, Ministry of the Inferior 

Lie. Francisco .-ilfaro S., Chief of Legal Department, Min- 
istry of Health and Assistance 

Lie. Jo.s^ Luis Larls, Secretary to Delegation, First Secre- 
tary of Embassy, Mexican Embas.sy, Washington, D.C. 

United States Delegation: 

Myles Ambrose, Chief of Delegation, Assistant to the Sec- 
retary for Law Enforcement, Department of the 
Treasury 



January 25, I960 



127 



Chester A. Emerlck, Deputy Commissioner of Customs, In- 
vestigations, Department of the Treasury 

Henry L. Giordano, Deputy Commissioner of Narcotics, 
Department of the Treasury 

John S. Hogbland, 2(i, Deputy Assistant Secretary of 
State for Congressional Relations, Department of State 

Robert F. Hale, Consul General, American Consulate Gen- 
eral, Tijuana, Mexico 

Melville E. Osborne, Officer in Charge, Mexican Affairs, 
Department of State 

Elwyn F. Chase, Jr., OlEce of International Economic and 
Social Affairs, Dejjartment of State 

U.S. Congressmen James Koosevelt and Joe 

Holt from the State of California attended 

and participated in the discussions held in 
Washinjrton. 



THE CONGRESS 



President Expresses Views 

on WorSd Court and Disarmament 

Following is an exchange of letters between 
Pi'esulent Eisenhotuer and Senator Hubert U. 
Humphrey which was made public by Senator 
Humphrey on November 27. 



PRESIDENT ESSENHOWER TO SENATOR 
HUMPHREY 

Augusta, Georgia 

November 17, 1959 

Dear Senator Humphrey : I write now in 
further reply to your letter of October 21, 1959. 

One of the great purposes of this Administra- 
tion has been to advance the rule of law in the 
woi'ld, through actions directly by the United 
States Government and in concert with the gov- 
ernments of other countries. It is open to us to 
further this great purpose both through optimum 
use of existing international institutions and 
through the adoption of clianges and improve- 
ments in those institutions. 

Timely consideration by the United Nations 
of threatening situations, in Egypt in 195G, in 
I^ebanon in 1958, and in Laos in 1959, has made 
an important contribution to the preservation of 

128 



international peace and security. The continued 
development of mutual defense and security ar- 
rangements among the United States and a large 
nmnber of fre«-world countries lias i^rovided a 
powerful deterrent against international law- 
breaking. One cannot, however, be satisfied with 
the way events liave developed in some areas — 
for example, Hungary, and Tibet. The interna- 
tional community needs to find more effective 
means to cope with and to prevent such brutal 
uses of force. 

One of the principal efforts of the United 
States in the last lialf dozen years has been to 
devise effective means for controlling and re- 
ducing armaments. Success in this quest will 
bring greater security to all countries and lift 
the threat of devastating nuclear conflict. In 
order to make progress toward the goal of com- 
plete and general disarmament expressed in the 
United Nations resolution ^ recently sponsored by 
the United States and the other members of the 
General Assembly, this Government has followed 
the policy of seeking reliable international agi-ce- 
ments on manageable segments of the whole arms 
problem. I am hopeful that the current Geneva 
negotiations on discontinuance of nuclear weap- 
ons tests will produce agreement." A resulting 
treaty would, of course, be submitted to the 
Senate. 

Next 3'ear tlie United States will be partici- 
pating in further disarmament efforts to be under- 
taken by a group of ten nations which will, as 
appropriate, report on its progress to the United 
Nations Disannament Commission and General 
Assembly.^ The best and most carefuU}' elabo- 
rated disarmament agreements are likely to carry 
witli them some risks, at least theoretically, of 
evasion. But one must ponder, in reaching deci- 
sions on the very complex and difficult subject of 
arms control, the enormous risks entailed if rea- 
sonable steps are not taken to curb tlie inter- 
natioinil competition in armaments and to move 
effectively in the direction of disarmament. 

As you know from my message to the Congress 
on the State of the Union in January 1959,* and 



'- For text, sec BfixETlN of Nov. li;5, r.)."!>, p. 706. 
2 For a stTtement by the chairman of the U.S. delega- 
tion, see ihiil., Jan. 18, lOtiO, p. 79. 
' For background, see ibid., Jan. 11, 1900, p. 45. 
' 76irf., Jan. 20, 1959, p. 115. I 

Departmeni of State Bulletin 



from expi-essions by tlie Vice President," the Sec- 
retao' of State," aiul tlio Attonioy Cu'iieral/ tlie 
Adiuinistration is anxious to contributo to the 
jrreater effectiveni-ss of tlie International Court 
of Justice. The Administration supports elinii- 
inition of tiic automatic ivsorvation to the Court's 
jurisdiction by wliich the United States has re- 
served to itself the rif,'li( to determine unilater- 
ally whether a subject of litigation lies essentially 
within domestic jurisdiction. I intend, therefore, 
on an appropriate occasion, to re-state to the Con- 
1,'i-ess my ."support for the elimination of this reser- 
vation. Eliminat ion of this automatic reservation 
from our own declaration accepting compulsory 
jurisdiction would place the United States in a 
better position to urge other countries to agree to 
wider jurisdiction of the International Court of 
Justice. 

I appreciate having your views on this vitally 
important subject. 
Sincei-ely, 

DwiOHT D. Eisenhower 
The Honorable Hubert H. Humphrey 

United States Senate 
Wajihinffton, D.C. 



SENATOR HUMPHREY TO PRESIDENT 
EISENHOWER 

OCTOBEB 21, 1959 

'ITie President 
The White House 
Washington, D.C. 

Vr.AK Mr. Phesident : In your State of the Union Mes- 
sage on January 9, 1959, you declared it to be your pur- 
pose to Intensify our eflforts to the end tliat the rule of 
law may replace the obsolete rule of force in the affairs 
of nations. In particular, you advised the Congress to 
expect a more specific proposal from you, dealing with 
the problem of our relation.ship to the International Court 
of Justice. Subsequently, the Vice President and the 
Attorney General have delivered important addresses 
citing your concern with this problem. 

Along with many other members of Congress in both 
parties, I was delighted to note this emphasis on a pro- 
gram of strengthening the Court. An American initiative 

'Ibid., May 4, 1959, p. 622. 
' Ibid., Feb. 2.3, 1959, p. 255. 
'Ibid., Sept. 14, 1959, p. 379. 



a....g this line would, I Un.,w, he welcon.e throughout the 

In seIe<tlnK for first attention the problem of the Amerl- 
can relationship to the Court Itself, you have I believe 
mule a wise Judgn.ent. In parth^ular, the reservation 

lies':';:: r "V" ■■"'"" '" '"•"•"'"- -'-'"- ■• <-" 

es uithin our domestic jurisdiction, should be eliminated 
as .-soon as possible. Since reservations of any parly 
au,o.,„uica..y accrue to its adversary, this r JrvSn 
probably will be used against our interest, more 
frciuontly than it is used in our behalf 

voulr'"/',"" '° '"•'• '"■• '''■"•''""'"^' ''•"^ '•'« initiatives 
. u have taken toward the establishn.ent of an inter- 
national rule of law are n.ost welcome. Thev have my 
Wholehearted support, and, I am confident, the-suH ort^ 
most members of the Congress. 

Senate Kesolution W supports your position in this 
matter. Tlie State Department has advised the Foreign 
Rela lons Committee that it is in agreement with this 
Kesolution. There is considerable support among mem- 
bers of the Foreign Relations Committee for this step 
toward greater participation in the Court, but there is a 
general feeling, which I share, that since vou have 
indicated a desire to speak further on this subject, final 
action should he held in abeyance rK>nding your message 
I regret very much that the first session of the present 
Congress has adjourned without receiving your message 
on this important subject. 

I respectfully urge you to give this further considera- 
tion I hope that you will, either in your ne.xt State 
of the Union message or in a special communication 
advise us of the broad policies which guide the United 
States Government in its efforts to establish a rule of 
law in the world, and also describe the specific measures 
which Congress .should pass to aid in accomplishing this 
general purpose. Since Senate Resolution 94 is now 
widely understood and has been fully discussed in the 
press, and since the withdrawal of the self-judgement 
a.spect of the domestic jurisdiction reservation is an 
obvious first step, I hope your mes.sage will contain a 
plea for the early passage of Senate Resolution 94. 

The enunciation of general principles of long range 
foreign policy are most useful. The public acceptance of 
these broad principles will be bolstered by concrete pro- 
posals. It is with this in mind that I have Introduced 
Senate Resolution 94, which Is admittedly only a very 
small step toward the greater common goal which we 
share. With your support I am confident that the Senate 
will accept this measure, and we will then be able to look 
toward the further establishment of what our late Sec- 
retary of State, John Foster Dulles, called "institutions of 
peace." 

Advocacy of measures looking toward the establishment 
of a just and lasting peace has always been urgent. It is 



January 25, 1960 



'S. Res. 04 calls for U.S. renunciations of the right to 
declare an International legal dispute as "essentially 
domestic" and for acceptance of World Court jurisdiction 
In such disputes regarding intcn.retation of treaties, any 
que,stlons of international law, breaches of international 
obligation, and reparations. 



129 



particularly urgent now, after the recent visit of the 
Soviet Chairman, to make it doubly clear to the entire 
world that, while we shall strive mightily for a peaceful 
resolution of Soviet-U.S. differences, our goal has not 
shifted toward a two-power world ; rather we continue to 
look resolutely toward an international system in which 
the rights of all nations will be respected, regardless of 
size or military power. 

An American expression of confidence in the Court at 
this time, would be of tremendous value and I hope you 
will find an early occasion to express your personal sup- 
port of legislation to make our American membership in 
the Court what it should be. 
Respectfully yours, 

Hubert H. Humphrey 



Secretary Sends Report to Congress 
on East-West Center in Hawaii 

Folloioing is the text of a letter jrom Secretary 
Herter transmitting to the Congress a repor't on 
"^1 Plan for the Establishment in Hawaii of a 
Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange 
Bettveen East and West,'''' ^ together toith the text 
of chapter 6, "Summary of Proposals and 
Estimatesy 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

December 31, 1959 

Dear Mr. Vice President : ^ I transmit liere- 
witli, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter VI 
of the Mutual Security Act of 1959, a Eeport de- 
scribing a Plan and Program for tlie Establisli- 
ment and Operation in Hawaii of a Center for 
Cultural and Teclinical Interchange Between East 
and West. 

Tlie report presents botli the role which such a 
Center coukl liave in relations between the United 
States and the nations of Asia and the Pacific and 
the problems and needs involved in its establish- 
ment. Attention is called esiaecially to the prob- 
lem of Federal assistance, as described on Pages 
11 and 18. 

It is not considered that funds available under 
the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, may 



' A limited number of copies of the report are available 
u|)on request from the Office of Public Services, Depart- 
ment of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

* An Identical letter, with a copy of the report, was sent 
to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

130 



be used for construction and operating costs of the 
Center. 
With warmest personal regards. 
Most sincerely, 

Christian A. Herter 

Enclosures : Report entitled "A Plan for the Establishment In 
Hawaii of a Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange Be- 
tween East and West", dated December 30, 1959. 

The Vice President 
United States Senate. 

SUMMARY OF PROPOSALS AND ESTIMATES 

An International Center, as proposed, concen- 
trating on Asian and Pacific affairs and estab- 
lished in connection with the University of 
Hawaii could make a valuable contribution to the 
programs of the United States for the promotion 
of international educational, cultural, and related 
activities. 

1. In keeping with the views of the Hawaiian 
Community Advisoi-y Coimnittee, it should con- 
sist of two principal units, to be maintained, 
staffed, and operated by the Univereity. Tltese 
imits would consist of (1) an International Col- 
lege offering academic progi-ams and related 
sei-vices and (2) an International Training Cen- 
ter providing facilities for on-the-job, in-sei'vice, 
or field training. The principal officers of the 
Center would be the Director, the Dean of the 
International College, and the Director of the 
Traming Center. The Director of the Interna- 
tional Center would report directly to the Presi- 
dent of the University. 

2. To initiate a program for such a Center 
would require the provision as soon as possible 
of adequate housing and related facilities; its 
expansion would have to be commensurate with 
the growth of such facilities. 

3. During the first three yeare, scholarships for 
students from Asian and Pacific areas as well as 
for tliose of the United States should be pro- 
vided, and also grants for outstanding scholars, 
scientists, and other specialists and men of leader- 
ship in order to strengthen the program of the 
Center and demonstrate its potentialities. 

4. The facilities, services, and resources of the 
Center should be made available at reasonable 
cost to all ([ualilied students, scholai-s, agencies, 
and institutions interested in participating in its 
I)rograms. 

Department of State Bulletin 



5. Appropriate advisoiy coniniittees should be 
establislied to assure adequate liaison and policy 
and ])ro<rrani jjuidance fn)ni tlio viewpoint of 
tlie participating or sponsoring agencies and 
institutions. 

6. To earn- out such a Plan would require spe- 
cial financial support, tliat is, supjiort. from 
sources other than and in addition to the Govern- 
ment and XTniversity of Hawaii. 

7. Such spwial iinancial support, it is esti- 
mated, would amotuit to $8,300,000. This would 
be distributed as follows: («) a contribution to 
initial building costs; and during the first three 
years: (b) contributions toward operational 
expenses, (c) scholai-ships for 225 Asian and 
Pacific students and 75 American students, (d) 
grants to outstanding Asian, Pacific, and Ameri- 
can scholars and other leaders, and (e) advisory 
sernces. (For detailed figures, see Appendix 7.) ' 

8. Regarding the possibility of special fuiancial 
support from the Federal Government, no spe- 
cific provision has been made for these needs in 
the budget for 1961. Tlie Plan for the Center 
as it materializes can be called to the attention 
of agencies of the Government planning programs 
which might make use of available facilities. 
Some support for the Center might be possible 
also to the extent that it could be derived from 
grants available imder progi-ams authorized by 
general legislation. Thus, the University might 
further explore the possibilities of obtaining 
assistance for the necessai-y building under the 
loan program of the Housing and Home Finance 
Agency or under programs of assistance to educa- 
tional institutions, like those currently proposed 
in H.R. 4267 or S. 1017, 86th Congress, First 
Session, 1959. For scholarships, fellowships, and 
other similar payments to or for students and 
other individuals, gi'ants could be sovtglit mider 
the regular progi-ams for whicli the Congress 
appropriates funds as authorized by the U.S. 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 
19-18, as amended ; Title III of Chapter II of the 
Mutual Security Act of 1954; the National 
Defense Education Act; and other Acts cited spe- 
cifically or in general terms in the legislation 
which has authorized this Report. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 
AND CONFERENCES 



The Task of Peaceful Cooperation 

Remarks by George N. iShuster ' 

Mr. Chairman, having listened with great in- 
terest to the resolution ^ presented by the distin- 
guished delegate from the Soviet Union fN. M. 
Sissakian] and also to lus remarks, I feel it 
incumbent upon me to make a statement somewhat 
more lengthy than would otherwise be the case. ' I 
should like to begin by recalling UNESCO's first 
meeting in this city, when a truly great man, whose 
life has been given to the cause of peace and upon 
whose body then lay a weariness bom of duress 
in concentration camps, rose to express the hopes 
which were in all our hearts at that time, namely, 
that our joint victory would usher in freedom and 
a decent measure of human understanding. That 
man was Leon Blum, and I should like to dedicate 
to the memory of this son of France what I shall 
now say. My comment will be, of necessity, in a 
measure a response to my colleague of the Soviet 
Union but will also be, I fondly ti-ust, something 
more than that. 

Certainly no men desired more ardently peace- 
ful and fruitful relations with the people of Rus- 
sia than did Americans of my generation. "We 
had been reared and we lived in the spirit of 
Tolstoy and Dostoevski, the two greatest masters 
of the human mind of their age and still among 
the oracles of our own. They seem to me far 
more important than sputniks and fleets of jet 
planes. How could anyone doubt that a people 
from which such men arose is a miglity i)eoiile fed 
by the springs of both East and West? Why 



' Not printwl here. 



' Made on Dec. 2 before the ."iSth meeting of the Execu- 
tive Board of the United Nations Kducational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, which met at Paris Nov. 24- 
Dec. 4. Dr. Shuster, who is president of Hunter Col- 
lege, was chairman of the U.S. delegation. 

"UNESCO doc. 55 EX/DR.l/Rev. The Soviet resolu- 
tion called for ( 1 ) a study of the needs of underdeveloped 
countries in the fields of e<lucation, .science, and culture 
and (2) "a radical improvement of UNESCO's activities 
for consolidating peace and implementing the principles 
of peaceful ct>-existence." 



January 25, I960 



131 



should we not ulways have himented the b:irriei-s 
which, during a long and evil time, made the 
Volga and Neva alien streams for us? It is, in 
retrospect, unfortunate that the Soviet Union was 
not present at the e^irlier conference of UNESCO, 
despite earnest and repeated requests from the 
Government of the United States. I note with 
very great satisfaction that there has been a 
change of climate, and I wish to take full cogni- 
zance of this before proceeding to be rather critical 
of the resolution wliich Professor Sissakian has 
introduced. 

Problem of Illiteracy and Poverty 

Tliere are in this resolution, in the main, three 
considerations. The first is this: We are asked 
to assume that, as a result of disarmament, pro- 
fusely large sums of money will be made available 
to relieve illiteracy and poverty tlirougliout the 
world. God knows that no one could be more in 
favor of that possibility than we are, but I would 
say in all candor that we already know what 
these needs are. One of my colleagues, Professor 
Paulo Carneii-o, for example, has informed us 
that not less than $100 million a year for 10 years 
would be i-equired to solve the problem of illit- 
eracy in Latin America. There exist, at the 
United Nations and at all our own American 
agencies, documents galore which reflect the 
need — the dire, desi>erate need — of millions of 
people, to whom Chesterton refers, "thronging 
like the thousands up from under the sea." 

Our problem is not now to ask UNESCO what 
are the dimensions of illiteracy and poverty in the 
world. Our problem is first of all to say, "What 
can we now do in order to alleviate these difficul- 
ties?" And I can only tell you that (and I think 
here again I will revert to what Professor Car- 
neiro said) there are not merely people in my 
country but in all the countries of the world who 
are giving of their substance daily to relieve this 
distress. He referi-ed to the action taken by tlie 
bishops of the West German Federal Kepublic. 
We know of .so many more — I will not take up 
your time enumei-ating them — but I merely want 
to make one illustration. Heaven knows that the 
people of Greece are poor enough, but not long 
ago we recx^ivcd from two villages in that coimtry 
a donation which wa,s sent to an American organi- 
zation in the hope of improving the lot of school- 
children in India. 



I want now, if I may, to say this about 
UNESCO and its work. Sometimes we think 
that there is nothing very glamorous about 
UNESCO. Tlus may be true. It does not con- 
cern itself with traumatic and dramatic experi- 
ences but with the daily, nourishing, creative work 
of the human mind. Therefore I would say that 
we should be grateful for the fact that we have 
come so far. 

The other evening, after a long series of meet- 
ings, I sat for a while reading the excellent study 
which our colleague, Mr. Gardner Davies, has 
devoted to the French poet Mallanne, and my eye 
lighted on that poet's line: Toute notre native 
amitie monotone. This amicableness, this ainitie, 
that we feel is native to the human spirit. It may 
be a bit monotonous at times. I. for my part, am 
not at all satisfied with what UNESCO now is. 
I want to see it have, in the major lines of its 
effort, much more imagination, much more power, 
much more money, and I am grateful for the fact 
that the men who are guiding its destiny share 
these views with me. I see no occasion at the 
present time for turning aside from the efforts to 
which we are devoted in order to prepare a totally 
different outlook for the Organization. 

Principle of Peaceful Cooperation 

Now I shall come to the other two proposals in 
Professor Sissakian's resolution, about which I 
shall be even more critical, regretfidly enough. 
The first has to do with what he calls peaceful 
coexistence. Now "peacefid coexistence" is one 
term. We have pi-eferred another term, which is 
"peaceful cooperation." The difhculty is that 
"peaceful coexistence" ha,s a history. It has a 
history which from our point of view is not too 
glamorous, and I want, for mj- part., to be certain 
that there has been a close in one section of the 
book of the past and that from tliis time forw aid 
the words "peaceful coexistence" will moan some- 
thing else. T shall be explicit. There is a pro- 
posal in this resolution that we establish a 
conference to bo held on the basis of parity be- 
tween East and West. Now what in essence does 
this resolution seem to us to mean? It appears 
to us, and my country, to mean what we have 
often confronted in the United Nations, namely, 
a proposition that there bo set up a kind of parity 
between the United States and Eussia as a basis 
for a sort of summit mooting in wliich wo can 



132 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



I 



formulate a doctrine we might be able to sell to 
or, if necessary, to impose upon the Organization. 

Our concept, nuMuboi-s of (ho I?oard, of peaceful 
cooperation is a totally dill'erent one. AVe ilon"t 
want any UNESCO sununit conference. We ai-e 
deeply connnitted to the principle of the family 
of nations. We know that this family looks upon 
us often as the eldest child, who has inherited all 
the money and who is a little stingy about giving 
it away. We also know that members of the fam- 
ily sometimes are a bit exigent and expect of us 
things tliat we cannot supply. Nevertheless I 
wish, this afternoon, to reaflirm our faith in the 
family of nations and to tell you that what we 
mean by cooperation is this: that never will we 
consent to any kind of international intellectual 
organization in which the smallest one amongst 
us d(x>s not have equal rights to share in the dis- 
cussion and to arrive at the conclusions. It is for 
this reason, primarily, that we do not favor any 
kind of meeting under the auspices of UNESCO 
which is based on a principle of parity. 

There is another reason. From our point of 
view the United States is not a capitalistic coim- 
tr}'. We liave in our opinion long ceased to be one, 
and for my part, if I may say so, I tliink that Karl 
Marx would have great difficulty m recognizing 
the Soviet Union as a socialist country of the sort 
he had in mind. If I speak now of a parity of 
socialist and capitalist countries, I am not merely 
l)eing semantic but I am pointing out tliat just as 
there has been an inevitable trend in the whole 
field of disannament there has been an equally 
inevitable trend in the field of sociological and 
economic develoi^ment. Therefoi-e, I say, why not 
accept our principle of peaceful cooperation, which 
means in essence, that we will redcdicate ourselves 
to the problems of f ree<lom, of literacy, of emanci- 
pation from poverty insofar as education can make 
this possible and exjiend additional effort in de- 
veloping brilliantly the ways in which we can at- 
tack these situations. 

Sources of War Propaganda and Preparations 

And now, finally, I want to revert to the last 
part of the proposal about which Professor Sis- 
.sakian will pardon me if I say that I have some 
very serious i-escrvations. This is the jiassage in 
his document which refere to the fact that we have 
to fight against preparations for and propaganda 
for another war. This also has a long and serious 
history. 

January 25, I960 



For the past 10 yeare my country has been cast, 
and not by itself, in tiie role of the originator of 
this kind of pro[)iiganda. There have been dozens 
of international conferences which wo have not 
attended in which every resolution that w^as pas.sed 
called attention to the fact that from somewliero 
between AViishington and New York there ema- 
nated a constant stream of declarations hostile to 
the cause of peace. Now I want to be sure, Ix'fore 
I dedicate UNESCO to anything like this, that it, 
in turn, is not to participate in a conference of 
this character, tliat when wo talk seriously, man 
to man, about propaganda for warfare and prepa- 
ration for war, we will look present international 
situations squarely in the eye. "WHiere is propa- 
ganda for war being made ? Wliere is activity for 
the promotion of military effort taking place? If 
the proposal is to look honestly at the current 
sources of propaganda and of military prepara- 
tion, I can assure Professor Sissakian that I will 
be present for that conference. 

This then, I think, more or less summarizes my 
point of view. I have, however, a rex:ommendat ion 
to make. This I am going to introduce with a 
quotation from Abraham Lincoln. Tliis is the 
greatest testament of my country: "With malice 
toward none, with charity for all, with firmness 
in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us 
strive on to finish the work we are in." I agree 
that this work is the building of a peace for which 
all the peoples of the world ardently long and of 
which they constantly dream, and I am going to 
suggest that between now and the next General 
Conference the distinguished delegate from the 
Soviet Union and I, severally in our ways, draw 
up for consideration at the next General Confer- 
ence a bill of particulars of what he would liave 
UNESCO do in terms of the principle of peaceful 
coexistence and what I would have UNESCO do 
in tei-ms of peacef lU cooperation. 

We will go home to our several countries. He 
can consult his great leader, and I will consult 
mine. We will not compare notes and perhaps no 
one could hope this more deeply than do I. And 
I repeat what I said at the outset: As I talk this 
afternoon I think of I>eon Blum, and as I talk this 
afternoon I think of what I owe pei-sonally, and 
will owe eve 17 day of my life, to tlie inspiration of 
the great masters of Russian literature. I pro- 
foundly hope that, when we come back with the 
two lists of proposals which I have suggested this 

133 



afternoon, there will bo so much agi-eement be- 
tween us that UNESCO can then proceed to say, 
"At last we have opened an era in wliich a genuine 
mejisure of cooperation and friendship is possible." 
I shall even confess to Professor Sissakian that, 
being the kind of man I am, I shall go back to my 
homeland and pray daily that liis list may be in- 
spired with even greater wisdom than my own. It 
is in this spirit that I would like to conclude the 
remarks I wish to make on his resolution. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Finance 

Agreement establishing the luter-Ameriean Development 
Bank, with annexes. Done at Washington April 8, 

Signed and acceptances deposited: Colombia, December 
21, 1950; Ecuador, December 22, 10.59; El Salvador, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, December 20, 
1959; Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru, 
December 30, 1059. 

Entered into force: Dec-ember 30, 1959. 

Sugar 

Internati(mal sugar agreement of 1958. Done at London 
December 1, 1958. Entered into force provisionally 
January 1, 1959 ; definitively for the United States Octo- 
ber 9, 1959. 

Proclaimed Ijy the President: December 31, 10.59. 
Ratifications and acceptances deposited: Costa Rica, 
June 23, 1059; Cuba (with reservation), June 15, 
19.59; Dominican Republic, June 3, 1959; Indonesia, 
November fi, 19.50 : Irel.ind, June 5, 19.50. 

Telecommunication 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed 
to the international telecommunication convention of 
December 22, 10.52 (TIAS 3266), with appendixes and 
final |)rotocol. D(me at Geneva November 29, 19.58. 
Proclaimed hy the President: December 30, 1059. 
Entered into force: January 1, 1960. 

Trade and Commerce 

Seventli iircitdcol of rcctificalions and nioditications to 
texts of tlic schedules to the (General .\greement <m 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Genevii November 30, 1957.' 
Signature: Peru, I)ecend)er4, 19.59. 

Declaration on relations lietween contracting parties to 
the (Jeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the 
Government of the Federal People's Keimblic of Yugo- 
slavia. Done at (Jeneva May 25, 10.59. Entered into 
force November 16, 1950 ; for the United States, No- 
vember 19, 19.59. 



Signatures: Yugoslavia, May 25, 1959; France, May 30, 
1959; Finland, June 18, 19.59; Italy, July 7. 1959; 
Greece, July 9, 1950 ; Norway, July 14, 1959 ; Turkey, 
July 21, 1950 ; New Zealand, August 4, 1959 ; Belgium 
(subject to ratification), August 20, 1959; India and 
Indonesia, September 1, 1950 ; Ghana, September 9, 
1059 ; Austria, September 22, 1950 ; Luxembourg, Oc- 
tober 12, 1959; Netherlands and United Kingdom 
(but not in respect of the Protected State of Brunei)^ 
October 10, 1959 ; Denmark, October 26, 1959 ; Czecho- 
slovakia, Israel, and Sweden, October 29, 1959; Cey- 
lon, October 31, 1959 ; Canada and Chile, November 6, 
1959 ; Uruguay, November 9, 1959 ; Burma, November 
11, 1950 ; Peru, November 16, 1050 : Federation of 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, November 17, 1950 ; United 
States, November 10, 1050. 

Ratification deposited: Belgium, September 16, 1059. 
Declaration on the provisional accession of Israel to the 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 

Geneva May 29, 1959. Entered into force October 9, 

1959 ; for the United States December 19, 19.59. 

Signatures: Israel (subject to ratification). May 29, 
1959; Greece, July 9, 19.59; Norway, July 14, 10.59; 
Turkey, August 6, 1950; Ghana, September 9, 1950; 
Austria (subject to ratification) and New Zealand, 
September 22, 10.50; Belgium (subject to ratification) 
and Finland, October 6, 1950 ; France, October 0, 1959 ; 
Netherlands and United Kingdom ( but not in respect 
of the Protected States of Abu Dhabi, Ajiuan, Bahrain, 
Brunei,^ Dubai, Fujairah, Kuwait, Qatar, Ras al 
Khaimah, Sharjah, and Ummal Quaiwan), October 19, 
1050 : Svveilen, October 20, 1959 ; Nicaragua, October 
30, 1059 ; Ceylon, October 31, 1959 ; Canada and Den- 
mark, November 6, 19.59: Uruguay, November 0, 1059; 
Burma, November 11, 1959 ; Peru, November 16, 1959 ; 
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and Union 
of South Africa, November 17, 1950 ; United States, 
November 19, 10.50; It^ily, December 7, 1959. 

Ratification deposited: Israel, September 9, 1959. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1059, with annex. 
Opened for signature at Washington April 6 through 
24, 1950. Eutere<l into force July 16, 10.59, for part I 
and parts III to VIII, and August 1, 1959, for part II. 
TIAS 4.302. 
Acceptance deposited: Mexico, December 30, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

Netherlands 

Agreement further extending the agreement of Augu.st 6 
and 16. 1956, as extended (TIAS 36.50 and 3896), relating 
to the establishment and oiieration of rawiusonde obser- 
vation stations in Curaqao and St. Martin. Effected by 
exchange of notes at The Hague July 21 and October 
10, 105S. Entered into force Oetol)er 10, 105W. 

Switzerland 

Agreement replacing schedule I (Swiss) annexed to the 
reciprocal trade agreement of 1036 (49 Stat. 3917). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at A\'asliington December 
.".0, 1950. Entered into force January 1, 1960. 

Turkey 

Agreement further amending the agreement of November 
15, 19.54, as supplemented and amended (TI.VS 3179, 
3204, 3205, and .3414), for the exchange of connnodities 
and s;ile of grain, with annex. Efliected by exchange of 
notes at .Vnkara December 10, 1959. Entered into force 
December 10, 1050. 



'Not in force. 
134 



^Notification d;ited November 27, 10.50, accepts declara- 
tion in respect of I'rotected State of Brunei. 

Department of State Bulletin 



January 25, 1960 



Index 



Vol. XI.II, No. 1074 



Agriculture. Thp State of the Union { Kiseu- 
howcr) Ill 

American Republics. President Eisenhower To 
Visit South America 119 

Aviation. United States and Netherlands Hold 
Civil A%lati<)n Consultation (text of joint state- 
ment) 120 

Canada 

Canadian-United States Co<ilX'ration for Peace 

(Wigglesworth) 121 

IJC Reports on Development of Columbia River 
Basin 12C 

Communism. The State of the Union (Elsen- 
hower) Ill 

Congress, The 

President Expresses Views on World Court and Dis- 
armament (Eisenhower, Humphrey) 128 

Secretary Sends Report to Congress on East-West 
Center in Hawaii (Herter) 130 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) Ill 

Cultural Exchange. Secretary Sends Report to 
Congress on East-West Center in Hawaii 
(Herter) 130 

Disarmament. President Expresses Views on 
World Court and Disarmament (Elsenhower, 
Humphrey) 128 

Economic Affairs 

Canadian-United States Cooperation for Peace 

(Wigglesworth) 121 

IJC Reports on Development of Columbia River 
Basin 126 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) Ill 

France. President de Gaulle To Visit U.S ... 120 

International Law 

President Kxpres.ses Views on World Court and Dis- 
armament (Eisenhower, Humphrey) 128 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) Ill 

U.S. and Mexican Officials Discuss Control of Ille- 
gal Drug Traffic (text of cnmnuniique) .... 127 

International Organizations and Conferences. The 

Task of Peaceful Cooperation (Shuster) . . . 131 

Mexico. U.S. and Mexican Officials Discuss Con- 
trol of Illegal Drug Traffic (test of commu- 
nique) 127 

Military Affairs 

Canadian-United States Cooperation for Peace 

(Wigglesworth) 121 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) Ill 



Netherlands. United States and Netherlands Hold 
Civil Aviation Consultatlcm (text of joint state- 
ii'ent) 120 

Presidential Documents 

President Expresses Views on World Court and 
Disarmament 128 

The State of the Union ill 

United States and Soviet Union Exchange New 
Year Greetings lit) 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 134 

United States and Netherlands Hold Civil .\viati(m 

Con.sultati<)n (text of joint statement) .... 120 

U.S.S.R. United States and Soviet Union Exchange 
New Tear Greetings (Eisenhower, Khrushchev, 
Voroshilov) nfl 

Name Index 

De Gaulle, Charles 120 

Eisenhower, President Ill, 119, 128 

Herter, Secretary 130 

Humphrey, Hubert H 129 

Khrushchev, Nikita S 119 

Shuster, George N 131 

Voroshilov, Klimeut E 119 

Wigglesworth, Richard B 121 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 4-10 

Press releases may be ol)tained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Release issued prior to Januai-y 4, which appears 
in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 885 of December 
30. 

No. Date Subject 

tl 1/5 Consulate general at Canieroun elevated 
to embassy (rewrite). 

2 1/5 U.S.-Mexico communique on narcotics 

control. 

3 1/6 U.S.-Netherlands civil aviation talks. 

t4 1/8 Delegate to ECE Steel Committee 

(rewrite). 
t5 1/9 Dillon: departure for Paris economic 

talks. 



t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 











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Two new Background pamphlets on important areas . . . 

THE SUBCONTINENT OF SOUTH ASIA 

Afghanistan • Ceylon • India • Nepal • Pakistan 

Lying on the edge of the free world, touched by the power of 
Communist Central Asia, the subcontinent of South Asia today has 
a cnicial role in world affairs. The characteristics and problems of 
the subcontinent generally and the five sovereign nations in it are 
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SOUTHEAST ASIA 

Area of Challenge, Change, and Progress 

From the isolation imposed by geography and a colonial pattern 
of control, most of the lands and peoples of Southeast Asia have re- 
cently been thrust into the midst of international politics mainly as 
a result of national movements which led them to independence. Tliis 
15-page illustrated pamphlet discusses the problems of this sudden 
transformation, and contains background information on the geogra- 
phy, people-s, and economic situation of the area. Brief descriptions 
are included of the individual countries of Southeast Asia — Burma, 
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaya, the Philippines, Thailand, and 
Viet-Nam. 



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d fe 




Vol. XLII, No. 1075 February 1, I960 

UNITED STATES PARTICIPATES IN ECONOMIC 

TALKS AT PARIS • Statements 6v Under Secretary 
Dillon and Texts of Resolutions 139 

PRESIDENT'S VISIT TO SOVIET UNION SET FOR 

JUNE 10-19 147 

OPERATION OF THE MUTUAL SECURITY PRO- 
GRAM, JANUARY 1-JUNE 30, 1959 • Excerpts 
From 16th Semiannual Report to Congress 159 

GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF ASIA: SOUTH AND 

EAST • Article licith maps) by G. Etzel Pearcy .... 148 



ITED STATEJ 
IGN POLICY 



i 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTIVIENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 1 1960 



DEPOSITORY 



Vol. XLII, No. 1075 • Pdblication 6935 
February 1, 1960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 26, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 28 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1968). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained hereto may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Buhetin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Got^ernment tcith information on de- 
velopments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions and on the work of the Depart- 
men t of State and the Foreign Service, 
The BULLETIN includes selected press 
releases on foreign policy, issued by 
the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made 
by the President and by the Secretary 
of State and other officers of the De- 
partment, as well as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
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Information is included concerning 
treaties and international agreements 
to which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of general 
international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
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United States Participates in Economic Talks at Paris 



Under Secretary Douglas Dillon left Washing- 
ton for Paris on January 10 to represent the 
United States at a meeting of a Special Economic 
Committee on January 12 and 13^ a meeting of the 
20 governments which are members or associates 
of the Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation on January IJt^ and a ministerial 
meeting of the OEEC Council., also on Janu- 
ary 14.. Following is a series of statements made 
by Mr. Dillon, together with the texts of three 
resolutions adopted by tlie Special Economic Com- 
mittee on January 13 and subsequently by the 20 
member countries and associates of the OEEC on 
January H. 



DEPARTURE STATEMENT, WASHINGTON, JAN- 
UARY 10 

Press release 5 dated January 9 

My trip to Paris has two purposes : 

On Jaiiuai-y 12 and 13 I will attend a meeting 
of representatives of a number of governments 
and the European Economic Commiasion. This 
meeting was called in accordance with an under- 
standing reached by President Eisenhower, Presi- 
dent de Gaulle, Prime Minister Macmillan, and 
Chancellor Adenauer at their conference in Paris 
on December 21.^ 

On Januai-y 14 I will represent the United 
States at the ministerial meeting of the Council 
of the OEEC. 

It will be our purpose on January 12 and 13 
to consider the need for and possible methods of 
continuing consultation on the important prob- 
lems of expanding liberal multilateral world 
trade and stimulating aid to the less developed 
countries of the free world. These are complex 
and difficult problems. We do not expect to solve 
them during the course of the next week, nor do 



we plan to make decisions aflfecting other coun- 
tries without full consultation with them. But 
it is my hope that we will be able to decide upon 
practical steps which might be taken to devise 
tlie means most suitable for close consultation on 
these subjects. 

The OEEC Coimcil and the Executive Secre- 
tary of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade will be fully informed of the discussions 
held on January 12 and 13. 

Since the end of the Second World War the 
free nations of the world have made tremendous 
progress in devising entirely new concepts and 
new means of cooperation with each other. I 
am confident that the spirit of cooperation wliich 
has made possible the accomplishments of the past 
will serve us equally well in dealing with the 
challenges of the future. 



' The governments and organizations represented at the 
meeting on Jan. 12 and 13 were : 

Belgium Netherlands 

Canada Portugal 

Denmark Sweden 

France Switzerland 

Germany United Kingdom 

Greece United States 

Italy EEC Commission 

^The member countries of the OEEC and associates 
represented at the meeting on Jan. 14 were : 



Austria 


Netherlands 


Belgium 


Norway 


Denmark 


Portugal 


France 


Spain 


Germany 


Sweden 


Greece 


Switzerland 


Iceland 


Turkey 


Ireland 


United Kingdom 


Italy 


Canada (associate) 


Luxembourg 


United States (associate) 


' For text of a 


communique, see Bulletin of Jan. 11, 


lOCO, p. 43. 





February I, 7960 



139 



ARRIVAL STATEMENT, PARIS, JANUARY 11 

During my last visit to Europe in early Decem- 
ber,* I had a most welcome opportimity to dis- 
cuss infoi-mally with a number of my European 
friends and colleagues matters relating to certain 
trade problenas and the challenge facing the in- 
dustrialized nations of the free world to assist 
the less developed countries. 

Since then, President Eisenliower, President de 
Gaulle, Prime Minister Macmillan, and Chancel- 
lor Adenauer have proposed an infonnal meeting 
to consider the need and possible methods for con- 
tinumg close consultation on these problems. I 
look forward to representing the United States at 
that meeting, which has been called for January 
12 and 13. 

Immediately thereafter, on Januaiy 14, I will 
also represent the United States at the ministerial 
meeting of the OEEC Council. This will provide 
an opportunity for the participants in the Jan- 
uary 12-13 meeting to inform the entire OEEC of 
their discussions. 

It seems to me that we now face two tasks. The 
first is to consider immediate steps to have early 
informal consultations on the trade pi"oblems I 
have spoken of and also on development assist- 
ance. Our second task is to consider a long-range 
plan for continuing international consultations 
in the future. 

We now seek constructive solutions to new 
challenges facing us today. As we do so, I am 
confident that the same spirit of cooperation 
which has made possible the extraordinary eco- 
nomic progress of the 1950's will serve us equally 
in the decade ahead. 



SPECIAL ECONOMIC COMMITTEE, PARIS, JAN- 
UARY 12 

Press release 13 dated January 14 

I wish to thank you, ]\Ir. Chairman, and the 
members of the Special Economic Committee for 
this opportunity to present the views of the United 
States regarding the major tasks to which my 
Government hopes this Committee will address 



itself in the limited time at its disposal today 
and tomorrow. 

I will begin by discussing the background of the 
conuuunique which was issued on December 21 
following the close of the recent Western summit 
meeting and from which we draw our terms of 
reference. Then I would like to lay before the 
Committee for its consideration certain proce- 
dural suggestions for future work. 

There is no need for me to repeat the text of 
the commimique of December 21. The essence of 
it is that we are invited to consider procedures 
designed to insure that three important economic 
questions will be given prompt and serious inter- 
national attention. 

The first of these questions relates to the com- 
mercial policies of the members of the European 
Economic Community [EEC] and of the proposed 
European Free Trade Association [EFTA] ^ 
with respect to trade with other countries, includ- 
ing their trade with each other. 

The second is that of enlarging the flow of 
development capital from the industrialized free 
world to the less developed areas. 

The third is the problem of finding the best 
mechanism for continuing international consulta- 
tions on major economic problems, including the 
problem of development assistance. 

You are all of course aware that the conununique 
of December 21 was based upon a proposal put for- 
ward by the United States. This proposal of ours 
was fonnulated in the light of discussions in recent 
weeks between the Government of the United 
States and several European governments. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower had occasion to discuss certain of 
these matters during his recent trip, first in Rome 
and later in Paris. I also discussed them with the 
representatives of several governments and with 
the Commission of the European Economic Com- 
munity in the course of my recent visit to London, 
Brussels, Bonn, and Paris, as did Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Treasury [T. Graydon] ITpton on an 
earlier trip. 

As a result of these talks my Government came 
to the following conclusions. 



' Mr. Dillon w.is In Kviropo Dec. 7-14 ; for an announce- 
ment of his itinerary, see Bulletin of Dec. 14, 1959, 
p. 862. 



' The KEC. sometimes calletl the "Inner Six," is com- 
posed of Helgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, 
and the Netherlands. The EFTA, sometimes called the 
"Outer Seven," is composed of Austria, Denmark, Norway, 
PortuRal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. 



140 



Deparlmeni of State Bulletin 



Question of European Trade 

Firet, we coiicUulcd tliat the trade problems now 
omorfiinji: in Western Europe presented certain 
il;iM<j:ei-s. On tile one liand was tiie danger (liat 
tliese trade problems could lead to political and 
economic frictions within Europe which might 
weaiaMi the coiiesion of the free world. On the 
other was the danger that, in an effort to solve the 
regional Euro])oan trade problem, mcasiu'es might 
l)e taken wliich could seriously impair the world- 
wide trading principles established in the General 
Agi-eemcnt on Tariffs and Trade. 

These dangei-s, political and economic, are not 
ones which the United States can safely ignore. 
To mention only the economic aspect, it is clear 
that the development of United States conuner- 
cial policy cannot be divorced from developments 
in such an important area of world trade as West- 
ern Europe. All would agree, I think, that the 
pursuit of a liberal commercial policy by the 
United States is essential to the functioning of 
an effective world trading system. United States 
commercial policy, however, is not fonned in a 
vacuum. It can be kept liberal only insofar as 
other major trading countries also pui-sue liberal 
policies. Viewing the matter in both its political 
and economic aspects, we believe that the Euro- 
pean trade question is an urgent one and requires 
the earliest possible attention. The history of 
this problem makes clear that there is no esisy 
solution readily at hand. It is likely therefore 
that this subject will require continuing consulta- 
tions. 

Question of Enlarged Development Assistance 

The second conclusion to which we came as a 
result of our talks was that there is great aware- 
ness in Western Europe of the increasing role 
which Europe is bound to play in the provision of 
development assistance to the newly developing 
areas of the free world and that tliere exists a 
desire for cooperation with the United States and 
other capital-exporting nations in this common 
endeavor which is so vital to the preservation of 
freedom. 

At the same time, many questions have been 
raised as to the best methods of mobilizing na- 
tional resources for development assistance and 
of bringing about a more effective exchange of 
1. views and experience among the capital-exporting 

February 1, 1960 



nations which iiave the capacity to provide these 
resources. 

Tlie problem of development assistance — like 
that of the trade proljlem to which 1 have re- 
fen-ed — is also one in which the United States 
lias a deep interest because of its substantial activi- 
ties in this field. We wish to work closely with 
Western Europe and Canada in an endeavor to 
jn-ovide tiie external development capital which 
tlie developing areas of tiie free world must have 
if their own efforts to achieve economic progress 
under conditions of freedom are to succeed. 

Question of Successor to OEEC 

The third conclusion to which I came as a result 
of our discussions was that there was need fiar 
improving the machineiy of international eco- 
nomic cooperation so as to create a better mecha- 
nism for dealing with major economic issues with 
a strengthened relationship between the United 
States and the other countries concerned. With 
this in view we felt that study sliould be given to 
revitalizing and broadening the work of the Or- 
ganization for European Economic Cooperation 
through the establislunent of a successor organiza- 
tion in which the United States could become a 
full member. 

The OEEC has succeeded outstandingly in its 
major tasks of furthering the recovery of West- 
ern Europe. Even though many of the tasks for 
which it was originally created have now been 
largely accomplished, the OEEC is continuing to 
do valuable work. The habits of cooperation 
which have been developed tlirough its efforts 
should be maintained and strengthened. For the 
new challenges which have emerged require the 
closest cooperation I\y all of us. For its part the 
United States is prepared to play a full and active 
part in such an effort. 

Looking to the years ahead we see two main 
economic objectives which will require continuing 
attention. Thase are (1) the objective of promot- 
ing the economic development of the less developed 
areas, through bilateral methods as well as 
through the multilateral institutions already exist- 
ing or about to be created; and (2) the objective 
of assuring stability and growth in the world 
economy. 

Ivct me make one thing clear. If, as a result of 
this week's meetings, a study is imdertaken of the 
methods of improving cooperation in the economic 



141 



field, we feel that such a study should not affect the 
good work presently under way in the OEEC. 
This should continue as at present. If, as a result 
of the proposed studies, it should later be deter- 
mined by the member countries of the OEEC that 
a successor organization would be desirable, then 
and only then would it be time to transform the 
operations of the OEEC so as to adapt them to 
the requirements of the successor organization. 

These, then, were the substantive conclusions 
which emerged from our consideration of current 
economic problems following our discussions with 
several European governments. 

Need for International Action on Economic Problems 

Tlie three economic questions which I have men- 
tioned — the question of European trade, the ques- 
tion of enlarged development assistance, and the 
question of a successor organization to the 
OEEC — are in many resjiects separate questions. 
Yet these three questions have one thing in com- 
mon, which is that there is no existing interna- 
tional institution through which they may be 
successfully attacked. 

The urgent question of European trade is not 
being discussed in the OEEC, partly for historical 
reasons with which all of the members of this 
Committee are familiar. Nor, because of aspects 
which go beyond the realm of commercial policy, 
can it be discussed effectively in the large forum 
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
In our judgment this question can only be ad- 
dressed with any prospect of progress in a limited 
but representative group such as this Committee. 

The question of coordination of broad national 
policies relating to worldwide development assist- 
ance would appear to require the full participation 
of all countries actively engaged in this effort. 
The OEEC as presently constituted is seriously 
handicapped in this effort since the United States 
is not a full member. And, while the World Banlc 
can be helpful in providing many kinds of infor- 
mation and in bringing countries together on spe- 
cific projects in which the Bank has an interest, 
it is itself a lending institution which is not organ- 
ized in such a way as to make possible the intei-- 
national discussion of broad policies, including 
national lending policies and the programs of 
those members which provide, or desire to provide, 



external capital for development on a bilateral 
basis over and above their contribution to inter- 
national organizations. 

Finally, the question of whether there should 
be a successor organization to the OEEC, which 
would continue existing functions of the OEEC, 
which would add important new fimctions, and 
which would allow the United States and, we 
hope, Canada to assume the role of full members, 
can, in our view, only be discussed directly by all 
the governments concerned outside the framework 
of the institutional structure of the OEEC. 

It was against this background, Mr. Chairman, 
that we proposed, at the time of the Western sum- 
mit meeting, the creation of this Committee to 
formulate appropriate procedures to further inter- 
national consideration of the three major eco- 
nomic problems to which I have referred. 

U.S. Offers Procedural Suggestions 

Since the publication of the communique of 
December 21 and the issuance by the French Gov- 
ernment of the invitation to participate in the 
Special Economic Committee, my Government has 
been in continuing consultation both with the 
governments repi-esented here and with other gov- 
ernments regarding the work of this Committee. 
In the light of these consultations I would like to 
place before the Committee the following pro- 
cedural suggestions : first, for studying the desir- 
ability of a successor organization to the OEEC; 
second, for discussing, pending the establishment 
of such a successor organization, the problems of 
development assistance to the less developed areas ; 
and, third, for giving early attention to the Euro- 
pean trade questions. 

Committee To Study OEEC Reorganization 

In considering the desirability of a successor 
organization to the OEEC I think you will all 
agree that any such decision can only be taken by 
the 20 governments who are members of or asso- 
ciated with the OEEC. Furthermore all these 
governments must have adequate opportunity to 
thoroughly consider the matt«r so that we may 
all be certain that we are obtaining the best pos- 
sible mechanism for handling the important eco" 
nomic problems which will face us in the futui^e. 
Accordingly we would suggest that this matter be 



142 



Department of State Bulletin 



thoroughly considered tvnd discussed at a meeting 
of senior officials representing the 20 governments. 
The etforts of such a group would be greatly 
facilitated by the pi-eparation of adequate work- 
ing paj^ers. The^e could best be prepared by a 
very small group. It is our view that this pre- 
paratoiy working gi'oup should consist of not 
more than three pei-sons: one of whom might be 
chosen from the EFTA coimtries, the second from 
the EEC countries, and the third from the other 
countries who are members of or associated with 
the OEEC. Once chosen, this Committee of Three 
would be expected to obtain the views of each 
of the 20 governments and to prepare a report for 
submission to the 20 governments. This report 
might outline the general problems to be faced 
and miglit include a draft charter. These docu- 
ments could then servo as the initial working 
dociunents for the conference of officials to which 
I have referred. 

If, as a result of the conference of officials, gen- 
eral agreement emerged on the desirability of a 
successor organization, a ministerial meeting 
could be convened to decide any remaining points 
at issue and to approve a new charter, which would 
then be submitted to governments for ratification. 

It would be our thought that, if the Special 
Economic Committee agrees on a procedure such 
as I have outlined relating to the establishment 
of a successor organization to the OEEC, the Com- 
mittee should recommend it to all of the 20 gov- 
ernments of the OEEC, whose representatives will 
be assembled on the occasion of the meeting of the 
OEEC Council on January 14. 

The procedure I have outlined is designed to 
give every member country of the OEEC full op- 
portunity to participate in this work from the be- 
ginning. "We have been aware during the weeks 
following the communique of December 21 that 
many countries were uncertain as to what the 
United States had in mind in proposing consider- 
ation of a new mechanism of consultation to fol- 
low the OEEC. We have heard, on the one hand, 
that our objective was to weaken the EFTA, on 
the other, to weaken the EEC, and, finally, that we 
might be desirous of establishing some soi-t of 
directorate to make decisions for others. 

Let me state clearly what our motivation 
actually was. It was very simple. We felt that 
the time had come when the new problems facing 
the world, particularly the necessity of marshaling 



the total economic resources of the free world in 
the most effective manner to meet the challenge 
posed by the newly developing countries, recjuired 
a close and fully equal collaboration between the 
United States and tlie now completely recovered 
countries of Western Europe. The creation of a 
new organization seemed unthinkable. It was 
only natural to explore the possibilities of com- 
bining everything that is best in the OEEC with 
a changed framework that would permit full and 
equal United States participation. We recognize 
that the OEEC performs and should continue to 
perform certain functions that are purely Euro- 
pean in character and in which our participation 
would not be appropriate. We would hope that 
all such activities as are found to be of continuing 
usefulness by the members would continue on a 
purely European basis unaffected by our assump- 
tion of full membership in a new parent body. 

Development Assistance Group 

Now as to the problem of development assist- 
ance and its better coordination. If the study of 
the successor organization to the OEEC results in 
general agreement that such an organization 
should be established, we assume that it may be 
as long as 18 months before the new organization 
could come into being. We therefore propose that 
in the meantime a limited group be constituted 
consisting of those countries in a position to make 
an effective long-term bilateral contribution to the 
flow of funds to the less developed countries. We 
believe that this group on development assistance 
should operate in an informal manner and that it 
should consult, whenever desirable, with the 
World Bank, the OEEC, and other appropriate 
national or mtemational institutions. A major 
task of the development assistance group would be 
to discuss the most effective methods of mobilizing 
national resources for development assistance as 
well as of providing such assistance to recipient 
countries in the most useful manner. There is not 
only a real need for an increased flow of long-term 
private and public funds from the industrial 
countries whose reserves have increased in recent 
years but also a real need to provide investments, 
loans, and assistance to the less developed coun- 
tries in ways which will make the maximum con- 
structive contribution to their economies. The 
United States would be prepared to make avail- 
able to this group information on its own lending, 



Februory 7, J 960 



143 



assistance, and investment guaranty operations 
with the thought that our experience might be use- 
ful to others in considering their own programs. 

We do not envisage that the development as- 
sistance group should attempt to engage in a 
"burden sharing" exercise or seek to reach deci- 
sions on amounts of assistance to be provided to 
specific countries or areas. If, during its delibera- 
tions, it appears that two or more countries desire 
to cooperate in assistance to particular countries, 
then it would be desirable to consult promptly with 
the recipient country or perhaps enlist the good 
offices of the World Bank. This, as you know, has 
been the procedure followed successfully by a num- 
ber of capital-exporting nations and the World 
Bank in coordinating assistance to India. 

We believe that the development assistance 
group would not require any special international 
staff. It could, however, make efl'ective use of 
certain studies which might be carried out by the 
staff of the OEEC. Useful studies wliich the 
OEEC might appropriately undertake at this time 
would be : 

(a) The development of up-to-date statistics 
on the actual amoimt of financing which various 
countries have undertaken in their transactions 
with the less developed countries, as well as the 
various types of financing, the relative maturities, 
and the countries to which assistance has gone. 

(b) A factual survey of existing national or- 
ganizations in the investment, lending, and assist- 
ance field through which funds are made available 
to the less developed countries, the policies of 
these organizations, the funds currently available 
to them, and the source of the funds. 

(c) An analysis of the various types of incen- 
tives to foreign investment in the less developed 
countries which may exist or be under considera- 
tion in the industrial countries. 

These studies, as you will have observed, cor- 
respond in general with certain of the recom- 
mendations of the OEEC staff, which are to be 
considered at the meeting of the OEEC Council 
on January 14. Certain other recommendations 
of the OEEC staff in the field of development 
assistance would, in our judgment, be premature, 
and we will speak to that point at the January 14 
meeting. 

We propose that the development assistance 



group consist of those of us who, in addition to 
their contributions in multilateral organizations, 
now make, or might be prepared to make, signifi- 
cant bilateral contributions to development. Such 
a gi'oup might include, for example, Canada, 
France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and the Commission of the Euro- 
pean Economic Community. 

Continuation of Speciai Economic Convmittee 

The tliird and last procedural proposal which 
we wish to put forward is that there be agree- 
ment on the forum in which the European trade 
questions referred to in the communique of Decem- 
ber 21 could be discussed from time to time, pend- 
ing the decision on a successor organization to 
OEEC. 

We suggest that this Special Economic Com- 
mittee should be continued for this purpose. 
Although we have heard various alternative sug- 
gestions regarding the composition of an appro- 
priate group, we are inclined to doubt that a better 
formula can be found. In any case, the problems 
to be considered are of such potential seriousness 
and urgency that they should not be put aside 
pending the possible creation of a new organiza- 
tion, which probably could not take place for some 
18 months. If agreement can be reached that this 
body is appropriate for this purpose, we would 
hope that the date and place, for its first meeting 
could be agreed upon at this time. We believe 
that this first meeting should be held soon and 
should be attended by senior officials, with minis- 
terial meetings to be called thereafter as necessary. 

The group to deal with these trade questions 
would not, of coui-se, affect the continuing work 
of the Contracting Parties to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade or the Steering Board 
for Trade of the OEEC. 

This completes the presentation of our views, 
Mr. Cliairman. In order to facilitate consid- 
eration by (lie Committee of the procedural 
suggestions we have made, we ]ia\e prepared 
drafts of the formal actions which the Committee 
might take on each of the three procedural ar- 
rangements — the study of the reorganization of 
the OEEC, the establishment of the development 
assistance group and its tei-ms of reference, and 
the continuation of the Special Committee to dis- 
cuss the trade problem. These drafts are being 



144 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



circulated for tlie consideration of the members of 
the Committee. 



MEETING OF 20 GOVERNMENTS, PARIS, JAN- 
UARY 14 

Press roleasp 19 dated January 15 

Thank you, Mr. Ciiuirman, for giving me this 
opportunity to comment on tlie excellent report 
by the distinguished cliairman of tlie Sj^ecial Eco- 
nomic Committee, Mr. [Joseph M. A. 11.] Luns. 
He has most ably summarized the outcome of our 
meeting yesterday. I am glad tiiat he stressed — 
and I myself wish to underline — the fact that all 
of us who pai-ticipated in the informal meetings 
fully recognized tlie interest of all member coun- 
tries of the OEEC, as well as the two associate 
members, in this matter. I trust the full report 
which has just been made will reassiu'e all the gov- 
erimients represented here today that there was 
no intention on the part of any of us — and this 
has certainly been the case so far as my own Gov- 
ernment is concemed — to proceed further without 
full consultation with all OEEC governments. 

Arrangements were made, I know, for all of you 
to receive copies of my remarks Tuesday evening 
at the opening meeting of the Special Economic 
Committee. Therefore I believe it is unnecessary 
for me to comment at any length on the reasons 
which prompted the proposals my Government 
has put forward. The essence of the United 
States position is that there are new challenges 
and new opportimities facing the free woi-ld. A 
greater degree of effective collaboration is needed 
to insure that we will be successful in meeting the 
new situation. 

The objective of my Government in these dis- 
cussions has been to reach agreement on an orderly 
method of beginning an exploration of three dis- 
tinct problems: first, the question of trade which 
has arisen here in Europe but whose ramifications 
are truly worldwide in scope; second, tlie question 
of how to mobilize economic resources more effec- 
tively to promote the economic development of 
less developed areas; and, third, the need for new 
methods of economic cooperation which will pro- 
mote stability and growth in the world economy. 

All 20 governments represented here today 
must obviously participate from the very begin- 
ning in work relating to the question of organiza- 



tional arrangements. 1 am sure that you will find 
that tills is fully provided for in the resolution 
recomnii'iuliMl by the Sfjecial Coinniitfeo. 

In concluding my remarks, Mr. Chairman, I 
should like to emphasize one point to which 
my Government attaches particular iniportance. 
That is the necessity that the good work of the 
OEEC continue imchanged during this period 
when we will be considering the possibilities for 
improved cooperation. We favor the formation 
of a reconstituted organization adapted to the 
needs of today. Subject to the approval of our 
Congress, the United States would be prepared to 
assume full and active membei-ship in an appropri- 
ately reconstituted organization. In the mea.n- 
tinie we are confident that the OEEC will proceed 
vigorously and creatively with the significant 
work before it. 



ARRIVAL STATEMENT, WASHINGTON, JAN- 
UARY 16 

Press release 22 dated January 16 

I have just returned from Paris, where I repre- 
sented the United States at the regular ministerial 
meeting of the Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and also at special meetings of 
the 20 governments which are members or asso- 
ciates of the OEEC. 

At these special meetings the 20 governments 
reached decisions which are of great potential 
importance for the future of economic cooperation 
in the free world. Agreement was reached to work 
together for the establishment of a successor or- 
ganization to the OEEC in which the United 
States could participate as a full member and 
which would facilitate cooperation between the 
industrialized nations of the free world in meeting 
the major economic problems which will face the 
world during the coming decade. 

As a result of the Paris decisions we also have 
reason to expect that a serious and successful effort 
will now be made to solve the problems of Euro- 
pean trade connecte<l with tlie European Economic 
Community and the European! Free Trade Asso- 
ciation—the Six and the Seven. We have obtained 
assurances that any solution will tjike full account 
of the interests of the United States and other 
countries in accordance with the principles of the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 



February 1, I960 



145 



Also during the Paris meetings the governments 
of a number of capital-exporting nations agreed to 
consult together on their efforts to provide devel- 
opment assistance to the less developed areas. 
This group vrill probably hold its first meeting in 
Washinsrton in the near future. 



TEXTS OF RESOLUTIONS 

Press release 20 dated January 15 

Resolution on Study of O.E.E.C. Reorganization 

Representatives of the Governments of Belgium, Can- 
ada, France, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, 
Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, 
Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States and 
the Representative of the Commission of the European 
Economic Community, 

a) Fully appreciating the cooperative work accom- 
plished by the O.E.E.C. ; 

b) Wishing to ensure the continuity of cooperation in 
the fields where no change is called for ; 

c) Determined to pursue economic policies which will 
contribute to stability and growth in the world economy, 
including trade policies directed to the sound use of 
economic resources and the maintenance of harmonious 
international relations; 

d) Conscious of the need to devote increased efforts 
towards furthering the development of less-developed 
countries ; 

e) Recognizing the importance of continued cooperation 
to ensure the achievement of these objectives ; 

f ) Noting the desirability of arrangements which would 
enable full participation not only by the present 18 Mem- 
bers of the Organization for European Economic Coopera- 
tion but also by the two associate members, the United 
States and Canada ; 

g) Desiring to proceed with an examination of im- 
proved organizational arrangements which could best 
accomplish these purposes ; 

h) Recognizing the equal interest of all member and 
associate member governments of the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation in this matter ; 
Propose 

1) That a meeting of senior oflScials of the twenty 
Governments, members or associate members of the 
O.E.E.C. and to which the European Communities should 
also be invited, be convened in Paris on April 19, 1960 
to consider the question of appropriate arrangements to 
achieve the objectives stated above ; 

2) That, in order to facilitate the work of such meet- 
ing, a group of four persons consisting of 

and " should be appointed to prepare a 

report which would 

a) examine the most effective methods for achieving 



° Although tentatively selected, the names of members 
of the group of four will be officially announced later. 



the objectives referred to above and make appropriate 
recommendations with respect thereto ; 

b) submit a draft of articles of agreement, should 
their examination of this question indicate the desira- 
bility of bringing about an appropriately improved organ- 
ization for economic cooperation ; 

c) identify tho.se functions at present performed by 
the O.E.E.C. which should continue to be the subject 
of international economic cooperation under the aegis 
of the proposed organizational arrangements with respect 
thereto ; 

3) That the group named above should consult with 
all twenty governments and the European Communities 
and appropriate international organizations during the 
preparation of their report without, however, commit- 
ting any government as to the content of the report 
which would be submitted by them in their personal 
capacities and which would be open for discussion and 
negotiation at the meeting envisaged in Paragraph 1 
above. 

Resolution on Development Assistance 

The Special Econotnic Committee 

Hai'ing been informed of the desire of the Governments 
of Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the 
Commission of the European Economic Community, who, 
in addition to their contribution to international organiza- 
tions, are making available or may be in a position to 
make available a significant flow of long term funds to 
underdeveloped areas, to discuss among themselves the 
question of techniques to facilitate such flow of funds, 
taking into consideration other means of assistance to 
developing countries ; 

Notes that these eight Governments and the Commis- 
sion of the European Economic Community intend to 
meet together to discuss various aspects of cooperation 
in their efforts, and to invite other additional capital 
exporting countries to participate in their work or to 
meet with them as may from time to time appear desir- 
able, and to consult with such multilateral organizations 
as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment and the European Investment Bank. 

Resolution on Certain Trade Problems 

The Special Economic Committee 

Recognizing that there are problems of commercial pol- 
icy of particular concern to the twenty governments who 
are members of, or associated with, the O.E.E.C. ; 

Tdkiiig note of the existence of ihe E.E.C. and of the 
convention for an E.F.T.A. : 

Rearing in mind the relationship between the provisions 
of these agreements and general international commercial 
policy. 

Considering the need to oxaiiiino. ns a matter of pri- 
ority, the relationship between the E.E.C. and the E.F.T.A. 
with due regard to the commercial interests of third coun- 
tries and the principles and obligations of the G.A.T.T. ; 

Decides 

to propose to the twenty governments that they consti- 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



tute themselves, together with the E.E.C., a committee 
with power to 

1 ) establish one or more informal working groups for 
the ci>nsi(ipratiou of these problems without iufriuKing 
the c'omiH'tence of the existing international institutions 
such as the G.A.T.T. »r the (I.K.E.C. : tliese groui)s should 
report hack to the Committee; 

2) transmit an invitation to the Executive Secretary 
of the G.A.T.T. to participate in these discussions. 



President's Visit to Soviet Union 
Set for June 10-19 

White House press release dated January 17 

As already announced earlier,^ the Chairman 
of the Coimcil of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., N. S. 
Khruslichev, invited the President of the United 
States to pay an official vdsit to the Soviet Union at 
a time suitable for liim. President Eisenliower 
accepted with pleasure the in\'itation of N. S. 
Khrushchev. 

As a result of subsequent personal exchanges be- 
tween the Chairman of the Coimcil of Ministers, 
X. S. Khruslichev, and President Eisenhower, it 
was agreed that the President would make his visit 
in the Soviet Union from the 10th until the 19th 
of June 1960. 



U.S. Comments on Soviet Proposal 
To Reduce Armed Forces 

Statement by Lincoln White 
Director, Office of Nexos ^ 

We note with interest the Soviet Union's an- 
nouncement of an approximate 1.2-million-men 
proposed reduction in its conventional armed 
forces and a readjustment in its conventional 
armaments. "We also note that these reductions 
are to be carried out within the next 1 to 2 years. 
This proposed action to reduce present massive 
Soviet armed forces could lessen one of the causes 
of existing world tensions. The announcement 
■was not unexpected, since the Soviet Union, along 
with other modem nations, is now in a position to 
place greater reliance on new weapons. 

In this connection Chairman Khrushchev has 



emphasized that tiie proposed reductions would in 
no way affect the actual power of tlie Soviet 
Union's arms. The Soviet Union, with its 
acknowledged— I might say parcnthoficuily for 
the first time — its acknowledged armed force level 
of 3.6 million, and its neighbor, Communist China, 
maintain tlie largest standing armies in the world. 
This fact has been a constant source of concern to 
those nations earnestly seeking a solution to the 
dangers inherent in the annaments race. 

For its part the United States, not in 1960 but 
immediately following World War II, demo- 
bilized the great bulk of its armed forces from a 
peak level of 12.3 million. In view of Conununist 
aggression the level was later raised and stands 
today at approximately 2.5 million. In addition 
the United States has carried out corresponding 
reductions in its conventional armaments. 

As in the case of previous unilateral Soviet an- 
nouncements, the proposed reductions can be taken 
only as an intention since there will be no verifiable 
means of checking any actual reductions. An 
opportunity to achieve controlled international 
measures of disarmament will be offered at the 
general disarmament negotiations scheduled for 
the early part of this year.^ At these negotiations 
the United States will be prejjared to go as far 
toward safeguarded disarmament as any other 
country. It is hoped that this announcement by 
the Soviet Union is an indication of its willingness 
to participate in the forthcoming negotiations in 
the same spirit so that world accord can be estab- 
lished through concrete and verifiable measures of 
disarmament, thereby removing suspicions and 
building real security. 



Letters of Credence 

Bulgaria 

The newly appointed Minister of the People's 
Kepublic of Bulgaria, Peter G. Voutov, presented 
his credentials to President Eisenhower on Jan- 
uary 1.5. For texts of the Minister's remarks and 
the President's replj', see Department of State 
press release 17 dated January 15. 



' BtJi-LETiN of Oct. 12, 19.59, p. 499. 

' Made to news correspondents on Jan. 14. 



' For a coiiuiiunique issued by the Foreign Ministers of 
Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States at Paris on r>ec. 21, see Buu,etin of Jan. 11, 
1960, p. 45. 



februaty I, I960 



147 



Geographic Regions of Asia : South and East 



iy G. Etzel Pearcy 



A zone arcing around the southern and eastern 
peripheries of the Asian Continent from the 
Makran coast of West Pakistan to Peter the Great 
Bay in Maritime Siberia coincides with the axes 
of the world's greatest population concentration. 
Some 1.4 billion people, more than half of the 
■world total, live in this part of Asia, including its 
fringing islands and archipelagoes. India and 
China together can claim more than a billion in- 
habitants; Japan, Indonesia, and Pakistan each 
are fast approaching 100 million. These enormous 
census counts exist despite the fact that settlement 
is broken in places by momitainous terrain, 
stretches of desert, or other areas inhospitable to 
man and his efforts to wrest a living from the soil. 

This populous crescent of Asia has a heritage 
accrued through tens of centuries — a much longer 
background than has Europe, which is better 
known to most Americans. Since World War II 
virtually every sector within the area has experi- 
enced political upheaval, adding confusion and, 
at times, chaos to an already complex pattern of 
civilization. Crisis has followed crisis imtil names 
such as Laos, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Quemoy, 
and Panmunjom have been set in heavy type with 
weary regularity by our news services. Certainly 
today all parts of this arcuate region are written 
about at lengtli and discussed bv the delegate in 



• Mr. Pearcy is the Geographer of the 
Department of State. This is the third in 
a series of articles which he is v^rlting for the 
Bulletin on the notnervclature of geographic 
regions. For his articles on the Middle East 
ami Latin America, see Bulletin of March 23, 
1959, p. ^07, and September U, 1959, p. 38^. 



the assembly halls of the United Nations and the 
man on the street. 

Oddly enough, no generally accepted regional 
term is available for identifying the southern and 
eastern periphery of Asia as a unit. Joseph E. 
Spencer, professor of geogi-aphy at the University 
of California, Los Angeles, concentrated on this 
area in his textbook, Asia, South iy East, from 
which the title of this article is adapted. One 
must depend upon rather clumsy expressions such 
as "southern and eastern Asia" or "the southern 
and eastern parts of Asia" as terms for the entire 
region in question. Fortunately, however, a myr- 
iad of regional names designate many politico- 
geographic areas within the confines of the south- 
ern and eastern segments of the great continent. 
Each one normally comprises a combination of 
political entities, even though any two may over- 
lap to some degree. These regional names serve 
a useful purpose in discussing world affairs. 

A strictly geographic expression, "Monsoon 
Asia," can be used correctly to indicate that part 
of southern and eastern Asia which is associated 
with circulatory winds and heavy seasonal rain- 
fall. This area supports a ]iopulation running 
into hundreds of millions. But the word "mon- 
soon" has no politicogeographic significance, and 
as a result it has not gained wide acceptance ex- 
cept among geogi-aphers. 

The extensive land mass of Asia is frequently 
broken down into geograj^hic "realms," .some of 
which may be likened to subcontinents. George 
B. Cressey, professor of geography at Syracuse 
University, recognizes three such realms^(l) 
Subcontinent of India and Pakistan, (2) South- 
east Asia, and (3) China-Japan — which taken 
together generally connote southern and eastern 
Asia. This division, despite its lack of precision, 
lias gained favor witli other geograpliic writers; 



148 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



nevertheless, some autliorities frown at puttinfjj 
the innermost pints of China in the same unit as 
the coastal part of the country and Japan. They 
do not find that Tokyo and Urumchi have much 
in common. The solution suggested is further 
subdivision tiiat would create another regional 
bloc encompassing the vast expanses of dry terri- 
tory remote from the coast. 

In current parlance the broad geographic zone 
sweeping around the southern and eastern edges 
of Asia might be said to comprise: (1) South 
Asia, (2) Southeast Asia, and (3) the Far East. 
South Asia appeai-s to be a comparatively new 
term supplanting the outmoded term of "subcon- 
tinent" to denote India and Pakistan together. 
Southeast Asia is properly chosen in relation to 
the orientation of the area it names. Far East in 
its more limited sense supersedes the use of the 
country names China and Japan to designate this 
huge area. But when examined in more detail, 
this apparently innocuous 3-way division is en- 
cumbered with problems in nomenclature and with 
inconsistencies. Each division in turn demands 
further clarification in order that one may better 
imderstand the interplay of regional terminology 
in this densely populated area. 

South Asia 

The politicogeographic region of South Asia 
encompasses India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Nepal, and 
Bhutan. The first three are members of the Brit- 
ish Commonwealth, India and Pakistan as inde- 
pendent republics and Ceylon as a dominion. 
Nepal ranks as a fully independent kingdom, but 
Bhutan continues to be guided by India in its 
external relations. Sikkim, situated along the 
northern boundary of India between Nepal and 
Bhutan, is b_v treaty a protectorate of India. 
However, one also sees it listed along with Bhutan 
as a semi-independent state. The Kashmir area, 
which unquestionably falls within the confines of 
South Asia, is known as the State of Jammu and 
Kashmir and is now considered by India for all 
intents and purposes as being a part of India. It 
is, however, the subject of a dispute between India 
and Pakistan. To continue itemizing the political 
entities that make up South Asia one must include 
the small Portuguese e.xclaves of Goa, Damao, and 
Diu, collectively known as Portuguese India. 
"Within recent years Pondichery and four other 



MAJOR AXES 
OF POPULATION 

IN SOUTHERN 
AND EASTERN ASIA 




French exclaves have become integral parts of 
India, although some few legal measures must still 
be taken to complete the process. 

The place of Afghanistan in a regional group- 
ing is less clear cut. Though the boundary line 
of South Asia is usually extended to include Af- 
ghanistan, that coimtry may at times be identified 
as a part of the Middle East. Physically it is re- 
lated to the northern reaches of West Pakistan on 
the east, the barren plateau lands of Iran on the 
west, and the Central Asia Republics of the Soviet 
Union on the north. Border problems between 
Afghanistan and Pakistan hark back to tribal 
difficulties in the British-controlled North-West 
Frontier States before partition. Continuing 
problems in this area strengthen the relation- 
ship — or at least the association — of Afghanistan 
with South Asia. At present the Pathan (or 
Pushtim) question continues to focus attention on 
the Pakistan-Afghanistan boundary area. For 
example, one not infrequently sees references to 
"Pushtoonistan" (or "Paklitoonistan"), the name 
theoretically applied to the area inhabited by 
Pushtu-speaking tribes on both sides of the 
boundary. 

South Asia is not a timewom term. It should 
be distinguished from "southern Asia," a strictly 
direction-location term which could conceivably 
include as much as one-half of the entire continent 
and be geographically accurate. In the past the 
area now classed so conveniently as South Asia 
was held by some to be a part of the Middle East. 



February 1, J 960 



149 



In fact, and not without some logic, this concej^t 
still persists to a limited extent. In direct con- 
t rast tlie same area has at times been placed within 
the domain of tlie Far East, especially among 
historians. By virtue of its central position on the 
soutliern side of tlie continent, one might face- 
tiously define South Asia as the zone where the 
Middle East and Far East overlap. 

Before partition in 1947 India was widely and 
even officially referred to as the Subcontinent. 
Tliis terminology automatically set it apart as a 
region of significant proportions. A more recently 
evolved term, "Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent," 
thougii far from unknown today, a})i)areiitly fails 
to replace the concept of an Indian subcontinent. 
With little doubt, the term "South Asia," concise 
and without strong competition, is a welcome addi- 
tion to the traditional list of comprehensive terms 
for this politicogeographic region. 



Lou'landi of South Asia 

AVithin South Asia one finds well-established 
subregions, most of them related to the broad geo- 
graphic features of either India or Pakistan or 
both. Some are of sufficient size and importance 
to exert a strong or even dominating influence on 
the politicogeographic balance of the much larger 
region. 

Across India and Pakistan from the Arabian 
Sea to the Bay of Bengal is a boomerang-shaped 
lowland extending for a distance of more than 
2,000 miles. Through a series of interrelated 
vallej's flow the waters of the Ganges, Indus, and 
Brahmaputra Kivers and their tributaries. Many 
of the legendary characters in Kipling's stories of 
British India have trod over the lowland, passmg 
through Delhi, Lahore, and Rawalpindi. The 
region lias tliree names: (1) Indo-Gangetic Plain, 
(2) Plain of Hindustan, and (;>) Plain of Xorth- 



REGIONAL AREAS 

COMMONLY ACCEPTED IN 

SOUTHERN^'^o EASTERN ASIA 



-^^^^^ 



l APAN: 

.' n r 




OKINAWA - 



PACIFIC 



\ChYLl)N 



\<^ ,..'-L..JVl HT-NAM=: 

SOUThi^AST ASIA -^ 




OCEAN ■ 



I'Hn IITINKS: 



INDIAN OCEAN 





150 



Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



ern India. Tlio latter name, it is significant to 
note, continues to be used, though nuich of the 
area involved lies in Pakistan. In order to limit 
the lowland area to Indian territory one may 
speak of the Ciangetic Tlain, or the trans-Gaiigetic 
Plain if one includes the low, fertile Punjab coiui- 
try in northwestern India. Even with this limi- 
tation the lowland is not entirely within a single 
country because the delta of the Ganges lies more 
in Pakistan than in India. 

The Mountain Wall 

North of the lowlands rises the mountain wall 
forming the southern reaches of the Himalayas. 
Except for Kashmir only fragments of India and 
Pakistan lie in the high mountainous region. 
Nevertheless, the dominating aspect of the Huna- 
layan sj'stem gives definite regional characteris- 
tics to the northern portions of the two countries. 
Terms that are used to designate this northern 
fringe include "Mountain "Wall" and the "Hima- 
layan Region." In the same vein Nepal, Bhutan, 
and Sikkim may be gi-ouped as the Himalayan 
states. 

Webster would hardly define the southern part 
of India as a peninsula. Its shape is actually that 
of a gigantic cape, though only Cape Comorin at 
the southern extremity of the comitry is so desig- 
nated generically. Nevertheless, the term "Indian 
Peninsula" finds common acceptance notwith- 
standing the fact that it carries two distinct mean- 
ings. First, "peninsula" may be used as an ad- 
jective applying to all of India as a peninsular 
country. Second, it may apply only to that part 
south of the Tropic of Cancer, which protrudes 
into the waters of the Indian Ocean (or, more 
precisely, into the waters of the Arabian Sea and 
the Bay of Bengal). 

The Deccan Plateau 

The huge Deccan Plateau, a distinctive physio- 
graphic region, roughly coincides with triangular- 
shaped peninsular India. Consequently "Deccan" 
has become a regional term, usually implying the 
high parts of the country south of the Narbada 
River. India and Pakistan have many "regions," 
some of them with populations reaching into the 
tens of millions, that are held together by cohesive 
traditions. The names of such regions may well 
have provided the basis for those of administra- 
tive divisions. Probably the two best known re- 



gions in this category are the Punjab and Bengal, 
homo of tlie Punjabi and the Bengali. Partition 
divided both regions, and now India has East 
Punjab and We^t Bengal, whereas Pakistan has 
West Punjab and East Bengal. As.sociated with 
the Punjab in AVest Pakistan, but extending into 
India, is the area of the Five Rivers, tributaries 
of the Indus: Beas, Chenab, .Jlielum, Ravi, and 
Sutlej. Here a physical region cut by an inter- 
national boundary assumes tremendous political 
significance because of the problem of equitable 
distribution of lifegiving water. Other regions 
also derive their names from physical features; 
for example, the Thar Desert, the Malabar Coast, 
and the Western Ghats. 

A imique example of logical regional thinldng 
lies in the use of the term "Hooghlyside" by 
Indians to denote the right bank of the Hooghly 
River, opposite Calcutta, which includes the great 
industrial city of Howrah. Origin of the terra 
must, of course, be credited to the British, who 
have their own Merseyside and Tyneside for simi- 
lar situations. 

Southeast Asia 

We can credit university circles for the in- 
creased use of the term "Southeast Asia." Since 
World War II several academic institutions, in- 
cluding Cornell University, have established area 
program studies concentrated on this part of the 
world. A rising tide of nationalism in lands im- 
mediately south of restless Commimist forces gives 
a certain stark unity to the southeastern segment 
of the Asian Continent. Recognition of its iden- 
tity as a regional bloc is further justified by virtue 
of its being pi-essed against the teeming millions 
of both the Indo-Pakistan community and China. 
Some of the countries of Southeast Asia are badly 
overcrowded, but for the most part the area has a 
population density somewhat less than critical. 

The pattern of political sovereignty in South- 
east Asia resembles a patchwork design. In his 
recent book. The DiTplomacy of Southeast Asia: 
191^5-1958, Russell II. Fifield of the University 
of Michigan counts eight independent states as 
comprising the region — Burma, Thailand, Viet- 
Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaya, Philippines, and 
Indonesia — but several fragmentary dependen- 
cies — Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei, North Borneo, 
and Portuguese Timor — are likewise included. 
Of the latter group all but Portuguese Timor are 



ftihruaty T, J 960 



151 



British. "Western New Guinea, under Dutch ad- 
ministration, constitutes a special case and nor- 
mally is not considered to be a part of the region. 

As might be expected, some authorities take ex- 
ception to Dr. Fifield's delineation of Southeast 
Asia. Some authors include Taiwan in this re- 
gion, despite the close relationship of that island's 
histoiy to China and Japan. On the other hand, 
one seldom, if ever, finds Hong Kong and Macao 
included in any discussion of Southeast Asia. 
Even though it is far to the west, some foreign 
authors include Ceylon in the region. Other au- 
thorities would reduce the extent of Southeast 
Asia as defined by Dr. Fifield. British usage, for 
example, tends to omit the Philippines. Again, 
according to some scholars the term "Southeast 
Asia" should actually apply only to the mainland 
of tlie Asian Continent ; thus Indonesia as well as 
the Philippines would be excluded. Pakistan, by 
virtue of its membership in the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization, has a vital interest in 
Southeast Asian affairs, but only East Pakistan is 
geographically contiguous to the area. 

Before Southeast Asia became a popular term, 
several names prevailed for identifying regional 
blocs in this general sector of the continent. Some 
of these names remain in good standing and are 
readily recognizable; but for the most part they 
are gathering cobwebs or retain only historical 
value. As one example, "Farther India," a term 
seldom lieard now, refers to peninsular Southeast 
Asia. It may or may not encompass the Malay 
Peninsula. Complementing Farther India is the 
fading concept of Malaysia, wluch refers to an in- 
sular Southeast Asia, comprising all the islands — 
including the Philippines — that lie off the coast 
of Asia between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 
It is the largest island group in the world. But 
these islands would also be included in the con- 
cept of Australasia.' Almost synonymous Avith 
Malaysia is "Malay Archipelago." However, the 
Malay Peninsula has at times been regarded as be- 
longing to the former, whereas it is seldom in- 
cluded in the latter. 

Th£, East I Tidies 

Although designating an area somewhat more 
restricted tlian Malaysia, "P]ast Indies" — more 



' Australasia is rarely associated with the area under 
discussion, thouRh according to most interpretations the 
two would overlap. 



specifically, "Netherlands East Indies" or "Dutch 
East Indies" — long served as a term to mark off 
the chain of islands extending from Sumatra to 
New Guinea. The familiar-sounding "Dutch 
East Indies" as a political term fell into disuse 
after Indonesia gained its independence in 1949. 
But geograpliically the term "East Indies" con- 
tinues to designate all of the Indonesian islands, 
together with British Borneo, Portuguese Timor, 
and the island of New Guinea and its offshore 
islands. "East Indies" may also apply to a more 
widespread area, in some cases including the 
Philippines. The term has even been used col- 
lectively to denote India, Farther India, and all 
the Malaysian area — tliis broad usage probably 
dating back to the old concept of the mystic lands 
of the East, from whence came the spices. Fi- 
nally, vague though it is, the term "the Indies" 
when used alone also means East Indies. 

Indochina 

Indochina (previously hyphenated as Indo- 
China) defies rational definition. Geographic 
and political versions of the name depart mark- 
edly one from the other, the latter now retaining 
only a historical meaning. In a purely physical 
sense Indochina is usually identified as being co- 
extensive with peninsular Southeast Asia, prob- 
ably excluding the Malay Peninsula by intent if 
not by actual definition. 

Conflicting with this geographic connotation, 
the term "Indochina" in a political sense formerly 
was used only in relation to the Frencli colonies 
of the peninsula. "French Indochina" was limited 
territorially to the eastern part of peninsular 
Southeast Asia comprising Annam, Cambodia, 
Cochinchina, Laos, and Tonkin, all major admin- 
istrative divisions within French Indochina. The 
creation in the early 1950's of the independent 
states of Viet-Nam (encompassing Annam, Co- 
chinchina, and Tonkin), Cambodia, and Laos 
vacated the name "French Indochina" as a valid 
political entity. The area including Viet-Nam, 
Cambodia, and Laos continues to be called Indo- 
china, but without muoli justification. If used at 
all, the term should also include Thailand, 
Burma, and possibly Malaya. 

It is interesting to see how some other countries 
apply regional names to Southeast Asia. The 
Chinese call it Nanyang, translated as "South 
Ocean." Similarly, the Japanese say Nanyo, 
which inonns "Soutlieast Seas Area." The Aus- 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 




tralians, on the other hand, bemg faced with an- 
other set of directions in viewinj^ this part of tlie 
world have quite recently originated the rather 
startling term of "Near North." If we wished to 
apply the same i-easoning in our part of the world, 
we could perhaps call tiie Caribbean Islands and 
the northern coastal section of continental South 
America as the "Near South." 

The Word ''Malay'' 

Within Southeast Asia the word "Malay" is tiie 
key to a variety of regional concepts, botii geo- 
graphic and political. Malaysia and Malay Archi- 

febroary I, J 960 

537159—60 3 



pelago have already been discussed, but, in a 
mucii more restricted sense, Malay, when used 
alone, refers only to the peninsula of that name. 
The Malay Peninsula includes the Federation of 
Malaya, or simply Malaya, and small sections of 
Burma and Tliaiiand. hnmediateiy to the south 
and connected by a causeway lies the island of 
Singapore, recently elevated in status from a 
crown colony to a state within the British Com- 
monwealth. Traditionally any reference to the 
Afalay Peninsula in a political sense included 
Singapore. But the independence of Malaya in 
1957 severed the intricate administrative relation- 



153 




VIENTIANE. ."^ V t^V^S^ 

S THAILAND ) \%X^^ 

^\ BANGKOK .^—■^..y"\ 
\ ^ / CAMBODIA . 
i \ 1=) PHNOM / 

PENH . 

® rvocHis 




/SAIGON 



SOUTH -- 



CHINA : 



sea: 



BORNEO, 



SINGAPORE 



-Up 



ship between the two political entities. Note that 
tlie addition of an "a" to Malay, as in Malaya or 
in former British Malaya, refers to a political 
ratlier than geographic ai'ea. Three other terms 
no longer need to be considered except in a his- 
torical sense: "Malay States," "Federated IMalay 
States," and "Unfederated IMalay States"— all 
recoi'ds of water imder the bridge in tlie sequence 
of events brought about by resurgent nationalism 
in Southeast Asia. 

"Philippines," "Eepublic of the Pliilippines," 
and "Pliilippine Islands" are not synonyms. 
"Philippines" is the short form of "Eepublic of 
the Philippines" and is used more and more in 
referring to the relatively new island rei)ub!ic 
except on official documents. "The Philippine 
Islands" is strictly a geographic term, not erii- 
ployed by the Filipinos to designate their national 
domain. As an example, one could say that Ma- 
nila is located in the Philippine Islands and that 



it is the present seat of government of the (Re- 
public of the) Philippines.'' 

Far East 

Passing counterclockwise from Southeast Asia 
along the periphery of the continent one reaches 
the vast region made up of China, Japan, and 
Korea. Maritime Siberia as well as scattered off- 
shore islands may at times be considered as part 
of the same region, though usually by inference 
rather than by definition. "Far East" appears to 
be the most acceptable term for the area in ques- 
tion. It has the asset of long tradition in apply- 
ing to the eastern part of Asia. On the other 
hand, "Far East" denotes no sharp delineation. 
Tlie broadest definition normally given would con- 
sist of the enormous land mass of Asia eastward 
from the Khyber Pass and Lake Baikal. Even 
South Asia and Southeast Asia would be incor- 
porated into this broad interpretation of the term. 
Conversely, the narrowest interpretation would 
confine the area to Japan, Korea, and a China 
shorn of its innermost reaches. It is readily ap- 
parent that South Asia and Southeast Asia are 
terms far more precise than Far East. 

Another term not without some specific regional 
connotations is "East Asia." Less widely recog- 
nized than Far East, it may be applied to about 
the same area. In the new geogi'aphy textbook 
7'he Pattern of Asia, edited by Norton Ginsburg 
of the Universit}' of Chicago, "East Asia" is given 
preference over "the Far East." The point is 
made that ". . . the term 'Far East' came to be 
applied to East Asia." As a further example, 
the Japanese prior to World War II coined the 
expression "Greater East Asia Coprosperity 
Sphere." Here a regional term lent itself to 
political and military action. 

More vague than either "the Far East" or "East 
Asia" is the term "Orient." Though strong in 
cultural implications, it is becoming obsolete in 
a regional sense. Plowever, there are those who 
continue to look upon China and Japan as the 
Oirient. Othei-s would also sweep Korea and 
Soutlicast Asia into the category because of com- 
mon cultural patterns and religious traditions as 



■' Quezon City has been decreed the capital of the 
I'hilippines, but as yet most government offices remain in 
Manila pending actual transfer. 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



well as a somewhat similar physio <i;iiomy of (lie 
people tlii-oujihout Miis laijjer rejjioii. Indeed, 
some exti-emists deem aiiytiiing ''east of Suez" as 
"oriental." It can be noted, however, that tlie 
word "Orient'' as an antonym of "Occident" does 
not necessarily carry a rejjjional meaning and tlms 
may well apply in a cultural sense to all of Asia. 

Northeast Asia 

Tlie area normally included in tlie Far East 
breaks down into two clear-cut divisions: (1) 
Xortlieast Asia and (2) China. The Japanese 
islands and Korea together make up "Noilheast 
Asia," a term rapidly gaining favor politically if 
not geogi'upiiically. Manchuria and the eastern 
part of tlie Soviet Union fit into any logical loca- 
tional concept of this region, since they also lie 
north and east in Asia. But any term delineating 
such a heterogeneous combination of political en- 
tities and parts of political entities seizes no well- 
defined purpose other than for consideration of 
the phy.sical landscape. Henc«, for most effective 
applications of the term, "Northeast Asia" is lim- 
ited to Japan and Korea. One would tlierefore 
hardly envision it — encompassmg only two coun- 
tries — to be complementary to a more spacious 
Southeast Asia in any worldwide pattern of re- 
gional blocs. China itself makes up tlie second 
of the Far East subdivisions, and its politico- 
geographic complexity entitles it to special 
consideration. 

Greater China 

The vast area of Greater China in its traditional 
sense holds within it five politicogeographic re- 
gions tliat ha\e survived for centuries in one form 
or another and are still known today : Manchuria, 
Mongolia, Sinkiang, Tibet, and China Proper. 
In size each one would compare favorably with a 
group of "Western European countries. Their 
geographic limits, never sharp in themselves, have 
seldom coincided with the ever-changing limits of 
political control. Even in the face of ill-defined 
borders, these major subdivisions are widely ac- 
cepted to designate segments of the eastern Asia 
mainland. 

Mfinrhuria. Wedged between Soviet territory 
and the Korean peninsula, the Manchurian region 
is sometimes called Northeastern China. In the 
1930's the Japanese incursion into Manchuria 
changed the name on maps to Manchukuo (or 



TRADITIONAL CONCEPTS OF 

GREATER CHINA 



f ^. 



L.S.s.R. 

r 



^^^ /•■/■ -^ 



-' '^•■>...-^"pMANCHURIA j 
OUTER MONGOIIA ^ '' X. C 



Z^ 



-.MONGOLIA' 

/.""sinkiang y V" ^ -^^o^^r" 





Manchoukuo) but without widespread or lasting 
effects. 

Mongolia. Mongolia is an area of internal 
drainage suited only to nomadism, occupied by 
Mongols, lying north of the Great Wall. The wide 
expanse of Mongolia further subdivides geo- 
graphically into Outer and Inner Mongolia, the 
latter less arid and lying nearer China Proper 
than the former. 

Sinkiang. Sinkiang is made up of a series of 
large basins and broad tablelands loosely stretch- 
ing from the Kirgiz Steppe to tlie Kuiduu ilouii- 
tains. The western and central parts correspond 
to Chinese Turkestan (or Turkistan). 

Tibet. Known as the "roof of the world," Tibet 
is formed by a high plateau rimmed by still higher 
mountains that have over the centuries fostered 
the development of an isolated politicoreligious 
regime. The name "Tibet" has both physical and 
political meaning, though in the East the two do 
not necessarily coincide. 

China Proper. The name "China" itself long 
had two meanings. It could be construed as en- 
compassing the four outlying areas of Manchuria, 
Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet — often called 
Greater China. Or it migiit exclude them and be 
coextensive witli tlie 18 old provinces south of the 
Great Wall. ' Tiiis area, known to geographers 
as China Proper, closely corresponds to the popu- 
lar conception of China as a land of teeming mil- 



'Anhwei, Choki.-iiig, Fukicn, Iloiiun, Hopph, Hunan, 
Hupeh, Knnsu, Kiangsi, Kiangsu, Kwang.>;i, Kwangtung, 
Kweichow, Shansi, Shantung, Shensl, Szechwan, and 
Yunnan. 



febwaiy J, I960 



155 



lions. Even here there is a well-established 
breakdown into North China and South China, 
with cultural o\ertones based on regional 
differences. 

In contrast to the broad dimensions of China, 
the narrow limits of Japan furnish few regional 
concepts of any appreciable dimensions. "North- 
east Japan" and "Soutlieast Japan" are well recog- 
nized, each based on segments of the populous 
Pacific margin of the islands. Several other areas, 
some of them quite small, have likewise become 
associated with well-known names. Of primary 
importance are the names of the four major islands 
that comprise the country and also serve as re- 
gional names: Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and 
Shikoku. Honshu has nearly 60 percent of the 
area and apjn-oximately 75 percent of the popula- 
tion of Japan and, because of its relative impor- 
tance, frequently assumes the role of the 
archipelago's "mainland." The situation is some- 
what comparable to that of Great Britain in its 
relation to the British Isles. 

The geogi-aphic term "Inland Sea" {Seto Nai- 
kai) identifies the busy body of water separating 
Honshu from Shikoku and Kyushu. In the cen- 
ter of Honshu a zone of rugged volcanic momi- 
tains has assumed recognition as the Japanese 
Alps. Finally, almost on a miniature scale, are 
the Kanto, Nobi, and Kinki Plains along the 
southern Honshu coast, which are fertile pockets 
supporting the largest cities and densest popu- 
lation. 

Department of State Regional Bureaus 

The crescent-shaped southern and eastern por- 
tion of Asia under discussion falls within the 
jurisdiction of two regional bureaus in the De- 
partment of State. In the Bureau of Near East- 
eni and South Asian Affairs (NEA) the Office 
of South Asian Affaii's (SOA)carries responsi- 
bility for an area closely corresponding to tlie 
concept of South Asia presented in this article. 

In tlie Bureau of Far Eastern Affaii-s (FE) tlic 
relationships l)etween regional responsil)ilities and 
tlie politicogeographic area known as the Far 
East are apparent but somewhat more intricate 
than in SOA. The Office of Soutlieast Asian Af- 
fairs (SEA) covere peninsular Southeast Asia 
except Malaya, Singapore, and British Borneo. 
These latter plus Indonesia and tlie Pliilippines, 



normally considered as part of the same region 
geographically, make up part of the extensive 
coverage of the Office of Southwest Pacific Affairs 
(SPA), which also includes almost all of Oceania. 
The Far East as we have visualized it in this 
article is divided between the Office of Chinese 
Affaii's (CA), which is responsible for affaire on 
the Commimist-controlled mainland, in free 
China, and in Hong Kong, and tlie Office of North- 
east Asian Affairs (NA), the latter encompassmg 
only Japan, the Ryukyus, and Korea. Thus, 
with but one noteworthy modification — that of 
msular southeast Asia — the Departmental bi-eak- 
down of regional offices within the regional bu- 
reaus does not deviate from accepted geograi>hic 
concepts. 

East Versus West 

Somewhere seaward from the outer eastern pe- 
ripheiy of the Asian Continent lies a shadowy line 
which in the American miiid divides East from 
"West. Inheriting much of our directional out- 
look from Europe, we nonnally regard any point 
in Asia as being East. To us, the Far East is 
the same as it is for, say, a Belgian or a Greek. 
Such a concept is not always plausible fi-om the 
standpoint of the distance involved. For exam- 
ple, from San Francisco to Tokyo the distance is 
nearly 20,000 miles if one measures in an easterly 
direction, but only .5,100 miles in a westerly 
direction. 

Even though we think of Japan, the Philip- 
pines, and other parts of Asia as Ijeing in the East, 
a westbound crossing of the Pacific to Asia gives 
us a western outlook in relation to the ocean itself 
and its western borderlands. Pamdoxically. then, 
we may think of the Pacific's western margin as 
either West or East. Americans have come to 
associate certain areas with a western direction. 
For example, during World War II our experi- 
ences in the southwest Pacific turned our minds 
westward. Pearl Harbor and, later on, Tarawa, 
Guadalcanal, and Leyte loomed as trouble spots 
in the west. Likewise, we presently look into the 
setting sun toward our ba.stions of defense in the 
western Pacific, notwithstanding the fact that 
(hey lie along the margin of the Asian Continent 
itself. On the other liand, all conceptions of a 
"West" disappear with any fundamental analy- 
sis of the continent itself. The Koreans, the 
Japanese, the Filipinos, and others native to 



156 



Deporfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



Asian soil ni-e unquestionably of the East, As 
Americans we liave an antipoilcjin way of fliink- 
mg which is very sjiecial indeed. 

Changing of Names 

In any pari of the world ideographic place 
i names inevitably undergo cliange witli tiie pass- 
ing of time. A new discoveiy, a new hero, an 
alteivd political outlook, or perliaps boredom witli 
an existing order may stimulate innovations in 
geographic terminology. In some parts of south- 
ern and eastern Asia since World War II impres- 
sive lists of names have been switched, usually 
from a P^uropean to an Asiatic tongue. The Indo- 
nesians, for example, elected to substitute place 
names of their own language for those conceived 
by the Dutch during colonial days. With the 
introduction of Djakarta we no longer think of 
Katavia, former name of the great metropolis on 
the Island of Java. Some changes in Indonesia 
have Ijeen less revolutionary, as Surabaja for Soer- 
baja. Nor have island names escaped the Indo- 
nesian drive for its own tenninologv'. One 
frequently sees Djaioa for Java, Sunmteiu for 
Sumutra, Kalimantan for Borneo, Svlawesi for 
Celebes, and so on. 

In India, too, place name clumges evidence the 
surge of a new national spirit. Indians have 
vacated Englisli names of provinces and cities in 
favor of their own. Zhiited Pravinces became 
Vttar Pradesh (fortunately without changing the 
standard abbreviation). In some cases the 
changes have been rather obvious, as Kdnpur for 
Caionpore and Bnndras for Benares. In otlier 
cases, city names that were already complex sound- 
ing in English l>ecame even more complex 
sounding in an Indian language. Two examples 
are TlniehirdppaUi for TnchinopoTy and Yiz- 
akhnpatnam for Vizagapatam', 

Summary 

Increasing politicogeograpliic importance is be- 
ing attached to the peripheral crescent of south 
and east Asia which must support more people 
than all of the rest of the world put together. 
The continued centrifugal expansion of world 
power from established centers in the Western 
World more and more embroils Asiatic regions 
in international politics. Since the close of World 



AVar II, Karachi,* New IX'lhi, Colombo, Hungoon, 
T>jakar(a, Kuala Linnpur, I'hnom Penli, Saigon, 
Vientiane, anti Manila liave all been adiled to the 
constellation of world capitals. On television it 
is not at all unconunon to hear on-the-spot com- 
mentators speaking from these cities as well as 
from Ix)ndon, Paris, Kome, Pretoria, .\nkara, and 
Buenos Aires. It is es,sential to i-ecognize South 
Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Far East as the 
critical world regional blocs that they are and 
to laiow them well in terms of geographic nomen- 
clature. Should more precise meanings be re- 
quired for these and other i-egional terms, one nuiy 
always specifically say what is included. To do so 
by no means invalidates the usefulness of the terms 
themselves. 



Americans Reminded To Reregister 
Mining Concessions in Cuba 

Press release 18 dated January 15 

In connection with Cuban Law 617 issued by 
the Cuban Council of Ministere on October 27, 

1959, and published in the Offlcial Gazette of the 
Republic of Cuba October 30, 1959, American citi- 
zens are reminded of the deadline of February 27, 

1960, for the required reregistration of title of 
ownership of mining concessions in Cuba. Solici- 
tors and nominal beneficiaries of exploitations of 
minerals classified under the second and third sec- 
tions in the Decree Law of Bases of December 29, 
1868, in Cuba must also reregister their requests. 
These registrations are to be made with the Mine 
and Petroleum Department of the Cuban Ministry 
of Agriculture in Habana, Cuba. The Cuban law 
provides that, if registration is not made in accord- 
ance with the provisions of law, ownership and 
concession rights revert to the state. 

In effecting the reregistration, the law states 
grantees are obligated to declare, if appropriate, 
the name and otlier personal data of persons to 
whom the mines are leased. 

The Department understands that the reregis- 
tration taxes are as follows: 



Tending the constructii)n of the new capital city on 
the Potwar Plateau, Rawalpindi is serrinR as the admin- 
istrative center of Pakistan. Meanwhile, Karachi re- 
mains the legal capital. 



f&bruarf 7, I960 



157 



(a) Payment of $100 for reregistration request 
for each mine. 

(b) Payment of an amiual tribute of $20 per 
hectare for mines which are not under adequate 
exploitation in the judgment of the Mine and Pe- 
trolemn Department of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture. 

(c) Payment of a $10 annual tribute per hec- 
tare for mines which are being adequately 
exploited in the judgment of the Mine and Petro- 
leum Department. 

The law also provides that, aside from the an- 
nual tribute on the surface level, grantees are 
obligated to pay the state as a sliare 5 percent in 
cash or in its equal value as determined by tlie 
state on the calculated vahie of the minerals ex- 
tracted in tlieir concessions in accordance with 
the higliest average yearly quotation registered 
in the world market. If exported, the participa- 
tion of the state in tlie minerals or concentrates 
of minerals will be 25 percent of the value thereof. 



United States Protests 
Cuban Property Seizures 

Department Statement 

Press release 7 dated January 11 

Ambassador Philip AY. Bonsai, who retm-ned 
to Habana on Sunday [January 10], delivered 
today [Januaiy 11] to the Ministry of Foreign 
Relations a note,^ prepared in the Department of 
State during the Ambassador's period of con- 
sultation in Washington, protesting to the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba tlie numerous actions taken by 
officials of that Government which are coiisidered 
by the United States Government to be in denial 
of the basic rights of ownership of United States 



citizens in Cuba — rights pro\'ided under both 
Cuban law and generally a<^cepted international 
law. 

The actions in question involve principally the 
seizui'e and occupation of land and buildings of 
United States citizens without court orders and 
frequently without any written authorization 
whatever, the confiscation and removal of equip- 
ment, the seizure of cattle, the cutting and re- 
moval of timber, the plowing under of pastures, 
all without the consent of the American owners. 
In many cases no inventories were taken nor were 
any receipts proffered nor any indication afforded 
that payment was intended to be made. These 
acts have been carried out in the name of the 
National Agrarian Reform Institute. 

(A case was cited in which a marine dredge 
and a tugboat under United States registry valued 
at approximately half a million dollars were 
seized without any writt«n authorization, inven- 
tory, or receipt.) 

Several of these cases have been previously 
brought to the attention of the Government of 
Cuba by the Embassy of the United States but 
without result. Nor have the direct protests of 
the interested parties been fi'uitfvd. 

The United States Goverimient in its notes of 
June 11 - and October 12, 1959,^ to the Govern- 
ment of Cuba expressed its full support of 
soundly conceived programs for rural betterment, 
including land reform. This support has been 
demonstrated by United States assistance given 
such progi'ams in many countries. However, the 
United States Government at the same time ex- 
pressed its firm belief that their attainment is not 
furtliered by the failure of the Government of 
Cuba to recognize the legal rights of United 
States citizens who have made in\estments in 
Cuba in reliance upon the adherence of the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba to principles of equity and 
justice. 



'Not printed; for a Department statement concerning 
Ambassador Bonsai's meeting with Cuban President 
Osvaldo Dorticos at Habana on Oct. 27, 1959, see 
Bulletin of Nov. 16, 1959, p. 715. 



^ For the substance of the note of June 11, 
June 29. 19."i9, p. 058. 
' Not printed. 



see ibid.. 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Operation of the Mutual Security Program, January 1-June 30, 1959 



EXCERPTS FROM 16TH SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To the Congress of the United States: 

Transmitted herewith is the Sixteenth Semi- 
annual Report on the operation of the Mutual Se- 
curity Program for the period ending Jmie 30, 
1959. The report was prepared under the direc- 
tion of the Coordinator for the Mutual Security 
Program by the Department of State, including 
the International Cooperation Administration, the 
Department of Defense, and the Development 
Loan Fund. 

The information set forth in the report demon- 
strates once again that today our national security 
is directly involved with nations and happenings 
throughout the world. 

The Mutual Security Program is flexibly de- 
signed to meet military threats where they occur 
and to make an effective contribution toward the 
cooperative effort of the nations of the free world 
to promote economic development. 

The economic problems of the newly developing 
nations of the world pose a challenge to our wis- 
dom and energy, and to our steadfastness of pur- 
pose, that is as demanding in its own way as the 
blunt threat of an armed attack. Our economic 
development and economic aid programs are de- 
signed to meet this challenge and its ever-chang- 
ing problems by selective and prudent use of the 
talents and resources available under the Mutual 
Security Program. 



' H. Doc. 299, 86th Cong., 2(J 8e.ss. : reprinted here are 
chapters I through IV. Copies of the report may be ob- 
tained upon reque.st from the Office of Public Services, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 



The military, economic and technical assistance 
provided by the Mutual Security Program is essen- 
tial to the achievement of our foreign i)olicy ob- 
jectives. A strong Program, vigorously and 
intelligently implemented, will see the challenge 
tliat confronts us surmounted. But a weakening 
of the Program can only invite the destruction of 
our free-world society. 

This report affords the Congress a means of 
measuring what has been done by the United 
States and its friends to preserve a world where 
men and nations can live in freedom, without 
fear. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House 
January H, 1960 

I. CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE 

In the 14 years since the end of "World AVar II it 
has become entirely clear that the social, political, 
and economic structure of the world is undergoing 
a profound and sometimes violent change. Old 
empires have disappeared and new countries have 
risen in their place. Nearly all of them live with 
intense desires for rapid internal developments. 
Taking advantage of the hopes of the new coun- 
tries, as well as of the dislocations and exhaustion 
of the war, the Soviet Union extended its control 
in the immediate postwar years over formerly in- 
dependent countries, and continues its efforts to 
extend and increase its control everywhere else. 

The Mutual Security Program (MSP) is one of 



February I, I960 



159 



the most important tools designed to cope with the 
external dangers to the security of the United 
States. In the broadest sense, it protects our se- 
curity by shielding the free world from external 
attack. At the same time behind the shield, it is 
helping to strengthen its political and economic 
stability. The danger we face externally is com- 
plex and continuing. At one end of the scale it 
begins with the skillfully manipulated military 
threat of the Soviet Union to the physical safety 
of the United States, its allies, and other nations 
of the free world. At the other end of the scale it 
ends with a more diffuse but no less real threat. 
This is the explosion that may result if people in 
the emergent countries are frustrated in their de- 
teimination to end the squalor and hunger and 
sickness in which they live. As these are totally 
different kinds of danger to our security, so must 
the methods employed in dealing with them be 
different. 

With the end of World War II, the nature of 
the threat to the United States and the West 
altered abruptly. From the clear cut test of war 
with the Axis Powers, the threat shifted to the 
shadowy area where the economic exhaustion of 
our Western allies might make them powerless 
victims of the Soviet Union, whose leaders were 
flushed with victory and intent on extending their 
power westward until stopped. This threat was 
countered by the "Marshall Plan" which was de- 
signed to restore vigor to the exliausted economies 
of Western Europe and thus encourage in the 
peoples and governments of Western Europe the 
will to protect their independence. The associated 
military threat posed by the existence of huge 
Soviet forces garrisoned in the Baltic States, 
Poland, East Germany, Austria, and Hungary 
was countered by the creation of the North Atlan- 
tic Treaty Organization (NATO). The United 
States provided much of the motive force in de- 
veloping the military forces of the NATO coun- 
tries, and in the earlier days of NATO provided 
the lion's share of the modern equipment used by 
NATO forces. The United States also furnished 
much of the military leadership in (he higher 
eclielons of NATO. 

The economic viability of Western Europe wiis 
restored, in part by the assistance furnished 
through the Marshall Plan, in part by the vigorous 
efforts of the western Europeans themselves, and 



in part by the cumulative effect of these and other 
factors on the revival of world trade. ^Mien it 
had accomplished its purpose (ahead of schedule), 
the Marshall Plan was terminated in 1951. The 
introduction of limited currency convertibility in 
late 1958 — which meant in fact that all western 
European currencies were "hard"— symbolized the 
return to full vigor of the European economy. 

While the favorable nature of the economic, 
political, and military developments in Europe 
permitted the termination of the Marshall Plan 
and the substantial scaling down of military aid 
in that area, the Soviet threat to Western Europe 
and the overall threat to the security of the United 
States continues; checked in Europe, it has broad- 
ened its scope and assumed less easily identifiable 
forms. 

The Mutual Security Program is designed in 
part to cope with the military threat to the free 
world. The continuation of this threat will in 
all likelihood require the continued existence of 
its military arm, the Military Assistance Program. 
But even if the military threat were to disappear 
tomorrow, other problems of almost equal severity 
would continue to call on our ingenuity and our 
resources. These problems, often hard to identifj' 
at fii-st glance as threats to the United States, are 
in general centered around the aspirations of the 
new and underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, 
and Latin America. The drive to achieve these 
aspirations, sometimes called the revolution of 
rising expectations, has its internal political ex- 
pression in every country concerned. Here mil- 
lions on millions of people have seen that it is not 
ordained that they must live in perpetual squalor 
and illness, on the ragged edge of starvation, and 
their political leaders press the point home. In a 
variety of ways this revolution is moving forward 
by fits and starts, often uncertain of its direction, 
sometimes involved in the free world struggle 
against communism, sometimes not. The Ameri- 
can people sympathize with these aspirations, and 
wish the new and underdeveloped countries well 
in their .struggle to improve their lot. But sym- 
pathy aside, it is clearly in the interest of the 
Ignited States that we assist this movement so that 
the underdeveloped countries may take tiieir place 
as free, independent and prosperous members of 
the conununity of nations as quickly as possible 
and witli the least possible stress and turmoil. It 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



is equally apaiiist our interests that this forward 
moveineut be stifled or hindered. To lianiper tliis 
movement would bi-eeti only frustration and more 
explosive threats to political and economic 
stability. 

One of the sparks that set off the revolution of 
nsinnr expectations early in the postwar period 
was the dramatic effect of the worldwide applica- 
tion of public health measures. Malaria was al- 
most wiped out in large areas of the world, thus 
reducing the death rate drastically. Other health 
measures applied for tlie first time on a large scale 
had equally startling effects, and stemming from 
them, at least in part, what constitutes a significant 
rise in the population figures is now under M-ay. 
Tlie explosion is taking place in the least devel- 
oped countries, those most possessed by the revo- 
lutionary urge to improve the physical lot of their 
people, and those least able to cope with the deluge 
of new mouths to feed. Thus, where creating^ 
viable modern society would have been a difficult 
job at best, it now becomes immensely more com- 
plicated and more urgent. Tlie rapid gi-owth of 
population may well prove to be one of the great- 
est obstacles to economic and social progress and 
the maintenance of political stability in many of 
the less developed areas of the world. 

These are some of the great problems affecting 
the security of the United States at both short and 
long range, with which the ilutual Security Pro- 
gram is designed to deal. The nature of the 
threats to the security of the United States and the 
stability of the free world have shifted during the 
10 years of life of the MSP. We must also expect 
that the nature of the problems we face in 1959 
will change in the years to come, and our response 
to the new face these problems present must also 
change accordingly. To meet these shiftmg prob- 
lems, the introduction of new tools and techniques 
—the International Development Association for 
example — is well underway. 

The United States can neglect or ignore only at 
its own ultimate peril the grave problems sketched 
in the precedmg paragraphs. It has been clearly 
recognized that they constitute a threat to our 
security; they have been and are being dealt with. 
"Wliat has been the price for coping with these 
problems through the Mutual Security Program? 
For fiscal year 1959 the Congress appropriated 



$3.4 billion for all MSP activities, of which $1.5 
I'llhon was for militaiy assistance. This figure of 
$3.1 billion w,is .74 percent of our Gross National 
Product, 4.;5 percent of the Federal budget, and 
equal to 8.4 percent of the military appropriations 
for the year. To help put this sum in belter per- 
spective, during fiscal year 1959 the Amei-Jcan peo- 
ple spent $17 billion on recreation, includijig $:{ 
bdlion on radio and television, $30.4 billion on the 
purchase and operation of automobiles, and $4.5 
billion on household furniture. 

The following pages contain the record of the 
problems with which the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram contended during fiscal year 1959 and the 
steps taken to solve these problems. Sometimes 
the response failed of its purpose; far more often, 
however, the hard work, ingenuity, and skill of 
the military and civilian authore and executors of 
MSP, using the tools with which they were 
equipped, achieved the results sought for. 



II. 



THE DRAPER COMMITTEE REPORT 



In November 1958 the President appointed a 
committee composed of distinguished private cit- 
izens to make an "independent, objective and non- 
partisan analysis of the militaiy assistance aspects 
of our Mutual Security Program . . ." The 
President indicated he was "particularly inter- 
ested in your committee's critical appraisal . 
of the relative emphasis which should be given to 
military and economic programs . . ." = 

The report prepared in response to the Presi- 
dent's insti-uctions is thoughtful, detailed, and 
comprehensive. It goes deeply into why the 
ilutual Security Program exists, how it operates, 
and the relationship between the two major i)ai-ts 
of the program, military aid, and economic aid. 
A close study of the report will be well repaid 
with a clear understanding of the major forces 

' For names of members of the Committee, see Bt'lletin 
of Dec. 15, 19,-»8, p. O'A. For text of the Conimittee-s re- 
port of Mar. 17, 1959, and the President's letter of trans- 
mittal to Conpress, see ibitl., ,Iune 1, 1959, p. 79<;; for text 
of the Committee's letters of transmittal of their reports 
of June 3, July 1.3, and Aug. 17, 19.^.9, to the President, to- 
gether with the President's letters of transmittal to Con- 
gress, see ibid., July 13, 1959, p. 40, Aug. 10, 1959, p. 208. 
and Sept. 14, 1959, p. 390. 



February 1, 1960 



161 



at work in the world today, and how they affect 
American security. 

The report makes constructive criticisms of 
some aspects of MSP and offere recommendations 
for changes designed to cure the flaws it dis- 
cerned, in both military and economic aspects of 
the program. These recommendations are now 
under intensive study in the executive brancli of 
the Government, and certain of them have already 
been adopted. 

The following paragraphs briefly sketch out 
and summarize some of the major conclusions and 
recommendations of tlie Committee. 

In response to the President's request for a crit- 
ical appraisal of the relative emphasis which 
should be given to militai-y and economic pro- 
grams, the committee observed that it knew of no 
continuing fonnula that could satisfactorily de- 
tei-mine the relative emphasis, whether overall or 
in respect to any particular country. 

The Committee stated that from tlie standpoint 
of U.S. interests it saw no competitive relation- 
ship between military and economic assistance, 
and did not consider that the Military Assistance 
Program (MAP) is too great in relation to the 
economic aid and development program. 

In another recommendation of a general nature, 
the Committee urged a major, sustained effort to 
make available to tlie public all the facts about 
the program. In order to do so it recommended 
that: 

. . . Presidential instructions be issued to the appropri- 
ate agencies to institute vigorous measures to inform tlie 
American public adequately concerning MSP ; and . . . 
that unjustified attaclis upon the program be answered 
publicly, promptly and forcefully. . . . 

Military Assistance — Past Performance 

1. The Mutual Security Program has played a 
significant role in deterring a third world war, in 
keeping many nations free, in supporting our 
strategic system of alliances and overseas bases, 
and in providing hope for economic progress 
among the peoples of the less developed countries. 

2. The Military Assistance Program has pro- 
vided coliesion, strength, and credibility to our 
collective security arrangements. It . . . has been 
one of the principal instruments abroad support- 
ing our foreign policy objectives over this decade 
of clash with communism. 



3. It provided a large part of the weapons, 
material, and other support which made possible 
the rearmament of Europe. For the past decade, 
further Communist encroachment in this vital 
area has thereby been denied, and the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization continues as an 
essential security bulwark of the free world. 

4. It achieved the strengthening of the nations 
around the periphery of the Sino-Soviet bloc. 

5. The Military Assistance Progi'am influenced 
a shift in current Communist tactics from direct 
military aggression to subversion, propaganda, 
and economic offensives. 

Military Assistance — Recommendations for the 
Future 

1. The Committee concluded that the necessary 
average level of expenditures that should be 
marked for military assistance over the next few 
years is not likely to be less, in general, than that 
required in the recent past. Continued appropria- 
tions at the present $1.5 or $1.6 billion level would 
result in a reduction in the program by one-third 
of the present ratio of deliveries. ^ The Committee 
pointed out that such a reduction would in fact 
amount to a fundamental change in U.S. national 
policy, implying a strategic retreat in the face of 
the Communist threat. 

2. $400 million should be made available, pri- 
marily for the NATO area, in addition to the $1.6 
billion requested for fiscal year 1960. ^ 

3. Military assistance should be planned and 
proposed on a long term basis — 3 and later 5 years. 

4. There should be a continuing authorization 
for the military assistance appropriation, in order 
to provide a sound legislative framework for 
multiyear planning and programing. 

5. The military assistance appropriation should 
be placed in the Department of Defense budget. 
(It has been carried heretofore as a major separate 
item in the budget of the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram, with Technical Cooperation, the Develop- 
ment Loan Fund, and so fortli.) 



' This portion of the Committee Report was written in 
early 1959, during fiscal year 1959, when appropriations 
were $1.5 billion. Appropriations for MAT for fiscal year 
196() were reduced by the Congress to $1.3 billion. [Foot- 
note in original.] 



162 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Economic Aid — Past Performance 

1. The substantiiil expenditures niado in recent 
yeai-s for economic assistance are justilied on 
grounds both of enlightened self-interest and of 
our moral resiwnsibility to oui"seIves to do what 
we can to help other people realize their legitimate 
aspirations. 

2. Economic aid programs assist less developed 
nations in achieving economic progress and there- 
by promote an international climate which facili- 
tates the realization of our own national objectives 
and those of the free world. At the same time, 
these programs decrease the opportunities for 
Communist political and economic domination. 

3. Irrespective of the Communist threat, the 
economic development of these nations is a desir- 
able end in itself. The United States cannot 
prosper in isolation. The strength of our economy 
and the survival of our free institutions are de- 
pendent upon our being a part of a community of 
nations which is making acceptable economic and 
political progress. 

4. There is no implication (by the Committee) 
that we must continue all of our economic assist- 
ance programs indefinitely. 

5. The economic development of a country is 
primarily its own responsibility. Aid . . . should 
not ordinarily be furnished and cannot achieve 
real results unless the recipient nation has the 
desire and determination to help itself. 

6. Many forms of U.S. economic assistance must 
continue for as long as the Communist threat 
exists, and certainly until greater economic prog- 
ress has been made in underdeveloped nations. 

7. Management of our aid activities has become 
an extraordinarily difficult administrative under- 
taking. "While administration and coordination 
of these programs has improved in recent years, 
there is no question that some of the criticisms 
made in connection with economic aid programs 
are justified. However, the programs must be 
continued and better administered not emasculated 
or abandoned. 

Recommendations for Future Economic Aid 

1. Starting in fiscal year 1961 funds for devel- 
opment lending under the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram should be made available at the rate of $1 
billion a year. 

2. Continuing authorization and longer range 



funding should be provided for the Development 
Ix)an Fund (l)LF). (At i)resent authorization, 
i.e., the contiimed life of DLF, has been provided 
by the Congress on a 2-year basis. Appropriations 
for the lending capital of tlio Fund have Ixmn 
made annually. These procedures make forward 
plamiing by the United States and the borrowing 
country extremely difficult.) 

3. Contiiuiing authorization should be provided 
for technical assistance. (Congressional authori- 
zation, i.e., continued life, is given to the Tecluiical 
Cooperation Program on a year-to-year basis. 
The nature of tecluiical cooperation (described 
briefly in chapter 2) is such that projects can 
rarely be plamied and brought to completion in 1 
year. Sensible and prudent planning of effective 
projects thus becomes very difficult.) 

4. Available surplus agricultural commodities 
should be utilized more effectively, extensively, 
and flexibly than at present in support of mutual 
security objectives. 

5. A single agency should be responsible for 
administering the major related economic assist- 
ance programs and activities. 

III. OPERATIONS OF THE PROGRAM 
Fiscal Aspects 

For fiscal year 1959 the Congress appropriated 
$3,448 billion for the Mutual Security Program. 
This figure included a supplemental appropriation 
of $150 million for the Development Loan Fund. 
The chart on p. 164 illustrates how ]\ISP funds 
were divided among major elements of the pro- 
gram. Table 1 illastrates tlie allocation of funds 
by region and type of assistance for fiscal year 
1959. 

The sum appropriated by the Congress, in legis- 
lation finally approved on August 28, 1958, was 16 
percent less than that requested by the President. 
It amounted to % of 1 percent of our Gross Na- 
tional Product in 1958, and was slightly more 
than was spent by the American people for radio 
and television sets in 1958. 

With Mutual Security Program funds, aid was 
given to 60 countries during fiscal year 1959. The 
great variety of purposes it was designed to 
achieve are described in detail later in this report. 
$1,551 billion in military assistance was provided 
to 38 countries, and $807 million in defense sup- 



February 1, 1960 



163 



MUTUAL SECURITY APPROPRIATIONS 

($ Millions) 



FY 1959 



FY I960 



Sopplementol $150 



Other Programs 




Contingency 

$155 

iSpeciol Ass 

|$200 

Technical Cooperoti 



Total.. .$3,448' 



Million 



Other Programs 



Confingency 




Total... $3, 226 



Million 



'Includes DLf supplemental appropriation ot $150 million. 



port was obligated under programs in 12 coun- 
tries, all of which (witli one exception — Spain) 
are on the periphery of the Sino-Soviet bloc. 
$282 million was obligated for special assistance, 
and $166 million for the Technical Cooperation 
Programs, carried out in 49 countries and 9 terri- 
tories. The Congress appropriated $550 million 
for DLF operations during the year. Against 
available loan capital formal loan offers of $596 
million were made, and $522 million was obligated. 
In general it should be noted that a substantial 
proportion of the goods and services purchased or 
ordered with funds appropriated by the Congress 
are not actually delivered during the same year 
for which the funds are appropriated. This is 
due to time necessarily consumed in planning, and 
in ordering, manufacturing, and final delivery of 
the goods or services in question. Most, although 
not all, of the goods and services which were 
ordered — that is, for which funds were obli- 
gated — m fiscal year 1958 wei'e actually delivered 
in fiscal year 1959. Similarly those for which 
funds were obligated in fiscal year 1959 will be de- 
livered during fiscal year 1960. In general pay- 



ment for goods and services is made at the time of 
delivery . Therefore, most funds appropriated by 
the Congress for fiscal j'ear 1959 and obligated by 
the MSP during fiscal year 1959, are actually paid 
out as expenditures during fiscal year 1960, and in 
subsequent years. 

Operations 

The operations of the MSP during fiscal year 
1959 were affected bj' a series of crises during the 
first half of the fiscal year, and relatively normal 
operating conditions during the second half. Be- 
tween July and December 1958 the Lebanon crisis 
occurred, the Iraq Government was o\er(hrown 
by revolution, a grave crisis developed in Jordan, 
a coup d'etat took place in Pakistan, and the Gov- 
ernment of Sudan fell. In addition the Berlin 
crisis was precipitated by the U.S.S.R. On the 
other side of the world, the Taiwan Strait crisis 
was precipitated by the Chinese Comnnniists. 
This list by no means exhausts the catalog of coun- 
tries in crisis and ferment during (he year; some, 
like Tibet, had no direct imjmct on ojionUions of 



164 



Depar/menf of State Bulletin 



the MSP. Other countries, like Iran, while not 
inflamed by internal crisis, were subjected to the 
stresses and tensions created by revolutions in ad- 
joining countries. 

The second half of the year was relatively free 
of crises. MSP operations, after adjusting to the 
problems created in the first half of the year, went 
forward in as normal a fashion as is jiossible in 
such an immensely complicated operation. 

Administratively, strenuous efforts were made 
to increase efficiency, both by the Washington 
agencies involved and their representatives in the 
field. The Draper Committee report, described in 
more detail elsewhere in this report, pointed out 
that "there is no more difficult administrative 
undertaking in the United States Government 
than . . . the management of the various eco- 
nomic assistance programs . . ." Measurable 
progress was made in recruiting personnel well 
adapted to overseas life, and in training them 
after recruitment. Various internal steps de- 
signed to speed up operations were taken. For ex- 
ample, by November 30, 1958, ICA had approved 
programs representing 89 percent of its fiscal year 
1959 funds, compared with 26 percent a year 
earlier. By the end of December 1958, 38 percent 
of the fimds available to ICA for fiscal year 1959 
had been obligated, compared with 25 percent a 
year earlier. 

Similar efforts to improve the administrative 
aspects of the Military Aid Program were also 
being taken. 



Military Assistance Program (MAP) 

The Military Assistance Program, for wliich 
$1,515 billion was appropriatexl in fiscal year 
1959, is designed U) lielj) support tlie collective 
security effort of the fi-ee woild and strengthen 
the cxjminon defense. The MAP coofMsrates with 
47 countries in a great variety of ways. The ac- 
tual form which militai-y assistance takes varies 
from region to region and country to country, 
taking into account different capabilitias, degree 
of threat and strategic importance, political cli- 
mate, and economic strength. In general the cri- 
teria used in deciding whether to provide military 
assistance are the following: (1) the importance of 
the force being aided to the defense of the Unite<l 
States, or the protection against internal subver- 
sion of an area important to the security of the 
United States; the degree of inability of the re- 
cipient country (political, economic, or teclmical) 
to supply its needs from its own resources; and 
(2) the importance of an area be.cause of its stra- 
tegic position, and/or its strategic resources; its 
political support for U.S. objectives, or similar 
objectives not necessarily directly related to the 
comitries' militaiy strength, but vitally important 
to accomplishing broad U.S. security objectives. 

Tlie lion's share of the fiscal year 1959 MAP 
program went to the Far East ($695 million), 
and the Near East and South Asia ($415 million). 
Aid to Europe amounted to $345 million, to Latin 
America $55 million, and to Africa $12 million. 
These sums provided gims, aircraft, naval vessels. 



TABLE 1 

Distribution of Programs by Region and Category 

of Assi-stance, Fiscal Year 1959 ' 

(In millions of dollars) 



Region 


Total 
program 


Military 
assistance 


Defense 
support 


Tecliniral 
cooperation 


Special 
assistance 


other 
programs 


DLF 


Europe 

^ear Ka*?t and South Asia 


$461. 6 

1,066.4 

171.8 

1, 395. 8 

159. 2 

421. 6 

- 240. 4 


$345. 2 

415.7 

12.3 

695.3 

55.3 

268. 1 

-240.4 


$49. 9 
217.9 

"539." 5' 

... 


$3. 
40. 4 
15.5 
32. 6 
35. 5 
40.6 


$33.0 
83.0 

102.6 

9. 1 

24.3 

30.2 


"j$23."6' 
""''•7 

""si'V 


$30.5 
286. 4 


Africa 


41.4 


Far East 


11&6 




44 1 


Undistributed and nonregional 

Less prior year availability 


1. 2 












Total fiscal year 1959 program .... 


3, 436. 


1,551.5 


807.7 


167.6 


282.2 


104.8 


522.2 



' Preliminary figures. Military assistance data are program figures; other data are fiscal year 1959 obligations. 

' Palestine refugees. 

' Asian Economic Development Fund. 



February 1, 1960 



165 



and the training of many men (and thus the up- 
grading of many forces). A detailed report of 
the operation of MAP will be found in each of 
the regional sections of this report.^ 

Defense Support CDS) 

Defense support (administered by the ICA) is 
that economic assistance required, in addition to 
military assistance, in oi-der to permit a specific 
contribution to the common defense by another 
comitry where U.S. militaiy aid is helping to sup- 
port significant military forces. Defense support 
country programs are described in detail in the 
regional sections of this report. 

Defense support stems from specific military 
requirements, but its content is economic. The 
need for defense support is determined by (1) an 
analysis of the economic and financial capability 
of the country to meet the cost of the required 
military effort without incurring economic insta- 
bility, and (2) the country's willingness to take 
all reasonable measures needed to develop its own 
defense capacities, consistent with its political, 
economic, and manpower capacity to do so. 

During fiscal year 1959, $808 million was obli- 
gated for defense support — ^$540 million to the 
Far East, $218 million to the Near East and South 
Asia, and $50 million to one European country 
(Spain). 

Development Loan Fund (DLF> 

The DLF, described in detail in a separate chap- 
ter of this report,* is a new and powerful tool 
designed to support and encourage long range eco- 
nomic development in the less developed coun- 
tries of the world. DLF's role is to provide 
capital to accelerate economic growth through 
direct loans and other fonns of credit. For fiscal 
year 1959, its first full year of operation, the Con- 
gress appropriated $550 million in capital. The 
DLF undertakes financing only when presented 
with specific development proposals, and only 
when financing is imavailable on reasonable terms 
from private investments, the International Bank 
for Reconsti-uction and Development (IBRD), 
the Export-Import Bank, or other free world 
sources. It can accept repayment in local cur- 
rencies, when warranted. 



' Not printed here. 
166 



Technical Cooperation CTC> 

Technical cooperation, which is administered 
by the ICA, is notliing less than an effort to con- 
vey the skills and techniques and accumulated 
experience of our society to those of the less devel- 
oped countries which need them and want them. 
For the first time in history, through the U.S. 
Teclinical Cooperation programs, the U.N, Tech- 
nical Assistance Program (UNTA), the Colombo 
Plan, the Organization of American States 
(OAS), and some others, the proven skills and 
techniques of the more advanced nations are being 
directed — deliberately and effectively — to attack 
on a broad scale the economic and social problems 
of the less developed coimtries. $166 million was 
obligated for TC in 1959, of which $21.6 million 
was directed to the U.S. share in UNTA, and $1.2 
million to OAS. The balance was employed for 
bilateral technical cooperation. 

Teclmical cooperation activities are generally 
organized in the form of jointly agreed projects, 
and the foreign government usually bears the 
greater share of the cost of the project. The TC 
program complements special assistance: defense 
support, and loans from the World Bank and 
DLF. For example, DLF and World Bank loans 
frequently have resulted from preliminary eco- 
nomic and technical feasibility studies, undertaken 
under the Teclmical Cooperation Program. One 
of the best examples of such complementary ef- 
fort is the Lebanon Litani Basin development 
program. This development program is now 
being carried out with an IBRD loan, after its 
feasibility had been demonstrated by an American 
survey group provided under the Technical Co- 
operation Program. Teclmical cooperation proj- 
ects have assisted in the establisliment of 
productivity centers, the drafting of investment 
laws, and so forth. The need for different types 
of projects and the feasibility of completing them 
varies greatly from country to countiy. 

Special Assistance 

The Special Assistance Program, for which $282 
million was obligated in fiscal year 1959 is eco- 
nomic aiei necessary to achieve political, economic, 
himianitarian or other objectives of the United 
States in any counti-y where the United States is 
not providing military assistance in support of 
significant military forces, and where needs for 

Department of State Bulletin 



such assistance cannot appi-opriately or fully 
be jn-ovided under technical cooperation or from 
the DLF. Special assistance, wliich is adminis- 
tered by the ICA, is also the source of funds for 
certain other programs (such as malaiua eradica- 
tion) which serve important U.S. interests and 
which are not appropriate for financing under 
other categories of assistance. 

A common characteristic of most countries re- 
ceiving special assistance is their strategic loca- 
tion; many of them are accessible and vulnerable 
to bloc penetration. During fiscal year 1959, $102 
million was provided for special assistance in the 
Near East-South Asia area, $83 million in Africa, 
$21: million in Latin America, $25 million in Eu- 
rope, and $9 million in the Far East. In addition 
$25.6 million was provided for malaria eradica- 
tion, and $4.3 million for support to American 
scliools abroad. The special assistance progi'am is 
described in detail in a separate chapter later in 
this report^ 

Section 517 of the Mutual Security Act 

The Mutual Security Act of 1958 added Section 
517 to the Act of 1954, as amended. That section 
became operative during fiscal year 1959. It sets 
up certain specific planning requirements as pre- 
requisites to agreements or grants, constituting 
obligations of the U.S. in excess of $100,000, for 
defense support, special assistance, and certain 
other fonns of economic assistance. The principal 
purpose of this section of the Act is to insure that 
necessary engineering, financial and other plan- 
ning has been completed in advance of the obliga- 
tion of U.S. funds for the final design or 
construction of a project. The procedures 
whereby this requirement is met, along with other 
related procedures followed in the administration 
of economic aid programs, are directed at avoid- 
ing the premature obligation of U.S. funds before 
there has been sufficient advance planning to as- 
sure that the assistance provided will effectively 
accomplish the purpose for wliich it is intended. 

IV. DEFENSE EFFORT— MILITARY ASSISTANCE 

Military assistance, like the several forms of 
economic aid which make up the balance of the 
Mutual Security Program, is an instrument of 



• Not printed here. 
February I, J 960 



U-S. foreign policy. All types of assistance pro- 
vided to our allies complement each other in pro- 
moting the security and progress of the free world. 
This dual objective is directly reflected in the 
categories of aid which contribute to allied mili- 
tary strength and those whose primary purpose is 
to foster economic stability and development of 
the non-Communist world. Although neither 
category can be considered more important than 
the other, it is clear that security is a prerequisite 
to progress. Only behind the shield of common 
defense can the nations of the free world pursue 
their goals of continued independence, economic 
growth, and a better life for all their peoples in a 
world at peace. 

That shield, the combined military strength of 
the United States and its free world partners, is 
in large measure the creation of the Military As- 
sistance Program. In less than a decade, this 
pioneer venture in peacetime multinational mili- 
tary cooperation, starting almost from scratch and 
with no precedents to guide its development, has 
been instrumental in the creation of a common 
defense. All around the perimeter of tlie Iron and 
Bamboo Curtains allied forces which the Military 
Assistance Program has helped to train and equip 
stand ready to repel Communist probes designed 
to test free world ability and will to resist. These 
allied troops around the globe are our first line to 
deter, and to contain, local engagements which 
could all too easily explode into the ultimate disas- 
ter of total war. 

Tlius there emerges clear proof of the vital con- 
tribution of the Military Assistance Program to 
the security and defense of the United States. The 
relationship between military assistance, and the 
availability of ovei"seas bases essential to effective 
deployment of our own advanced forces and mis- 
siles makes it even more strikingly apparent that 
national security is reinforced by collective secu- 
rity. Tlie degree to which we benefit from our 
participation in the common defense of the free 
world, is sharply revealed in the following state- 
ment by the Secretary of Defense : 

We intend through our Military Assistance Program to 
continue to build up the forces of our allies. These are 
the forces which in nian.y parts of the world would have to 
take the initial brunt of an aggressor's attack. Dollars 
spent wisely on them will increase our limited war, as 
well as our unlimited war capabilities, and save us nian.v 
dollars in our own defen.se expenditures. Our Joint Chiefs 
of Staff recently statetl, with complete unanimity, that 
they would not want one dollar added to our own defense 



167 



exiH'iuiiture if that dnllar had lo come out of our Military 
Assistance Program. 

The effective response of the Cliinese \iitionalist 
forces to the attempted aggression in tlie Taiwan 
Strait during tlie late summer of 1958 was possiljle 
only because tlie will to resist was backed up l)y 
military might brought into being by equipment 
and training provided through the Military As- 
sistance Program. Had not such defensive 
strength been in existence at the time of attack, the 
outcome in the Taiwan Strait might have been 
\erv diiferent. The United States might well, in 
fulfilling its international obligations, have had 
no alternative to direct intervention, with the 
inevitable risk of spreading conllict. Those who 
(piestion the need for our support of such large 
forces on Taiwan and in other areas of the Far 
East shoidd find adequate answer in the lesson of 
the Quemoy crisis. That the crisis was success- 
fully weathered is largely attributable to the 
superior jierformance and high morale of allied 
forces in being — trained and equijijied ])y the 
Militaiy Assistance Program. 

The existence of NATO's integrated fighting 
forces is attriljutable in large part to the Milit^irv 
Assistance Program, and is one of its most sub- 
stantial accomplishments. It is also perha])s the 
single strcmgest bulwark against Conummist 
aggression because, the NATO forces constitute the 
shield which protects Western Europe — an area of 
more than 1 million square miles, 270 million peo- 
l)le, great i-esources, and a reservoir of some of the 
liighest technical, managerial, and cidtural skills 
of (he Morld. The strength of that .shield is very 
direcdy i-elated to tlie security of the TTnitecl States 
itself, and it iiiustbe maintained at all costs. 

'i'lic total e.xiiense of su|i|iorting the common 
defense efl'orts of oui' fi'ee woi'ld allies through the 
■Military .\ssistance Program is neither exorbitant 
iioi- an unduly onerous burilen on the nation.al 
economy. In the lii'st ])lace, in recent years niili 
t:irv assistance cxpenditui'i'S have .acciiinitcd Inr 
only sliglit ly over f> ])ercent of total I '.S. cxpeiidi- 
tnrc^ for major national secui-ily |ir()granis. Sec- 
ondly, tlie total spent foi' both military and 
econoiiiic .'lid ill the .Mutual Security I'rogram has 
accounted for less 1 1 la II Ti )>ei'i-ent of our total l'\'d- 
I'ral Budget in recent years, and annually has j-e])- 
resented less than 1 percent of our ( iross Nat ional 
I'l'odiicl. Heciinse our ]iarliiers in tlie coiiiiiion 
defense elfort have shared subslani iail v in its 



financing, our own national security has been aug- 
mented at a cost far less than that of an equivalent 
overall incre^vse in the strength of our own forces. 
Since the beginning of the collective security 
undertaking our allies jointly have expended from 
their own defense budgets almost seven times the 
total amount of our niilitaiy assistance. 

The tangible results of these exj^enditures, are 
reassuring although not a cause for complacency. 
Since 1950 active army forces of our allies have 
increased from ;i,Go6,000 to 4,900,000 better 
trained and better equipped men, ready in the 
event of war. Comljat ships assigned to the navies 
of the free world have more than doubled — from 
1,200 to 2,500; and aircraft availidjle for the com- 
mon defense have iiicreased from 17,000 to over 
30,000. Impressive as is this numerical index of 
allied accomplishments, equally important — 
though less easily measurable — are the intangible 
byproducts. Chief is the strengthened self-confi- 
dence which has sprung from a more adequate de- 
fense posture. Our paitners' determination to re- 
sist has become steadily firmer as they have 
acquired the ability to protect themselves against 
the threats and probing of potential aggressors. 
Knowing that they do not stand alone, but that 
the United States will collaborate with them, they 
have not faltered nor fallen back in times of crisis. 
Their stanchness warrants confidence in the fu- 
ture of the whole free world. 

To support the Military Assistance Program 
ade(iuately is therefore undeniably in the best in- 
terests of the United States; and to neglect it 
seriously jeopardizes those interests and our own 
national security. 'J1ie following aiudysis of the 
status of militai'y assistance funds c'learly reveals 
the inevitable outcome if neglect occurs. It is an 
outcome we can far less easily afford than we can 
afford the funds necessaiT to insure that the Mili- 
tary Assistance Prog|-ani will coiilin\ie in full 
foi'ce as an essential instrument (d' I'.S. foreign 
policy. 

Status of Military Assistance Funds 

.\ltliougli the Military Assistance Program was 
initialed in fiscal year 1050. it was not until liscal 
years 1951 and 1952, tlie time of the Koivan crisis, 
that the United Slates i)egan lai-ge-scale su])jior( 
of friendly foi-eign militaiT forces (o su])plement 
ilie niiliiai-y cap.abilities of the United Stales. 
The military assistance a|)propriat ion for fiscal 



168 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



year 1951 was $5,223 billion and for fiscal year 

1052 was $5.2()7 billion. Since tliosi' years the ap- 
propriations have been grailnally reclueed. How- 
ever, because of the long lead-time required in 
military procurement, the level of military assist- 
ance deliveries has remained relatively stable. 

For fiscal year 1959 the Congress appropriated 
$1,515 billion for military assistance. During (he 
course of the year an additional $15 million was 
provided for militaiy assistance purposes from 
the President's contingency fund. Receipts from 
the military sales program during tiscal year 1951) 
totaled $28 million. Thus additional or new 
funds in the amount of $1,558 billion were made 
available during fiscal year 1959. That sum, plus 
a total of $3,373 billion conmiitted but not ex- 
pended fi'om prior year appropriations, provided 
a total of $4,931 billion available for expenditure 
during fiscal year 1959. Expenditures during the 



year totaled $2,368 billion whicli left an unex- 
pended balance as of Juno 30, 1959, of $2.5153 
billion. 

For fiscal year 1960 the Congress appropriated 
$1.3 billion for military assistance. This smaller 
appropriation will result in a major reduction in 
the value of deliveries of goods and services that 
can bo made in fiscal year 1900 and subsequent 
years. The reduced value of materiels and serv- 
ices that will be provided to recipient forces in 
fiscal year 1960 will result h\ a slackening in the 
rate of improvement of the overall capability of 
the allied forces through postponement of 
planned modernization, curtailment of essential 
training schedules, limitation of forward plan- 
ning, and in general lowering of morale. Mili- 
tarily, a reduced military assistance program in- 
creases the responsibility that must be carried by 
U. S. forces. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings^ 



Adjourned During January 1960 

ICEM Executive Committee: 14th Special Session Geneva Jan. 



Geneva Jan. 

Geneva Jan 



New York Fan. 

New York fan. 



U.N. EC'E Steel Committee and Working Parties: 23d Session . 

G.\TT Group of Experts on Temporary Admission of Professional 
Equipment. 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: 7th 
Session. 

U.N. ECOSOC Human Rights Commission: 12th Se.ssion of Sub- 
commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of 
Minorities. 

I.\E.\ Board of Governors Vienna Ian. 

G.\TT Panel on .Antidumping Duties Geneva fan. 

U.N. ECE Working Group on Industrial Statistics Geneva fan. 

Asian National C^ommissions for UNESCO: Regional Meeting . . Manila Ian. 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: 3d Session Bangkok Jan. 

UNESCO Meeting on Development of Information Media in South- Bangkok Jan. 

east .\sia. 

U.N. ECE ^rf //oc Working Party on Gas Problems Geneva Jan. 

U.N. ECE Electric Power Committee: 18th Session Geneva Jan. 

CENTO Scientific Council Tehran Jan. 



.5-14 

11-13 

11-15 

11-25 

11-29 



12-22 
18-22 
18-22 
18-23 
18-25 
18-30 

20-22 
27-29 
30-31 



'Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Jan. 13, 15)60. Following is a list of abbreviations: CCITT. 
Comity consultatif international teh'Kraphirjue et tiMi'-phoni.iue; CENTO. Central Treat.v Organization: ECAFE. 
Economic Commission for A.sia and the Far En.st : ECE, Economic C()mniis.sion for Eur()i)e : ECOSOC, Economic and 
Social Council; B''AO, Food and Agriculture Organization; GATT, (Jeneral Agreement on TarilTs and Trade: IAEA, 
Intem-Ttional Atomic Energy Agency: IBE. International Bureau of Eduration; IC.\0. Intern.ational Civil Aviation 
Organization: ICEM, Intergovernmental Conimittfe for Eurojiean .Migration; ILO, International Labor <)rg;inization ; 
IMCO, IntergovernmentJd Maritime ConsultJitive Organizaticm ; ITU, International Telecommunication Cnion; N.\TO, 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: SE.\TO, Southeast A.sia Treaty Organization; U.N., Unite<l Nations: UNESCO, 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ; U.NICEF, United Nations Children's Fund ; WHO, 
World Health Organization. 



: 



February 1, 1960 



169 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 

In Session as of January 31, 1960 

Political Discussions on Suspension of Nuclear Tests Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: Semi- Bangkok Jan. 4r- 

nar on Aerial Survey Methods and Equipment. 

WHO Executive Board: 25th Session Geneva Jan. 12- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources: 12th Bangkok Jan. 23- 

Session. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade . . . Geneva Jan. 25- 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 3d Meeting Moscow Jan. 25- 

SEATO Preparatory Conference for Heads of Universities Seminar . Bangkok Jan. 25- 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 1st Meeting Geneva Jan. 25- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 25th Session New York Jan. 25- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 2d Session Tangier Jan. 25- 

3d ICAO African-Indian Ocean Regional Air Navigation Meeting. Rome Jan. 26- 

Scheduled February 1 Through April 30, 1960 

FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission: 5th Session New Delhi Feb. 8- 

Commission for Technical Cooperation in Africa South of the Tananarive, Madagascar . . . Feb. 15- 

Sahara. 

IBE Executive Board Geneva Feb. 15- 

GATT Panel on Subsidies and State Trading Geneva Feb. 15- 

U.N. Commission on Permanent Sovereignty Over Natural Re- New York Feb. 16- 

sources: 2d Session. 

ILO Governing Body: 144th Session Geneva Feb. 17- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 16th Ses- Karachi Feb. 17- 

sion. 

FAO Group of Experts on Rice Grading and Standardization: 6th Saigon Feb. 18- 

Session. 

FAO Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice: Saigon Feb. 22- 

4th Session. 

ICAO Special Communications Meeting on European- Mediterra- Paris Feb. 23- 

nean Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control. 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission: Annual Meeting . . . San Jos6 Feb. 23- 

U.N. Committee on Information From Non-Self-Governing Terri- New York Feb. 23- 

tories: 11th Session. 

European National Commissions for UNESCO: Regional Meet- Taormina, Sicily Feb. 23- 

ing. 

IMCO yld Woe Committee on Rules of Procedure London Feb. 26- 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 16th Session. . . Geneva Feb. 29- 

FAO Meeting of Government Experts on Use of Designations, Defi- Rome February 

nitions, and Standards for Milk and Milk Products. 

IMCO Council: 3d Session London Mar. 2- 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 5th Meeting of Lima Mar. 7- 

the Technical Advisory Council. 

UNICEF Executive Board and Program Committee New York Mar. 7- 

U.N. ECAFE Conference of Asian Statisticians: 3d Session . . . . Bangkok Mar. 8- 

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade .... Geneva Mar. 14- 

Ten- Nation Disarmament Committee Geneva Mar. 15- 

5th ICAO North Atlantic Ocean Stations Conference The Hague Mar. 17- 

2d U.N. Conference on Law of the Sea Geneva Mar. 17- 

ICAO Legal Committee: Subcommittee on Aerial Collision . . . Paris Mar. 21- 

ICAO Subcommittee on Hire, Charter, and Interchange Paris Mar. 21- 

ITU CCITT Working Party 43 (Data Transmission) Geneva Mar. 21- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Small-Scale Industries and Handi- Singapore Mar. 21- 

craft Marketing/Canning and Bottling of Fruit and Food in Co- 
operation with FAO. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade .... Geneva Mar. 28- 

GATT Interscssional Committee Geneva Mar. 28- 

UNESCO Executive Board: 56th Session Paris Mar. 28- 

UNESCO Meeting of Administrators on Technical and Vocational Accra Mar. 28- 

Education in Africa. 

U.N. F:C0S0C Commission on Status of Women: 14th Session . . Buenos Aires Mar. 28- 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Advisory Committee on Extension of Mexico, D.F March 

Primary Education in Latin America. 

ICAO Informal Caribbean Regional Meeting on Meteorology . . . Curasao Apr. 1- 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 29th Session New York Apr. 5- 

International Wheat Council: Special Session London Apr. 5- 

U.N. ECOSOC Statistical Commission: 1 1th Session New York Apr. 18- 

Meeting of Experts on the Inter-American Telecommunications Mexico, D.F Apr. 19- 

Network. 

U.N. Economic Commission for Europe: 15th Session Geneva Apr. 20- 

ICAO Teletypewriter Panel Montreal Apr. 25- 



170 Department of State Bulletin 



ILO Petroleum Committee: 6th Session Geneva Apr. 25- 

U.N. ECOSOC Narcotic Drugs Commission: 15th Session .... Geneva .......... Apr' 25- 

NATO Ministerial Council Istanbul Apr. 28- 

Executive Committee of the Program of the U.N. High Commis- Geneva April 

sioner for Refugees: 3d Session. 

U.N. ECOSOC Narcotic Drugs Commission: Illicit TrafBc Com- Geneva April 

mitte«. 



Tenth Anniversary of Colombo Plan 

Statement hy Secretary Herter 

Press release 11 dated January 13 

On behalf of the U.S. Government I wish to 
pay tribute to the imaginative genius of those 
Conmionwealth ministers who, on January 14, 
1950, conceived of tlie idea of a friendly inter- 
national association which was destined to de- 
velop into the widely esteemed institution now 
known as the Colombo Plan. 

The Colombo Plan is esteemed because its es- 
sence is a noble objective. It stimulates through 
friendly consultation more rapid economic de- 
velopment of the countries of south and south- 
east Asia, countries which are strviggling to free 
themselves from the ageless burden of poverty. 
The United States, having undertaken numerous 
programs of economic cooperation tlirough bilat- 
eral arrangements with countries of this area, was 
pleased to join this association of free countries 
shortly after its inception. Although the mem- 
bers extend or receive aid through bilateral ar- 
rangements, the intimate multilateral discussions 
among friends within the Colombo Plan system 
are undoubtedly of great value to all concerned. 
They have constituted a stimulating force and 
have made possible more efficient and effective 
fulfillment of objectives on the part of both aid- 
giving and aid-receiving nations. 

If there is a key to the success of the Colombo 
Plan, I believe it may lie in the informal friendly 
consultative nature of its procedures. The Co- 
lombo Plan is not rigid; it does not bind mem- 
bers to any particular course; it is not an oper- 
ating agency. It does bring friends closer in 
their cooperative efforts. It is an association of 
friendly countries and is most useful toward 
meeting the economic needs and national desires 
of the members. It has in fact become a symbol 
of the economic aspirations of hundreds of mil- 
lions of people. My Government is proud to be a 



member of the Colombo Plan Consultative Com- 
mittee. It is gratified that through unanimous 
consent the life of this organization has recently 
been extended. It wishes for the Colombo Plan 
continued success in its great mission. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

ECE Steel Committee 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 8 (press release 4) the designation of Howard 
J. Mullin, a vice president of the U.S. Steel Corp., 
as the U.S. Delegate to the 23d session of the Steel 
Committee of the United Nations Economic Com- 
mission for Europe (ECE), convening at Geneva, 
Switzerland, on January 11, 1960. 

Assisting Mr. Mullin as Alternate U.S. Dele- 
gate will be Robert D. Woodward, an economist 
with the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

The Steel Committee is one of the principal 
committees of the U.N. Economic Commission for 
Europe and provides a forum where steel experts 
meet periodical!}' to consider and discuss matters 
of common interest. The forthcoming meeting 
will discuss principally the long-term trends and 
problems in the steel industry and a program of 
future work and will review the 1959 steel market. 



UNESCO Conference on Mass Communications in 
Southeast Asia 

An eight-man U.S. delegation headed by Wil- 
bur Schramm of Stanford University will par- 
ticipate in an international conference on the 
development of mass communications in south- 
east Asia, beginning January 18 at Bangkok, 
Thailand, tlie Department of State announced on 
January 11 (press release 6). 

The 2-week meeting is the first step in a world- 



february 7, I960 



171 



wide survey of existing problems in the mass com- 
munications field being carried out by the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO). 

Dr. Schramm, director of Stanford's Institute 
of Communication Research and an authority on 
mass communications, was in Washington on Jan- 
uary 11 for talks with Department of State and 
other Govei"nment officials and a meeting with 
officials of the radio, tele\nsion, and motion pic- 
ture industries. Pi-ior to leaving New York for 
Bangkok, he met with wire-service and other 
media representatives who have special interest in 
southeast Asia. 

The remainder of the U.S. delegation will be 
made up of U.S. officials assigned to the southeast 
Asian area. 

UNESCO plans similar surveys for Latin 
America in 1961 and for Africa in 1962. 

ECE Working Party on Gas Problems 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 15 (press release 21) the designation of Hall 
M. Henry, president. New England Gas and Elec- 
tric Association Service Corporation, Cambridge, 
Mass., as United States Delegate to the meeting of 
the "Working Party on Gas Problems of the United 
Nations Economic Commission for Europe, wliich 
is scheduled to be held at Geneva, January 20-22, 
1960. 

The main purpose of the meeting is to discuss 
European fuel gas problems. Mr. Henry will be 
assisted by a member of the United States resident 
delegation at Geneva. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

Security Council 

I.ettor Hated 22 December 1059 From the Permanent 
Representative of India Addressed to the President of 
the Security Council Coneerninf; a Pakistani Letter 
(S/4242). S/4249. December 28, li)59. 3 w. 



' I'rinted materials may be secured In the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 29(i() Broadway, New York, N.Y. Other 
materiul.s (niinieoKrapbed or processed documents) may 
bo consulted at certain libraries in the Unite<l States. 

172 



General Assembly 

Establishment and Maintenance of a United Nations 
Memorial Cemetery in Korea. Report of the Secretary- 
General on the conclusion of the agreement between the 
United Nations and the Republic of Korea. A/4330. 
December 4, 1959. 10 pp. 

Question of South West Africa. Letter dated December 
12, 1959, from the permanent representative of the Union 
of South Africa addressed to the President of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. A/4352. December 12, 1959. 2 pp. 

Budget Estimates for the Financial Tear 1960. Report of 
the Fifth Committee. Corrigendum. A/4336/Corr. 1. 
December 12, 1959. 1 p. 



Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Europe Working Party on Gas 
Problems. Report on Economic Problems of Under- 
ground Storage of Gas. E/ECE/362. August 26, 1959. 
47 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Note on Measures Re- 
quired for the Control of the Infectious Diseases of 
Livestock, Particularly Rinderijest in the North-East 
Region of Africa. E/CN.14/31. November 10, 1959. 

4 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. International Economic 
Assistance to Africa : A Review of Current Contribu- 
tions. Memorandum by the Executive Secretary. 
E/CN.14/23. November 12, 1959. 31 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Measures Needed To 
Ensure More Effective Control of Locusts in Africa. 
Executive Secretary's report on his inquiries. 
E/CN.14/32 and Corr. 1. November 16, 1959. 11 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Information Paper on 
Technical Assistance Activities of the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Prepared by 
the IBRD. E/CN.14/26. November 17. 19.-9. 4 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Annotated Provisional 
Agenda. E/CN.14/22. November IS, 1959. 5 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Reiwrt by the Execu- 
tive Secretary on His Exploration of Means of Aiding 
Governments in North Africa To Develop Their Esparto 
Grass Reserves. E/CN.14/33. November IS, 1959. 

5 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Report by the Execu- 
tive Secretary on His Exploration of Means of Aiding 
Governments in North Africa To Develop Their Sea 
Fisheries. E/CN.14/34. November IS, 1959. 7 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. The Impact of the 
Eurojjean Economic Community on African Trade. 
E/CN.14/29. November 20. 1959. 31 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Information Paper on 
Technical Assistance Provided to Countries and Terri- 
tories of the ECA Region Under the Expanded and 
Regular Programmes. Prepared bv the TAB secre- 
tariat. E/CN.14/27. December 1. 1959. 31 pp. 

Economic Commission for Africa. Programme of Work 
and Priorities I960 and 1961. Memorandum by the 
Executive Secretary. E/CN.14/36. December 1, 1959. 
21 pp. 

Economic Commission for .\frica. Information Paijer on 
UNICEF Aid to Child Health and Welfare Projects in 
Africa. Prepared by the United Nati(ms Children's 
Fund. E/CN.14/41. December 4. 1959. 12 pp. 

Economic Commis.sion for Africa. Report on the Facili- 
ties Available for the Training of .\fricans in Econom- 
ics, Statistics and Related Fields of Study. Prepared 
by UNESCO. E/CN.14/.35 and Add. 1. December 7, 
1959. 95 pp. 

Commission on the Status of Women. Women in I'ublic 
Services and Functions. Report by the Secretary- 
General. E/CN.6/354. De<t-mber 8, 1959. 75 pp. 

Technical Assistance. Report of the Technical -Vssistance 
Committee. E/3312. December 9, 1959. 22 pp. 

Departmeni of Sfa/e Bulletin 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Sugar 

International sugar agreement of 1958. Done at London 
December 1, ItKiS. Entered into force provisionally 
January 1, lt>5t); definitively for the United States 
Octot)er 9, 19u9. 

liatificaliiDis deposited: Guatemala, December 11, 1959; 
Ghana, March 4, 1959; Panama, March 18, 1959. 

Telecommunication 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed 
to the international telecommunication convention of 
December 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), with appendixes and 
final protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958. 
Entered into force January 1, 1960. 
yutification of approval: Sweden, November 18, 1959.' 

Trade and Commerce 

Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment of 
new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 31, 
1958.' 

Signatures: Ceylon, October 31, 1959 ; the United King- 
dom, November 6, 1959 ; Federation of Malaya and 
Peru, November 16, 1959. 



Effected by exchange of notes at Port-au-Prince Janu- 
ary 4 and C. l!Ki(). EiiloriHl Into force January 0, IWK). 

India 

Agreement further suppleinentlng the agricultural com- 
nuKiities agreement of Novemlxr 13, 1!»59, as sui)ple- 
mented (TIAS 43.';4). Kff.^rtcd hy exchange of notes 
at Wa.shiugton January 8, I960. Entered Into force 
January 8, 1960. 

Israel 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and As,si.stance Act 
of 19.j4, a.s amended (68 Stat. 4.''>5 ; 7 U.S.C. 1701- 
1709), with agreed minute. Signe<l at Wa.shingKm 
January 7, 1960. Entered into force January 7, 1960. 

Italy 

Agreement amending and extending the agreement of 
June 2.8. 1954 (TIAS 31.50), with Italv for a technical 
cooperation program for the Trust Territory of Somali- 
land. Effected by exchange of letters at Rome Decem- 
ber 24, 1959. Entered into force December 24, 1959. 

Turkey 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
of 19.54, as amended (08 Stat. 4.55; 7 U.S.C. 1701- 
1709), with exchanges of notes. Signed at Ankara 
December 22, 1959. Entered into force December 22, 
1959. 

Venezuela 

Arrangement for exchange of communications between 
amateur stations on behalf of third parties. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Caracas November 12, 1959. 
Entered into force November 12, 1959; operative Decem- 
ber 12, 1959. 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

Agreement relating to investment guaranties under sec- 
tion 413(b) (4) of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as 
amended (68 Stat. 847; 22 U.S.C. 1933). Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1959. Entered into force 
provisionally December 22, 1959 ; enters into force de- 
finitively on the date of receipt of a note by the United 
States stating the agreement has been approved by Ar- 
gentina in accordance with its constitutional procedures. 

Belgium 

Agreement concerning American military cemeteries, 
with annex. Signed at Bru.s,sels November 27, 1959. 
Entered into force November 27, 1959. 

Agreement regarding the erection of certain memorials in 
Belgium by the American Battle Monuments Commis- 
sion. Signed at Paris October 4, 1929 (4G Stat. 2732). 
Terminated: November 27, 19.59, by agreement concern- 
ing American military cemeteries (supra). 

Agreement relating to the interment of American na- 
tionals in Belgium, as amended. Effectp<l by exchange 
of notes at Brus.sels June 6 and July 23, 1947 (TIAS 
1672, 1969, and 3239). 

Terminated : November 27, 19.59. by agreement concern- 
ing American military cemeteries (supra). 

Haiti 

Agreement for the exchange of third-party messages be- 
tween radio amateurs of the United States and Haiti. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' With a reservation. 
• Not in force. 



ICA Institute Opens Fourth Session 

The Department of State announced on January 11 
(press release 8) that the International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration on that day had opened the fourth in its 
series of institutes in program planning for selected ICA 
employees. The 5-month cour.se is conducted for ICA 
at Washington by the Johns Hopkins University School 
of Advanced International Studies. Nineteen ICA staff 
members are attending the institute. 

The training is designed to improve the participants' 
effectiveness in dealing with complex technical and eco- 
nomic problems in countries to which they will be 
assigned. The principles of economic development, in- 
cluding the role of the Mutual Security Program as well 
as the relationship of political and cultural factors, are 
included in the curriculum. Lecture courses are given 
by the Johns Hopkins faculty and by guest lecturers 
from other universities, international institutions, and 
U.S. Government agencies. 



February ?, I960 



173 



Post at Yaounde, Cameroun, 
Raised to Embassy 

The Department of State announced on January 5 
(press release 1) that the American consulate general at 
Yaounde, Canieroun, was elevated to an Embassy on Jan- 
uary 1, 1960, upon formal attainment of independence by 
the former United Nations trust territory under French 
administration. Cameroun obtained its independence as 
a result of a resolution of the United Nations resumed 
13th General Assembly passed on March 13, 1959,^ declar- 
ing that the trusteeship agreement would cease to be in 
force on January 1. 

The United States first opened a consulate at Yaounde 
in June 1957. This was raised to a consulate general on 
April 10, 1959. 

Bolard More has been named Charge d' Affaires. 



Recess Appointments 

The President on January 4 appointed Dennis A. Fltz- 
Gerald to be Deputy Director for Operations of the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration in the Department 
of State. 



Designations 

Edwin McCammon Martin as Deputy Assistant Secre- 
tary for Economic Affairs, effective January 7. (For 
biographic details, see Department of State press release 
14 dated January 14.) 



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174 



Department of State Bulletin 



February 1, 1960 



Index 



Vol. XLII, No. 1075 



Asia 

Geographic Regions of Asia: South and East 
(IVarcy) 

Tenth Anniversary of Colombo Pian (Herter) . . 

UNESCO Conference on Mass Communications in 
Southeast Asia (delegation) 

Bulgaria. Letters of Credence (Voutov) . . . 

Cameroun. Post at Yaounde, Cameroun, Raised to 
Embassy 

Congress, The. Operation of the Mutual Security 
Program, January 1-June 30, 1959 (excerpts 
from report) 

Cuba 

Americans Reminded To Reregister Mining Conces- 
sions in Cuba 

United States Protests Cuban Property Seizures . 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Martin) 

ICA Institute Opens Fourth Session 

Post at Yaounde, Cameroun, Raised to Embassy . 

Recess Appointments (FitzGerald) 

Disarmament. U.S. Comments on Soviet Proposal 
To Reduce Armed Forces (White) 

Economic Affairs 

Americans Reminded To Reregister Mining Con- 
cessions in Cuba 

ECE Steel Committee (delegation) 

ECE Working Party on Gas Problems (delega- 
tion) 

Martin designated Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Economic Affairs 

United States Participates in Economic Talks at 
Paris (Dillon, texts of resolutions) 

Europe 

ECE Steel Committee (delegation) 

ECE Working Party on Gas Problems (delega- 
tion) 

United States Participates in Economic Talks at 
Paris (Dillon, texts of resolutions) 

Geography. Geographic Regions of Asia : South 
and East (Pearcy) 

International Information. UNESCO Conference 
on Mass Communications in Southeast Asia (dele- 
gation) 

International Law. United States Protests Cuban 
Property Seizures 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 

ECE Steel Committee (delegation) 

ECE Working Party on Gas Problems (delega- 
tion) 

Tenth Anniversary of Colombo Plan (Herter) . . 

UNESCO Conference on Mass Communications in 
Southeast Asia (delegation) 

United States Participates in Economic Talks at 
Paris (Dillon, texts of resolutions) 

Military Affairs. U.S. Comments on Soviet Pro- 
posal To Reduce Armed Forces (White) . . . 

Mutual Security 

FitzGerald appointed deputy director for opera- 
tions, ICA 

ICA Institute Opens Fourth Session 

Operation of the Mutual Security Program, Janu- 
ary 1-Jime 30, 1959 (excerpts from report) . . 



148 
171 

171 
147 

174 



159 



157 
158 

174 
173 
174 
174 

147 



157 

171 

172 
174 
139 

171 
172 
139 

148 

171 

158 

169 
171 

172 
171 

171 

139 

147 



174 
173 

159 



Presidential Documents. O|)eratlon of the Mutual 
Security Program, January 1-June 30, 1959 . . 

Protection of Nationals and Property 

Americans Reminded To Reregister Mining Con- 
cessions in Cuba 

United States Protests Cuban Property Seizures . 

Publications. Recent Releases 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 

U.S.S.R. 

President's Visit to Soviet Union Set for June 
10-19 

U.S. Comments on Soviet Proposal To Reduce 
Armed Forces (White) 

United Nations. Current U.N. Documents . . . 

Name Index 

Dillon, Douglas 

Eisenhower, President 

FitzGerald, Dennis A 

Henry, Hall M 

Herter, Secretary 

Pearcy, G. Etzel 

Martin, Edwin McCammon 

Voutov, Peter G 

White, Lincoln 



159 



157 
158 
174 
173 



147 

147 
172 

139 

159 
174 
172 
171 
148 
174 
147 
147 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 11-17 

Press releases may be obtained from the OflSce of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to January 11 which appear 
in this issue of the Buixetin are Nos. 1 of Janu- 
ary 5, 4 of January 8, and 5 of January 9. 

No. Date Subject 

6 1/11 Delegation to conference on mass com- 

munications (rewrite). 

7 1/11 Cuban property seizures. 

8 1/11 ICA institute. 

*9 1/11 Death of George Perkins. 
*10 1/12 Itinerary for visit of Premier Kishi. 
11 1/13 Herter : Colombo Plan 10th anniversary. 
*12 1/12 Kith semiannual .MSI' report. 
13 1/14 Dillon : Special Economic Committee, 

Paris. 
♦14 1/14 Martin designated Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Economic Affairs (bio- 
graphic details). 
*15 1/14 Thompson nominated ambassador to 

Iceland (biographic details). 
*16 1/14 Reinhardt nominated ambassador to 
Yemen (biographic details). 

17 1/15 Bulgaria credentials (rewrite). 

18 1/15 Reregistration of title and mining 

concession rights in Cuba. 

19 1/15 Dillon : OEEC, Paris. 

20 1/15 Economic resolutions, Paris. 

21 1/15 Delegate to ECE working party on gas 

problems (rewrite). 

22 1/16 Dillon: arrival at Washington from 

Paris meetings. 
t23 1/17 Nixon : welcome to Premier Kishi. 



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Vol. XLII, No. 1076 February 8, 1960 

PRLVIE MINISTER KISHI VISITS WASHINGTON 
FOR SIGNING OF TREATY OF MUTUAL CO- 
OPERATION AND SECURITY BETWEEN THE 

U.S. AND JAPAN • Texts of Joint Communique, 
Rem,arks, and Treaty and Related Documents 179 

BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT 

(Excerpts) 202 

EMPORTANCE OF THE SPACE PROGRAM IN INTER- 
NATIONAL RELATIONS • Statement by Under 
Secretary Merchant • ^13 

PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS FOR EUROPEAN 

MIGRATION, 1959-60 • Article by George L. Warren . 218 



TED STATES 
IJREIGN POLICY 



for index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 3 1 1960 



Vol. XLII, No. 1076 • Publication 6938 
February 8, 1960 



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Note: Contents ol this publication are not 
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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
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and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on de- 
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tions and on the work of the Depart- 
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Prime Minister Kishi Visits Washington for Signing of Treaty 
of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between the U.S. and Japan 



Prime Minister Nohusuke Kishi of Japan, 
accompanied by Foreign Minister Aiichiro Fuji- 
yama and a delegation of 36 Japanese officials, 
made an informal visit at Washington, D.C., Jan- 
uary 17-21 to participate in the signing on Janu- 
ary 19 of a Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and 
Security Between the United States of America 
and Japan. Following are texts of a joint com- 
munique, the treaty and related documents, and 
remarks made on various occasions during tlie 
visit. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, JANUARY 19 

White House preeB release dated January 19 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Minister of Japan conferred at the "Wliite 
House today prior to the formal signing of the 
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security 
between Japan and the United States. Their 
discussions were devoted chiefly to a broad and 
compreliensive review of current international 
developments, and to an examination of Japanese- 
American relations. Japanese Minister of For- 
eign Affairs Fujiyama and American Secretary 
of State Herter also took part in the Wliite House 
talks. Ijater the Prime Minister and his party 
conferred with the Secretary of State on matters 
of mutual concern to the two countries. 

I. 

The President and the Prime Minister first dis- 
cussed the international situation. The President 
told the Prime Minister of the profound impres- 
sion made upon him during his recent trip to 
South Asia, the Near East, Africa and Europe ' 
by the overwhelming desire throughout these 



areas for early realization of the goals of the 
United Nations, international peace, respect for 
human rights, and a better life. In discussing the 
international situation, the President stated his 
determination to exert every effort at the impend- 
ing Summit meeting^ to achieve meaningful 
progress toward these goals. The Prime Minister 
expressed full agreement and support for the 
President's detennination. 

In this connection, the President and the Prime 
Minister agreed that disarmament, with the essen- 
tial guarantees of inspection and verification, is a 
problem of urgent and central importance to all 
nations, whose resolution would contribute greatly 
to reducing the burden of armaments and the risk 
of war. They expressed the further hope that 
early agreement can be reached on an adequately 
safeguarded program for the discontinuance of 
nuclear weapons tests. They concluded that the 
world is entering a period affording important op- 
portunities which they have every intention of ex- 
ploring most seriously, but only on the basis of 
tested performance not merely promises. Both 
leaders recogiiized that all of man's intellect, Avis- 
dom and imagination must be brought into full 
play to achieve a world at peace imder justice and 
freedom. They expressed the conviction that, dur- 
ing this period and particularly until all nations 
abide faithfully by the purposes and principles of 
the U.N. and forego the resort to force, it is essen- 
tial for free nations to maintain by every means 
their resolution, their unity and their strength. 

II. 

The President and the Prime Minister consid- 
ered the security relationship between the United 
States and Japan in the light of their evaluation 



' For backKrotind, see Bulletin of Dec. 28, 1959, p. 931, 
and Jan. 11, liMiO, p. 4C. 

fibruaTY 8, 7960 



' For background, see ihii., Jan. 18, 1960, p. 77. 



179 



of the current international situation and declared 
that this close relationship is essential to the 
achievement of peace m justice and freedom. 
They are convinced that the partnership and co- 
operation between their two nations is strength- 
ened by the new treaty which has been drawn up 
on the basis of the principles of equal sovereignty 
and mutual cooperation that characterize the pres- 
ent relationship between the two coimtries. Both 
leaders look forward to the ratification of the 
treaty and to the celebration of this j^ear of the 
centennial of Japan's first diplomatic mission to 
the United States as further demonstrations of the 
strength and continuity of Japanese-American 
friendship. 

In reviewing relations between Japan and the 
United States since their last meeting in June of 
1957, " the President and the Prime Mmister ex- 
pressed particular gratification at the success of 
efforts since that time to develop the new era in re- 
lations between the two coimtries, based on com- 
mon interest, mutual trust, and the principles of 
cooperation. 

Both the President and the Prime Minister 
looked ahead to continued close cooperation be- 
tween the two countries within the framework of 
the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Se- 
curity. They are convinced that the treaty will 
materially strengthen peace and security in the 
Far East and advance the cause of peace and free- 
dom throughout the world. They are convinced 
also that the treaty will foster an atmosphere of 
mutual confidence. In this connection, the Prime 
Minister discussed with the President the question 
of prior consultation under the new treaty. The 
President assured him that the United States Gov- 
ernment has no intention of acting in a manner 
contrary to the wishes of the Japanese Govern- 
ment with respect to the matters involving prior 
consultation mider the treaty. 

The President and the Prime Minister also dis- 
cussed the situation in Asia. They reaffirmed 
their belief that they should maintain close con- 
tact and consultation with relation fo future de- 
velopments in tliis area. They agreed that Japan's 
increasing jiarticipation in international discus- 
sion of the problems of Asia will be in the interest 
of the free world. 



a Ibid., July 8, 1957, p. .'51. 



III. 

The President and the Prime Minister agreed 
that the expansion of trade among free nations, 
the economic progress and elevation of living 
standards in less developed countries are of para- 
mount importance, and will contribute to stability 
and progress so essential to the achievement of 
peace in the world. 

The President and the Prime Minister ex- 
changed views on the European economic and 
trade commimities and on the role that can be 
played by the industrialized Free World countries 
in the economic development of the less devel- 
oped areas. Both leaders called particular at- 
tention to the urgent desire of peoples in the less 
developed areas of the world for the economic 
advancement without which they cannot preserve 
their freedom. They stressed the role which in- 
creasingly must be played by the industrialized 
nations of the free world in assisting the progress 
of the less developed areas. The President par- 
ticularly referred to the increasing role the 
Japanese people are playing in the economic 
development of free Asia. 

In considering economic relations between the 
United States and Japan, the President and the 
Prime Minister recognized that trade between 
their two nations is of great benefit to both coun- 
tries, noting that the United States is the largest 
purchaser of Japanese exports, and Japan is the 
second largest buyer of American goods. Tliey 
exjDressed gratification at the growth of mutually 
profitable trade between the two countries. They 
reaffirmed tlieir conviction that the continued and 
orderly expansion of world trade, through the 
avoidance of arbitrary and new unnecessary trade 
restrictions, and through active measures to re- 
move existing obstacles, is essential to the well- 
being and progress of both comitries. 

The Prime Minister stressed the importance of 
the United States and Japan consulting on a con- 
tinuing basis with regard to economic matters of 
mutual interest. The President expressed full 
agreement to this view. 

lY. 

The President expressed his particular gratifi- 
cation that the Prime Minister could come to 
Washington on this occasion so important in 
United States-Japanese relations. The Prime 



180 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Minister expressed his appreciation for the op- 
portunity to meet again with the President. 

The President and the Prime ^finister iifivccd 
that their talks will contribute to the continued 
strengthening of the United States-Japanese 
partnership. 



WELCOMING REMARKS BY VICE PRESIDENT 
NIXON « 

Mr. Prime Minister, it is my honor and privi- 
lege to welcome you again to our Nation's capital 
on the occasion of this visit. 

I do not need to tell you that you are always 
welcome in our country as the representative of a 
great people and as a true and loyal friend of the 
United States. But I believe that this occasion is 
a particularly historic and significant one. At a 
time in histoiy when the relations between nations 
are very complex and sometimes difficult, we are 
reminded by this visit, and the reason for it, of the 
really exciting record of achievement in good re- 
lations between the United States and your 
country'. 

On Tuesday you and Secretary Herter will sign 
a new treaty of mutual cooperation and security be- 
tween the United States and Japan. This treaty 
will mark the culmination of great progress in 
relations between our countries in the 2 years 
since you last visited this capital. And we know, 
too, that it will mark the opening of a new era of 
even greater cooperation and mutual progress to- 
gether. I think it is only appropriate at this time 
to pay tribute to the leadership in your country 
and in ours which has made this record of prog- 
ress possible. The leaders of our two countries 
have recognized that we have true identity of in- 
terests in a divided world. And I can say that 
millions of Americans respect and honor you for 
the courageous leadership that you have given for 
the cause of peace and freedom for your people 
and for all the world. 

May I say that I am sure that, in your much too 
brief time here in our Nation's capital, the meet- 
ings you will have witli our President, with the 
Secretary of State, will bring even closer ties of 
cooperation and friendship for the years to come. 



President Eisenhower Accepts 
Invitation To Visit Japan 

WliUe House press release dated January 20 

Prime Minister Kislil, on lii'lialf of tiie Govern- 
ment of Jniuin, extended an invitation to the Presi- 
dent to visit Japan on tlie oceasion of tlie Ja|ia- 
uese-American Centenniai. The President act-epted 
the invitation with the greatest of pleasure and pro- 
posed that he visit Japan al)ont June 20, following 
his forthcoming trip to the Soviet Union. 

President Eisenhower toolv this opportunity to 
express his hope that Their Imperial Iliithnesses 
the Crown Prince and Princess will pay a visit to 
the United States on the oc<'asion of the Centen- 
nial, and the Prime Minister stated that he will en- 
deavor to bring about the desired visit. 



* Made at Washington, D.C., on Jan. 17 uiwn the arrival 
of Prime Minister Kishi (press release 23). 



TOASTS AT WHITE HOUSE LUNCHEON, JAN- 
UARY 19 



White House press release dated January 19 

President Eisenhower 

Mr. Prime Minister, ^Slr. Foreign Minister, and 
distinguished guests: It is a very great personal 
honor to welcome here in Washington the Prime 
Minister of Japan and his associates in govern- 
ment. They are here to sign, with us, a treaty of 
mutual cooperation and security. 

This year is the centennial of an occasion very 
similar to this one. A predecessor of mine, 100 
years ago, welcomed to this city the first Japanese 
diplomatic mission to the United States — indeed, 
the first diplomatic mission that in modern times 
the Japanese had sent abroad. 

During those hundred years tremendous 
changes have taken place. In our teclmology, in 
science, the changes have been such as to be revolu- 
tionary. And in the thinking of our two peoples 
there has been likewise a great cliange. We have 
come to the realization that we were not, each of 
us, truly independent of ourselves and of others 
but that there is among the nations — certainly the 
nations of the free world— a great and growing 
interdependence. 

In 18(j0 Japan was just emerging from an isola- 
tion centuries old and almost complete in its char- 
acter. The United States was living in an isola- 
tion of a different kind. We were so protected by 



February 8, I960 



181 



two vast ocean areas that we had no real interest 
in the rest of the world and certainly felt our- 
selves to be immune from the quarrels and strug- 
gles and problems and even the privations that 
others experienced. 

We have come a long way from that time. In 
1960 our two countries represented here today are 
leadere in an effort to bring the free nations of the 
world into a closer cooperation tlirough which 
they may achieve a better security for themselves 
and for realizing for all people the peace in free- 
dom that they seek. The signing of this treaty this 
afternoon will, all of us hope, mark one significant 
step in progress toward that goal. 

I am liopeful that all of you present, after we 
have had our coffee in the Blue Eoom, will be 
guests at that signing, which will take place in 
the East Eoom iinmediately after we leave the 
Blue Room. 

It has been a particular delight for me to have 
Mr. Kishi, an old friend of mine, here represent- 
ing his country this morning. We had a chance, 
because of this visit, to remark upon the tremen- 
dous changes, the tremendous progress that has 
been made in the last 2 years in the relations be- 
tween our two countries. We agreed that there 
is ground for great confidence that these relations 
will be sound and will grow ever stronger. 

Now, of couree, for both of us it would liave been 
a little bit more enjoyable and possibly even more 
profitable to have had these conversations on the 
golf course. But in spite of the uncooperative 
character of the season, we did have these talks, 
and both of us agreed that they have been not only 
interesting but fruitful. 

And it is in that belief and conviction that I 
propose a toast to the monarch whose able Prime 
Minister is our honored guest today. 

Gentlemen and Madam, will you please join me 
in raising our glasses to His Majesty, the Emperor 
of Japan. 



Prime Minister Kishi 

tJnofDclal translation 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and other honorable 
guests : Today I and my associates have the privi- 
lege of discussing ])olitical nfTairs with the Presi- 
dent, for which I offer thanks from the bottom of 
my heart. Further, the President's generous toast 



has touched me deeply, for which I am also 
thankful. 

In the 2I-/2 yeai-s which have passed since I first 
met with the President to discuss matters of 
mutual concern and mutual cooperation we have 
seen gi-eat progress toward achieving a position of 
equality and mutual trust. That we liave done so 
is a blessing for the peoples of both our countries. 
Moreover it also contributes in a great degree to- 
ward the achievement of that jieace in the world 
which all peoples wish for. 

We all know that the President works con- 
stantly, with all of his energies, toward achieving 
peace in the world, with justice and freedom. Not 
only we in Japan but the peoples of the entire 
world are well aware of this, and we all praise 
you for your activities, Mr. President. We pray 
for your success in your purposes. 

As the President has already explained, my 
purpose in coming to the United States at this 
time is to sign the new treaty of mutual coopera- 
tion and security between Japan and the United 
States. But this year, as the President has also 
indicated, marks the first — the end of the first 
centui-y since the first amicable diplomatic contact 
between our two countries. 

Tliroughout that hundred years, never, with the 
exception of a brief few, do I believe that we have 
had relations of anything less than a mutually 
profitable nature. I hope that in the coming 
hinidred years we will achieve even more progress 
toward a new relationship based on ti'ust and 
cooperation. 

I think that what we are doing today is signifi- 
cant for both tlie peace of the world and for the 
prosperity of the peoples of the world. I hope 
that our friendship continues in this way through 
tlie next century, without even a few years such 
as those wliich blotted our relations in the past. 

I hope that tlie work we do liere today will gain 
for us more than the hundred years of peaceful 
and cooperative relations that my prcdecessore 
gained. I know that wo will continue to work 
hard to achieve this. 

In reply to the remai-ks of the President I would 
like to tliank him from the bottom of my heart. 
I would like to toast the healtli of tlie President 
and pray that he may continue to work so ener- 
getically for tlie peace of the world and for the 
prosperity of all of the American people. 

Thank you. 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



REMARKS AT SIGNING CEREMONY, JANUARY 19 Prime Minister KishI 



President Eisenhower 



White House prcsB release dated January 19 



The siixninjx toilay of the treaty of nmtual coop- 
oration and security between Japan and the 
United States is truly a liistorical occasion at 
which I am lionored to be piTsent. Tliis treaty 
re]M-esents the fullilhnent of tlie poal set by Prime 
Minister Kislii and myself in June of 1957 to 
establish an indestructible partnership between 
our two countries in which our relations would be 
based on complete equality and mutual under- 
standinc:. The treaty likewise reflects the close- 
ness and breadth of our relations in the political 
and economic as well as security fields. 

It is equally fitting that the treaty of mutual 
cooperation and security should be signed in the 
hundredth year after the first treaty between our 
two countries came into eilect. On May 22, 1860, 
the first Jajianese delegation to the United States 
exchanged ratifications of the treaty of amity and 
commerce between our two countries. The subse- 
quent hundred yeai-s have brought unMievable 
progress and increasing prosperity to both our 
countries. It is my fervent hope that the new 
treaty signed today will usher in a second hundred 
years of prosperity and the peace in freedom 
which the peoples of our countries and of all coun- 
tries so earnestlv desire. 



Secretary Herter 

Press release 24 dated January 19 

It is a great honor and privilege for me to repre- 
sent the ITnited States as the principal signatory 
of this new treaty of mutual cooperation and 
security with Japan. The significance of this 
occasion for both our countries is demonstrated 
by the i)resence of the highest officials of both 
Govei-imients, the President of the United States 
and the Prime Minister of Japan, as well as 
delegations from the Legislatures of both nations. 

I am confident that the treaty we are signing 
today will establish, in the political, economic, 
and security fields, the basis for close cooperation 
to our mutual benefit for many years to come. It 
will also serve as notice of our solidarity to those 
who would attack or subvert the freedom which 
is our most precious possession. 



UnoOlclal tranglatloa 

For Japan and the United States tiiis is a 
truly significant and historic occasion. The now 
treaty of mutual cooperation and security which 
we are about to sign constitutes the basic struc- 
ture of partnership between our countries and a 
basis for elTective cooperation, not only in tlie field 
of security but also in the broader political and 
economic fields. The consummation of this treaty 
in the centennial year of our diplomatic and com- 
mercial relations is indeed a happy augui-y for 
the future. 

Ilencefortli our common efforts should bo de- 
voted to making our partnership a living and 
dynamic instrument for peace under justice and 
freedom and for human progress throughout the 
world. I am sure that we are making a most aus- 
picious start into the second century of Japanese- 
American relations. 



Foreign Minister Fujiyama 

Unofficial translation 

This is truly an auspicious event. It will go 
down in history, I am sure, as a great and im- 
portant milestone in the full century of relations 
between Japan and the United States. The 
treaty we have signed brings us together in closer 
association than any pact ever concluded between 
our two countries. 

I am glad and proud of the part I have per- 
sonally had in the making of this treaty. As the 
chief negotiator for Japan, I know what this 
treaty is and what it is for. It is an open com- 
pact for all the world to see as a treaty pledging 
our coimtries to serve as partners in the cause of 
a secure peace under justice and freedom. It 
reflects the sentiments and the iispirations of both 
our peoples. 

On this occasion I should express my highest 
respects and appreciation to the representatives 
of the United States for the great undei-standing 
and zeal shown by them in working closely with 
us to make a treaty of which lx>th our countries 
may bo truly proud. I address these sentiments 
particularly to the late Secretary Dulles, with 
whose understanding the negotiations were initi- 
ated, to Secretary llerter, who took a pereonal 
hand in leading the negotiations for his Govern- 
ment to this happy consummation, and to Ambas- 



February 8, 7960 



183 



sador [Douglas] MacArthur [II], who showed a 
deep appreciation of Japan's hopes and aspira- 
tions throughout the negotiations. 

This is a day of fulfillment. But, at the same 
time, this is only the beginning of our real task — 
to breathe life into this treaty. Dedicated as we 
both are to the spirit of partnership, peace, and 
progress, I am confident that we shall succeed in 
our endeavor. 



FAREWELL REMARKS BY UNDER SECRETARY 
MERCHANT <> 

Mr. Prime INIinister, we have come to the end 
of a friendly and fruitful visit. We have had an 
opportunity to renew old friendships and to dis- 
cuss many matters of common concern. You are 
leavuig us to visit our mutual friend and our good 
and close neighbor, Canada, where I know a warm 
reception awaits you. 

Your visit to Washington and the treaty of 
mutual cooperation and security we have signed 
during this visit are an auspicious start to the cele- 
bration this year of the 100th anniversary of the 
first visit to Washington by plenipotentiaries 
representing Japan. We will work closely with 
you to symbolize by this anniversary celebration 
our common dedication to the ideals that miite 
free peoples everywhere. 

I hope you leave us, as we leave you, with the 
conviction that we are in closer agreement than 
ever in our aspirations for peace and security and 
in the ways and means that must be employed by 
the community of free nations to achieve these 
aspirations. You should also know that you are 
always welcome to our shores. 

Goodby and Godspeed. 



TREATY AND RELATED DOCUMENTS 



Press release 25 dated January 19 

Text of Treaty 

Tbeatt op Mutual Cooperation and Secueitt Between 
THE United States of America and Japan 

The United States of America and Japan, 
Desiring to strengthen the bonds of peace and friend- 
ship traditionally existing between them, and to uphold 
the principles of democracy, individual liberty, and the 
rule of law, 



" Made at Washington, D.C., on Jan. 21 upon the depar- 
ture of Mr. Kisbi (press release 28 datcHl Jan. 20). 



Desiring further to encourage closer economic coopera- 
tion between them and to promote conditions of economic 
stability and well-being in their countries. 

Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles 
of the Charter of the United Nations, and their desire to 
live in peace with all peoples and all governments. 

Recognizing that they have the inherent right of indi- 
vidual or collective self-defense as affirmed in the Charter 
of the United Nations, 

Considering that they have a common concern in the 
maintenance of international peace and security in the 
Far East, 

Having resolved to conclude a treaty of mutual coop- 
eration and security, 

Therefore agree as follows : 

Akticle I 

The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of 
the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in 
which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a 
manner that international peace and security and justice 
are not endangered and to refrain in their international 
relations from the threat or use of force against the ter- 
ritorial integrity or political independence of any state, 
or in any other manner inconsistent with the iiurposes of 
the United Nations. 

The Parties will endeavor in concert with other peace- 
loving countries to strengthen the United Nations so that 
its mission of maintaining international peace and secu- 
rity may be discharged more effectively. 

Article II 

The Parties will contribute toward the further develop- 
ment of peaceful and friendly international relations by 
strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about 
a better understanding of the principles upon which these 
institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of 
stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate con- 
flict in their international economic policies and will en- 
courage economic collaboration between them. 

Article III 

The Parties, individually and in cooperation with each 
other, by means of continuous and effective self-help and 
mutual aid will maintain and develop, subject to their 
constitutional provisions, their capacities to resist armed 
attack. 

Article IV 

The Parties will consult together from time to time re- 
garding the implementation of this Treaty, and, at the 
request of either Party, whenever the security of Japan 
or international peace and security in the Far East is 
threatened. 

Article V 

Each Party recognizes that an armed attack again.st 
either Party in the territories under the administration 
of Japan would be dangerous to its own i)eace and safety 
and declares that it would act to meet the common danger 
in accordance with its constitutional provisions and 
processes. 



184 



Department of State Bulletin 



Any sm-h iinued attack and all measures taken at) a 
result thereof sliall be immetliately reported to the Se- 
curity Council of the United Nations in accordance with 
the provisions of Article 51 of the Charter. Such meas- 
ures sliall be terminated when the Security Council has 
taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain 
international iH?ace and security. 

Abticle VI 

For the purpose of contrlbutinf,' to the security of 
Japan and tlie maintenance of international peace and 
security in the Far East, the United States of America 
is sninte<l the use by its land, air ami naval forces of 
facilities and areas in Japan. 

The use of these facilities and areas as well as the 
status of United States armed forces in Japan shall be 
governed by a separate agreement, replacing the Adminis- 
trative Agreement under Article III of the Security 
Treaty between the United States of America and Japan, 
signed at Tokyo on February 28, 1952, as amended," and 
by such other arrangements as may be agreed upon. 

Abticle VII 

This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted 
as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the 
Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the 
responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance 
of international peace and security. 

Aeticle VIII 

This Treaty shall be ratified by the United States of 
America and Japan in accordance with their respective 
constitutional processes and will enter into force on the 
date on which the instruments of ratification thereof 
have been exchanged by them in Tokyo. 

Abticle IX 

The Security Treaty between the United States of 
America and Japan ' signed at the city of San Francisco 
on September 8, 1951 shall expire upon the entering into 
force of this Treaty. 

Abticle X 

This Treaty shall remain in force until in the opinion 
of the Governments of the United States of America and 
Japan there shall have come into force such United Na- 
tions arrangements as wiU satisfactorily provide for the 
maintenance of international peace and security in the 
Japan area. 

However, after the Treaty has been in force for ten 
years, either Party may give notice to the other Party of 
its intention to terminate the Treaty, In which case the 
Treaty shall terminate one year after such notice has 
been given. 



• Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2492 and 
2848; for text of treaty and protocol, see Bulletin of 
Mar. 10, 1952, p. 382, and Nov. 2, 1953, p. 595. 

' TIAS 2491 ; for text, see Bulletin of Sept. 17, 1951, 
p. 4(H. 

February 8, 1960 



In witness wriRKEOF the undersigned Plenli>oteDtlarles 
have signed this Treaty. 

Done in diipli<'ate at Wa.shiiigton in the KngliHli and 
Japanese languages, both equally authentic, this 19Ui day 
of January, lOCO. 

For the United States of America : 
Christian A. Meiiteb 
Douglas M.vcArthub 2nb 
J'Obaham Pabsonb 

For Japan : 

Nobusuke Kisni 
AlICHIRO Fu.iiyama 
MiTSUJIUO IsHU 
Tadashi Adachi 
koicbibo asakai 



Agreed Minute to the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation 
and Security 

Japanese Plenipotentiary : 

While the question of the status of the Islands admin- 
istered by the United States under Article 3 of the Treaty 
of Peace with Japan' has not been made a subject of 
discussion in the course of treaty negotiations, I would 
like to emphasize the strong concern of the Government 
and people of Japan for the safety of the people of these 
islands since Japan possesses residual sovereignty over 
these islands. If an armed attack occurs or is threatened 
against these islands, the two countries will of course con- 
sult together closely under Article IV of the Treaty of 
Mutual Cooperation and Security. In the event of an 
armed attack, it is the intention of the Government of 
Japan to explore with the United States measures which 
it might be able to take for the welfare of the islanders. 

United States Plenipotentiary : 

In the event of an armed attack against these islands, 
the United States Government will consult at once with 
the Government of Japan and intends to take the neces- 
sary measures for the defense of Uiese islands, and to do 
its utmost to secure the welfare of the islanders. 
Washington, January 19, 1960. 

C. A. H. 
N. K 

Agreement Under Article VI of the Treaty 

Agbeesient Undeb Abticle VI of the Tbeaty of Mctuai, 
Coopekation and Secueity Between the United 
States op Amebica and Japan, Regahdino Facilities 
and Areas and the Status of United States Abmed 
Forces in Japan 

The United States of America and Japan, pursuant to 
Article VI of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Se- 
curity between the United States of America and Japan 
signed at Washington on January 19, 1960, have entered 
into this Agreement in terms as set forth below : 



' TIAS 2490 ; for text, see Bulletin of Aug. 27, 1951, 
p. 349. 

185 



Article I 

In this Agreement the expression — 

(a) "members of the United States armed forces" 
means the personnel on active duty belonging to the land, 
sea or air armed services of the United States of America 
when in the territory of Japan. 

(b) "civilian component" means the civilian persons of 
United States nationality who are in the employ of, serv- 
ing with, or accompanying the United States armed forces 
in Japan, but excludes persons who are ordinarily resi- 
dent in Japan or who are mentioned in paragraph 1 of 
Article XIV. For the purposes of this Agreement only, 
dual nationals. United States and Japanese, who are 
brought to Japan by the United States shall be considered 
as United States nationals. 

(c) "dependents" means 

(1) Spouse, and children under 21 ; 

(2) Parents, and children over 21, if dependent for 
over half their support upon a member of the 
United States armed forces or civilian com- 
ponent 

Article II 

1. (a) The United States is granted, under Article VI 
of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, the use 
of facilities and areas in Japan. Agreements as to .specific 
facilities and areas shall be concluded by the two Govern- 
ments through the Joint Committee provided for in Article 
XXV of this Agreement. "Facilities and areas" Include 
existing furnishings, equipment and fixtures necessary to 
the operation of such facilities and areas. 

(b) The facilities and areas of which the United States 
has the use at the time of expiration of the Administrative 
Agreement under Article III of the Security Treaty be- 
tween the United States of America and Japan, shall be 
considered as facilities and areas agreed upon between the 
two Governments in accordance with subparagraph (a) 
above. 

2. At the request of either Government, the Governments 
of the United States and Japan shall review such arrange- 
ments and may agree that such facilities and areas shall 
be returned to Japan or that additional facilities and areas 
may be provided. 

3. The facilities and areas used by the United States 
armed forces shall be returned to Japan whenever they 
are no longer needed for purposes of this Agreement, and 
the United States agrees to keep the needs for facilities 
and areas under continual observation with a view toward 
such return. 

4. (a) When facilities and areas are temporarily not 
being used by the United States armed forces, the Govern- 
ment of Japan may make, or permit Japanese nationals to 
make, interim use of such facilities and areas provided 
that it is agreed between the two Governments through 
the Joint Committee that such use would not be harmful 
to the purposes for which the facilities and areas are 
normally used by the United States armed forces. 

(b) With resjiect to facilities and areas which are to be 
used by United States armed forces for limited periods 
of time, the Joint Committee shall specify in the agree- 
ments covering such facilities and areas the extent to 
which the provisions of this Agreement shall api)ly. 



Article III 

1. Within the facilities and areas, the United States 
may take all the measures neces.sary for their establish- 
ment, operation, safeguarding and control. In order to 
provide access for the United States armed forces to the 
facilities and areas for their supiwrt, safeguarding and 
control, the Government of Japan shall, at the request of 
the United States armed forces and upon consultation 
between the two Governments through the Joint Commit- 
tee, take necessary measures within the scope of applicable 
laws and regrulations over land, territorial waters and 
airspace adjacent to, or in the vicinities of the facilities 
and areas. The United States may also take necessary 
measures for such purposes upon consultation between 
the two Governments through the Joint Committee. 

2. The United States agrees not to take the measures 
referred to in paragraph 1 in such a manner as to inter- 
fere unneces.sarily with navigation, aviation, communi- 
cation, or land travel to or from or within the territories 
(if Japan. All questions relating to frefjuencies, power 
and like matters used by apparatus employed by the 
United States designed to emit electric radiation shall 
be .settled by arrangement between the appropriate au- 
thorities of the two Governments. The Government of 
Japan shall, within the scope of applicable laws and 
regulations, take all reasonable measures to avoid or 
eliminate interference with telecommunications elec- 
tronics required by the United States armed forces. 

3. Operations in the facilities and areas in use by the 
United States armed forces shall be carried on with 
due regard for the public safety. 

Article IV 

1. The United States is not obliged, when it returns 
facilities and areas to Japan on the expiration of this 
Agreement or at an earlier date, to restore the facilities 
and areas to the condition in which they were at the 
time they became available to the United States armed 
forces, or to compensate Japan in lieu of such restoration. 

2. Japan is not obliged to make any compensation to 
the United States for any improvements made in the 
facilities and areas or for the buildings or structures left 
thereon on the expiration of this Agreement or the earlier 
return of the facilities and areas. 

3. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to any con- 
struction wliich the Government of the United States 
may imdertake under special arrangements with the 
Government of Japan. 

Article V 

1. United States and foreign vessels and aircraft oper- 
ated by, for, or under the control of the Unite<l States 
for official purposes shall be accorded access to any port 
or airport of Japan free from toll or landing charges. 
When cargo or passengers not accorded the exemptions 
of this Agreement are carried on such vessels and air- 
craft, notification shall be given to tlio ajipropriate Japa- 
nese autlioritics, and their entry into and departure from 
Japan shall be according to the laws and regulations of 
Japan. 

2. The vessels and aircraft mentioned in paragraph 1, 
United States Government-owned vehicles including 



186 



Department of State Bulletin 



nniior, and members of the XTnlted Stntes nrme<l foroes, 
the civilian compoiu'iit, ami their dependents shall be 
aoconleil access to and movement between facilities and 
areas in use by the l'nite<l States arnie<l forces and be- 
tween such facilities and areas and the ports or airiiorts 
of Japan. Such access to and movement between facil- 
ities and areas by United States military vehicles shall 
he free from toll and other charRes. 

;>. When the vessels mentioned in paragraph 1 enter 
Japanese i>orts, appropriate notification shall, under nor- 
mal conditions, be made to the proper Japanese author- 
ities. Such ves.sels shall have free<lom from compulsory 
pilotage, but if a pilot is taken pilotage shall be paid for 
at appropriate rates. 

Article VI 

1. All civil and military air traffic control and com- 
munications systems shall be developed in close coordina- 
ti(m and shall be integrated to the extent necessary for 
fulfillment of collective security interests. Procedures, 
and any subsefjuent changes thereto, necessary to effect 
this coordination and integration will be established by 
arrangement between the appropriate authorities of the 
two Governments. 

2. Lights and other aids to navigation of vessels and 
aircraft placed or established in the facilities and areas 
in use by United States armed forces and in territorial 
waters adjacent thereto or in the vicinity thereof shall 
conform to the system in use in Japan. The United 
States and Jaimnese authorities which have established 
such navigation aids shall notify each other of their 
po.sitions and characteristics and shall give advance noti- 
fication before making any changes in them or establish- 
ing additional navigation aids. 

Article VII 

The United States armed forces shall have the use of 
all public utilities and services belonging to, or controlled 
or regulated by the Government of Japan, and shall 
enjoy priorities in such use, under conditions no less 
favorable than those that may be applicable from time 
to time to the ministries and agencies of the Government 
of Japan. 

Article VIII 

The Government of Japan undertakes to furnish the 
United States armed forces with the following meteoro- 
logical services in accordance with arrangements be- 
tween the appropriate authorities of the two 
Governments : 

(a) Meteorological observations from land and ocean 
areas including observations from weather ships. 

(b) Climatological information including periodic sum- 
maries and the historical data of the Meteorological 
Agency. 

(c) Telecommunications service to disseminate meteor- 
ological information required for the safe and regular 
operation of aircraft. 

(d) Seismographlc data including forecasts of the esti- 
mated size of tidal waves resulting from earthquakes and 
areas that might be aflfected thereby. 

February 8, I960 



ARTirij: IX 

1. The United States may bring Into Japan jK'rsonH 
who are members of the United States armed forces, the 
civilian comiMuient, and their dependents, Kubject to the 
provisions of this Article. 

2. Members of the United States armed forces shall be 
exempt from Japanese passport and visa laws and regu- 
lations. Members of the United States armed forces, the 
civilian component, and their dei)endents shall be exempt 
from Japanese laws and regulations on the registration 
and ccmtrol of aliens, but shall not be considered as ac- 
quiring any right to permanent residence or domicile in 
the territories of Japan. 

3. Upon entry into or departure from Japan members 
of the United States armed forces shall be In possession 
of the following documents : 

(a) personal identity card showing name, date of birth, 
rank and number, service, and photograph ; and 

(b) individual or collective travel order certifying to 
tlie status of the individual or group as a member or 
members of the United States armed forces and to the 
travel ordered. 

For purposes of their identification while in Japan, mem- 
bers of the United States armed forces shall be in pos- 
session of the foregoing personal identity card which 
must be presented on request to the appropriate Japanese 
authorities. 

4. Members of the civilian component, their dependents, 
and the dependents of members of the United States 
armed forces shall be in pos.ses.sion of appropriate docu- 
mentation issued by the United States authorities so that 
tlieir status may be verified by Japanese authorities upon 
their entry into or departure from Japan, or while In 
Japan. 

5. If the status of any person brought into Japan under 
paragraph 1 of this Article is altered so that he would 
no longer be entitled to such admission, the Unite<l States 
authorities shall notify the Japanese authorities and 
shall, if such person be require<l by the Japanese authori- 
ties to leave Japan, assure that transportation from Japan 
will be provided within a reasonable time at no cost to 
the Government of Japan. 

6. If the Government of Japan has requested the re- 
moval from its territory of a member of the United States 
armed forces or civilian component or has made an ex- 
pulsion order against an ex-member of the United States 
armed forces or the civilian component or against a de- 
pendent of a member or ex-member, the authorities of the 
United States shall be responsible for receiving the per- 
son concerned within its own territory or otherwise dis- 
posing of him outside Japan. This paragraph shall ap- 
ply only to persons who are not nationals of Japan and 
have entered Japan as members of the United States 
armed forces or civilian component or for the purpose of 
becoming such members, and to the dependents of such 

persons. 

Article X 

1. Japan shall accept as valid, without a driving test or 
fee, the driving permit or license or military driving per- 
mit issued by the United States to a member of the 

187 



United States armed forces, the clviUan component, and 
their dependents. 

2. Official vehicles of the United States armed forces 
and the civilian comiionent shall carry distinctive num- 
bered plates or individual markings which will readily 
identify them. 

3. Privately owned vehicles of members of the United 
States armed forces, the civilian component, and their 
dependents shall carry Japanese number plates to be ac- 
quired under the same conditions as those applicable to 
Japanese nationals. 

Article XI 

1. Save as provided in this Agreement, members of the 
United States armed forces, the civilian component, and 
their dependents shall be subject to the laws and regula- 
tions administered by the customs authorities of Japan. 

2. All materials, supplies and equipment imported by 
the United States armed forces, the authorized procure- 
ment agencies of the United States armed forces, or by 
the organizations provided for in Article XV, for the 
official use of the United States amied forces or for 
the use of the members of the United States armed forces, 
the civilian component, and their dependents, and ma- 
terials, supplies and equipment which are to be used 
exclusively by the United States armed forces or are 
ultimately to be incorporated into articles or facilities 
used by such forces, shall be permitted entry into Japan ; 
such entry shall be free from customs duties and other 
such charges. Appropriate certification shall be made 
that such materials, supplies and equipment are being 
imported by the United States armed forces, the author- 
ized procurement agencies of the United States armed 
forces, or by the organizations provided for in Article 
XV, or, in the case of materials, supplies and equipment 
to be used exclusively by the United States armed forces 
or ultimately to be incorporated into articles or facilities 
used by such forces, that delivery thereof is to be taken 
by the United States armed forces for the purposes speci- 
fied above. 

3. Property consigned to and for the personal use of 
members of the United States armed forces, the civilian 
component, and their dependents, shall be subject to cus- 
toms duties and other such charges, except that no duties 
or charges shall be paid with respect to : 

(a) Furniture and household goods for their private 
use imported by the members of the United States armed 
forces or civilian component when they first an-ive to 
serve in Japan or by their dependents when they first 
arrive for reunion with members of such forces or civil- 
ian component, and personal effects for private use 
brought by the said persons upon entrance. 

(b) Vehicles and parts imported by members of the 
United States armed forces or civilian component for 
the private use of themselves or their dependents. 

(c) Reasonable quantities of clothing and household 
goods of a type which would ordinarily be purchased in 
the United States for everyday use for the private use 
of members of the United States armed forces, civilian 
component, and their dependents, which are mailed into 
Japan through United States military post offices. 



188 



4. The exemptions granted in paragraphs 2 and 3 
shall apply only to cases of importation of goods and 
shall not be Interpreted as refunding customs duties and 
domestic excises collected by the customs authorities at 
the time of entry in cases of purchases of goods on which 
such duties and excises have already been collected. 

5. Customs examination shall not be made in the fol- 
lowing cases : 

(a) Units of the United States armed forces under 
orders entering or leaving Japan ; 

(b) Official documents under official seal and official 
mail in United States military postal channels ; 

(c) Military cargo shipped on a United States Gov- 
ernment bill of lading. 

6. Except as such disposal may be authorized by the 
United States and Japanese authorities in accordance 
with mutually agreed conditions, goods imported into 
J'apan free of duty shall not be disposed of in Japan to 
persons not entitled to import such goods free of duty. 

7. Goods imported into Japan free from customs duties 
and other such charges pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 3, 
may be re-exported free from customs duties and other 
such charges. 

8. The United States armed forces, in cooperation witi 
Japanese authorities, shall take such steps as are neces- 
sary to prevent abuse of privileges granted to the United 
States armed forces, members of such forces, the civilian 
component, and their dependents in accordance with this 
Article. 

9. (a) In order to prevent offenses against laws and 
regulations administered by the customs authorities of 
the Govermnent of Japan, the Japanese authorities and 
the United States armed forces shall assist each other in 
the conduct of inquiries and the collection of evidence. 

(b) The United States armed forces shall render all 
assistance within their power to ensure that articles 
liable to seizure by, or on behalf of, the customs author- 
ities of the Government of Japan are handed to those 
authorities. 

(c) The United States armed forces shall render all 
assistance within their power to ensure the payment of 
duties, taxes, and penalties payable by members of such 
forces or of the civilian comijonent, or their dependents. 

(d) Vehicles and articles belonging to the United 
States armed forces seized by the customs authorities of 
the Government of Japan in comiection with an offense 
against its customs or fiscal laws or regulations shall be 
handed over to the appropriate authorities of the force 
concerned. 

Article XII 

1. The United States may contract for any supplies or 
construction work to be furnished or luulertaken in Japan 
for puri)Oses of, or authorized by, tliis Agreeniont, without 
restriction as to choice of supplier or person who docs the 
construction work. Such supplies or construction work 
may, upon agreement between the appropriate authorities 
of the two Governments, also be procured through the Gov- 
ernment of Japan. 

2. Materials, supplies, equipment and services which are 
required from Ux-al sources for the maintenanco of the 

Department of State Bulletin 



UniteJ States armed forces and the procurement of which 
may have an adverse effect on the economy of Jaimu shall 
be procured In coordination with, and, when desirable, 
through or with the assistance of, the competent author- 
ities of Japan. 

3. Materials, supplies, equipment and services procure*] 
for oSiciul purposes In Japan by the United States armed 
forces, or by authorized procurement agencies of the 
United States armed forces upon appropriate certification 
shall be exempt from the following Japanese taxes : 

(a) Commodity tax 

(b) Travelling tax 

(c) Gasoline tax 

(d) Electricity and gas tax. 

Materials, supplies, equipment and services procured for 
ultimate use by the United States armed forces shall be 
exempt from commodity and gasoline taxes upon appro- 
priate certification by the United States armed forces. 
■With respect to any present or future Japanese taxes not 
specifically referred to in this Article which might be 
found to constitute a significant and readily identifiable 
part of the gross purchase price of materials, supplies, 
e<]uipment and services procured by the United States 
armed forces, or for ultimate use by such forces, the t^vo 
Governments will agree upon a procedure for granting 
such exemption or relief therefrom as is consistent with 
the purposes of this Article. 

4. Local labor requirements of United States armed 
forces and of the organizations provided for in Article XV 
shall be satisfied with the assistance of the Japanese 
authorities. 

5. The obUgations for the withholding and payment of 
income tax, local inhabitant tax and social security con- 
tributions, and, except as may otherwise be mutually 
agreed, the conditions of employment and work, such as 
those relating to wages and supplementary payments, tlie 
conditions for the protection of workers, and the rights 
of workers concerning labor relations shall be those laid 
down by the legislation of Japan. 

6. Should the United States armed forces or as appro- 
priate an organization provided for in Article XV dismiss 
a worker and a decision of a court or a Labor Relations 
Commission of Japan to the effect that the contract of 
employment has not terminated become final, the follow- 
ing procedures shall apply : 

(a) The United States armed forces or the said 
organization shall be informed by the Government of 
Japan of the decision of the court or Commission ; 

(b) Should the United States armed forces or the said 
organization not desire to return tlie worker to duty, they 
shall so notify the Government of Japan within seven days 
after being informed by the latter of the de<.'ision of the 
court or Commission, and may temporarily withhold the 
worker from duty ; 

(c) Upon such notification, the Government of Japan 
and the United States armed forces or the said organiza- 
tion shall consult together without delay with a view to 
finding a practical solution of the case ; 

(d) Should such a solution not be reached within a 
period of thirty days from the date of commencement of 



the consultations under (c) above, the worker will not 
be entltle<l to return to duly. In such case, the Govern- 
ment of the UiiiltMl States shall imy to the Government of 
Japan an amount eiiual to the cost of employment of the 
worker for a period of time to be agreeil betwit-n the two 
Governments. 

7. Members of the civilian component shall not be sub- 
ject to Japanese laws or regulations with respect to terms 
and conditions of employment. 

8. Neither members of the United States armed forces, 
• civilian component, nor their deiM>n(lent.s shall by rea.son 

of this Article enjoy any exemption from taxes or similar 
charges relating to personal purchases of gowls and serv- 
ices in Japan chargeable under Japanese legislation. 

9. Except as such disposal may be authorized by the 
United States and Japanese authorities in accordance 
with mutually agreed conditions, goods purchased in 
Japan exempt from the taxes referred to in ixiragraph .3, 
shall not be disposed of in Japan to persons not entitled 
to purchase such goods exempt from such tax. 

Article XIII 

1. The United States armed forces shall not be subject 
to taxes or similar charges on property held, used or 
transferred by such forces in Japan. 

2. Members of the United Sbites armed forces, the 
civilian component, and their dependents shall not be 
liable to pay any Japanese taxes to the Government of 
Japan or to any other taxing agency in Japan on income 
received as a result of their service with or employment 
by the United States armed forces, or by the organiza- 
tions provided for in Article XV. The provisions of this 
Article do not exempt such persons from payment of 
Japanese taxes on income derived from Japanese sources, 
nor do they exempt United States citizens who for 
United States income tax punioses claim Japanese resi- 
dence from payment of Japanese taxes on income. 
Periods during which such per.sons are in Japan solely 
by reason of being members of the United States armed 
forces, the civilian comiJonent, or their dependents shall 
not be considered as periods of residence or domicile In 
Japan for the purpose of Japanese taxation. 

.3. Members of the United States armed forces, the 
civilian component, and their dependents shall be exempt 
fronj taxation in Japan on the holding, use, transfer 
inter se, or tramsfer by death of movable property, tangi- 
ble or intangible, the presence of which in Japan is due 
solely to the temporary presence of these persons In 
Japan, provided that such exemption shall not apply to 
property held for the purpose of investment or tlie con- 
duct of business in Japan or to any intangible property 
registered in Japan. There is no obligation under this 
Article to grant exemption from taxes payable in respect 
of the use of roads by private vehicles. 

Article XIV 

1. Persons, including corporations organize<l under the 
laws of the United States, and their employees who are 
ordinarily resident in the United States and whose pres- 
ence in Japan Is solely for the purjiose of executing 
contracts with the United States for the benefit of the 



February 8, 1960 



189 



United States armed forces, and who are designated by 
the Government of the United States in accordance with 
the provisions of paragraph 2 below, shall, except as 
provided in this Article, be subject to the laws and regu- 
lations of Japan. 

2. The designation referred to in paragraph 1 above 
shall be made upon consultation with the Government of 
Japan and shall be restricted to cases where open com- 
petitive bidding is not practicable due to security con- 
siderations, to the technical qualifications of the 
contractors involved, or to the unavailability of materials 
or services required by United States standards, or to 
limitations of United States law. 

The designation shall be withdrawn by the Government 
of the United States : 

(a ) upon completion of contracts with the United States 
for the United States armed forces ; 

(b) upon proof that such persons are engaged in busi- 
ness activities in Japan other than those pertaining to 
the United States armed forces; or 

(c) when such persons are engaged in practices Illegal 
in Japan. 

3. Upon certification by appropriate United States au- 
thorities as to their identity, such persons and their em- 
ployees shall be accorded the following benefits of this 
Agreement : 

(a) Rights of accession and movement, as provided for 
in Article V, paragraph 2 ; 

(b) Entry into Japan in accordance with the provisions 
of Article IX ; 

(c) The exemption from customs duties, and other such 
charges provided for in Article XI, paragraph 3, for mem- 
bers of the United States armed forces, the civilian com- 
ponent, and their dependents ; 

(d) If authorized by the Government of the United 
States the right to use the services of the organizations 
provided for in Article XV ; 

(e) Those provided for in Article XIX, paragraph 2, 
for members of the armed forces of the United States, 
the civilian component, and their dependents; 

(f) If authorized by the Government of the United 
States, the right to use military payment certificates, as 
provided for in Article XX ; 

(g) The use of postal facilities provided for in Article 
XXI; 

(h) Exemption from the laws and regulations of Japan 
with respect to terms and conditions of employment. 

4. Such persons and their employees shall be so de- 
scribed in their passports and their arrival, departure 
and their residence while in Japan shall from time to 
time be notified by the United States armed forces to the 
Japanese authorities. 

5. Upon certification by an authorized officer of the 
United States armed forces, depreciable assets except 
houses, held, used, or transferred, by such persons and 
their employees exclusively for the execution of contracts 
referred to in paragraph 1 shall not be subject to taxes 
or similar charges of Japan. 

6. Upon certification by an authorized officer of the 
United States armed forces, such persons and their em- 



ployees shall be exempt from taxation in Japan on the 
holding, use, transfer by death, or transfer to persons 
or agencies entitled to tax exemption under this Agree- 
ment, of movable property, tangible or intangible, the 
presence of which in Japan is due solely to the temporary 
presence of these persons in Japan, provided that such 
exemption shall not apply to property held for the purpose 
of investment or the conduct of other business in Japan 
or to any intangible property registered in Japan. There 
is no obligation under this Article to grant exemption 
from taxes payable in respect of the use of roads by 
private vehicles. 

7. The persons and their employees referred to in para- 
graph 1 shall not be liable to pay income or corporation 
taxes to the Government of Japan or to any other taxing 
agency in Japan on any income derived under a contract 
made in the United States with the Government of the 
United States in connection with the construction, main- 
tenance or operation of any of the facilities or areas 
covered by this Agreement. The provisions of this para- 
graph do not exempt such persons from payment of income 
or corporation taxes on income derived from Japanese 
sources, nor do they exempt such persons and their 
employees who, for United States income tax purposes, 
claim Japanese residence, from payment of Japanese 
taxes ou income. Periods during which such persons are 
in Japan solely in connection with the execution of a con- 
tract with the Government of the United States shall not 
be considered periods of residence or domicile in Japan 
for the purposes of such taxation. 

8. Japanese authorities shall have the primary right 
to exercise jurisdiction over the persons and their em- 
ployees referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article in rela- 
tion to offen.ses committed in Japan and punishable by 
the law of Japan. In those cases in which tlie Japanese 
authorities decide not to exercise such jurisdiction they 
shall notify the military authorities of the United States 
as soon as possible. Upon such notification the military 
authorities of the United States shall have the right 
to exercise such jurisdiction over the persons referred to 
as is conferred on them by the law of the United States. 

Akticle XV 

1. (a) Navy exchanges, post exchanges, messes, social 
clubs, theaters, newspapers and other non-appropriated 
fund organizations authorized and regulated by the 
United States military authorities may be established in 
the facilities and areas in use by the United States armed 
forces for the use of members of such forces, the civilian 
component, and their dependents. Except as otherwise 
provided in this Agreement, such organizations shall not 
be subject to Japanese regulations, license, fees, taxes or 
similar controls. 

(b) When a newspaper authorized and regulated by 
the United States military authorities is sold to the gen- 
eral public, it shall be subject to Japanese regulations, 
license, fees, taxes or similar controls so far as such 
circulation is concerned. 

2. No Japanese tax shall be Imposed on sales of mer- 
chandise and services by such organizations, except as 
provided in paragraph 1(b), but purchases within Japan 



190 



Department of State Bulletin 



ot uiorchiindise and supplios by such organizations shall 
be sulijoct to Jupnuese taxes. 

3. Except as such disposal may be authorized by the 
United States and Japanese authorities in accordance 
with mutually asreeU conditions, goods which are sold by 
such organizations shall not be disposed of in Japan to 
persons not authorized to make purchases from such 
organizations. 

4. The organizations referred to in this Article shall 
provide such information to the Japanese authorities as 
Is re<iuired by Japanese tax legislation. 

Article XVI 

It is the duty of members of the United States armed 
forces, the civilian component, and their dependents to 
respect the law of Japan and to abstain from any activity 
Inconsistent with the spirit of this Agreement, and, in 
particular, from any political activity in Japan. 

Article XVII 

1. Subject to the provisions of this Article, 

(a) the military authorities of the United States shall 
have the right to exercise within Japan all criminal and 
disciplinary jurisdiction conferred on them by the law 
of the United States over all persons subject to the 
military law of the United States ; 

(b) the authorities of Japan shall have jurisdiction 
over the members of the United States armed forces, the 
civilian component, and their dependents with respect to 
offenses committed within the territory of Japan and 
punishable by the law of Japan. 

2. (a) The military authorities of the United States 
shall have the right to exercise exclusive jurisdiction over 
persons subject to the military law of the United States 
with respect to offenses, including offenses relating to 
its security, punishable by the law of the United States, 
but not by the law of Japan. 

(b) The authorities of Japan shall have the right to 
exercise exclusive jurisdiction over members of the 
United States armed forces, the civilian component, and 
their dependents with respect to oilenses, including 
offenses relating to the -security of Japan, punishable by 
its law but not by the law of the United States. 

(c) For the purposes of this paragraph and of para- 
graph .3 of this Article a security offense against a State 
shall include 

(1) treason against the State ; 

(ji) sabotage, espionage or violation of any law 
relating to official secrets of that State, or 
secrets relating to the national defense of that 
State. 

3. In cases where the right to exerci.se jurisdiction is 
concurrent the following rules shall apply : 

(a) The military authorities of the United States shall 
have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction over mem- 
bers of the United States armed forces or the civilian 
component in relation to 

(i) offenses solely against the property or security 
of the United States, or offenses solely against 
the person or property of another menibpr of the 



UnltiHl States armed forces or the civilian com- 
ponent or of a dc|>endent ; 
(11) offenses arising out of any act or omission done 
In the ix^rformancc of otilclal duty. 

(b) In the case of any other offense the authorities of 
Japan shall have the primary right to exercise 
Jurisdiction. 

(c) If the State having the primary right decides not 
to exercise jurisdiction, it shall notify the authorities 
of the other State as soon as practicable. The authorities 
of the State having the i)rimary right shall give sym- 
pathetic consideration to a request from the authorities 
of the other State for a waiver of its righ