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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

jv-t93.53. Ia30 



'^ ' Dec. 
960 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



/ / 



9 3^'3. i^?,o 

7 1 ,H3 




IE 
FICIAL 

:ekly record 

iited states 
reign policy 







INDEX 




VOLUME XLIII: Numbers YWl^^V^^.y 




July 


4-December 26, 1960 




Issue 








Number 




Date of Issue 


Pages 


1097 




July 4,1960 


1- 36 


1098 




July 11,1960 


37- 76 


1099 




July 18,1960 


77-120 


1100 




July 25, 1960 


121-156 


1101 




Aug. 1, 1960 


157-196 


1102 




Aug. 8,1960 


197-232 


1103 




Aug. 15, 1960 


233-264 


1104 




Aug. 22, 1960 


265-300 


1105 




Aug. 29, 1960 


301-352 


1106 




Sept. 5,1960 


353-392 


1107 




Sept. 12, 1960 


393-432 


1108 




Sept. 19, 1960 


433^64 


1109 




Sept. 26, 1960 


465-504 


1110 




Oct. 3, 1960 


505-548 


1111 




Oct. 10,1960 


549-592 


1112 




Oct. 17,1960 


593-632 


1113 




Oct. 24,1960 


633-668 


1114 




Oct. 31,1960 


669-704 


1115 




Nov. 7,1960 


705-736 


1116 




Nov. 14, 1960 


737-772 


1117 




Nov. 21, 1960 


773-808 


1118 




Nov. 28, 1960 


809-844 


1119 




Dec. 5, 1960 


845-880 


1120 




Dec. 12, 1960 


881-916 J 
917-948 / W 


1121 




Dec. 19,1960 


1122 




Dec. 26, 1960 


949-984 ■ 


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Corrections for Volume XLili 

The Editor of tbe Bulletin wishes to call atten- 
tion to the following errors in Volume XLIII : 

August 22, page 282, second column, italic para- 
graph : Mr. Rubottom's first name is Roy. 

August 22, page 285, table of indepeudent states: 
The capital of the Republic of Chad is Fort Lamy. 



INDEX 

Volume XLIII: Numbers 1097-U22, July 4-December 26, 1960 



Abbott, George M., 388 
Achilles, Theodore C, 733 
Acly, R. Austin, 502 
Act of Bogotd (Committee of 21) : 
Addresses (Mallory), 816, 820, 853 
Text of, 537 
Adair, Charles W., Jr., 572, 758, 897 
Ad Hoc Good Offices Committee. See under Organization 

of American States 
Administrative agreement with Japan, agreement re 
waiver of a contribution by Japanese Government to 
U.S. forces in Japan under, 350 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, U.S., 

appointment of member (Langdale), 582 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, appointment of U.S. 

members (Moore, Oenslager), 364 
Aerial inspection, U.S. proposals for (see also Surprise 
attack) : 
Arctic zone, Soviet rejection, statement (Lodge), 242 
General zone, including U.S. and U.S.S.R., 91 
Afghanistan : 
U.S. grant of wheat to, 872 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 702 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 
Advancement of political freedom in, U.S. views re: 

Herter, 467, 469, 659 ; Wilcox, 660 
Apartheid policy in South Africa, U.S. support of U.N. 

action re, address (Wilcox), 509 
Conferences of independent African states: Addis 

Ababa, 23 ; L^opoldville, 440 
Congo problem. See Congo situation 
Economic Commission for, U.N., 511 
Names and concepts, article (Pearcy), 959 
Nationalism in and U.S. policy toward, address (Pen- 
field), 951 
People and political divisions of (maps and charts), 

283, 961, 962, 966 
Relationship to the Sino-Sovlet bloc, U.S. views, 478 
Tour of U.S. by heads of new U.N. delegations and 

visit to White House, 713, 922 
U.N. membership of new nations, U.S. support of, 
address, message, and statements: Herter, 589, 
644; Lodge, 149, 150, 456; Wadsworth, 680; WU- 
cox, 150, 151, 508, 509, 874 
U.N. programs of assistance for, U.S. support of, ad- 
dresses, letter, remarks, and statement: Dillon, 
187; Eisenhower, 551; Herter, 740, 849; Wads- 
worth, 657, 723 

Index, July to December I960 

587430—61 



Africa — Continued 
U.S. relations with new nations of and policy toward, 
address, message, remarks, and statement : Eisen- 
hower, 713, 714, 922; Satterthwaite, 752; Thayer, 
650, 941 
U.S. welcome to students from, remarks (Thayer), 559 
Visit of Deputy Under Secretary to U.S. posts in, 
announcement, 702 
Agrarian reform. See Land reform 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, con- 
vention (1944) and protocol of amendment to, 429, 
734, 878, 945 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 
Agreements with : Afghanistan, 872 ; Burma, 734 ; Cey- 
lon, 666; Chile, 73, 388; Republic of China, 461, 
545, 842; Ecuador, 842; France, 981; Greece, 878; 
India, 350, 629, 805, 878; Indonesia, 192, 912, 981; 
Iran, 350, 702, 805; Israel, 114; Japan, 33; Korea, 
629; Pakistan, 154, 666; Peru, 981; Poland, 229, 
259; Spain, 192; Turkey, 114, 878; United Arab 
Republic, 350, 388, 629; Uruguay, 770; Viet-Nam, 
229, 945 ; Yugoslavia, 73 
Emergency relief aid to : Cyprus, 973 ; Jordan, 142 
Food-for-peace program. See Food-for-peace 
GATT conclusions re, 897 
Sales for foreign currencies : 
Loans from proceeds : 
Addresses and remarks : Adair, 574 ; Eisenhower, 

442 ; Hager, 802 
Administration of. Executive order, 366 
Loan of Indian rupees to Nepal, 248 
Presidential directive re, 863 
Report on, 249 
To India, statement (Payne), 799 
Agricultural surpluses, world, use of U.N. system for 
distribution to needy, proposed, message and state- 
ments : Dillon, 449 ; Eisenhower, 315, 441 ; Payne, 
798 ; text of U.N. resolution, 800 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, Title IV, administration of, Executive order, 
366 
Agriculture (see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter- 
American Institute of; Agricultural surpluses; and 
Food and Agriculture Organization) : 
International trade in agricultural products, GATT 

program for expansion of, 454, 895, 897 
Land reform. See Land reform 
Latin America : 

Imports from, article (Culbertson, Lederer), 97 
Inter-American program for improvement of, text of 
Act of Bogota, 537 

987 



Agriculture — Continued 
Latin America — Continued 
Marliet development in, visit of Secretary Benson to 

promote, announcement of, 559 
Need for development of, address and statement: 
Dillon, 308 ; Mallory, 818, 820 
Production abroad, report on U.S. aid to, (Paarlberg), 

248 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Brazil, agreement extending and amending 1953 
agreement with U.S. for cooperative program of 
agriculture and natural resources, 702 
Plant protection convention (1951), international, 429 
Research equipment, nuclear, agreement with India 

providing grant of, 114 
Technical cooperation, agricultural and livestock, 
agreement extending agreement with Chile, 114 
Agriculture, Department of : 
Administration of Public Law 480 (Title IV), delega- 
tion of functions to re. Executive order, 366 
U.S. balance-of-payments position, steps to improve. 
Presidential directive to re, 863 
Aiken, George D., 67, 803, 975 
Air Coordinating Committee, termination of, Executive 

order, 415 
Air navigation and transport. See under Aviation 
Akakpo, Andr6, 778 
Akihito, Prince, 308, 642, 643 



Leader of delegation to U.N. restricted in movements 
in U.S., statements: Department, 522; Eisenhower, 
523 
Travel of aliens from U.S. to, U.S. regulations re, 974 
U.S. support of independence for, 889 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
Algerian question, address (Wilcox), 510 
Aliens : 
Permanent resident, departure regulations for, 974 
U.S. visas issued to, 651 
Allen, George V., 912 
Allen, John J., Jr., 589 

Allied Control Council, creation of Berlin corridors, 474 
Alto Adige, 939 

Amba.ssadorial talks (U.S.-Communist China), exchange 
of newsmen between U.S. and Communist China, 
negotiations for, 471, 497 
American Association for the United Nations, address 

(Wilcox), 507 
American Doctrine for the Middle East, 5th report to 

Congress on activities under, 448 
American Foreign Ministers. See Organization of Amer- 
ican States 
American Republics. See Inter-American, Latin America, 
Organization of American States, and individual 
countries 
American States. Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Amistad Dam, construction of : 

Agreement with Mexico to proceed with, 981 
Remarks (Eisenhower), 558 

Texts of joint communique and declaration (Eisen- 
hower, L6pez Mateos) re value of, 742, 851 



Amity, economic relations, and consular rights, treaty 

with Muscat and Oman, 261 
Anderson, Robert B., 172, 607, 611, 864 
Antarctica : 
Agreement with New Zealand relating to cooperation 

in scientific and logistical operations in, 770 
Antarctic treaty : 

Current actions on, 73, 261, 350, 429, 590, 805 
Statement re (Phleger), 49 

U.S. initiation and ratification of, address (Herter), 
438 
Anti-Americanism : 

Latin America, reasons for, address (Mallory), 857 
Soviet campaign, address (Berding), 303 
Apartheid policy in South Africa, U.S. support of U.N. 

action re, address (Wilcox), 509 
Appling, Hugh G., 461 

Arab Republic, United. See United Arab Republic 
Arango, Augusto Guillermo, 958 

Arbitration Tribunal and Arbitral Commission on prop- 
erty, rights and interests in Germany : 
Administrative agreement (1954), agreement amending, 

912 
Charter of Arbitral Commission, 912 
Arctic inspection zone, proposal, Soviet rejection, state- 
ment (Lodge), 242 
Argentina : 

Complaint against Israel in Security Council for trans- 
fer of Adolf Eichmann, statements (Lodge) and 
resolution, 115 
GATT, application for accession to, 759 
ICEM pilot project in, article (Warren), 256 
Land reform in, 820 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Army mission in, agreement with U.S. relating to, 387 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 33, 261 
Nuclear research and training equipment, agreement 
with U.S. providing grant to assist in acquisition 
of, 73 
U.S. Ambassador (Rubottom) : 
Appointment, statements : Herter, 309 ; White House, 

282 
Confirmation, 461 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
Armaments («ee also Disarmament, Control organization. 
Missiles, Nuclear weapons, and Weapons production 
program) : 
African countries, avoidance of competition in arma- 
ments among, address (Eisenhower), 552, 553 
Cuba, buildup of, 343, 852 
International control and reduction of: 
Public support of, address (Foster), 828 
U.S. position and proposals for, statements (Wads- 
worth ) , 378, 379, 380, 764, 768, 839 
OAS suspension of trade in arms or implements of war 
with Dominican Republic, statement (Wadsworth), 
542 
Supply to West Germany, reply to Soviet protest. De- 
partment statement and texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes, 347 



Department of State Bulletin 



Arab-Israel dispute, report to Congress (Eisenhower), 

448 
Armed forces : 
In the Congo. See under Congo situation: U.N. 

operations 
Inter-American police force, proposed, exchange of 

letters (Herter, Smathers), 246 
Reduction of: 

Soviet proposed reduction, letter and statement: 

Khrushchev, 92 ; Kohler, 25 
U.S. position and proposals re, 90, 91, 378, 379, 380, 
764, 768 
Armed forces, U.S.: 

Aircraft. See under Aviation 

Dependents of, reduction in number living abroad, 862 
In Japan, agreements with Japan re, 73, 350 
Lebanon, withdrawal from, statement (Lodge), 160 
Military ba.ses. See Military bases 
Military missions abroad. See Military missions 
Naval units in Caribbean, 888, 924, 958 
Troops in West Germany, discussions with West Ger- 
many re, 864, 925 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also Far East, 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, and individuaZ 
countries) : 
Central Asia, Soviet program of Russification in 

Kazakhstan, address (Dillon), 599 
Colombo Plan, U.S. delegation to 12th meeting, 733 
Communist aggression in. See under Communism 
DLF loans in, 445 
U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 

589, 793 
U.N. members, representation in U.N. councils, state- 
ment (Wilcox), 874 
Aswan High Dam, Sino-Soviet aid in development of, 

report (Eisenhower), 448 
Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Atlantic Community. See North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (see also Atomic Energy 
Agency) : 
Agreements with: Argentina, 33, 73, 261; Australia, 
544 : Brazil, 33, 387 ; Canada, 33, 229 ; Republic of 
China. 33, 229 ; EURATOM, 33, 298 ; France, 666 ; 
Greece, 33; Indonesia, 32, 629; Israel, 33, 192; 
Korea, 945 ; New Zealand, 34, 261 ; Philippines, 34, 
229; Portugal, 34, 229; Switzerland, 34, 981; 
Thailand, 34, 261 
U.S. proposals for, article and statements : 
Gehron, 4S8 ; Lodge, 377, 381, 382 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Addresses : Dillon, 215 ; Herter, 438 
Statute of, 590, 629, 665, 841 
Atomic Energy Community, European, agreement addi- 
tional to agreement (1958) with U.S. re peaceful 
uses of atomic energy, 33, 298 
Auerbach, Frank L., 193, 578 
Australia : 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Emigration to, 255 



Australia — Continued 
Meeting of Prime Minister with President Eisenhower, 

joint statement, 596 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, agreement amending agreement 

(1956) with U.S. concerning civil uses of, 544 
GATT, protocol relating to negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 501 
IDA, articles of agreement, 460, 805 
Weapons development program, agreement with U.S., 
427, 429 
Austria : 

Dispute with Italy re status of German-speaking resi- 
dents of Province of Bolzano, statement (Willis) 
and text of General Assembly resolution, 939 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Copyright laws of U.S., agreement with U.S. re 

extension of time to comply with, 64, 73 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI :4 and procds-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of Israel 
and Tunisia, and on relations with Poland, 945 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 104, 215 
War and Persecution Property Damage Law, deadline 
set for filing claims under, 444 
Automotive traflSe, inter-American, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, with annex, 805 
Aviation : 

Air transport negotiations with : 
India, 644, 734 
Mexico, 114 

Scandinavian countries, 514, 629 

Soviet Union, U.S. postpones, text of U.S. aide 
memoire, 165 
Aircraft : 

Cuban charges of U.S. violation of Cuban airspace: 
Proposal for fact-finding commission to investigate, 

statement (Herter), 402, 403, 407 
Statements re : Barco, 788 ; Lodge, 201 
Texts of U.S. document, memorandum, and annex 
re, 80, 85, 696 
RB-47 plane downed by Soviets. See RB-47 
Soviet, overflight and refueling rights of, statements 

(Herter), 517, 519 
U-2 incident See U-2 incident 
U.S. airlift to the Congo, 223, 385, 908 
U.S. military, Soviet charges of alleged buzzing of 
Soviet vessels, U.S. rejection, texts of U.S. note 
and Soviet memorandum, 212 
Use of Japanese bases for flights of RB-17's and 
U-2's, question of, statement (Herter), 207 
Berlin corridor, protest by Western Commandants re 

restrictions on use of, 602 
Coordination of air activities between agencies, an- 
nouncement. Executive order, and memorandum, 
415 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aeronautical facilities and services in Greenland, 
agreement with Denmark re establishment and 
operation, 192 



Index, July to December 1960 



989 



Aviation — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland, and 
the Faroe Islands, agreement on Joint financing of, 
770 

Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 
114 

Air transport agreements with: Italy, 350, 365; 
Mexico, 114, 423, 429 

Aircraft General Declaration of WHO sanitary regu- 
lations, amendments to re, 544 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 153, 
841, 912, 945; protocol (1954) relating to amend- 
ments to, 387 



Bahama Islands, agreement (U.K.-U.S.) re estabt 

of Loran station on, 114 
Baird, James C, Jr., 806 
Balance of payments : 
Cuban, 693 

GATT, 17th session discussion of, 894 
Importance in world economy, statement (Anderson), 

613, 614, 615 
U.S.-Latin American In 1959, article (Culbertson- 

Lederer), 94 
U.S. position and steps to improve : 
Addresses and statements : Burgess, 571 ; DiUon, 563 ; 

Eisenhower, 925 
Expansion of U.S. export program, statement (Dil- 
lon), 418 
Mission to Bonn, Paris, and London to discuss, state- 
ment (Anderson), 864 
Presidential directive, 860; instructions applicable 
to ICA procurement policy under, 972 
Ballistic missiles. See Missiles 
Barall, Milton, 630 
Barco, James W., 461, 787, 904, 976 
Barger, Herman H., 912 
Barnes, William, 173 
Barrows, Leland, 461 
Bartlett, Frederic P., 461 
Bases, U.S., overseas. See Military bases 
Batista government, U.S. position toward, 692 
Beira, Mozambique, U.S. consular agency established at, 

118 
Belgian Congo. See Congo, Republic of the and Congo 

situation 
Belgium : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Congo, withdrawal of troops from. See (3ongo situa- 
tion : Belgium 
Defense budget, increase In, 27 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 261 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and protocols 

1, 2, and 3, 153 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 

In event of armed conflict, and protocol, 912 
GATT: 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of arti- 
cle XVI :4 and proc&s-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 



Belgium — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT— Continued 
Declarations on provisional accessions of Israel 

and Tunisia and on relations with Poland, 33 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment 
of new schedule III — Brazil, 33 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding 
of, 665 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
350 
Benson, Ezra Taft, 559 
Berding, Andrew H., 303, 476, 671, 883 
Berenson, Robert L., 388 
Berlin : 

Situation in : 
East German restriction on travel : 
Soviet views on, 750 

U.S. and Western views on, 439, 473, 516, 602, 748 
Radio and waterways legislation affecting, texts of 

U.S. replies to Soviet notes re, 474 
Recruitment of military forces in Berlin by East and 
West Germany, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 362 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, application to 

Land Berlin, 912 
West Berlin : 
Bundestag meeting in, U.S. position re, statements 

(Herter), 208,312 
Eastern European refugees flight to, 481 
Freedom in, maintenance of, letter (Eisenhower), 

751 
U.S. aid to, statement (Kohler), 28 
Bernbaum, Maurice M., 702 
Berry, J. Lampton, 388 
Bhumlbol Adulyadej, 143 
Bicycles, decision against reopening escape-clause action 

on imports of, 759 
Blancke, Wilton Wendell, 842 
Bliss, Don C, 34 
Bogota. See Act of Bogotd 
Bohlen, Charles E., 635, 734 
Bolshevism, establishment in Russia, address (Bohlen), 

637 
Bolster, Edward A., 514, 644 

Bonds, German dollar, agreement re validation with Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, 429 
Bonsai, Philip W., 912 
Braddock, Daniel M., 934 
Brazil : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agriculture and natural resources, agreement extend- 
ing and amending 1953 agreement with U.S. for 
cooperative program in, 702 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S.. 33, 387 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

1957 agreement with U.S., 981 
GATT: 
Declaration on provisional accession of Swltzeiv 
land, 192, 980 



990 



Department of State Bulletin 



Brazil— Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT— Continued 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment 
of new schedule III, 33, 192, 501, 770, 980 
Health and sanitation program, agreement (1942) 

with U.S., terminated, 770 
Vocational and industrial education program, agree- 
ment extending 1950 agreement with U.S. re, 298 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 630 
British Commonwealth, Foreign Relations, volume on, 

released, 34 
British Honduras: 

Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 665 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning custom facili- 
ties for, 701 
Brown, Winthrop Gilman, 154 
Brownell, Samuel M., 117 
Bryan, Belton O., 154 
Bunche, Ralph, 161 
Bundestag, meeting in Berlin, statements (Herter), 208, 

312 
Burdett, William C, Jr., 546 
Burgess, W. Randolph, 9, 568 
Burma: 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 734 
Economic cooperation, agreement supplementing 1957 

agreement with U.S. re, 261 
U.S. consulate established at Mandalay, 193 
Burnett, John G., 806 
Burrows, Charles W., 461 

Calendar of international conferences and meetings (see 
also subject), 30, 183, 252, 374, 452, 525, 606, 721, 786, 
873, 929 
Cambodia : 
Mekong River Basin, multilateral efforts for develop- 
ment, 292 
Official publications, agreement with U.S. for exchange 
of, 298 
Cameroun : 

Postal convention (1957), universal, with final proto- 
col, annex, regulations of execution and provisions 
re airmail, 460 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
Camp David talks (Eisenhower-Khrushchev), statement 

(Herter), 41 
Canada : 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 

Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense, 
3d meeting : 
Announcement and delegations, 139 
Text of communique, 172 
Columbia River development, U.S.-Canadian negotia- 
tions on : 
6th session of, 251 

Statement ( Eisenhower) and White House announce- 
ment re, 831 



Canada — Continued 

Disarmament. See Disarmament; Disarmament Com- 
mission, U.N. ; and Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament 
ICEM pilot project in, article (Warren), 256 
Participation in U.N. action in the Congo, Soviet op- 
position to, statement (Lodge), 421 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 33, 229 
GATT, declarations on provisional accession of Tu- 
nisia and relations with Poland, 192 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safe- 
guarding of, 665 
Loan of submarine, agreement with U.S. for, 734 
Minitrack station, agreement with U.S. for estab- 
lishment and operation on St. John's Newfound- 
land, 501 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 460 
Weather research and testing facilities at Fort 
Churchill, agreement with U.S. re maintenance 
and operation, 192 
Canal Zone, flying of Panamanian and U.S. flags in, state- 
ments (Farland, Wheaton) and text of U.S. note, 558 
Captive Nations Week, 1960, proclamation, 219 
Caribbean area (see also individual countries, and Inter- 
American Peace Committee), statements (Dreler), 
224, 225 
Caribbean Commission, appointment of U.S. Commis- 
sioner and Chairman of, 422 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment and 

draft statute, 68, 73 
Carpenter, Francis W., 620 

Centennial Year, U.S.-Japan, visit of Crown Prlnee Aki- 
hito and Crown Princess Michiko to U.S., exchange 
of greetings and toasts (Akihito, Eisenhower, Mer- 
chant), 642 
Central African Republic : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 778 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
U.S. Embassy at: Bangui, proposed, 702; Brazzaville, 

Republic of Congo, accredited to, 350 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
WHO constitution, 770, 805 
Central America («ee also Caribbean), customs union in, 

establishment of, 577 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, estab- 
lishment and U.S. support of, joint statement, 782 
Century 21 Exposition, designation of Department of Com- 
merce to direct U.S. participation in. Executive order, 
644 
Ceylon : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 666 
Ceylon-Tunisia resolution re the Congo, statement 

(Wadsworth), 530, and text of resolution, 532 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 806 



Index, July to December 7960 



991 



Ceylon — Continued 

WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
Chad: 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
U.S. Embassy at: Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, ac- 
credited to, 350; Fort Lamy, proposed, 702 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, C54, 655 
Chang, Lee Woolj, 958 
Chapin, Selden, 546 
Charter of the United Nations. -Sec United Nations 

Charter 
Chemicals and related plastics, U.S. production and trade 

in, address (Adair), 572, 576 
Child-feeding program, agreement with Italy relating to, 

350 
Chile : 

Earthquake, U.S. aid to, 39, 154, 316, 367, 370, 878 
■ Racial groups in, address (Mallory), 850, 982 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 73, 

388 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 590 
Disaster rehabilitation, agreements with U.S. pro- 
viding for, 154, 878 
GATT: 
Declaration on provisional accession of Tmiisla, 

192 
Declaration on relations with Poland, 192 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing, 350 
Rawinsonde observation stations, agreement with 

U.S. re establishment and operation of, 770 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes 

and protocol, 665 
Submarine, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 545 
Technical cooperation, agricultural and livestock, 

agreement extending agreement with U.S., 114 
Tracking station at Punta Arenas, agreements with 
U.S. re establishment of, 981 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 230 
China {see also China, Communist; and China, Repub- 
lic of), refugees, U.S. contributions to, address 
(Hanes), 15 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Sino-Soviet 
bloc) : 
Ideological differences with Soviet Union, address and 

statements : Berding, 478, 480 ; Herter, 41, 42 
Imprisoned U.S. citizens in, release sought, 497 
Latin America, activities in, address (Berding), 305 
Reciprocal exchange of newsmen with, U.S. and Com- 
munist positions re, 471, 497 
Representation in the U.N., question of, U.S. views on, 
address and statements : Herter, 519 ; Wadsworth, 
678 ; Wilcox, 513 
Threat to peace in Far East, joint statement (U.S.- 
Philippine), 133 
Tibet, action in, 622, 626 
Travel of aliens from. U.S. to, U.S. regulations re, 974 



992 



China, Republic of : 

Land-reform program in, address (Mallory), 821 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. views, statements (Wads- 
worth ), 678, 684, 687, 689 
Taiwan Straits, Communist China's bombardment of 
islands of and U.S. efforts for peaceful settlement, 
statement (Wadsworth), 681 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 461, 

545, 842 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 33, 229 
Destroyer, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 770 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 
Visit of President Eisenhower, address and statement 
(Eisenhower) and joint communique, 8, 133, 136 
Civil Aeronautics Board, membership in interagency 

group to coordinate aviation activities, 415, 416 
Civil aviation. See under Aviation 

Civil strife, duties and rights of states in event of, proto- 
col and convention (1928), 341, 805 
Claims : 
Austria, claims against, deadline set for filing under 
Austrian War and Persecution Property Damage 
Law, 444 
Japanese claims against U.S. : 
Agreement re certain claims against U.S. forces by 

former employees, 73 
Di-splaced residents of Bonin Islands, request for 

funds for payment, statement (Herter), 46 
Understanding re small maritime claims, 734 
Territorial claims in Antarctica treaty provisions re, 

statement (Phleger), 50, 51 
U.S. claims against : 

Italy, war damage claims, agreement supplementing 
memorandum of understanding (1957) with, 298 
Poland, agi-eement with annex providing for settle- 
ment, 226, 229 
Classified documents, newspaper publication of, address 

(Berding), 887 
"Closed societies," statement (Wadsworth), 764 
Coal: 
ECE Committee on, U.S. delegate to 50th session of, 532 
Mining executives, visit to India to advise on expan- 
sion of coal production, 251 
Coerr, Wymberley DeR., 806 

"Cold war," address and statement : Merchant, 709 ; Tha- 
yer, 941, 943 
Collective security {see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Arrangements for : 

Effect of U-2 incident on, statement (Herter), 40 
Regional defense, U.S. participation in, address (Her- 
ter), 467, 470 
Soviet policy re, 304 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. See Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
Europe. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Free world, need for maintenance of, statement (Koh- 
ler), 25 

Department of State Bulletin 



Collective security — Continued 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Visits abroad to strengthen, report (Eisenhower), 124 
Colombia : 

Economic achievements of, statement (Dillon), 540 
Land reform in, 820 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 665 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 

Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. re, 770 
U.S. destroyer, agreement amending agreement with 
U.S. for loan of, 298 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
Colombo Plan : 

Cooperative training assistance programs, 294 
U.S. delegation to 12th meeting, 733 
Colonialism (see also Self-determination and Trust ter- 
ritories) : 
Africa, charges of "new colonialism" in, address (Pen- 
field), 953, 954 
Charges by Cuba and U.S.S.R. against U.S., refutation 

of, letter and message (Marin), 656 
Malayan views on, 783 

Soviet and U.S. views of, addresses and statement: 
Dillon, 598; Foster, 828; Wadsworth, 620 
Columbia River development, U.S.-Canadian negotiations 
on : 
6th session of, 251 

Statement (Eisenhower) and White House announce- 
ment re, 831 
Commerce. See Trade 
Commerce, Department of: 

Administration of Mutual Security Program, delegation 
of functions to re : Executive order, 870 ; White 
House announcement, 863 
Century 21 Exposition, direction of U.S. participation 

in. Executive order, 644 
Efforts to expand U.S. export trade, address (Dillon), 

566 
Membership in interagency group to coordinate aviation 
activities, memorandum, 416 
Commercial treaties. See Trade : Treaties 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, notice of public 

hearing on tariff concessions, 898 
Committee for Refugees, United States, 16 
Committee of Ten. See Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament 
Committee of 21 («ee also Operation Pan America) : 
Economic discussions at Paris, 219 
Subcommittee of Nine, report of, 537 
3d meeting of (Bogota) : 
Act of BogotA, text of, 537 
Addresses and statements re: Dillon, 533. 540, 567; 

Mallory, 853 
U.S. delegation, 541 
Committee I (Political and Security), General Assembly. 

See wider General Assembly 
Commodity trade problems (see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses and Trade), U.N. conference on tin, article 
(Nichols), 662, 663 



Common markets : 

European. See European Economic Community ; Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation, Organization for; 
European Free Trade Association; and Organiza- 
tion for Economic Cooperation and Development 

Latin American. Sec Central America and Latin Amer- 
ican Free Trade Association 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism («ee also China, Communist; Sino-Soviet; 
and Soviet Union) ; 

Aggression in Laos and Viet-Nam, letter and message 
(Eisenhower), 624, 758 

Cuba, development in and spread to other American 
Republics, statements (Herter), 397, 400, 401, 408, 
and texts of U.S. memorandum and supplementary 
document re, 318, 325, 334, 409, 410 

Economic policies. See Less developed countries : Eco- 
nomic offensive 

Guatemala and Nicaragua, penetration of, 888 

International, challenge and threat of and efforts to 
combat, addresses, message, and statements : Her- 
ding, 480; Bohlen, 635, 734; Dillon, 598; Eisen- 
hower, 314; Herter, 395, 400, 847, 849, 850; 
Merchant, 709, Satterthwaite, 755 

Latin America, subversion in, address and statement: 
Berding, 305 ; Eisenhower, 139 ; Mann, 812 ; Rubot- 
tom, 60 

Objectives of, address and statement: Hanes, 15; 
Herter, 107 

Opposition to President Eisenhower's visits abroad, 125 

Propaganda. See under Propaganda 

Strategy of, addresses : Berding, 303 ; Burgess, 568, 569 
Communist China. See China, Communist 
Conciliation Commission, Palestine, efforts to aid refu- 
gees, letter (Eisenhower), 627 
Conferences and organizations, international {see also 
subject) : 

Calendar of meetings, 30, 183, 252, 374, 452, 525, 606, 
721, 786, 873, 929 

Conference diplomacy, address (Merchant), 711 
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville) : 

Consulate at Brazzaville, elevation to Embassy status, 
350 

Security Council consideration of membership in the 
U.N., U.S. support of, statement (Lodge), 456, 457 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment of, 842 

U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 

WMO convention, 945 
Congo, Republic of the ( Leopold ville) : 

Independence, greetings on occasion of from U.S., mes- 
sage (Eisenhower), 162 

Membership in the U.N., statements : Barco, 904 ; Wads- 
worth, 906 ; Wilcox, 151 

Prime Minister, visit to Washington, exchange of greet- 
ings (Herter, Lumumba), 245 

Situation in. See Congo situation 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 154 

U.S. consulate general at L^opoldville, raised to Em- 
bassy status, 118 

U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 655 

WMO convention, 912 



Index, July to December I960 



993 



Congo situation : 
Addresses, letter, messages, and statements : Ailsen, 975 
Barco, 004 ; Berdiug, 304, 477 ; Burgess, 5C8 ; Car- 
penter, 97G ; Department, 24G ; Dillon, 370, 372, 440 
Eisenhower, 287, 384, 473, 552, 553, 783, 022 ; Foster, 
828 ; Hagerty, 222 ; Herter, 205, 206, 207, 200, 245, 
437, 440, 468, 520, 588; Lodge, 159, 221, 384, 421 
Penfleld, 954, 055, 957; Satterthwaite, 753; Wads- 
worth, 527, 531, 583, 658, 666, 679, 680, 088, 006 
Wilcox, 151, 507, 510, 512 
Belgium, withdrawal of armed forces: 

Security Council resolutions calling for, 161, 223, 385 
Statements: Department, 246; Eisenhower, 384; 
Lodge, 222, 384, 421 
General Assembly, U.N., consideration of : 

Acceptance of U.N. delegation credentials (Kasa- 
TUbu), U.S. support of, statements (Barco, Wads- 
worth), 004 
Emergency session, statements (Wadsworth) and 
text of U.N. resolution, 583 
Problem of governmental authority, U.S. position, 
message and statements : Eisenhower, 922 ; Herter, 
207, 520 
Security Council consideration of : 
Cooperation of all states in resolving situation, need 

for, statement (Lodge) and resolution, 221 
Decisions regarding, Soviet defiance of, statements 

(Wadsworth), 583, ,586 
Developments in, statement (Lodge) and resolution 
calling for complete withdrawal of Belgian forces, 
384 
General Assembly special session to consider, call for, 
statement (Wadsworth) and resolutions proposed, 
527 
Need for supplies and military assistance, statement 

(Lodge) and resolution, 159 
Resolutions adopted, texts of, 161, 223, 385, 532 
Soviet actions : 
Charge of U.S. troop participation, U.S. replies, 

statements : Herter, 206 ; Lodge, 160 
Opposition to U.N. operations : 
Demand for withdrawal of forces, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Carpenter), 976 
Obstruction to U.N. efforts, statements : Herter, 

468 ; Lodge, 222, 223 
Veto of resolution re financial contributions to, 
statement (Wadsworth), 531, 666 
Unilateral intervention : 
Aircraft, supplies, and technicians, 468, 510, 585, 

586, 909 
Pattern of penetration, 478, 528 
Statements re : ELsenhower, 473 ; Herter, 209 
Threats of, 206, 304, 421, 753, 954 
U.N. operations : 
African contribution to, 440 
Afro-Asian resolution re, U.S. position on, 586 ; text, 

588 
Airlift of U.N. supplies and men by U.S. : 
Attack on airmen by Congolese forces, letters 
(Hammarskjold, Herter) and text of U.S. pro- 
test, 440 
Cost of, statement (Aiken), 976 



Congo situation — Continued 
U.N. operations — Continued 

Airlift of U.N. supplies and men by U.S. — Con. 
Statement (Wadsworth), 008 
Summary of U.S. activities, 223, 385 
Chinese Communist position, U.S. views re, 679, 680, 

Fund for: 
Need for increase in contributions to, address and 
statements: Dillon, 370, 372; Wadsworth, 585, 
587, 588 ; Wilcox, 512 
U.S. contributions to, 510, 530, 588, 057, 075 
Gift of fiour by U.S. for relief distribution, 222 
Soviet opposition. See under Soviet actions supra 
Troops participating : 

Composition and deployment of, 221, 223, 384, 421, 

584, 906, 908 
Ghanaian forces, letters (Eisenhower, Nkmrnah), 

287 
Malayan contingent, remarks (Eisenhower, Rah- 
man), 783, 784 
U.S. support of, addresses, message, and statements: 
Burgess, 568; Eisenhower, 552, 553, 922; Foster, 
828; Herter, 205, 245, 437, 468; Lodge, 421; Pen- 
field, 955 ; Wadsworth, 530, 680 ; Wilcox, 510 
Congress, U.S. : 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 59, 148, 
182, 220, 251, 373, 420, 451, 500, 524, 582, 785, 835 
Joint session, address before, King of Thailand, 144 
Legislation : 

Diplomatic immunity, article (Barnes), 176 
Immigration of certain refugees, statement (Eisen- 
hower), 219 
Passport Service, U.S., establishment of, 545 
Legislation, proposed : 

Export expansion program, funds requested to 

finance, statement (Dillon), 418 
FAO, plan for greater U.S. participation in, authori- 
zation requested, statement (Dillon), 449, 450 
Import marking requirements, memorandum disap- 
proving (Eisenhower), 500 
Latin American social development, U.S. aid to, state- 
ment (Herter), 316 
Mutual Security Act, amendments authorizing special 
aid to Latin America and the Congo, statements 
(Dillon), 3G7 
Mutual Security Program for FT 1961, statements: 

Dillon, 28, 109 ; Herter, 107 ; Kohler, 24 
Sugar Act, amendments to, statement (Herter), 58 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Eisenhower, 
Dwight D. : Messages, letters, and reports to 
Congress 
Senate approval requested for : 

Commercial treaties with France and Pakistan, state- 
ment (Martin), 56 
Lisbon revision (1958) to convention (1883) for pro- 
tection of industrial property and necessary legis- 
lation to implement, statement (Martin), 52 
Tax convention with India, statement (Dillon), 111 
Conservation of natural resources, address (Mallory), 817 
Conservation of Shrimp, Commission for, 1st meeting, 
147 



994 



Department of State Bulletin 



Consular officers, foreign, immunities accorded, article 

(Barnes), 181 
Consular rights, amity, and economic relations, treaty 

with Muscat and Oman, 261 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia. See Co- 
lombo Plan. 
Contingency fund : 

House Appropriations Committee restriction on, state- 
ments (Dillon), 29, 110 
Request for authorization and appropriation for, mes- 
sage and statements: Dillon, 367, 370, 372; Eisen- 
hower, 315 
Control organization, international disarmament: 
Geneva conference on discontinuance of nuclear weapon 

tests, negotiations re, 931 
Proposal for, U.S., 90 

Staffing of organization and control posts, 487, 935 
Convention of establishment with France, protocol and 

declaration, 56, 388, 545, 902, 912 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, and protocols 

1, 2, and 3, 153 
Copyright registration, extension of time to Austrian 
citizens to comply with U.S. laws re, agreement with 
Austria, 73; U.S. proclamation, 64 
Costa Rica : 

Civil aviation convention, international, protocol (1954) 

amending certain articles of, 387 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 429 
Cottam, Howard R., 842 
Cotton, President accepts report re importation of certain 

articles containing, 445 
Cotton typewriter-ribbon cloth, increase of import duty 

on, proclamation, 446 
Courier satellite, launching of and message conveyed by, 
address and message (Berding. Eisenhower), 671, 673 
Crown Prince Akihito, 308, 642, 643 
Cuba: 
Head of delegation to U.N. (Castro) restricted in move- 
ments in U.S., statement (Herter), 515 
Situation in. See Cuban situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IBRD, notice of withdrawal from articles of agree- 
ment, 945 
International Finance Corporation, notice of with- 
drawal from articles of agreement, 945 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
U.S.-Cuban relations. See under Cuban situation 
Cuban situation: 
Address and statements (Herter), 395, 469 
Armaments buildup in Cuba, U.S. report re, 852 
Communist influence on. See Communism : Cuba 
GATT, relations with, 345, 403, 404 
OAS consideration of. See under Organization of 

American States 
Question of Cuban-Soviet mutual security alliance, 

statement (Herter), 208 
Responsibility for, letter of transmittal and U.S. memo- 
randum and document : Dreier, 317 ; texts of doc- 
uments, 318, 409 



Cuban situation — Continued 

Soviet threat of military intervention in, addresses, 
statements, and U.S. note: Berding, 304, 305, 306; 
Department, 170 ; Eisenhower, 139 ; Lodge, 199, 202, 
203 ; Mann, 812 ; text of note, 748 
U.N. consideration of Cuban charges against U.S. : 
Letter and statements : Barco, 787 ; Lodge, 199 ; Wads- 
worth, 621, 690, 791 
Referral of Cuban charges against U.S. to OAS, state- 
ments (Herter), 395, 400, 401 
Security Council resolution, 204 
Text of document of U.S. reply to charges, 690 
U.S.-Cuban relations : 
Charge of U.S. colonialism in Puerto Rico, refuta- 
tion of, letter and message (Marin), 656 
Consular assistant in Puerto Rico, U.S. request for 

withdrawal, 475 
Consular officials at Miami and New York City, U.S. 

request for withdrawal of two, 7 
Consulate general at Miami, Investigation of attack 

on, statement (Barco), 789 
Expropriation of property of U.S. nationals: 

Banks, Department announcement and text of U.S. 

note, 603 
Nationalization law, 171, 316 

Oil refineries, seizure of, statements and U.S. note 
of protest : Lodge, 202 ; Herter, 406 ; text of note 
141 
Statements and U.S. document to the U.N. : Depart- 
ment, 360, 716; Herter, 313, 314; text of docu- 
ment, 693 
Flight over U.S. submarine, protest to, 640 
Guantanamo Naval Base, U.S. rights re, statement 

(Eisenhower), 780 
La Gouhre explosion in Habana harbor, Cuban 
charges against U.S. and texts of U.S. document 
and memorandum re, 80, 696 
Limitations on imports from U.S., 403, 693, 694 
Nickel facility in, U.S. suspension of operation of, 604 
Provocative actions against U.S., memorandums and 
annexes submitted by U.S. to Inter- American 
Peace Committee, 79, 318 
Refugees in U.S., 695, 888 
Shooting of U.S. Embassy staff member, U.S. protest 

to, 924 
Sugar trade. See under Sugar 

Swan Islands, Cuban allegations re U.S. use of, 697 
Statements (Herter), 207, 209, 312, 475 
Travel in Cuba, restrictions on and advice to U.S. 

citizens re, 410, 441, 603 
Trial and execution of U.S. citizens, text of U.S. 

note of protest, 814 
U.S. controls on exports to, 715 
Culbertson, Nancy F., 94 
Cultural, educational, and scientific materials, agreement 

(1950) and protocol on importation of, 387 
Cultural backgrounds : 
Latin American and U.S., differences In, address (Mal- 

lory), 858 
Need for understanding of, address (Herter), 776 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 
protection in event of armed conflict, 387, 501, 912 



Index, July to December I960 



Cultural relations and programs {see also Educational 
exchange and Exchange of persons) : 

Africa, cultural exchange programs with (Penfield), 
056 

Appointments to Advisory Committee on Arts, 364 

Center in Hawaii for cultural and technital interchange, 
request for funds for, statement (Herter), 46 

Elxchange program for visiting educators, 444 

International, boundaries of action of Government and 
private institutions, address (Thayer), 278 

President's Special International Program for Cultural 
Presentations, 18, 19 

Private institutions participating in the operation of, 
remarlis (Tliayer), 5G0 

Role of Louisville in, address (Thayer), 17 

Rumania, agreement with, 968 

Soviet Union, motion picture and other exchange pro- 
grams with. 672, 921 

UNESCO's role in, statement (Thayer), 942, 944 

U.S. sponsorship of conferences re (Thayer), 649 
Customs {see also Tarifif policy, U.S.) : 

Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 
temporary importation of, 544, 665, 734 

Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 501, 701 
Cyprus : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 778 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. views re, statements: 
Herter, 589 ; Lodge, 457 

Sugar agreement (1958), international, 701 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 461 

U.S. consulate general at Nicosia, elevation to Embassy 
status, 388 

U.S. grant of grain to, 973 

U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 655 

White House visit of U.N. leader from, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 713, 714 
Czechoslovakia : 

Barring of mail bearing Masaryk stamp, text of U.S. 
note re, 414 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Tu- 
nisia, 33 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 33 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 154 

U.S. Ambassador, appointment and confirmation, 229, 
461 

DAG. See Development Assistance Group 
Dahomey : 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support of, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

with annexes and final protocol, 912 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 702 
U.S. Embassy at: Abidjan, Ivory Coast, accredited to, 

262 ; Porto-Nove, proposed, 702 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
WHO constitution, 770, 805 
Davenport, Jarvis D., 590 
Davis, Richard H., 105, 206w 



De Gasperi-Gruber agreement, 940 
De Yturralde y Orijegoso, Mariano, 360 
Dean, John Gunther, 567 
Declaration of San Jos^, text of, 407 
Declaration of Santiago, violation of principles of: 
Cuban, 321, 398, 401, 408, 409 
Dominican Republic, 356, 437 
Declaration of the Sierra Maestra, 321 
Defense {see also Military bases. Mutual defense, and Na- 
tional defense) : 
Guantanamo Naval Base, importance to defense of 
Western Hemisphere, statement (Eisenhower), 780 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreements for interchange of with: 
Portugal, 878 ; Spain, 590 
U.S. defense projects in Greenland, participation of 
Danish enterprises and labor in, texts of U.S. and 
Danish notes, 926 
Defense, Department of: 

Administration of Mutual Security Program, delegation 
of functions to. Executive order, 869, 870; White 
House announcement, 868 
Expansion of weapons systems programs of, message 

(Eisenhower), 315 
Membership in interagency group to coordinate avia- 
tion activities, announcement and memorandum, 
415, 416 
Relationship with State Department, statement (Her- 
ter), 4, 6 
U.S. balance-of-payments position. Presidential direc- 
tive to re, 862 
Defense, Joint, Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on, 

3d meeting, 139, 172 
Defense support : 

Appropriations for FT 1961, statements re (DiUon), 29, 

109 
Importance of, statements (Herter), 108, 850 
U.S. aid to: 
Middle East, report, 449 
Spain, statement (Kohler),28 
Turkey, 901 
Denmark : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 

Consultations with U.S. re aviation problems, 514, 629 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aeronautical facilities and services in Greenland, 
agreement with U.S. re establishment and opera- 
tion, 192 
Classified patent applications, agreement with U.S. 

approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 114 
Equipment and materials, agreement with U.S. re the 

disposition of, 590 
GATT: 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of arti- 
cle XVI: 4 and procfes-verbal extending validity 

Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia, 501 
Declaration on relations with Poland, 192 



996 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Denmark — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Greenland, agreement with U.S. for participation of 
Danisli enterprises and labor in U.S. defense proj- 
ects in, 926 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safe- 
guarding of, 665 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter 
of Arbitral Commission on, 912 
Visit of King and Queen to U.S. : 
Announcement of, 414 

Exchange of greetings and toasts (Eisenhower, Fred- 
erilc IX) and members official party, 717 
Department of Commerce. See Commerce, Department of 
Department of Defense. See Defense, Department of 
Department of State. See State Department 
Development Assistance Committee, OECD, proposal re, 

address (Dillon), 216 
Development Assistance Group : 

Establishment of, statement (Dillon), 535 
Functions of, remarks, report, and statements: Ander- 
son, 612 ; Dillon, 186, 609 ; report, 289, 291, 294 
2d meeting, U.S. delegation, 153 
3d meeting, text of communique, 645 
Development Association, International. See Interna- 
tional Development Association 
Development Bank, Inter-American. See Inter-American 

Development Bank 
Development Loan Fund : 
Appropriation requests for FY 1961 : 
House reduction in, statement (Dillon), 110 
Use in Latin America, statements (Dillon), 370, 373 
Financing goods and services of U.S. origin, Presiden- 
tial directive, 863 
Loans in Africa, 956 
MSP functions to be administered by, Executive order, 

870 ; White House announcement, 868 
Summary of activities for FY 1960, 444 
Types of loans, address (Hager), 892 
Diaz, Lanz, 81 

Dictatorships in Latin America, U.S. policy toward, 813 
Dillon, Douglas : 
Addrcs.ses, remarks, and statements : 
Aid to Latin America and the Congo, request for 
amendments to Mutual Security Act authorizing 
367 
Committee of 21, 3d meeting of, 533, 540 
Dominican Republic, U.S. relations with, 413 
Food-for-peace program, proposed, U.S. contribution 

through U.N. system, 449 
Foreign trade, 563 
International arrangements for economic growth, 

U.S. views, 185 
International Bank, annual meeting of Board of Gov- 
ernors, 608 
Labor's role in a democratic society, 780 
Malaya, U.S. relations with, 784 
Mutual Security Program, 28, 109 
OECD, 215 

Tax convention with India, foreign poUcy consider- 
ations of, 111 



Dillon, Douglas — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 

U.S. international relations, status of, 597 
Meetings : 

National Advisory Committee on Inter-American Af- 
fairs, participation in 6th meeting of, 641 
OECD, convention on establishment, head of U.S. 
delegation, 979 
Visit to Austria, address and joint communique, 215 
Visits to Europe, announcements re, 104, 864 
Diop, Ousmane Soce, 958 
Diplomacy and the Modem World, address (Merchant), 

707 
Diplomatic immunity, development of and U.S. policy, 

article (Barnes), 173 
Diplomatic List, information re, 181 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under 

Foreign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 
Cuban. See under Cuban situation: U.S.-Cuban 

relations 
Observation of U.S. election procedures, invitation to, 

letter (Herter), 778 
Presentation of credentials: Central African Republic, 
778 ; Cyprus, 778 ; Ireland, 605 ; Korea, 958 ; Mala- 
gasy Republic, 958; Panama, 958; Senegal, 958; 
Spain, 360 ; Togo, 778 ; Turkey, 958 ; Union of South 
Africa, 643 
Soviet diplomats requested to leave U.S. : 1st secretary, 
350 ; 3d secretary, 214 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Armed forces. Con- 
trol organization. Disarmament Commission, Nuclear 
weapons. Outer space, Surprise attack, and Ten 
Nation Committee) : 
Committee I of General Assembly consideration of, pro- 
posed, U.S. and Soviet views on, statements: Berd- 
ing, 305 ; Wadsworth, 723, 760, 836 
Communist China's admission to conferences on, ques- 
tion of, statement (Wadsworth), 688 
Heads of Government meeting in General Assembly, 
Soviet proposal for, statements (Berding), 305, 477 
Negotiations : 
Need for resumption of, text of joint communique 

(Herter, Kosaka), 561 
Progress of, addresses and statements: 
Dillon, 600 ; Herter, 42, 45 ; Kohler, 25 ; Payne, 797 ; 
Wadsworth, 377, 760 
Soviet position on, address and statements: Carpenter, 
620 ; Herter, 472 ; Lodge, 376 ; Wadsworth, 379, 723, 
725, 836, 839 
Tripartite (Italy, U.K., and U.S.) proposal, 762, 763 
U.N. efforts and consideration, letter (Eisenhower), 

625 
U.S. and Western positions on, addresses, letter, re- 
port, and statements : Berding, 477 ; Burgess, 9 ; 
Carpenter, 620 ; Dillon, 218 ; Eisenhower, 555, 595, 
746; Herter, 435, 437; Wadsworth, 619, 760, 836, 
931 ; Wilcox, 511 ; text of 5-power report, 382 
Disarmament Administration, U.S., establishment of, 481 



Index, July to December J 960 



997 



Disarmament Commission, U.N. (see also Ten Nation 
Committee on Disarmament) : 
August meeting of : 

Convening of, letters and statement re: Eisenhower, 

253 ; Lodge, 253, 274 
Proceedings, statements (Lodge) and texts of resolu- 
tion and 5-power report, 376 
Statement re (Wadsworth), 761 
Documents, lists of, 387, 459 
Discrimination, U.S. efforts to eliminate, statement 

(Thayer), 942 
Distant Early Warning Stations (DEW) in Greenland, 

agreement with Denmark re, 926 
DJermakoye, Issofou, 713 
DLF. See Development Loan Fund 
Doctors, foreign. Department and U.S. medical agencies 

discuss training of, 902 
Dollar bonds: 

German, agreement re validation with Federal Republic 

of Germany, 429 
Polish, letter (Kohler) re Polish intention to settle 
indebtedness, 228 
Domestic servants, immigration to U.S. for employment 

as, statement (Hanes), 365 
Dominican Republic : 

Aggression against Venezuela, OAS consideration and 
censure of. See under Organization of American 
States 
Cuban participation in invasion of, text of U.S. memo- 
randum, 341 
Delegation to the U.N. General Assembly, statement 

(Herter), 516 
Technical cooperation, vocational education agreement 
(1951) with U.S.: extension of, 73; termination of, 

U.S.-Dominican diplomatic relations, severance of, 412 
U.S. purchase of sugar from : 
Question of, message and statement (Dillon, Eisen- 
hower), 412 
Texts of U.S. and Venezuelan aide memoire re, 640 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
Dorsz, Edmund J., .546 
Double taxation on income, convention with Israel for 

avoidance of, 629, 666 
Dreier, John C, 224, 225, 317, 806 
Drew. Gerald A., 154, 806 
Drought, Jordan, U.S. aid. 142 
Dulles, John Foster, commemorative stamp in honor of, 

remarks (Herter), 981 
Dumont. Donald A.. 73 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, protocol 

and convention (1928), 341, 805 
Dwlnell, Lane, 13 

Eaton, Fredrick M., 267. 273 

EGA. See Economic Commission for Africa, U.N. 

ECAFB. See Economic Commission for Asia and the Far 

East, U.N. 
BCE. See Economic Commission for Europe. U.N. 
Economic and Social Council. Inter-American, annual 

consultative meetings proposed for, 536, 540 



998 



Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 189. 258, 386, 541, 628. 878, 911. 980 
Economic commissions. See Economic Commission 
ECOSOC survey for 1959, remarks (Dillon), 1S9 
Increase in membership of, U.S. support of, statement, 

(Wilcox), 874 
Ministerial meeting, 30th session of : 
Announcement, 104 
Remarks (Dillon), 185 
Report of and provision of food surpluses to food- 
deficient peoples, statement (Payne) and text of 
General Assembly resolution, 793 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Inter-American 
Development Bank, International Bank, Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration, International 
Development Association. International Finance 
Corporation, Mutual security and other assistance 
programs, and United Nations : Technical assistance 
programs) : 
Addresses and statement : Adair, 573 ; Hager, 891, 892 ; 

Herter, 848 ; Kohler, 27 
Africa {see also Africa: U.N. programs), address 

(Penfield), 953, 954. 956 
Aid to: Burma, 261; Chile, 114; Cyprus, 973; Domini- 
can Republic, 73, termination of, 945; Ghana, 364; 
Greece, termination of. 973; Guatemala, 105; 
Guinea. 734 ; Libya, 734 ; Thailand, 145 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, U.S. 

support of, 782 
House Appropriations Committee restrictions on. state- 
ments (Dillon). 29, 110 
Latin America {see also Inter-American fund for so- 
cial development), statements: DiUon, 367; Payne, 
793, 795 
Less developed countries, cooperative effort of free 

world, report (excerpt), 289 
Soviet and Sino-Soviet bloc programs, 436, 847, 957 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., address (Wilcox), 

511 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N. : 
Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the 

Lower Mekong Basin, statement (Payne), 793 
Economic Development and Planning, Worldng Party 
on, 6th session, U.S. delegation, 589 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 

Coal Committee, 50th session, U.S. delegate, 532 
Electric Power Committee, 19th session, U.S. delegate, 

590 
Steel Committee, 24th session, U.S. delegation, 117 
Timber Committee, 18th session, U.S. delegate, 628 
Economic Commission for Latin America, role in estab- 
lishment of Latin American Free Trade Association, 
statement (Payne), 793 
Economic Cooperation and Development, Organization 
for. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and 
Development 
Economic development (see also Economic and technical 
aid and Less developed countries) : 
Afshanistan, U.S. grant for financing of, 872 
Challenge of, address (Herter), 847 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Economic development — Continued 
China, Republic of, progress of, address (Eisenhower), 

134 
European. See European Economic Community; 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for; 
and European Free Trade Association 
Financing of. See Agricultural surpluses; Central 
American Bank for Economic Integration ; Devel- 
opment Assistance Group ; Development Loan 
Fund; Export-Import Banli; Inter-American De- 
velopment Bank; International Bank; Interna- 
tional Development Association ; International Fi- 
nance Corporation; International Monetary Fund; 
Investment of private capital abroad ; and Special 
Fund 
Latin America {see also Committee of 21, Inter-Ameri- 
can fund, Latin American Free Trade Association, 
Operation Pan America, and Organization of Amer- 
ican States), U.S. cooperation and aid in, state- 
ments: Dillon, 533; Eisenhower, 166, 346; Payne, 
793, 795 
Middle East, U.S. aid in, report to Congress (Eisen- 
hower), 448 
Need for cooperation in aiding in, addresses and state- 
ment: Adair, 573; Dillon, 601, 608; Payne, 794, 
795, 797, 799 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment. See Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development 
Role of transportation in, ECAFE working party con- 
sideration of, 590 
South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan atid 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
U.S. and U.N. efforts to aid : report (Eisenhower), 628; 

text of U.N. resolution, 800 
U.S. support of international agencies for, address and 
remarks : Burgess, 569 ; Dillon, 185 
Economic Development and Planning, Working Party on 

(ECAFE), 6th session, U.S. delegation, 589 
Economic Development Institute, statement (Payne), 796 
Economic Integration, Central American Bank for, 782 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Agricultural surpluses. 
Development Loan Fund, Economic and technical 
aid, Export-Import Bank, International Coopera- 
tion Administration, and Mutual security 
Directive re (Eisenhower), 860 
Domestic economy : 

Role of military assistance program In, statement 

(Kohler), 26 
Statements : Anderson, 613 ; Payne, 798 
Foreign economic policy : 
Addresses: Adair, 572; Burgess, 568; Dillon, 563; 

Hager, 890 ; Herter, 436, 847 
Latin America, statements : Dillon, 533 ; Eisenhower, 

166 
Regional economic arrangements, U.S. support of, 

remarks (Dillon), 185 
Support of world financial institutions, statements 
(Anderson, Dillon), 608 



Economic policy and relations, U.S. — Continued 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy 
Trade policy. See Trade 
Economic relations, amity, and consular rights, treaty 

with Muscat and Oman, 261 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 842 
IDA articles of agreement, 460 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
U.S. Ambassador, appointments: Bernbaum, 702; Kar- 

rick, 193 
U.S. policy toward, 781, 782 
Education {see also Cultural relations and programs, 
Educational exchange, and Exchange of persons) : 
African need for, U.S. and U.N. efforts to meet, address 

(Satterthwaite), 753, 755, 756 
American-sponsored schools abroad, address (Thayer), 

19 
Committee of 21 recommendation, 538 
Cuba, destruction of academic freedom in, text of U.S. 

memorandum, 328 
Cuban scholarships to Communist countries, 411 
Foreign Service Institute. See Foreign Service 

Institute 
Importance to U.S. national security, address (Bohlen), 

635 
International, boundaries of action of Government and 

private institutions, address (Thayer), 278 
NATO research fellowship program, 1961-62, announce- 
ment of. 909 
Problems of the American university in meeting today's 

responsibilities, address (Thayer), 646 
Progress in, address (Herter), 847 

Public, 23d international conference on, U.S. delega- 
tion, 117 
Seminars for educators visiting in U.S. universities, 444 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on importation of, 387 
Technical cooperation vocational education agree- 
ment (1951) with Dominican Republic: extension 
of, 73 ; termination of, 945 
U.S. Educational Foundation in Norway, agreement 

amending 1949 agreement with Norway re, 154 
Vocational and industrial education program in Bra- 
zil, agreement extending 1950 agreement re, 298 
UNESCO's role in furtherance of, statement (Thayer), 

941, 944 
UNRWA's vocational training programs, U.S. support 
of, statement (Aiken), 804 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
Agreement (19.50) on importation of educational, 
scientific, and cultural materials, and protocol on, 
387 
11th session of the General Conference of, statement 
( Thayer ) , and U.S. delegation, 604, 941 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 
member appointed to, 582 



Index, July to December I960 



999 



Educational exchange program, international (see aUo 
Cultural relations, Education, and Exchange of 
persons) : 
Africa, U.S. programs with nations of, addresses : Pen- 
field, 956 ; Thayer, 559, 650 
Agreements with: Brazil, 981; Finland, 912; India, 
388; Korea, 191, 298; Norway, 64; Rumania, 968; 
Spain, 842 ; Uruguay, 229, 350 
Foreign doctors training, exchange-visitor programs 

under, 903 
India, 10th anniversary of U.S. program with, S5J 
Operation of, remarks (Thayer), 560 
Teacher exchange program, 444 
U.S. Advisory Commission on, appointment (Langdale), 

582 
U.S. teachers participate in seminars abroad, 48 
Educational Foundation in Norway, U.S., agreement 

amending 1949 agreement with Norway re, 154 
Eichniaun, Adolf, 115 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements [see also Meetings 
with ana Visits abroad, infra) : 
Columbia River development, U.S.-Canadian negotia- 
tions for, 831 
Communist intervention in Americas, U.S. opposition 

Congo : 

Security Council resolution on, 384 
Soviet unilateral action in, 473 
Cuba's sugar quota, reduction of, 140 
Disarmament Commission, U.N., U.S. request for 

meeting of, 253 
FAO freedom-from-hunger campaign, U.S. support, 

117 
5th International Congress on Nutrition, 441 
Financial discussions at Bonn, Paris, and London, 

925 
Food-for-peace program, 248 
Forging a Commonwealth of Nations, 743 
Guantanamo Naval Base, U.S. position re, 780 
Hemisphere cooperation for better municipal gov- 
ernment, 779 
Immigration legislation, 219 
India-Pakistan Indus River pact, 577 
Latin America : 

Bonds that unite U.S. with, 557 

Economic and social growth in, U.S. pledges co- 
operation to promote, 166 
Mutual Security Program, request for restoration of 

cut in appropriation for, 417 
Peru, loan to, 346 
Security regulations for certain officials attending 

U.N. meetings, 523 
U.N. General Assembly, 15th session, problems con- 
fronting, 551 
Correspondence and messages : 

Administration of mutual security and related func- 
tions, 868 
Berlin's Freedom Bell, 10th anniversary of dedication 

of, 751 
Boards of Governors of IBRD, IMF, and IFC, meet- 
ing of, 607 

1000 



Eisenhower, Dwight D.— Continued 

Correspondence and messages— Continued 

Conference of Ten Nation Committee on Disarma- 
ment, e.xehange of letters with Ambas,sador Eaton 
re, 273 
Congo, Republic of the : 

Greetings from U.S. on independence, 162 
U.S. position on the problem of, exchange of cables 
with President of Guinea, 922 
Coordination of domestic aviation matters, 416 
Courier satellite message to U.N., 671 
Ghana : 

Congratulatory message to 1st president of, 147 
Support of U.N. operation in the Congo, 287 
Guatemala, exchange of messages with President 

Ydigoras re U.S. naval aid to, 924 
Japan ; 

Prime Minister, congratulations on election as, 364, 

923 
U.S. relations with, exchange of letters with Prime 
Minister Ikeda, 562 
Korean students, message to, 287 
Malagasy Republic, congratulations on independence, 

87 
Nigeria, independence of, 643 
Philippine-American Day, exchange of messages with 

President Garcia, 850 
Poland, restoration of most-favored-nation status to, 

864 
Question of meeting with Soviet Premier, reply to 

proposal for, 595 
SEATO, 6th anniversary of, 499 
Somali Republic, greetings and congratulations on 

independence, 162 
UNESCO, 11th General Conference of, greetings to, 

941 
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, services of, 732 
Viet-Nam, 5th anniversary of independence, 758 
Decisions on imports of: bicycles and dried figs, 759; 

lead and zinc, 901 
Directive to improve U.S. balance-of-payments position, 

860 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Messages, letter, and report to Congress : 
Dominican sugar, request for discretion in purchase 

of, 412 
Import marking requirements legislation, disapproval 

of, 500 
Middle East, 5th report on U.S. activities in, 448 
Mutual Security Program, request for restoration of 

cut in appropriations for, 417 
National security and mutual security programs, re- 
quest for action on, 314 
United Nations, 14th annual report on U.S. partici- 
pation in, transmittal, 624 
Meetings with (see also Visits abroad, infra) : 
Crown Prince Akihito of Japan, 642 
British and Australian Prime Ministers, joint state- 
ments, 596 
Heads of U.N. delegations of African states and 
Cyprus, 713 

Deporfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Eisenhower, Dwight D. — Continued 
Meetings witli — Continued 

King Bliumibol Adulyadej of Thailand, text of joint 

communique, 143 
King Frederik IX of Denmark, 717 
President-elect Kennedy, discussion re transfer of 

Executive responsibility, joint statement, 968 
President I><5pez Mateoa of Mexico, texts of joint dec- 
laration and statement, 742, 851 
Prime Minister Rahman of Malaya, 783 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Proposed visit to Japan : 

Cancellation of, report and statements: Eisenhower, 

125, 126; Hagerty, 131; Herter, 42, 43, 47 
Exchange of letters re (Eisenhower, Ikeda), 562 
Request for study of Cuban refugee problem, 888 
Visits abroad : 

Addresses, joint communiques, remarks, statements: 
China, 133, 136 ; Far East, 7 ; Korea, 136 ; Philip- 
pines, 127 
Exchange of correspondence re (Herter, Wiley), 47 
Purpose of, statement (Herter) , 39 
Radio-TV report on visit to Far East, 123 
Eisenhower Doctrine, 5th report to Congress on activities 

under, 448 
Election, U.S. : 

Foreign diplomats invited to observe, letter (Herter), 

778 
Khrushchev's comments re, statement (Herter), 42 
U.S. foreign policy during campaign, address and state- 
ments : Berding, 307 ; Herter, 309, 310 
Electric power, benefits from proposed Columbia River 

development, 831, 832 
Electric Power Committee (EOE), 19th session of, U.S. 

delegate, 590 
Eliot, Theodore L., Jr., 388 
El Salvador: 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, 

establishment of, joint statement, 782 
U.S. recognition of new government of, 924 
Elting, Howard, Jr., 388 
Elwood, Robert B., 388 
Emergency Force, U.N. : 

Address and letter (Eisenhower), 554, 627 
Congo operation. See Congo situation : U.N. operations 
U.S. contributions to, address and Presidential report 
to Congress : report, 448, 449 ; Wilcox, 512 
Espionage : 
Communist infiltration through, address (Bohlen), 635, 

Soviet Union : 
Activities, statement (Lodge), 241 
First and 3d secretaries of Embassy at Washington, 

requested to leave for activities, 214, 350 
Soviet vessel Vega along East coast, U.S. charge, 
text of note, 213 
Establishment, convention of, protocol and declaration 

with France, 56, 388, 545, 902, 912 
Ethiopia : 
Contribution of troops to U.N. force in the Republic 

of the Congo. 221, 223 
IDA articles of agreement, 460 



Ethiopia— Continued 

U.S. Ambassador: confirmation (Richards), 154; resig- 
nation (Bliss), 34 
Europe (see also individual countries and European or- 
ganizations) : 
Collective security. See North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization 
Economic Commission for, U.N. See Economic Com- 
mission for Europe 
European Office of the United Nations, appointment of 

U.S. Ambassador to, 621 
Mutual Security Program in, aspects of, statement 

(Kohler), 24 
Productivity Agency, European, 291 
Refugees : 

Eastern European, flight to West Berlin, 481 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, 254 
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, progress in 
solving problems of, 15, 16, 802 
Western : 

Economic cooperation with North American countries, 

proposed expansion of, address (Burgess), 12 
Economic recovery of. address (Herter), 848, 849 
U.S. contribution to economic integration of, remarks 
(Frederik IX), 719 
European Atomic Energy Community, agreement in ad- 
dition to agreement (1958) with U.S. re peaceful 
uses of atomic energy, 33, 298 
European Economic Community : 
GATT discussion of, 453, 895 
Members of, 759 
U.S. enterprises in. assuranc-es of nondiscriminatory 

treatment of, statement (Martin), 57 
U.S. support, address (Dillon), 217 

U.S. trade with, addresses: Adair, 576; DiUon, 565 

European Economic Cooperation, Organization for (see 

also Organization for Economic Cooperation and 

Development) : 

Accomplishments of , address (Burgess), 570 

Consideration of replacement of by OECD, meetings for, 

U.S. delegations, 104, 979 
Purpose of, 896 
European Free Trade Association : 
Establishment and operations of, .577 
GATT discussion of, 759, 895 
Tariff policy of, address (Adair) , 577 
U.S. support, address (Dillon), 217 
European Productivity Agency, 291 
Evans, Philip M., 645 

Examination, Foreign Service, announcement of, 261 
Exchange of persons {see also Educational exchange 
program) : 
Address (Thayer), 20 
Africa, U.S. programs with, address (Satterthwaite), 

755 
Agricultural technicians and students, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 442 
Budget for FT 1961, request for restoration of funds, 

statement (Herter), 45 
Contribution to mutual understanding, 
(Foster), 825, 830 



Index, July to December 1960 

587430 — 61 3 



1001 



Exchange of i)erson3 — Continued 
Denmark, factor in cultural relations with U.S., re- 
marks (I-Yederik IX), 719 
Exchange program with Soviet Union in scientific, techni- 
cal, educational, and cultural fields, addresses: Herd- 
ing, 672 ; DwlneU, 13 ; Thayer, 19 ; Wadsworth, 921 
Executive orders : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended, administration of (10884), 366 
Air Coordinating Committee, termination of (10883), 

415 
Century 21 Exposition (10887), 645 
foreign Service Retirement and Disability System, dele- 
gation of authority to Secretary of State re 
(10897), 946 
Mutual security and related functions, administration 
of (10893), 869 
Executive responsibility, discussion between President 
Eisenhower and President-elect Kennedy, joint state- 
ment, 968 
E)xhibits : 

Exchange of, agreement with Rumania, 970 
Paintings of Thailand, State Department si)ecial show- 
ing of, 145 
Export Control Act, 716 
Export-Import Bank : 

Credit and guaranty facilities for medium-term export 

transactions, address (Dillon), 566 
Encouragement of private enterprise abroad, address 

(Hager), 892 
Loans In Africa, 956 
Exports {see also Balance of payments; Imports; Tariffs 
and trade, general agreement on; and Trade) : 
Controls on exports to Cuba : 
Institution of, 715 
Statement (Barco), 789 
Latin America, decline in, article (Culbertson, Lederer) , 

102 
Promotion program for expansion of, addresses and 
statements : Adair, 575 ; Anderson, 615 ; Dillon, 418, 
564, 566 
Quantitative controls on tin exports, article (Nichols), 
663, 664 
Expropriation of U.S. property by Cuba. See under Cuban 

situation : U.S.-Cuban relations 
External debts, German, agreement (1953) on, 387 
Extradition treaty with Cuba, provisions of, 85, 201 
Ezhov, Petr Y., 214 

Facilities assistance program, agreements terminated 

with : France, 702 ; Italy, 261 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
Far East (see also Asia and individual countries) : 
Developments in, address (Herter), 471 
Economic Development and Planning, 6th session of 
Working Party on (ECAFE) U.S. delegation, 589 
Foreign Relations, volume on, released, 34 
Visit of President Eisenhower : 
Departure statement, 7 
Radio-TV report, 123 
Farland, Joseph S., 154, 558 



Faroe Islands, air navigation services in, agreement on 

joint financing of, 770 
Federal Aviation Agency, responsibility for coordination 
of aviation activities between agencies, announce- 
ment, Executive order, and memorandum, 415 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, resiwnsibility for detec- 
tion of communism in U.S., 635 
Federal Reserve System, actions to strengthen U.S. 

economy, statement (Anderson), 614 
Federal Trade Commission, 500 
Fessenden, Russell, 630 

I'igs, dried, decision against reopening escape-clause ac- 
tion on imports of, 758 
Films, exchange of, agreement with Rumania, 970 
Finance : 
U.S. balance-of-payments position. See under Balance 

of payments 
U.S. discussions with Bonn and other officials : 
Department announcement, 864 
Statements : Anderson, 864 ; Eisenhower, 925 
U.S. delegation, 864 
Validation of German dollar bonds, agreement with Re- 
public of Germany re, 429 
Finance Corporation, International. See International 

Finance Corporation 
Finland : 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1952 agreement for financing, 912 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI : 4 and proc&s-verbal extending validity 

Plant protection convention (1951), international, 429 
U.S. relations with, remarks (Merchant), 751 
"First Secretary," question of creation of office of, state- 
ment (Herter), 518 
Fish and fishing : 

Fishery products, conference on nutritional value of, 

announcement of, 422 
Shrimp, Commission for Conservation of, 1st meeting, 
147 
Flour, U.S. gift to U.N. operation in the Congo, 222 
Fluker, J. Robert, 230 
Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 
Constitution of, 261 
Freedom-from-hunger campaign : 
Proposal for and U.S. support of, statements : 

Dillon, 449 ; Eisenhower, 117 ; Payne, 798 
Text of U.N. resolution, 800 
Food-for-peace program : 

Administration of P.L. 480 relating to use of agricul- 
tural surpluses in. Executive order, 366 
Advancement through U.N. system, statement (Dil- 
lon), 449 
Interim report to the President, statement (Eisen- 
hower) and text of report, 248 
Latin America, program for, 559 
Foreign aid programs, U.S. (see also Economic and tech- 
nical aid to foreign countries and Mutual security), 
public support for, 828 
Foreign currency. See Agricultural surpluses, U.S. : 
Sales 



1002 



Department of State Bulletin 



Foreign economic policy. See under Economic policy and 

relations 
Foreign Ministers of American States. See under Or- 
ganization of American States 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
EJconomic challenge in, address (Herter), 847 
Elements of, address (Herter), 435 
Foreign Policy and News Responsibility, address 

(Berding), 883 
Labor's role in, remarlcs (Dillon), 781 
Legislation. See under Congress 

Methods by which formulated, address (Merchant), 707 
Monroe Doctrine, U.S. reaflBrmatlon of principles of, 170 
Need for informed citizenry on, address (Eisenhower), 

745 
Problems of, addresses : Berding, 476, 675 ; Eisenhower, 

746 ; Herter, 467 
Role of the public in, address (Foster), 823 
Secretary of State functions re, statement (Herter), 3 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 19^2, Volume I, 
General, The British Commomcealth, The Far East, 
released, 34 
Foreign Service («ee also International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration a7id State Department) : 
Africa, U.S. posts in : 

Increase in number, addresses: Penfleld, 955; Sat- 

terthwaite, 754 
Visit of Deputy Under Secretary Henderson to, an- 
nouncement, 702 
Ambassadors, appointments, confirmations, and resigna- 
tions, 34, 118, 154, 193, 229, 230, 282, 309, 460, 546, 
590, 702, 806, 842, 912 
Chiefs of U.S. diplomatic missions, functions of : Execu- 
tive order, 871; memorandum (Eisenhower), 868 
(Commercial staffs abroad, need for enlargement of, 

statement (Dillon), 418 
Consular agency established at Beira, Mozambique, 118 
Consular district of Volta, transfer from Dakar to 

Abidjan, 154 
Consulates : 
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, elevation to Embassy, 262 
Bamako (Soudan), establishment of, 546; (Mali), 

elevation to Embassy, 567 
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, elevation to Embassy 
status, and accreditation to Republic of Chad, 
Central African Republic, and Republic of Gabon, 
350 
Colon, Panama, closed, 502 
Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, elevation to consulate 

general, 546 
Freetown, Sierra Leone, elevation to consulate gen- 
eral, 842 
Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana, Mexico, ele- 
vation to consulates general, 805 
Kampala, Uganda, elevation to consulate general, 546 
Mandalay, Burma, establishment of, 193 
Usumbura, Ruanda-Unmdi, establishment of, 805 
Consulates general raised to Embassy status : 
Dakar, Federation of MaU, 73 
Lagos, Nigeria, 630 

L^opoldville, Republic of the Congo, 118 
Mogadiscio, Somali Republic, 118 



Foreign Service — Continued 

Consulates general raised to Embassy status — Con. 
Nicosia, Cyprus, 388 
Tananarive, Malagasy Republic, 74 

Dominican Republic, withdrawal of U.S. diplomatic 
mission from, 412 

Embassies, proposed establishment at : 

Bangui, Central African Republic ; Fort Lamy, 
Chad ; Libreville, Gabon ; Niamey, Niger ; Ouaga- 
dougou, Upper Volta ; and Porto-Novo, Dahomey, 
702 

Embassy staff member in Cuba, shooting of, note of 
protest (Braddock), 924 

Examination, announcement, 261 

Expansion of U.S. diplomatic relations and problem of 
press coverage of, addresses : Berding, 884 ; Herter, 
467 

Foreign Service Inspection Corps, designation of In- 
spector General (Drew) and Deputy Inspector Gen- 
eral (Haselton), 806 

Foreign Service Institute. See Foreign Service Insti- 
tute 

Funds for, request for restoration of, statement 
(Herter), 45 

Officer selection and training, addresses : Auerbach, 579 ; 
Herter, 776 

Personnel, waiver of diplomatic immunity, article 
(Barnes), 179 

Procurement of foreign goods, restrictions on, 863 

Retirement and disability system, delegation of author- 
ity to Secretary of State re. Executive order, 946 

Role of ambassador in policymaking, address 
(Merchant), 712 

Selection Boards, 14th, convening of, 502 

Services relating to U.S. citizenship and passport func- 
tions, 545 

Visas issued by U.S. diplomatic and consular officers, 
580, 651, 654 
Foreign Service Act of 1946, delegation of authority to 

Secretary of State re. Executive order, 946 
Foreign Service Institute : 

Assistant Director for Management (Mitchell), desig- 
nation, 702 

Deputy director, designation, 388 

Programs of, address (Herter), 775, 777 
Foster, H. Schuyler, 823 
Foundations, private, role in International educational 

and cultural relations, address (Thayer), 280 
France : 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 

Algeria, policy toward, 510 

Controls on imports from dollar area, relaxation of, 
105, 564 

Cultural relations with U.S., address (Thayer), 18 

Disarmament. See Disarmament; Disarmament Com- 
mission, U.N. ; and Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament 

French Community (see also individual countries), 
U.S. supports admission of 8 former African mem- 
bers to U.N., statement (Lodge), 456 

Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 



Index, July to December 7960 



1003 



France — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 981 
Antarctic treaty, 590 

Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, agreement 
amending administrative agreement (1954) re, 
912 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 666 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment 

and draft statute, 68, 73 
Convention of establishment with U.S., protocol and 

declaration, 56, 388, 545, 902, 912 
Facilities assistance program, termination of agree- 
ment (1957) with U.S., 702 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI : 4 and proems-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 7th protocol, 945 
International exchange of oflScial publications and 

documents, conventions on, 429 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
Rawinsonde observation station on Guadeloupe, 
agreement with U.S. for establishment and oper- 
ation of, 461 
Trademark convention (1869), agreement with U.S., 

termination of, 945 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S. 
relating to, 702 
U.S. financial discussions, 865, 926 
Franks, Oliver, 295 

Frederik IX, King of Denmark, 414, 717, 718 
Free world, economic assistance as a cooperative effort 

of, excerpt from report, 289 
Freedom Bell, Berlin, 10th anniversary of dedication of, 

letter (Eisenhower), 751 
Freedom Day, address (Davis), 105 
Freedom-from-hunger campaign. See under Food and 

Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
Freedom of information : 
Cuban suppression of : 
Statement (Herter), 399 
Text of U.S. memorandum, 319, 331, 333 
Free press, responsibility to U.S. Government, address 

(Herding), 883 
Reciprocal exchange of newsmen between U.S. and 

Communist China, negotiations for, 497 
U.N. convention on, proposed, U.S. position, statement 

(Lord), 936 
U.S. and Soviet views on : 

Addresses and statements : Berding, 479, 883 ; Herter, 

518 
Exchange of letters (Hagerty, Moscoiv Netcs and 
Nouvelles de Moscou), 44S 
Freedom of the press. See Freedom of information 
French Community, 456 

Friendship and commerce, treaty with Pakistan, and 
protocol, 56, 388, 545 

1004 



Fulbright Act : 

Educational exchange programs authorized by, 859 

Puriwse of, 191 
Fuller, Robert O., 814 

Gabon : 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 547 
U.S. Embassy at: Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, ac- 
credited to, 350; Libreville, proposed, 702 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
Gallin-Douathe, Michel, 778 
Gambia, telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 

229 
Garcia, Carlos P., 850 
Garcia Soto, Hector, 82, 86 
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 785 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Gehron, William J., 482 
General Assembly, U.N. : 

Address and statements re : Herter, 515, 516, 519 ; Wil- 
cox, 507 
African nationalism, impact on, address (Penfield), 953 
Agenda of 15th session : 

Problems for consideration, U.S. position on, address 

(Eisenhower), 551 
Proposed inclusion of items on, U.S. views : 
Africa, 657 
Cuba, 789 

Communist China's admission to U.N., 678 
Hungary, question of, 422, 623, 727 
Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression, 619, 622, 726 
Tibet, 622 
Provisional agenda, 296 ; final, 729 
Approval of credentials of Congolese delegation 
(Kasavubu), statements (Barco, Wadsworth), 904 
Committee I (Political and Security) : 

Disarmament problem, consideration of proposed, U.S. 
and Soviet views on, address and statements : Berd- 
ing, 305 ; Wadsworth, 723, 760, 836 
Geneva nuclear test ban negotiations, U.S. report to 

Committee I on, statement (Wadsworth), 930 
Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression, U.S. support of 
consideration of, statement (Wadsworth), 726 
Cuban charges against U.S., consideration of, letters, 
message, statements, and U.S. document in reply to : 
Barco, 787 ; Marin, 656 ; Wadsworth, 621, 656, 690, 
791 ; text of document, 690 
Documents, lists of, 189, 258, 386, 459, 541, 689, 733, 770, 

878, 910, 979 
Dominican delegation to, statement (Herter), 516 
Emergency session, consideration of the Congo problem, 
statements (Wadsworth) and text of resolution, 
583 
Khrushchev's participation in. See Khrushchev 
President's address to, statements re : Berding, 672, 674 ; 

Eisenhower, 551 ; Hagerty, 515 
Resolutions: 

Congo, restoration of law and order in and appeal 

for funds, 588 
Cooperation of Member States in safeguarding peace, 
723 



Department of State Bulletin 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 
Resolutions — Continued 

Dispute between Austria and Italy re status of 
German-speaking residents of Province of Bolzano, 
recommended solutions of, 940 
Provision of food surpluses to food-deficient peoples, 
800 
Security precautions for certain officials attending, 
statements and texts of U.S. and Soviet documents 
re : Department, 522 ; Eisenhower, 523 ; Herter, 515, 
519 ; Soviet communication, 523 ; and texts of U.S. 
documents, 521, 522, 699 
Soviet attacks on the U.N. organization. See under 

Office of Secretary-General 
U.S. representatives to: confirmation, 67; resignation 
(Lodge), 388 
Geneva conference of experts to study the possibility of 
detecting violations of a possible agreement on the 
suspension of nuclear tests, article (Gehron), 489, 
493 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests : 
History of developments of negotiations, article 
(Gehron) and texts of agreed preamble, draft 
articles, and draft annex III, 482 
Reports to U.N. on progress of, statements : Lodge, 377 ; 

Wadsworth, 930 
U.K.-U.S. discussions on status of, 360 
U.S. and Soviet views on, statement (Wadsworth), 841 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and punish- 
ment of the crime of, 460 
Geographic divisions in Africa, article (Pearcy), 959 
George, Mrs. Zelma Watson, 67 

German Central Bank, loan to International Bank, 220 
Germany : 

Berlin. See Berlin 

Border question with Poland, text of U.S. note to 

Poland, 363 
Reunification of. Western and Soviet position re, letter 
(Wadsworth), 977 
Germany, East : 
Military activities in Berlin, texts of U.S. and Soviet 

notes, 362 
Restriction on travel to and within Berlin, Soviet, U.S. 
and Western views on, 439, 473, 516, 602, 748, 750 
Situation in, 977 
Soviet threat of separate peace treaty with, U.S. views, 

statements : Herter, 312 ; Tully, 677, 734 
Soviet trained armed personnel in, 676 
Germany, Federal Republic of (see also Berlin) : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 

Arming of, U.S. reply to Soviet protest. Department 

statement and texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 347 

Bundestag meeting in West Berlin, proposed, statements 

(Herter), 208, 312 
Defense expenditures, increase in, 27 
Financial discussions with U.S. officials re balance of 

payments, 864, 925 
German Central Bank loan to International Bank, 220 
German-Polish border question, U.S. reply to Polish 
note re, 363 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Radio and waterways legislation affecting Berlin, texts 

of U.S. replies to Soviet notes re, 474 
Relaxation of controls on dollar-area imports, address 

(Dillon), 564 
Soviet bloc proposal for separate peace treaty with, 

U.S. views, 312, 677, 734 
Soviet charges against, letter and U.S. and Soviet notes : 

Wadsworth, 977 ; texts of notes, 362, 676 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Arbitral Tribunal and Alixed Commission, agreement 
amending administrative agreement (1954) re, 912 
External debts, German, agreement (1953) on, 387 
GATT: 

Declarations on provisional accessions of: Israel, 

33, Tunisia, 192 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 

III— Brazil, 770 
7th protocol of rectifications and modifications to 
texts of schedules, 192 
IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding 
of, 665 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. re purchase of, 770 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, application to 

Land Berlin, 912 
Universal postal convention (1957), with final proto- 
col, annex, regulations of execution, and provisions 
regarding airmail with final protocol, 665 
Validation of German dollar bonds, agreement with 

U.S. re, 429 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S. 

re, 33 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 
.387 
Ghana : 
Congratulatory message from President Eisenhower to 

President Nkrumah, 147 
Contribution of troops and support to U.N. operations 
in the Congo, statement and exchange of letters: 
Eisenhower, 287 ; Lodge, 221 ; Nkrumah, 287 
Private investment in, position on, 797 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 629 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol 

for protection in event of armed conflict, 501 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 666 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 912 
Volta River hydroelectric project, U.S. financial assist- 
ance to, 364 
Goforth, Oscar L., 238 

Gold, effect of U.S. balance-of -payments position on Treas- 
ury stock of, Presidential directive, 860 
Good Offices Committee, AA Hoc. See under Organization 

of American States 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 



Index, July to December 7960 



1005 



Greece: 

Overflight by Russian planes, statement (Herter), 517, 

518 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 878 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 33 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Switz- 
erland, 770 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 945 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding 
of, 665 
U.S. technical assistance program agreement, termina- 
tion of, 973 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 388 
Green, Howard G., 172 
Greenland : 

Air navigation services in, agreement on joint financing 

of, 770 
U.S. and Danish role in defense of, remarks (Frederik 

IX), 719 
U.S.-Danish agreements re : 

Aeronautical facilities and services in, establishment 

and operation of, 192 
U.S. defense projects in, participation of Danish en- 
terprises and labor in, texts of U.S. and Danish 
notes, 926 
Greenland Projects, United States-Danish Committee on, 

establishment of, 926 
"Group of Four," membership and work of, address (Bur- 
gess), 570 
Guadeloupe Island, agreement with France for establish- 
ment and operation of rawinsonde observation station 
on, 461 
Guantanamo naval base : 

U.S. acquisition and use of, text of U.S. document, 692, 

698 
U.S. position re, statement (Eisenhower), 780 
Guatemala : 

Centr.Tl American Bank for Economic Integration, es- 
tablishment of, joint statement, 782 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on, 387 
ICA loan, 105 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. providing, 

429 
Land tenure in, 819 
U.S. naval units in position to defend : 

Messages and statement : Eisenhower, 924 ; Hagerty, 

888 ; Ydigoras, 924 
Withdrawal, 958 
Guinea : 
Congo : 

Contribution of troops to U.N. force in, 221, 223 
Exchange of cables on situation in (Eisenhower, 
Tour6),922 
Treaties, agreement-s, etc.: 

Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 
in event of armed conflict, and protocol, 912 

1006 



Guinea — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S. for the furnishing of, 734 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
Guthrie, John C, 912 

Haahr, James C, 388 

Habana convention on the duties and rights of states in 
the event of civil strife (1928) : 
Cuban violation of, text of U.S. memorandum, 341 
Current action on, 805 
Haedo, Eduardo Victor, 520 
Hager, Eric H., 890 
Hagerty, James C. : 

Correspondence and statements: 

Downing of RB^7 plane by Soviets, U.S. protest, 163 
Freedom of the press, letter to Moscow editors, 443 
Meeting of President and President-elect, joint state- 
ment with Pierre E. G. Salinger, 968 
Naval units positioned as aid to Guatemala and 

Nicaragua, 888 
Postponement of President Eisenhower's trip to 

Japan, 131 
President Eisenhower to address U.N. General As- 
sembly, announcement, 515 
Soviet sentencing of Francis Gary Powers, 361 
U.S. sends flour to L^opoldville, 222 
Haggerty, John J., 388 
Haiti : 

Armed invasion from Cuba, text of U.S. memorandum, 

341 
Military equipment, agreement with U.S. relating to 

transfer of, 545 
U.S. Ambassador: confirmation (Newbegin), 461; 

resignation (Drew), 154 
U.S. Navy net tender, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 
229 
Hale, Robert F., 388 
Hammarskjold, Dag, 441, 586, 620, 656 
Hanes, John W., Jr., 14, 365, 422 
Harrington, Julian F., 154 
Haselton, Norris S., 806 

Hawaii, center for cultural and technical interchange be- 
tween East and West, request for funds for, state- 
ment (Herter), 46 
Heads of Government, visits between, evaluation of, report 

(Eisenhower), 124 
Heads of Government meetings : 

Conclusions re, addresses and report: Burgess, 9; 

Dwinell, 14 ; Eisenhower, 124 
Failure of, Soviet views, letter (Khrushchev), 92, 93 
Question of, statement (Herter), 517 
Soviet proposal for General Assembly session of, ad- 
dress (Berding), 305 
Health and sanitation : 

5th International Congress on Nutrition, remarks 

(Elsenhower), 441 
Inter-American program for improvement of. Commit- 
tee of 21 proposal for, 539 
Program with Brazil, agreement (1942) terminated, 770 
WHO constitution, 460, 734, 770, 805, 842, 878 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Health and sanitation— Continued 
WHO sanitary regulations, amendments pertaining to 
the Aircraft General Declaration, 544 
Health Organization, Pan American, request for funds 
for acquisition of headquarters site, statement 
(Herter), 46 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Organiza- 

Uon 
Heck, L. Douglas, 388 
Henderson, E. Wayne, 924 
Henderson, Horace B., 66, 461 
Henderson, Loy W., 702 
Herter, Christian A. : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements: 
American Foreign Ministers meetings (see also Or- 
ganization of American States, infra) : 
Proposed, 207 

6th and 7th meetings of consultation at San Jos^, 
311, 312, 355, 358, 395, 408 
Berlin situation, 208, 516 

Bundestag meeting in West Berlin, question of, 312 
Chilean disaster, U.S. aid operations, 39 
Communist Chinese U.N. representation, question of, 

519 
Congo, situation in, U.S. position, 205, 206, 207, 209, 

245, 437, 440, 468, 520 
Cuba: 

Question of U.S. military intervenUon in, 207 
U.S. relations with, 208, 209, 312, 313, 314, 475 
Defensive alliances, effect of U-2 incident on, 40 
Disarmament negotiations at Geneva, question of new 

U.S. approach, 42 
"First Secretary," question of creation of office of, 

518 
Foreign policy and relations : 
Basic concepts of, 435 
Economic challenge in, 847 
U.S. problems in, 467 
Freedom of the press and other information media, 

518 
Heads of government meeting, quesUon of, 517 
Ideological differences between Communist China and 

Soviet Union, 41, 42 
Inter-American police force, proposed, 246 
Japan : 

Disturbances in and cancellation of proposed visit 

of President Eisenhower, 40, 42, 43 
U.S. relations with, 517 

Use of Japanese bases for RB-47 and U-2 flights, 
question of, 207 
John Foster Dulles, tribute to, 981 
Laos, coup d'4tat in, 311 
Latin America : 

Interference of Soviet Union in, 311 
U.S. social development aid program for, 209, 310, 
316 
Malayan Prime Minister, welcome to U.S., 783 
Mexico's 150th independence celebration, 524 
Mutual Security Program, appropriations for and 
importance of, 107 



Herter, Christian A. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
NATO, integration of forces, 516, 519 
Organization of American States : 
Censure of Dominican Republic, 515 
Peace Committee, functions, U.S. supply of infor- 
mation to, 40, 41, 520 
Nigeria, U.N. member.ship of, 659 
Nuclear test ban, question of, 208, 310, 313 
Overseas service, preparing for, 775 
Personalized diplomacy, 39, 41 
Position as Secretary of State in new administration, 

question of, 41 
President's Advisory Committee on Inter-American 

Affairs, question of report from, 43 
Prime Minister Lumumba, welcome to Washington, 

245 
Richard M. Nixon, question of role in U.S. actions, 

207, 208 
Rubottom appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Argen- 
tina, 309 
Security precautions for officials attending U.N. Gen- 
eral Assembly, 515, 519 
Soviet planes, overflight and refueling rights of, 517, 

519 
Soviet policy, question of change in, 42 
Soviet protests and threats, U.S. replies to, 206 
State Department : 
Budget, 44 
Inter-American affairs, under secretaryship for, 

518 
Role in formulation of national security policy, 4 
Sugar quotas, request for Presidential authority to 

reduce, 41, 58 
United Nations: 
Admittance of 13 African states and Cyprus to 

membership, 589 
15th anniversary of, 739 

General Assembly, 15th session, 515, 516, 519 
10th anniversary of collective action in Korea, 39 
U.S. representative (Lodge) to, question of effect 
of political nomination on position, 207 
U.S. presidential election : 

Foreign policy during, 309, 310 
Khrushchev's comments on, 42 
Correspondence and messages : 

Conference of independent African states, greetings 

to, 23 
Congolese attack on American airmen, exchange of 

letters with U.N. Secretary-General, 440 
ICA procurement policy, instructions re, 972 
Independence of : Nigeria, 644 ; Somali, 87 
Presidential missions abroad, exchange of correspond- 
ence with Senator Wiley, 47 
U.N. fund for the Congo, U.S. contribution to, 588 
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, services of, 

732, 803 
U.S. election procedures, chiefs of mission invited to 
observe, 778 
Meetings with : 

Japanese Foreign Minister, text of joint communique, 
561 



Index, July to December J 960 



1007 



Herter, Christian A.— Continued 
Meetings with — Continued 

NATO Council, U.S. repre.sentative to, 978 
News conferences, 39, 205, 309, 515 
High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N. : 

Praise for services of (Lindt), letters (Eisenhower, 

Herter), 7.32 
Progress in solving problems of European refugees, ad- 
dress (Hanes), 15,16 
Rei>ort of, U.S. views, statement (Lamey), 801 
U.S. pledge to, statement (Aiken), 804 
Honduras : 

Central American Bank for Economic Integration, es- 
tablishment of, joint statement, 782 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife, 

protocol and convention (1928), 805 
IDA articles of agreement, 460 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 734 
WMO convention, 701 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 461 
Hong Kong, U.S. contribution to Chinese refugees in, 

address (Hanes), 15 
Housing development in Latin America : 
Inter-American programs for, Committee of 21 proposal, 

538 
U.S. proposal of aid in, statement (Dillon), 368, 369 
Howe, Walter, 39 
Human rights : 
Cuban suspension and suppression of, text of U.S. memo- 
randum, 329 
Dominican violation of, message and statement (DUlon, 

Eisenhower), 412, 413 
Finland's championship of, address (Merchant), 751 
Human Rights Week, 1960, proclamation, 859 
Judicial protection of human rights essential in the 

Americas, statement (Herter), 399 
Tibet, question of violation of in, statement (Wads- 
worth), 622 
Hungary : 

Credentials of delegation to International Labor Con- 
ference, statement (Henderson), 66 
4th anniversary of uprising in, 720 

Head of delegation to the U.N. (Kadar) restricted in 

movements in U.S., aide memoire and statements 

(Department, Elsenhower), 521, 523 

Plant protection convention (1951), international, 429 

Question of inscription of problem on General Assembly 

agenda, U.S. support of, 422, 509, 623, 727 
Revolt against Soviet control, statement (Herter), 396 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 501 
United Nations actions re : 
Letter (Eisenhower), 626 
Soviet defiance of, address (Berding), 477 
Statement (Morse), 728 
Hungary, United Nations Special Committee on, report 
of, statement (Morse), 728 



lADB. 
IAEA. 



1008 



See Inter-American Development Bank 
See Atomic Energy Agency, International 



lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American Economic and Social 

Cotmcil 
IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
Iceland : 

Air navigation services in, agreement on joint financing 

of, 770 
International teleconununication convention (1959), 

with annexes and final protocol, 460 
Radio regulations (1959), with appendixes, 544 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 544 
lOEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
lOJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
Ikeda, Hayato, 364, 562, 923 
ILO. See International Labor Organization 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration : 

Domestic servants, issuance of visas for, instiruction 

re, 365 
Laws regulating, address (Auerbach), 578, 579, 580 
Legislation to enable U.S. participation in resettlement 
of certain refugees, statement (Eisenhower), 219 
Policy committee on, 193 
Quotas for new nations, estabUshment by proclamations, 

654, 757 
Visas issued to U.S. immigrants and regulations gov- 
erning, 580, 651 
Immigration and Nationality Act, 579 
Immigration and Naturalization, Policy Committee on, 

chairman appointed, 193 
Immunity, diplomatic, development of and U.S. poUcy, 

article (Barnes), 173 
Imports (see also Customs; Exports; Tariff poUcy, U.S.; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and Trade) : 
Cuban military imports, 852 
Dollar-area imports : 

Cuban discriminatory regulations against, 716 
Efforts for removal of restrictions on, address and 
statements : Dillon, 564 ; Eisenhower, 862, 863, 926 
GATT negotiations, 454, 759, 894 
Relaxation of restrictions on : France, 105 ; Italy, 973 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on importation of, 387 
Marking requirements legislation. Presidential disap- 
proval of, 500 
U.S. imports from : 

Iran, list of duties increased as result of termination 

of trade agreement with, 427, 428 
Latin America, decline in, article (Culbertson, Led- 

erer),97 
Poland, suspension of restrictions on, letter (Eisen- 
hower) and White House iinnouncement, 863 
Independence movement in Africa and Asia (see also 
Newly developing nations), address and article: 
Pearcy, 959 ; Wilcox, 508 

Department of State Bulletin 



India : 
Air transport agreement with U.S., discussions con- 
cerning, 644, 734 
Coal production, U.S. aid to expand, 251 
Educational exchange, 10th anniversary of program 

with U.S., 859 
Efforts to attract private capital, statement (Dillon), 

112 
Financial crisis, multilateral aid, 292 
Indus Basin. See Indus Basin project 
Nuclear test ban negotiations, proposal for inscription 
on General Assembly agenda by, statement (Wads- 
worth), 930 
Purchase of U.S. wheat and rice surplus, statement 

(Payne), 799 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements supplementing 
or amending agreements with U.S., 350, 629, 805, 
878 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

agreement (1950) with U.S., 388 
IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Nuclear research equipment in field of agriculture, 
agreement with U.S. providing grant of, 114 
U.S.-India, cooperation to aid Nepal, 294 
Indian Ocean expedition, international, U.S. support, 23 
Indonesia : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements amending agree- 
ments with U.S., 192, 912, 981 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of, agreements for cooper- 
ation with U.S., 32, 629 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 945 
Weights and measures, 1875 convention concerning cre- 
ation of an international office of, and 1921 con- 
vention amending, 981 
Indus Basin project : 
Conclusion of treaty between India and Pakistan for, 

statement (Eisenhower), 577 
House Appropriations Committee consideration of U.S. 

aid for, statement (Dillon), 29 
Multilateral cooperative effort, report, 293 
World Bank promotion and financing of, statement 
(DiUon), 608 
Industrial and vocational education program In Brazil, 

agreement extending 1950 agreement re, 298 
Industrial property, convention (1883, as revised) for pro- 
tection of, 52, 387, 544 
Information activities and programs {see also Cultural 
relations) : 
Educational, scientiflc, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on importation of, 387 
Exchange of magazines with Poland, address (Dillon), 

597 
Freedom of information. See Freedom of information 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Information 

Agency 
Inspection and control for disarmament : 
In Antarctica, importance of treaty provisions re, state- 
ment (Phleger),50, 51 
U.S. and Soviet positions, 91, 270, 555, 764 

Index, July fo December J 960 

587430—61 4 



Inter- American Affairs, National Advisory Committee on: 
Announcements of meetings of : 5th, 148 ; 6th, 641 ; 7th, 

822 
Question of report from, statement (Herter), 43 
Inter- American automotive traffic, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, with annex, 805 
Inter-American conference, 11th, agenda item 12, letter 

(Herter), 247 
Inter- American congress of municipalities, 8th, remarks 

(Eisenhower), 779 
Inter-American Development Bank : 

Establishment and functions of, statements: Dillon, 

534, 536, 609 ; Payne, 796 
Role in administration of proposed social development 
fund for Latin America, address and statement: 
DiUon, 369 : Mallory, 854 
Inter- American Economic and Social Council, ajonual con- 
sultative meetings proposed for, 536, 540 
Inter- American fund for social development : 
Addresses and statements : Dillon, 533, 567, 609 ; Herter, 

209 ; Mallory, 816, S20 
Cooperation to promote social progress and economic 
growth, U.S. pledge of, statements (Eisenhower), 
166, 346 
Program for development within framework of Com- 
mittee of 21 recommendation, 536, 539, 853 
Proposal for and request of Congress for authorization, 
message, remarks, and statements : Dillon, 367, 373, 
781 ; Eisenhower, 315 ; Herter, 310, 316 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention (1944) and protocol of amendment to, 429, 
734, 878, 945 
Inter-American Peace Committee ( OAS ) : 
Collection and study of information re tension in the 

Caribbean area, function of, 40, 317 
Findings re Dominican Republic aggression against 

Venezuela, 3.55, 357, 358 
Report re international tension in Caribbean area, state- 
ment (Herter), 399 
Responsibility of Cuban Government for increased in- 
ternational tensions in Western Hemisphere, letter 
of transmittal to and U.S. memorandums and an- 
nexes : Dreier, 317 ; texts of docimients, 79, 318, 409 
Inter-American police force, proposed, exchange of letters 

(Herter, Smathers), 246 
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, Cuban 

views, 343 
Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements, 23, 

897 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration, 
14th and 15th sessions of Executive Committee and 
12th session of Coimcil, article (Warren), 254 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

convention, 429 
International Atomic Energy Agency : See Atomic Energy 

Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also International Development Association) : 
Aid to less developed countries, address (Burgess), 569 
Articles of agreement, 945 

Board of Governors annual meeting, message and state- 
ments (Anderson, DiUon, Eisenhower), 607 

1009 



International Bank for Reconstruction, etc. — Continued 
Financial statements, 386, 877 

Indus River project, promotion and financing of, state- 
ments : Dillon, 608 ; Eisenhower, 577 
Loan from German Central Bank. 220 
Role in economic development, statement (Payne), 795 
International Biireau for administration of convention 
(1883) for protection of industrial property, U.S. con- 
tributions, statement (Martin), 54 
International conference on public education. 23d, U.S. 

delegation, 117 
International congress on nutrition, 5th, remarks (Eisen- 

hovrer), 441 
International cooperation, growth of, address (Dillon), 

508, 601 
International Cooperation Administration (see also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid, 
Investment guaranty program, and Mutual seciurity) : 
Administration of : 

Certain Mutual Security Program functions, 868, 871 
Defense support aid to Turkey, 901 
Relief aid to Cyprus, 973 
Administrative expenses and personnel. House of Rep- 
resentatives restrictions on, statement (Dillon), 111 
Afghanistan, grants of U.S. agricultural commodities to, 

872 
Assistance programs in Africa, address (Satterthwaite), 

755 
Contracts with universities for work in less developed 

coimtries, address (Thayer), 280 
Deputy director, resignation ( Saccio) , 630 
Deputy regional director for Latin America, designation 

(Johnston), 74 
Latin America, aid to small farmers in, address (Mal- 

lory),819, 820 
Loans to : Guatemala, 105 ; Nepal, 248 
Procurement of goods and services : 
Policy in designated countries, instructions to ICA 

Director (Herter),972 
Presidential directive re, 862 
Regional director for Far Eastern operations, designa- 
tion (Sheppard), 193 
Representative to Sierra Leone (Neal), designation, 982 
Resignation of General Counsel (Burnett), 806 
U.S. Operations Missions : 

Appraisal of proposed aid, report, 291 
Designation of directors to : Afghanistan, 702 ; Brazil, 
630; Ceylon, 806; Chile, 230; Greece, 388; Libya, 
388; Nepal, 630; Sudan, 630; Tunisia, 546; The 
West Indies, G30 ; Yugoslavia, 388 
International Court of Justice : 
Austrian-Italian dispute re status of German-speaking 
residents of Province of Bolzano, U.S. support of 
adjudication by, statement (Willis), 939 
Statute, declaration recognizing compulsory jurisdic- 
tion of: 
Current action, 734 

U.S. reservation, need for repeal, address (Herter), 
438 
International Development Association : 
Articles of agreement, 460, 805, 842 
Membership of, 617 

1010 



International Development Association— Continued 

Organization and functions of, letter, message, and 
statements: Anderson, 607; Dillon, 535, 608; Eisen- 
hower, 608, 628 ; Payne, 796 
International disarmament control organization. See 

Control organization, international disarmament 
International Finance Corporation : 
Articles of agreement, S05. 945 

Board of Governors annual meeting, message and state- 
ments : Anderson, 607 ; Eisenhower, 608 ; Upton, 616 
Loan in Tanganyika, 957 
International Labor Organization, conference, decision on 
Hungarian delegation's credentials, statement (Hen- 
derson), 66 
International law (see also International (3ourt of Jus- 
tice), diplomatic immunity, development of and U.S. 
policy, article (Barnes), 173 
International Monetary Fund (see also International 
Bank) : 
Achievements of, message and statement: Anderson, 

607, 611 ; Eisenhower, 607 
Advances to less developed countries, address (Bur- 
gess), 569 
Cuban violation of agreements with, text of U.S. mem- 
orandum, 345 
International organizations (see also sub ject) : 

Application of universal copyright convention to works 

of, 153 
Calendar of international meetings, 30, 183, 252, 374, 

452, 525, 606, 721, 786, 873, 929 
Diplomatic immunity of personnel, article (Barnes), 

175, 180, 181 
Private, public participation in, address (Foster), 830 
U.S. representative (Martin), appointment to, 621 
International Tin Council, administration of interna- 
tional tin agreement (1954), article (Nichols), 661, 
663, 664 
Interparliamentary group, Meslco-D.S., request for fvmds 

for U.S. participation, statement (Herter), 46 
Investment guaranty program : 
Address (Hager), 893 

Agreements with : Chile, 350 ; Colombia, 770 ; Guate- 
mala, 429 ; Liberia, (566 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, investment in, address (Penfield), 956 
DLF's Deputy Managing Director for Private Enter- 
prise, role in, 445 
Ghanaian encouragement of investment in, 365 
IPC role in the assistance of, message and statement: 

Eisenhower, 608 ; Upton, 616, 617 
Income-tax incentives. See Taxation 
Latin America, article and statement: Culbertson and 

I^derer, 95, 98, 102 ; Dillon, 535 
National policy of promotion of, addresses : Adair, 573 ; 

Dillon, 113, 564, 565 
Need for investment in the less developed countries, 

statements : Dillon, 112, 610 ; Payne, 794, 797 
Protection of. iSee Investment guaranty program 
Relationship to U.S. foreign policy, address (Hager), 



Department of State BuUeiin 



Iran: 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 350, 

702, 805 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 
Obscene publications, protocol amending agreement for 

suppression of circulation of, 192 
Reciprocal trade agreements (J943 and 1960) with U.S., 
termination of, 261, 427, 545 
Ireland : 

Air navigation services in Iceland, Greenland and Faroe 

Islands, agreement on joint financing of, 770 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 605 
GATT, application for accession to, 759 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 842, 878 
Israel : 
Arab-Israel dispute, report (Eisenhower), 448 
Palestine refugees, UNRWA aid, 512, 626, 803 
Transfer of Adolf Eichmann from Argentina, Argentine 
complaint, statements (Lodge) and Security 
Council resolution, 115 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

agreement with U.S., 114 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 33, 192 
Double taxation on income, convention with U.S. for 

avoidance of, 629, 666 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 33, 

192, 501, 945, 981 
International telecommunication convention (1959) 
with annexes and final protocol, 544 
Italy : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Antl-Fasclst demonstrations. Communist role in, address 

(Berding), 304 
Defense expenditures, increase in, 27 
Disarmament proposal with U.K. and U.S.. 762, 763 
Dispute with Austria re status of German-speaking resi- 
dents of Province of Bolzano, statement (Willis) 
and text of General Assembly resolution, 939 
Emigration training centers, 255 
Giuseppe Garibaldi, statement (Merchant), 785 
Land reform in, 821 
RB-47 incident, proposed resolution in Security Council 

re, 244 
Relaxation of controls on dollar-area imports, 564, 973 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport services, agreement amending schedules 
1 and 2 of annex to 1948 agreement with U.S. re. 
350, 365 
Child-feeding program, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 350 
Disposition of defense equipment and materials fur- 
nished, agreement amending agreement (1951) with 
U.S., 629 
Facilities assistance program, agreements with U.S., 

termination, 261 
IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safe- 
guarding of, 665 

Index, July to December 1960 



Italy — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Postal convention, universal, 298 
Reciprocal filing of classified patent applications, 

agreement with U.S., 429 
War damage claims, agreement supplementing 
memorandum of understanding (1957) with U.S. 

Weapons production program, agreement with U.S. 
re, 261 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 912 
Ivanov, Valentin M., 350 
Ivory Coast : 
Civil aviation, international, convention (1944), 841 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 702 
U.S. consulate at Abidjan, raised to Embassy, 262 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
WMO convention, 842 

Jacobs, John Roland, 74 
Japan: 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Claims against U.S. by displaced residents of Bonin 
Islands, U.S. requests funds for payment, state- 
ment (Herter), 46 
Congratulations on elections of Prime Minister, ex- 
changes of messages (Eisenhower, Ikeda), 364, 923 
DAG membership, 294 
Land reform in, 821 

Liberalization of import controls, address (Dillon), 564 
Proposed visit of President Eisenhower to, cancellation 
of, letter, report, statements : Eisenhower, 125, 126 ; 
Hagerty, 131 ; Herter, 40, 42, 43, 47 
Role in Far East, report (Eisenhower), 125 
Treaties, agi-eements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending agree- 
ment with U.S., 33 
Antarctic treaty, 350 
Claims against U.S. forces by former employees, 

agreement with U.S. re, 73 
Contributions to U.S. administrative and related ex- 
penses in, agreement with U.S. re, 461 
GATT: 
Declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI :4 and procfes-verbal extending 
validity of, 666 
Declarations on provisional accessions of Israel and 

Tunisia, 192 
Declarations on relations with Poland and Yugo- 
slavia, 192 
Mutual cooperation and security, treaty with U.S., 

40, 154 
Understanding with U.S. re small maritime claims, 

734 
Waiver of contributions to U.S. forces in, agreement 
with U.S. re, 350 
U.S. bases in, question of RB-47's and U-2's use of, 
statement (Herter), 207 

1011 



Japan — Continued 

U.S. relations with, letters, joint communique, and 
statements : Eisenhower, 8, 5G2 ; Herter, 517 ; Ikeda, 
562; and text of communique (Herter, Kosaka), 
561 
Visit to U.S. of Crown Prince Akihito and Crown 
Princess Micblko : 
Announcement of, 308 

Exchange of greetings and toasts (Akihito, Eisen- 
hower, Merchant) and list of official party, 642 
Johnston, John W., Jr., 74 
Joint Defense, Canada-U.S. Ministerial Committee on, 

3d meeting, 139, 172 
Jones, Owen T., 388 
Jordan : 

Drought, U.S. aid, 142 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 
Road traffic convention (1949) with annexes, 544 
U.K. and U.S. aid, 291 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice 

Kadar, Janos, 521 
Karrick, David Brewer, 193 
Kasavubu, Joseph, 904 

Katanga, Province of (see also Congo, situation in), U.N. 
effort to restore order in, statement (Lodge) and text 
of Security Council resolution, 384 
Kennedy, John F., meeting with President Eisenhower 
re transfer of Executive responsibility, joint state- 
ment, 968 
Khrushchev, Nikita S. : 

Actions at summit meeting, address (Burgess), 10 
Attacks on U.N. Secretary-General. See United Na- 
tions : Office of Secretary-General 
Attendance at General Assembly, U.S. views, 472, 507, 

513, 514 
Letter and statements: 

Soviet support of Cuba (see also Cuban situation: 

Soviet threat), 318, 335 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament negotiations, 
Soviet decision to walkout on, 92 
Meeting with President Eisenhower, proposed, 595 
Visit to U.S. for General Assembly session, security 
precautions for, 515, 519, 521, 522 
Kieman, Thomas Joseph, 605 
Kim, Daeyung, 287 
Knight, Frances G., 545 
Kohler, Foy D., 24 
Korea : 

The Record on Korean Unification, 1943-1960, released, 

806 
U.N. support of unification of, letter (Eisenhower), 
627 
Korea, north, travel of aliens from U.S. to, U.S. regula- 
tions re, 974 
Korea, Republic of : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 958 
Communist China's participation in invasion of, state- 
ments (Wadsworth),681, 685 
Land reform in, 821 
Students of, message from President Eisenhower, 287 



Korea. Republic of — Continued 

10th anniversary of attack on, statement (Herter), 39 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

and amending agreement (1959) with U.S., 629 
Air services transit agreement, international, 114 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amend- 
ing 1950 agreement with U.S. for financing, 191, 
298 
Nuclear research and training equipment and ma- 
terials, agreement with U.S. providing grant to 
assist in acquisition, 945 
Parcel post, insured, agreement with U.S. re, 501 
U.S. Military Advisory Group, agreement amending 
1950 agreement with U.S. re, 842 
Visit of President Eisenhower to, address and statement 
(Eisenhower), 8, 136; text of joint communique, 
138 
Kosaka, Zentaro, 561, 562 
Kuwait : 

IMCO convention (1948), 429 

Universal postal convention (1957) with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re 
air mail with final protocol, 544 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 

Labor : 

Cuba, U.S. views on policy of, texts of U.S. memoran- 
dums, 325, 409 
Danish, participation In defense projects on Greenland, 

U.S.-Danish notes re, 926 
Domestic servants, immigration to U.S. for employment 

as, statement (Hanes), 365 
Role in a democratic society, remarks (DiUon), 780 
Labor conference, international, decision on Hungarian 

delegation's credentials, statement (Henderson), 66 
La Couhre, explosion in Habana harbor, Cuban charges 
against U.S. and texts of U.S. document and memo- 
randum re, 80, 696 
Lamb, George A., 532 
Lamey, Arthur F., 67, 801 
Land reform : 

China, Republic of, program of, address (Eisenhower), 

134 
Colombia, 820 
Cuba: 
Declaration re, 321 

Seizure of U.S. property. Department statement and 
text of U.S. document to U.N., 693, 716 
Problem of, address (Mallory), 815 
Langdale, Noah, 582 
Laos : 
Mekong River Basin, multilateral efforts for develop- 
ment, 292 
Revolution in, U.S. views re, 311, 499 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 154 
U.S. support of Security Council action in, letter (Eisen- 
hower), 624 



1012 



Department of Stafe Bulletin 



Latin America (sre also Caribbean, Inter-American, 
Operation Pan America, Organiz;ition of American 
States, and indimdual countries) : 
Balance of payments with U.S. In 1959, article (Culbert- 

son-Lederer), 9i 
Bonds that unite U.S. with, remarks (Eisenhower), 557 
Communist activities in. See under Communism 
Cuban Interventionist activities in, 340, 399, 409, 411 
DLF loans in, 445 

Economic and social development (see also Committee 
of 21 and Inter-American fund for social develop- 
ment) : 
Problems of, address (Herter), 469 
U.S. cooperation in, statements (Eisenhower), 166, 
346 
Economic Commission for Latin America, statement 

(Payne), 793 
ECOSOC aid to, 795 

Emigration of migrants and refugees to, article (War- 
ren), 255 
Free trade areas in (see also Latin American Free 

Trade Association), establishment of, 577 
Hemisphere Cooperation for Better Municipal Govern- 
ment, remarks ( Eisenhower ) , 779 
Housing development in, U.S. proposal of aid in, state- 
ment (Dillon), 368, 369 
Land problem in the Americas, address (Mallory), 815 
Racial and cultural groups in, complexity of, address 

(Mallory), 856, 982 
Sino-Soviet intervention in. See under Cuban situation 

and Organization of American States 
U.S. policy in, address and statement : Mann, 811 ; White 

House statement, 282 
Visit of U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, announcement of, 
559 
Latin American Free Trade Association : 
Establishment of, address and statement: Adair, 577; 

Payne, 793 
Relationship to GATT, Contracting Parties to discuss, 

7.59 
Treaty establishing, GATT views of, 896 
Lavergne, Daly C, 546 

Law (see also International Court of Justice) : 
Cuban, review of developments in, 329 
Diplomatic immunity, development of and U.S. policy, 

article (Barnes), 173 
Progress Toward a World of Law, address (Herter), 
435 
Lead and zinc, decision against reopening escape-clause 

action on, 901 
Lebanon, U.S. withdrawal of forces from, statement 

(Lodge), 160 
Lederer, Walther, 94 

Less develojied countries (see also Newly developing 
countries) : 
Aid to (see also Economic and technical aid and Eco- 
nomic development) : 
Cooperative effort of the industrial nations, address 

and report : Hager, 894 ; report, 289 
DAG members' aid to, 645, 646 
Role of IDA in providing, 618 



Less developed countries — Continued 

Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Sino-Soviet bloc 
countries in, addresses : Herter, 436, 847 ; Penfield, 
957 
ECOSOC report on aid to and plans for, U.S. support 
of, statement (Payne) and text of U.N. resolution, 
793 
European contributions, statement (Kohler), 28 
Food-for-peace program for, use of U.N. system for, 

address (Eisenhower), 554 
Trade problems, remarks (Dillon), 188 
U.N. technical assistance programs. See under United 

Nations 
U.S. private investment in. See Investment of private 
capital abroad 
Liberia : 
Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S., 

666 
Radio relay facilities, agreement with U.S. supplement- 
ing 1959 agreement re, 501 
Telecommunication convention, international, 33 
Libya : 

Economic assistance, agreement amending 1954 agree- 
ment with U.S., 734 
U.K. aid to, 291 

U.S. military bases in, memorandum of understanding 
re article XVII of 19.54 agreement with U.S., 945 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 388 
Liechtenstein, property, cultural, convention and proto- 
col (1956) for protection in event of armed conflict, 
387 
Lindt, August R., 732, 803 

Linen toweling and watch movements, President's deci- 
sion re escape-clause action on imports of, 445 
Lisbon revision (1958) to convention (1883) for protec- 
tion of industrial property, 52, 387, 544 
Load line convention (1930), international, modification 

of, 350 
Local jurisdiction, diplomatic immunity from, article 

(Barnes), 173 
Lodge, Henry Cabot : 

Correspondence and statements : 
Admission of new states to U.N. membership, U.S. 
support of : 8 African states and Cyprus, 456 ; Mal- 
agasy Republic, 150; Mali, 149; Togo, 149 
Congo problem : 

Security Council consideration of, 159 
U.N. operations, U.S. support of, 221, 384, 421 
Eichmann case, 115 
Hungary, request for inclusion of problem on agenda 

of General Assembly, 422 
U.N. Disarmament Commission : 

U.S. proposals at August meeting of, 376 
U.S. request for convening of, 253, 274 
Question of political nomination effect on position as 

U.N. representative, statement (Herter), 207 
U.S. representative to 15th session of General Assem- 
bly: confirmation, 67; resignation, 388 
Long, Edward T., 461 
L6pez Mateos, Adolfo, 742, 851 

Loran station in Bahama Islands, agreement with U.K. 
; of, 114 



Index, July fo December J 960 



1013 



Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 67, 936 

Louisville, Ky., role in U.S. Cultural relations, address 

(Thayer), 17 
Lukens, Alan W., 702 
Lumumba, Patrice, 245 
Lush, Gerson H., 388 
Luxembourg : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Excess property, agreement with U.S. re disposal of, 

666 
GATT : 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI :4 and procfes-verbal extending va- 
lidity of, 666 
Declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 192 
Declaration on relations with Poland, 192 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment 
of new schedule III-Brazll, 192 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 

annex B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 770 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 842 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 154 
Lynch, Andrew G., 118, 154, 162 

Macraillan, Harold, 596 
Magill, Robert N., 630 
Malagasy Republic: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 958 
Association with Africa, 960, 961, 962, 966 
Independence, congratulations on occasion of, message 

(Eisenhower), 87 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 150 
Tour of U.S. by head of U.N. delegation, 922 
U.S. Ambas.sador, confirmation, 461 

U.S. consulate general at Tananarive, elevated to Em- 
bassy status, 74 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
Malaya : 

IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 501 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S. : 
Announcements, 251, 605 

Members of official party, remarks, and statements 
(Dillon, Eisenhower, Herter, Rahman), 783 
Mall: 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statements: 

Lodge, 149 ; Wadsworth, 618 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 912 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 

878 
WHO constitution and amendments to, 842, 878 
WMO convention, 912 
U.S. Ambassador, appointments and confirmation : Vil- 

lard, 230, 461 ; Wright, 806 
U.S. consulate general at Dakar, elevated to Ehnbassy 

status, 73 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 757 



Mall — Continued 
U.S. recognition of and designation of consulate at 
Bamako as U.S. Embassy, 567 
Mallory, Lester D., 815, 853, 982 
Mann, Thomas C, 282, 310, 461, 811 
Mannerheim, Gustav, 751 
Mansfield, Mike, 211, 310 
Marin, Luis Mutioz, 656 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental, 

convention (1948), 429 
Marshall plan, 848 
Martin, Edwin M., 52, 461 
Martin, Graham A., 621 
Martindale, Robert C, 928 
Marxism, development of theory of, address (Bohlen), 

636 
Masaryk stamp, question of Czechoslovakia barring mail 

bearing, text of U.S. note re, 414 
Mateos, Adolfo L6pez, 742, 851 

Mauritania, membership in the U.N., Soviet veto of, state- 
ments (Barco), 976 
McCollum, Robert S., 154, 254 
McConaughy, Walter P., 191 
McCone, John A., 360 
McKernan, Donald L., 147 
McKone, John Richard, 164, 235, 238, 275 
McSweeney, John M., 118 
Medical teaching center, Berlin, U.S. aid, statement 

(Kohler), 28 
Mekong River Basin : 

Multilateral cooperative efforts for development, re- 
port, 292 
Statement (Payne), 793 
Menzies, R. G., 596 

Merchant, Livingston T., 642, 677, 707, 751, 785 
Meteorological Organization, World, convention (1947) of, 

701, 805, 842, 912, 945 
Mexico : 

Amistad Dam. See Amistad Dam 

150th anniversary of independence, statements (Her- 
ter), 524 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreements with U.S. : 
Extension of provisional agreement, 114 
Texts of agreement and route schedule, 423, 429 
Amistad Dam, agreement with U.S. to proceed with 

construction of, 981 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
U.S. consulates at Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tiju- 
ana, elevation to consulates general, 805 
U.S. -Mexican relations, text of joint communique (Eis- 
enhower, UJpez Mateos), 851 
Mexico-U.S. interi)arliamentary group, request for funds 

for U.S. participation, statement (Herter), 46 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East and individual 

countries 
Migrant workers, ICEM discussion re social security for, 

article (Warren), 256 
Migration, lutergovermnental Committee for Euroiiean. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration 



1014 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Military Advisory Group to the Republic of Korea, U.S. 

agreement with Korea amending 1950 agi-eement, 842 

Military and civilian personnel abroad, dependents of, 

Presidential directive re, 8G2, 863 
Military assistance {see also Military equipment, mate- 
rials, and services. Military missions, Mutual defense, 
and Mutual security) : 
Address and statements : Herter, 108, 849 ; Kohler, 24, 

26 
Appropriations for FT 1961, statements (Dillon), 29, 

109 
Cuba, U.S. position on, 692 

Procurement abroad for. Presidential directive re, 862 
U.S. aid to U.N. operations in the Congo. See Congo 
situation : U.N. operations 
Military bases, U.S., overseas : 

Guantanamo Naval Base, Importance to defense of 

Western Hemisphere, 692, 698, 780 
Libya, memorandum of understanding re article XVII 

of 1954 agreement with, 945 
Philippines, resolving problems arising from, joint state- 
ment (U.S.-Philippine), 133 
Soviet position on, 304 

The West Indies, U.K.-U.S. and West Indian negotia- 
tions re U.S. bases in : delegation, 889 ; text of com- 
munique, 822 
Military equipment, materials, and services : 
Disposition of, agreements amending agreements with : 
Denmarl£, 590; Italy, 629; Luxembourg, 666; Neth- 
erlands, 501 ; Portugal, 770 
Dominican Republic, OAS member states' suspension 
of trade in arms with, message, statement, and text 
of OAS resolution : Dillon, 413 ; Eisenhower, 413 ; 



Germany, Federal Republic of, agreement re sale of, 

770 
Haiti, agreement with for transfer, 545 
Military expenditures, reduction and control of, U.S. pro- 
posal, 91 
Military missions, U.S. : 

Argentina, agreement (1960) relating to U.S. Army 

mission in, 387 
Cuba, history of U.S. agreements with, text of U.S. 

document re, 692 
Peru, agreement amending agreements for military avi- 
ation, and naval missions in, 298 
MUlard, Maxwell D., 117 
Miner, Robert G., 630 
Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense, Canada-U.S., 

3d meeting, text of communique, 139, 172 
Missiles and rockets (see also Polaris missile program) : 
Long-range ballistic, U.S. expenditure for, address 

(Eisenhower), 743 
Soviet threat of use against U.S. See Cuban situation : 

Soviet threat 
U.S. supply to West Germany, reply to Soviet protest 
re. Department statement and texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 347 
Mitchell, Kyle B., 702 

Mixed Commission and Arbitral Tribunal, agreement 
amending administrative agreement (1954) concern- 
ing, 912 



Monroe Doctrine, 170 

Moore, Lillian, 364 

Morocco, contribution of troops to U.N. force in Republic 

of the Congo, 221, 223 
Mor.se, Wayne, 67, 727, 731 
Mozambique, U.S. consular agency established at Beira, 

118 
Municipal administration, problems of, address and re- 
marks : Eisenhower, 779 ; Mallory, 815 
Murphy, John E., 461 

Muscat, Oman, and Dependencies, treaty of amity, eco- 
nomic relations, and consular rights with U.S., 261 
Mutual cooperation and security, treaty with Japan : 
Agreed imderstanding and exchange of notes re, 73, 

1&4, 734 
Communist efforts to prevent ratification, report (Eisen- 
hower), 125 
Statement (Herter), 40 
Mutual defense (see also Collective security) : 
Canada-U.S., 3d meeting of Ministerial Committee on 

Joint Defense, 139, 172 
U.K.-U.S. arrangements re support facilities for Polaris 
submarines, 778 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Defense 
support. Military missions, Ships and shipping, and 
Weapons production program) : 
Facilities assistance program, agreements terminated 

with: France, 702: Italy, 261 
Japan, agreements re Japanese contributions to, 350, 

461 
Luxembourg, agreement amending annex B of 1950 

agreement, 770 
Military equipment and supplies, agreements concern- 
ing. See Military equipment, materials, and serv- 
ices 
Norway, agreement amending annex C of 1950 agree- 
ment, 501 
Mutual defense treaties and arrangements (see also Mu- 
tual cooperation and security. Mutual cooperation, 
Mutual security. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
Organization of American States, and Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization), necessity for alliance system, 
address (Merchant), 710 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, amendments to, requested, 

statement (Dillon), 367 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (see also 
Agricultural siirpluses. Collective security. Defense 
support. Economic and technical aid, Military assist- 
ance, Mutual cooi)eration, and Mutual defense) : 
Administration of, Executive order, memorandum 
(Eisenhower), and White House announcement re, 
867 
Africa, expansion of programs for, addresses : Penfleld, 

956 ; Satterthwaite, 755 
Appropriation request for FY 1961, letters, message, 
and statements: Dillon, 28, 109; Eisenhower, 315, 
417 ; Herter, 107 
Authorization of special aid to Latin America and the 

Congo, request for, statements (Dillon), 367 
Breadth of U.S. assistance, address (Herter), 467, 469 
Deputy Inspector General and Comptroller (Nugent), 
designation, 461 



Index, July fo December 7960 



1015 



Mutual security and other assistance programs— Con. 
Europe, statement (Kohler),24 
Information program for, Department announcement 

and report to President on, 928 
Inspector General and ComptroUer (Murphy), resigna- 
tion, 461 
Investment jruaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
U.S. expenditures for, decline in, address (Burgess), 
571 
Mutual weapons development program. See Weapons pro- 
duction program 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

National Advisory Committee on Inter-American Affairs. 

43, 148, 641, 822 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 
and Financial Problems, consideration of U.S. 
balanee-of-payments position, 860, 863 
National defense and security (see also Collective secu- 
rity. Defense, Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Petroleum, relationship to, address (Nichols), 865 
Policy, role of State Department in formulation of, 

statement (Herter), 4 
Strengthening and status of, message (Eisenhower), 
314 
Nationalism in Africa, characteristics and development 

of, address (Penfleld), 951 
Nationalization of property. -See under Cuban situation : 

U.S.-Cuban relations 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naude, Willem Christiaan, 643 
Navigation, long-range aid to, agreement D.K.-U.S. re 

establishment of station on Bahama Islands, 114 
Neal, Ernest E., 982 

Near and Middle East (see also individual eountries) : 
Developments in, address (Herter), 471 
5th report to Congre.ss on U.S. activities in and letter 

of tran.smlttal (Eisenhower), 448 
Refugees in, aid to, 512, 626, 803 
U.N. activities in, address (Wilcox), 512 
Nepal : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 153 
Customs convention (1954) on temporary importa- 
tion of private road vehicles, 734 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning custom facili- 
ties for, 701 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
U.S. -Indian cooperation to aid, 294 
U.S. loan of Indian rupees, 248 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 630 
Netherlands : 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Defense budget, increase in, 27 
Emigration from, 255 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment 

and draft statute, 68, 73 
Equipment and materials, agreement amending 1953 
agreement with U.S. re disposition of, 501 

1016 



Netherlands — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT: 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of ar- 
ticle XVI :4 and procfes-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 
Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia, 192 
Declaration on relations with Poland, 192 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding 
of, 665 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, with annex, 

114 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 734 
Neutralist nations, support of the U.S. in the U.X., address 

(Berding), 675 
Neutrality : 
Addresses : Berding, 887 ; Bohlen, 639 
Africa, meaning in, address (Satterthwaite), 753 
Austrian, address (Dillon), 215 
New Zealand : 

Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 805 

Antarctica, agreement with U.S. relating to coopera- 
tion in scientific and logistical operations in, 770 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 34, 261 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Tunisia, 192 
Eadio regulations (1959), with appendixes, 460 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 460 
Newbegin, Robert, 461 

Newly developing nations {see also Independence move- 
ment and Less developed countries) : 
Africa, U.N. program for, proposed, letter (Wads- 
worth), 658 
Challenge of, address (Eisenhower), 551 
Need for aid to, addresses and statement : Bohlen, 639 ; 

Dillon, 217 ; Morse, 731 
Problems of, addresses : Davis, 106 ; Merchant, 708 
U.S. policy toward, address (Herter) , 435, 436 
News correspondents, negotiations for exchange with Com- 
munist China : 
Address (Herter), 471 
U.S. and Communist positions, 497 
Nicaragua : 

Attempted invasion of, texts of U.S. memoranda re, 83, 

341 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, es- 
tablishment of, joint statement, 782 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Switz- 
erland, 192 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
convention (1944) on and protocol of amendment 
to, 945 
Property, cultural, convention and protocol (1956) 
for protection in event of armed conflict, 387 
U.S. naval units in position to defend : 
Statement (Hagerty), 888 
Withdrawal, 958 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Nichols, Clarence W., 661, 865 

Nickel facility (Nicaro) in Cuba, U.S. susi)ension of op- 
eration of, 604 
Nierenberg, William A., 153 
Niger : 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support of, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 702 
U.S. Embassy at : Abidjan, Ivory Coast, accredited to, 

262 ; Niamey, proposed, 702 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
Visit of President to White House, exchange of re- 
marks (Djermakoye, Eisenhower), 713 
WHO constitution and amendments to, 805 
WMO convention, 842 
Nigeria : 

Independence of, messages (Eisenhower, Herter), 643 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support of, statements 

(Herter, Wilcox), 659 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 912 
GATT, applicable rights and obligations of U.K. ac- 
knowledged by, 980 
GATT, application for accession to, 759 
Organization for Trade Cooperation, applicable rights 

and obligations of U.K. acknowledged by, 9S0 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 229 
Tracking station, agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 842 
WMO convention, 945 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 590 
U.S. consulate general at Lagos, elevation to Embassy 

status, 630 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 757 
Nixon, Richard M., question of role in U.S. actions, state- 
ments (Herter), 207, 208 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 147, 287 
Noble, Marshall Hays, 193 
Nonintervention in : 

African countries' internal affairs, addres-s (Eisen- 
hower), 552, 553 
American Republics : 

Adherence to principle, address and statement : Mann, 

813 ; Wadsworth, 543 
Declaration of San Jos^, reaffirmation of principle of, 
test, 407 
U.S. poUcy in Cuba, text of U.S. document to U.N., 697, 
701 
Non-self-governing territories : 
Africa, 285, 509 

U.N. efforts in, letter (Eisenhower), 627 
Nordness, Nedville E., 928 
Norland, Donald R., 702 
North Atlantic Council, Ministerial meeting, 26th, U.S. 

delegation to, 978 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Deterrent against aggression, address (Burgess), 569 
European members, increased contributions for common 

defense, statement (Kohler),27 
Fellowship program, 1901-62, announcement of, 909 
Functions and policy of, text of U.S. note to Poland. 
363 

Index, July to December 1960 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 

Integration of forces in, statements (Herter), 516, 519 
Ministerial meeting of NAC at Paris, 978 
Role of Federal Republic of Germany in defenses of, 
Soviet and U.S. views, statements : Department, 
676 ; Tully, 677, 734 
Science Adviser, appointment, 1.53 

U.S. and Danish cooperation in, remarks and U.S. and 

Danish notes : Frederik IX, 719 ; texts of notes, 926 

U.S. military assistance, statement (Kohler), 26 

U.S. supply of midrange ballistic missiles to, reply to 

Soviet protest. Department statement and U.S. and 

Soviet notes, 347 

U.S. views re, addresses and statement: Burgess, 11; 

Herter, 41, 470 
Visit of Secretary General to Washington, 603 
North Borneo, road traffic, convention (1949) on, 387 
Norway : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Air transport negotiations with U.S., 514, 629 
Restrictions on imports, relaxation of, address (Dillon), 

564 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 429 
Elducational exchange program, agreement with U.S. 

extending, 64 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI : 4 and proc^s-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
Mutual defense assistance agreement with U.S. 

amending annex C of 19.'J0 agreement, 501 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 
amending agreement (1959) relating to procedures 
for reciprocal filing of, 545 
Shipbuilding program, agreement with U.S. relating 

to, 229 
U.S. Educational Foundation in, agreement amend- 
ing 1949 agreement with U.S. re, 154 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S., 

666 
Whaling convention (1946), international, and regu- 
lations, 666 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy and Nuclear weapons 
Nuclear explosions in Antarctica, treaty provision pro- 
hibiting, statement (Phleger), 50 
Nuclear research and training equipment and materials, 
agreements for the acquisition of, with: Argentina, 
73 ; India, 114 ; Korea, 945 
Nuclear weapons: 

Fissionable materials, ban on production for weapons 
purposes, U.S. proposals for, address and state- 
ments: Eisenhower, 556; Lodge, 377, 381, 382; 
Wadsworth, 767 ; text of U.S. proposal, 91 
Tests, cessation and control of : 

Geneva conference on. See Geneva conference on the 

discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Need for agreement on, text of joint commimique 
(Herter, Kosaka), 561 

1017 



Nuclear weapons — Continued 

Tests, cessation and control of — Continued 
Question of, statements (Herter), 208, 310 
On-site inspection of suspected nuclear tests : 
U.S. proiwsals for, 91, 486 
Western and Soviet positions, 933 
U.S., U.K., and Soviet views re, statements (Wads- 
worth), 725, 765, 839, 932, 934 
U.S. efforts toward, address (Berding), 671, 672, 675 
Tests, detection of : 

Question of pooling of information with U.K. and 
U.S.S.R. re seismic detection, statements (Herter), 
310, 313 
Research in seismic detection, article and statement : 
Gehron, 485, 488, 491, 493; Wadsworth, 932 
Nugent, James E., 461 

Nutrition, 5th international congress on, remarks (Elsen- 
hower), 441 
Nuts and tung oil, proclamatioii extending import quota 

on, 834 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

Obscene publications, protocol amending agreement for 

suppression of circulation of, 192 
Oceanographic research in Indian Ocean, U.S. support 

of international expedition for, 23 
OECD. iSee Organization for Economic Cooperation and 

Development 
OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for 
Oenslager, Donald Mitchell, 364 
Oil: 

Imports from Latin America, article (Culbertson, Led- 

erer), 99 
National policies relating to, address (Nichols), 865 
Refineries in Cuba : 
Cuban seizure of, statements and U.S. note of pro- 
test: Department, 716; Lodge, 202; text of note, 
141 
Refusal to refine Soviet oil, statement (Herter), 406 
Okinawa, visit of President Eisenhower, departure state- 
ment (Eisenhower), 8 
Olmstead, Freeman Bruce, 164, 235, 238, 275 
Oman, Muscat, and Dependencies, treaty of amity, eco- 
nomic relations, and consular rights with U.S., 261 
On-site inspection of suspected nuclear tests, 91, 486, 933 
Open societies, address (Wadsworth), 920, 921 
Operation Pan America : 
Committee of 21 efforts to implement. See Committee 

of 21 
Hemisphere economic development plan, address (Mal- 

lory), 854, 855 
Statements : Dillon, 533, 534 ; Herter, 316 
Operational and Executive Personnel Program (OPEX), 
U.N., U.S. proposals on and support of, address, 
remarks, and U.S. memorandum : Dillon, 188 ; Wilcox, 
511 ; text of memorandum, 658 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment: 
DAG, within framework of, 645 
Establishment of, U.S. delegation, 979 

1018 



Organization for Economic Cooperation, etc. — Continued 
Proposed establishment and functions of, addresses, re- 
marks, and statement : Burgess, 570 ; DiUon, 186, 
216, 609 ; Herter, 470 
Western European and North American cooperation in 
planning for, address (Burgess), 12 
Organization for European Economic Cooi>eration. 

See European Economic Cooperation 
Organization for Trade Cooperation, agreement on, ai>- 
plicable rights and obligations of U.K. acknowledged 
by Nigeria, 980 
Organization of American States : 
Ad Hoc Good Offices Committee : 

Consideration of Cuban charges against U.S. Bee 

Cuban situation infra 
Establishment of, 747 
Proposal for and list of members, 520 
Bonds that unite the members of, remarks (Eisen- 
hower), 558 
Collective action in the Americas, question of, address 

(Mann), 811 
Committee of 21. See Committee of 21 
Council of : 
Call for meeting of Organ of Consultation (Foreign 
Ministers of American States) to consider threats 
to regional system, U.S. support of, statements: 
Dreier, 224, 225 ; Herter, 207 
Convening of special meeting of senior government 
representatives on economic and social problems. 
Committee of 21 recommendations, 540 
U.S. representatives on : designation as Interim rep- 
resentative (Bonsai), 912; resignation (Dreier), 
806 
Cuban situation : 

Attempt to destroy solidarity of OAS, text of U.S. 

memorandum, 342 
Cuban charges of aggression against U.S. : 

Statements and U.S. note to OAS Secretary Gen- 
eral : Barco, 788, 789; Lodge, 200; Wadsworth. 
621 ; text of note, 747 
U.N. Security Coimcil resolution of referral of 
charges to OAS consideration, 204 
Foreign Ministers' action re Cuba, address (Herter), 

437 
Responsibility for tensions in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, letter of transmittal to OAS and U.S. 
memorandum and document: Dreier, 317; texts of 
documents, 79, 318, 409 
Foreign Ministers of American States {see also supra 
and infra for problems considered by) : 
Problems confronting, address and statement 

(Herter), 207,437 

6th meeting of consultation at San Jos^, statements 

(Herter), text of resolution, and U.S. delegation, 

355 

7th meeting of consultation at San Jos6, statements 

(Herter) and text of Declaration of San Jos6, 395 

Inter-American Peace Committee. See Inter-American 

Peace Committee 
Proposed police force, exchange of letters (Herter, 
Smathers) , 246 

Department of State Bulletin 



Organization of American States — Continued 
Sino-Soviet intervention in American states : 
OAS Foreign Ministers consideration of and declara- 
tion of condemnation, 395, 407 
Statements : Barco, 790 ; Dreier, 225 ; Herter, 311, 312, 

408 ; Lodge, 202, 203 
Texts of U.S. memorandum and note re, 318, 748 
U.S. support of actions of, statement (Wadsworth), 543 
Venezuelan charges of aggression against Dominican 
Republic, action taken re : 
Consideration of, statements: Dreier, 224; Herter, 

311, 355, 358, 408, 437 
Foreign Ministers' condemnation of Dominican Re- 
public, message and statements : Dillon, 413 ; Eisen- 
hower, 412 ; Herter, 515 
OAS resolution, text of, 358 
Sanctions against economic trade with Dominican 

Republic, U.S. and Venezuelan views on, 640 
Severance of diplomatic relations with Dominican 

Republic, decision on, 716 
Study on further suspension of trade with Dominican 

Republic, U.S. participation in, 716 
U.N. Security Council resolution re OAS report on 

action, 543 
U.S. and Soviet views on, statements (VCadsworth), 
542, 543 
Outer space: 

Courier satellite transmission of messages through, ad- 
dress and message (Berding, Eisenhower), 671, 673 
Peaceful uses of: 
Control of, U.S. proposals : 
Address and statements: Lodge, 378, 3.S0; Wads- 
worth, 767, 839 ; Wilcox, 512 
Text of U.S. disarmament proposal, 91 
Public approval of efforts for, address (Foster), 829 
U.N. committees on peaceful uses of, 624, 625 
U.S. proposals on, address (Eisenhower), 554 
Tracking stations. -See Tracking stations 
U.S. and Soviet achievements in the field of, addresses 
(Berding), 480,886 

Paarlberg, Don, 248 

Pacific Festival, 1960, proclamation, 288 

Paderewski, Ignace Jan, 677 

Padilla Nervo, Luis, 274 

PAHO. See Pan American Health Organization 

Pakistan : 

Indus Basin. See Indus Basin project 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements supplementing 

19.58 agreement with U.S., 154, 666 
Friendship and commerce, treaty with U.S., and 

protocol, 56, 388, 545 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Switzerland, 192 
ICJ statute, declaration recognizing compulsory juris- 
diction of, withdrawal and rerecognition of, 734 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 
Palestine Conciliation Commission, efforts to aid refugees, 

letter (Eisenhower), 627 
Palestine refugees, UNRWA aid for, 512, 626 
Palm, Willard G., 163, 164, 209, 238 

Index, July to December 1960 



Palmer, Joseph II, 590, 630 

Pan American Health Organization, request for funds for 
acquisition of headquarters site, statement (Herter), 
46 
Panama : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 958 

Ai-med invasion by Cuban group, text of U.S. memo- 

randiun, 341 
Flying of Panamanian flag with U.S. flag In Canal 
Zone, statements (Farland, Wheaton) and text of 
U.S. note, 558 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 878 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation (Farland) and resigna- 
tion (Harrington), 154 
U.S. consulate at Col6n, closed, 502 
Panel on Seismic Improvement, findings of, article 

(Gehron), 491, 493 
Paraguay : 

IDA articles of agreement, 842 

Radio communications between amateur stations on 
behalf of third parties, agreement with U.S., 734 
Parcel post, agreement with Korea re, 501 
Paris agreement between Italy and Austria, 939, 940 
Passports, {see also Visas), Passport Service, U.S. estab- 
lishment of, 545 
Patents : 

Applications, classified, agreements approving proced- 
ures for reciprocal filing of, with: Denmark, 114; 
Italy, 429 ; Norway, 545 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguardine 
of, 665 
Rights and technical information for defense purposes, 
agreements for interchange of, with: Portugal! 
878 ; Spain, 590 
Payne, Frederick Blake, 67, 793 
Peace : 

Soviet use and meaning of term, address (Berding), 886 
U.N. maintenance of, address and statement: Eisen- 
hower, 557 ; Wadsworth, 722 
Peace, Robert Lee, 118 
Peace Committee, Inter-American. See Inter-American 

Peace Committee 
Peace force, international, U.S. proposal for, 91 
Peace treaty, German, U.S. position on, statements: 

Herter, 312 ; Tully, 677, 734 
"Peaceful coexistence," Soviet and U.S. interpretations of, 

addresses (Berding), 307, 478 
Pearcy, G. Etzel, 959 
Penfleld, James K., 951 

Personalized diplomacy, statement (Herter), 39, 41 
Peru: 
Call for OAS consideration of Sino-Soviet interference 
in Western Hemisphere, statements: Dreier, 225- 
Herter, 311, 395 
Land development and housing programs, U.S. loan for, 

statement (Eisenhower), 346 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending agree- 
ment with U.S., 981 

1019 



Peru — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc.— Continued 

Inter-Ameriean Institute of Agricultural Sciences^ 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention on, 429 
MiUtary aviation mission, army mission, and naval 
mission, agreement amending agreements witli L.b. 
re, 298 
U.S. aid to, address (Mallory), 820 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 546 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
Petroleum. See Oil 

Philippines: ,. ^^^- 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 195o 

agreement with U.S., 34, 229 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 

Philippine-American Day, exchange of messages (Eisen- 
hower, Garcia), 850 
Visit of President Eisenhower : 

Departure statement and address to Philippine Con- 
gress 8 127 
Public reception, Luneta, remarks (Eisenhower), 130 
.Joint statement, 132 
Phillips, Dean B., 238 
Phleger, Herman, 49 

Pla, Berta, 7 . , ,on 

Plant protection convention (1951), international, 429 
Piatt amendment governing relaUons with Cuba, abroga- 
tion of, 691, 692 
Polakoff, Joseph, 928 

General Pulaski's memorial day, 1960. proclamation, 602 
German-Polish border question, U.S. reply to Polish 
note, 363 ^ ^^ „__ 

Paderewski, honored by U.S., remarks (Merchant), 6. . 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 

agreements with U.S., 229, 259 
Customs convention (1954) on temporary importation 

of private road vehicles, 544 
GATT, declaration on relations with, 33, 192, 666. 

896, 945, 981 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 666 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs fa- 
cilities for, 501 
U.S. claims against, agreement with annex providmg 
for settlement, 226, 229 
U S imports from, restoraUon of most-favored-nation 
status to, letter (Eisenhower) and White House 
announcement, 863 
U.S. policy toward, address (Dillon), 597 
Polaris missile program : 

Expansion of, message (Eisenhower), 314, 315 
Soviet views re, text of Soviet note, 349 
U.S. arrangement with U.K. for support facilities for 
Polaris submarines, 778 
Police force, inter-American, proposed, exchange of let- 
ters (Herter, Smathers), 246 
Policy Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, 

chairman appointed, 193 
Polish National Alliance, 80th anniversary, address (Dil- 
lon), 597 

1020 



Population explosion, Latin America, problem of, 

(Mallory), 815, 819 
Portugal : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1955 

agreement with U.S., 34, 229 
Disiio.sition of equipment and materials, agreement 
amending 1952 agreement with U.S. relating to, 770 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for interchange of, 
878 
Weapons production program, agreement with U.S., 734 
Posa, Eugene E., 238 
Postal agreements and convention : 

Insured parcel post, agreement with Korea re, 501 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 298, 429, 460, 544, 
665 
Potsdam conference, postponement of publication of vol- 
umes on, 430 
Powers, Francis Gary, 276, 350, 361 

Presidential election campaign in U.S., U.S. foreign policy 
during, address and statement: Herding, 307 ; Herter, 
309, 310 
President's Advisory Ommittee on Inter-American Af- 
fairs, question of report from, statement (Herter), 43 
President's Special International Program for Cultural 
Presentations, address (Thayer), 18, 19 

Cuban, attacks on U.S., text of U.S. memorandum, 83 
Foreign Policy and News Kesponsibility, address 

(Berding),883 
Freedom of. See Freedom of information 
Prince Akihito, 308, 642, 643 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Proclamations by the President : 

Captive Nations Week, 1960 ( 3357 ) , 219 

Copyright extension to Austrian citizens (3353), 65 

Cotton typewriter-ribbon cloth, increase of import duty 

on (3365), 446 
General Pulaski's memorial day, 1960 (3375), 602 
Human Rights Week, 1960 (3381), 859 
Immigration quotas (3372), 655; (3376), 757. 
Pacific Festival, 1960 (3356), 288 
Sugar quota for Cuba, reduction of (3355), 140 
Trade agreement with Iran, termination of (3366), 428 
Tung oil and nuts, import quota (3378), 834 
Procurement of goods and services abroad : 
Instructions to ICA re, 972 
Presidential directive re, 860 
Productivity Agency, European, 291 

Professional equipment, convention on temporary impor- 
tation of, GATT consideration of, 897 
Project Mercury. See Tracking stations 
Project Vela, 493 

Propaganda: _ . . 

Communist China, anU-U.S. propaganda activities, 

statement (Wadsworth), 682 
Communist offensive in Latin America, statement (Ru- 
bottom), 63 

Department of State Bulletin 



Propaganda — Continued 

Cuban, against U.S., 79, 338, 690 

Soviet campaign against U.S., address and statement: 

Berding, 305, 306, 307 ; Wadsworth, 726 
Soviet use of United Nations for purposes of, address 
( Berding) , 476, 477, 478, 479 
Property, cultural, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 387, 501, 912 
Property, industrial, convention (1883, as revised) for 

protection of, 52, 387, 544 
Property, nationalization of, Cuban law directed against 

U.S. property, U.S. protest, texts of notes, 171, 316 
Property, rights and interests in Germany, charter of 

Arbitral Commission on, 912 
Provident fund, ICEM, 257 
Public education, 23d international conference on, U.S. 

delegation, 117 
Publications : 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists of, 59, 148, 1S2, 220, 251, 373, 420, 451, 500, 
524, 582, 785, 835 
State Department : 
Diplomatic List, information re, 181 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1942, Volume 
I, OeneraJ, The British Comtnonioealth, The Far 
East, released, 34 
Limitation of use of documents prior to ofl3ciaI pub- 
lication, 429 
Lists of recent releases, 34, 74, 193, 230, 388, 430, 461, 

913, 946 
Potsdam conference, postponement of publication of 

volumes on, 430 
Public interest in, 830 

The Record on Korean Unification, 19/iS-1960, re- 
leased, 806 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Circulation of obscene publications, protocol amend- 
ing agreement for suppression of, 192 
Exchange of official publications and government doc- 
uments, convention (1958) on, 429 
International exchange of, convention (1958) on, 429 
Official publications, agreement with Cambodia for ex- 
change of, 298 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 189, 225, 258, 
386, 458, 541, 628, 689, 733, 769, 877, 910, 979 
Pnerto Rico : 
Cuban policy toward, 341 
Refutation of Soviet and Cuban charges of colonialism 

against U.S., letter and message (Marin), 656 
U.S. policy toward, text of U.S. document to U.N., 698 
U.S. request for withdrawal of Cuban consular assist- 
ant from, 475 
Puhan, Alfred, 193 
Pulaski, Casimir, designation of memorial day for, 602 

Radio. See Telecommunications 
Rahman, Tunku Abdul, 251, 605, 783 
Rakotomalala, Louis, 9.58 
Randall, Clarence B., 453, 4.55 
Ravndal, Christian M., 229, 461 

Index, July to December 1960 



Rawinsonde observation stations, establishment and op- 
eration of, agreements with: Chile, 770; France (on 
Guadeloupe), 461 
RB^7 plane downed by Soviets : 
Crew of, U.S. demands for custody of bodies and release 
of imprisoned crewmen, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes, 163, 209, 274 
Security Council consideration of Soviet complaint 
against U.S. : 
Proposed, message and statement (Elsenhower), 211 
Rejection of Soviet complaint, statements (Lodge) 

and proposed resolutions, 235 
Soviet activities in the U.N. Security Council re, 
addresses, message, and letter: Berding, 305, 306; 
Eisenhower, 314, 556, 595 
Statements (Wadsworth), 622, 727 
U.S. protests to and Soviet allegations concerning, texts 
of U.S. and Soviet notes and aide memoire, 163, 
209, 274, 299, 521, 523 
Reams, R. Borden, 702 
Reap, Joseph W., 473, 497 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for, notice of public 

hearing on tariff concessions, 898 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Reed, William Garrard, 628 
Refugees, Standing Conference of Voluntary Agencies 

Working for, statement (Lamey), 802 
Refugees and displaced persons (see also High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees, U.N. ) : 
Copyright convention, universal, protocol 1, application 
of convention to works of stateless persons and 
refugees, 153 
Cuban refugees in U.S., U.S. views concerning and 

assistance to, 695, 888 
European : 

Eastern Europe, flight from, address (Berding), 481 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, 254 
Latin America, emigration of migrants and refugees to, 

article (Warren), 255 
Legislation to enable U.S. participation in resettlement 

of, statement (Eisenhower), 219 
Palestine Refugees. United Nations Relief and Works 

Agency for, 512, 626, 803 
United States Committee for Refugees, 16 
U.S. pledges and contributions to U.N. and other refu- 
gee programs, address and statements : Aiken, 803 ; 
Eisenhower, 626 ; Hanes, 14 
World Refugee Year. See World Refugee Year 
Reiner, Herbert T., Jr., 842 

Relief and rehabilitation (see also Agricultural surpluses 
and Refugees) : 
Chile : 

Earthquake disaster relief, agreements with U.S. pro- 
viding aid for, 154, 878 
U.S. aid to, statements: Dillon, 367, 370; Herter, 39, 
316 
Ryukyu Islands, U.S.-Japanese agreement re financing. 

Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 
Near East, U.N., 512, 626, 803 

1021 



Representation allowance, need for restoration of funds 

for, statement (Herter), 40 
Research (see also Atomic energy, peaceful uses of; 
Outer space ; Science ; Tracking stations ; and 
Weather) : 
NATO fellowship program, 1961-62, announcement of, 

909 
Nuclear. See Nuclear research and training equipment 

and Nuclear weapons : Tests, detection of 
Relationship to university program, question of, address 
(Thayer), 647 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of: 

ICEM, notification of intention to resign from, 255 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Tunisia, 192 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 192 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 387 
Rice, Cuban restrictions on imports from U.S., statement 
and U.S. document: Herter, 403; text of document, 
694 
Richards, Arthur L., 154 
Riley, William E., 230 
Rio Treaty. 170, 343, 543 
Roach, John L., 630 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 387, 

544, 665, 805 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 544, 665, 734 
Rome Treaty, 576 
Rosenbaum, Charles, 67 
Rossides, Zenon, 778 
Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of, U.S. consulate at 

Usumbura, establishment of, 805 
Rubottom, Roy R., Jr., 60, 282, 309, 461 
Rumania, cultural, educational, scientific, and other ex- 
changes for 1961 and 1962, agreement with U.S., texts 
of notes, 968 
Russell, Francis H., 912 

Ryukyu Islands, typhoon rehabilitation, U.S.-Japanese 
agreement re financing of, 33 

Saccio, Leonard J., 630 

St. John's, Newfoundland, tracking station on, agree- 
ment with Canada for establishment and operation, 
501 
Salinger, Pierre E. G., 968 
San Jo.se, Declaration of, 407 

Sanchez y Basquet, Carlos Manuel Lazaro Felix, 7 
Sanctions, application against the Dominican Republic, 

356. 357, 358, 640, 716 
Santiago, Declaration of. See Declaration of Santiago 
Satellites, earth (see also Outer space) : 
Courier satellite, transmission of messages, address and 

message (Berding, Eisenhower), 671, 673 
U.K. and U.S. discussions on use for communication, 
720 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, 752 
Schott, Robert R., 388 
Schwartz, Harold E., 702 



Science (see also Atomic energy, Nuclear weapons, Outer 
space, and Research) : 
Agricultural science's contribution to good health, re- 
marks (Eisenhower), 441, 442 
Antarctica, treaty provisions re investigation and 

cooperation In, statement (Phleger), 50, 51 
Century 21 Exposition, objective of to depict role of 

science in modern civilization, 645 
Deputy Science Adviser (Sohm), designation, 702 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on importation of, 387 
Indian Ocean expedition, international, U.S. support, 23 
NATO science program, 1.^3 
Science adviser (Whitman), appointment, 429 
U.S. progress in, address and message (Berding, Eisen- 
hower), 671 
Science and technology, agreement with Rumania for ex- 
change in, 968 
Sea Poacher, U.S.S., Cuban attack on, text of U.S. mem- 
orandum and annex, 80, 84 
Sears, Mason, 262 

SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Secretary-General, U.N. See United Nations: Office of 

Secretary-General 
Secretary of State, duties and functions of, statements 

(Herter), 3, 39 
Security, classified documents, unauthorized press publi- 
cation of, address (Berding), 887 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Accreditation of delegation of the Republic of the Congo, 

statement (Wadsworth), 527 
Eichmann case, consideration of Argentine complaint 

re, statements (Lodge) and resolution, 115 
Congo problem, consideration of. See under Congo 

situation 
Cuba, consideration of complaint of U.S. aggression 
against, statements and text of resolution : Herter, 
395, 400, 401; Lodge, 109; resolution, 204 
Documents, lists of, 189, 225, 258, 458, 689, 733, 769, 877, 

911, 980 
Increase in membership of, proposed, U.S. support of, 

874 
Laos, Council action to prevent subversion of, letter 

(Eisenhower), 624 
Membership recommendations to General Assembly, 

149«., 150n, 151n, 153n, 457n, 659 
OAS action on Dominican Republic, consideration of 
Soviet resolution on, statements (Wadsworth) and 
resolution, 542 
RB^7 incident, consideration of. See tinder RB^7 
plane 



Congo problem : 

Call for all states to resolve, 223 

Call for emergency session of General Assembly to 

consider, 532 
Withdrawal of Belgian forces from and U.N. mil- 
itary assistance to, 161, 385 

Cuban complaint against U.S., 204 

Eichmann case, 116 

Taking note of OAS report on 6th meeting of Min- 
isters of Foreign Affairs, 543 



1022 



Department of State Bulletin 



Security Council, U.N. — Continued 
Soviet attempt at censure of U.S. In, addresses: Ber- 

ding, 303 ; Burgess, 12 
U.S. representatives to: confirmations (Barco and 

Wadsworth), 461; resignation (Lodge), 388 
Veto, Soviet use of, 244n, 476, 532n, 976 
Seismic Improvement, Panel on, findings of, article 

(Gehron),491,493 
Selection Boards, Foreign Service, 502 
Self-determination : 
Communist suppression of, address (Dillon), 599 
Puerto Rican exercise of right of, message (Marin), 
657 
Senegal : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 958 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement (Wads- 
worth), 618 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 841 
Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) on, 

945 
WMO convention, 912 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 757 
U.S. recognition of Republic of and appointment of 
Ambassador to, 567, 702 
Sheppard, William J., 193 
Shergalis, William J., 81, 86 
Ships and shipping: 

Commercial treaties with Pakistan and France, omis- 
sion of provisions re, statement (Martin), 57 
IMCO convention (1948), 429 

Load line convention (1930), international, modifica- 
tion of, 350 
Shipbuilding program, agreement with Norway relat- 
ing to, 229 
Soviet, U.S. rejection of Soviet charges on buzzing of, 

texts of U.S. note and Soviet memorandum, 212 
Territorial waters, proposal of fact-finding commission 
to investigate Cuban charges of U.S. violation of, 
statement (Herter), 402, 403, 407 
U.S. naval vessels : 
Base for submarines armed with Polaris missiles, 

arrangement with U.K. for, 778 
Loan of. agreements with: Canada, 734; Chile, 545; 
Republic of China, 770; Colombia, 298; Haiti, 229; 
Spain, 702 
Submarine, Cuban provocative flight over, 640 
Shrimp, Commission for Conservation of, 1st meeting, 147 
Sierra Leone : 
ICA representative in, designation of, 982 
Consulate at Freetown, elevation to consulate general, 

842 
Road trafl5c, convention (1949) and annexes, 387 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 229 
Sierra Maestra, Declaration of. 321 

Sino-Soviet bloc (see also Communism and individual 
countries) : 
Armaments shipments to Cuba, 852 
Economic offensive. iSee Less developed countries : 

Economic offensive 
Exploitation of the Middle East, report (Eisenhower), 
448 

Index, July fo December 7960 



Sino-Soviet bloc — Continued 
Intervention in American states. See under Organiza- 
tion of American States 
Relations with Cuba, texts of U.S. memoranda, 318, 

334, 345, 410 
Ten nation disarmament conference, actions and pro- 
posals at, 253, 268 
U.S. regulations re alien travel from U.S. to, 974 
Views on budget for International Bureau for admin- 
istration of convention (1883) for protection of 
industrial property, 55 
Smathers, George A., 247 
Smith, Bea Ann, 205 
Smith, C. Alphonso, 928 
Social development fund. See Inter-American fund for 

social development 
Social security for migrant workers, ICEM discussion, 

article (Warren), 256 
Sohm, Earl D., 702 
Somali : 
Independence, greetings and congratulations on, mes- 
sages : Eisenhower, 162 ; Herter, 87 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement (Wil- 
cox), 150 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 154 
U.S. consulate general at Mogadiscio, raised to Em- 
bassy status, 118 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 655 
Somaliland Protectorate {see also Somali), cessation of 
application of international sugar agreement (1958) 
to, 261 
Soudan, U.S. consulate at Bamako, establishment of, 548 
South Tyrol, 939 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Role of, joint statement (U.S.-Philippine), 133 
6th anniversary of, accomplishments and objectives, 

message (Eisenhower), 499 
Unity and solidarity of, statement (Herter), 41 
South-West Africa, U.N. supervision of territory, ques- 
tion of, address (Wilcox), 509 
Soviet Union (see also Communism, Sino-Soviet bloc, and 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Antarctic treaty, 805 
Air transport agreement negotiations, U.S. postpones, 

text of U.S. aide memoire, 165 
Aircraft, overflights and refueling of in NATO coun- 
tries, statements (Herter), 517, 519 
Armed forces, proposed force level for, 25, 768 
Berlin, position on. See Berlin 

Buzzing of Soviet ships by U.S. aircraft, U.S. rejection 
of charge of, texts of U.S. note and Soviet memo- 
dum, 212 
Communist China : 

Ideological differences with : address and statements: 

Berding, 478, 480 : Herter, 41, 42 
Representation in the U.N., Soviet proposal for con- 
sideration of. statements (Wadsworth), 678 
Communist parties, worldwide, Soviet control of, ad- 
dress (Bohlen), 638, 639 
Complaints of U.S. aggressions against, consideration by 
U.N. requested, addresses and statements : Berding, 
303 ; Burgess, 12 ; Wadsworth, 619, 622, 726 

1023 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Congo, Republic of the : 
Delegation to the U.N., Soviet position re eredentiala 

of, 904, 005, 908, 909 
Problem of, Soviet views and actions re. See Congo 
situation 

Cuba (see also Cuban situation: Soviet threat) : 
Barter trade with, text of U.S. document to U.N., 693, 

694 
Mutual security alliance with, question of, statement 

(Herter), 208 
Sugar trade with, 336, 346, 404 

Diplomatic representatives attached to Embassy at 
Washington, U.S. expulsion of: 1st secretary, 350; 
3d secretary, 214 

Disarmament position. See Disarmament, Nuclear 
weapons, and Ten Nation Committee on Disarma- 
ment 

Economic growth, rate of, address (Eisenhower), 745 

Economic offensive in less developed countries. See 
under Less developed countries 

ECOSOC activities, position on, 794 

Espionage and intelligence activities, statement 
(Lodge), 241 

Exchange programs with U.S., addresses: Berding, 672; 
Dwinell, 13; Thayer, 19; Wadsworth, 921 

Freedom of the press, U.S. and Soviet views on, ex- 
change of letters (Hagerty, Moscow Neics and 
Nouvelles de Moscou), 443 

Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon testa 

German problems. See Germany 

Hungary, suppression of freedom 
partment, 720; Henderson, 6( 
727 

Imperialism of, 508 

Khrushchev's views and actions. 

Meeting between Premier Khrushchev and President 
Eisenhower, reply to proposal for, letter (Eisen- 
hower), 595 

Nuclear weapons, position re. See Nuclear weapons 

OAS action on Dominican Republic, Security Council 
rejection of Soviet proposed resolution on, state- 
ments (Wadsworth), 542 

Propaganda, use of United Nations for purposes of, ad- 
dress (Berding), 476, 477, 478, 479 

Record of policy for small countries, statement 
(Lodge), 204 

Security Council, use of veto in, 244ra, 476, 532«, 976 

Thought control in, address (Wadsworth), 920 

Threat of intervention in Western Hemisphere. See 
under Cuban situation and Organization of Amer- 
can States : Sino-Soviet intervention 

Threats of war, U.S. replies to, statements : Herter, 206 ; 
Lodge, 238 

U-2 incident. See U-2 incident 

U.S. colonialism in Puerto Rico, refutation of Soviet 
charge of, letters and message (Marin, Wads- 
worth), 656 



statements 
Herter, 3i 



De- 



Khrushchev 



Soviet Union — Continued 
United Nations: 

Aid programs, Soviet lack of support, addresses : 

Berding, 477 ; Dillon, 218 
15th session, head of delegation (Khrushchev) travel 

restricted, U.S. and Soviet views re, 515, 519, 521 
Soviet attacks against. See United Nations: Office of 
Secretary-General 
USAPRB-47, shooting down of. iSee RB-47 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
Worldwide activities of, address (Berding), 476 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 603 
Space. See Outer space 
Spain: 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 360 
Defense support assistance, statement (Kohler), 28 
Stabilization program, multilateral aid, 292 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 192 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for protection 

in event of armed conflict, 501 
Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1958 agreement for financing of, 842 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 

Naval vessels, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 702 
Patent rights and technical information for defense 
purposes, agreement with U.S. for exchange of, 590 
Special assistance : 

Appropriation request for FY 1961, House consideration 

and reduction in, statements (Dillon), 29, 109 
Berlin and Yugoslavia, statement (Kohler), 28 
Special Committee of the Council of the OAS To Study 
the Formulation of New Measures for Economic Co- 
operation. See Committee of 21 
Special Fund, U.N. : 
Expansion of, proposed, 553, 658, 796 
U.S. contributions to, 628, 732. 957 
Specialized Agencies, U.N., U.S. support of, address and 

statement : Payne, 794, 796 ; Penfield, 956, 957 
Standing Conference of Voluntary Agencies Working for 

Refugees, statement (Lamey), 802 
State Department: {see also Foreign Service and Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration) : 
Administration of: 

Disarmament Administration, U.S., role in, 481 
Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System, 

Executive order delegating authority to, 946 
Immigration laws, role in, address (Auerbach), 579, 

581 
Mutual Security Program, 867, 928 
Appointments and designations, 118, 154, 193, 230, 282, 
388, 429, 461, 502, 546, 621, 630, 702, 806, 842, 912, 
928, 982 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs (Martin), 

confirmation, 461 
Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs : desig- 
nation (Mann), 282, 461; reassignment (Rubot- 
tom),309 
Assistant Secretary for International Organization 

Affairs (Wilcox), resignation, 546 
Balance-of-payments position, steps to Improve, Presi- 
dential directive to, 862 



1024 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



state Department — Contlnned 
Budget for FY 1961, request for restoration of funds, 

statement (Herter), 44 
Commemorative stamp in honor of John Foster Dulles, 

former Secretary of, remarks (Herter), 981 
Confirmations, 458, 461 

Cuban relations, conduct of, rejection of charges re, 475 
Membership in interagency group to coordinate avia- 
tion activities, announcement and memorandum, 
415, 416 
National security policy, role in, statement (Herter), 4 
Organization and activities : 
Bureau of African Affairs, reorganization to im- 
plement U.S. policies in, address and article: 
Pearey, 967 ; Penfleld, 955 
Passport Service, U.S., establishment of, 545 
Program of assistance to American business, address 

(Dillon), 566 
Science adviser (Whitman), appointment, 429 
Under secretaryship for inter-American affairs, ques- 
tion of, statement (Herter), 518 
Resignations, 388, 546 
Publications. See under Publications 
Secretary of, duties and functions of, statements 

(Herter), 3, 39 
Thai paintings and exhibit, special showing of, 145 
United Nations, U.S. representatives to: confirmations 
( Barco and Wadsworth ) , 461 ; resignation ( Lodge) , 
388 
U.S. Representative to European OflBce of the U.N. and 
Other International Organizations, appointment 
(Martin), 621 
Stateless persons, application of universal copyright con- 
vention to works of stateless persons and refugees, 
protocol 1, 153 
Steel Committee, ECE, U.S. delegation to 24th session, 

117 
Stoessel, Walter J., Jr., 502 
Strategic Air Command, expansion program, message 

(Eisenhower), 814 
Sudan : 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 

International Finance Corporation, articles of agree- 
ment, 805 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 630 
Sugar : 
Cuban trade: 
Cuban policy, U.S. views concerning, 171, 360, 412 
Question of ability to meet U.S. needs; statement 

(Herter), 58 
Soviet policy, 336, 346, 404, 
U.S. interests in, 403, 691, 693, 694, 701 
U.S. quota for, position on, proclamation and state- 
ments : Eisenhower, 140 ; Lodge, 202 ; proclamation, 
140 
International sugar agreement (1958), 261, 701, 912 
U.S. purchases from Dominican Republic, question of, 
message, statement, and U.S. and Venezuelan aide 
memoire: Dillon, 414; Eisenhower, 412; texts of 
aide memoire, 640 
U.S. quotas, request for Presidential authority to re- 
duce, statements (Herter), 41, 58 



Sullivan, Charles A., 702 
Summers, A. Burks, 154 

Summit meeting. See Heads of Government meetings 
Suritis, Andrejs, 254 

Surprise attack (see also Aerial inspection) : 
Detection by satellites, U.S. efforts, address (Berding), 

672 
Measures to reduce danger of, U.S. proposals, 91, 377, 
378, 379, 768 
Swan Islands, Cuban allegations re U.S. use of, text of 

document of U.S. reply, 697 
Swank, Emory C, 502 
Sweden : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Air transport, consultations with U.S. re, 514, 629 
Contribution of troops to U.N. force in the Republic 

of the Congo, 221, 223 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 

Relaxation of discriminations on imports, address (Dil- 
lon), 564 
Switzerland : 
Aid to less developed countries, 295 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1956 agreement with U.S., 34, 981 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Israel, 

501 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 192, 
770, 980 

Taiwan. See China, Republic of 

Taiwan Straits, Communist China's bombardment of 
islands of and U.S. efforts for peaceful settlement in, 
statement (Wadsworth), 681 
Tanganyika, U.S. consulate at Dar-es-Salaam raised to 

consulate general, 546 
Tariff Commission, U.S. : 

Findings re import quotas, 445, 834, 901 

Peril-point investigation, hearings in connection with. 



Recommendations re tariff rates, 446, 759 
Tariff policy, U.S. {see also Customs ; and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Changes in rates on imports from Iran, 427, 428 
Cotton, President accepts reports re importation of cer- 
tain articles containing, 445 
Cotton typewriter-ribbon cloth, increase in Import duty 

on, proclamation, 446 
Decisions re escape-clause action on imports of: 
Bicycles and dried figs, 759 
Lead and zinc, 901 

Linen toweling and watch movements, 445 
Poland, restoration of most-favored-nation status to, 
letter (Eisenhower) and White House announce- 
ment, 863 
Sugar quotas : 

Cuba, reduction of, proclamation and statements: 

Eisenhower, 140 ; Lodge, 202 ; proclamation, 140 
Request for Presidential authority to reduce, state- 
ments (Herter), 41, 58 
Tung oil and nuts, proclamation extending Import 
quota on, 834 



Index, July to December J 960 



1025 



Tariff policy, U.S.— Continued 
Woolen and worsted woven fabrics, new rates on Im- 
ports, announcement and table, 832 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Cuban relations with Contracting Parties, statement 

and U.S. memorandum: Herter, 403, 404; text of 

memorandum, 345 

Declaration extending standstill provisions of article 

XVI :4 and proc&s-verbal extending validity of, 666 

Declarations on provisional accessions of: Israel, 33, 

192, 501, 945; Switzerland, 192, 770; Tunisia, 33, 

192, 501, 945 

Declarations on relations with: PolaDd, 33, 192, 666, 

896, 945 ; Yugoslavia, 192, 897 
Nigeria, applicable rights and obligations of United 

Kingdom, acknowledged by, 980 
1960-61 GATT tariff negotiationa conference at 
Geneva : 
Addresses and statements: Adair, 575; Dillon, 565; 

Herter, 46 ; Randall, 453 
Reciprocal tariff concessions, U.S. notices re negoti- 
ation of, 22, 897 
U.S. delegation to: 
List of delegates, 455 

Proposed increase in number of public consultants, 
876 
Protocol of rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 7th, 192, 945 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment of 

new schedule III— Brazil. 33, 192, 501, 770 
Role in expansion of international trade, remarks (Dil- 
lon). 188 
Schedule XX-1947 and XX-1955, modification of con- 
cessions under, proclamation, 446 
17th session of Contracting Parties : 

Problems confronting and U.S. delegation to, 758 
Review of, 894 
Taxation : 

Commercial profits taxes, temporary waiver of article 
VI in U.S.-Iran reciprocal trade agreement, ter- 
mination of, 545 
Cuban levies against U.S. products and properties, 604, 

715 
Double taxation on income, convention with Israel for 

the avoidance of, 629, 666 
Measures to encourage investment in less developed 

countries, addresses : Adair, 574 ; Hager, 893 
Public participation in U.S. foreign policy through, ad- 
dress (Foster), 823 
Tax convention with India, Senate approval requested, 
statement (Dillon), 111 
Teachers, U.S., participation in seminars abroad, 48 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid and Mutual security 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Technical cooperation and vocational agreement (1951) 
with Dominican Republic : extension of, 73 ; termina- 
tion of, 945 
Telecommunications («ee also Tracking stations) : 
Communications, address (Wadsworth), 919 
Radio legislation affecting Berlin, West German draft 
of, text of U.S. reply to Soviet protest, 474 

1026 



Telecommunications — Continued 

Satellite Courier message to U.N., address and message 

(Berding, Eisenhower), 671, 673 
Satellites, U.K. and U.S. discussions on use for com- 
munication systems, 720 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

International telecommunication convention (1952), 

33, 154, 229, 429, 4C0, 501, 544, 666, 878 
International telecommunication convention 

with annexes and final protocol, 460, 544, 912 
Radio communications between amateur stations on 
behalf of third parties, agreement with Paraguay, 
734 
Radio regulattons (1959), with appendixes, annex 
to international telecommunication convention 
(1959), 460, 544 
Radio relay facilities, agreement with Liberia sup- 
plementing arts. Ill and VII of 1959 agreement, 
501 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed 
to international telecommunication convention 
(1952), with appendixes and final protocol, 154, 229, 
429, 460, 501, 544, 666 
Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament : 
Conference of : 

Soviet proposals and U.S. views re, letter and state- 
ment: Khrushchev, 92; Wadsworth. 760, 766 
Soviet walkout from, address, letter, and statements: 
Berding, 303, 305, 306; Department, 89; Lodge, 
253, 377 ; Wadsworth, 723, 724 
U.S. delegation official report, 267 
U.S. proposal for general and complete disarmament, 
statements (Wadsworth), 760, 765, 837, 838; text 
of proposal, 90 
Enlargement of, Soviet proposal for, U.S. views, 620 
Work of, letter, statement, and text of 5-power report: 
Eisenhower, 625 ; Lodge, 377, 378, 380 ; report, 382 
Tensions, international : 

Cuban responsibility for buildup in the Western Hem- 
isphere, texts of U.S. note and supplement, 318, 409 
Increase in, concern with, statements and General As- 
sembly resolution: Dillon, 598; Wadsworth, 722; 
text of resolution, 723 
Territorial claims in Antarctica, treaty provisions re, 

statement (Phleger), 50, 51 
Thailand: 

Mekong River Basin, multilateral efforts for develop- 
ment, 292 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreements amending 

1956 agreement with U.S.. 34, 261 
IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Postal convention (1957), universal, with final pro- 
tocol, annex, regulations of execution, and pro- 
visions re air mail, 429 
U.S. trade center at Bangkok, plan for, statement (DU- 

lon), 419 
Visit of King and Queen to U.S., exchange of greetings 
with President Eisenhower, address to U.S. Con- 
gress, joint communique, and members of party, 143 
Thayer, Robert H., 17, 278, 559, 646, 664, 941 
Thompson, A. D., 814 

Departmenf of Sfafe BuUefin 



Tibet : 
Commnnist China's subjugation of and aggressive ac- 
tion against, address and statements : Wadsworth, 
67S, 682 ; Wilcox, 513 
Inclusion of Tibetan question on General Assembly 
agenda, letter and statement: Eisenhower, 626; 
Wadsworth, 622 
Timber Committee (ECE), 18th session, U.S. delegate 

628 
Timberlak-e, Clare H., 118, 154 

Tin, United Nations conference on, article (Nichols), 661 
Tin Council, International, administration of Interna- 
tional Tin Agreement (1954), article (Nichols), 661 
663, 664 
Togo: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 778 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 149 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
FAO constitution, 261 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 460 
WMO convention, 842 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 461 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
Tomlinson, John D., 118 
Tour«, Sekou, 922 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facilities 

for, 501, 701 
Tracking stations (Project Mercury) agreements for co- 
operation in the establishment and operation of, with : 
Canada, 501 ; Chile, 981 ; Nigeria, 842 ; Union of South 
Africa, 590 
Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses. Customs, Eco- 
nomic policy. Exports, Imports, Sugar, Tariff poUcy, 
and Trade agreements) : 
Centers, fairs, and missions, address and statements 

(Dillon),112, 419, 567 
Cuban-U.S. trade (see also Sugar: Cuban trade in), 

controls on, 403, 693, 694, 715 
Dominican Republic, U.S. participation in application 
of OAS sanctions against economic trade with, 356, 
3-58, 640, 716 
International : 
Balance of payments. See Balance of payments 
GATT program for expansion of, 895 
Interdependence of, address (Adair), 572 
Need for development of, address and remarks 

(Dillon), 188, 563 
Question of role of proposed OECD in, address 

(Dillon), 216 
Reduction of trade barriers, effect upon U.S. trade, 
address (Burgess), 570 
Japan, expansion of U.S. trade with, text of joint com- 
munique (Herter, Kosaka), 561 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Address and statement: Hager, 892; Martin, 56 
Amity, economic relations and consular rights, treaty 

with Muscat and Oman, 261 
Friendship and commerce with Pakistan, 56, 545 
Trade agreements with Iran (1943 and 1960), termi- 
nation of, 261, 427, 545 

Index, July fo December 1960 



Trade — Continued 
U.S. with Latin America in 1959, article (Culbertson, 
Lederer), 94 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 23, 

897 
Trade Agreements Extension Acts: 1951, 899; 195S, 877, 

898 
Trade centers, fairs, and missions, address and statements 

(Dillon),112, 419, 567 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, ap- 
plicable rights and obligations of U.K. acknowledged 
by Nigeria, 980 
Trade Policy Committee, designation of consultants to 

U.S. GATT delegation, 876 
Trademark convention (1869), termination of agreement 

with France, 945 
Trademarks, protection of, Lisbon revision (1958) to con- 
vention for protection of industrial property provi- 
sion re, 53 
Travel, international : 
Berlin, travel to and within. See vnder Berlin: Situ- 
ation in 
Cost of travel of migrants, ICEM discussion, article 

(Warren), 256 
Cuban restrictions on and U.S. advice to U.S. citizens 

re, 410, 441, 603 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, with annex, 805 
Passport Service, U.S., establishment and services of, 

545 
Permanent resident alien travel to Sino-Soviet coun- 
tries, U.S. regulations re, 974 
Private road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 544, 665, 734 
Road traflBc, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 387, 

544, 665, 805 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 501, 701 
Treasury, U.S., measures to be taken to improve balance- 

of-payments position, Presidential directive re, 862 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international (for specific 
treaty, see country or srttject), current actions on, 
33, 73, 114, 153, 192, 229, 261, 298, 350, 387, 429, 460, 
501, 544, 590, 629, 665, 701, 734, 770, 805, 841, 878, 912, 
945, 980 
Treaty of Rome, 453, 454 
Trujillo, Generalissimo, 516 
Trust territories, U.N. (see also individual countries), 

progress toward independence, 285, 627 
Trusteeship Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 190, 226, 387 
U.S. representative, resignation, 262 
Tully, Francis W., Jr., 677, 734 
Tung oil and nuts, proclamation extending import quota 

on, 834 
Tunisia : 

Ceylon-Tunisia resolution re the Congo, statement 

(Wadsworth), 530, and text of resolution, 532 
Contribution of troops to U.N. Command in the Congo, 
221, 223, 906 

1027 



Tunisia — Continued 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 33, 192, 

501, 945, 981 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 546 
Turkey : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 958 
Imports, U.S. aid in financing of, 901 
Stabilization program, multilateral aid, 292 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements amending 1959 

agreement with U.S., 114, 878 
GATT, declaration extending standstill provisions of 
article XVI : 4 and proc6s-verbal extending validity 
of, 666 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safeguard- 
ing of, 665 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation, 546 

U.A.K. See United Arab Republic 
U-2 incident : 
Address (Burgess), 10, 11, 12 

Effect on defensive alliances, statements (Herter), 40 
Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression, consideration by 

the U.N., statement (Wadsworth), 726 
Trial and sentencing of Francis Gary Powers, U.S. re- 
quests for interview with, statements and U.S. and 
Soviet notes : Department, 350, 361 ; Hagerty and 
White, 361 ; texts of notes, 276, 361 
Uganda, U.S. consulate at Kampala raised to consulate 

general, 546 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, telegraph regulations 

(Geneva revision, 1958), 229 
Underground nuclear tests. See Nuclear weapons : Tests, 

detection of 
Union of South Africa : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 643 
South- West Africa, administration of, 509 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 73 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 

Tracking station, agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 590 
United Arab Republic : 

Aswan High Dam, Sino-Soviet aid in the development 

of, 448 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 350, 

388, 629 
Finance, agreement (1953) on German external debts, 

extension to Syrian Province of, 387 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 
United Kingdom : 

Aid to: Jordan, 291; less developed countries (sum- 
mary ), 295 ; Libya, 291 
Berlin, East German restriction on travel, U.K. and 

Western views on, 439, 473, 516, 602, 748 
Cypriot progress under administration of, statement 

(Lodge), 458 
Defense budget, increase in, 27 

1028 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Disarmament See Disarmament; Disarmament Com- 
mission, U.N. ; and Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
German reunification. Western and Soviet positions, 977 
Meeting of Prime Minister with President Eisenhower, 

joint statement, 596 
Nigeria, relations with, 643, 659, 757, 980 
Nuclear test ban negotiations, U.S.-U.K. and Soviet 

positions re, 360, 932, 934, 936 
Relaxation of controls on dollar-area imports, address 

(Dillon), 564 
SatelUte communications systems, discussions with U.S. 

re, 720 
Support facilities for Polaris submarines, arrangement 

with U.S. re, 778 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Arbitral Tribunal and Mixed Commission, agreement 
amending administrative agreement (1954) re, 912 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for estabUshment 

and draft statute, 68, 73 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Tu- 
nisia, 192 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 192 
IDA articles of agreement, 805 

Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding 

Loran station in Bahama Islands, agreement with 

U.S. re establishment of, 114 
Postal convention, universal, 298 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 

application to: Barbados, 805; St. Vincent, 387 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), appli- 
cation to overseas territories of, .501 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs faciU- 
ties for, extension to British Honduras, 701 
U.S. financial discussions with, 865, 926 
U.S. military bases in The West Indies, discussions re, 

822, 889 
U.S. trade center at London, plan for, statement (DU- 
lon), 419 
United Nations: 
Admission of new members : 
Cyprus, U.S. support, 456, 589 

New African naUons. See infra, New African na- 
tions: Membership 
Security Council recommendations, 149n, 150«, ISln, 

153JI, 457n, 659 
Statement (Wadsworth), 583 I 

Aid programs {see also Technical assistance programs | 
infra), proposed enlargement of, U.S. support of, j 
address (Dillon), 218 1 

Charter of, 627, 683, 686, 739 \ 

Collective action in Korea, 10th anniversary of, state- j 
ment (Herter), 39 { 

A commonwealth of nations, address (Eisenhower), 
744, 746 

Department of State Bulletin 



United Nations— Continued 

Communist China's representation, question of, U.S. 
views on, address and statements: Herter, 519; 
Wadswortli, 678 ; Wilcox, 513 

Congo problem, action on. See Congo situation 

Courier satellite message from President Eisenhower 
to, 671 

Deterrent to world conflict, address (Merchant), 708 

Disarmament (see also Disarmament Commission), 
need for control organizations within framework of, 
statement (Lodge) and text of U.N. Disarmament 
Commission resolution, 378, 379, 380, 382 

Documents, lists of, 1S9, 225, 258, 386, 458, 541, 628, 689, 
733, 7G9, 877, 910, 979 

Enlargement of U.N. councils, U.S. support of, state- 
ments : Carpenter, 620 ; Wilcox, 874 

15th anniversary, accomplisliments of and challenges to, 
address and statement: Herter, 739; Wadsworth, 
742 

Freedom-from-hunger campaign. See under Food and 
Agriculture Organization 

General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Headquarters {see also General Assembly: Security 
precautions) : 
Agreement with U.S., statements (Department, Eisen- 
hower), U.S.-Soviet exchange of communications, 
522 
Diplomatic immunity of personnel and headquarters, 

article (Barnes), 175, 180, 181 
Location of, suggestion for moving of, 824 

Means of worldwide communication, address (Wads- 
worth), 919 

New African nations : 

Congolese delegation's credentials. General Assembly 

approval and U.S. views, 904 
Delegation leaders : tour U.S., 922 ; visit White House, 

713 
Impact on U.N., 959 

Membership in the U.N., U.S. support of, message and 
statements : Herter, 644, 589, 659 ; Lodge, 149, 150, 
456 ; Wadsworth, 618 ; Wilcox, 150, 151, 660 
U.N. role in, address (Satterthwaite), 753, 755 

Office of Secretary-General, Soviet attack on and pro- 
posed changes in U.N. organization, U.S. views re, 
address and statements : Berding, 673, 674 ; Dillon, 
598 ; Wadsworth, 586, 619, 656, 766 

Outer space, U.N. committees on peaceful uses of, 624, 
625 

Peace and security fund, proposed, U.S. position on, 513 

Peace force, U.S. proposal for, 91 

Problems of, discussion by British and Australian Prime 
Ministers with President Eisenhower, joint state- 
ments, 596 

Security Council. See Security Council 

Soviet attitude toward, addresses : Berding, 476 ; 
Dillon, 598 

Specialized agencies {see also name of agency), U.S. 
support of, address and statement: Payne, 794, 
796 ; Penfield, 956, 957 

Technical assistance programs : 
Expanded program of: 

Preinvestment activities of, 796 



United Nations — Continued 
Technical assistance programs — Continued 
Expanded program of — Continued 
Proposed increase in, U.S. support of, letter and 
address: Eisenhower, 553; Wadsworth, 657, 658 
Relationship to DAG activities, 645, 646 
Role in the newly developing countries, address 

(Bohlen), 640 
U.S. pledges and contributions to, 731, 957 
Operational and Executive Personnel Program. See 
Operational and Executive Personnel Program, U.N. 
Special Fund. See Special Fund, U.N. 
Tibet, U.N. consideration of Communist aggression in, 

513, 622, 626, 678, 682 
Trust territories {see also Trusteeship Council and 
individual countries), progress toward independ- 
ence, 285, 627 
U.S. representatives to: appointment (Martin) to Euro- 
pean OfiBce of, 621 ; confirmation : Barco, 461 ; Wads- 
worth, 458, 461; resignation (Lodge), 388 
U.S. participation during 1959, letter (Eisenhower), 624 
U.S. support of policies of, addresses : Berding, 675 ; 
Dillon, 598; Eisenhower, 557; Foster, 827; Herter, 
437 ; Penfield, 955, 957 ; Wilcox, 507 
United Nations Charter: 

Address and statements : Herter, 739 ; Wadsworth, 683, 

686 
Review conference on, U.S. support of, letter (Eisen- 
hower), 627 
United Nations committees on peaceful uses of outer 

space, 624, 625 
United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 

627 
United Nations conference on tin, 1960, article (Nichols), 

661 
United Nations Day, statement (Wadsworth), 742 
United Nations Disarmament Commission. See Disarma- 
ment Commission, U.N. 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council 
United Nations economic commissions. See Economic 

Commission 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nations Emergency Force. See Emergency Force, 

U.N. 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. See 

Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See 

High Commissioner 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees (UNRWA) : 
Address (Wilcox), 512 
Extension of mandate by U.N., letter (Eisenhower), 

626 
U.S. pledge to, statement (Aiken), 803 
United Nations Special Committee on Hungary, report 

of, statement (Morse), 728 
United Nations Special Fund. See Special Fund 
United Nations Trusteeship Council, 190, 226, 262, 387 



Index, July fo December I960 



1029 



United States citizens and nationals: 
Claims. See Claims 

Cuba, gee Cuban situation : U.S.-Cuban relations 
Dependents of U.S. military and civilian personnel 

abroad, Presidential directive re, 862, 863 
Protection of: 

Chinese Communist imprisonment of, U.S. efforts for 

release, 497 
Commercial treaties to secure rights of Americans 

investing overseas, address (Adair), 574 
Evacuation of from Republic of the Congo, statement 

(Herter), 205 
Francis Powers (U-2 pilot), U.S. seeks access to, 

276, 350, 361 
RB-47 crewmen shot down by the Soviets. See 
RB-47 plane 
Role in U.S. foreign relations, address (Foster), 823 
United States Committee for Refugees, 16 
United States-Danish Committee on Greenland Projects, 

establishment of, 926 
United States Disarmament Administration, establishment 

of, 481 
United States Educational Foundation in Norway, agree- 
ment amending 1949 agreement with Norway re, 154 
United States Information Agency : 
Africa, program in, addresses: Penfield, 956; Satter- 

thwaite, 755 
Cultural information activities, address (Thayer), 18 
Director (Allen), resignation of, 912 
MSP activities of, Executive order, 870; White House 
announcement, 868 
United States Operations Missions. See under Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration 
United States Passport Service, establishment of, 545 
Universal postal convention (1957), 298, 429, 460, 544, 

665 
Universities, role in international educational and cul- 
tural relations, address (Thayer), 280 
UNRWA. See United Nations Relief and Works Agency 

for Palestine Refugees 
Upper Volta : 
Consular district transferred from Dakar, Senegal, to 

Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 154 
Membership in the U.N., U.S. support, statement 

(Lodge), 457 
WHO constitution, amendments to, 805 
WMO convention, 805 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 702 
U.S. Embassy: Abidjan, Ivory Coast, accredited to, 262; 

Ouagadougou, proposed, 702 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 654, 655 
Upton, T. Graydon, 153, 616, 645 
Urdaneta, Magdalena, death of, text of U.S. document to 

U.N., 699 
Uruguay : 

Statue of George Washington, proposed presentation 

by U.S., 46 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement supplementing 

1959 agreement with U.S., 770 
Educational exchange program, agreements with U.S., 
229, 350 



Uruguay — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 945 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
convention (1944) on and protocol of amendment 
to, 429 
Visit of national councilor to U.S., 520 
Usakligil, Bulend, 958 

Vega, Soviet trawler, 241 
Venezuela : 

Charges against Dominican Republic In OAS meeting. 
See Organization of American States: Venezuelan 
charges 
Genocide, convention (1948) on the prevention and 

punishment of the crime of, 4G0 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention (1943) 

on regulation of, with annex, 805 
U.S. balance of payments with, table, 100 
Veto, Soviet use of, 244n, 476, 486, 532«, 976 
Viet-Nam : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 229, 

945 
5th anniversary of independence of, message (Elsen- 
hower), 758 
IDA articles of agreement, 460, 805 

Mekong River Basin, multilateral efforts for develop- 
ment, 292 
Travel of aliens from U.S. to, U.S. regulations re, 974 
Villard. Henry S., 230, 461, 567, 702 
Visas (see also Passports), issuance: 
During FY 1960, 051 

Regulations governing, address (Auerbach), 578 
To domestic servants, instructions re, statement 
(Hanes), 365 
"Visit the United States of America Year," 651 
Vocational and industrial education program in Brazil 

agreement extending 1950 agreement re, 298 
Voice of America, program in Africa, address (Penfield), 

956 
Voorhees, Tracy, 888 

Wadsworth, James J. : 
Address and statements : 
Communications in an Era of Crisis and Change, 919 
Congo, Republic of : 

Delegation to U.N., credentials, 906 
Situation in, 527, 583, 666 
Cuban complaints against U.S. in the U.N. : 
Allocation to Committee I, 791 
Reply to, 621 
Disarmament negotiations and proposals, 723, 760, 

836 
General Assembly agenda, question of inclusion of 
items on : 
Africa, U.N. program for, 657 

Communist China, representation in the U.N., 678 
Hungary, 623 
Tibet, 622 

Soviet complaint of U.S. aggression re flights of 
the U-2 and RB-47 planes, 622, 726 



1030 



Department of Stale Butletin 



Wadsworth, James J. — Continued 
Address and statements — Continued 

General Assembly resolution on cooperation of Mem- 
ber States, U.S. support of, 722 
Nuclear weapons test ban, report to U.N. on negotiat- 
ing a treaty on, 930 
OAS action on Dominican Republic, Security Council 

consideration of, U.S. position, 542 
United Nations Day, 742 
U.N. membership for Mali and Senegal, 618 
U.S. support of U.N. against Soviet attacks, 619, 656 
Correspondence : 
"Africa : A United Nations Program for Independ- 
ence and Development," request for inclusion on 
U.N. agenda, 657 
Cuba, U.S. relations with, transmittal of document 

to U.N. on facts concerning, 690 
Germany, refutation of Soviet charges against West- 
ern Powers and the Federal Republic of Germany, 
977 
Puerto Rican refutation of charges of colonialism 
against U.S., transmittal to U.N. Secretary-Gen- 
eral, 656 
U.S. representative to U.N. General Assembly and Se- 
curity Council, confirmation, 458, 461 
Walier, William W., 429 

War damage claims, agreement supplementing memo- 
randum of understanding (1957) with Italy, 298 
Warren, Fletcher, 546 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks (U.S.-Communist China), 
exchange of newsmen between U.S. and Communist 
China, negotiations for, 471, 497 
Watch movements, President's decision re escape-clause 

action on imports of, 445 
Water treaty (1944) with Mexico, construction of Ami- 

stad Dam under, 742, 981 
Waterways legislation affecting Berlin, West German 
adoption of, text of U.S. reply to Soviet protest, 475 
Weapons production program : 
Agreements with : Australia, 427, 429 ; France, 702 ; 
Federal Republic of Germany, 33 ; Italy, 261 ; Nor- 
way, 666 ; Portugal, 734 
Expansion, Defense Department management of, 315 
Weather (see also Rawinsonde) : 
Facilities and research at Fort Churchill, agreement 
with Canada re maintenance and operation, 192 
WMO convention, 701, 805, 842, 912, 945 
Weights and measures, 1875 convention concerning cre- 
ation of an international office of, and 1921 conven- 
tion amending, 981 
Weil, T. Eliot, 546 
Welbeck, Nathaniel, 906, 907 
West Indies, The: 

U.K.-U.S. and West Indian negotiations re U.S. miU- 

tary bases in, 822, 889 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 630 
Western Europe. See Europe : Western 
Western Hemisphere, Soviet threat of intervention in. 
See under Cuban situation and Organization of Amer- 
ican States: Sino-Soviet intervention 



Whaling convention (1946) international, and regula- 
tions, 666 
Wheat: 

Emergency drought relief shipment to Jordan, 142 
Grants to: Afghanistan, 872; Cyprus, 973 
International wheat agreement (1959), with annex, 114, 
350, 387 
Wheat Utilization Committee, 250 
Wheaton, Anne, 558 
White, Lincoln, 361 
Whitman, Walter G., 429 
Whitney, John Hay, 889 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wilcox, Francis O. : 
Address and statements : 
Membership in the United Nations, U.S. support of: 
Congo. Republic of the, 151 ; Nigeria, 660 ; Somali 
Republic, 150 
The United Nations, 507 

U.N. Security Council and ECOSOC, enlargement of, 
U.S. position, 874 
Assistant Secretary of State for International Organ- 
ization Affairs, resignation, 546 
U.S. representative to 15th session of the U.N. General 
Assembly, confirmation, 67 
Wild, William C, Jr., 630 
Wiley, Alexander, 47 
Wilkins, Fraser, 461 
Willard, Henry S., 230 
Willauer, Whiting, 982 
Willis, Frances E., 07, 939 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Woolen and worsted woven fabrics, new tariff rates on 

imports, announcement and table, 832 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Court. See International Court of Justice 
World economic survey for 1959, remarks (Dillon), 189 
World Health Organization: 
Constitution of and amendments to arts. 24 and 25 of, 

460, 734, 770, 805, 842, 878 
Sanitary regulations, amendments pertaining to the 
Aircraft General Declaration, 544 
World Meteorological Organization, convention (1947) of, 

701, 805, 842, 912, 945 
World Refugee Year: 

ICEM movements of refugees during, 255 
Progress toward solutions of problems of refugees, state- 
ment (Lamey), 802 
U.S. contributions, address (Hanes), 15 
Wright, Thomas K., 806 

Ydigoras Fuentes, Miguel, 924 

Yemen, Sino-Soviet aid in development of, report (Eisen- 
hower), 448 

Yoe, Harry W., 630 

Yugoslavia : 

Break with Moscow, statement (Herter), 396 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 73 
GATT, declaration on relations with, 192, 897, 981 
IDA articles of agreement, 842 



Index, July to December J 960 



1031 



Yngoslavia-Continued Zarba, Anthony, 814 

D S aid to, statement (Kohler), 28 Zellerbach, James D., 912 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director. 388 Zinc and lead, decision against reopening escape-clause 
Visit of Under Secretary Dillon, 104 action on. 901 



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SOME CONCLUSIONS FROM THE SUMMIT • by 

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lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Role of the Department of State 
in the National Policy IVIachinery 

Statement hy Secretary Herter^ 



I welcome the opportunity to offer this commit- 
tee my views on those aspects of the national pol- 
icy macliinery with which I am most familiar. 
My comments ai"e based on reflections arising 
from my service as Under Secretary and Secre- 
tary of State and of course as a member of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
Eepresentatives. 

It seems to me that several fundamental con- 
siderations underlie the questions concerning the 
Department of State wMch you have asked me 
to discuss today. "While these are generally well 
understood, they might bear restating to be sure 
we are on common ground. 

First of all, under the Constitution and the 
historical development of our Government, execu- 
tive responsibility for the conduct of foreign re- 
lations and the enimciation of foreign policy 
resides squarely with the President. As this 
committee knows so well, the course of events of 
the past two decades has given to these responsi- 
bilities dimensions that are awesome, to say the 
least. 

Secondly, it follows that the fimdamental mis- 
sion of the Secretary of State is to assist and 
support the President in the discharge of his 
responsibilities for foreign affairs. Unlike, I be- 
lieve, any other major depai-tment, the basic 
authority of the Department of State is left com- 
pletely to the discretion of the President. The 
basic statute of the Department of State provides 
that the Secretary of State 

. . . shall perform and execute such duties as shall, 
from time to time, be enjoined on or entrusted to him by 
the President of the United States, agreeable to the 
Constitution. . . . 



' Made before the Subcommittee on National Polic.v 
Machinery of the Senate Committee on Government 
Operations on June 10 (press release 317) . 



Thirdly, as became evident after the conclusion 
of the last war and as becomes more apparent 
with each passing year, international affairs no 
longer have an existence separate from domes- 
tic affairs and they can no longer be treated except 
in the context of the entire range of governmental 
activities. Practically every Government depart- 
ment and agency has to a varying degree a proper 
concern, and m some instances responsibility, for 
one facet or another of international affairs. 
Conversely, the Department of State is properly 
concerned with facets of domestic affairs which 
have major impact upon our foreign relations. 

Secretary of State's Relation to President 

Before proceeding further, I should like to 
make several observations on the considerations I 
have just enumerated. 

The burden of the President's responsibilities 
for international affairs is almost indescribably 
heavy. I think all of us must be sympathetic 
and helpful in doing what we can to provide the 
President with the highest possible caliber of 
assistance, both with respect to his immediate 
staff and in each of the various departments of 
government concerned. 

The relationship between the President and the 
Secretary of State is, of necessity, a very personal 
one. It has, over the years, varied with circum- 
stances and personalities and will imdoubtedly 
continue to do so. The relationship can never be 
considered fixed beyond the tenure of either in- 
cumbent, and any effort to make it so would 
hamper rather than enhance effective performance. 

Every President, in his own way, has defuied 
the role he wishes the Secretary of State to carry 
out. President Eisenhower has set forth quite 
clearly on repeated occasions his concept of the 



Ju/y 4, I960 



function of the Secretaiy of State. Typically, 
he stated on June 1, 1953, that : = 

I personally wish to emphasize that I shall lejiaril 
the Secretary of State as the Cabinet officer responsible 
for advising and assisting me in the formulation and 
control of foreign policy. It will be my practice to 
employ the Secretary of State as my channel of authority 
within the executive branch on foreign policy. Other 
officials of the executive branch will work with and 
through the Secretary of State on matters of foreign 
policy. 

These principles have been adhered to in succeed- 
mg years. I would doubt that any more explicit 
or enlarged statement is necessary. 

I do not wish to leave the impression by my 
emphasis on the discretion that must be available 
to the President that there are not enduring guide- 
posts within which we can approach the questions 
we are considering today. In my opinion the 
Secretary of State should, under the President, 
have in his relations with other departments a 
clear primacy in foreign relations and in all mat- 
ters with a substantial effect upon foreign rela- 
tions. This is not to say that the Secretary of 
State should be charged with operating all of 
the programs carried on abroad in support of our 
national security goals but that he should have 
clear primacy as to policy on these programs. 
Nor is it to say that the Secretary of State need 
normally have the power of decision upon matters 
crossing departmental jurisdiction simply because 
they involve foreign affairs. Kather, the Secre- 
tary of State should be looked to for formulation 
of recommendations to the President, when ap- 
propriate through the NSC [National Security 
Council] mechanism, which take into account the 
considerations and views set forth by other de- 
partments. Assistance of this nature enables the 
President to focus effectively on foreign affairs 
problems of transcendent importance. In follow- 
ing through on these principles it is hard to state 
general rules which will be self-enforcing. It is 
more a matter of recognizing that the activities 
and programs are for a foreign affairs purpose 
and should therefore be guided by the official re- 
sponsible for foreign affairs. 

In my opinion good organization alone will not 
suffice for the solution of foreign affairs problems 
of the magnitude and complexity which confront 
us today. While I am well aware of the value of 
good organization and soundly conceived relation- 



ships, I find that I subscribe to the sentiments of 
those who place even greater value on the hiunan 
element — on the devotion, ability, and experience 
of the personnel of the Department of State and 
the other principal departments of government. 
This is why I have been such a strong advocate 
of the moves made in recent years to strengthen 
the Foreign Service— and, indeed, the entire De- 
partment of State, "\^^^ile I have been pleased 
with the progress made in matters such as train- 
ing and integration of the foreign and domestic 
officer corps, I have recognized that there is much 
that remains to be done. This is a long-range 
program, and I very much hope that it will con- 
tinue to have the support of my successors and 
of the future Congresses of the United States. 

The ability of any Secretary of State to serve 
the President is dependent not only on his own 
capacities but also on the support available to 
him from the Department of State. The respon- 
sibilities customarily assigned to the Secretary of 
State for providing leadership to the Govern- 
ment as a whole in the international field re- 
quire the participation of many parts of the De- 
partment. The capacity of the Department of 
State to provide leadership at all levels is de- 
pendent, in the final analysis, not upon fiat but 
rather upon the competence, judgment, energy, 
and comprehension of the many officers who are 
involved. 

Formulation of Overall National Security Policy 

I should now like to speak to the questions re- 
lating to the Department of State which were 
posed m the interim report ' of this subcommittee. 

First are those concerned with whether the Sec- 
retary of State should have a more dominant 
role in the formulation of overall national security 
policy. 

"Are the responsibilities of the State and De- 
fense Departments in national security policy- 
making now correctly defined and divided? If 
not, what changes are needed?" 

In my judgment they are correctly defined and 
the division is working well. I do not believe 
that any major improvement in the relationships 
between the Department of State and the Depart- 
ment of Defense would result from further ef- 
forts to define their respective responsibilities. A 
more immediate and profitable target is for the 



' Bulletin of June 15, 1953, p. 849. 



' S. Rept. 1026. 86th Cong.. 2d sess. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Department of State to seek to improve its ca- 
pacity to provide timely political guidance to the 
Department of Defense and, reciprocally, for the 
latter to seek to improve its capacity to provide 
timely military advice. I should emphasize that 
this is being done not only at the senior levels but 
at all levels in the two Departments. The ad- 
vice worked into problems at the lower levels is 
frequently the most helpful. 

The functional and organizational aspects of 
State-Defense relations are, of course, important. 
More important, however, is the continuing de- 
velopment of personnel in both departments who 
share understanding and perspective in the gray 
area where foreign policy and military policy 
come in contact or overlap. In this regard the 
common experience shared by personnel of the 
two Departments who attend the War Colleges 
and the Foreign Service Institute is vei-y help- 
ful. In addition, I tliink it would be worth while 
to have an exchange of personnel between the two 
Departments. The men loaned would function as 
an integral part of the host agency, contributing 
their own special knowledge, and would return to 
their parent agency at the end of the tour with 
the broadened perspective which is acquired 
through shoulder-to-shoulder work. We might, 
over a period of years with such a program, de- 
velop a nucleus of highly trained senior ofEcers 
within the two Departments, each having a pro- 
found and comprehensive understanding of the 
subject matter and viewpoint of the other Depart- 
ment. If this understanding were regularly and 
consistently brought to bear on the solution of 
problems of mutual concern, much more good 
would be accomplished than could result from ef- 
forts to adjust and refine the respective respon- 
sibilities of the two Departments. I should add 
that the broadening of personal contacts among 
senior officers resulting from such an interchange 
would be a major asset in insuring the continuity 
of a productive relationship between the Depart- 
ments of State and Defense. 

'■'■Should the Secretary of State he formally 
charged with more responsibility in connection 
with our defense posture and the defense budget?" 
No. First of all, I regard somewhat skeptically 
the word "formally" as contravening the basic con- 
cept that the Secretaiy of State is the agent of the 
President and that it is unwise to prescribe how 
the President may utilize him. More to the point, 

ivly 4, 1960 



however, is my belief that participation by the 
Secretary of State in the NSC, in the Cabinet, and 
in confidential discussions with the President 
affords ample opportunity to advise the President 
on the defense posture and the defense budget. In 
addition, I feel free to advise and consult with the 
Secretary of Defense on these topics, and I do so. 

"Should the Secretary of State he asked to 
testify in the Congress concerning foreign policy 
implications of the defense budget ?" 

The Congress, of course, is entitled to obtain 
whatever advice it deems necessary to insure the 
enactment of wise legislation. In recent years a 
number of steps have been taken in the executive 
branch to insure consideration of foreign policy 
implications in determining the defense budget. 
It must be recognized, I think, that should the 
Secretary of State testify on the defense budget, 
he would undoubtedly be supporting decisions in 
which he has already participated. These budget 
decisions, as I have seen them, have not been made 
in a vacuum, and the Departments are fully aware 
of each other's interests. 

'■'■Would it be desirable to create a '■super Secre- 
tary of State'' who would be responsible for the 
overall direction of foreign affairs, and who might 
have under him additional Secretaries of Cabinet 
rank for such areas as diplomacy, information, 
and foreign economic irMttersf'' 

Although I can fully imderstand and sympa- 
thize with the general objectives desired by those 
who advocate a so-called super Secretary of State 
with Cabinet-level agencies reporting to him, I do 
not believe that such a proposal would be desirable. 
There are a number of factors that cause me to 
question this proposal. Among them is the as- 
sumption of equivalence for areas such as 
diplomacy, information, and foreign economic 
matters. I do not believe the areas are, in fact, 
equivalent. If these three principal areas are to 
be equated, it will then become necessary to estab- 
lish what I fear would be an excessively large co- 
ordinating mechanism at the level of the super 
Secretary of State. Instead of being relieved of 
burdens, he might find his load increased. 

This is not to say that I disagree with the con- 
cept that our foreign economic and foreign in- 
formation activities ought to be under the control 
of the Secretary of State. It may be desirable at 
some time for the overseas information activities 



to be brought into the Department in a semi- 
autonomous status somewhat similar to that suc- 
cessfully followed with respect to the ICA. 

Lightening Burdens of Secretary of State 

Next in the interim report are those questions 
concerned with lightening the burdens of the 
Secretary of State. 

"Would it be desirable to create a Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Cabinet rank, responsible to the 
Secretary of State, who could represent the United 
States at foreign ministers' meetings f Would any 
other arrangements help, such as appointments of 
Ambassadors at Largef 

The imderlying question here is whether it is 
possible to lighten the negotiating burdens of the 
Secretary of State in order to give him more time 
to discharge his responsibilities at home. I do 
not consider feasible the proposal to create a Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs of Cabinet rank, responsi- 
ble to the Secretai-y of State, who would represent 
the United States at foreign ministers' meetings. 
When foreign ministers meet, they are meetmg as 
their governments' chief advisers on foreign af- 
fairs. Since the Secretary of State would con- 
tinue in this country to be that chief adviser, an- 
other representative, no matter what his rank and 
title, would create problems for the other foreign 
ministers. 

I am coming to the conclusion that it would be 
desirable for the foreign ministers to curtail the 
occasions upon which they themselves attend 
meetings. To do this would require greater dele- 
gation to principal subordinates and greater reli- 
ance upon the normal mechanisms of diplomacy. 
Additionally, in this day when there are some 85 
nations who must deal with each other, we may 
have to dispense with some of the ways of proto- 
col whicli we no longer have the time to afford. 

Matters Affecting State and Defense Departments 

Next are those questions which concern State- 
Defense relations. 

'■'■What is the proper relationship between State 
and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (aiid/or the Joint 
Staff of the JCS) ? Should a representative of the 
Secretary of State participate in discussions of 
the JCS wlien approprmtef'' 

The Secretary of State, the Secretary of De- 
fense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff do, and should 



continue to, form a well-coordinated and smoothly 
working team in both the planning and execution 
of national security policy. 

The two Departments naturally have very ex- 
tensive relationships on a multitude of subjects 
which enable the Department of State to inject 
foreign policy considerations into military affairs 
at all stages. Secretary [Thomas S.] Gates [Jr.] 
and I confer with each other frequently, and we 
also participate in larger meetings such as the 
NSC and the Cabinet. An Under Secretary of 
State confers regularly with the JCS, and the 
Assistant Secretary of State for Policy Plamiing 
meets regularly with the Joint Staff of the JCS 
and officers of the Department of Defense. State, 
Defense, and military officials work directly to- 
gether across the board and without any formali- 
ties and especially so when there is a premium on 
speed of action. In addition to our broad and 
fruitful policy relationships with Defense through 
ISA [Office of International Security Affairs], 
we have direct relationships with the three services 
on a variety of subjects. 

I believe it would be a mistake to have an officer 
of the Department of State sit with the JCS as 
a representative of the Department of State, but 
I would not rule out the long-term possibility that 
a senior officer of the Department might be as- 
signed to the JCS in an advisory capacity. Wiile 
such an official might not participate in the delib- 
erations of the JCS as an official spokesman for 
the Department of State, he might have a role 
comparable to that of a political adviser to a uni- 
fied military command. 

Next are the questions directed toward improve- 
ment of planning in the Departments of State and 
Defense. 

"Should officials with more diverse backgrounds 
and experience be brought into the policy plan- 
ning process in State and Defense? Is there a 
need for a joint State-DOD-JCS Planning Staff? 
Can greater u^e be made of ad hoc interdepart- 
mental task forces on special issues of national 
security policy?'''' 

We have long recognized the need for officers of 
diverse backgrounds on our Policy Planning Staff. 
I think that we have succeeded fairly well in 
meeting this need. Naturally, we shall continue 
to select with great care the members of this staff 
so as to insure a balance of knowledge and back- 
ground. 

Depariment of Sfafe Bu/Zefin 



A Joint State-DOD-JCS Planning Staff would 
have the merit of bringing together diverse back- 
grounds but might have the drawback of being 
apart from the operating departments and out 
of the mainstream. The firm connection with 
reality which proximity to operations gives is 
certainly a requisite of useful plamiing. Tliis is 
one of the reasons why the Planning Board of the 
NSC has been so useful; its members are active 
participants in the operations of their own de- 
partments as well as members of a joint plaiming 
staff. Additionally, we have utilized interdepart- 
mental task forces for planning on special issues, 
and we have found it to be an excellent means of 
bringing to bear upon a problem the best knowl- 
edge of several agencies. 

Lastly, there is the question about a joint career 
service embracing senior officers selected from 
State, Defense, and related national security 
agencies. 

"/s the proposed joint career service practical 
and loorthwhile?'''' 

The joint career service proposal strikes me as 
being a rather drastic and administratively cum- 
bersome approach to the very desirable objective 
of developing policymakers with nonparochial 
viewpoints and wide breadth of experience. As 
I suggested earlier, I believe the interchange of 
selected pei-sonnel between the Departments of 
State and Defense and the use of joint task forces 
on planning might go a long way toward meeting 
this objective and should be tried before we resort 
to the more drastic proposal for a joint career 
service. 

In conclusion I wish to thank the committee for 
this opportunity to meet with it. I will be glad 
to answer questions on this statement. 

United States Asks Withdrawal 
of Two Cuban Officials 

Press release 337 dated June IS 

The Department of State on June 18 delivered 
to Dr. Enrique Patterson., Cuban Charge d'' Af- 
faires ad interim, the folloxoing note. 

Sir : I wish to inform you that the Government 
of the United States has ascertained that Dr. Berta 
Pla, Cultural Attache in the Cuban Consulate 
General at New York City, and Carlos Manuel 



Lazaro Felix Sanchez y Basquet, assistant to the 
Cuban Consul at Miami, Florida, have engaged in 
highly improper activities incompatible with their 
status as consular officials. 

In these circumstances I must state to you that 
the continued presence in the United States of Dr. 
Pla and Mr. Sanchez is no longer acceptable and 
you are requested to arrange for the departure of 
these officials within forty -eight hours. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high 
consideration. 

For the Acting Secretary of State: 
L. D. jNIallory 

President Eisenhower Departs 
for the Far East 

Statement hy President Eisenhower ^ 

My friends : Through recent weeks my mail has 
been heavy with personal messages from thou- 
sands of Americans and friends of America over- 
seas, messages of calm faith that om- decent, 
peaceful purposes will not be obscured in the 
world's eyes by propaganda and invective. 

These messages, written in fullness of heart, 
have been inspiring proof that, far from Wash- 
ington and the world centers of power, men and 
women are deeply concerned with the world role 
of the Republic — for peace with justice in free- 
dom. To all those who have written and cabled 
me heartening words I am most thankful. 

As you know there have been public warnings, 
based on a variety of considerations, that I should 
not visit the Far East at this time. With these I 
did not agree. However, they moved me to re- 
think and to reexamhie my individual responsibil- 
ity within the American mission of free- world 
leadership. In that process I decided neither to 
postpone nor to cancel my trip to the Far East. 

This is the reason for my decision: so that I 
can continue to learn more about the inmiediate 
problems and purposes of our friends and to 
continue to promote a better understanding of 
America abroad, which, particularly in the cir- 
cumstances of the moment, is a compelling re- 
sponsibility on me as the President of the United 
States. 



' Made at Washington National Airport on .June 12 
( White House press release) . 



i»\y 4, 1960 



If the trip now ahead of me were concerned 
principally with the support of a regime or a 
treaty or a disputed policy, if it were intended 
merely to bolster a particular program or to 
achieve a limited objective, such a journey would 
have no real justification. But this trip is not 
so concerned, not so intended. 

Rather, it represents an important phase of a 
program w^hose paramount objective was, and is, 
to improve the climate of international under- 
standing. Toward that goal we have worked in 
many ways : for instance, by the exchange of stu- 
dents and by our economic assistance program. 

Not the least among these means has been a 
long series of visits, through ly^ years, Ijy chiefs 
of state and senior officials of other goveniments 
to the United States and like trips abroad by my- 
self, the Vice President, and oui* associates at all 
levels of American Government. 

Never, I believe, in the history of international 
affairs has there been so massive a program of 
communications between government officials and 
between peoples. We should not permit unpleas- 
ant incidents and sporadic turmoil, inspired by 
misled or hostile agents, to dim for us the concrete 
and gratifying results. They have been to the 
gi-eat profit and to the great good of the entire 
world. 

For one thing, America's sincere dedication to 
the pursuit of a permanent peace, with justice for 
all, is becoming more clearly understood than ever 
before throughout the free world. 

For another, the free- world economy, including 
our own, has been steadily strengthened. 

For a third, among most of the world's peoples 
there now is a genuine consensus of conviction 
that we can, by negotiation, solve even the most 
difficult of international problems. 

We, in truth, have made immense progi-ess. In 
the devout hope that I can help further, e^en a 
little, this forward movement, I go to the Philip- 
pines, the Republic of China, Japan, and Korea. 

In these countries we have many millions of 
warm and devoted friends, in every case the vast 
majority of the population. But because these are 



countries of freedom, where men and women are 
free to assemble, to speak out, and to criticize, we 
must not expect a regimented unanimity on any 
subject — any more than we expect it here at home. 
I am going to tliese countries : 

Because with tlie Republic of the Philippines we 
have the closest ties of association beginning six 
decades ago and because it was in the Philippines 
many years ago that we launched our first major 
program to help a developing people achieve a 
prosperous independence. 

Because with the Republic of China we have 
helped demonstrate to tJie world that a free peo- 
ple can hold high its precious national heritage 
against all efforts to destroy it and can in adversity 
build soundly for the future without a fatal sacri- 
fice of human values. 

Because with Japan we have just completed our 
first century of relations and we can now so plan 
and order our partnership that through the new 
century ahead we may work together for the 
prosperity and peace of the entii-e world. 

Because with Korea we have been joined since 
the establishment of its Republic in maintaining 
there a bulwai'k on the frontier of the free world, 
essential to the security of this Nation and the 
honor of the United Nations. 

Our associations with these four nations are vital 
to our own security and to the securitj' of the free 
world. In my personal mission through the next 
2 weeks I shall strive to my utmost that our friend- 
ships may grow warmer, our partnerships more 
productive of good for us all. 

I am stopping briefly in Okinawa, where we 
have important responsibilities for the welfare of 
the Ryukyuan people. 

I am also happy to visit our newest States, 
Alaska and Hawaii. They are important bridges 
of communication to the free nations of Asia. 

I know that all Americans will want me to ex- 
press their warm friendship to the peoples I shall 
visit. I know also that I shall bring back to you 
the friendly greetings of our Asian brothers. 

And now, goodby to all of you for a short while. 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Some Conclusions From the Summit 

iy W. Randolph Burgess 

U.S. Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council 



Every spring Paris is transformed from somber- 
ness to a brilliance that lifts the heart. This year, 
particularly, the heavens smiled and the white and 
pink blossoms of the horse chestnut trees seemed 
more gay than usual. Even the Paris fashions 
seemed to reflect the heightened spirit of bright- 
ness and cheer. The people of Paris were de- 
lighted by the prospect of being host to the sum- 
mit conference in mid-May and by the hope that 
it might help lessen the tensions with the Soviet 
Union. 

There was an immense human investment in this 
undertaking. The heads of four great "Western 
governments and their principal advisers were 
taking time away from all other duties of state 
to concentrate their efforts on this move along 
the pathway to peace. The summit meeting was 
in response to repeated urging by Mr. Khru- 
shchev ; that in itself seemed a good augury. 

Long Preparation 

Tliere had been long and exacting preparation 
for this conference, including individual visits 
among the four Western cliiefs of government and 
weeks and weeks of labor of experts. Last sum- 
mer the foreign ministers of the Western Powers 
and the Soviet Union, with German observers, 
had spent 10 weary weeks at Geneva, reviewing 
every aspect of problems relating to Germany and 
Berlin. They had not reached an agreement, but 
they had boxed the compass on the possible and 
the impossible solutions. 

For nearly 20 months, in Geneva also, repre- 
sentatives of the United States, the United King- 
dom, and the U.S.S.E. had been attempting to 

^ Address made before the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs at Washington, D.C., on June 15 (press 
release 332). 



reach agi'eement on the discontinuance of nuclear 
testing under controls which would insure against 
any abuse of the agreement. The negotiators were 
making substantial — if laborious — progress. 

Six months before, France, the U.K., U.S., and 
U.S.S.E. had created a 10-nation disarmament 
committee on which the Soviet bloc and the West 
were equally represented.^ The fom- powers 
hoped that the work of the committee would pro- 
vide a useful basis for disarmament negotiations 
in the United Nations. This group had begun 
meetings in March after extensive preparation. 
The meetings reached no conclusions but succeeded 
in exposing and exploring the various positions. 

The Western team included in its proposals a 
gi-oup of concrete, practical, and relatively simple 
first steps which could be taken without delay and 
which would begm the climb toward broader 
measures.^* But the Soviet team refused to talk 
about these practical, simple steps and instead 
kept sovmding off with sweeping generalities of 
complete and universal disarmament witli no ade- 
quate assurance of controls. However, although 
the U.S.S.E. conceded no single practicable point, 
the discussions defined the issues and there seemed 
reasonable hope that at the svunmit some directive 
might get the negotiations on the road to progress 
on specific disarmament steps. 

It should be emphasized that during this whole 
period the three Western Powers — England, 
France, and the United States — who were to take 
part in the summit were in continuing contact and 
consultation with their partners of the Atlantic 
Alliance. Besides individual consultations the 
discussions were centered in NATO [North At- 



= Bulletin of Sept. 28, 1959, p. 438. 

' For text of a working pajwr on disarmament presented 
by Canada, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States, see ma., Apr. 4, 1960, p. 511. 



Ju/y 4, J 960 



lantic Treaty Organization], on wliich I have the 
lienor of representing the United States, ilany 
liours of discussion were held in this 15-nation 
forum. Thus the three Western Powers went to 
the summit knowing they had the understanding 
and support of the whole alliance. 

Our Hopes Blasted 

We who had been working on these questions 
had hoix!, not of great, sweeping solutions but 
of some conci-ete, if modest, forward steps toward 
better understanding between the free world and 
the Soviet bloc which might gain a few yards on 
the road to a stabilized peace. But those hopes 
were blasted in the very first moments of the sum- 
mit conference by Mr. Khrushchev. You all 
know how he did it. The President and Secretary 
Herter have reported it fully and directly to their 
fellow Americans.* 

There was some previous evidence of a change 
in the Soviet attitude when, at a speech at Baku, 
U.S.S.K., a week before the U-2 incident,^ Mr. 
Khrushchev changed his tone to greater belliger- 
ency, especially renewing his threat of a separate 
l^eace treaty with East Geniiany. This the West- 
em countries generally interpreted as simply fol- 
lowing earlier Soviet patterns of talking tough 
before a conference in an effort to improve their 
trading position. 

But when Mr. Khrushchev reached Paris, the 
storm broke. On Sunday, the day before the 
meeting was to begin, he told General de Gaulle 
and Prime Minister Macmillan that he woidd go 
on with the conference only if the President of 
the United States punished those resjjonsible and 
guaranteed that such flights would be discon- 
tinued—a demand so extreme he must have known 
that it could not be met. 

Wlien the meeting began on that historic Mon- 
day, May 16, he unleashed an unprecedented at- 
tack on our President and repeated the same 
demands, adding to them the further demand that 
the President himself apologize for the flights. 
When these demands were not met, Mr. Khru- 
shchev refused to attend meetings, and the con- 



' For President Eisenhower's report to the Nation on 
May 2.5, see ihid., June 6, 1960, p. 899; for Secretary 
Herter's statement before the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee on May 27, see ibid.. June 1.3, 1960, p. 947. 

' For background, see ibid., May 30, 19(50, p. 851, and 
June 13, 1960, p. 955. 



10 



ference was over. Khrushchev even refused tlie 
President's offer to meet with him in private. 

For a full understanding of the whole episode, 
we need time for the dust to settle. But by now 
each of you has probably evolved your own ex- 
planation of why it all happened as it did. One 
thing seems evident: The incident of the U-2 
plane was an excuse rather than a reason. For 
Mr. Khrushchev admits he had known about these 
flights for nearly 4 years and consequently was 
fully aware of them when he visited President 
Eisenhower in September 1959. But he never 
mentioned them at that time. The reason seems 
fairly obvious: He did not want to ]mt himself 
in the position of admitting that the Soviet Union 
did not have what it takes to shoot down planes 
flying at that great altitude. Moreover, in view 
of the tremendous and continuing espionage ap- 
paratus and activity of the Soviet, it is ridiculous 
for Mr. Khrushchev to appear so shocked at this 
overflight by an unarmed plane. 

The reasons for his breaking up the summit 
meeting probably lie deeper. "Wliile the evidence 
is inconclusive, difficulties at home may have 
played a role in INIr. Khrushchev's decision. But 
more important is the fact that Mi-. Khrushchev 
had not succeeded in his attempts either to split 
or wreck the Western alliance. He realized he 
could not have his way at the summit meeting. 
His propaganda to turn France against Germany 
and to develop resentment by the smaller nations 
against the three great Western Powers had all 
failed. He was put on notice of this failure by 
reason of the unanimous action of the 15-nation 
NATO Ministerial Council meeting in Istanbul 
on May 2 to 4,"^ at which the foreign ministers 
joined in a statement in full support of the West- 
ern position for the summit. Mr. Khrushchev 
therefore faced the prospect of failure at the sum- 
mit to win any easy gains from the West, and he 
badly needed some way of getting off the hook. 

There is every evidence that the Soviet leaders 
had come to a decision that it would be advisable 
to postpone the summit discussions until a more 
propitious time. You will remember that Mr. 
Khrushchev even indicated his hope that the suc- 
cessor to Mr. Eisenhower in the "\^niite House 
might be more approachable and that there might 
be favorable changes toward the Soviet position 
in other countries too. Patience is an attribute of 



'/^;</., May23, 1900, p. S40. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



tlie U.S.S.E. policy, and they think time is worli:- 
ing for them. The Soviet leadership also seems 
to have a deeply ingrained belief that strength can 
best be indicated by rudeness and overbearance. 

Evidence of this was the vitriolic 214-hour press 
conference given by Mr. Khrushchev in Paris on 
May 18, which shocked even the most case-hard- 
ened journalists. American reporters came away 
with the feeling that they and their President and 
their country had been personally insulted. More- 
over, his unbridled outbursts have more than offset 
his efforts to gain sympathy from the airplane 
incident. 

Our Future Policy 

In the face of this behavior, one might be 
tempted to write off the whole endeavor — to go 
back to a policy of shutting down on relations with 
the Soviet Union. But that is not the answer. 
We ha\e to live in the same world with the So\iet 
Union. Each of us has the power to inflict fright- 
ful damage on the other. So, no matter how out- 
raged we feel, we must continue to do our best to 
understand the Soviet mind and to find ways of 
reducing the deadly peril. 

The President has stated the future policy of our 
country as follows : ' 

We must continue businesslike dealings with the Soviet 
leaders on outstanding issues, and improve the contacts 
between our own and the Soviet peoples, making clear that 
the path of reason and common sense is still open If the 
Soviets will but use it. 

I should like to assure you that the members of 
the NATO alliance are all agreed upon this policy. 
The Geneva conference on disarmament has re- 
sumed its work, as has also the conference on 
banning nuclear weapons testing. 

But the Western World has learned one clear 
lesson from all this : to take nothing for granted. 
Any agreement on disarmament must carry such 
built-in inspection and control provisions as to 
make certain that it will be carried out. Further- 
more, we have been reminded again of the danger 
of being lulled by apparently softened attitudes 
on the part of the Soviet leaders. 

Is There Any Silver Lining? 

The sudden collapse of the summit conference 
was indeed a shocking destruction of many hopes, 
but as we gain the perspective of distance, we can 
see some advantages from it. One of these is to 

'/?)/-/., June 6, 1900. p. 809. 
July 4, 7 960 



give us and our partners evidence to support a 
greater faith in our defense forces than many 
critics have implied. 

The development and effective operation of the 
U-2 planes for 4 years was an important achieve- 
ment and has given us most valuable knowledge 
of the Russian potential. The fact that these 
overflights were feasible suggested that Soviet 
defenses are not proof against our manned 
bombers. This supports the assessment that we 
are still ahead of Russia in our massive military 
power. 

Our Alliance Is Strong 

The second favorable factor emerging from this 
experience is its testimony to the essential unity 
of our alliance : first, of the three Western nego- 
tiating powers working together as a strong team, 
and second, of the wider 15-nation organization 
which has formed a solid protective front for the 
Western World. Not only was there no split in 
the ranks of the alliance despite Mr. Khrushchev's 
most rigorous efforts to sow seeds of dissension 
and distrust, but his threats actually pulled the 
organization closer together. And not for the 
first time ! 

In 1957, after the startling evidence, implicit in 
sputnik, of Russian scientific achievement, NATO 
laid out a new program of interdependence and 
cooperation, especially in science and its military 
applications. 

In 1958 Mr. Klirushchev's series of letters 
threatening unilateral action on Berlin again led 
the alliance 1x) renew its pledges of xmity and to 
strengthen its forces. 

Much the same is happening this time. At a 
meeting of the NATO Council held in Paris 2 
days after the breakup of the summit conference, 
the French Foreign Minister, M. Couve de Mur- 
ville, the British Foreign Minister, Mr. Selwyn 
Lloyd, and our own Secretary of State, Mr. Chris- 
tian A. Herter, reported fully what had happened 
and took part in an extended discussion. At the 
conclusion the Council regretted that Mr. Kliru- 
shchev's position had made negotiations in Paris 



The resolution of the North Atlantic Coimcil 
then went on to say : ^ 

Reaffirming complete solidarity of the countries of the 
.Alliance, it fully approves the statement of the three 



Heads of State or Goveminent that "all outstanding in- 
ternational questions should be settled not by the use or 
threat of force but bj- i)eaceful means through negotia- 
tions" and remains "ready to take part in such negotia- 
tions at any suitable time in the future". 

To complete the picture of Paris in May 1960 it 
should also be reported that the week following 
the summit representatives of 20 countries of 
Western Europe and North America — including 
the NATO countries and the five other countries 
which are membei-s of the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation — met there to con- 
sider a new charter of economic cooperation. 
There was, of course, no organic connection be- 
tween this group and the summit meeting or the 
NATO alliance. But the failure of the summit 
not only placed no damper on this economic pro- 
gram but instead gave to the members of the 
group an added impetus to push forward with 
their project. Cooperation of the Western World 
had moved another pace forward. 

This reaction of other nations which have been 
our partners and friends was reinforced when the 
U.S.S.K. attempted to pass a resolution of censure 
against the United States in the United Nations 
Security Council. They failed dismally, obtain- 
ing only the vote of Poland in addition to their 
ovvTi." Nine of the eleven members of the Security 
Council joined instead in a resolution urging con- 
tinued consultations and negotiations in accord- 
ance with the program of the President quoted 
earlier. 

A Personal Vote of Confidence 

This heartening support for the Western posi- 
tion was not a coldly impersonal judgment. I 
think it was a vote of confidence in the three 
Western leaders who took part in the conference, 
and particularly in the President of the United 
States, who was so personally involved and 
attacked. 

These are matters which cannot be measured on 
a computing machine. I can simply give you the 
reaction of someone who lived close to these tre- 
mendous events and who watched the evidence 
pile up. 

Some thought we should have said less or ad- 
mitted less in the U-2 incident. But out of it all 
came a recognition of the courage and integrity 
of the President. He himself took the full re- 



' Ibid., .Tune 13, 19(i0, p. O-Vj. 



sponsibility. This did not follow the usual pro- 
cedure of intelligence operations. But it was the 
only possible course consistent with the character 
of Dwight D. Eisenhower. The people of the 
free world have res^jected him for it. 

I like to think also that the handling of this 
incident is somehow typical of America. The 
Soviets would never have told the truth about such 
an event. So perhaps there is a lesson here of 
broad significance. We as a people believe that in 
the long run governments to succeed must account 
honestly to their peoples and that there is inherent 
in everyone a sense of truth and falsehood. The 
v'iUing cooperation of a people depends in the long 
run on its government's appealing to that sense in 
its citizens. This is a basic truth we need to recall 
over and over again. 



Broad Conclusions 

For these great problems of international rela- 
tions — which may hold peace or war in the 
balance — there is no simple or easy solution. "We 
face a long contest between two different ways of 
life based on fundamentally different moral prin- 
ciples. 

Under present conditions we should, as the 
President said in his report to the American 
people, approach negotiations with the Kremlin 
leaders as "a careful search for common interests 
between the Western allies and the Soviet Union 
on specific problems." 

We can make progress toward reducing the 
burden of armaments by specific arrangements 
nailed down by inspection and control. 

If peace is maintained by a military deadlock, 
then the scene of the contest will shift to prolonged 
economic competition and to increased efforts in 
the battle to capture men's minds, which for our 
part might more appropriately be called the battle 
to free men's minds. 

The Soviet principle is based on the belief that 
an unavoidable conflict exists between the classes 
which they think in the end must result in victory 
for communism by all feasible means, including, 
if necessary and practical, the use of armed force. 
They will use every mechanism to stir up that 
conflict. They are today actively engaged in doing 
so in many parts of the world. They are sure that 
success will come to them inevitably. Again I 
want to remind you of their belief that history is 
on their side. 



Department of State Bulletin 



But we believe that, history shows it is on our 
side, because we tliink man is made for freedom 
and truth and in the long run will win his way 
through to them. But there is nothing automatic 
about this. Progress will reflect the leadership of 
individuals and nations, and especially the great 
free nations with their heritage of culture and 
freedom. The future path of history may well 
depend on us — our efforts, our sacrifices, our 
understanding. 

We are not alone in this responsibility. We 
share it with other countries of the free world and 
particularly with the NATO member countries. 
The challenge of commiuiism is not a challenge of 
the Soviet Union to the United States alone. It is, 
as NATO Secretary General Paul-Henri Spaak 
has said, "the challenge of the whole Communist 
world to the whole free world, and the countries 
of the free world must accept the challenge col- 
lectively in all fields and everywhere." 

These are general terms that slip off the tongue 
quite easily in many a speech. We need to think 
what they mean in our daily life as a nation and 
as individuals. This is especially important this 
year when we are electing new national leaders. 

Let us make a few practical comments. One is 
that to keep the military balance of power we 
shall have to continue military spending at about 
the present level. We cannot let up. 

We must also continue to help the nations 
which are our allies and our friends to keep up 
their militaiy and economic power. Our defense 
dollar brings us greater return this way than in 
almost any other. 

To do these things effectively we shall have to 
keep on paying taxes at approximately present 
rates. No relief is in sight. 

Meantime, we cannot afford new luxuries in 
governmental spending. New and expensive non- 
essential programs will have to wait. 

To buttress our economic strength we shall have 
to follow sound monetary and fiscal policies to 
keep the U.S. dollar strong — a firm base for the 
economic growth and stability of the Western 
World. 

In other words we must have the same carefully 
planned management of national affairs as you 
ladies know is necessary for the successful man- 
agement of the family budget. At the same time 
we must also have imaginative leadership which 
will, along with our allies, seek in every possible 
way to penetrate the cloud of misunderstanding 



and fears which separates us from the Communist 
world. 

To summarize, the recent events serve notice 
on this country and our allies that we face a long 
period of testing. The key thought for us must 
be to maintain our strength — military, economic, 
and moral. Only by strength can we ultimately 
win this contest, and every national policy should 
be judged by its contribution to that strength. 

Commencement and Crisis 

Inj Lane Dwlnell 

Assistant Secretary for Administration'^ 

If we look back over the years that have passed 
since the death of Stalin, we can see the develop- 
ment of certain trends in the Soviet Union which 
we can view with some hope. No matter how 
closed a society may be, change is irresistible to- 
day. 

In the Soviet Union, as elsewhere, people basi- 
cally want simple things: a decent job, an oppor- 
tunity to improve themselves, and, most impor- 
tant, the chance to educate their children, in the 
knowledge that tomorrow's world will be better 
for them than it has been for those who have lived 
through the tumultuous and often bloody first 
half of the 20th century. 

These goals conflict with attempts to impose 
upon people any preconceived ideology, or any 
form of social oi'ganization, which calls upon men 
to sacrifice the good they can win for themselves 
today at the altar of a Utopian tomorrow. 

So it has been that, despite an enormous ap- 
paratus of compulsion and indoctrination, signs 
have appeared m the Soviet Union since Stalin's 
death that indicate the reassertion, slow and halt- 
ing as it may be, of these basic human goals. 

Let us take one example. 

You are all familiar with the Soviet- American 
exchange program, in which we have been en- 
gaged for the past 2 years. Under it, a great 
many Soviet citizens — officials, technicians, per- 
forming artists — have come to the United States 
and comparable nimibers of Americans have gone 
to the U.S.S.R. In the field of tourism, the So- 
viets are still cautious and hesitant, so that only a 
few hundred Soviet tourists have visited our coun- 



Excerpt from an address made at commencement ex- 
at Colby Junior College, New London, N.H., on 
June 5. 



July 4, J 960 



13 



ti7, while tliousands of Americans have gone to 
theirs. But a beginning has been made, a begin- 
ning that was untliinkable during the "deep 
freeze" of the StaUn period, when the Soviet 
Union was almost hermetically sealed off from the 
rest of the world. 

Obviously, the changes that have occurred in the 
Soviet Union do not add up to an "open society," 
as we imderstand it. Obviously, too, the develop- 
ment of "openness" in the Soviet Union will be 
slow, painfully so, from our point of view. "Wliat 
is important about this is not the degree of change 
that has taken place over the past 7 years but the 
fact that there is any change at all and the direc- 
tion of those changes that have occurred. 

One important thing, of course, has not changed. 
The Soviet leadership continues to be intent upon 
its goal of creating a Communist world and de- 
clares itself ready to do whatever it can get away 
with in order to achieve this goal. 

We, on our side, are confident that this Soviet 
goal is unattainable. We believe that every peo- 
ple, if left to itself, vnll eventually choose 
freedom, not subjugation, will choose good neigh- 
borliness, not belligerence, will choose liberty and 
not blind obedience to the dictates of a falsely con- 
ceived theory imposed by a self-perpetuating 
dictatorship. 

We believe that the peoples of the world will 
make this choice if they have tlie opportmiity to 
work out their own destinies for themselves. In 
order that they may do this, they need the assur- 
ance that they will be able to solve their own 
problems in their own way, without pressure or 
undue influence from outside. For them to be 
able to do this, the world needs peace. 

That is why, during the past year, we have 
sought to explore the readiness of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to agree to meaningful measures which 
would reduce mternational tension and increase 
the chances for peace. That is why the President 
went to Paris 3 weeks ago. And that is why, de- 
spite Soviet tactics at the summit, the President, 
upon his return from Paris, firmly restated our 
policy in the following words : ^ 

We must keep up our strength, and hold it steady for 
the long pull. ... So doing, we can make it clear to 
everyone that there can be no gain in the u.se of pressure 
tactics or aggression against us and our allies. . . . We 
must continue businesslike dealings with the Soviet lead- 
ers on outstanding issues, and improve the contacts be- 



tween our own and the Soviet peoples, making clear that 
the path of reason and common sense is still open if the 
Soviets will but use it. 

Among the lessons of Paris, the most important, 
it seems to me, is a fresh realization of the dangers 
we face and the consequent need to move ahead 
with our own programs for strengthening the free 
world. 

The free world cannot defend itself, or win 
friends for itself, only by rockets and bombers and 
all the rest. These are necessary, but they are not 
enough. In the long run the free world will de- 
fend itself, and ^^^n adherence to itself, because 
our way of life gives a better way of livmg, a 
fuller life to the individual ; it gives secm-ity and 
hope. 



Refugees— A Changing Challenge 

it/ John W. Hanes, Jr. 

Administrator of Security and Consular Affairs ^ 

Many people have been shocked by the events of 
the past 2 months — the collapse of the summit 
meeting. Premier Khrushchev's outbursts in 
Paris, and his unprecedented personal attacks on 
our President — shocked, because this series of 
events once more and so brutally shows the un- 
changing nature of the Communist tlu"eat to those 
w^ho had hoped that, somehow, the beast had 
changed liis spots. 

I doubt, however, that anj'one in this room was 
shocked; disappointed, apprehensive, yes — but 
certainly not shocked. For all of us here are con- 
cerned with refugees, and those who deal daily 
with the human tragedy which international 
communism spews out as a waste product can 
scarcely harbor any illusions about its nature. 
Through the years, while the Conuniuiist leaders 
were alternately cooing of peace and blustering 
about war, and always praising their workei-s' 
paradise, the refugees have kept coming. The 
refugees have been a personal, awful warning — 
to those who would see and hear — of the terror 
behind the Communist cm-tain. 

Let us, then, consider what has been happen- 
ing in recent weeks and seek a pers|3ective about 
our basic policy, especially as that policy affects 
our common concern — refugees. 



' Bulletin of June 6, 1960, p. I 



^ Address made before the advisory board of the United 
States Committee for Refugees at Washington, D.C., nn 
June 16 ( press release 334 ) . 



Department of State Bulletin 



First of all we must ask what has clianged. 
Has Soviet isolicy changed 'i Not one bit. Soviet 
tactics, however, have changed; and it is crucial 
for us to distinguish between tactics and policy 
if we are to avoid falling into the trap that the 
Communists set for us by deliberately confusing 
the two. Never have the Communists deviated 
from their declared course of seeking world dom- 
ination. That is policy — and it has been con- 
sistent from 1917 to the present. Only the tactics 
have changed. The recent rantmgs of Premier 
Khrushchev are but the latest demonstration of 
such tactical change. AVe would do well to re- 
member, by the way, that such a performance, and 
such a violent shift of tactics, is possible only to 
the leader of a totalitarian state. 

Since it is only tactics which have changed, we 
should view the prospect in perspective. Kecent 
events have been unpleasant, but they are no more 
a sign that we face a greater actual danger than 
would be a declaration of total sweetness and light 
by Mr. Khrushchev a signal that our danger was 
lessened. I have always marveled at the ability 
of so many well-informed people persistently not 
to understand the unchanging basic Conmimiist 
objective, or almost eagerly to lose sight of it and 
alternate between unjustified hope and unwar- 
ranted fear after each wave of tlie olive branch 
or of the sword by the Communist leaders. 

I believe deeply that, with firmness, patience, 
and comprehension, it will continue to be possible 
for our country and the free world to presei-ve 
peace in the world without impairing the vitality 
of freedom or imperiling its ultimate spread 
throughout the world. But we will never achieve 
these ends unless we first achieve a sufficiently 
broadly based political maturity among our peo- 
ple — and all free peoples — to support the uncom- 
fortable corollary. That is simply to be as persist- 
ent in refusing to accept injustice and wrong as 
the Communists are patient in seekmg to make us 
accept them. 

Therefore it is not without some relief that I 
view the recent outbursts of the Soviet Premier. 
For he has, ironically, done us the service of again 
unmasking the never-changing objective of Com- 
munist policy as no one else could possibly do. 

Premier Khrushchev has also given an iimnense, 
if imintended, boost to the refugee cause by re- 
minding the world that the conditions which pro- 
duce refugees continue without change. Thus it 
has never been more important — not only in hu- 



man terms but in terms of our foreign policy — 
that we continue to offer asylum and help to the 
victims of communism and tyranny. For it is a 
fact that our treatment of every pei'son who es- 
capes from the Conununist world is symbolic of 
our concern for those who remain ; but, also, in a 
much more basic sense, of whether we mean by 
deeds what we say about freedom. 

It is not news to this group that our country has 
a proud record of assistance to refugees. Most of 
you helped build that record. 

I would like to remind you that in just the past 
12 months — the period known as the World Refu- 
gee Year — our Government contribution alone to 
refugees was over $70 million. The bulk of this 
$70 million, of course, went to meet our substan- 
tial regular annual commitments, although most 
of these were also supplemented by special World 
Refugee Year donations. 

This enormous sum is perhaps more meaningful 
if we highlight just three of the thmgs it enabled 
us to do : 

A new four-story coimnunity center has been 
built in Hong Kong as a gift of the American 
people which will provide facilities for education, 
recreation, and vocational training as well as a 
day nursery and a clinic. Such a center has long 
been needed, and it will fill an enormous gap in 
the disrupted and harsh life of the Chinese 
refugees. 

In the Middle East tons of our surplus food 
were sent this year to provide the basic diet for 
Algerian refugees who were facing starvation. 

And in Europe thousands of people have left 
camp life forever as a result of the dramatic camp 
clearance program of the United Nations High 
Commissioner, which we have supported substan- 
tially. 

I could go on at great length about our other 
programs, but this would be highly misleading; 
for the record of the Government during World 
Refugee Year is only part of the picture. Of at 
least equal importance is the continuing generosity 
of the American people, who have given untold 
millions this year, as every year since the end of 
the last World War. And it is in keeping with 
our American tradition that the efforts of our 
citizens have not been channeled through the Gov- 
ernment but through the myriad volmitary agen- 
cies, churches, and other independent expressions 
of our varied society. 

It is vou, the leaders of tliis effort, who have 



Ju/y 4, J 960 



15 



taken upon your conscience responsibility for (lie 
refugees; and you have not followed the easier 
path of leaving it to the Government "to do 
something." 

I would like to take this opportunity, on behalf 
of your Government, officially to thank the United 
States Committee for Refugees for its achieve- 
ments and for its important contribution to our 
total national participation in "World Refugee 
Year. In doing so, I want most sincerely to ex- 
press my personal gratitude to each of you indi- 
vidually for the heai't and the enthusiasm that you 
have brought to this difficult task. We are all 
greatly in your debt. 

You and I have come here today, however, 
mainly to look to the future; and in speaking 
of the future I cannot help but be aware of the 
grave decision facing the United States Committee 
for Refugees : What should be its future beyond 
this special year? Because of my great interest 
in the committee, I have been asked several times 
for my opinion. I have steadfastly refused to give 
such an opinion because I believe it would be 
thoroughly improper for the Government to in- 
terfere in any manner in a policy decision that only 
the committee can make. I will say, most emphati- 
cally, that whatever decision is reached will be 
imderstood and respected by the Government. 

The Government, too, has been giving serious 
thought to what lies ahead. We all know that, 
although the World Refugee Year ends officially 
in 2 weeks, the problems will not be magically 
resolved by that time. As George Meany said to 
the United Nations 3 years ago,^ 

. . . the refugee problem is a dynamic and not a static 
problem. It continually changes in its dimensions, in its 
nature, and in its location. It is constant only in one 
resi)ect : that it will continue to exist so long as conditions 
exist which create it. 

These conditions, unfortunately, are still with 
us. The Department of State, therefore, has made 
searching inquiries during the past year into our 
basic refugee policy, and I would like to share 
with you some of the thinking resulting from this 
study. 

The first point is that the problems of refugees 
remain a basic concern of the United States. I 
am pleased to tell you that, as a result of this 
thorough and current study of the refugee prob- 
lem, there has been a reaffirmation of the im- 
portance of continuing governmental programs 



of aid to refugees. This is more significant than 
you may at first realize. For in a time of grave 
national peril, no policy can be taken for granted; 
and every policy that requires an outpouring of 
our effort must be weighed against other demands 
having to do with our very survival. Wliat this 
means, then, is that suitable assistance to refugees 
will continue to form part of the basic policy of 
the United States. 

Obviously, however, the problems ahead of us are 
not now those we faced when our refugee programs 
first took shape at the end of World War II. 
Great changes have taken place since then. The 
most significant change is that the overriding prob- 
lem is no longer Europe. The telling figiu-e here 
is that in 1945 there were 8 million displaced per- 
sons in Europe. Today the number of unsettled 
refugees in Europe is in the vicinity of 100,000. 

At the same time other problems in other parts 
of the world are emerging. 

In light of the accomplishments in Europe dur- 
ing the past decade, and notably during the World 
Refugee Year, we feel very strongly that the back- 
log of the European caseload, which has been an 
international responsibility for so many years, can 
be shrunk within 3 years to a point that the basic 
responsibility for the residual problem may be 
transferred to the countries involved. This 
presupposes, of course, no major new refugee 
emergency. 

This means, then, that we must plan a continu- 
ally diminishing govermnental effort devoted to 
this diminishing problem in Europe and a re- 
focusing of more of our attention and resources 
on the millions of refugees who are in such des- 
perate need in the Far East, in the Middle East, 
and in Africa. Such a redirection of assets is, in 
my opinion, as necessary to private organizations 
as it is to governmental programs. I am con- 
vinced that the needed changes, however difficult 
they may be in the short run, will be made. 

As an American I am proud that no threats or 
problems of the complex struggle we are waging 
can frighten us into abandoning our longstanding 
and honorable policy of help to the needy and to 
the homeless of the world. For as President Eisen- 
hower has said, "as long as there are refugees, we 
cannot ignore them."^ Indeed, we have not ig- 
nored them in the past, and we shall not ignore 
them in the future. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 9, 1957, p. 937. 



16 



Ibid., Juno 15, 1959, p. 872. 

Department of State Bulletin 



The People of Louisville and America's Cultural Relations 



by Robert H. Thayer ' 



I am not going to carry coals to Newcastle this 
evening by telling the members and friends of 
the International Center about the importance 
of international educational and cultural exchange 
programs. This center and the city of Louisville 
are continually cited by our active operations staif 
of the Department as outstanding examples of 
what communities can do to contribute to the ob- 
jectives of this program, which we believe foster 
the type of mutual understanding essential as a 
basis for lasting peace. 

I bring with me the deep appreciation of the 
Department of State for the magnificent work per- 
formed by this center and the people of Louisville 
not only in support of the exchange programs of 
the Government but more important the initiative 
you have yourselves shown. Your inexhaustible 
hospitality for our distinguished foreign leaders 
and specialists, your careful orientation and guid- 
ance for foreign students, your summer work ex- 
change program with France, your assistance to 
Americans in undertaking international cultural 
projects, and most important of all, your expand- 
ing horizons that are bringing the world into the 
everyday life of the citizens of Louisville — all of 
these things and many more have placed this city 
in the vanguard of this extraordinary ground swell 
of interest and activity by the people of America 
in the field of cultural relations with foreign 
countries. 

This exciting movement has quietly but surely 
gathered momentiun in the last few years and has 
today reached a point which, I believe, makes it 

' Address made at the International Center, University of 
Louisville, Louisville, Ky., on .Tune 14 (press release 32.5). 
Jlr. Thayer is Special Assistant to the Secretary of State 
for the Coordination of International Educational and 
Cultural Relations. 



imperative for us to pause and take stock of where 
we are going. 

One of the amazing characteristics of the people 
of America is the individual enthusiasm with 
wliich tliey seize upon an activity which catches 
their imagination and concentrate all their ener- 
gies upon it. This is a very great quality, but as 
is always the case where enthusiasm and energy 
flow in an ever-increasing stream, someone, some- 
time, must step back and take a broad, objective 
look at what is being done and make sure that the 
objectives have not been lost sight of in the hurly- 
burly of the activity itself. 

Don't misunderstand me: I am not about to 
propose that we curtail our activity in the field of 
international education and cultural relations. On 
the contrary, I believe that this activity should be 
not doubled but tripled and quadrupled. But if 
this is to be done, the basis of our effort must be 
sound, our objectives must be clear, our operations 
must be efficient and not clogged with the duplica- 
tion and confusion and absurd selfish competition 
that comes with massive uncoordinated effort. 

Let us take a quick look at the situation today. 
There are 17 different agencies of the Government 
engaged in one way or another in bringing people 
from other lands to study and train in this country 
and sending Americans abroad to learn and teach. 
Hundreds and thousands of individuals, organiza- 
tions, foimdations, service clubs, universities, and 
other institutions are doing the same things and 
engaging in many other fields of cultural activi- 
ties. For instance the Smithsonian Institution has 
for over 100 years been engaged in exchanges of 
all kinds with other countries. Did you know 
that the Smithsonian Institution has the greatest 
collection of grasses in the world and has been 
exchanging blades of grass of every size, quality, 



Jo/y 4, 7960 

554497— 6( 



17 



color, and kind with every section of the world for 
many decades ? I am told that this exchange con- 
tinued without interruption between the United 
States and the enemies we fought in both "World 
Wars. T^et us not overlook the lesson to be found 
in the bond between those who spend their lives 
profoundly absorbed in the study of a blade of 
grass — a bond so strong that two world wars 
could not shake the confidence of their relation- 
ship or slow the urgency of their need to exchange 
their views. 

Both the Government and the people of the 
United States are building, with increasing rapid- 
ity, interest and activity in the field of cultural 
relations. In one country that I know of, there 
are 12 different Government agencies and 93 pri- 
vate organizations and institutions engaged in this 
field. What is the relationship between the activi- 
ties of Government and these private groups? If 
the public is carrying on this work, why must the 
Government bother with it? 

That is a question very close to my heart. It is 
a question that is constantly thrown at every Gov- 
ernment official when he appears, as I did this 
spring, before the congressional committees 
charged with examining the spending of public 
funds, and it is a question that every Government 
official should be prepared to answer. I become 
somewhat impatient with many of my friends in 
private life who complain bitterly about how Con- 
gress hinders the progress of important work by 
searching investigations into the detail of opera- 
tions. What they don't realize is that the very 
basis of our American system of government lies 
in the responsibility of Congress to inquire into the 
spending of every cent of taxpayers' money, and 
the greatest safety valve in the world against the 
normal excesses of the enthusiasm and zeal of 
American public or private enterprise sparked by 
the great freedom of thought and action which 
abound in this country is the searching questions 
of congressional appropriations committees. It is 
the obligation of Government to be able to answer 
these questions intelligently and accurately. 

Varied Forms of Cultural Relations 

Wliat exactly is "cultural relations"? My 
answer is a veiy simple one. Cultural relations 
are the relations of the people of one country to 
the people of another. They should be differen- 
tiated from diplomatic relations, which are the 



relations of government to government, or public 
relations, which are the relations of goverrunent 
to people. The best example of public relations 
is that of Benjamin Franklin, who, when he first 
went to France, was not accepted by the French 
Government as a diplomatic envoy of the United 
States, and so he sj)ent his time writing articles 
about this country and distributing them among 
the people of France. The Government of the 
United States spoke directly to the people of 
France through these articles — it was a govern- 
ment-to-people relationship. After the Battle of 
Saratoga, when it became evident that the United 
States was establishing itself in a way that could 
no longer be ignored, Benjamin Franklin became 
U.S. Minister, and diplomatic relations, govern- 
ment to government, were established. It wasn't 
until much later that cultural relations between 
the United States and France began to develop — 
when transportation across the ocean made it 
easier for Frenchmen to come to the United 
States and Americans to go to France as students 
or traders or businessmen or artists — and, through 
personal contact with all facets of the everyday 
lives of each other's citizens in their native land, 
made it possible for the living culture of France 
to be made known directly to Americans and vice 
versa. 

Cultural relations take varied f onus. The most 
popular of these and most important are ex- 
changes of individuals in which students, teachers, 
leaders, and specialists in all fields are brought 
over to this country and are sent abroad for 
educational purposes in the broadest sense. 

Then there are cultural information activities 
carried on particularly by USIA [U.S. Informa- 
tion Agency] in the field of English teaching, the 
creation of binational centers and the holding of 
art exhibits, the distribution of books and the 
setting up of American libraries abroad. 

Cooperation between educational institutions is 
carried on by the miiversities themselves and, in 
non-European areas especially, by ICA [Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration] through 
their univei-sity-to-university contracts. 

The President's Special International Program 
for Cultural Presentations enables us to send 
American performing artists abroad. Trade 
fairs, under the jurisdiction of the Department 
of Commerce, also have a cultural impact. Al- 
though the Department of State operates the 
program for sending performing artists abroad. 



18 



Department of State Bulletin 



the Director of USIA coordinates this work and 
that of the trade fairs. 

In 1959, 104,300 foreigners visited the United 
States for educational, scientific, and cultural pur- 
poses. 49,000 came to study or do research in 
American schools and universities and 55,300 for 
nonacademic projects such as observation and 
consultation and inservice training. 

Less than one-third of our foreign visitore came 
under Government programs, including 15,293 
military personnel brought over by the De- 
fense Department for military training, 6,500 by 
ICA for technical training, and 5,500 by the De- 
partment of State. 

30,600 Ajnericans went abroad either for aca- 
demic purposes or to work on special scientific or 
medical projects. Here the proportion sent by 
the Government is even lower, only about 12 
percent. 

It should be noted that this number does not 
include U.S. Government employees, who, with 
their dependents, would raise the total to over a 
million and a half Americans abroad. 

It is interesting to compare these programs with 
the Soviet exchange program. In 1958 only 19 
Soviet students left the U.S.S.R. for the free 
world. Seventeen of tliese students came to the 
United States. Of 654 free-world students who 
went to the Soviet Union, only 22 came from the 
United States. In 1959, out of a total of 70 Soviet 
students sent to the free-world countries, 27 came 
to the United States. Under the recently signed 
agreement with the U.S.S.R. they have agreed to 
send up to 35 students in 1960 and up to 50 in 1961, 
with approximately equal numbers of American 
students going to the Soviet Union. 

In 1959 under the President's Special Inter- 
national Program for Cultural Presentations, 
through the 454 performances of great American 
symphony orchestras, smaller chamber-music or- 
chestras, and quartets and individual artists, the 
United States has certainly offered sufficient proof 
of the high quality of its cultural attainments 
in the field of classical music. At the same time 
we are trying to reach a larger audience in each 
counti-y with more of the grassroots music and 
song of America. A four-member folk-music 
group spent a rigorous 3 months tliis year touring 
many of the remote areas of India, including 
communities where they were the first Americans 
ever to perform. The group, consisting of three 
guitar players and a vocalist, presents the best in 



American folk music — not hillbilly — ranging 
from early American ballads to the prejazz folk 
blues. We have sent orchestras, ballets, and 
choral groups abroad. We are now studying the 
ways and means of sending examples of our great 
American theater. 

In the field of sports we are getting more and 
more demands from our missions abroad, particu- 
larly in the underdeveloped countries, for athletic 
coaches and groups of atliletes to be sent over 
during the summer months. These groups have 
had great success in helping to train the young 
people of these countries and demonstrate tech- 
niques in different sports. 

American performing artists under the Pres- 
ident's program have covered every comer of the 
globe in a total of 1,183 performances in the last 
year. 

One of the important facets of our cultural pro- 
gram is direct aid to American-sponsored schools 
abroad. These schools, founded in many cases 
originally by church groups but now nondenomi- 
national in character, are windows of American 
education. But they are woven into the educa- 
tional system of the country in such a way as to 
make an indigenous educational contribution. 

Among tliese schools is the outstanding farm 
school in Thessaloniki, Greece, where young 
Greeks are trained in modern agricultural meth- 
ods; Robert College in Istanbul, where it is said 
that 80 percent of the political and economic 
leaders of Turkey received their education; and 
the American University of Beirut, with its in- 
fluence over the entire Middle East. We are also 
assisting the American School of Tangier, the 
i\_merican community schools in Paris and Rome, 
and the Bologna Center of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. We hope very soon to complete an agree- 
ment to assist the American International School 
in Vieima. 

The relations of people to people, whether 
through the performing arts, the exchange of 
persons, or the exchange of the thoughts and ideas 
of persons through the exchange of books, libra- 
ries, schools, and universities, are the means by 
which people come to learn to know and to under- 
stand one another. 

"What is the reason for the great wave of mter- 
est in cultural relations which is sweeping 
throughout tlie world today? Here again it 
seems to me that the answer is a simple one. Peo- 
ple as people have reached a position of supreme 



July 4, 7960 



19 



importance eveiywhere today. Their voice is l)c- 
ing heard in the new countries of Africa clamor- 
ing for independence. Their impact is also being 
felt elsewhere, where the tyranny of the rule of 
dictators has held sway. The influence of people 
makes it of the utmost importance tliat people 
understand each other, and the firmest basis for 
mutual understanding is through cultural 
relations. 



Government Support for Cultural Activities 

Let us consider more carefully now this ques- 
tion of Govenmient and public activity in the 
field of international education and public rela- 
tions. That, after all, is the title of my speech — 
"The People of Louisville and America's Cul- 
tural Relations." If the people of I^uisville ai-e 
as effectively active in the field as I originally 
pointed out, why should we not let the Govern- 
ment bow out and leave it to all of you ? 

You will have noted in my description of what 
the Government is doing in the field of cultural 
relations that except in the field of the exchange 
of persons we ai'e engaged in doing things which 
private initiative could not afford. In the per- 
forming arts we are sending abroad individual 
artists or groups of artists who could not go com- 
mercially since the price of living and transporta- 
tion would eat up their income from their per- 
formances. Our great orchestras, ballets, and 
choral groups could not possibly make ends meet 
on their tours abroad unless they had Govern- 
ment support. The same is true of books. If you 
add to the price of American books the cost of 
translation, packing, and transportation, you 
would reach a prohibitive price for most Ameri- 
can books; so the Government steps in and gets 
out cheap editions, pays for their translation and 
distribution. Tlie same is true of the lending 
libraries of USIA, which are dotted throughout 
the world. 

As for the exchange of ijereons, the Govern- 
ment is conducting a carefully selected exchange 
program in certain special fields imder certain 
special conditions. The binational commissions 
which serve the Fulbright program represent a 
unique cooperation between the United States and 
a foreign coimtry to give an opportunity to espe- 
cially selected individuals to study abroad. The 
Smith-Mundt Act permits us to invite individuals 
in leading positions in a particular coimtry to visit 



the United States and get to understand how we 
have met and solved some of the problems of a 
rapidly developing country and also enables us 
to satisfy the needs of a country by furnishing 
that counti-y at its own request with American 
specialists in a particular field. 

It is the policy of the Government to lead the 
way in establishing mutual understanding as a 
basis for our international relations. This edu- 
cational process cannot be left to chance. It needs 
the stimulus of strong public purpose backed by 
Federal funds. The Government's example and 
encouragement are essential elements in the move- 
ment of American educational institutions into the 
new world of the 1960's. But the clearing away of 
cultural barriers to peace is a job that no Govern- 
ment agency can accomplish alone. It is a mas- 
sive task that requires a vigorous effort by every 
community and every citizen of the United States. 



Working for Better International Understanding 

Let us be realistic. Xo matter how actively we 
work to bring about international understanding, 
tJie road to world peace will be long and difficult. 
The recent failure of the Big Four conference in 
Paris was one more indication that there are no 
easy and immediate solutions to the major prob- 
lems that beset our troubled world. We must 
learn to discard the natural American impulse to 
seek quick ways out of unpleasant situations. We 
must be prepared for a very long haul. We must 
break out of our fiscal-year obsession and begin to 
think in terms of working out solutions over pe- 
riods of a minimum of 10, 25, and even 50 years. 

Two years ago last month the late Secretary of 
State, John Foster Dulles, pointed out this basic 
American failing in a report to the Senate Appro- 
priations Committee that was considering the 
educational exchange budget : = 

I think that one of the resi)ects in which the Soviet Com- 
munists have an advantage on us is that they think in 
terms of long-ranjie projects more than we do. They have 
always said, we are not going to win soon, or quickly, or 
easily. . . . what we do today should be tie kind of stuff 
that will bear fruit in 1 or 2 generations from now. 

Cultural and educational exchange constitutes 
one major aspect of American foreign policy that 
is based upon the long-range view of our pres- 



' Hearings before the Suboommittee of the Senate Ai>- 
propriations Committee on H.R. 12428, 85th Cong., 2d 
sess., p. 17. 



20 



Deparfmenf of Stafe BuUefin 



ent international situation. Oui- exchange pro- 
grams represent the theory that our day-to-day 
efi'orts to reduce tensions and avoid conflict must 
be supplemented by a painstakiiig year-to-year and 
decade-to-decade eii'ort to establish comnumica- 
tions between nations. Government officials of 
different countries can talk each other blue in the 
face, but they cannot get very far if they fail to 
understand each other's basic concepts. 

To the Soviets, the ^Yord "aggression" means the 
flight of an unarmed photographic plane over its 
territory. To the Hungarians, it means the brutal 
crushing of a fight for freedom and the reestab- 
lishment of a "people's democratic republic." 
Wliat does the word "independence" mean to a 
citizen of the Belgian Congo as he casts his first 
ballot? What does it mean to a refugee from 
Tibet in the mountains of India ? Wliat does the 
word "liberty" signify to a university student in 
Seoul, Korea, a gold miner in South Africa, or a 
graduating senior at the University of Louisville ? 

No matter how capable translators may be, 
words are too often inadequate to convey the un- 
derlying attitudes and basic aspirations of an en- 
tire people. That is why cultural exchange is so 
vital as our growing interdependence with otJier 
countries makes extensive cooperation necessary. 
Among the 50,000 foreign students enrolled at 
American universities this year are some of the 
future cabinet ministers and professional leaders 
of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. These are 
the people who will plan and build the new soci- 
eties of tomorrow. I neither expect nor hope that 
these societies will be patterned after the United 
States. It is not our task to remake the world in 
our image. But we can' hope that the leaders and 
future leaders of these new societies will think 
rationally and realistically in their relationships 
with the United States because of their experi- 
ences as students, lecturers, or visitors here. We 
can hope also, and with a marked degree of op- 
timism, that these people will have been able to 
identify their own drives for freedom and social 
justice with the traditions and ideals of the Ameri- 
can people. 

Cultural exchange, therefore, is more than just 
a matter of bringing foreign peoples to the United 
States and sending iVniericans abroad. It is a mat- 
ter of relating different cultures to each other 
through free exchanges of ideas and frank expres- 
sions of opinion. It is in this type of process that 



the American Nation excels and tlirough cultural 
exchange can make the other peoples of the world 
understand that their problems are our problems — 
their striving for freedom, our striving — their 
fight for justice, our fight. 

At the same time cultural exchange is accelerat- 
ing the movement of all American citizens into 
the arena of world consciousness. Our country has 
assiuned enormous world responsibilities in a short 
period of time. Have our citizens kept pace in 
their thinking and personal preparation for inter- 
national living in a jet age? 

I wish I could answer yes to that question, but 
unfortunately I cannot. We need far more pro- 
fessors and students who can speak Spanish and 
Portuguese for tlie purposes of lecturing and 
studying in Latin America. We need more people 
who can speak Arabic, Swahili, and Indonesian for 
the purpose of assisting the peoples of the newly 
developing nations to help themselves. We need 
more people who are prepared to work and live in 
countries that have vastly different cultural en- 
vironments than the United States and can 
engage in fruitful cultural interchange with 
people who thmk, speak, and dress differently 
from Americans. 

As more and more Americans meet foreign stu- 
dents and visitors in their homes, clubs, churches, 
and recreation centers, they will gain the necessary 
perspective of the United States as a world leader 
and will fhid the incentive to communicate with 
their world neighbors. Cultural exchange will act 
as a major catalyst in this major transformation 
of the American outlook. The acquisition by the 
American people of a basic understanding of the 
ideals, desires, problems, and achievements of 
other peoples will provide the substance for our 
world leaderehip toward economic gi'owth and the 
final victory over totalitarianism. 

People-to-People Relationships 

The Government of the United States is a serv- 
ice organization. Our objective is to stimulate ac- 
tivity on the part of the people and to assist them 
in their task. The relationship of the people of 
the United States to the people of other countries 
is, above all, your business. 

This idea that cultural exchange is a function of 
the people was strikingly reemphasized in my mind 
last week when I ran across a series of articles by 
a Dutch journalist and music critic who visited the 



July 4, 1960 



21 



United Siiites during llie fall of 1958. This par- 
ticular journalist had received a Department of 
State grant to come here, and through the gener- 
osity of Messrs. Mark Ethridge, Barry Bingham, 
and Norman Isaacs he was given the opportunity 
to become a short-term staff member of the Louis- 
ville Times and Courier- Journal. Several of the 
articles were written in Louisville for liis readers 
in the Dutch capital city, The Hague. This jour- 
nalist's descriptions of the music facilities at the 
Louisville Public Library, the organization of the 
Louisville Symphony Orchestra, and the work of 
Moritz Bombard and the Louisville Opera Com- 
pany are more than just technical descriptions of a 
city's musical offerings. They are colorful and 
penetrating excursions into the life of a charming 
and culturally alive community. Because of this 
journalist's visit and because of the way he was 
received by the people of this city, hundreds of 
thousands of Western Europeans have been able 
to relate their own lives to the life of urban 
America. Before the Dutch music critic came here, 
the Louisville newspaper played host to a car- 
toonist from India and a repoi*ter from New Zea- 
land. This month a yoimg Israeli newspaperman 
named Meir Komen is experiencing Kentucky 
hospitality. This is truly a people-to-people ex- 
perience in the fullest sense of the term. 

I hope this evening that I have been able to 
clarify and place into its proper perspective the 
role of Louisville m this growing area of endeavor 
known as international cultural relations. It is a 
role that I hope many other cities will be able 
to emulate. 

Let us remember that in building our world 
community we are only beginning to conquer the 
frontiers of cultural understanding. We have a 
long row to hoe before Singapore and Brasilia 
will be as meaningful to Americans as Washing- 
ton, D.C., and St. Louis, Missouri. And to those 
who claim that the United States is too rich, too 
fat, and living too high on the hog to develop a 
renaissance of the pioneering spirit that made our 
country great, I offer the example of Louisville 
and the International Center. 

I urge you therefore to maintain your visionary 
spirit and to continue your imaginative advance 
toward these lasting goals. I urge you to lead the 
way in the development of that world outlook oiu- 
Nation needs to fulfill its international responsi- 
bilities. These responsibilities are not only for 



today or next year but for generations to come. 
For the sake of our children and their descendants 
let us build a strong and lasting people's move- 
ment toward international understanding. I can 
think of no more important task in the pursuit of 
lasting peace. 



Corrections to List of Products 
for GATT Negotiations 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Department of State announced on June 1-i 
(press release 328) that the Interdepartmental 
Committee on Trade Agreements had given notice 
on June 8, 1960, of several errors and omissions in 
the list of products to be considered in the tariff 
negotiations announced on May 27.' 

Following are the changes required to correct 
the list of products to be considered for possible 
U.S. concessions, as contained in Department of 
State publication 6986 : 

Paragrai)h 59 : The following Is inserted between para- 
graph 5S and paragraph 60: 
Paragraph 59. Opium. 

Paragraph 60 : "Ambergris ;" is changed to read "Am- 
bergris and civet ;." 

Paragraph 355 : A comma is inserted after "butchers'." 

Paragraph 372 : The language "for manufacturing or 
processing vegetable fibers (other than cotton) prior to 
making of fabrics or crocheted, knit, woven, or felt ar- 
ticles nut made from fabrics;" is changed to read "for 
manufacturing or processing- cotton prior to making of 
fabrics or crocheted, knit, woven, or felt articles not made 
from fabrics) ;." 

Paragraph 397 [second] : The words "cooking and eat- 
ing stoves" are changed to "cooking and heating stoves." 

A closing parenthesis is inserted before the period at 
the end of this paragraph. 

Paragraph 710: The word "grading" (in two places) is 
changed to "grating." 

Paragraph 1504(b) : The word "carludovia" Is 
changed to "carludovica." 

The language "and not bleached, dyed, colored, or 
stained" in the first clause is changed to read "and not 
bleached, dyed, colored, stained, or sewed." 



' For background, see Bulletin of June 13, 1960, p. 968 ; 
for the list of products, see Department of State publica- 
tion 6986, for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Oflice, Washington 25, D.C. 
(40 cents). 



22 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



I'araicriiiJh loM (,e) : In the liiiid elaiiso df llio oxcop- 
tions, the language "goat, kid, pig, and shark" is changed 
to read "goat, kid, and pig." 



iNTERDEPARTMENTAS. COMMITTEE'S NOTICE 

Corrections to List of Articles Imported Into the 
United States Proposed for Consideration in Trade 
Agreement Negotiations Under the General Agree- 
ment ON Tariffs and Trade 

lu the Federal Register of May 28, 1960, there was 
published a notice of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements of intention to conduct trade-agree- 
ment negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade with various foreign governments, to which 
notice was annexed a list of articles imported into the 
United States to be considered for possible modification of 
duties and other import restrictions (25 F.R. 4T(;Jr-T0). 
Certain errors and omissions have appeared which re- 
quire correction." 

By direction of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements this Sth day of June 1960. 
John A. Birch, 
Chairmun, Interdepartmental Committee 
on Trade Agreements 



Greetings Sent to Conference 
of Independent African States 

Press release 326 dated June 14 

Folloioing is the text of a message from Secre- 
tmnj Herter to His Excellency Yilma Deressa, 
Minister of Foreign Affair's of Ethiofia and chair- 
man of the Conference of Independent African 
States, on the occasion of the opening of that con- 
ference at Addis Abaha, Ethiopia, on June 1^. 

June 10, 1960 
Dear Me. Foreign Minister : On behalf of the 
United States Government I send greetings to the 
Second Conference of Independent African 
States, which is now meeting at Addis Ababa.^ 
Tlie political j)rogress of the peoples of Africa is 
most gratifying. This progress represents the 
steady implementation of the jirinciple of self- 
determination — a i>rinciple that our Government 
has endorsed throughout its history. 



In your efl'orts at this Conference to foster peace 
and prosperity in your Continent, as well as to 
enhance the contribution of Africa to the peaceful 
solution of world problems, you have the best 
wishes and support of the Government of the 
United States. 

Most sincerely. 

Christian A. Herter 
Secretary of State 



U.S. To Support International 
Indian Ocean'Expedition 

The ^^liite House announced on June 13 that the 
Federal Government will lend support to the 
Nation's leading oceanogi-aphers in an interna- 
tional expedition to the Indian Ocean.^ The ex- 
pedition, a scientific project of extraordinary 
scope and magnitude, will begin late tliis year and 
extend tlirough 1964. It will greatly extend man's 
knowledge of these least known watei-s of the 
world, which cover a seventh of the earth's surface. 

Like the recent International Geopliysical Year,- 
the International Indian Ocean Expedition will 
incorporate a many-sided scientific attack on a 
single area of interest under the leadership of a 
special committee of the International Council of 
Scientific Unions, a nongovernmental organization 
with headquarters in The Hague. Scientific re- 
sponsibility for U.S. participation will be borne 
by the National Academy of Sciences-National 
Research Council, national representative to the 
International Council. 

Acting upon the recoimnendation of the Federal 
Council for Science and Technology and the 
Special iVssistant to the President for Science and 
Technology, the President approved a plan calling 
for key contributions by the Department of the 
^avy and the National Science Foundation. The 
Navy will make available oceanographic ships 
sponsored by the Navy and operated by leading 
U.S. oceanographic institutions. The foundation 
will be responsible for planning and coordinating 
Federal support for U.S. participation in the pro- 
gram including the provision of financial support. 

Eesponsibility for planning the scientific con- 
tent of the U.S. program has been assigned by the 



- For the list of corrections included in the Committee's 
notice, see 25 Fed. Reg. 5197. 

' The first conference convened at Monrovia, Liberia, oi 



' For a more complete description of the expedition, see 
White House press release dated June 13. 

■ I'"or background, see Bulletin of May 11, 1959, p. 082. 



July 4, 1960 



23 



Academy-Researcli Council to its Committee on 
Oceanography. The committee has expressed tlie 
hope that the expedition, in addition to its antici- 
pated contributions to fundamental knowledge, 
will afford unusual benefits to the heavily popu- 
lated, protein-deficient nations on the ocean's 
perimeter, both in terms of increased fish harvests 
and in the further training of local scientists and 
teclinologists in the tecliiiiques of oceanographic 
research. 

The expedition's peak activity is expected to 



occur during 19G2 and 1963, when ships and scien- 
tific personnel from well over a dozen nations will 
be conducting basic research in physical and chem- 
ical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, 
geophysics, and submarine geology. 

Details of the U.S. program will be worked out 
following a general planning session of partici- 
pating nations to be convened in Copenhagen in 
July by the Special Committee on Oceanic Re- 
search of the International Council of Scientific 
Unions. 



THE CONGRESS 



European Aspects of the Mutual Security Program 



Statement hy Foy D. Kohler 

Assistant Secretary for European Affairs ' 



It is a pleasure and a privilege to meet with 
this committee, together with my colleagues from 
the Defense Department, General Miller [Brig. 
Gen. Fredric H. Miller], and from ICA [Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration], Mr. Oliver 
Sause, to discuss with you the European aspects 
of the Mutual Security Program. 

The Mutual Security Program for Europe in 
fiscal year 1961 is, as you know, almost entirely 
military. Its purposes, as in the past several years, 
are to encourage and assist our European allies in 
developing the military forces required for the 
common defense of the West. 

I have always considered it unfortunate that in 
newspaper and public discussions our contribu- 
tions to the European NATO forces should be 
lumped under the general heading of "foreign 
aid." These contributions represent mutual secu- 
rity in the truest sense of the word. As has been 
made clear by spokesmen of the Defense Depart- 

' Made before the Senate Appropriations Committee on 
June .3. 



ment who have appeared before you, our ability to 
deter and resist Soviet aggi-ession does not depend 
upon United States military power alone. It de- 
pends upon the combined military power of the 
free world as a whole. Our allies in Western 
Europe are making a substantial contribution to 
supplementing and supporting the military de- 
fense of the United States, and our own security 
requires that we help to make their military' efforts 
meaningful and adequate. 

We have often heard certain fellow citizens em- 
phasize the tremendous threat represented by in- 
ternational communism and have also heard some 
of them argue that United States defenses are not 
adequate to meet this threat. It seems highly 
anomalous to hear some of these same citizens ad- 
vocate the elimination or drastic reduction of for- 
eign military assistance. The Communist threat 
is indeed serious, and the need for adequate de- 
fense is imperative. But we delude ourselves 
dangerously if we ignore the fact that the defen- 
sive power which really counts is the total de- 



24 



Department of Sfofe Bulhtin 



fensive power of the United States and other free 
nations. And in this total picture nothing would 
be more shortsighted than to deny ourselves the 
enormous dividends we receive from our invest- 
ments in the military programs of our European 
allies. 

Need for Maintaining Strength of Western Alliance 

The past year has been one of intense diplomatic 
activity. It was to be capped only 2 weeks ago 
by a meeting "at the summit" in Paris. The 
Western Powers made exliaustive preparations 
and sincerely hoped to come to grips with the ma- 
jor problems disturbing the world. For reasons 
still obscure but certainly much deeper and broader 
than the airplane incident which he cited as a 
pretext, the Soviet participant decided to scuttle 
the conference.^ Although no precipitate action 
has followed immediately, Mr. Khrushchev has 
since repeated his threat to take unilateral action 
with respect to Germany and Berlin "in his own 
good time," and both he and his Minister of De- 
fense [Marshal Rodion Y. Malinovsky] have 
menaced our allies and ourselves with rocket at- 
tacks. "We thus face a period of uncertainty at 
best and danger at worst. I think we can easily 
agree that the maintenance of the strength and 
effectiveness of the Western alliance in the face of 
this situation is more important than at any time 
since the alliance was foimded. 

At the same time I want to stress that the tor- 
pedoing of the summit conference does not mean 
that attempts to negotiate with the Soviet Union 
are at an end. In their communique ^ regretting 
that the Soviet attitude had made the Paris dis- 
cussions impossible, the Western Heads of Gov- 
ernment reiterated "their conviction that all out- 
standing international questions should be settled 
not by the use or threat of force but by peaceful 
means through negotiation." Indeed, the nuclear 
test negotiations between the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union have been 
continuing in Geneva. Moreover, it seems clear 
that the 10-power disarmament negotiations will 
be resumed in Geneva next week as scheduled. 
The United States and its allies have carefully 
prepared concrete and realistic proposals for safe- 
guarding disarmament and are proceeding in the 



' For a statement by Secretary Herter on the events at 
Paris, see Bulletin of .Tune 13, 1960, p. 047. 
' For text, see ibid., June 6, 1900, p. 905. 

July 4, 7 960 



hope that genuine progress can be made toward 
tliat goal. However, here too the basic fact must 
be kept in mind that we can never expect to obtain 
a safe and woi-kable disarmament agreement if 
we are so foolish as to make substantial reductions 
in our own armaments while we are attempting 
to negotiate such an agreement. If the Soviet 
Union could succeed in inducing the West to dis- 
ann itself while retaining the essence of its own 
military power, a genuine disarmament agreement 
would become a pipedream. We certainly intend 
to negotiate with the Soviet Government in good 
faith, but we do not intend to give them something 
for nothing. 

On the other principal problem slated for sum- 
mit discussion, no one now knows whether or how 
any real progress can be made toward a just so- 
lution of the problem of Germany, which, due to 
Soviet intransigence, remains divided, or of Ber- 
lin, whose people are determined to remain free 
and maintain their links with the West. There 
is, however, one thing that can be said with abso- 
lute certainty. Neither will the Soviets be de- 
terred from unilateral action nor will just and 
honorable solutions to these problems be promoted 
by any weakening of our posture or our will. 

We might, in fact, take a lesson from tlie op- 
position in this latter regard. Not only have the 
Soviet leaders been reiterating their basic posi- 
tions, but they have also been vaunting their mili- 
tai-y prowess. Wliile Soviet propaganda has tried 
to make capital of the Soviet announcement that 
the U.S.S.E. plans to reduce armed force person- 
nel over the next 18 months or so to a level ap- 
proximating that of the United States Armed 
Forces, Mr. Khrushchev declared to the Supreme 
Soviet on January 14 that "the Soviet Army now 
has combat means and firepower never before pos- 
sessed by any army" and "would be able to lit- 
erally wipe the country or countries which attack 
us off the face of the earth." Moreover, during 
his recent tours, he has been proclaiming that "the 
Soviet Union is the world's most powerful nation 
in the military sense." 

Thus I would repeat that the unity and the 
strength of the free world are of the greatest im- 
portance. Solutions to outstanding problems will 
not come easily. They will take a long time to 
accomplish. Wliile we continue to seek these so- 
lutions, as we have in the past, it would be folly 
to weaken our collective military posture in the 



25 



uncertain period aliead. If we are not serious 
about our defenses now, we will never be able to 
convince anyone of the seriousness of our inten- 
tions in what may well be a prolonged period of 
negotiations. 

Proposed Military Aid for Europe 

-Military assistance proposed for European 
country programs for the next fiscal year totals 
$459 million. The total for NATO countries, 
including Greece and Turkey, is $740 million. 
In addition there are certain regional programs — 
international military headquarters, infrastruc- 
ture, mutual weapons development, weajions pro- 
duction, the NATO Maintenance Supply Services 
Agency — intended to support activities entirely 
or almost entirely within the NATO area. In- 
cluding these i-egional programs there is a total 
of a little over $1 billion in militaiy assistance 
programed for the NATO area. 

Military assistance proposed for Europe for fis- 
cal year 1961 is approximately the same amount 
as that proposed last year. It is an increase over 
the amount finally programed for the area in 
fiscal year 1960. Reduced appropriations in fis- 
cal year 1960 as well as in fiscal year 1959 necessi- 
tated deferral of a number of important NATO 
requirements. Consequently incresised allocations 
are now necessary to help offset the reduced 
appropriations of prior years, which have resulted 
in a serious depletion of the pipeline. The execu- 
tive branch is gravely concerned over the weak- 
ening effects on NATO's military strength which 
will follow imless steps are taken to remedy this 
steady reduction. 

The program which is now submitted for fiscal 
year 1961 is, in the considered judgment of the 
executive branch, the minimum required to sup- 
port a level of expenditures adequate to finance 
items which are of critical importance to NATO 
plans in the next few years and which our NATO 
allies would be unable to procure themselves ex- 
cept at the expense of other important sectors of 
their NATO defense effort. 

There is certainly more agreement on the neces- 
sity for building up our defenses today than 
there is on the question which logically follows 
from it, namely, how this is to be accomplished. 
The question w^hich is uppermost in the minds 
of many concerned with our common defense is 
this : Granted that our Western defenses must be 



strengthened, are all NATO allies making as sub- 
stantial a contribution to this end as they should 
or is the United States carrying a disproportion- 
ately heavy share of the Western defense burden ? 

The recently improved international payments 
and reserve position of Western European coun- 
tries, coupled with a decline in United States 
reserves, has prompted the proposal that Euro- 
pean NATO members might now take over en- 
tirely the burden of meeting their military 
requirements. Howevci-, examination of the na- 
ture of military' assistance to the European area 
shows that this is not essentially a problem of 
balance of payments. Indeed, as the committe(» 
knows, most of the money appropriated for mili- 
tary assistance is spent in the United States. 
Furthermore, military assistance to Europe gen- 
erates purchases in the United States of spare 
parts and maintenance materiel which exceed the 
value of aid money spent in Europe. Last ye<ar 
such purchases were substantially more than the 
United States militai-y assistance fimds expended 
in Europe. I think it is accordingly clear that 
drastically reducing or closing out our military 
assistance to Europe would not solve this coim- 
try's balance-of -payments problem. 

To the more general question as to why our 
European allies, in view of their remarkable eco- 
nomic progress, camiot be expected to bear the 
entire cost of their military programs, the answer 
is also clear. Our European allies would be able 
to pay their own defense costs, provided we and 
they were willing to accept a substantially lower 
level of total defensive power. Our contributions 
are designed to maintain a level of defensive 
strength which is much greater than could be 
expected from Europe's efforts alone. 

It is tnie that our European allies have made 
general economic progress. However, they con- 
tinue to suffer a number of serious economic lim- 
itations. Living standards in most NATO coun- 
tries are still only one-third to one-half as higli 
as American living standards. At the same tiiin'. 
tax rates in otlier NATO countries on the aver- 
age are higher than United States tax rates despite 
the relatively deeper cut this means into consump- 
tion levels. Several European countries have 
joined us in extending substantial economic assist- 
ance to the undei'devclnped areas of the world. 
Also the governments of these countries encounter 
some of the same political obstacles to increased 
defense efforts with which we are familiar in our 



Department of State Bulletin 



own coiinlry. Since modern weapons are incred- 
ibly expensive, some of our allies simply cannot, 
afford to equip their forces with these weapons 
and at the same time bear the heavy maintenance 
costs they have already undertaken. 

In view of the very I'eal financial limitations of 
our European allies as well as the ever-present 
political pressures for arms reduction, an elim- 
ination or drastic cutback of United States assist- 
ance would almost certainly provoke a downward 
cham reaction throughout the NATO area. The 
allied governments and peoples would say, in ef- 
fect, "If the United States Government no longer 
considers our defense programs important, why 
should we strain our economy to maintain these 
progi'ams?" In other words, if we are unwilling 
to accept the concept that total defense is what 
really counts — if we should make the mistake of 
accepting tlie idea that each country must finance 
its own defense programs through its own re- 
sources — then we must face the fact that the net 
result would be a dangerous reduction in the com- 
bined defensive power of the free world. 

Increase in European Defense Expenditures 

Having made these cautionary remarks, I am 
glad to be able to report certain positive steps tliat 
are being taken to increase European contribu- 
tions to the common defense. 

"We are constantly engaged in bilateral and mul- 
tilateral negotiations with our NATO allies to 
bring about a more equitable sharing of the costs 
of our mutual defense. In consonance witli estab- 
lished U.S. policy, which is directed toward elim- 
inating grant aid as other countries become able 
to pay their own way, we are pressing these coun- 
tries to assume greater responsibility for their 
individual and collective defense ; and in fact they 
are doing so. 

Tlie economies of some NATO countries — the 
United Kingdom, France, and Gemiany — liave 
improved to the point where they are considered 
financially capable of purchasing their own mil- 
itary needs, and grant materiel assistance is no 
longer programed for these countries. For all 
other countries military grant aid is extended 
only after careful examination to determine 
whether the country can purchase the materiel 
and how the assistance can elicit a greater or more 
effective effort by the country itself. In addition, 
certain items such as spare parts and other con- 
ventional maintenance requirements of the Euro- 



pean NATO countries, wliich were formerly cov- 
ered by the military assistance ^jrogram, are now 
financed for the most part by the countries them- 
selves. 

We think the record shows that we have lind a 
very considerable measure of success in eliciting 
increased contributions from our NATO allies for 
our common defense. In fact, considering the 
political and other impediments involved, we are 
surprised at the favorable showing ourselves. The 
total of defense expenditures for the European 
NATO countries last year was $13.6 billion, an 
increase of 11 percent over the $12.2 billion spent 
in 1958 and more than double the 1950 expendi- 
tures. 

Furthermore, the trend toward significantly in- 
creased defense expenditures is expected to con- 
tinue. The Netherlands is planning a significant 
increase in its defense budget in 1961 ; the United 
Kingdom has announced a 7.6 jjercent increase; 
the Italian Government has already put into effect 
a 4 percent progressive annual increase; the Bel- 
gian defense budget for 1960, now before Parlia- 
ment, represents a 3 percent increase over 1959. 
Following the resolution of certain problems of 
training sites and types of equipment, German 
defense expenditures rose steej^ly by 68 percent 
from the 1958 level of $1.6 billion to $2.7 billion 
in 1959. Let us not ignore the fact that in 1953 
the United States was paying about 28 percent of 
the total defense costs of our European NATO 
allies ; today we are paying about 8 percent. 

An abrupt termination of all grants of military 
equipment would seriously weaken the alliance 
system upon which the security of the United 
States depends. The actions of the United States 
in this field in the last analysis must be directed 
to the building of stronger allies who will make 
progressively larger contributions to the connnon 
defense. 

Economic Assistance 

"VYe all know, of course, that the threat of inter- 
national conununism is not military alone — that 
the contest between the free world and the Soviet 
system is waged on many fronts. Our freedom 
and security are always endangered by Soviet cap- 
ture of the territory, population, and resources of 
other nations. This is true whether the capture 
results from direct military aggression or whether 
it results from internal subversion, creation and 
exploitation of social chaos, political pr( 



Jo;y 4, 1960 



27 



or economic blandisliments. This means that we 
must continue to assist the lesser developed nations 
of the world in securing a greater measure of 
stability and well-being. 

At present, economic assistance from the United 
States to Europe has practically disappeared, ex- 
cept for a few small programs designed to deal 
only with special situations. Far more important 
is the contribution which our European allies are 
themselves making to the social and economic de- 
velopment of vast areas of Asia and Africa — a 
contribution which adds significantly to our own 
efforts and which we hope will increase in future 
years. We should recognize that these grants and 
loans by European governments for purposes of 
helping the lesser developed areas contribute to 
our common defense just as truly as their military 
expenditures do. Meanwhile I would like to com- 
ment briefly on our special economic projects 
within Europe itself which, though small, are 
nevertheless important to our national security. 

We believe defense support for Spain has been 
instrumental in maintaining the spirit of coopera- 
tion which has made possible the construction and 
effective utilization of the air- and sea-base com- 
plex jointly operated by the United States and 
Spain. Defense support was an element in the 
Spanish import requirements which contribute to 
economic stability in Spain. Defense support was 
also an element in the Spanish economic stabiliza- 
tion program, which has brought about sounder 
fiscal and monetary policies and so far reversed 
the serious loss of foreign exchange. A small 
technical cooperation program is contributing 
toward modernization of Spain's civil aviation 
system and improvement in its agricultural and 
industrial productivity. 

The Federal Republic of Germany is now pro- 
viding the help necessary to maintain Berlin's 
economic well-being. United States spe^'ial as- 
sistance for Berlin, although modest in amomit, 
underlines our undiminished interest in the city's 
survival in freedom and is a support to the Gov- 
ernment and the people of the city in their re- 
sistance to the unrelenting Communist pressures 
to which they are subjected. American aid is be- 
ing used jointly with West German and West Ber- 
lin financing for the construction in Berlin of a 
medical teaching center. The center, when com- 
pleted in 1964, will not only help to relieve the 
present hospital-bed shortage but will stimulate 



the training of medical personnel and will intro- 
duce American research techniques while at the 
same time generally furthering development of 
German medical research. 

The program for Yugoslavia for next year is 
limited to a small amount of technical cooperation 
and special assistance. This assistance is designed 
to familiarize Yugoslav technicians with modem 
American methods in agriculture, industry, min- 
ing, transportation, and public administration. 
The fact that we are continuing assistance to Yu- 
goslavia does not imply approval of the Yugoslav 
political or economic system. It should be re- 
garded rather as a demonstration to the satellites 
of Eastern Europe, and to the uncommitted na- 
tions of the world, that the United States is ready 
to support the efforts of any country which needs 
help in preserving its independence from Soviet 
domination. 

In summary, our ability to make progress to- 
ward a secure and peaceful world will depend in 
large measux'e upon the strength, unity, and de- 
termination displayed by the Western World as a 
whole. I do not need to stress the dangerous 
consequences that could follow if the Soviet Un- 
ion, or even our friends, gained the mistaken im- 
pression that United States support for NATO 
was slackening at this critical time. I am con- 
vinced that the Mutual Security Program is one 
of the surest and most effective means of mobiliz- 
ing our strength in NATO. It is for this reason 
that I believe favorable congressional action on the 
Mutual Security Program is of greatest impor- 
tance in carrying out our defense and foreign 
policy objectives. 



Department Expresses Grave Concern 
on Proposed Cuts in MSP Funds 

Statement hy Acting Secretary Dillon 

Press release 333 dated June 15 

The action of the majority of the House Appro- 
priations Committee on the Mutual Security Pro- 
gram appropriation bill is a matter of grave con- 
cern to me. If uncorrected by the Congi-ess, it 
will severely impair the effectiveness of the pro- 
gram and require the assumption of risks to our 
national se<?urity which are both unnecessary and 

fOUS. 



28 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



Reductions 

Tlie reductions in amounts to be appropriated 
total $790 million below the amount the President 
has repeatedly declared to be indispensable in the 
national interest.^ 

1. The reduction of $400 million in military 
assistance and of $124: million in defense support 
assistance below the amounts determined to be 
essential by the President and all of his principal 
advisers in the foreign policy and national se- 
curity area — including the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of 
Statf — will mean the weakening of our collective 
frontline defenses at a time when the need for a 
steadfast and sti'ong position is critical. 

2. The reduction of $62 million, or almost 25 
percent, in the special assistance progi-am is crip- 
pling in its effect. It is this form of aid which 
enables us to assure the use of military facilities 
and bases vital to our deterrent strength, which 
maintains stability in the troubled Middle East, 
which avoids economic disaster in Bolivia and in 
Haiti, which supports the efforts of Israel to pro- 
mote progress and stability, which combats and 
seeks to eradicate malaria, wliich supports Ameri- 
can schools abroad, and with which we plan to 
provide a modest program of educational and 
training aid to the newly emerging states of 
Africa. The reduction made by the commit- 
tee would require the mutilation or sacrifice of 

a number of these essential programs, with re- 
sults that could only be deeply injurious to our 
national interests and security. 

3. Similarly, reductions in the funds for tech- 
nical cooperation and the Development Loan 
Fund will decrease our ability to respond effec- 
tively either to the needs of emerging nations or 
to the increasing challenge of the Soviet economic 
offensive. 



Restrictions 

The committee action in recommending a series 
of higlily restrictive amendments is also of grave 
concern. These amendments would imreasonably 
restrict and inhibit the uses of the funds appro- 
priated. 



' For text of the President's message to Congress of Feb. 
16, see Bulletin of Mar. 7, 1960, p. 369 ; for an excerpt 
from a special message of May 3, see ibid.. May 23, 1960, 
p. 837. 



1. The committee would deny the use of funds 
for U.S. participation in a multinational effort 
under the direction of the World Bank to assist 
India and Pakistan to carry out an agreed plan 
for development and use of the Indus Basin 
waters. If this restriction is permitted to re- 
main, the United States will bear the unhappy 
responsibility of having effectively sabotaged the 
multinational effort designed to eliminate a major 
difference between India and Pakistan and to im- 
prove the welfare of hundreds of millions of 
people. This is all the more incomprehensible 
since the Congress, just 1 month ago, after 
full consideration specifically affirmed the desir- 
ability of U.S. participation in this project. 

2. The committee bill also proposes to provide 
contingency fimds to the President but to deny 
him the right to use them to adjust programs in 
the light of changing circumstances, a limitation 
which serves no purpose but to deny the flexibility 
which is essential to effective management of our 
foreign affairs. 

3. The committee bill also would impose, after 
10 years of successful operations, new and unjusti- 
fied restrictions which would severely limit the 
effectiveness of the tried and tested technical co- 
operation program. These restrictions would 
bind the United States to particular teclinical co- 
operation jDrojects approved in advance by Con- 
gress; the programs proposed to the Congress 
must necessarily be illustrative and subject to ne- 
gotiation with foreign countries after funds are 
aj^propriated. The committee proposal that the 
funds appropriated for technical cooperation can 
be used for no projects other than those illustra- 
tively proposed removes the possibility of making 
adjustments in the course of negotiation or to meet 
new needs of higher priority. In short, we would 
be shifting this program from one of cooperation 
to a unilateral take-it-or-leave-it program. Noth- 
ing in the 10-year history of point 4 teclinical 
assistance warrants any such restrictive action. 

4. Illustrative of the general effort of the com- 
mittee to impose restrictions on the use of funds 
for the purposes authorized is its action in limiting 
funds for the Inspector General and Comptroller. 
Congress, to meet criticisms of inefficiency and 
maladministration, established this office last year 
to permit and assure better management, inspec- 
tion, and evaluation of the program. The com- 
mittee action would deny the funds necessary for 



July 4, 7 960 



29 



this purpose. It is in effect a move to weaken our 
ability to remedy the type of errors which the com- 
mittee itself has long criticized. 

In short, the committee majority proposes in- 



sufficient funds and hamstrings these. The De- 
partment is profoundly convinced that correction 
of these defects is essential in the interests of the 
United States. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings^ 



Adjourned During June 1960 

Conference of the Ten-Nation Committee on Disarmament . . . 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 26th Session 

GATT Contracting Parties: 16th Se.ssion 

IMCO International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea .... 

International Cotton Advisory Committee: 19th Plenary Meeting. 

ICAO Panel on Origin-and-Destination Statistics: 2d Meeting . . 

U.N. Tin Conference 

International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property: 
24th Congress. 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Mechanization of .\griculture . . . 

International Commission on Irrigation, Flood Control, and Drain- 
age: 4th Congress. 

International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 10th 
Meeting. 

SEATO Council: 6th Meeting 

FAO Group on Grains: 5th Meeting 

International Labor Conference: 44th Session 

World Power Conference: 13th Sectional Meeting 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 20th Session (and Working Parties) . 

Subcommittee of COAS Special Committee To Study Formulation 
of New Measures for Economic Development (Committee of 
Nine). 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 33d Session 

Inter-American Seminar on Strengthening the Family Institution . 

UNESCO Committee of Governmental Experts on a Draft Inter- 
national Convention and Draft Recommendations on Various 
Aspects of Discrimination in Education. 

U.N. ECE Subcommittee on Road Transport: Working Party on 
Construction of Vehicles. 

7th Annual Electronic, Nuclear, and Cinematographic Exposition . 

IAEA Board of Governors: 1 7th Session 

International Conference on Large Electric Systems: 18th General 
Assembly. 

UNICEF Committee on Administrative Budget 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee: 50th Session 

U.N. ECE Rapporteurs on Comparisons of Systems of National 
Accounts. 

International ^lialing Commission: 12th Meeting 

ILO Governing Body: 146th Session 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 2d Session of Standing 
Committee. 

International Wheat Council: 30th Session 



Geneva Mar. 15- June 28 

New York Apr. 14-June 30 

Geneva ^Iay 1 6-June 4 

London Mav 17-June 17 

Mexico, D.F May 23-June 1 

Montreal May 23-June 3 

New York May 23-June 22 

London May 28-June 4 

Geneva May 30-June 3 

Madrid May 30-June 14 



Bergen, Nc 



May 30-June 4 



Washington May 31-June 2 

Rome June 1-8 

Geneva June 1-23 

Madrid June 5-9 

Geneva June 6-10 

Washington June 6-24 



Rome . 
Caracas 
Paris . . 



June 7-23 
June 11-18 
June 12-29 



Rome June 13-29 

Vienna June 14-24 

Paris June 15-25 

New York June 20 (1 day) 

Geneva June 20-22 

Geneva June 20-24 



London 
Geneva 
New York 



June 20-27 
June 24 (1 day) * 
June 27-28 



^ Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 16, 1960. Asterisks indicate tentative dates and places. 
Following is a list of abbreviations : COAS, Council of the Organization of American States ; ECAFE, Economic Com- 
mission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council: 
FAO, Pood and Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International 
Atomic Energy Agency; lAIAS, Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences; IBE, International Bureau of Ed- 
ucation ; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization ; ILO, International Labor Organization ; IMCO, Intergov- 
ernmental Maritime Consultative Organization ; ITU, International Telecommunication Union ; PAHO, Pan American 
Health Organization; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; IXICEF, United Nations Children's Fund ; UPU, Universal 
Postal Union ; WHO, World Health Organization ; WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 

30 Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



In Session as of June 30, 1960 

Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapons Tests . . Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

ITU Administrative Council: 15th Session Geneva May 28- 

TJ.N. ECOSOC Consultants on Standardization of Cartographic New York June 20- 

Names. 

ICAO Panel of Experts To Consider the Arab League Request for Montreal June 23- 

Interpretation of Article 77. 

10th International Berlin Film Festival Berlin June 24- 

International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering: Stockholm June 27- 

6th Congress. 

WMO Executive Committee: 12th Session Geneva June 27- 

TJPU Consultative Committee on Postal Studies: Annual Meeting Eastbourne, England .... June 27- 

of Management Council. 

GATT Working Party on Polish Participation in the Tariff Con- Geneva June 27- 

ference. 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee: 24th Session (and Working Parties) . Geneva June 29- 



Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1960 

Development Assistance Group: 2d Meeting 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 30th Session 

23d UNESCO/IBE Conference on Public Education 

IBE Council: 26th Session 

8th International Grassland Congress 

International Union for Protection of Industrial Property : Meeting 
of Heads of Industrial Property Offices. 

Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission: 2d Meeting .... 

UNESCO Intergovernmental Conference on Oceanographic Re- 
search. 

U.N. ECOSOC Ministerial-Level Meeting 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: Experts Statistical 
Committee. 

South Pacific Commission: 11th Meeting of South Pacific Re- 
search Council. 

Caribbean Commission: 30th Meeting 

GATT Intersessional Committee 

3d Inter-American Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear 
Energy. 

International Sugar Council: 7th Session 

International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: 12th General 
Assembly. 

IAEA Ad' Hoc Preparatory Panel on Third-Party Liability for 
Nuclear Shipping. 

Inter-American Indian Institute: Governing Board 

International Sugar Council: Executive and Statistical Committees . 

3d FAO/IAIAS Latin American Meeting on Soils and Fertilizers . . 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: Working Party 
on Standardization of Conditions of Sale for Cereals. 

FAO Latin American Forestry Commission : 7th Session 

10th General Assembly of International Geographical Union and 
19th International Congress of Geography. 

5th Inter-American Conference on Agriculture and 6th FAO Re- 
gional Conference for Latin .\merica. 

2d U.N. Conference on Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Of- 
fenders. 

7th International Congress of Soil Science 

12th Meeting of PAHO Directing Council and 12th Meeting of Re- 
gional Committee of WHO for the Americas. 

International Union of Crystallography: 5th General Assembly . . 

21st International Geological Congress 

U.N. ECOSOC Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination 
and Protection of Minorities: 13th Session. 

WMO Commission for Maritime Meteorology: 3d Session .... 

UNESCO World Conference on Adult Education 

21st International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art 

COAS Special Committee To Study Formulation of New Measures 
for Economic Development. 

6th World Forestry Congress 

Ad Hoc Committee of U.N. General Assembl}' To Consider General 
Questions of Transmission of Information. 

14th Annual Edinburgh Film Festival 

PAHO Executive Committee: 41st Meeting 

GATT:5thRoundof Tariff Negotiations 

G.\TT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade .... 

GATT Working Party on Low- Wage Imports 



Bonn July 5- 

Geneva July 5- 

Geneva July 6- 

Geneva July 9- 

Reading, England July 11- 

Geneva July 11- 

Petropolis, Brazil July 11- 

Copenhagen July 11- 

Geneva July 11- 

Geneva July 12- 

Noum(5a, New Caledonia . . . July 12- 

San Juan July 18- 

Geneva July 18- 

Petropolis and Brasilia .... July 18- 

London July 18- 

Helsinki July 25- 

Vienna July 

Mexico, D.F July 

London July 

Raleigh, N.C Aug. 1- 

Geneva Aug. 1- 

undetermined Aug. 5- 

Stockholm Aug. 6- 

Mexico, D.F Aug. 8- 

London Aug. 9- 

Madison, Wis Aug. 12- 

Habana Aug. 14- 

Cambridge, England .'Vug. 15- 

Copenhagen Aug. 15- 

Geueva Aug. 15-* 

Utrecht Aug. 16- 

Montreal Aug. 22- 

Venice Aug. 24- 

Bogotd, Aug. 25- 

Seattle Aug. 29- 

New York Aug. 29- 

Edinburgh August 

Habana .\ugust 

Geneva Sept. 1- 

Geneva Sept. 4- 

Geneva Sept. 4- 



Jufy 4, 7 960 



31 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 
Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1960— Con/inueti 



International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 2d Session .... 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Mechanization of Agriculture . . 

International Scientific Radio Union: 13th General Assembly . 

ICAO Legal Committee: 12lh Session 

UNICEF Committee on Administrative Budget 

FAO Responal Conference for the Near East 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain: 8th Congress 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 11th " 

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade . . . 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 48th Annual 
Meeting. 

International Rubber Studv Group: 15th Meeting 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee: 51st Session 

IAEA General Conference: 4th Regular Session 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation: 
Annual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

ILO Ad Hoc Meeting on Civil Aviation 

6th International Technical Conference on Lighthouses and Other 
Aids to Navigation. 

U.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians: 8th Session. . . 

WMO Regional Association VI (Europe) : 3d Session 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Plan- 
ning. 

Interparliamentary Union: 49th Conference 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: 8th 
Session. 

U.N. Conference on Outer Space Science and Technology 

U.N. E;CAFE Inland Transport and Communications Committee: 
Seminar on Highway Transportation. 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: undetermined 
9th ~ " 



Geneva Sept. 5- 

Geneva Sept. 5- 

London Sept. 5- 

Montreal Sept. 6~ 

New York Sept. 7- 

Tehran Sept. 1 2- 

Buenos .\ires Sept. 12- 

Manila Sept. 16- 

Geneva Sept. 19- 

Moscow Sept. 19- 

Kuala Lumjjur, Malaya. . . . Sept. 19- 

Geneva Sept. 19- 

Vienna Sept. 20- 

Washington Sept. 26- 



Geneva Sept. 26- 

Washington Sept. 26- 

Geneva Sept. 26- 

Madrid Sept. 26- 

Bangkok Sept. 27- 



Tokyo . 
Geneva . 



Sept. 29- 
September 



Geneva* September 

undetermined September 



September'' 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Indonesia Sign 
Atomic Energy Agreement 

Press release 313 dated June 8 

Representatives of the Governments of Indo- 
nesia and the United States on Jiuie 8 signed an 
agreement for cooperation in the peaceftil uses of 
atomic energy. 

The agreement was signed by Ambassador 
Moekarto Notowidigdo of Indonesia. Chairman 
John A. McCone of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion and Assistant Secretary of State J. Graham 
Parsons sigTied for tlie United States. Tlie sign- 
ing ceremony was held at the U.S. Department of 
State. 

Under the proposed agreement the Governments 



of the Reptiblic of Indonesia and the United 
States will cooperate in a nuclear project to be 
carried out at the Bandung Institute of Tech- 
nology. This will include the exchange of infor- 
mation on the design, construction, and operation 
of nuclear research reactors and their use as re- 
search, training, development, and engineering de- 
vices and in medical therapy. American industry 
would be authorized by the agreement to supply 
api^ropriate nuclear equipment and related serv- 
ices to the Indonesian Government or to author- 
ized individuals or organizations under its juris- 
diction. 

The proposed agreement also provides that the 
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission may lease to the 
Indonesian Government up to 6 kilograms (13.2 



32 



Department of State Bulletin 



pounds) of contained U-235 iii uranium enriched 
up to a maximum of 20 percent U-235 for use in 
researcli reactors. Indonesia also will assume re- 
sponsibility for assuring that material obtained 
from the United States will be used only for peace- 
ful purposes. The agreement further provides for 
the exchange of unclassified information in liealth 
and safety matters related to rescarcli reactors and 
in the use of radioisotopes in physical and biologi- 
cal research, medical therapy, agriculture, and 
industry. 

Both countries also affirm their common interest 
in availing themselves of the facilities and services 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 

The agreement will become effective after statu- 
tory and constitutional requirements have been 
fulfilled by both Governments. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention. Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. Entered into force 
January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 

■ deposited: Liberia, June 1, 1960. 



Trade and Commerce 

Protocol relating to negotiations for the establishment of 
new schedule III — Brazil — to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva December 31, 1958.' 
Declaration conftrmitig signature deposited: Belgium, 

April 5, 1960. 
Declaration on the provisional accession of Israel to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Geneva May 29, 1959. Entered into force October 9, 
1959 ; for the United States December 19, 1959. TIAS 
4384. 
Signature (subject to ratification) : Federal Republic of 

Germany, April 13, 1960. 
Declaration confirming signature deposited: Belgium, 

April 5, 1960. 
Declaration on relations between contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the 
Government of the Polish People's Republic. Done at 
Tokyo November 9, 1959.' 
Signatures: Australia, April 22, 1960; Czechoslovakia, 

April 29, 1960. 
Statement confirming signature deposited: Belgium, 

April 5, 1960. 
Declaration on the provisional accession of Tunisia to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Tokyo November 12, 1959. Entered into force May 21, 
1960; for the United States June 15, 1960. TIAS 4498. 
Signature: Czechoslovakia, April 29, 1960. 
Statement confirming signature deposited: Belgium, 

April 5, 1960. 



Not in force. 
Ju/y 4, 7960 



BILATERAL 
Argentina 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July 29, 1955 (TIAS 
3299). SignedatWashington June 11, 1960. Enters into 
force on date each Government receives from the other 
written notification that it has complied with statutory 
and constitutional requirements. 

Brazil 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of August 3, 1955, as 
amended (TIAS 3303 and 4255). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification that 
it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 

Canada 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of June 15, 1955, as 
amended (TIAS 33CH, 3771, and 4271). SignedatWash- 
ington June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each 
Government receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 

China 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July IS, 1955, as 
amended ( TIAS 3307 and 4176 ) . Signed at Washington 
June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Govern- 
ment receives from the other written notification that it 
has complied with statutory and constitutional require- 
ments. 

European Atomic Energy Community 

Agreement additional to agreement for cooperation con- 
cerning peaceful uses of atomic energy of November 8, 
19.58 (TIAS 4173) . Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. 
Enters into force on date each party receives from the 
other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Germany 

Agreement relating to a weapons production program. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Bonn May 27, 1960. 
Entered into force May 27, 1960. 

Greece 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of August 4, 1955 (TIAS 
3310). Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. Enters 
into force on date each Government receives from the 
other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Israel 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July 12, 1955, as 
amended (TIAS 3311 and 4407). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 

Japan 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ments of May 31, 1955, as amended (TIAS 3284 and 
3579), and February 10, 1956 (TIAS 3580), in order to 
provide yen for the purpose of assisting in the financing 



of typhoon rehabilitation activities in the Ryulcyu 
Islands. Effected by exchange of notes at Tokyo May 
31, 1960. Entered into force May 31, 1960. 

New Zealand 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of June 13, 1956 (TIAS 
362G). Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. Enters 
into force on date each Government receives from the 
other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and constitutional requirements. 

Philippines 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July 27, 1955 (TIAS 
3316). Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. Enters 
into force on date each Government receives from the 
other written notification that it has complied with 
statutory and con.stitutional requirements. 

Portugal 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of July 21, 1955, as 
amended (TIAS 3317 and 3899). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 

Switzerland 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of June 21, 1956, as 
amended (TIAS 3745 and 4236). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 

Thailand 

Agreement amending agreement for cooperation concern- 
ing civil uses of atomic energy of March 13, 1956, as 
amended (TIAS 3522 and 3842). Signed at Washing- 
ton June 11, 1960. Enters into force on date each Gov- 
ernment receives from the other written notification 
that it has complied with statutory and constitutional 
requirements. 



PUBLICATBONS 



Foreign Relations Volume 

The Department of State announced on June 18 (press 
release 318 dated June 10) the release of Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States, 1942, Volume I, General, The 
Britisli Gommonivealth, The Far East. This is the first 
of the six regular annual volumes scheduled for publi- 
cation in the Foreign Relations series for 1942. 

Subjects treated in the General section include the 
United Nations Declaration, the Permanent Court, war 
crimes, relief problems, postwar economic and financial 
planning, exchange of officials and nonofflcials with 
enemy countries, protests by neutrals against certain fea- 
tures of the Selective Service Act, and international 
agreements regarding wheat, sugar, and tin. 



34 



The section on the British Commonwealth of Nations 
relates to agreements with the several members of the 
Commonwealth in connection with the conduc-t of the 
war and to the interest of the United States in situations 
affecting the war effort. Documentation relating to the 
conferences in Washington between President Roosevelt 
and British Prime Minister Churchill with their ad- 
visers in December 1941-January 1942 and in June 1942 
is scheduled for publication subsequently in another vol- 
ume of Foreign Relations. 

The Far East section contains correspondence regard- 
ing Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Cor- 
respondence for the year on relations with China has 
been published previously in the special volume Foreign 
Relations of the United States, 19/,2, China. 

Copies of Foreign Relations, 1942, Volume I, General, 
The British Commonwealth, The Far East (xi, 963 pp.) 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing OflBee, Washington 25, D.C., for 
?3.50 each. 

Recent Releases 

For fidlc hii till' Siii)cri)itr)idcnt of Doenments, U.S. Gov- 

cnimrnt I'riiititiii Offlrr, Wn^li ii,r/to)l 25, B.C. Address 
(■(■(/»( M'x ilirri-t til till' Siijr riiiti iiitrnt Of Documents, ex- 
ci/it ill till- cnxr uf frir luilil imtions, which may be 
iilitniiiril from tin- Dvpiirtiiinit of State. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities— Sale of Fruit and 
Fruit Products. TIAS 4417. 2 pp. 5(}. 
Agreement between the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
amending agreement of January 30 and February 3, I'.t.'s. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at London January 28 am! 
Februai-y 4, 1960. Entered into force February 4, litiiH. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Loan of Submarines to Italy. 
TIAS 4418. 3 pp. 5«i. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Italy, amending agreement of April 27, 1954. Exchange 
of notes— Signed at Rome January 29, 1960. Entered 
into force January 29, 19G0. 

Weather Stations— Cooperative Project on Jamaica and 
Grand Cayman Island. TIAS 4419. 4 pp. 50. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, amending and extending agreement of December 30, 
1958. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington Febru- 
ary 15, 1960. Entered into force February 15, 1960. Op- 
erative retroactively June 30, 1959. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resignations 

Don C. Bliss as Ambassador to Ethiopia. (For an ex- 
change of letters between President Eisenhower and Am- 
bassador Bliss, see White House press release dated 
June 13.) 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



July 4, 1960 



Index 



Vol. XLIII, No. 1097 



Africa. Greetings Sent to Conference of Iniiepenrt- 
ent African States (Herter) 



Asia. President Eisenhower Departs for the Far 
East 

Atomic Energy. U.S. and Indonesia Sign Atomic 
Energy Agreement 



Congress, The 

European Aspects of the Mutual Security Program 
(Kohler) 

Role of the Department of State in the National 
Policy Machinery (Herter) 

Cuba. United States Asks Withdrawal of Two 
Cuban Officials 



Department and Foreign Service 

Resignations (Bliss) 

Role of the Department of State in the National 
Policy Machinery (Herter) 



Economic Affairs. Corrections to List of Products 
for GATT Negotiations 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. The People 
of Louisville and America's Cultural Relations 
(Thayer) 

Ethiopia. Bliss resigns as Ambassador 



Europe. European Aspects of the Mutual Security 
Program (Kohler) 

Indonesia. U.S. and Indonesia Sign Atomic Energy 
Agreement 

International Organizations and Conferences. Cal- 
endar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 

Military Affairs. European Asi)ects of the Mutual 
Security Program (Kohler) 

Mutual Security 

Department Expresses Grave Concern on Proposed 
Cuts in MSP Funds (DiUou) 

European Aspects of the Jlutual Security Program 
(Kohler) 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Some Con- 
clusions From the Summit (Burgess) 



Presidential Documents. President Eisenhower 
Departs for the Far East 

Publications 

Foreign Relations Volume 

Recent Releases 



Refugees. Refugees — A Changing Challenge 
(Ilanes) 

Science. U.S. To Support International Indian 
Ocean Expedition 



Treaty Information 

23 Current Actions 33 

U.S. and Indonesia Sign Atomic Energy Agree- 
ment 32 

U.S.S.R. 

Commencement and Crisis (Dwinell) 13 

32 Some Conclusions Prom the Summit (Burgess). . 



Bliss, Don C . . . 
Burgess, W. Randolph 
Dillon, Douglas . . 
Dwinell, Lane . . . 
Eisenhower, President 
Hanes, John W., Jr . 
Herter, Secretary . 
Kohler, FoyD . . . 
Thayer. Robert H . 



14 

3,23 

24 



Check List of Department of State 


Press Releases: June 13-19 


Press releases may be obtained from the O&ee of 


News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 


Releases issued prior to June 13 which appear in 


this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 313 of June S 


and 317 and 318 of June 10. 


No. Date 


Subject 


«319 6/13 


Farland nominated ambassador to Pan- 




ama (biographic details). 


•320 6/13 


Chapin nominated ambassador to Do- 




minican Republic (biographic de- 




tails ) . 


*321 6/13 


Richards nominated ambassador to 




Ethiopia (biographic details). 


*322 6/13 


Barrows nominated ambassador to 




Togo (biographic details). 


»323 6/13 


Summers nominated ambassador to 




Luxembourg (biographic details). 


t324 6/14 


Phleger : Foreign Relations Committee. 


325 6/14 


Thayer : "The People of Louisville and 




America's Cultural Relations." 


326 6/14 


Herter: conference of independent 




African states. 


•327 6/14 


Graduation of senior seminar class in 




foreign policy. 


328 6/14 


Corrections to list of products for tariff 




negotiations. 


t320 6/14 


Visit of King and Queen of Thailand 




(rewrite). 


t330 6/15 


Proclamation of application of copy- 




right law to Austrian citizens. 


•331 6/15 


Cultural exchange (Latin America). 


332 6/15 


Burgess : "Some Conclusions From the 




Summit." 


333 6/15 


Dillon : cuts in mutual security appro- 




priation bill. 


334 6/16 


Hanes: advisorv board of U.S. Com- 




mittee for Refugees. 


•335 6/17 


Cultural exchange (Canada). 


.337 0/18 


U.S. asks withdrawal of two Cuban 




officials, 
ted. 


* Not prii 


t Held fo 


r a later Issue of the Bulletin. 




*» %>>> '-^ 



the 

Department 

of 

State 



United States penalty for private use to avom 

Government Printing Office payment of_postage. saoo 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D.C. 

OFFICIAU BUSINESS 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

The basic source of information on 
U.S. diplomatic history 

1942, Volume I, General, 

The British Commonwealth, The Far East 

Tlie Department of State recently released Foreign Relations 
of the United States, 19^2, Volume /, General, The British Com- 
momcealth, The Far East. Tliis is the firet of the six regular 
annual volumes scheduled for publication in the Foreign Rela- 
tions series for 1942. 

Subjects treated in tlie General section include the United 
Nations Declaration, the Permanent Court, war crimes, relief 
problems, postwar economic and financial i^lamiing, exchange of 
oiScials and nonofficials with enemy coimtries, protests by neutrals 
against certain features of the Selective Service Act, and inter- 
national agi'eements regarding wheat, sugar, and tin. 

The section on the British Commonwealth of Nations relates to 
agreements with the several membei-s of tlie Commonwealth in 
connection with the conduct of the war and to the interest of the 
United States in situations aii'ecting the war effort. 

The Far East section contains correspondence regarding Japan, 
Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. 

Copies of the volume may be obtained from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printmg Office, Washington 25, 
D.C. for $3.50 each. 



OnUr Form 

To: Supt. of Documents 
Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. 



Enclosed find: 



(cash, check, or money 
order payable to 
Supt. of Docs.) 



Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

1912, Volume I, General, The British Commonwealth, The Far East. 



Na 



Street Address: 

City, Zone, and State: 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




f 



HE 

FFICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 

F 

NITED STATES 

OREiGN POLICY 



Vol. XLIII, No. 1098 



July 11, 1960 



SECRETARY HERTER'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JUNE 24 39 

DEPARTMENT REQUESTS RESTORATION OF FUNDS 

IN 1961 BUDGET • Statement by Secretary Herter ... 44 

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM IN LATIN AMERICA 

• Statement by Assistant Secretary Rubottom 60 

DEPARTMENT SUPPORTS INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY 
CONVENTION REVISION AND COMMERCIAL 
TREATIES WITH PAKISTAN AND FRANCE • 

Statements by Edwin M. Martin 52 

THE ANTARCTIC TREATY • Statement by Herman 

Phleger 49 

AGREEMENT FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF CARIBBEAN 
ORGANIZATION SIGNED AT WASHINGTON • De- 
partment Announcement and Text of Agreement and Draft 
Statute 68 

Boston Public Library 
Superintendent ot Documents „ . . . . . , , 

For index see mside back cover 

AUG 2 9 I960 
DEPOSITORY 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIII, No. 1098 • Pubucation 7022 
July 11, I960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price; 

62 issues, domestic $8.50, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 26 cents 

The prhitlng of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20. 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained hereto may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on de- 
velopments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions and on the work of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Foreign Service. 
The BULLETIN includes selected press 
releases on foreign policy, issued by 
the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made 
by the President and by tlie Secretary 
of State and other officers of the De- 
partment, as tvell as special articles on 
various phases of international affairs 
and the functions of the Department. 
Information is included concerning 
treaties and international agreements 
to which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of general 
international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and leg- 
islative material in tlie field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Secretary Herter's News Conference of June 24 



Press release 353 dated Jnne 24 

Secretary Herter: Ladies and gentlemen, I have 
one or two veiy brief preliminar}' statements I 
would like to make. One deals with the 10th anni- 
versary of the attack on the Republic of Korea. 

Ten years ago Cormnunist armies in north Korea 
launched an unprovoked surprise attack across the 
38th parallel on the Eepublic of Korea, a Govern- 
ment established less than 2 years before under 
United Nations auspices. 

On June 25, 1950, the Security Council of the 
United Nations adopted a resolution calling for 
the immediate cessation of hostilities and the 
prompt withdrawal of the north Korean forces 
to the 38th parallel. 

At the call of the United Nations, 16 nations 
contributed forces to the struggle against aggres- 
sion m Korea. They succeeded in repelling this 
aggression, but only at a tremendous cost in blood 
and treasure. 

The 10th anniversary of the United Nations col- 
lective action in Korea, therefore, calls for a re- 
affirmation of the free world's determination to 
resist aggression and our support for the United 
Nations. By maintaining the free-world position 
in Korea, we hope, as President Eisenhower and 
Prime Minister Huh Chung stated in their joint 
conmiunique last week, to preserve "a climate in 
which free Asian nations can enjoy independence, 
promote human rights, and improve the spiritual 
and material welfare of the people." ^ 

The second announcement I would like to make 
is that our Ambassador to Chile, "Walter Howe, is 
in the United States today, and he will be holding 
a press conference this afternoon at 2 :30 and will 
go into details of our operations in connection with 
the great Chilean disaster. As he has reported 
them to me, they are operations of which the 
United States, I think, can be very proud. They 

' The above four paragraphs were also released sep- 
arately as press release 351 dated June 24. 



were operations, as you know, that were conducted 
by very large units of our Military Establishment 
and were conducted in a spirit and in a way which 
I think has brought great credit on that establish- 
ment. And I hope that as many of you as can 
will get that firsthand report from our Ambassa- 
dor, as it is a very interesting, timely, exciting 
story. 

The third thing that I wanted to say a few words 
about was in relation to the general public dis- 
cussion that has taken place in recent days and 
weeks in regard to so-called personalized diplo- 
macy. I think that there has been a confusion 
that I want to straighten out as far as I can with 
respect to the purpose of the President's visits to 
countries abroad. 

With the exception of the trip that he took to 
Europe last year, in which he met with General 
de Gaulle, Prime Minister Macmillan, and Chan- 
cellor Adenauer for the purpose of discussing 
matters that might be raised in the summit con- 
ference, and the second trip that he took to Paris 
in anticipation of a summit conference, all of his 
other trips were taken not as diplomatic missions 
in the sense of negotiating anything with anyone 
but entirely for the purpose of good will, for the 
purpose of indicating our interest in the United 
States in the countries that he visited, of conveying 
to the peoples of those countries our very genuine 
concern over their welfare, and over promoting 
the peace of the world. These trips have been 
eminently useful. 

It is true that the Secretary of State has in re- 
cent years been obliged to go to a great many 
conferences, and this likewise has been called per- 
sonalized diplomacy. These trips have increased 
in number largely because of our alliance system, 
because of the greater facilities for moving from 
one capital to another, and because of the neces- 
sity of conferring frequently among our allies in 
formalized conferences. These conferences in a 



K'\y J J, 7960 



sense are personal diplomacy only in that the 
Secretary of State, in most instances, must attend 
because of the makeup of the conferences and the 
fact that other nations were sending their foreign 
ministers. 

One of the reasons that I emphasize this is that 
the impression seems to have gained some currency 
that because of these trips there is less of a need 
for our ordinary channels of diplomacy through 
our ambassadors communicating directly with 
their home offices. In no way has that need been 
reduced. If anything, with the facilities of travel 
and the much greater contact that exists between 
nations, the new number of nations that are com- 
ing into existence, the actual burdens — the actual 
responsibilities — of our regularly established dip- 
lomatic services, our ambassadorial missions, have 
achieved an entirely new and more important sig- 
nificance. This is particularly true because of the 
fact that in our foreign missions the individuals 
who are responsible as the chiefs of mission for 
what is called the country team have got to apply 
themselves not alone to what are the matters of 
ordinary diplomacy but also to matters of military 
concern, of cultural concern, of social concern, so 
that their responsibilities are being constantly 
enlarged. 

Those are the only preliminary statements I have 
to make. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you evaluate the 
jyrospect for United States bases in Japan under 
the new security treaty in the light of the political 
disorders which we have seen there? 

A. Well, as you know, we are convinced that the 
great majority of the people of Japan are in favor 
of the mutual security treaty that has just been 
ratified.^ Certainly every election that has taken 
place in Japan since 1952 has indicated a strong 
support for Japan's own determination to ally 
itself with the West. Just what the coming in- 
ternal developments in Japan will be, of course, 
we cannot tell. In the Diet there is still nearly a 
two-thirds majority in both branches for the exist- 
ing Liberal Democrat Pai-ty. Whether or not 
elections will be held, we do not know. Just how 
a new government may be formed, with the resig- 
nation of Prime Minister Kishi, we don't know. 



' For a statement by Secretary Herter before tbe Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee on June 7, see Bulletin of 
June 27, 1960, p. 1029; for text of treaty, see ibid., Feb. 8, 
1960, p. 184. 



But we have every confidence that the basic good 
will of the Japanese people and their willingness 
to continue to aline themselves with the West stUI 
remains. 

OAS Peace Committee 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there have been recent reports 
in newspapers that the United States has decided 
to bring an omnibus indictment against Cuba be- 
fore the OAS [Organization of American States']. 
The infonnation we have got from here is that no 
such decision has been taken so far. Can you 
clarify that? 

A. Yes. As you know, at the Santiago con- 
ference this last year that I attended,^ the Peace 
Committee of the OAS was insti-ucted to examine 
into the tensions existing in the Caribbean area 
with possible violations of human rights and to 
report to the OAS witl\ respect to those tensions 
and such steps, if any, as it could take to lessen 
those tensions. That committee has been in the 
process of collecting information. We have fur- 
nished certain information to that committee; we 
propose in the near future to siii)ply it with still 
further information. But, as you know, that is 
an autonomous body — on its own. It so happens 
that an American has been chairman of tliat com- 
mittee, but his term will expire and the United 
States will not be represented on that committee 
after the 1st of August. Nevertheless, it wiU 
carry on, and we will continue to furnish it with 
such information as we feel is relevant to its 
studies. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, since U-2 there has been a ris- 
ing amount of critical comment — not all of it 
irresponsible — to the effect that our system of 
defensive alliances with other countries in various 
continents has been badly damaged by inter- 
national developments and may indeed be open to 
question in terms of future effectiveness. Would 
you comment on that type of criticism, and would 
you say whether the State Department is now en- 
gaged in a reappraisal of what emphasis in the 
future might be dictated by these events? 

A. Yes, I would be very glad to comment on 
that. I do not share the views that you have ex- 
pressed as coming from responsible sources, that 
our alliance system has been damaged by the U-2 
incident. In fact, as I thinlv I have 



' lUa., Sept. 7, 1959, p. 342. 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



before, the NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization] alliance meeting that I attended since 
that time in Paris * indicated a greater firmness 
and a greater cohesion than I have seen at any time 
whatsoever. Such indications as we have had 
from either the OAS, from SEATO [Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization], from CENTO 
[Central Treaty Organization], with which as you 
know we are affiliated through committees, have 
indicated a continuing firmness, a continuing soli- 
darity, that I do not feel has been injured in any 
way by the U-2 incident. 

Q. Mr. Secretmn] — 

A. May I just add one tiling to that? I beg 
your pardon. The SEATO conference, which 
took place here in AVashington,'^ largely of Far 
Eastern nations, indicated a degree of solidarity 
which was likewise veiy complete. There was no 
sign whatsoever of any weakenmg there. If any- 
thing, there was a stronger feeling of solidarity. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ before the House Agriculture 
Committee the other day you said that the tiine 
had come to diversify our sources of sugar supply 
and you asked for Executive authority for the 
President to cut quotas.^ Is it contemplated that 
you loould cut more than the annual incre7nent 
and Cubans share in shortfall, or would the cuts 
possibly go deeper than that? 

A. As you may recall, my testimony was to the 
effect that we were supporting the administration 
bill which was filed in March— I think it was on 
March 15th — which would give to the President 
discretionai-y authority m the cutting of quotas. 
Obviously I'm not going to comment on the degree 
to which he might exercise that authority, or even 
whether he would exercise that authority, because 
we feel that it's important with the Congress out 
of session for the Pi-esident to have that authority, 
both to insure our own domestic sugar supplies and 
in the national interest. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have long been a friend 
of Vice President Nixon. Should the Vice Presi- 
dent be elected President in November and should 
you be asked, would you be willing to stay on in 
the Nixon administration as Secretary of State, or 
do you intend to retire on January Wth? 



'/()»(?., June 6, I960, p. 907. 
^ Ihid., June 20, 1960, p. 9S3. 
' See p. 58. 

July 7?, I960 



A. I will answer that very frankly. I do not 
expect to contmue in any administration as Secre- 
tary of State. You may recall that at the time 
that I was asked to sei've in this capacity I was 
asked to take a physical examination to ascertain 
to what extent the paiticular affliction from which 
I suffer would become progi'essively worse. And 
I was given a clearance for the period of time 
which would end with this administration. I 
very frankly feel likewise that, both because of 
my age and the possibility that this may become 
worse, a younger man should take on, even if I 
were asked to sei've. 

Q. Sir, there have been indications that Peking 
and Moscow are at odds over whether to pursue a 
hard or tough foreign policy, particularly toward 
the ^'■imperialist countiies.'''' What effect do you 
see that this cleavage, if it does exist, may have 
on future relations between the Soviet Union and 
Communist China? 

A. "Well, it's very difficult to assess this ide- 
ological row that is going on at the present time. 
It seems to be a very real and rather deep-seated 
difference in interpretation of Communist ide- 
ology. Wliether it has any practical implications 
from the point of view of the relationship be- 
tween Soviet Russia and the Chinese Communists 
it is impossible to ascertain at this time. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in your inventory of per- 
sonal diplomacy, where would you class a journey 
to Camp David to meet with Mr. Khrushchev or, 
for that matter, Mr. Macmillan? Is that the sort 
of thing for which you see no future? 

A. The Camp David visit was a rather excep- 
tional type of visit. It was the first visit of a Com- 
munist leader to the United States. It was 
arranged there to ascertain whether, through per- 
sonal discussions, any of the existing problems 
might be resolved. As you know, very little came 
out of that conference. This was a rather excep- 
tional type of visit by the head of one state to the 
head of another state. So that I wouldn't call that 
a typical case. It certainly isn't comparable in 
any way with the good-will visits that the Presi- 
dent has taken to the many countries that he has 
gone to in the last year. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to come back one moment to 
your remarks before about our presenting infor- 
mation to the peace commission, does that vnean 

41 



we at this point are not bringing any charges or 
any indict7iient as had been reported before? 

A. At this moment, no. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, yesterday you conferred with 
other people in the Cabinet about a reported new 
approach on disarmament at Geneva. Can you 
tell us what the purpose of this new approach 
would be — how quickly you feel it might be made 
and lohat you hope to accomplish by it? 

A. Well, it is true that Mr. [Fredrick M.] 
Eaton, who is our chief negotiator in Geneva, came 
back to consult with us on the new proposals that 
had been made by the Soviet Union and our own 
approaches in Geneva. We have had veiy thor- 
ough consultations. We have in mind a certain 
line of action which might well come in Geneva 
some time in the middle of next week. I am ob- 
viously not at liberty to talk about any specifics at 
the present time. Mr. Eaton is just returning to 
Europe today and will be in consultation with our 
allies on the Western side who are likewise mem- 
bers of that disarmament committee. And until 
their discussions are completed, I wouldn't feel 
free to discuss details. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Mr. Khrushchev seems to 
have had a number of things to say ahout various 
presidential candidates in this country. Vd like to 
ask yoxb this qiiestion: Looked at from the stand- 
point of American foreign policy and Soviet for- 
eign policy, do you think that it makes any differ- 
ence from the Communist point of view xohich 
party or which President is elected in Novemher? 

A. Well, I wouldn't want to pass any judgment 
on that. That obviously is anticipating things 
well beyond the election i^eriod that I wouldn't 
want to get into. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you see any evidence in the 
events of the last 8 weeks that suggests a basic 
change in Soviet policy, or in the tactical han- 
dling of Soviet diplomacy, or of the personal 
position of Mr. Khmshchrv in the Soviet 
hierarchy? 

A. No, I don't think that we have any evidence 
on any one of those points. From the point of 
view of basic policy, as far as we know, it has 
remained very much the same. I think that per- 
haps the attitude of the Soviets in the two nego- 
tiations that are now going on in Geneva may give 
some future indication as to whether there has 



been any change, but up until now I don't tlunk 
we can detect any specific change. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on this political question, in 
several public commients Mr. Khrushchev has said 
he, of course, had no intention of interfering in 
United States internal affairs. At the same time, 
he has expressed certain standards and certain 
preferences which he thought would apply to the 
Ameincan election. What do you think of the pro- 
priety of Mr. Khrushchev''s suggestions to the 
American people about whom they might elect? 

A. Well, it comes about as clo-se to interference 
in the internal affairs of a country as anything I 
could describe. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what is your interpretation of 
Mr. Khrushchev''s interpretation — new interpreta- 
tion — of Leninism, et al.? {Laughter) 

A. Well, I am not a particular expert in this 
field, but to put it into a nutshell he is apparently 
trying to give greater flexibility to some of the 
early doctrines of Lenin and Marx than the Chi- 
nese Communists are willing to give, particularly 
in connection with the matter of the inevitability 
of war and peaceful coexistence. I think that is 
what he is trying to do in some ways possibly to 
justify his own orthodoxy with his present policies. 

Disturbances in Tokyo 

Q. Mr. Secretary, if the difficulties in Japan are 
to be attributed only to a Communist minority that 
obviously led these demonstrations, and if there 
is much basic support, I mean for the treaty, why 
do you think it is necessary that Premier Kishi 
feels lie must resign? 

A. Well, I don't want to discuss the internal 
politics of Japan here, but I think that the ques- 
tion of his resignation is a matter within his own 
party, much more tJian it is a question of opposi- 
tion from the outside party. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have told Senators this 
week that the State Department misjudged certain 
aspects of the disturbances in Tokyo. But accord- 
ing to the dispatches that toe are getting from 
Honolulu, the White House concentrates all of its 
explanation of events on the Communist minonty, 
seeming to admit no fallacy at all. Is there a dis- 
crepancy here? Is there a conflict of interest be- 
tween the State Department and the White House 
interpretation? 



Al 



Department of State Bulletin 



A. No, I don't think there is any discrepancy 
whatsoever. When I spoke about misjudging, we 
at no particular time knew exactly to what extent 
the demonstrations would continue, what size they 
might be, or the degree of violence that might ac- 
company them. We had no way of foretelling 
those things. I think the phrase that has been 
attributed to me in connection with misjudging 
those things was the impossibility of our being 
able to determine ahead of time just what form 
they would take. There is no question but what 
has inspired those demonstrations. I think that 
the facts tJiere are very clear, and I think they 
would be agi-eed to by and large in Japan. 

Q. Well, may I just follow that up on one point, 
sir? If it Imd not been impossible to judge the 
events beforehand, would you have recommended 
a different procedure? 

A. I don't think so. I have got to go back here 
to the original invitation to the President, which, 
as you know, took place last January. The invita- 
tion was with respect to the exchange of high- 
ranking personalities in this 100th anniversary 
year of the opening up of Japan to diplomatic 
missions elsewhere, with the sending of their first 
ambassador to the United States. That invitation 
was accepted, and the time that it was arranged 
for was the time after the President had planned 
to leave Eussia. 

Wlien the Russian trip was called off, the ques- 
tion came up at once as to whether the President 
should extend liis trip in the Far East, as he had 
been asked to do by many Far Eastern countries, 
and it was decided that he should. And then, as 
you know, other countries were added to his 
schedule. 

The question of the President's not going to 
Japan was, we felt, always a matter of decision for 
the Japanese Government, not for us. The Jap- 
anese Government was, of couree, watching the 
situation very carefully and finally made its de- 
cision, which the President regi-etted but for which 
he expressed sympathy and understanding. 

It would have been a very different thing if we 
had taken the initiative in order to cancel that 
visit. 

Q. Well, Mr. Secretary, on that question, 
though, it is true, isn't it, that the American se- 
curity officers recommended that the visit not take 
place? 



A. I don't know that they ever recommended 
that. I think that they had always been nervous 
about it and anxious about it. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you give us some in- 
foi^mation and report to us on the work of the 
President''s Advisory Committee on Inter-Amer- 
ican Affairs? Do you anticipate a report to the 
President at any time soon? 

A. Well, I doubt very much whether they will 
be issuing formal reports. They have from time 
to time put on paper some of their ideas that have 
been extremely helpful. We have meetings at reg- 
ular intervals. I think the next one is scheduled 
for early in July. And much of our consultation 
is on the basis of these meetings and exchanges 
of views and very little on the basis of formalized 
repoi-ts. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could I rechech on one point 
here which you just made about the American se- 
curity officers? Tou said, I donH knoio that they 
ever recommended it, that they had been very con- 
ceited about it, that is, the President''s personal 
security. There has been qxiite a bit of contro- 
versy about the relative roles of the United States 
and Japan, or specifically the roles of Mr. Fuji- 
yama and Mr. Mac Arthur on the question of in- 
itiative in canceling the invitation. Pd like to ask 
you this specific question. Did tTie United States 
at any time suggest to the Japanese Government 
that it might be better to cancel the trip, or that 
if certai/n assurances could not be given the trip 
should perhaps be canceled? 

A. No. The United States never took the in- 
itiative in that respect. Those mattei-s were, of 
course, discussed by MacArthur with the Jap- 
anese Govenmient, which itself was very much 
concerned. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, when and why did this Gov- 
ernment discard its assumptions that you had to 
deal with Mr. Khrushchev at the sum/init because 
hh poxver of decisionmaking in the Soviet Union 
was singularly high? 

A. Well, I couldn't tell you when that partic- 
ular decision was made. I know that the decision 
was made after Camp David by the President 
that he would be willing to go to a summit con- 
ference. That decision was not made until after 
the Camp David conference. 

Q. Thank you, sir. 



Juty J J, J 960 



43 



Department Requests^Restoration of Funds in 1961 Budget 

Statement iy Secretary Herter ^ 



I am grateful to the chairman and the members 
of the committee for the opportunity to appear 
this morning. In appearing in support of the 
Department's request for restoration of funds for 
fiscal year 1961, 1 am mindful of the words of the 
chairman at the opening of tlie Senate hearing 2 
years ago. "T^^^en we deal with the budget," he 
said, ". . . we are dealing with the specifics of 
what our Government will do in the year ahead. 
The budget is not just a measurement of dollars; 
it is a measurement of effort." 

Those words in today's context are much to the 
point. At tJie moment many things about the 
future are unclear, but this much is entirely clear : 
We are not in a time when we can afford to slacken 
our effort — in defense, in development, or in main- 
taining and strengthening the apparatus of Ameri- 
can diplomacy. 

The international climate today underlines tJie 
need for maintaining the unity and increasing the 
strength of our alliances. This requires, among 
other things, continuing diplomatic activity of a 
high order. 

Xo less is the need for cooperation with and sup- 
port of the newly developing countries. Here 
again our repi'esentatives abroad will play a cen- 
tral role. 

And as President Eisenhower has made clear, 
we must also continue to do all we can to increase 
communications between ourselves and the Soviet 
Union and to resolve outstanding issues. For this 
purpose it appears that increased emphasis should 
now be placed upon traditional channels and pro- 
cedures of international contact, rather than on 
more informal methods. 

There is every indication, therefore, that pri- 

'Made before the Senate Appropriations Committee on 
June 21. 



ority demands will be made upon the Department 
of State and the Foreign Service in the year to 
come. "Within these guidelines let me review our 
request for restorations in the budget. 

For the fiscal year to come the Department 
originally requested slightly more than $247 mil- 
lion. To this amount lias since been added $15 
million to cover budget amendments which have 
been presented since the original request was 
made. This brings the total to $262 million as 
shown on the tables before you.^ This total is 
tlie lowest request of any of the major govern- 
ment agencies, substantially less than the cost of 
a single modern aircraft carrier, less than one- 
third of 1 percent of the total Federal budget. 

Considering the fundamental contribution the 
Department and the Foreign Service make to 
American security and the chance for peace, it 
seems to me this sum is exceedingly modest. 

Furthermore the request itself was a conserva- 
tive one. In preparing it we were fidly mindful 
of the desire of the Congress that the Department 
operate as prudently and economically as possible. 
Perhaps our original request was too conservative. 
Time may even show that in our effort to keep 
our request for increases at a minimum we did 
not ask for enough to meet the urgent needs of our 
country in the field of foreign affairs during the 
critical year that lies ahead. In that event we 
shall, of course, ask for supplemental funds. In 
any case, it would appear that we failed to give 
the House committee an adequate picture of our 
needs. 

The Department's appropriation as approved 
by the House is approximately $23 million, or 
nearly 10 percent, below the Department's original 
request. Although the House bill provides $1.2 
million more for salaries and expenses tlian was 

"Not printed here. 



Department of S/ofe Bulletin 



provided last year, the increase is far from ade- 
quate even to cover increases in mandatory costs 
such as the opening of new posts, overseas price 
and wage increases, the elevation of posts, and 
the Federal Employees Health Benefit Act 
contributions. 

Furthennore, the Congress at tliis session has 
just passed a 1960 supplemental appropriation to 
enable the Department to meet certain unforeseen 
requirements for the current year, and many of 
those activities continue into fiscal year 1961. 

Thus, if the House bill is allowed to stand there 
must inevitably be a slackening or hampering of 
the efforts of the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service during the commg year. 

Downward Revision of Budget Figures 

Despite the minimal nature of our original re- 
quest, however, we decided not to ask the Senate 
to restore all the cuts made in the House. After 
a careful review we revised our figures downward, 
in an effort to take account of the attitude of the 
House and at the same time to dischai-ge our re- 
sponsibilities. In our letter of appeal, therefore, 
we requested a restoration of only $11.6 million 
of the $23.2 million reduction made by the House 
and 339 of the 532 positions not provided in the 
House bill. 

I must confess that we revised our figures down- 
ward with considerable misgivings. Then after 
the outcome at the siunmit we again gave serious 
thought to the wisdom of asking for additional 
restorations. 

But despite our keen disappointment at the out- 
come of the summit, and despite the propaganda 
campaign being waged against us, it appears that 
the basic conditions of the world situation have 
not so far been greatly changed. Wliat is needed 
imder present circumstances is not a drastic in- 
crease in the quantity of our diplomatic effort or 
a major change in its direction. What is de- 
manded is that its quality and continuity be sus- 
tained and strengthened, and not impaired 
through skimping of needed financial support or 
by any other cause. 

Certain developments, as I say, may require ad- 
ditional requests later. But we shall do our ut- 
most to discharge our responsibilities within the 
fiscal and personnel framework of our present re- 
quest to the Senate. 

Let me outline the requested restorations. 



Items Bearing on East-West Relations 

First there are items which bear directly upon 
the future of East-West relations. The most 
important of these is the recjuest for disarmament 
studies and staff. 

Disarmament negotiations are continuing at 
Geneva, as you are aware, both those dealing with 
a possible nuclear test ban and those looking to- 
ward broader arms reductions. The prospects 
for early progress are, frankly, a bit imcertain 
at present. Nevertheless, discussions continue. 
The problems of disarmament are so important 
that we must exhaust all avenues in seeking mean- 
ingful, enforcible agreements. We must by 
every action demonstrate the continuing good 
faith of our side. We must by our preparations 
be ready to deal promptly and realistically both 
with technological change and with any eventual 
progress in negotiation. 

The international exchange program, which 
makes an important contribution to unity and 
progress among the free nations, also has a direct 
impact on East-West relations. East-West ex- 
changes are continuing and eveiy effort must be 
made to support them. In the interest both of 
fi-ee-world unity, therefore, and of East-West 
communication, we are asking restoration of the 
full amount for international exchange. 

Strengthening of Overseas Posts 

A second category of restorations relates to the 
broadening and strengthening of our establish- 
ment overseas. The developments in communi- 
cation and transport multiply contacts between 
the people and institutions of the United States 
and those of an increasing number of countries. 
This increases the burden on our diplomatic mis- 
sions and consular offices. Furthermore the role 
which the United States is called upon to play 
in the world today makes it necessary for us to be 
kept fully informed of developments anywhere 
which might affect the prosperity, the stability, 
or the attitudes of the countries with which we 
deal. The responsibility for such reporting rests 
on our representatives abroad. 

The most important of the restorations in this 
category relates to the opening and staffing of 
new posts in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and 
Europe, as political developments require, and 
the elevation of others to embassy status. 

I want to note here that developments in Afi-ica 



Ju/y J I, 7960 



45 



are moving at such a rate that we may also find it 
necessary within a matter of montlis to elevate 
to mission status five posts in addition to those 
already proposed in the budget estimates. These 
would require supplemental funds. 

-Vlso important to the overall Department ef- 
fort in the coming year are the restorations we 
have requested for funds to provide specialized at- 
taches who strengthen our ability to evaluate 
trends overseas as they relate to the American 
national interest. 

These would include labor attaches. Labor 
movements, as you are well aware, are among the 
most sensitive areas in the affairs of many nations 
today. 

They include science attaches to evaluate and 
report on scientific developments in other coun- 
tries in such matters as satellite tracking, deep- 
space probes, and joint activities in the Antarctic. 

They also include additional commercial and 
related attaches to promote tliis nation's interest 
in international trade, travel, and investment. 

Maintaining Efficiency of Department and Foreign 
Service 

A third important area of restorations involves 
various items which make possible the continued 
day-to-day efficiency of the Department and For- 
eign Ser\'ice and the well-being of its personnel. 
These include needed consular staff, training in 
the so-called "hard" languages, modernized com- 
mimication facilities, improved support for exist- 
ing staff, and proper completion of the new 
building here in Wasliington. 

Included in this category also is a request for 
rastoration of the full amoimt for representation. 
Evei-y American Foreign Service officer, regard- 
less of his rank or post, has certain expenses 
incident to establishing and maintaining the 
relationships necessai-y to his work. His full 
effectiveness deyiends ujion these relationships. 
Eepresentation funds do not pay all costs in this 
connection. The figure of our original request by 
no means covers our fidl needs. Even if this 
figure is granted, much of the needed representa- 
tional activity either will not be carried on or will 
be conducted at the personal expense of our 
personnel abroad. 

Without reasonable provision by the Congress 
for representation, therefore, those of our diplo- 
matic and consular olficei-s abroad who have no 



private means will inevitably have their effective- 
ness reduced. It is not the intent of Congress that 
men and women without private means should be 
handicapped in Foreign Service. No well-nm 
American private corporation denies its em- 
ployees needed operating expenses. They could 
not afford to do so. 

Tariff Negotiations 

The fourth area in which we are requesting res- 
toration has to do with the fifth round of inter- 
national tariff negotiations under the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, to be held in 
Geneva starting in September. This conference 
will play a vital part in our effort to continue 
worldwide reduction of tariffs and other barriers 
to world trade. This is important both to the 
prosperity of the United States and the strength 
and stability of other free nations. The confer- 
ence will also provide an opportunity we cannot 
afford to miss to develop from the outset a favor- 
able relationship with the European Economic 
Community. We have requested a restoration of 
funds necessaiy for United States participation in 
the GATT conference. 

Funds for Budget Amendments 

In addition to budget restorations the Depart- 
ment has requested, as I noted at the beginning, 
funds for budget amendments submitted to the 
Congress since the regular budget submission. 
These requests are being presented initially to the 
Senate because of the shortness of time in this 
session. 

These items will require an additional 
$15,348,000 to provide for the acquisition of a 
Washington headquarters site for the Pan Ameri- 
can Health Organization, United States partici- 
pation in the Mexico-United States interparlia- 
mentary group, the presentation of a statue of 
George Wsishington to Uruguay, a payment to the 
Government of Japan to settle claims of the dis- 
placed residents of the Bonin Islands, and the 
development of a center for cultural and technical 
interchange between East and West in Hawaii. 
I am pleased to note that a number of members of 
Congress have expressed a particular awareness 
of the importance of this last project. 

This completes my presentation on the budget 
this morning. The witnesses who follow me will 
furnish such details as the committee may require. 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



The central point we have borne in mind in 
preparing and reviewing our request for restora- 
tions is the degree to which freedom, prosperity — 
and survi\al itself — continue to depend upon the 
processes, and therefore upon the apparatus, of 
diplomacy. I turn to other words of the chair- 
man, spoken 2 years ago, "At the moment, our 
future rests upon the shoulders of the diplomatic 
corps. If diplomacy fails, our future will rest 
upon other shoulders and no one can contemplate 
the result with a feeling of ease." 

That, Mr. ChaiiTnan and members of the com- 
mittee, is the thought we have in mind when we 
ask for your firm and full support, in the coming 
fiscal year, of the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service. 



Secretary Replies to Senator Wiley 
on President's Missions Abroad 

Press release 355 dated June 24 

Following is am, exchange of correspondence 
letween Secretary Herter and Senator Alexander 
Wil-ey, ranking minority member, Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee. 

Secretary Herter to Senator Wiley 

JtJXE 24, 1960 
Dear Senator: I welcome your inquiry about 
my testimony of June 21 before a Subcommittee 
of the Senate Conunittee on Appropriations. 
Tlie articles to wliich you refer correctly report 
my words; the implications and interpretations 
drawn within and outside the Committee are 
grossly misleading. 

You recall tlie clironology of the Japan visit. 
Before the Soviets withdrew their invitation to 
the President to visit their coimtry, the President 
had firm plans to visit not only the Soviet Union 
but also Japan and Korea. The President had 
been publicly invited to visit these countries. He 
had publicly accepted. These arrangements were 
crystallized well before May 23 when the Presi- 
dent returned from Eurojie and the disturbances 
in Japan fii-st began to assume troublesome pro- 
portions. Thereafter there were constant reas- 
sessments of the developing situation, so that our 
information remained as current and accurate as 
possible, but always with the President maintain- 

Jo/y J 7, 7960 



ing this position — that having accepted this invi- 
tation he could not and would not fail to go until 
and unless the Japanese Govei-nment should them- 
selves cancel or postpone his visit. It is neither 
in the character of the President nor in the true 
spirit of America to turn and ran when trouble 
looms ahead. 

Perhaps, had the Japanese Government real- 
ized before our President left the United States 
that the domestic turmoil would reach menacing 
proportions, they would have withdrawn their 
invitation earlier. But this I emphasize: the 
President would definitely have proceeded, these 
disturbances notwithstanding, had the invitation 
not been withdrawn. 

In world affairs one cannot advance from a 
premise that when difficulties threaten, carefully 
prepared plans should be timorously set aside. 
In foreign affairs the calculated risk is as key a 
factor as in military affairs. The President is 
deeply sensitive to this fact. All of us need to be. 

I deeply believe, in retrospect even, that the 
President moved soundly and wisely for America 
in proceeding with his trip to Japan despite the 
manufactured disturbances — that he properly 
relied upon his host, the Japanese Government, to 
decide whether or not the trip should be de- 
ferred — and that, regi-ettable though the rioting in 
Japan turned out to be, it smacks a bit of the hy- 
pei'critical to say now, after the fact, that our 
friends in Japan should have discerned in advance 
what befell them, and that their failure to do so 
somehow becomes now an American lapse. I be- 
lieve quite as deeply that it would have been a 
gi'ave disser'vdce to the cause of freedom in the Far 
East had the President canceled his trip to Japan 
after having accepted the invitation to come. 
Others holding different views are, of course, en- 
titled to hold them. My own opinion is that had 
the President liimself canceled this journey in these 
circumstances, the present disposition of some to 
view critically the subsequent events woiUd have 
become, instead, an avalanche of virulent abuse 
both at home and abroad. 

In summary, and as I sought repeatedly to em- 
phasize to the Committee, it was an important and 
a necessary trip ; it was blocked by violent methods 
whicli, feeding upon themselves, ultimately 
reached unmanageable proportions; the disturb- 
ances were a communist tactic; and, finally, until 
the Japanese Government withdrew its invitation, 
the President was determined to go. 

47 



As for Presidential missions abroad, you are 
correct tliat excepting tlie Summit Conference, 
these have not been diplomatic ventures but rather 
liave been missions of good will. As such they 
have been extraordinarily successful, so much so 
that the Soviet Union and communist influences in 
Japan were driven to extreme lengtlis to block 
their continuance. I believe the world will not fail 
to measure well the import of desperate communist 
contortions to keep America's symbol, so magnifi- 
cently presented abroad by President Eisenhower, 
from entering the heartland of the Soviet Union 
and Japan. 

Efforts to belittle the value of the President's 
goodwill missions are, in my opinion, completely 
unjustified. Those who have witnessed his recep- 
tion in a score of nations will bear testimony to the 
fact that he, as an individual and as President of 
the United States, is beloved and respected by free 
people everywhere to a degree unmatched by 
almost any other man in history. By their actions 
the communists have clearly revealed to the entire 
world that they Icnow this well. 

I warmly appreciate the motivation of your 
letter. 

Most sincerely, 

Christian A. Hertee 

The Honorable 
Alexander Wiley, 

United States Senate. 



Senator Wiley to Secretary Herter 

June 2.3, 1960 
Dear Mr. Secretary: You know that the Press has 
been highlighting statements attributed to you to the 
effect that State Department information and judgment 
in respect to the President's trip to Japan were faulty. 
I personally don't believe these statements, though at first 
I was taken aback by the same. 

Now what is the fact? Did the State Department have 
inadequate and inaccurate information on the subject as 
to the extent of the Japanese riots, and was the Depart- 
ment's judgment as to the advisability of the trip faulty? 
I thought that David Lawrence in the Evening Star of 
Thursday, June 23rd had the straight facts on that subject 
■when he said : 

The invitation was extended at a time when Nikita 
Khrushchev was on friendly terms with the United States 
and long before the events occurred that started the So- 
viet Premier and his agents on a tactic of demonstrations 
unfriendly to America. But then, it is asked, why couldn't 
the President have cancelled the trip immediately after 
the "summit" conference in Paris collapsed? If he had 
done so, he would have disappointed the peoples of the 
Philippines, Formosa and Korea. He could, on the other 



hand, hardly have gone to some Far Eastern countries 
allied with us and not to Japiin. Mr. Eisenhower was 
ready to take the risks, but the Japanese government 
finally admitted that it might not be able to control the 
mobs. 

I have seen also, Mr. Secretary, that it is asserted that 
the President has been engaging in "personal diplomacy" 
throughout the world to the detriment of traditional dip- 
lomatic relationships. One article before me states that 
you concede that such trips will be discontinued in the 
future, thereby implying that such trips have been under- 
taken in the past. My understanding has been that, with 
the obvious exception of the recent Summit undertaking, 
the President has been engaged upon missions of good 
will, not diplomatic negotiations. Is this correct? 

I have raised these points, Mr. Secretary, because of the 
contrived clamor, political and otherwise, over alleged 
planning, informational and judgment errors in the field 
of foreign relations. Having probed into the details of 
foreign policy for many years and having closely observed 
recent international developments, I believe that the 
words attributed to you are being distorted. Neverthe- 
less, I would like your own 
Sincerely, 



Alexander Wiley 



The Honorable 
Christian A. Hertee 



110 American Teachers Participate 
In Summer Seminars Abroad 

The Department of State announced on June 21 
(press release 341) that 110 American secondary 
school and college teachers of foreign languages, 
the classics, and social studies are spending part 
of the summer abroad this year in order to be- 
come better acquainted with the languages, litera- 
ture, peoples, and cultural heritage of five foreign 
countries. The teachers are participating in spe- 
cial seminars in Brazil, Colombia, France, Ger- 
riiany, and Italy under the educational exchange 
program of the Department of State. 

The teachers have been chosen to take part in 
the seminars through nationwide competitions ad- 
ministered for the Department of State by the 
U.S. Office of Education. The seminars and the 
cost of the teachers' round-trip travel are being 
financed with currencies of the host countries 
that have accrued to the U.S. Treasury as the 
result of war surplus purchases or loan repayments 
and are being conducted under the authority of 
Public Law 584, 79th Congress, the Fulbright Act.^ 



48 



" For a summary of the seminars by country and a list 
of the participating teachers, see press release 341. 



Deporfmenf of S/ofe Bulletin 



The Antarctic Treaty 



Statement hy Het^man Phleger ' 



The opportunity to appear before your commit- 
tee in support of the Antarctic treaty is deeply ap- 
preciated. I believe this treaty is in the best 
interests of the United States. Beyond that it is a 
significant step forward in international coopera- 
tion in the field of peace, disarmament, and scien- 
tific cooperation. 

The Antarctic treaty was signed at Washington 
on December 1, 1959, at tlie tennination of the 
Conference on Aiitarctica, which was convened at 
United States initiative. 

On May 2, 1958, the United States invited 11 
other states to take part in a conference to draw 
up a treaty concerning the future of the vast 
Aiitarctic Contment.^ The 11 countries invited 
were those which, with the United States, had 
participated in the Antarctic programs of the In- 
ternational Geophysical Year, namely Argentina, 
Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New 
Zealand, Norway, tlie Union of South Africa, the 
Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. 

The United States has long had important in- 
tei-ests in Antarctica. Its explorers and scientists 
have discovered and mapped lai"ge areas of the 
continent. "VVliile the United States had never 
made a claim of sovereignty, it frequently reas- 
serted its interests and has not recognized the 
claims of seven other states which had asserted 
claims to sovereignty over large areas, several of 
them overlapping. Conmiencing in 1956 the So- 
viet Union moved in with scientific expeditions 
and has since engaged in extensive operations. It 



' Jl.'uie before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on June 14 (press release 324). Mr. Phleger was head of 
the U.S. delegation at the Conference on Antarctica, 
which conrened at Washington Oct. 1.5, 1959. For back- 
ground and text of the treaty, see Bulletin of Nov. 2, 
1959, p. 650, and Dec. 21, 1959, p. 911. 

' lUd., June 2, 1958, p. 910. 



does not recognize the validity of any claims to 
sovereignty in Antarctica. 

In preparation for the conference and as a 
result of this United States uiitiative, talks were 
held in Washington over a period of a year and 
a half among representatives of the 12 coimtries 
concerned. These meetings paved the way for the 
negotiation of the treaty at the conference. The 
conference convened in Wasliington on October 15, 
1959, and terminated on December 1 with the sign- 
ing of the treaty, which incorporates the main 
objectives of the United States. 

I served as United States representative and 
head of the United States delegation to the Con- 
ference on Antarctica. Ambassador Paul C. 
Daniels was alternate representative. Mr. George 
H. Owen of the Department of State also served 
as alternate representative. 

The Honorable Frank Carlson, Senator from 
the State of Kansas, and the Honorable Gale W. 
McGee, Senator from the State of Wyoming, 
served as congressional advisers to the delegation. 

Captain Eugene W. Davis, USN, representing 
the Department of Defense, was a member of the 
delegation and participated in its deliberations. 

Dr. Larkin H. Farinliolt, Deputy Science Ad- 
viser of the Department of State, also was a mem- 
ber of the delegation. At the request of the De- 
partment of State the National Academy of 
Sciences appointed a committee of seven dis- 
tinguished scientists, headed by Dr. Laurence M, 
Gould, to advise the United States delegation 
This committee included Dr. Francis W. Eeichel- 
derfer, Dr. Lloyd V. Berkner, Dr. Merle A. Tuve 
Dr. Harry Wexler, Dr. John C. Eeed, and Mr, 
Albert P. Crary. 

Mr. Alan F. Neidle of the Legal Adviser's 
Office of the Department of State served as legal 
adviser of the delegation. 



Ju/y J I, I960 



49 



Importance of Inspection Provisions 

One of the important provisions of this treaty 
is the provision, in article I, that Antarctica shall 
be used for peaceful purposes only. This stipula- 
tion tliat a continent greater in extent than the 
United States and Europe will be used for peaceful 
purposes only is implemented by an unlimited 
unilateral right of inspection, set forth in article 
^^I, which includes the right of overflight at any 
time. 

Tlie treaty's provision for inspection has great 
significance. It will not only serve to protect the 
parties against any violation of the treaty but 
should also prove a valuable source of practical 
experience in the detailed processes of interna- 
tional inspection. As you know, the unwillingness 
of the Soviet Government to accept an effective in- 
spection arrangement has thus far been the prin- 
cipal stumbling block to successful negotiations on 
such vitally important matters as nuclear testing, 
surprise attack, and general disarmament. While 
the inspection provisions of the Antarctic treaty 
apply to an area where neither the Soviet Govern- 
ment nor the United States claims territorial 
sovereignty, it is nevertheless important that an 
agreement has been reached to conduct practical 
inspection operations in tliis area. This right of 
inspection includes the right to inspect ships, air- 
craft, and stations and also the right of overflight, 
comparable to what President Eisenhower pro- 
posed earlier as his "open skies" plan of inspec- 
tion. In this connection it would appear mifor- 
tunate if the United States Government should 
hesitate to ratify the first international agreement 
affording an unlimited right of insi^ection. 

Article II of the treaty provides that the free- 
dom of scientific investigation and international 
cooperation in science, which were so successful 
during the International Geophysical Year, shall 
be continued, subject to the provisions of the treaty. 
Under article III of the treaty the parties agree 
to promote international cooperation in scientific 
investigation in Antarctica in the manner in wliich 
this has, in fact, been done during the past several 
years. 

The difficult question of territorial claims, 
which have been made in Antarctica by seven 
countries, is in effect held in status quo during the 
duration of the treaty by article IV, wliich pro- 
vides that nothing in the treaty shall be inter- 
preted as a renunciation or recognition of claims 



or bases of claims to territorial sovereignty in 
Antarctica. Tlie United States has not asserted 
any claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica. 
Nor has the United States recognized any claims 
made by others there, but has consistently reserved 
all of its rights throughout the whole of 
Antarctica. 

These rights and interests are substantial and 
are based on a long record of discovery, explora- 
tion, and other activities. The article on claims 
represents a mutually acceptable solution to a dif- 
ficult problem on which agi-eement was reached by 
both claimants and nonclaimants only after long 
and careful consideration and negotiation. This 
holding in sfattis qu^ for the duration of the treaty 
of the question of claims will permit cooperation 
in scientific and administrative matters to be car- 
ried out in a constructive manner without being 
hampered or affected by rivalry regarding the 
question of claims. 

Ajiotlier provision of the treaty is its prohibition 
in article V of nuclear explosions and the disposal 
of atomic waste in Antarctica, pending general 
international agreement on this subject. This pro- 
vision is of great importance to the Southern 
Hemisphere signatories, who live in much closer 
proximity to Antarctica than we do and where 
there is great public concern over the possible ef- 
fect of radioactive fallout. As you know, the pre- 
vailing winds blow northward from the south 
polar regions. 

Membership, Jurisdiction, and Disputes 

Accession to the treaty (article XIII) is per- 
mitted to any member of the United Nations, and 
any other state invited to do so with the unani- 
mous consent of all the contracting parties which 
either were original signatories or are active in 
Antarctica. By these means additional states may 
acquire the rights and assume the obligations of 
the treaty. It is hoped tliat there will be wide- 
spread accession to the treaty, thus strengthening 
its status in the realm of international law. 

Article VIII deals with certain aspects of the 
problem of jurisdiction over pei-sons in Antarc- 
tica. It is provided, without prejudice to the basic 
position of any contracting party concerning juris- 
diction over persons in Antarctica in general, that 
persons designated as observers in implementation 
of the provision on inspection and scientific per- 
sonnel exchanged under programs of scientific co- 



50 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



operation are subject only to the jurisdiction of 
the country of which they are nationals. This is 
important as making moi-e effective the provisions 
regarding the right of inspection. 

Article XI deals with the settlement of disputes 
arising among parties to the treaty, concerning its 
interpretation or application. It provides that 
the parties shall seek to solve such disputes by 
peaceful means and that, with tlie consent of all 
parties to a dispute, the dispute be referred to the 
International Court of Justice. 

Article IX provides for consultative meetings 
of the treaty parties. Under this article repre- 
sentatives will meet periodically to consult on mat- 
ters of common interest and to consider and rec- 
ommend measures in furtherance of the principles 
and objectives of the treaty. The participants at 
these meetings will be all of the original signa- 
tories and, in addition, those acceding states during 
such time as they demonstrate their interest in 
Antarctica by conducting substantial scientiiic re- 
search activity there. The measures recommended 
will not be effective until unanimously approved by 
the treaty parties, but it is specifically provided 
that any party may exercise any right given it un- 
der the treaty without further approval by the 
other parties. 

The treaty is of indefinite duration but may be 
amended at any time by the unanimous agreement 
of the consultative parties. After 30 years amend- 
ments may be proposed by majority agreement, 
and if not agrmi within 2 years any party may 
withdraw on 2 years' notice. 

This treaty does not settle all of the problems 
of ^\_ntarctica for all time, nor does it attempt to 
do so. It does, however, represent a significant 
advance in the attempt, based on United States 
initiative, to bring some form of international or- 
der to a large area of the earth's surface where 
none has existed heretofore. 

Summary of U.S. Objectives 

The main objectives of our Government in nego- 
tiating this treaty may be smnmarized as follows: 

First, to prevent the use of Antarctica for mili- 
tary purposes and to assure that this continent 
should continue to remain an area where only 
peaceful activities are pursued. As regards this 
objective, article I stipulates that Antarctica shall 
be used for peaceful purposes only and that all 
measures of a military nature there are forbidden. 

July n, 7960 



Of coui-se, we know that agreements prohibiting 
military activity in a certain area must necessarily 
be complemented by some system of effective con- 
trol in order to assure their observance. Now, 
in this treaty, the provisions of article VII which 
I have outlined establish sweeping, immediate, 
and unilateral rights of inspection pursuant to 
which U.S. observers may go anywhere through- 
out xVjitarctica at any time. In addition, there 
are established absolute, unrestricted rights of 
overflight for aerial observation. 

Second, to continue the valuable scientific in- 
vestigation throughout Antarctica which our 
scientists have been engaged in for the past several 
yeai-s and to promote the continuation of inter- 
national cooperation for the purpose of such 
scientific investigation among the parties to the 
treaty, in the manner that was instituted during 
the International Geophysical Year. In this re- 
gard, article II of the ti-eaty provides that scien- 
tific investigation and cooperation to that end, as 
practiced during the International Geophysical 
Year, will continue, subject, of course, to the 
provisions of the treaty. 

Third, to eliminate controvereies arising out of 
territorial claims asserted in Antarctica and to 
eliminate, insofar as possible, any political rivalry 
which accompanies them. In this regard article 
IV provides a mutually agreeable solution to a 
delicate problem, and, in particular, by expressly 
establishing that activities conducted in Antarc- 
tica while the treaty is in force shall not constitute 
a basis for assertion or enlargement of a claim, it 
discourages activities motivated by political 
rivalry and facilitates continued scientific in- 
vestigations miliampered by problems of this 
kind. 

Finally, to establish a system of continuing con- 
sultation among the govermnents of coimtries ac- 
tively engaged in scientific investigation in 
Antarctica. In this regard article IX provides 
for periodic meetings at suitable intervals for con- 
sultation on matters of common interest and for 
the consideration of measures recommended in 
furtherance of the principles and objectives of the 
treaty. This provision is designed to perpetuate 
the spirit of cooperation among the nations active 
in the Antarctic and to provide machinery for 
dealmg with problems and opportunities in the 
Antarctic which only time will disclose. 

Secretary of State Herter declared in his report 

51 



to President P^isenhower on February 4^ that the 
Antarctic treaty is a substantial achievement and 
that its ratification will further peaceful coopera- 
tion in the attainment of scientific progress in an 
entire continent. He also declared that this treaty, 
based on the will to maintain peace in an impor- 
tant area of the world, should be ratified because 
it is in the best interests of the United States and 
of all mankind. 

In conclusion I point out that tliis treaty was 
conceived by the United States, the conference 
whicli drafted it was called at the instance of the 



United States, and tlie treaty contains all the pro- 
visions which the United States conceived were 
required for the protection of its national interest. 
It is also a significant step forward in the field of 
international cooperation for peaceful purposes. 
Because of the fact of United States initiative, 
it cannot be expected that other parties will ratify 
this treaty until the United States has firet acted. 
It is therefore important that the United States 
act promptly so tliat the other parties may act and 
the treaty, with its benefits, go into effect at an 
early date. 



Department Supports Industrial Property Convention Revision 
and Commercial Treaties With Pakistan and France 



Folloiving are two statements presented hy Ed- 
win M. Martin, De-puty Assistant Secretary for 
Economic Affairs, on June 21 to the Senate For- 
eign Relations Committee, one in support of the 
Lisbon revision of the Convention for the Pro- 
tection of Industrial Property and a congressional 
resolution authorizing U.S. contributions to the 
administering bureau, and the other in support of 
a treaty of friendship and commerce with Paki- 
stan and a convention of establishment with 
France. 



INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY CONVENTION 

Press release 336 dated June 21 

Mr. Chairman, I am appearing in support of 
the Convention of Paris for the Protection of In- 
dustrial Property of March 20, 1883,^ as revised 
at Lisbon in October 1958. The convention has 
l^reviously been revised four times. The revised 
convention was transmitted to the Senate by the 
President on Februai-y 17, 1960.^ The United 
States was a party to the original convention and 
became a party to the four later revisions. Under 



For text, see S. Ex. B, 86th Cong., 2d sess. 
38 Stat. 1645, 47 Stat. 1789, and .53 Stat. 1748. 
R. Ex. D, SCth Cong., 2d sess. 



the convention's provisions, the United States and 
the other 49 member countries are constituted into 
an International Union for the Protection of In- 
dustrial Property. They are parties to one or 
more of the last three revisions, which are cur- 
rently in force. 

The Secretary of State, in his report to the 
President in February of this year, stated that 
United States participation in the new convention 
will not only significantly improve the protection 
in this field accorded United States private inter- 
ests abroad but will also insure continuing and 
sound cooperative relations with the other 49 
countries that are parties to one or more of the 
revisions of the convention presently in force. 

Background of industrial Property Convention 

The industrial property convention, with tlie re- 
visions presently in force, is the major inter- 
governmental instrument assuring protection of 
industrial property rights of United States na- 
tionals abroad, namely, patents, trademarks, de- 
signs, commercial names, and related rights. It is 
based on two important underlying principles: 
that of national treatment and that of the ex- 
tension of special rights or advantages. Under 
the national treatment principle, each member 
government is required to extend to nationals of 
other member countries the same protection and 



Hepatimen^ of Sfofe Bulhtin 



rights which it grants to its own nationals in this 
field. Under the second principle, each country is 
required to provide certain rights or special ad- 
vantages for other members' nationals, one of the 
most important of which is the right of priority 
for foreign patent applicants. Such applicants 
have a 1-year period, from the date of filing of 
the first application in their own country, in 
which to file corresponding applications which are 
given the benefit of the date of the first filing and 
receive protection thereon in other member 
countries. 

Prior to the adoption of this international ar- 
rangement in 1883 there were no internationally 
miiform grounds for industrial property protec- 
tion and inventors sometimes encountered almost 
insurmountable obstacles m efforts to protect their 
inventions in various foreign countries. This 
situation was markedly improved when the in- 
dustrial property convention, which was negoti- 
ated and signed in Paris in 1883, came into force 
the following year. The United States, which was 
not one of the original members, acceded to the 
convention in the spring of 1887. After 1883 there 
were four successive revisions prior to the Lisbon 
conference of 1958. The United States became a 
party to each of these four revisions, which 
brought about significant improvements in the con- 
vention's protective framework. The changes 
which were made over the years strengthened and 
made more effective the patent and trademark 
protection to be afforded nationals of member 
countries. 

During the 76 years of the convention's exist- 
ence, additional coimtries have become parties to 
one or more of its revisions, bringing the current 
total to 50. Practically all of the important in- 
dustrial and commercial comitries are members, 
with the exception of the Soviet Union. 

New Revision Adopted in 1958 

The latest conference of revision at Lisbon was 
attended by representatives of 40 member coun- 
tries and by observers from 9 additional countries 
as well as numerous intergoveriunental and private 
organizations. Thirty member countries signed 
the revised convention at the conference, as did one 
nonmember country. Two other member countries 
signed at a later date. 

The conference considered a large number of 
proposals for revision of the convention which had 
been submitted by governments as well as leading 

July 11, 1960 

555339—60 S 



international organizations interested in this field. 
It eventually adopted some changes in all but 5 of 
the 19 existing articles of the convention. Six new 
articles were added. 

One of the chief accomplislunents was a com- 
plete rewriting of the basic provisions concerning 
the protection of trademarks in such a way as to 
increase substantially the protection accorded for 
the trademark rights of nationals of member coim- 
tries. For example, under the provisions adopted 
at Lisbon, an American national now clearly may 
register a trademark in any member country by 
complying with the formalities of such country 
without having to prove the existence of a regis- 
tration in the United States. 

Further, the conference was able to agree on the 
inclusion of a requirement that all countries grant 
protection to industrial designs. It also included 
in the convention for the first time specific refer- 
ence to the protection of trademarks associated 
with services, as distinct from those used to iden- 
tify goods. 

A longstanding deficiency in the convention has 
been the lack of machineiy for interim meetings 
by the member govermnents between conferences 
of revision to study and discuss problems arising 
under the convention and to supervise more 
closely the operations of the Liternational Bureau, 
presently located at Bern, which administers the 
convention. One of the most significant steps 
taken at the conference, therefore, was to include 
in the revised convention a provision for regular 
triennial meetings of representatives of the con- 
vention members. Tliis will enable such repre- 
sentatives to discuss more frequently than in the 
past conunon problems respecting the administra- 
tion of their respective patent and trademark laws 
in relation to their convention obligations. They 
will also be in a better position to coordinate the 
preparatory work and resolve administrative 
details in connection with future conferences of 



Support for the Convention 

Leading business and professional groups in the 
United States interested in the industrial property 
rights field worked closely with United States 
Government representatives preparatory to the 
adoption of instructions to the United States dele- 
gation to the Lisbon conference. These groups 
included, among others, the American Patent Law 
Association, the American Bar Association, the 



53 



International Patent and Trademark Association, 
the United States Trademark Association, the Na- 
tional Foreign Trade Council, and the United 
States Council of the International Chamber of 
Commerce. The delegation also included three 
leading private patent and trademai-k attorneys 
as advisers, namely, Mr. Albeit R. Teare, presi- 
dent. International Patent and Trademark Asso- 
ciation; Dr. Stephen P. Ladas of the law fiim 
Langner, Pariy, Card, and Langner of New Yoi-k 
City ; and Mr. Jolm D. Myers of Philadelphia. 

The Department is not aware of any leading 
business or professional group that is opposed to 
the United States' becoming a party to the I'evision 
adopted at Lisbon. Further, it is known that the 
new convention has received the specific approval 
of some of the most important organizations 
interested in this field, as, for example, the Na- 
tional Foreign Trade Coimcil, the United States 
Council of the International Chamber of Com- 
merce, and the Patent and Trademark Section of 
the American Bar Association. 

In the Department's opinion the new convention 
merits this strong support because of the improve- 
ments which it will effect in the international 
system for protecting industrial property rights. 
In this connection it might be noted that the con- 
vention is not designed to replace existing inter- 
national agreements of a regional nature in this 
field. 

As to the implementation of the latest revision, 
under the terms of article 17 it is clear that the 
new revision is not self -executing; that is, its rati- 
fication would not by itself modify our domestic 
law. Any changes in the United States patent or 
trademark laws that are necessai-y to apply the 
provisions of the new revision must be enacted by 
the Congi-ess. A draft biU for this purpose was 
transmitted to the Senate on March 7, 1960, and 
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. A 
similar bill, H.E. 11070, is currently before the 
House Committee on the Judiciary. Only a rath- 
er minor change in the United States patent and 
trademark laws will be needed in connection with 
the new revision. It will be necessary to amend 
the patent and trademark laws to permit appli- 
cants to claim their right of priority in the United 
States not only from the date of their first filing 
but also from the date of a subsequent filing in 
a member country should the first filing be with- 
drawn under certain specified conditions. The 
United States instrument of ratification will not be 



deposited until after the above-cited bills embody- 
ing these changes are enacted. This treaty creates 
no problem with regard to Federal-State 
relations. 

Improved Relations in Industrial Property Rights 
Field 

It is the view of the Department of State that 
United States acceptance of the new revision will 
significantly improve the protection in this field 
accorded to United States private interests abroad. 
Such acceptance will also set an excellent example 
for other countries who are considering adherence 
to the new revision. Fmally, United States par- 
ticipation in the new revision will insure that our 
relations with the other 49 countries which are 
parties to one or more revisions will continue on 
a sound basis in this important field of industrial 
property rights protection. 

For these important reasons the Department 
is firmly convinced that ratification of this new 
revision is highly desirable. It therefore strongly 
endorses the new revision and implementing legis- 
lation. 

U.S. Contributions to International Bureau 

Mr. Chairman, I also wish to comment on an- 
other important matter related to the industrial 
property convention; that is. Senate Joint Res- 
olution 149 to authorize certain contributions in- 
cident to United States participation in the Inter- 
national Bureau, which administers this conven- 
tion. House Joint Resolution 627, which is 
identical to this Senate resolution, was approved 
by the House on June 6, 1960. 

The International Bureau, which is located in 
Bern, Switzerland, is supervised and staffed by 
the Swiss Govermnent. The Bureau draws its 
financial support from contributions paid by the 
member governments in accordance with the rele- 
vant provisions of the convention. The Bureau 
performs special functions on behalf of the con- 
vention members, including the preparatory and 
administrative work of the conferences of revision 
and the collection and distribution of specialized 
information in the international industrial prop- 
erty rights field. It has been used to great ad- 
vantage by the United States as a forum for en- 
couraging other governments to afford protection 
for the patent and trademark rights of American 
inventors and businessmen comparable to that 
which they enjoy in the United States. 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



Request for Payment of Arrearages 

The convention, as cuiTently in eff© 
that the budget of the Bureau shall not exceed 
140,000 Swiss francs, approximately $33,000 per 
annum. On this basis the United States share is 
7,500 Swiss francs, about $1,767, or slightly over 
5 percent. The convention further provides that 
the budget maximum may only be increased by 
a unanimous decision of a diplomatic conference 
of the member states. Late in 1947 tlie Swiss 
Government, on behalf of the Bern Bureau, at- 
tempted to raise the budget ceiling in order to 
meet the higher administrative costs of the organ- 
ization. Instead of calling a diplomatic con- 
ference, the Swiss Government circulated a 
diplomatic note to member governments asking 
that the budget ceiling be raised. The ceiling 
was in fact subsequently raised, and by 1949 
virtually all the members were contributing at 
a higher budget level except the United States. 
The United States maintained that, in the absence 
of congressional authorization, it could not con- 
tribute at this higher level because the new budget 
ceiling had not been established in accordance 
with relevant provisions of the convention (arti- 
cle 13(6)). This article provides that increases 
in the budget ceiling are to be made by imanimous 
decision of the member governments at a diplo- 
matic conference of revision. The sum of $10,514 
(approximately 45,000 Swiss francs) requested 
in Senate Joint Resolution 149 constitutes tlie 
difference between the amounts we have already 
paid on the basis of the convention limitation and 
the amount we would have paid had we been able 
to contribute on the same basis as the rest of 
the membership of the Bureau. 

Request for an Increase in Future Annual Contri- 
butions 

The Bureau is now operating within a ceiling 
of about 235,000 Swiss francs, which has proven 
inadequate for the Bureau's administrative work 
under the convention. The Bureau has covered 
its additional costs by utilizing credits extended 
by the Swiss Government, as the Administering 
Authority, and fimds received for rendering cer- 
tain international trademark and design registra- 
tion sei-vices which it performs for approximately 
20 governments, under other conventions to which 
the United States is not party. Based on the 
Bureau's expenditure for administering industrial 



pi-operty convention activities, it is estimated that 
the Bureau will require a future budget of 588,000 
Swiss francs (approximately $138,000). 

At the 1958 conference of revision at Lisbon, 
the United States supported a proposed resolu- 
tion to raise the budget ceiling to 588,000 Swiss 
francs and also to amend the provisions of the 
convention so as to permit periodic revisions of 
the budget ceiling without the need of a diplo- 
matic conference of revision. However, the 
Soviet bloc coimtries that were present opposed 
these proposals on the gi-ounds that since East 
Germany had not been invited as a member coun- 
ti-y nothing could be approved in its absence, 
thus making unanimity on this issue impossible. 
Soviet bloc compromise solutions were so worded 
that approval could have been construed as an 
acceptance of the argument that East Germany 
should have been present. This was entirely un- 
acceptable to tlie West Grerman and United States 
delegations, and unanimous agre«ment was not 
possible. 

As a compromise, the conference fuially adopted 
a resolution, which invites 

The countries of the Union to raise their contribution, 
hoginning on the 1st of January 1955, in order to bring 
the funds of the International Bureau to the amount of 
eOO,000 Swiss francs annually. 

The United States amiual share, calculated on 
the basis of this new amotmt would be approx- 
imately $7,250. We have informed the Bureau 
that it would be advised in due course whether 
or not this Government would be able to accept 
the invitation to increase its contribution. The 
most recent information available to us shows 
that 34 comitries have already responded afEnna- 
tively to this resolution. 

Mr. Cliairman, we believe that there was ample 
justification for the Bureau's requesting increased 
contributions from its members as a result of the 
expanded operating costs during the postwar 
period, based on a higher budget ceiling than con- 
tained in the convention revision of 1934. The 
United States is the only country still paying on 
the 1934 basis. In the meantime we have con- 
tinued to receive the additional benefits from the 
Bureau's activities without having paid what 
could be considered our proportionate share of the 
costs. It is thus considered in the best interests of 
the United States to make the contributions con- 
stituting the difference between the annual 
amounts paid for the United States fiscal years 



Ju/y T7, 7960 



55 



1950-59 and the amounts it would have paid based 
on the Bureau's actual costs of operation for these 
years. It is also our view that the activities of the 
Bureau should be continued at least at the same 
level. Finally, the benefits accruing to the United 
States warrant our acceptance of the invitation 
embodied in the 1958 resolution to raise our future 
annual contribution to the Bureau so that there is 
no impairment of the Bureau's activities and pro- 
grams. The Department, therefore, reconmiends 
that this committee give favorable consideration 
to Senate Joint Resolution 149. 



TREATIES WITH PAKISTAN AND FRANCE 

Press release 340 dated June 21 

I am appearing before the committee in support 
of the treaty of friendship and commerce with 
Pakistan ^ and the convention of establisliment 
with France.* These treaties, although differing 
from other agreements of the type as to official 
designation and somewhat as to content, are units 
in the series of commercial treaties initiated by 
this Government shortly after the Second World 
War. They constitute, respectively, the 18th and 
19th signed treaties in this series. 

These treaties, aside from certain omissions, con- 
form to the general pattern of the usual United 
States commercial treaty, numerous examples of 
which have received Senate approval in recent 
years. Their broad objectives are the same : to en- 
courage investment and commerce and to provide 
an agreed basis for the protection of American 
citizens, their property, and other interests in 
foreign countries. Their provisions are based 
upon existing precedents and contain no innova- 
tions raising problems as to their effect upon 
domestic law. 

What are regarded as the principal features of 
these treaties are referred to in the report of the 
Secretary of State that accompanies each treaty. 
To supplement and amplify that material the De- 
partment has prepared a paragraph-by-paragraph 
summary ,= which indicates the very considerable 
degree of correspondence between the provisions 
of these treaties and provisions in the Treaty of 



Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between 
the United States and the Netherlands, signed 
March 27, 1956, approved by the Senate July 11, 
1956," and now in force. I offer this tabulation 
for tlie record. I also offer for the record an up- 
to-date list ^ of the conmiercial treaties negotiated 
under the current program and of commercial 
treaties negotiated prior to the initiation of the 
current program and now in force. 

Treaty of Friendship and Commerce With Pakistan 

The treaty with Pakistan is regarded as fall- 
ing particularly within the terms of congres- 
sional policy expressed in section 413 of the 
Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended. That 
section provides that the President 

. . . shall accelerate a program of negotiating treaties 
for commerce and trade . . . which shall include pro- 
visions to encourage and facilitate the flow of private 
investment to . . . nations participating in programs 
under this Act. 

Pakistan has long participated extensively in such 
programs. The aim of the treaty is to help to 
assure conditions favorable to foreign private 
investment. 

The signature of this treaty is only one of a 
number of steps recently taken by the Govern- 
ment of Pakistan looking to promotion of the 
economic development of the coimtry. Others 
include a treaty for the avoidance of double taxa- 
tion, an investment guaranty agi-eement, and sev- 
eral domestic measures, of whicli special mention 
may be made of provision for the exemption, in 
certain circumstances, of new investment from 
taxation for a period of years. The completion of 
this treaty would seem to add a fitting keystone 
to the steps the two coimtries have taken in co- 
operation to give Pakistan a satisfactory basis 
for economic growth. It is hoped that acceptance 
of the treaty by Pakistan will facilitate negotia- 
tions for similar treaties with other countries in 
southern Asia. 

Convention of Establishment With France 

France, of course, being a highly industrial- 
ized country, is not now in great need of the basic 
requirements of economic development. It con- 



' S. Ex. F, 86th Cong., 2d i 
* S. Ex. G, 86th Cong., 2d s 
° Not printed here. 



•For text, see Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 3M2. 



Department of State Bulletin 



stitutes, however, an attractive field for the estab- 
lisliment of iVmerican investment and trading 
enterprises, and a gi-owing group of French 
enterprises operate in the United States. The 
treaty provides the type of assurances that are 
regarded as advantageous to such enterprises. In 
this connection may be mentioned especially the 
matter of rights of employment, particularly of 
personnel essential to an enterprise. Heretofore, 
in the absence of a commercial treaty, French 
enterprises in the United States have not enjoyed 
the advantages provided by the immigration act 
with regard to treaty-traders and treaty-investors. 
France does not, of course, restrict immigration in 
the same manner as the United States. Entry 
into France is relatively free, but employment of 
aliens is highly restricted through a system of 
work permits. In the provisions of the treaty 
and the accompanying joint declaration, a sin- 
cere effort has been made to assure that Ameri- 
cans will be able to obtain work permits in France 
to an extent fully commensurate with the rights of 
entry and employment that acci-ue to French na- 
tionals under the Immigration and Nationality 
Act. 

Two other aspects of the convention with 
France are worthy of note. First, the establish- 
ment of the European Economic Community has 
given rise to concern as to the possibility of pref- 
erential treatment of the interests of member 
countries, to the disadvantage of the interests of 
nonmembers. The Rome treaty contemplates the 
extension by each member state of a considerable 
degree of national treatment to enterprises estab- 
lished under the laws of other members. There- 
fore treaties such as tliis convention with France, 
which assure national treatment to United States 
enterprises with respect to establishment and the 
carrying on of a wide range of activities, should 
have the effect also of contributing to favorable 
treatment of certain types of United States enter- 
prises throughout the Community. INIoreover, the 
United States will have, upon the completion of 
this treaty with France, treaties with the foui- 
largest membei-s of the Community (the others 
are Italy, the Federal Eepublic of Germany, and 
the Netherlands) which contain extensive assur- 
ances of nondiscriminatory treatment for Ameri- 
can enterprises. 

The other aspect has to do with this Govern- 



ment's policies directed to reaffirming and 
strengthening the principles of international law 
concerning the property rights and other rights of 
aliens. Persons concerned with the problems of 
foreign investment, not only in tliis country but 
throughout the world, are disturbed at the lack of 
respect shown for private property interest from 
time to time in many areas. Treaty assurances 
are widely regarded as an important means of 
preventing such disrespect. The formal endorse- 
ment by France of the property-protection rules 
expressed in our treaties, particularly that regard- 
ing just compensation for property taken for 
public use, serves as a significant and timely re- 
inforcement of our own effoiis in this regard. 
We cannot consider subscription to these prin- 
ciples as a duty of the less developed coimtries 
alone; the readiness of the more developed coun- 
tries to set a good example by incorporating these 
rules in agreements between themselves is a very 
important consideration in establishing them as 
worldwide standards of conduct. 

Principal Omissions From Treaties 

I should now like to refer briefly to the principal 
omissions I mentioned at the beginning of my 
statement. Neither of these treaties contains pro- 
visions on shipping. Such provisions are to be 
found in all the other treaties in the current series, 
but there are precedents for such omissions in 
earlier agreements. In the case of Pakistan we 
are dealing with a young nation that has not yet 
settled fully its policies on all matters related to 
international relations. One of the country's seri- 
ous problems concerns transportation and com- 
mimications between East Pakistan and West 
Pakistan. Government officials in Pakistan have 
taken the position that it would be advantageous 
to their coimtry if a conamon coasting trade could 
be established for Pakistan, India, and Ceylon, in 
wliich vessels of all three countries could partici- 
pate on equal terms but with vessels of all other 
countries excluded. They wished to include a res- 
ervation in the treaty to permit such an arrange- 
ment. According to U.S. policy, such a system 
would constitute discrimination in international 
trade, and it was felt that such a reservation would 
establish an undesirable precedent in our treaties. 
Hence it was decided to omit the shipping provi- 
sions. Pakistan does not now discriminate against 



July 11, 1960 



foreign shipping in any way, except to favor na- 
tional vessels in the coasting trade when such ves- 
sels are available. 

In the case of France, certain existing arrange- 
ments favor French national shipping. An agree- 
ment with Tunisia limits trade between the two 
countries to Tunisian and French vessels, thus con- 
tinuing the situation prevailing before Tunisian 
independence. In addition, French vessels are fa- 
vored in the importation of a very limited number 
of coimnodities into France. The French Govern- 
ment concluded that it could not undertake to 
abandon these arrangements at the present time. 
Again, in order to avoid seeming to compromise 
with discriminatory practices, the Department 
concluded that it would be best to drop navigation 
provisions from the treaty. Eepresentatives of 
United States shipping interests have in the past 
advised the Department that they preferred no 
treaty commitments on shipping to commitments 
that departed in any way from the usual assur- 
ances of nondiscrimination. It is understood that 
the French practices above referred to do not in 
fact affect injuriously United States shipping in- 
terests at the present time and that the French 
Goverimient, through the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation, has joined in a policy 
of not extending existing discriminatory practices. 

There have also been omitted from the treaty 
with France the reciprocal commitments to accord 
most-favored-nation treatment to imports and ex- 
ports and the usual ancillary provisions relating 
to trade in goods. These provisions in our treaties 
are comparable to provisions in the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade and are consequently 
not regarded as essential in treaties with countries 
that are parties to the general agreement, as is the 
case with France. Along with other governments 
in Western Europe, the French Government is 
much preoccupied with developments in connec- 
tion with the European Economic Community and 
is reluctant to enter into long-term engagements 
on trade matters for fear of resulting difficulties 
for the European integration plans. A similar 
attitude was encountered in the Netherlands nego- 
tiation in 1955-56 but was satisfactorily solved 
through a special arrangement incorporated in an 
exchange of notes. This type of solution was not 
acceptable to the French, and it was mutually 
agreed not to attempt to negotiate new trade pro- 
visions in connection with this treaty. 



Presidential Authority Souglit 
To Reduce Sugar^Quotas 

Statement ty Secretary Herter ^ 

The administration's recommendations for 
amendment on the Sugar Act were submitted to 
the Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives and 
to the Vice President on March 15, 1960, by the 
Acting Secretary of Agriculture. Very few 
changes were recommended. These recommenda- 
tions included a i-year extension and certain tech- 
nical changes in the act wliich were designed to 
make the Sugar Act operate more smootlily and 
effectively. 

In addition the Congress was asked to delegate 
to the President authority to reduce the quota of 
any country other than the Republic of the Philip- 
pines (whose quota is established by treaty) when 
he found it necessary to do so in the national in- 
terest or to insure adequate supplies of sugar. The 
Secretary of Agriculture, who administers the 
Sugar Act, and the Secretary of State, who must 
consider the effect which any change in domestic 
legislation may have on our international commit- 
ments, were agreed that such authority was neces- 
sary under existing circumstances. 

The primary reason for requesting this grant of 
interim authority to adjust quotas was to safe- 
guard consumers in this country from possible in- 
terruptions in supply and fluctuations in price. I 
need not tell you that our concern was with condi- 
tions in Cuba. Under the terms of the Sugar Act 
presently m effect Cuba enjoys a quota of 3,119,655 
tons, or approximately one-third of the total 
United States requirements for sugar, currently 
estimated at 9,400,000 tons for 1960. In addition 
the present law provides that the Cuban quota be 
increased if deficits are declared in the domestic 
areas, as now appears certain. This is a very large 
proportion of our total sugar supply. 

In the past Cuba has been a dependable source, 
responsive to United States needs and responsible 
in situations of emergency. Cuban production in 
recent years, approxunately 5,800,000 tons in 1958 
and 6,000,000 tons in 1959, has been more than ade- 
quate to meet the needs of the United States and 
to supply Cuba's traditional world markets. It 



" Made before the House Committee on Agriculture on 
June 22 (press release 343). 



Department of State Bulletin 



should be noted that, for most of the time since 
the Sugar Act went into effect, the price received 
by Cuba for sales to the United States has been 
higher than the price prevailing on world mar- 
kets. However, for a period of several months in 
1950 and 1951, during the Korean war, and again 
in 1957, following the Suez crisis, Cuba continued 
to supply sugar to tJie United States even though 
the world price was at levels considerably higher 
than those prevailing in the United States. 

Recent developments, however, have raised ques- 
tions in our minds as to whether Cuba will be a 
dependable source in the future. Cuban official 
spokesmen have announced, not once but on many 
occasions, their desire to divereify agi-icultural 
production and to eliminate what they have 
termed "the evils of monoproduction" and "the 
dependence on foreign markets." Steps already 
taken to achieve this professed objective, in addi- 
tion to the problems inherent in the Government's 
plan to redistribute the land under the agrarian 
law, have led knowledgeable observers to predict 
that Cuba's sugar production will soon register 
a decline of at least 1,000,000 tons from current 
levels. Wliat implementation of this progi'am 
will do to Cuba's sugar production over the long 
term is imcertain at this time, but we cannot ex- 
clude the possibility of a further progi-essive de- 
cline in years to come. 

It should also be borne in mind, in connection 
with Cuba's future ability to supply the United 
States market, that the Cuban Government has 
recently entered into an agi'eement with the Soviet 
Union under which it is committed to supply 
1,000,000 tons of sugar annually during the next 
5 yeai-s. Trade agreements have also been signed 
recently with East Germany and Poland calling 
for shipments of 60,000 tons and 50,000 tons, re- 
spectively. Eeports are current that an agree- 
ment involving the shipment of a half million 
tons of sugar to Commmiist China is presently 
under active consideration. This would be in 
addition to 50,000 tons sold to Communist China 
in March. 

Because of these and other circumstances this 
would be an appropriate time for the United 
States to seek ways to diversify its sources of 
supply and reduce the dependence of its consumers 
on Cuban sugar, the supply of which may become 
increasingly uncertain. It is noted that, on the 
last two occasions when the Sugar Act was re- 



vised, the Congress made changes which had the 
effect of giving more of our market to other pro- 
ducers and limiting the share of the market going 
to Cuba. However, even with a substantial re- 
duction from present levels Cuba would be by far 
the largest single source of sugar for the United 
States. 

In conclusion, while of course we are convinced 
that the original administration recommendations 
were sound, our position on the bills which I un- 
deretand are still actively before the committee 
or the Plouse as they relate to Presidential author- 
ity is as follows. We believe it would be a serious 
mistake to deny the President authority to act in 
tliis area. And while we believe that the national 
interest could be better protected under the flex- 
ible authority to the President as provided in H.R. 
12534, I nevertheless believe we could operate 
within the less flexible authority which would be 
provided in H.R. 12624. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 



86th Congress, 2d Session 

Operations of the Development Loan Fund. Hearings 
before a subcommittee of the House Government Oper- 
ations Committee. August 18, 1959-March 7, 1960. 
936 pp. 

Semiannual Report of the National Advisory Council on 
International Monetary and Financial Problems. Letter 
from the chairman of the National Advisory Council, 
together with text of the report for the period January 
1-June 30, 1959. H. Doc. 380. April 19, 1960. 77 pp. 

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution 
of the Seas by Oil. Hearing before the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee on Ex. C, 86th Congress, 2d session. 
May 17, 1960. 28 pp. 

Communist Threat to the United States Through the 
Caribbean. Hearing before the Subcommittee To In- 
vestigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee. Part VI. Testimony of Edward 
J. Whitehouse. May 26, 1960. 16 pp. 

Events Incident to the Summit Conference. Hearings 
before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. May 
27-June 2, 1960. 302 pp. 

World Newsprint Supply-Demand : Outlook Through 1961. 
Report of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce pursuant to section 136 of the Legislative Reor- 
ganization Act of 1946, Public Law 601, 79th Congress, 
and House Resolution 56, 86th Congress. H. Rept. 1669. 
May 27, 1960. 30 pp. 

Favoring Active Participation by Federal Agencies in 
the Fifth International Congress on High-speed Pho- 
tography. Report to accompany S. Con. Res. 75. H. 
Rept. 1733. June 1, 1960. 5 pp. 

Extension of Marlicting Order Quality Standards to Im- 
ported Walnuts and Dates. Report to accompany H.R. 
12341. H. Rept. 1734. June 1, 1960. 6 pp. 



July 11, I960 



59 



International Communism in Latin America 



Statement hy R. R. Rubottom, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs ' 



I welcome this timely opportunity to join the 
subcommittee at this time in a discussion of inter- 
national communism in Latin America. 

The events of the past few months have brought 
to the surface the greatly intensified effort of the 
Soviet Union and Commimist China in Latin 
America to break down the common front which 
all of the nations of this hemisphere have tradi- 
tionally presented against totalitarian dictator- 
ships in the Old World. 

Chairman Khrushchev, shortly after returning 
to Moscow after shattering the hopes vested by 
all peaceful people in the summit meeting and 
brusquely canceling the invitation extended to 
our President to visit the Soviet Union, accepted 
an invitation to visit a Latin American country. 
This country, he made plain at his Paris press 
conference after the summit breakdown, should 
serve as a model for revolutions in other Latin 
American countries. Several times in the last 
several months Chairman Mao Tse-tung appears 
to have gone out of his way to receive Latin Amer- 
ican Communist leaders and to exhort them to 
give their full backing to the kind of revolution 
which he and Chairman Khnishchev like. Every- 
wliere in Latin America the Communist parties 
liave now reverted to a belligerent and revolu- 
tionary line aimed as much at trying to capture 
sincere nationalism and weakening the democratic 
governments of Latin America as at fanning 
hatred of the United States. 



'Made before the Subcommittee on Inter-American 
Affairs of the House Foreign Affairs Committee on 
June 20. 



To understand the intensity of the current Com- 
munist drive in Latin America, I think it is neces- 
sary to examine the fundamentals of our relations 
with Latin America. These relations are based 
on common principles, and these principles are 
alien to Communist ideology. Latm Americans, 
just as we in the United States, set the highest 
value on freedom, and we believe that this freedom 
is best assured by the effective exercise of repre- 
sentative democracy. Neither Latin Americans 
nor the peoples of this country believe that the 
"dictatorship of the proletariat" is a desirable 
goal for political activity, nor do we believe that it 
is a necessary or desirable phase which society in- 
evitably must go through to achieve the better 
material life to which we all aspire. 

Latin America does not believe, any more than 
we do, that suppression is the road to freedom. 
We see this clearly in the great ground swell 
which has swept so many dictatorships from the 
Latin American scene in the last several years, and 
we may rest assured that ultimately Latin Amer- 
ica will just as decisively reject dictatoreliips mas- 
querading behind a totalitarian, atheistic ideology. 
Peoples in the American Eepublics aspire to soci- 
eties in which the individual free man can, througli 
the ballot box, have a voice in his destiny. 

Another outlook which unites the Americas is 
a common concept of the goal of economic activ- 
ity. Latin America shares with us the concept 
tliat the goal is a better life for all citizens. Like 
us they deplore the existence of totalitarian sys- 
tems in which citizens are forced to devote their 
energies and dissipate their wealth to maintain 
a liigh level of armaments and to subsidize tlie 



60 



Deparfmenf of Sfo/e BuUeiin 



foreign subversive and propaganda activities de- 
signed to impose that system on other peoples. 
Latin Americans, a highly individualistic people, 
believe in economic as well as political freedom 
and, in the last analysis, reject the regimentation 
which all totalitarian ideologies seek to impose 
upon them. 

And what of moral and spiritual values which 
are the antithesis of communism? They consti- 
tute a great bulwark of strength against Com- 
munist penetration of the Americas, which would 
destroy them if successful, although obviously 
they need to be reinforced by visible evidence of 
economic and social progress. 

Finally, Latin America joins with us in a firm 
detennination that the hemisphere we share with 
it shall be secure from aggression from the out- 
side and resistant to the fifth column, subversive 
activity directed by totalitarianism. Tliis was 
their stand during World War II, and during 
the 15 years that the free world has been over- 
shadowed by the threat of Comniunist aggression 
and subversion, the Latin American countries — 
alone of the great underdeveloped areas — have 
virtually always been strong allies on all ques- 
tions involving the security of the free world 
against communism. 

I say all this to emphasize strongly that the 
Latin American countries themselves have as great 
a stake as we do in countering communism in the 
Western Hemisphere and that we must work to- 
gether with them to meet this threat. At the 
same time Latin America offers conditions which 
greatly tempt the Communists: It is an area in 
transition, facing myriad problems in attempt- 
ing rapidly to raise the standards of living and 
economic productivity of its people; profound 
changes are occurring in its political and social 
structure; its population is gi-owing more rapidly 
than that of any other area ; and widespread dis- 
satisfaction with existing conditions and an urge 
to reform are the order of the day. Inevitably 
this process of change — although ultimately lead- 
ing toward the goals of greater freedom and a 
higher living standard for the individual — brings 
temporarily frictions, frustrations, and malad- 
justments which the Communists seek to exacer- 
bate and to use to their advantage. Like the judo 
fighter, they seek cleverly to use the points of 
weakness to make the area's strength work against 
itself. 



Maximum and Minimum Goals of Communism 

At the present time it is clear that the Com- 
mimists have maximum and minimum goals in 
Latin America. As indicated by Mr. Khrush- 
chev's remarks at his Paris press conference, this: 
maximum goal is that a revolutionai-y pattern 
should spread throughout Latin America, charac- 
terized not only by virulent anti-Americanism 
but also by a radical economic transfonnation in 
which the jjrivate property of the local popidation 
as well as foreigners would be seized without com- 
pensation and the economy subjugated completely 
to the control of the state. It is also clear that 
the revolutionary pattern whicli Mr. Khrushchev 
desires is also to be characterized by the leading- 
role which the Communist Party is to play in the 
management of the revolution he hopes to see 
spread in the Latin American area. Should the 
Communists succeed in spreading this revolution 
in Latin America, they woidd have (1) dealt a 
heavy blow to the strength and unity of the free 
world and (2) doomed the peoples of the countries 
involved to the spiritless captivity which has al- 
ways followed massive Communist intervention 
and takeover. 

The Communists must, of course, realize that 
the chances that they will achieve this maximum 
objective are slim. Ultimately the Latin Ameri- 
can peoples themselves will not accept playing 
the role of a Soviet instnunent against the forces 
of freedom of which they are a part. The Com- 
munists, therefore, have a minimum objective as 
well. That minimmn objective is to provoke the 
United States into actions and attitudes inconsist- 
ent with the spirit of partnership which regulates 
inter-American relations and thus not only per- 
manently to damage our relations with Latin 
America but also to offset the image of Hungary 
and Tibet by portraying the United States before 
the world as an "aggi'essor" intervening in the 
internal affairs of its neighbors. 

It is important to note that these maximum and 
minimum objectives represent a slight but impor- 
tant shift in international Communist tactics in 
Latin America, adding up to a more aggressive 
policy. Some years back, during Stalin's time, the 
Communists in Latin America as elsewhere gen- 
erally had as their goal that the Communists 
should gain open control, and they considered 
"united front" tactics and the like merely as means 
to that goal. At that time the Communists were 



July 11, 1960 



61 



almost everywhere in Latin America openly 
dedicated to the overthrow of existing govern- 
ments. Although the Communists, of course, still 
retain the seizure of power and the establisliment 
of the dictatorship of the proletariat as their ul- 
timate goal, Khrushchev in the mid-1950's intro- 
duced more subtle policies. He thought that the 
short- and intermediate-term interests of interna- 
tional communism would best be served by collab- 
oration with nationalist elements in Asia, Africa, 
and Latin America, who he thought could be relied 
upon to be anti-U.S. even if they were non-Com- 
munists. Accordingly, on the international plane 
lie launched a govermnent-to-government diplo- 
matic and trade-and-aid offensive with nationalist 
goverimients, some of whom in Latin America as in 
the Near East and Africa were actually sup- 
pressing or restricting the local Communist 
parties. Within the countries the Communist 
parties were ordered to conceal their true revolu- 
tionary and subversive purposes and as respectable 
"democratic" parties seek alliances with nation- 
alist and leftist elements. It was evidently 
Khrushchev's hope that, by sacrificing to some ex- 
tent the immediate ambitions of Communist 
parties and having them adopt a "soft" line, he 
■could bring about a break between the nations of 
Asia, Africa, and Latin America on the one hand 
and the United States and its European allies on 
the other. 

Khrushchev's policy was soon revealed to have 
substantial deficiencies from the Communist point 
of view. Although several nations of Africa and 
Asia accepted his aid and were visited by him, they 
did not turn against the United States and they in 
many cases vigorously checked the subversi\-e and 
illegal activities. In Latin America, although the 
Commimists gave their support to non-Communist 
candidates and parties, they had little success with 
this method. In some cases the electorate rejected 
the candidates whom the Communists supported ; 
in others, candidates who had won with Commu- 
nist support subsequently excluded the Commu- 
nists. Thus among Communists a question arose 
as to whether the short-term "peaceful coexistence" 
policy meant the liquidation or weakening of the 
Communist parties on wliich the international 
Communist leadership ultimately had to depend 
if the long-range goal of communization Avas to be 
reached. 

Interestingly enough this question was very 
much in the foreground when the 21st Congress of 



62 



the Soviet Communist Party met in Moscow at the 
end of January 1959, approximately a month after 
the Batista goverimient in Cuba was overthrown. 
This Congress was attended by Latin American 
Conmiunist Party leaders from at least 18 of the 20 
Latin American Republics, and most of them sub- 
sequently went on to Peking. During their 
sojourn behind the Iron Curtain it was apparently 
decided that the full weight of the Communist ap- 
paratus in Latin America should be thrown behind 
the Cuban revolution and that there should be im- 
proved coordination between all of the Latin 
American Communist parties to make this more 
effective. 

Cuban Revolution 

The question arises : Why did international com- 
munism select the Cuban revolution at that time as 
the type of revolution to support? The answer 
perhaps may be found by an examination of the 
characteristics which differentiate the Cuban 
revolution from otber nationalist revolutions in 
Latin America as well as in Africa and Asia. 
From the Communist point of view one criterion 
must have been the degree of collaboration with 
the Communist Party. The difficulty they had 
seen in other nationalist revolutions was that the 
nationalists excluded rather than welcomed the 
collaboration of the Communist Party and the 
revolution thus ultimately serA^ed the purpose of 
local nationalism rather than Communist interna- 
tionalism. A second attractive characteristic in 
Conununist eyes was the determination of the 
Cuban revolutionary government to carry forward 
ruthlessly and without regard to the individual 
and property rights of free people a fundamental 
social and economic revolution which had as its 
professed aim to put all power in the hands of the 
"workers and peasants," this bemg a euphemistic 
expression to cover an utterly cynical dictatorship. 
In dealing with other nationalistic movements the 
Communists had always encountered opposition 
from the democratic classes, which resisted efforts 
of communization of the society. Finally, the 
Communists doubtlessly saw advantage in a 
revolution which claimed universal applicability 
throughout Latin America as distinct from na- 
tionalist revolutions confined to one country. We 
saw and heard Chairman Khrushchev take the 
Castro kind of government to his heart and then 
offer it to the rest of Latin America. 

Department of State Bulletin 



In deciding to throw their weight behind the 
Castro kind of revolution, the Communists brought 
into pLay considerable resources. In Latin Amer- 
ica it is estimated that there are 250,000 card- 
carrying Connnmiists. Although it is sometimes 
said that this is a small portion of the population, 
we must bear in mind that this represents at least 
20 times as many Commmiists as there are in the 
United States, which has a population approxi- 
mately equal to that of Latin America. The lead- 
ers of these Communists have been fully trained 
behind the Iron Curtam and have demonstrated 
extraordinai-y skill in establishmg Communist- 
front groups and in infiltrating into student, labor, 
and other groups. It has been estimated that it 
would take $100 million to finance a propaganda 
effort of the scope which the Communists are car- 
rying out in Latin America today. This propa- 
ganda offensive includes not only the huge amounts 
of Commmiist propaganda which are being pub- 
lished and disseminated within Latin America but 
also large tunounts of propaganda impoi-ted from 
the Communist bloc and distributed tlirough bloc 
missions in the area. Commmiist-bloc radio 
bi'oadcasts to Latin America extensively, and last 
year the Spanish-language broadcasts of Radio 
Peking were increased to the point that they are 
now second only to the worldwide English- 
language broadcasts. 

All of these assets are now concentrated on sup- 
porting and spreading the Castro kind of revo- 
lution thi'oughout Latin America. To this extent 
the Communists have moved away from the policy 
of collaborating with other non-Communist 
groups and are now emphasizing to a greater ex- 
tent the hitherto revolutionary approach, which 
constitutes a direct threat to the other Latin Amer- 
ican governments. Khrushchev has in speeches 
made it abundantly clear that he fidly supports 
the Cuban revolution. He fii-st made a reference 
to it in a speech before the Indian Parliament 
during his trip to that country earlier this year 
and has favorably referred to it on several occa- 
sions in addition to the endorsement which he gave 
at his Paris news conference. Coimnunist the- 
oretical publications in Peking, as well as Moscow, 
have also endorsed the Cuban revolution. It is 
noteworthy in this respect that the Cuban revolu- 
tion is singled out while there no longer are favor- 
able references to the other national movements 
of Asia and Africa which the Soviets formerly 



warmly endorsed. The Cuban revolution, in 
short, represents the pattern of revolution which 
the Communists would like to see spread through- 
out the miderdeveloped world to replace national 
independence and strengthening of individual po- 
litical and economic freedom. 

Counteracting Communist Penetration 

This stepped-up aggi'essiveness of Sino-Soviet 
policy, and the extent to which it involves using 
Cuba and the Cuban revolution as its instrimaent, 
is obviously of serious concern to the United 
States; and I am confident that this concern is 
widely held elsewhere in the hemisphere. The 
problem of preventing its encroachments is one 
which calls for the most effective utilization of the 
resources available to those who value human lib- 
erty and the maintenance of the freedom and in- 
dependence of oui-selves and our allies. 

One of these resources is, of course, the constant 
attention which all responsible persons and gov- 
ernments must give to the elimination of those 
social and economic evils for which international 
communism offers false and damaging panaceas. 
It would be dangerous to assume that the fact that 
extremist and even chaotic programs of social re- 
form are actually contrary to the general well- 
being is perceived by eveiyone in Latin America. 
Some elements tend to look imcritically at claims 
and assertions of reform in the interests of those 
who need land and homes, and this tendency is 
exploited to the full by the Communists. This 
means, of course, that all concerned with general 
economic and social progress in Latin America 
must be certain not only that forward-looking 
steps are taken but that their purpose and usefiil- 
ness are more widely undei-stood. This involves 
our own programs of cooperation and assistance, 
but it also involves the govermnents and respon- 
sible groups in Latin America which have such an 
important stake in the maintenance of orderly, 
democratic, independent government in this hem- 
isphere. I point this out, not because it neces- 
sarily offers our best approach to counteracting 
Communist penetration, but because it is often 
overlooked or misunderstood. 

The views of the Department of State with re- 
gard to the specific resolutions which are before 
this subcommittee have been set fortli in consider- 
able detail in lettei's to the chairman of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, Dr. [Thomas E.] 



July 71, I960 



63 



Morgan, as well as to certain of the sponsors of 
the proposals. It is our view that the problem of 
international Communist intervention in the 
Americas, when this goes beyond what can be clone 
by each government within the framework of its 
existing obligations to the OAS [Organization of 
American States] and the U.N., should be ap- 
proached on a multilateral basis in conformity 
with the international instruments available for 
that purpose. We think it is in our national in- 
terest to maintain this course, and another course 
could have seriously injurious effects upon our 
country and its standing and influence throughout 
the hemisphere and the world. 

It is my view that ways and means can and will 
be found within the framework of procedures 
available and our international obligations to 
counteract such threats to the peace and security 
of the American states. A prerequisite to multi- 
lateral consideration of this problem within the 
OAS must be the effective accumulation and pres- 
entation by all concerned of the evidence of the 
case in a manner which will convince the govern- 
ments and people of the American Republics of 
the full nature and scope of the danger confront- 
ing all of us. In this respect particularly, I 
believe that the statements and actions of inter- 
national communism and its leaders in recent 
weeks amply demonstrate that it is engaged in a 
new and intensified campaign of intervention in 
the internal and external affairs of this hemisphere 
and that this campaign is aimed at preventing 
genuine progress through orderly representative 
government in the Americas. 



travel grants to Norwegian graduate students, 
professors, research specialists, and teachers so 
that they can undertake teaching, study, or re- 
search projects at American institutions of learn- 
ing. American students, professors, and teachers 
going to Norway for similar purposes under the 
program receive maintenance stipends in Norwe- 
gian currency in addition to their round-trip 
transportation. The progi-am is financed with 
Norwegian currency that has accrued to the U.S. 
Treasury in payment for surplus properties pur- 
chased by the Norwegian Government after the 
Second World War. Since 1949, 1,218 Norwegian 
citizens and 405 American cititzens have won 
gi-ants under this exchange program. 

The agreement to extend the program provides 
for the expenditure of the equivalent of $200,000 
in Norwegian kroner during each of the next S 
years. 

Tlie overall exchange program carried out under 
the Fulbright Act is under the supervision of the 
Board of Foreign Scliolarships, a 10-member 
public body appointed by the President. The ex- 
change program with Norway is administered in 
Oslo by the binational U.S. Educational Founda- 
tion. At the present time exchange programs 
under the Fulbright Act are conducted between 
the United States and 35 other countries. 



U.S. Gives Austria 1-Year Extension 
on Copyright Registration, Renewal 



U.S. and Norway Agree To Extend 
Educational Exchange Program 

Press release .342 dated June 21 

The Governments of the United States and Nor- 
way agreed to extend for 3 years the educational 
exchange program that has been carried out be- 
tween the two countries since 1949. The program, 
which is authorized by Public Law 584, 79th Con- 
gress, the Fidbright Act, was extended officially 
by an exchange of diplomatic notes at Oslo on 
June 21. Under the terras of the original agree- 
ment the program was due to expire in 19C0. 

The exchange program provides round-trip 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 330 dated June 15 

The President has signed a proclamation dated 
Jmie 15, 1960, giving Austrian citizens an exten- 
sion of 1 year to comply with formalities necessary 
to bring their literary, artistic, and musical works 
within the protection of the U.S. copyright law. 
An exchange of diplomatic notes on June 15 be- 
tween the Governments of Austria and the United 
States affirmed the continued existence of condi- 
tions of substantial reciprocity in copyright rela- 
tions between the two coimtries. 

The new proclamation permits citizens of Aus- 
tria who were unable to apply for U.S. copyright 
registration or renewal from March 13, 1938, 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



through July 26, 1956, to do so during the year 
following the date of the proclamation. Affected 
are those Austrian works that were either first 
published or produced outside the United States or 
became subject to renewal of U.S. copyright dur- 
ing that period. 

Austrians lacked the facilities essential for com- 
pliance with the conditions of the copyright law 
for several years before, during, and after World 
"War II. The 1938 date marks the beginning of 
the occupation of Austria, and the 1956 date is 1 
year after the effective date for the United States 
of the Austrian state treaty of 1955. Under that 
treaty, occupation troops were withdrawn fi'om 
Austria. 

A number of significant Austrian literai-y and 
musical works are eligible for protection under 
the extension arrangement. Among the works to 
which the proclamation is believed to apply are 
operettas and other musical works by composers 
Oscar Straus and Franz Lehar. 

The U.S. copyright law provides that there shall 
be no liability for the lawful use of any of the 
affected works prior to the proclamation date or 
for the continuation during the subsequent year 
of any undertaking that involves expenditure or 
contractual obligation in connection with the law- 
ful exploitation of any such work. 



PROCLAMATION 3353' 

CopvRiGHT Extension : Austria 

Whereas the President is authorized, in accordance 
with the conditions prescribed in section 9 of title 17 of 
the United States Code, which includes the provisions of 
the act of Congress, approved March 4, 1909, 35 Stat. 
1075, as amended by the act of September 25, 1941, 55 
Stat. 732, to grant an extension of time for fulfillment of 
the conditions and formalities prescribed by the copy- 
right laws of the United States of America, with respect 
to works first produced or published outside the United 
States of America and subject to copyright or to renewal 
of copyright under the laws of the United States of 
America, by nationals of countries which accord sub- 
stantially equal treatment to citizens of the United States 
of America ; and 

Whereas satisfactory oflBcial assurances have been re- 
ceived that since December 14, 1907, citizens of the 
United States have been entitled to obtain copyright 
protection for their works in Austria on substantially the 
same basis as citizens of Austria without the need of com- 



plying with any fonnalities, provided such works secured 
protection in the United States; and 

Whereas, by virtue of a proclamation by the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, dated April 9, 
1910, .36 Stat. 2685, citizens of Austria are, and since July 
1, 1909, have been, entitled to the benefits of the afore- 
mentioned act of March 4, 1909, other than the benefits 
of section 1(e) of that act ; and 

Whereas, by virtue of a proclamation by the President 
of the United States of America, dated March 11, 1925, 
44 Stat. 2571, the citizens of Austria are, and since 
August 1, 1920, have been, entitled to the benefits of sec- 
tion 1(e) of the aforementioned act of March 4, 1909: 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, imder and by virtue of 
the authority vested in me by the aforesaid title 17, do 
declare and proclaim : 

That with respect to (1) works of citizens of Austria 
which were fir.st produced or published outside the 
United States of America on or after March 13, 1938 and 
prior to July 27, 1956, and subject to copyright under 
the laws of the United States of America, and (2) works 
of citizens of Austria subject to renewal of copyright 
under the laws of the United States of America on or 
after March 13, 1938 and prior to July 27, 1956, there has 
existed during several years of the aforementioned period 
such disruption or suspension of facilities essential to 
compliance with the conditions and formalities prescribed 
with respect to such works by the copyright laws of 
the United States of America as to bring such works 
within the terms of the aforesaid title 17, and that, 
accordingly, the time within which compliance with such 
conditions and formalities may take place is hereby ex- 
tended with respect to such works for one year after 
the date of this proclamation. 

It shall be understood that the term of copyright in any 
case is not and cannot be altered or affected by this procla- 
mation, and that, as provided by the aforesaid title 17, no 
liability shall attach under that title for lawful uses made 
or acts done prior to the effective date of this proclamation 
in connection with the above-described works, or with 
respect to the continuance for one year subsequent to such 
date of any business undertaking or enterprise lawfully 
entered into prior to such date involving expenditure or 
contractual obligation in connection with the exploitation, 
production, reproduction, circulation, or performance of 
any such work. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this fifteenth day of 
June in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 
[seal] and sixt.v, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and eighty- 
fourth. 



/^ (_jt.>yL-*'Z^U-<.u^ A>^<^y^ 



' 25 Fed. Reg. 5373. 



By the President: 

Douglas Dillon, 

Acting Secretary of State. 



Jufy n, 1960 



65 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



ILO Conference Votes "No Decision" 
on Hungarian Delegation's Credentials 

Statement hy Horace E. Henderson ^ 

For the fourth consecutive year tlie Interna- 
tional Labor Conference has before it a report of 
the Credentials Committee recommending that 
the Conference refuse to admit the delegation of 
the Hungarian Government, and I must point out 
that in the 4 years since the tragic events in Hun- 
gary not one single member — I repeat not one 
single member — of the Credentials Committee of 
the International Labor Conference has ever voted 
for the admission of the Hungarian delegation. 

One year ago the United States supported the 
rejection of the Hungarian Government Creden- 
tials, which was endorsed by the Conference by 
the necessary two-thirds majority vote.= Regret- 
fully, the situation has not changed. In spite of 
all protestations to the contrary the Himgarian 
people continue to live under a repressive regime 
which was installed and maintained by the armed 
forces of the Soviet Union in violation of the char- 
ter of the United Nations. While a partial am- 
nesty was announced by the Hungarian authorities 
on March 31st of this year, the details as to the 
exact number of patriots affected by this partial 
amnesty are not known, and the regime has refused 
to permit the United Nations Special Represent- 
ative [Le.slie Munro] to visit Budapest to discuss 
this matter; still we welcome the March 31st 
announcement. We hope that it may — and I 
stress the word "may" — be a first indication that 
the present authorities in Hungary are finally 
showing some heed to world opinion. If they 
modify their reliance on repressive measures and 



' Made before the 44th International Labor Confer- 
ence at Geneva on June 10 during debate on the third 
report of the Credentials Committee, which dealt with 
the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. Mr. Hen- 
derson, who is Deputy Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
national Organization Affairs, was a U.S. delegate to 
the Conference. 

' Bulletin ot July 20, 1959, p. 99. 



if the true Hungarian patriots are spared, the par- 
tial amnesty deserves to be welcomed. 

On the other hand, the United Nations Special 
Representative, at his press conference in this city 
on April 8th, reminded us that rumors of secret 
executions for the 1956 activities continue to cir- 
culate. The world knows that the record of the 
present Hungarian regime has not been good when 
it comes to fulfilling promises. We need recall 
only the fate of Imre Nagj', General Pal Maleter, 
and the Hungarian freedom fighters. It is clear 
that any real improvement in the international 
position of the present Hungarian regime can come 
about only by an improvement in its relations with 
the United Nations. In tliis connection the 
United States believes that the present Hmigarian 
authorities, in their own interest and in the in- 
terests of the Hungarian people and of the world, 
should without further delay invito the LTnited 
Nations Special Representative to visit Budapest. 
Thus we see — and I say regretfully — that, while 
there has been no change in the situation in Hun- 
gary, we continue to look for some indication of 
hope for the welfare and freedom of the workers 
and people of Hungary. 

We now have before us the third report of the 
Credentials Committee. "^^Tiereas last year there 
was a majority report for rejection, this year a 
majority of the Credentials Committee has recom- 
mended "that a decision on the validity of the 
contested credentials must be postponed." The 
majority report refers to the following facts 
in justification of this recommendation: (1) 
the report of the United Nations Special 
Committee on the Problem of Hungary,^ wliich 
found that the Hungarian revolution was a spon- 
taneous, national uprising and that the present 
Hungarian regime had been imposed on the Hun- 
garian people by the armed intervention of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; (2) the de- 
cisions of the United Nations General Assembly 



' U.N. doc. A/.3592. For text of the final chapter of the 
report, see ihid., July 8, 1957, p. 62. 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



which condemned the action of the U.S.S.E,., 
which, in viohition of the charter of the United 
Nations, had deprived Hungary of its liberty and 
political independence and denied the Hungarian 
people of the exercise of their fundamental human 
rights;'' and (3) the decision by the ILO to in- 
validate the credentials of the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment delegation in 1958 and 1959. 

The majority report further states that the au- 
thors of the objection refer to the fact that since 
last year "the U.S.S.R. has continued unchanged 
its domination and mastery of the Hmigarian 
people through the regime in Budapest." It is 
also noted in the credentials report before us that 
as in previous years both the workers' and em- 
ployers' members of the Credentials Committer 
have associatexl themselves with a severe condem- 
nation of the present Hungarian regime. 

The position of my Government today is in- 
fluenced by three considerations: fii-st, that there 
has been no improvement in the situation in Hun- 
gary ; secondly, that the Conference has before it 
a majority report for "no decision" rather than 
for rejection; and thirdly, that a succession of ac- 
tions for "no decision" has been clearly adopted in 
the General Assembly and in other agencies of the 
United Nations. In view of these circumstances 
the Government of the United States supports the 
proposal of the majority report contained in the 
third report of the Credentials Committee to take 
no decision regarding the credentials submitted 
on behalf of the representatives of the Govern- 
ment of Hungary in order to conform to the ac- 
tion confirmed by the General Assembly of the 
United Nations on 10 December 1959, by 72 votes 
to 1, with 1 abstention.^ 

The United Sta.t«s delegation therefore sup- 
ports the amendment to the minority report of the 
third report of the Credentials Committee sub- 
mitted by the government delegation of the 
Philippines. This is the only way by which the 
Conference can adopt the "no decision" proposal 
contained in the majority report, since under ILO 
procedures only a proposal to reject credentials is 
presented to the Conference for discussion. The 
adoption of this amendment will make the action 
of this Conference on the Hungarian Government 
credentials conform to that taken by the General 



Assembly. Thus the United States supports the 
recommendation for "no decision," but we wish to 
make it completely clear that this in no way in- 
dicates a change in the United States position con- 
cerning the situation in Hungary. The adoption 
of this amendment will replace the minority re- 
port for rejection now before tlie Conference and 
will, in effect, substitute for it the majority report 
that a decision on the validity of the contested 
credentials will be postponed. 

The United States continues firmly to support 
the strong sentiments of indignation and censure 
which underlay the action of the 42d and 43d ses- 
sions in refusing to admit the Hungarian delega- 
tion. Last year's action had the merit of demon- 
strating that the 1958 decision was not just an 
isolated reaction taken in a moment of shock and 
outrage. Having driven home the strength of this 
feeling, we are confident that, if we now take ac- 
tion on the Hungarian Government credentials 
similar to that of the General Assembly, the con- 
demnation reflected in the past actions of the ILO 
on Hungarian credentials will stand permanently 
in the record and our present action of "no deci- 
sion" cannot be misundei-stood as a change in our 
attitude toward the present Hungarian regime or 
in our desire to continue to give hope to the Hun- 
garian people's tragic and heroic struggle for 
freedom.'' 



Confirmation of U.S. Representatives 
to Fifteenth General Assembly 

The Senate on June 22 confirmed the following 
to be representatives of the United States to the 
15th session of the General Assembly of the United 
Nations, to serve no longer than December 31, 
1960: 

Henry Cabot Lodge 
George D. Aiken 
Wayne Morse 
Francis O. Wilcox 
Jlrs. Oswald B. Lord 
Mrs. Zelma Watson George 
Arthur F. Lamey 
Frederick Blake Payne 
Charles Rosenbaum 
Miss Frances E. Willis 



* Ihid., Sept. 30, 1957, p. 51.5, and .Tan. 12, 1959, p. 55. 
' For statements made by Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. 
Representative, see itid., Jan. 4, 1960, p. 17. 



* The amendment was adopted on June 10 
159 to SO, with 15 abstentions. 



July 7 7, 7960 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Agreement for Establishment of Caribbean Organization Signed at Washington 



DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 339 dated June 21 

The agreement for the establishment of the 
■Caribbean Organization was signed at Washing- 
ton on June 21. 

His Excellency Herve Alphand, Ambassador of 
Prance, signed on behalf of the Government of the 
French Republic. 

His Excellency Dr. J. H. van Eoijen, Ambas- 
sador of the Netherlands to the United States of 
America, signed on behalf of the Government of 
the Kingdom of the Netherlands. 

His Excellency Sir Harold Caccia, G.C.M.G., 
Iv.C.V.O., British Ambassador to the United 
States of America, signed on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland. 

The Honorable Christian A. Herter, Secretary 
of State of the United States of America, and the 
Honorable Eoderic L. O'Connor, United States 
cochairman of the Caribbean Commission, signed 
on behalf of tlie Government of the United States 
of America. 

The Caribbean Organization will be the siic- 
■cessor body to the Caribbean Commission, estab- 
lished in 1946 to encourage cooperation in eco- 
nomic and social development throughout the 
French, Netherlands, British, and United States 
areas in the Caribbean. The Organization will 
have broadly the same objectives as the Commis- 
sion, but its activities will be directed by a Council 
on which the following are eligible to be repre- 
sented : 

The Republic of France for the Departments of 

French Guiaua, Guadeloupe and Martinique 
The Netherlands Antilles 
Surinam 
The Bahamas 
British Guiana 



British Honduras 

The British Virgin Islands 

The West Indies 

The Commonwealth of Puerto Kico 

The Virgin Islands of the United States 

Tliis change has been made in response to the 
express wishes of the peoples of the area. The 
new Organization will reflect the significant con- 
stitutional and economic changes which have 
taken place m the area since 1946. 

After the agreement has been approved or ac- 
cepted by the signatory parties, they will issue a 
joint declaration bringing the new Organization 
into existence. It is hoped that this will be done 
as early as possible in 1961. The headquarters of 
the new Organization will be located in San Juan, 
Puerto Rico, to wliich the Commission head- 
quarters have recentlj' been transferred. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT AND DRAFT STATUTE 

AGREEMENT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 
CARIBBEAN ORGANIZATION 

The Governments of the Republic of France, the 
Kingdom op the Netherlands, the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United 
States of America, 

Having reviewed the work of the Caribbean Commis- 
sion since the entry into force of the Agreement for the 
establishment of the Caribbean Commission, signed at 
Washington on October 30, 1946 ; ' 

Recognizing that the Commission has done much to 
further regional cooperation in many fields, and has ren- 
dered valuable services in the Caribbean area ; 

Having considered the statements by representatives 
from the area calling for a revision of the Agreement for 
the establishment of the Caribbean Commission in the 



' 62 Stat. 2618. 



68 



Deparfment of Slate Bulletin 



light of the new constitutional relationships in the 
Caribbean area ; 

Having considered that the purposes and functions as 
set out in the Agreement for the establishment of the 
Caribbean Commission should be the basis of a new 
organization designed to replace it ; 

Having noted the views expressed at the West Indian 
Conference convoked in Special Session commencing on 
July 28, 1959 ; 

Having considered the draft Statute prepared by this 
Conference and transmitted to them by the Caribbean 
Commission ; 

Noting that the purposes and functions as set out in this 
draft Statute accord with those which were the basis of 
the Agreement for the establishment of the Caribbean 
Commission; and 

Noting that nothing in this draft Statute is intended 
to alter or conflict with the respective constitutional re- 
lations between the Governments hereinbefore named and 
the prospective Members of the Organization respectively ; 

Hereby agree as follows : 

Article I 

1. The Contracting Parties agree upon the establish- 
ment of the Caribbean Organization In accordance with 
the Statute annexed to this Agreement. 

2. The Republic of France for the Departments of 
French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique ; the Nether- 
lands Antilles ; Surinam : the Bahamas ; British Guiana : 
British Honduras; the British Virgin Islands; The 
West Indies ; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ; and 
the Virgin Islands of the United States are eligible to 
become Members, and are referred to in this Agreement 
as "prospective Members". 

Article II 
No provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted 
as affecting the present or future constitutional status 
of the prospective Members of the Organization or, where 
applicable, the present or future constitutional relations 
of any of the aforesaid prospective Members with the 
Contracting Parties. 

Article III 
On the termination of the Agreement for the estab- 
lishment of the Caribbean Commission, signed at Wash- 
ington on October 30, 1946, the assets of the Caribbean 
Commission shall be and are by virtue of this Agreement 
transferred to and vested in the Caribbean Organization. 
The Caribbean Organization is hereby authorized to as- 
sume at the same time the liabilities of the Caribbean 
Commission and shall be regarded as the successor body 
to the Caribbean Commission. 

Article IV 
The Agreement for the establishment of the Caribbean 
Commission shall terminate at the end of the first meet- 
ing of the Caribbean Council provided for in the Statute 
annexed to this Agreement. 

Article V 

1. This Agreement shall be subject to approval or 

acceptance by the signatory Governments. Instruments 

of approval or acceptance shall be deposited with the 



Government of the United States of America, hereby 
designated as the depositary Government, which shall 
notify the other signatory Governments of each such 
deposit. 

2. This Agreement shall enter into force on signature 
of a joint declaration to that effect by the signatory 
Governments, following deposit of instruments of approval 
or acceptance by the signatory Governments, and after 
the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Commission has 
received notification, in accordance with paragraph 1 
of Article IV of the Statute annexed to this Agreement, 
from not less than six of the prosiiective Members of 
the Caribbean Organization. 

3. This Agreement shall have indefinite duration. 
Any Contracting Party may at any time withdraw from 
the Agreement. Such withdrawal shall take effect one 
year after the date of the receipt by the depositary 
Government of the formal notification of withdrawal 
and shall be without prejudice to any liability alread.v 
vested in the withdrawing Contracting Party by or under 
this Agreement in respect of the period before the with- 
drawal takes effect. This Agreement shall continue in 
force thereafter with respect to the other Contracting 
Parties. 

Akticle VI 
This Agreement, done in a single original in the Eng- 
lish, French, Netherlands, and Spanish languages, each 
version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in 
the archives of the Government of the United States of 
America. Duly certified copies thereof will be trans- 
mitted by that Government to the other signatory 
Governments. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized, 
have signed this Agreement. 

Done at Washington this twenty-first day of June, 19G0. 
For the Government of the Republic of France: 

Herve Alphand 
For the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands : 
J. H. VAN Rouen 

For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland : 

Harold Caccia 
For the Government of the United States of America : 

Christian A. Herter 

RoDERic L. O'Connor 

STATUTE OF THE CARIBBEAN ORGANIZATION 

Whereas the Caribbean Commission since its estab- 
lishment in 1946 has done much to further regional co- 
operation in many fields and has rendered valuable 
services in the Caribbean area ; and 

Whereas since the establishment of the Caribbean 
Commission significant constitutional and economic 
changes have taken place in the area, and the peoples 
concerned have expressed their desire to accept increased 
responsibility in solving the problems of the area ; and 

Whereas in order to facilitate the continuance of 
social, cultural and economic cooperation in th» area, it 



July 11, 1960 



69 



is considered advisable to establish a successor body, 
the Statute of which reflects these changes and the new 
responsibilities which the prospective Members (as de- 
fined in Article III of this Statute) have undertaken 
since 1946 ; and 

Whereas the objectives herein set forth are in accord 
with the Charter of the United Nations ; 

Now THEREFORE there is established tlie Caribbean 
Organization which Is governed by the following 
provisions : 

Article I 
Establishment and Powers of the Caribbean Organisation 

1. There is hereby establishe<l the Caribbean Organi- 
zation (hereinafter referred to as the "Organization"). 

2. The Organization shall have consultative and advi- 
sory powers and such legal capacity as may be necessary 
for the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of 
its purix)ses. 

Article II 
Functions and Purposes of the Organization 
Within the scope of its powers, the functions and pur- 
poses of the Organization shall be to concern itself with 
social, cultural and economic matters of common interest 
to the Caribbean area, particularly agriculture, communi- 
cations, education, fisheries, health, housing, industry, 
labor, music and the arts, social welfare and trade. 

Article III 
Eligibility for Membership of the Organization 

1. The following are the prospective Members of the 
Organization, and are hereby declared eligible to become 
Members : 

The Republic of France for the Departments of 

French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique 
The Netherlands Antilles 
Surinam 
The Bahamas 
British Guiana 
British Honduras 
The British Virgin Islands 
The West Indies 

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
The Virgin Islands of the United States. 

2. The Republic of France, as referred to in paragraph 
1 of this Article, shall be represented in the Organization 
by one delegation having three votes. 

Article IV 
Notification of Membership and Withdrawal 

1. Any prospective Member of the Organization may at 
any time declare by notification given to the Secretary- 
General of the Caribbean Commission, or the Secretary- 
General of the Organization, that it accepts the 
obligations imposed by this Statute and that it elects to 
become a Member. 

2. Any notification in accordance witii the preceding 
paragraph of this Article received by the Secretary- 
General on or before the date on which the Statute comes 
into force shall take effect on that date. Any notifica- 



70 



tion received after the date on which this Statute comes 
into force shall take effect on the date of its receipt by 
the Secretary-General. 

3. Any Member may at any time declare by notification 
given to the Secretary-General of the Organization that 
it elects to cease to be a Member. This notification shall 
take effect one year after the date of its receipt by the 
Secretary-General of the Organization. On the with- 
drawal from the Agreement to which this Statute is 
annexed of any Party to that Agreement, the Members 
for whose international relations that Party is responsible 
shall cease to be Members of the Organization. 

4. Where a Member ceases to be a Member in accord- 
ance with paragraph 3 of this Article, such cessation shall 
be without prejudice to any liability already vested in 
that Member by or under this Statute in respect of the 
period before the cessation takes effect. 

5. The Secretary-General shall notify all Governments 
signatory to the Agreement to which this Statute is an- 
nexed and all Members and prospective Members of the 
receipt of any notification referred to in Paragraphs (1) 
and (3) of this Article. 

Article V 
The Caribbean Council 

The governing body of the Organization shall be the 
Caribbean Council (hereinafter referred to as the 
"Council"). 

Article VI 
Composition of the Council 

1. Each Member shall be entitled to send to each ses- 
sion of the Council one delegate and such advisers as it 
may consider necessary, but the Republic of France shall 
be entitled to send one delegation and such advisers as it 
may consider necessary. Such delegates or delegation, as 
the case may be, shall be appointed in accordance with 
the constitutional procedures of each Member. The Sec- 
retary-General shall be notified by the Members of the 
appointment of each delegate or delegation, as the case 
may be. 

2. Each Member may at any time, by notification given 
to the Secretary-General, appoint a person to act as alter- 
nate during the absence of its delegate from any meeting 
of the Council. The Republic of France shall have 
similar rights with respect to its delegation. The alter- 
nate, while so acting, shall stand in all respects in the 
place of the delegate. 

Article VII 
Functions and Powers of the Council 
Within the scope of the powers of the Organization, the 
Council shall : 

(a) study, formulate and recommend to Members meas- 
ures, programs and courses of action in social, cultural 
and economic matters designed to contribute to the well- 
being of the Caribbean area ; 

(b) assist in the coordination of local projects which 
have regional significance and in the provision of technical 
guidance on a regional basis : 

(c) arrange for or provide technical guidance not other- 
wise available ; 



Department of State Bulletin 



(d) promote tlie coordination of researcli on a regional 
basis ; 

(e) make recommendations to the Members for carrying 
Into effect action in regard to social, cultural and economic 
problems ; 

(f) further cooperation with other international and 
national organizations and with universities, foundations 
and similar institutions having common Interests in the 
Caribbean area and, subject to the principle expressed in 
Article XVII, may 

(i) on behalf of the Organization, conclude technical 
assistance agreements with other international 
or national organizations, being agreements 
which every Member is competent or authorized 
to conclude and the conclusion of such agree- 
ments being dependent on a unanimous vote ; 
(11) on behalf of the Organization, or, as may be ap- 
propriate, on behalf of such of the Members as 
may make the specific request, conclude arrange- 
ments or contracts in pursuance of the aforesaid 
agreements ; 
(iii) conclude appropriate cooperation agreements 
with universities, foundations and similar insti- 
tutions, and arrangements or contracts in pur- 
suance of these agreements ; 

(g) summon such conferences, appoint such committees, 
and establish such auxiliary bodies as it may find neces- 
sary and desirable ; 

(h) direct and review the activities of the Central Sec- 
retariat and the aforementioned conferences, conmiittees 
and auxiliary bodies ; 

( i) issue the staff rules of the Central Secretariat ; 

(.1) issue the financial regulations of the Organization; 

(k) appoint a Secretary-General in accordance with 
paragraph 5 of Article IX and paragraph 4 of Article X. 

Article VIII 
Meetings and Procedures of the Council 

1. The Council shall establish its own rules of pro- 
cedure. 

2. Meetings of the Council shall be presided over by a 
Chairman, chosen from among the delegates to the Council. 

3. The Council shall hold at least one meeting each year 
at which the annual budget for the ensuing year shall be 
considered. It is empowered to convene and hold meetings 
at such times and at such places as it may decide. The 
Chairman shall cause a meeting to be convened if requested 
to do so by not less than one-half of the Members. The 
first meeting of the Council (which shall be a budget 
meeting) shall be held at such time after the coming into 
force of this Statute and at such place as may be desig- 
nated by the Caribbean Commission. 

4. Meetings of the Council shaU preferably be held in 
the territory of each of the Members in turn, and a simi- 
lar principle, where appropriate, shall be followed with 
regard to all other activities of the Organization. 

5. The first Chairman shall be elected at the first meet- 
ing and shall hold office until the end of the ensuing year. 
Thereafter the Chairmanship shall rotate in accordance 
with such rules of procedure as the Council may adopt, 
provided always that a Chairman shall not be of the same 
nationality as the preceding Chairman. 

July 11, I960 



Article IX 
Voting in the Council 

1. Subject to paragraph 2 of this Article, each delegate 
shall be entitled to cast one vote, but the delegation of the 
Republic of France shall be entitled to cast three votes. 

2. Matters of procedure shall be decided by the Council 
by a simple majority of the votes cast. Except as pro- 
vided for in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of this Article, 
subparagraph (f ) (i) of Article VII, and paragraphs 3 
and 4 of Article XII, all other matters, including disputes 
as to the classification of any matter as procedural or 
substantive, shall be decided by a two-thirds majority 
of the votes cast. However, when a decision or recom- 
mendation is adopted by a two-thirds majority of the 
votes cast, any Member may declare that the decision or 
recommendation will not be applicable as far as it is con- 
cerned. Where, in respect of a matter to be decided by a 
simple majority of the votes cast, the votes are equally 
divided, the Chairman shall have a. casting vote. If the 
Chairman does not in such a case use his casting vote, the 
motion for decision shall be lost. 

3. The Council shall examine drafts of the annual 
budget and any supplementary budgets submitted by the 
Secretary-General. Voting on the total figure of a budget, 
annual or supplementary, shall be preceded by a vote on 
each budget head. Each budget head shall be approved 
by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast. The total 
of a budget, annual or supplementary, .shall be approved 
by a unanimous vote. In the event that it is not pos- 
sible to obtain a unanimous vote on the budget for any 
year, the budget voted for the previous year shall remain 
in force and the Members shall continue to make the 
same contribution as they made during the preceding 
year. 

4. The adoption and amendment of the Rules of Pro- 
cedure shall require unanimity of the votes cast. 

5. The appointment of the Secretary-General shall re- 
quire unanimity of the votes cast. 

6. For the purpose of this Statute, "the votes cast" 
means votes cast affirmatively or negatively. Absten- 
tions shall not be considered as votes cast. 

Article X 
The Central Secretariat 

1. The Organization shall maintain in the Caribbean 
area a Central Secretariat to serve the Council and its 
conferences, committees and auxiliary bodies. 

2. The Secretary-General shall be the chief adminis- 
trative officer of the Organization. He shall be responsible 
for carrying out all directives of the Council. 

3. Subject to the staff rules issued by the Council and 
any further directives he may receive from the Council, 
the Secretary-General shall appoint and dismiss the staff 
of the Organization. 

4. In the appointment of the Secretary-General and 
other members of the staff of the Central Secretariat, 
primary consideration shall be given to the technical and 
personal qualifications of the candidates. To the extent 
possible consistent with this consideration, the staff shall 
be recruited within the Caribbean area and with a view 
to obtaining equitable national representation. 



71 



5. In the performance of their duties the Secretary- 
General and staff shall not seek, receive or observe in- 
structions from any Government, from any Member, or 
from any authority external to the Organization. The 
Secretary -General and staff shall refrain from any action 
which might reflec-t on their position as international 
officials responsible only to the Organization. 

6. Each Jlember undertakes to respect the exclusively 
international character of the functions of the Secretary- 
General and staff and not to seek to influence them in the 
discharge of their responsibilities. 

Article XI 

Fimmces 

1. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by 
the Members in proportions to be specified in an appro- 
priate arrangement arrived at unanimously by the 
Members. 

2. The fiscal year of the Organization shall be the 
calendar year. 

3. The Secretary-General shall prepare and submit to 
the Council the draft of an annual budget and such 
supplementary budgets as may be required by the Or- 
ganization and shall submit them to the Members at least 
one month prior to their discussion by the Council. Upon 
approval of the budget, the total amount thereof shall 
be allocated among the Members in the proportions arrived 
at in accordance with paragraph 1 of thi.s Article. Each 
Member shall undertake, subject to the requirements of 
its constitutional procedures, to contribute promptly to 
a Joint Fund to be established by the Members such 
annual and supplementary sums as may be charged to 
each in accordance with the arrangement referred to in 
paragraph 1. 

4. The Secretary-General shall hold and administer the 
Joint Fund of the Organization and shall keep proper ac- 
counts thereof. The Council shall make arrangements 
satisfactory to the Members for the audit of the accounts 
of the Organization. The audited statements shall be 
forwarded annually to each Member. 

5. The expenses of delegates or delegations attending 
meetings sponsored by the Organization shall be borne 
by the Members whom they respectively represent. 

Article XII 
Ot)servers 

1. The Parties to the Agreement to which this Statute 
is annexed shall be entitled to send to all meetings held 
under the auspices of the Organization observers who 
shall have the right to speak but not to vote. 

2. Any prospective Member of the Organization shall 
be entitled to send to all meetings held under the auspices 
of the Organization observers who shall have the right 
to speak but not to vote. 

3. The Council may, if it so decides by a unanimous 
vote, and subject to the approval of the Parties to the 
Agreement to which this Statute is annexed, authorize 
the Secretary-General to issue to any Government having 
interests in the Caribbean area not being a Party to the 
Agreement to which this Statute is annexed an invita- 
tion to send observers to any meeting held under the 
auspices of the Organization. 



4. The Council may, if it so decides by a unanimous 
vote, authorize the Secretary-General to issue to the or- 
ganizations, universities, foundations and similar institu- 
tions as referred to in subparagraph (f) of Article VII, 
an invitation to send observers to any meeting held under 
the auspices of the Organization. 

Article XIII 

Relationships with Oovcrnmenta not Parties to the 
Agreement 

The Organization in all its activities shall bear in mind 
the desirability of strengthening international cooperation 
in social, cultural and economic matters with Governments 
having an interest in such matters in the Caribbean area 
but not being Parties to the Agreement to which this 
Statute is annexed. 

Article XIV 

Immunities 

Each Member undertakes to accord, so far as possible 
under its constitutional procedures, to the Organization, 
the Secretary-General and appropriate personnel of the 
Central Secretariat such privileges and immunities as 
may be necessary for the independent exercise of their 
functions, and to the Central Secretariat inviolability of 
its buildings, premises, archives and assets. 

Article XV 

Languages 

The English, French, Netherlands and Spanish lan- 
guages shall be the official languages of the Organization. 
The working languages shall be English and French. 

Article XVI 

Transfer of Assets and Liabilities of the Carihhean 
Commission 

With effect from the termination of the Agi-oement for 
the Establishment of the Caribbean Commission under 
Article IV of the Agreement to which this Statute is 
annexed, the Organization, as the successor body to the 
Caribbean Commission, is authorized to take over all the 
assets and shall assume all the liabilities of the Carib- 
bean Commission. 

Article XVII 
Saving Clause 

No provision of this Statute shall be interpreted as 
affecting the present or future constitutional status of 
the Members of the Organization, or, where applicable, 
the present or future constitutional relations of any of 
the aforesaid Members with the Parties to the Agreement 
to which this Statute is annexed. 

Article XVIII 

Amendment of Statute 

Amendment to this Statute shall require the unanimous 

approval of the Members of the Organization and of the 

Parties to the Agreement to which this Statute is annexed. 

Department of Sfofe Bullefin 



Article XIX 

Entry into Farce 

This Statute shall enter into force immediately after : 

(a) there has been received by the Secretary-General 
of the Caribbean Commission notification pursuant to 
paragraph 1 of Article IV from at least six of the prospec- 
tive Members of the Organization ; and 

(b) the Parties to the Agreement to which this Statute 
is annexed have signed a Joint Declaration under para- 
graph 2 of Article V of that Agreement. 

Aeticle XX 
Transitional Provisions 
Until such time as the Secretary-General of the Organi- 
zation is appointed and is able to assume the duties of 
his office, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Com- 
mission shall be the Secretary-General of the Organiza- 
tion with power to appoint a staff on a temporary basis. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Antarctica 

The Antarctic Treaty. Signed at Washington December 
1, 1059.' 

Ratification deposited: Union of South Africa, June 21, 
1960. 

Caribbean Organization 

Agreement for establishment of the Caribbean Organiza- 
tion, and annexed statute. Signed at Washington June 
21, 1960, by France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and 
United States. Enters into force on signature of a 
joint declaration by signatory Governments following 
deposits of instruments of approval or acceptance with 
the United States and receipt by the Secretary General 
of the Caribbean Commission of notifications of accept- 
ance of obligations imposed by the statute from not less 
than six prosiiective members of the Organization.^ 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

Agreement providing a grant to assist in the acquisition 
of certain nuclear research and training equipment and 
materials. Effected by exchange of notes at Buenos 
Aires September 9, 1959, and May 23, 1960. Entered 
into force May 23, 1960. 

Austria 

Agreement for the extension of time for the fulfillment 
by Austrian citizens of the conditions and formalities 
prescribed by the copyright laws of the United States. 



" Not in force. 

' The prospective members are : the Republic of France 
for the Departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and 
Martinique; the Netherlands Antilles; Surinam; the 
Bahamas; British Guiana; British Honduras; the British 
Virgin Islands ; The West Indies ; the Commonwealth of 
Puerto Rico ; and the Virgin Islands of the United States. 

July n, J 960 



Effected by exchange of notes at Washington June 15, 
1960. Entered into force June 15, 1960. 

Chile 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with memorandum of understanding and exchanges of 
notes. Signed at Santiago June 2, 1960. Entered into 
force June 2, 1960. 

Dominican Republic 

Agreement extending the technical cooperation vocational 
education program agreement of March 16, 1951, as 
amended (TIAS 2244, 2544, 2994, and 3358). Effected 
by exchange of notes at Ciudad Trujillo June 2 and 7, 
1960. Entered into force June 7, 1960. 

Japan 

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, with agreed 
minute and exchange of notes. Signed at Washington 
January 19, 1960. 
Senate advice and consent to ratification given: June 22, 

1960. 
Ratified by the President: June 22, 19C0. 
Ratifications exchanged: June 23, 1960. 
Entered into force: June 23, 1960. 

Agreement under article VI of the Treaty of Mutual Co- 
operation and Security regarding facilities and areas 
and the status of U.S. armed forces in Japan, with 
agreed minutes and exchange of notes providing for the 
settlement of certain claims against the U.S. forces by 
former employees. Signed at Washington January 19, 
1960. 
Entered into force: June 23, 1900. 

Yugoslavia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709), 
with exchanges of notes. Signed at Belgrade June 3, 
1900. Entered into force June 3, 1960. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



African Posts Elevated to Embassies 



Dakar 

The Department of State announced on June 20 (press 
release 338) that the American consulate general at Dakar, 
Federation of Mali, was elevated on that date to an em- 
lias.sy upon formal attainment of independence by the Fed- 
eration, which is composed of the former autonomous re- 
publics of the French Community, Senegal and Soudan. 
The Federation attained its independence through nego- 
tiation with France. 

Donald A. Dumont, a career Foreign Service oflScer, who 
has been consul general at Dakar since December 1957, 
has been named Charge d'Affaires. 

The United States has been represented in Dakar since 
December 1940, when a consulate was opened there. 



73 



Official celebration of the independence of the Federa- 
tion of Mali has been scheduled for January 17, 1961, the 
second anniversary of the Federation of Senegal and 
Soudan. 

Tatianarive 

The Department of State announced on June 25 (press 
release 352 dated June 24) that the American consulate 
at Tananarive, Malagasy Republic, is being elevated to 
an embassy on June 26, 1960, upon formal attainment of 
independence by this former autonomous republic of the 
French Community. Malagasy attained its Independence 
through negotiation veith France. 

John Roland Jacobs, a career Foreign Service officer, 
who has been consul at Tananarive since April 1959, when 
the consulate was reopened there, has been named Charg6 
d'AfCalres. 

Official celebration of the independence of the Malagasy 
Republic has been schedule<l for July 30-31, 1960. 



amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Bangkok Feb- 
ruary 1, 1960. Entered into force February 1, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4415. 5 pp. 
5«!. 



Agreement between the United States of America and 
Poland, amending agreement of June 10, 1959, as amended. 
Signed at Washington February 11, 1960. Entered into 
force February 11, 19G0. With exchange of notes. 

Atomic Energy— Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4416. 
20 pp. 15<t. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Venezuela, superseding agreement of July 21, 1955. 
Signed at Washington October 8, 1958. Entered into force 
February 9, 1960. 

Grant for Procurement of Nuclear Research and Training 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 4421. 6 pp. 5(*. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Colombia. Exchange of notes — Signed at Bogotd July 31, 
1959, and January 11, 1980. Entered into force January 
11, 1960. 



Designations 

John W. Johnston, Jr., as ICA Deputy Regional Director 
for Latin America, effective June 26. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release 349 dated 
June 24.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, B.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free puMioatimis, which may he ob- 
tained from the Department of State 

Air Force Mission. TIAS 4410. 3 pp. 54- 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
El Salvador, extending agreement of November 21, 1957, 
as modified. Exchange of notes — Signed at San Salvador 
January 15 and 22, 1960. Entered into force January 
22, 1960. Operative retroactively November 21, 1959. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4412. 3 pp. 

54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Indonesia, amending agreement of May 29, 1959, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Djakarta No- 
vember 18, 1959. Entered into force November 18, 1959. 

Economic Assistance to Yemen. TIAS 4413. 10 pp. 10(*. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Yemen. Exchange of notes — Signed at Taiz August 3 and 
5, October 18, and November 8, 1959. Entered into force 
November 8, 1959. 

United States Educational Foundation in Thailand. 

TIAS 4414. 5 pp. 54. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 

Tliailand, amending agreement of July 1, 1950, as 

74 



Ciieck List of Department of.State 
Press Releases: June 20-26 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25. D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 20 which appear in 
this issue of the Binj-ETiN are Nos. 324 of June 14 
and 330 of June 15. 

Subject 

Martin : Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee. 

Post at Dakar raised to embassy (re- 
write). 

Agreement for establishing Caribbean 
Organization. 

Martin : Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee. 

Educational exchange (rewrite). 

Educational exchange agreement with 
Norway extended. 

Herter : House Committee on Agri- 
culture. 

Cultural exchange (Finland). 

Delegate to ECE Steel Committee (re- 
write). 

Thai paintings and exhibit. 

Brown nominated Ambassador to Laos 
(biographic details). 

Thayer: "African Problems and U.S. 
Programs." 

Johnston designated ICA Deputy Re- 
gional Director for Latin America 
(biographic details). 

Thayer : "Advancing Freedom in a 
Scientific and Technical World." 

Herter : anniversary of U.N. action in 
Korea (combined with No. 353). 

Post at Tananarive raised to embassy 
(rewrite). 

Herter : news conference. 

Visit of King and Queen of Thailand. 

Herter-Wiley : correspondence on 
President's visit to Japan. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


336 


6/21 


338 


6/20 


339 


6/21 


340 


6/21 


341 
342 


6,'21 
6/21 


343 


6/22 


*344 
t345 


6/22 
6/22 


t346 
*347 


6/23 
6/23 


*348 


6/24 


*349 


6/24 


*350 


6/24 


351 


6/24 


352 


6/24 


3.53 
t354 
355 


6/24 
6/24 
6/24 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 11, 1960 Ini 

Agriculture. Presidential Authority Sought To Re- 
duce Sugar Quotas (Herter) 58 

American Republics 

International Coiumunism in Latin America (Ru- 

bottom) 60 

Johnston designated ICA deputy regional director . 74 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of June 24 . 39 

Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty (Phleger) . . 49 

Austria. U.S. Gives Austria l-Tear Extension on 
Copyright Registration, Renewal (text of proc- 
lamation) 64 

Caribbean. Agreement for Establishment of Carib- 
bean Organization Signed at Washington (test 
of agreement and draft statute) 6S 

Chile. Secretary Herter's News Conference of 

June 24 39 

Communism. International Communism in Latin 

America (Rubottom) 60 

Congress, Tlie 

The Antarctic Treaty (Phleger) 49 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy 59 

Department Requests Restoration of Funds in 1961 

Budget (Herter) 44 

Department Supports Industrial Property Conven- 
tion Revision and Commercial Treaties With 
Paliistan and France (Martin) 52 

International Communism in Latin America (Ru- 
bottom) 60 

Presidential Authority Sought To Reduce Sugar 
Quotas (Herter) 58 

Secretary Replies to Senator Wiley on President's 
Missions Abroad (Herter, Wiley) 47 

Cuba 

Presidential Authority Sought To Reduce Sugar 
Quotas (Herter) 58 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of June 24 . 39 

Department and Foreign Service 

African Posts Elevated to Embassies 73 

Department Requests Restoration of Funds in 1961 

Budget (Herter) 44 

Designations (Johnston) 74 

Economic Affairs 

Department Supports Industrial Property Conven- 
tion Revision and Commercial Treaties With 
Paliistan and France (Martin) 52 

U.S. Gives Austria 1-Year Extension on Copyright 

Registration, Renewal (text of proclamation) . 64 

Educational and Cultural Affairs 

110 American Teachers Participate in Summer 

Seminars Abroad 48 

U.S. and Norway Agree To Extend Educational Ex- 
change Program 64 

France 

Agreement for Establishment of Caribbean Organ- 
ization Signed at Washington (text of agreement 
and draft statute) 68 

Department Supports Industrial Property Conven- 
tion Revision and Commercial Treaties With 
Paliistan and France (Martin) 52 



lex Vol. XLIII No. 1098 

Hungary. ILO Conference Votes "No Decision" on 
Hungarian Delegation's Credentials (Hender- 
son) 66 

International Organizations and Conferences. ILO 
Conference Votes "No Decision" on Hungarian 
Delegation's Credentials (Henderson) . . . 66 

Japan 

Secretary Herter's News Conference of June 24 . 39 

Secretary Replies to Senator Wiley on President's 
Missions Abroad (Herter, Wiley) 47 

Korea. Secretary Herter's News Conference of 

June 24 39 

Malagasy Republic. African Posts Elevated to Em- 
bassies 7.3 

Mali, Federation of. African Posts Elevated to 
Embassies 73 

Mutual Security. Johnston designated ICA deputy 

regional director for Latin America 74 

Netherlands. Agreement for Establishment of 
Caribbean Organization Signed at Washington 
(text of agreement and draft statute) .... 68 

Norway. U.S. and Norway Agree To Extend Edu- 
cational Exchange Progi-am 64 

Pakistan. Department Supports Industrial Prop- 
erty Convention Revision and Commercial 
Treaties With Paliistan and France (Martin) . 52 

Presidential Documents. U.S. Gives Austria 1-Year 
Extension on Copyright Registration, Renewal . 64 

Publications. Recent Releases 74 

Treaty Information 

Agreement for Establishment of Caribbean Organ- 
ization Signed at Washington (text of agreement 
and draft statute) 68 

The Antarctic Treaty (Phleger) 49 

Current Actions 7S 

Department Supports Industrial Property Conven- 
tion Revision and Commercial Treaties With 
Pakistan and France (Martin) 52 

U.S. and Norway Agree To Extend Educational Ex- 
change Program 64 

U.S.S.R. Secretary Herter's News Conference of 
June 24 B» 

United Kingdom. Agreement for Establishment of 
Caribbean Organization Signed at Washington 
(text of agreement and draft statute) .... 68 

United Nations. Confirmation of U.S. Representa- 
tives to Fifteenth General Assembly 67 

Name Index 

Eisenhower, President 64 

Henderson, Horace E 66 

Herter, Secretary 39, 44, 47, 58 

Johnston, John W 74 

Martin, Edwin M '^2 

Phleger, Herman 49 

Rubottom, R. R., Jr 60 

Wiley, Alexander 47 




ii %^ ^ 



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FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
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1942, Volume I, General, 

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIII, No. 1099 



July 18, 1960 



4E 

FFICIAL 

EEKLY RECORD 

F 

NITED STATES 

3REIGN POLICY 



UNITED STATES SUBMITS TO EVTER-AMERICAN 
PEACE COMMITTEE MEMORANDUM ON PRO- 
VOCATIVE ACTIONS OF CUBAN GOVERNMENT , 79 

TEN-NATION CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT 
TERMINATED BY SOVIET WALKOUT 

U.S. Note, July 2 88 

Department Statement, June 27 89 

U.S. Disarmament Proposals, June 27 90 

Letter From Chairman Khrushchev to President Eisenhower, 

June 27 92 

MUTUAL SECURITY APPROPRIATIONS FOR FISCAL 

YEAR 1961 • Statements by Secretary Herter and Under 
Secretary Dillon 107 

SECURITY COUNCIL CONSIDERS ARGENTINE COM- 
PLAINT ON EICHMANN CASE • Statements by 
Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge and Text of Resolution . . 115 

THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS BETWEEN THE 
UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA IN 

1959 • Article by Walther Lederer and I\ancy F. Culbertson . 94 

Boston l^ublic Librarvr. . . . . i i . 

tor index see inside back cover 
-Supcrintenaent ot L>ocument^ 

AUG 2 y 1960 
nPon^iTrkDv 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Vol. XLIII, No. 1099 • Publication 7032 
July 18, 1960 



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the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Depabtment 
or State Biillbtin as the source will bo 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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United States Submits to Inter-American Peace Committee 
IVIemorandum on Provocative Actions of Cuban Government 



Press release 368 dated June 29 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The United States Government submitted to the 
Inter-American Peace Committee on Jmie 27, 
1960, for its information, a memorandum entitled 
"Provocative Actions of the Government of Cuba 
Against the United States Wliich Have Served To 
Increase Tensions in the Caribbean Area." A 
copy of the memorandum is attached. 

The memorandum was submitted in response to 
previous requests made by the Peace Committee 
to the American governments for information and 
points of view regarding international tensions in 
the Caribbean area. This is a subject which is 
being studied by the Committee in accordance with 
the assignment given it by resolution IV of the 
meeting of American Foreign Ministers held in 
Santiago, Chile, last August.^ 

The memorandum refers only to one aspect of 
the problem of Caribbean tensions. The United 
States has already furnished certain information 
to the Peace Committee in comiection with this 
problem and will continue to provide such infor- 
mation as is relevant to the Committee's study. 



TEXT OF MEMORANDUM 

Provocative Actions op the Government of Cuba 
Against the United States Which Have Served To 
Increase Tensions in the Caribbean Area 

For over a year the Government of the United States 
and other governments of the hemisphere have been in- 
creasingly concerned over the rising tensions in the 
Caribbean area and the consequent threat to the peace 
and stability of the hemisphere. In response to the pre- 
vious requests made by the Inter- American Peace Com- 
mittee of the American governments for information and 



' Bui-LETIN of Sept. 7, 1959, p. 342. 
July 18, 1960 



points of view regarding this subject, this memorandum 
is being presented to provide information to the Com- 
mittee about one aspect of the foreign policy of the 
Government of Cuba which, because of its provocative 
character, has contributed, and continues to contribute, 
to international tensions in the Caribbean area. 

The Government of Cuba has for many months con- 
ducted an intense campaign of distortions, half-truths, 
and outright falsehoods against the United States Gov- 
ernment, Its officials, and the people of the United States. 
The United States has responded to these hostile attitudes 
and actions of the Cuban Government with patience and 
forbearance in the hope of avoiding to the extent possible 
impairment of the friendliness and mutual confidence 
which traditionally have existed between the two coun- 
tries and their peoples. 

This exercise of restraint, however, has been in vain. 
The reaction of the Government of Cuba has been to 
intensify its attacks and expressions of hostility toward 
the Government and people of the United States. The 
United States Government considers this systematic cam- 
paign of hostile propaganda to be offensive and unwar- 
ranted and so informed the Government of Cuba in an 
aide-memoire of June 4, 1960, a copy of which accom- 
panies this memorandum (annex 1). A continuation of 
these attacks cannot fail, in the opinion of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, to contribute further to ten- 
sions in the Caribbean area. 

When problems or difficulties develop between member 
governments of the Organization of American States, 
the principles of the Organization require that those 
governments make an earnest effort to ascertain the 
facts and to seek solutions in good faith. This the 
United States has sought to do with respect to the fre- 
quent charges and attacks leveled by the Government 
of Cuba at the United States. It is clear, however, that 
the Government of Cuba, far from seeking to ascertain 
facts, has preferred to exploit opportunities for exciting 
suspicion and hostility on the basis of unfounded charges, 
distortions and half-truths. The continuation of this 
policy on the part of the Government of Cuba can in 
the long run only result in undermining the principles of 
inter-American cooperation and in making more diffi- 
cult the maintenance of conditions of friendly, coopera- 
tive relations to which all members of the Organization 
of American States are committed. 



79 



La Coulre Incident 

An illustration of the provocative attitude of tlie 
Government of Cuba is given by tlie charges leveled 
against the United States in connection with the explo- 
sion aboard the French vessel, La Coiihre, vrhile it was 
discharging ammunition in the Bay of Habana on March 
4, 1960. The loss of life, the injury to persons and the 
damage to property in connection with this tragic inci- 
dent were the cause of widespread sorrow. The United 
States Government promptly expressed its condolences 
to the Government of Cuba over this tragedy. However, 
within a few hours the propaganda agencies which reflect 
the views of the Cuban Government implied that the 
United States was responsible for the disaster. No evi- 
dence whatsoever was adduced to support this implica- 
tion, but statements made by the controlled Cuban press, 
and by such well-known spokesmen of the Cuban Gov- 
ernment as radio commentator Jose Pardo Llada, left no 
doubt whatsoever that the United States stood accused by 
the Cuban Government of perpetrating the explosion. 

This attitude of the Cuban Government was then con- 
firmed by Prime Minister Fidel Castro himself in a speech 
on March 5 at the funeral of the victims of the La Couhre 
incident. The Prime Minister identified the United States 
as the responsible agent of the explosion while at the 
same time admitting that "we do not have conclusive 
evidence." 

The United States has, of course, categorically rejected 
these charges as having no foundation whatsoever. 
Nevertheless, the Government of Cuba has preferred to 
continue its campaign of charging the United States with 
responsibility for the blowing up of this vessel while fail- 
ing to provide any kind of substantiating evidence. It 
has further aggravated the situation, exceeding the 
bounds of normal diplomacy, by having its ambassadors 
throughout Latin America give wide distribution, under 
diplomatic frank, to Prime Minister Castro's speech of 
March 5 in a pamphlet filled with tragic pictures of this 
disaster. The obvious intent of this pamphlet was to leave 
the impression that the United States was responsible for 
the La Coubre incident. The same pamphlet was also 
sent by the Cuban Amba.ssador on the Council of the Or- 
ganization of American States to other members of the 
Council. The Delegation of the United States on the 
Council protested this action in a note of June 7, 1960, to 
the Cuban representative, a copy of which is enclosed 
for the records of the Committee (annex 2). 

In addition, the text of Prime Minister Castro's speech 
of March 5 was recently issued in a pamphlet of the 
Government-controlled Confcdcracion de Trahajudorcs de 
Cuba (CTC). By means of the illustration on the cover 
and in the statements appearing in the introduction to 
this pamplUet, the CTC clearly accuses the United States 
Government as being responsible for the La Coubre 
disaster. 
Attack on U.S. Suhmarine 

Recently a potentially grave incident involving armed 
attack occurred on the high seas. A United States naval 
vessel, the U.S.S. Sea Poacher, a submarine, while navi- 
gating on the surface on the high seas in a recognized and 
well-traveled sea lane, was fired upon without warning 



by a Cuban Coast Guard patrol vessel on May 6, 1960. 
The submarine was at the time approximately 11 miles 
from the Cuban coast, as verified in a careful investiga- 
tion of the incident made by the United States naval 
authorities. 

In line with its policy of attempting to maintain an 
atmosphere of peace and calm In the Caribbean area and 
to avoid misunderstandings, the Government of the United 
States originally made no public mention of the incident 
Neither the submarine commander nor this Government 
could quite believe that what at first appeared to be a 
question of identification at sea (since red tracers from 
the Cuban boat were mistaken by the submarine for 
emergency distress signals and a failure of communica- 
tions) was really an armed attack. It simply did not 
occur to the commander that it was possible that the 
naval vessel of an American country with which the 
United States was at peace would open fire on a United 
States vessel without cause. 

It was not until May 13, 1960, when the Prime Minister 
of Cuba, Dr. Fidel Castro, in a televised speech in Ha- 
bana, referred to the matter, that the Government of the 
United States learned for the first time what actually had 
happened. This is a translation of Dr. Castro's words : 

"On the sixth of May at 22 hours, the coast guard cutter 
Oriente sighted five miles off the coast of Matanzas a 
North American submarine which it followed and reached 
near Cape Blanco, firing several shots at it until it identi- 
fied itself as the C-i-CL." 

It must be stressed that Dr. Castro in his remarks stated 
that the U.S.S. Sea Poacher was five miles away from the 
Cuban coast. The point is important because four para- 
graphs later in the same speech the Cuban Prime Minister 
stated categorically that three miles is the limit of Cuban 
territorial waters. Hence there can be no question even 
in Dr. Castro's mind about the fact that the United States 
craft was on the high seas. 

On May 14, 1960, the Cuban Charge d'Affaires was asked 
to call at the Department of State and was informed of 
the astonishment and of the protest of the Government 
of the United States over the Cuban action. An explana- 
tion of this action was requested ; however, none has been 
received from the Cuban Government, and on June 11, 
1960, Dr. Castro said in a television speech that none 
will be given. Thus, in this hostile act on the high seas 
Cuban authorities demonstrated a preference for pro- 
moting unfriendly relations rather than for ascertaining 
facts and seeking amicable solutions. 

For purposes of the record, there is attached a state- 
ment prepared by the United States Department of the 
Navy giving the facts of the encounter on May 6 of the 
Cuban coast guard vessel Oriente and the U.S.S. Sea 
Poacher (annex3). 
Air Incursions 

The President of Cuba, while recently visiting other 
countries in Latin America, continued the Cuban Gov- 
ernment's attacks against the United States. At a press 
conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, for instance, Prcsi- 
dent [Osvaldo] Dorticos spoke about air incursions against 
Cuba by "North American" planes flown by "North Amer- 
ican" pilots from "North American" bases, implying that 



80 



Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



these flights were inspired or tolerated by the United 
States Government. He referred to the circumstances 
that in Argentina he had been asked if the planes and 
pilots belonged to the United States Air Force. He dis- 
missed the inquiry as a naive question, but then made 
clear his intent by referring to "two North American 
pilots" blown up at the Cuban sugar mill "Central 
Espana." He said that he did not want to assert that 
the Unite<l States Government was sponsoring these in- 
cursions because he did not have evidence, but he then 
proceeded to imply that the United States Government 
loolied with favor on these flights. 

This matter of air incursions over Cuba and the im- 
plication that the United States Government is a party to 
these operations is a constant theme expounded by Cuban 
Government oflicials and by the ofijcial press and radio 
In Cuba, despite repeated United States reassurances to 
the Cuban Government on this point. 

On October 27, 1959, Ambassador [Philip W.] Bonsai 
discussed with the Cuban President and Minister of State 
the over-all state of current United States relations with 
Cuba. The Ambassador made clear the sympathetic in- 
terest which the people and Government of the United 
States had taken in the freedom and well-being of the 
Cuban people and nation, and said that it remained the 
sincere desire of the United States that relations between 
it and Cuba should be based on friendship, mutual re- 
spect, and mutual interest. The Ambassador also stated 
that the United States Government and its oflicials had 
scrupulously avoided statements or actions, especially 
those of an intemperate nature, which would impair the 
mutual resjject and feeling of confidence necessary to 
healthy and productive relations between Cuba and the 
United States. He referred specifically to the problem 
of air Incursions and assured the Cuban Government 
that the United States would continue diligently to in- 
vestigate and take all appropriate action within the law 
in any such cases and would welcome specific Information 
and evidence from the Government of Cuba to assist in 
law enforcement. The Ambassador stated that the United 
States deeply deplored incidents of this kind and that it 
was prepared to use to the full measure all of its facilities 
to prevent infractions of the law. At the same time the 
Ambassador rejected all inferences that the Government 
of the United States, its officials, or the people of the 
United States would give support to or countenance illegal 
activities against the Government of Cuba. A copy of 
the Department of State press release of October 27, 1959, 
Issued in conjunction with Ambassador Bonsai's call on 
the President of Cuba, is attached for the information of 
the Committee (annex 4). 

Despite these assurances, the Government of Cuba and 
its controlled propaganda agencies continue to make im- 
plied charges of United States-inspired air incursions 
against Cuba in an obvious attempt to stir up animosity 
toward the United States within Cuba and throughout 
the hemisphere. Siieeches and sensational news articles 
containing deliberate distortions have been resorted to in 
the making of these charges. 

Because of the seriousness of these oft-repeated charges 
against the United States, it is considered important to 
review the facts concerning such flights as well as the 



actions taken by the United States Government to prevent 
the use of its territory as a base of illegal activities against 
Cuba. 

In October 1959, Major Diaz Lanz, former Chief of the 
Cuban Air Force in the Cuban Government, left United 
States territory in an unarmed plane without the knowl- 
edge of the United States authorities. Major Diaz Lanz 
flew over Cuba and droi)ped propaganda leaflets on the 
City of Habana. Prime Minister Castro promptly charged 
that Major Diaz Lanz had also dropped bombs on the City 
of Habana causing damage to human life and property. 
His charge completely disregarded the report of the Na- 
tional Police of Cuba that the Diaz Lanz plane had not 
been observed to have engaged In either bombing or 
strafing. 

On his return to the United States, Major Diaz Lanz was 
apprehended by United States authorities and his plane 
was seized and examined. It was clearly established that 
the plane could not have carried or dropped bombs or 
mounted machine guns and that the only activity in which 
Major Diaz Lanz had engaged was the dropping of propa- 
ganda leafiets. The United States Government expressed 
its regret for this incident publicly and issued a press 
release on November 9 (copy attached as annex 5) con- 
cerning the results of its investigation which showed that 
only propaganda leaflets had been dropped. The informa- 
tion obtained in the investigation was also communicated 
officially to the Cuban Government by the United States in 
a note of November 9, 1959, a copy of which Is attached 
(annex 6). 

Despite the prompt and energetic action taken by the 
United States Government, and its expressions of regret 
for the incident, the Cuban Government and its propa- 
ganda agencies have continued to foment the idea that 
Habana had been "bombed." As recently as May 31, 1960, 
the United States Government had to protest strongly in a 
note (copy attached as annex 7) the dissemination in the 
United States by the Cuban Consulates General in New 
York City and Miami of a pamphlet entitled "Cuba De- 
nounces Before the World." This pamphlet repeated the 
unfounded allegations that on October 21, 1959, the City 
of Habana had been bombed with explosives and strafed 
from two aircraft based in the United States and implied 
that the United States Government countenanced these 
flights. This continued disregard by the Cuban Govern- 
ment of facts surrounding a serious international inci- 
dent, and its continued use of proven untruths, is an out- 
standing example of the provocative policy being followed 
by the Cuban Government with respect to its relations 
with the United States. 

A second illegal harassment fiight which is believed to 
have originated in the United States involved a light plane 
which on February 18, 1960, exploded in mid-air over a 
Cuban cane field under circumstances which have never 
been clarified. The two pilots, one a United States citizen 
and the other a Cuban, were killed. Again the United 
States expressed publicly to Cuba its regrets over this 
Illegal flight. 

A third flight on March 20-21 involved two United States 
citizens, William J. Shergalis and Howard Rundquist, 
whose plane was damaged by Cuban gunfire as It landed 
on a highway In Cuba. A Grand Jury In a United States 



July 18, 7960 



81 



District Court, Miami, Florida, has completed an investi- 
gation of this flight, and as a result has indicted Shergalis 
and one Hector Garcia Soto for acting as agents of the 
Cuban Government without having filed with the Attorney 
General of the United States the registration statement re- 
quired by United States law. The indictment, a copy of 
which is attached (annex 8), states that acting under the 
direction of the Government of Cuba, Shergalis and Garcia 
arranged for the airplane flight which left Fort Lauder- 
dale, Florida, on March 20, and ended in Cuba on March 21. 
It may be added that Garcia, at the time, was a Cuban 
employee of the Cuban Consulate in MiamL 

A fourth ap])arently illegal flight, which took place in 
May, resulted in the death of a light plane's single occu- 
pant, the pilot, a United States citizen, who was shot and 
killed in Cuba reportedly when attempting to pick up 
several Cuban passengers. This incident is still under 
investigation by the United States authorities. 

There are no other cases where there is any substantial 
evidence known to the United States authorities that air 
incursions over Cuba have originated in the United States. 
Nevertheless, it is recognized that the long Florida coast 
line, the presence in that state of considerable numbers of 
Cuban political refugees, and the numerous airports in 
the general area constitute a combination of factors con- 
ducive to the undertaking of adventures against Cuba. 
Therefore, the United States has taken most unusual 
precautions against illegal air incursions from its terri- 
tory affecting Cuba.' These measures have been ex- 
plained in detail in United States communications ' to the 
Inter-American Peace Committee dated November 9, 1959, 
and March 30, 1960. They constitute the most rigorous 
and elaborate system of controls ever adoi^ted by the 
United States Government in time of peace. Yet the 
Cuban Government has shown no recognition of the ef- 
forts of the United States to stop such activities, and has 
continued to picture the United States Government as 
permitting and encouraging continuous and numerous 
deliberate air incursions against Cuba, an allegation 
which is completely unfounded. 

Furthermore, the United States Government has on 
various occasions formally requested the cooperation of 
the Government of Cuba in supplying data with regard 
to air incursions (such as time, type of plane, its move- 
ments, etc. ) which would assist United States authorities 
in determining their origin and otherwise aid them in 
investigative and policing efforts. At no time has the 
Government of Cuba provided the United States with the 
information requested, thus demonstrating once more its 
lack of interest in ascertaining facts as a basis for re- 
solving problems. 

False AllegatiMis by Cnban Officials of United States 
Aggression Against Cuba 

According to Rcvoluci6n, officially inspired news organ 
published in Habana by the 26th of July Movement, 
President Dorticos in his recent Montevideo press confer- 



' For a Department of Justice announcement of Nov. 1 
and a letter from Secretary Herter regarding intensifica- 
tion of enforcement of U.S. laws governing departure for 
Cuba, see ibid., Nov. 23, 1959, p. 757. 

' Not printed here. 



82 



ence was asked about the danger of armed aggression 
against Cuba. The President said in effect that when it 
came it would be from the United States. He said that 
the revolutionary government was not worried by the 
threat of invasion from Batista followers, counterrevolu- 
tionaries, or war criminals. But he added that there was 
a maneuver for aggression afoot. It is obvious from Dr. 
Dortico.s' position that he was accusing the United States 
Government of planning an armed attack on Cuba, for 
which it was using Communist penetration in Cuba as an 
excuse. 

As recently as June 8, 1960, in a particularly hostile and 
vitriolic speech, Dr. Fidel Castro again accused the 
United States of planning an armed attack on Cuba when 
he said that if the United States invaded Cuba, this island 
would become another Algeria. Throughout this speech, 
Dr. Castro frequently referred to an impending invasion 
and when he stated that "if they try to attack us, they 
shall be defeated" there was no question but that "they" 
referred to the United States. 

In a speech on the following day, June 9, 1960, Dr. 
Castro charged that blind egotistical forces of the United 
States threatened to sow more violence and death in Cuba 
than the blind forces of nature had caused in Chile. In 
the same speech. Dr. Castro injected, the La Coubre dis- 
aster once more, stating that this incident was still fresh 
in everybody's mind and that it was provoked by power- 
ful interests which wanted to destroy the revolution. He 
further said that this type of disaster was much worse 
than those resulting from natural causes because it was 
criminally conceived and executed. The reference to the 
United States within the context of his speech was very 
clear. 

The United States has repeatedly stated that it has no 
aggressive designs against Cuba. Its conduct toward 
Cuba has consistently and repeatedly demonstrated that it 
has no such designs. It strongly supported the recom- 
mendation of the Fifth Meeting of Consultation of 
Foreign Ministers for the strict observance of the nonin- 
tervention principle by all member states of the Organiza- 
tion. Nevertheless, high officials of the Cuban Govern- 
ment have continued to make false and provocative ac- 
cusations to the effect that the United States intends to 
attack Cuba directly or indirectly. These irresponsible 
efforts of the Cuban Government to portray the United 
States Government as planning an armed attack reflect a 
provocative policy designed to foment tension and under- 
mine the fabric of inter-American solidarity and 
cooperation. 

If the Cuban Government has any serious reason to 
believe that attacks on Cuba are being organized in the 
United States, its first obligation as a member of the 
inter-American community is to bring any information it 
may have on the matter to the attention of the United 
States Government in order that the facts may be ob- 
tained. Should these efforts fail, the appropriate pro- 
cedure would be for the Government of Cuba to bring the 
matter to the the attention of the proi)er organ of the 
Organization of American States in order that it might be 
considered in accordance with established inter-American 
Iirocedures. The Cuban Government has on the contrary 
taken neither action but has consistently preferred to air 

Deparfmenf of %taie Bullefin 



unfounded charges without substantiation and without 
resorting to the methods which the American States have 
established for the solution of such problems. 
Cuban Propaganda Activity in the Diplomatic Sphere 

The continuous attacks by the high oflScials of the 
Cuban Government against oflBcials of the United States 
Government have been augmented by vicious propaganda 
carried out by many Cuban diplomatic missions and con- 
sular establishments, including those within the United 
States. For example : The Cuban Ambassador in Bolivia 
[Jos(5 Antonio Tabares del Real] recently -stated, ". . . 
words written in blood remain, reads the Spanish proverb, 
yet the Yankees who surely must know the old adage do 
not cease in their eagerness to civilize. They bomb us, 
shell us, and impose treaties upon us." 

Aside from the dubious propriety of this extraordinary 
extension of the diplomatic function, statements of this 
nature by Cuban diplomatic otficials, which have been 
made against other American governments as well, serve 
also to cause difficulties for the governments to which 
these officials are accredited. 

False Allegation of United States Complicity in a Plot 
to Invade Nicaragua 

On June 10, 1960, Prime Minister Castro in a television 
program made statements that officials of the United 
States Department of State had been participants in a 
plot to embarrass the Cuban Government. The plot was 
described as one in which an invasion attempt against 
Nicaragua was to be mounted in Cuba under the leader- 
ship of one Chester Lacayo, a Nicaraguan exile. 

The allegations of United States involvement in any 
such plot were, of course, entirely false. It can only be 
assumed that this was a part of the deliberate campaign of 
slander being undertaken by the Cuban Government to 
create a false picture of the motives and actions of the 
Government of the United States. 

Some of the false statements which were made by Prime 
Minister Castro were: (1) that Chester Lacayo met with 
Secretary of State Herter and Assistant Secretary Rubot- 
tom (the fact is that he did not meet with either of these 
officials) ; and (2) that a telegram was sent to Lacayo 
notifying him of an apjwintment with the Secretary of 
State (no such telegram was ever sent by any official of 
the Department of State). It must be assumed that these 
false statements were made for the purpose of lending 
some appearance of credibility to the fictitious account 
as a whole. 
False Allegations hy Cuban Press and Radio 

The attacks against the United States by the Govern- 
ment-inspired press and radio of Cuba have been and 
continue to be even more virulent. A few of the more 
extreme diatribes broadcasted by Unidn Radio and Radio 
MamM are included below as evidence of the obvious 
intent of the Cuban Government to further disturb rela- 
tions between the two countries. 

On December 11, 1959, Tony Fernandez, deputy director 
of the Cuban Government-controlled station of the Cuban 
Workers' Confederation, Unidti Radio, commented: 

". . . Secretary Herter, with the characteristic hypoc- 
risy he inherited from Foster Dulles, said that the United 

July 78, 7 960 



States was making sincere efforts to better its relations 
with Latin America in general and with Panama and 
Cuba In particular. Christian Herter knowingly lied. He 
lies because what the United States has done and is doing 
in Latin America is nothing but maintaining tyrants in 
power . . . The Secretary of State lies when he says that 
numerous attempts have been made to achieve a better 
understanding with Cuba . . . Christian Herter brazenly 
lies when he says the American Government has taken all 
steps to discuss the differences that affect relations be- 
tween the two coimtries and that the Cuban Government 
gives no indication of being disposed to negotiate . . . 
What Christian Herter calls negotiating is for the Repub- 
lic to give itself over to the voracity of the octopuses . . . 
Christian Herter's hyiiocrisy is such that he avoids making 
his threatening statements through the official news 
agency of the Yankee government, UPI, and appears on a 
televised program to say that if Cuba does not want to 
sell its sugar to the United States it will accept the offers 
of other countries who are interested in selling their 
sugar . . ." 

Radio Mambi, an outlet of the Government-controlled 
FIEL network (Frente Independiente de Emisoras 
Libres), stated onJatvuary 15, 1960: 

". . . We believe that the United States needs a good 
revolution to sweep away completely that bunch of 
prejudices that weighs on North American reality. We 
believe that a good revolution is needed in the United 
States to do away with the imperialist and colonialist 
mentality of certain exploiting castes and to eliminate 
forever from that grand nation the reactionary remora, 
represented by the majority of its politicians." 

Radio Mambi on January 22, 1960, stated : 

". . . Within the revolting panorama of international 
intrigues the most repugnant one is the shady, hypo- 
critical, and moronic policy of the U.S. State Department. 
Greatly to blame for this was a certain John Foster 
Dulles — may God eonfoimd him for the immense pool of 
innocent blood which his stupidity formed in the uucon- 
quered fields of Korea ! That good man, fortunately now 
dead, collected in a basket all the residues of the worst 
systems put into effect by imperialism and then poured 
tie bag of evil onto the anguish of the nations . . . John 
Foster Dulles died of a terrible disease and was replaced 
by his favorite disciple, a Mr. Herter, a robust wolf of 
the imperialist den. Mr. Herter took over and began to 
work to foil our revolution ... To the invocation of his 
favorite disciple, errant and asinine spirit of Mr. Foster 
Dulles appeared enveloped in sulphurous smoke and 
whispered in Mr. Herter's ear several words which 
brought a smile to the lips of the U.S. Secretary of State. 
We do not know what Foster Dulles' disembodied soul 
said to that rogue of a Mr. Herter, but we do know that 
one fine day the old golf player who misrules the United 
States packed his baggage and his little balls, together 
with a map of the world. Mr. Herter, it is time you 
stopped your filthy little game. Roll up your sleeves and 
let us lay our cards on the table. Let us begin the game, 
Mr. Herter, again if you like, but let us play without 
tricks and without marked cards . . ." 

Radio Mambi on March 1, 1960, referring to President 
Eisenhower's trip to Latin America, stated : 

". . . What a visit! It is a political joke. Why did 
Eisenhower decide to visit only four South American 
republics? He chose Brazil because a Mr. Kubitschek is 
there. That gentleman still maintains the old putrid idea 
of Pan Americanism. He chose Argentina because Mr. 
Frondizi is an unhappy comedian who believes in the 
democratic farce maintained by bayonets and who is 
ready to sell his soul to the U.S. devil as long as he can 
remain in power. Mr. Eisenhower chose Chile because a 

83 



Mr. Alessandri is there, a man who is ruling behind the 
back of his people. He chose Uruguay because he could 
not do otherwise. Since the country is in the path of his 
tour, it would have been discourteous not to visit it. The 
rest of iVmeriea does not mean a thing." 

These attacks are the more insidious because the Cuban 
authorities are aware that they are deliberate distortions 
presented in such a manner as to inflame uninformed 
Cuban and Latin American public opinion. Cuban of- 
ficials have protested when the press and public of the 
United States have expressed resentment over these un- 
justified attacks. They could hardly have exi)ected any 
other reaction to such distortions- Furthermore, since 
freedom of the press has been so drastically curtailed in 
Cuba, there is virtually no opportunity for the Cuban 
people to learn the facts in this situation. 



In conclusion, it must be stated that the Cuban Gov- 
ernment's systematic and provocative campaign of 
slander and hostile propaganda against the United States, 
of which various examples have been cited in this memo- 
randum, is a major contributor to international tensions 
in the area of the Caribbean and of the hemisphere as a 
whole. 

Depabtment of State 
Washington, D.G. 
June 21, 1960 
Annexes : 

1. Text of aide-memoire to Foreign Ministry of Cuba, June 4, 
1960. 

2. Note to Cuban Representative on the Council of the Organi- 
zation of American States, June 7, 1960. 

3. Statement of the United States Department of the Navy, 
May 6, 1960. 

4. Department of State press release no. 760, October 27, 1959. 

5. Department of State press release no. 781, November 9, 
1959. 

6. U.S. note to Cuban Ambassador, November 9, 1959. 

7. U.S. note to Cuban Charge d'Affalres, May 31, 1960. 

8. Indictment of Shergalls and Garcia. 



ANNEXES TO MEMORANDUM 



[For text of aide memoire to Foreign Ministry of Cuba, 
June 4, 1960, see Bulxetin of June 20, 1960, page 994.] 



[For text of note to Cuban Representative on the Coun- 
cil of the Organization of American States, June 7, 1960, 
see Bulletin of June 27, 1960, page 1028.] 

Annex 3 

Encounter of a Cuban Coast Guard Vessel and the 
United States Submarine Sea Poacheb on Mat 6, 1960 
On the evening of May 6, 1960, the United States Navy 
Submarine Sea Poacher (SS 406) was en route from the 
Naval Station, Guantanamo, Cuba to the Naval Base at 
Key West, Florida. The Sea Poacher was navigating by 
piloting along the north coast of Cuba through the Old 



Bahama and the Nicholas Channels. At approximately 
9 :30 p.m. while running on the surface on course 325° true, 
speed 15 knots, at position 23 degrees 20 minutes north 
latitude, SO degrees 16 minutes west longitude, a position 
approximately eleven miles north of the coast of Cuba, 
the bridge personnel on the Sea Poacher sighted the lights 
of an approaching ship dead ahead. The Sea Poacher 
attempted to exchange identifying signals with the ap- 
proaching ship by the use of flashing light ; however the 
unidentified ship replied with unintelligible light flashes 
and appeared to be maneuvering toward the Sea Poacher. 
The Sea Poacher, in accordance with International Rules 
of the Road, sheered to starboard in order to effect a 
"port-to-port" passage as required in a "meeting" situa- 
tion. The unidentified shiii then maneuveretl to imrt in 
such a manner that had the Sea Poacher resumed her 
original course, a collision would have been probable. 
Therefore Sea Poacher continued turning to starboard 
until she was approximately 90 degrees from her original 
course, and increased to maximum speed in order to open 
the distance between the two ships and thus avert any 
chance of collision. The unidentified ship fell in astern 
of the Sea Poacher and, at a range of 2500 yards, fired 
what appeared to be several red "flares". The Sea 
Poacher continued opening the range to 4000 yards and 
then slowed on the assumption the flares might have been 
distress signals. The unidentified ship continued to fol- 
low the Sea Poacher, extinguishing its running lights, and 
fired three more bursts of "red flares" while at a range of 
3000 yards. Sea Poacher, still thinking the flares might 
be distress signals, allowed the identified ship to close 
to 1500 yards on a parallel course off the port beam. The 
unidentified ship then passed astern of Sea Poacher and 
assumed a parallel course on the Sea Poacher's starboard 
beam. During the period the unidentified ship was in 
close proximity, the Sea Poacher again endeavored to 
communicate by flashing light but received in turn only 
occasional unintelligible flashes. The Sea Poacher, how- 
ever, was able to see the unidentified ship sufiiciently well 
to identify it as a sub chaser. When it became apparent 
that the ship was not in distress the Sea Poacher increased 
speed and departed the area in a northwesterly direction. 
Through reference to recognition manuals the submarine 
chaser was later identified as the former United States 
Navy submarine chaser (SC-1000), now the Cuban Coast 
Guard Patrol Vessel Oriente (GC 104) . 

The initial encounter between the two ships and all 
subsequent maneuvering were in international waters 
well clear of Cuban territorial seas. The Sea Poacher was 
operating on the surface and displaying the proper naviga- 
tional running lights at all times. From analysis of the 
trajectory and appearance it was believed that the red 
"flares" which were fired at the Sea Poacher were 20 mm 
tracer type ammunition. This belief was later corrobo- 
rated by a statement by the Prime Minister of Cuba.* 

Annex 4 

[For text of Department statement of October 27, 1959, 
see Bulletin of November 16, 1959, page 715.] 



84 



' For a Department statement of May 14, see Bulletin 
of May 30, 1960, p. 854. 

Department of State Bulletin 



[For text of Department statement of November 9, 1959, 
see Bulletin of November 30, 1959, page 787.] 

Annex 6 

November 9, 1959 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to a brochure 
received on November 6 from the Press Department of 
the Ministry of State of the Government of Cuba which 
bears the imprimatur of the Public Relations Department 
of that Ministry. This publication is in the English lan- 
guage and is entitled, "Cuba denounces before the world". 

After carefully reviewing this brochure I must state to 
Your Excellency that I consider it to be a shocking com- 
pilation of half-truths, innuendos and insinuations pub- 
lished in what seems to be a deliberate attempt to inflame 
world opinion against the Government of the United 
States on the malicious pretext that it countenanced or 
gave tacit approval to the flight of a plane or planes 
over the City of Habana on October 21. I find it almost 
unbelievable that the Government of Cuba has seen fit 
to distort and misrepresent this matter in this way. I 
am particularly aggrieved at this action in view of the 
categoric statement of the Ambassador of tie United 
States to the President of Cuba on October 27 that the 
Government of the United States possesses no evidence 
that the B-2o aircraft which distributed leaflets over 
the City of Habana on October 21 had also dropped 
bombs or strafed during its flight. In the interim since 
that date a careful examination of this plane has revealed 
that at the time of the flight its bomb bay was fitted 
with a permanent luggage rack which made it impossible 
for it to drop bombs. Furthermore, the automatic 
weapons positions were found to be permanently sealed 
making it impossible to mount machine guns or cannon 
on this plane. No trace was found of explosives or 
weajwns or any evidence that weapons had been fired 
from this plane; nor does it bear any marks of damage 
from anti-aircraft fire. The Government of the United 
States has no evidence that any other aircraft from the 
United States was flying over Habana on this occasion. 
Furthermore, the Government of the United States, in 
spite of its request, has received no oflScial information 
on this subject from the Government of Cuba. 

The Government of the United States has also noted 
that in addition to the press report of the National Police 
of Cuba various other informed sources in Cuba have 
reporte<l that the above-mentioned plane was not observed 
to drop bombs or strafe. An analysis of the available 
evidence, including eye-witness reports, indicates that 
many, if not all, of the persons injured received their 
wounds either from stray rounds of 20 or 40 mm shell 
fragments from fire by the Cuban Armed Forces or from 
grenades or bombs thrown from automobiles by terrorists. 

I have noted that the brochure makes reference to 
"fugitives from justice who now, under the protection of 
political asylum, violate international law by launching 
new and criminal attacks against Cuba." This statement 
and other remarks in a similar vein made in the past by 
officials of the Government of Cuba imply that the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba considers that the Government of the 

July 18, 1960 



United States in some unexplained manner has been un- 
duly protecting individuals in the United States from 
Cuban persecution. This is not the case. I must em- 
phasize to Tour Excellency that the Government of the 
United States is a Government of laws and that the Treaty 
of Extradition which exists between our countries is a 
part of the body of law under which we are governed. 
This Treaty clearly delineates the conditions and the pro- 
cedure to be followed in seeking the return to Cuba of 
alleged fugitives from Cuban justice who are in this 
country. Ten months have elapsed since the formation 
of the present Government of Cuba, during which several 
consultations have been held between officials of our re- 
spective governments as to the procedures to be followed 
under the above Treaty and other United States laws on 
the subject. Despite the time elapsed and the consulta- 
tions since early 1959, no formal requests have been made 
to the Government of the United States by the Govern- 
ment of Cuba under the terms of the Treaty for the pur- 
pose of obtaining the return of these "fugitives" to Cuban 
jurisdiction for crimes allegedly committed under the 
previous regime. 

The Government of the United States most deeply de- 
plores the deaths and injuries suffered by innocent Cuban 
citizens on the evening of October 21. However, in view 
of the publication to which I have referred and numerous 
other false reports which have been spread throughout 
the world concerning the alleged bombing and machine 
gunning of Cuban citizens by a plane which departed 
from the United States, I must ask Your Excellency for 
an explanation of the reason the Government of Cuba 
saw fit to publish this document so inconsistent with the 
good faith and mutual respect essential to the maintenance 
of good relations between our two countries. It is my 
sincere hope. Your Excellency, that the account contained 
therein does not represent the official position of the 
Government of Cuba in this matter. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 

K. R. RUBOTTOM, Jr. 

His Excellency De. Ebnesto Dihigo, 
Amhassador of Cuba 

Annex 7 

May 31, 1960 
The Secretary of State presents his compliments to the 
Charge d' Affaires ad interim of Cuba and notes that the 
Cuban Consulates General in New York City and Miami 
have been disseminating political propaganda of an objec- 
tionable character. The Department refers particularly to 
a pamphlet entitled, "Cuba Denounces Before the World" 
which contains the unfounded allegations that on Octo- 
ber 21, 1959 the City of Habana was bombed with 
explosives and strafed from two aircraft based in the 
United States and carries the implication that the United 
States Government countenanced these flights. It will 
be recalled that on October 27, 1959 Ambassador Bonsai 
informed President Dorticos and Minister of State Roa 
that there has been no evidence submitted by the Govern- 



85 



ment of Cuba or in the possession of tlie Government of 
the United States that the one aircraft in question, piloted 
by Pedro Diaz Lanz, former Chief of the Cuban Revo- 
lutionary Air Force, was armed, dropped bombs, or 
strafed during its flight over Cuba. 

The attention of the Charge d'Affaires Is also directed 
to the Department's note of November 9, 1959, to Am- 
bassador Dihigo, requesting an explanation of the shock- 
ing compilation of half-truths, innuendos and insinuations 
contained in the publication entitled, "Cuba Denounces 
Before the World". The Department has not received 
a reply to this request, and despite the notification that 
the pamphlet contains objectionable material, the Cuban 
Consulates within the United States continue to distrib- 
ute this publication. It must be assumed with regret, 
therefore, that the account contained in the pamphlet 
represents the official position of the Government of 
Cuba in this matter. 

The Department is of the opinion that this pamphlet 
contains political propaganda of a misleading and objec- 
tionable character, the dissemination of which is not 
considered as being within the scope of the functions 
of a duly accredited Consular Officer of a foreign govern- 
ment. Accordingly, it is requested that the dissemina- 
tion of this, and other pamphlets containing similar 
objectionable material, be discontinued immediately by the 
Cuban Consular establishments or any other offices of 
the Cuban Government in the United States. 
Department of State, 
Washington, May 31, 1960. 



Annex 8 



United States District Court 
Southern District of Florida 
Miami Division 
No. M-Cr. 



United States of America 



William J. Sheroalis and 
Hector Garcia Soto 



The Grand Jury charges : 

COUNT ONE 

1. William J. Sheroalis, the defendant herein, has 
been at all times from on or about February 16, 1960 and 
until March 22, 1960 a "person" as defined in Title 22, 
United States Code, Sections 611 et seq. (known as the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, as amended), 
hereinafter referred to as "the Act." 

2. Juan Orta Cordova, Alfredo Guerra, Abelardo Colome 
Ibarra, al.so known as "Captain Fury," Ramiro Valdez, 
Hector Garcia Soto, also known as "Guillermo," Carlos 
Hernandez, as well as the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba, its officials and representatives, have been foreign 
principals, as defined in the Act, at all times from on or 
about February 16, 1960 and up to and including March 22, 
1960. 

3. By virtue of his conduct and activities, 

William J. Sheroalis, 
the defendant herein, from on or about February 26, 1960 
until March 22, 1960, was an "agent of a foreign principal" 



as defined in the Act, in that the said defendant, (follow- 
ing conferences in Havana, Cuba, during the period Feb- 
ruary 16 to February 26, 1960, with representatives of the 
Government of the Repuldic of Cuba, includinj; Juan Orta 
Cordova, Director General of the Office of the Prime Min- 
ister, and others), within the United States of America 
and within the Southern District of Florida, did collect 
information for and report information to a foreign prin- 
cipal, to wit, the Government of the Republic of Cuba, its 
officers and representatives as hereinafter set forth, in- 
cluding information regarding the activities of persons 
opposed to the present Government of Cuba ; and in that 
the said defendant, within the United States of America 
and within the Southern District of Florida, agreed to and 
did act under the direction of a foreign principal, to wit, 
the Government of the Republic of Cuba, its officials and 
representatives, including Juan Orta Cordova, Alfredo 
Guerra, Abelardo Colome Ibarra, Ramiro Valdez, Hector 
Garcia Soto and Carlos Hernandez, and in furtherance 
thereof did arrange for and participate in an airplane 
flight beginning on or about March 20, 1960 at Ft. Lauder- 
dale in the Southern District of Florida and ending on or 
about March 21, 1960 in the Republic of Cuba ; and in that 
the said defendant, within the United States of America 
and within the Southern District of Florida, did solicit 
compensation and other things of value from a foreign 
principal, to wit, the Government of the Republic of Cuba 
including its officials and representatives as aforesaid. 

4. During the period from on or about February 26, 
1960, and untU March 22, 1960, 

William J. Shebgalis, 
the defendant herein, has unlawfully, wilfully and know- 
ingly acted, in the respects as alleged in Paragraph 3 of 
this indictment, within the United States of America 
and the Southern District of Florida, as an agent of a 
foreign principal without having filed with the Attorney 
General of the United States the registration statement 
required by the Act. 

5. By reason of the nature of his activities and his 
relationship with the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba, Its officials and representatives, 

William J. Sheroalis, 
the defendant herein, does not fall within the purview of 
any of the exemptions from registration provided by 
the Act. 

In violation of Section 612, 618, Title 22, United States 
Code. 

The Grand Jury further charges : 
COUNT TWO 

1. Hector Garcia Soto, also known as "Guillermo," the 
defendant herein, has been at all times from on or about 
November 5, 1959 and until the date of the return of 
this indictment, a "person" as defined in Title 22, United 
States Code, Sections 611 et seq. (known as the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938, as amended), herein- 
after referred to as "the Act." 

2. The Government of the Republic of Cuba, its offi- 
cials and representatives, have been foreign principals, 
as defined in the Act, at all times from on or about 
November 5, 1959 until on or about April 12, 1960. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



3. By virtue of his conduct and activities, 

Hector Gakcia Soto, 
the defendant herein, from on or about November 5, 
1959 until on or about April 12, 1960, was an "agent of a 
foreign principal" as defined in the Act, in that the said 
defendant within the United States of America and 
within the Southern District of Florida, did collect in- 
formation for and report information to a foreign prin- 
cipal, to wit, the Government of the Republic of Cuba, 
its oflScers and representatives, including information re- 
garding the activities of persons opposed to the present 
Government of Cuba ; and in that the said defendant, 
within the United States of America and within the 
Southern District of Florida, agreed to and did act under 
the direction of a foreign principal, to wit, the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of Cuba, its officials and representa- 
tives, and in furtherance thereof within the United 
States of America and within the Southern District of 
Florida, in or about March, 1960, did arrange for and 
participate in meetings with William J. Shergalis, and 
others, and did make arrangements for an airplane flight 
beginning on or about March 20, 1960 at Ft. Lauderdale 
in the Southern District of Florida and ending on or 
about March 21, 1960 in the Republic of Cuba. 

4. During the period from on or about November 5, 
1959 until on or about April 12, 1960, 

Hector Garcia Soto, 
the defendant herein, has unlawfully, wilfully and know- 
ingly acted, in the respects as alleged in Paragraph 3 of 
this indictment, within the United States of America and 
the Southern District of Florida, as an agent of a foreign 
principal without having filed with the Attorney General 
of the United States the registration statement required 
by the Act. 

5. By reason of the nature of his activities and his 
relationship with the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba, its officials and representatives, 

Hector Garcia Soto, 
the defendant herein, does not fall within the purview of 
any of the exemptions from registration provided by 
the Act. 

In violation of Sections 612, 618, Title 22, United States 
Code. 



A TRUE BILL 



May 3, 1960 



E. Coleman 

United States Attorney 

William S. Kennet 

Special Attorney 

U.S. Department of Justice 

Roger P. Bernique 

Special Attorney 

U.S. Department of Justice 

Alta M. Beatty 

Special Attorney 

U.S. Department of Justice 



President Eisenhower Congratulates 
Malagasy Republic on independence 

White House press release dated June 26 

Folloioing is the text of a message sent by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower to His Excellency Philihert 
Tsiranana, President of the Malagasy Republic, 
on the occasion of the independence of that nation 
on June 26, 1960. 

June 26, 1960 

Dear Mr. President : On the occasion of the in- 
dependence of the Malagasy Republic, I extend in 
my own name and on behalf of the people of the 
United States most cordial greetings and felicita- 
tions to you and your countrymen. 

The independence of the Malagasy Republic 
achieved in friendly cooperation with France is a 
source of deep satisfaction to the United States. 
The Government and people of Madagascar and 
of France in their efforts to achieve social and 
economic advancement in Madagascar through 
democratic means have earned the admiration of 
all free nations. 

On this historic occasion the Government and 
the people of the United States look forward to 
close and friendly relations with the Government 
and people of the Malagasy Republic. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGiiT D. Eisenhower 



Secretary Herter Sends Regards 
to Somaliland on Independence 

Press release 357 dated June 27 

Following is the text of Secretary Herter'' s 
message to the Council of Ministers of SonMliland 
on the occasion of the independence of that nation 
on June 26, 1960. 

June 26, 1960 
Their Excellencies, 

Council of Ministers of Somaliland, 
Hargeisa. 

Your Excellencies: I extend my best wishes 
and congratulations on the achievement of your 
independence. This is a noteworthy milestone in 
your history, and it is with pleasure that I send 
my warmest regards on this happy occasion. 
Christlvn a. Herter 
Secretary of State, 
United States of America 



Jo/y 78, J 960 



87 



Ten-Nation Conference on Disarmament Terminated by Soviet Walkout 



Negotiations in the Conference of the Ten- 
Nation Committee on Disarmament, which con- 
vened at Geneva on March 15, 1960, ceased on June 
28 after the Communis walkout of Jvme '2,7. Fol- 
lowing are texts of {1) a U.S. note of July 2 to 
the Soviet Union in reply to a letter of June 27 to 
President Eisenhower from, Nikita S. Khrushchev, 
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
U.S.S.R.; {2) a Department statement of June 27 ; 
{3) U.S. disarmament proposals of June 27 pre- 
sented subsequent to the Soviet walkout; and (4) 
Mr. Khrushchev''s letter of June 27. 

U.S. NOTE OF JULY 2> 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and, in I'esponse to the letter of June 27, 
1960 from the Chairman of the (Council of Minis- 
ters of the U.S.S.R. to the President of the Unit«d 
States, has the honor to state the following. 

The Government of the United States deeply 
regrets the arbitrary action of the Soviet Govern- 
ment and its Allies in precipitously breaking oif 
negotiations in the Ten Nation Committee on Dis- 
armament without prior consultation, contrary to 
the accepted rules of procedure and for reasons 
which remain unclear. The United States Gov- 
ernment hopes that the Soviet Government will 
reconsider its decision and resume these negotia- 
tions on disarmament in the Ten Nation 
Committee. 

The Government of the United States rejects 
as wholly inaccurate the Soviet version of events 
within the Ten Nation Disarmament Committee. 



Nor can it fail to reject the Soviet Government's 
unfounded allegations referring to the aborted 
Suimnit Conference. 

The United States Government was profoundly 
disappointed when the Soviet Government re- 
fused to participate in the meeting of the Heads 
of State and Heads of Government in Paris last 
month. ^ The hopes of the world that the govern- 
ment leaders assembled there would be able to take 
constructive steps toward settlement of their dif- 
ferences and toward the strengthening of the peace 
were dashed by the arbitrary action of the Soviet 
Government. 

The Government of the United States, never- 
theless, retained the hope that the Soviet Govern- 
ment might be willing to continue the search for 
meaningful agreements in the negotiations al- 
ready in progress in the areas of disarmament and 
nuclear testing. "Wlien the Soviet Delegation 
tabled its disarmament proposals on June 7, the 
United States Government undertook to give 
them the most thoughtful and serious considera- 
tion.^ In view of the complex character of arms 
limitation and the long history of disarmament 
negotiations, it was obvious that the process of 
negotiating agi-eements would of necessity be long 
and arduous and would require serious effort, 
great patience and abundant forbearance. The 
Soviet allegation that the disarmament negotia- 
tions were proving fruitless and had reached a 
state of deadlock, only three weeks after the re- 
vised Soviet proposals had been tabled, cannot but 



' Delivered to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs by 
the American Embassy at Moscow on July 2 (press re- 
lease 379). 



' For background, see Bulletin of June 6, 1960, pp. 899 
and 904, and ihid., June 13, 1960. p. 947. 

' For a U.S. note to the U.S.S.R. concerning the Soviet 
proposals, see i6iV/., June 27, 1960. p. 1018. For details 
of the proposals, which were contained in a Soviet note 
of June 2 sent to all Heads of Goverrunents with repre- 
sentatives in Moscow and to the United Nations, see U.N. 
doc. A/4374/Rev. 1. 



88 



Department of Sfafe Bullefin 



give rise to question as to the Soviet Government's 
true motivation in torpedoing the Conference. 

The witlidrawal of the Soviet delegation stands 
in sharp contrast to the repeated Soviet official 
declarations of intent to settle by peaceful means 
through negotiation all outstanding international 
issues, among which, it would have been expected, 
would be the question of disarmament, acknowl- 
edged by the Soviet Government to be the most 
important question facing the world today. 

The decision of the Soviet Government to break 
otr the disarmament negotiations was particularly 
surprising and regrettable because it occurred at 
the very time the Western delegations were pre- 
paring to submit new disannament proposals. 
The Soviet Government was aware that the United 
States had undertalven a review of its position on 
disarmament in the hope of finding helpful and 
practical revisions which would further the work 
of the Ten Nation Committee. This review was 
announced by the United States Secretary of 
State on June 24 ^ and, indeed, was acknowledged 
in Pravda the following day. Moreover, the Head 
of the United States Disarmament Delegation 
informed his Soviet counterpart prior to the meet- 
ing at Geneva on June 27, at which the Soviet 
delegation broke oil negotiations, that new pro- 
posals were being worked out for early submis- 
sion. Tliese proposals were designed to take into 
accomit all views advanced during the course of 
the discussions and would have provided an 
adequate basis for substantive negotiations. 

The abrupt termination of these negotiations is 
additionally disturbing in the light of the adoption 
by the Security Council of the UN on May 27 
of the resolution submitted by Ceylon, Tunisia, 
Argentina and Ecuador,' which specifically "re- 
quests the Governments concerned to continue 
their efforts to achieve a constructive solution of 
the question of general and complete disarmament 
under effective international control in accord- 
ance with Eesolution 1378 (XIV) of the General 
Assembly and the discontinuance of all nuclear 
weapons tests under an appropriate international 
control system as well as their negotiations on 
measures to prevent surprise attack, including 
technical measures, as recommended by the 
General Assembly." 



The urgent need to begin a program of dis- 
armament demands that no opportunities for 
negotiations be lost. In this spirit, the delegation 
of the United States and those of its Allies have 
remained at Geneva in the hope that the Govern- 
ment of the Soviet Union and its Allies will see fit 
to return to the task of serious negotiation. 

The goal of disarmament is an aspiration com- 
mon to all mankind and an objective w'hich all 
Governments must relentlessly strive to achieve. 
For its jiart, the United States Government re- 
mains determined to spare no effort to arrive at 
mutually acceptable agreements on concrete meas- 
ures, the implementation of which would repre- 
sent a solid advance toward the goal of complete 
and general disarmament under reliable and 
effective international control. 



DEPARTMENT STATEMENT OF JUNE 27° 

The Soviet bloc's walkout today indicates their 
desire to avoid any further discussion on the prob- 
lem of controlled disarmament within the Ten- 
Nation Disarmament Conference. This action by 
the Communist delegations is both deplorable and 
disappointing. It is deplorable because it shatters 
the hopes of all peoples who earnestly seek prog- 
ress on the road to peace. It is disappointing be- 
cause it casts serious doubt on the sincerity of the 
Communist desires for a solution to tlie disarma- 
ment problem. 

As the Soviet bloc well knew, the Western allies 
were preparing to present, within the 10-nation 
negotiating formn, modifications to the Western 
plan of March \%.'' This initiative by the West, 
based on an effort to accommodate certain aspects 
of the Soviet bloc's June 2 proposal was under- 
taken to find common areas through which the 
negotiations could be advanced. The walkout in 
the face of the Western Governments' willingness 
to move ahead makes fully transparent the desire 
of the Soviet bloc to see the negotiations end in 
total failure. 

The five Allied nations intend for the time being 
to remain at the negotiating table. If the Com- 
munist side is prepared to seek a solution to the 
disarmament problem, the way is still open. It is 



' Bulletin of July 11, 1960, p. 39. 

^ For text, see ihid., June 13, 1960, p. 961. 

Ju/y 78, J960 



° Read to news correspondents on June 27 by Lincoln 
White, Director, Office of News, Department of State. 
' For text, see Bulletin of Apr. 4, 1960, p. 511. 



our earnest hope that the Soviet bloc will recon- 
sider its irresponsible action and join with the 
Allied nations in a determined and continued 
search for a just and durable peace. This would 
be but a fulfillment of each side's responsibility 
to all mankind. 



U.S. DISARMAMENT PROPOSALS OF JUNE 27 

Press release 358 dated June 27 

Pboobam for General and Complete Disarmament 
Under Effective International Control 

June 27, 1960 

Introduction 

The ultimate goal is a secure and peaceful world of free 
and open societies in which there shall be general and 
complete disarmament under effective international con- 
trol and agreed procedures for the settlement of disputes 
in accordance with the principles of the United Nations 
Charter. 

General and complete disarmament in a secure, free 
and peaceful world requires : 

1. The disbanding, through progressive stages, of all 
armed forces of all States and the prohibition of their 
re-establishment in any form whatsoever, except for those 
contingents of agreed size required for the purpose of 
maintaining internal order and ensuring the personal 
security of citizens and for agreed contingents for the 
international peace force. 

2. The cessation of the production of all kinds of 
armaments, including all means for delivering weapons 
of mass destruction, and their complete elimination from 
national arsenals, through progressive stages, except for 
those armaments agreed upon for use by an international 
peace force and agreed remaining national contingents. 

3. Strict and effective international control, from be- 
ginning to end, of the carrying out of all disarmament 
measures, to ensure that there are no violations. 

4. The establishment of effective means for enforcement 
of international agreements and for the maintenance of 
peace. 

Controlling Principles 

1. Disarmament under effective international control 
shall be carried out in such a manner that at no time 
shall any State, whether or not a party to a Treaty, ob- 
tain military advantage over other States as a result of 
the progress of disarmament. 

2. General and complete disarmament shall proceed 
through three stages containing balanced, phased and 
safeguarded measures with each measure being carried 
out in an agreed and strictly defined period of time, 
under the supervision of an International Disarmament 
Control Organization, within the framework of the 
United Nations. 



3. Each measure within each stage shall be initiated 
simultaneously by all participating States upon com- 
pletion of the necessary preparatory studies and upon 
establishment of the arrangements and procedures 
necessary for the International Disarmament Control 
Organization to verify the measure on an initial and 
continuing ba.sis. 

4. Transition from one stage to the next shall be 
initiated when the Security Council of the United Nations 
agrees that all measures in the preceding stage have been 
fully implemented and effective verification is continu- 
ing, and that any additional verification arrangements 
and procedures required for measures in the next stage 
have been established and are ready to operate effectively. 

5. The Treaties shall remain in force indefinitely 
subject to the inherent right of a Party to withdraw 
and be relieved of obligations thereunder if the pro- 
visions of the Treaty, including those providing for the 
timely installation and effective operation of the con- 
trol system, are not being fulfilled and observed. 

6. The International Disarmament Control Organiza- 
tion .shall comprise all participating States whose 
representatives shall meet as a conference periodically as 
required. There shall in addition be a control commis- 
sion and a Director General. The specific responsibility 
and authority of the conference, control commission and 
the Director General, the staffing arrangements and 
criteria, the responsibilities of participating States to 
the Organization, and provisions for any necessary pre- 
paratory or interim group to aid in the establishment of 
the Organization shall be specified in the Treaty. 

7. The specific arrangements, procedures and means 
required for effective initial and continuing verification 
of satisfactory performance of each measure by the 
International Disarmament Control Organization shall 
be specified In the Treaties. These shall provide for 
all necessary means required for effective verification 
of compliance with each step of each measiire. Verifi- 
cation of each agreed disarmament measure shall be 
accomplished in such a manner as to be capable of dis- 
closing, to the satisfaction of all participating States, 
any evasion of the agreement. Specifically, from the 
initiation of implementation of each agreed disarmament 
measure, there shall be effective verification by the Inter- 
national Disarmament Control Organization ; verification 
shall be in no way dependent upon declarations by States 
for its effectiveness; verification shall include the capa- 
bility to ascertain that not only do reductions of armed 
forces and armaments in agreed amounts take place, but 
also that retained armed forces and armaments do not 
exceed agreed levels at any stage. 

Task of the Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament 

The task of the Ten Nation Committee on Disarma- 
ment is to work out a Treaty for general and complete 
disarmament under effective international control gov- 
erned by the foregoing controlling principles as follows: 

1. Negotiate and agree upon a Treaty, to be acceded to 
in the first instance by the States represented on the Ten 



90 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Nation Disarmament Committee, embodying the first 
stage of the program. This stage shall consist of those 
Initial and controllable measures which can and shall be 
undertaken without delay by the States participating in 
the Committee to preclude the expansion of their armed 
forces ; to bring to a halt the growth of their weapons 
stockpiles ; to reduce the levels of their armed forces and 
armaments to the extent possible without jeopardy to 
their security ; and to provide measures for protection 
against surprise attack. 

2. In the course of negotiating such a Treaty, arrange 
for and conduct the necessary technical studies to work 
out effective control arrangements for measures to be 
carried out in the program. These studies shall provide 
an agreed basis for proceeding with implementation of 
the measure studied in the appropriate stage. Among 
the early studies shall be a technical examination of the 
measures necessary to verify control over, reduction and 
elimination of agreed categories of nuclear delivery sys- 
tems, including missiles, aircraft, surface ships, subma- 
rines and artillery. 

3. After reaching agreement on a Treaty on the first 
stage of the program, prepare for submission to a world 
disarmament conference an agreed draft Treaty on the 
second and third stages of the program as set forth be- 
low, in accordance with the foregoing controlling 
principles. 

4. Thereupon, arrange for a world-wide conference of 
all States, to be held at the earliest possible time, for 
the following purposes : 

a. Accession to the Treaty covering stage one by States 
which have not already done so ; 

b. Accession to the Treaty covering stages two and 
three by all States. 

Stage One 

1. An International Disarmament Control Organiza- 
tion shall be established within the framework of the 
United Nations, and expanded as required by the progres- 
sive implementation of general and complete disarmament. 

2. The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of 
vehicles carrying weapons capable of mass destruction 
shall be prohibited. 

3. To give greater protection against surprise attack, 
(a) prior notification to the International Disarmament 
Control Organization of all proposed launchings of space 
vehicles and missiles and their planned tracks; (b) the 
establishment of a zone of aerial and ground inspection 
in agreed areas including the U.S. and D.S.S.R. ; (c) 
exchange of observers on a reciprocal basis at agreed 
military bases, domestic and foreign. 

4. Declaration of and institution of on-site inspection 
at mutually agreed operational air bases, missile launch- 
ing pads, submarine and naval bases in order to establish 
a basis for controls over nuclear delivery systems in 
subsequent stages. 

5. Initial force level ceilings shall be established as 
follows: 2.5 million for the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. and 
agreed appropriate force levels for certain other States. 
After the accession to the Treaty of other militarily sig- 
nificant States and after these Initial force levels have 
been verified, force levels of 2.1 million shall be established 



for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and agreed appropriate force 
levels shall be established for other militarily significant 
States. 

6. Agreed types and quantities of armaments in agreed 
relation to the established force levels shall be placed in 
storage depots by participating States within their own 
territories, under supervision by the International Dis- 
armament Control Organization pending their final de- 
struction or conversion to peaceful uses. 

7. The production of fissionable materials for use in 
weapons shall be stopped upon installation and effective 
operation of the control system found necessary to verify 
this step by prior technical study and agreed quantities 
of fissionable materials from past production shall be 
transferred to non-weapons uses, including stockpiling 
for peaceful purposes, conditioned upon satisfactory 
progress in the field of conventional disarmament. 

8. The submission by the various States to the Inter- 
national Disarmament Control Organization of data re- 
lating to: the operation of their financial system as it 
affects military expenditures, the amount of their mili- 
tary expenditures, and the percentage of their gross na- 
tional product earmarked for military expenditures. The 
data to be submitted will be drawn up in accordance with 
predetermined and mutually agreed criteria. 

Stage Two 

1. Force levels shall be further reduced to 1.7 million 
for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and to agreed appropriate levels 
for other States. 

2. Quantities of all kinds of armaments of each State, 
including nuclear, chemical, biological and other weapons 
of mass destruction in existence and all means for their 
delivery, shall be reduced to agreed levels and the re- 
sulting excesses shall be destroyed or converted to peace- 
ful uses. Agreed categories of missiles, aircraft, surface 
ships, submarines and artillery designed to deliver nuclear 
and other weapons of mass destruction shall be included 
in this measure. 

3. Expenditures for military purposes shall be reduced 
in amounts bearing a relation to the agreed reductions 
in armed forces and armaments. 

4. An international peace force, within the United Na- 
tions, shall be progressively established and maintained 
with agreed personnel strength and armaments sufficient 
to preserve world peace when general and complete dis- 
armament is achieved. 

Stage Three 

1. Forces and military establishments of all States shall 
be finally reduced to those levels required for the purpose 
of maintaining internal order and ensuring the personal 
security of citizens and of providing agreed contingents 
of forces to the international peace force. 

2. The international peace force and remaining agreed 
contingents of national armed forces shall be armed only 
with agreed types and quantities of armaments. All other 
remaining armaments, including weapons of mass destruc- 
tion and vehicles for their delivery and conventional arma- 
ments shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses. 

3. Expenditures for military purposes by all States shall 
be further reduced in amounts bearing a relation to the 
agreed reductions in armed forces and armaments. 



Jv\Y ?8, 7960 



91 



4. There shall be no manufacture of any armaments 
except for agreed types and quantities for use by the in- 
ternational peace force and agreed remaining national 
contingents. 

Following completion of Stage Three, the program for 
general and complete disarmament shall continue to be 
adhered to and verified. 



MR. KHRUSHCHEV'S LETTER OF JUNE 27' 

June 27, 1960 

Mr. President, In supplement to my letter dated June 
2, 1960 enclosing the Soviet Government's proposals con- 
cerning the basic provisions of an agreement on general 
and full disarmament, I consider it necessary to com- 
municate the following. 

The situation created in the Ten-Nation Committee on 
Disarmament causes the Soviet Government grave 
concern. 

During our negotiations last fall we stated that the 
question of general disarmament is the most important 
one facing the world at the present time, and we agreed 
that both our governments should make every effort to 
arrive at a constructive solution of this problem. It is 
well known that in questions of disarmament the Soviet 
Government has acted and acts precisely in this manner. 

On September 18, 1959 the Soviet Government intro- 
duced a program of general and full disarmament for 
the consideration of the United Nations." Desiring to 
make a new contribution to the cause of ensuring peace 
and creating the most favorable conditions for the 
achievement of an agreement on general and full dis- 
armament, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a 
law on January 15, 1960 concerning a further considera- 
ble reduction of the Soviet armed forces by 1,200,000 
men." 

Seeking to achieve as soou as possible a practical 
agreement on the urgent problems of disarmament, the 
Soviet Government, in developing the program of dis- 
armament put foruard by it on September IS, 19.59, 
worked out and prepared comprehensive proposals for 
the implementation of a general and full disarmament 
for discussion at the conference of the leaders of the 
four powers. In these proposals we took into considera- 
tion the views expressed by the Western powers on a 
number of important questions, particularly with regard 
to prohibiting and liquidating all means of delivery of 
atomic weapons first of all (including the elimination of 
military bases), working out disarmament control in 
detail, taking measures for preserving peace and security 



' Delivered to Foy D. Kohler, Assistant Secretary for 
European Affairs, by Mikhail N. Smirnovsky, Minister- 
Counselor of the Soviet Embassy at Washington, on 
June 27. 

• For text, see U.N. doc. A/4219. 

" For a statement by Mr. White on the Soviet proposal 
to reduce armed forces, see Bulletin of Feb. 1, 1960, 
p. 147. 



under conditions of general and full disarmament, et 
cetera. 

Since the Summit Conference failed as a result of the 
inadmissible acts undertaken by the United States with 
relation to the Soviet Union the Soviet Government, tak- 
ing into consideration that a discussion of the problem 
of disammmeut could not be delayed, sent proposals pre- 
pared by it to the governments of all countries and intro- 
duced them for discussion by the Ten-Nation Committee. 
These proposals were supported by the governments of 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Bulgaria, mem- 
bers of the Committee, as well as by governments of a 
number of other countries. 

However, it must be stated that the delegations of the 
Western powers, and first of all the delegation of the 
USA, took a position in that Committee calculated to 
accomplish anything but success in the cau.se of dis- 
armament. They not only are failing to do anything on 
their part to facilitate the immediate achievement of an 
agreement on disarmament but on the contrary they 
apparently are seeking to do everything to prevent such 
an agreement, to keep the Committee from .settling prac- 
tical questions of disarmament, and to smother the cause 
of disarmament in sterile and endless discussions on the 
topic of control without disarmament. 

More than three months have passed since the Commit- 
tee of Ten started its work in Geneva. Concrete plans 
worked out in detail concerning disarmament under effec- 
tive international control were presented by the Soviet 
Union for the Committee's consideration, and willingness 
was expressed to consider any constructive views of other 
members of the Committee aimed at achieving general dis- 
armament. However the Western powers, whose govern- 
ments very recently voted for the resolution of the General 
Assembly concerninjr general and full disarmament, actu- 
ally are avoiding consideration of any concrete proposals 
on disarmament in the Committee. 

On their part, the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, 
and Canada presented in the Committee of Ten a plan that, 
with the best will in the world, could not be considered a 
disarmament plan. It is, rather, a plan of control without 
disarmament, i.e., of a legalized military espionage which 
apparently some one in the USA would not be averse to 
using as a supplement to the practice of invading the air- 
space of other countries for espionage purposes, which 
practice was recently proclaimed by the American Govern- 
ment as the state policy of the USA. Actually, the West- 
ern powers are trying to reduce the whole thing to the 
establishment of control over intercontinental ballistic 
missiles and artificial earth satellites. The idea of such 
a plan is not difficult to guess : it represents an attempt to 
gain one-sided military advantages for the NATO coun- 
tries at the expense of the security of the Soviet Union. 
Naturally, it is impossible to arrive at an agreement on 
such a basis. It appears that the prevention of an agree- 
ment on questions of disarmament was precisely the goal 
which the Government of the USA and the other Western 
powers had set for themselves in connection with their 
participation in the Committee of Ten. The Committee is 
being used by those Powers as a screen behind which they 
attempt to hide their reluctance to have disarmament. 



92 



Departmenf of Stafe Bulletin 



The Delegations of the USA and the other Western 
states in the Committee of Ten are continuing to follow 
the same line at the present time, after resumption of the 
Committee's work at the beginning of June. This shows 
clearly that the USA did not intend to take at the Summit 
Meeting a position that would have permitted freeing the 
question of disarmament from the deadlock that was cre- 
ated through the fault of the Western powers, and first of 
all by the USA. 

As has been shown by the experience in the negotiations 
that took place in the Committee of Ten, the governments 
of the Western states participating in the work of this 
Committee clearly do not desire the prohibition and de- 
struction of such terrible weapons of mass annihilation as 
nuclear and thermonuclear weapons. Nor do they desire 
the liquidation of armed forces and conventional arma- 
ments. The representatives of the Western powers have 
been systematically rejecting and smothering in fruitless 
discussions — under various pretexts — all concrete propos- 
als on these problems. 

Instead of discussing concrete measures for disarma- 
ment, the representatives of the Western states, especially 
the USA, are attempting to justify the military prepara- 
tions and the existence of networks of numerous bases 
created by them on foreign territories. 

I would not be frank if I did not state in this letter that 
the main responsibility for the situation created in the 
Committee of Ten and for the fact that the position of the 
Western powers does not make it possible to take even one 
step toward solving the disarmament problem, falls on the 
Government of the United States of America. As a mat- 
ter of fact, this is not concealed even by the allies of the 
USA in NATO, those represented in the Committee in 
question as well as those not represented. It is namely 
the Government of the USA which is piling one obstacle 
upon another during the discussion of disarmament ques- 
tions, whether it concerns conventional armaments or nu- 
clear weapons and missiles. 

Every time a proposal submitted by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment for consideration by its partners in the talks 
facilitates the possibility of an understanding and takes 
into consideration any of the wishes of the Western 
powers, this proposal is declared to be unacceptable and 
the discussion of disarmament questions is again pushed 
back to the initial point. It is not the first time that we 
have witnessed such tactics, which, perhaps are used by 
those who are frightened by the very idea of disarmament, 
but which hamper all progress in the discussion and even 
more in the solution of the disarmament problem. All of 
this is unfortunately confirmed by the conduct of the 
American representatives in Geneva. 

Looking at things realistically, we must state that as a 
result of the position taken by the Western powers the 
work of the Committee of Ten has come to a deadlock and 
has degenerated into fruitless discussions, while the Com- 
mittee has become anything but an organ promoting the 
cause of disarmament. Apparently there are influential 
forces in the West that are not interested in bringing 
about disarmament and are in every way obstructing an 
agreement on disarmament, and these forces have suc- 
ceeded in placing their stamp on the position of the 
Western powers in the Committee of Ten. Not only is 



this Committee failing to further the cause of disarma- 
ment but, on the contrary, it is doing it considerable harm, 
in so far as it misleads the peoples of the world by 
creating the impression that something is being done in 
the area of disarmament, while actually the Western 
powers are again intensifying the armaments race which 
day after day increases the danger of the outbreak of a 
destructive nuclear and missile war. 

The Soviet Government cannot reconcile itself to such 
a state of affairs. It cannot consent to have the participa- 
tion in the Committee of Ten of the Soviet Union, whose 
sincere desire for an agreement on disarmament is well 
known, be used as a cover to conceal activity that has 
nothing in common with real disarmament. 

To all appearances, the position of the Government of 
the USA on the disarmament question is determined by 
the same general policy in international affairs which it 
presently pursues and which led to the breakdown of the 
Summit Conference, and which made impossible a fruit- 
ful discussion of the most important international prob- 
lems by the heads of the four States. 

Permit me to say very frankly, Mr. President, that the 
Soviet Government has come to the conclusion, consider- 
ing the situation that has arisen in the Committee, that 
the Western powers, judging by the position of their rep- 
resentatives at Geneva, do not wish to conduct serious 
negotiations on disarmament. They clearly have their own 
special ideas which have nothing in common with the 
problem of disarmament. This finds expression in the 
continued armaments race being carried on by those 
powers, and also in the fact that during the discussions 
of disarmament questions in the Committee, they are 
seeking merely to create the appearance of negotiations 
and thereby to deceive the peoples, who are sincerely long- 
ing for a solution to the disarmament problem. 

Taking all of this into consideration, the Government 
of the USSR has come to the conclusion that it is necessary 
to discontinue its participation in the fruitless discussion 
in the Committee of Ten in order to submit to the regular 
session of the General Assembly the question on dis- 
armament and the situation resulting from the imple- 
mentation of the General Assembly's Kesolution of No- 
vember 20, 1959 " on this question. Of course, the matter 
of the composition of the Committee will also arise in this 
connection. 

The Soviet Government is firmly convinced that a 
practical solution can and must be found to the question 
of disarmament, on which peace or war depends, and that 
no artificial obstacles or delays can be tolerated in this 
important matter. 

Such are the considerations on the question of dis- 
armament which I deemed it my duty to communicate to 
you. 

N. Khrushchev 
His Excellency 
DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, 
President of the United States of America. 
Washington, B.C. 



For text, see ibid., Nov. 23, 



July 78, 7960 

556359—60- 



93 



The Balance of Payments Between the United States 
and Latin America in 1959 



hy W dither Lederer and Nancy F. Culhertson 



The aggregate value of the transactions between 
the Latin American Republics and the United 
States in 1959 was lower than in 1958, but the rate 
of decline was somewhat less than from 1957 to 
1958. 

U.S. payments dropped from 1958 by about $300 
million and receipts by about $550 million. 

The contraction in our transactions with Latin 
America contrasts with the expansion during 1959 
in our business with other foreign areas. Various 
factors account for this difference, the significance 
of which for the longer run developments will be 
discussed in this article. 

Payments made directly to Latin America in 
1959 exceeded U.S. receipts from that area by about 
$300 million, according to the U.S. balance-of-pay- 
ments tables. Indirect transactions, particularly 
U.S. imports of Latin American petroleum refined 



• This article is the seventh in a . 
the balance of payments 'between the United 
States and the Latin American Republics. 
The first six articles appeared in the Bul- 
letin of March 26, 1956, p. 521; December 
2k. and 31, 1956, p. 983; July 8, 1957, p. 79; 
January 6, 1958, p. 23; August 25, 1958, p. 
311 ; and March 2, 1959, p. 300. The authors 
are Tnembers of the Balance of Payments 
Division, U.S. Department of Convmerce. 
The data on lohich this article is based were 
prepared by the Balance of Payments Divi- 
sion and published in the March 1960 issue 
of tlie Survey of Current Business, the 
monthly periodical of the Office of Business 
Economics. 



in the Netherlands Antilles, resulted in net pay- 
ments to Latin America of more than $200 million. 

Total estimated net j^ayments by the United 
States in 1959 were over $200 million more than in 
1958. Tliis increase continued the trend which 
seemed to have prevailed during most of the 1950's 
but was temporarily interrupted in 1957. Last 
year's rise, however, was somewhat faster than the 
average rate in tlie previous years. 

Although transactions with Latin America con- 
tributed to the overall deficit in the U.S. balance of 
payments, Latin America returned a much higher 
share of its dollar receipts directly to the United 
States than did the rest of the world. Even in- 
cluding the payments to Latin America tlirough 
U.S. imports from the Netherlands West Indies, 
about 91 percent of the dollar outflow from the 
United States was refunded tlirough purchases 
of goods and services, investment income, and debt 
repayments, as compared with approximately 83 
percent returned by the other areas of the world. 
(The return flow includes only receipts from re- 
corded transactions; net receipts from unrecorded 
transactions cannot be allocated by areas.) U.S. 
sales to Latin America are thus considerably more 
closely linked to the outflow of funds from the 
United States through imports of goods and serv- 
ices, Government grants and loans, and private 
investments than U.S. sales to most other areas. 

The net transfer of dollars from the United 
States to Latin America did not result in an in- 
crease in gold and liquid dollar holdings by the 
coimtries in that area. To the contrary, the Latin 
American Eepublics as a whole reduced their hold- 
ings in 1959 by about $230 million, including net 
payments of about $40 million to the International 
Monetary Fund tlirough exchange transactions 
and capital contributions. This would indicate 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



that, in 1959, dollar expenditures by Latin 
America in countries other than the United States 
or on unrecorded transactions with the United 
States exceeded dollar receipts from sources out- 
side the United States by about $700 million. In 
1958 these dollar payments to other coimtries were 
about 10 percent less. 

The experience during these 2 years differs con- 
siderably from the net dollar flow in 1955 and 
1956, when dollar transactions between Latin 
America and countries other than the United 
States (and unrecorded transactions with the 
United States) appear to have been approximately 
in balance. This raises the question whether other 
countries have become more successful in attract- 
ing dollars from Latin America or whether special 
developments were responsible for this change. 

Structure of U.S.-Latin American Balance of 
Payments 

In 1959 about two-thirds of the payments to 
Latin America resulted from U.S. imports of mer- 
chandise and nearly 17 percent from purchases of 
services. Government grants and capital, net of 
repayments, accounted for less than 7 percent of 
the dollar outflow from the United States and 
private capital for slightly over 7 percent. 

The share of U.S. expenditures for goods and 
services in total payments to Latin America was 
about the same as in total payments to all areas 
in 1959, but the share of merchandise imports 
alone was somewhat larger in the transactions 
with Latin America. This was offset, however, by 
the relatively small amount of military expendi- 
tures in Latin America. (The latter are concen- 
trated mainly in Europe and the Far East.) Gov- 
ernment aid — net of loan repayments — as well as 
private investments comprised a slightly smaller 
proportion of total payments to Latin America 
than in the overall balance of payments of the 
United States. The differences were of little 
significance, however. 

Changes in 1959 Relative to Prior Years 

Government assistance and private capital out- 
flows to Latin America were smaller in 1959 than 
during the years 1956 to 1958 and, with imports of 
goods and services relatively stable, did not pro- 
vide as large a share of the total dollar outflow. 
Nevertheless, this share was still considerably 
higher than during the first half of the 1950's. In 



the years 1956 and 1957, private investments were 
exceptionally high, in part because of the pur- 
chases of petroleum concessions in Venezuela, and 
in 1958 several large Government loans were made 
to countries which were in acute financial 
difficulties. 

The 1958-59 decline in U.S. receipts was mainly 
in merchandise exports, while incomes from U.S. 
investments in Latin America and from the export 
of services were only slightly reduced. 

The share of merchandise in total Latin Ameri- 
can payments to the United States was relatively 
stable during the last years, fluctuating by a 
narrow margin around 70 percent. 

Relation of Investment Income to Other Parts of 
Balance of Payments 

Investment incomes (including interest on U.S. 
Government loans) comprised slightly over 14 
percent of total U.S. receipts in 1959, compared 
with 13 percent in 1958. With U.S. investments in 
Latin America rising in recent years at an annual 
rate of more than $1 billion, one might expect that 
gi-adually investment incomes would absorb a ris- 
ing share of the funds received by the Latin 
American countries from the United States and 
consequently constitute an increasing part of their 
expenditures here. That does not appear to be the 
case, however. Although investment income paid 
to the United States rose last year in relation to 
total Latin American receipts from the United 
States, it absorbed a smaller share of Latin Amer- 
ican receipts from the United States than during 
the period 1955-57 and no more than during the 
years 1951-54 or the years 1946-50. 

This suggests that, during the postwar period 
at least, U.S. investment income from Latin Amer- 
ica was more closely related to U.S. expenditures 
there than to the size of the investment itself. 
There may be several reasons for this relationship. 
There is a direct association between such income 
and imports of goods produced by American- 
owned enterprises there. High imports will gen- 
erally result in relatively high investment incomes 
from those enterprises. About 40 percent of our 
imports from Latin America are produced by 
branches or subsidiaries of U.S. enterprises. In- 
vestments in these industries accounted for 70-75 
percent of our income on all direct investments in 
Latin America. 

Equally important are the indirect relationships 



July 18, I960 



95 



between U.S. expenditures and U.S. investment 
incomes, as both are related to business activity 
and general incomes in Latin America. The more 
prosperous the coimtries in that area are, the 
higher will be the profits of American enterprises 
operating there, since a large part of their sales — 
even of those enterprises which sell to the United 
States — are made in Latin American markets. 

Business conditions in Latin America are, in 
turn, to some extent both actively and passively 
related to U.S. expenditures in the area : actively, 
because higher prices for the principal export 
products produced there may increase our expend- 
itures for merchandise imports ; passively, because 
a higher import demand and higher investments 
by the United States will raise Latin American 
incomes. 

The size of past investments is, of course, a 
factor determining the potential investment in- 
comes, but the actual realization of this potential 
depends upon other factors. It appears that cur- 
rent incomes are related to the current gi'owth 
of the economies in which they are located. Wlien 
industries are relatively stagnant and the econo- 
mies with which they are associated are develop- 
ing relatively slowly, investment incomes will be 
comparatively low. High incomes generally 
signify a vigorous industry associated with an 
expanding economy. 

The rate of return on past investments thus 
is flexible rather than fixed, although the flexi- 
bility depends to some extent upon the type of 
investment. Income on equity investments will 
generally be more flexible than income on loans. 

The relatively close relationship between our 
foreign expenditures and investment incomes is 
not unique to Latin America. It may be found 
also in our overall balance of payments, although 
the relationship between our foreign expenditures 
and business conditions in the rest of the world 
as a whole is not likely to be as close as in the 
case of Latin America. Nevertheless, over most 
of the 1950's, the relation of investment income 
to total U.S. expenditures abroad fluctuated with- 
in a narrower range than the relation between 
investment income and the value of the past 
investment. 

The share of Latin American receipts from 
the United States used for the payment of invest- 
ment income to the United States appears to be 



more stable than the share of investment income 
in Latin iVmerican expenditm'es here. 

Latin American expenditures here are affected 
not only by current receipts from the United 
States but also by drawings on, or additions to, 
reserves and by the balances in dollars or converti- 
ble currencies on transactions with other coun- 
tries. Thus U.S. investment uacomes were about 
11.5 percent of total Latin American expenditures 
here during the years 1946-50, when Latin Ameri- 
can purchases here were in part financed from 
prior dollar accimiulations, as against 15.5 percent 
during 1955-57, when some of the Latin American 
dollar receipts were added to reserves. The in- 
crease from 13 percent in 1958 to slightly over 14 
percent in 1959 appears to have been due to a de- 
cline in drawings on reserves and larger dollar 
expenditures outside the United States (or 
through unrecorded transactions in the United 
States) . 

Excess of Investment Income Over Net Capital 
Outflows 

U.S. investment income exceeded the net outflow 
of U.S. capital in 1959 by nearly $100 million. (If 
Government grants are considered a form of capi- 
tal, the amounts were approximately equal.) 
This represents a reversal of the situation during 
the years 1956-58, when the net outflow of capital 
was larger. During the first 2 of these years, pri- 
vate direct investments were extraordinarily high, 
particularly in the petroleum industry, and in 

1958 Government loans were increased by some 
special credits. The excess of capital outflows 
over income receipts during these 3 years appears 
to have been an mterruption of the previous trend 
of a rising excess of investment income. During 
the 5 years 1946-50, incomes averaged about $165 
million higher than net capital outflows, and dur- 
ing the following 5 years, 1951-55, the excess was 
about $265 million. The change from 1958 to 

1959 may represent a return to relationships 
which were characteristic for most of the postwar 
period. 

An excess of investment income over net capital 
outflows is, of course, common in the economic 
transactions between mature creditor and mature 
debtor countries. It does not involve a net drain 
on incomes or foreign exchange resources of the 
debtor coimtries as long as the operations of the 



Department of State Bulletin 



Table I : U.S. Balance of Payments With the Latin American Republics, 1955-59 (Excluding Militaet Grant Aid) 

(Millions of dollars) 



J.S. transactions, excluding 
shipping companies incor- 
porated In Panama 



U.S. payments: 

Imports of merchandise 

Imports of services 

Private remittances and Government pensions . 

Government grants (net) 

Government capital (net) 

Private capital (net) : 

Direct investments 

Other 

Total payments 

U.S. receipts: 

Exports of merchandise 

Income on investments 

Exports of other services 

Foreign long-term investments in the United 

States 

Total receipts 

Net receipts by Latin America through recorded 
transactions with the United States 

Estimated net receipts by Latin America from 
oil imported by the United States through the 
Netherlands Antilles 

Net receipts by Latin America through transac- 
tions with the International Monetary Fund . 

Estimated net receipts of gold and dollars by 
Latin America through transactions with 
other countries, other international organ- 
izations, or through unrecorded transactions 
with the United States 

Increase in Latin American gold and short-term 
dollar holdings 



3,782 

1,010 

42 



3,835 

878 
887 



5,633 
195 

188 
-44 

3 

342 



3,930 

1, 102 

55 

112 

146 

1,090 

305 

6,740 

4,642 

1,015 

965 



54 
118 
471 

325 

163 

5,968 

4,130 
767 
909 



5,805 
163 

243 

58 

-747 
-283 



3,749 
901 
54 

lis 

471 

288 

163 

5,744 

4, 117 
741 
840 



5,697 
47 



3,724 
914 
55 
105 
261 

193 

190 

6,442 

3,553 

734 
829 

27 
5, 143 



220 
-43 



-708 
-232 



Source; U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics. 



enterprises financed by foreign funds increase in- 
come and output of the debtor countries (net of 
their payments of investment income to the for- 
eign investors) by more than they would have been 
able to achieve with their own resources. 

U.S. purchases of goods and services in 1959 
exceeded U.S. sales (excluding investment mcome 
and exports financed by private and Govenunent 
gifts and grants). In 1958 the two sides for 
these transactions were nearly in balance, but in 
1957 sales exceeded purchases by a considerable 
margin. The year 1957 was exceptional, however, 
and the import surplus in 1959 corresponds to the 
pattern that had developed since 1950. 

An excess of purchases over sales of goods and 
services (other than investment income) also is 
typical for transactions between mature creditor 
and mature debtor countries, although in many 
cases the pattern may be modified by transactions 
with third countries. 



Merchandise Imports Slightly Lower 

As indicated earlier, merchandise imports from 
Latin America were slightly lower m 1959 than 
m the year before, in strong contrast to the ex- 
traordinarily steep rise in imports from other 
areas. Two questions arise as to the reasons for 
this discrepancy: first, whether it reflected the 
commodity composition of our imports from Latin 
America; and second, whether there has been a 
shift in our purchases from Latin America to 
other sources of supply. 

Latin America is our principal source of supply 
of foodstuffs. Over half of such impoi-ts in 1959 
came from that area, and foodstuffs comprised 
over half of all our imports from Latin America. 
Li the aggregate, imports of these commodities 
expand relatively slowly. In 1959 they were 
about 10 percent higher m value than the average 
during 1950 to 1954, compared with an increase 



July ?8, 7960 



97 



of over 60 percent for other commodities. In 
part this difference between these commodity 
groups over this period may be found in price 
movements. However, even after adjustment for 
a 10 percent price decline, imports of foodstuffs 
increased only 22 percent, while those of other 
products rose m volume approximately as much 
as in value. 

"VYhile the expansion in imports of foodstuffs in 
general is thus much more moderate than in im- 
ports of other products, imports of foodstuffs 
from Latin America did not even keep pace with 
those from other areas but actually declined in 
1959 by about 5 percent from the average of 
1950-54. 

The following may be the most significant rea- 
sons for this difference. 

First, price declines since tJie first half of the 
1950's affected coffee more than most other food- 
stuffs, and coffee constitutes a much higher share 
in our Latin American imports than in those from 
other countries. 

Second, imports of foodstuffs from Latin Amer- 
ica are, more than those from other areas, domi- 
nated by commodities which are generally not 
produced within this country. These imports, 
aside from inventory movements, will in the longer 
run depend upon overall consumption. Imports 
from other areas have been more heavily weighted 
by commodities which are supplementary to our 
own production. The increase in imports can be 
relatively more than that in overall consumption 
when domestic supplies lag behind requirements. 



For instance, purchases abroad of animal food 
products, including cattle, nearly doubled over 
tliat period, and in dollars their increase was 
higher than that of total food imports. Latin 
America's share in these imports improved slightly 
in the last 2 years but still remained lower than 
one-fourth of the total. Some of the rise in tliese 
imports was due to temporary circumstances, how- 
ever, and a decline has set in during the latter part 
of 1959. 

Another factor adversely affecting imports from 
Latin America was shifts in the sources of supply. 
Latin America's share in our coffee imports de- 
clined from about 95 percent of the value in the 
early 1950's to about 88 percent during the years 
1957-59, but cocoa imports increased during the 
same period from less than 40 percent to about 
50 percent. These shifts, which are the most sig- 
nificant among food products imported from Latin 
America, were on balance adverse to Latin Ameri- 
can sales here, but the net effect for 1959 was a 
decrease of hardly more than about $50 million to 
$60 million. 

From 1958 to 1959 imports of foodstuffs from 
Latin America fell off by about $80 million, while 
those from other areas increased by about $40 mil- 
lion. The principal reasons for the decline in the 
value of imports from Latin America were the 
drop in prices of coffee and cocoa and the decrease 
in the volume of sugar imports. The volume of 
coffee imports increased substantially from 1958 
to 1959. About 5 percent of the 1959 imports from 
all areas were added to inventories, however, and 



Table II : Relation of U.S. Income on Investments From Latin America to U.S. Investments and to Receipts and 
Payments on All Transactions 





Unit 




Excluding shipping compa- 
nies Incorporated in Panama 




194&-50 


1951-54 


1955-57 


1968 


1958 


1959 


U.S. investment income from Latin 
America (excluding reinvested 
earnings) 

Value of U.S. investments in Latin 
America at beginning of year . . 

Income in percent of investment 


million $ 
billion $ 

million $ 

million S 

% 


444 
5. 1 

8.7 

3,868 
11.5 

3,293 
13.5 


644 

7. 1 

9. 1 

4,783 
13.4 

4,728 
13.6 


879 

9.5 

9. 1 

5,692 
15.5 

5,803 
15. 1 


767 

12.2 

6.3 

5,805 
13.2 

5,968 

12. S 


741 

11.8 

6.3 

5,697 
13.0 


734 
12.8 
5.7 


Total U.S. receipts from Latin Amer- 
ica 


5,143 


Income in percent of receipts . . . 
Total U.S. payments to Latin Amer- 


14.3 
5,442 


Income in percent of U.S. payments . 


13.5 



Source: U.S. Department ot Commerce, Office of Business Economics. 



Department of Sfafe Bullefin 



by that amount exceeded current consumption. 
While imports this year may be smaller than in 
1959, prices appear to have stabilized since the 
spring of last year. 

Nearly one-fourth of our imports from Latin 
America consists of petroleimi and its derivatives. 
Until 1958 petroleum was one of our fastest grow- 
ing import items. During the years 1950-58 the 
average yearly increase in total petroleum imports 
was close to $80 million, but in 1959, because of 
lower prices, imports were about $80 million less 
than in the preceding year. The share of direct 
imports from Latin America in our total imports 
was lower in recent years than during the first half 
of the 1950's, but it increased slightly from about 
51 percent in 1958 to 53 percent last year. Because 
of the Suez crisis, the value of petroleum imports 
from Latin America reached a peak in 1957 ; it has 
fallen off slightly since then. Inclusion of imports 
of Latin American oil products through the Neth- 
erlands West Indies would raise somewhat the 
share of Latin American petroleum in our total 
imports but would not alter the basic import de- 
velopment, which changed from a substantial rise 
in the earlier part of the 1950's to relative stability 
in the last 2 or 3 years. 

Decline in industrial imports 

The remaining fourth of the imports from Latin 
America consists mainly of industrial materials, 
such as metals and ores, wool, lumber, and hides. 
Manufactured goods are a relatively small part of 
our purchases in that area. U.S. expenditures in 
Latin America for these commodities in 1959 were 
about 5 percent higher than in the previous year 
but still 12 and 14 percent, respectively, lower than 
in 1956 and 1957 and almost equal to those in 1955. 

In contrast, total U.S. imports of industrial ma- 
terials associated with nondurable goods produc- 
tion in 1959 were about 18 percent above 1957 and 
over 43 percent above 1955 ; those associated with 
durable goods production were 16 percent above 
1957 and 20 percent above 1955. 

Two major factors seem to be responsible for the 
difference in the development of our total indus- 
trial material imports and those from Latin 
America. 

First, among those major materials for which 
Latin America is a large supplier, shifts in our 
sources of supply have taken place which reduced 
the share of Latin America in our imports. Of 



such nondurable materials as hides and skins, non- 
edible vegetable oils and oilseeds, tobacco, wool, 
and other textile materials, the Latin American 
share of our imports fell from a high of nearly 28 
percent in 1956 to about 24.5 percent in 1959. Most 
of the relative decline has occurred since 1957. Of 
selected metals and ores, the Latin American share 
rose from 33 percent in 1955 to close to 39 percent 
in 1958 but fell to about 32.5 percent last year. 
This decline occurred in imports of most of the 
major metals, including iron ore, copper, lead, and 
zinc. Latin America's share in iron-ore imports 
had reached a peak of about 62 percent (compared 
to 43 and 44 percent during the years 1955 and 
1956) but declined to about 54 percent in 1959, 
although in absolute amounts imports were at a 
new high. Copper imports from Latin America 
were 41 percent of the total compared with 56 per- 
cent in 1956, lead imports 34 percent compared 
with 45 percent in 1956, and zinc imports 28 per- 
cent compared with 43 percent in 1957. 

Second, our imports of these materials, with few 
exceptions, have not risen as much as our total im- 
ports of industrial materials. Of the commodities 
which are used primarily in nondurable goods in- 
dustries, imports of those of which Latin America 
is a major supplier fell gradually from 57 percent 
in 1955 to 46 percent in 1959. Of those which are 
primarily used in durable goods industries, the 
decline was from 48 percent in 1957 to 32 percent 
in 1959. In part the decline in the share of these 
more traditional imports (except perhaps iron 
ore) may be explained by the rise in imports of 
semimanufactured steel products due to the steel 
strike here and a relatively slack steel demand in 
other producing countries. Even omitting these 
steel imports, the share of those metals for which 
Latin America is an important source dropped 
from 52 percent of total imports of metals and ores 
in 1957 to 38 percent in 1959. 

Thus, for those materials of which we purchase 
relatively large amounts in Latin America, other 
sources have become more important and other 
commodities — including substitutes such as alu- 
minum, for which Latin America is not a major 
source — apparently have found a faster developing 
market in this country. 

The failure of imports from Latin America to 
expand to the same extent as those from other 
areas thus was due in part to certain special cir- 
cumstances such as the decline in prices of coffee 
and petroleum, in part to the large share of food- 



July 18, J 960 



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Ju/y 78, 7960 



stuffs in total imports, for most of -which — par- 
ticularly those obtained from Latin America — 
the demand tends to rise less than for industrial 
products, and in part to the fact that relatively few . 
of the imports from Latin America are showing 
a strong tendency to grow and that petroleum, 
which had been a fast-rising import imtil 3 years 
ago, did not continue that trend. The newer im- 
ports, such as steel, aluminum, and, of course, 
manufactured products, have so far been obtained 
almost entirely from areas other than Latin 
America. 

Expenditures for Services 

Payments to Latin America for services in 1959 
amounted to slightly more than $900 million, 
approximately one- fourth of the amount paid for 
merchandise imports but considerably higher than 
net payments through Government grants and 
loans and private capital outflows. The aggre- 
gate of services expenditures has not changed 
materially over the last 3 years. 

Nearly half of the services expenditures re- 
sulted from international travel. Of the approxi- 
mately $440 million spent in Latin America last 
year for that purpose, all but about $93 million 
accrued to Mexico ; South America received about 
$35 million to $40 million and the Caribbean and 
Central American Republics about $55 million. 

Expenditures in Mexico, a large part of which 
consists of border transactions, were somewhat 
higher than in 1958, but in certain of the other 
Eepublics they were smaller. 

Government Assistance 

Net contributions to Latin America by the U.S. 
Government through grants and capital trans- 
actions declined from a record high of nearly $600 
million in 1958 to about $365 million last year. 
The change was mainly in loan disbursements, 
which declined by nearly $200 million, and in re- 
payments, which rose by $30 million. Neverthe- 
less, net Government disbursements were as Iiigh 
as in the pre-1958 peak year of 1953 and substan- 
tially higher than in all other postwar years. 

About half of the 1958-59 decline in new loans 
was in disbursements to Brazil, which were at an 
exceptionally high rate in 1958, in part to meet 
financial difficulties in that country at that time. 
The remainder affected several countries, princi- 
pally Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Cuba. 



The decline in Export-Import Baiik disburse- 
ments was somewhat larger than in total new 
loans. Loans imder somewhat easier terms, partic- 
ularly by the Development Loan Fund, and loans 
in foreign currencies acquired through the sale 
of U.S. agricultural commodities increased. 
Among the latter, loans to private enterprises, 
while still small, increased steeply from $2 million 
to nearly $8 million. 

Private Capital Movements 

Direct investments dropped from about $300 
million in 1958 to $200 million in 1959, with most 
of the decline in the Venezuelan petrolemn in- 
dustry. Direct investments in other industries 
were about as high as in 1958 but did not recover 
to the rate achieved in 1956 and 1957. 

The net outflow of other private capital, prin- 
cipally bank loans, was about $30 million higher 
than in 1958 but, more important perhaps, con- 
sisted to a larger extent of long-term funds. The 
net outflow of fimds through long-term loans was 
about $140 million, as compared with $60 million 
in 1958, while the net outflow of short-term funds 
declined by a smaller amoimt. The longer term 
loans went mainly to Mexico, Argentina, and 
Chile, while the net repayments were made by 
Cuba and Venezuela. 

Of the short-term loans Venezuela received 
about $100 million, which offset most of the de- 
cline in direct investments and in longer term 
bank loans. Short-term claims also increased on 
Colombia, but those on Brazil and Cuba were re- 
duced. Combining both long- and short-term U.S. 
claims as reported by U.S. banks, the most im- 
portant movements were net outflows of about $87 
million to Venezuela, $68 million to Mexico, $50 
million to Argentina, $50 million to Chile, and net 
returns of $84 million from Cuba and $36 million 
from Brazil. 

Decline In Exports 

Total receipts from Latin America, as indicated 
earlier, declined from 1958 to 1959 by about $550 
million, or more than 10 percent. Most of the 
decline was in merchandise exports, but receipts 
from services and income on investments were 
also slightly lower. 

Merchandise exports were about $3,550 million. 
This was about $1.1 billion less than at the 1957 
peak and halfway between the 1955 and 1956 



102 



Department of State Bulletin 



amounts. The decline was widespread and oc- 
curred in our sales to all but 3 of the 20 Eepublics. 
Most important in dollar terms was the drop in 
Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba, with a decrease of over 
$100 million in each of these coimtries. The in- 
creases were primarily in Uruguay and Colombia, 
but exports to the latter country were still at a 
very low level compared with recent years prior 
to 1958. 

More than half of the decline was in Latin 
American purchases of machinery and transport 
equipment, and over 20 percent affected metal 
manufactures. Most of the remaining decline was 
in foodstuffs, particularly grains. Only a very 
small part of this decline was due to lower sales 
for foreign currencies under Government pro- 
grams. Among the commodities which main- 
tained their markets were chemicals including syn- 
thetic rubber and fibers, coal, pulp and paper, and 
some other industrial materials. It may be too 
early to conclude that these changes reflect longer 
term shifts in our exports from finished to semi- 
finished goods, but the industrial development in 
Latin America, spurred by our own investments, 
would favor this tendency. 

The major reason for the more than $l-billion 
decline in U.S. exports to the Latin American Ee- 
publics since 1957 is the drop in their foreign ex- 
change receipts. During the same period, how- 
ever, exports from Europe to Latin America 
declined only by about $60 million, or 2 percent 
(all of which occurred din-ing 1958) and exports 
from Japan increased by about that amount. Thus 
the entire decline in Latin American purchases 
from industrial countries was, in the aggregate, 
limited to goods from the United States, and con- 
sequently our share in total Latin American im- 
ports declined. If Latin American imports from 
all industrialized countries had declined in the 
same proportion, our exports would have shrunk 
by about $400 million less than they actually did. 
Although tlie larger loss in our sales may in part 
be due to special circumstances affecting particular 
countries or products, it does point to the possi- 
bility of a weakening, at least temporarily, in our 
competitive position. 

Gold and Dollar Holdings 

The overall decline in Latin American gold and 
liquid dollar assets of about $230 million during 
1959 includes losses of over $400 million by 
Venezuela and about $150 million by Cuba. Many 

Ju\y 78, 7960 



of the other countries, however, increased their 
liquid funds. Among the countries which had the 
largest gains in their reserves were Argentina, 
Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. 

The recovery in reserves by these countries may 
permit them to expand their foreign purchases 
again. This may improve our exports. The fu- 
ture of our exports to all of Latin America in the 
longer run, however, depends basically upon the 
foreign exchange receipts of these countries and 
the success with which we compete with other 
nations. 

Country Data 

The data on the transactions between the United 
States and Latin America as a whole do not indi- 
cate whether the major changes are due to condi- 
tions affecting a few countries only or are charac- 
teristic for a major part of the area. 

Table III provides, for the first time, data on 
U.S. transactions with eight of the major Latin 
American Republics for the years 1955-58. (De- 
tails for 1959 are not yet available.) The decline 
from 1957 to 1958 in our total payments to Latin 
America was mainly due to the drop in payments 
to Venezuela, mostly because of lower private in- 
vestments. Of the other countries shown here, 
payments to Chile, Colombia, and Peru dropped 
slightly, but Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico 
had higher receipts from the United States, al- 
though business activity in the United States had 
declined during that period. 

The largest decline in U.S. receipts from 1957 
to 1958 was also from Venezuela, but receipts from 
all but two of the other seven countries also de- 
clined. The exceptions were Brazil, to wliich U.S. 
exports increased (reflecting higher Government 
loans) , and Mexico, which continued expenditures 
in the United States at the 1957 level. 

Of the eight countries shown here all except 
Venezuela improved their balance with the United 
States from 1957 to 1958 ; most important was the 
improvement of the balance of Cuba (by about 
$150 million), of Argentina (by about $100 mil- 
lion), and of Chile (by about $50 million). The 
decline in the balance of Venezuela with the 
United States was about $350 million, however, 
and about $25 million more if the oil purchases 
through the Netherlands Antilles are included. 

As indicated earlier, the changes in transactions 
between the United States and Latin America and 



103 



the gold and dollar transactions with the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund do not explain the 
changes in Latin American gold and dollar hold- 
ings. The residual reflects either dollar transac- 
tions with countries other than the United States, 
international institutions other than the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund, or imrecorded payments 
to or by the United States. 

For the area as a whole, these transactions re- 
sulted in net payments by Latin America (includ- 
ing the Panamanian shipping companies) of 
about $750 million in 1958, or approximately $500 
million more than in the previous year. The rise 
in this dollar flow, which cannot be explained by 
recorded transactions with the United States and 
the International Monetary Fund, was largest 
between these 2 years. The further increase from 
1958 to 1959 was less than $100 million. 

The data on U.S. transactions with the major 
Latin American countries indicate which of the 
coimtries account for a major part of these resid- 
ual transactions and wliich countries account for 
the major changes in them during recent years. 
An association of these transactions with specific 
countries may in turn shed some light upon their 
nature. 

First, it may be of some interest to note that 
over the years examined here these residual trans- 
actions resulted in consistently large net payments 
by Brazil and Colombia. Among the coimtries 
having large net receipts were Mexico for all of 
the 4 years, Venezuela for the years 1955 to 1957, 
and Cuba for 1957. Some of the large net pay- 
ments, especially by Brazil, and large net receipts 
by "Venezuela were for oil and oil products orig- 
inating in the latter country. 

The increase in these net payments from 1957 
to 1958 was mainly in the transactions by Vene- 
zuela and Cuba and apparently also by some of the 
12 countries for which separate estimates have not 
been made. The rise in net payments by these 
countries was in part offset by a large decline in 
net payments by Brazil and by minor changes in 
the balance of other countries. This indicates that 
the large rise in the net dollar payments by Latin 
America as a whole, not explained by recorded 
transactions with the United States or the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, was largely due to trans- 
actions by two countries and was not characteristic 
for the area as a whole. 

A comparison of these computations with bal- 
ance-of-payments tables prepared by Venezuela 



does not indicate an increase in net payments 
through recorded transactions with countries other 
than the United States in the magnitude indicated 
here. Instead, the nearly $400-million shift in the 
movement of Venezuelan gold and dollar holdings 
which camiot be explained on the basis of U.S. 
data or recorded transactions with the United 
States or the International Monetary Fund ap- 
pears to correspond to a nearly equal shift in un- 
recorded transactions, perhaps capital movements 
in the Venezuelan balance of payments. 

The balance of payments of Cuba does not show 
a similar change in "errors and omissions." About 
two-thirds of the change in the movement of Cu- 
ban gold and dollar holdings not explained by U.S. 
data on transactions with the United States and 
the International Monetary Fund can be explained 
by shifts in Cuba's trade balance with other areas. 
The major factor in this shift from 1957 to 1958, 
however, was a decline in exports to other areas by 
about $100 million, rather than a rise in imports 
from them, which expanded only by $40 million. 

Thus it appears that a large part of the increase 
from 1957 to 1958 in net payments by Latin Amer- 
ica through transactions other than those recorded 
in the U.S. balance of payments was due to un- 
recorded capital movements to the United States 
or to other countries, mostly from Venezuela. 
Shifts in trade or recorded capital transactions in 
favor of other areas were minor in comparison. 



Mr. Dillon Attends Meetings, Talks 
at Geneva, Vienna, Belgrade, Paris 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
(press release 375) that Under Secretary Dillon 
would leave Wasliington on July 9 for Geneva, 
where he will represent the United States at the 
ministerial meeting of the 30th session of the 
United Nations Economic and Social Council, 
July 11-14. 

Later he will visit Vienna, July 14-17, and Bel- 
grade, July 17-20, to discuss matters of mutual 
interest with officials of the Austrian and Yugo- 
slav Governments and U.S. representatives. 
Wliile in Vienna Mr. Dillon will address the Aus- 
trian Society for Foreign Policy on July 15. 
From Yugoslavia he will go to Paris to attend 
the ministerial conference on the reconstitution 



Departmenf of State Bulfefin 



of the Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation on July 22 and 23. 

Members of his party -will include: Graham 
Martin, John M. Leddy, Eobert C. Brewster, and 
Dixon Donnelley, Special Assistants to the Under 
Secretary; Dudley W. Miller, Executive Secre- 
tariat; Mrs. Dorothy de Boi'chgrave, pei-sonal 
assistant to the Under Secretary; and Miss Eva 
Hallam, Mr. Leddy's secretaiy. 



U.S. Makes Loan to Guatemala 
for Development Work 

The Department of State announced on June 
29 (press release 368) that the United States and 
Guatemala had on that day signed an agreement 
by which the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration will lend $3,500,000 to help Guatemala 
carry forward its economic development program. 

The funds, which are in addition to approxi- 
mately $2,300,000 made available by ICA to 
Guatemala for technical cooperation in 1960, will 
be used to help finance development projects in 
the fields of aided self-help housing, water sup- 
ply, malaria eradication, environmental sanitation, 
vocational education, school construction, high- 
ways, and rural community services. 

Tlie loan agreement was signed by the Guate- 
malan Ambassador to the United States, Carlos 
Alejos, on behalf of his Government and by 
Samuel C. Waugh, President of the Export-Im- 
port Bank of Washington, on behalf of the United 
States. The bank administers ICA loans made 
under provisions of the Mutual Security Program. 



U.S. Welcomes French 
Trade Liberalization 

Department Statement 

Press release 356 dated June 27 

The U.S. Government welcomes the announce- 
ment made on June 27 of the action of the French 
Government in freeing fm-ther goods from import 
quota controls. We understand that as a result of 
this move only two industrial products remain 
under discriminatory quota control from the dol- 
lar area. We appreciate this additional step by 



France in its steady progress toward the GATT 
[General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade] ob- 
jective of elimination of quota controls on imports. 
We regret, however, the absence of agricultural 
products from the new list and hope to see early 
removal of French import quota controls on agri- 
cultural iiroducts. 

We understand that the list includes unvulcan- 
ized rubber, steel chains and link belts, saws, 
pumps and compressors, typewriter-accoimting 
machines, statistical machines, hydraulic valves, 
electronic tubes, liquid meters, printed silk, rain- 
wear, linoleum, refrigeration machinery, earth- 
drilling equipment, pi-inting machinery, machine 
tools, vacuum cleaners, and air navigation equip- 
ment. We expect to receive a detailed list of the 
newly liberalized products, which we will make 
available to the press upon receipt and which will 
be published in the Department of Commerce 
publication Foreian Commerce Weekly. 



Freedom' Day 

iy Richard H. Davis 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for European Affairs ^ 

We have come together on this island — now 
named Liberty Island — on a day set aside to honor 
the cause of freedom. The statue at whose base 
we stand is a world symbol of the devotion to lib- 
erty which we share with that great nation, 
France, whose gift it was and whose traditions 
have inspired us and other nations of the world. 

It is fitting that we speak on this day of the 
meaning of freedom. Since man began to live as 
a member of a group, he has concerned laimself 
with achieving and expanding his freedom as an 
individual in society. As civilization developed, 
the goals of personal freedom broadened. Start- 
ing from the basic freedom of his person, man 
sought the freedom t-o acquire and hold property, 
to move about freely, to practice his religion, to 
think and express himself freely, and in order 
to protect these freedoms, to influence the way he 
was to be governed. 

As man gained these personal freedoms and 
began to share in the life of his nation, he identi- 



' Address made at the Freedom Day ceremonies at the 
Statue of Liberty, New York, N.T., on June 29 (press re- 
lease 363 dated June 28) . 



Juty 78, 7960 



105 



fied himself with the nation and with its freedom. 
He recognized that, if his nation were to fall un- 
der foreign control, this would almost surely cost 
him some of his own freedom. 

Thus the search has been for both individual 
and group freedom, man recognizing how much 
one depended upon the other. As a nation bom 
in a search for personal freedom, which soon 
fought a war of national independence in order 
to protect this freedom, we can hardly forget that 
the two are often inseparable. From our own his- 
tory and traditions we support the hopes and ef- 
forts of others to live as free men in free nations. 
As we have grown as a nation, we have joined in- 
creasingly in efforts to build a world in which 
this would be possible for all men. This world, as 
we see it, is one in which free men and free na- 
tions, joined in the United Nations and in other 
regional and international organizations, may 
move toward common goals. 

Let me speak briefly of some of these goals and 
of our role in seeking to attain them. 

All mankind hopes for a world free from the 
threat and fear of war — a world in which arms 
and armies are not necessary, in which the awe- 
some power of the atom is exploited only to serve 
mankind, in which tensions and disputes have 
given way to agreement and understanding. We 
have joined actively in attempts to achieve these 
ends. We shall continue to pursue them firmly 
and patiently in spite of difficulties which are 
placed in our path. 

But we do not stop tliere. The world we seek is 
one which is not only free from the fear of war 
and destruction. It is one in which all men live 
in freedom to decide their own destinies, to govern 
themselves in ways of their choosing, and to enjoy 
the fruits of nature and knowledge in gaining a 
fuller and richer life. 

We live in an era when new nations are emerg- 
ing into independence while others, once free, are 
denied the fi-eedom which is their right. 

In the free world during the past 20 years nation 
after nation has achieved independence — includ- 
ing three African nations [Malagasy Kepublic, 
Kepublic of the Congo, and Somali Eepublic] dur- 
ing this very week — and others are moving toward 
it with the understanding and assistance of the 



former metropolitan powers. In the same period 
nine Eastern European nations have fallen under 
the yoke of Communist imperialism. We will 
never recognize this as a normal situation. We 
will always support the rights and aspirations of 
these peoples to have governments and institutions 
of their choosing. The world was told recently 
that the Soviet Government adheres to the prin- 
ciple of national self-determination. If this be so, 
then the peoples of these nine European nations 
are no less entitled to the right of self-determina- 
tion, the exercise of political freedom, than those 
peoples of Africa and Asia who have so recently 
won their independence. 

In the free world we are witnessing the process 
of self-determination in action as nations emerge 
into independence. One after another they are 
seeking to establish and strengthen the institutions 
of free goverimient. 

Many of these nations are faced with the chal- 
lenge of building their economies, of enlarging the 
means of education, communication, and transpor- 
tation, of securing for their populations the means 
for a fuller life. Upon this depends to a consider- 
able extent the growth of democratic institutions, 
which are themselves crucial to the realization of 
the goals which they — and we — seek. We have no 
wish to influence the patterns of government of 
these societies. We wish only that they have the 
maximum opportunity to develop as open and free 
societies in accord with the expressed will of their 
populations. 

Both directly and within the framework of the 
United Nations we are assisting these nations in 
their development. Our purposes are clear. Our 
nation was born and grew with a vision of freedom 
and a full life. We have worked and fought to 
preserve this freedom for ourselves and for others. 
We now have the opportunity and the obligation 
to play a role in the spreading of conditions in 
which the peoples of the emerging nations may 
realize their own visions of freedom. 

As the great lady who stands above us holds 
high the torch of liberty, we must hold high the 
light of freedom for all so that we may move to- 
gether toward a world free of want, free of fear, 
governed by the rule of law, in which man is 
limited only by the range of his vision. 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE CONGRESS 



Mutual Security Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1961 



Following are statements made hy Secretary 
Herter and Under Secretary Dillon before the 
Senate Appropriations CoTmnittee on June 28 in 
support of the Mutual Security Program for fiscal 
year 1961. 

STATEMENT BY SECRETARY HERTER 

Press release 361 dated June 28 

I am pleased to have the opportunity to appear 
before you in support of the request for appropria- 
tions for the Mutual Security Program. I want 
to speak to you briefly regarding the significance 
of this program and the importance of adequate 
appropriations for it. I am accompanied by 
Under Secretary Dillon, who is, as you know, 
directly responsible for the coordination of the 
Mutual Security Program. AVith your permission 
I will ask him to address himself specifically to 
the effect of the mutual security appropriations 
bill which has been passed in the House of 
Representatives. 

Just a little over 3 months ago I appeared be- 
fore the Senate Foreign Relations Cominittee to 
support the mutual security authorizing legisla- 
tion.^ I spoke at that time of the fact that we 
faced a period of negotiations of critical impor- 
tance and of the uncertainty as to whether these 
negotiations would succeed in reducing interna- 
tional tensions. I pointed out then that negotia- 
tions in and of themselves did not alter the basic 
conflict of ideas and ideologies. I said that the 
fact of negotiations did not warrant any relaxa- 
tion of our efforts to safeguard ourselves and our 
friends and allies fi-om the menace of international 
communism. 



' BxTixETiN of Apr. 11, 1960, p. 566. 
July 78, 7960 



The events of the past 3 months underscore, if 
underscoring were needed, the harsh and basic 
realities with which we ai-e confronted — realities 
which necessitated the institution of the Mutual 
Security Program and which compel its con- 
tinuance and strengthening. There can be no pos- 
sible doubt that the goal of the Communists to 
achieve world communism remains unchanged. 
There can be no possible doubt that the leaders 
of this powerful bloc believe that the end justifies 
the means and will employ any means which they 
believe will help achieve their goal. 

The present thrust of Communist effort is also 
indisputably concentrated on attempting to divide 
the free world, to weaken the confidence of other 
free nations in the leadership of the United States, 
to pressure and to persuade such nations to draw 
back from association with us. These are obvious 
moves designed to isolate us from our friends and 
allies and them from us. 

This is not of course a new objective, nor are 
these present pressures without numerous prece- 
dents. Rather it is a reafiinnation of the con- 
stancy of the Commimist purpose, an unmistakable 
notice that the determination to establish a 
Communist world continues unaltered and 
undiminished. 

Basic Purposes of Mutual Security Program 

Peoples everywhere, in this coimtry, in the 
nations allied with us and in those uncommitted, 
and indeed those in the Sino-Soviet bloc, are con- 
cerned with and will be affected by the nature of 
our response to the challenge renewed by recent 
events. They will examine our actions carefully, 
seeking indications as to whether our adherence 
to our principles and our purposes will be altered. 
The resoluteness with wliich we provide for our 



107 



Mutual Security Prognuu, which is the principal 
instrument through which we give support to our 
established principles and purposes, will be the 
object of particular attention. 

Thus, the action taken by the Congress on this 
bill takes on special significance at this time. It 
will symbolize to millions of people the character 
of our reaction to recent developments. 

Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, I 
want to be clear about this. I believe the Mutual 
Security Program is neither more nor less neces- 
sary because of the events of recent months. It 
was necessary before these events occurred; it is 
still necessary. The renewed Communist pres- 
sures do demonstrate and emphasize the threat 
to all free peoples which the Mutual Security 
Program helps to resist and rebuff. These pres- 
sures do spotlight the action of the Congress on 
the program and will intensify the impact of the 
nature of that action on world opinion. 

Our course is and must be based on a steadfast 
adherence to the purposes which are advanced in 
the JIutual Security Program. We seek to de- 
fend ourselves and to assure our own security; 
we seek equally to support the right of every 
nation freely to determine its own system of gov- 
ernment; we seek equally to help in the progres- 
sive betterment of human beings. It is for these 
reasons that we have had a Mutual Security 
Program; it is for these reasons that we should 
and must continue it. 



Bill 



House Approp 

The House of Representatives has enacted an 
appropriation bill which would provide $3,584 
million, approximately $600 million less than we 
believed to be needed and justified. The House 
Appropriations Committee reduced the amomits 
requested by nearly $800 million, almost evenly 
divided between militai-y and nonmilitary pro- 
grams. Action on the House floor resulted in a 
restoration of half the cut in the military funds. 
There was no restoration of economic funds. 

Certainly, the full amount requested by the 
President ^ for military assistance is urgently 
needed to maintain an adequate defensive strength 
in our allied nations. The action of the House 
in effectmg a partial restoration is most helpful. 
However, I want to make two points. 



= For text of the President's 
id., Mar. 7, 1960, p. 369. 



to Congress, see 



First, the maintenance of defensive strength 
in our allies does not depend solely on the provi- 
sion of military assistance, vital as it is. Eco- 
nomic assistance in the form of defense support 
is equally essential not only to maintain tlie forces 
wluch use the arms but to safeguard the econo- 
mies of the recipient nations from the sti-ains im- 
posed by their military effort. Military assistance 
and defense support are of equal importance in 
maintaining strong allies. 

Second, I wish to emphasize that, if we confine 
our response to the threat of communism to the 
erection of defensive military forces, we shall 
surely lose the contest in the end. Deterrent de- 
fensive strength is essential; it must be main- 
tained; but it is futile if the societies it protects 
do not concurrently progress. 

We must recognize — and in this legislation we 
do recognize — that there is at work in the world 
today a ferment of freedom and of progress stir- 
ring hundreds of millions of people in Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America. These people want 
and require a better life; this desire for improve- 
ment is a major and unquenchable hxmian motiva- 
tion. In the less privileged nations of the world 
this desire is a growing force based on an in- 
creasing recognition of the possibilities for ad- 
vance and an increasing rejection of second- or 
third-class status as world citizens. 

The challenge which the need for progress pre- 
sents cannot be ignored and the response to it must 
be no less vigorous or adequate than the response 
to threats of military force. To the majority of 
the underdeveloped people of the world, preoc- 
cupied with the enormous obstacles to self-im- 
provement, this challenge is the significant and 
important one. It would be most unwise if our 
actions gave credence to the false concept that our 
interests were purely selfish and the welfare of 
others a matter of no concern. 

One further point — and Under Secretary Dil- 
lon will have more to say on this subject — has to 
do with restrictions. The House bill has imposed 
a nmnber of restrictions on the use of fimds 
provided and on the administration of them. I 
ask you in reviewing these to consider quite seri- 
ously whether there is real justification for re- 
stricting the administrators of this program, both 
those now in office and those of the administration 
to be elected this fall, in ways which we sincerely 
believe will seriously and adversely impede the 

Department of State Bulletin 



eflfective employment of this program to protect 
and advance our national interests. 

One such amendment in particular I want to 
comment on. This amendment is set forth in sec- 
tion 101 and concerns the furnishing of documents. 
I must tell you that section 101 is totally miac- 
ceptable to the executive branch and is deemed by 
it to be unconstitutional. It reraises an issue 
which was the subject of intensive discussion last 
year and involves both congressional and execu- 
tive powers about which each is highly and prop- 
erly sensitive. This committee took the lead last 
year in resolving the issue and succeeded in writ- 
ing a provision of law, section 111(d) of the 
Senate Appropriations Act, 1960, which has 
proved acceptable to both branches of the Gov- 
ernment and reenactment of which was recom- 
mended by the President. It is my earnest hope 
that, in order to avoid prolonged and minecessary 
controversy, the amencbxient proposed in the House 
bill will be rejected and the mutually agreed sec- 
tion 111(d) reenacted. 

In summary, gentlemen, I urge the provision 
of adequate funds both for the maintenance of 
strong defenses and for the promotion of 
human betterment. I also urge appropriations 
free of crippling and unwarranted restrictions. 
Such actions on your part will make possible a 
sound and balanced program and will demonstrate 
to all the world that the United States maintains 
its principles and purposes, without fear or alarm 
but with dignity and steadfastness. 



STATEMENT BY UNDER SECRETARY DILLON 

Press release 362 dated June 28 

I appreciate the opportunity to come before 
you again in order to indicate to you our position 
with respect to certain provisions of the Mutual 
Security Appropriations Act adopted by the 
House of Representatives which give us concern.' 

The Mutual Security Appropriation Act passed 
by the House of Representatives fails in five 
significant ways to respond adequately to the re- 
quirements of our national interests and security : 

1. It provides insufficient funds to support tlie 
policies and programs authorized in the substan- 



' For a statement issued by Under Secretary Dillon 
on June 15, see ibid., July 4, 1960, p. 28. 



tive legislation and needed to maintain U.S. 
leadership. 

2. It imposes restrictions on the use of the 
funds appropriated which are inconsistent with 
and would seriously impede the effective execution 
of these policies and programs. 

3. It provides limitations on administrative 
funds which would severely restrict the capacity 
of the executive branch to assure efficient manage- 
ment of the funds appropriated and the programs 
authorized. 

4. It includes two other amendments which 
seriously threaten the execution of the program. 

5. It fails to include two provisions important 
to the execution of the program. 

Insufficiency of Funds 

First, as to funds: The House bill proWdes 
$1.8 billion for Military Assistance, which is $200 
million less than the amount needed for essential 
military equipment and training for moderniza- 
tion of our NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organ- 
ization] and Far Eastern allied forces. 

It provides but $600 million for Defense Sup- 
port. This is $95 million less than the current 
year's appropriation, $124 million less than the 
executive branch believed necessary, and $75 mil- 
lion less than the Congress itself has authorized to 
be appropriated. The action of the Congress in 
sharply reducing tlie authorization for defense 
support was taken prior to the recent intensifica- 
tion of Communist pressures. The full appropria- 
tion of the authorized defense support amount will 
scarcely permit our allies to maintain the forces 
for which equipment is being furnished. A cut 
of the dimensions proposed by the House will 
jeopardize the economic stability of our stanch 
allies along the Sino-Soviet perimeter and thus 
decrease essential military strength at the very mo- 
ment Sino-Soviet pressur&s are being intensified. 

The severe reduction in Special Assistance also 
presents an especially critical problem. It would 
force the eai-ly mutilation or abandonment of cur- 
rent programs required by specific U.S. interests 
and make it impossible to respond to new needs 
such as those posed by the emerging countries of 
Africa. Special assistance covers a wide range of 
situations, including assuring to the United States 
the use of military facilities in North Africa, the 
maintenance of stability in the Middle East, the 
prevention of economic chaos in Bolivia and Haiti, 



July 18, 1960 



109 



participation in malaria eradication, and support 
of American-sponsored schools abroad. The pur- 
poses which are served by special assistance have 
not been challenged during the congressional re- 
view; indeed each committee has stressed the 
importance of the components of particular inter- 
est to it. Yet the amount provided in the House 
bill, $206 million, is $39 million less than last year's 
appropriation, $50 million or nearly 20 percent 
below that authorized by the Congress, and $62 
million less than the executive branch believed 
necessary to caiTy out the programs authorized. 
The full amount authorized is urgently required. 
The reductions in the amoimts requested for the 
Developinent Loan Fund and Technical Coopera- 
tion are in the long rim equally inimical to our 
national interests. These are the primarj- instru- 
ments through which we aid and encourage the 
less developed nations of the world to satisfy the 
needs and wants of their peoples for progi-ess 
without resort to communism. A failure on our 
part to provide such help in adequate measure 
seriously restricts their freedom of choice. The 
House appropriation of $150 million for bilateral 
technical cooperation is $22 million less than what 
was requested and authorized and nearly $11 mil- 
lion less than the current fiscal year 1960 program. 
The clear need for new and increased programs in 
Africa cannot be met unless additional funds are 
provided. 

Restrictions on Use of Funds 

Second, as to restriction on use of funds : The 
House bill imposes new restrictions on the use of 
contingency funds and on teclmical cooperation 
funds which would severely limit their effective 
employment to achieve the purposes for which 
their appropriation was authorized. Neither 
restriction is justified; much harm and no benefit 
can result from their retention. 

The amendment regarding contingency funds 
would deny the President a degree of flexibility 
of proven value, clearly intended by authorizing 
legislation to be available, and would seriously and 
adversely hamper the effective use of these funds 
to advance our secuiity interests. 

The principal need for the contingency fund has 
been, and is expected to continue to be, to meet the 
needs of Situations wliich are totally unforeseen. 
The need to use such funds as the fiscal year 
progresses to make minor but vitally important 



adjustments in country programs which cannot te 
made within the appropriations for the various 
categories of aid is of equal importance even 
though the extent of such use has been relatively 
small. Projections of aid requirements set forth 
in the congressional presentation necessarily are 
based on forecasts of the economic and political 
situations likely to develop over the ensuing fiscal 
year. Neither the executive hranch nor the Con- 
gress can afford to jeopardize our national inter- 
ests hy forcing rigid adherence to projections 
which may he and often are invalidated hy chang- 
ing circumstances. 

It is in these cases that the power to adjust aid 
levels using a small portion of contincreiicy funds 
has proven most valuable. The flexible use of 
these funds, which total less than 5 percent of the 
entire mutual security appropriation, is essential 
to carry out the jiolicies and programs of the 
legislation. 

The restriction contained in the House bill could 
be construed not only to prevent the use of these 
fimds to effect necessary adjustments in going 
programs but to preclude the use of contingency 
funds to augment aid to any recipient of such aid 
irrespective of the extent to which changes in cir- 
cumstances justified such action. Under such an 
interpretation, for example, contingency funds 
could not be used to augment a military program 
in a given country, even if overt Communist attack 
should occur. Thus the language of the provision 
is subject to the interpretation of imposing an even 
greater degree of inflexibility than presumably in- 
tended by the sponsors of the restriction. 

The restriction is contrary to the established use 
of the contingency fund, repeatedly made known 
to the Congress and accepted in congressional ac- 
tion in this year's authorization bill. Its rejection 
is strongly urged. 

The limitation prohibiting the use of technical 
cooperation funds to initiate any technical coop- 
eration project or activity which has not been pre- 
viously justified to the Congress would destroy the 
flexibility which has be«n at the heart of a decade 
of success of the point 4 program. This prohibi- 
tion removes the possibility of making adjust- 
ments in technical cooperation programs during 
the course of negotiation or to meet new needs of 
higher priority. It alters the program from one 
of cooperation with foreign countries to a imilat- 
eral take-it-or-leave-it program. 



no 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Restrictions on Administrative Funds 

Third, as to restrictions on administrative 
funds : The House bill denies funds in the amoimts 
needed to assure effective administration of the 
Mutual Security Program. 

In the case of ICA administrative expenses the 
amounts provided are inadequate to effectively 
administer its programs. Restoration of the $2 
million authorized is urgently needed. 

In the case of Military Assistance, the Develop- 
ment Loan Fund, and the Inspector General and 
Comptroller the House bill does not save any 
money. It merely limits the amount of the funds 
appropriated which can be used for administra- 
tion. This ignores the substantially increased su- 
pervisory and implementation workload of the 
Development Loan Fund with respect to the 150 
loans in being at the start of the new fiscal year. 
Fimds for this work must be made available to 
assure that appropriations already committed by 
the Development Loan Fund are well spent. It 
impedes and restricts the efforts of the Defense 
Department to improve administrative manage- 
ment in the military assistance program. In the 
case of the Inspector General and Comptroller, the 
limitation virtually makes it impossible for his 
duties to be faithfully and fully performed. This 
office, created last year by the Congress to assure 
better management, inspection, and evaluation of 
the program, is now to be denied the funds re- 
quired to do the job. This would weaken our abil- 
ity to remedy the type of errors which Congress 
has long criticized. 

Restriction on Employment of Personnel 

Fourth, as to other provisions: Two provisions 
which appear in the House bill by virtue of amend- 
ments on the House floor are particularly objec- 
tionable. The first of these, section 101, dealing 
with the furnishing of documents, has been dis- 
cussed by Seci-etary Herter. The second is section 
112 restricting employment of ICA personnel. 
This amencbnent also raises anew a proposal which 
was rejected by the Congress last year and which 
was not recommended by the House Appropria- 
tions Committee. 

The amendment in section 112 would prevent the 
major segments of American industry and the aca- 
demic conmiimity from employing former ICA 
employees for 2 years. It should be rejected, as 
it was last year, as unnecessary to prevent im- 



proper activity, for which adequate legislation 
exists, as an imwarranted penalization of Amer- 
ican business as well as of ICA employees, and as 
a crippling restraint on recruitment of skilled 
technicians. 

Provisions Omitted From House Bill 

Fifth, as to omitted provisions: An important 
omission in the House bill is provision for the 
continued availability of obligated balances of 
prior-year funds for use for the general purposes 
of the new appropriations. This authority has 
lieen in every previous act for the last 10 years and 
is essential to the businesslike and effective con- 
duct of this complex progi-am. Its denial would 
preclude the deobligation and reobligation of 
these funds even though they were to be used for 
the same general purposes as those for which they 
were appropriated and obligated. This would 
seriously impede efficient program management 
and, in certain circumstances, require repudiation 
of outstanding commitments. The reinstitution 
of this authority is essential. 

Finally, the deletion on the floor of the House 
of the reappropriation of unobligated balances, 
despite the intention of the House Appropriations 
Committee that these lie available in addition to 
the specific new appropriations, has the effect of a 
reduction of $42 million. These fimds are essen- 
tial and their addition was intended by the House 
Appropriations Committee. The restoration of 
these funds is urged. 

Gentlemen, the provision of adequate funds 
and the removal of unnecessary and impeding re- 
strictions on their use are essential to an effective 
ilutual Security Program. 

Department Urges Senate Approval 
oTTax Convention With India 

Statement iy Under Secretary Dillon ^ 

It is a pleasure to appear before you in support 
of the tax convention with India.- In doing so I 
wish to discuss the foreign policy considerations 
involved in this convention, particularly as they 
relate to the tax-sparing provision, article XII of 
the convention. 



' Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on June 28 (press release 3C0) . 
" For text, see S. Ex. H, SGth Cong., 2d sess. 



Jo/y 78, J 960 



The committee is fully aware of the importance 
the United States attaches to economic progress 
in the less developed countries of the free world 
and to the vital role which private capital can 
and does play in that progress. You are also 
aware of our policy to stimulate further the flow 
of private capital to encourage the maximum of 
private participation in the development of less 
developed areas. "We all recognize the fact that 
Government funds, while still required in large 
measure, cannot do the developmental job alone. 

United States direct private investment abroad 
has tended to increase in recent years; however, 
the share of this investment in the less developed 
coimtries, particularly Asia and Africa, remains 
disappointingly low. The average annual flow of 
U.S. direct private investment in the general area 
including Africa, the Middle East, and Asia since 
1953 has amounted to about $158 million, a mere 
13 percent of the global amount. At least 60 per- 
cent of this investment has been in the petroleum 
industry. Even the sharp spurt in our total for- 
eign investment in 1956 and 1957 did not appre- 
ciably increase the flow to Asia and Africa. 

I shall not go into the reasons for the low level 
of our private investments in the less developed 
countries. They are many, and the committee has 
heard them before. But I would like to emphasize 
that an important factor deterring an increased 
flow of private capital to less developed countries 
is the existence in many of those countries of an 
unfavorable investment climate. We are con- 
stantly seeking to encourage and assist these coim- 
tries to improve their investment climates in order 
to promote investment and development. 

Need for Private Investment in Development 

The Government of India shares with us a 
recognition of the importance of the private sector 
generally and of the need for foreign private in- 
vestment to supplement India's own resources in 
its great developmental effort. In the past few 
years the Indian Government has taken concrete 
steps to improve the investment climate for domes- 
tic private enterprise and as a means of encourag- 
ing an inflow of foreign private capital. It has, 
for example, established a number of institutions 
to provide medium- and long-term credits to pri- 
vate firms. In addition to the successful Govern- 
ment-owned Industrial Finance Corporation, a 



completely privately owned investment institu- 
tion has been in operation since 1955, aided by a 
large interest-free loan from the Indian Govern- 
ment. That Government has also used various tax 
concessions to encourage private industrial devel- 
opment. Since 1949 all new industrial undertak- 
ings have been exempted, for 5 years from the 
start of manufacture, from the payment of cor- 
poration income tax on income up to 6 percent per 
annum of their invested capital. Since March 
1954 all industrial enterprises have been granted 
a development tax rebate equal to 25 percent of 
the cost of new plant and machinery in addition 
to existing liberal depreciation allowances. The 
wealth tax introduced in 1957 was abolished this 
year. There have been other tax incentives as 
well, described more fully in the technical memo- 
randum which I understand the Treasury De- 
partment has prepared for your committee's use. 

Of particular significance to U.S. investors was 
an invitation issued in 1957 by the Indian Govern- 
ment to foreign investors to construct fertilizer 
plants in India and the conclusion in 1957 and 
amendment in 1959 of an investment guaranty 
agreement with the United States. Under this 
agreement investment guaranties of $7 million 
have been issued and applications are being proc- 
essed for an additional $77 million. In addition, 
the Indian Government has warmly welcomed the 
four U.S. trade missions which visited India over 
the past 18 months. The members of these mis- 
sions were favorably impressed by the prospects 
for expanded trade with and investment in India. 

These developments are, of course, highly en- 
couraging to the United States and the free world. 
I am sure you will agree with me that the suc<^ess 
of the Indian experiment — an experiment toward 
economic progress in a free and open society — 
is of vital concern to us, particularly when many 
countries of Asia and Africa are watching closely 
the relative efforts of India and Communist China. 
India is one of the few less developed countries in 
which conditions are particularly favorable for 
economic growth. "We are supporting a greater 
concentration of effort in economic assistance for 
these countries and are seeking to supplement this 
governmental effort by private means wherever 
possible. 

One of the ways in which we hope to support 
the endeavor of the Indian Government to attract 
more private capital is by concluding the tax 



112 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



convention which is now before your committee. 
In the past we have found tax conventions ex- 
tremely valuable in our economic relations with 
the more developed countries because they mini- 
mize or eliminate the extra tax burden which 
would otherwise exist. Tax treaties also create a 
favorable trade and investment atmosphere by 
bringing about a broad adjustment of two tax sys- 
tems in such a way that movements of trade and 
investment are facilitated and conflicts of tax 
policy are greatly reduced or even eliminated. We 
now have tax treaties with 21 countries which 
place our economic relations with these countries 
under a clear and consistent tax regime. 

Our tax treaties ai-e, with only two exceptions 
(Honduras and Pakistan), with the more fully 
developed countries. Despite their obvious value 
to the United States and other developed countries, 
the reciprocal advantages of the treaties have un- 
fortunately been far less apparent to the less de- 
veloped countries. Their general lack of interest 
in concluding conventions with us in the past has 
been due primarily to the fact that they are capital 
importers, not exporters, and their companies do 
not as a rule invest abroad. Accordingly, bene- 
fits appeared to be largely in our favor and revenue 
losses almost entirely on their side. It is only 
recently that the less developed countries have 
begun to view with considerable interest the tax 
convention as a vehicle for attracting U.S. private 
investment. This is essentially because we have 
on a nmnber of occasions announced our willing- 
ness to introduce a new element in our conventions 
which would give recognition by means of a credit 
to tax incentives adopted by less developed coun- 
tries to attract new capital. I am referring here 
to the tax-sparing pro\asion such as the one con- 
tained in the convention with India. We have 
included this provision in two other conventions 
which have been negotiated but not yet signed. 
In addition, discussions have been held with six 
other countries on tax conventions which would 
include a credit for tax sparing. 

As you know, such a provision was also con- 
tained in the convention origmally negotiated 
with Pakistan. However, the expiration of 
Pakistan's incentive law before final ratification 
of the convention removed the basis for the tax- 
sparing provision, and it was therefore excluded 
from the treaty by recommendation of your com- 



mittee.' In taking this action you will recall that 
your committee made it clear that it did so without 
prejudice to its future consideration of the tax- 
sparing principle. 

U.S. Position on Tax-Sparing Principle 

The tax-sparing provision in the Indian treaty 
is mherently reasonable, is in line with our treaty 
policy, and will accomplish our policy objectives. 
A few words about each one of these points will 
clarify our position. 

Tax sparing is inherently reasonable. We 
should make it possible for underdeveloped coun- 
tries to use tax incentives as a policy device for 
the encouragement of private investment in a 
given field. If a less developed country wishes to 
attract domestic and foreign capital into new in- 
dustries, tax incentives are clearly among the tech- 
niques which that country may utilize. Such a 
country would be expected to welcome action by 
the United States which would recognize the spe- 
cial benefit which it is granting to an industry. 

Tax sparing is, fui'ther, an extension consistent 
with our treaty policy. Our basic principle of 
taxing all income of all United States nationals, 
residents, and corporations, no matter where such 
income originates, requires modification at many 
points. Its main corrective is the policy, confirmed 
in our treaties, of granting credit for foreign 
taxes — a policy by which we give foreign tax au- 
thorities a first claim on income arising mider their 
jurisdiction. By the tax-sparing principle we con- 
cede to them the further power not only to tax 
but to forgo taxes. The credit for tax exemption 
leaves the foreign tax authorities free to exempt 
new investments from taxation secure in the knowl- 
edge that these exemptions will not be nullified 
by the operation of the U.S. tax-credit mechanism. 

The tax-sparing principle will improve our re- 
lations with many less developed comitries, be- 
cause they consider tax sparing a significant step 
toward a reconciliation of their and our tax 
philosopliies. 

The tax-sparing device, almost alone among 
measures for the encouragement of private in- 
vestment, permits us to extend tax benefits selec- 
tively to areas and under conditions wliich will 
directly further our economic policy. It is in the 



For background, see Bulletin of June 8, 1959, p. 853. 



July J 8, 7960 



less developed areas that this device proves to be 
most useful, and it is our intention to continue to 
negotiate tax-sparing provisions only after care- 
ful examination of the local tax concessions and 
the way they are administered. 

Tax sparing is geared directly to the economic 
policy objectives of less developed countries. It 
operates only if and when new industries are actu- 
ally established. Thus the prospect of increased 
economic activity, and the prospect of a broader 
tax base, is tied directly to the temporary revenue 
concession oflfered. By enabling less developed 
countries to use this tool as far as American in- 
vestors are concerned, we can hope to open up a 
broader field for the private sector in general. 

In conclusion I wish to state that the tax treaty 
with India should make an important contribution 
to sound economic relationsliips between our two 
countries, and accordingly, on behalf of the De- 
partment of State, I urge its ratification. 



City in 2 or 3 weeks, the exact date to be estab- 
lished in the near future by mutual agreement 
between the two Governments. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Aviation 

International air services transit agreement. Done at 
Chicago December 7, 1944. Entered into force for the 
Uniteil States February 8, 194.5. 59 Stat. 1693. 
Acceptance deposited: Korea, June 22, 1960. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1959, with annex. 
Opened for signature at Washington April 6 through 
24, 1959. Entered into force July 16, 1959, for part I 
and parts III to VIII, and August 1, 1959, for part II. 
TIAS 4302. 
Acceptance deposited: Netherlands, June 27, 1960. 



BILATERAL 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Mexico Agree To Extend 
Aviation Agreement Until August 14 

Press release 372 dated June ."JO 

Manuel Tello, Minister for Foreign Affairs of 
Mexico, and Kobert C. Hill, U.S. Ambassador to 
Mexico, on June 30 concluded at Mexico City an 
exchange of notes extending for 45 days the provi- 
sional arrangement on civil aviation between the 
two countries, which was due to expire on that 
date. 

The agreement to extend the present arrange- 
ment until August 14, 1960, was based upon the 
mutual desire of both Governments to provide ad- 
ditional time to complete the air transport talks 
which were initiated at Washington on April 26, 
I960.' These talks were recessed on May 13, 1960, 
at which time both delegations agreed to consult 
their respective Governments to review the prog- 
ress made and obtain further instructions. It is 
expected that the talks will be resumed at Mexico 



^ For background, see Bulletin of May 16, 1960, p. 804, 
and June 6, 1960, p. 941. 



Chile 

Agreement extending the technical cooperation agricul- 
tural and livestock program agreement of January 16, 
1051, as amended (TIAS 2430, 2514, and 3268). Signed 
at Santiago June 15, 1960. Entered into force June 
15, 1960. 

Denmark 

Agreement approving the procedures for the reciprocal 
filing of classified patent applications in the United 
States and Denmark. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Copenhagen June 13 and 20, 1900. Entered into 
force June 20, 1960. 

India 

Agreement providing for a grant of nuclear research 
equipment in the field of agriculture (gamma irradia- 
tion and fly sterilization facility). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at New Delhi April 22 and .lune 13, 
1960. Entered into force June 13, 1960. 

Israel 

Agreement supplementing the agricultural commodities 
agreement of January 7, 1960 (TIAS 4401). Effected 
by exchange of notes at Washington June 30, 1960. 
Entered into force June 30, 1960. 

Mexico 

Agreement extending the provisional air transport agree- 
ment, as amended (TIAS 3776, 4099, 4269). Effected 
bv exchange of notes at Mexico June 30, 1960. Entered 
into force June 30, 1960. 

Turkey 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of December 22, 1959 (TIAS 4391). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Ankara May 31, 1960. Entered 
into force May 31, 1960. 

United Kingdom 

Agreement concerning the establishment in the Bahama 
Islands of a long-range aid to navigation station. 
Signed at Washington June 24, 1960. Entered into 
force June 24, 1960. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Security Council Considers Argentine Complaint on Eichmann Case 



The V.N. Security Council on June 22 and 23 
debated an Argentine complaint concemi/ng the 
transfer of Adolf Eichmann from Argentina hy 
Israel. Following are two statements made in 
the Council hy U.S. Representative Henry Cabot 
Lodge, together with the tewt of a resolution 
adopted on June 23. 



STATEMENT OF JUNE 22 

U.S. /U.N. press release 3420 

The matter before the Council concerns the re- 
moval from the territory of Argentina of Adolf 
Eichmann, for the purpose of putting the said 
Eichmann on trial before an Israeli court on 
charges of responsibility for systematic mass 
murder of Jews and others in World War II. 

Clearly the way in which Eichmann was appre- 
hended has been the cause of an unfortunate strain 
in the relations between the two comitries most 
concerned, whose relations normally are friendly. 

In these circumstances the United States be- 
lieves that three considerations are uppermost. 

First, nothing which we do or say in the Comi- 
cil sliould further impair or complicate or em- 
bitter the otherwise normal and good relations 
between Argentina and Israel, or make a fair set- 
tlement of tliis matter more difficult. 

Second, in the interests of peace and good order 
among nations, international law and practices in 
such matters as this should be upheld. 

And third, the whole matter cannot be consid- 
ered apart from the monstrous acts with which 
Eichmann is charged. He has been charged with 
the systematic slaughter of some 6,000,000 people 
whose offense under the Nazi law, wliich he served, 
was that they were Jews. It is a record of mur- 



der so savage, and so staggering in its extent, that 
even our century of colossal tragedy and endless 
brutalities has witnessed nothing to surpass it. 

In lists submitted to the United Nations War 
Crimes Commission, Eichmann was described as 
a war criminal by at least three of the countries 
which suffered under Hitler: I refer to France, 
Czechoslovakia, and the Netherlands. He is re- 
ported also to have supervised mass murdere dur- 
ing World War II in Hungai-y — that unhappy 
land. 

Mr. President, in view of this all too extensive 
backgromid we can well understand the strong 
feeling of the Government of Israel, many of 
whose citizens are the children, brothers, sisters, 
and parents of people murdered in Europe hardly 
more than 15 years ago. 

The United States with its allies fought World 
War II against nazism. We were against it then ; 
we are relentlessly against it now. 

If the Council will forgive a personal recollec- 
tion, I saw the concentration camp at Dachau at 
the time that it was captured by the Army. The 
memory of those literally thousands of piled-up 
human bodies will stay with me through life. 

We believe, therefore, that whatever action the 
Council may take on this matter, and whatever is 
said in this debate, we must make it clear that not 
only do we not condone the monstrous acts with 
which Eichmann is charged; we remember them 
with horror and with boundless pity for his 
victims. 

We may also, I think, repudiate the totally base- 
less Soviet innuendo that there is Nazi influence 
in NATO. NATO exists to defend freedom from 
totalitarianism. Let the Soviet Union attack it 
on that gromid, if attack it they must in this 
debate. 



Jo/y 18, 7960 



115 



Air. President, tliis issue with which the Council 
must deal is the complaint of Argentina that her 
sovereignty has been infringed by the manner 
in which Eiclmnann was removed. It is on 
this account that Argentina seeks appropriate 
reparation. 

We imderstand clearly the concern of Argentina 
that its laws and its sovereign rights shall be re- 
spected so that order shall prevail. It is 
legitimate. 

Mr. President, the draft resolution before the 
Council ^ appears to meet the considerations which 
I have described. It is drawn up in moderate 
terms which in our view should not prejudice a 
peaceful solution. 

The United States would, however, like to sug- 
gest two additions which we hope will be accepted. 
We propose first an additional preambular para- 
graph to precede the paragraph which reads, 
"Noting at the same time that . . ." and so forth. 
This new paragraph would read as follows : 

Mindful of the universal condemnation of the persecu- 
tion of the Jews under the Nazis, and of the concern 
of people in all countries that Eichmann should be 
brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which 
he is accused, 

I think that expresses what is in the hearts of 
many of us in the United States and in many 
other countries. 

We also propose that a new third operative 
paragraph be added which would read as follows : 

Expresses the hope that the traditionally friendly re- 
lations between Argentina and Israel will be advanced. 

Mr. President, we believe that these additions 
would improve the text and be in accord with 
the views of most members of the Comicil. We 
believe they also express the hope of Argentina 
and Israel. 

To sum up, we wish to see tliis question disposed 
of m a way which will make clear the world's 
abhorrence of the crimes with which Eichmann 
is charged; which will uphold the rule of inter- 
national law ; and, finally, which will help Argen- 
tina and Israel to solve this matter between them- 
selves and to renew their traditionally friendly 
relations. We believe the pending resolution 
with the amendments which I propose meets those 
requirements. 



STATEMENT OF JUNE 23 

D.S./U.N. press release 3421 

In her speech yesterday the Foreign Minister 
of Isi-ael [Golda Meir] drew attention to the 
phrase "adequate reparation" and inquired as to 
its precise meaning. She made the thoroughly 
reasonable contention that if the Council was to 
accept the phrase "adequate reparation" the Coun- 
cil should know beforehand what "adequate rep- 
aration" was intended to mean. 

Accordingly the United States now wishes to 
state its view of what this phrase means. 

The United States considers that "adequate 
reparation" will have been made by the expres- 
sion of views by the Security Council in the pend- 
ing resolution taken together with the statement 
of the Foreign Minister of Israel making apology 
on behalf of the Government of Israel. We there- 
fore think that when we have adopted the pending 
resolution "adequate reparation" will have been 
made and that the incident will then be closed. 
The normal and friendly relations between the 
two Governments can then progress. 

It is on this miderstanding of the meaning of 
this resolution that the United States yesterday 
stated its position. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION ^ 

The Security Council, 

Bnvinq examined the complaint that the transfer of 
Adolf Eichmann to the territory of Israel constitutes a 
violation of the sovereignty of the Argentine Republic, 

Considering that the violation of the sovereignty of a 
Member State is incompatible with the Charter of the 
United Nations, 

Having regard to the fact that reciprocal respect for 
and the mutual protection of the sovereign rights of 
States are an essential condition for their harmonious 
coexistence. 

Noting that the repetition of acts such as that giving 
rise to this situation would involve a breach of the prin- 
ciples upon which international order is founded creat- 
ing an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incom- 
patible with the preservation of peace. 

Mindful of the universal condemnation of the persecu- 
tion of the Jews under the Nazis, and of the concern of 



U.N. doc. S/4345. 



' U.N. doc. S/4349 ; adopted by the Council on June 23 
by a vote of 8 to 0, with 2 abstentious (Poland, U.S.S.R.). 
In accordance with the charter prorision that "a party 
to a dispute shall abstain from voting" (art. 27(3)), Ar- 
gentina did not participate in the vote. 



Department of State Bulletin 



people in all countries that Eichniann should be brought 
to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is 
accused, 

Noting at the same time that this resolution should in 
no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of 
which Eiehmann is accused, 

1. Declares that acts such as that under consideration, 
which affect the sovereignty of a Member State and 
therefore cause international friction, may, if repeated, 
endanger international peace and security ; 

2. Requests the Government of Israel to make appro- 
priate reparation in accordance with the Charter of the 
United Nations and the rules of international law ; 

3. Expresses the hope that the traditionally friendly 
relations between Argentina and Israel will be advanced. 



FAO Freedom-From-Hunger Campaign 
Receives Active U.S. Support 

Statem,e7it by President Eisenhotoer 

White House press release dated July 1 

On this day the Food and Agriculture Organ- 
ization of the United Xations has begun an inter- 
national freedom-from-himger campaign.^ The 
basic objectives of this campaign are to raise levels 
of food production and nutrition for the people of 
the world. These objectives have the earnest 
support of us all. 

The world is confronted by two great problems 
in hunger : the needs of the present and the future. 
And the last is greater than the first. We must 
try to raise the level of nutrition for many mil- 
lions who now subsist on an inadequate diet, and 
we must find new sources of food for the rapidly 
expanding family of man. To achieve this end 
all countries will have to exert supreme efforts and 
inventiveness. 

The United States took an active part in the 
formation and development of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization. We continue to support it 
as an instrument for intergovernmental consulta- 
tion, for the exchange of information, and to spon- 
sor separate and collective actions by its member 
countries in raising levels of nutrition. We wish 
the Director General of FAO and his staff all 
success as they carry forward their program of 
work, of which this campaign is a special part. 
Through our food-for-peace efforts we are advanc- 
ing the objectives of the campaign, and we are 
working with other countries in the cormnon task 



' For background, see Buxletijt of Jan. 18, 1960, p. 94. 



of improving humanity's standard of living which 
gives substance to our hopes for the peace and 
freedom of all peoples. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

ECE Steel Committee 

The Department of State announced on June 22 
(press release 345) that Maxwell D. Millard, Ad- 
ministrative Vice President — International, 
United States Steel Corporation, will serve as 
delegate to the 24th session of the Steel Committee 
of the United Nations Economic Commission for 
Europe, which is scheduled to be held at Geneva 
June29-Julyl. 

Mr. Millard will be assisted by Robert D. Wood- 
ward, economist, Bethlehem Steel Co., and George 
M. Pollard, First Secretary and Economic Officer, 
U.S. Mission to the European Conunimities, 
Luxembourg, alternate delegate and adviser 
respectively. 

The U.S. delegation will present a proposal for 
the study of comparative factors which affect pro- 
duction and trade in steel products in both Europe 
and the United States. 

International Conference on Public Education 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
(press release 374) the members of the U.S. dele- 
gation to the 23d International Conference on 
Public Education, sponsored jointly by the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization (UNESCO) and the International Bu- 
reau of Education (IBE), which will be held at 
Geneva, July 6-15. 

The U.S. Government will be represented at 
this annual conference by the following delegation : 

Samuel M. Brownell, chairman, Superintendent of Schools, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Leo P. Black, Assistant Commissioner in Charge of In- 
structional Services, State Department of Education, 
Denver, Colo. 

Romaine P. Maekie, Chief, Services for Exceptional Chil- 
dren and Youth Section, Office of Education, Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Fredrika M. Tandler, Assistant Director, International 
Educational Relations Branch, Division of International 
Education, Office of Education, Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 



My 18, 7960 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Beira is the second city of Mozambique, an important 
port, and the largest industrial center in the Portuguese 
overseas province. It is the principal eastern terminus 
of the railroad from the Belgian Congo and the Federa- 
tion of Rhodesia and Nj^asaland. Beira is served by 
many shipping lines, including U.S. companies. 



African Posts Elevated to Embassies 

Lcoiwldvillc 

The Department of State announced on June 29 (press 
release 370) that the American consulate general at 
Lgopoldvllle, Republic of the Congo, would be elevated 
on June 30, 19G0, to an embassy upon the formal attain- 
ment of independence by the former Belgian Congo. The 
United States first opened a consulate at L^opoldville in 
1884. 

Clare H. Timberlake has been nominated by the Presi- 
dent to be the first U.S. Ambassador to the new Republic. 
Until Mr. Timberlake's appointment has been confirmed 
by the U.S. Senate, John D. Tomlinson, who has been 
consul general at Lfiopoldville since 1958, will serve as 
Charg6 d'Affaires. 

itogadiscio 

Press release 371 dated June 30 

The American Consulate General at Mogadiscio, Somali 
Republic, will be elevated on July 1, 1960, to an embassy 
upon formal attainment of independence by that nation. 
The Somali Republic incorporates the former Somalia, 
a U.N. trusteeship under Italian administration, and the 
former British Somaliland, known simply as Somaliland 
since it obtained its independence from Great Britain on 
June 26, 1960. The United States first opened a consulate 
at Mogadiscio on July 1, 1957. 

Andrew G. Lynch, consul general at Mogadiscio since 
195S, has been nominated by the President to be the first 
U.S. Ambassador to the newly independent Somali 
Republic. 



Consular Agency Established at Beira 

Press release 376 dated July 1 

The Department of State on July 1 established a con- 
sular agency at Beira, Mozambique, to provide normal 
services for American citizens who visit that city. Robert 
Lee Peace, an American businessman resident at Beira, 
has been designated acting consular agent. 

Mr. Peace's initial functions will be to assist American 
merchant ships and seamen and other American citizens 
who frequently visit this east African port. When com- 
missioneil as consular agent upon completion of formal 
procedures already initiated, he will perform notarial 
and other consular services. 

The consular agency at Beira will be under the super- 
vision of the consulate general at Lourengo Marques, 
Mozambique, which lies 500 miles south of Beira. 



Designations 

John M. MeSweeney as Director, Office of Soviet Union 
Affairs, effective June 16. 



No. Date 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 27-July 3 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Release issued prior to June 27 which appears 
in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 345 of June 22. 



Subject 

French trade liberalization. 

Herter: independence of Somaliland. 

U.S. program for disarmament under 
international control. 

Delegation to Somali Republic inde- 
pendence ceremonies. 

Dillon : income tax convention with 
India. 

Herter: Senate Appropriations Com- 
mittee. 

Dillon: Senate Appropriations Com- 
mittee. 

Davis: Freedom Day ceremonies. 

Lynch nominated Ambassador to So- 
mali Republic (biographic details). 

Career ambassadors sworn in. 

Memorandum submitted to Inter- 
American Peace Committee on pro- 
vocative actions of Cuban Govern- 
ment. 

Timberlake nominated Ambassador to 
Republic of the Congo (biographic 
details). 

Loan to Guatemala (rewrite). 

Nomination of career ministers. 

Post at LeopoldviUe raised to embassy 
(rewrite). 

Post at Mogadiscio raised to embassy. 

Civil aviation agreement with Mexico. 

Independence of SomaU Republic. 

Delegation to International Public Ed- 
ucation Conference (rewrite). 

Dillon attends meetings and talks in 
Europe (rewrite). 

Consular agency opened at Beira, Mo- 
zambique. 

Amendments to itinerary of King and 
Queen of Thailand. 

Delegation to Development Assistance 
Group meeting. 

U.S. note to Soviet Union. 

Educational exchange agreement with 
Korea. 



356 
357 

358 


6/27 
6/27 
6/27 


•359 


6/27 


360 


6/28 


361 


6/28 


362 


6/28 


363 
*364 


6/28 
6/28 


*365 
366 


6/29 
6/29 


*367 


6/29 


368 
*369 
370 


6/29 
6/29 
6/29 


371 
372 
t373 
374 


6/30 
6/30 
6/30 

7/1 


375 


7/1 


376 


7/1 


*377 


7/1 


i37S 


7/1 


379 
t3s0 


7/2 
7/1 



'Not printed. 

'Held for a later issue of the Bttlletin. 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 18, 1960 



Index 



Vol. XLIII, No. 109^ 



Africa. Consular Agency Established at Beira . 118 

Agriculture. FAO Freedom-Froni-Hunger Cam- 
paign Receives Active U.S. Support (Eisen- 
hower) 117 

American Principles. Freedom Day (Davis) . . 105 

American Republics. The Balance of Payments 
Between the United States and Latin America in 
1959 (Culbertsou, Lederer) 94 

Argentina. Security Council Considers Argentine 
Complaint on Eichmann Case (Lodge, text of 
resolution) 115 

Austria. Mr. Dillon Attends Meetings, Talks at 
Geneva, Vienna, Belgrade, Paris 104 

Aviation. U.S. and Mexico Agree To Extend Avia- 
tion Agreement Until August 14 114 

Congress, The 

Department Urges Senate Approval of Tax Conven- 
tion With India (Dillon) Ill 

Mutual Security Appropriations for Fiscal Year 

1961 (Dillon, Herter) 107 

Cuba. United States Submits to Inter-American 
Peace Committee Memorandum on Provocative 
Actions of Cuban Government (test of memoran- 
dum) 79 

Department and Foreign Service 

African Posts Elevated to Embassies 118 

Consular Agency Established at Beira 118 

Designations (McSweeney) 118 

Disarmament. Ten-Nation Conference on Disarm- 
ament Terminated by Soviet Walkout (texts of 
U.S. note, U.S. proposals, and Khrushchev 
letter) 88 

Economic Affairs 

The Balance of Payments Between the United 
States and Latin America in 1959 (Culbertson, 
Lederer) 94 

Department Urges Senate Approval of Tax Conven- 
tion With India (Dillon) Ill 

Mr. Dillon Attends Meetings, Talks at Geneva, Vi- 
enna, Belgrade, Paris 104 

ECB Steel Committee (delegation) 117 

U.S. Welcomes French Trade Liberalization . . 105 

France. U.S. Welcomes French Trade Liberaliza- 
tion 105 

Guatemala. U.S. Makes Loan to Guatemala for 
Development Work 105 

Health, Education, and Welfare. International 

Conference on Public Education (delegation) . 117 

India. Department Urges Senate Approval of Tax 

Convention With India (Dillon) Ill 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Mr. Dillon Attends Meetings, Talks at Geneva, Vi- 
enna, Belgrade, Paris 104 

ECB Steel Committee (delegation) 117 

FAO Freedom-From-Hunger Campaign Receives Ac- 
tive U.S. Support (Eisenhower) 117 

International Conference on Public Education 

(delegation) 117 



Ten-Nation Conference on Disarmament Termi- 
nated by Soviet Walkout ( texts of U.S. note, U.S. 
proposals, and Khrushchev letter) 88- 

United States Submits to Inter-American Peace 
Committee Memorandum on Provocative Actions 
of Cuban Government (text of memorandum) . 79 

Israel. Security Council Considers Argentine Com- 
plaint on Eichmann Case (Lodge, text of resolu- 
tion) 115 

Malagasy Republic. President Eisenhower Con- 
gratulates Malagasy Republic on Independence . 87 

Mexico. U.S. and Mexico Agree To Extend Avia- 
tion Agreement Until August 14 114 

Mutual Security 

Mutual Security Appropriations for Fiscal Year 

1901 (Dillon, Herter) 107 

U.S. Makes Loan to Guatemala for Development 
Work 105 

Non-Self-Governing Territories, Consular Agency 

Established at Beira 118 

Presidential Documents 

FAO Freedom-Prom-Hunger Campaign Receives 
Active U.S. Support 117 

President Eisenhower Congratulates Malagasy Re- 
public on Independence 87 

Republic of the Congo. African Posts Elevated to 

Embassies IIS 

Somali Republic. African Posts Elevated to Em- 
bassies 118 

Somaliland. Secretary Herter Sends Regards to 

Somaliland on Independence 87 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 114 

Department Urges Senate Approval of Tax Conven- 
tion With India Ill 

U.S. and Mexico Agree To Extend Aviation Agree- 
ment Until August 14 114 

U.S.S.R. 

McSweeney designated director, Office of Soviet 

Union Affairs 118 

Ten-Nation Conference on Disarmament Termi- 
nated by Soviet Walkout (texts of U.S. note, U.S. 
proposals, and Khrushchev letter) 88 

United Nations. Security Council Considers Ar- 
gentine Complaint on Eichmann Case (Lodge, text 
of resolution) 115 

Yugoslavia. Mr. Dillon Attends Meetings, Talks at 

Geneva, Vienna, Belgrade, Paris 104 

Name Index 

Culbertson, Nancy F 94 

Davis, Richard H 105 

Dillon, Douglas 109,111 

Eisenhower, President 87, 117 

Herter, Secretary 87, 107 

Khrushchev, Nikita S 92 

Lederer, Walther 94 

Lodge, Henry Cabot 115 

McSweeney, John M 118 




<i(^^s 



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Washington 25, D.C. 

OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

The basic source of information on 
U.S. diplomatic history 

1942, Volume I, General, 

The British Commonwealth, The Far East 

The Department of State recently released Foreign Relations 
of the United States, 1942, Volume /, General, The British Gorro- 
monwealth, The Far East. Tliis is the first of the six regular 
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tions series for 1942. 

Subjects treated in the General section include the United 
Nations Declaration, the Permanent Court, war crimes, relief 
problems, postwar economic and financial planning, exchange of 
officials and nonofficials with enemy coimtries, protests by neutrals 
against certain features of the Selective Service Act, and inter- 
national agi'eements regarding wheat, sugar, and tin. 

The section on the British Commonwealth of Nations relates to 
agreements with the several members of the Commonwealth in 
connection with the conduct of the war and to the interest of the 
United States in situations affecting the war effort. 

The Far East section contains correspondence regarding Japan, 
Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. 

Copies of the volume may be obtained from the Supei-int«ndent 
of Documents, U.S. Govermnent Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D.C. for $3.50 each. 



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To: Supt. of Documents 
Govt. Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Enclosed find; 



Please send me copies of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

1942, Volume I, General, Tlie Britisfi Commonwealth., The Far East. 



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City, Zone, and State: 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



JLf^JU^ 




IE 

FICIAL 
EEKLY RECORD 



PRESIDENT EISENHOWER VISITS THE FAR EAST • 

Report to the People, Joint Statement and Communiques, 
Major Addresses 123 

UNITED STATES AND THAILAND EXPRESS MUTUAL 
DESIRE TO MAINTAIN AND STRENGTHEN 
COOPERATION 143 

NEW AFRICAN NATIONS RECOMMENDED FOR 

MEMBERSHIP IN UNITED NATIONS • Statements 
by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge and Assistant Secretary 
Wilcox 149 



»IITED STATES 
IREIGN POLICY 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIII, No. 1100 • Publication 7035 
July 25, 1960 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Oovemment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.O. 

Peice: 

S2 Issues, domestic $8.60, foreign $12.26 

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The printing of this publication has been 
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the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bdlletin as the source wUl be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
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President Eisenhower Visits the Far East 



President Eisenhower returned to Washington on Jime 26 after a trip to 
the Far East dunng which he visited the Republic of the Philippines, June 
U-16, the Republic of China, June 18-19, the island of Okinawa, June 19, 
and the Republic of Korea, June 19-20. On June 27 the President made a 
report on his trip to the American people by radio and television. 

Following are texts of the President's report, his major addresses during 
the trip, and joint statements issued at Manila, Taipei, and Seoul. 



REPORT TO THE PEOPLE, JUNE 27 

White House press release dated June 27 

My friends : I have just returned to Washington 
from a trip to the Far East. It has been a trip so 
marked by events of significance that I shall try 
this evening to give you a simple background of 
fact against which these recent events can be 
viewed in perspective. 

To begin, a few personal observations on the 
trip I have just concluded : 

First, American relations with the Philip- 
pines, Taiwan, Korea, and Okinawa have been 
strengthened. 

Second, the people of these Far Eastern lands 
took advantage of the opportimity given by this 
visit to demonstrate anew their long and ardent 
friendship with and for the people of America. 
The American people are gratified, I am sure, as 
am I, by these heartwarming demonstrations. 

Third, the ratification of the mutual security 
treaty between the United States and Japan ^ rep- 
resents an important victory for the free world — 
a defeat for international communism. 

And now let's look at the background of this 
trip — and the others I have taken in the interest 
of world peace. 

This trip was planned as one of a series which 
have, in toto, taken me nearly around the world, 
to 27 nations of Europe, the Middle East, South 

' For text, see BtJLLETiN of Feb. 8, 1960, p. 184. 
Jo/y 25, I960 



Asia, North Africa, the Americas, and the Far 
East. Those nations I have visited during the 
last 10 months have populations reaching an ag- 
gregate of over a billion people. 

To understand where these visits fit into the 
overall foreign relations of this Government we 
must go back to 1953, to the time when I was 
assessing the world situation with the late Secre- 
tary of State Dulles, preparatory to my assump- 
tion of the office of the Presidency. At that time 
we recognized that the Communists had, for some 
years following the conclusion of World War II, 
taken advantage of the chaotic aftermath of con- 
flict — and of our own self-imposed military dis- 
armament — to indulge in a continuous campaign 
of aggression and subversion m Asia and Eastern 
Europe. They had disrupted the lives of millions 
of free people, causing lowered living standards 
and exhausted economies. Cliina and its half bil- 
lion people had been lost to the free world. The 
war in Korea, then in condition of stalemate, still 
dragged on. 

We began our studies with one essential fact 
before us. It had become clear, by 1953, that the 
accumulation of atomic weapon stockpiles, whose 
use could destroy civilization, made resort to force 
an intolerable means for settling international 
disputes. Only in the rule of law, which meant 
the attainment of an enduring peace with jus- 
tice, could mankind hope for guarantee against 
extinction. 



"With these facts in mind we conchided, and 
have since been guided by the conviction, that 
there were several things which we should do si- 
midtaneously, all of them in conformity with the 
ideals expressed in the charter of the United 
Nations. 

It was, and is, mandatory to present before the 
world, constantly and vigorously, America's great 
desire for peace and her readiness to sit at the 
conference table to discuss specific i^roblems with 
anyone who would show an equal readiness to 
negotiate honestly and in good faith. This we 
continue to do in spite of difficulties such as the 
regrettable action of the Soviet delegation in walk- 
ing out of the Ten-Nation Disarmament Confer- 
ence at Geneva this morning.^ But from the very 
beginning we have made it clear that, until real 
progress toward mutual disarmament could be 
achieved, our first concern would be to keep our 
own defenses strong, modern, and alert. 

We tried to identify all those areas in the world 
where serious trouble could erupt suddenly and 
developed suggestions for correcting the causes 
of unrest and of enhancing stability in such locali- 
ties. Through cooperation with our friends we 
have succeeded in removing causes of friction in 
many of these areas. 

In support of these purposes we have sought, 
from the begiimiiig, frequent personal contact with 
responsible governmental officials of friendly 
nations. Indeed, we have felt it wise, also, to 
seek to improve communications between our- 
selves and the Soviet Government. Akin to this 
effort was one wliich has come to be called the 
people-to-people program, a completely new type 
of venture in international relations which has 
been amazingly successful. 

Along with these objectives we have constantly 
striven to devise better methods of cooperation 
with our friends, working out with them programs 
by which together we could improve our common 
security and raise living standards. Our Mutual 
Security Program has been, and is, a vital means 
of making such cooperation effective. 

To carry out the purpose of proclaiming and 
demonstrating to the world America's peaceful 
intentions, we first made a number of policy state- 
ments and a series of concrete proposals that 
might lead to fruitful discussions with the Soviets. 
As early as April of 1953, 1 suggested disarma- 



ment talks with the Soviets and pledged tliat I 
would urge the United States to apply a sub- 
stantial portion of any savings realized through 
mutually acceptable disarmament to the improve- 
ment of living standards in the less developed 
nations.^ 

Later that year I proposed, before the United 
Nations General Assembly, that we devote all dis- 
coveries in atomic science to peaceful uses." Nine- 
teen months later at Geneva I suggested the open- 
skies method of mutual inspection.' 

Exchanges of Visits 

In the meantime the Secretary of State set out 
tirelessly to make calls on friendly governments 
and to strengthen collective security. In return 
we issued invitations to heads of state to visit 
America and her people. Other good-will visits 
were concurrently made by the Vice President and 
other personal representatives. 

Many heads of government or state responded 
promptly to our invitations to visit this country. 
In the past 71/2 years more than 70 heads of state 
and prime ministers have come to the United 
States — some of them several times — in visits ex- 
tending from a few days to some weeks. In this 
respect the period has been without precedent. 
Otlier visitors are to come in the near future. In- 
deed, tomorrow we shall be honored by the 
arrival in "Washington on such a visit of the King 
and Queen of Tliailand and later in the year the 
Crown Prince and Princess of Japan and the 
King and Queen of Denmark. 

I early began to receive urgent invitations to 
make return visits to the countries whose heads 
had paid us the courtesy of coming to see America 
and our way of life. Many months ago we con- 
cluded that I should personally accept some of 
these invitations as opportmiity should present 
itself. Secretary Herter, first as Under Secretary 
of State and later as Secretary of State, enthu- 
siastically concurred. Overseas visits by me, all 
of us felt, would be a strong support of other 
successful programs. 

The great value resulting from these journeys 
to 27 nations has been obvious here and abroad. 



' For backgrouna, see Hid., July 18, 1960, p. 
124 



' For text of the President's address before the American 
Society of Newspaper Editors on Apr. 16, 1953, see ibid., 
Apr. 27, 1953, p. 599. 

' Ibid., Dec. 21, 1953, p. 847. 

' Ibid., Aug. 1, 1955, p.l73. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Throughout the world there has been opportunity 
to emphasize and reempliasize America's devotion 
to peace witli justice, lier detennination to sustain 
freedom and to strengthen free-world security 
through our coopei-ative programs, her readiness 
to sacrifice in helping to build the kind of world 
we want. 

Tliese visits involved, of course, valuable con- 
versations between lieads of state and government, 
as well as tlie promotion of imderstanding among 
peoples. However, except for the so-called sum- 
mit and the NATO heads-of-govermnent meeting, 
none of my visits has been planned or carried out 
solely as a diplomatic mission seeking specific 
agreements, even though discussions have invar- 
iably involved important issues. 

Incidentally, I believe that heads of state and 
govermnent can occasionally, and preferably on 
an informal basis, jjrofitably meet for conversa- 
tions on broad problems and prmciples. They 
can, of course, also convene to give solemn approv- 
al to agreements previously prepared by normal 
diplomatic methods. But heads-of -government 
meetings are not effective mechanisms for devel- 
oping detailed provisions of international com- 
pacts and have never been so considered by this 
Government. 

On the other hand, the good-will aspects of a 
visit by a head of government can frequently 
bring about favorable results far transcending 
those of normal diplomatic conferences. They 
have resulted in the creation of a more friendly 
atmosphere and mutual confidence between 
peoples. They have proved effective in brmging 
closer together nations tliat respect human dignity 
and are dedicated to freedom. 

Communist Opposition 

Indeed it seems apparent that the Communists, 
some time ago, readied the conclusion that these 
visits were of such positive value to the free world 
as to obstruct Communist imperialism. Thus 
they have sought every possible method to stop 
them. Through their propaganda they bitterly 
opposed my entry into the Pliilippines, in Taiwan, 
in Okinawa, in Korea, and, of course, Japan. 

In Paris last month they advanced false and 
elaborate excuses for canceling my invitation to 
visit the Soviet Union, when all that was necessary 
to say was that they found it mconvenient to 
receive me. 



With their associates in Peiping they went to 
great lengths and expense to create disorders in 
Tokyo that compelled the Japanese Government 
to decide, under conditions then existing, that it 
should revoke its longstanding invitation for me 
to visit that sister democracy. 

These disorders were not occasioned by Ameri- 
ca. We in the United States must not fall into 
the error of blaming ourselves for what the Com- 
munists do; after all, Conmiunists will act like 
Communists. 

One clear proof of the value to us of these 
visits is the intensity of the opposition the Com- 
munists have developed against them. 

Respecting Japan, in spite of the outrageous 
conduct of a violent and disorderly minority, I 
have been assured that the people there were, in 
overwhelming majority, anxious to welcome me 
as a representative of a nation with which they 
wished to cooperate and to have friendly relations. 

Of course, the basic objective of the Communist- 
inspired disorders in Tokyo was to bring about 
the rejection by the Japanese Goverimient of the 
treaty. That the Communists were defeated in 
their frantic efforts to prevent ratification of that 
treaty speaks well for the future of Japanese- 
American relations. Obviously that signal defeat 
for international communism far outweighs in 
importance the blocking of my scheduled visit. 

Another purpose of the Conmiunist-inspired 
riots in Tokyo was to weaken confidence between 
our peoples and to persuade the United States to 
change its basic policies toward Japan. It would 
be a tremendous victory for international commu- 
nism if we were to permit the unhappy events of 
the past several weeks in Japan to disrupt our 
economic relationships with that nation or to 
weaken the feeling of friendship and understand- 
ing which unites the vast majority of the Japa- 
nese and American people. 

Role of Japan in Far East 

Japan has once again become a great nation. 
Over the postwar years she has painstakingly cre- 
ated a new image of hereelf, the image of a re- 
sponsible, peaceful, and cooperative free-world 
nation, mindful of her obligations and of the rights 
of others. Japan has made a fine record in the 
United Nations as well as elsewhere on the inter- 
national stage. 

Since the loss of mainland China to the Com- 



July 25, I960 



125 



munists in 1949, the need to link the other nations 
of tlie Far East with the United States more 
strongly, in their mutual interest, should be ap- 
parent to all. We seek and continue to build and 
strengthen these links, with Japan as well as with 
the other countries, by actions of many kinds — of 
which my recent trip was but a single example. 
In the present circumstances a Far Eastern policy 
of "waiting for the dust to settle" will not meet 
the free world's need. 

The other free coimtries of the Far East, small 
in relation to the massive area and immense popu- 
lation of Red China, can survive in freedom and 
flourish only in cooperative association with the 
United States and a free Japan. Through our 
aid programs, through our bilateral and collective 
defensive arrangements such as SEATO [South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization], through our very 
presence in the area, we help them greatly. And 
a free and friendly Japan can reinforce this 
American effort, as indeed she is already doing 
through aid programs of her own. 

Because of the Prime Minister's necessary with- 
drawal of his urgent invitation of last winter for 
me to visit Japan on June 19th, I was of course 
unable to meet with the Japanese Government 
and people or to bring to them assurances of 
American good will. This was disappointing, but 
we should not forget the favorable effects of visits 
elsewhere in the Far East, as well as the final ap- 
proval of the Japanese- American treaty by both 
Governments. Moreover, the general improve- 
ment that has come about through exchanges of 
visits by friendly heads of government is recog- 
nized and appreciated throughout the free world. 

I wish that every one of you could have accom- 
panied me to Manila, Taipei, and Korea and thus 
witnessed for yourselves the outpouring of friend- 
ship, gratitude, and respect for America. The 
throngs of people there, like the many millions 
who, during earlier journeys, lined the streets of 
great cities in tlie mid-East, Europe, North Af- 
rica, South America, as well as in Canada and 
Mexico, had one overwhelming message for our 
nation. 

That message, expressed in glowing faces, 
friendly shouts, songs, gaily painted placards, 
and homemade signs, was that they wanted to be 
partners with the United States. They share our 
ideals of the dignity of man and the equality of 
all before the law; they believe in their God; they 



believe that the American people are their friends. 
They believe that Americans are sincerely devoted 
to their progress, which means so much to them 
and which is so evident on every side. 

These demonstrations have been inspiring to all 
who have not closed their eyes and minds to their 
meaning. Moreover, the leaders of the free peo- 
ples I have met here or abroad have assured me, 
privately and publicly, that they approve of 
America's purposes and policies, even though de- 
tails of implementation are frequently subjects 
for discussion or negotiation. They have ex- 
pressed the hope that visits to their countries by 
the senior officials of our Government might be of 
greater frequency. They have shown to me evi- 
dence of their marked material progress through 
American cooperation. They have testified to the 
reborn hope and restored confidence of their 
peoples. 

Let me stress, however, that all the profit gained 
by past and any possible future trips will be 
quickly dissipated should we Americans abandon 
our present course in foreign relations or slacken 
our efforts in cooperative programs with our 
friends. 

This is what the Communists want. It is im- 
perative that we act with mature judgment. We 
must recognize their tactics as a deliberate attempt 
to split the free world, causing friction between 
allies and friends. We must not fall into this 
trap ; all of us must remain firm and steadfast in 
our united dedication to freedom and to peace 
with justice. 

Above all, we must bear in mind that successful 
implementation of any policy against Communist 
imperialism requires that we never be bluffed, ca- 
joled, blinded, or frightened. We cannot win out 
against the Conamunist purpose to dominate the 
world by being timid, passive, or apologetic 
when we are acting in our own and the free 
world's interests. We must accept the risks of 
bold action with coolness and courage. We must 
always be strong, but we must never forget that 
peace can never be won by arms alone ; we will be 
firm but never truculent ; we will be fair but never 
fearful; we will always extend friendship wher- 
ever friendship is offered honestly to us. 

Now a final, pei-sonal word: So far as any fu- 
ture visits of my own are involved, I have no 
plans, no other particular trip in mind. Consid- 
ering the shortness of the time before next Janu- 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



ary and the unavoidable preoccupations of the few 
months remaining, it would be difficult to accept 
any invitation for me again to go abroad. 

But so long as tlie threat of Communist domi- 
nation may liang over the fi-ee world, I believe 
that any future President will conclude that recip- 
rocal visits by heads of friendly governments 
have great value in promoting free-world 
solidarity. 

And this I assure you: If any unforeseen 
situation or circumstances arising in the near 
future should convince me that another journey 
of mine would still further strengthen the bonds 
of friendship between us and others, I would not 
hesitate a second in deciding to make still an 
additional effort of this kind. No consideration 
of personal fatigue or inconvenience, no threat 
or arginnent, would deter me from once again 
setting out on a course that has meant much for 
our country, for her friends, and for the cause 
of freedom and peace with justice in the world. 

Thank you, and good night. 



ADDRESS TO PHILIPPINE CONGRESS, MANILA, 
JUNE 15 

White House (Manila) press release dated June 15 (as-delivered 
text) 

Mr. President of the Senate, Mr. Speaker of 
the House, Members of the Congress, distin- 
guished guests, and my friends : I am keenly sensi- 
ble of the high honor this assembled body has 
paid to me and to my country by inviting me to 
be present here and to address this body, a body 
representing the political leadership of a great 
Republic in the Asian sector. I am indeed over- 
whelmed by your kindness, and I can say only 
mabuhay. 

You will understand the flood of memories that 
swept over me on coming back to this land, where 
I feel that I am revisiting an old home and old 
friends and renewing ties of long standing. 
Here my wife and I spent 4 happy years, making 
friendships that we shall ever cherish. Here our 
son went to school and grew into young manhood. 
Here I saw the first beginnings of this Republic 
and worked with men whose vision of greatness 
for the people of the Philippines has been matched 
by its realization. 

Through many days I could talk of life as I 
knew it here a quarter of a century ago. For 



hours on end I could make comparisons of what 
was in those days and what is now. But I have 
only minutes in which I can address myself to 
this subject. 

Even in the short space I have been here, how- 
ever, I have been struck by the vigor and progress 
that is evident everywhere. I see around me a 
city reconstructed out of the havoc and destruc- 
tion of a world war. I know of the Binga Dam, 
the Maria Ci'istina Power and Industrial Com- 
plex, the Mindanao highway system, rural electri- 
fication, the disappearance of epidemic diseases, 
the amazing growth of Manila industry. 

Significance of Constructive Nationalism 

Everywhere is inescapable physical evidence of 
energy and dedication and a surging faith in the 
future. But of deeper significance is the creation 
here of a fimctioning democracy — a sovereign 
people directing their own destinies, a sovereign 
people concerned with their responsibilities in the 
community of nations. Those responsibilities 
you have discharged magnificently even as you 
toiled to rebuild and to glorify your own land. 

Certainly we Americans salute Filipino par- 
ticipation in the Korean war, the example set the 
whole free world by the Filipino nurses and doc- 
tors who went to Laos and to Viet-Nam on Oper- 
ation Brotherhood, your contribution to SEATO 
and the defense of your neighbors against ag- 
gression, your charter membership and dynamic 
leadersliip in the United Nations, your active ef- 
forts to achieve closer cultural and economic rela- 
tions with other southeast Asian countries. 

The stature of the Republic of the Philippines 
on the world scene is the creation of its own peo- 
ple—of their skill, their imagination, their cour- 
age, and, above all, their commitment to freedom. 
But their aspirations would have gone unrealized 
were they not animated by a spirit of nationalism, 
of a patriotic love of their own land and its inde- 
pendence, which united and directed them in their 
efforts. 

Tliis spirit was described by your late great 
leader and my personal friend, Manuel Quezon, 
when he with great eloquence said : 

Rightly conceived, felt, and practiced, nationalism is a 
tremendous force for good. It strengthens and solidifies 
a nation. It preserves the best traditions of the past 
and adds zest to the ambition of enlarging the Inherit- 
ance of the people. It Is, therefore, a dynamic urge for 
continuous self-improvement. In fine, it enriches the 



Ju/y 25, I960 



127 



sum total of mankind's cultural, moral, and material pos- 
sessions through the individual and characteristic con- 
tribution of each people. 

Significantly, President Quezon liacl this cau- 
tion to offer, "So long as the nationalistic senti- 
ment is not fostered to the point wliere a people 
forgets that it forms a part of the human family ; 
that the good of mankind should be the ultimate 
aim of each and every nation ; and that conflicting 
national interests are only temporaiy; and that 
there is always a just formula for adjusting 
them — nationalism then," he said, "is a noble, ele- 
vating, and most beneficial sentiment." 

In these words of clarity and timeless wisdom 
President Quezon spoke a message forever appli- 
cable to human affairs, particularly fitted to the 
circumstances of this era. 

Nationalism is a mighty and a relentless force. 
No conspiracy of power, no compulsion of arms, 
can stifle it forever. The constructive national- 
ism defined by President Quezon is a noble, per- 
sistent, fiery inspiration, essential to the develop- 
ment of a young nation. Within its ideal my own 
country since its earliest days has striven to 
achieve the American dream and destiny. We 
respect this quality in our sister nation. 

Communist leaders fear constructive national- 
ism as a mortal foe. This fear is evident in the 
continuing efforts of the Communist conspiracy 
to penetrate nationalist movements, to pervert 
them, and to pirate them for their own evil 
objectives. 

To dominate, if they can, the eternal impulse 
of national patriotism, they use force and threats 
of force, subversion and bribery, propaganda and 
spurious promises. They deny the dignity of men 
and have subjected many millions to the execution 
of master plans dictated in faraway places. 

Communism demands subservience to a single 
ideology, to a strait jacket of ideas and approaches 
and methods. Freedom of individuals or nations 
to them is intolerable. But free men, free nations, 
make their own rules to fit their own needs witliin 
a universally accepted frame of justice and law. 

Protecting the Rights of Free Nations 

Under freedom, thrivhig sovereign nations of 
diverse political, economic, and social systems are 
the basic healthy cells that make up a thriving 
world community. Freedom and independence 
for each is in the interest of all. 



For that very reason — in our own enlightened 
self-interest, in the interest of all our friends — 
the purpose of American assistance programs is 
to protect the right of nations to develop the 
political and social institutions of their choice. 
None, we believe, shoidd have to accept extremist 
solutions mider the wliip of hunger or the threat 
of armed attack and domination. 

We — free, self-governing peoples — readily ac- 
cept that there is a great variety of political, 
social, and economic systems in the world ; and we 
accept the further fact that there is no single, best 
way of life that answers the needs of everyone, 
everywhere. 

The American way satisfies the United States. 
We think it is best for us. But the United States 
need not believe that all should imitate us. But 
what all of us do have in common with the free 
nations in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin 
America are basic and weighty convictions, more 
important than differences of speech and color 
and culture. 

Some of these convictions are: that man is a 
being capable of making his own decisions; that 
all people should be given a fair opportimity to 
use their God-given talents, to be Morthy heirs 
of their fathers, to fulfill their destiny as children 
of God ; that voluntary cooperation among groups 
and nations is vastly preferable to cooperation by 
force — indeed, voluntary cooperation is the onlj' 
fruitful kind of effort in the long run. 

True enough, in a too lengthy period of history 
some European nations seemed convinced that 
they were assigned the mission of controlling the 
continents. But always powerful voices within 
those countries attacked the policy of their own 
governments. And we of the American Eepub- 
lics — 21 independent nations once European 
colonies — denied in arms and in battle the validity 
of the assumed mission. Colonialism died there 
because true nationalism was a more potent force. 

Since 1945, 33 lands that were once subject to 
Western control have peaceably achieved self- 
determination. These countries have a population 
of almost a billion people. During the same 
period, 12 countries in the Sino-Soviet sphere have 
been forcibly deprived of their independence. 
The question might be asked : Who are today the 
colonialists? 

The basic antagonism of the Communist system 
to anything wliich it cannot control is the single, 
most important cause of the tension between the 



128 



Department of State Bulletin 



free nations in all their variety on the one hand 
and, on the other, the rigidly controlled Commu- 
nist bloc. 

One purpose of the Communist system's propa- 
ganda is to obscure these true facts. Eight now 
the principal target is the United States of Amer- 
ica. The United States is painted by the Commu- 
nists as an imperialistic seeker of limitless power 
over all the peoples of the world, using them as 
pawns on the chessboard of war, exploiting them 
and their resources to enrich our own economy, de- 
grading them to a role of beggarly dependence. 

What America Stands For 

The existence, the prosperity, the prestige of 
the Republic of the Philippines proves tlie falsity 
of those charges. You, as a people, know that 
our American Republic is no empire of tyranny. 
Your leaders repeatedly have so testified to the 
world. But for a few minutes I should like to 
speak to you on what America stands for: what 
it stood for before I became President and what it 
will continue to stand for after I have left office. 

More important than any one year, any one 
incident, or any one man is the role we have 
played through our whole history — the role we 
shall continue to play so long as our Republic 
endures. 

Two hundred years, lacking 16, have passed 
since our forefathers proclaimed to the world the 
truths they held self-evident: that all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed with unalien- 
able rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness ; that governments are instituted among 
men to secure those rights, deriving their just 
powers only from the consent of the governed. 

On the day of that proclamation you and we 
and scores of other now-free nations were colonies. 
Mankind everywhere was engaged in a bitter 
struggle for bare survival. Only a few by the 
accident of birth enjoyed ease without backbreak- 
ing toil. Naked power, more often than not, was 
the decisive element in human affairs. Most men 
died young after an all-too-short life of poverty. 

Since then, fi'ee men — using their rights, em- 
bracing tlieir opportunities, daring to venture and 
to risk, recognizing that justice and good will 
fortify strength — have transformed the world. 

The wilderness and jmigle of nature have been 
conquered. The mysteries of the miiverse are 
being unlocked. The powers of the elements have 



been harnessed for human benefit. The ancient 
tyrannies of hunger and disease and ignorance 
have been relentlessly attacked and ceaselessly 
reduced in their domains. 

The evils of our forebears' times were manifold 
and entrenched and often accepted without mur- 
mur. But to free men who saw in their fellow 
men the image of God, who recognized in them- 
selves a capacity to transform their circumstances 
and environment — to such free men, those evils 
were unbearable. 

Not all of these evils were vanquished at the 
first assault. Indeed, many still survive. Not 
always was success persistently prosecuted to 
ultimate triumph. Free men, however mighty 
tlieir inspiration, are hmnanly frail. 

At times they may be fearful when they should 
be girding and bracing themselves for more vig- 
orous effort, trading words when they should be 
woi-king, bickering over trifles when they should 
be miiting on essentials, rioting when they should 
be calmly planning. Often they may dissipate 
their energies in futile and wasteful exercise. 
Often they are mistaken or for a while misled. 
Being human, these things are true about all of us. 
Nevertheless, the resources of free men living in 
free communities, cooperating with their neigh- 
bors at home and overseas, constitute the mighti- 
est creative temporal force on earth. 

In your sister Republic of tlie United States 
the greatest achievement of our history is that our 
rebels against colonialism, against subjection, 
against tyranny, were the first in this era to raise 
the banner of freedom and decent nationalism, to 
carry it beyond our shores, and to honor it 
evei-ywhere. 

Wliat we stood for in 1776, when we were fight- 
ing for our fi-eedom, we still stand for in 1960. 

To maintain our stand for peace and friendship 
and freedom among the nations, the United States 
must remain strong and always faithful to its 
friends, making clear that propaganda pressures, 
rocket rattling, and even open aggression are 
boimd to fail. 

Beyond the guarantees of American strength, 
we seek to expand a collective security. SEATO 
demonstrates what can be accomplished. Since 
its inception not one inch of free southeast Asia 
territory has been lost to an aggressor. 

Collective security must be based on all fields of 
human endeavor, requiring cooperation and mu- 



July 25, 1960 



129 



tual excliange in the areas of politics, economics, 
culture, and science. We believe in the expansion 
of relations between nations as a step toward more 
formal regional cooperation. In accord with this 
belief, we support the initiative taken by the Gov- 
ernment of the Philippines during the past several 
years in establishing closer ties with its neighbors. 
Patience, foi'bearance, integrity, an enduring 
trust, must between our two coimtries characterize 
our mutual relations. Never, I pray, will the 
United States, because of its favored position in 
size and numbers and wealth, attempt to dictate 
or to exercise any imfair pressure of any kind or 
to forget or to ignore the Republic of the Philip- 
pines — its equal in sovereign dignity. And never, 
I pray, will the Philippines deem it advantageous 
either at home or abroad to make a whipping boy 
of the United States. Each of us proudly recog- 
nizes the other as its sovereign equal. 

And my friends, at this point I just want to 
interpolate one simple thought on the cooperative 
efforts for our own security, for advancing the 
standards of living of peoples, for everything that 
we do together : There are of course differences in 
the ability of each nation to make contributions. 
Each of us as an individual is different from every 
other individual. Physically, mentally, and in 
the possession of the woi'ld's goods, we are some- 
what diffei-ent. But I submit. Members of tlie 
Congress, that there is one field where no man, no 
woman, no nation, need take a secondary place 
and that is in moral leadership. 

The spirit of a people is not to be measured by 
its size or its riches or even its age. It is some- 
thing that comes from the heart, and from the 
very smallest nation can come some of the great 
ideas — particularly those great inspirational ideas 
that inspire men to strive always upward and 
onward. 

Therefore, when I say that our two nations are 
sovereign equals, I mean it just in that spirit, in 
the sense that you have just as much to contribute 
to the world and to yourselves and to freedom as 
the greatest and the most powerful nation in the 
world. 

Now finally, in this great cause of peace and 
friendship and freedom, we who are joined to- 
gether will succeed. The eternal aspirations, pur- 
poses, ideals of humanity inspire and hearten and 
urge us to success. 

But we face repeated challenges, endless temp- 
tations to relax, continuous campaigns of propa- 



ganda and threat. Let us stand more firmly to- 
gether against them all. And so doing, and with 
God's help, we shall march ever forward toward 
our destiny as free nations and great and good 
friends. 

Thank you verj- much. 



REMARKS AT PUBLIC RECEPTION, LUNETA, 
JUNE 16 

White House (Manila) press release dated June 16 (as-delivered 
text) 

Mr. President, you, on behalf of the Filipino 
people, have just bestowed a great honor upon me. 
Proudly I accept, in the name of the American 
people, the award of Rajah in the Ancient Order 
of Sikatuna. 

My friends, this Luneta was for more than 4 
years the scene of my habitual evening walks. To 
this day it lives in memory as one of the most 
pleasant, indeed even one of the most romantic, 
spots I have known in this entire world. Leaving 
the front entrance of the Manila Hotel of an eve- 
ning, I could walk to the right to view the busy 
docks, where Philippine commerce with the world 
was loaded and unloaded. From here, looking 
across the peaceful waters of Manila Bay, I could 
see the gorgeous sunsets over Miravales. AValking 
toward the club of the Army and the Navy and 
looking down toward the city itself, I nearly al- 
ways paused for a moment before the statue of the 
great Jose Rizal before returning to my quarters. 
One thing that made those evening promenades 
so pleasant, so meaningful, was the deep sense of 
feeling I had of Philippine- American friendship. 

To you assembled before this platform, to Fili- 
pinos and Americans everywhere, and to those 
who are gone from among us is due the credit of 
having our close friendship in war and in peace. 
Now upon both our peoples still rests the gi'ave re- 
sponsibility of working together tirelessly in the 
promotion of liberty and world peace. 

Voluntary Association of Free Peoples 

The voluntary association of free peoples pro- 
duces, from the sharing of common ideals of jus- 
tice, equality, and liberty, a strength and a moral 
fiber which tyramiies never attain by coercion, 
control, and oppression. Such tyrannies can, of 
course, concentrate upon a single objective the 
toil of millions upon millions of men and women. 



130 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



working endless hours, denied even the smallest 
happiness of human living, sometimes whipped, 
sometimes cajoled, always treated as robots bereft 
of human dignity. For a space of years, particu- 
larly if the peoples they regiment have known lit- 
tle of freedom or of a decent prosperity, such 
dictatorships may se«m to acliieve marvels. But 
in their denial of human dignity, their destruction 
of individual self-esteem, they write the eventual 
doom of their system. 

Long before many of us here today were born, 
a great Filipino, Jose Rizal, in vivid and eloquent 
language foretold the eruption of these tyrannies 
and predicted their ultimate fate. He said : 

Deprive a man of his dignity, and you not only deprive 
him of his moral strength but you also make him useless 
even for those that wish to make use of him. Every 
creature has its stimulus, its mainspring. Man's is his 
self-esteem. Take it away from him and he is a 
corpse. . . . 

Now tyrannies of many sorts still exist in the 
world. All are rejected by free men. Some 
authoritarian governments, being narrow in am- 
bition, content themselves with local and confined 
dominance. Others are blatant in their boasts 
of eventual supremacy over continents and even 
the world — constant in their boast that eventually 
they will bury all systems of freedom. 

That boast will never come true. Even in the 
lands that Communists now master with an iron 
rule, the eternal aspirations of humanity cannot 
be forever suppressed. The truth enunciated by 
Jose Rizal is imiversal in its application. But 
tyrannies, before their fated deterioration and 
disappearance, can, sometimes for many years, 
engulf and enslave free peoples unable to resist 
them. 

In that knowledge, the free world — two-thirds 
of the earth's population — step by step moves 
forward toward a more effective partnership that 
freedom, human dignity, the noble heritages of 
many centuries may withstand successfully all 



Some nations are still reluctant to commit them- 
selves fully; others are divided on commitments 
already made. Minorities in some — possibly the 
victims of subversion or of bribe, possibly confused 
by propaganda and threat — oppose even the most 
obviously profitable associations. But most stand 
firmly together. 

The free world must uicrease its strength — in 
military defenses, in economic growth, in spiritual 



President Postpones Trip to Japan 
at Japanese Government's Request 

statement iy James C. Eagerty 
Press Secretary to the President 
White House (Manila) press release dated June 16 

The President has been informed of the Jap- 
anese Government's request that he postpone his 
visit to Japan. Although he would have liked to 
fulfill his long-held ambition to jmy his respects to 
the Emperor and to the people of this great sister 
democracy and ally of the United States, he, of 
course, fully accepts the decision of the Japanese 
authorities and therefore will not visit Japan at 
this time. 

In so doing, the President wishes to express his 
full and sympathetic imderstanding of the decision 
taken by the Japanese Government. He would like 
also to express his regrets that a small organized 
minority, led by professional Communist agitators 
acting under external direction and control, have 
been able by resort to force and violence to prevent 
his good-will visit and to mar the celebration of this 
centennial in Japanese-American relations. 

At the same time the President remains confident 
that the deliberate challenges to law and order 
which have caused the Japanese Government to 
reach its decision will not and cannot disrupt the 
abiding friendship and understanding which unite 
our two nations and our two peoples. 



dedication. Thus the free world will withstand 
aggressive pressures and move ever forward in 
its search for enduring peace. 

Your Government has recently reaffirmed your 
determmation to stand steadfast by joining only 
2 weeks ago in the communique issued in Wash- 
ington by the Council of Ministers of the eight 
nations of SEATO." They stated clearly that: 

The Council availed itself of this timely opportunity 
to re-emphasize the firm unity of puriwse of the member 
countries of SEATO and their determination to maintain 
and develop, both individually and collectively, their 
capacity to meet all forms of Communist threat to the 
peace and security of the Treaty Area. 

May I say here that the United States is proud 
and indeed is thankful to be so closely associated 
and so stanchly allied with the Philippines both 
in SEATO and in the mutual defense treaty' 
between our two countries. 



' For text, see iUd., June 20, 1960, p. 986. 
'For text, see Treaties and Other International Acts 
Series 2529. 



iu\Y 25, I960 



131 



The Goal of a World at Peace 

But in this world of continuing tension and 
yearnings for social change it is insufficient that 
the free world stand static in its defense of 
freedom. 

"We must, all of us, move ahead with imagina- 
tion and positive programs to improve conditions 
in which human freedom can flourish. 

We must, collectively and individually, strive 
for a world in which the rule of law replaces the 
rule of force. 

Your country and mine have reaffirmed our 
faith in the principles of the United Nations 
Charter. We share a common desire to settle 
international disputes by peaceful means. The 
task is not an easy one. Communist intransigence 
at the conference table, whenever they do agree to 
sit at one, makes the attainment of an equitable 
agreement most difficult. Moreover, the record of 
Communist violations of agreements is a long 
one — indeed, a sad one. The continuation of 
Communist provocations, subversion, and terror- 
isni while negotiations are under way serves only 
to compound the difficulty of arriving at peaceful 
settlements. 

But we shall never close the door to peaceful 
negotiations. All of us— all free nations— always 
hold out the hand of friendship as long as it is 
grasped in honesty and in integrity. We shall 
continue to make it clear that reason and common 
sense must prevail over senseless antagonism and 
distorted misunderstandings and propaganda. 
The arms race must be brought under control, and 
the nuclear menace that is poised in delicate sus- 
pension over the heads of all mankind must be 
eliminated. This, I am convinced, can be done, 
witliout appeasement or surrender, by continuing 
a course of patient, resourceful, and businesslike 
dealings with the Soviet leaders. 

The goal of a world at peace in friendship with 
freedom is so worth the attaining that every feasi- 
ble and honorable avenue must be explored. The 
support, imderstanding, and participation of all 
who cherish freedom is essential to this noblest 
endeavor in history. The Philippine contribu- 
tion will be mighty in its impact on the future. 

And now, my friends, I cannot close without 
attempting once more to express my very deep 

appreciation of all the cordial hospitality and 

friendliness that has been exhibited to me and to 

all the members of my party during our all-too- 



brief stay in this lovely counti-y. We know tluit 
in greeting us along the highway or in magnifi- 
cent crowds such as this you are really expressing 
your basic affection for the American people. 

And I assure you — all of you — as the spokesman 
of the iVmerican people, that their concern for 
you — your faith, your future, your well being — 
their affection for you is equally deep with yours. 

Thank you, and goodby. 



JOINT STATEMENT, MANILA, JUNE 16 

White House (Manila) press release dated June 16 

President Eisenhower, at the invitation of 
President [Carlos] Garcia, paid a state visit to the 
Philippines on June 14 to 16, 1960, returning the 
visit of President Garcia to the United States two 
years ago.^ 

President Eisenliower recalled lus personal as- 
sociation with the Philippines extendmg over a 
period of many years. As the first President of 
the United States to visit tlie Philippines while in 
office, he expressed his deep sense of satisfaction 
that he had been afforded tliis opportunity to at- 
test to the admiration and affection which the 
government and people of the United States feel 
toward their Philippine allies. 

President Garcia, on his part, viewed the affec- 
tion shown to President Eisenhower by the Fili- 
pino people as a grateful remembrance of the 
latter's tour of duty in the Philippines some 
twenty-five years ago and their admiration for 
his military leadership in the second world war ^ 
and his dedicated labors for a just and lasting 
world peace. 

The visit afforded President Garcia and Presi- 
dent Eisenliower, together with other officials of 
both govermnents, an opportunity for a frank and 
cordial exchange of views on matters of mutual 
interest. In a review of the international situa- 
tion and of the bilateral relations of the two coun- 
tries, the two Presidents : 

1. Reaffirmed the bonds of friendship and mu- 
tual understanding which have historically joined 
the Filipino and American governments and 
peoples. 

2. Noted the problems facing the free world at 
the beginning of the new decade and discussed the 
possibility of increased tensions in view of recent 



' Bulletin of July 21, 1958, p. 120. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



statements by Communist leaders in Moscow and 
Peiping. They renewed their determination to 
support the work of the United Nations and the 
objectives of the United Nations' Charter in the 
interest of true international peace and progress 
based on justice and the dignity of the individual. 

3. Assessed the continuing threat to peace in the 
Far East posed by Communist China. They re- 
affirmed the import^mc* of regional cooperation 
in insuring the independence of the nations of 
Southeast Asia. Tliey emphasized the important 
role of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
in furthering such cooperation and in developing 
a sense of regional solidarity ; and they noted with 
satisfaction the contribution being made by the 
Philippines toward strengthening its ties with its 
Asian neighbors. 

4. Noted that President Eisenhower's visit and 
the warm resixtnse thereto by the Filipino people 
provided renewed evidence of the strengtli and 
vitality of the alliance between the Pliilippines 
and the United States and of its essential contri- 
bution to the security of Southeast Asia. To pro- 
mote the continuing strength of the alliance and 
to enable the Philippines to discharge its obliga- 
tion thereunder, they empliasized the importance 
of close military collaboration and planning be- 
tween the appropriate authorities of tlieir coun- 
tries. They further expressed the view that this 
close militarj' collaboration and planning should 
be aimed at the maximum effectiveness in formu- 
lating and executing United States military as- 
sistance programs and in furthering Philippine 
defensive capability in the light of modem 
requirements. 

5. Noted the recent meeting of the Council of 
Foreign :\Iinisters of tlie SEATO held in Wash- 
ington and expressed satisfaction with the contin- 
uing effectiveness of the SEATO as a deterrent to 
Communist aggression in Southeast Asia. They 
were also gratified that the Washington confer- 
ence had given attention to the economic objec- 
tives of the SEATO, recognizing the importance 
of economic cooperation between and among the 
members. 

6. Recalled the provisions of the Mutual Defense 
Treaty. President Eisenhower, on liis part, re- 
newed the assurance he had made to President 
Garcia in Washington that mider the provisions 
of this treaty and otlier defensive agreements be- 
tween the Philippines and the United States and 



in accordance with the deployments and disposi- 
tions thereimder, any aimed attack against the 
Philippines would involve an attack against the 
United States Forces stationed there and against 
the United States and would instantly be repelled. 
It was noted that this understanding was included 
in the agreement reached between the Secretary of 
Foreign Affaire of the Philippines and the Am- 
bassador of the United States on October 12, 1959. 

7. Noted with satisfaction the considerable 
progress that had been made in talks between the 
Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines 
and the Ambassador of the United States towards 
settlement of problems arising from the presence 
of United States bases in the Philippines. They 
expressed confidence that the few remaining prob- 
lems will be similarly resolved to the mutual satis- 
faction of the two governments. 

8. Reemphasized the importance of strong, 
stable economies in furthering the objectives of 
peaceful development in the free world. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower expressed his gi-atification at the 
evident progress which has been made in the 
Philippine economy, including notable advances 
in industrialization. The contribution which the 
United States aid progi-ams have made and will 
continue to make to Philippine economic develop- 
ment was emphasized. In recognition of the eco- 
nomic interdependence of all nations in the modern 
world, they discussed opportimities for increased 
private investment and expanded trade between 
the two countries in a climate favorable to free 
enterprise and to the free movement of capital. 

President Garcia and President Eisenhower con- 
cluded that the exchange of views and the renewal 
of personal associations made possible by Presi- 
dent Eisenhower's visit will further strengthen 
the traditional ties between the two countries and 
will contribute significantly to the advancement 
of their cooperative efforts on behalf of peace and 
progi-ess in this vital part of the world. 



ADDRESS AT MASS RALLY, TAIPEI, JUNE 18 

White House (Taipei) press release dated June 18 (aB-dellvered 
text) 

Mr. President, distinguished guests, and friends : 
I address this gathering today fully aware of the 
honor you have bestowed on my country and my- 
self in inviting me to speak here. I bring to your 
nation greetings from the American people. 



July 25, 7960 



133 



AVe Americans are in a very real sense your close 
neighbore: We look out with j'ou upon the same 
ocean — the Pacific. This largest of oceans has 
been narrowed by the marvels of modern communi- 
cation and transportation. No longer is it a 
formidable barrier separating America from the 
nations of tlie Far East. 

We in America have accepted this tremendously 
important fact of international life and recognize 
its implications for the future of our country. 
Therefore, I come to you, as to the other countries 
of the Pacific which I am privileged to visit, as a 
friend and neighbor deeply concerned with your, 
and our, conmion interests. 

This concern has sliaped my country's policies 
toward the nations of the Pacific. The realization 
that America's security and welfare are intimately 
bound up with their security and welfare has led 
us to foster tlie concept of collective defense and 
to contribute money, materials, and technical as- 
sistance to promote their economic stability and 
development. 

But though the United States provides assist- 
ance to the nations of the Pacific region, many of 
them recently emerged from colonial status, we 
have not sought to impose upon them our own 
way of life or system of government. We respect 
their sovereignty as we do our own. 

To do otherwise would be a betrayal of Amer- 
ica's own traditions. Our purpose is to help pro- 
tect the right of our neighbors of the Pacific to 
develop in accordance with their own national 
aspirations and their own traditions. 

In this era of mass-destruction weapons the 
increasing intimacy in which the peoples of the 
world live makes resort to global war, even by 
the smallest of them, dangerous to the whole com- 
munity of nations. 

I come to you representing a country deter- 
mined, despite all setbacks, to press on in search 
of effective means to outlaw war and to promote 
the rule of law among nations. 

History has repeatedly shown that this high 
purpose is not served by yielding to threats or by 
weakening defenses against potential aggressors. 
Indeed such weakness would increase the danger 
of war. 

You may be assured that our continuing search 
for peaceful solutions to outstanding international 
problems does not reflect the slightest lessening 



of our detennination to stand with you, and with 
all our free neighbors of the Pacific, against 
aggression. 

The United States does not, of course, recog- 
nize the claim of the warlike and tyrannical Com- 
munist regime in Peiping. In the United Nations 
we support the Republic of Cliina, a founding 
member, as the only rightful representative of 
China in that Organization. 

The American people deeply admire your cour- 
age in striving so well to keep the cause of liberty 
alive here in Taiwan in the face of the menacing 
power of Communist imperialism. Your ac- 
complishments provide inspiration to us all. 

The search for lasting peace comprehends much 
more than tlie erection of sure military defenses. 
Perhaps nothing offers greater hope to a war- 
weary world than the new opportunities for a 
better life which have been opened up in the past 
few decades by the magnificent achievements of 
science and technology. If tlie peoples of the 
world can not only master the forces of nature 
but can find also the way to use them for peaceful 
ends, we are on the threshold of a new era. 

Free China's Economic Progress 

One of the great peaceful battles for a better 
life, which the Republic of China is now in the 
midst of fighting here on Taiwan, is on tlie front 
of economic progress. For you, the past has been 
full of hardships. But for the people of this 
island each difficulty was a challenge to be 
mastered. 

During the years of this progress, freedom has 
not been a free ingredient, like air or water. In- 
deed, freedom has been the costliest component of 
your daily lives. Even in sheer economic terms 
you have devoted a larger share of your incomes 
to keeping your independence than have most 
other peoples on the globe. To do tliis you have 
had to adopt progressive measures. 

A great economic accomplislmient of the past 
10 years was your program in land reform. Due 
to its fair and democratic conception and execu- 
tion it has become a model for similar reforms in 
other lands. It dealt successfully with one of the 
fundamental problems the Chinese people have 
faced throughout history. Moreover, in it you 
achieved much more than a fair and equitable ad- 



Department of State Bulletin 



justinent: You produced both social dynamism 
and economic growth. 

That reform, founded on Sun Yat-sen's three 
people's principles and executed with due regard 
for law and for private property, stands in sharp 
contrast to the brutal regimentation of your coun- 
trymen on the mainland. There they are often 
herded into the soul-destroying labor brigades of 
the commune system. But free China knows that 
a system in which the farmer owns the land he 
tills gives him the incentive to adopt advanced 
fertilization, irrigation, and other farming 
teclmiques. 

We are proud that we have been of some help 
teclmically in carrying through your agricultural 
reform program. We too have learned much from 
our association in the Chinese-American Joint 
Commission on Rural Reconstruction. We have 
been able to use this experience to good advantage 
in helping other countries. In the industrial field 
your friends in the United States and all over the 
world have watched with satisfaction your grow- 
ing productivity and diversification. You have 
demonstrated, under adverse conditions, the moral 
and physical strength, the imagination and the 
perseverance, to achieve tliis near miracle. Now I 
learn that, not satisfied with the impressive rate of 
progress already attained, you are entering upon 
a new program for further speeding up your eco- 
nomic growth. 

In today's world, where many new nations of 
Asia and Africa are seeking a path of economic 
development to satisfy the growing expectations 
of their people, free China provides a shming 
example. Thanks in large measure to the vigor 
and talents of its population and its leaders, it has 
advanced to the thresliold of the kind of self-sus- 
taining economic growth that has brought other 
free nations to wealth and power. 

Free China thus has an opportunity, which is 
at the same time a responsibility, to demonstrate 
to less developed nations the way to economic 
gi'owth in freedom. Confronted with the harsh 
example of the Communist way on tlie mainland, 
you here are in a position to show how a nation 
can achieve material strength and advance the 
well-being of its people without sacrificing its 
most valued traditions. 

Your success in this field can sustain and guar- 



antee your secure standing in the conmaunity of 
nations. And it will become, for your own feUow 
countrymen on the mainland, an ever more in- 
sistent refutation of the false Communist thesis 
that modern economic development can be pur- 
chased only at the price of freedom. 

Meeting the Challenge of the Future 

We in the United States have studied your plans 
for social and economic changes and do not under- 
estimate the difficulties you will have to endure 
during a period of transition. Economic growth, 
especially accelerated growth, constantly calls for 
recurring revolutions in thinking, in the way we 
do things, indeed in every phase of our lives. 

As you know, we intend to join hands with you 
in this great enterprise. By doing so we shall not 
lighten your load, because you have already 
pledged yourselves to maximum effort, but our 
partnership should demonstrate how rapid prog- 
ress can be achieved by the methods of free peo- 
ples freely joined in friendship for mutual benefit. 

As representatives of the great and numerous 
Chinese nation, heirs to one of the world's most 
ancient and honored cultures, you, the people of 
free Cliina, can play a unique role in the future of 
mankind. By grasping the opportunities for the 
improvement of human welfare now made possible 
by the advancement of science and technology, you 
can blaze a trail of progress here on Taiwan that 
may ultimately shape the destiny of all your fel- 
low countrymen, of nearly one-quarter of the hu- 
man race. This is indeed a challenge of gigantic 
proportions. 

In meeting that challenge, the United States — 
and all the free world— wishes you every success. 

My friends, this morning I encountered an un- 
forgettable experience. I met thousands of you 
people along the road from the airport, and every- 
where I encountered only friendliness, courteous 
greetings, and a face lighted up with smiles. To 
each of you who lined that route, to each of you 
wlio today came out to do me the courtesy of lis- 
tening to what I had to say, I give you my grate- 
ful thanks on behalf of my party, myself— indeed 
for the American people, whose concern for every 
one of you is deep and lasting. So from your 
President to the humblest citizen of the land, I 
say thank you very much and God be with you. 



July 25, J 960 



135 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, TAIPEI, JUNE 19 

White House (Taipei) press release dated June 19 

At the invitation of President Chiang Kai-shek, 
President Dwight D. Eisenhower visited the Re- 
public of China from June 18 to June 19, 1960. 
Tliis historic journey of the President of the 
United States of America and the warmth and 
enthusiasm with which he was received by the 
Chinese people demonstrated anew the strong 
bonds of friendship between the two countries. 

Both President Chiang and President Eisen- 
hower welcomed the opportunity afforded them 
by this visit for an intimate exchange of views 
on various matters of common interest and con- 
cern, calling to mind that the two countries have 
always stood closely together as staunch allies in 
war as well as in peace. The talks between the 
two Chiefs of State were held in an atmosphere 
of utmost cordiality. 

In the course of their discussions, the two 
Presidents reaffirmed the dedication of the two 
Governments to an untiring quest for peace with 
freedom and justice. They recognize that peace 
and security are indivisible and that justice among 
nations demands the freedom and dignity of all 
men in all lands. 

Taking note of the continuing threat of Com- 
munist aggi-ession against the free world in gen- 
eral and the Far Eastern free countries in par- 
ticular, the two Presidents expressed full agree- 
ment on the vital necessity of achieving closer 
unity and strength among all free nations. 

They pledged once again that both their Gov- 
ernments would continue to stand solidly behind 
the Sino-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty in meeting 
the challenge posed by the Chinese Communists 
in this area. They deplored the outrageous and 
barbaric practice of the Chinese Communists in 
shelling and ruthlessly killing Chinese people on 
alternate days and noted that this practice em- 
phasized the necessity for continued vigilance and 
firmness in the face of violence. 

Discussions were also held on the importance 
of accelerating the economic expansion of the Re- 
public of China in oi-der to enhance the prosperity 
and well-being of its people. President Chiang 
explained the steps which his Government is tak- 
ing to assure the early accomplislunent of his goal. 
He expressed the appreciation of his Government 



and people for the valuable assistance which the 
United States of America has rendered to the Re- 
public of China. President Eisenhower ex- 
pressed the admiration of the American people 
for the progress achieved by the Republic of 
China in various fields in recent years and gave 
assurance of continuing United States assistance. 
Finall}', the two Presidents voiced their com- 
mon determination that the two Governments 
should continue to dedicate themselves to the prin- 
ciples of the United Nations and devote their un- 
remitting efforts to the intensifying of their co- 
operation and to the further strengthening of the 
traditional friendship between the Chinese and 
American peoples. 



ADDRESS TO NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, SEOUL, 
JUNE 20 

White House (Seoul) press release dated June 20 (as-delivered 
text) 

Mr. Speaker, Members of the National Assem- 
bly, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen: 
First, I offer my apologies to the Jlembei-s of this 
Chamber because of my tardiness in arriving here. 
I assure you that the delay was unintentional. 

You have signally honored me by your invita- 
tion to address this National Assembly. To you 
is entrusted the realization of the Korean people's 
hopes and aspirations. This is no local, narrow, 
or limited mission. "VVliat you do and what you 
say in the discharge of your trust is of deep 
significance and powerful impact far beyond the 
boundaries of this Republic. You are watched 
by the entire world. 

Korea, once a battlefield for survival over 
aggression, is now a proving ground for responsi- 
ble, representative self-government. This is a 
testing time of Korean integrity, perseverance in 
the democratic process, loyalty to the ideals on 
which the Republic was founded. 

In all your efforts you have the sympathetic 
understanding and the best wishes of the Ameri- 
can people. 

Impressive changes of many kinds have oc- 
curred here since I visited your countrj' in 1952. 
Then your land bore the deep scars of war. But 
you of free Korea have struggled to rehabilitate 
your war-torn nation. You have acliieved better 



Department of State Bulletin 



standards of living against odds that for a less 
sturdy people would have been overwhelming. 

Equally inspiring to us all in recent days has 
been the purposeful revitalization of the free 
institutions and practices on which democracy 
rests. 

American Pledge of Support Reaffirmed 

You have reason today to be confident that your 
military forces, together with those of your 
friends and allies, will permit no intrusion across 
the borders of free Korea. On behalf of the 
Government and people of the United States I 
solemnly reaffirm the pledge of full American 
support to the Republic of Korea in accordance 
with our commitments under the mutual defense 
treaty." 

The primary responsibility, of course, rests 
squarely on the Korean people and their Govern- 
ment. External aid to any nation can be used 
effectively and indeed is deserved only as the re- 
cipient shows by stability, energy, unity, and 
steadfastness of purpose its determination to 
sacrifice for the ideals it deems paramount in its 
way of life. 

Certainly, in its agonizing tests during 3 years 
of war, Korea showed itself so determined. We 
shall forever pay tribute to the heroic soldiers, 
sailors, and airmen of Korea who, together with 
their fellow fighting men from 16 member nations 
of the United Nations, gave tlieir lives in the cause 
of freedom. 

So long as a like spirit, a like will to sacrifice, 
animates the people of Korea, other nations will 
be inspired and, I think, anxious to help you in 
every way they can. They have already proved 
such a readiness. 

The United Nations response to the attack in 
1950 was one of the significant events of history. 
This united determination of free countries will 
not be forgotten by those who would wage aggres- 
sion or by those who seek to maintain their full 
independence and security. 

The cause for which free nations fought here in 
Korea transcended physical stemming of Com- 
munist aggression. Their greater and more 
far-reaching purpose was to strengthen and safe- 



• For text, see TIAS 3097. 



guard, on the mainland of Asia, a nation founded 
on the principles of government by and for the 
people. 

This kind of government cannot endure without 
such basic institutions and practices as : 

1. a free press; 

2. responsible expression of popular will ; 

3. a system of public education ; 

4. an assembly truly representative of the Ko- 
rean people. 

Events over the past few months in the Repub- 
lic of Korea have demonstrated how aware its 
citizens are of the rights and obligations of a free 
people. 

Members of the National Assembly, I repeat 
that yours is a great trust. You, and those new 
members who will soon be gathering here in the 
next Assembly, have the opportunity and the 
heavy responsibility to show that human freedom 
and advancement of the people's welfare thrive 
even in the very shadow of Communist aggression. 

The prompt and judicious fulfillment of the re- 
cently expressed wishes of the Korean people is 
a momentous challenge. Your friends throughout 
the world hope and believe you will meet this chal- 
lenge with courage and with moderation. And 
success in this undertaking will provide inspira- 
tion to your countrymen to the north, who, I 
earnestly pray, will one day join you in a free, 
united Korea. 

Working Together in Cooperative Purpose 

Over the past years, I have had an unusual op- 
portunity to visit many people throughout the 
world. In race, in color, in language, in creed 
they were a cross section of all mankind. But they 
were united in their recognition that responsible 
and representative self-government best serves the 
needs and welfare of free men. This National As- 
sembly, for example, has its counterpart in all free 
countries, which, like you, are striving for liberty, 
progress, and peace with justice. 

All free nations cherish these goals. All aspire 
to achieve them. But not a single one — even the 
most rich and powerful — can hope, of itself, for 
fullness of attainment in the circumstances of this 
time. All of us — Asian and European, American 
and African — must work together in cooperative 



July 25, I960 

557201—60 3 



137 



purpose, or vre shall lose the right to work at all 
in freedom. 

That we may effectively work together we must 
come to understand more clearly and fully how 
much we have in common — the great goals of free 
men, their eternal aspirations, a common destiny. 
As we grow in such understanding, I am firmly 
convinced that all artificial, manmade differences 
will shrink and disappear. In their stead will de- 
velop full recognition of the tremendous opportu- 
nities for mutual advancement that lie in 
cooperative endeavor. And we will use these op- 
portunities for our own good and the good of all 
mankind. 

Free people, of course, must stand together reso- 
lutely against aggression. But they must also 
stand together in combat against the enemies of 
humanity: hunger, privation, and disease. The 
American people have devoted much of their re- 
sources to tliis cause. Here in Korea are some of 
our largest programs for contributing to the eco- 
nomic progress of a close ally and for strengthen- 
ing its military capabilities. 

Cooperation between our two countries has, as 
you know, extended into many spheres : education, 
industry, defense, agriculture, social welfare. 
Through Korean -American cooperation in all 
these diverse fields, we have come better to under- 
stand each other. This common imderstanding, 
which reflects our common stake, will, I am con- 
vinced, grow deeper and firmer as we continue 
jointly to face the problems and demands of the 
future. 

Now, on the eve of the 10th aimiversary of the 
Communist invasion of your nation, let us rededi- 
cate ourselves to the cause of peace and friendship 
in freedom among nations and men. 

My friends, I come before you this afternoon as 
a representative of one sovereign nation speaking 
to the legislative representatives of another sover- 
eign nation. My message from America to you is 
this: We will be watching your progress with 
ever-growing concern. You can always count on 
our friendship so long as we endure. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, SEOUL, JUNE 20 

White House (Seoul) press release dated June 20 

Accepting an invitation of long standing from 
the Government of the Republic of Korea, Presi- 
dent Eisenhower today visited Korea where he 



138 



met with Prime Minister Huh Chung and other 
Korean leaders, including members of the Korean 
National Assembly, which he addressed. Presi- 
dent Eisenhower also visited the United Nations 
Command and reviewed contingents representing 
United Nations Forces which are helping to defend 
tliis key Free World position. 

President Eisenhower's visit highlighted the 
vital purposes served by collective Free World 
action to preserve peace initiated almost exactly 
ten years ago in response to international commu- 
nism's attack on the Republic of Korea. The 
manner in which the United Nations responded in 
June, 1950 to aggression and the retention over 
the past decade of a strong Free World position in 
the Republic of Korea have been major factors in 
preserving the peace in Asia and creating a climate 
in which Free Asia nations can enjoy independ- 
ence, promote human rights and improve the 
spiritual and material welfare of these people. 

The visit impressively reaffirmed the strong 
bonds of friendship and close cooperation between 
the Republic of Korea and the United States. The 
visit also provided an opportunity for discussions 
between Prime Minister Huh Chung and President 
Eisenhower on questions of common concern to 
their two coimtries. President Eisenhower re- 
affirmed the assurance of the Government and peo- 
ple of the United States of their continued support 
for the Republic of Korea and their solemn pledge 
to preserve the independence of Korea. 

The two leaders gave unqualified endorsement 
to the principles of the United Nations Charter as 
standards for international Ijehavior. They 
jjledged that their countries would continue to up- 
hold United Nations principles and work imre- 
servedly and unceasingly toward maintaining 
peace. To this end, both leaders recognized the 
vital importance of presei-ving the alliance be- 
tween the Republic of Korea and the United States 
of America and of maintaining vigilance and 
strength, patience and foresightedness, in carry- 
ing out the purposes for which this alliance stands. 
In the course of the discussions. Prime Minis- 
ter Huh Chiuig and President Eisenliower took 
cognizance of the deep longing of the Korean peo- 
ple for reunification of their homeland. They 
agreed that every effort must be continued to 
bring a peaceful end to this tragic division in 
accordance with the principles set forth in United 
Nations resolutions, envisaging the achievement 
by peaceful means of a unified, independent and 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



democratic Korea under a representative form of 
government and full restoration of peace and 
security in the area. 

Prime Minister Huh Chung outlined measures 
being taken by his country to broaden its inter- 
national ties and he afBrmed his nation's strong 
desire to be a full member of the United Nations. 
Prime Minister Huh Chung and President Eisen- 
hower agreed that the Eepublic of Korea is en- 
titled to United Nations membership and that its 
membership would strengthen the United Nations. 

Prime Minister Huh Chung and President 
Eisenhower agreed that efforts should be made to 
encourage private investment and increase tlie 
flow of trade between countries of the Free World. 

Prime Minister Huh Chung and President 
Eisenhower examined Korean and American eco- 
nomic and social programs and agreed that they 
should be designed and executed so as to foster 
economic independence, assist social jirogress, and 
provide a strong foundation for democratic insti- 
tutions. Both leadei-s agreed that continued 
United States economic assistance is required to 
help the Eepublic of Korea maintain economic 
growth and achieve economic viability as soon as 
possible. 

Piime Minister Huh Chung and President 
Eisenhower expressed their resolve to continue to 
serve the cause of peace and strengthen the bonds 
of friendship between their two peoples. 



U.S. and Canada Meet in Quebec 
To Review Joint Defense Problems 

The Department of State announced on July 
8 (press release 385) that the third meeting of 
the Canada-United States Mmisterial Committee 
on Joint Defense will convene at Montebello, 
Quebec, July 12-13. 

The Canada-United States Ministerial Com- 
mittee on Joint Defense was established by 
mutual agreement of the two Governments as a 
result of discussions in July of 1958 between 
Prime Minister Diefenbaker and President Eisen- 
hower.' The second meeting of the Joint Com- 
mittee was held at Camp David, Md., on November 
8-9, 1959.= 



Canadian members of the Committee will be 
Secretary of State for External Affairs Howard 
C. Green, chairman. Minister of National Defence 
George R. Pearkes, Minister of Finance Donald 
M. Fleming, and Minister of Defence Production 
Raymond J. M. O'Hurley. United States mem- 
bers will be Secretary of State Christian A. 
Herter,^ who is the chairman of the U.S. dele- 
gation. Secretary of Defense Thomas S. Gates, Jr., 
and Secretary of the Treasury Robert B. Ander- 
son. In addition, key officials of both Govern- 
ments will advise and assist in the substantive 
work of their respective delegations. 

The Committee was established to provide for 
periodic considtation at the Cabinet level on 
matters affecting the joint defense of Canada and 
the United States. The periodic review includes 
consideration of military questions together with 
a study of the political and economic aspects of 
defense problems. 



U.S. Affirms Commitment To Oppose 
Communist intervention in Americas 

Stateinent by President Eisenhower 

White House (Newport, R.I.) press release dated Julj 9 

The statement which has just been made by Mr. 
Klirushchev ' in which he promises f idl support to 
the Castro i-egime in Cuba is revealing in two re- 
spects. It undei-scores the close ties that have 
developed between the Soviet and Cuban Govern- 
ments. It also shows the clear intention to estab- 
lish Cuba in a role serving Soviet pui-poses in this 
hemisphere. 

The statement of the Soviet Premier i-eflects the 
effort of an outside nation and of international 
communism to intei-vene m the affairs of the West- 
ern Hemisphere. There is irony in Mr. Khru- 



' For text of a joint st.iteruent, see Blt-letix of Aug. 4. 
19.-;8, p. 204. 



The first meetiug was held at Paris iu December 19.j8 
during the regular annual ministerial meeting of the 
North Atlantic Council. For announcement of the second 
meeting and text of a communique, see ibid., Nov. 30, 
1959, p. 788. 

'Secretary Herter did not attend the meeting. The 
Department of State was represented by Under Secretary 
Livingston T. Merchant, and the Secretary of Defense 
acted as chairman of the U.S. group. 

' Premier Khrushchev addressed a meeting of teachers 
from the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic at 
Moscow on July 9. 



July 25, 7960 



139 



shchev's portrayal of the Soviet Union as tlie 
protector of the independence of an ^Vmerican na- 
tion when viewed against the history of the en- 
slavement of countless other peoples by Soviet 
imperialism. 

The inter- American system has declared itself, 
on more than one occasion, beginning with the 
Rio Treaty, as opposed to any such interference. 
We are committed to uphold those agreements. 
I affirm in the most emphatic terms that the United 
States will not be deterred from its responsibilities 
by the threats Mr. Khrushchev is making. Nor 
will the United States, in conformity with its 
treaty obligations, permit the establishment of a 
regime dominated by international communism 
in the Western Hemisphere. 



President Reduces Cuban Sugar 
Quota for Balance of 1960 

STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

White House press release dated July 6 

I have today [July 6] approved legislation en- 
acted by the Congress which authorizes the Presi- 
dent to determine Cuba's sugar quota for the 
balance of calendar year 1960 and for the 3- 
month period ending March 31, 1961. In con- 
formity with this legislation I have signed a proc- 
lamation which, in the national interest, 
establishes the Cuban sugar quota for the balance 
of 1960 at 39,752 short tons, plus the sugar certi- 
fied for entry prior to July 3, 1960. This repre- 
sents a reduction of 700,000 short tons from the 
original 1960 Cuban quota of 3,119,655 short tons. 

This deficit will be filled by purchases from 
other free-world suppliers. 

The importance of the United States Govern- 
ment's action relating to sugar quota legislation 
makes it desirable, I believe, to set forth tlie rea- 
sons which led the Congress to authorize and the 
Executive to take this action in the national 
interest. 

Normally about one-third of our total sugar 
supply comes from Cuba. Despite every effort 
on our part to maintain traditionally friendly re- 
lations, the Government of Cuba is now following 
a course which raises serious question as to 
whether the United States can, in the long run, 



continue to rely upon that country for such large 
quantities of sugar. I believe that we would fail 
in our obligation to our people if we did not take 
steps to reduce our reliance for a major food prod- 
uct upon a nation which has embarked upon a 
deliberate policy of hostility toward the United 
States. 

The Govenmient of Cuba has committed itself 
to purchase substantial quantities of goods from 
the Soviet Union under barter arrangements. It 
has chosen to undertake to pay for these goods 
with sugar — traded at prices well below those 
which it has obtained in the United States. The 
inescapable conclusion is that Cuba has embarked 
on a course of action to commit steadily increas- 
ing amounts of its sugar crop to trade with the 
Communist bloc, thus making its future ability 
to fill the sugar needs of the United States ever 
more uncertain. 

It has been with the most genuine regret that 
this Government has been compelled to alter the 
heretofore mutually beneficial sugar trade be- 
tween the United States and Cuba. Under the 
system which has existed up to this time, the 
people of Cuba, particularly those who labor in 
the cane fields and in the mills, have benefited 
from the maintenance of an assured market in 
the United States, where Cuban sugar commands 
a price well above that which could be obtained in 
the world market. These benefits also reached 
many others whose livelihood was related to the 
sugar industry on the island. 

The American people will always maintain 
their friendly feelings for the people of Cuba. 
We look forward to the day when the Cuban 
Government will once again allow this friendship 
to be fully expressed in the relations between our 
two countries.^ 



PROCLAMATION 3355 3 

Determination op Cuban Suoab Quota 
1. Whereas ou December 17, 1959, the 1960 sugar quota 
for Cuba was determined pursuant to the Sugar Act of 
1948, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1100 et seq.), at 3,119,655 
short tons, raw value, of which 2,379,903 short tons, raw 
value, have heretofore been certified for entry, pursuant 



' For a statement made by Secretary Herter before the 
House Committee on Agriculture on June 22, see Bul- 
letin of July 11, 1960, p. 58. 

2 25 Fed. Reg. 6414. 



Department of State Bulletin 



to regulations issued by the Secretary of Agriculture (7 
CFR 817), leaving 739,752 short tons, raw value, not yet 
so certified ; and 

2. Whereas section 408(b) (1) of the Sugar Act of 1948, 
as amended by the act of July 6, 1900. entitled "An Act 
to Amend the Sugar Act of 1948, as Amended", provides 
that the President shall determine, notwithstanding any 
other provision of Title II of the Sugar Act of 1948, as 
amended, the quota for Cuba for the balance of calendar 
year 1960 and for the three-month period ending March 
31, 1961, in such amount or amounts as he shall find from 
time to time to be in the national interest: Provided, 
however. That in no event shall such quota exceed such 
amount as would be provided for Cuba under the terms of 
Title II of the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, in the ab- 
sence of section 408 (b) ; and 

3. Whereas section 408(b) (1) of the Sugar Act of 1948, 
as amended, further provides that determinations made 
by the President thereunder shall become effective im- 
mediately upon publication in the Federal Register ; and 

4. Whereas, pursuant to section 408(b) (1) of the Sugar 
Act of 1948, as amended, I find it to be in the national 
interest that the quota for Cuba under the Sugar Act of 
1948, as amended, for the balance of calendar year 1960 
shall be 39,752 short tons, raw value, plus the sugar certi- 
fied prior to July 3, 1960, for entry but not yet entered, or 
withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption : 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by section 408(b) of 
the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, and section 301 of title 
3 of the United States Code, and as President of the 
United States : 

1. Do hereby determine that in the national interest the 
quota for Cuba pursuant to the Sugar Act of 1948, as 
amended, for the balance of calendar year 1960 shall be 
39,752 short tons, raw value, plus the sugar certified prior 
to July 3, 1960, for entry but not yet entered, or withdrawn 
from warehouse, for consumption ; and 

2. Do hereby delegate to the Secretary of Agriculture 
the authority vested in the President by section 408(b) (2) 
and section 408(b)(3) of the Sugar Act of 1948, as 
amended, such authority to be exercised with the concur- 
rence of the Secretary of State. 

This proclamation shall become effective immediately 
upon publication in the Federal Register. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 

caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 

affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this sixth day of July in 

the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty, 

[sEAi,] and of the Independence of the United States 

of America the one hundred and eighty-fifth. 

By the President : 
Douglas Dillon, 
Acting Secretary of State. 



U.S. Protests Cuban Seizure 
of American Oil Refineries 

Press release 3S1 dated July 5 

The U.S. Ambassador to Cuba, Philip W. Bon- 
sal, on July 5 delivered to the Cuban Ministry of 
Foreign Relations the following note protesting 
the seizure of U.S.-owned oil refineries by that 
Government. 

I have the honor to refer to the recent interven- 
tion and seizure by the Government of Cuba of 
the American-owned Texaco and Esso Standard 
Oil Company refineries in Cuba on the grounds 
that these companies, in refusing to refine crude 
oil not obtained from tlieir own sources of supply, 
had violated Cuban law. Tlie Government of the 
United States vigorously protests the actions of 
the Government of Cuba in issuing the orders to 
these companies to refine such crude oil and in in- 
tervening the companies thereafter. The Govern- 
ment of the United States deems these actions to 
be arbitrary and inequitable, without authority 
under Cuban law, and contrary to commitments 
made to these companies. It is the earnest hope 
of the Government of the United States that the 
Government of Cuba will, in justice and equity, 
promptly reconsider and rescind the actions which 
it has taken against these American companies and 
permit them to continue to operate their businesses 
under fair and reasonable conditions. 

As Your Excellency is aware, these two Ameri- 
can-owned oil companies, in which thousands of 
investors have interests, have operated in Cuba 
for over fifty years as law-abiding entities and 
have made a valuable contribution to the growth 
and development of the Cuban economy. The 
modern refineries which have been seized repre- 
sent the investment of many millions of dollars of 
new capital and re-investment of earnings, and 
reflect responsible and careful planning for the 
future as well as the present fuel needs of Cuba. 
Moreover, despite the fact that the Government 
of Cuba has refused to release more than a small 
percentage of the dollars required to pay for the 
crude oil imported since the revolution, the com- 
panies, nevertheless, have continued voluntarily 
to provide crude oil by financing it on their own 
account, thus insuring normal supplies of petro- 
leum products for the Cuban people. The back- 
log of dollar remittances due these companies is 
now in excess of fifty million dollars even though 



July 25, I960 



141 



the Government of Cuba expressly undertook 
with these companies to provide payment on a 
more current basis. I must state to Your Excel- 
lency that, in viewing the history and record of 
these companies, and apart from legal considera- 
tions, my Government regards the actions taken 
against them as a violation of accepted standards 
of ethics and morality in the free world. 

I have been informed of the assertion made to 
the companies by the President of the National 
Bank of Cuba, Dr. Ernesto Guevara, that the com- 
panies are legally obligated to refine petroleum 
from the USSR as demanded by the Government 
of Cuba imder the t«niis of the Mineral Fuel Law 
of 1938. I have also been informed of the threat 
made that these refineries would be seized if they 
failed to comply with the order to refine such 
petroleum. However a careful reading of the 
whole of this law of 1938 and a review of expe- 
rience in the years ensuing since its passage, make 
clearly evident that the article cited by Dr. 
Guevara was intended to apply solely to the re- 
fining of petroleum drawn from Cuban soil. 

The Government of the United States has 
noted, in any event, that the refineries wliich have 
been intervened and seized were constructed or en- 
larged imder tlie provisions of the Law Decree No. 
1758 of November 2, 1954, which established a 
special, non-alterable 20-year regime for the re- 
fineries qualifying under this law and expressly 
provided that such refineries were to be exclusively 
governed by its provisions. Your Excellency's at- 
tention is called to the fact that nowhere in these 
provisions or in the regulations issued thereunder 
is there any requirement that these refineries 
process Government crude oil of any kind. Fur- 
thermore, events and circumstances leading to the 
passing of the law of 1954 and the construction of 
the Texaco refinery in 1957 and the enlargement 
of the refinery of the Esso Standard Oil Company 
in the same year establish that such actions were 
undertaken with the understanding that the com- 
panies had the right to supply and refine their 
own crude oil. Otherwise, one of the principal 
purposes in the establishment and enlargement of 
their refineries would be defeated. In the view 
of the Government of the United States, therefore, 
the 1954 law constitutes a commitment to the com- 
panies binding on the Government of Cuba, and 
any order of the Government of Cuba such as was 
transmitted to them is inconsistent with the basic 



concept of the 1954 law and in breach of the Cuban 
Government's commitment to the companies. 

Nor is there any legal basis in the Mineral Fuel 
Law of 1938 or in Law Decree No. 1758, or in any 
other Cuban law to our knowledge, for this act of 
intervention and seizure wliich has been perpe- 
trated by officials of the Government of Cuba. 
Therefore, it is the ojjinion of the Government of 
the United States that this act is without sanction 
in Cuban law ; that it constitutes a f urtlier breach 
of the Cuban Government's commitment to the 
refineries ; and that it is a violation of the operat- 
ing rights of these companies as provided by 
Cuban law. Even if the intervention were other- 
wise lawful, which the Government of the United 
States does not consider to be the case, it was clearly 
improper to use the intervention as a device to en- 
force compliance with an illegal order, and any 
subsequent intervention must be considered as 
tainted with illegality. 

The Government of the United States cannot 
but feel, with profoimd regret, that the interven- 
tion and seizure of these refineries is further evi- 
dence and confirmation of a pattern of relentless 
economic aggression by the Government of Cuba 
designed to destroy Cuba's traditional investment 
and trade relations with the free world. 



U.S. Sends Wheat to Jordan 
for Drought Relief 

The Department of State announced on July 7 
(press release 384) that in response to a request 
from the Government of Jordan, the United States 
on July 7 made available 25,000 tons of wheat for 
free distribution in drought-stricken Jordan. 

Shipment of the grain, one-half as soon as pos- 
sible and the remainder before the end of the year, 
was authorized with the signing of an acceptance 
document by Dr. Yusuf Haikal, the Ambassador 
of Jordan. 

The document was signed at the offices of the 
International Cooperation Administration, which 
will supply the wheat mider the emergency provi- 
sions of the Agricultural Trade Development and 
Assistance Act (Title II, P.L. 480). 

Because of severe drought, Jordan's current 
wheat crop is only slightly larger than the amount 
needed for seed next year. The 25,000 tons of 
U.S. wheat will help to meet the immediate food 
needs of the country. 



142 



Departmenf of Slate Bi/lletin 



United States and Thailand Express Mutual Desire 
To Maintain and Strengthen Cooperation 



King Bhumihol AduJyadej and Queen Sirikit 
of Thailand visited the United States from, June 
H to July IJf. Following are texts of an exchange 
of greetings hetween President Eisenhoxoer and 
His Majesty the King at the Washington National 
Airport on June 28 and an address made hy His 
Majesty before a joint session of the Congress 
on June 29, together with a joint communique 
released on July 1 and a list of the members of 
the King''s official party. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS, JUNE 28 

White House press release dated June 28 
The President 

Your Majesties and members of our visiting 
party from Thailand, and friends: 

Your Majesty, it is indeed a great privilege 
to welcome you to this comitry. The record of 
the friendly relationships between our two coun- 
tries is a bright one, and it is therefore with 
imusual pleasure that we welcome here in this 
coimtry the head of that nation. 

You will find, sir, in all parts of this nation 
a similar readiness to bid you welcome and to 
express their friendship for your fine coun- 
try in southeast Asia. We sincerely trust that 
the journey that you make through our country 
will be for you and for Her Majesty the Queen 
very interesting and enjoyable, and indeed we 
hope to some extent instructive, as you will learn 
more of our country and of our people and of 
their way of life, just as visitors to your country 
learn about yours. 

So, sir, again welcome to you and to Her Maj- 
esty, and our very best wishes for an enjoyable 
stay in our nation. 

Thank you. 



The King 

Thank you so much, Mr. President, and thank 
you for the kind words you have just spoken 
now and for the rousing welcome you have given 
us. In fact, we have arrived in this country 
when we set foot on the island of Hawaii, just 
on the 14th, and then to California and to Pitts- 
burgh. Evei-ywhere we received a very friendly 
welcome. So we are all very grateful to you, 
Mr. President, for making this visit possible. 

And before coming on this tour I had told my 
people the object of such a state visit; that is, 
when we are friends, between friends and rela- 
tives we like to go and visit each other, for the 
ties of friendship; but now, with nations, it is 
quite impossible for the people of each nation — 
24 million of them — for my people to come and 
visit your 190 million people in this country. So 
I have to come as the Head of State and as their 
representative. 

That is why I am here, and the people under- 
stood very well. The day we left Bangkok they 
gave us a very big sendoff and they showed by 
that they were quite ready to give me support 
and to give their good will. So now, as the rep- 
resentative of my people, I bring to you as the 
representative of the American nation the greet- 
ings and the good will of the Thai people. 

Both countries have had long and very happy 
relations for a long time. That is because we 
have the same convictions. "VVe say that we can- 
not have happiness without freedom and inde- 
pendence. Since we have been here we have 
seen many similarities. Among the similarities, 
in dress — ordinarily, privately, the Thai people 
don't like to dress too formally; they like to be 
easily comfortable, as you people do. And be- 
tween meals we take snacks, as you do. But the 
difference is in the food. You have popcorn, you 



July 25, 7960 



143 



have hotdogs and ice cream. Oh, that is very 
good. We have noodle soup, and we have pickled 
fruit. So among the differences we have many 
similarities. And especially in the train of 
thought; that is, we like to live simply. And 
above all, we like freedom. 

Now this visit is sometliing more for me per- 
sonally. In Thailand we say— we call the mother- 
land the land of our birth, the land where we 
live . . . [Here the King spoke in Thai]. I was 
bom here in this country; so I can say that the 
United States is half my motherland. This visit 
is somewhat of a sentimental journey, and this 
I feel with quite genuine emotion in coming back 
here. I say "coming back here." I never say 
"come" or "go" to the United States. I say "re- 
turn" to the United States. All that emotion 
gives me the conviction that our visit here will 
be of great use for the strengthening and i-ein- 
forcement of the bonds of friendship which have 
existed for a long time already between the 
United States and my coimtry. 

So I thank you once again, Mr. President. 

ADDRESS TO CONGRESS, JUNE 29 > 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of 
Congress, it is a privilege and a pleasure for me to 
address you in this stately building, which is the 
scene of many grave decisions in the history of 
your great country and, I may even say, of the 
world. 

When the President of the United States kindly 
invited me to visit this country, I was happy to ac- 
cept; and was glad to travel halfway roimd the 
world in order to be here. My reason is threefold. 
I would like to mention them briefly to you and, 
through you, to the pe.ople of the United States. 

First, I have long desired to see and learn more 
of your countrj'. Wlien I hear of intolerance and 
oppression in so many parts of the world, I want 
to know how, in this country, millions of people, 
differing in race, tradition, and belief, can live 
together freely and in happy harmony. I want to 
know how these millions, scattered over a large 
territory, can agree upon the major issues in the 
complicated affairs of this world, and how, in 
short, can they tolerate each other at all. 

Second, I wished to bring to you, in person, the 



^ Reprinted from the Congressional Record of June 29, 
p. 13894. 



greetings and good will of my own people. Al- 
though the Americans and the Thai live on oppo- 
site sides of the globe, yet there is one thing com- 
mon to them. It is the love of freedom. Indeed, the 
word "Thai" actually means free. The kind re- 
ception which I am enjoying in this coimtry 
enables me to take back to my people your friend- 
ship and good will. Friendship of one govern- 
ment for another is an important thing. But it is 
friendship of one people for another that assuredly 
guarantees peace and progress. 

Third, I have the natural human desire to see my 
birthplace. I expect some of you here were also 
bom in Boston ; or, like my father, were educated 
at Harvard. I hasten to congratulate such for- 
tunate people. I am sure that they are with me in 
spirit. We share a sentiment of deep pride in the 
academic and cultural achievements of that won- 
derful city. 

Just as in ancient days all roads led to Home, 
so today they lead to Washington. And now that I 
am here, I should like to say something about two 
subjects which are fundamentally important to my 
country, namely, security and development. 

As I look at history, I see mighty military 
empires rise, through conquest and subjection of 
alien peoples. I see them decline and fall, when 
the subject peoples threw off their yoke. It is only 
in this present century that we find a great military 
power refrain from war, except for the defense of 
right and peace. I refer to the United States of 
America. This signal example is a long step for- 
ward toward the security of mankind. 

You, of course, know by heart all the words of 
President Lincoln's address at Gettysburg. They 
lay down basic principles which should inspire 
the conduct of all nations and all governments. 
One of those principles is contained in the follow- 
ing words, "a new nation, conceived in Liberty, 
and dedicated to the proposition that all men are 
created equal." 

In accordance with that broadminded proposi- 
tion, your people have given, by their own sover- 
eign will, full freedom and equity to a southeast 
Asian nation. "Wlien a Far Eastern country was 
being overwhelmed by a war for its oppression, 
the United States without hesitation went to war 
to save that country. There Thai soldiers fought 
side by side with your GI's. It is such prompt 
actions as this that have given great encourage- 
ment and confidence to a small country like mine. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Furthermore, U.S. initiative has brought forth 
SEATO [Southeast Asia Treaty Organization], 
the international alliance which is the pillar of my 
country's security. 

When a country feels reasonably confident of its 
own security, it can devote more attention to 
economic development. As you ai-e all aware, my 
country is classified as underdeveloped. The aver- 
age income of a Thai is only about $100 a year. 
You Avill understand what great urgent need there 
is to increase the income and raise the living stand- 
ard of my people. 

One of the handicaps of countries in our region 
is the lack of capital and teclinical know-how. It 
is at this point that the United States has so gener- 
ously come to our assistance. And here I should 
like to refer to the economic and technical coopera- 
tion agreement between our respective Govern- 
ments.^ Its preamble states that liberty and in- 
dependence depend largely upon sound economic 
conditions. It then goes on to say : 

... the Congress of the United States of America has 
enacted legislation enabling the United States of America 
to furnish assistance ... in order that the Government 
of Thailand through its own individual efforts . . . may 
achieve such objectives. 

In that preamble, there is one concept that needs 
to be emphasized. American assistance is to 
enable the Thai to achieve their objectives through 
their own efforts. I need hardly say that this con- 
cept has our complete endorsement. Indeed, there 
is a precept of the Lord Buddha which says: 
"Thou are thine own refuge." We are grateful 
for American aid; but we intend one day to do 
without it. 

This leads me to a question in which some of you 
may be interested. The question is : What do we 
Thai think of U.S. cooperation ? I shall try to ex- 
plain my view as briefly as I can. 

In my country there is one widely accepted con- 
cept. It is that of family obligations. The mem- 
bers of a family, in the large sense, are expected to 
help one another whenever there is need for as- 
sistance. The giving of aid is a merit in itself. 
The giver does not expect to hear others sing his 
praises every day ; nor does he expect any return. 
The receiver is nevertheless grateful. He too, in 
his turn, will carry out his obligations. 

In giving generous assistance to foreign coun- 



Thai Paintings and Exiiibit 
Mark Visit of King and Queen 

The Department of State announced on June 23 
(press release 346) that a special showing of Thai 
paintings would be placed on exhibition in the De- 
partment of State June 27 in connection with the 
official visit to the United States of Their Majesties 
King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit of 
Thailand. The King and Queen arrived in Wash- 
ington on June 28. 

The paintings — 16 in all — were hung in the 
south mezzanine on the second floor of the State 
Department Building. At the same time, a large 
paneled exhibit of photographs and artcrafts re- 
flecting various aspects of Thai culture was con- 
structed and placed on view in the Department 
lobby for the period of Their Majesties' stay in 
Washington from June 28 to July 2. 

Later this year, in October, the State Depart- 
ment will assist in bringing to the United States a 
comprehensive exhibition of Thai art treasures 
drawn from national museiuus and private collec- 
tions. The exhibition is scheduled to open at the 
University of Indiana in October. 

The paintings, from the private collection of 
James H. W. Thompson, an American businessman 
in Bangliok, are the first representative group of 
paintings by Thai artists ever shown in the United 
States. In subject matter the paintings are almost 
exclusively religious and are executed on silk, cot- 
ton, paper, or wood surfaces. They have been 
brought here under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
Traveling Exhibition Service as one of a series of 
exhibitions of oriental art which the Service will 
present here and in other cities in the United States. 



Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2170 
and 2304. 



tries, the United States are, in my Thai eyes, ap- 
plying the old concept of family obligations upon 
the largest scale. The nations of the world are 
being taught that they are but members of one big 
family; that they have obligations to one another; 
and that they are closely interdependent. It may 
take a long time to learn this lesson. But when it 
has been truly learned, the prospects of world 
peace will become bright. 

Some of you may recall that my great-grand- 
father, King Mongkut, was in conmiunication 
with President Buchanan during the years 1859 
to 1861—100 years ago. President Buchanan 
sent him a letter dated May 10, 1859, with a con- 
signment of books in 192 volumes. The King 
was very pleased with the books and in a letter 
dated the 14th of February 1861, he sent certain 



July 25, 1960 



presents in return as gifts to the American people 
and an otTer that became historic. 

At that period, there was much demand for 
elephants in our and neighboring countries. Ele- 
phants had been sent to Ceylon, Sumatra, and 
Java and turned loose in tlie jungles for breeding 
purposes, and the result is that elephants are plen- 
tiful in those countries. 

In the past, elephants had great potentialities. 
From the economic point of view, they could be 
used in the timber industry for hauling big logs 
and other heavy materials, like tractors do in pres- 
ent days. As they could go through thick jungles, 
they were also used as beasts of burden for trans- 
port purposes. And in view of their enormous size 
and strength, in time of war they struck awe into 
the enemies. Since elephants could be put to such 
various good uses and since they were available in 
large number in our country, as a friendly gesture 
to a friendly people, my great-grandfather offered 
to send the President and Congress elephants to 
be turned loose in the uncultivated land of Amer- 
ica for breeding purposes. 

That offer was made with no other objective 
than to provide a friend with what he lacked, in 
the same spirit in which the American aid pro- 
gram is likewise offered. And understanding and 
appreciating the sentiment underlying your aid 
program, the Thai Government welcomes the pro- 
gram and is grateful for it. 

Our two countries have had the best of relations. 
They started with the coming of your missionaries 
who shared with our people the benefits of modem 
medicine and the knowledge of modem science. 
This soon led to official relations and to a treaty 
between the two nations. That treaty dates as 
far back as 1833. 

It can be said that from the beginning of our 
relationship right up to the present time no con- 
flict of any kind has arisen to disturb our cordial 
friendship and understanding. On the contrary 
there has been mutual good will and close coop- 
eration between our two coimtries. In view of the 
present world tension and the feeling of uncer- 
tainty apparent everywhere, it is my sincere feel- 
ing that the time is ripe for an even closer 
cooperation. It will demonstrate to the world 
that we are one in purpose and conviction, and it 
can only lead to one thing— mutual benefit. 
I thank you for your kind indulgence. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE, JULY 1 

White House press release dated July 1 

The President of the United States and His 
Majesty the King of Thailand have held a friendly 
and useful exchange of views on matters of mu- 
tual interest. 

Their Majesties the King and Queen of Thai- 
land are visiting the United States upon the in- 
vitation of the President. At the conclusion of 
their stay in Washington on July 2, during which 
His Majesty the King addressed a joint session of 
the United States Congress, Their Majesties will 
begin a 12-day coast-to-coast tour of the United 
States, during which they will meet with various 
civic, cultural, and business leaders. The Presi- 
dent recalled the fact that the King was born in 
the United States and expressed the hope that this 
personal link would enhance the pleasure of His 
Majesty's visit to the land of his birth. 

The President expressed great admiration for 
the steps taken under the King's leadership to 
foster the economic and social development of 
Thailand in harmony with the aspirations and 
ideals of the Thai people. He voiced profound 
respect for the moral inspiration which the King's 
devotion to the welfare of his people continues to 
provide. 

In their review of the world situation, the Presi- 
dent and the King expressed their mutual concern 
with the vital problem of preserving freedom and 
independence as well as achieving lasting peace 
and establishing a world order based on interna- 
tional justice. They reasserted their determina- 
tion to work toward these goals, the achievement 
of which will contribute immensely to the general 
progress, prosperity, and welfare of mankind. 
They noted that the stanch adherence of Thailand 
and the United States to the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization demonstrates a mutual be- 
lief in the indispensability of collective security 
as a means of preserving the frontiers of the free 
world from aggression and of promoting the 
peaceful objectives shared by both countries. The 
President took this occasion to pay tribute to the 
steadfast partnership of Thailand and the United 
States in all fields and reaffirmed to His Majesty 
the unwavering determination of the United 
States fully to honor its treaty commitments 
undertaken in the cause of collective security. 
The President and the King expressed a com- 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



mon belief in the ideal of enhancing human dig- 
nity as the wellspring by wliich a free society 
prospers and is nourished. They agreed that the 
American and Thai peoples are dedicated to abid- 
ing respeet for the principles of the sovereignty 
and independence of nations and of genuine non- 
interference in the affairs of others. They voiced 
their profound conviction that any attempt by 
any nation to impose its own economic system or 
political beliefs on any other country should be 
condemned. 

In recalling the long and fruitful tradition of 
friendship which binds the United States and 
Thailand the President assured the King of the 
continuing determination of the United States 
to assist the Royal Government of Thailand in its 
noble objective of promoting the economic and 
social development of the country for the lasting 
benefit of the Thai people. The President and 
the King expressed their mutual desire to main- 
tain and further to strengthen the bonds of close 
and cordial collaboration between Thailand and 
the United States, both directly and through the 
United Nations and other appropriate interna- 
tional organizations in which the two countries 
share membership, confident that in so doing they 
are responsive to the liighest aspirations of their 
peoples for a world in which peace, freedom, and 
the sanctity of human dignity are honored and 
cherished. 



MEMBERS OF OFFICIAL PARTY 

The Department of State annoimced on June 
24 (press release 354) that the following would 
be accompanying King Bhumibol Adulyadej and 
Queen Sirikit as members of the official party : 
Thanat Khoman, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand 
Phya Srivisar, Privy Councillor 
Visutr Arthayukti, Ambassador of Thailand 
Mrs. Visutr Arthayukti, wife of the Ambassador of 

Thailand 
Gen. Luang Sura Narong, Chief Alde-de-Camp General 
Dr. Kalya Isarasena Na Ayudhaya, Grand Chamberlain 
Mom Rajawongs Kittinadda Katiyaliara, Private Secre- 
tary to His Majesty the King 
Princess Vibhavadi Rangsit, Lady-in-Waiting 
Capt. Mom Rajawongs Bhandhum Davivongs, R.T.N., 

Aide-de-Camp 
Group Capt. Kaivulya Thavaradhara, Aide-de-Camp 
Poonperm Krairiksh, private secretary to Her Majesty 
the Queen. 



U.S. Sends Congratulatory Message 
to First President of Ghana 

White House press release dated July 1 

The White House on July 1 made puhlic the 
following message from President Eisenhower to 
Hi^ Excellency Dr. Kwame NkrunMh, President 
of the Republic of Ghana, on the occasion of the 
accession of Ghana to the status of republic and 
an the occasion of the inauguration of Dr. 
Nkrumah as its first President on July 1, 1960. 
July 1, 1960 

Dear Mr. President: Upon the accession of 
your country to the status of Republic and upon 
your inauguration as its first President I extend in 
my own name and on behalf of the people of the 
United States most cordial greetings and felicita- 
tions to you and your countrymen. 

In the more than three years of close relations 
between an independent Ghana and this country 
strong bonds of friendship and mutual interests 
have developed. It is the sincere hope of the Gov- 
ermnent and people of the United States that these 
bonds will continue to grow stronger in the years 
to come. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Shrimp Conservation Commission 
Meets at Habana 

Press release 3S3 dated July 6 

The Commission for the Conservation of 
Shrimp in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico held its first 
meeting at Habana, Cuba, from June 30 to July 1, 
1960. Donald L. McKernan of the United States 
was elected chairman and Isabel Perez Farfante 
of Cuba was elected vice chairman. 

The Commission agreed upon a coordinated re- 
search program that would meet its obligation 
under the convention to maintain the maximum 
sustainable productivity of stocks of shrimp of 
common concern to Cuba and the U.S.A. in waters 
of the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Cuba and the 
Florida coast of the United States. The scientific 
program is designed to provide information 
required for: 



Jo/y 25, 7960 



147 



1. Identilication of tlie stocks of common con- 
cern and the area they occupy. 

2. Determination of the necessity for any con- 
servation measures to assure the maximum sustain- 
able yield, taking into account particularly the 
growth and death rates of shrimp in the area, the 
effect of the fishei-y on the stock, and the type of 
measure which would be most effective. 

3. Determination of the effect of environment 
on the stocks. 

It is expected that the program of the Commis- 
sion will be inaugurated in the near future. 

The next annual meeting of the Commission will 
be held in April 1961 at a place to be later 
determined. 



I liter- American Advisory Committee 
Holds Fifth Meeting 

Press release 382 dated July 5 

The Department of State announced on July 5 
that the National Advisory Committee on Inter- 
American Affaire is meeting in the Department 
on July 6-7. The Acting Secretary [Douglas 
Dillon] will participate in the meeting of the 
Committee. 

This will be the fifth meeting of the Committee 
since its creation by President Eisenhower on No- 
vember 14, 1959.^ The purpose of the Committee 
is to consider, on a continuing basis, current and 
long-range problems of our relations with Latin 
America and to make recommendations thereon 
to the Secretary of State. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 2d Session 

Khrushchev's Strategy and Its Meaning for America. A 
study presented by the Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other 
Internal Security Laws of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee which was prepared by the Foreign Policy Re- 
search Institute of the University of Pennsylvania. 
40 pp. [Committee print] 

Amendments to the Foreign Service Act. Hearings before 
the Subcommittee on State Department Organization 



' For background, see Bulletin of May 23, 1960, p. 815. 



and Foreign Operations of the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee. February 1-June 2, 1960. 258 pp. 

Exports, Imports, and the United States Balance of Inter- 
national Payments. A special study prepared by the 
Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress 
and presented by Senator Hubert H. Humphrey. S. Doc. 
105. April 1960. 43 pp. 

Organizing for National Security: Science, Technology, 
and the Policy Process. Hearings before the National 
Policy Machinery Subcommittee of the Senate Govern- 
ment Operations Committee. Part II. April 25-27, 
1960. 174 pp. 

Staff Memorandum on International Lending Agencies, 
Prepared for the House Foreign Affairs Committee. 
April 27, 1960. 175 pp. [Committee print] 

Foreign Commerce Study: Export Credit Guarantees. 
Hearings before the Senate Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce Committee on measures to expand U.S. exports — 
present export credit facilities and proposals for new 
mechanisms. April 28-29, 1960. 279 pp. 

Expose of Soviet Espionage, May 1960. Prepared by the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation and transmitted by 
direction of the Attorney General for the use of the 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the 
International Security Act and Other Internal Security 
Laws of the Senate Judiciary Committee. 63 pp. [Com- 
mittee print] 

Foreign Commerce Study: Trade With the Sino-Soviet 
Bloc. Hearings before the Senate Interstate and For- 
eign Commerce Committee. May 5-6, 1960. 194 pp. 

Atlantic Convention. Hearings before the House Foreign 
Affairs Committee on various resolutions calling for a 
convention of delegates from the NATO countries to 
explore metliods of achieving more effective and dem- 
ocratic unity in advancing their common interest. May 
17,1960. 42 pp. 

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution 
of the Sea by Oil. Report to accompany Ex. C, 86th 
Congress, 2d session. S. Ex. Rept. 6. June 2, 1960. 
10 pp. 

Sugar Act of 1948. Report to accompany H.R. 12311. 
H. Rept. 1746. June 6, 1960. 44 pp. 

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security With Japan. 
Hearings before the Senate Foreign Relations Commit- 
tee on Ex. E, 86th Congress, 2d session. June 7, 1960. 
101 pp. 

International Development Association. Report to ac- 
company H.R. 11001. H. Rept. 1766. June 8, 1960. 
13 pp. 

Operation of Article VII, NATO Status of Forces Treaty. 
Hearing before a subcommittee of the Senate Armed 
Services Committee to review for the period December 
1, 195S-N'ovember 30, 1959, the operation of article VII 
of the agreement between the parties to the North At- 
lantic Treaty, together with the other criminal juris- 
dictional arrangements throughout the world. June 8, 
1960. 29 pp. 

Philippine War Damage Claims. Supplemental hear- 
ings before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on 
H.R. 12078, a bill to authorize the payment of the bal- 
ance of awards for war damage compensation made by 
the Philippine War Damage Commission imder the 
terms of the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of April 30, 
1946, and to authorize the appropriation of $73 million 
for that purpose. June 9, 1960. 25 pp. 

International Telecommunication Convention, With An- 
nexes, and the Final Protocol to the Convention. Mes- 
sage from the President and texts of the convention 
with annexes and final protocol which were signed on 
December 21, 1959. S. Ex. J. June 9, 1960. 106 jip. 

Radio Regulations, With Appendixes and an Additional 
Protocol. Message from the President and text of the 
regulations, appendixes, and protocol which were signed 
on December 21, 1959. S. Ex. I. June 9, 1960. 571 pp. 



148 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



New African Nations Recommended 
for Membership in United Nations 



REPUBLIC OF TOGOi 

The United States welcomes this meeting of the 
Security Council because it gives us the opportu- 
nity to demonstrate in a tangible way our pleasure 
over the acliievements of the Govermnent and the 
people of Togo. 

After 42 years of international status under the 
League of Nations as well as under the United 
Nations, the people of Togo reached the fulfill- 
ment of their inherent right to govern tliemselves 
on April 27, when the independence of Togo was 
proclaimed. The United St<ates delegation, headed 
by our Attorney General, Mr. William Rogers, had 
the honor of participating in the ceremonies mark- 
ing this memorable occasion. 

Togo is the smallest of the African territories 
to achieve independence thus far. But while Togo 
might be small m comparison to the vastness of 
the African continent, it is interesting to note that 
there are 21 independent states whose area is less 
than that of Togo and 15 which are smaller in 
population. 

Tlie United States has, from the beginning, 
taken a keen interest in the work of the United 
Nations trusteeship system, and we are naturally 
proud of the part it has played in the political 
development of Togo. We are also happy to 
acknowledge the success of the Government of 
France in canning out its responsibilities under 
the United Nations tnisteeship system. 

The United States has no doubt that the voice 
of Togo should and will be heard with respect and 
attention at the United Nations. Its people have 
a reputation for hard work. The Prime Minister 
of Togo, Mr. Sylvanus Olympio, whom it has been 

'statement made in the Security Council by Henry 
Cabot Lodge, U.S. Representative to the United Nations, 
on May 31 ( U.S./U.N. press release 3412 ) . 

July 25, I960 



my good fortune to meet on several occasions, has 
for many years participated in the work of the 
United Nations and is, for good reason, held in 
great esteem here. The United States takes par- 
ticular pleasure in conveying congratulations to 
him and in sending sincere best wishes to the Gov- 
ernment and the people of Togo. 

Tlie United States will vote in favor of the reso- 
lution as submitted by the Goverimients of France 
and Tunisia which recommends the admission of 
Togo to membership in the United Nations.^ 



FEDERATION OF MALI > 

The United States welcomes the application for 
United Nations membership of a great new Af- 
rican state, the Federation of Mali. 

Mali will add to the list of United Nations mem- 
bers an ancient name with deep significance for 
the people of West Africa and elsewhere. It sym- 
bolizes the renaissance of a great people, whose 
culture and wealth flourished brilliantly 6 cen- 
turies ago. 

Today Mali means something more. It stands 
for a new nation formed by the union of two dy- 
namic African states. Here is a place where the 
aspiration for African unity is becoming a real- 
ity. Its constitution provides for a full exercise 
of political and personal freedom. Its capital, 
Dakar, is the center of the most industrialized re- 
gion in West Africa. Mali national production 
figures have risen 30 percent in 4 years. 

The Mali Federation will add a powerful 
African voice to the councils of the United Na- 
tions. Its leaders are well known to us as men 
of broad scholarship and culture as well as experi- 
ence in government. I, personally, have had the 



^A resolution recommending to the General Assembly 
"that the Republic of Togo be admitted to membership 
in the United Nations" was adopted unanimously by the 
Security Council on May 31. 

' Statement made In the Security Council by Ambas- 
sador Lodge on June 28 (U.S./U.N. press release 3425). 

149 



good fortune to meet some of tliem both here in 
New York and on several occasions in Dakar. Be- 
fore that, in 1944, I saw the heroic soldiers from 
Senegal in combat in southern France — a vivid 
memory of first-class fighting men which will al- 
ways stay in my mind. For all these reasons I 
look forward to welcoming them again as col- 
leagues in the work of the United Nations. 

Today's meeting, Mr. President, is another oc- 
casion to commend France on a job well done. 
Last year the French Government decided to cre- 
ate a community of self-governing and inde- 
pendent states. Speaking at Dakar, President de 
Gaulle stated that members of this new commimity 
which so desired would evolve toward interna- 
tional sovereignty "with the support, the approval 
and the assistance of France." 

The Mali application for membership in the 
United Nations, sponsored by France, demon- 
strates this spirit of cooperation and friendship. 

Mr. President, the United States supports the 
admission of the Federation of Mali and will vote 
for the resolution introduced by France and 
Tunisia. 

[Mr. Lodge concluded his statement by speaking in 
French, the translation of which follows:] 

Speaking as an old friend of France who knows 
the Federation of Mali as well and who has worked 
with France for many things, I wish to congrat- 
ulate France and I wish to tell the representative 
of Mali that I welcome him most warmly and in 
a most friendly way.* 



MALAGASY REPUBLIC 

The United States welcomes the application of 
the Malagasy Eepublic for membership in the 
United Nations. We believe it will make an im- 
portant and valuable contribution to our work. 

The tremendous island it occupies is a world in 
itself. From north to south it is some one thou- 
sand miles long, approximately the distance from 
Massachusetts to Florida. Its climate and to- 
pography are varied. It has for centuries been a 
meeting place for diverse cultures, races, and re- 
ligions. Africa, Asia, and Europe have all left 

'A resolution recommending U.N. membership for the 
Federation of Mali was adopted unanimously by the 
Security Council on June 28. 

" Statement made in the Security Council by Ambassador 
Lodge on June 29 (U.S. /U.N. press release 3428). 



tlieir mark. Surelj' in an organization like the 
United Nations, where we seek to build bridges 
among people, such an experience as this has very 
special value. 

Malagasy comes to independence with a stable 
economy and an experienced government. It has 
had a popularly elected Assembly since 1947 and 
has been self-governing since 1957. 

The independence of Malagasy and its appli- 
cation for United Nations membership represents 
the culmination of peaceful political evolution in 
which both Malagasy and France can take justi- 
fiable and honest pride. The close relations be- 
tween tlie two coimtries will happily continue 
through the participation of Malagasy in the 
French Community. 

The "father of Malagasy independence," Presi- 
dent [Philibert] Tsiranana, recently stated that 
the foreign policy of Malagasy would be to de- 
fend "the interests of small peoples, the needs of 
poor countries, and the cause of peace and frater- 
nity." Mr. President, these are our sentiments too. 

I had the pleasure of welcoming President 
Tsiranana to the United States during the 14th 
General Assembly. He made a lasting impression 
as a man of wisdom and of long experience in the 
service of his country. 

1960 has been called the "year of African inde- 
pendence." Already four new states have applied 
for United Nations membership. It is gratifying 
to see the high place which the United Nations 
holds in Africa. In the case of Malagasy as well 
as Cameroun, Togo, and Mali, one of the first offi- 
cial acts has been to apply for United Nations 
membership. We welcome this willingness to 
share in the vital work of the United Nations. 

Mr. President, the United States will vote in 
favor of the draft resolution submitted by France 
and Tunisia.* 



SOMALI REPUBLIC 

The United States is pleased to support the ad- 
mission of the Republic of Somalia to member- 
ship in the United Nations. It is a thrilling thing 

° A resolution recommending U.N. membership for the 
Malagasy Republic was adopted unanimously by the 
Security Council on June 29. 

' Statement made in the Security Council by Francis O. 
Wilcox, Assistant Secretary of State for International 
Organization Affairs, on July 5 (U.S./U.N. press release 
3430/Rev. 1). 



150 



Department of Stale Bvlletin 



to witness the birth of a new state. Membership 
in tlie United Nations is the logical culmination 
of events set in motion on December 2, 1950, when 
the foi-mer Italian Somalia became the Trust Ter- 
ritory of Somaliland Under Italian Administra- 
tion. Since that day the Somali people, their 
elected officials, and the Italian administration 
have worked with good will and with diligence 
toward one goal: to bring the tei-ritory to inde- 
pendence and full sovereignty. 

During this period parallel progress was being 
made in the neighboring British Somaliland pro- 
tectorate toward the same great goal. In late 
Jmie of this year British Somaliland became inde- 
pendent and freely decided to join with the for- 
mer trust territory of Somalia to form tlie Repub- 
lic of Somalia, wliich we are welcoming here 
today. 

To both Italy and the United Kingdom we of- 
fer our commendation for their aid in furthering 
the aspirations of the Somali people. We must 
also give full credit to the wisdom of the people of 
Somalia and the dedication of their leaders. 

At the 14th General Assembly the United States 
had the privilege to cosponsor a resolution which 
was adopted luianimously on December 5, 1959, 
and which advanced the date of independence for 
Somalia by 6 months. This resolution was moti- 
vated by the recognition of the political growth 
of the Somali people and by the striking advances 
in self-govenmient achieved in a few short years. 

The United Nations has been fortunate in the 
past in having distinguished Somalis participate 
in its work. Many of us in this room have been 
privileged to work with Haji Farah Ali Umar, 
Minister of Industry and Commerce, and with the 
Under Secretary to the Presidency of the Council 
of Somalia, Ali Daar, who is with us today. The 
United Nations will be fortunate to have yet an- 
other distinguished African voice added to its 
councils, this from the fabled Horn of Africa, 
from the Republic of Somalia. 

From the outset of the trusteeship period it was 
made abundantly clear by a series of detailed 
studies that Somalia's major problem would be in 
the economic field. For the realization of its plans 
in this field the Somali Republic will need the con- 
tinued assistance of the United Nations and its 
specialized agencies. I certainly hope the United 
Nations will be in a position to respond positively 
and promptly. 



For its part, my Government has assured the 
Somali Republic that the United States is pre- 
pared, if the people of Somalia so wish, to assist 
Somalia to maintain its economic stability and to 
achieve a proper level of development in the pe- 
riod of independence that lies ahead. On this oc- 
casion, which marks in United Nations circles the 
birth of a new nation, I am glad to repeat that 
assurance. 

We have confidence in the Somali people; we 
have confidence in the Republic of Somalia as in- 
deed we do in the dynamic Africa of today; and 
we have confidence that the problems facing this 
new nation will be resolved through statesmanship 
and without rancor. 

One cannot go to Africa in 1960 without being 
profoundly impressed by the far-reaching changes 
that are taking place there. These changes, in my 
view, constitute one of the most important de- 
velopments of the 20th century. 

It is already apparent that more new sovereign 
states will be created in Africa during 1960 than 
have ever been created before during any com- 
parable period in world history. 

These developments will bring in their wake a 
great challenge and a great opportunity for the 
United Nations. With the help of this organiza- 
tion, I am confident that the peoples of Africa will 
succeed in establishing their rightful place in the 
family of nations. I am confident, too, that they 
will make a significant contribution to the United 
Nations and the cause of world peace. 

The United States shall vote for the resolution 
in document S/4363, submitted by Italy, Tunisia, 
and the United Kingdom. In doing so I want to 
extend the warm and sincere congratulations of 
the United States to the people of Somalia on this 
important step in their national life.* 

REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO' 

The purpose of our meeting today is to extend 
the hand of friendship to the people and Govern- 
ment of the Republic of the Congo. The United 
States warmly welcomes its application for mem- 
bership in the United Nations. We are happy to 
see the Congo join the growing family of inde- 



' A resolution recommending U.N. membership for the 
Somali Republic was adopted unanimously by the Se- 
curity Council on July 5. 

• Statement made in the Security Council by Assistant 
Secretary Wilcox on July 7 (U.S./U.N. press release 3431) . 



July 25, I960 



151 



pendent nations, and we wish the new state every 
possible success. 

I had occasion recently to visit this great new 
central African Republic, and I returned to the 
United States concerned with its pressing prob- 
lems and impressed with its unparalleled oppor- 
tunities. The Congo is large and diverse. The 
United States is likewise large and diverse, and 
our own experience therefore has some relevance. 
Diversity, far from posing a problem for the 
United States, has been one of its major sources 
of strength. If there are some 70 major ethnic 
groups in the Congo, there may be nearly as many 
in the United States, including some 20 million 
Americans of African origin. If tlie issue of the 
rights of the local governmental units versus the 
central government is a vital one in the Congo, it 
is of continuing importance in the United States. 
The new Republic of the Congo will have a long 
and difficult road to travel. But the difficulties 
will make the achievements of its leaders all the 
greater. 

If the new Republic faces difficulties, its poten- 
tial is virtually unlimited. The proven capabili- 
ties of its people and the richness of its natural 
resources should form the foundation for a strong 
and healthy state. The Congo has inherited a 
primary-education rate whicli is one of the highest 
in Africa. It has a large corps of highly trained 
and skilled technicians who have run the Port of 
Leopoldville, for example, and the country's mines 
for many years. It has two very good universi- 
ties where administrators, doctors, and others who 
are so desperately needed can be trained. There 
is an excellent system of vocational education. 
Moreover, the Congo has a relatively large capital 
base and reasonably well developed natural re- 
sources which should facilitate further progress. 
Its liydroelectric potential, for example, is 
tremendous. 

In reviewing the assets of the Congo, I have 
referred to only a few examples. Our attention 
is inevitably drawn to the extensive work of 
economic and social development carried out by 
Belgium. Let me congratulate the Government 
and people of Belgium on the many constructive 
contributions they have made to tlie well-being 
of the Congolese people. If I may once again 
draw a parallel with my own coimtry, Mr. Presi- 
dent, by comparison with the 13 States that 
banded together to form the United States in the 



beginning, the Congo is considerably richer in 
natural resources and has several times the popula- 
tion. We are confident therefore that the Congo 
can prosper in freedom. 

The United States has abiding faith in the 
capacity of tlie people of the Congo to build a 
great, new, modem state. The United Stntes 
stands ready to demonstrate in concrete terms its 
interest in and support for the welfare and prog- 
ress of the Congo. Our assistance will include, 
if the people and Government of the Congo desire, 
training grants and scholarsliips and teclmical aid 
in other forms. ^Vliatever the precise form of 
program finally established, it will be solely for 
tlie welfare of the people of that countiT. 

The United States is particularly pleased that 
independence has been achieved with full Belgian 
support. We are happy to note that both Belgian 
and Congolese officials, now that independence has 
been attained, agree on the principle of continuing 
Belgian assistance to the new state and continua- 
tion of close ties between the two. By putting 
tliese relations on a new basis which safeguards 
the rights and the dignity of both sides, the Congo 
and Belgian Governments have contributed posi- 
tively to the cause of human liberty and world 
peace. 

We hope that other United Nations members 
will review the possibility of assistance to the 
Congo, either on a bilateral basis or through 
multilateral channels. We believe also that the 
Congo will look for strong moral and material 
support from the United Nations. We can assure 
the Congo today that, so far as we are concerned, 
it can expect to find sympathy and encouragement 
in New York as well as concrete aid in Leopold- 
ville and other parts of the country. 

In the last analysis, of course, the Congo wiU 
comit upon the resources of its own country and 
people. As the Chief of State of the Republic 
of the Congo declared recently : "In order to suc- 
ceed, the complete cooperation of our entire popu- 
lation is necessary." If the people of the Congo 
follow the admonition of their leader and work 
together for the development of their country, if 
they apply themselves with vigor and imagina- 
tion, their future can hold all the tenefits of free- 
dom and prosperity. 

No one, INIr. President, can doubt that the 
newly emerging states of Africa have an exceed- 
ingly difficult task ahead. A new state cannot be 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



built in a day. It will take time and energy and 
money and sweat and tears. Biit as they move 
on toward their goal of hiunan betterment, they 
know that they have the sympathetic interest and 
the support of the Government and the people of 
the United States. 

Mr. President, the United States wishes to ex- 
tend its warm and sincere congratulations to the 
Government and the people of the Congo on this 
important occasion. I shall vote with real pleas- 
ure for the resolution introduced by Timisia pro- 
posing the admission of the Eepublic of the Congo 
to membership in the United Nations.'" 



William A. Nierenberg Appointed 
NATO Science Adviser 

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization an- 
noimced on July 8 that the appointment of Wil- 
liam A. Nierenberg, professor of physics at the 
University of California at Berkeley, as Science 
Adviser to succeed Frederick Seitz has been ap- 
proved by the Secretary General. Dr. Seitz, 
NATO Science Adviser since June 1959, will be 
retunoing to the University of Illinois to resume 
his duties as professor and head of the Depart- 
ment of Physics. 

The Science Adviser is concerned with the 
NATO science program, which stems directly 
from the principles laid down by the Heads of 
Government in December 1957 ' and which is mov- 
ing forward in the promotion of scientific coopera- 
tion among NATO countries. Under the guidance 
of a distinguished group of scientists who com- 
prise the NATO Science Committee, a program 
of scientific research fellowsliips for 400 students 
is planned for 1960, funds have been made avail- 
able to sponsor 12 advanced study institutes on sci- 
entific subjects, and a program of research grants 
is getting under way to encourage cooperative sci- 
entific projects among NATO countries. Addi- 
tional programs in the field of scientific and 
technical cooperation, including oceanography 
and meteorology, are being plamied by the NATO 
Science Committee, of which Dr. Nierenberg will 
be the chairman. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

Development Assistance Group 

The Department of State announced on July 1 
(press release 378) that T. Graydon Upton, As- 
sistant Secretary of the Treasury, is heading a 
U.S. delegation to Bonn, Germany, for the second 
meeting of the Development Assistance Group, 
July 5-7, 1960.1 

Edwin M. Martin, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
of State for Economic Affairs, will serve as vice 
chairman. Other members of the delegation 
include : 

Samuel C. Waugh, President and Chairman of ttie Export- 
Import Bank 
Leonard J. Saccio, Deputy Director, International Co- 
operation Administration 
Hart Perry, Deputy Managing Director, Development 
Loan Fund 



TREATY INFORMATION 



" A resolution recommending U.N. membership for the 
Republic of the Congo was adopted unanimously by the 
Security Council on July 7. 

' Btilletin of Jan. 6, 19.58, p. 12. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Convention on international civil aviation. Done at Chi- 
cago December 7, 1944. Entered into force April 4, 1947. 
TIAS 1591. 
Adherence deposited: Nepal, June 29, 1960. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Belgium, May 31, 1960. 

Protocol 1 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the application of that convention to the worlis of 
stateless persons and refugees. Done at Geneva Sep- 
tember 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Belgium, May 31, 1960. 

Protocol 2 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the application of that convention to the works of 
certain international organizations. Done at Geneva 
September 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 
1955. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Belgium, May 31, 1960. 



' For background, see Bxh-letin of Feb. 1, 1960, p. 
and Apr. 11, 1960, p. 577. 



July 25, I960 



Protocol 3 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the effective date of instruments of ratification or 
acceptance of or accession to that convention. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force August 
19, 1954. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Belgium, May 31, 1960. 

TelecommuniGations 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 19,58) annexed to 
the international telecommunication convention of De- 
cember 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), with appendixes and final 
protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958. Entered 
into force January 1, 1960. TIAS 4390. 
Notification of approval: Czechoslovakia, May 2.5, 1960. 



BILATERAL 

Chile 

Agreement providing for emergency relief assistance 
necessitated by recent disasters in Chile. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington June 29, 1960. Entered 
into force June 29, 1900. 

Japan 

Treaty of mutual cooperation and security, with agreed 
minute and exchanges of notes. Signed at Washington 
January 19, 1960. Entered into force June 23, 1960. 
Proclaimed by the President: June 27, 1960. 

Norway 

Agreement amending the agreement of May 25, 1949, as 
amended (TIAS 2000, 3118, and 3282), relating to the 
United States Educational Foundation in Norway. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Oslo June 21, 1960. 
Entered into force June 21, 1960. 

Pakistan 

Agreement to supplement the agricultural commodities 
agreement of November 28, 1958 (TIAS 4137), as sup- 
plemented (TIAS 4257, 4331, 4353, 4426, and 4469), and 
exchange of notes. Signed at Rawalpindi May 27, 1960. 
Entered into force May 27, 1960. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Volta Transferred to Abidjan Consular District 

Department mailing notice dated June 29 

Effective April 15, 1960, the Autonomous Republic of 
Upper Volta was transferred from the Dakar, Senegal, 
consular district to that of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 



Confirmations 



The Senate 
nominations : 



June 24 confirmed the following 



Arthur L. Richards to be Amba.ssador to Ethiopia. (For 
biographic details, see Department of State press release 
321 dated June 13.) 

A. Burks Summers to be Ambassador to Luxembourg. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 323 dated June 13. ) 

The Senate on July 2 confirmed the foUowing nomina- 
tions : 

Winthrop Oilman Brown to be Ambassador to Laos. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 347 dated June 23.) 

Andrew G. Lynch to be Ambassador to the SomaU Re- 
pubUc. ( For biographic details, see Department of State 
press release 364 dated June 28. ) 

Clare H. Timberlake to be Ambassador to the Republic 
of the Congo. (For biographic details, see Department of 
State press release 367 dated June 29.) 



Designations 

Belton O. Bryan as Executive Director, Bureau of 
Security and Consular Affairs, effective June 27. 



Resignations 

Gerald A. Drew as Ambassador to the Republic of HaiO. 
(For an exchange of letters between President Eisenhower 
and Ambassador Drew, see White House press release 
dated July 1.) 

Julian F. Harrington as Ambassador to the RepubUc 
of Panama. (For an exchange of letters between Presi- 
dent Eisenhower and Ambassador Harrington, see White 
House press release dated July 1.) 

Robert S. McCollum as Deputy Administrator of Se- 
curity and Consular Affairs, effective July 8. (For bio- 
graphic details, see Department of State press release 187 
dated April 12.) 



Joseph S. Farland to be Ambassador to Panama. (For 
biographic details, see Department of State press release 
319 dated June 13.) 



Checi( List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 4-10 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to July 4 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 346 of June 23, 
354 of June 24, and 378 of July 1. 
No. Date Subject 

381 7/5 Note to Cuba on seizure of U.S. oU 

refineries. 

382 7/5 National Advisory Committee on Inter- 

American Affairs. 

383 7/6 U.S.-Cuba shrimp conservation commis- 

384 7/7 Drought-relief aid to Jordan (rewrite). 

385 7/8 U.S.-Canada joint defense committee 

(rewrite). 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 25, 1960 ^^^ 

Africa. Volta Transferred to Abidjan Consular 
District ^ 

American Republics ir ,^ mtty, 

Inter-American Advisory Committee Holds littn 

Meeting 

U.S. Affirms Commitment To Oppose Communist 

Intervention in Americas 1^^ 

Canada. U.S. and Canada Meet in Quebec To Ke- 

view Joint Defense Problems i^J 

China, Republic of. President Eisenhower Visits 

the Far East ( Eisenhower, text of joint communi- 

que) 1^ 

Congo, Republic of the ,, i^ ,,. 

New African NaUons Recommended for Membership 

in United Nations (Wilcox) "^ 

Timberlake confirmed as Ambassador loi 

Congress, The . ^ ^ . 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy ■'■'*'' 

United States and Thailand Express Mutual Desire 
To Maintain and Strengthen Cooperation (Bhumi- 
bol Adulyadej, Eisenhower, text of joint communi- 
que) ^^^ 

President Reduces Cuban Sugar Quota for Balance 

of 1960 (text of proclamation) . . • • ■ ; ■ "" 
Shrimp Conservation Commission Meets at Habana . 147 
U.S. Affirms Commitment To Oppose Communist In- 

tervention in Americas (Eisenhower) .... idi' 
U.S. Protests Cuban Seizure of American Oil Re- 
fineries (text of note) 1^^ 

Department and Foreign Service , „. ^ , 
Confirmations (Brown, Farland, Lynch, Richards, 

Summers, Timberlake) 1^* 

Designations (Bryan) .... • • • • • • • }.^\ 

Resignations (Drew, Harrington, McCoUum) . . lo4 
Volta Transferred to Abidjan Consular District . . 154 

Economic Affairs 

Development Assistance Group (delegation) . . . lod 
President Reduces Cuban Sugar Quota for Balance 

of 1960 (text of proclamation) 140 

Shrimp Conservation Commission Meets at Habana . 14 1 
Educational and Cultural Affairs. Thai Paintings 

and Exhibit Mark Visit of King and Queen . . 145 
Ethiopia. Richards confirmed as Ambassador . . 154 
Ghana. U.S. Sends Congratulatory Message to 

First President of Ghana !■*( 

Haiti. Drew resigns as Ambassador 154 

International Organizations and Conferences. De- 
velopment Assistance Group (delegation) . . . 15^ 
Japan. President Postpones Trip to Japan at 

Japanese Government's Request (Hagerty) . . Idl 
Jordan. U.S. Sends Wheat to Jordan for Drought 

Relief ^^ 

Korea. President Eisenhower Visits the Far East 

(Eisenhower, text of joint communique) ... 123 
Laos. Brown confirmed as Ambassador .... 154 
Luxembourg. Summers confirmed as Ambassador . 154 
Malagasy Republic. New African Nations Recom- 
mended for Membership in United Nations 

(Lodge) 149 

Mali, Federation of. New African Nations Recom- 
mended for Membership in United Nations 
(Lodge) 149 



e X Vol. XLIII, No. 1100 

Military Affairs. U.S. and Canada Meet in Quebec 

To Review Joint Defense Problems 139 

Mutual Security. U.S. Sends Wheat to Jordan for 

Drought Relief 142 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. William A. 

Nierenberg Appointed NATO Science Adviser . . 153 

Panama 

Farland confirmed as Ambassador 154 

Harrington resigns as Ambassador 154 

Philippines. President Eisenhower Visits the Far 

East (Eisenhower, text of joint statement) . . 123 

Presidential Documents 

President Eisenhower Visits the Far East ... 123 

President Reduces Cuban Sugar Quota for Balance 

of 1960 140 

U.S. Affirms Commitment To Oppose Communist 

Intervention in Americas 139 

United States and Thailand Express Mutual Desire 
To Maintain and Strengthen Cooperation . . . 143 

U.S. Sends Congratulatory Message to First Presi- 
dent of Ghana 147 

Protection of Property. U.S. Protests Cuban 
Seizure of American Oil Refineries (text of 
note) 141 

Refugees. McCollum resigns as deputy administra- 
tor, Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs . . 154 

Science. William A. Nierenberg Appointed NATO 

Science Adviser 153 

Somali Republic 

Lynch confirmed as Ambassador 154 

New African Nations Recommended for Member- 
ship in United Nations (WUcox) 149 

Thailand 

Thai Paintings and Exhibit Mark Visit of King and 

Queen 145 

United States and Thailand Express Mutual De- 
sire To Maintain and Strengthen Cooperation 
(Bhumibol Adulyadej, Eisenhower, text of joint 

communique) 1*3 

Togo, Republic of. New African Nations Recom- 
mended for Membership in United Nations 

(Lodge) 149 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 153 

U.S.S.R. U.S. Affirms Commitment To Oppose Com- 
munist Intervention in Americas (Eisenhower) . 139 
United Nations. New African Nations Recom- 
mended for Membership in United Nations 

(Lodge, Wilcox) 149 

Name Index 

Bhumibol Adulyadej 143 

Brown, Winthrop Gilman 154 

Bryan, Belton O 1°4 

Drew, Gerald A „ l^* 

Eisenhower, President 123,139,140,143,147 

Farland, Joseph S 1^4 

Hagerty, James C ^t^ 

Harrington, Julian F ^^^ 

Lodge, Henry Cabot "a 

Lynch, Andrew G |^* 

McCollum, Robert S 1°^ 

Richards, Arthur L ;J°* 

Summers, A. Burks ^^* 

Timberlake, Clare H ^^ 

Wilcox, Francis O •^*>" 




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FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 
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1942, Volume I, General, 

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SECURITY COUNCIL CONSIDERS SITUATION IN 

REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO • Statements by Ambas- 
sador Henry Cabot Lodge and Text of Resolution 159 

PRESIDENT PLEDGES U.S. COOPERATION TO PRO- 
MOTE SOCIAL PROGRESS AND ECONOMIC 
GROWTH IN THE AMERICAS 166 

INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR ECONOMIC 

GROWTH • by Under Secretary Dillon 185 

U.S. PROTESTS DOWNING OF USAF PLANE BY 
SOVIETS OVER INTERNATIONAL WATERS • State- 

men t by James C. Hagerty and Texts of U.S. and Soviet Notes • 163 

DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY FROM LOCAL JURISDIC- 
TION: ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER 
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND APPLICATION IN 
UNITED STATES PRACTICE • Article by 

JTilliam Barnes •.. 173 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIII, No. 1101 • Publication 7038 
August 1, 1960 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
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Security Council Considers Situation 
in Republic of the Congo 



The Security Council convened on July 13 to 
consider a request for military assistance {S/4382) 
addressed to the Secretary-General hy the Presi- 
dent and the Pnme Minister of the Republic of 
the Congo. Following are statements made hy 
U.S. Representative Henry Cabot Lodge and the 
text of a resolution adopted by the Council. 

FIRST STATEMENT 

U.S./U.N. press release 3437 

On July 7 the Security Council met to extend 
the hand of friendship to the people and Govern- 
ment of the Republic of the Congo by endorsing 
its application for United Nations membership. 
On that occasion the United States called atten- 
tion to the pressing problems inherited by this 
great new central African nation and its need for 
sympatliy, encouragement, and concrete aid from 
the United Nations.^ 

No one could foresee at that time the rapidity 
with which general statements of support here 
in the Council would need to be translated into 
concrete action. This need tonight is self-evident 
and urgent. 

The unfortunate sequence of events in the Con- 
go which makes the speediest possible United Na- 
tions assistance imperative is well known to us 
all. In general we understand that certain ele- 
ments of those responsible for the maintenance of 
public order are turning against a democratically 
elected and legally constituted government. 
While we have been concerned primarily with the 
loss of life and destruction of valuable national 
assets, the departure of many of the foreign tech- 
nicians whose assistance to the new state was con- 



' Bulletin of July 25, 1960, p. 1.51. 
Aogusf J, I960 



sidered crucial by the Government must also be 
noted. The specter of famine and disease implicit 
in the breakdown of security and commimications 
is appalling. Wliile no aggi"ession has been com- 
mitted, certain aspects emerge from the confusion 
which do justify urgent United Nations action 
and which, we think, can be stated as follows: 

First, there is a popularly elected, duly consti- 
tuted Government of the Republic of the Congo. 
That Government has asked for a United Nations 
force on an urgent basis. 

Second, speed is essential. The longer the pres- 
ent state of near anarchy continues, the heavier 
the toll of lives, the greater the prospect of hun- 
ger and epidemic, and the greater the difficulties 
in future economic development. We confront a 
situation which is developing hourly — not daily, 
or weekly, but hourly. 

Third, it is not only futile but positively harm- 
ful to seek to apportion blame at this time for 
what has happened. Wliat is required is an in- 
stantaneous response to the urgent request of the 
Congo Government rather than ill-advised or ma- 
licious attempts to make political capital of the 
serious difficulties of the Congolese people. 

The United States, therefore, welcomes the in- 
itiative of the Secretary- General in requesting this 
meeting of the Security Coraicil. We believe that 
the recommendation which he has made for a 
United Nations force is reasonable and proper.^ 
For its part the United States is prepared to re- 
spond to the call before us. Indeed, we will re- 
spond to any reasonable United Nations request in 
the fields of transport and communications. We 
have also taken measures to insure that food sup- 
plies adequate to the needs of the capital, where 
we understand a food shortage is threatening, will 

2 For statements made by the Secretary-General during 
the debate, see U.N. doc. S/PV. 873. 



159 



be forthcoming. These food supplies will be of 
assistance to the United Nations in Leopoldville. 
Surely the beleaguered Government and unhappy 
people of the Congo have the right to such assist- 
ance, and we will not fail them. 

In the course of this statement, Mr. President, I 
have used the words "urgent" and "speed" several 
times. I mean them literally and precisely. 
United Nations assistance would be most useful 
this very evening. It will still be of great service 
if it arrives in the Congo before the weekend. 

Finally, Mr. President, let me pay tribute here 
to the efforts of the Government of the Congo to 
restore peace, security, and tranquility in the 
country. It has our full moral support in this 
effort. Let us hope that it receives material as- 
sistance very soon. Then the people and Govern- 
ment of the Congo can get on with the all-im- 
portant job of building a great, new, modem state 
in the vei-y heart of Africa. 

The Secretary-General has outlined a reasonable 
and effective course of action. The United States 
believes this Council should move ahead speedily 
to approve a resolution giving effect to the pro- 
posal of the Secretary- General. 

SECOND STATEMENT 

U.S./U.N. press release 3438 

I have asked to be recognized under my right 
to reply to the outrageous and untrue statements 
which have been made about the United States in 
the statement which was read by the representa- 
tive of the Soviet Union [Arkady A. Sobolev]. 

As I have said to the Soviet representatives here 
for many years, I do not start these altercations. 
But when they begin them, as they seem irresist- 
ibly tempted to do — whether because of fear or 
whether because of en\^ or for what reason I 
know not — I always undertake to make an ade- 
quate reply. 

Now, any man of good will knows that this is a 
time for reason and for constructive action. This is 
a moment which is putting the United Nations on 
trial. This is not a time for provocative and reck- 
less charges. And it is regrettable that the Soviet 
Government should have interjected itself into the 
situation with the truly incendiary statement 
which Mr. Sobolev has just read. 

It has made totally unfounded allegations. For 



example, that the United States Government has 
imdertaken measures "directed at undermining 
the sovereignty and liquidation of the independ- 
ence of the Republic of the Congo." Of course, 
everyone here knows that notlung could be further 
from the truth, and I am sure the men who wrote 
this statement know it too. 

The Soviet Union slanderously accused the 
United States Government, and those of several 
other states, of military inters-ention. It hasn't 
happened. It isn't going to happen. We were 
invited yesterday [July 13] by a Minister in the 
Government of the Republic of Congo to send 
troops, and we declined the invitation on the same 
day. Now those are the facts. 
'\Vliat is gained by ignoring those facts? 
The statement talks about the 15th United States 
Infantry and the 24th Infantry Di\asion. They 
are not going to the Congo. 

The statement talks about our sending troops to 
Lebanon. Yes, we sent troops to T^banon at the 
request of the Government of I>ebanon, and we 
withdrew the troops. Contrast that with the So- 
viet Union, which sent troops to Hungary— and 
the Soviet troops are still in Hungary, with their 
heel on the neck of the unhappy Hungarian peo- 
ple. It doesn't lie well in Mr. Sobolev's mouth to 
talk critically about troops being sent, when the 
Soviet Union never withdraws its troops and we 
withdraw ours upon request. 

Then he said — the statement said, because I 
don't hold Mr. Sobolev personally responsible for 
it; he was reading a Soviet press release — the 
statement said that the United States had been 
condemned for having sent troops to Lebanon. It 
is the exact opposite. The Soviet LTnion intro- 
duced a resolution into that General Assembly to 
condemn the United States, and then they with- 
drew it at the end because they saw they could not 
get the votes for it. And what resulted was the 
statement by the General Assembly validating 
what the United States had done. Now, let us 
get things straight. This is not Moscow, where 
only one person can talk. This is a free and open 
foi-um, where the truth can come out. 

Then the statement emits the gross untruth that 
the American Ambassador in Leopoldville [Clare 
IT. Timberlake] "is interfering in the domestic af- 
fairs of the Congo Republic." There is not one 
scintilla of evidence to that effect, and I deny it 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



categorically; and he did not submit one word of 
proof. 

So all in all the statement is mendacious; it is 
calimmious; it is a ponderous, long-winded bit of 
Communist nonsense. And that is the way it 
should be regarded. 

Now, the United States has long since become 
accustomed to slanderous allegations by the Soviet 
Union, and I think we can take them at their true 
value, and we are able to stand up for ourselves. 
But it is malicious for the Soviet Government to 
seek to besmirch the character of [U.N.] Under 
Secretary Kalph Bunche, who is respected 
throughout the world for his devotion to peace and 
to the goals of the United Nations and for the 
proposition that all men should be recognized on 
their merits, regardless of any condition of race, 
creed, or color. He is the man whom the Soviet 
Union has chosen to besmirch. 

Well, Mr. President, I shall devote no further 
time to this intervention by the Soviet Govern- 
ment, but I simply commend it as an exhibit to 
the members here, as an example of the Soviet 
attempt at world domination in accordance with 
Marxism and Leninism by making just as much 
trouble as possible and making every bad situation 
worse as rapidly as they can. 

THIRD STATEMENT 

U.S./tJ.N. press release 3439 

The United States voted for the Tunisian res- 
olution in spite of its doubts about the wisdom of 
the first operative paragraph, and we did so be- 
cause of the vital urgency which we attach to 
prompt United Nations action to meet the tragic 
and highly dangerous situation in the Congo. 

In voting for this resolution the United States 
expressly interprets the first paragraph calling 
upon the Government of Belgium to withdraw its 
troops as being contingent upon the successful 
carrying out by the United Nations of the second 
paragraph, that is, in providing the Government 
of the Republic of the Congo with the military as- 
sistance necessary until national security forces 
are able to fulfill their task. 

The situation we face in the Congo is unique. 
At the outset of its independence, as power was 
being passed from the Government of Belgium 



to the Government of the Republic of the Congo, 
public law and order collapsed. In these circum- 
stances the United Nations must not contribute to 
the perpetuation of public disorder by insisting 
upon the withdrawal of military units capable of 
assisting in the pi'otection of life and property 
without establisliment of alternate methods to ac- 
complish the task. 

The resolution can only be read as a whole in 
this sense, and it is with this understanding that 
the United States has supported it. 

The United States has confidence that the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium will cooperate wholeheart- 
edly with the United Nations along these lines, in 
accordance with the long tradition which it has of 
loyal membership in support of the Organization. 
May I say to the representative of Belgium [Wal- 
ter Loridan] that he has in fact just this evening 
made a statement expressing his Government's 
willingness to withdraw its troops upon introduc- 
tion of United Nations forces, a statement of Bel- 
gium's full cooperation with the United Nations 
for which the Belgian Government should be con- 
gratulated and wliich reflects credit on the Belgian 
representative here. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTIONS 

The Security Council, 

Considering the report of the Secretary-General on a 
request for United Nations action in relation to the Re- 
public of the Congo, 

Considering the request for military assistance ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General by the President and 
the Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (docu- 
ment S/4382), 

1. Calls upon the Government of Belgium to withdraw 
their troops from the territory of the Republic of the 
Congo ; 

2. Decides to authorize the Secretary-General to take 
the necessary steps, in consultation with the Government 
of the Republic of the Congo, to provide the Government 
with such military assistance, as may be necessary, until, 
through the efforts of the Congolese Government with 
the technical assistance of the United Nations, the na- 
tional security forces may be able, in the opinion of the 
Government, to meet fully their tasks ; 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the 
Security Council as appropriate. 



' U.N. doc. S/4387 ; adopted by the Council at its meet- 
ing of July 13 (July 14 a.m.) by a vote of 8 to 0, with 3 
abstentions (China, France, the United Kingdom). 



4i;gusr ?, I960 



161 



President Greets Newly Independent 
Republic of the Congo 

White House press release dated June 30 

The White House made fuhlic on June 30 the 
following message from President Eisenhower to 
Joseph Kasavnhu, Chief of State of the Republic 
of the Congo, on the occasion of the independence 
of that nation, June 30, 1960. 

June 30, 1960 

Dear Mr. President : On the occasion of the in- 
dependence of the Kepublic of the Congo I extend 
in my own ntmie and on behalf of the people of 
the United States most cordial greetings and 
felicitations to you and the Congolese people. 

The independence of the Republic of the Congo 
is a source of deep satisfaction to the United 
States, especially since this freedom was achieved 
in friendly cooperation with Belgium. The at- 
tainment of independence by 13.5 million Con- 
golese is one of the most significant events in 
Africa during this unprecedented year of 1960. 

On this historic occasion the Government and 
people of the United States look forward to close 
and friendly relations with the Government and 
people of the Kepublic of the Congo. 
Sincerely, 

D\viGHT D. Eisenhower 



U.S. Welcomes Independence 
of Somali Republic 

Department Announcement 

Press release 373 dated June 30 

The United States will welcome another new 
African state into the family of nations on July 
1, 1960, when the Somali Republic attains its inde- 
pendence. The President has sent a warm mes- 
sage of good will which will be delivered by the 
President's pei-sonal repi-esentative with the rank 
of special ambassador, Secretary of Commerce 
Frederick H. Mueller, in formal ceremonies at 
Mogadiscio on July 1. The message will be pub- 
lished at that time. 

The ceremonies have been designed to celebrate 
not only Somali independence but also the union. 



in the new Somali Republic, of Somaliland, the 
former British protectorate which became inde- 
pendent on June 26, 1960, with Somalia, the for- 
mer U.N. Ti-ust Territory- under Italian adminis- 
tration. Secretaiy Herter welcomed the inde- 
pendence of Somaliland in a message addressed to 
the Council of Ministers of that nation on June 
26, 1960.^ 

Tiio President has nominated Andrew G. 
Lynch, a career Foreign Service officer with 
broad experience in African afi'aii-s, to be the first 
Ambassador of the United States to the Somali 
Republic. The consulate general at Mogadiscio 
will be elevated to an embassy on July 1, 1960. 

Message From President Eisenhower 

White Houf-e press release dated July 1 

The White House mude public on July 1 the 
following message from. President Eisenhower to 
Aderi Abdulla Osman, President of the Somali 
Repvhlic, on the occasion of the independence of 
the Somali Republic, July 1, 1960. 

JULT 1, 1960 
Dear Mr. President: It is with the greatest of 
pleasure that I extend in my own name and on 
behalf of the people of the United States most 
cordial greetings and heartfelt congi-atulations 
upon the independence of the Somali Republic. 
"We share deeply in your joy in this occasion for 
not only does a new state join the family of nations 
but your country's accession to independence marks 
the successful conclusion of another United Na- 
tions trusteeship. This, understandably, is a 
source of great pride and satisfaction to all who 
have dedicated themselves to making the United 
Nations an effective instrument of world jieace 
and progress and I am confident that in the years 
to come your coimtry will strengthen the ranks of 
those devoted to this noble purpose. 

The Government and people of the United 
States welcome the independence of your country 
and look forward to a lasting friendship with your 
Government and people. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



For text, see Bulletin of July 18, 1960, p. 87 



Department of Sfate Bullefin 



U.S. Protests Downing of USAF Plane 
by Soviets Over International Waters 

STATEMENT BY JAMES C. HAGERTY > 

The ^Viiierican KB— 17 plane was over iiitema- 
tional waters and at no time flew o\er Soviet ter- 
ritory, Soviet territorial waters, or Soviet airspace. 
The shooting down of this plane, as the Soviet 
Government alleges, can only have been a deliber- 
ate and reckless attempt to create an international 
incident. 

For 11 days the plane has been reported as miss- 
ing. Indeed, it has also been repoi-ted that at 
least one Soviet ship was assisting, in good faith, 
in the search for the missing aircraft. 

Any attempt to connect the flight of this air- 
craft with the U-2 flight of May ^ is completely 
without fomidation, and the Soviet authorities, in- 
cluding Mr. Khrushchev, know this. 

The Government of the United States is answer- 
ing the Soviet note of yesterday [July 11]. The 
United States note will be made public at the State 
Department today [July 12] . 

TEXT OF U.S. NOTE » 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affaire of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and with reference to the Ministry's note 
No. 67/OSA of July 11 has the honor to convey, 
upon instruction of the Government of the United 
States of ^Vmerica, the following: 

The IMinisti-y's note cannot, in view of the na- 
ture of the circumstances concerned, represent 
other tlian willful mismterpretation and misstate- 
ment of fact. 

The United States Air Force airplane in ques- 
tion, with a crew of six, was proceeding on an 
entirely legitimate mission over international wa- 



"Made at Newport, R.I., on July 12 (White House 
(Newport) press release). Mr. Hagerty is Press Secre- 
tary to the President. 

' For background, see Btilletin of May 23, 1960, p. 816, 
and May .30. 1900, p. Sol. 

' Delivered to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign .Affairs by 
the U.S. Embassy at Moscow on July l.S (press release 388 
dated July 12). 



ters and at no time penetrated Soviet territory or 
even areas which have been claimed at one time 
or another as territorial waters or air space of the 
Soviet Union. At no time was the airplane closer 
to Soviet land territory than about 30 miles (ap- 
proximately 48 kilometers). 

It is therefore evident that pursuant to mstruc- 
tions of the Soviet Government airplanes of the 
Soviet Air Force wantonly attacked the American 
airplane over international waters with the ad- 
mitted loss of that aircraft and of the life of at 
least one of the members of its crew. Two other 
members of the crew have, according to the Soviet 
note, been taken into custody without any legal 
basis and are to be subjected to trial imder what 
is called "full severity of Soviet law." The three 
other members of the crew remain unaccounted 
for. 

The Ministry's note attempts to establish some 
kind of link between this flight of an American 
Air Force airplane over international waters with 
the incident which occurred over Soviet temtory 
on May 1. These flights were, as must be known 
to the Soviet Government, entirely different in 
character. The Air Force flight on July 1 was one 
of a continuous series of electromagnetic research 
flights well known to the Soviet Government to 
have taken place over a period of more than ten 
years. Instructions to the crews of these airplanes 
rigidly require that the aircraft remain well out- 
side the air space of Soviet territory. 

The Government of the United States of 
America rejects the completely unfounded allega- 
tions contained in the Ministry's note under refer- 
ence. It soleimily and vigorously protests the 
unwarranted shooting down of an American air- 
plane over international watere and the cynical 
failure of the Soviet Government to make its 
action known for a period of days during which a 
search for the missing men was known to be in 
course, in which the Soviet Government was 
voluntarily participating in what was apparently 
good faith. It demands release to its custody of 
the two United States Air Force officers admitted 
to be in Soviet custody. It further demands that 
a representative of the United States Embassy in 
Moscow be permitted to see these men without de- 
lay. Additionally, it demands that the body of 
Captain [Willard G.] Palm be returned to the 
custody of United States officials immediately. 



Augusf 7, 7960 



163 



The Government, of the United States is pre- 
pared to undertake in cooperation with the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Kepublics and such other authority as might be 
acceptable to both sides, a thorough search for the 
downed airplane and the missing members of its 
crew and examination of such remains of the air- 
craft as may be located. 

The Government of the United States of 
America reserves its right to demand full com- 
pensation from the Government of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics for its unjustified ac- 
tion in this matter. It should be clear to the Soviet 
Government that a repetition of acts of this nature 
cannot fail to have the most serious consequences, 
responsibility for which would rest upon the So- 
viet Government alone. 



TEXT OF SOVIET NOTE < 

Unofficial translation 
No. 67/OSA 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics addresses the United States Government with this 
note in connection with the new rude violation of the air- 
space of the Soviet Union by an aircraft of the Armed 
Forces of the United States. 

On July 1, 1960, an unknown military aircraft moving 
toward the border of the Soviet Union was detected in 
the Barents Sea near the Kola Peninsula by the air warn- 
ing service of Soviet antiaircraft defense troops. A 
fighter aircraft was sent up to establish the nationality 
of this aircraft and to prevent it from an intrusion into 
the territory of the U.S.S.R. 

The pilot of the Soviet fighter aircraft established that 
the unknown aircraft was a bomber with identification 
marks of the U.S. Air Force. The American aircraft 
violated the state borders of the U.S.S.R. 22 kilometers 
north of Cape Svyatoy Nos and was moving in the direc- 
tion of the city of Arkhangelsk. 

Despite signals given by the Soviet fighter to follow it 
and proceed to landing, the aircraft-violator continued to 
penetrate deeper into the borders of the airspace of the 
Soviet Union. In accordance with a standing order of the 
Armed Forces of the Soviet Union concerning the defense 
of Soviet borders, the aircraft-violator was brought down 
at 18 hours 3 minutes Moscow time over Soviet territorial 
waters east of Cape Svyatoy Nos. 

After some time two iiersons from the crew of the 
downed American aircraft were picked up by a Soviet 
ship in territorial waters of the U.S.S.R. They proved to 
be : the navigator of the aircraft, First Lieutenant of the 
U.S. Air Force John Richard McKone, bom in 1932 in the 



' Delivered to Edward L. Freers, U.S. ChargS d'AfCaires, 
at Moscow on July 11 by Andrei A. Gromyko, Soviet Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs. 

164 



state of Missouri, and the second pilot. First Lieutenant 
of the U.S. Air Force Freeman Bruce Olmstead, bom in 
193.5 in the State of New Xork. 

As McKone and Olmstead stated on interrogation, the 
aircraft on which they flew, a six-motor reconnaissance 
bomber, type "RB-iT", belonged to an aviation subunit 
of American military-strategic reconnaissance included 
in the ij.")th Wing, and was executing special assignments 
of a military intelligence character. The aircraft was 
armed with two 20-millimeter cannons, with a supply of 
ammunition for them, and had a compartment in which 
special rec-onnaissance photo and radioelectronic ai>- 
paratus was located. 

According to Olmstead and McKone, four other persona 
were included in the crew of the aircraft in addition to 
themselves : the commander of the aircraft, Captain 
Palm, and three officers — specialists on photo and radio- 
electronic apparatus — Captain [Eugene E.] Posa and 
First Lieutenants [Capt. Oscar L.] Goforth and [Dean 
B.l Phillips. The body of the first pilot of the downed 
aircraft. Captain Palm, was found by a Soviet vessel in a 
rubber boat and was taken on board. A search for other 
members of the crew of the aircraft produced no results. 
According to the evidence of Olmstead and McKone, the 
aircraft "RB^7" on which they were flying took off July 
1, 19G0, at 1000 hours Greenwich time from an American 
military base located in Brize Norton (England) on a 
course along the northern boiuidaries of Norway and the 
Soviet Union with orders to return upon completion of 
its assignment to the same base in England, where the 
subunit of the U.S. Air Force to which this aircraft be- 
longed is located. Before takeoff the crew of the aircraft 
was warned by the commander of their subunit at the 
Brize Norton base. Major DeBelle, that the flight must be 
kept in strict secrecy and therefore the crew was for- 
bidden to maintain regular radio contact with the base. 
Just two months ago aggressive activities of the United 
States which expressed themselves in the premeditated 
intrusion of an American military aircraft into the 
U.S.S.R. with espionage purposes, and in the declaration 
of such provocative acts as the national policy of the 
United States, led to the breakup by the Government of 
the United States of the summit conference and were 
unanimously condemned by the public opinion of the 
entire world. The new violation of the borders of the 
Soviet Union by an American military aircraft shows 
that the Government of the United States is continiUng 
to proceed on the same path dangerous for the cause of 
peace. Now everyone sees what is the real value of the 
solemn assurances of the Government of the United States 
and of President Eisenhower personally concerning the 
order supposedly given by the President to stop espionage 
flights by American aviation over the territory of the 
U.S.S.R. 

The question arises, what purposes the Government of 
the United States is pursuing, continuing the policy of 
aggressive intrusions into the airspace of the Soviet 
Union. There can only be one answer. The actions of 
the Government of the United States represent premedi- 
tated violation of generally accepted norms of inter- 
national law, a policy of conscious provocations directed 



Department of State Bulletin 



toward inflaming the situation and increasing the threat 
of war. 

In this, as previously, the United States is continuing 
the use for its aggressive actions toward the Soviet Union 
of military bases established by it on territories of other 
countries which are allies of the United States in military 
blocs. 

If the fate of American pilots whose lives, evidently, 
are little valued by the Government of the United States 
and are consciously sacrificed by it in organizing espionage 
flights over the U.S.S.R., may be regarded as an internal 
affair of the United States, then this can by no means be 
said of the enormous threat to the general peace which 
arises from the provocatory actions of the Government 
of the United States. This is a question to which neither 
the Soviet Union nor any other state showing genuine 
concern for the preservation of peace can be indifferent. 

Considering that a violation of the border was in the 
present case cut off in its initial stage, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment considered it possible to limit itself to destruc- 
tion of the violating plane and calling to accoimt of the 
surviving members of its crew, who will be judged ac- 
cording to the full severity of Soviet law. 

At the same time the Soviet Government in all serious- 
ness warns the Government of the United States of those 
dangerous consequences to which continuation of provoca- 
tive actions by American aircraft will lead and the re- 
sponsibility for which will rest on the Government of the 
United States. 

The Government of the United States cannot but know 
to what consequences its policy of conscious provocations 
against the Soviet Union can lead. It can for one reason 
or another conceal this from its people. However, the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics con- 
siders it its duty to warn the Government of the United 
States that it has no right to play with the fate of the 
world. The American people should know about this 
warning as well as of the fact that tie Soviet Union 
has done and is doing everything possible not to bring 
upon the peoples the disasters of a new war and that 
the guilt for the grave trials to which the world is today 
subjected wholly rests on the Government of the United 
States. 

The Soviet Government with deep regret has to state 
that the governments of some states who are allies of the 
United States in military blocs have not yet drawn the 
necessary conclusions from known facts connected with 
the aggressive actions of the U.S. Air Force. Permitting 
the use of American military bases situated on their ter- 



ritory, they continue to pursue a policy of participation 
in the aforementioned aggressive actions, and through 
this bring great danger upon the peoples of their countries. 
In connection with the new violation of the Soviet 
border by an American military aircraft which took 
place July 1, the Government of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics makes a decisive protest to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. 
Moscow, July 11, 1960. 



U.S. Postpones Aviation Talks 
Witli Soviet Union 

Press release 391 dated July 14 

Following is the text of an aide memoire handed 
to the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs on July 
H by the U.S. Embassy at Moscow. 

Pursuant to the Scientific, Technical, Educa- 
tional and Cultural Agrewnent between the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Kepublics and the United 
States of America dated November 21, 1959,^ ar- 
rangements had been made for the initiation of 
negotiations with regard to an Air Transport 
Agreement at Washington on July 18. The 
United States Government maintains its serious 
interest in the successful conclusion of negotia- 
tions on this subject. It therefore believes that 
such negotiations should take place in an 
atmosphere conducive to the acliievement of 
agreement. 

Having in mind, however, recent Soviet actions 
and utterances which could not fail to affect ad- 
versely the atmosphere surrounding such negotia- 
tions at this time, the United States Government 
believes that it would be appropriate now to post- 
pone the date of initiation of negotiations looking 
toward an Air Transport Agreement mitil a more 
suitable time. 



' For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 28, 1959, p. 951. 



Awgusf 7, 1960 



1^5 



President Pledges U.S. Cooperation To Promote Social Progress 
and Economic Growth in the Americas 



On July 11 President Eisenhower held a news 
conference at the U.S. Naval Base, Newfort, R.I., 
at which he pledged U.S. cooperation to promote 
social progress and econotnic growth in the 
Americas. Se<yretary Herter xuas also present. 
Follotoing are texts of a statement read hy the 
President and the exchange with correspondents 
during the question-and-answer period which 
followed. 



STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 



White House (Newport, E. 



press release dated July 11 
I 



During my trip to South America in February ^ 
and in numerous talks in Washington, I have ob- 
tained tlie views of leading Latin American states- 
men on the problems which their countries and the 
area in general now face. They have told me of 
the aspirations and needs of their peoples for 
homes and land and a better life, and of their 
efforts to meet those needs. 

I know that other leaders in the Americas are 
thinking and working along similar lines. I have 
given a good deal of thought to how the United 
States might do more in helping these efforts. 

The National Advisory Committee on Inter- 
American Affairs, which I appointed last year to 
advise the Secretaiy of State and myself on mat- 
ters of hemispheric concern, has given us the bene- 
fit of its knowledge and experience.^ 



1 President Eisenhower made a 2-week trip to South 
America, Feb. 22-Mar. 7, where he visited Brazil, Argen- 
tina, Chile, and Uruguay. For text of his report to the 
Nation, together with his addresses and joint declarations 
and statements, see Bulletin of Mar. 28, 1960, p. 471. 

2 For background, see ihid., July 25, 1960, p. 148. 



II 

Within the Organization of American States 
joint action is under way. The Council of that 
Organization, on the initiative of Venezuela, voted 
3 days ago [July 8] to call a meeting of their 
Foreign Ministers to consider matters of extreme 
gravity in the Caribbean area — matters that in- 
volve a challenge to the ideals and purposes of the 
American community. The United States sup- 
ported this move. 

In September the economic representatives of 
the 21 American Kepublics will convene in Bogota, 
Colombia, to consider an equally important com- 
ponent of our hemispheric future — the problem of 
social reform and economic growth. This prob- 
lem is embraced within a joint hemispheric con- 
cept known as Operation Pan America — a concept 
initially suggested by President Kubitschek of 
Brazil.^ This will be further developed at Bogota. 

These two meetings will give the United States 
opportunities for frank consultations with our sis- 
ter Republics on measures to advance the political, 
economic, and social welfare of the peoples of the 
Americas. 

Ill 

I believe it would be well for me to state the 
basic ideas which will guide the United States' 
participation in these forthcoming meetings. 

First, widespread social progress and economic 
growth benefiting all the i^eople and achieved with- 
in a framework of free institutions are the impera- 
tives of our time. 

Second, our nation's history and traditions place 
us in accord with those who seek to fulfill the 



3 For background, s£ 
Oct. 13, 1958, p. 574. 



md., June 30. lO.'iS, p. 1000, and 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



promise of the future through methods consistent 
with the dignity of free men. Our interests and 
sympathies are with them. 

Third, a new affiniiation of purpose is called 
for in our cooperation with friendly developing 
countries in their efl'orts to progress. 

In the Americas as elsewhere change is the law 
of life, and the interests of the people will be 
better served if that change is etfected construc- 
tively and peacefully, not violently. Clearly, the 
aspirations and needs of the peoples of the Ameri- 
cas for free institutions and a better way of life 
must be met. Our desire is to help the American 
nations to meet their own responsibilities — to help 
them develop their institutional and human re- 
sources, to strengthen the framework of freedom, 
to protect individual dignity, and to gain a better 
life for those who are underprivileged, under- 
employed, and undereducated. 

Latin America is passing through a social and 
political transformation. Dictatoi-ships are fall- 
ing by the wayside. 

Moderate groups, seeking orderly reform, are 
contesting with dictators of both right and left 
who favor violence and authoritarianism. Many 
of the extremists frequently endeavor to introduce 
dogmas which are inimical to the traditions of 
the Western Hemisphere. Indeed, the Foreign 
Ministers of the American Republics met last 
August in Santiago, Chile, to consider the prob- 
lems caused by the blatant intervention of certain 
extremists in their neighljors" affaii-s.'' 

The interests of the United States no less than 
those of all the Americas are directly involved 
in this struggle, a threat to the security of the 
hemisphere. It is unperative that institutions be 
developed and strengthened sufficiently to permit 
the peoples' needs to be met through orderly pro- 
cesses of change. 

A renewed hemispheric determination to pre- 
serve principles of liberty and the dignity of man 
is needed. There is also an urgent need for a 
broader and more vigorous cooperative attack by 
all American governments and peoples if adequate 
economic progress with freedom is to be achieved. 

IV 

Among the specific needs which it seems to me 
must be met through cooperative action are : 
First, we need to consider with the other Ameri- 



' m<l.. Sept. 7. 19.59, p. 342. 
Aogusf J, 7960 



can Republics practicable ways in which develop- 
ing countries can make faster progress in meeting 
their own needs and ways in which their friends 
can most effectively cooperate with them. A 
better knowledge and mobilization of resources, 
their more effective use, and the improvement of 
legal and institutional means for promoting eco- 
nomic growth are among the subjects which 
require special consideration. 

I have in mind the opening of new areas of 
arable land for settlement and productive use. I 
have in mind better land utilization, within a sys- 
tem which provides opportiuiities for free, self- 
reliant men to own land, without violating the 
rights of others. I have in mind housing with 
emphasis, where appropriate, on individual own- 
ership of small homes. And I have in mind other 
essential minimums for decent living in both urban 
and rural enviromnents. 

Second, in our common efi'orts toward these 
goals more attention needs to be given, in a man- 
ner which respects the dignity and rights of all, to 
improving the opportunities of the bulk of the 
population to share in and contribute to an ex- 
panding national product. Soundly based eco- 
nomic and social progress in any of our countries 
is of benefit to all. Each nation must of course 
resolve its own social problems in its own way and 
without the imposition of alien dogmas. 

Third, within this framework we need to con- 
sider whether there are better ways to accelerate 
the trend which is already evident toward gi-eater 
respect for hmnan rights and democratic govern- 
ment based on the will of the people as expressed 
in free and periodic elections. The United States 
with its tradition of democracy is opposed to 
tyranny in any form — whether of the left or of 
the right. 



Each period in history brings its call for 
supreme human effort. At times in the past it 
took the form of war. Today it takes the form 
of social evolution or revolution. The United 
States will not, cannot, stand aloof. We must 
help find constructive means for the imder- 
privileged masses of mankind to work their way 
toward a better life. Indeed, so far as this 
hemisphere is concerned, every American nation 
must cooperate in this mighty endeavor. Even 
the poorest nation can contribute its spiritual and 



167 



intellectual strength. The important considera- 
tion is that every member of the American family 
of nations should feel responsible for promoting 
the welfare of all. 

I have requested the Secretary of State to take 
the lead in conferring with our Latin American 
friends on these principles and purposas. Assum- 
ing their agreement, he will prepare for my ap- 
proval as promptly as possible specific recom- 
mendations along these lines. 

I intend to submit a message on this subject to 
the Congress promptly. I shall seek authority for 
such additional public funds as we may deem ap- 
propriate to assist free men and neighbors in Latin 
America in cooperative etforts to develop their 
nations and achieve better lives. 



QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PERIOD 

The President : Now, as far as the message itself 
is concerned, I am ready to entertain two or three 
questions. 

Q. Robert Pierpoint, CBS News: Mr. Presi- 
dent, you mentioned here, I believe, that every 
American nation must cooperate in this new plan 
or program. Would that include Cuba, the pres- 
ent Cuban Governments? 

The President : It would be only tliose nations 
who have shown a willingness and a readiness to 
cooperate with the others in this great effort — spe- 
cifically witJi ourselves, because we are the ones 
making the statement. 

Q. Felix Belair, New York Times: Mr. Presi- 
dent, is it possible at this time to give any kind 
of estimate as to the order of magnitude of assist- 
ance contemplated, and would the proposed pro- 
gram operate as did the European recovery 
program with the so-called shopping list? 

The President : No. You are talking about the 
so-called Marshall plan? 

Q. {Mr. Belair) Yes, sir. 

The President: Well, the Marshall plan was 
to repair and rehabilitate a destroyed industrial 
plant already existing. This is an entirely dif- 
ferent problem, and I think it would be imfair 
to compare the effort we are now talking about, 
raising the social standards of the people — the so- 
cial and economic standards of the people — with 
the effort of the Marshall plan. 

168 



Now, when it comes to t«rms of magnitude of 
the sums that would be effected, let us remember 
this, that I am talking about two meetings still 
in the future which we are calling with our own 
friends and in wliich we are examining our own 
efforts, and it would be impossible to make any 
kind of even rough guess. 

But I do want to say this, which I have said 
so often: The only real investment that is going 
to flow into countries that will be useful to them 
in the long term is private investment. It is many 
times the amount that can be put in from the 
public coffers. And normally the public loans 
are made so as to encourage and make better op- 
portunities for the private investments that follow. 

Q. {Mr. Belair) Does it follow from what you 
just said, Mr. President, that no larger expendi- 
ture would be made than is twio being made? 

The President: No. I would think this — I 
just say this — that in my opinion some additional 
sums woidd be probably necessary. But there are 
many ways in which this could be done. For ex- 
ample, all nations could agi'ee to increase the cap- 
ital and the lending capacity of tlie American 
Bank [Inter- American Development Bank]. In 
other words I would not think of it just as a 
great — anything as remotely resembling the Mar- 
shall plan. 

Q. Marvin Arrowsmith, Associated Press: Mr. 
President, I wonder if you would be willing to tell 
us in what context the current Cuhan crisis was 
considered in your and the Secretary's discussion 
of this program? We have been told that you 
were analyzing that situation too. Is there any- 
thing further you can say this morning? 

The President : Well, Marvin, this has been on 
our minds and thinking and even almost written 
preparation for some months — ever since I came 
back from South America, and with the — my as- 
sociates and the Presidents of those countries that 
I met or visited, this Cuban problem was discussed. 
Very naturally, every day that this thing has been 
under preparation there has been discussion of the 
Cuban problem. But I don't for the moment see 
any benefit in going further in giving our attitude 
than was expressed in my statement, I think it was 
the day before yesterday, in answer to the — 
Khrushchev's rather crude threat." And I think 
that statement speaks for itself. 



' lUd., July 25, 1960, p. 139. 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe BviWefin 



Q. {Mr. Arroics7nith) I wonder., you prohahly 
have seen that the President of Cuba [Osvaldo 
Dorticos] last night strongly implied that Cuba 
might demand that we give up the Guantanamo 
Naval Base. Did yoxu have any discussion on that? 
Do you have any reaction to that? 

The President : Well, I will wait till I hear the 
demand on that one. 

Q. Charles Roberts., Newsweek: Mr. President., 
sir, do you have the feeling, or do you have assur- 
ances from, the other American Republics, that 
they favor going ahead on this regional hemi- 
spheric basis rather than appealing to the aid — 
or accepting aid from powers outside of this 
hemisphere? 

The PREsroENT : Well, so far as all the countries 
I have spoken to personally, this particular ques- 
tion has not been placed in specific terms. But the 
whole attitude and atmosphere of our conversation 
was to make a more effective and stronger organi- 
zation among all the states to work m a coopera- 
tive — I mean all the American states — to work in 
a cooperative basis rather than to go each individ- 
ually seeking outside help somewhere. Now, if 
there's any specific difference outside of what we 
have seen in Cuba, why I think you should ask the 
question of the State Department, because I am 
not aware of it. 

Q. {Mr. Roberts) If I might rephrase that — 

The President : Yes. 

Q. {Mr. Roberts) Do you feel the other powers 
are opposed to any aid coming from outside this 
hemisphere to any country in the Western Hemi- 
sphere — su/)h as the aid that Russia has offered to 
Cuba? 

The President : Well, I would — I don't want to 
speculate on what their general attitude is. I 
know the very cooperative attitude they have 
shown to me in conversations with me, and I think 
it's a question I would rather have you put to the 
State Department, and put it in more specific 
fashion, and let them give a specific answer. 

Q. Stewart Hensley, United Press Interna- 
tional: Mr. President, you of course talked at 
some length with Mr. Kubitschek [President 
Juscelino Euhlfschek of Brasil], Mr. AlessandH 
[President Jorge Alessandri of Chile], Mr. Fron- 



dizi [President Arturo Frondizi of Argentina], 
about this plan. From what you know of their 
aspirations, anid what you have in jnind in the 
nature of the size of the American contribution, 
do you believe that your plan is going to satisfy 
all their hopes In that respect? 

The President : Well, what I would say is this : 
If we can ever get a true coordination and meeting 
of minds on the problem itself and its scope and 
how it should be arranged in priorities, then I 
think the United States would feel it should do 
its own proper share. 

Now I do not believe that any nation can be 
saved merely by outside help. The first need is the 
heart and the brains and the wills and the deter- 
mination and the morale in the nation itself, and 
to do those things which it can itself do. 

"Wlien it comes, though, to the need of foreign 
exchange and so on, and assistance in technical 
and scientific fields which can be given from a 
country such as ours, I think that our nation will 
never quail from doing what it needs to do. But 
I do not believe that just great sums of money is 
the answer. 

Q. Daniel Earaslk, NBC News: Mr. President, 
would a question on your Saturday statement be 
in order? 

The President: Well, I put it on this — I 
wanted to put the questions directly on this, and 
therefore I don't believe this is the place for that— 

Q. Mr. President — 

The President: — because I think you'll start 
a precedent for me. 

Q. Frederic W. Collins, Providence Journal- 
Bulletin: In your soundings do you have a feel- 
ing that the other Latin American Republics would 
go ahead with a general cooperative plan of this 
nature if it excluded Cuba? 

The President: Well, I think that no nation 
of course can come in unless it wants to cooperate, 
and I would see no reason why the other— so that 
the remaining 20 of us could not go ahead — and 
as a matter of fact, even if there were two or three 
excluded for any reasons of their own choosing, I 
think this would still be a practicable thing. 

Q. Laurence H. Burd, Chicago Tribune: Does 
this require any action by Congress, apart from t?ie 
funds, for this plan? 



Augosf I, I960 



169 



The President: I can't tell for sure yet, Larry, 
for a very simple reason, that tliere may be some- 
thing in the authorization. For example, suppose 
they want to authorize a little bit diflerent kind 
of loan in the American Bank, then each country's 
Congress would have to approve. 

Q. {Mr. Burd) Are you hoping to get it 
through in the next session of Congress? 

The President: I don't know. And the tim- 
ing is just something that I cannot predict. 

Q. {Mr. Burd) Otherwise it might he done 
after you are gone — after you have left office? 

The President : Well, I would think that this 
plan would appeal to any thinking American and 
so I would — if I have — now I would like to get it 
done better, of course — quicker, but always as I 
think it's a soldier's attitude, if you know what 
you want to do, get it done in a hurry. But in 
this, you take some time to get exactly the agree- 
ments that you want. 

Q. {Mr. Burd) Have you had any discussions 
with the Democrats on this? 

The President: Not on this one. Well, I 
think, gentlemen, that will cover the subject? 
Q. Thank you very much, Mr. President. 



U.S. Reaffirms Principles 
of Monroe Doctrine 

Department Statement 

Press release 392 dated July 14 

In his remarks concerning the Monroe Doctrine 
at his press conference on July 12, Mr. Khru- 
shchev again displayed his extraordinary ability 
to ignore facts. 

In the first place, the principles of the Monroe 
Doctrine are as valid today as they were in 1823 
when the Doctrine was proclaimed. Furthermore, 
the Monroe Doctrine's purpose of preventing any 
extension to this hemisphere of a despotic political 
system contrary to the independent status of the 
American states is supported by the biter-Ameri- 
can security system through the Organization of 
American States. Specifically the Organization 
of American States Charter and the Rio Treaty 
provide the means for common action to protect 

170 



the hemisphere against the interventionist and ag- 
gressive designs of international communism. 
Likewise, Mr. IClirushchev failed to mention that 
the Rio Treaty is the first of the regional treaties 
for which provision is made under article 51 of 
the United Nations Charter. 

Mr. Khrushchev might appropriately reflect on 
the fact that one of the considerations for estab- 
lishing the Rio Treaty was that : 

. . . the American regional community affirms as a 
manifest truth that juridical organization is a necessary 
prerequisite of security and peace, and that peace is 
founded on justice and moral order and, consequently, 
on the international recognition and protection of human 
rights and freedoms, on the indisisensable well-being of 
the people, and on the effectiveness of democracy for the 
international realization of justice and security. . . . 

One of the principal purposes of the Rio Treaty 
was to provide a method for dealing with threats 
of imperialistic powers seeking to establish their 
domination in the Western Hemisphere. 

A further remarkable development was revealed 
in Mr. Khrushchev's meeting with the press. 
Speaking as tlie Head of the Soviet Government, 
he arrogated to himself tlie power to determine 
what international agreements should or should 
not be binding — even though the Soviet Union is 
not a party thereto. In this particular instance 
it was not only the Rio Treaty but also the treaty 
between the United States and Cuba covering 
Guantanamo wliich he has sought to abrogate. 
While disregard for treaties to which it is a party 
may be viewed by the U.S.S.R. as a convenient 
approach to international relations, such an effort 
can only be regarded by law-abiding states as 
another example of Soviet intervention in the 
affairs of other countries. 

Mr. Khrushchev's latest references to U.S.- 
Cuban relations are of a piece with his threat of 
July 9.^ As a pretext for his threat, he conjured 
up the straw man of a nonexistent menace of U.S. 
aggression against Cuba. 

The threat of the use of force, made so blatantly 
by tlie Soviet Chairman in relation to the affaire 
of nations of the Western Hemisphere, is con- 
trary to the basic principle of the LTnited Nations 
Charter which rejects the use of force in the set- 
tlement of international disputes. This naked 
menace to world peace, brandished so callously by 



For background, see Bulletin of .July 2.3, 1960, p. 139. 
Department of Sfafe BvWet'in 



the Soviet leader, reveals the hypocrisy of liis 
protestations in behalf of peace. 

Moreover, these statements of Mr. Khrushchev 
appear to be designed to establish a "Bolshevik 
doctrine" pro\'iding for the use of Soviet military 
power in support of Communist movements any- 
where in the world. Air. Khrushchev speaks ap- 
provingly of the historically positive role of the 
Monroe Doctrine during the 19th century, when 
it was applied against the Eurojaean imperialisms 
of that day, but declares that "everything has 
changed abruptly" now that it stands in the way 
of the new imperialism : international coimnunism. 

The pi'inciples which the United States Gov- 
ernment enunciated in the face of the attempts 
of the old imperialism to intei-vene in the affairs 
of this hemisphere are as valid today for the at- 
tempts of the new imperialism. It consequently 
reaffirms with vigor the principles expressed by 
President Monroe : 

We owe it ... to candor ... to declare that we 
should consider any attempt on their [European powers] 
part to extend their system to any portion of this hemi- 
sphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. 

Today, nearly a century and a half later, the 
United States is gratified that these principles are 
not professed by itself alone but represent through 
solemn agreements the views of the American 
community as a whole. 



U.S. Protests New Cuban Law 
Directed at American Property 

Press release 397 dated July 16 

The U.S. Ambassadar to Cuba, Philip W. Bon- 
sai, an July 16 delivered to the Cuban Ministry of 
Foreign Relations the following note ■protesting 
the '■'■ Nationalization Law" of Cuba. 

I have the honor to refer to the law issued by 
the Council of Ministers of the Government of 
Cuba on July 6, 1960, which is entitled the "Na- 
tionalization Law" and which applies exclusively 
to nationals of the United States who own prop- 
erty in Cuba. I have been instructed by my Gov- 
ernment to emphasize to Your Excellency that 



the Government of the United States considers 
this law to be manifestly in violation of those 
pruaciples of international law which have long 
been accepted by the free countries of the West. 
It is in its essence discriminatory, arbitrary and 
confiscatory. 

The Nationalization Law is discriminatory in 
that it is specifically limited in its application to 
the seizure of property owned by nationals of 
the United States. 

It is arbitrary because it was admittedly en- 
acted in retaliation for recent actions taken by the 
Congress and President of the United States to 
assure the needs of the sugar consuming public 
of the United States.^ These actions were re- 
quired because of the publicly stated intention of 
the Government of Cuba to reduce its dependence 
on sugar concomitantly with its eii'orts to enlarge 
sales of sugar in newer markets and to alter radi- 
cally its traditional pattern of trade with the 
United States. Moreover the hostile attitude 
toward the United States so often expressed by 
the present Government of Cuba has made 
abundantly clear the economic imprudence of re- 
lying on Cuba for a very high proportion of the 
United States need for this important commodity. 

The Nationalization Law is both arbitrary and 
confiscatory in that its provisions for compensa- 
tion for property seized fail to meet the most mini- 
mum criteria necessary to assure the payment of 
prompt, adequate and effective compensation and 
in its specific prohibition of any form of judicial 
or administrative appeal from the resolutions of 
the expropriatuig authorities. 

I have been instructed by my Government to 
convey to Your Excellency a most solemn and 
serious protest against this hostile measure. I 
am further instructed to inform Your Excellency 
that should this law be employed by the Govern- 
ment of Cuba to seize properties of American 
nationals, it will be viewed by the Government 
of the LTnited States as further evidence and con- 
firmation of a pattern of economic and political 
aggression against the United States under the 
guise and pretext of accelerating the social and 
economic progress of the Cuban people. 

' BrLLETiN- of July 25, 1960, p. 140. 



Augosf I, I960 



U.S. and Canada Conclude Review 
of Joint Defense Problems 

Corwmunique 

Press release 398 dated July 16 

The third meeting of the Canada-United States 
Ministerial Committee on Joint Defense was held 
at Montebello, Quebec, on July 12 and 13, 1960.^ 

The United States was represented at the meet- 
ing by the Honorable Robert W. Anderson, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, the Honorable Thomas S. 
Gates, Jr., Secretary of Defense, and the Hon- 
orable Livingston T. Merchant, Under Secretary 
of State for Political Affairs. Secretary of State 
Christian A. Herter regretted that developments 
requiring his personal attention obliged him to 
cancel his plans to come to the meeting. 

Canada was represented by the Honorable 
Howard C. Green, Secretary of State for External 
Affairs, the Honorable Donald M. Fleming, Min- 
ister of Finance, the Honorable George E. 
Pearkes, Minister of National Defence, and the 
Honorable Raymond J. O'Hurley, IVIinister of 
Defence Production. 

Ambassador [Richard B.] Wigglesworth and 
Ambassador [A. D. P.] Heeney, with other senior 
officials of the two Governments, were also in 
attendance. 

The Committee was established as a result of 
discussions in July 1958, in Ottawa, between Prime 
Minister Diefenbaker and President Eisenhower.^ 
It was established to consult periodically on all 
matters affecting the joint defense of Canada and 
the United States and reviews not only military 
questions but also the political and economic 
aspects of joint defense problems. 

The members of the Committee welcomed the 
opportunity which this meeting afforded them to 
have a timely discussion on a broad range of re- 
cent international developments of interest and 
concern to the two Governments. They agreed 
that situations which arise should always be dealt 
with in a manner which will promote the objec- 



' For text of a communique Issued at the conclusion 
of ttie second meeting, see Bulletin of Nov. 30, 1959, p. 



' For text of a joint statement, see iftiff., Aug. 4, 1958, 
p. 208. 



tives of the United Nations and contribute to 
international peace and stability. 

By its nature the Committee's discussions are 
largely concerned with matters involving the vital 
security interest of the two countries. 

The Committee reviewed the current position 
concerning negotiations aiming at complete and 
general disarmament under an effective system of 
control. They deplored the recent action of the 
Soviet Union in withdrawing from the ten-nation 
meetings,^ thus frustrating its work. The Com- 
mittee agreed that efforts for the resumption of 
meaningful negotiations must be continued. They 
were further agreed that pending the achievement 
of general and controlled disarmament there 
could be no relaxation of defensive measures. 

Particular attention was given to a review of 
the progress achieved on cooperative measures de- 
signed to improve the defenses of North America 
and the Committee reaffirmed its conviction that 
these contribute unportantly to the greater 
strength of collective security within the broader 
framework of NATO. 

The Committee reaffirmed the common desire 
and intention of both Governments further to 
strengthen the North Atlantic Alliance and to 
improve consultation between members witliin the 
North Atlantic Council, and considered ways and 
means whereby the Alliance's objectives might be 
achieved in the years ahead. 

The Committee also reviewed the field of defense 
production sharing between the two countries. 
They recognized that this is a long-range program. 
They reaffirmed the concept as one in the best 
interest of each coimtry and discussed further 
steps which might be taken to assure a greater 
measure of cooperation. 

The Committee noted with satisfaction that the 
existing machinery for consultation on defense 
matters between the two countries is operating 
effectively. It was noted in this respect that the 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense, created by 
the Ogdensburg Declaration of 1940, would this 
year be completing the twentieth year of its exist- 
ence and the Committee expressed its confidence 
that the Board would continue to play a significant 
role within the area of its responsibilities. 

The date of the next meeting of the Committee 
will be arranged later. 

' For background, see ihid., July 18, 1960, p. 88. 



172 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Diplomatic Immunity From Local Jurisdiction: Its Historical Development 
Under International Law and Application in United States Practice 



William Barnes 



The freedom from local jurisdiction wliicli 
diplomatic immunity confers upon certain foreign 
officials residing in tlie United States has fre- 
quently be«n a cause of public criticism and mis- 
understanding. Especially has this been the case 
when such officials have invoked their immunity 
to protect themselves from the consequences of 
acts -which, if committed by ordinary citizens, 
would result in the application of penal sanctions. 

This article seeks to dispel such misunderstand- 
ing by treating the principle of diplomatic im- 
munity in its historical perspective, bringing out 
the reasons why the United States, in common 
with all other countries, recognizes and applies 
this principle. The legal basis of diplomatic im- 
munity in the United States is also discussed, and 
examples are given of its application in United 
States practice. 

Diplomatic immunity may be broadly defined 
as the freedom from local jurisdiction accorded 
imder international law by the receiving state to 
duly accredited diplomatic officers, their families, 
and servants. Associated with such immunity is 
the inviolability wliich applies to the premises of 
embassies and legations and the residences of duly 
accredited diplomatic officei-s. Diplomatic im- 
munity is a universally recognized principle in- 
cluded in the body of rules known as international 
law, which civilized nations have accepted as 
binding them in their intercourse with one an- 
other and which is enforcible in U.S. courts.' 

By custom, courtesy, or international agree- 
ment, diplomatic officers usually also enjoy cer- 



^ While the principle of diplomatic immunity is firmly 
established in international law, its application in prac- 
tice varies as among individual states. 

August 1, I960 

557828—60 3 



tain privileges in the states to which they are ac- 
credited, such as exemptions from local taxation 
and from the payment of customs duties. Such 
privileges do not derive from international law 
but rest for the most part on domestic legislation, 
generally on the basis of reciprocal treatment. 
Wliile often associated with diplomatic immunity, 
these privileges are not, strictly speaking, em- 
braced in that tenn, and they are not discussed in 
this article. 

Historical Development of the Concept 

The concept of diplomatic immunity in inter- 
national law may be traced back to the usages and 
customs of the earliest peoples of whom we have 
knowledge through written records. It often be- 
came necessary for primitive tribes and peoples to 
communicate and negotiate with one another, for 
which purpose certain of their members were se- 
lected as messengers or envoys. The functions of 
the envoys were of social significance to both the 
sending and receiving communities, and it was 
early realized that reciprocal advantages were to 
be gained and mutual interests served by gi-anting 
them special immunities and protection. 

Such envoys were sent and received for impor- 
tant negotiations by the kings of the Hittites, 
Babylonians, Assyrians, Hebrews, and Egyptians. 
For example, in 1272 B.C. the Hittite King, 



• Mr. Barnes is Special Assistant to the 
Director of the Historical Office, Department 
of State. 



173 



Khetasar, sent messengers to Rameses II of Egypt 
to propose peace and a treaty of alliance. Immu- 
nity was accorded these messengers despite an ex- 
isting state of war, and they accomplished their 
mission.^ The ancient histoiy of China and India 
records that envoys fi'om neighboring peoples 
were not regarded as subject to local jurisdiction. 
Biblical references indicate that any violation of 
an envoy's immunity was regarded as justifying 
sharp retaliatory measures. Thus it is recorded 
in chapters 10 and 11 of the Second Book of Sam- 
uel that the entire race of Ammonites perished 
at the hands of David, King of Israel, because 
they treated his messengers offensively. 

The use of ambassadors by the Greek city-states 
was a common practice, and their inviolability 
was recognized as necessary to the carrying on of 
negotiations. They were not subject to local ju- 
risdiction even when they committed an offense 
in the receiving state, and any interference with 
them was considered a serious breach of interna- 
tional good conduct. Thus Thebes declared war 
on Thessaly because its ambassadore had been ar- 
rested and imprisoned, even though there was evi- 
dence that the Theban envoys had conspired 
against the Thessalian Government.^ 

The Romans accepted the practice of the Greeks 
in regard to diplomatic immunity and embodied 
the principle in their codes of law. Cicero ex- 
pressed the Roman attitude toward diplomatic im- 
munity as follows:^ 

The inviolability of ambassadors is protected both by 
divine and human law ; they are sacred and respected so 
as to be inviolable not only when in an allied country 
but also whenever they happen to be in forces of the 
enemy. 

Immunity extended to the ambassador's staff, and 
his correspondence was held to be inviolable. 
Under the Roman civil law, ambassadors were ac- 
corded an important degree of exemption from 
local jurisdiction, although certain of its provi- 
sions later gave rise for a time to the interpreta- 
tion that such exemption applied only to acts con- 
nected with their diplomatic functions and did not 
extend to acts performed in a private capacity. 



'Montell Ogden, Juridical Bases of Diplomatic Im- 
munity (Washington, 1936), p. 11. 

"Graham H. Stuart, American Diplomatic and Consular 
Practice, 2d edition (New York, 1952), p. 115. 

* Quoted in Stuart, op. cit., p. 117. 



During the Middle Ages the immunity of am- 
bassadors received even greater recognition than 
in ancient times. Both Gothic and Saxon law pro- 
vided for special protection and treatment of en- 
voys. The spiritual and temporal power of the 
papacy imparted a high degree of prestige and 
honor to papal agents and encouraged a similarly 
high standard of treatment for diplomatic rep- 
resentatives exchanged by temporal states. 

In the Renaissance period the development 
of diplomacy by the Italian city-states, which were 
the first to establish permanent diplomatic mis- 
sions, served to enhance the prestige and preroga- 
tives of diplomatic agents, even though the prac- 
tice of diplomacy was strongly influenced by the 
precepts of Machiavelli and became almost syn- 
onymous with treachery and intrigue. The diplo- 
matic practices of the Italian city-states were 
adopted by the monarclis of Western Europe, who 
established permanent missions on a reciprocal 
basis and set up regidar diplomatic services to 
staff them. 

During the Renaissance the doctrine of diplo- 
matic immunity was subject to two conflicting 
interpretations based on opposing views of sover- 
eignty. One interpretation, based on certain pro- 
visions of the Roman civil law which restricted 
diplomatic immunity, asserted the power of the 
receiving state to exercise jurisdiction over diplo- 
matic agents in certain cases. The other called 
for the voluntary surrender by a state of its au- 
thority over such agents, to give them the maxi- 
mum of immunity in the exercise of diplomatic 
functions. The former theory was expressed by 
such 16th century writers as Conradus Brunus, 
Alberico Gentile, and Jean Hotman, who believed 
that diplomatic immunity should be restricted in 
order to prevent its being invoked in the case of 
crime or conspiracy and argued that diplomatic 
agents who troubled the peace of the state should 
be liable to prosecution.^ 

Despite these opinions and the zeal with which 
Western rulers were wont to assert their sovereign 
prerogatives, the law and practice of diplomatic 
immunity in the 16th and 17th centuries evolved 
in the direction of giving diplomats complete im- 
munity from criminal and civil jurisdiction. 
States were led to this course by their recognition 
of the necessity of undisturbed diplomatic rela- 
tions and of the political expediency of preserv- 



' Stuart, op. cit., p. 121. 



174 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



ing peace and friendly relations by treating am- 
bassadors with special consideration.^ 

The theory of diplomatic immunity from crimi- 
nal jurisdiction did not become firmly established 
until the appearance of the treatises of Grotius, 
Zouche, and Bynkershoek in the I7th century. 
Yet, according to Professor E. E. Adair, the 
author of an intensive study of the subject,' 

. . . throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
no ambassador was ever put to death nor even subjected 
to any very long imprisonment for crimes committed un- 
less he was a subject of the state to which he had been 
sent. 

Professor Graham H. Stuart observes that this 
statement is borne out by such incidents as the 
recall of French Ambassador de Noailles, impli- 
cated in a plot against Queen Mary of England in 
1556 ; the dismissal of Spanish Ambassador Men- 
doza, involved in a plot against Queen Elizabeth 
in 1583; and the action of the Venetian Senate 
in 1618 in facilitating the flight of Spanish Am- 
bassador de Cueva, who had organized a conspir- 
acy against the republic.^ 

In the 18th and 19th centuries the doctrine of 
complete diplomatic immunity was generally 
recognized in international law and practiced by 
all civilized states. During this period the legal 
fictions of "extraterritoriality" and "representa- 
tive character," derived from the classical writers 
on international law and their followers, notably 
Grotius, Bynkershoek, and Vattel, were often ad- 
vanced to justify the institution of diplomatic im- 
munity. According to the first doctrine, an envoy 
was immime from local jurisdiction because he was 
outside of the territory of the receiving state for 
legal purposes; the second doctrine held him to 
be immune because he was the personification of 
his sovereign, who could not be subjected to the 
jurisdiction of another coimtry.^ 

These legal fictions tended to obscure the funda- 
mental reason for the principle of diplomatic im- 
munity and are no longer accepted as a proper 
basis for it. The principle needs no other justi- 
fication for its acceptance in international law 
than the necessity and importance of protecting 
the persons and faeilitating the work of diplo- 



matic ofKcers engaged in the conduct of relations 
between states. 

The development of international organizations 
in the modern period has enlarged the scope of 
diplomatic immunity, since the principle has some- 
times been applied, usually on the basis of agree- 
ments with the host states, to specified personnel 
of such organizations. In 1926 Switzerland 
granted immunity from criminal and civil juris- 
diction to certain officials of the League of Na- 
tions and recognized the inviolability of its build- 
ings, property, and archives.'" By an agreement 
signed in 1928, the Netherlands accorded diplo- 
matic iimnunity to the members and senior officials 
of the World Court." A similar agreement was 
concluded in 1946 providing that members of the 
International Court of Justice and officials of the 
Court will, in a general way, be accorded the same 
treatment as members of a diplomatic mission of 
comparable rank.'^ 

Under an agreement concluded with the United 
Nations in 1947, the United States accords diplo- 
matic immunity to the principal resident repre- 
sentatives of member states to the United Nations 
and its specialized agencies and to certain resident 
members of their staffs.^' This agreement also 
recognized the inviolability of the land, buildings, 
and other property included in the U.N. head- 
quarters district in New York City. Previously, 
in 1946, following the transfer to the United Na- 
tions of certain assets of the League of Nations in 
Switzerland, that coimtry made an agreement with 
the United Nations extending certain immunities 
and privileges to the Organization and to its rep- 
resentatives and officials. Under this agreement 
full diplomatic immunity is accorded to the Secre- 
tary-General and Under Secretaries of the United 



' Ogden, op. cit., p. 60. 

'E. R. Adair, The Extraterritoriality of Ambassadors i 
the 16th and nth Centuries (London, 1929), p. 64. 
' Stuart, op. cit., pp. 121-122. 
' Ogden, op. cit., p. 62. 



" Modus Vivendi Concerning Diplomatic Immunities of 
League of Nations Officials, Sept. 18, 1926 ( text in Manley 
O. Hudson, International Legislation (Washington, 1936), 
L 224). 

" Agreement Concerning the Diplomatic Status of Mem- 
bers of the Permanent Court of International Justice, May 
22, 1928 (text in Hudson, op. cit., I, 597). 

" Exchange of Letters Recording an Agreement Between 
the International Court of Justice and the Netherlands 
Relating to Privileges and Immunities of Members of the 
International Court of Justice [etc.], June 26, 1946 (text 
in S United Nations Treaty Series 61) . 

"Agreement With the United Nations Regarding the 
Headquarters of the United Nations, June 26, 1947 (61 
Stat. 3416). Text also in note to 22 U.S.C. 287 and in 11 
United Nations Treaty Series 11. 



August 7, T960 



175 



Nations; other U.N. officials and representatives 
of members are entitled to specified immunities 
and privileges, including exemption from legal 
process with respect to acts performed in their 
official capacity. In addition, the Organization 
itself is granted immunity from suit in the Swiss 
courts, and its property and archives are declared 
to be inviolable." 

From this brief historical review it will be ob- 
served that the principle of diplomatic immunity 
is one of the oldest legal concepts recognized by 
mankind in the field of foreign relations and that 
over the centuries it has become firmly established 
in international law. In both ancient and modem 
times the main forces compelling the observance 
of diplomatic immunity have been the necessity 
of safeguarding persons charged with the conduct 
of foreign relations, so that they may properly 
protect their countries' interests, and the recogni- 
tion of the mutual advantages to be gained by so 
doing. These considerations governed the conduct 
of the earliest embassies on record ; they were the 
basis of the special status accorded envoys in 
ancient Greece and Rome; and they have strongly 
influenced the development of the doctrine of dip- 
lomatic immimity in inteimational law from the 
Middle Ages to the present day. 

Legal Basis for Diplomatic Immunity in United 
States 

American courts are bound to recognize and 
apply the law of nations as part of the law of the 
land."^ Since diplomatic immunity is a principle 
of international law, no domestic legislation is 
necessary to give it effect. Nevertheless, the 
United States, together witli a number of other 
comitries, has seen fit to enact domestic laws on 
the subject, which are generally declaratory of in- 
ternational law and are designed to give it a spe- 
cific local application. The first legislation of this 
character was the act of April 30, 1790 (1 Stat. 
117), adopted at the outset of our national 



" Interim Arrangement on Privileges and Immunities of 
the United Nations Concluded Between the Secretary- 
General of the United Nations and the Swiss Federal 
Council, effective July 1, 194G (text in 1 United Nations 
Treaty Series 163). 

"^The Constitution (art. I, sec. 8) confers upon Con- 
gress the power to punish offenses against international 
law. See Charles Cheney Hyde, International Laic Chiefly 
as Interpreted and Applied hy the United States (Boston, 
1922), I, 11-13. 



176 



existence. This law followed in almost identical 
language the English statute (7 iVnne, ch. 12) 
promulgated in 1708, which was the firet recog- 
nition of diplomatic inmiunity in Anglo-Saxon 
law.i" 

The principal U.S. laws on the subject are sum- 
marized under the following headings : ^^ 

Immunity From Cnminal and Civil Jurisdiction 
Foreign diplomatic personnel accredited to the 
U.S. Government and members of their suites, in- 
cluding their families, employees, and domestic 
servants, notified to and received by this Govern- 
ment in such capacity, are immune from arrest or 
imprisonment, and their property may not be 
seized or attached. Any writ or process sued out 
against such persons shall be deemed null and void 
(22 U.S.C. 252). Any person who obtains or ex- 
ecutes such a writ or process in violation thereof 
is liable to fine and/or imprisomnent (22 U.S.C. 
253). 

Requirements for Immunity From Judicial Proc- 
ess in Certain Cases 

The exemption from judicial process described 
above is applicable to American citizens or legal 
residents of the United States, notified to and ac- 
cepted by the Department of State, who are in 
the ser\ace of foreign diplomatic missions, except 
that such pei-sons are not immune from suit upon a 
debt contracted prior to entry into such service. 
In the case of domestic servants of ambassadors 
and public ministers accredited to the United 
States, the penalty for wrongful suit applies only 
when the name of the servant has previously been 
registered in the Department of State and trans- 
mitted by the Secretary of State to the Marshal of 
the District of Columbia, who shall give it appro- 
priate public notice (22 U.S.C. 254). 

Penalty for Assaulting Diplomatic Officers 

Any person who strikes, wounds, imprisons, or 
offers violence to the person of a diplomatic officer, 
in violation of the law of nations, is liable to fine 
and/or imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 112). 



" British and Foreign State Papers, I, 903. 

" For complete texts of American laws and regulations 
pertinent to the subject, see Lairs and Regulations Re- 
garding Diplomatic and Consular Privileges and Immuni- 
ties, United Nations Legislative Series, vol. VII, United 
Nations (New York. 1958). 

Department of State Bulletin 



Prohibition on Picketing of Foreign Diplomatic 
Missions 

An act of Congress of February 15, 1938 (52 
Stat. 30), prohibits the clisphiy, without a permit, 
witliin 500 feet of any embassy, legation, consular 
office, or other premises in Washington, D.C., used 
for official jiurposes by a foreign government, of 
any placard or device designed to intimidate or 
ridicule any foreign government, its officers or 
representatives, its political or economic acts, or 
its views and purposes. The act further prohibits 
the congregation of persons witliin 500 feet of such 
premises for any purpose. 

Junsdiction in Legal Actions or Proceedings In- 
volving Foreign Diplomatic Officers 

The Supreme Court has original and exclusive 
jurisdiction in actions or proceedings against am- 
or other public ministers of foreign 
or their domestics or domestic servants, not 
inconsistent with the law of nations. The Su- 
preme Court has original but not exclusive juris- 
diction in all actions or proceedings brought by 
ambassadors or other public ministers of foreign 
states or to which consuls or vice consuls of 
foreign states are parties (28 U.S.C. 1251). 

As a practical matter the Supreme Court is not 
called upon to exercise such jurisdiction. Ordi- 
narily a diplomatic officer whose conduct gives 
serious offense would be recalled by his govern- 
ment or expelled. In other cases the government 
of the sending state may consent to the waiver of 
a diplomatic officer's immunity, in which event he 
would be subject to process in domestic tribunals 
other than the Supreme Court. 

Application of Diplomatic Immunity in U.S. Practice 

Throughout its history the United States has 
recognized and applied the international law of 
diplomatic unmunity to foreigii diplomatic agents 
in this country and has sought from other nations 
reciprocal treatment for its own diplomatic officers 
abroad. The primary reasons for this recognition, 
both in law and in fact, were stated by Secretary 
of State Elihu Root in 1906 as follows : ^^ 

There are many and various reasons why diplomatic 
agents . . . should be exempt from the operation of the 
municipal law at [sic] this country. The first and funda- 



mental reason is the fact that diplomatic officers are uni- 
versally exempt by well recognized usage incorporated 
into the Common Law of nations, and this nation, bound 
as it is to observe international Law in its municipal 
as well as its foreign policy, cannot, if it would, vary a 
law common to all. . . . 

The reason of the immunity of diplomatic agents is 
clear, namely : that Governments may not be hampered 
in their foreign relations by the arrest or forcible preven- 
tion of the exercise of duty in the person of a govern- 
mental agent or representative. If such agent be offensive 
and his conduct is unacceptable to the accredited nation 
it is proper to request his recall ; if the request be not 
honored he may be in extreme cases escorted to the bound- 
ary and thus removed from the country. . . . 

It should be emphasized, however, that the 
United States has never interpreted the principle 
of diplomatic immunity to mean that a diplomatic 
officer is freed from the restraints of American or 
foreign laws and police regulations and exempt 
from the obligation of observing them, but only 
that he cannot be arrested, tried, or punished in 
the event of his failure to respect them." The 
sanctions that may always be applied against an 
offending diplomatic officer consist, in ascending 
degree of severity, of (1) a formal complaint to 
his government, (2) an official request to that gov- 
ernment for his recall, or (3) if such a request is 
not granted or if the officer's offense is serious 
enough, a declaration that he is persona non grata 
and an order for him to leave the country forth- 
with. The United States has made use of all three 
of these sanctions upon occasion. 

The practice of the United States in applying 
the law of diplomatic immunity is illustrated by 
the following representative cases, which are 
grouped under those aspects of the law to which 
they apply. 

Immunity From Criminal Jurisdiction 

The immimity of diplomatic agents from crimi- 
nal jurisdiction is so universally recognized that 
one authority on the subject has declared that no 
instance can be cited where such an agent has been 
subjected, without his government's consent, to the 
criminal jurisdiction of the country to which he 
was accredited."" "Wliile a diplomatic representa- 
tive is thus immune from arrest, trial, or punish- 
ment for any criminal offense he may commit in 



" Green H. Hackworth, Digest of International Law 
(Washington, 1942), IV, 513. 



"John Bassett Moore, A Digest of International Law 
(Washington, 1906), IV, 678. 

-° Sir Cecil Hurst, Les Immunites Diplomatiques, Aca- 
demie de Droit International, Recueil des Cours, XII, 92, 
cited by Stuart, op. cit., p. 251. 



August 1, 7960 



177 



the country to which he is accredited, the U.S. 
Government takes the view that this inununity in 
no wise relieves him from the obligation of observ- 
ing local laws and regulations. If he fails to do 
so, he becomes liable to the sanctions already 
mentioned. 

Wlien, in May 1868, Secretary of State William 
H. Seward learned that two official members of the 
Prussian Legation had beeji guilty as principal 
and second of violating a District of Columbia law 
against dueling, he brought the matter to the at- 
tention of the Prussian Minister. Since the per- 
sons in question were "protected by the law of 
nations from judicial prosecution for a violation 
of the statute . . . ," Secretary Seward requested 
the Minister, in the name of the President, to 
bring the matter to the attention of their Govern- 
ment in order that they might "in a proper manner 
be made sensible of its displeasui-e." "^ 

If a diplomatic representative should conspire 
against the safety of the state, he may be re- 
strained and expelled as soon as possible but he 
may not be punished by the injured state. Sev- 
eral such cases occurred in the United States in 
the period preceding its entrance into World War 
I, the most notorious being those of Captain Boy- 
Ed, naval attache, and Captain von Papen, mili- 
tary attache, of the German Embassy, who were 
guilty of nimierous violations of American laws 
and of their obligations as diplomatic officers. 
Captain Boy-Ed directed various attempts to pro- 
vide German war vessels at sea with coal and other 
supplies in violation of American neutrality, while 
Captain von Papen furnished money to various 
individuals to sabotage factories and other instal- 
lations in Canada and also directed the manufac- 
ture of incendiary bombs and their placement on 
Allied vessels.^^ They were recalled by their 
Government at the request of the United States. 

With the advent of the automobile, by far the 
greatest nmnber of cases in which diplomatic im- 
munity has been invoked have involved traffic 
violations. This type of offense, which ranges 
from relatively minor infractions of parking regu- 
lations to the killing or maiming of persons, pre- 
sents a difficult pi-oblem in the application of 
diplomatic immunity. On the one hand, there is 



=" Moore, op. cit, IV., 634. 

"House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Kept. No. 1, 
65th Cong., 1st sess. (Serial 7252), pp. 5-9. 



178 



the legal obligation of the host government to re- 
spect that immunity and the reciprocal advantage 
that it gains by so doing; on the other, there is 
the necessity that the application of the principle 
should not be regarded in the host state as an in- 
tolerable impairment of the public safety. 

In November 1935 the Iranian Minister to 
Washington, while driving through Elkton, Md., 
was stopped by police, and his chauffeur was 
charged with exceeding the local speed limit. The 
Minister and his chauffeur were arrested and 
taken before a justice of the peace, the Minister 
himself having been put in handcuffs when he 
resisted arrest. The justice dismissed the charges, 
suspended a fine imposed upon the chauffeur, but 
compelled him to pay costs. The Minister pro- 
tested to the Department of State. Secretary 
Cordell Hull replied that he had been informed 
by the Governor of Maryland that the police of- 
ficers responsible had been discharged from the 
public service. The Governor himself expressed 
apologies for the incident. In expressing the re- 
gret of the U.S. Government that the Minister 
had been discourteously treated, Secretary Hull 
pointed out that the incident would not have 
occurred had the chauffeur observed the regula- 
tions, and concluded : ^^ 

In this connection, I may state that this Government 
has at all times impressed upon its own diplomatic offi- 
cers in foreign countries that the enjoyment of diplo- 
matic immunity imposes upon them the obligation and 
responsibility of according scrupulous regard to the laws 
and regulations, both national and local, of the countries 
to which they are accredited. I feel confident that the 
Iranian Government will share the view that foreign 
diplomatic officers accredited to the United States will 
manifest a similar regard for the laws and regulations 
in force in this country. 

Immunity From Civil Jurisdiction 

The immunity of diplomatic officers from juris- 
diction in civil questions is a principle of inter- 
national law that did not gain general acceptance 
until some time after their immunity from crimi- 
nal jurisdiction was firmly established. A few 
writers on international law have maintained 
that diplomatic officers should not be exempt from 
civil jurisdiction in questions of a private nature, 
as distinct from those involving the exercise of 
their official functions. However, the prevailing 



' Hackworth, op. cit., IV, 515-516. 

Department of State Bulletin 



interpretation of international law and the one 
which has been followed in American practice is 
that complete immunity from civil process should 
be granted under all circumstances. This inter- 
pretation is based on the view that the exercise 
of jurisdiction over a dijilomatic ofEcer, regard- 
less of whether the action pertains to his private 
or official acts, would interfere with and hamper 
him in the performance of his official functions. 

In 1939, when an attachment of property in the 
possession of the Costa Rican Minister at Wash- 
ington was contemplated, the Legal Adviser of 
the Department of State notified the U.S. Marshal 
for the District of Columbia that writs or processes 
in either criminal or civil actions could not prop- 
erly be served on diplomatic representatives.^^ 

In 1874, however, when John Jay, American 
Minister to Austria- Hungary, claimed diplomatic 
immunity from the civil process of an Austrian 
court resulting from his termination of a lease on 
his residence. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish 
disapproved this action and instructed him as 
follows : " 

An envoy is not clothed with diplomatic immunity to 
enable him to indulge with impunity in i)ersonal contro- 
versies, or to escape from liabilities to which he otherwise 
might be subjected. 

The assertion of these immunities should be reserved 
for more imiwrtant and delicate occasions, and should 
never be made use of when the facts of the particular 
case can expose the envoy to the suspicion that private 
interest or a desire to escape personal or pecuniary 
liability is the motive which induced it. . . . 

Immunity From Police Jurisdiction 

The immunity of diplomatic officers from local 
police jurisdiction is inherent in their immunity 
from criminal and civil process. "V^liile a diplo- 
matic officer cannot lawfully be arrested or taken 
into custody by the police, the government to 
which he is accredited has a right to expect that 
he will obey local laws and regulations. 

Exeiwption From Giving Testhnony 

The immunity of a diplomatic officer fi-om 
criminal and civil jurisdiction includes his exemp- 
tion from the obligation to testify in court even 
though his testimony should be essential to obtain 



conviction. This immunity, however, may be 
waived. 

In 1923 a summons was issued to the Secretary 
of the Peruvian Embassy in Washington directing 
him to appear in a local court to testify on behalf 
of the United States. The Department of State 
pointed out to the Attorney General that, in view 
of the immunity of foreign diplomatic officers 
from the jurisdiction of local courts, the summons 
should not have been served and requested him to 
take measures to prevent the service of such papers 
thereafter on foreign diplomatic representatives.^^ 

The Venezuelan Minister in Washington, who 
had witnessed the assassination of President Gar- 
field on July 2, 1881, asked and received the per- 
mission of his Government to waive his immunity, 
and he testified in court against the assassin.^' 

Waiver of hnmunities 

The immunity of American diplomatic officers 
abroad may not be waived except with the consent 
of the Secretary of State. Whenever a chief of 
mission considers it desirable to waive immunity, 
he must request the Secretary's consent, setting 
forth facts and reasons.^^ 

Duration of Immwnity 

Immunity begins when the diplomatic agent 
arrives in the coimtry to which he is accredited, 
continues during the period of his sojourn, and 
extends until his departure within a reasonable 
time after the termination of his mission.^' 

Immunity of Diplomatic Couriers 

Diplomatic couriers are regarded by all gov- 
erimients as immune from local jurisdiction when 
traveling through foreign territoiy, and the dip- 
lomatic pouches which they carry, bearing the 
official seal of their governments, may not be 
opened or searched.^" This immunity is based on 
the right of diplomatic representatives to com- 
municate freely with their governments, which is 



" Hackworth, op. cit., IV, 534. 
"^ Moore, op. cit., IV, 637. 



" Hackworth, op. cit., IV, 553. 

" Moore, op. cit., IV, 644-645. 

■^ Foreign Service Manual, vol. 1, pt. I. sec. 221.4. 

" Sir Ernest Satow, A Guide to Diplomatic Practice, 
4th edition. Sir Nevile Bland, ed. (London, New York, 
and Toronto, 1957) , p. 179. 

"' Foreign Service Manual, vol. 1, pt. I, sec. 221.3. 



August J, 7960 



179 



generally recognized as essential to the diplomatic 
function although it has sometimes been interfered 
with or curtailed in time of war or civil dis- 
turbance. 

Effect of War on Diplomatic Immunity 

Prior to World War II it was generally main- 
tained that the outbreak of war between a diplo- 
matic i-epresentative"s country and that to which 
he was accredited did not affect his diplomatic im- 
miuiity.^^ In such an event it was held that the 
host government was bound to take every pre- 
caution against insult or violence being directed 
against him or his family. In AVorld War II both 
the Allied and Axis Powers interned each other's 
diplomatic personnel until arrangements could be 
made for their exchange. This practice, which 
was justified on grounds of internal security, in- 
volved the exercise of wide police powers over 
enemy diplomats. "Wliile in theory they remained 
immune from the local jurisdiction, in practice the 
restrictions to which they were subjected as a re- 
sult of their internment represented an important 
modification of the traditional concept of diplo- 
matic immunity in time of war. 

Inviolability of Office^ Archives^ aiid Residence 

Except in case of public emergency, such as fire 
or other disaster, or matters affecting the public 
safety, the premises occupied by foreign diplo- 
matic missions in the United States are immune 
from local jurisdiction.^'^ The immunity applies 
to premises occupied as offices or as residences of 
officers of the mission, the property contained 
therein, and the records and archives of the mis- 
sion. Such premises cannot be entered or 
searched, nor can such property or records be de- 
tained or examined by the local authorities, even 
under process of law. 

In 1924 agents of the Internal Revenue Bureau 
and members of the District police force, acting 
under a search warrant, entered rooms occupied 
by an attache of the Hungarian Legation. The 
Hungarian Minister protested the violation of the 
attache's domicile. The Secretary of State wrote 
the Charge d' Affaires ad interim of Hungai-y, 
enclosing letters from the Superintendent of the 



Police Department and the Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasui-y, in which an apology was offered and 
regret expressed.^^ 

Persons Entitled to Diplomatic and "Limited" 
Immunity 

The categories of persons entitled to diplomatic 
immiuiity in the United States, the bases on which 
such immmiity is granted, and other relevant in- 
formation may be summarized as follows : 

(a) Diplomatic officers duly accredited to the 
Government of the United States, members of 
their immediate families residing with them, and 
dependent upon them for support, and servants of 
such officers, regardless of nationality. Immunity 
is accorded to such persons on the basis of uni- 
versally accepted principles of international law 
which have been incorporated in domestic legisla- 
tion (22U.S.C.252,253,and254). 

(b) Empl-oyees of diplomatic missions in 
Washington, regardless of nationality. The im- 
munity of such employees does not extend to 
members of their families, who are subject to local 
jurisdiction. It is accorded on the basis of a 
provision of the act of April 30, 1790 (1 Stat. 118, 
ch. 9, par. 27; 22 U.S.C. 254), and is subject to 
the condition that citizens or inhabitants of the 
United States are not immune from suit upon a 
debt contracted prior to entry into the service of 
a diplomatic mission. 

(c) Certain members of permanent delegations 
to the United Nations. Section 15 of the head- 
quartere agreement between the United States and 
the United Nations, signed June 26, 1947, provides 
that the principal resident representatives of mem- 
ber states to the United Nations, and such resident 
members of their staffs as may be agi-eed upon 
between the Secretai-y-General of the United Na- 
tions, the Government of the United States, and 
the government of the member state concerned, 
shall be entitled in the United States to the same 
privileges and immunities as the United States 
accords to diplomatic officers accredited to it. 
These representatives and their staff members, as 
agreed upon, are in the same position as the diplo- 
matic officei's listed under paragraph (a) above, 
with the exception that the imnmnity covers 
themselves and members of their families but not 
their servants. 



Satow, op. cit., p. 179. 
' Foreign Service Manual, vol. 1, pt. I, see. 231.; 



' Haekwortli, op. cit.. IV, 564. 



T80 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



(d) Certain members of permanent delegations 
to the Organization of America7i States at Wash- 
ington. In accordance with a bilateral agreement 
between the United States and the Organization 
of American States, concluded under the authority 
of the act of July 10, 1952 (66 Stat. 516, ch. 628; 
22 U.S.C. 288g), the permanent resident repre- 
sentatives of member states of the Organization 
(other than the United States) and certain mem- 
bers of their staffs are accorded diplomatic immu- 
nity on the same basis as the U.N. officials in 
paragraph (c) above. 

(e) Principal representatives of 7ne7nber states 
to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 
Washington and agreed members of their official 
staffs. Under articles 12 and 13 of the multilateral 
agreement on the status of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization, national representatives and 
international staff, effective May 18, 1954,^^ such 
representatives and staff members are entitled to 
receive in the territory of member states of NATO 
the same privileges and immunities accorded to 
diplomatic representatives and their official staff' 
of comparable rank. 

Lists of Persons Entitled to Diplomntic Immunity 

The Diplomatic List., published every other 
month by the Department of State, contains the 
names of all regularly accredited diplomatic offi- 
cers of embassies and legations in Washington, 
together with the names of their wives and adult 
daughters. The names of young children of such 
officers, as well as those of their dependent sons 
attending school or college, are not listed in the 
Diplomatic List., but they are entitled to diplo- 
matic immunity. At the present time approxi- 
mately 1,300 officers and 1,100 wives and daughters 
are listed. 

The Department also publishes a bimonthly 
List of Einployees of Diplomatic Missions Not 
Printed in the Diplomatic List, which contains 
the names of all official employees of diplomatic 
missions in Washington, as well as the names of 
all servants of accredited diplomatic officers. The 
persons listed, all of whom are entitled to diplo- 
matic immunity, now number approximately 
2,400. 

Subject to the Depai-tment's review and ap- 
proval, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations at 



" United States Treaties and Other International Agree- 
ments, vol. 5, pt. I, 1954 (Washington, 1955), p. 1087. 



New York City issues every other month a list of 
members of permanent missions to the United Na- 
tions entitled to diplomatic privileges and immu- 
nities. Approximately 1,000 such persons, includ- 
ing members of their families, are listed at present. 

While no special lists are issued to cover the 
foreign representatives to NATO and the OAS 
and members of their staffs who are entitled to 
diplomatic immunity, their names are registered 
with the Department of State. Including family 
members, they number about 250 in the case of 
NATO and 100 in the case of OAS. 

The total number of persons entitled to diplo- 
matic immunity in the United States today is esti- 
mated at 7,000, including wives and family mem- 
bers. All officials in the above categories are pro- 
vided with identification cards issued by the De- 
partment of State, but such cards are not issued to 
their wives or family members. 

Limited Immunity Accorded to Personnel of 
Intematio7uil Organizations 

Section 7(b) of the International Organizations 
Immunities Act of December 29, 1945 (59 Stat. 
669 ; 22 U.S.C. 288g) , provides that representatives 
in or to public international organizations of 
which the United States is a member, and officers 
and employees of such organizations, shall be im- 
mune from suit and legal process relating to acts 
performed by them in their official capacity. This 
immimity is limited, and its applicability in par- 
ticular cases is a question of fact to be proved in 
court. The immunities, privileges, and exemp- 
tions provided by the act have been extended by 
Executive orders to some 20 international organi- 
zations maintaining their headquarters or branch 
offices in the United States, including the United 
Nations and a number of its affiliated specialized 
agencies. 

Immunities Accorded to Foreign Consular Oncers 
Consular officers are subject to local jurisdiction 
for acts not performed in their official capacity. 
However, as a matter of international comity, a 
consular officer is not usually arrested or pro.se- 
cuted for the commission of minor offenses. The 
United States has concluded a number of treaties 
and conventions which contain provisions accord- 
ing special privileges and immimities on a recip- 
rocal basis to consular officers of one coimtry in 
the territory of the other. The immunity of a 



August ?, 7960 



181 



particular consular officer in this country would 
depend upon the applicable treaty provisions. 
Such immunity does not extend to his wife or 
other members of his family, who are subject to 
local jurisdiction. The Department of State is- 
sues annually a list of foreign consular officers 
recognized by the United States, of whom there 
are now about 2,000. 

Summary and Conclusion 

The principle of diplomatic immunity origi- 
nated in ancient times and has developed over the 
centuries into a universally recognized doctrine in 
international law. Its fundamental purpose is 
the protection of tlie channels of diplomatic in- 
tercourse by exempting diplomatic representatives 
from local jurisdiction so that they may perform 
their official functions with complete freedom, in- 
dependence, and security. Tliis exemption is 
granted as a voluntary limitation on the jurisdic- 
tion of the receiving state and is based on the ex- 
pectation that reciprocal immunity will be 
accorded its own diplomatic representatives 
abroad. 

The United States has, since its independence, 
recognized and applied the principle of diplomatic 
immunity, and the decisions of U.S. courts and 
jurists and the practices of the U.S. Government 
have helped to develop and clarify the concept. 
Congress has enacted domestic statutes to give 
specific effect to the international law of diplo- 
matic immunity, and the Department of State has 
consistently sought to obtain, on the basis of in- 
ternational law and reciprocity, the same immuni- 
ties for American diplomatic representatives as 
are accorded by this Government to foreign diplo- 
matic officers accredited to it. 

The United States adheres to a broad and lib- 
eral interpretation of diplomatic immunity, em- 
phasizing the inviolability of the diplomatic 
agent's person and the national advantage that is 
served by the untrammeled exercise of his func- 
tions. At the same time, it considers that a person 
entitled to diplomatic immunity is not relieved 
thereby from the obligation to respect American 
laws. Should such a person perform acts which 
endanger the safety of the commimity or the na- 
tion, this country holds that the proper remedy is 
not to subject him to its jurisdiction but rather to 
invoke against him the sanctions of his own gov- 
ernment by asking for his recall. 



182 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 2d Session 

Increasing Penalties for Violation of the Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act. Report to accompany H.R. 12533. June 9, 
19C0. 4 pp. 

Dnited States Foreign Policy: Middle East. Staff study 
prepared for the use of the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee. No. 13. June 9, 1960. 115 pp. [Committee 
print] ' 

Exempting From the District of Columbia Income Tax 
Compensation Paid to Alien Employees by Certain 
International Organizations. Report to accompany 
S. 2954. H. Rept. 1790. June 11, 1960. 7 pp. 

Mutual Security and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 
1901. Report to accompany H. Rept. 12619. H. Rept. 
1798. June 13, 1960. 24 pp. 

Crediting Periods of Internment During World War II to 
Certain Federal Employees of Japanese Ancestry. 
Hearing before the Post Office and Civil Service Com- 
mittee on H.R. 7810, a bill to credit periods of intern- 
ment during World War II to certain Federal employees 
of Japanese ancestry for purposes of the Civil Service 
Retirement Act and the Annual and Sick Leave Act of 
1951. June 13, 1960. 6 pp. 

Providing for Adjustments in Annuities Under the Foreign 
Service Retirement and Disability System. Supple- 
mental report to accompany S. 1502. H. Rept. 1626, 
part 2. June 14, 1960. 2 pp. 

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security With Japan. 
Report to accompany Ex. E, 86th Congress, 2d session. 
S. Ex. Rept. 8. June 14, 1960. 6 pp. 

The Antarctic Treaty. Hearings before the Senate For- 
eign Relations Committee on Ex. B, 86th Congress, 2d 
session. June 14, 1960. 105 pp. 

Import Duties on Certain Coarse Wool. Conference re- 
port to accompany H.R. 9322. H. Rept. 1883. June 16, 
1960. 2 pp. 

Comparisons of the United States and Soviet Economies : 
Supplemental Statement on Costs and Benefits to the 
Soviet Union of Its Bloc and Pact System— Compari- 
sons With the Western Alliance System. Prepared by 
the Central Intelligence Agency in cooperation with the 
Departments of State and Defense for the Subcommit- 
tee on l^conomic Statistics of the Joint Economic Com- 
mittee. June 17, 1960. 50 pp. [Joint committee print] 

Suspension of Import Duties on Certain Shoe Lathes and 
Casein. Conference report to accompany H.R. 9862. 
June 16, 1960. H. Rept. 1884. 3 pp. 

Foreign Service Act Amendments of 1960. Report to ac- 
company H.R. 12547. H. Rept. 1890; June 16, 1960. 
81 pp. 
International Health Research Act of 1960. Report to ac- 
company H.J. Res. 649. H. Rept. 1915. June 17, 1960. 
28 pp. 
Crediting for Retirement and Leave Purpo.ses of Certain 
Internment Periods of Employees of Japanese Ancestry 
in World War II. Report to accompany H.R. 7810. 
H. Rept. 1920. June 20, 1960. 7 pp. 
Rotation of Civilian Employees of the Defense Establish- 
ment Assigned to Duty Outside the United States. Re- 
port to accompany H.R. 10695. S. Rept. 1624. June 21, 
19G0. 6 pp. 
Informal Entries of Imported Merchandise. Report to 
accompany H.R. 9240. H. Rept. 1938. June 22, 1960. 
2 pp. 



' This study replaces one prepared by the Institute for 
Mediterranean Affairs, Inc., which was listed with other 
studies in this series in Bulletin of Feb. 22, 1960, p. 273. 

Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings^ 

Adjourned During July 1960 "I In the future the lists of meetings adjourned in the previous month and 

> those currently in session will appear in the third issue of the Bulletin 
In Session as of July 31, 1960 J each month. 

Scheduled August 1 Through October 31, 1960 

3d FAO/IAIAS: Latin American Meeting on Soils and Fertilizers . . Raleigh, N.C Aug. 1- 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: Working Party on Geneva Aug. 1- 

Standardization of Conditions of Sale for Cereals. 

FAO Latin American Forestry Commission: 7th Session Mexico, D.F Aug. 3- 

10th General Assembly of the International Geographical Union Stockholm Aug. 6- 

and 19th International Congress of Geography. 

5th Inter-American Conference on Agriculture and 6th FAO Mexico, D.F Aug. 8- 

Regional Conference for Latin America. 

2d U.N. Conference on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment London Aug. 8- 

of Offenders. 

PAHO Executive Committee: 41st Meeting Habana Aug. 12- 

12th Meeting of PAHO Directing Council and 12th Meeting of Habana Aug. 14- 

Regional Committee of WHO for the Americas. 

7th International Soil Science Congress Madison, Wis Aug. 15- 

International Union of Crystallography: 5th General Assembly . Cambridge, England Aug. 15- 

21st International Geological Congress Copenhagen Aug. 15- 

WMO Commission for Maritime Meteorology: 3d Session .... Utrecht Aug. 16- 

14th Annual Edinburgh Film Fe.stival Edinburgh Aug. 21- 

UNESCO World Conference on Adult Education Montreal Aug. 22- 

21st International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art Venice Aug. 24- 

5th World Forestry Congress Seattle Aug. 29- 

PAHO Executive Committee: 42d Meeting Habana Aug. 29- 

GATT: 5th Round of Tariff Negotiations Geneva Sept. 1- 

Ad Hoc Committee of U.N. General Assembly To Consider General New York Sept. 2- 

Questions of Transmission of Information. 

GATT Working Party on Market Disruption Geneva Sept. 4- 

COAS Special Committee To Study Formulation of New Measures Bogotd Sept. 5- 

for Economic Development: 3d Meeting. 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 2d Session Geneva Sept. 5- 

U.N. ECE Working Party on Mechanization of Agriculture . . . Geneva Sept. 5- 

International Scientific Radio Union: 13th General Assembly . . . London Sept. 5- 

ICAO Legal Committee: 12th Session Montreal Sept. 6- 

UNICEF Committee on Administrative Budget New York Sept. 7- 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain: 8th Congress Buenos Aires Sept. 12- 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: 3d Meeting of Technical Com- Washington Sept. 12- 

mittee of Experts on Travel Plant. 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 11th Session. . . Manila Sept. 16- 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 48th Meeting. Moscow Sept. 1 9- 

International Rubber Study Group: loth Meeting Kuala Lumpur, Malaya . . . . Sept. 19- 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee: 51st Session Geneva Sept. 19- 

lAEA General Conference: 4th Regular Session Vienna Sept. 20- 

FAO Regional Conference for the Near East Tehran Sept. 21- 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Interna- Washington Sept. 26- 

tional Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation: An- 
nual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

ILO Ad Hoc Meeting on Civil Aviation Geneva Sept. 26- 

6th International Technical Conference on Lighthouses and Other Washington Sept. 26- 

Aids to Navigation. 



' Prepared in the OflSce of International Conferences, July 15, 1960. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 
is a list of abbreviations: CO AS, Council of the Organization of American States; ECAFE, Economic Commission for 
Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; GATT, 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; lA-ECOSOC, Inter-American 
Economic and Social Council; lAIAS, Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences; ICAO, International Civil 
Aviation Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organ- 
ization; PAHO, Pan American Health Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization; 
WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 

August 1, 1960 183 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled August 1 Through October 31, 1960 — Continued 

U.N. ECE Conference of Europpan Statisticians: 8th Session . . . Geneva Sept. 26- 

WMO Regional Association VI (Europe): 3d Session Madrid Sept. 26- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Plan- Bangkok Sept. 27- 

ning: 6th Session. 

Interparliamentary Union: 49th Conference Tokyo Sept. 29- 

lAEA Board of Governors: 18th Session Vienna September 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: 8th Geneva September 

Session. 
U.N. ECAFE Inland Transport and Communications Committee: undetermined September 

Seminar on Highway Transportation. 

U.N. ECE Senior Economic Advi.sers: Preparatory Meeting. . . Geneva September 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: undetermined September* 

9th Session. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade .... Geneva Oct. 3- 

U.N. ECE Electric Power Committee Geneva Oct. 3- 

U.N. ECE Timber Committee: 18th Session Geneva Oct. 3- 

Inter-American Travel Congresses: 3d Meeting of Technical Com- Mexico, D.F Oct. 6- 

niittee of Experts on Tourist Travel Promotion. 
International Criminal Police Organization: 29th General As- Washington Oct. 10- 

sembly. 

FAO European Commission on Agriculture: 12th Session 

U.N. ECE Committee on Development of Trade: 9th Session . . . 
IAEA Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and 

Liquids. 
U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: Working Party on 

Standardization of Perishable Foodstuffs. 

South Pacific Commission: 21st Session 

FAO Council: 34th Session 

F.\0 Technical Meeting on Coffee Production 

International North Pacific Fisheries Commission: 7th Meeting . . 

ILO Permanent Agriculture Committee Geneva. 

Inter- American Travel Congresses: 3d Meeting of Technical Com- Buenos Aires 

mittee of Experts on Removal of Travel Barriers. 

WHO Executive Board: 26th Session Geneva Oct. 25- 

Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Development in 

South and Southeast Asia ("Colombo Plan"): 12th Meeting. 

Officials Meeting Tokyo Oct. 31- 

Ministerial Meeting Tokyo Nov. 14- 

Inter- American Travel Congresses: Permanent Executive Com- Buenos Aires Oct. 31- 

mittee. 

FAO Advisory Campaign Committee on Freedom From Hunger . Rome October 

FAO Group on Cocoa: Executive and Statistical Committees . . Rome October 

Pan American Institute of Geography and History: 7th General Lima October 

Assembly. 

9th Pan American Consultation on Cartography Lima October 

6th Pan American Consultation on Geography Lima October 

5th Pan American Consultation on History Lima October 

lA-ECOSOC Permanent Technical Committee on Ports: 3d Meet- Rio de Janeiro October 

ing. 
IMCO Subcommittee on Unification of Maritime Tonnage Measure- London October 

ment. 









Oct 10- 




. Oct. 11- 




Oct 11- 


Noum6a, New Caledonia . . 


. Oct. 13- 
Oct 17- 


Abidjan 




Vancouver 


. Oct. 24- 
Oct 24- 


Buenos Aires 


. Oct. 24- 



184 Department of State Bulletin 



International Partnership for Economic Growth 



hy Under Secretary Dillon ' 



We who are privileged to attend these meetings 
of tlie Economic and Social Comicil owe a debt of 
gratitude to Secretary-General Hammarskjold 
for his initiative in bringing us together on this 
occasion. 

The Council is recognized as the world's major 
forum for discussing, in the broadest sense, the 
great economic and social questions of the day. 
My Government therefore welcomes the continu- 
ing efforts of the Secretary- General to improve the 
procedures of the Council and enliance its effec- 
tiveness. The experiment of convening a minis- 
terial meeting on an important subject may well 
turn out to be a significant contribution to tliis end. 
I sincerely hope that our exchange of views over 
the next few days may be mutually helpful. 

The Council's central interest is, and should be, 
sustained economic growth, especially in the newly 
developing countries. Here the representatives of 
the industrialized countries, meeting with those 
of coimtries in the process of development, 
have joined as partners in creating pl■ein^•estment 
institutions like the Expanded Program of Tech- 
nical Assistance and the U.N. Special Fund. Here 
the heads of the specialized agencies tell us of the 
important work they are doing to promote eco- 
nomic development and human welfare. Here, 
too, we get a picture of national and regional ef- 
forts on behalf of the newly developing countries. 
It is by looking at this whole broad canvas that 
we get a comprehensive view of what is being done 
to realize the aim of the United Nations Charter 
for a ''better . . . life in larger freedom." Such 
comprehensive study and exchange of views helps 
all of us to chart our future courses of action in 



Remarks made at the ministerial meeting of the 30th 
of the U.N. Economic and Social Council at 
Geneva on July 11 (press release 387). 



this vital field of development, through the United 
Nations and other international institutions, 
through regional programs, and through national 
efforts. These activities all form part of an inter- 
national partnership for economic growth to 
which the United States is dedicated. 

In the Secretary-General's excellent statement 
to us, a statement which perceptively highlights 
the economic development aspects of the world 
economic situation, he notes the recent growth of 
regional or other limited economic institutions and 
raises the question of a trend which could be 
dangerous to the larger interests reflected in gen- 
eral or universal organizations. 

How shall we answer this question ? 

Certainly there is need for arrangements of less 
than universal scope. Limited groups of comitries, 
by joining together, often find it possible to suc- 
ceed in constiiictive tasks which could not be 
carried out by a wider membership. 

But certainly, also, such institutions may give 
rise to dangers, especially in the field of economic 
relations, where the interests of nations are be- 
coming ever more thorouglily intertwined as in- 
terdependence grows. 

U.S. Support for Regional Economic Arrangements 

My Government is deeply conscious of both 
these needs and these dangers. It is the policy of 
the United States to test carefully the merits of 
specific economic institutions before deciding 
whether or not to endorse them. We believe that 
there must be persuasive evidence that they consti- 
tute the most effective available method to ac- 
complish the objective in view. The objective 
itself must be a constructive one, designed to aug- 
ment human welfare. And, finally, the means 
selected for economic cooperation must be in ac- 
cordance with widely accepted multilateral princi- 



Augosf J, I960 



185 



pies or norms so that they will not damage the 
economic interests of outside countries. 

It is in the light of these principles that the 
United States has supported specific regional 
trade arrangements in Western Europe and in 
Latin America. 

Similarly, imder the right conditions special 
institutions can also be of great value in helping 
to promote the development of member countries 
without detracting from the use of other channels 
or from the economic development of nonmember 
coimtries. The United States, for example, is a 
member of the recently created Inter-American 
Development Bank, established as a further ex- 
pression of the historic relations among the Amer- 
ican Eepublics. It also participates in economic 
development consultations under the Colombo 
Plan. Our participation in these regional activi- 
ties has not meant any neglect by the United States 
of the use of other methods of cooperation in eco- 
nomic development or of the needs of other areas. 
We continue to devote substantial resources to the 
development and economic stability of countries 
in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin 
America, both directly and through our contribu- 
tions to the United Nations, the World Bank, the 
International IMonetary Fund, and the proposed 
International Development Association. 

All of these economic arrangements, whether or 
not within the family of the United Nations, serve 
the pui-poses of the United Nations. 

The proposed Organizatioi: for Economic Co- 
operation and Development will also reinforce the 
basic economic purposes of the charter. The 
OECD will not, of course, be a new organization 
but rather a reconstitution, or remodeling, of the 
existing OEEC [Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation], which came into being as 
long ago as 19-48. 

The record of European economic growth dur- 
ing the period of OEEC's existence has few paral- 
lels in histoi-y. Now, with the achievement of con- 
vertibility in most member countries, the problem 
for the OEEC is no longer one of European eco- 
nomic recovery or of liberalizing intra-European 
trade and payments. The time has come to 
broaden horizons, to emphasize the contribution 
which the industrialized areas can make to world 
growth and stability and to the development of the 
less developed areas. For this purpose it is pro- 
posed that Canada and the United States, which 



liave been associated with the OEEC since the 
beginning, should now become full niembei-s of the 
reorganized institution. 

The OECD would enable member governments, 
by consultation and cooperation, to use more effec- 
tively their capacities and potentialities in promot- 
ing the highest sustainable economic growth, 
improving the well-being of their peoples, and 
fulfilling their international responsibilities, nota- 
bly tlie responsibility of assisting to the best of 
their ability the countries in process of economic 
development. The constitution of the OECD is 
still being negotiated, and therefore it is not possi- 
ble to be specific about relationships between the 
OECD and other international institutions. It is 
recognized, however, that the OECD should be 
authorized to establish such relationships where 
appropriate. 

Development Assistance Group 

Pending establishment of the OECD, a group 
of 10 capital exporting countries have been par- 
ticipating in a Development Assistance Group,^ 
which provides the opportunity for frank discus- 
sion and informal consultation about the best 
methods for mobilizing the economic resources 
which they can make available to the less devel- 
oped countries. I wish to emphasize that it is not 
the function of the DAG to engage in specific 
operations or to discuss specific projects or areas. 
Such discussions and operations, of course, would 
only be carried out by the countries directly con- 
cerned in cooperation with the developing coun- 
tries themselves. 

Tlie DAG is not meant to i-eplace any of the 
functions of the existing channels of coordination 
and cooperation or to overlap with their activities. 
Pather. it should complement and strengthen ex- 
isting institutions. With this in view, the DAG 
has placed on the agenda for its next meeting in 
October a discussion of the preinvestment type of 
teclmical assistance, a discussion in which all of 
the imiwrtant international agencies directly ac- 
tive in the field, including the United Nations and 
its appropriate specialized agencies, will be in- 
vited to participate. In making these arrange- 
ments membei-s of the DAG were mindful of the 
thoughts expressed by U.N. Under Secretary 
Pliilippe de Sejmes in his excellent address con- 



' For backsroxind. see Buixetin of Feb. 
and Apr. 11, 1960, p. 577. 



1%0, p. 139, 



186 



Department of State BuUetin 



cerning the OECD delivered in Washington on 
April 28 of this year. 

Tlie Development Assistance Group is, of course, 
only an interim organization. It would be re- 
placed by a committee of similar membership and 
characteristics within the OECD when the OECD 
has been formally established. 

In considering the problems of economic growth 
in the less developed areas, much attention has 
been given to the prospects for an adequate flow of 
external capital, recognizing, of course, that in 
any developing counti-y the bulk of resources for 
development will come from domestic savings. 

Wliile predictions are hazardous, it is my feel- 
ing that in the years ahead difficulties in obtaining 
external capital for sound development will not be 
the significant limiting factor to the progi-ess of 
the less developed areas. 

The reason for tliis belief is that the future eco- 
nomic growth of the free industrial countries, 
based on reasonable expectations, should be high 
enough not only to enable these coimtries to con- 
tinue increasing their own standards of living 
while maintaining adequate security and financial 
stability but also to provide in substantial volmne 
the outside capital, both private and public, which 
the developing countries can effectively use to 
supplement their own resources. In other words, 
the capacity to assist will be there. I am confi- 
dent that the will to assist will also be there. 

A much more serious limitation on growth in 
developing areas is the difficulties loosely described 
by the phrase "absorptive capacity." These in- 
clude all the problems which must be solved in pre- 
paring and implementing technically sound and 
economically feasible development projects, in im- 
proving government adniinistration, in training 
private manpower in the wide range of skills 
essential to successful industrialization, and in 
achieving higher standards of general health and 
education. 

In this broad and complex field of economic 
development the international institutions can be 
of great help, much more so in certain fields of en- 
deavor than can the governments of the capital 
exporting comitries. The United Nations, with 
its Special Fund and program for operational and 
executive personnel, the Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance, and the specialized agencies, 
has a most important role to play in this field. 
Once again my Government strongly urges full 
financial support by all U.N. members for the 

Augosf 7, J960 



Special Fund and Expanded Teclmical Assistance 
Program so that the immediate goal of $100 mil- 
lion for these programs may be reached in 1961. 

Response to Needs of African Nations 

The discussions on economic development at this 
session of the Council are given special point and 
meaning with the enti-y this year of a large por- 
tion of the African Continent into the family of 
nations. During 1960, 14 new African states con- 
taining more than 80 million people will assume, 
through peaceful change, their rightful place as 
self-governing, independent nations with all of 
the blessings and responsibilities which freedom 
entails. It is of the greatest importance that this 
venture into fi-eedom succeed, that the new nations 
of Africa develop stable and healthy societies dedi- 
cated to the spiritual and material improvement of 
their peoples. 

The emerging African leaders have recognized 
the need for disinterested outside help in pursuing 
their national goals. The initiative in seeking siich 
help, and the responsibility for putting it to effec- 
tive use, must rest with the African states them- 
selves. But the international community must be 
ready to respond. For the needs are great — in 
education, training, technology, capital, and basic 
social improvements. Outside assistance will be 
required fi'om many sources, from private founda- 
tions and investors, from individual governments, 
and, of key importance, from the international 
agencies. 

The international agencies have already begun 
to respond to the challenge. A number of organi- 
zations, among them the United Nations and its 
specialized agencies, including the World Bank 
and the International Monetary Fund, are already 
expanding their operations in the area. The U.N. 
Economic Conunission for Africa has made an 
auspicious start, and we trust that the develop- 
ment of programs of aid to Africa will take into 
accotmt the contribution which the Economic 
Commission for Africa can make to individual 
as well as muUilateral approaches to the mem- 
ber nations of that continent. 

The participation by the many new countries of 
Africa in the U.N. system will require larger ex- 
penditures by the inteniational agencies. My 
Govermnent is prepared to support the necessary 
increases in the regular budgets of the U.N. and 
the appropriate specialized agencies, includmg the 

187 



U.N. program for technical assistance for public 
administration. "We also believe that the experi- 
mental label should be removed from tlie OPEX 
program.^ This program should now be given 
permanent status and increased in size. 

Expansion of International Trade 

Coimtries in tlie process of development are 
giving increasing attention to the expansion of 
international trade, both as a means of making the 
best possible use of scarce resources and in order 
to enlarge their capacity to import, and pay for the 
capital and other development goods which they 
must obtain from the outside world. The problem 
of gaining wider export markets for the products 
of the less developed areas, as the Secretai-y-Gen- 
eral has observed, has become a vital aspect of 
development. This problem has been of deep con- 
cern to the Council's Cormnission on International 
Commodity Trade and the Interim Coordinating 
Committee on International Commodity Arrange- 
ments. Several other international groups have 
been at work on the difficulties affecting world 
trade in primary commodities of great importance 
to the less developed areas. More recently, the 
Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade have undertaken an intensive 
study of ways to broaden the markets for a diver- 
sified range of exports from the less developed 
areas with emphasis on the removal of discrimina- 
tions, the abatement of excessive restrictions, and 
the reduction of demand-depressing excise levies. 

GATT has played a key role in expanding trade 
on a liberal, multilateral basis. The fact that 
world trade has now reached record levels is due 
in no small measure to the application of GATT's 
basic rules for the elimination of quotas, the re- 
duction of tariffs, and the avoidance of discrimina- 
tion. GATT members now account for 80 percent 
of the world's trade, and its membership has 
grown each year. This growing participation in 
GATT, particularly by the less developed coun- 
tries, is clear evidence of the benefits of the GATT 
system. 

It has sometimes been suggested that GATT 
should become a universal institution. However, 



' The OPEX program, which was approved by the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 19jS for an experimental 1-year period, 
is intended to help requesting governments recruit from 
outside their country experienced oi)erational, executive, 
and administrative personnel to work as civil servants on 
a temporary basis. 



188 



as is made abundantly clear in the preliminary 
analysis by the Secretary-General of the trading 
systems of centrally directed and market econo- 
mies, there are fundamental differences between 
the objectives and methods of GATT and those of 
centrally directed economies. The United States 
could not consider as a step forward any proposal 
to bring about universal membership in GATT 
at the sacrifice of the principles of liberal, multi- 
lateral trade. It would be a senice to no one to 
give the illusion of universality while losing the 
meaningful principles upon which a truly interna- 
tional trade organization must be based. 

The less developed countries are being con- 
fronted with an increasingly serious problem by 
the insistence of certain states upon the adoption 
of bilateral or barter methods of trade, frequently 
in conjunction with offers of capital o