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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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INDEX 



VOLUME XLIV: Numbers 1123-1148 

January 2- June 26, 1961 



HE 

FFICIAL 

VEEKLY RECORD 

IF 

INITED STATES 

OREIGN POLICY 



Number 


Date 


of Issue 


Pages 


1123 


Jan. 


2, 1961 


1- 36 


1124 


Jan. 


9, 1961 


37- 68 


1125 


Jan. 


16, 1961 


69- 100 


1126 


Jan. 


23, 1961 


101- 136 


1127 


Jan. 


30, 1961 


137- 172 


1128 


Feb. 


6, 1961 


173- 204 


1129 


Feb. 


13, 1961 


205- 248 


1130 


Feb. 


20, 1961 


249- 284 


1131 


Feb. 


27, 1961 


285- 320 


1132 


Mar. 


6, 1961 


321- 356 


1133 


Mar. 


13, 1961 


357- 392 


1134 


Mar. 


20, 1961 


393- 428 


1135 


Mar. 


27, 1961 


429- 468 


1136 


Apr. 


3, 1961 


469- 504 


1137 


Apr. 


10, 1961 


505- 540 


1138 


Apr. 


17, 1961 


541- 576 


1139 


Apr. 


24, 1961 


577- 612 


1140 


May 


1, 1961 


613- 656 


1141 


May 


8, 1961 


657- 700 


1142 


May 


15, 1961 


701- 744 


1143 


May 


22, 1961 


745- 792 


1144 


May 


29, 1961 


793- 836 


1145 


June 


5, 1961 


837- 900 


1146 


June 


12, 1961 


901- 944 


1147 


June 


19, 1961 


945- 988 


1148 


June 


26, 1961 


989-1032 



51 



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Corrections for Volume XLiV 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call 
attention to the following errors in Volume XLIV: 

January 9, page 64, first column, footnote 3: The 
U.N. document number should be A/RES/1573(XV). 

March 27, page 445, second column, fourth para- 
graph under the subhead "President Kennedy": 
The first sentence should read "We share the same 
basic aspiration for the United States as he works 
for for his own country." 

April 10, page 511, second column, third line from 
bottom: The sentence should begin "The emphasis 
on low or interest-free loans ..." 

May 29, page 830, second column, 11th line: The 
date should be October 14, 1959. 



INDEX 

Volume XLIV: Numbers 1123-1148, January 2-June 26, 1961 



Acheson, Dean, 438 

Achilles, Theodore C, 31 

Act for International Development, 950, 977, 1000 

Act of Bogota. See Bogota, Act of 

Adams, Grantley. 42, 351 

Adams, Samuel C, Jr., 466 

Adenauer, Konrad, 621 

Advisory Committee on Labor and Management, creation 

and functions of, message (Kennedy), 291 
Afghanistan : 
Article (Byroade), 125 
Informational media guaranty program, agreement with 

U.S. providing, 610 
Relief supplies, agreement amending 1954 agreement 
with U.S. for duty-free entry and defrayment of 
inland transportation charges, 317 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S. extending 
1953 agreement, 201 
Africa (see also individual countries) : 
African and Malagasy Organization for Economic Co- 
operation, established, 586, 587 
Afro-Asian resolution on Angola, text of, 499 ; U.S. sup- 
port, statement (Stevenson), 497 
All-African Peoples' Conference, U.S. greetings, mes- 
sage (WillianLs), 526 
Challenge of, addresses and remarks: Williams, 259, 

911 ; Stevenson. 412 
Conference of African states at Monrovia, greetings to, 

message (Kennedy), 802 
Conference of African states on the development of 
education in Africa, message and remarks: 
Coombs, 936; Kennedy, 937; U.S. observer delega- 
tion to, 938 
Development programs for, address and statement 

(Stevenson), 534, 805. 806 
East Africa, U.S. teacher program in, 218 
East-West struggle for control in, question of, state- 
ment (Rusk), 299 
Economic, educational, and political problems of, ad- 
dresses : Cummings, 915 ; Dulles, 767 ; Williams, 584 
Economic Commission for, U.N. See Economic Com- 
mission for Africa 
European Economic Community, association of African 
states with, joint communique (Hallstein, 
Kennedy), 869 
Freedom day celebrations, remarks (Kennedy), 638 
Fulbright program in, proposed expansion of, 459 
Hunger and protein deficiency in, address (Rowan), 406 
Self-determination and development in, joint communi- 
que (Bourguiba, Kennedy), 852 



Africa — Continued 

U.N. African members' resolution proposing sanctions 
against Union of South Africa, statement (Plimp- 
ton), 603; text, 604 

U.N. role in, joint communique (Kennedy, Nkrumah), 
446 

U.S. information activities in, need for expansion of, 
letter (Eisenhower), 182, 183; report, 184, 185, 187 

U.S. Naval Task Force good-will visit to, statement 
(Rusk), 433 

U.S. policy and relations : addresses, remarks, and state- 
ments : Bowles, 484, 629 ; Cummings, 915 ; Kennedy, 
446 ; Kotschnig, 377 ; Stevenson, 361 ; Williams, 373, 
529, 730, 854, 912 

Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, announcement of, 
295 ; report on, 527 
African Pilot, 312 

Agency for International Development, proposed establish- 
ment and organization of, letter and statements : 
Kennedy, 978 ; Rusk, 953, 1003 
Agrarian reform. See Land reform 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, con- 
vention (1944) and protocol of amendment to, 65, 
201, 317, 423, 537 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs : 

Agreements with : Afghanistan, 130 ; Bolivia, 698, 921, 
922 ; Brazil, 65, 134, 734, 896 ; Burma, 1029 ; Chile, 
318; China, 65, 425, 834; Colombia, 834; Cyprus, 
501; France, 465; Greece, 789, 896; Iceland, 
501, 734 ; India, 538 ; Indonesia, 65, 501 ; Iran, 698 ; 
Israel, 896; Korea, 202, 610, 941; Pakistan, 610, 
790 ; Peru, 501 ; Spain, 985 ; Turkey, 282, 734, 790 ; 
U.A.R., 318, 425, 1029 ; Uruguay, 98 ; Viet-Nam, 653 ; 
Yugoslavia, 1029 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act. 
See Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act 

AID role in, letter (Kennedy), 978 

Cuban refugees, proposed distribution to, letter and 
statement (Kennedy), 257, 310 

Emergency relief aid to : Chile, 492 ; Congo, Republic of 
the, 218, 312 ; Kenya, 312 ; Lebanon, 50 ; Libya, 312 ; 
Peru, 923 ; Tunisia, .597 

Food-for-peace program. See Food-for-peace program 

Grants to voluntary reUef agencies for distribution in 
the Congo, 156 

Pakistan development, proposed use of for, 448 

Sales for foreign currencies. See under Foreign 
currency 



Index, January fo June 1961 



1035 



Agricultural surpluses, world, problem of, address 

(Martin), 824 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(1954) : 
Administration of, delegation of authority for, Execu- 
tive order, 159 
Legislation amending and extending, statement 
(Martin), 1020 
Agriculture {see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter-Amer- 
ican Institute of; Agricultural surpluses; and Food 
and Agriculture Organization) : 
Africa, need for increased production, address (Wil- 
liams). 528 
EEC, couinion agricultural policy within, proposed 
est.ililislMnent of, joint communique (Ilallstein, 
Kennedy), 808 
Exports of U.S. products, need to increase, message 

(Kennedy), 292 
Importance in economic growth, statement (Frank), 

4G1 
Land reform. See Land reform 
Latin America, need for diversified production, message 

(Kennedy), 476 
Products, need for removal of restrictions on trade 
in, address and message; Hadraba, 269, 270; 
Kennedy, 293 
U.S.-Canadian productivity, comparison with Com- 
munist, address (Kennedy), 842 
World problems, joint communique (Holyoake, Ken- 
nedy), 403 
Agriculture, Department of, delegation of functions to 
for administration of P.L. 480, Executive order, 159 
Agronsk.v, Martin, 305 
Ahmed, Aziz. 448 

AID. See Agency for International Development 
Air transport. See Aviation 
Airmail, universal postal convention (1957) provisions 

re, 653, 896, 1029 
Albania, convention (1954) and protocol for protection 
of cultural projierty in event of armed conflict, 282 
Albright, Raymond J., 170 
Alemann. Rolierto T.. 920 
Alessandri, Jorge, 867 
Algerian question ; 

French efforts to resolve, message (Kennedy), 709 
General Assembly resolutions for .solution of, text, 64 
Negotiation and self-determination proposed for settle- 
ment, joint communique (Bourguiba, Kennedy), 
852 
Presidents Bourguiba and de Gaulle consultations on, 

statement (Rusk), 431 
Tunisian position on, address (Bourguiba), 851 
U.S. views on, statement.s ; Rusk, 524 ; Wilcox, 62 
AUanza para Progreso. See Alliance for Progress 
Aliens : 
Nonimmigrant, fingerprinting regulations re amended, 

692 
Permanent resident, limitation on travel to Cuba, 178 
All-African Peoples' Conference, 526 
Alliance for Progress: 

Cuban views, statement (Stevenson), 673 
IDB role in, statement (Kennedy), 553 



Alliance for Progress — Continued 

Importance and objectives of, addresses, remarks, and 

statements : Ball, 864 ; Berle, 342, 017, 020, 703, 819 ; 

Dillon, 694, 695, 696, 698; Kennedy, 212, 616; 

Rowan, 799 ; Rusk, 759 

Proposal fur, address and message to Congres.^ 

( Kcnned.v), 471 
U.S.-Argentine exchange of views on, letters (Fron- 

dizi, Keiuiedy), 814 
U.S. e(f(irts to expedite and strengthen, memorandums 
(Ball), 918 
Ambassadorial talks, Warsaw (U.S.-Communist China), 

U.S. iiosition. summary (Herter), 147 
Ambassadors, U.S. (see also under Foreign Service) : 
Aiipoiiitnicnt of, statement (Rusk), 304 
Negotiating authority of, statement (Rusk), 434 
American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign 

Service, 47 
American Council on Education, conference on teacher 

problem in East Africa, 219 
American Foreign Ministers: 
Meeting on Cuban situation, question of, statement 

(Rusk), 433 
Sanctions against Dominican Republic invoked at San 
Jose meeting, statement (Bonsai) and OAS Council 
report on. 273 
American Repul>lics (see also Latin America), Foreign 

Relations volume on, released, 942 
American States, Organization of. See Organization of 

American States 
Amity treaties. See Friendship 
Amrehn, Franz. 151 
Angola situation ; 

Afro-Asian proposed resolution in Security Council, 499 
U.S. position, statements: Carpenter, 498; Rusk, 521; 
Stevenson, 497 
Anguilla, 19."i4 convention concerning customs facilities 

for touring, 465 
Antarctica, peaceful uses of, U.S. proposal, summary 

(Herter), 146 
Anti-Seiiiitisni, reports on and efforts to prevent recur- 
rences of, statement (Tree), 403 
ANZUS treaty: 

Role of, summary (Herter), 145 

U.S.-Australian views, joint communique (Kennedy, 
Menzies), 372 
Apartheid policy of Union of South Africa : 

U.N. consideration of, statements and resolutions: 
Bingham, .509. 570; Plimpton, COO; texts of resolu- 
tions, 572, 600 
U.S. views of, address (Williams), 7.32 
Arab Republic, United. See United Arab Republic 
Arab states (see also individual countries) : 

Development financing program, U.S. proposal for, 

statement (Herter), 149 
Refugees, U.N. programs for, U.S. views and support, 
remarks and statement: Jones, 929; Wilcox, 28 
Arctic inspection, U.S. proposal, summary (Herter), 146 
Argentina : 

Alliance for Progress, exchange of views on, letters 

(Frondizi, Kennedy), 814 
Food-for-peace mission visit to, 312 



1036 



Department of State Bulletin 



Argentina — Continued 
IFC investments in, 90 
Seminar on U.S. educational system, participation in, 

311 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 

unification of rules re, 1029 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

19.56 agreement with U.S. for financing, 1029 
GATT. declaration of provisional accession, 896 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
convention (1944) on and protocol of amendment 
to, 425 
Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S. 

prnviUiiig, 833 
Naval vessels, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 169 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 201 
U.S. -Argentine cooperation, statement (Kennedy), 920 
Armaments (see also Disarmament, Missiles, owd Nuclear 
weapons) : 
Cuba, Soviet and Soviet-bloc military aid to, addresses 
and statements: Coerr, 253; Stevenson, 671, 6S0; 
Wadsworth. Ill 
Dominican Republic, OAS suspension of trade with, 

statement ( Bonsai ) , 273, 274 
Industry, need for and vastness of, address (Eisen- 
hower), ISO 
International control, inspection, and reduction of: 
Negotiations, need for adequate preparation for, ad- 
dress and report: Kennedy, 176; Sprague, 192 
Soviet position, summary (Herter), 147 
U.S. and Western proposals, addres.ses and summary: 
Bowles, 482 ; GuUion, 630, G38 ; Herter, 146 
NATO, U.S. policy to strengthen, messages and remarks 

(Kennedy), 333, 647, 841, 905 
Supply of arms to Laos and new African nations, need 
for international supervision of, statements: De- 
partment, 114 ; Rusk, 300, 30.3, 522 
U.S. controls on shipments to the Congo, 546, 1009 
Armed forces : 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of wounded 

and sick in time of war, 609 
In the Congo. See Congo situation 
NATO, need to strengthen, address (Kennedy), 841 
U.N., question of permanent force for, statement 
(Rusk), 521 
Armed forces, U.S.: 

Aircraft. See vnder Aviation 

Alleged use in Cuban situation, U.S. refutation of, mes- 
sages and statements: Kennedy, 661; Khrushchev, 
664 ; Stevenson, 667 
Conventional forces in Europe, question of withdrawal 

of, statement (Ru.sk), 440 
Dependents living abroad, rescinding of order limiting, 

message (Kennedy), 293 
Disaster relief provided to Yemen, 271 
In Japan, agreements with Japan re, address (Mac- 
Arthur), 5.58, 559 
In Korea, question of status-of-forces agreement re, 

statements (Chyung, Ru.sk), 437, 712 
Limitation of expenditures abroad by personnel, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 294 



Armed forces, U.S. — Continued 

Military mission to Liberia, agreement extending 1951 

agreement re, 834 
Reorganization and strengthening of, proposed, message 

(Kennedy), 906 
USAF crew of a C-130 shot down over Soviet Armenia, 
U.S. seeks contact with surviving members, texts of 
U.S. and Soviet notes, 257 
U.S. Naval Task Force off African coast, question of 
orders to, statement (Rusk), 433 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization and individual countries) : 
Communist aggression in. See under Communism, 

Laos, and Viet-Nam 
Econouuc Commission for, U.N. See Economic Com- 

uiission for Asia and the Far East 
Economic development, U.S. views and aid, address and 

statement : Bowles, 484 ; Frank, 460 
Fulbright program in, recommendation to enlarge, 459 
Hunger and protein deficiency in, address (Rowan), 

406 
Summary of U.S. activities in (Herter), 146 
U.S. relations with, reappraisal of, address (Bowles), 

630 
USIA broadcasts to, need for increase in, message 

(Kennedy), 905 
Visit of Vice President Johnson to : 
Announcement of, 750 
Statements (Rusk), 762 
Texts of joint communiques, 956 
Asia Foundation, contribution to Afghan development, 

address (Byroade), 130 
Asylum, right of, statements (Stevenson), 667, 670, 684 
Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization) : 
Goals of : 

Message (Kennedy), 333 

Role of OECD in attaining, statement (Ball), 328, 329 
New nations, role in aid to, address (Ball), 714 
OECD role in, U.S.-German joint communique, 622 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, statement (Rusk), 800 
Atlantic Fisheries, Northwest. See Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (see also Atomic Energy 
Agency) : 
Agreements with : Australia, 465 ; Costa Rica, 390 ; 
France, 698; Ireland, 352, 574; Israel, 201; Italy, 
574 ; Turkey, 734, 985 
U.S.-Israeli cooperation. Department statement, 45 
U.S. policy and views, message and summary : Eisen- 
hower, 140 ; Herter, 146 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Board of Governors, U.S. delegation to 21st session 

of, 651 
Importance of, summary (Herter), 146 
Progress and U.S. support of, statement (Wilcox), 92 
Atomic energy for mutual defense purposes, agreement 
with Italy for cooperation on uses of, 201, 941 



Index, January fo June 1961 



1037 



Atomic radiation : 
Agreement with Australia re sampling by means of 

balloons in the upper atmosphere, 941 
U.N. Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 
U.S. delegation to 9th session, 499 
Attwood, William, 653 
Australia : 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
IFC investment in, 90 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreeement with U.S. 

amending 19.56 agreement, 46.5 
GATT, protocol replacing schedule I, 537 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 

schedules, 8th and 9th protocols of. 97 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34 
Radioactivity of upper atmosphere, agreement with 
U.S. re sampling by means of balloons, 941 
U.S.-Australian views re international problems, text 
of Joint communique (Kennedy, Menzies), 372 
Austria : 

Chancellor Raab's leadership, message (Kennedy), 591 
Congo situation, resolution in General Assembly on, 62 
Fund for settlement of property losses of political per- 

seeutees established, 691 
Refugee camps, U.S. contributions to close, 454 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Counterpart settlement, agreement with U.S., 653 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 

OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Aviation : 
Air transport negotiations with : India, 727 ; Japan, 

935 ; U.K., 963 
Aircraft : 

Alleged use of U.S. aircraft in Cuban situation, mes- 
sages (Khrushchev) and Soviet statement, 662, 
664; U.S. refutation of, statements (Stevenson), 
667, 676 
O-130 shot down by Soviets over Soviet Armenia, 
U.S. requests information re, texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 257 
DC-3. use of in Berlin operations, statement (Rusk), 

437 
Delivery of French-built planes in Katanga, Republic 
of the Congo, statement (Stevenson), 365 
Defection of Cuban Air Force pilots, statement ( Steven- 
son), 667, 676 
Exchange of information on atmospheric conditions af- 
fecting, need for, article (Landsberg), 279 
Military air transport, need to increase capacity of, 

address (Kennedy), 211 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air services transit, international, agreement (1944), 

282, 501, 537 
Air transport agreements with : Mexico, 282 ; New 
Zealand, 109 ; Pakistan, 834 



Aviation — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 

1929 convention for unification of rules re, 97 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 201, 
985; protocol (1954) relating to amendments to, 
282, 537, 698, 789 
Dhahran airfield agreement with Saudi Arabia, non- 
renewal of. Department statement, 490 
International recognition of rights in aircraft, con- 
vention (1948) on, 896 
U.S. aid to Viet-Nam for construction of jet runway, 
84 
Ayub Khan, Mohammed, 448, 960 

Badeau, .John S., 985 
Baig, M. O. A., 424 
Balance of payments : 

Import restrictions. GATT provision re, 1018 
U.S. position and steps to improve : 
Addresses, messages, statements, and summary : Ball, 
4.50; Braderman, 315, 316; Dillon, 331; Hadraba, 
264, 269, 270; Herter, 150; Kennedy, 208, 287; 
Kotschnig, 378 : Merchant, 4 ; Rusk, 324, 439 
Decrease in duty-free exemptions, message (Ken- 
nedy) and proposed bill, 293, 382 
German-U.S. discussions, statement (Rusk), 300; 
texts of joint communique (Kennedy, von Bren- 
tano) and U.S. aide-memoire re, 369 
Impact of foreign aid expenditure on, message (Ken- 
nedy), 512 
Industrialized nations cooperation for solution of, 

need for, statement (Ball), 327 
Progress in, message (Kennedy), 904 
Report of committee on U.S. economic position re, 

215 
U.S.-Canada review of, text of communique, 488 
U.S. citizens' gold holdings abroad, disposal of, an- 
nouncement and Executive order, 195 
Balance of power, shift in, address : Bohlen, 967 ; 

Bowles, 481 
Baldwin, Charles F., 390 
Balewa, Alhaji Sir Abuakar Tafawa, 918 
Ball, George W. : 
Addresses, statements, and correspondence : 

Alliance for Progress, U.S. efforts to expedite and 

strengthen, 918 
Atlantic Community and the New Nations, 714 
Battle Act, Department's views on legislation to 

amend, 775 
Free-world economic cooperation, 449 
Inter-American program, Department requests funds 

for, 864 
Korea, U.S. relations with, 262 

Newly developing nations and "New Frontier", 751 

OECD convention, requesting ratification of, 326 

Confirmation as Under Secretary of State for Economic 

Affairs, 282 
Meeting with Tunisian officials, 8.53 
U.S. representative to 4th meeting of DAG, 515, 555 
Visit to Europe for talks on economic and textile mat- 
ters, 489, 825 



1038 



Department of State Bulletin 



Bandung conference, address (Rowan), 407 

Barbour, Walworth, 941 

Barco, James W., 54, 66, 112, 199 

Bases, U.S. See Military bases 

Batt, William L., Jr., 245 

Battle, Lucius D., 466 

Battle Act, proposed amendment to : 

Address and statement : Ball, 775 ; Kennedy, 212 
Text of, 444 
Baudouin, King, 40 
Beale, Wilson T. M., Jr., 572 
B^diS, Konan, 177 
Behr, Frederic H., 170 
Belgium : 

Congo situation. See Congo situation 

Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 

ICEM aid in resettlement of Belgian nationals from 

the Congo, article (Warren), 389 
Prime Minister Lefevre, congratulations to, message 

(Kennedy), 803 
Ruanda-Uruudi. See Ruanda-Urundi 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, establishment, and navigation, treaty and 

protocol with U.S., 383, 390 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, applica- 
tion to Republic of the Congo, 610rt 
International Tracing Service, agreement and pro- 
tocol relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending an- 
nex B of 1950 agreement with U.S., 201 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Radio regulations (19.59), 609 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, .390 
Wedding of King Baudouin, statements (Herter), 40, 
41 
Benjamin, Robert S., 464 
Berding, Andrew H., 151 
Berle, Adolf A. : 

Appointment as consultant to Secretary of State, 426 
Chairman of Task Force on Latin America, 298 
Latin American economic and social development, ad- 
dresses on U.S. program for, 342, 617, 763, 818 
Visit to Argentina, 4.37 
Berlin : 

Quadripartite (France, Soviet Union, U.K., U.S.) status 

of, address (Dowling), 589 
Soviet position on, address, report, and statement: 
Berding, 151; Herter, 147; Kennedy, 993; Rusli, 
432 
U.S. and Western reafiirmation of rights in, address, 
communiques, remarks, report, statements, and 
summary : Adenauer, Kennedy, 622 ; Berding, 151, 
152; Herter, 147; Kennedy, 993; Kennedy, von 
Brentano, 370; NATO, 40, 801; Rusk, 302, 335. 
432, 433, 435, 437, 438, 440 ; U.S.-U.K. communique, 
999 



Berlin — Continued 

Universal postal convention (1957), application to, 134 
West Berlin : 

Freedom of, importance of maintaining, address and 
communiques : Berding, 152 ; Adenauer, Kennedy, 
622; Kennedy, von Brentano, 370; NATO, 801 
Progress in economic development, address (Berd- 
ing), 152 
Berlin conference (Potsdam conference). Foreign Rela- 
tions, volumes on, published, 721 
Bernbaum, Maurice M., 318 
Bicycles, tariff rates on imports : 

Peril-point investigation called for, 50 
Proclamation establishing new rates, 419 
Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, 6.53 

Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for uni- 
fication of rules re, 1029 
Bingham, Jonathan B., 465, 569, 785 
Biochemistry Congress, Fifth International, 96 
Bizerte, Tunisian position re, address (Bourguiba), 851 
Blair, William McCormick, Jr., 653 
Blanck^, W. Wendell, 65, 318 
Bloodgood, Grant, 225 
Blough, Roy, 215 
Blumenthal, W. Michael, 742 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, recommendations for im- 
provement of Fulbright program, 459 
Bogota, Act of : 
Address, remarks, and statement: Ball, 918; Coerr, 

254, 255 ; Kennedy, 61G ; Rusk, 298 
U.S. contribution to implement : 
Request for, address, message, and statement: Ball, 

864 ; Kennedy, 473, 474 
Signing of appropriation bill, remarks (Kennedy), 
971 
Bohlen, Charles E., 640n, 964 
Bolivia : 

Development program, U.S.-Bolivian cooperation on, 

letters (Kennedy, Paz), 920 
ICA loan, 531 
Membership In ICEM, 387 
Social revolution in, address (Coerr), 252 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 698 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 

protocol of amendment to convention on, 425 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S. re furnish- 
ing of, 300 
U.S. economic policies in, mission to review status of, 

454 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 170 
Bolster, Edward A., 935 
Bonds, German dollar, agreement re validation with 

Federal Republic of Germany, 597, 789 
Bonin Islands, U.S. compensation to former residents of, 

address (MacArthur), 558, 559 
Bonsai, Philip W., 273, 765, 941 
Bonn Oum, Prince, 115 
Bourguiba, Habib, 431, 448, 691, 756, 848 
Bourguiba, Habib, Jr., 445 



Index, January to June 1961 



1039 



Bowles, Chester : 

Addresses and letter : 

The Decisive Decade, 480 
Foundations of World Partnership, 629 
Foreign aid. challenge to U.S., 703 
Korean economy, U.S. views, 930 
Confirmatiiin as Under Secretary of State, 245 
Braderman, Eugene M., 314 
Bradford, Saxtou, 985 
Bramble, Harlan P., 426 
Brand, Vance, 50, 170 
Brannon, CuUen A., Jr., 170 
Brazil : 

Financial problems, U.S. and IMF aid, announcements: 

Dillon, Jlarinni, 862 ; IMF. 863 
Food-for-peace missions to, 312, .502 
ICEM aid to Dutch settlers in, U.S. support of, article 

(Warren), 387 
IDB meeting at Rio de Janeiro, statements (Dillon), 693 
OAS suspension of trade with Dominican Republic, 

position on, 275 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 65, 

134, 734, 896 
Extr.-idition, treaty with U.S., 164, 201, 941 
GATT: 

Declaration on provisional accession of Argentina, 

896 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 

III. 201, 352 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of sched- 
ules, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th protocols of. 97, 201 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 

convention (1944) on and protocol amending, 425 
Nuclear research and training equipment, agreement 
with U.S. providing grant to assist in acquisition 
of, 653 
Special services, agreement extending 1953 agreement 

with U.S., 318 
U.S. naval vessels, agreements with U.S. for loan of, 

244 
Vocational education program, cooperative agreement 
wilh U.S. extending 1950 agreement, 318 
U.S. relations with and cooperation in Latin American 

affairs, message (Kennedy), 256 
.World War II dead, salute to, message (Eisenhower), 
48 
Brentano, Heinrich von, 369, 439 
Brezhnev, Leonid, 214 

British Commonwealth (see also United Kingdom), cen- 
sorship of Union of South Africa and withdrawal 
of, 602 
Broadcasting agreement, North American regional, and 

final protocol, 896 
Brown, Aaron S., 653 
Bruce, David K. E., 390 

Budget, address and messages (Kennedy), 209, 293, 903 
Bulgaria, claims negotiations with U.S., 150, 597 
Bureau of the Budget, review of department and agency 
requests for spending authority, message (Kennedy), 
293 



Burma : 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 1(53 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 812 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities agreement amending 1958 

agreement with U.S., 1029 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 97, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 941 
Burney, Leroy E., 281 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, conventions on 

law of the sea, 609 
Byroade, Henry A., 125 

Cairo conference, 1943, volume on rele.ised, 1029 
Calendar of inlernational conferences and meetings (see 
also subject), 20, 91, 198, 272, 348, 423, 490, 563, 646, 
735, 869, 981 
Calhoun, John A., 789 
Camliodia : 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation In, 103 
IMCO convention, 425 
Cameroun : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 177 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IMCO convention, 985 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 

244 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
WMO convention, 134 
Canada : 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland to visit for consultations, 

963 
Joint U.S. -Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 
Affairs, Cth meeting, announcement of, delegations, 
and text of communique, 372, 487 
OECD, Canadian participation and memher.slilp in, 8, 327 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 812 
Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, International 

Joint Commission report on, 772, 909 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

CANOL pipeline facilities, agreement with U.S. re 

disposition of, 34 
Columbia Kiver Basin, treaty with U.S. re coopera- 
tive development of, 201, 227, 492 
Double taxation on estates and inheritances, con- 
vention for avoidance of, with U.S., 351, 3.">2 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Argentina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34 
OECD, convention on, supplementary protocols, and 

memorandum of understanding, 65 
Pilotage services on Great Lakes and St. Lawrence 
River, agreement with U.S. governing coordination 
of, 834, 895 
Postal convention with U.S., 244 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 390 



1040 



Department of State Bulletin 



Canada — Continued 

U.S.-Canadian relations, remarlis (Diefenbaljer, Eisen- 
hower, Herter), 227; joint communique (Diefen- 
baker, Kennedy ) , 371 
Visit of President Kennedy, address to Parliament and 
joint communique ( Diefenbalcer, Kennedy), 839 
Canal Zone : 
Drivers' licenses issued in Panama and Canal Zone, 
U.S. -Panamanian agreement for reciprocal recogni- 
tion, 202, 501 
U.S. annuity payment to Panama for rights in, 381 
CANOL iiipeliue facilities, agreement with Canada re 

disposition of, 34 
Caramaulis, Constantine, 381, 686, 724 
CARE. See Committee for American Relief Everywhere 
Caribbean area (see also individual countries) : 
Air routes in, U.S. -U.K. negotiations on, 963 
Cuban Interventionist activities, statement (Wads- 
worth), 107 
Sverdlovsk incident, 177 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment of 

and annexed statute, 134, 201 
Carnahan, A. S. .T., .".01, 041 
Carpenter, Francis \V., 498 
Castro, Fidel, 2.J3, 667, 686 
Catudal, Ilonore M., 1010 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Central African Rei)ublic: 
International telecommunication conventions, 134, 609 
UX IOSCO constitution, 282 

U.S. aid, exchange of letters re (Dacko, Kennedy), 766 
U.S. Ambas.sador, appointment, 65; confirmation, 318 
Central America. See Caribbean area and individual 

countries 
Central Treaty Organization: 
9th Ministerial meeting: 
Statements (Ru.sk), 756, 778 
Text of final communique, 779 
U.S. observer delegation to, 780 
Purpose of, summary (Herter), 145 
6th anniversary, exchange of messages (Baig, Rusk), 
424 
Century 21 Exposition, U.S. commissioner for, confirma- 
tion, 895 
Ceylon : 
Congo situation, proposed resolution in Security Council 

re, statements (Stevenson), 365, 367 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
GATT: 
Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia, 97 
Declaration on relations with Poland, 97, 169 
Protocol replacing schedule VI, 538 
Rectifications and modification to texts of schedules, 
8th and 9th protocols of, 97 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 812 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 574 
Chad: 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
International telecommunication conventions, 134, 578 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
WHO constitution, 317 



Chad — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

WMO convention, 317 
U.S. Ambassador: 

Appointment and confirmation (BlanckS), 65, 318 
Confirmation (Calhoun), 789 
Chang, Do Young, 962 
Chang, Lee Wook, 962 
Chanlett, Mrs. Emil T., 742 
Chapman, Gordon W., 941 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chayes, Abram, 318, 776 
Chiang Kai-shek, 958 
Chile : 
Earthquake, U.S. aid in reconstruction and rehabilita- 
tion, 474, 478, 492, 864, 867 
Economic and social development in, U.S. aid, 254, 255 
IFC investment in, 90 

Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Peace Corps project in, 1005 
Seminar on U.S. educational systems, participation in, 

311 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1954 agreement, 318 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Argentina, 896 
GATT, rectifications and modifications to texts of 
schedules, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th protocols of, 97, 
169, 201 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S. 

re, 425 
Loan of U.S. naval vessel, agreement amending 1960 

agreement with U.S., 65 
Satellite tracking facility at Magallenes Province, 
agreement with U.S. re reactivation of, 1029 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 742 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Sino-Sovlet 
bloc) : 
Activities in Asia, address (Kennedy), 210 
Disarmament negotiations, question of inclusion in, 

statements (Rusk), 301, 309 
Effort to expel U.S. from Far East, summary (Herter), 

146 
Emergence as world power, address (Bowles), 481 
European migrants from, ICEM aid to, article 

(Warren), 387,388 
Menace to world peace, U.S.-New Zealand concern, 

joint communique (Kennedy, Holyoake), 404 
People-to-people contacts in newly developing countries, 

address (Tubby), 973 
Problem of communicating with, 187 
Question of admittance of newsmen to, statement 

(Rusk), 438 
U.N. representation of, question of, statements: Jotin- 

son, 958 ; Rusk, 303, 434, 523 
U.S. policy toward, messages and statements: Eisen- 
hower, 140 ; Johnson, 958 ; Khrushchev, 665 ; Rusk, 
303, 434, 441, 523 



Index, January fo Jane J 96 J 



1041 



China, Communist — Continued 

Warsaw ambassadorial talks, U.S. views, summary 
(Herter), 147 
China, Republic of : 

ECAFE conference for highway development, participa- 
tion in, 163 
Governor of Taiwan, visit to U.S., 903 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 65, 

425, 834 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

1047 agreement with U.S. re, .501 
Loan of naval vessel, agreement with U.S. for, 318 
Rndio regulations (19.59), 985 
U.S. policy and commitments to, statements (Rusk), 

303, 441 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, announcement, and 
joint communique (Chiang Kai-shek, Johnson), 
750, 958 
Chiribnga, Josf? R., 83 

Cholera research project, conversion of to SEATO medi- 
cal research laboratory, agreement with Thailand 
re, 501 
Chou Chi-jou, 803 
Chyung, Yil Hyung, 711 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil defense, proposed strengthening of and appropria- 
tion request for, message (Kennedy), 907 
Civil liberties, Cuban suppression of, statement (Steven- 
son ) , G79 
Civil servant, international, definition of, .54 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 

treatment in time of war, 609 
Claims: 

Austria, fund for settlement of property losses of politi- 
cal persecutees established, 691 
Philippine-U.S. agreements re, 556, 574 
U.S. claims agninst : 
Austria, counterpart settlement agreement with, 653 
Bulgaria, negotiations for settlement, 150, 597 
East German dollar bonds, agreement (U.S. -German 

Federal Republic) re validation of, 597, 789 
Germany, agreement on partial settlement for post- 
war economic assistance, 720, 834 
Poland, protocol to 1960 agreement for settlement 
with, 34 
Clappei', Mrs. Raymond, 829 

Classified information, equipment, materials, or services 
related to defense, agreement with Sweden for safe- 
guarding of, 282 
Cleveland, Harlan : 
Addresses and remarks : 
OflSce of U.N. Secretary-General, Soviet attacks on 

and proposal re, 809 
Peace Corps, internationalizing concept of, 551 
Problems of indirect aggression, mutual involvement, 

and nation-building in less developed areas, 858 
The ethics of mutual involvement, 525 
United Nations' capacity to act, 447 
Assistant Secretary of State, confirmation, 390 
Visit to Canada and Europe for consultations, 903 



Climatology, Commission for (WMO), 3d session of, article 

(Landsberg),278 
Clothespins, action to modify tariff concessions on im- 
ports of, 50 
Coerr, Wymberley DeR., 251, 454 

Coexistence, Soviet policy of, address, message, and state- 
ment : Khrushchev, 666 ; Kohler, 925 ; Rusk, 443 
Coffee, trade problems in, U.S. efforts to solve, summary 

(Herter), 149 
Coffee Study Group, designation of as public international 

organization, Executive order, 976 
Coffin, Frank M., 318, 455 
Cold war : 
Dealing with challenging issues in, address (Rusk), 517 
Position of Afghanistan in, address (Byroade), 125, 129 
Collective security (see also Mutual defense and Mutual 
security) : 
Arrangements for : 
Map on, 722 

Status of, message and summary: Eisenhower, 140; 
Herter, 144 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. See ANZUS and 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Europe. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Near and Middle East. See Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Principles of, U.S.-New Zealand reaffirm support of, 
joint communique (Holyoake, Kennedy), 403 
Colombia : 

IFC investment in, 90 
Peace Corps project in, 1005 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. providing 

for, 610 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

1957 agreement with U.S. for financing, 201 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment with U.S. re furnishing of, 698 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 389 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation (Freeman), 941; resig- 
nation (Jlclntosh), 98 
Colombo Plan, U.S. position and aid to countries of, state- 
ment (Achilles), 31 
Colonialism (see also Self-determination and Trust terri- 
tories) : 
Africa, breakdown of in, addresses (Stevenson), 412; 

(Williams), 856 
Imperial powers and colonized peoples, relations be- 
tween, address (Bourguiba), 851 
Soviet charge of imposition of on Congo, U.S. reply, 

statement (Wadsworth), 51 
U.S. views re, remarks and statements: Bowles, 484; 
Ru.sk, 335, 441, 521 ; Stevenson, 360, 361, 363 
Columbia River basin, U.S.-Canadian treaty for coopera- 
tive development of: 
Current action, 201 
Letters and statement: Eisenhower, 228; Herter, 229; 

White, 492 
Singing ceremony, remarks ( Dief enbaker, Eisenhower, 

Herter), 227 
Text of treaty, 234 



1042 



Department of State Bulletin 



Columbia University, Teachers College, contract with ICA 

to develop teachers for East Africa, 218 
Commerce. See Trade 
Commerce, Department of: 
Administration of program to encourage foreign travel 

in U.S., message (Kennedy), 291, 292 
Order re licenses for arms shipments to the Congo, 546 
Role in program of African development, address 
(Cummiugs), 917 
Commercial officers, duties of, address (Merchant), 5 
Commercial treaties. See Trade : Treaties 
Commission for Climatology of World Meteorological Or- 
ganization, 3d session of, article (Landsberg), 278 
Committee for American Relief Everywhere, program for 

Afghanistan, address (Byroade), 131 
Committee for Reciprocity Information : 
Functions of, 267, 418 

Notice of public hearings on GATT talks, 419 
Committee on South-VVest Africa, U.X., statement (Bing- 
ham) and text of U.N. resolution, 570, 571 
Commodity Trade, International, Commission on, pur- 
pose of and U.S. participation in, summary (Herter), 
149 
Commodity trade problems (see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses) : 
Efforts of Economic Commission for Africa toward so- 
lution of, statement (Kotschnig), 379 
International consultations on rubber, article (Mellen), 

78 
Less developed countries, addresses (Martin), 73, 823 
U.S. efforts to solve, summary (Herter), 149 
U.S.-Latin American cooperation in, address (Ken- 
nedy), 473 
Common markets : 

European {see also European Economic Community; 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for; 
ami European Free Trade Association), statement 
(Herter), 149 
Latin American, address (Kennedy), 473 
Communications. See Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Sino-Sovlet 
bloc ; and Soviet Union) : 
African attitude toward, address (Williams), 530 
Aggression and subversive activities in : 

Cul)a and Latin America, addresses, remarks, and 
statements: Berle, 343, 344, 618, 763, 819; Coerr, 
252, 253, 255 ; Department, 923 ; Kennedy, 210, 659, 
905; Rusk, 686, 762; Stevenson, 671; Wadsworth, 
107, 111 
Southeast Asia (.see also under Laos) : 
Statements (Rusk), 548, 757, 758, 761, 845 
Texts of communiques with Southeast Asian coun- 
tries, 549, 956, 957, 958 
Economic policies. See Less developed countries : Eco- 
nomic offensive 
Influence in Germany, address (Dowling), 590, 591 
International, challenge and threat of and efforts to 
combat, addresses, communique, reports, and state- 
ments : Ball, 714 ; Bowles, 481, 630, 705 ; Cleveland, 
858; Dulles, 337, 339; Kenned.v, 210; Kohler, 925; 
NAC communique, 801 ; Rusk, 440, 948, 954, 1007 ; 
Sprague Committee report, 186, 187, 190 ; Tubby, 972 



Communism — Continued 
Negotiating with Communists, address, communique, 
statements, and summary : Bowles, 482 ; NAC com- 
munique, 801 ; Rusk, 307, 520 ; Herter, 147 
Newly developing countries, activities and objectives 
in, addresses: Ball, 752; Bohlen, 967; Rusk, 516; 
Stevenson, 412 
North Korea, takeover in. Department study, 737 
Objectives of, addresses, messages, summary : Bohlen, 
967; Bowles, 630; Eisenhower, 139, 140, 142, 180; 
Herter, 148 ; Kennedy, 662, 903 
President Kennedy-Premier Khrushchev exchange of 

views re, 992, 993 
Projiaganda. Sec under Propaganda 
Community development conference, regional, at Seoul, 

U.S. representative to, statement (Rusk), 757 
Comptroller General of the U.S., 85 
Compulsory settlement of disputes, optional protocol of 

signature to, 985 
Conciliation Commission, Congo, report of, U.S. views, 

statement (Stevenson), 783 
Conciliation Commission for Palestine, U.N., 30 
Conferences and organizations, international. See In- 
ternational organizations and conferences 
The Conferences at Cairo atid Tehran, 19/i3, volume re- 
leased, 1029 
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville) : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 524 
President Youlou, visit to U.S., 963, 1008 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 

134 
UNESCO constitution, 98 
WHO constitution, 97 
Congo, Republic of the (L6opoldville) : 
Educators, U.S. training program for, 531 
Situation in. See Congo situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Geneva convention (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 609 
Road traflic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 698 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
WHO constitution, 941 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
U.S. relief aid to, 156, 218, 312 
Congo situation ; 
Addresses, remarks, and statements: Barco, 54, 199; 
Cleveland, 447, 526, 810, 858; Department, 565; 
Herter, 144; Kennedy, 210, 332; Klutznick, 564; 
Rusk, 296, 297, 299, 300, 304, 431, 4.33, 442, 516; 
Stevenson, 359, 364, 410, 412, 498, 532, 546, 781, 
783, 805; Wadsworth, 51, 56; White House, 218; 
Williams, 856 
Arrest and death of Lumumba, U.S. and Soviet views 
re: 
Statements: Barco, 55; Stevenson, 359, 364; Wads- 
worth, 52, 57 
Text of Soviet draft resolution, 368 
Belgium, role in : 

Soviet complaint re, statement (Barco), 199 
Statement (Wadsworth), 58 



Index, January fo June 1961 



1043 



Congo situation — Continued 
Belgium, role in — Continued 

Withdrawal of armed forces, U.N. resolutions calling 
for and Soviet request for, statements : Barco, 56 ; 
Stevenson, 360, 364, 366, 781, 782; texts of resolu- 
tions, 368, 785 
Cause of, statement (Stevenson), 498 
Conciliation Commission report on, General Assembly 

resolution and statement (Stevenson), 783 
Congolese National Army, Soviet proposal for disarm- 
ing, U.S. views, statement (Wadsworth), 59 
Congolese Parliament proposed convening of by U.N., 

U.S. position, statement (Wadsworth), 59 
General Assembly consideration of, proposed resolu- 
tions and statements : Stevenson, 781 ; Wadsworth, 
56 ; texts of resolutions, 60, 784 
Katanga Province, secessionist movement in, statements 

(Stevenson), 363, 365 
Lessons learned from, statement (Rusk), 442 
Outside interference in, U.S. position on, statement 

(Stevenson), 365 
Polish position re, statement (Barco), 55 
Security Council consideration of: 

Statements: Barco, 54, 199; Stevenson, 359, Wads- 
worth, 51 
Soviet veto of 4-Power resolution, .51, 56 
Texts of resolutions, 368 
Soviet position, statements : Barco, 54, 56, 199 ; Cleve- 
land, 859; Stevenson, 360, 532, 806; Wadsworth, 
51, 58, 50, 60 
Tananarive conference on, U.S. views, statement (Ste- 
venson), 783 
U.N. operations in : 

Addresses and remarks : Cleveland, 447, 448, 526 : 

AVilliams, 856 
Australian-U.S. support of, text of joint communique 

(Kennedy, Menzies), 372 
Financing of: 

Soviet refusal to pay its contributions, statements: 

Barco, 200 ; Stevenson, 806 
U.S. attitude toward and contribution to, state- 
ments : Department, 565 ; Klutznick, 564 ; Steven- 
son, 805 
Objectives of, statements: Stevenson, 532; Wads- 
worth, 51, 53, 57 
Need for support of : 

Ghanaian-U.S. joint communique (Kennedy, 

Nkrumah), 446 
Tunisian-U.S. joint communique (Bourguiba, 
Kennedy), 853 
Soviet position, address and statements: Cleveland, 
810, 811, 812 ; Department, 565 ; Klutznick, 564, 567 
U.S. support and aid, addresses, statements and 
summary: Herter, 148; Kennedy, 210, 332; Rusk, 
297, 300, 3(>i, 516 ; Stevenson, 365, 412, 532 ; Wads- 
worth, 52, 54, 59, 60 ; White House, 218, 312 
U.S. Naval Task Force ofif African coast, question of 

orders to re, statement (Rusk), 433 
U.S. restrictions on shipments of military equipment, 
imposition of, 546, 1009 



Congress, U.S.: 

Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 162, 271, 

313, 383, 562, 599, 645, 727, 935, 980, 1022 
House of Representatives, Prime Minister Caramanlis 

of Greece address to, 726 
Legislation, proposed : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
amending and extending, statement (Martin), 1020 
Duty-free allowance of .$100 for travelers returning 

to U.S., 382 
East German dollar bond validation, agreement with 
Federal Republic of Germany on, statement 
(Davis), 597 
Foreign aid program, letter, message, and statements : 

Kennedy, 507, 977 ; Rusk, 947, 1000 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act (Battle Act), 

amendments to, 212, 444, 775 
Peace Corps, letters (Kennedy), 401, 980 
Sugar, Dominican Republic, relief from obligation to 

purchase, statement (Eisenhower), 18 
Sugar Act of 1948, extension of, 195, 562 
My relationship with, address (Eisenhower), 179 
Presidential messages and reports. See under Eisen- 
hower and Kennedy 
Request for MSP documents, letter and certification 

prohibiting release to, (Eisenhower), 85 
Role in development aid program, summary (Herter), 

148 
Senate approval requested for: 
Columbia River development treaty with Canada, 
letter and statement : Eisenhower, 228 ; White, 492 
ITU convention and radio regulations, revised, state- 
ment (Martin), 830 
OECD convention, statements: Ball, Dillon, 326; 

Kennedy, 514 
Oil pollution convention (1954), statement (Chayes), 
776 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, hearings on 
Cuban situation, statements (Rusk), 760 
Conseil de I'Entente, U.S. proposed aid to States of, letter 

(Herter), 19 
Conservation, convention (1958) on fishing and conserva- 
tion of living resources of the high seas, 317, 609, 
698, 833 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic De- 
velopment in South and Southeast Asia, 12th Min- 
isterial Meeting of, statement (Achilles), 31 
Cont4, Seydou, 802 
Contiguous zone and territorial sea, convention (1958) CD, 

317, 609, 698 
Continental shelf, convention on (1958), 134, 317, 425, 609, 

698, 833 
Contingency fund : 
Grant to Chile, 492 

Request for appropriations and legislation for, message 
and statement : Kennedy, 905 ; Rusk, 955, 1005 
Coombs, Philip H., 465, 936 
Corbett, Jack C, 454 
Corse, Carl D., 939 
Cortada, James N., 318 



1044 



Department of State Bulletin 



Costa Rica : 

Seminar on U.S. educational systems, participation in, 

311 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Atomic energy, agreement with U.S. for cooperation 

in civil uses of, 390 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 985 
WMO convention, 6.5 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 
Council on Foreign Economic Policy, report of activities 

and resignation (Randall), 157 
Counterpart settlement agreement with Austria, 653 
Coyne, J. Patrick, 774 
Crockett, William J., 390 
Cuba: 

Aspirations of the people, neglect of, statement (Rusk), 

297, 301 
Castro regime, U.S. views of, statements (Stevenson), 

670, 674, 6S1 
Developments in, statements: Stevenson, 670; Wads- 
worth, 111 
Indirect aggression in, address (Cleveland) , 859 
Situation in. See Cuban situation 
U.S.-Cuban relations. See under Cuban situation 
Withdrawal from : IBRD, 347 ; IFC, 91 
Cuban situation : 

Addresses, messages, remarks, and statements : Barco, 
104; Berle, 763; Department, 663; Eisenhower, 18, 
103, 219 ; Hagerty, 104 ; Kennedy, 256, 309, 474, 524, 
659, 661, 934 ; Martin, 562 ; RusU. 303, 433, 686, 690, 
759, 760, 762; Soviet Union, 662; Stevenson, 667; 
Wadsworth, 104 
Armaments buildup from Soviets, statement (Steven- 
son), 671, 680 
Attempted invasion of Cuba : 
Question of U.S. role in, address, messages, remarks, 
and statements : Berle, 763 ; Department, 663 ; 
Kennedy, 659, 661; Khrushchev, 662; Rusk, 690, 
762 ; Soviet, 662 ; Stevenson, 667, 668, 675, 676, 681 
Security Council consideration of Cuban charges, 
statements ( Barco, Wadsworth ) , 104 
Communist activities. See under Communism 
Defection of Cuban Air Force pilots, statement ( Steven- 
son), 667 
Exchange of prisoners for tractors proposal, statement 

(Kennedy), 934 
General Assembly debate on Cuban complaint, state- 
ments (Stevenson), 667 
Inter-American consultations on, statements (Rusk), 

433, 759, 760 
Refugees : 
Aid to, letters and statements : Kennedy, 256, 309, 
490; Ribicoff, 490; Stevenson, 670, 672; Wads- 
worth, 109 
Message (Kennedy), 661 

President's personal representative's reports on, let- 
ters, reports, and statement : Eisenhower, 219 ; in- 
terim report, 45 ; final report, 219 ; Voorhees, 45 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings on, state- 
ments (Rusk), 760 



Cuban situation — Continued 

Soviet position on, exchange of messages and state- 
ments : Barco, 112 ; Kennedy, Khrushchev, 661 ; 
Stevenson, 671, 675, 680, 681; U.S.-Soviet state- 
ments, 662 ; Wadsworth, 111 
U.S. views, address and statement: Kennedy, 659; 

Rusk, 686 
U.S.-Cuban relations : 

Address and statement : Kennedy, 474 ; Rusk, 524 
Cuban charges of U.S. plot of diplomatic isolation of, 

statements (Wadsworth), 105, 110 
Diplomatic and consular relations, termination of, 

statement (Eisenhower) and texts of notes, 103 
Guantanamo Naval Base : 
Effect of severance of relations on, statement 

(Hagerty), 104 
Water supply to, statement (Rusk), 303 
Harassment of U.S. citizens, statement (Wadsworth), 

110 
Trade relations, statements (Rusk), 433, 690 
Regulations governing travel, 178 

U.S. sugar quota, determination of, proclamations 
and statements : Eisenhower, 18 ; Martin, 562 ; 
Stevenson, 677: texts of proclamations, 18, 592 
Validity of alleged instruction re Cuban charge of 
U.S. plan to annex, test of U.S. note denying (Bon- 
sal), 765 
Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Participation Act of 
1956, International, administration of, announcement 
and Executive order, 196 
Cultural relations and programs (see also Educational 
exchange and Exchange of persons) : 
Expansion of activities recommended, letter and re- 
port : Eisenhower, 182 ; Sprague Committee report, 
188 
Importance to U.S. foreign policy, Board of Foreign 

Scholarships report, 459 
Latin America : 
Need for increase in exchange with, address and 

message (Kennedy), 473, 905 
Proposed use of Cuban refugees in, letter (Ribicoff), 

491 
Sprague Committee report, letter (Eisenhower) and 
text of report, 182, 184, 185, 186, 187 
Programs with Communist countries, efforts to improve, 

480 
SEATO cultural program, 96, 550 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol 

for protection in event of armed conflict, 282 
Iraq, agreement for exchange with, 243, 282 
Rumania, agreement for exchange with, 34 
USIA coordination and administration of certain 

activities re. Executive order, 196 
Washington cultural center, recommendation for, 189 
Cummings, H. J., 915 

Currency convertibility, 10-nation acceptance of under 
IMF, Department statement and IMF announcement, 
346 



Index, January lo June 1967 



1045 



Customs (see a7so Tariff policy) : 
Duty-free allowance of $100 for returning U.S. travelers, 
message (Kennedy) and text of proposed bill, 293, 
3S2 
Duty-free entry of relief supplies and packages, agree- 
ment with Paraguay re, 538 
Privileges for Foreisn Service personnel, agreements 
granting reciprocal, with Indonesia, GIO ; Peru, 465 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 168, 389, 465 
Cyprus : 

Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 201 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

789 
UNESCO constitution, 609 

Wheat and barley, grant, delivery, and free distri- 
bution of, memorandums of understanding with 
U.S. re, 501 
WHO constitution, 425 
Czechoslovakia : 
Aid to Afghanistan, address (Byroade), 131 
Arms supply to Cuba, statement (Wadsworth), 111 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
Masaryk, U.S. stamp honoring, reply to Czech complaint 
re, 17 

Dacko, David, 766 

Dadet, Emmanuel Domongo, 524 

DAG. See Development Assistance Group 

Dahomey : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 685 
Conseil de I'Eutente States, U.S. aid, 19 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 985 
Postal convention ( 1957 ) , universal, 896 
UNESCO constitution, 98 
WMO convention, 698 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Davis, Richard H., 597 
Dean, Arthur H., 299, 478 
Dean, Robert W., 170 

Defense (see also Military bases. Mutual defense, and 
National defense) : 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
State Department concern with, remarks (Rusk), 396 
Strategy, reappraisal of, addresses: Bowles, 629; Ken- 
nedy, 211 
Strengthening of U.S. defenses, message and statement: 

Kennedy, 906 ; Rusk, 399 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Classified information, equipment, materials, or sery- 
ices related to, agreement with Sweden for safe- 
guarding of, 282 
Greenland defense projects, agreement (1960) with 
Denmark establishing consultative committee on, 
with annex, 244 
Patents and technical information in defense pro- 
grams, agreement with Italy on arrangements re- 
specting, 244 



Defense — Continued 

U.S.-Canadian arrangements for, joint communique 

(Diefenbaker, Kennedy), 843 
U.S. collective defense arrangements, map, 722 
U.S. defense policy, problem of threats to, address 
(Cleveland), S5S 
Defense, Department of: 
Personnel, exchange program with State Department 

for training, 169 
Reorganization of, 141 
Defense support : 
Aid to Turkey, 197 

Pakistan, agreement amending 1955 agreement with, 
GIO 
De Gaulle, Charles, 62, 709, 848, 995, 997, 999 
Denmark : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Argentina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
Greenland defense projects, agreement with U.S. 
establi.shing consultative committee on, with annex, 
244 
IDA, articles of agreement, 34 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 789 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Radio regulations (1959), 985 
Shipbuilding program, agreement amending 1959 

agreement with U.S. re, 1029 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
with annexes, 425 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 

Visit of Prime Minister to U.S. and opening of "The 
Arts of Denmark" exhibit, 201 
Department of Agriculture, delegation of functions to 

for administration of P.L. 4S0, Executive order, 159 
Department of Commerce. See Commerce, Department of 
Department of Defense. See Defense, Department of 
Department of State. See State Department 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 96 
Department of the Treasury. See Treaisury, Department 

of the 
Dependent territories (see also Colonialism and Trust 
territories), in Africa, U.S. views of, address (Wil- 
liams), 732 
Development Act, International, 950, 977, 1000 
Development agency, international, proposed establish- 
ment and organization of, letter and statements: 
Kennedy, 978 ; Rusk, 953, 1003 
Development Assistance Committee : 

DAG proposals on, communique and resolution, 554 
Objectives and role of, address and statement (Ball), 
328, 453 
Development Assistance Group : 

Establishment and functions, addresses and statements : 
Achilles, 33 ; Ball, 718 ; Braderman, 316 ; Kennedy, 
842 ; Rusk, 325 
4th meeting of : 

Statement (Kennedy), 514 



1046 



Department of State Bulletin 



Development Assistance Group — Continued 
4th meeting of— Continued 

Texts of communique and resolutions and list of U.S. 

delegation, u."53 
U.S. representative (Ball) to, announcement of, 489 
Programs of, statement (Dillon) , 696 
U.S. -German support, joint communique (Adenauer, 

Kennedy), 622 
U.S. participation in, address (Ball), 753 
Development Association, International. See Interna- 
tional Development Association 
Development Loan Fund : 
Alliance for Progress, DLP requested to expedite im- 
plementation of aid, memorandum (Ball), 919 
Colombo Plan commitments of, statement (Achilles), 

32 
Establishment and functions, addresses and summary: 

Ball, 717 ; Coffin, 456 ; Herter, 148 
Foreign currencies accrued under P.L. 480, use of. 

Executive order, 160 
Guaranty authority, address (Coffin), 457 
Integration with other aid programs, proposed, message 

(Kennedy), 510 
Loans to: Africa, 375; Bolivia, 921; ECAFB members, 
461 ; Iran, 50 ; Nigeria, 404, 502 ; Republic of Korea, 
932 ; Turkey, 197 ; Yugoslavia, 85 
Managing Director, confirmation (Coffin), 318; resig- 
nation (Brand), 170 
Dhahran airfield, nonrenewal of U.S.-Saudl Arabian agree- 
ment re, Department statement, 490 
Dick, Mrs. Jane Warner, 741 
Diefenbaker, John G., 227, 371 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 956 
Dillon, Douglas, 8, 170, 330, 693, 862 
Dinke, Berhnau, 910 
Diplomacy : 

Changing styles of, report on U.S. informational ac- 
tivities, 185, 186, 192 
Definition of, address (Bohlen), 965 
Use of diplomatic channels in negotiations, statements 
(Rusk),214, 434, 519, 522 
Diplomatic conference on maritime law, U.S. delegation 

to, announcement, 651 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See under For- 
eign Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

Cuban, U.S. requests withdrawal of, texts of U.S. and 

Cuban notes, 103 
Discrimination against: 

Nigerian second secretary, U.S. regrets treatment of, 

text of note, 156 
U.S. efforts against, 732 ; letter (Rusk), 976 
Duty-free entry privileges to Indonesian diplomatic and 
consular officers and personnel, agreement for, 610 
Presentation of credentials : Cameroun, 177 ; Congo, Re- 
public of, 524; Dahomey, 685; Ecuador, 114; El 
Salvador, 910 ; Ethiopia, 910 ; Gabon, 524 ; Guinea, 
802 ; Indonesia, 685 ; Italy, 961 ; Ivory Coast, 177 ; 
Mali, 77; Mauritania, 857; New Zealand, 910; 
Niger, 685; Nigeria, 114; Switzerland, 7; Tunisia, 
445 ; Upper Volta, 685 ; Venezuela, 177 

Index, January to June 7967 



Diplomatic rights and procedures, Vienna conference on, 

address (Duke), 415 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Nuclear weapons, and 
Outer space) : 
Canadian-U.S. views on, joint communique (Diefen- 
baker, Kennedy), 843 
Coordination and expansion of U.S. efforts, address 

(Kennedy), 212 
German-U.S. discussions, joint communique (Adenauer, 

Kennedy), 622 
Indonesian-U.S. views, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Sukarno), 713 
NATO members views on, NAC communiques, 39, 801 
Need for, address (Eisenhower), 181 
Negotiations : 

Hope for progress, statement (Rusk), 443 

Issues and prospects for, address (GuUion), 634 

Progress of, statements (Rusk), 520, 521 

Question of Communist China's participation in, 

statements (Rusk), 301, 309 
Question of resumption of, statement (Rusk), 436 
New Zealand-U.S. views on, joint communique (Ken- 
nedy, Holyoake), 404 
Soviet position, address and statement: Gullion, 635, 

636; Stevenson, 568 
U.S. and Western positions on, addresses, messages, 
remarks, and statements : Bowles, 482 ; Eisenhower, 
140; Kennedy, 908, 998; Rusk, 430, 440, 442, 443, 
517 ; Stevenson, 385 
Disarmament Administration, establishment of panel of 
experts to study discontinuance of nuclear weapon 
tests, 215 
Discrimination, U.S. efforts to eliminate incidents of, ad- 
dress, letter and note: Rusk, 975; Williams, 732; 
text of U.S. note, 156 
Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, U.N. Sub- 
commission on Prevention of, 463 
Disputes, compulsory settlement of, optional protocol of 

signature to, 985 
Djermakoye, Issoufou Saidou, 685 
Djoli, Catherine, 531 
DLP. See Development Loan Fund 
Dollar bonds, German, agreement with Federal Republic 

of Germany re validation of, 597, 789 
Dominican Republic : 
North American regional broadcasting agreement and 

final protocol, 896 
OAS economic sanctions against for aggression in 

Venezuela, extension of, 273 
U.S. friendship for, address (Kennedy), 474 
U.S. purchase of sugar from : 

Policy on, statement (Eisenhower), 18 

Quota for, request for continuation of Presidential 

authority to determine, 562 
Relief from Congressional obligation to purchase, 
requested, statement (Eisenhower), 195 
Withdrawal of from : IFC, 34, 91 ; IBRD, 34, 347 
Dooley, Tom, 131 
Dorsinville, Max H., 785 

Double taxation, conventions for avoidance of on : 
Income, with U.A.R., 64, 65 
Estates and inheritances, with Canada, 351, 352 

1047 



Douglas, William O., 583 

Dowling, Walter C, 588 

Drivers' licenses issued in Panama and the Canal Zone, 
agreement with Panama for reciprocal recognition 
of, 202, 501 

Drought relief, aid to : Kenya, 312 ; Peru, 922 ; Tunisia, 
853 

Drugs, narcotic, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of 1931 conven- 
tion, 425 

Duke, Angier Biddle, 245, 414, 733 

Dulles, Eleanor Lansing, 336, 767 

Earl of Home, 432, 579, 580, 710 
East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, 750 
East-West trade, Battle Act controls, proposed amend- 
ment, 212, 444, 775 
ECA. See Hconomic Commission for Africa, U.N. 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the 

Far East, U.N. 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. 
ECLA. See Economic Commission for Latin America, 

U.N. 
Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on 

Trade and, 6th meeting, 372, 487 
Economic and Social Council, Inter-American. See Inter- 
American Economic and Social Council 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Commission on the Status of Women, U.S. representa- 
tive, confirmation, 465 
Committee for Industrial Development, consideration of 

development programs, statement (Moscoso), 605 
Documents, lists of, 349, 652, 940, 984 
Economic commissions. See Economic Commission 
Human Rights Commission of, U.S. representative, con- 
firmation (Tree), 390; resignation (Lord), 202 
Social Commission of, U.S. representative, confirmation, 

741 
U.S. representative to, confirmation, 318 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries {see also 
Agricultural surpluses, Colombo Plan, Development 
Loan Fund, Export-Import Bank, Inter-American 
Development Bank, International Bank, International 
Cooperation Administration, International Develop- 
ment Association, International Finance Corporation, 
Mutual security and other assistance programs, and 
United Nations: Technical assistance programs) : 
Aid to: Afghanistan, 129, 132, 201; Africa, 375, 378; 
Asia, 461; Bolivia, 920; Brazil, 862; Chile, 492; 
Colombia, 610 ; Iceland, 169 ; Iran, 49 ; Ivory Coast, 
985 ; Korea, 425, 538, 001, 931 ; Laos, IIG ; Mali, 202 ; 
Morocco, 935 ; Nigeria, 404 ; Senegal, 833, 896 ; Sier- 
ra Leone, 985; Somaliland, Trust Territory of, 318; 
Togo, 84, 134; Tunisia, 851, 8.'")3 ; Turkey, 198; 
Viet-Nam, 84 ; West Indies, 42, 43, 44 ; Yugoslavia, 
352 
Administration of. See under Foreign aid programs 
Appropriation request for FY 1962, message (Kennedy), 

513 
Asia, U.S.-Japanese cooperation in, address (Mac- 
Arthur), 559 



Ejconomic and technical aid to foreign countries — Con. 
Cuban skilled refugees, proposed utilization of, report 

(Voorhees),223 
IAEA program, 92 
Impact on foreign opinion, report concerning, 185, 190, 

191 
Peace Corps. See Peace Corps 
Proposed new program of. See under Foreign aid 
U.S. leadership in, letter (Frondizi), 816 
U.S. pledge of, addresses (Kennedy), 175, 211 
Economic assistance to Germany, postwar, agreement for 

partial settlement of debts resulting from, 834 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N. : 
3d session of : 
Address, message, and statement : Kennedy, 374 ; 

KoLschnig, 376 ; Williams, 373 
Assistant Secretary for African Affairs (Williams) 
meeting with delegates of, announcement, 295 
Proposal for use of, statement (Stevenson), 536 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N. : 
Ambassador Harriman to meet delegates of. Department 

announcement, 489 
Committee on Industry and Natural Resources, 13th 

session, statement (Frank), 460 
4th regional technical conference on water resources 

development, article, (Bloodgood), 225 
Highway Subcommittee of Inland Transport Committee, 

5th meeting of, report (Van Dyke), 163 
17th session, U.S. representative to, 574 
U.S. trade with members of, statement (Braderman), 

314, 315, 316 
U.S. views of, statement (Frank), 460 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. : 

10th session, U.S. representative, confirmation, 741 
Steel Committee, U.S. delegation to 25th session, 537 
Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N. : 
9th session : 

Address (Berle), 821 
U.S. representatives, 788, 940 
Participation in Bolivian development program, letters 

(Kennedy, Paz), 920, 922 
Research projects, statement (Moscoso), 606 
Economic Community, European. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Economic Cooperation, African and Malagasy Organi- 
zation for, formation of, address and message: 
Kennedy, 586 ; Williams, 587 
Economic cooperation agreement with Honduras, 734 
Economic Cooperation and Development, Organization for. 
See Organization for Economic Cooperation and 
Development 
Economic development (see also Economic and technical 
aid and Less developed countries) : 
Afghanistan, programs and problems, article (By- 

roade),127 
Africa : 
Conference at Yaounde, message (Kennedy), 586 
Problems confronting, U.S. views of, addresses : Cum- 
mings, 915; Dulles, 770, 771; Williams, 52S, 732, 
913, 914 



1048 



Department of State Bulletin 



Economic development — Continued 
Africa— Continued 

U.S. cooperation and aid to, addresses and state- 
ments : Cummings, DIG ; Kotschnig, 377, 380 ; 
Stevenson, 534 : Williams, 375, 529, 584 
Asia {see also Colombo Plan) : 

Need for acceleration of, statement (Frank), 460 
SEATO measures to advance, communique, 550 
Challenge for U.S., address (Bowles), 483 
Conditions necessary for, statement (Rusk), 301 
Conseil de I'Entente States, proposed U.S. aid to, letter 

(Herter), 19 
Debt and equity, role in, address (Coffin), 455 
Industrial Development, U.N. Committee for, con- 
sideration of programs for, statement (Moscoso), 
605 
International Bank libraries on, 19 
Latin America. See under Latin America 
Long-term planning proposed, addresses, letter, mes- 
sages, statements : Ball, 717 ; Bowles, 707, 931 ; 
Braderman, 315, 316; Kennedy, 511; Martin, 822; 
Rusk, 627, 749, 951, 1003 
Need for cooperative effort of free-world industrialized 

nations. See Industrialized free-world nations 
OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation 

and Development 
Relationship to social development, message (Kennedy), 

475 
Science and scholar.ship, role in, remarks (Rusk) , 624 
U.S. cooperation with: Argentina, 920; Bolivia, 920; 
Central African Republic, 766 ; Ecuador, 83 ; India, 
959; Indonesia, 713; Korea, 712; Laos, 846, 847; 
Nigeria, 857; Pakistan, 448; Tunisia, 853; Ven- 
ezuela, 821 ; Viet-Nam, 957 
U.S. programs and policy for furthering, addresses, 
statement, and summary: Ball, 452; Herter, 148; 
Martin, 71 ; Moscoso, 608 
U.S. support of U.N. programs for, statement (Steven- 
son), 385 
Economic policy, international, coordination of, statement 

(Dillon), 331 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid 
Committee on U.S. economic position, meeting with 

President Kennedy, 215 
Domestic economy, status of, addresses and messages ; 
Bowles, 481; Eisenhower, 140, 142; Kennedy, 207, 
287,904 
Foreign economic policy : 

Balance-of-payments problem. See Balance of pay- 
ments 
Council on, report on activities (Randall), 157 
Foreign aid program. See Foreign aid 
Functions re assigned to Secretary of State, letter 

(Kennedy), 979 
Latin America. See Latin America : Economic and 

social development 
Message to Congress (Kennedy), 507 
NATO, U.S. cooperation with members of, message 

(Johnson), 582 
Objectives, address (Hadraba),263, 264 

Index, January to June 1967 

60S938 — 61 3 



Economic policy and relations, U.S. — Continued 

Interdependence of, statement (Ball), 327 
Economic Policy Committee (OEEC), 648 
Economic relations and amity, treaty with Viet-Nam, 610, 

652 
Economy, free world, need for expansion of, address 

(Dillon), 10 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council 
Ecuador : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 114 

Economic and social development, discussions re U.S. 

assistance, joint announcement, 83 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Territorial dispute with Peru, U.S. efforts, statement 

(Rusk), 433 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 734 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 

protocol of amendment to 1944 convention, 201 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, conven- 
tion (1949) for establishment of, 653 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 352 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Visit of President Velasco to U.S., announcement of, 592 
Edible oils, use of U.S. surplus in food-for-peace program, 

312 
Education (see also Cultural relations and programs. Ed- 
ucational exchange, and Exchange of persons) : 
Afghanistan, U.S. aid to, address (Byroade), 130 
Africa : 
Conference on development of, U.S. observer delega- 
tion to, 938, remarks (Coombs), 936, and message 
(Kennedy), 937 
Need for, addresses : Cleveland, 861 ; Dulles, 340, 341, 

771 ; Williams, 528, 913 
U.S. aid, 218, 380, 531 
Cuba: 
Destruction of academic freedom in, statement (Ste- 
venson), 680 
Refugee scholars and professionals, proposed use of 
in U.S. programs, letters and statement (Kennedy, 
Ribicoff),310, 490 
Educational foundation in Greece, agreement amend- 
ing 1948 agreement re, 425 
Federal aid to, need for, address (Kennedy), 209 
International educational development, proposed foun- 
dation for, 189, 195 
Latin America, need for expansion and aid, addresses 

and message: Berle, 620; Kennedy, 473, 476 
Liberia, negotiations with U.S. for expanded program, 

531 
Role of education in development, remarks and state- 
ment : Moscoso, 606 ; Rusk, 626 
Southeast Asia : 
Need for in, joint communiques (Johnson), 957, 959, 

960, 961 
SEATO programs, 96, 163 
U.S. programs in less developed countries, use of for- 
eign currencies for, proposed legislation, recom- 
mended, letter, report, and statement : Eisenhower, 
183 ; Martin, 1021 ; report, 185. 188, 189, 195 

1049 



Education — Continued 

Vocational education program in Brazil, cooperative 
agreement extending 1950 agreement re, 318 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N. : 
African education program, statements : Kot.schnig, 

380; Stevenson, 536 
Constitution of, 98, 282, 609 

Efforts to preserve Nubian monuments. President's re- 
quest to Congress for U.S. participation in, 643 
International peace corps, proposal for use of, remarks 

(Cleveland), 552 
Race prejudice, studies of youth attitudes to reveal 
causes of, 463 
Educational exchange program, international {see also 
Cultural relations. Education, and Exchange of per- 
sons) : 
Agreements with : Argentina, 1029 ; China, 501 ; Colom- 
bia, 201 ; Israel, 896 ; Japan, 65 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, recommendations for 

improvement of, 459 
Communist activity in underdeveloped countries in 

field of, address (Tubby), 973 
Latin America, seminar on U.S. educational systems, 
311 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
EFTA. See European Free Trade Association 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Columbia River treaty, signing of, 227 
Communication satellites, promotion of commercial 

use of by NASA, 77 
Cuba: 
Diplomatic and consular relations with, termina- 
tion of, 103 
Refugees in the U.S., report on, 219 
Sugar quota for, 18 
Farewell to the Nation, 179 
Sugar Act, extension and amendment of, 195 
Correspondence and messages : 

Brazil's World War II dead, salute to, 48 

IAEA activities, 93 

Information activities abroad, comments on Sprague 

Committee report on, 182 
NATO, progress and future of, 39 
New Zealand Prime Minister, congratulations on 

taking ofl3ce, 7 
Secretary Herter, resignation of, exchange of letters 
with re, 143 
Executive orders, 159, 196, 197 

Foreign policy, summary of during term of oflSce, state- 
ment (Herter), 143 
Goodwill trips, purpose of, summary (Herter), 145 
Message and letters to Congress : 
Certification forbidding release of MSP documents, 

87 
Columbia River treaty with Canada, 228 
IGC, use of mutual security funds for OflBce of, 85 
State of the Union (excerpts) , 139 
Meeting with President-elect Kennedy, discussion of 
world situation, joint statement (Hagerty, Sal- 
inger), 177 
Proclamations, 18, 49, 87, 162, 178 



Electric power : 

Benefits of development of, joint communique (John- 
son, Nehru), 960 
Columbia River treaty provisions for development, 231, 
235, 236 
El Salvador: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 910 
Ofiice of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Recognition of Government by U.S., 344 
U.S. Ambas.sador, confirmation, 282 
Emergency Force, U.N., financing operations of in the 
Congo, U.S. contributions and views, statements : 
Barco, 200 ; Department, 565 ; Klutznick, 564, 566 
Entente, Conseil de 1', U.S. aid to, letter (Herter), 19 
Escapee Program, U.S., achievements of, remarks (Jones), 

929 
Establishment, convention of, with protocol and declara- 
tion with France, 134 
Establishment, friendship, and navigation treaty and pro- 
tocol with Belgium, 383, 390 
Estate-tax convention with Canada, 351, 352 
Estes, Thomas S., 985 

Ethiopia, Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 910 
Europe (see also individual countries and European 
organizations) : 
Collective security. See North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation 
Eastern Europe : 

U.S. aid to, request for wider discretion for, letter 

and statement : Ball, 775 ; Kennedy, 444 
U.S. policy toward, address (Kennedy), 212 
Economic Commission for, U.N. See Economic Com- 
mission for Europe 
Foreign Relations, volume on, released, 897 
ICEM, activities of and U.S. support, article and re- 
marks : Jones, 929 ; Warren, 386 
Integration of, U.S. support, message and communique; 

Kennedy, 334; Kennedy, Hallstein, 868 
Western Europe : 

Aid to less developed countries, need for cooperation 

with U.S. in. See Industrialized nations. 
Cooperation in Alliance for Progress program for 

Latin America, proposed, letter (Frondizi), 817 
Development of trade with less developed countries, 

statement (Braderman), 316 
Economic interdependence of with U.S., statement 

(Ball), 327 
Economic recovery and U.S. aid, addresses: Ball, 

752 ; Bohlen, 968 ; Bowles, 704 
U.S. information activities in, 187, 188 
U.S. relations with, problems of, address (Bowles), 

484 
Visits to: 

Ambassador at Large Harriman, 381 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland, 9G3 

President Kennedy, remarks, report on, and texts 

of joint communiques, 848, 909, 975, 991 
Under Secretary Ball, 825 
European Communities, OECD protocol on relationship 
to, 13 



1050 



Department of State Bulletin 



European Economic Community : 
Commission of : 

President of, visit to U.S., joint communique (Ken- 
nedy, Hallstein), 868 
U.S. collaboration with, exchange of messages (Hall- 
stein, Kennedy), 295 
Establishment and tariff policy of, address (Hadraba), 

267, 268 
GATT tariff negotiations with, 267, 939, 983 
OECD relationship with, statement (Ball), 329 
Role in Atlantic Community, U.S.-German communi- 
que, 622 
U.S.-Canadian negotiations with and views on, 488, 843 
U.S. support of, summary (Herter), 149 
U.S. treaties of establishment with members of, 383 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for : 
Achievements and role of, address and statement: 

Ball, 327 ; Rusk, 324 
Acts of, OECD procedure for approval of, 14, 65 
Aid to Turkey, 197 

Convention (1948) on, protocol revising, 14 
Economic Policy Committee, meeting of, statement 

(Kennedy), 648 
Reconstitution of {see also Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development), address and siun- 
mary : Ball, 452 ; Herter, 149 
Visit of Under Secretary Ball for discussions, 489 
European Free Trade Association : 
Finnish association with, 982 
OECD relationship with, statement (Ball), 329 
U.S. negotiations with and operation of, address 
(Hadraba), 268 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European 
Migration 
Everton, John S., 941 

Exchange of persons program {sec also Educational ex- 
change), need for expansion of, letter and report: 
Eisenhower, 183; Sprague report, 185, 190, 195 
Executive branch of the Government, state of, address 

(Kennedy), 213 
Executive orders : 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

(1954), administration of (10900), 159 
Coffee Study Group, designation as public international 

organization (10943), 976 
Cultural activities and trade fairs, administration of 

(10912), 197 
Export Control Act of 1949, administration of (10945), 

934 
Food-for-peaee director, duties of (10915), 216 
Gold holdings abroad, disposal of by U.S. citizens and 

enterprises (10905), 196 
Operations Coordinating Board, abolition of (10920), 

345 
Peace Corps, establishment and administration of 

(10924), 400 
President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 
establishment (10038), 774 
Exhibits : 

Danish exhibition in U.S., 261 



Exhibits — Continued 

U.S. holdings of international exhibits, proposed in- 
crease in, 189 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, U.N. : 
African program, address and statement: Stevenson, 

534, 536 
International peace corps, proposal for use of, remarks 

(Cleveland), 551 
U.S. contributions and support, message, remarks, and 
statement : Eisenhower, 140 ; Kotschnlg, 378 ; Stev- 
enson, 277 
Export Control Act of 1949, administration of, Executive 

order re, 934 
Export-Import Bank : 
Alliance for Progress, approved credits for, memoran- 
dum (Ball) requesting expedition of, 918 
Loans and credits : 

To : Brazil, 863 ; Chile, 492 ; ECAFE members, 461 ; 

Iran, 50 ; Latin America, 254 ; Morocco, 935 ; 

Yugoslavia, 85 

Use of foreign currencies accrued under P.L. 480, 

159, 160 

Role in new aid program, message (Kennedy), 510, 511, 

512 
Role in export promotion efforts, message (Kennedy), 
291 
Exports {see also Trade) : 
Less developed countries, need for expansion of, ad- 
dresses (Martin), 73, 823 
Republic of Korea, problem of expansion of, letter 

(Bowles), 932 
Rubber, international cooperation re, article (Mellen), 
78 
Exports, U.S. («ee also Tariffs and trade, general agree- 
ment on ; and Trade) : 
Contribution to U.S. economic strength, address 

(Hadraba) , 263, 269, 270, 271 
Military goods to Congo (L^opoldville), imposition of 

controls on, 546, 1009 
Promotion program for expansion of, addresses, mes- 
sage, and statement : Braderman, 315 ; CoflSn, 458 ; 
Kennedy, 288, 291 ; Merchant, 3 
Extradition treaty with Brazil : 
Current actions, 201, 941 
Text of, 164 

Faleshty, Soviet ship, 117 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
Far East. See Asia and individual countries 
Federal Reserve Act, recommended amendment of, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 290 
Fenoaltea, Sergio, 961 
Fingerprinting, regulations amended re nonimigrant 

aliens, 692 
Finland : 

EFTA, association with, 982 

IFC investments in, 90 

Nuclear materials acquired through IAEA, 92 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 896 



Index, January to June 7967 



1051 



Finland — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc.^ — Continued 

GATT, Sth protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of scliedules, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
Radio regulations (1959), 1029 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
390 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 390 
Finletter, Thomas K., 426 
Finnie, Earl O., 170 
Fish and fisheries : 
Fish meal, international meeting on, U.S. delegation, 

500 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the high 

seas, convention on, 317, 609, 698, 833 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, convention 

(1949) for establishment of, 653 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. See Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries 
Fisk, James Brown, 215 

Flaxseed oil, proclamation terminating import fees on, 593 
Flint, James C, 501 
Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 

Freedom-from-hunger campaign, U.S. council for, ap- 
pointment of, 829 
International meeting on fish meal, U.S. delegation, 500 
Food-f or-peace program : 
Aid to : Bolivia, 921, 922 ; Brazil, 552 ; Congo, Republic 
of the, 218 ; Kenya, 312 ; Morocco, 772 ; Tunisia, 853 
Committee, report to President and list of members, 

217 
Council, appointment of, 829 

Director, role of, memorandum (Kennedy) and Execu- 
tive order, 216 
Edible oils available for, 312 
Expansion of, addre.ss (Kennedy), 212 
Integration with other aid programs, proposed, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 510, 512 
International food-for-peace conference, summary 

(Herter),150 
Latin America, proposed use of in : 

Address and statement (Kennedy), 473, 552 
Visit of mission to study, 212, 312 
Role in foreign policy, statement (Rusk), 952 
State Department liaison officer, appointment (Harlan), 

426 
U.S. -Canadian joint communique re, 489 
Foreign Aid, Task Force on, 919, 951 

Foreign aid programs, U.S. (see also Economic and tech- 
nical aid to foreign countries and Mutual security) : 
Administration of, proposed changes, address, letter, 
and statements : Kennedy, 211, 978 ; Rusk, 953, 1003 
Challenge and problems of, address (Bowles), 703, 705 
Effect on balance of payments, address (Merchant), 4 
Elements of proposed new program, addresses and 
message : Ball, 717 ; Bowles, 029, 707 ; Kennedy, 
507 ; Rusk, 518, 626, 747, 1003 
Expansion of, need for, address (Bowles), 483, and re- 
port ( Sprague) , 190, 191 



Foreign aid programs, U.S.— Continued 
Legislation requested for : 

Eastern Europe, amendments to Battle Act and 
Presidential request for wider discretion in aid to, 
letter and statement : Ball, 775 ; Kennedy, 444 
New program, letter, message, and statement: Ken- 
nedy, 507, 977; Rusk, 1000 
Need for public support and understanding of basis of, 

addresses : Bowles, 709 ; Rowan, 797 
Planning of, consideration of foreign and domestic pub- 
lic opinion in, Sprague report, 190 
Purposes of, addresses and statements: Achilles, 32; 

Bowles, 632, 705 ; Rusk, 747, 750, 947, 950 
Relation to trade program, address (Martin), 822 
Foreign currency : 

Convertibility of, IMF announcement re, 346 
Proceeds from sales of agricultural surpluses: 
Administration of, delegation of functions re. Execu- 
tive order, 159 
Repayments and uses of, proposed legislation, state- 
ment (Martin), 1020 
Uses of for development purposes, statements : Frank, 
461 ; Kennedy, 552 
Foreign Economic Policy, Council on, report of activities 

and resignation of chairman, 157 
Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, establishment of, 
announcement. Executive order, and letter (Ken- 
nedy), 773 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 

Briefings and conferences on, announcement and state- 
ment (Rusk), 431, 432 
Day-to-day aspects of, address (Rusk), 323 
Definition and evolution of, address (Bohlen), 965 
Educational and cultural exchange programs, impor- 
tance to, address (Coffin), 4.59 
Eisenhower administration, summary of under : Eisen- 
hower, 140 ; Herter, 144 
Foreign economic policy. See under Economic policy 

and relations 
Formulation of, remarks (Rusk), 395 
Legislation. See under Congress 

Objectives of, addresses, message, remarks, and state- 
ment : Bowles, 481, 629 ; Eisenhower, 139, 180 ; Rusk, 
624, 1000 
Problems confronting, addresses : Bowles, 481 ; Rusk, 

515 
Reappraisal by new administration, address (Bowles), 

629 
Role of Secretary of State and President in, statements 

(Rusk), 300, 439 
Role of U.S. citizens in, addresses, message, and state- 
ment: Kennedy, 910, 911; Rusk, 308; Williams, 
854, 857 
Foreign Relations of the United States, published : 

The Conference of Berlin {The Potsdam Conference), 

1945, 721 
The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, IS.'iS, 1029 
1940, VoJumc V, The American Republics, 942 
19/i2, Volume III, Europe, 897 
Publication of proposed, 728 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, recommendations for 
improvement of Fulbright program, 459 



1052 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Foreign Service (see also International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration atid State Department) : 
African posts, visit of Assistant Secretary Williams 

to, 295, 527 
Ambassadors and chiefs of mission : 

Appointments, confirmations, and resignations, 65, 
66, 98, 170, 202, 282, 318, 390, 426, 465, 574, 653, 
741, 789, 897, 941, 985 
Considerations in appointment of, statement (Rusk), 

304 
Role of, letter (Kennedy), 979 
Commercial attaches overseas, proposed increase in, 

message (Kennedy), 291 
Consulate general at Freetown, Sierra Leone, raised to 

Embassy status, 734 
Consulates : 

Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, closed, 353 
Colon, Panama, remains open, 352 
Arequipa, Peru, established, 245 
Customs privileges for personnel of, agreements with : 

Indonesia, 610 ; Peru, 465 
Diplomatic and consular posts, greetings to, message 

(Rusk), 244 
Director General, appointment (Thompson), 742 
FSI. See Foreign Service Institute 
Personnel in Cuba : 
Harassment of, 110 

Withdrawal of, texts of U.S.-Cuban notes, 103 
Representation allowance, address (Duke), 415 
Role of, address (Bohlen), 964 
Science attaches, role of, 191 

Trade promotion activities, address (Merchant), 5 
West Indies, U.S. mission accredited to, proposed es- 
tablishment of, 897 
Foreign service center, proposed establishment, address 

(Duke), 417 
Foreign Service Institute : 
Area training program, 422 
Director, designation (Strom), 1029 
Labor affairs training program, 245 

Role in training personnel for informational activities, 
proposed, 188 
Formosa. See China, Republic of 
Foundation for International Educational Development, 

proposal for, 189, 195 
France : 

Aid in Niger meningitis epidemic, 492 
Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 
Liberalization of restrictions on dollar-area imports, 

269, 983 
NATO alliance, position re, statement (Rusk), 689 
Nuclear tests, French attitude on, effect on test ban 

negotiations, statement (Rusk), 524 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. 
amending 19.59 agreement, 465 



France — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 698 
Caribbean Organization, agreement establishing and 

annexed statute, 134 
Communications satellites, agreement with U.S. on 

cooperation in intercontinental testing of, 653 
Convention of establishment, protocol and declaration 

(19.j0) with U.S.. 134 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 

International Tracing Service, agreement and proto- 
col relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 833 
OECD, convention estalilishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Tunisian-French relations, address (Bourgiiiba), 851 
U.S. Ambassador, resignation (Houghton), 66; confir- 
mation (Gavin), 390 
Visit of President Kennedy, 909, 991, 995, 999 
Visit of Under Secretary Ball, 489 
Frank, Isaiah, 460 
Fraser, Hugh, 42 
Fredericks, J. Wayne, 897 
Freedom : 

Definition of In Africa, address (Williams) , 912 
Future prospects of, address (Tubby) , 974 
Movement toward, address (Williams), 730 
Promotion of doctrine of, message (Kennedy), 903, 910 
Freedom from hunger : 

FAO campaign, appointment of U.S. council, 829 
Problem of, address (Rowan), 406 
Freedom of information (see also Press, The) : 
Cuban suppression of, statement (Stevenson), 678 
Free press and information policies, address (Rowan), 

796 
News media, importance of freedom and independence 
of, 193, 194 
Freeman, Pulton, 941 
Freeman, Ross E., 170 

Frequency Registration Board, International, 831 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaties with: 
Belgium, 383, 390; France, 134; Italy, 424, 425, 501; 
Pakistan, 164, 169, 318 ; Viet-Nam, 610, 652 
Frondizi, Arturo, 815 
FSI. See Foreign Service Institute 

Fulbright program, recommendations for improvement, 
459 

Gabon : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 524 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

International telecommunication convention (1952), 

244 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
WHO constitution, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 65 ; confirmation, 318 



Index, January fo June 1967 



1053 



Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevitch, 714 

Galbraith, J. Kenneth, 653 

Gandhi, Mohandas K., U.S. commemorative stamp, 262 

Garcia, Carlos P., 957 

Garcia, Hector, 351 

Gardner, Richard N., 426 

Garroway, Dave, 305 

Garst, Jonathan, 552 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 

Gavin, James M., 390 

General Assembly, U.N. : 

Algerian question, consideration of, statement (Wil- 
cox) and text of resolution, 62 
Apartheid policy of Union of South Africa, considera- 
tion of, statements (Plimpton) and texts of 
resolutions, 600 
Committee I (Political and Security) : 
Disarmament, consideration of postponed until 16th 
session, statement (Stevenson) and text of resolu- 
tion, 568 
Korean question debate in, statements (Stevenson, 

Tost) and text of resolution, 736 
Niiclear weapons and tests, U.S. position on proposed 
resolutions, statement (Wilcox), 94 
Committee V (Administrative and Budgetary), ques- 
tion of financing U.N. force in the Congo, statement 
(Klutznic]£),564 
Committee on Non-Self-Governing Territories, Portu- 
guese cooperation with requested, statement 
(Stevenson), 498 
Congo situation, consideration of, statements and texts 
of resolutions : Stevenson, 781 ; Wadsworth, 56 ; 
resolutions, 60, 784 
Cuban complaint of U.S. aggression, consideration of, 

statements (Stevenson), 667 
Documents, lists of, 62, 124, 281, 349, 651, 741, 940, 1028 
15th session : 

Issues before, U.S. position on, address (Stevenson), 

805 
U.S. representatives to, list of, 424 
Resolutions : 

Algerian question, 64 

Apartheid policy of Union of South Africa, request 

for abandonment of, 604 
Colonialism, 27 
Congo situation, 62, 784, 785 

Cuban situation, texts of Mexican and 7-power, 685 
Disarmament, consideration of, postponed until 16th 

session, 569 
Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of, future of, 787 
South-West Africa, question of administration by 
Union of South Africa, 571 
South-West Africa, consideration of Union of South 
Africa actions re, statement (Bingham) and text 
of resolution, 569 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests : 
French attitude on testing, effect on, statement (Rusk), 

624 
Negotiations : 

Importance of and U.S. objectives, address and state- 
ment (Rusk), 433, 517, 520, 521 

1054 



Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests — Continued 
Negotiations — Continued 

NATO members views, NAC communique, 801 

Need for successful conclusion of, joint statement 

(Kennedy, Macmillan), 579 
Progress of, message and statements : Johnson, 580, 
583 ; Rusk, 690 
Resumption of: 

Date set for resumption of, statement (Rusk), 299 
Postponement of, U.S. request for agreed to, state- 
ment ( Rusk ) , 299« 
Successful conclusion hoped for and U.S. delegation, 
statement (Kennedy), 478 
U.K.-U.S. draft treaty, articles, and three annexes, 870 
U.S. and Soviet positions and proposals, address, report, 
and statements: GuUion, 634; Kennedy, 755, 993; 
Rusk, 435 
Geneva conference (1954) on Indochina, statements and 
U.K. and Soviet aide memoire : Kennedy, 543 ; Rusk, 
846, 847 ; texts of aide memoire, 545 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners of 

war. wounded and sick, and civilians, 609 
Geneva international conference for settlement of the 

Laotian question. See under Laos situation 
Geneva plenipotentiary conference of the ITU, decisions 

and accomplishments, statement (Martin), 830 
Germany : 

Berlin. See Berlin 
Reunification of : 

Soviet views re, addresses and report : Berding, 153 ; 

Dowling, 589, 591 ; Kennedy, 993 
Western proposals and views re, address, report, and 
communiques : Adenauer, Kennedy, 622 ; Berding. 
152; Dowling, 5S8, 589, 590; Kennedy, 993; Ken- 
nedy, von Breutano, 370 ; NATO, 39, 801 
Documents on Gennan Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, 
ser. D, vol. XI, released, 692 
Germany, East : 
Communist influence in, address (Dowling), 590, 591 
Dollar bond validation, agreement (U.S.-German Fed- 
eral Republic) re, 597, 789 
Situation in, address (Berding), 151, 152 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Aid to: 

Afghanistan, address (Byroade), 131 
Bolivia, letters (Kennedy, Paz), 921, 922 
Niger, medical supplies to combat meningitis epi- 
demic in, 492 
Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Development of, address (Dowling), 588, 589 
Discussions with U.S. re political and monetary prob- 
lem.?, statement (Rusk), 300, texts of joint com- 
munique (Kennedy, von Brentano) and U.S. aide 
memoire, 369 
Liberalization of controls on imports, 269 
Relations with U.S., remarks (Rusk), 334 
Revaluation of deutsche mark, 450 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations of Poland with, 574 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34 
International Tracing Service, agreement and pro- 
tocol relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Mutual defense assistance program, agreement 
amending annex to 1955 agreement re return of 
equipment furnished by U.S. under, 53S 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 833 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Postwar economic assistance debt, agreement with 

U.S. on partial settlement of, 720, 834 
Radio regulations (1059), 134 

Validation of German dollar bonds, agreement with 
U.S. re, 597, 789 
Visit of Chancellor to U.S., remarks (Adenauer, Ken- 
nedy, Rusk), and text of joint communique, 621 
Visit of Under Secretary Ball, 489 
Ghana : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 97, 169 
GATT, Sth and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97, 896 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Visit of President to U.S., exchange of remarks 
(Nkrumah, Kennedy) and joint communique, 445; 
statement (Rusk), 436 
Gilmore, Eugene A., 466 
Gizenga, Antoine, 360, 361 
Gold crisis {see also Balance of payments) : 
Decrease in U.S. holdings of, measures to halt, mes- 
sage (Kennedy) and charts, 287 
Holdings abroad by U.S. citizens and enterprises, dis- 
posal of, announcement and Executive order, 195 
Reduction in U.S. reserves, 371 
Good Offices Committee, OAS, Cuban indifference to, 

statement (Wadsworth), 107 
Grant assistance: 

Aid to : Iceland, 84, 169 ; Nigeria, 404, 502 
Importance of, address (Coffin), 457 
Purpose of, message (Kennedy), 511 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Great Lakes : 
Agreement with Canada governing coordination of 

pilotage system on, 823, 895 
Areas requiring registered pilots, proclamation desig- 
nating, 162 
Greece : 
Economic problems of, NATO members views, NAG 

communique, 802 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 789, 

896 
GATT: 

Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia, 97 
8th protocol of rectifications and modifications to 

texts of schedules, 97 
Proc^s-verbal extending validity of 1959 declara- 
tion extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI : 4, 201 

Index, January to June 1961 



Greece — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT — Continued 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 
Ill-Brazil, 201 
International Tracing Service, agreement and proto- 
col relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
U.S. educational foundation, agreement amending 
1948 agreement with U.S. re, 425 
Visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 381, 686, 724 
Green, Marshall, 962 

Greenland defense projects, agreement (1960) with Den- 
mark establishing consultative committee on, with 
annex, 244 
Gregory, Clark S., 654 
Gromyko, Andrei A., 479, 710 
Gross. Gerald C, 831 
Guantanamo Naval Base : 

Cuban intervention in supplying of water to, question 

of, statement (Rusk), 303 
Effect of termination of relations with Cuba on, state- 
ment (Hagerty), 104 
Guaranty of private investment. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Guatemala : 
Exchange of international and official publications and 

government documents, 1958 conventions on, 134 
Housing projects in, 255 
IDA, articles of agreement, 34 

Seminar on U.S. educational systems, participation in, 
311 
Gufler, Bernard, 390 
Guinea : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 802 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 
Guirma, Frederic, 685 
Gulick, James TV., 594 
Gullion, Edmund A., 634 

Habana, University of, faculty of in U.S., proposed use of, 

statement (Kennedy), 310 
Hadraba, Theodore J., 263, 832 
Hager, Eric H., 170 
Hagerty, James C, 101, 177 
Haiti : 

Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recogni- 
tion of rights in, 896 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, pro- 
tocol of amendment to 1944 convention, 201 

International telecommunication convention (1959), 
with annexes, 653 

Load line convention, international, 317 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 170 
Halbrestadt, Harry J., 170 
Hallstein, Walter, 295, 868 
Hammarskjold, Dag, 447, 808, 812 
Hanes, John W., Jr., 386 
Hare, Raymond A., 390, 422 
Harriman, W. Averell : 

Confirmed as Ambassador at Large, 318 

1055 



Harriman, W. Averell — Continued 

International conference at Geneva for settlement of 
Laotian question, delegate to, 848 ; statement, 1023 
Meetings with : 

ECAFE delegates, announcement, 489 
Western European leaders, announcement, 381 
Visit to Iran, announcement, 445 
Hart, Parker T., 741, 985 
Haworth, Leland J., 895 
Hays, Brooks, 390 
Heads of government meetings, administration policy re, 

statements (Rusk), 300, 304, 308,443 
Heads of universities conference, SEATO program, U.S. 

participants, 96 
Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of, 96 
Health and sanitation : 

Africa, need for higher standards in, address 

(Williams), 528 
Cuban refugees, health services for, statement 

(Kennedy), 310 
Effects of climate on, WMO commission recommends 

study of, article (Landsberg), 280 
IAEA activities in field of, statement (Wilcox), 92 
Programs in less developed countries, use of foreign 
currencies for, proposed legislation, statement 
(Martin), 1021 
SEATO cholera research laboratory, 650 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Health Organization, World. See World Health 

Organization 
Hedayat, Khosro, 49 
Heller, Walter W., 573, 648 
Helmand Valley project, U.S. contributions to, address 

(Byroade), 129, 132 
Herter, Christian A. : 
Correspondence : 

Columbia River treaty with Canada, 229 
Conseil de I'Entente, proposed U.S. aid to States of, 19 
Nigerian diplomat, regret for treatment of, 156 
Remarks and statements : 

NATO, progress and future, 40, 41 

New State extension, ceremony dedicating, 154 

Prime Minister Diefenbaker of Canada, welcome to 

U.S., 227 
Wedding of King Baudouin, 40, 41 
Resignation, exchange of letters (Eisenhower, Herter), 
143, 144, 170 
High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N. : 

Refugees under mandate of, article (Warren), 387 
U.S. support for, remarks (Jones), 929 
High seas, convention on, 134, 317, 425, 609, 698, 833 
Highway Subcommittee, ECAFE Inland Transport Com- 
mittee, report on 5tb meeting of (Van Dyke), 163 
Hill, Rey M., 466 
Hilsman, Roger, 318 
Hoehoy, Solomon, 42 
Holmes, Julius C, 941 
Holyoake, Keith, 7, 403 
Home, Earl of, 432, 579, 580, 710 
Honduras : 

Economic cooperation, agreement with U.S., 734 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 



Honduras — Continued 

Seminar on U.S. educational systems, participation in, 

311 
U.S.-Honduran trade agreement (1935), terminated in 
part, 178, 318 
Hong Kong : 

Parcel post, agreement with U.S. re, 318 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 168 
Hope, A. Guy, 318 
Hope, SS, 713 
Houghton, Amory, 66 
Housing : 
New program, suggested, address (Kennedy), 209 
Projects in Chile and Guatemala, 2.55 
Self-help programs in Latin America, message 
(Kennedy), 476 
Hughes, Thomas L., 941 
Hughes, William P., 170 
Human rights : 
Anti-Semitic problem, U.N. efforts to solve, statement 

(Tree), 463 
Apartheid, U.S. support of U.N. views on, statement 

(Plimpton), 600, 601 
Security Council resolution to safeguard in Congo, 56 
U.S. representative to U.N. Commission on, confirma- 
tion (Tree), 390; resignation (Lord), 202 
U.S. support of principles of, address, statement, and 
summary : Herter, 148 ; Kennedy, 175 ; Stevenson, 
360 
Hungary, revolution in, Cuban views, statement (Steven- 
son), 669 
Hydroelectric power, Columbia River development pro- 
gram contribution to, statement (White), 494 
Hydrological Meteorology, Commission for (WMO), 1st 
session of, 650 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American Economic and Social 

Council 
IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
Iceland : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 

501, 734 
Economic stabilization program, agreement with U.S. 

providing assistance grant, 84, 169 
IMCO convention, 244 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 833 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, (55 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 789 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IDB. See Inter-American Development Bank 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
Ignacio-Pinto, Louis, 685 



1056 



Department of State Bulletin 



ILO. See International Labor Organization 

IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration : 

Cubans in United States, estimate of, 309 
Fingerprinting regulations re nonimmigrant aliens 

amended, 692 
Mauritanian quota, proclamation, 49 
Procedures, improvement of, message (Eisenhoveer) 142 
U.S. policy, remarks (Jones), 928 
Imports (see also Customs; Exports; Tariff policy, U.S.; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement; and Trade) : 
Dollar-area imports, relaxation of restrictions on, ad- 
dress, communique, and statement : Braderman, 
314, 316; Hadraba, 264, 268, 269; U.S.-Canadian 
communique, 488 
GATT talks on removal of import restrictions, 293, 418, 
832, 983 
Inaugural address (Kennedy), 175 

Income tax, convention with U.A.R. for avoidance of dou- 
ble taxation on, 64, 65 
Independence, movement toward by dependent peoples. 
U.S. views and General Assembly resolution, remarks 
and statements : Stevenson, 535 ; Wadsworth, 21, 26 ; 
Williams, 260, 857 ; text of resolution, 27 
India : 
Civil aviation consultations with U.S., resumption of, 

727 
Dispute with Pakistan over Indus waters, settlement of, 

147 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Economic development, U.S.-Japanese aid, 559 
IFC investment in, 90 

International Commission for Supervision and Control 
in Laos, proposed meeting in Delhi, U.K.-U.S.S.R. 
message to Prime Minister Nehru, 711 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 19(50 

agreement with U.S., 538 
GATT, 8th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 97 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34, 201 
U.S. aid to, statement (Rusk), 759 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 
U.S. issuance of commemorative stamp honoring 

Gandhi, remarks (Rusk), 262 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, joint communique 
(Johnson, Nehru), 959 
Indirect aggression. Communist, problems of, address 

(Cleveland), 858 
Indochina (see also Cambodia, Laos, and Viet-Nam) 

Geneva conference (1954) discussions, 543, 548 
Indonesia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 685 

Rubber exports, importance of, article (Mellen), 82 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 65, 
501 



Indonesia — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Duty-free entry privileges to diplomatic and consular 
officers and personnel, reciprocal, agreement with 
U.S., 610 
GATT, 8th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 97 
IMCO convention, 465 
U.S. relations with, exchange of messages (Kennedy, 

Sukarno), 261 
Visit of President Sukarno to U.S., exchange of greet- 
ings and text of communique (Kennedy, Sukarno), 
712 
Indus River Basin : 

Development fund agreement, 34, 201 
Settlement of dispute over, summary (Herter), 147 
Industrial Development, U.N. Committee for, statement 

(Moscoso), 605 
Industrialization, importance in economic growth, state- 
ment (Frank), 461 
Industrialized free-world nations : 

Increased interdependence of, address (Rusk), 324 
Need for cooperative effort in aid to less developed 
countries, addresses, communiques, messages, and 
statements: Ball, 328, 451, 751; Bourguiba, 851; 
Bourguiba, Kennedy, 853 ; Bowles, 708 ; Dillon, 332 ; 
Hallstein, Kennedy, 869; Kennedy, 288, 289, 293, 
333, 508, 841; Kennedy, Macmillan, 579; Rusk, 
325, 439, 519, 953, 1002; U.S.-German joint com- 
munique, 622 
Relations with less developed countries, major issues 
of, address (Ball), 753 
Inflation, problem of, address (Martin), 73 
Information Activities Abroad, President's Committee 
on, recommendations and extracts from report of and 
letters (Eisenhower, Sprague) re, 182 
Information activities and programs {see also United 
States Information Agency) : 
Freedom of information. See Freedom of information 
Improvement and expansion of, proposed, letters (Eisen- 
hower, Sprague) and report, 182 
Informational media guaranty program : 
Agreement with Afghanistan providing for, 610 
Continuation and expansion of, proposed, 194 
International and official publications and government 
documents, conventions (1958) for exchange of, 
134 
Need for informed public, address (Rowan), 795 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Information 

Agency 
Inheritances, convention for avoidance of double taxation 

on, with Canada, 351, 352 
Inspector General and Comptroller, Office of, use of MSP 

funds for, letter (Eisenhower), 85 
Intelligence activities, U.S., proposed review of, message 

(Kennedy), 907 
Intelligence Advisory Board, Foreign, establishment of, 
announcement, Executive order, and letter (Ken- 
nedy), 773 
Interagency committee, strengthening of, report (Ran- 
dall), 159 



Index, January to June 1961 

608938 — 61 4 



1057 



Inter-American affairs, need for increased Canadian par- 
ticipation, address (Kennedy), 841 
Inter-American Commission for Women, U.S. delegate, 

appointment, 742 
Inter- American Development Bank : 
Administration and role in Latin American develop- 
ment programs; message and statements: Ball, 
864, 865, 866; Dillon, 697; Kennedy, 475, 476, 553 
Aid to Bolivian development program, negotiations re, 

letters (Kennedy, Paz), 921, 922 
Board of Governors 2d annual meeting, statements 

(Dillon), 693 
First annual report^ published, 695 
Loans of, statement (Dillon), 697 

Organization and establishment of, address and sum- 
mary : Berle, 620 ; Herter, 149 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council : 
Ministerial level meeting of : 
Development of U.S. position on agenda items, mem- 
orandum (Ball), 919 
Proposal for and purposes of, address, remarks, and 
statements: Berle, 821; Kennedy, 616, 766, 970; 
Rusk, 759 
Need for use of, statement (Dillon), 697 
Participation in Bolivian development program, letters 

(Kennedy, Paz), 920, 922 
Role in Alliance for Progress, address and message 
(Kennedy), 472, 476 
Inter-American Fund for Social Progress : 
Administration of, mes.sage and statement: BaU, 866; 

Kennedy, 476 
Request for appropriations, address, message, and state- 
ment : Coerr, 255 ; Ball, 864 ; Kennedy, 474 
Signing of appropriation bill, remarks (Kennedy), 971 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention (1944) on and protocol of amendment to, 65, 
201, 317, 425, 537 
Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission, 3rd meeting, 

U.S. delegation to, 895 
Inter-American Peace Committe, 273 
Inter-American system, address (Berle), 617 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, convention 

(1949) for establishment of, 653 
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : 
Council and Executive Committee, 13th and 16th ses- 
sions, article (Warren), 386 
U.S. support for and accomplishments of, remarks 
(Jones), 929 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization : 
Conference on oil pollution of the .sea, statement 

(Chayes), 777 
Convention (1948) on, 97, 244, 425, 465, 609, 985 
2d Assembly of, U.S. delegation, 572 
Subcommittee on Tonnage Measurement, meeting and 
work of, 595 
International affairs of foreign countries, ethics of 

mutual involvement in, remarks (Cleveland), 525 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency, International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
(see also International Development Association) : 
Articles of agreement, 34, 573 
Cuba and Dominican Republic, withdrawal from, 34, 91 



International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment — Continued 
Economic development libraries, 19 
Financial statement, 347 

Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34, 201 
Loans in Latin America, 254 
Portugal, membership in, 572 
International civil servant, definition, 54 
International Commission for Supervision and Control 

in Laos. See under Laos situation 
International conferences. See International organiza- 
tions and conferences 
International Cooperation Administration (see also De- 
velopment Loan Fund, Economic and technical aid. 
Investment guaranty program, and Mutual security) : 
Administration of: 

Latin American aid programs, message and state- 
ment : Ball, 866 ; Kennedy, 477 
Relief aid in : Chile, 492 ; Tunisia, 597 
Aid to: Afghanistan, 133; Africa, 375; Chile, 255; 
Guatemala, 255; Lebanon, 50; Libya, 313; Niger, 
492; Nigeria, 404, 502; Peru, 923; Senegal, 833; 
Turkey, 197 ; Viet-Nam, 84 
Alliance for Progress, ICA requested to expedite im- 
plementation of projects for, memorandum (Ball), 
918 
Appointments and designations of representatives to : 
Congo, Republic of the, 353 ; Federation of Rhodesia 
and Nyasaland, 654; Ivory Coast, 65; Malagasy 
Republic, 65 ; Mali, 466 ; Yemen, 501 
Audit report on drought relief program in Peru, Depart- 
ment statement, 923 
Consultant, appointment (Johnson), 426 
Cuban skilled refugees, proposal for utilization in Latin 

American programs, report (Voorhees), 223, 224 
Defense support aid to Turkey, 197 
Deputy Director for Congressional Relations, appoint- 
ment (Salter), 466 
Director of, confirmation (Labouisse), 390 
Education programs in Africa, 218, 531, 913 
Industrial resources program, purpose of, statement 

(Frank), 461 
Integration with other aid programs, proposed, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 510 
Regional community development conference at Seoul, 

statement (Rusk), 756 
Regional Director for Latin American Operations, des- 
ignation (Hill), 466 
Special assistance loan to Bolivia, 531, 921, 922 
Special Assistant to Director, appointment (Waters), 

353 
Technical training of Asians in Japan, address (Mac- 
Arthur), 559 
U.S. Operations Missions : 
Designations of Directors to: Bolivia, 170; Haiti, 170 
Establishment of at Lom6, Togo, 84 
Visit of survey team to Entente States, letter (Herter), 
19 
International Court of Justice : 

South- West Africa, proposed consideration of Union of 
South Africa's actions in, statement (Bingham), 
569. 570 



1058 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



International Court of Justice — Continued 
Treaty provision for settlement of disputes by, proposed, 
statement (Chayes), 777 
International Cultural Exchange and Trade Fair Partici- 
pation Act of 1956, administration of, announcement 
and Executive order, 196 
International Development Agency, proposed establish- 
ment and organization of, letter and statement : Ken- 
nedy, 978 ; Rusk, 953, 1003 
International Development Association : 
Articles of agreement, 34, 97, 169 
Purpose, statement (Achilles), 32 

U.S. support of, statement and summary : Braderman, 
316 ; Herter, 149 
International Finance Corporation : 
Articles of agreement, 34, 609 
Cuba and Dominican Republic withdrawal from, 34, 

91,347 
Investments in 1960, report, 90 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, report on 

Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, 772 
International labor conference, U.S. delegation to 45th 

session, 1027 
International Labor Organization : 
International peace corps, proposal for use of, remarks 

(Cleveland), 552 
Participation in African educational and economic con- 
ferences, statement (Kotschnig), 380 
International law (see also International Court of Jus- 
tice) U.S. support of, summary (Herter), 146 
International Monetary Fund {see also International 
Bank) : 
Aid to : Brazil, 863 ; Turkey, 197 ; Yugoslavia, 85 
Articles of agreement, 573 
Currency convertibility under art. VIII, acceptance by 

10 members, announcement, 346 
Portugal, membership in, 572 

U.S.drawing rights in, use of, message (Kennedy), 289, 
290 
International organizations and conferences (see also 
subject) : 
Administration of, Soviet tripartitism proposal re (see 
also United Nations: Office of Secretary-General), 
address and statements: Cleveland, 811, 813, 814; 
Rusk, 688, 691 
Calendar of international meetings, 20, 91, 198, 272, 

348, 423, 496, 568, 646, 735, 869, 981 
Canadian role in, address (Kennedy), 842 
Involvement in national affairs, remarks (Cleveland), 

526 
Participation of government scientists in international 

conferences, policy re, 96 
Potential for action by, remarks (Cleveland), 860 
Problem of protecting political independence of weak 

nations, address (Cleveland), 860 
Role in foreign policy, remarks ( Rusk ) , 624 
U.S. planning for and participation in, recommendations 
re, 189, 192 
International Peace and Security Act, 954, 977, 1006 
International peace corps, proposal for, remarks (Cleve- 
land), 551 



International Rubber Study Group, work of, article (Mel- 

len), 78, 202 
International Telecommunication Union, 830 
Investment guaranty program : 
Agreements with : Argentina, 833 ; Chile, 425 ; Morocco, 

643, 653 ; Panama, 244 ; Sierra Leone, 1029 
DLF and ICA role in, address (Coffin), 457 
Scope of, summary (Herter), 148 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Africa, U.S. investment in, addresses (Williams), 375, 

585 
Good practices in, need for Government encouragement 

of, 193 
Importance of, message (Kennedy) , 287 
Latin A merica, need for proper handling in, address 

(Berle), 819 
Less developed countries. Importance and problem of in, 
addresses and statement : Martin, 74, 75, 823 ; Mos- 
coso, 608 
Peru, address (Coerr), 254 

Protection of. See Investment guaranty program 
U.S. encouragement and support of, address, state- 
ments, and summary: Achilles, 33; Coffin, 457, 
458 ; Frank, 462 ; Herter, 148 
Ix'an : 
Afghan-Iranian relations, article (Byroade), 126 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1960 

agreement with U.S., 698 
Economic development program, discussions with U.S. 

re, joint statement, 49 
Invitation to visit Tehran, acceptance by Ambassador 

Harriman, 445 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 941 
Iraq : 
Cultural agreements with U.S., 243, 282 
IDA, articles of agreement, 34, 169 
Ireland : 

Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Nuclear weapons, U.S. position on Irish resolution pro- 
hibiting transfers of, statement (Wilcox), 95 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary proto- 
cols, and memorandum of understanding on, 65 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 
Isenberg, Max, 574 
Isolationism, change in U.S. position on, address (Bohlen) , 

966 
Israel : 

Atomic energy activities, Department statement, 45 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Palestine refugees, U.N. programs for, U.S. views and 
support, remarks and statements : Jones, 929 ; Wil- 
cox, 28 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 896 
Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

and extending 1956 agreement with U.S., 896 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 896 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 97 



Index, January to June 1961 



1059 



Israel — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

International Tracing Service, agreement and pro- 
tocol relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
Nuclear research and training equipment and ma- 
terials, agreement with U.S. for acquisition of, 
201 
Violation of armistice agreement, Jordan complaint in 

Security Council, statement (Plimpton), 649 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation (Barbour), 941; resig- 
nation (Reid), 170 
Italy: 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 961 
Commemoration of centennial of unification, remarks 

and proclamation (Kennedy), 486 
Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
IPC investments in, 90 
Liberalization of restrictions on dollar-area imports, 

269, 983 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aircraft, convention (1948) on international recogni- 
tion of rights in, 896 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1957 agreement vrith U.S., 574 
Atomic energy, mutual defense uses of, agreement 

with U.S. for cooperation in, 201, 941 
Classified patent applications, agreement with U.S. 
approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 244 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, agreement 
supplementing 1948 treaty with U.S., 424, 425, 501 
International Tracing Service, agreement and proto- 
col relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocol, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Patents and technical information in defense pro- 
grams, agreement (19.52) with U.S. on arrange- 
ments re, 244 
Technical cooperation program for Trust Territory 
of Somaliland, agreement with U.S. amending and 
extending 19.54 agreement, 318 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union 
Ivory Coast : 

Ambas-sador to U.S., credentials, 177 

Conseil de I'Entente, proposed U.S. aid to States of, 

19 
ICA representative in, designation, 65 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit, international agreement (1944), 

537 
Civil aviation convention, international, 1954 proto- 
col amending articles of, 698 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S. providing, 985 
IMCO convention, 97 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 1029 
Telecommunication conventions, international, 244 
UNESCO constitution, 98 
WHO constitution, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 



Jacques, Sidney B., 170 
Japan : 

Air transport consultations with U.S., 935 
DAG membership, 33 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Liberalization of controls on imports, 270 
Relations with Korea, joint statement (Chyung-Rusk), 

712 
Tariff concessions renegotiated with U.S., announcement 

and lists of concessions, 826 
Trade union leader, meeting with President Kennedy, 

404 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Educational exchange, agreement amending 1958 

agreement with U.S. for financing, 65 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 
U.S.-Japanese relations, address (MacArthur), 556 
Visit of Senator Sparkman to, announcement of, 757 
Jean, Arch K., 466 
Johnson, Byron L., 426 
Johnson, Lyndon B. : 

Tour of South and Southeast Asia : 
Announced, 750 
Statement (Rusk), 762 
Texts of joint communiques, 956 
Message and statement: 
NATO, U.S. support of, 581 

Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests, 580 
National Advisory Council for the Peace Corps, appoint- 
ment as chairman of, 583 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 789 
Johnstone, James R., 170 
Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), International, report on 

Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, 772 
Jones, Marshall P., 466 
Jones, Roger W., 282, 928 
Jordan : 

Complaint against Israel in Security Council re viola- 
tion of armistice agreement, statement (Plimpton), 
649 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 426 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 

Kampmann, Viggo, 261 
Kasavubu, Joseph, 52, 53, 57, 360, 361 
Kee, Robert, 439 
Kennan, George F., 466 
Kennedy, John F. : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements (see also Meetings 
with infra) : 
Act of Bogotd, remarks on signing bill to implement, 

971 
Africa, U.S. policy, 731, 917 
Africa freedom day celebration, 638 
Ambassador Moscoso, appointment to Venezuela, 764 
Argentine-U.S. cooperation, 920 



1060 



Department of State Bulletin 



Kennedy, John F. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 

Canada-U.S. relations and aims, 837 

Congo situation, U.S. supports U.N. in, 332 

Cuban refugees, measures for aiding, 309 

Cuban situation. See Cuban situation 

EI Salvador, recognition of government of, 344 

Pood-for-peace programs in Latin America, 552 

Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests, 478, 755 

lA-ECOSOC ministerial talks on development in 
Americas, calling for, 760 

IDB, role in Alliance for Progress, 553 

Inaugural address, 175 

Italian unification, centennial of, 486 

Korea, 1st anniversary of revolution, 691 

Laos, position of administration re problem of, 543, 
544 

Latin America : 
Alliance for Progress in, 471 
Ambassador Stevenson's mission to, 970 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 647, 995, 996 

Operations Coordinating Board, abolition of, 345 

OECD convention, ratification of, 514 

OEEO, Economic Policy Committee of, 648 

Pan American Day celebration, 615 

Peace Corps, establishment and functions of, 400 

President Bourguiba accepts invitation to visit U.S., 
448 

Press, the, self -discipline of, 796 

Secretary Rusk to attend SEATO Council of Minis- 
ters meeting, 334 

Soviet man-in-space achievement, congratulations on, 
639 

State of the Union, 207 

Textile industry, U.S., program for assistance to, 825 

Traetors-for-freedom movement, 934 

U.S. citizens role in foreign policy, 8.54 
Appointment of members of the National Advisory 

Council for the Peace Corps, 583 
Correspondence and messages : 

African conference on education, salute to, 937 

Alliance for Progress, exchange of views with Presi- 
dent Frondizi of Argentina, on, 814 

Bolivia, U.S. cooperation in development program, 
exchange of letters with President Paz, 920 

Brazil, U.S. relations with, greetings to President- 
elect Quadros and retiring President Kubit.schek, 
256 

Central African Republic, U.S. aid to, exchange of 
letters with President Dacko re, 766 

Chancellor Raab of Austria, re service to his country, 
591 

Conference of African States, greetings to, 802 

Cuban refugees in U.S., aid to, 256, 490 

Cuban situation, repudiation of Soviet allegations, 
exchange of messages with Premier Khrushchev, 
661 

Economic Commission for Africa, 3d session of, greet- 
ings to, 374 

Economic conference at Yaounde, greetings to, 586 



Kennedy, John F. — Continued 

Correspondence and messages — Continued 

European Economic Community, U.S. collaboration 
with Commission of, exchange of telegrams with 
President Hallstein, 295 

Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, letter to mem- 
bers of, 774 

General de Gaulle, support and friendship for, 709 

Inauguration, acknowledgments of congratulations, 
exchanges with: Indonesia, 261; Mexico, 310; 
Soviet Union, 214 ; Yugoslavia, 444 

NATO: 

12th anniversary of signing of treaty of, 580 
U.S. support, message to NAC, 333 

'Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, letter to Secre- 
tary Udall requesting views on, 969 

Prime Minister Lefevre of Belgium, congratulations 
to, 803 

Sierra Leone, congratulations on independence of, 733 

Soviet Union, congratulations on : Launching of space 
vehicle to Venus, 369 ; Man-in-space achievement, 
640 

Sylvanus Olympio, greetings upon inauguration as 
President of Republic of Togo, 639 

United Nations, need for public understanding of, 447 

West Indies, defense areas agreement with, 351 
Decision on imports of twines and cordage, 313 
Executive orders, 216, 345, 400, 774, 934, 976 
Meetings with : 

EEC Commission President, communique, 868 

Heads of State and officials of, statements and joint 
communiques : Argentina, 920 ; Australia, 372 ; 
Canada, 371; Congo, Republic of, 1008; EEC 
Commission, 868; France, 909, 991, 995, 997, 999; 
Germany, 369, 621; Ghana, 445; Greece, 724; In- 
donesia, 712 ; Japan. 404 ; New Zealand, 403 ; Soviet 
Union, 848, 909, 975, 992, 999; Tunisia, 848, 852; 
U.K., 544, 579, 995, 999 

President Eisenhower, discussion of world situation, 
joint statement (Hagerty, Salinger), 177 

Special economic committee, 215 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 

Duty-free allowance of .?100, recommendation, 382 

Balance-of-payments deficit, measures recommended 
to restore U.S. equilibrium in, 287 

Foreign aid, 507, 977 

Inter-American Fund for Social Progress, request for 
appropriations for, 475 

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951, pro- 
posed amendment to, 444 

Peace Corps, requesting legislation for establishment 
of, 401, 980 

UNESCO campaign to save Nubian monuments, re- 
quest for funds for, 643 

Urgent National Needs, 903 
Participation in foreign policy briefings, announcement, 

431, 432 
Proclamations, 344, 420, 487, 592, 593, 721, 939 
Visit to Europe, remarks, report to Nation, statements, 
and joint communiques, 848, 909, 975, 991 



Index, January fo June J 96 J 



1061 



Kenya : 

Drought and famine, U.S. relief aid, 312 
Education program, U.S. aid, 218 
Kettelhut, Marvin C, 170 
Khan, Mohammed Ayub, 448, 960 
Khrushchev, Nikita S. : 
Address and messages : 
Congo situation, 811 
Cuban situation, 253, 664 
President Kennedy, congratulations on inauguration, 

214 
Space vehicle to Venus, launching, 369 
Meeting with President Kennedy at Vienna, address, 
announcement, communique, message, and state- 
ment : Department, 848 ; Kennedy, 910, 992 ; Tubby, 
975; U.S.-U.S.S.R. communique, 999 
Self -proclaimed leader of nationalist revolutions, state- 
ment (Rusk), 442 
Killian, James R., Jr., 774 
King Baudouin, 40 
Kitchen, Jeffrey C, 897 
Klutznick, Philip M., 318, 424, 564 
Knight, Douglas M., 96 
Kohler, Foy D., 924 
Kohler, Max A., 651 
Kootenai River, Columbia River treaty provisions for, 

development of, 228, 232, 237 
Korea, north : 

Communist takeover of. Department study, released, 

737 
Economic conditions in, letter (Bowles), 932 
Representation at U.N., question of, U.S. and Republic 
of Korea views on, statements : Chyung-Rusk, 711 ; 
Stevenson, Yost, 736 
Korea, reunification of, U.N. debate on, U.S. position, 
statements and resolution : Chyung-Rusk, 711 ; Stev- 
enson, 736; Yost, 740; test of resolution, 740 
Korea, Republic of: 

Economic situation and prospects, U.S. views on, letter 

(Bowles), 930 
Foreign Minister Chyung, visit to U.S., joint statement 

(Chyung, Busk), 711 
ICA regional community development conference at 

Seoul, statement (Rusk), 757 
Reform in exchange system, U.S. views, statement 

(Ball), 262 
Revolution in, 1st anniversary of, statement (Ken- 
nedy), 691 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 202, 

610, 941 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S. providing, 425, 538 
In.sured parcel post, agreement with U.S., 34 
U.S. naval vessels, agreement with U.S. extending 
period of loan of, 244 
U.S. economic aid, 691 
U.S. forces in, question of status-of-forces agreement 

on, statement (Rusk), 437 
U.S. -Korean friendly relations. Military Revolutionary 
Committee pledges of, exchange of notes, 962 
Kotschnig, AValter M., 376 



Kuwait : 

Nonimmigrant passport visas, agreement with U.S. for 

reciprocal granting of, 244 
UNESCO constitution, 282 

Labor : 

Advisory Committee on Labor and Management, crea- 
tion and functions of, message (Kennedy), 291 
International labor affairs, FSI training program in, 

245 
Involvement of labor organizations in world affairs, 

193 
U.S. unemployment problems, measures to relieve, ad- 
dress (Kennedy), 207 
Labor conference, international, U.S. delegation to 45th 

session, 1027 
Labor Organization, International : 
International peace corps, proposal for use of, remarks 

(Cleveland), 552 
Participation in African educational and economic con- 
ferences, statement (Kotschnig), 380 
Labouisse, Henry R., 390 
Laking, George Robert, 910 
Land reform : 

Bolivia, address (Coerr), 252 

Cuba, revolutionary promises betrayed, statement 

(Stevenson), 680 
Latin America : 

Act of Bogota recommendations, 254, 255 
Problem of, message (Kennedy), 476 
Southeast Asian countries, problem of in, 960, 961 
Landsberg, Helmut E., 278 
Laos: 

Economic and technical aid for, U.S. proposal, state- 
ment (Rusk), 847 
Situation in. See Laos situation 

Visit of Prince Souvanna Phouma to U.S., remarks, 
(Rusk), 687, 689 
Laos situation : 

Addresses, messages, remarks, and statements : Cleve- 
land, 859 ; Department, 76, 114, 115 ; Harriman, 
1023, 1024. 1025 ; Kennedy, 210, 543, 544, 993 ; Rusk, 
299, 300, 303, 436, 519, 522, 548, 686, 687, 688, 689, 
690, 756, 757, 758, 759, 760, 761, 762, 844, 845, 847 
Background of, Department statement, 115 
Cease-fire : 

Call for, text of U.K.-U.S.S.R. message and U.S. state- 
ment, 710 
Problem of, statements (Rusk), 686, 688, 756, 761 
SEATO conference position on, statement (Rusk), 

759 
U.S. repeats call for, statement (Harriman), 1023 
Verification of. See International Commission for 

Supervision and Control infra 
Violation of, statements : Harriman, 1024 ; Rusk, 844 
Communist intervention in, communique, note, and 
statements : Kennedy, .543 ; Department, 114 ; Rusk, 
436, 519, 548, 845; SEATO communique, 549; U.S. 
note, 15 
Geneva international conference for settlement of: 
Cambodian proposal for, 545 
Date set for, U.K.-Soviet message, 710 



1062 



Department of State Bulletin 



Laos situation — Continued 

Geneva international conference for settlement of — 
Continued 
Invitation to U.S. to participate and list of other par- 
ticipants, U.K.-Soviet message, 711 
Prince Sihanouk's participation, question of, state- 
ment (Rusk), 760 
Secretary Rusk's participation, question of, statement 

(Rusk), 756 
U.S. proposal for a neutral Laos, statement (Rusk), 

844 
U.S. repeats call for cease-fire in Laos, statement 
(Harriman), 102.3 
International Commission for Supervision and Control : 
Meeting of, proposed, statement (Rusk), 299, 300; 

text of U.K.-U.S.S.R. proposal, 710 
Need for support and cooperation with, statement 

(Harriman), 1023 
Report on Laos situation, statement (Rusk), 844 
Role of. remarks ( Rusk ) , 757, 847 
Neutral and independent government, question and 
problem of establishment of : 
Australian-U.S. views, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Menzies), 372 
Canadian-U.S. views, joint communique (Diefenba- 

ker, Kennedy), 843 
Indian-U.S. views, joint communique (Johnson, 

Nehru), 960 
Indonesian-U.S. views, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Sukarno), 713 
New Zealand-U.S. views, joint communique (Holy- 

oake. Kennedy) , 404 
Soviet-U.S. views, joint communique (U.S.-U.S.S.R.), 

999 
U.S. proposal and views, remarks : Kennedy, 993 ; 
Rusk. 689, 757, 761, 762. 844 
Pathet Lao activity, statements : Harriman, 1025 ; Ken- 
nedy, 543 ; Rusk, 758 
SEATO Council consideration of problems of, state- 
ments (Rusk), 547, 759, and text of communiques, 
117, .549 
Soviet proposals and role in : 

Aide-memoire and notes, 16, 545, 710, 711 
Diplomatic maneuvers, remarks (Rusk), 687, 690 
Intervention in, U.S. cites evidence of, statements and 
note: Department, 114; Kennedy, 543; Rusk, 436; 
U.S. note, 15 
Khrushchev-Kennedy discussions, 993, 999 
Soviet reply to British proposals, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Rusk), 686 
U.S. views on, addresses, joint communique, and state- 
ments: Cleveland, 859; Department, 76, 115; Ken- 
nedy, 210, 543; Kennedy, Macmillan, 544, 999; 
Rusk, 299, 300, 303, 430, 522 ; U.S. note, 15 
Latin America (see also Caribbean, Inter-American, Op- 
eration Pan America, Pan American, Organization of 
American states, and individual countries) : 
Alliance for Progress. See Alliance for Progress 
Communist activities in. See under Communism 
Cuban subversion in, statement (Stevenson), 671 
Cultural exchange program in : 
Need for expansion of, address (Kennedy), 473 



Latin America — Continued 

Cultural exchange program in — Continued 

Proposed use of Cuban refugee scholars in, letter 
(Ribicoff), 491 
Economic and social development : (see also Alliance for 
Progress ; Bogotd, Act of ; Inter-American Develop- 
ment Bank ; Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council ; ond. Inter-American fund) : 
Need for cooperative effort, address and statements : 

Berle, 617 ; Rusk, 297, 301 
Problems of, address and message : Berle, 343 ; Ken- 
nedy, 509 
Reaction to U.S. proposals, statement (Rusk), 523 
Role of OAS in, remarks (Kennedy), 616 
U.S. efforts to promote, address, statement, and sum- 
mary : Herter, 149 ; Kennedy, 212, 970 
Economic Commission for. See Economic Commission 

for Latin America 
EEC effect upon trade with, joint communique (Hall- 
stein, Kennedy), 869 
Food-for-peaee programs in : 
Statement (Kennedy), 5-52 
Visit of U.S. mission to study, 212, 312 
Fulbright program in, recommendation to enlarge, 459 
ICA regional director, designation, 466 
Immigrants to, need for semiskilled, article (Warren), 

387 
Investment guaranty program in, 833 
Military assistance program for, proposed, statement 

(Rusk), 955 
Severence of relations with Cuba, U.S. reply to Cuban 
charge of pressure for, statement (Wadsworth), 
105, 110 
Trade, expansion of, address (Berle), 818 
U.S. information activities in : 

Need for reinforcement of, letter (Eisenhower), 182; 

Sprague Committee report, 184, 185, 186, 187 
USIA broadcasts, proposed increase in, message 
(Kennedy), 905 
U.S. policy toward, addresses and statements: Berle, 
342 ; Bowles, 629 ; Coerr, 251 ; Kennedy, 175, 210, 
212 ; Rusk, 437 
Visit of Ambassador Stevenson to, statement (Ken- 
nedy), itinerary, and members of party, 970 
Latin America, Interdepartmental Task Force on, estab- 
lishment and membership of and statement (Rusk), 
298 
Law of the sea : 
Conventions on. 134, 317, 425, 609, 698, 833, 985 
Diplomatic conference on maritime law, U.S. delegation, 
651 
Le, Kong, 114 
Lebanon : 

Drought, U.S. relief aid, .50 
Radio regulations (1959), 985 

U.S. emergency military aid, summary (Herter), 146 
Lefevre, Theo, 803 
Lend-lease program : 

Liberian debt, use of funds from settlement of, 531 
U.K., U.S. aid, address (Bowles), 704 



Index, January to June 7967 



1063 



Less developed countries (see also Newly independent 
countries) : 
Aid to (see also Economic and teclinical aid and Eco- 
nomic development) : 
GATT program of, 983 
IAEA assistance, statement ( Wilcox ) , 92 
NATO views on, NAG communique, 801 
Need for cooperative effort of free-world industri- 
alized nations. See Industrialized free-world na- 
tions. 
Role of DAG and OECD : 

Addresses and statements : Ball. 328, 718, 753 ; Dil- 
lon, 10, 332 ; Kennedy, 514 ; Rusk, 325 
DAG communique and resolution, 554 
U.S.-German discussions, aide memoire and joint com- 
munique, 370, 371 ; statement (Rusk), 439 
Basic problems facing, joint communique (Johnson- 
Nehru), 960 
Challenge to U.S., address (Dulles), 336 
Economic offensive of Soviet Union and Communist 
countries, addresses, communique, message, report, 
and statement : Bowles, 481, 705 ; Byroade, 131 ; 
Dulles, 337 ; Kennedy, 508 ; NAC communique, 40 ; 
Rowan, 799 ; Sprague report, 190 
Income, need to stabilize, address (Martin), 823 
International peace corps, question of u.se in, remarks 

(Cleveland), 551 
Need for internal reform and self-help, message (Ken- 
nedy), 509, 511 
Private investment, U.S. See Investment of private 

capital abroad 
Revolution of rising expectations in, addresses : Bowles, 

704 : Rowan, 797 ; Rusk, 515 
Rubber, importance of as export product, article (Mel- 

len), 78 
Trade problems (.see also Commodity trade), statement 

(Braderman), 315, 316 
U.S. information activities in, report and recommenda- 
tions re, 187, 189, 190, 193 
U.S. policy toward, addresses, message, and report: 
Ball, 751 ; Bowles, 483 ; Kennedy, 842, 903, 904, 994 ; 
Martin, 71, 72 
Libby Dam project, treaty for development of Columbia 
River provisions concerning, 228, 2.32, 237, 493, 495 
Liberia : 

Expanded education program in, U.S. -Liberia negotia- 
tions for, 531 
Rubber exports, importance of, article (Mellen), 82 
Submission in Security Council of resolution on Congo 
situation, statements ( Stevenson ) and text of reso- 
lution, 365, 367, 368 
U.S. military mission, agreement extending 1951 agree- 
ment, ,S34 
Libraries, IBRD economic development, 19 
Libya : 

Drought, U.S. aid, 313 

U.S. military operations in. memorandum of under- 
standing re problems arising from, 202 
Lima, Francisco Roberto, 910 
Lincoln, Murray D., 217 
Lindt, August R., 7 
Linseed oil, proclamation terminating import fees on, 593 



Lippmann, Walter, 719 

Lister, Ernest A., 963 

Little, William Roy, 466 

Living standard, newly independent nations demand for 

improvement, address (Martin), 71 
Load line convention ( 1930) , international, 317 
Loans, U.S. {see also Development Loan Fund, Export- 
Import Bank, and International Cooperation Admin- 
istration), need of long-term borrowing authority in 
development aid programs, addresses, letter, message, 
and statements : Bowles, 708 ; Kennedy, 511, 977 ; 
Rusk, 749, 951, 1003 
Loeb, James, 741 
Lopez Mateos, Adolfo, 311 
Lord, Mrs. Oswald B., 202 
Louchheim, Mrs. Katie, 985 
Lumumba, Patrice, 52, 55, 57, 359, 364, 368 
Luxembourg : 

Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97, 169 
International Tracing Service, agreement and proto- 
col relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocol, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 789 

MacArthur, Douglas II, 390, 556 
MacLeish, Archibald, 643 

Macmillan, Harold ; meetings with President Kennedy 
at: Key West, Florida, 544; London, 848, 995, 999; 
Washington, 304. 579 
Macomber, William B., Jr., 426 
Maiga, Abdoulaye, 77 
Makerere College of LTganda, 218 
Malagasy Republic: 
African and Malagasy Organization for Economic Co- 
operation, established, 586, 587 
lOA representative in, designation, 65 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IMCO convention, 609 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

985 
UNESCO constitution. 282 
WHO constitution, 425 
WMO convention, 98 
Malaya : 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Rubber industry, article (Mellen), 79, 82 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, protocol (1954) relating to amend- 
ments to 1944 international convention on, 789 
Compulsory settlement of disputes, optional protocol 

of signature concerning, 985 
Cultural i)roiK^rty, convention (1954) and protocol 
for protection in event of armed conflict, 282 



1064 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Malaya — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT: 

Declarations on provisional accessions of Israel, 

Tunisia, and Switzerland, 97 
Declaration on relations with Yugoslavia, 07 
Sth and 9th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to texts of schedules, 97 
Law of the sea, conventions on, 317 
Radio regulations (1959), 985 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
with annexes and final protocol, 390 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 390 
Mali : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 77 
ICA representative, designation, 466 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, protocol (1954) relating to amend- 
ments to 1944 international convention on, 2S2 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S. providing for, 202 
UNESCO constitution, 98, 282 
Universal postal convention (1957), 833 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Management, Advisory Committee on Labor and, creation 

and functions of, message (Kennedy), 291 
Manley, Norman, 350 
Mann, Thomas C, 741 
Mansfield, Jlike, 762 
Mariani, Clemente, 862 

Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental. 
See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organ- 
ization 
Maritime law, diplomatic conference on, U.S. delegation 

to, announcement, 651 
Marshall plan, 450, 716, 748, 752 
Martin, Edwin M. : 
Addresses and statements : 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 
proposed legislation amending and extending, 1020 
Economic development, problems of promoting, 71 
Sugar Act of 1048, legislation extending, 562 
Telecommunication convention, international, and 

radio regulations, revision of, 830 
Trade and aid programs, relationship between, 822 
Chairman, U.S. delegation to U.S.-Indian civil aviation 

consultations, 727 
Participation in discussions on Iranian development, 50 
Martin, Graham A., 741 
Masaryk, Thomas, 17 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, centennial cele- 
bration, remarks (Rusk), 624 
Mauritania : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 857 
IMCO convention, 985 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
U.S. immigration quota, proclamation, 49 
WHO constitution, 698 
Mayobre Cova, Jos6 Antonio, 177 
Mazzocco, William J., 65 
MeCausland, Nicholas, 245 



McConaughy, Walter P., 741 

McCracken, Paul W., 215 

McGhee, George C, 353 

McGovern, George, 312 

Mcintosh, Dempster, 98 

McKone, John R., 302)i 

Mellen, Sydney L. W., 78, 202 

Meningitis epidemic, U.S. aid to Niger and Upper Volta, 

492 
Menzies, Robert Gordon, 372 
Merchant, Livingston T., 3, 390 

Meteorological Organization, World. See World Meteor- 
ological Organization 
Mexico : 

IFC investment in, 90 

Social revolution in, address (Coerr), 252 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, agreement with U.S., 282 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocol of amendment to 1944 convention, 201 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 

U.S.-Mexican relations, exchange of messages (Lopez 
Mateos, Kennedy ) , 310 
Miami, University of, use of Cuban refugee scholars by, 

letter (Ribicoff), 491 
Miami Cuban Refugee Emergency Center, work of, report 

(Voorhees), 220 
Michener, James A., 829 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Migration, European, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European 
Migration 
Mikoyan, Anastas I., 107 

Military assistance (.see also Military equipment, ma- 
terials, and services. Military mission. Mutual defense, 
and Mutual security) : 
Agreement with Bolivia concerning, 390 
Appropriation request for and legislative proposals 
concerning, letter, messages, and statements : 
Kennedy, 513, 905, 977 ; Rusk, 955, 1006 
Need for continuation of, message ( Eisenhower) , 142 
Role of Secretary of State in, 979 
Soviet aid to Afghanistan, article (Byroade), 132 
Viet-Nam, U.S. aid to, joint communique (Johnson, 
Ngo Dinh Diem), 956; statements (Rusk), 757, 758. 
759, 761 
Military bases, U.S., overseas : 
Guantanamo Naval Base : 

Treaty rights re, statement (Hagerty), 104 
Water supply to. question of, statement (Rusk), 303 
Measures to reduce U.S. dollar expenditures by, message 

(Kennedy), 293, 294 
Libya, memorandum of understanding re problems of 

U.S. military operations in, 202 
Saudi Arabia, nonrenewal of Dhahran airfield agree- 
ment, 490 
Scotland, proteus Polaris base in, statement (Rusk), 437 
West Indies, defense areas agreement with. See under 
West Indies 
Military Committee, NATO, 647 



Index, January to June 1961 



1065 



Military equipment, materials, and services : 

Disposition of, agreements amending agreements with: 

Germany, 538 ; Norway, 352 
Furnisliing of, agreement with Colombia, 698 
Imposition of export controls on shipments to Congo 
(Li^opoldville), 546, 1009 
Military establishment, U.S. : 

Measures to strengthen, address and message 

(Kennedy), 211, 906 
Need for, address (Eisenhower), 180 
Role in foreign policy objectives, 191 
Military mission, U.S., agreement extending 1951 agree- 
ment with Liberia re, 834 
Millar, John Y., 170 
Millard, Maxwell D., 537 
Missiles : 

NATO stockpile of, NAC communique, 40 
U.S. program: 

Acceleration of, address (Kennedy), 211 
Expenditures for and status of, message (Eisen- 
hower), 141 
Mokaddem, Sadok, 756 
Monetary stabilization (see also International Monetary 

Fund) , U.S. grant to Iceland for, 84 
Morales Carri6n, Arturo, 426, 897 
Morgan, George A., 466 
Morocco : 

Economic development program, U.S. aid, 935 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Food for peace, agreement with U.S., 772 

IDA, articles of agreement, 169 

Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. providing 

for, 643, 653 
Radio regulations (1959), 1029 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
985 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 941 
Moscow declaration (1960), guide of action for inter- 
national communism, address (Kohler), 925 
Moscoso, Teodoro, 605, 741, 764 
Mutual cooperation and security, treaty with Japan, 

address (MacArthur), 560, 561 
Mutual defense assistance agreements (see also Defense 
support. Military mission, and Ships and shipping) : 
Atomic energy, agreement with Italy for cooperation on 

the uses of, 201, 941 
Belgium, agreement amending annex B of 1950 agree- 
ment, 201 
Military equipment and supplies, agreements concern- 
ing. See under Military equipment 
Norway, agreement amending annex C of 1950 agree- 
ment, 734 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, proposed amend- 
ment of: 
Address and statement : Ball, 775 ; Kennedy, 212 
Text of, 444 
Mutual defense treaties and arrangements (see also 
ANZUS treaty. Central Treaty Organization, Mutual 
Security, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
Organization of American States, and Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization) : 
Treaty with Japan, address (MacArthur), 560, 561 



Mutual defense treaties and arrangements — Con. 
U.S. collective defense arrangements, map of, 722 
Mutual security and other assistance programs (sec also 
Agricultural surpluses. Collective security. Defense 
support, Economic and technical aid. Foreign aid pro- 
grams, Military assistance. Mutual defense, and 
Peace Corps) : 
Basis of, address (Ball), 717 
Effect on balance-of-payments problem, address (Ball) 

451 
Cuban refugees, use of funds for, 47 
Investment guaranty program. See Investment guar- 
anty program 
Latin American aid programs, use of funds for adminis- 
trative expenses of, statement (Ball), 868 
Prohibition of release of documents of, and use of 
funds for IGO, letter and certification (Eisen- 
hower), 85 
Special assistance loan to Bolivia, 531 
Yugoslavia, aid to for reform of foreign exchange and 
trade systems, 85 
Mutual understanding and cooperation, treaty with Pan- 
ama, 381 

NAC. See North Atlantic Council 

Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of 1931 conven- 
tion, 425 
NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion 
National Advisory Council for the Peace Corps, appoint- 
ment of members of, 583 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, promo- 
tion of commercial use of communication satellites, 
statement (Eisenhower), 77 
National defense and security (see also Collective security, 
Defense, Mutual defense, and Mutual security) : 
Advancement and status of, message (Eisenhower), 141 
Civil defense, importance of to, message (Kennedy), 

907 
Information programs, relationship to, letter ( Sprague) 

and report, 184, 191 
Need for, influence on American life, address (Eisen- 
hower), 180 
Strengthening of and reorganization for, message (Ken- 
nedy), 906 
National Security Council, recommendation of ad lioo 
committee of Planning Board of on Communist propa- 
ganda, 479 
National Security Institute, recommendation for estab- 
lishment of, 185, 188 
Nationalism : 
African, aspirations of, address (Williams), 528 
Ambitions and demands of, address (Martin), 71 
Irresistible force of, statement (Wadsworth), 23 
Tunisian views, address (Bourguiba), 850 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naval vessels. See under Ships and shipping 
Navigation, establishment, and friendship treaty and 
protocol with Belgium, 383, 390 



1066 



Department of State Bulletin 



Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaty with Italy, 

agreement supplementing, 424, 425, 501 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
Collective security. See Central Treaty Organization 
Refugees, problems of and aid to; remarks and state- 
ment: Jones, 929; Wilcox 
U.S. policy in, summary (Herter), 145, 148 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 959 
Netherlands : 

Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Revaluation of guilder, 451 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 97 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
International Tracing Service, agreement and pro- 
tocol relating to 1955 agreement on, 169 
OEOD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 465 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation (Rice), 653; resignation 
(Young), 202 
Netherlands Antilles, U.S. consulate at Aruba, closing, 

353 
Neutrality : 

Address and statements : Ball, 716 ; Ru.sk, 303, 442 
Laotian, U.S. program for, statement (Rusk), 844 
Nevis, convention (1954) concerning customs facilities for 

touring, 465 
New Guinea, Trust Territory of, convention (1949) on 

road traffic, with annexes, 985 
New York City, host to the United Nations, address 

(Stevenson), 410 
New York Times, editorial on Cuba cited, statement 

(Barco), 113 
New Zealand : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 910 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil air transport, agreement with U.S. supple- 
menting 1946 agreement, 169 
GATT, declaration on relations with Poland, 97, 

169 
GATT, 8th protocol of rectifications and modifica- 
tions to tests of schedules, 97 
IMCO convention, 97 

Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 169 
U.S. relations with, letters (Eisenhower-Holyoake), 7 
Newly independent nations (see also Less developed 
countries) : 
Battle Act amendment sought for aid to, statement 

(Ball), 776 
Diplomatic relations with, address (Duke), 416 
Nation-building in, addresses: Ball, 717, 719; Cleve- 
land, 861 
Problems confronting, address (Dulles), 339 

Index, January fo June 1961 



Newly independent nations — Continued 

U.N. contributions to, address and statement : Dulles, 

340 ; Wadsworth, 25 
U.S. policy toward, addresses: Bohlen, 967; Kennedy, 

175 ; Stevenson, 806 
U.S.-Indonesian views, joint communique (Kennedy, 
Sukarno), 713 
N'Goua, Joseph, 524 
Nicaragua : 
Drugs, narcotic, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside the scope of 1931 
convention, 425 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 
Nichols, Clarence W., 500 
Niger : 

Ambassador, to U.S., credentials, 685 

Consell de I'Entente, proposed U.S. aid to States of, 

19 
Meningitis epidemic, medical assistance for, 492 
Treaties, agreement, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 985 
Telecommunications convention (1952), international, 

34 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Nigeria : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 114 

Economic and political developments in, addresses: 

Cummings, 915 ; Dulles, 769 
Prime Minister Balewa, visit to U.S., 918 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit agreement (1944), international, 

282 
GATT : 
Accession to, 34 
Acknowledged applicable rights and obligations of 

U.K., 501, 538 
8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to texts of schedules, 97 
IBRD, articles of agreement, 573 
IFC, articles of agreement, 609 
IMF, articles of agreement, 573 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

734 
UNESCO constitution, 98, 282 
WHO constitution, 244 
Treatment of diplomat of, U.S. regret for, text of note, 

156 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
U.S. economic mission visit to, 857 
U.S. grant assistance, 404, 502 
Nishiyama, Akira, 935 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 436, 445 
Nolting, Frederick E., Jr., 574 
Nongovernmental organizations, role of re the United 

Nations, address (Stevenson), 804 
Nonintervention principle, relationship to practice of 
mutual international involvement, address (Cleve- 
land), 860 

1067 



Non-self-governing territories (see also Self-determina- 
tion and Trust territories) : 
Committee on information from, Portugal requested to 

cooperate with, statement (Stevenson), 498 
U.N. Charter declaration regarding, statement (Wads- 
worth), 22, 24 
North American regional broadcasting agreement and 

final protocol, 896 
North Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty 

Organization 
North Atlantic Council : 
Message (Kennedy), 332 
Ministerial meetings : 

Paris (Dec. 1960), message (Eisenhower), statements 

(Herter), and text of communique, 39 
Oslo (May 1961), statements (Rusk), text of com- 
munique, and U.S. delegation, 756, 800 
U.S. permanent repre.sentative to, confirmation, 426 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 

Assembly of and SHAPE headquarters, remarks on 

visit to (Kennedy), 995, 996 
Council of. See North Atlantic Council 
Military Committee, meeting of, remarks (Kennedy), 

647 
Nuclear weapons stockpile, statements : Rusk, 438 ; Wil- 
cox, 95 
Progress and future of, message and statement : Eisen- 
hower, 39 ; Herter, 41 
Role of, remarks and summary : Herter, 145 ; Kennedy, 

995 
Strengthening of : 

Need for, Canadian-U.S. joint communique, 843 
German-U.S. views, joint communique, 370 
U.S. proposals and view.s, addresses, message, re- 
marlvs, and statement : Bohlen, 968 ; Johnson, 581 ; 
Kennedy, 647, 841, 905 ; Rusk, 303, 689 
Support of : 

German-U.S. joint communique. 622 
U.S. pledge, message (Kennedy), 332 
Treaty, 12th anniversary of signing, message (Ken- 
nedy), 580 
U.S. relationship to, reappraisal of, address (Bowles), 

629 
Unity of, addresses : Johnson, 581 ; Kennedy, 210 
'North Korea: A Case Study in the Techniques of Take- 
over, Department study released, 737 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 

International commission for, 11th meeting of, 984 
International convention for, declaration of understand- 
ing re, 734, 789, 833 
Norway : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Disposition of equipment and materials, agreement 

amending 1953 agreement with U.S. re, 352 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 896 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to tests of schedules, 97 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement amending 

annex C of 1950 agreement with U.S., 734 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding, 833 

1068 



Norway — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, (55 
Patent applications for inventions re defense, agree- 
ment for safeguarding secrecy of, 34 
Shipbuilding program, agreement for financing with 
U.S., 34, 425 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 426 

N'Thepe, Aime-Raymond, 177 

Nubian monuments, UNESCO campaign to preserve, re- 
quest to Congress for U.S. participation in, (543 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy and Nuclear weapons 
Nuclear Energy Commission, Inter-American, 3rd meet- 
ing, U.S. delegation to, 895 
Nuclear research and training equipment and materials, 
agreements for the acquisition of, with : Brazil, 653 ; 
Israel, 201 ; Yugoslavia, 834 
Nuclear weapons : 
Distribution of : 

Dangers of, statement (Rusk), 443 
Irish proposed resolution prohibiting, U.S. position, 
statement (Wilcox), 95 
Israeli assurance of nonproduction of. Department 

statement, 45 
NATO stockpile, U.S. supply, address, communique, 
message, remarks, and statements : Kennedy, 647, 
841, 905; NAC communique, 40; Rusk, 438; Wil- 
cox, 95 
Question of U.K. unilateral nuclear disarmament, 

statement (Rusk), 442 
Tests, cessation and control of : 

Geneva conference on. See Geneva conference on 

the discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Question of Communist China's participation in ne- 
gotiations, statement (Rusk), 301, 309 
U.S. panel of experts established to study, 215 
U.S. position on, address and statement: Kennedy, 
213 ; Wilcox, 94 
Tests, Japanese protest of U.S. tests in the Pacific, 
address, (MacArthur), 558, 559 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
OCB. See Operations Coordinating Board 
Oceanographic research stations in West Indies, agree- 
ments with U.K. re, 425 
OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and 

Development 
OEEC. See European Economic Cooperation, Organiza- 
tion for 
Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, reconstitution of, 

message (Kennedy), 907 
Oil: 

CANOL pipeline facilities, agreement with Canada re 

disposition of, 34 
Oil pollution convention (1954), Senate approval 

sought for, statement (Chayes), 776 
Trade with Dominican Republic, suspension of, 273, 
274, 275, 276 
Olmstead, Freeman B., 302w 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe BuUeMn 



Olympio, Sylvanus, 639 

Operation Pan America {see also Latin America: Eco- 
nomic and social development), address, message, 
remarks, and statement: Dillon, 694; Kennedy, 472, 
475, 616 
Operations Coordinating Board : 

Abolition of, statement (Kennedy) and Executive 

order, 345 
Sprague Committee report on, 183, 185, 194 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development : 
Convention of, with supplementary protocols, and mem- 
orandum of understanding : 
Current actions, 65, 537, 653 
Texts of, 11 
U.S. ratification : 

Request for, address and statements : Ball, 320 ; 

Dillon, 330; Kennedy, 212; Rusli, 323 
Statement announcing (Kennedy), 514 
Development Assistance Committee. See Development 

Assistance Committee 
Development Assistance Group. See Development As- 
sistance Group 
Economic Policy Committee of, U.S. delegation to 

meeting of, 573 
Establishment and functions of, addresses, communi- 
ques, message, remarks, and statements : Ball, 452 ; 
Bowles, 629 ; Canadian-U.S. communique, 843 ; Dil- 
lon, 10 ; German-U.S. communique, 622 ; Kennedy, 
507, 509, 648, 842; Rusk, 323, 749, 953; text of 
Ministerial meeting communique, 8 
Membership of, 8, 324 
Ministerial meeting of, remarks and statement (Dillon) 

and text of communique, 8 
NATO cooperation with, message and communique : 

Kennedy, 334 ; NAC communique, 40 
OAS cooperation with, statement (Dillon), 696 
U.S.-Canadian views on, joint communique, 488 
U.S. participation in, messages and remarks : Dillon, 
8, 9 ; Johnson, 582 ; Kennedy, 290 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation. See 

European Economic Cooperation, Organization for 
Organization of American States : 
Council of : 
Consideration of further economic sanctions against 
Dominican Republic, statement (Bonsai), report, 
and U.S. note, 273 
Interim U.S. representative to, designation, 897 
Cuban situation : 
Challenge to OAS, statement (Stevenson), 670, 671, 

673 
Cuban charge of U.S. plan to annex, U.S. note to OAS 

Council denying, 765 
EfTorts to resolve, statements (Wadsworth), 106, 107 
Economic and social development programs for Latin 

America, role in, statement (Ball), 86.5, 866 
OECD, cooperation between, statement (Dillon), 696 
Permanent educational center, proposed, letter (Ribi- 

coff), 491 
Role of, and U.S. support, address and summary : 
Herter, 145 ; Kennedy, 473 



Organization of American States — Continued 

Strengthening, U.S. views, address, message, and re- 
marks (Kennedy), 212, 477, 615 
U.S. Ambassador, question of appointing replacement, 

statement (Rusk), 758 
Outer space : 

Communication satellites, promotion of commercial use 

of by NASA, statement (Eisenhower), 77 
International cooperation in exploration of, proposed, 

addresses and communique: Bowles, 482; Johnson. 

Nehru, 960 ; Kennedy, 213 
Peaceful uses of, U.S. proposals for, summary (Herter), 

146 
Soviet achievements : 

Launching of space vehicle to Venus, messages 

(Kennedy, Khrushchev), 369 
Man-in-space accomplishment, message and statement 

(Kennedy), 639,640 
Tracking stations, agreements for establishment, with : 

Chile, 1029 ; U.K., 318, 501, 610, 698 
U.S. achievements and objectives, message (Kennedy), 

908 

Pakistan : 

Afghan-Pakistani relations, article (Byroade), 126 
Dispute with India over Indus waters, settlement of, 147 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Finance Minister, meeting with President Kennedy, 448 
Invitation to Ambassador Harriman to visit, accept- 
ance of, 489 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 610, 

790 
Air transport agreement, agreement with U.S. 

revising route annex to, 834 
Amity, friendship, and commerce, treaty with U.S., 

164, 169, 318 
Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 1929 
convention for unification of certain rules relating 
to, 97 
Defense support, agreement amending 1955 agreement 

with U.S. relating to, 610 
GATT: 

Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia, 97 
Declarations on relations with : Poland, 97, 169 ; 

Yugoslavia, 97 
8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to texts of schedules, 97, 169 
Protocol relating to negotiations for establishment 
of new schedule Ill-Brazil, 3.52 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34, 201 
Telecommunication convention (1939), international, 
with annexes, 698 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, joint communique 
(Johnson, Khan), 960 
Palestine, U.N. Conciliation Commission for, work of, 

statement (Wilcox), 30 
Palestine Refugees, U.N. Relief and Works Agency for : 
Review of program of, statement (Wilcox), 28 
U.S. support, remarks (Jones), 929 
Palmer, Joseph II, 318 



Index, January to June 1961 



1069 



Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1961, procla- 
mation, 344 ; remarks (Kennedy), 615 
Pan American Union, purposes and functions, address 

(Berle), 619 
Pan Pacific Exposition-World Science, U.S. commissioner 

for, confirmation, 895 
Panama : 

Annuity payment by U.S., 381 
Cuban invasion of, statement (Wailsworth), 107 
Drivers' licenses issued in Panama and the Canal Zone, 
agreement with U.S. fur reciprocal recognition of, 
202, 501 
Investment guaranty program, agreement with U.S., 244 
Seminar on U.S. educational systems, participation in, 

311 
U.S. consulate at Colon to remain open, 352 
Papua, Territory of, convention (1949) on road traffic, 985 
Paraguay : 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention (1944) on and protocol of amendment to, 
317, 537 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement with U.S. 
amending 1957 agreement re duty-free entry and 
exemption from internal taxation, .538 
Parcel post agreements, with : Hong Kong, 318 ; Korea, 34 
Parsons, J. Graham, 574 

Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project, 772, 969 
Passports (see also Visas) : 

Cuba, special endorsement needed for travel to, 178 
Nonimmigrant passport visas, agreement with Kuwait 
for reciprocal granting of, 244 
Patents : 

Applications, agreement with Italy approving pro- 
cedures for reciprocal filing of, 244 
Applications for inventions re defense, agreement for 

safeguarding secrecy of, 34 
Patents and technical information in defense programs, 
agreement with Italy, on arrangements respecting, 
244 
Pathet Lao, activities in Laos, statements: Harriman, 

1025 ; Kennedy, 543 ; Rusk, 758 
Patterson, Richard S., 728 
Paz Eslenssoro, Victor, 920 
Peace : 

Maintenance of, statements, (Rusk), 307, 308, 440 
Progress toward, address (Eisenhower), 181 
U.S. efforts for, address and message (Kennedy), 176, 
910 
Peace Committee, Inter-American, 273 
Peace Corps : 

African interest in, address (Williams), 913 

Aid projects in South and Southeast Asia, 957, 959, 960, 

961 
Establishment of : 
On temporary pilot basis. Executive order and state- 
ment (Kennedy), 400 
Request for legislation establishing on permanent 

basis, letter and message ( Kennedy ) , 401, 980 
Statement proposing (Kennedy), 212 
Integration with other aid programs, proposed, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 510, 513 



Peace Corps — Continued 

Internationalizing, question of, remarks (Cleyeland), 

551 
National Advisory Council for, appointment of mem- 
bers of, 583 
Role and importance of, address, letter, and statements: 
Bohlen, 969 ; Kennedy, 979 ; Rusk, 523, 953, 1005 
Peaceful coexistence, Soviet position, address, message, 
and statement : Khrushchev, 666 ; Kohler, 925 ; Rusk, 
443 
Peanut oil, proclamation terminating import fees on, 593 
Penfield, James K., 780 
Pennsylvania State Department of Labor and Industry, 

Foreign Service ofiicers to study with, 245 
Person-to-person diplomacy : 

In U.S. relations with African people, remarks (Wil- 
liams), 260, 261 
Use of to promote trade expansion, statement (Brader- 
man), 316, 317 
Peru : 

Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Drought relief aid to, administration of. Department 

statement, 923 
Territorial dispute with Ecuador, U.S. efforts, state- 
ment (Rusk), 433 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1960 

agreement with U.S., 501 
Customs privileges for Foreign Service personnel, 

agreement with U.S. granting reciprocal, 465 
GATT: 

Declaration on provisional accession of Argentina, 

896 
8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to texts of schedules, 97 
Protocol of organizational amendments to, 390 
Protocol of rectification to French text, 352 
Protocols amending preamble, parts I, II, and 
III, and articles XXIX and XXX of, 352 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
convention (1944) on, and protocol of amendment 
to, 65 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 
U.S. consulate established at Arequipa, 245 
Visit of President Prado to U.S., proposed, announce- 
ment of, 592 
Peterson, Avery F., 574 
Petroleum. See Oil 
Philip, M. M., 727 
Philippines : 
Claims under 1950 agreement with U.S., agreement for 

adjustment of, 555, 574 
ECAFB conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
Peace Corps projects in, 1005 

Visit of Vice President Johnson, announcement, 750, 
joint communique (Garcia, Johnson), 957 
Pineapples, new tariff rates established on imports of, 

proclamation, 419 
Plimpton, Francis T. P., 424, 465, 600, 649 
Point 4 program, address (Ball), 717 



1070 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Poland : 

Congo situation, proposed resolution in Security Coun- 
cil, statement (Barco), 55 
Frozen funds in U.S., projects for use of, address and 

statement : Ball, 776 ; Kennedy, 212 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims, protocol to agreement for settlement with 

U.S., 34 
GATT, declaration on relations with Contracting 

Parties, 97, 573 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 6.53 
Surplus property, agreement with U.S. re payment 
of arrearages on 1946 agreement, 574 
Polaris submarine program: 

Action to step up, address (Kennedy), 211 
Base in Scotland, statement (Rusk) , 437 
U.S. supply to NATO, address ( Kennedy ), &41 
Ponce I..u(pie, Alejandro Teodoro, 114 
Population explosion and trends : 
Addresses : Ball, 715 ; Martin, 72, 75 
Latin America, addresses and message: Berle, 343; 
Coerr, 251 ; Kennedy, 509 
Portugal : 
African territories (see also Angola), problems of, ad- 
dress (Dulles), 768 
Membership in IBRD and IMF, 572 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

IBRD and IMF, articles of agreement, 573 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 833 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, C5 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision 1958), 425 
Postal agreements and conventions : 

Insured parcel post, agreement with Korea, 34 
Parcel post, agreement with Hong Kong, 318 
Postal convention with Canada, 244 
Universal postal convention (1957), with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re- 
garding airmail with final protocol, 134, 653, 833, 
896, 1029 
Potsdam conference. Foreign Relations volumes on, pub- 
lished, 721 
Poullada, Leon B., 742 
Prado, Manuel, 592 

President's Committee on Information Activities Abroad, 
recommendations and extracts from report of, and 
letters (Eisenhower, Sprague) re, 182 
Press, the: 

Cuban suppression of free press, statement (Wads- 
worth), 108, 109, 111 
Foreign policy briefings, invitation to attend, 431, 432 
Freedom of. ;See Freedom of information 
Newsmen : 

Accredited to State Department, obligation of, state- 
ment (Rusk), 296 
Exchange with Communist China, efforts for, state- 
ment (Rusk), 438 
Role in combating communism, address (Tubby), 474 
Self -discipline of, address (Kennedy), 796 

/ndex, January to June 7967 



Prisoners of war, Geneva convention (1949) on treat- 
ment of, 609 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Private enterprise : 

Communication satellites program, role in, 77 
Development of less developed countries, role in, ad- 
dress and message : Cofiin, 457, 458 ; Kennedy, 478 
Investment abroad. See Investment of private capital 
abroad 
Proclamations by the President : 

Bicycles and pineapples, establishing new tariffs on 

imports (3.394), 420 
Centennial of Italian unification, 1961 (3398), 487 
Great Lakes Pilotage Act, designation of restricted 

waters under (3385), 162 
Honduran trade agreement (1935), terminated in part 

(3390), 178 
Immigration quota for Mauritania (3384), 49 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1961 

(3392), 344 
Peanut oil, flaxseed, and linseed oil, termination of 

import fees on (3402), ,593 
Sugar quota for Cuba, (3383), 18; (3401), 592 
United Nations Day, 1961 (3415), 939 
Wool fabrics, modification of duty on imports (33S7), 

87 
World Trade Week, 1961 (3408), 721 
Propaganda : 
Communist : 

Attacks on U.S. in Latin America, addresses (Berle), 

343, 344 
Broadcasts to Latin America, message (Kennedy), 

905 
Media, operations, and policy, address (Tubby), 973 
U.S. program of intercepting, discontinued, 479 
Cuban, charges against U.S. in Security Council, state- 
ments ( Wadsworth ) , 106, 108, 109, 110 
Need for moratorium on, remarks (Stevenson), 276 
Soviet Union : 

Sprague Committee report, 184, 192, 193 
Use of democratic terms and Russian classics, ad- 
dress (Kohler), 926, 928 
Property, cultural, convention (19.54) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 282 
Property, surplus, agreement with Poland re payment of 

arrearages on 1946 agreement, 574 
Proteus polaris base in Scotland, statement (Rusk), 437 
Protocol, perspectives in, address (Duke), 414 
Public Law 480. See Agricultural surpluses and Agri- 
cultural Trade 
Public opinion, importance and need for consideration of 
in formulating foreign policy, remarks and report: 
Rusk, 398; Sprague Committee report, 184, 185, 190, 
196 
Public service and servants : 

Initiative and responsibility, address (Kennedy), 213 
Need to strengthen, remarks (Rusk), 640 
Publications: 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists of, 162, 271, 313, 383, 562, 599, 645, 72T, 935, 
980, 1022 

7071 



Publications — Continued 

Cuban refugees, list of reports and surveys on, 224 
Distribution of American books and publications abroad, 

recommendations re, 194 
Exchange of international and oflBcial publications and 
government documents, 1958 conventions on, 134 
Monthly Climatic Data for the World, U.S. publica- 
tion sponsored by WMO, 280 
Official publications, agreement with Viet-Nam for ex- 
change of, 698 
State Department : 
Foreign Relations of the United States, published: 
The Conference at Berlin {The Potsdam Confer- 
ence), 19Jf5, 721 
The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 194S, 1029 
IS-iO, Volume V, The American Republics, 942 
19J,2, Volume III, Europe, 897 
German vs'ar documents, volume XI, released, 692 
Lists of recent releases, 66, 98, 170, 202, 245, 353, 466, 

502, 654, 742, 790, 898, 942, 986, 1030 
North Korea: A Case Study in the Techniques of 

Takeover, relea.sed, 737 
The Situation in Laos, 115 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 62, 124, 281, 
349, 464, 651, 741, 940, 984, 1028 
Puerto Rico : 

Economic development programs in, statement (Mos- 

coso),605, 606, 608 
Educational worljshop for Latin American teachers to 

observe U.S. methods, 311 
"Operation Bootstrap," 764 
Political status of, statement (Wadsworth), 24 

Quadros, Janio, 437 

Raab, Julius, 591 
Racial discrimination : 

Incidents involving diplomats, U.S. efforts to eliminate, 
address, announcement, note, and letter: Depart- 
ment announcement, 732; Rusk, 975; text of U.S. 
note, 156 ; Williams, 732 
International relations and problem of, address (Row- 
an), 407 
Manifestations of anti-Semitism, statement (Tree), 463 
Radio. See Telecommunications 
Radio and television directors and commentators Invited 

to foreign policy briefings, 431, 432 
Radioactivity, atomic : 

Agreement with Australia re sampling by means of bal- 
loons in the upper atmosphere, 941 
U.N. Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 
U.S. delegation to 9th session, 499 
Randall, Clarence B., 157 
RB-47 incident, Soviet release of fliers, statement (Rusk), 

302, 302» 
Reams, R. Borden, 318 

Reciprocal trade agreement (1935) with Honduras, agree- 
ment terminating portions of, 318; proclamation re, 
178 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for : 
Functions of, 267, 418 
Notice of public hearings on GATT talks, 419 

1072 



Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Red Cross, American National, assistance with Cuban 

refugee problem, 47 
Red Cross, International : 
Examination of detained persons in the Congo, U.S. 
views on, statement (Wadsworth), 53; text of 4- 
Power draft resolution, 56 
International Committee of the, protocol renewing and 
amending agreement (1955) re relations with the 
International Tracing Service, 169 
Refugees, U.S. Committee for, 48 
Refugees and displaced persons : 
Arab refugees, U.S. and U.N. aid and efforts to solve 

problem of, statement (Wilcox), 28 
Austrian refugee camps, U.S. contributions to close, 454 
German : 

Claims on German dollar bonds, statement (Davis), 

598 
Flight from East Germany, addresses : Herding, 153 ; 
Dr,wling. .590 
ICEM aid to, article (Warren), 386 
International Tracing Service, agreement and protocols 

relating to 1955 agreement, 168 
Ruanda-Urundi, amnesty for political refugees, General 
Assembly resolution and statement (Bingham), 
786, 788 
U.S. philosophy and policies on problems of, remarks 
(Jones), 928 
Reid, Ogden R., 170 
Reiner, Herbert, 734 
Reinhardt, G. Frederick, 741 
Reischauer, Edwin O., 053 
Relief and rehabilitation. See Refugees and individual 

countries 
Relief supplies and packages : 

Afghanistan, agreement for duty-free entry and defray- 
ment of inland transport charges with, 317 
Paraguay, agreement amending 1957 agreement for 
duty-free entry and exemption from internal taxa- 
tion on, 538 
"Renunciation of force" principle, summary (Herter), 145 
Representation allowance, address (Duke), 415 
Research (see also Science) : 

Economic development, need for program of, statement 

(Rusk), 9.52 
Increased Government participation in, address (Eisen- 
hower), 181 
Industrial development research programs, statement 

(Moscoso), 605, 006, 608 
Information activities, importance of research in, 

Sprague Committee report, 188 
SEATO fellowship program for, announcement of, 163 
Revolution of rising expectations, addresses : Bowles, 704 ; 

Rusk, 515 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of : 
ICA representative, appointment, 654 
ICEM, withdrawal from, 387 

Department of State Bulletin 



Rhodesia and Nyasaland — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
GATT, 8th and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
GATT, proces-verbal extending validity of 1959 dec- 
laration extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI :4, 201 
Radio regulations (1959), 609 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
with annexes and final protocol, 134 
Ribicoff, Abraham, 257, 309, 310, 490 
Rice, John S., G,53 
Rivkin. Arnold, 857 
Roa, Raul, 104, C67 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 201, 

653, 098, 985 
Roberts. Ralph S., 574 

Rockefeller Public Service Awards, remarks (Rusk), (340 
Rocket, Rover nuclear, appropriation for development of, 

909 
Rome Treaty, 268, 295 
Romulo, Carlos, 407 

Romulo-Snyder agreement (1950), memorandum of un- 
derstanding with Philippines re, 555, 556, 574 
Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor, 424 
Rover nuclear rocket, appropriation for development of, 

909 
Rowan, Carl T., 405, 426, 795 
Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of: 

Administration and future of, U.S. views, statement 
(Bingham), and text of General Assembly resolu- 
tion, 785 
Security Council consideration of Soviet complaint of 
Belgian violation of trusteeship agreement, state- 
ment (Barco) and proposed resolution, 109, 200, 
201« 
Rubber Study Group, International, work of, article (Mel- 

len), 78. 202 
Rubin, Seymour J., 454 
Rumania : 

Cultural and other exchanges, agreement with U.S., 

34 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 653 
Rusk, Dean : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements (see also Meetings 
infra) : 
Algerian problem, 431, 524 
Alliance for Progress program, 759 
Ambassadors : 

Appointment of, 304 
Negotiating authority of, 434 
Angola question, 521 
Assistant Secretaries, role in Department of State, 

296, 299 
Berlin, U.S. position on, 302, 335, 432, 433, 435, 437, 

438, 440 
Building an international community of science and 

scholarship, 624 
Chancellor Adenauer, welcome to U.S., 623 
China, Republic of, U.S. poUcy toward, 303, 441 
China, Communist: 

Exchange of newsmen with, question of, 438 

Index, January to June 1961 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
China, Communist — Continued 

Participation in disarmament negotiations, ques- 
tion of, 301, 309 

U.N. representation question, 303, 434, 523 

U.S. views re, 441 
Colonialism, U.S. attitude, 441, 521 
Communist penetration in Western Hemisphere, 686 
Congo situation, 296, 297, 299, 300, 304, 431, 433, 439, 

442, 516 
Cuban situation, 297, 301, 303, 433, 524, 686, 690, 

759, 760, 762 
DC-3, use in Berlin operation, 437 
Defense, U.S., strengthening of, 399 
Democracy, 441 
Diplomatic channels, use of for negotiations, 214, 434, 

519, 522 
Disarmament, negotiations on and U.S. position, 301, 

309, 436, 440, 442, 443, 517, 520, 521 
Foreign aid program, 518, 626, 747, 947, 1000 
Foreign policy. Sec under Foreign policy 
Geneva conference on discontinuance of nuclear 

weapon tests, 299, 433, 435, 520, 521, 524, 690 
German-U.S. relations, 300, 334, 439, 623 
Greece, visit of Prime Minister to U.S., 686 
Heads of government meetings, views on, 300, 304, 

308, 443 
ICA regional community development conference at 

Seoul, U.S. representative, 757 
India : 

Dedication of postage stamp honoring Gandhi, 262 

U.S. aid, 759 
Interdepartmental Task Force on Latin America, 

establishment of, 298 
Japanese goods, proposed boycott against, 435 
Laos situation. See Laos situation : Adilre-sses 
NATO, proposals for strengthening of, 303, 438, 689 
Latin America : 

Inter-American consultations on problems of, 758, 
7C0 

Sino-Soviet bloc influence in, 762 

U.S. program for development, 297, 301, 437, 523, 759 
Neutrality, 303, 442 

Nuclear weapons, danger of distributing, 443 
OECD, review of, 323 
Peace, 307, 308, 440 
Peace Corps, 523 

Press corps, obligation to the public, 296 
Presidential coat of arms, symbolism on, 305 
President Nkrumah of Ghana, visit of, 436 
Polaris base in Scotland, 437 
Peripheral wars, 763 
RB-47 fliers, Soviet release of, 302 
Rio de Janeiro protocol of 1942, U.S. views, 433 
Rockefeller Public Service Awards, 640 
Secretary of State : 

Appointment as and role of, 306, 439 

Travels of, 434 
Soviet Union : 

Coexistence policy, 443 

Negotiating with, 303, 307, 308, 520 

U.S. relations with, 302, 442 

1073 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 

Addresst's, remarks, and statements — Continue<l 

Tripartitism in international organizations and con- 
ferences, 6S8, 691 
United Nations : 

Armed force, permanent, question of, 521 
Stronstliening, .522 
U.K. unilateral nuclear disarmament, question of, 442 
U.S. Naval Task Force off African coast, 433 
Vice President Johnson's visit to Southeast Asia, 762 
Viet-Nam, situation in, 757, 758, 7.59, 761 
Confirmation as Secretary of State, 202 
Correspondence and messages : 

CE.VTO, si.Kth anniver.sary, message to Secretary Gen- 
eral Baig, 424 
Diplomatic and consular posts, greetings to, 244 
Interstate bus facilities, desegregation of. Department 
support of, 975 
Interview by Robert Kee for British television network, 

transcript of, 439 
Interview on "Today" TV show, 305 
Meetings : 

CENTO, 91 h Ministerial meeting, statements and text 

of communique, 756, 778, 780 
Greek Prime Minister, welcome to U.S., 724 
Korean Foreign Minister, joint statement, 711 
NATO Ministerial meeting, statements and text of 

communique, 756, 800 
SEATO, 7th Council of Ministers meeting, statements 

and text of conmiunique, 334. 434, 547, 6S9, 759 
Soviet Foreign Minister, agreed statement, 479 
Tunisian President and Secretary of State for Foreign 

Affairs, 756 
U.K. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 579 
News conferences, 296, 431, 519, 680, 756 
Russell, Francis H., 318 
Rutter, Peter, 170 

Ryukyu Islands, U.S.-Japanese cooperation in social and 
economic development of, address (MacArthur), 558, 
559 

Safety of life at sea : 
Convention (1948) on, 501 
International load line convention (1930), 317 
St. Christopher, Nevis, and Auguilla, customs facilities for 

touring, convention (1954), 389, 465 
St. Lawrence River, agreement with Canada re pilotage 

system for ves.sels navigating, 834, 895 
Salinger, Pierre. 177 
Salter, John L., 466 
Samii, Cyprus, 50 
Sanctions : 
Dominican Republic, OAS extension of economic sanc- 
tions against, 273 
Union of South Africa, proposed imposition of by African 
U.N. members, statement (Plimpton) and text of 
resolution, 602, 604 
Sarasin, Pote, 117 

Satellites, earth (.see also Outer space) : 
Communications satellites : 

Agreements with, France, 653 ; U.K., 610 
Appropriation for study of, increase in, 909 



Satellites, earth — Continued 
Communications satellites — Continued 

Commercial use of, promotion by NASA, statement 

(Eisenhower), 77 
Internation.tl cooperation in developing, proposed, 
address (Kennedy), 213 
Tracking stations, agreements with: Chile, 1029; U.K., 
318, 501, 610, 098 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, 741 
Saudi Arabia : 

Dhahran airfield a^'^reement with U.S., nonrenewal of, 

Dei)artment statement, 490 
IDA, articles of .-ij^reement, 109 
Piistal (-(iMveiitidU (l'.l."7), universal, 806 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 
ScliinUlt I'litcliard and Company v. United States, 50, 

420 
Scholarship and science, international exchange in, re- 
marks (Rusk) 62.5, 027 
Science (see also Atomic energy, Nuclear weapons. Outer 
space, Satellies, and Research) : 
Climatology, WMO meeting and need for worldwide 
exchange of data on, article (Landsberg), 279, 280 
International conferences. State Department policy re 

attendance of .2:overninent scientists, 96 
International cooiieration in research, contributions and 
propo.sed increase of, addresses and remarks: Ken- 
nedy, 176, 21.-!, 473 ; Rusk, 625 
Role of scientific and technological programs in U.S. 

foreign policy, 191 
Scientific develnpiiieiit, problem to less developed areas, 
address (Martin), 72 
Scotland, Proteus polaris base in, statement, (Rusk), 43T 
Sea, law of the. See Law of the sea 
SEATO. Sec Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Seaver, Robert E., 051 
Secretary-General, U.N. See United Nations : Office of 

the Secretary-General 
Secretary of State: 

Appointment as, statement (Rusk), 439 

Problems and responsibilities of, statements : Garroway, 

305; Rusk, 306 
Role in proposed new foreign aid program, letter and 

message (Kennedy), 510, 979 
Travel of, statement (Rusk), 434 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Angola, consideration of situation in, U.S. position on, 
statement (Stevenson), and draft resolution, 497 
Congo problem, consideration of. See under Congo 

situation 
Cuba, consideration of complaint of U.S. intended ag- 
gression, statements (Barco, Wadsworth), 104 
Documents, lists of, 281, 349, 464, 652, 940, 1028 
Israeli violation of armistice agreement, consideration 
of Jordan complaint re, statement (Plimpton), 649 
Racial problem in Union of South Africa, action re, 

statement (Plimpton), 601 
Resolutions on Congo situation : 

Measures to restore order in the, 368 
Safeguarding of civil and human rights in the, 56 



I 



1074 



Department of State Bulletin 



Security Council, U.N. — Continued 

Ruanda-Uruiidi, Trust Territory of, attaclis on Bel- 
gium as administrator of, statement (Barco), 199, 
200, 201» 
U.S. views on, statement (Stevenson), 385 
U.S. representatives to : confirmations. Plimpton, 465, 
Stevenson, 202, Yost, 353; resignation (Barco), 66 
Veto: 

Soviet use of, 56to 

U.S. position on use of, summary (Herter), 148 
Self-determinatiun : 
Application to Algerian question, statement (Wilcox) 

and text of General Assembly resolution, 63 
Soviet attitude toward, address (Dowling), 501 
U.S. position on, addresses, remarlcs, and statements: 
BoLIen, 907 ; Bourguiba, S.JO ; Rowan, 800 : Steven- 
son, 277, 385, 499; Wadsworth, 22, 24; Williams, 
912 
Self-help, new concept in aid programs, address and mes- 
sage : Kennedy, 476 ; Kuslj, 749 
Senegal : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit, international agreement (1944), 

501 
Economic, financial, technical, and related assistance, 

agreement with U.S., 896 
ICAO, Assembly of, protocol re sessions of, 537 
IMCO convention, 97 
Law of the sea, conventions on, 833 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 833 
Telecommunications conventions, international, 34, 

244 
UNESCO constitution, 98, 282 
AVHO constitution, 97 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 318 
Seward, William H., 728 
Sherg.ilis, William, 676 
Ships and shipping : 
Diplomatic conference on maritime law, U.S. delegation, 

651 
Great Lakes, proclamation designating areas requiring 
registered pilots, 162 
IMCO convention (1918), 97, 244, 425, 465, 609, 985 
Licenses for arms shipments to the Congo, required for 

U.S.-registered vessels, 546 
Tonnage measurement rules, need for universal agree- 
ment on, article (GulicU), 594 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Load line convention (1930), international, 317 
Navigation, friendship, and commerce, treaties with: 

Belgium, 383, 390 ; Italy, 424, 425, 501 
Pilotage services on Great Lakes and St. Lawrence 
River, agreement with Canada governing coordi- 
nation of, 834, S95 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 501 
Shipbuilding program, agreements with : Denmark, 

1029 ; Norway, 34, 425 
U.S. naval vessels, loan of. See infra 
U.S. naval vessels : 
Faleshty, U.S. rejection of Soviet charges of harass- 
ment, exchange of notes, 117 
Loan of, agreements with : Argentina, 169 ; Brazil, 
244 ; Chile, 65 ; Republic of China, 318 ; Korea, 244 

Index, January to June 1961 



Ships aud shipping — Continued 
U.S. naval vessels — Continued 
Naval Task Force, off African Coast, background on 

change of orders to, statement (Rusk), 433 
Polaris submarine program, 211, 437, 841 
Soviet charge of halting the tanker Sverdlovsk, U.S. 
reply to, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 177 
Shoaib, Mohammed, 448 
Sidya, Souleymane Ould Cheikh, 857 

Sierra Leone : 

GATT, accession to, 983 

Independence, congratulations on, message (Kennedy), 

733 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S., 985 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. provid- 
ing, 1029 
Sugar agreement (19.5S), international, cessation of 
application to, 941 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 941 

U.S. consulate general at Freetown, elevation to Em- 
bassy status, 734 
Sihanouk, Prince Norodom, 700 
Singer, Daniel M., 90 

Sino-Soviet bloc (see also Communism and individual 
countries) : 
Activities in Africa, address (Williams), 530 
Aid to Afghanistan, address (Byroade), 131 
Exchange of persons with, Sprague Committee report, 

185, 190 
Economic offensive. See Less developed countries : 

Economic offensive 
Propaganda. See Propaganda : Communist 
Relations with Cuba, statements : Rusk, 762 ; Steven- 
son, 672 
Subversive activities. See Communism 
Slater, Joseph Elliott, 574 
Smith, Gerard C, 170 

Social Commission of ECOSOC, U.S. representative, con- 
firmation, 741 
Social development : 

Africa, importance of in, address and statement: 

Kotschnig; 377, 380; Williams, 913 
Ecuador, discussions re U.S. assistance, joint announce- 
ment, 83 
Korean program of, letter (Bowles), 931 
Latin America. See under Latin America 
Measures for, proposals to committee of U.N. Economic 

and Social Council, statement (Moscoso), 606 
Need for emphasis on, addresses and statements : Mar- 
tin, 822 ; Rusk, 9.j2, 1004 ; Stevenson, 807, 808 
Objective of foreign aid program, address and remarks: 

Dillon, 10 ; Rusk, 749 
Relationship to political development, address (Ken- 
nedy), 474 
West Indies, U.S. aid to, 42, 43, 44 
Social development fund. See Inter-American Fund for 
Social Progress 

1075 



Somali : 

UNESCO constitution, 282 
Universal postal convention (1957), 134 
WHO constitution, 573 
U.S. technical aid to, 318 
Songolo, Alphonse, 53, 58 

South Africa, Republic of. See Union of South Africa 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia and individual coun- 
tries 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization: 
Cholera research project, Thai-U.S. agreement re con- 
version of to medical research laboratory, 501 
Council of Ministers, 7th meeting : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements: Kennedy, 334, 

544 ; Rusk, 434, 547, 689, 759 
Communique, 549 

Laos situation, consideration of, remarks, statements, 
and texts of communiques: Department, 76; Ken- 
nedy, .544; Rusk, 689, 7.59; SEATO communiques, 
117, 549 
U.S. delegation. 550 
Council Representatives, meeting of, test of com- 
munique, 117 
Heads of universities conference, announcement, 90 
Research fellowship program (1901-62), announcement 

of, 1G3 
Role of, summary (Herter), 145 
U.S.-Australian support of, text of joint communique 

(Kennedy, Menzies), 372 
U.S.-Thai suiiport, joint communique, 959 
South-West Africa, Territory of : 
International telecommunication convention (1959), 

with annexes, 098 
U.N. consideration of Union of South Africa's admin- 
istration of, statement (Bingham) and text of U.N. 
resolution, 569 
Souvanna Thouma, Prince, 115, 116, 687, 689 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Sino-Soviet bloc, and Ukrainian 
Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Afghanistan, interest in and policy toward, addre.ss 

(Byroade), 125, 128, 131, 132 
Africa, imperialism in, address (Stevenson), 412, 413 
Algerian question, Soviet position, statement (Wilcox), 

63 
Armaments, Soviet refusal to agree to international 

control and reduction of, summary (Herter), 147 
Belgium, charges against for actions in the Congo and 

in Ruanda-Urundi, statement (Barco), 199 
Berlin situation. See Berlin 
Coexistence policy of. address, message, and statement: 

Khrushchev, 666 ; Kohler, 925 ; Ru.sk, 443 
Colonialism of, statement (Wadsworth), 23 
Congo situation. See Congo situation 
Cuban situation. See Cuban situation 
Disarmament position, address, statement, and sum- 
mary: GuUion, 035, 036; Herter, 147; Stevenson, 
568 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Economic offensive in less developed coimtries. See 
Less developed countries: Economic offensive 



Soviet Union — Continued 
Faleshty, complaint of harassment by U.S. Navy of, 

exchange of notes, 117 
Foreign Minister Gromylvo meeting with Secretary 
Rusk on international situation, agreed statement, 
479 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
German reunification, Soviet views on, addresses and 
report : Berding, 153 ; Dowling, 589, 591 ; Kennedy, 
993 
IAEA, Soviet nonsupport of, statement (Wilcox), 93 
Khrushchev. Sec Khrushchev 
Korean reunification. Soviet position in U.N. debate 

on, statements (Stevenson), 730, 738 
Laos situation, Soviet role in. See under Laos 
Launching of space vehicle to Venus, messages (Ken- 
nedy, Khrushchev), 369 
Man-in-space achievement, U.S. congratulations on, 

statement and message (Kennedy), 039, 040 
Newly independent countries, Soviet policy, address 

(Bohlen), 967 
Nuclear weajions, control and inspection of, Soviet po- 
sition, statement (Wilcox), 94 
Outer space ; peaceful uses of : 
Proposed U.S.-Soviet cooperation in, address (Ken- 
nedy), 213 
U.N. committee, Soviet position, summary (Herter), 
146 
Propaganda. See Propaganda 

Publication of information re USAF survivors of C-130 
shot down over Soviet Armenia, texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 257 
Security Council, use of veto in, 56» 
Sverdlovsk, allegations re U.S. halting of, text of U.S. 

and Soviet notes, 177 
Travel restrictions, U.S.-Soviet: 

Lists of closed areas : Soviet, 124 ; U.S., 120 
U.S. proposal to abolish, U.S. announcement and 
note, 118 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on (1958), 134 
High seas, convention on (1958), 134 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 833 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

985 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on 
(1958), 134 
U.S.-Soviet relations: 
Addre.sses and statements: Bohlen, 969; Bowles, 630; 

Kennedy, 210 ; Rusk, 302, 442 
Ambassador Thompson-Premier Khrushchev discus- 
sions, 214 
Exchange of messages (Kennedy, Brezhnev, Khru- 
shchev), 214 
President Kennedy-Premier Khrushchev discussions, 
992, 999 



1076 



Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Union — Continued 
United Nations : 

Activities of Soviet U.N. employees, 55 
Soviet attacks against. See United Nations : Office 
of Secretary-General 
Spain: 

ICBM aid in resettlement of Spanish nationals from 

Morocco, article (Warren), 387 
IFC membership, 91 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 985 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, international conven- 
tion (1949), declaration of understanding re, 789 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of uuder.standing, 8, C5 
Radio regulatiuus (19."j9), applicable also to Spanish 
Provinces in Africa, 009 
U.S. Amba.ssador, confirmation, 653 
Sparkman, John J., 757 
Sparks. Kdward J., 789 
Special assistance : 
Afghanistan, article (Byroade), 130 
Loau to Bolivia, 531 
Yugoslavia, agreement providing, 352 
Special Fund, U.N., 148 

Special ser^•ices program, agreement with Brazil extend- 
ing 1953 agreement, 318 
Specialized agencies, U.N. : 
Aid to Afghanistan, article (Byroade), 131 
U.S. support, address and statements: Kotschnig, 378; 
Stevenson, .530; Williams, 375 
Spilhaus, Dr. Athelstan, 895 

Sporting competitions, international, recommended en- 
couragement of U.S. participation in, 193 
Sprague, Mansfield, 183 
Sproul, Alliin, 215 

State Department {see also Foreign Service, International 
Cooperation Administration, and Peace Corps) : 
Administration of PL. 480, delegation of functions to, 

E.\ecutive order, 1159 
AID. proposed establishment in, 978 
Alliance for Progress, State Department role in, 

memorandum (Ball), 919 
Ambassador at Large, confirmation (Harriman), 318 
Appointments and designations, 170, 245, 318, 426, 4C8, 

501. 574. 742, 897, 941, 985, 1029 
Assistant Secretaries of State: 
Confirmations : Cleveland, 390 ; Coombs, 465 ; Crockett, 
390; Hays, 390; McConaughy, 741; Talbot, 742; 
Tubby, 426 ; Williams, 282 
Resignation (Smith), 170 

Role in Department, statement (Rusk) , 296, 299 
Budget of, increase in, address (Bohlen), 966 
Campaign to erase race incidents involving diplomats, 

732 
Chief of Protocol, duties, address (Duke), 417 
Counselor (McGhee), confirmation, 353 
Deputy Under Secretaries of State, confirmations : 

Johnson, 798 ; Jones, 282 
Foreign aid program, role in administration of, 953, 1003 
Foreign policy briefings, announcement, 431, 432 

Index, January to June 7967 



State Department- — Continued 

Interim U.S. Representative to the Council of OAS, 

designation, 897 
Legal Adviser: confirmation (Chayes), 318; resignation 

(Hager), 170 
Mutual Security Program funds, use of for Office of 
Inspector General and Comptroller, letter (Eisen- 
hower), 85 
New State extension, dedication and description of, 

154 
Personnel, exchange program with Defense Department 

for training, 1C9 
Policy officer, problems confronting, remarks (Rusk), 

397 
Publications. Sec under Publications 
Resignations, 14:i, 144, 170, 202 
Role in foreign policy, statement (Rusk), 396 
Secretary of State: confirmation (Rusk), 202; resigna- 
tion (Herter), 143, 144, 170 
U.S. delegate to Inter-American Commission for Wom- 
en, appointment, 742 
U.S. representative to Economic Commission for 

Europe of ECOSOC, confirmation, 741 
U.S. representative to Social Commission of ECOSOC, 

confirmation, 741 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Alfairs con- 
firmation (Ball), 282 
Under Secretary of State: confirmation (Bowles), 245; 

resignation (Dillon), 170 
USIA, structural relationship with, Sprague Commit- 
tee report, 188, 195 
State of the Union, address and message: Eisenhower, 

139 ; Kennedy, 207 
Status-of-forces agreement with Korea, question of, state- 
ments : Chyung. Rusk, 712 ; Rusk, 437 
Steel Committee (ECE), U.S. delegation to 25th session, 

.537 
Steinbeck, John, cited, 40S 
Stern, Philip M., 426 
Stevenson, Adlai E. ; 
Addresses and statements : 
African development, 534 
Angola situation, U.S. position, 497 
Congo situation, U.S. views on, 359, .532, 781 
Cuban situation, repudiation of charges of U.S. ag- 
gression, 667 
Disarmament, U.S. support of consideration of at 

16th session of General Assembly, 568 
Korean reunification, U.S. views, 736 
United Nations, guardian of peace, 410 
United Nations, U.S. policy and support, 276, 384 
United Nations and nongovernmental organizations, 
804 
Mission to South America, statement (Kennedy), itin- 
erary, and members of party, 970 
U.S. representative to the U.N. and the Security Coun- 
cil, confirmation, 202 
Stevenson, William E., 96 
Stikker, D. U., 801 
Stockdale, Edward G., 653 

1077 



Strauss, Elliott B., 65 
Strom, Carl W., 1029 

Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Pro- 
tection of Minorities, 463 
Sudan : 
Membership in IPC, 91 

Nubian monuments, U.S. aid to save, President's request 
to Congress for, 643 
Sugar : 
Cuban quota, determination of, proclamations and state- 
ments : Elsenhower, 18 ; Martin, 562 ; Stevenson, 
677 ; texts of proclamations, 18, 592 
International sugar agreement (1958), 169, 352, 389, 

465, 941 
Sugar Act of 1948, extension and amendment of, state- 
ments : Elsenhower, 195 ; Martin, 562 
Sukarno, Dr., 262, 712 
Summit diplomacy and meetings, administration policy 

toward, statements (Rusk), 300, 304, 308, 443 
Supreme Court, bicycles and spring clothespins, invali- 
dation of tariff rates on, 50 
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, 096 
Surplus property, agreement with Poland re payment of 

arrearages on 1946 agreement, 574 
Sverdlovsk incident, 177 
Sweden : 
Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Classified information, equipment, materials, or serv- 
ices related to defense, agreement with U.S. for 
safeguarding of, 282 
GATT, Sth and 9th protocols of rectifications and 

modifications to texts of schedules, 97 
OECD, convention establishing, supiilementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Radio regulations (1959), 1029 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
390 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 574 
Switzerland : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 7 
Diplomatic and consular representation of U.S. in Cuba, 

assumption of responsibility for, 104 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, international recognition of rights in, con- 
vention (1048) on, 896 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 97 
GATT, declaration on relations with : Poland, 97, 169; 

Yugoslavia, 97 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary proto- 
cols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Telecommunication convention (1959), International, 
390 
Symington, James, 312 

Taiwan. See China, Republic of 
Takita, Minora, 404 
Talbot, Phillips, 742 
Tanganyika : 

Education program, U.S. aid, 218 

IFC investment in, 90 

Peace Corps projects in, 1005 



Tannenwald, Theodore, Jr., 985 
Tariff Commission, U.S., 50, 593 

Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs; and Tariffs and 
Trade, general agreement on) : 
Bicycles and pineapples, new tariff rates on imports of 

established, announcement and proclamation, 419 
Cuban sugar quota, determination of, proclamations and 
statements: Eisenhower, 18; Martin, 562; Steven- 
son, 677 ; texts of proclamations, 18, 592 
Objectives of, message (Kennedy), 293 
Peanut oil, flaxseed, and linseed oil, proclamation ter- 
minating import fees on, 593 
Spring clothespins and bicycles, action to modify con- 
cessions on, 50 
Twines and cordage, decision re escape-clause action on 

imports of, 313 
Wool fabric imports, modification of duty on, proclama- 
tion, 87 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Accession of Nigeria, 34 
Analysis of, address and article : Catudal, 1010 ; Hadra- 

ba, 265 
Consultations under articles XII and XVIII : B re im- 
port restrictions for balance of payments reasons, 
418, 832, 983 
Contracting Parties : 
18th session of : 

Problems confronting and U.S. delegation to, 832 
U.S. delegation report on, 982 
List of, 1012 
Declarations, procds-verbal, and protocols : 
Annecy protocol of terms of accession to, 538 
Declarations on provisional accessions of : Argentina, 

896 ; Israel, 97 ; Switzerland. 97 ; Tunisia, 97 
Declarations on relations with: Yugoslavia, 97, Po- 
land, 97, 169, 573 
Proces-verbal extending validity of 19.59 declaration 
extending standstill provisions of article XVI :4, 201 
Protocol of rectification to French text, 352 
Protocol relating to establishment of new schedule 

Ill-Brazil, 201, 3.52 
Protocol replacing schedule I (Australia), 537 
Protocol replacing schedule VI (Ceylon), 538 
Protocols amending and modifying, 352, 390, .501, 985 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

protocols of, 97, 169, 201, 537, 538, 896 
Torquay protocol and schedules of tariff concessions 
annexed to, 538 
Japan, tariff concessions renegotiated with, lists of 

modifications, 826 
1961 GATT tariff negotiations conference at Geneva : 
Address (Hadraba), 267 

EEC-U.S. views, joint communique (Hallstein, Ken- 
nedy), 868 
Tariff negotiations with EEC, 267, 488, 843, 939, 983 
U.S. delegation, public advisers named for phase two 

of conference, 938 
U.S. supplemental list of imports, correction to, 161 
Task Force on Foreign Aid, 919, 951 

Task Force on Latin America, Interdepartmental, estab- 
lishment and membership of and statement (Rusk), 
298 



1078 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Taxation : 

Changes recommended to imiirove U.S. ba!anee-of-pay- 

ments position, message (Kennedy), 290, 293 
Double taxation, conventions for avoidance of, with: 

Canada. 351, 352 ; U.A.R., 64. 65 
Reforms iu Latin America, address (Coerr), 254, 255 
Relief supplies and packages, agreement witb Paraguay 

for exemption from internal taxation, 538 
Tonnage taxes on foreign vessels entering ports, com- 
putation of, address (Gulick), 594 
Teachers : 

Need for in less-developed areas, address (Martin), 74 
Peace Corps to provide, message (Kennedy), 402 
U.S. aid to East Africa, 218 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid to foreign countries 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Tehran conference. 1943, volume on, released, 1029 
Telecommunication Union, International, 830 
Telecommunications : 

Conununications satellites. Sre vndrr Satellites 
International telecommunication convention (1952), 34, 

1.34, 244, 425 
International telecommunication convention (1959), 
with annexes and final protocol : 
Current actions, 134, 244, 390, 425, 573, 609, 653, 698, 

734, 789, 985, 1029 
Request for Senate approval, statement (Martin), 
830 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 

(19.j0) and final protocol, 896 
Radio regulations (19.59), with appendixes, annexed 
to international telecommunication convention 
(1959) : 
Current actions, 134, 609, 834, 985, 1029 
Request for Senate approval, statement (Martin), 
830, 831 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision 1958) annexed 
to international telecommunication convention 
(1952) with appendixes and final protocol, 34, 425 
Television, need for U.S. expansion of overseas broad- 
casting, 194 
Telles, Raymond, 741 
Territorial waters : 

Convention on the territorial sea and the contiguous 

zone, 134, 317, 42.5, 698, 833 
Continental shelf, convention on, 317, 425, 698 
Textiles : 

U.S. program of assistance for textile industry, address 

and announcement : Kennedy, 825 ; Martin, S24 
Under Secretary Ball's visit to Europe for discussions 
on problems of, 825 
Thailand : 
Community development project in, SEATO communique 

re, 550 
ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Ofiice of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
SEATO cholera research project, agreement with U.S. 
re conversion of to medical research laboratory, 501 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 653 



Thailand — Continued 

Visit of Vice President Johnson, joint communique 
(Johnson, Thanarat), 958 
Thanarat, Sarit, 958 
Thompson, Llewellyn E., 214 
Thompson, Tyler, 742 
Thorp, Willard L., 4.54 
Tillett, Mrs. Gladys A., 465 
TimberlaUe. Clare H., 434 
Tito, Josip Broz, 444 
Tobago. See West Indies 
Togo: 

Congratulations on inauguration of first President, 

letter (Kennedy), 639 
Economic and technical assistance, agreement with U.S., 

84, 134 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 742 
Tonnage measurement rules, need for universal agree- 
ment on, article (Gulick), 594 
Touring. Sec Travel 
Tracing Service, International, agreement and protocols 

relating to 1955 agreement, 109 
Tracking stations (Project Mercury), agreements for co- 
operation in establi.shment and operation of, with: 
Chile, 1029 ; U.K., 318, 501, 610, 698 
Tractors-for-freedom movement, support urged for, state- 
ment (Kennedy), 934 
Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses. Customs, Eco- 
nomic policy. Exports, Imports, Sugar, Tariff policy, 
Trade agreements, and Trade centers) : 
Afghanistan trade relations, article (Byroade), 128 
Africa, need for expansion of and cooperation in, state- 
ment (Kotschnig), 379 
Commodity trade problems. Sec Commodity trade 
Industrial nations-less developed countries trade prob- 
lems, address (Ball), 754 
International, expansion of : 
Effect of boycotts on efforts for, statement (Rusk), 

435 
GATT program for, 832 

OECD role. See Organization for Economic Coopera- 
tion and Development 
U.S.-Canadian cooperation in, joint communique 

(Diefenbaker, Kennedy), 843 
U.S. efforts, address and statement: Braderman, 316; 
Coffin, 458 
OAS suspension of trade in arms, petroleum, and trucks 
with Dominican Republic, statement (Bonsai), re- 
port, and text of U.S. note, 273 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bills of lading, international convention (1924) for 

unification of rules re, 1029 
Elimination of obstacles to international trade and 

Investment, convention with U.A.R., 64, 65 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties. See 

Friendship 
Honduran trade agreement (1935) with U.S., termi- 
nated in part, 178, 318 



Index, January fo June 7967 



1079 



Trade — Continued 
U.S. foreign trade : 

Battle Act controls. See Battle Act 

Developments during 1960, statement (Braderman), 

314 
Efforts to expand, address (Rusk), 324 
Foreign aid program, relationship between, address 

(Martin), 822 
Japanese-U.S. trade, address (MacArthur), 55S, 559, 

560 
Latin America-U.S.. address (Berle), 818 
State Department role, remarks (Rusk), 396 
U.S. policy, address (Hadraba), 263 
World Trade Week, 1961, proclamation, 721 
Yugoslavia, U.S. aid for reform of foreign trade and 
exchange systems, 85 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, cor- 
rection to supplemental list of imports for GATT 
negotiations, 161 
Trade Agreements Act of 1934, and extensions, address 

and article: Catudal, 1011; Hadralia, 264, 267 
Trade and Economic Affairs, U.S.-Canada Committee on, 

372, 4S7 
Trade centers, fairs, and missions : 

U.S. participation and promotion of, address, message, 

and statement: Braderman, 317; Hadraba, 271; 

Kennedy, 201 

USIA coordination and administration of activities re, 

aniKiuncemeiit and Executive order, 196 

Trade Committee, OECD, functions of, address (Rusk), 

325 
Trans-Asia Highway, proposed, 163 
Travel : 

Cuba, U.S. advice to and limitations on citizens trav- 
eling to. 110, 178 
Limitation on duty-free allowance for returning U.S. 
trMvelers, message (Kennedy) and proposed bill, 
382 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes, 201, 

6."i3, 698, 985 
To U.S., encouragement and promotion of, message, 
rei)ort, and statement: Braderman, 317; Kennedy, 
291 ; Sprague Committee report. 193 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 168, 389, 465 
Travel restrictions, U.S.-Soviet: 

U.S. propositi to abolish, U.S. announcement and 

note re, 118 
Lists of dosed areas: Soviet, 124; U.S., 120 
Treasury. Department of the : 

Measures to restore U.S. balance-of-payments position. 
Presidential message to Congress and charts, 290, 
291. 292, 293, 294 
Treasury Exchange Stabilization Fund, credit to Brazil, 
863 
Treatie.s, agreements, etc., international {for specific 
treaty, see cotintry or svhject) : 
Current actions on, 34, 64, 97, 134, 168, 201, 244, 282, 
317, 352, 389, 425, 465, 501, 537, 573, 609, 653, 698, 
734, 789, 833, 896, 941, 985, 1029 
Interpretation of, proposal concerning, statement 
(Chayes), 777 



Treaty of Rome, 868 
Tree, Mrs. Marietta P., 390, 463 
Trinidad. See West Indies 

Tripartitism, Soviet proposal for administration of inter- 
national organizations (-s'ee also United Nations: 
Office of Secretary-General), address and statements: 
Cleveland, 811, 813, 814 ; Rusk, 688, 691 
Trust territories, U.N. (see also individual territory), 
administering powers' contributions to, statements 
(Wadsworth), 24, 26 
Trusteeship Council, U.N., U.S. representative, confirma- 
tion, 465 
Tshombe, Moise, SCO, 361 
Tubby, Roger W., 426, 972 
Tuna Commission, Inter-American Tropical, convention 

(1949) for establishment, 653 
Tunisia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 445 

Economic development program, U.S.-Tunisian joint 

communique re, 853 
Food-for-peace program aid to, 853 
Office of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Civil aviation, protocol (19.54) relating to amend- 
ments to 1944 international convention on, 282 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 97 
IDA, articles of agreement, 169 
U.S. emergency relief aid, 597 

Visit of President Bourguiba to U.S., 448, 691, 756, 848 
Turkey : 

Defense support aid to, 197 

Economic pnihlenis of, NATO members views, NAC 

conununiriue, 802 
Randall's missions to, 157 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 282, 

734, 790 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement amending 

1955 agreement with U.S., 7.S4, 085 
IDA, articles of agreement, 97 

OECD, convention establishing, supplementary pro- 
tocols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 390 
Twines and cordage, decision against reopening escape- 
clause action on imports of, 313 

U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 

Uchuno, C. C, 156 

Udall, Stewart L., 969, 984 

Udochi, Julius Momo, 114 

Uganda, education program, U.S. aid, 218 

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 425 

High seas, convention on, 425 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 425 
Unemployment, U.S., measures proposed to reduce, mes- 
sage (Kennedy), 904 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 



1080 



Department of State Bulletin 



Union of South Africa : 

Administration of South-West Africa, question of, 
statement (Bingham) and text of U.N. resolution, 
5G9 
Apartheid policy of, U.N. consideration of, statements 

(Plimpton) and texts of resolutions, GOO 
GATT, Sth and 0th protocols of rectifications and modi- 
fications to texts of schedules, 97 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

with annexes, 698 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 741 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
United Arab Republic : 
Congo situation, proposed resolution in Security Coun- 
cil on, statements (Stevenson), 305, 307 
Nubian monuments, proposed U.S. participation in 

UNESCO efforts to preserve, 643 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities agreements with U.S., 318, 

425, 1029 
Double taxation, avoidance of, prevention of evasion 
of income, and elimination of obstacles to trade and 
investment, convention with U.S., 64, 65 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 34 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 985 
United Kingdom : 

Caribbean air routes, U.S.-U.K. discussions on, 963 
Currency convertibility, IMF announcement, 346 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 

ECAFE conference for highway development, partici- 
pation in, 163 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 
ICEM, U.K. proposed membership in, article (Warren), 

387 
Laos situation : 

International Control Commission in, U.K. views on, 

1023 
Proposals for settlement of, joint communique re 
(Kennedy, MacmiUan), 544; text of aide memoire 
to Soviet Union, 545 ; and U.K.-U.S.S.R. proposals, 
710 
Less developed countries, programs for assistance to, 

553 
Liberalization of restrictions on dollar-area imports, 

269 
Prime Minister MacmiUan. See Macmillan 
Proteus polaris base in Scotland, statement (Rusk), 437 
Relationship with former colonies, statement (Rusk), 

442 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment 

of and annexed statute, 201 
Communications satellites, intercontinental testing 
with experimental, agreement with U.S. for, 610 



United Kingdom — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
GATT: 

Declaration on provisional accession of Argentina, 

896 
Sth and 9th protocols of rectifications and modifi- 
cations to texts of schedules, 97 
Proces-verbal extending validity of 1959 declara- 
tion extending standstill provisions of article 
XVI :4, 201 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 34 
International Tracing Service, agreement and protocol 

relating to 19."i5 agreement on, 109 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, iuterniitional conven- 
tion (194'.l), declaration of understanding re, 789 
Oceauographic research stations in West Indies, 

agreement with U.S. re, 425 
OECD, convention establishing, supplementary proto- 
cols, and memorandum of understanding, 8, 65 
Radio regulations (19.59), 1029 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

1.34 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs 

facilities for, extended to Hong Kong, 108 
Tracking stations, agreements with U.S. for establish- 
ment and operation of, 318, 501, 610, 698 
West Indies defense areas. See under Military bases 
U.S. Ambassador: confirmation (Bruce), 390; resigna- 
tion (Whitney), 170 
Visit of President Kennedy, 995, 999 
United Nations : 
Addresses: Cleveland, 447, 809, 810; Stevenson, 410, 

804 ; Williams, 855 
Africa, U.N. role in, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Nkrumah), 446 
Atomic energy activities. See Atomic Energy Agency, 

Interna ti(mal 
Canadian-U.S. support of, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Diefenbaker), 843 
Bolivian development program, participation in, letters 

(Kennedy, Paz), 920, 922 
Charter. See United Nations Charter 
Communist China's representation, question of, U.S. 
views, statements : Johnson, 958 ; Rusk, 303, 434, 
523 
Congo problem, action on. See Congo situation 
Disarmament, need for control organizations within 

framework of, address (Gullion), 636 
Documents, lists of, 62, 124, 281, 349, 464, 651, 741, 

940, 9M, 1028 
Effectiveness of, address ( Bohlen ) , 968 
General Assembly. See General Assembly 
Latin American-U.S. cooperation in, statement 

(Kennedy), 970 
Need for public understanding of, message (Kennedy), 

447 
Newly independent nations, importance of U.N. to, 
address and statement: DuUes, 340; Wadsworth, 
25 



Index, January to June 1961 



1081 



United Nations — Continued 
Office of Secretary-General, Soviet attacks on and pro- 
posed changes in U.N. organization : 
Text of Soviet draft resolution re, 368 
U.S. views re, addresses, remarks, and statements 
Barco, 54; Cleveland, 44T, 448, 808; Rusk, 517 
Stevenson, 277, 361, 3G4, 532, 804, 805, 806 
Wadsworth, 53 
Outer space, efforts for peaceful uses of, 146 
Peace corps, proposal for, remarks (Cleveland), 551 
Permanent armed force, question of, U.S. views, state- 
ment (Rusk), 521 
Security Council. See Security Council 
Specialized agencies (see also name of agency) : 
Aid to Afghanistan, article (Byroade), 131 
U.S. support, address and statements : Kotschnlg, 
378 ; Stevenson, 536 ; Williams, 375 
Technical assistance programs : 
Aid in Africa, address and statement: Stevenson, 

534, 530; Williams, 856 
Special Fund, function of, 148 

U.S. support, message, statement, and remarks: 
Coombs, 938; Eisenhower, 140; Kotschnig, 378; 
Stevenson, 277 
Trust territories (see also Trusteeship Council and in- 
dividual terriiori)), 24. 20 
U.K.-U.S. support of, joint statement (Kennedy, 

Maemillan), 579 
U.S. Committee for, appointment of chairman, 464 
U.S. policy and support: 
Addresses, message, remarks, summary, and state- 
ments : Eisenhower, 140 ; Herter, 147 ; Kennedy, 
175, 213 ; Ru.slc, .522 ; Stevenson, 270, .362 
Assistant Secretary Cleveland to visit Europe for 

consultations, 963 
Principles guiding, statement (Stevenson), 384 
Publicizing, need for greater effort in, 192, 195 
U.S. representatives : 
Confirmations: Plimpton, 465; Stevenson, 202 
Resignation (Barco), 66 
United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses 

of Outer Space, 146 
United Nations Charter : 

Non-self-governing and trust territories, provisions re- 
garding, statements (Wadsworth), 22, 27 
Relation to U.S. foreign policy, remarks (Rusk), 628 
United Nations Commission for Ruanda-Uruudi, failure of, 

statement (Bingham), 78.T 
United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 202, 390, 

463 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 465 
United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radia- 
tion, U.S. delegation to 9th session, 499 
United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, 

work of, statement ( Wilcox ) , 30 
United Nations Day, 1961, proclamation, 939 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See E3co- 

nomic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations economic commissions. See Economic 
Commission 



United Nations Educational, Scienlific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nation.s Emergency Force. See Emergency Force, 

U.N. 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. See 

Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See 

High Commissioner for Refugees 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
Refugees : 
Review of program of, statement (Wilcox) , 28 
U.S. support, remarks (Jones), 929 
United Nations Special Fund, 148 
United Nations Trusteeship Council, 465 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See Claims 
Cuba : 

Harassment of in, statement (Wadsworth), 110 
Limitations on travel to, 178 
Gold holdings abroad, disposal of. Executive order and 

message ( Kennedy ) , 195, 290 
Reduction of customs exemption for returning travelers, 

message ( Kennedy ) , 293 
Relations with foreign citizens, need to improve, ad- 
dress (Bowles), 632 
Role in U.S. foreign policy, addresses, message, and 
statement : Kennedy, 910, 911 ; Rusk, 308, 625 ; Wil- 
liams. 854, 857 
Travel in U.S.S.R., Soviet restrictions on, 124 
United Nations : 

Role in support of, address (Stevenson), 804, 806 
Soviet attacks on U.S. employees of, statement (Bar- 
co), 54, 55 
United States Committee for Refugees, 48 
United States Committee for the United Nations, appoint- 
ment of chairman, 464 
United States Information Agency : 
Administration of certain cultural activities and trade 

fairs, announcement and Executive order, 19G 
Broadcasting activity, need for increase in, message 

( Kennedy ) , 905 
President's Committee on Information Activities 
Abroad, report and recommendations re, 188, 190, 
195 
Progress of, message (Eisenhower) , 140 
United States Tariff Commission, 50, 593 
United States v. Schmidt Pritchard and Company, 50, 420 
Universal postal convention (19.57), 134, 6.53, 833, 896, 1029 
Universities : 

Heads of universities conference, SEATO, 96 
Problems of government-university relationships, 193 
Role of as guide in policymaking, address (Cleveland), 
858, 859. 862 
UNRWA. See United Nations Relief and Works Agency 

for Palestine Refugees 
Upper Volta : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 685 

Conseil de I'Entente, proposed U.S. aid to Stites of, 19 

Meningitis epidemic, medical assistance for, 492 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 985 



1082 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Uruguay : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural coiumodities, agreement witli U.S. re 

rate of exchange under 1959 agreement, 98 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 896 
Safety of life at sea, convention (1948) on, 501 
UNESCO constitution, 282 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 789 
USIA. Sec United States Information Agency 

Validation Board for German dollar bonds, statement 

(Davis), 598 
Van Duyn, Robert G., 96 
Van Dyke, Alfred, 163 
Velasco, Jos6 Maria, 592 
Venezuela : 

Ambas.sador to U.S., credentials, 177 

Dominican Republic aggression against and interference 

in, consideration of by OAS, 273, 275 
Economic and social development program, U.S.-A'ene- 

zuolan discussions on, 821 
IFC investments in, 90 

OflSce of U.N. Secretary-General, views on, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Carriage by air, international, protocol amending 
1929 convention for unification of certain rules re- 
lating to, 97 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
protocols of amendment to 1944 convention, 201, 317 
Weights and measures, convention concerning crea- 
tion of international office (1875), and convention 
amending (1921), 134 
U.S. Ambassador (Moscoso) : 

Appointment, statement (Kennedy), 764 
Confirmation, 741 
Vessels. Sec Ships and shipping 
Veto power in Security Council : 
Soviet use of, 56« 

U.S. position on use of, summary (Herter), 148 
Viet-Nam : 

Communist activities and threat in : 
Relationship to cease-fire in Laos, statement (Rusk), 

761 
SEATO Council consideration of, statements and 
communique: Rusk, 548, 549; text of communique, 
549 
U.S. aid to combat and position re, joint communique 
and statements : Rusk, 757, 758, 759, 761 ; text of 
communique, 956 
Jet runway, U.S. aid for construction, 84 
Rubber exports, importance of, article (Mellen), 82 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 653 
Amity and economic relations, treaty with U.S., 610, 

652 
Official publications, agreement with U.S. for ex- 
change of, 698 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
with annexes, 698 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 574 



Viet-Nam — Continued 

Visit of Vice President Johnson, announcement, 750; 
joint communique, 956 
Viet-Nam, north : 

Activities in south Viet-Nam. See Viet-Nam : Com- 
munist activities 
Intervention in Laos, U.S. cites evidence of, 114 
Villard, Henry S., 318 
Visas : 

Nonimmigrant visas, agreement with Kuwait relating 

to reciprocal granting of, 244 
Relaxation of visa requirement for representatives to 
international conferences, proposed, 189 
A^ocational education program in Brazil, cooperative 

agreement extending 1950 agreement, 318 
Voluntary relief agencies, Congo feeding programs of, 156 
Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, American Coun- 
cil of, 47 
Voorhees, Tracy S., 45, 219, 2.56 

Wadsworth, James J., 21, 51, 56, 104 

War damage, guaranty against losses from. See Invest- 
ment guaranty program 
Warren, George L., 386 
Warren, Shields, 499 
Warsaw ambassadorial talks (U.S.-Conimunist China), 

U.S. position, summary (Herter), 147 
Washington, George, cited, 638 
Water resources, development of, 4th ECAFE regional 

technical conference on, article (Bloodgood), 225 
Waters, Herbert J., 353 
Weather: 

Forecasting, proposed international cooperation in, ad- 
dress (Kennedy), 213 
Satellite system, increase in appropriation for study 

of, 909 
WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Weaver, George L. P., 351, 1027 

Weights and measures, convention (1875) concerning cre- 
ation of international office of, and 1921 convention 
amending, 134 
West Africa, developments in, address (Dulles), 768, 769 
West Indies, The : 

Customs facilities for touring, convention (1954), ex- 
tension to St. Christopher, Nevis, and Anguilla, 
389, 465 
Defense areas agreement with U.S. : 
Current action, 352 

List of agreements with U.K. superseded by, 465 
Negotiation of, communique, delegations, and report, 

42, 311 
Signing of, statement (Whitney) and exchange of 
messages (Adams, Kennedy), 350 
Oceanographic research stations in, U.K.-U.S. agree- 
ment re, 425 
U.S. Mission to, proposed establishment of, 897 
Western Union, Cuban charge re rejected, statement 

(Stevenson), 677 
Whaling convention (1946), international, amendments to 

schedule of, 423 
Wharton, Clifton R., 426 



Index, January to June 1967 



1083 



Wheat : 

Emergency relief aid to: Lebanon, 50; Yemen, 271 
Food-f or-peace program use of in : Brazil, 552 ; Morocco, 

772 
International wheat agreement (1959), with annex, 985 

Wheat Utilization Committee, 150 

White, Ivan B., -192, S97 

White, Lincoln, 2'JOn 

Whitehead, Alfred North, 642 

Whitman, Walter G., 90 

Whitney, John Hay, 42, 44, 170, 311, 350 

WHO. iSee World Health Organization 

Wiens, Henry W., 353 

Wilcox. Francis O., 28, G2, 92, 94 

Williams, Eric. 42, 350 

Williams, G. Meuneu : 
Adilresses : 
Africa, U.S. policy and relations, 259, 373, 527, 584, 

730, 911 
Africa and the United Nations, U.S. policy toward, 
854 
Confirmed as Assistant Secretary of State, 282 
Me.ssage to All-African Peoples' Conference, 526 
Trip to Africa, announcement of, 295 ; report on, 527 

Williams, Murat W., 282 

Willis, Frances E.. 574 

Wilson, Robert E., 651 

Wine, James, 789 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 

Women, luter-Auierican Commission for, U.S. delegate, 
appointment, 742 

Women, U.N. Commission on the Status of, U.S. repre- 
sentative, confirmation, 465 

Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, 640 

Woodward, Robert F., 742, 788, 941 

Woolen and worsted fabrics, modification of duty on 
imports, proclamation, 87 

Woolf, Donald L., 170 

World Bank. See International Bank 

AVorld Court. See International Court of Justice 

World Health Organization : 

Constitution of, 97, 169, 244, 317, 425, .573, 698, 941 
14th World Health Assembly, U.S. delegation, 280 
International peace corps, proposal for use of, remarks 
(Cleveland), 552 



World Meteorological Organization : 

Commission for Climatology of, 3d session of, article 

(Landsberg), 278 
Commission fur Hydrological Meteorology of, U.S. host 

for 1st session of, 650 
Convention of, 65, 98, 134, 317, 698 
World Refugee Year : 

Stimulation of aid for refugees, article (Warren), 387, 

3S8 
U.S. contributions during, 454 
World Science-Pan Pacific Exposition, U.S. commissioner 

for, confirmation. 895 
World Trade Week, 1961. proclamation, 721 
Wounded and sick, Geneva convention (1949) on treat- 
ment of, 009 
Wright, Thomas K., 318 

Yemen : 

ICA representative to, designation, 501 
U.S. aid to fire victims, 271 
U.S. Minister, confirmation, 985 
Yost, Charles AV., 353, 424, 740 
Youlou, Fulbert, 963, 1008 
Young, Kenneth Todd, 053 
Young, Philip, 202 
Yugoslavia : 

Congratulations to President Kennedy on inauguration, 

exchange of messages ( Kennedy, Tito) , 444 
Foreign exchange and trade systems, U.S. aid for 

reform, 85 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural conunodities, agreement with U.S., 1029 
GATT, declaration on relations with Contracting 

Parties, 97 
Nuclear research and training equipment and mate- 
rials, agreement with U.S. re grant for aciiuisition 
of, 834 
Special economic assistance, agreement with U.S. 

providing, 3.52 
Telecommunication convention (19,59), international, 
with annexes and final protocol, 390 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 465 

Zain, Zairin, 685 
Zanzibar : 

Address (Dulles), 768 

Education program, U.S. aid, 218 



I 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE 

Publication 7271 

Released November 1961 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Trinting Office 
Washington 25, D.C. — Price .'iO cents 



U-S. GOVEfTNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 19(1 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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Vol. XLIV, No. 1123 



January 2, 1961 



E 
FICIAL 

:ekly record 

ited states 
reign policy 



EXPORT EXPANSION AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

• by Under Secretary Merchant 3 

UNITED STATES PRESENTS VIEWS ON COLONIAL- 

ISM • Statements by Ambassador James J. Wadsuiorth 

and Text of Resolution 21 

U.S. AFFIRMS INTEREST IN DEVELOPMENT OF 

COLOMBO PLAN COUNTRIES • Statement by 
Theodore C. Achilles, Counselor 31 

U.S., CANADA, AND MEMBERS OF OEEC SIGN CON- 
VENTION ESTABLISHING ORGANIZATION FOR 
ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

• Remarks by Under Secretary Dillon, Texts of Communique 

and Convention and Supplementary Instruments • . . • • 8 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTWIENT OF STAT 




Vol. XLIV, No. 1123 • Publication 7119 
January 2, 1961 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Price: 

62 Issues, domestic $8.eo, foreign $12.26 

Single copy, 25 cents 

The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1958). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau, of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. Tlie BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Export Expansion and the Foreign Service 



hy Under Secretary Merchant ' 



I want to join Secretary [of Commerce Freder- 
ick H.] Mueller in thanking you for coming to 
Washington and for participating in the coopera- 
tive private and governmental program to increase 
United States exports. The interest in the pro- 
gram demonstrated by your presence here today 
is encouraging to us in Government who recognize 
that vigorous action by the business community 
is the basis for its success. 

I would like to comment this afternoon on the 
relationship of our export trade to the balance 
of international payments and to our national 
security. I would like also to discuss the role of 
the Foreign Service in the export expansion 
program. 

Let me begin by briefly outlining the develop- 
ments which have led up to our present interna- 
tional economic position. World War II ended 
with a new political and economic situation which 
made the immediate re vital ization of the econo- 
mies of our allies outside the Communist orbit, 
including our former enemies, a primary con- 
sideration in United States foreign economic 
policy. The emerging bipolarity of world power 
placed the mantle of free-world leadership 
squarely upon the shoulders of the United States. 
Recognizing the vital importance of collective 
defense to our own national security, the United 
States took the lead in the creation of NATO and 
other security arrangements. We decided to main- 
tain substantial numbers of United States mili- 
tary personnel abroad and to train and equip the 
military personnel of our allies who were unable 



' Address made before a joint meeting of the National 
and Regional Export Expansion Committees at Wash- 
ington, D.C., on Dec. 7 (press release 673 dated Dec. 6). 

January 2, 7967 



to carry the full burden of supporting adequate 
military forces themselves. 

Until 1958 we were able to sustain the expense 
of these and other extensive programs abroad 
without serious deficits in our balance of inter- 
national payments. In this period American 
goods generally sold themselves, in the absence of 
significant competition from the still-recovering 
economies of our industrialized competitors, and 
the resulting trade surplus was adequate to offset 
the net foreign exchange costs of these programs. 

However, the economies of Western Europe and 
Japan rebounded more quickly than even the most 
optimistic observers had predicted. As these 
economies recovered, the need for United States 
support for both military and economic defense of 
other areas of the free world increased. In fact 
such events as the Korean war caused us to be- 
come acutely aware of the need for United States 
leadership in the fight to deny to the Communists 
further territorial gains. 

The halting of Communist aggression in Korea 
by the United States and other free-world coun- 
tries proved that we were determined to resist 
military threats to those nations that wanted to 
remain free. Thereafter the Soviet Union ex- 
panded its basic approach from a blunt military 
theme to include a more subtle economic offensive. 
This shift in Soviet tactics has not meant that its 
threat of military attack has in any way dimin- 
ished. It has meant only that they are prepared 
and willing to engage us also on the economic 
front. 

To sustain their threat to our way of life, the 
Soviets have mobilized tremendous resources. Out 
of an economy of approximately 45 percent the 
size of our own they are now spending on military 



programs a suni roughly equivalent to our total 
military outlay. At the same time they are 
steadily increasing their economic aid to less de- 
veloped countries. Last year they offered the 
equivalent of about $915 million for this purpose. 
So far this year this trend appears to be rising 
sharply. 

Keep in mind that this figure is only for aid 
to the "imcommitted" countries. We have no 
way of knowing the precise amount of military 
and economic assistance wliich they give other 
members of the Sino-Soviet bloc, but there is 
every indication that it is substantial. There is 
some consolation in the fact that the Soviets do 
not find their economic aid endeavors completely 
successful and are encountering some of the same 
pitfalls we discovered by trial and error when 
we entered this field. In any event we cannot 
abandon our foreign aid programs in the face of 
this Soviet challenge. 

Balance-of-Paymcnts and Gold Problems 

We have all been hearing a great deal recently 
about our balance-of-payments and gold problems, 
and it has been alleged that our programs over- 
seas are draining away our economic strength. 
We fully recognize the seriousness of these prob- 
lems. However, we can derive some satisfaction 
from the fact that our postwar policies have suc- 
cessfully restored economic strength to nations 
of the free world. It follows that we must expect 
our trading partners to have assets to finance their 
trade. Of course prolonged or severe deficits in 
our balance of payments and attendant loss of 
gold are cause for serious concern. 

A popvilar but unfounded view is that our for- 
eign aid programs are the principal source of our 
balance-of-payments deficits. Many people er- 
roneously believe that these aid programs con- 
sist of packaging up United States dollars, plac- 
ing them on ships, and sending them to needy 
countries beyond our shores with little hope of 
our ever seeing this currency or its equivalent in 
gold again. Obviously this is not true. Most of 
the funds appropriated by the Congress for mu- 
tual security programs never leave the United 
States. Eather, most of these funds are spent 
right heie employing American capital and labor 
to produce the various kinds of hardware and 
other goods needed by recipient countries for 
their — and our — military and economic security. 



A year ago your Government took a number 
of steps designed to correct the imbalance in our 
international payments, such as prevailing upon 
other governments to remove their restrictions 
against the import of dollar goods.^ This effort 
produced results. The gromidwork was thus 
laid for our present export expansion program.^ 
The alternative of restricting imports was in- 
conceivable, considering our long-range com- 
mercial policy. In the first 6 months of this 
year, our balance-of-payments situation improved 
considerably as our exports increased. This im- 
provement was not sufficient, however, to offset 
the more recent substantial flow of capital to 
Western Europe, attracted there by investment 
opportunities including higher interest rates for 
short-term fmids. This has led to the recent in- 
creased outflow of gold. 

To impose restrictions on private capital move- 
ments overseas as a remedy to our situation, or to 
restrict travel of United States citizens abroad — 
both of which loom important in the payments 
deficit — is contrary to the concept of our free- 
enterprise economy. Curtailment of overseas 
programs necessary to national security is also 
unrealistic. However, efforts are being made to 
reduce the adverse effects of these programs on 
our balance of payments, such as recent steps to 
reduce the $3 billion annual foreign exchange 
cost of maintaining our troops overseas.'' But 
even more important, we must continue to expand 
our exports. 

One major factor which has already helped to 
improve our trade balance is the dismantling of 
barriers against dollar imports by our friends and 
allies. This trend is continuing, and we are 
hopeful that American business will take full 
advantage of these expanding export markets. 
We must, however, consider the present competi- 
tive situation in world markets a nonnal one, 
rather than a passing phase, and adjust to it ac- 
cordingly. 

This brings us back to the challenge facing us : 
the urgent need to sell more American goods 
abroad in order to correct the imbalance in our 



2 For background, see Bulletin of Nov. 16, 1959, p. 
703, aud Dec. 7, 1959, p. 843. 

'For background, see ibid., Apr. 11, 1960, p. 560. 

' For background, see Hid., Dec. 5, 1960, pp. S60 and 
864, and Dec. 19, 1960, p. 925. 



4 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



international payments and tlius put an end to 
fears tliat our economy is not capable of sustain- 
ing our position of world leadership. Wliile we 
in Govenunent are doing all we can to help, it 
will be not our effort but rather the aggressive 
leadership of business and industry in seeking out 
and developing new markets that will provide 
the remedy. 

The Foreign Service and the Business Community 

Secretary Mueller has outlined the Department 
of Commerce's role in stimulating the export sec- 
tor of our economy. I would now like to tell you 
what the Foreign Service is doing to help in- 
crease the export of United States goods and 
services. 

It is probable that several of you have called 
upon the sei-vices of the Foreign Service either 
through the Department of Commerce or direct 
to our posts abroad at one time or another to 
assist your respective companies' activities over- 
seas, whether it be exporting, importing, or in- 
vesting. I doubt that any one of you has utilized 
all of the services offered the American business- 
man by the Foreign Service; so I trust that what 
I want to tell you will not cover overly familiar 
material. 

I am pointing out the services we have to offer 
in order to emphasize our common interest in 
making potential exporters throughout the 
United States aware of the importance which we 
attach to the export expansion program. 

The Foreign Service has been serving our busi- 
ness community for many years. Since the foimd- 
ing of the Republic, our consuls have had as a 
primary duty the promotion of American trade 
in farflung marketplaces around the world. 
Needless to say, the international trade picture has 
changed considerably since the days when the 
American consul had only to go down to the dock, 
greet the captain of an incoming clipper ship from 
the States, introduce him in local trading circles, 
and then go about other duties. Today the com- 
mercial officers in our consulates and embassies are 
specialists who are ready and able to perform 
many services for you beyond mere introductions. 
The commercial attache or commercial officer is 
so designated to identify him as the person pri- 
marily responsible for the commercial activity of 
the post and as such is normally the first contact 



made by visiting American businessmen or by 
local businessmen wlio wish to gain leads to trade 
with American companies. Also he is a part of 
the economic section of the post — a well-integrated 
team consisting of specialists covering the spec- 
trum of economic activity of the foreign country — 
and he has their assistance in bringing to the 
American exporters information to help them de- 
velop the local market potential. 

I should also point out that, while I am speak- 
ing primarily of what commercial officers are 
doing for the American exporter, there are a sub- 
stantial nimiber of economic officers in the Foreign 
Service who contribute to the commercial work 
of the post. In fact, in some of the smaller posts 
an economic officer may perform all of the com- 
mercial work although he may not be designated 
as a commercial officer. INIoreover, our ambas- 
sadors are fully aware of the importance of com- 
mercial work and are prepared and willing to 
assist the American businessman. 

What a Commercial Officer Does 

What specifically does a commercial officer do ? 

1. He directs the work of the commercial sec- 
tion. This comprises a great variety of activity 
stemming primarily from requests received from 
American business and from the Department of 
Commerce for trade information. It includes 
supervision of the local staff members who seek 
out much of the basic information for commercial 
reports, such as world trade directory reports, 
trade lists, and market surveys. 

2. He is constantly developing new trade leads 
for American business. This involves maintain- 
ing a wide variety of contacts in the local business 
community with business and civic groups and 
with governmental officials. 

3. He welcomes visits of American businessmen 
and assists them to locate distributors and agents 
for their products, and he also informs the De- 
partment of Commerce of visits of foreign busi- 
nessmen to the United States. 

4. He keeps in touch with local government 
officials in order to keep abreast of developments 
in trade policy, and he is a key man in our mis- 
sions' efforts to obtain the elimination of restric- 
tions against United States goods. 

5. He travels extensively throughout his district 



January 2, 1 96 J 



and appejirs at business luncheons and clubs to 
give talks designed to provide better trade rela- 
tions for the United States. 

6. He works closely with American chambers 
of commerce and with local representatives of 
American firms on problems of mutual interest. 

7. He helps visiting United States trade mis- 
sions set up their itineraries and provides support 
and assistance throughout their visit to his area 
and subsequent followup on trade leads thus de- 
veloped. 

8. He assists in setting up trade fairs in which 
the United States Government participates. 
When no United States exhibit is planned in 
local fairs, he may set up and operate a booth 
to provide trade information. 

9. He assures that inquiries by American busi- 
nessmen for trade connections are brought to the 
attention of the local business community. 

10. He reports on commercial and trade mattere 
and contributes to the general economic reporting 
from his post. 

Wliile our commercial officers have been per- 
forming these duties for a number of years, the 
launching of the President's export expansion 
program last spring marked a change in empha- 
sis in their activities. Just after World War II 
our commercial officers were giving much atten- 
tion to helping other countries sell to us. Now 
the promotion of United States exports must 
come first. 

Our commercial officers have been instructed to 
get out and "beat the bushes" for new possibilities 
for sales of American products. It is true that 
he does not carry an order book in his pocket, 
but he can and does uncover potential trade op- 
portunities and reports them to Washington for 
dissemination to American businessmen. I be- 
lieve that the Department of Commerce can con- 
firm that the number of export trade opportu- 
nities turned out by Foreign Service posts and by 
trade missions this year will be about 72 percent 
larger than the volume in 1959. I understand 
that the field offices of the Department of Com- 
merce have called on you to help them find Amer- 
ican firms interested in some of the potentially 
more important trade opportunities. I hope you 
will keep up your fine work, since it is only 
through aggressive selling that American busi- 
ness can hold its own in foreign markets. 



Improving Foreign Service Trade Promotion Work 

We feel that the problem which prompted the 
export drive will be with us for some time to 
come. We have, therefore, embarked on a 3-year 
program of commercial staff strengthening. 
Congressional action on our supplemental budget 
request for the current fiscal year, however, did 
not permit us to increase our commercial staffs 
as much as we had desired. 

In addition to building up tlie size of our com- 
mercial staffs abroad, we are attempting to en- 
hance commercial work as a specialty within the 
Foreign Service as a means of attracting more 
able young officers to this field. We have also 
worked with the Department of Commerce to 
improve the training of commercial officers being 
sent abroad. Tlie first cycle of a new intensive 
training program has just been successfully 
completed. 

Under the export expansion program our com- 
mercial services are being improved in a number 
of other ways: The new international trade cen- 
ters whicli Secretary Mueller mentioned will 
complement the work of our commercial sections 
abroad; our posts at Kuala Lumpur and Diis- 
seldorf have set up two pilot projects to deter- 
mine what concentrated commercial effort can do 
at a given post; several posts have made signifi- 
cant improvements in the physical appearance of 
the commercial sections, and in some instances 
completely new commercial units have been set 
up in the downtown business section; despite 
budget limitations we are making improvements 
in our commercial libraries; a number of posts 
have established trade committees working with 
American chambers of commerce abroad to seek 
ways to improve our exports; we are expanding 
trade conference work at home for returning 
commercial officers; we are reviewing reporting 
requirements and priorities in order to assure 
proper attention to commercial work at our for- 
eign posts. I think you will agree that this 
revitalization of trade promotion work in the 
Foreign Sendee to serve the needs of the business 
community is timely, considering the increasing 
intensity of competition in foreign markets. 

I would also like to say that the Foreign Service 
will appreciate any suggestions you may wish to 
offer for improving the scope or content of our 
overseas facilities for business. There are several 



Department of State Bulletin 



ways you can let us know of your particular inter- 
ests. One way is to correspond with our commer- 
cial officers tlirough the Department of Commerce ; 
another is to write our posts overseas directly. 
Still another way is to talk with Foreign Service 
officers who are assigned to trade conference work 
during their home leave in the United States. 
Regional field officers of the Department of Com- 
merce make arrangements for these conferences. 
I would like to urge that those of you who are here 
today take fullest advantage of these opportu- 
nities to get to know our people and at the same 
time let them know your interests in exploiting 
particular markets. 

In closing I would like to point out one im- 
portant area in which we must do a "selling job." 
We must cooperate closely in working to con- 
vince the American manufacturer of tlie impor- 
tance of following through on foreign trade op- 
portunities presented to him. I refer to prompt 
replies to correspondence from foreign firms and 
particularly, when appropriate, of a personal visit 
to the foreign country where the trade lead has 
been developed. Every businessman knows the 
importance of personal contact in making and 
maintaining sales. I am told that American busi- 
ness has frequently lost important export oppor- 
tunities to our competitors from other countries 
because of failure to follow up promising leads 
promptly by dispatching sales and technical repre- 
sentatives to the scene. 

Our country has been engaged in international 
trade since the founding of the Republic. Yet 
there are still markets overseas that await the 
appearance of the first American businessman. 
Our commercial officers are reporting on these 
new markets. I hope you can convince American 
business of not only the profits and other benefits 
to be gained by an alert exporter but of the im- 
portance of increasing American exports to our 
national well-being. 



Letters of Credence 

Switzerland 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Switzer- 
land, August R. Lindt, presented his credentials 
to President Eisenhower on December 9. For 



texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press release 
683 dated December 9. 



President Congratulates New Zealand 
Prime Minister on Taking Office 

White House press release dated December 16 

The 'White House on December IG made fxiblic 
the following exchange of messages between Presi- 
dent Eisenhower and Prime Minister Keith 
Holyoake of New Zealand. 

President Eisenhower to Prime Minister Holyoake 

December 5, 1960 

Dear Prime Minister : Please accept my hearty 
congratulations and best wishes for you and your 
colleagues in the new Cabinet. I am confident 
that the close cooperation and friendship between 
the Governments and peoples of New Zealand and 
the United States of America will continue to grow 
during your administration. 

With warm regard, 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Prime Minister Holyoake to President Eisenhower 

December 14, 1960 

I was delighted to receive your message of 
congratulations to my colleagues and me on 
our assumption of office in New Zealand on 
12 December. You may be assured that under 
my Administration everytliing possible will be 
done to ensure the maintenance of the close coop- 
eration and warm friendship that exists between 
the governments and peoples of New Zealand and 
the United States of America. 

May I take this opportunity of expressing to 
you, Mr. President, sincere appreciation of your 
own great services to the progress and peace of the 
world and the warmest good wishes of the govern- 
ment and people of New Zealand in my years that 
lie ahead. 

Yours sincerely, 

Keith Holyoake 



January 2, 1967 



U.S., Canada, and Members of OEEC Sign Convention Establishing 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 



On December H the United States, Canada, 
and the members of the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation ' signed at Paris a 
contention establishing the Organization for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and Development, ivhich re- 
places the OEEC. Following are statements 
made by Under Secretary Dillon upon his arrival 
at Paris on December 11 and at the signing cere- 
mony on December H, a commiunique issued by 
the OECD ministerial meeting on December 13, 
and the text of tlie OECD Convention and supple- 
mentary instru/ments. 

ARRIVAL STATEMENT BY MR. DILLON 

Press release 687 dated December 10, for release December 11 

I return to Paris with a deep conviction that 
the unprecedented steps we shall take here this 
week in forging a strong new economic link be- 
tween Western Europe and North America will 
launch a new era in free- world economic coopera- 
tion and advancement. 

We of the United States view the proposed new 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and De- 
velopment as a major mechanism by which mem- 
ber coimtries will be able to collaborate in order 
to promote healthy economic growth both at home 
and throughout the free world. 

Our economies have become increasingly inter- 
dependent. Moreover, economic conditions in 
Western Europe and North America profoundly 
affect the course of the world economy. Through 
the new OECD our countries will be able to dis- 
cuss broad economic policies designed to promote 
our own well-being and that of the rest of the free 
world. 



^Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, 
and the United Kingdom. 



We feel that our future economic cooperation 
should be directed toward achieving the highest 
sustainable economic growth. For, in addition to 
obvious benefits for member nations, accelerated 
growth will make it easier to allocate the resources 
needed by the developing areas. 

We also believe it imperative that the indus- 
trialized nations of tlie free world collaborate 
much more effectively than in the past in fully 
mobilizing their ever-growing resources to meet 
the needs of their less privileged sister countries. 
By serving as a focal point for increasing the mag- 
nitude and improving the quality of development 
assistance to needy areas, the OECD can make a 
substantial contribution toward meeting the hopes 
and aspirations of all free peoples for dignity and 
well-being. 

I look forward to signing the convention estab- 
lishing the OECD on behalf of my country with 
pride and with great hopes for the Organization's 
future. 

TEXT OF COMMUNIQUE 

PresB releate SS5 dated December 14 

Canada and the United States today [December 
13] joined with the eighteen European countries 
members of the Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation (OEEC) in agreeing to sign 
on December 14 a convention setting up tlie Or- 
ganization for Economic Co-operation and Devel- 
opment (OECD) which will take the place of the 
OEEC. Ministers of the twenty coimtries, who 
met in Paris on the 13th of December, 1960, also 
approved a report setting forth the activities and 
structure of the OECD. The representatives of 
the European communities, who have taken part 
in the negotiations, participated in the meeting; 
also present were the Secretary-General of the 
EFTA [European Free Trade Association] and 
observers from the GATT [General Agreement 



8 



Department of State Bulletin 



on Tariffs and Trade], IBRD [International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development] and IMF 
[Inteniational ]\Ionetai-y Fund]. 

With the I'ecovery and progress of the European 
economy, sustained by the generous aid of the 
United States as well as of Canada, and furtliered 
by the cooperation establislied within the OEEC, 
the European countries aie now in a position to 
face, in full and close cooperation with Canada 
and tlie United States, the important new tasks 
and the broader objectives of today. 

These objectives are set forth in the convention 
in these tenns: 

To achieve the highest sustainable economic 
growth and employment and a rising standard of 
living in the member coimtries while maintaining 
financial stability and, thus, to contribute to the 
development of the world economy ; to contribute 
to sound economic expansion in member, as well 
ta non-member, countries in the process of eco- 
nomic development; and to contribute to the ex- 
pansion of world trade on a multilateral non- 
discriminatory basis in accordance with inter- 
national obligation. 

The convention provides for the establishment 
of a council, the supreme body of the organiza- 
tion, which will have the power to take decisions 
jind make recommendations by mutual agreement 
of all the Members. In addition, the ministers 
agreed on a committee structure to assist in im- 
plementing the aims and carrying out the activ- 
ities of the organization. 

The OECD will extend and strengthen the 
OEEC practice of consultation on the economic 
situation and policies of member comitries. It will 
pay special attention to the international effects 
of national policies, with a view to establishing a 
clunate of mutual understanding conducive to the 
harmonious adjustment of policies. These consul- 
tations will be a major activity in pursuing the 
objective of economic growth, essential to enable 
the member countries to fulfill their responsibil- 
ities in the world economy. 

The OECD will have important functions in the 
matter of assistance to developing countries. The 
twenty governments have agreed in the conven- 
tion to contribute to the economic development of 
both member and non-member countries in the 
process of economic development by appro- 
priate means and, in particular, by the flow of 
capital to those countries, having regard to the 



importance to their economies of receiving tech- 
nical assistance and of securing expanding export 
markets. Most of the organs of OECD will have 
a part to play in the realization of this undertak- 
ing. The eleven-member Development Assistance 
Group,' set up earlier this year, will, upon the 
inception of the OECD, be constituted as the De- 
velopment Assistance Committee. This Commit- 
tee will continue to consult on the methods for 
makmg national resources available for assisting 
countries and areas in the process of economic de- 
velopment, and for expanding and improving the 
flow of long-term funds and other development 
assistance to them. 

In the field of trade the OECD wiU carry out 
the following functions : 

Confrontation on general trade policies and 
practices at regular interval or when requested by 
a member ; examination of specific trade problems 
primarily of interest to members ; and considera- 
tion of any outstanding short and long-term prob- 
lems falling within the terms of reference of the 
Committee on Trade Problems established in Jan- 
uary 1960.^ 

In addition to these activities, the OECD will 
expand and strengthen those activities of the 
OEEC which have proved their practical value 
for more than a decade and which are to be taken 
over by the OECD in pursuance of its objectives. 
The OECD will thus be able to fulfill the desire 
of the countries which have created it by becoming 
the forum in which twenty countries will consult, 
cooperate closely and where appropriate take co- 
ordinated action to meet the economic tasks which 
face them today. 

REMARKS BY MR. DILLON 

Press release 697 dated December 14 

First of all, I should like to congratulate and 
thank the members of the Preparatory Committee 
for their devoted efforts over the past months. 
They have accomplished a monumental task and 
have rendered a service which will long be 
remembered. 

The convention which we are about to sign is an 
historic document. The step we are now taking 



' For background, see Bdxxetin of Feb. 1, 1960, p. 139 ; 
Apr. 11, 1960, p. 577 ; and Oct. 24, 1960, p. 645. 
' For background, see iUd., Feb. 1, 1960, p. 139. 



January 2, 7967 



after nearly a full year of intensive negotiation 
will forge a strong new link between Western 
Europe and North America. It represents a major 
advance in our efforts to strengthen the economy 
of the entire free world. It signals the dawn of a 
new era in international economic cooperation and 
growth. 

The United States looks forward with keen an- 
ticipation to the privilege of joining together with 
Canada and our European friends as full and 
equal partners in this new and historic step to- 
ward closer cooperation. Our economies are 
becoming increasingly interdependent, and close 
economic cooperation between our countries has 
become essential. By building upon the tradi- 
tions and practices of the Organization for 
European Economic Cooperation we are creating 
a f ormn in which we can achieve better and closer 
cooperation in fanning our economic policies to 
meet the mounting challenges of the day. 

The United States wants the OECD to be a 
strong and effective organization. We regard it as 
a major mechanism for promoting healthy eco- 
nomic growth both within our own countries and 
throughout the free world. Acting in concert 
we can bring impressive intellectual, scientific, 
and economic resources to bear upon the great 
tasks before us. 

Wliat are these great tasks? The convention 
of the OECD answers this question in clear and 
simple language. 

First, there is the vital necessity of increasing 
and improving our economic and technical assist- 
ance to the newly developing countries of the free 
world. Many of them have only recently achieved 
political independence. They are learning that 
without economic progress political independence 
is a hollow and fragile thing. Their peoples are 
no longer willing to accept poverty as a normal 
state of existence. They are determined to gain 
for themselves the benefits of industrialization, 
and they are determined to improve their living 
standards. The political and social context with- 
in which the newly developing countries seek 
these objectives will depend to a critical degree 
upon the resources made available to them by the 
industrialized countries of the free world. 

Outside aid, essential though it may be, is not 
in itself enough to meet the needs of the developing 
countries. We must also help them develop their 
own resources and institutions in order that they 



10 



may become self-sustaining. Through the OECD 
we can greatly facilitate our effective provision of 
these resources. In this connection we warmly 
welcome the recommendation of the Preparatory 
Committee tliat Japan should be associated with 
this important work. 

Second, there is the need for our economies to 
attain and to maintain the highest sustainable rate 
of economic growth. If we are to meet the ex- 
panding needs of our peoples, if we are to in- 
crease the resources we make available to the less 
developed countries of the free world, and if we are 
to advance the principles of freedom, our own 
economies must expand at a high rate and produce 
more and more of the goods and services wliich are 
demanded by our peoples and required for our 
common well-being and security. In pursuing 
this common objective we must strive for an in- 
creasingly harmonious expansion of our economies, 
since, as I have said, they are becoming increas- 
ingly interdependent, and we must never forget 
that economic policy decisions by each of our gov- 
ernments also have significant repercussions on the 
economy of the entire free world. It is for these 
reasons that we have agreed in the convention we 
are signing here today to intensify and improve 
our consultation and cooperation on economic 
policy matters. 

Finally, we have agreed in the convention that 
we will work together to promote policies to ex- 
pand world trade on a multilateral, nondiscrimi- 
natory basis in order to contribute to free-world 
growth and prosperity. In this effort we will be 
able to draw on the fine spirit of cooperation which 
has always characterized the work of the OEEC. 

It is essential in the troubled conditions which 
face us today that the benefits of our work in the 
OECD reach down to the ordinary citizen. It is 
fitting, therefore, that our convention calls upon 
member governments to consult and cooperate not 
only to improve the economic well-being of our 
peoples but to promote their social advancement 
as well. This is a goal to which the United States 
attaches great importance. Many of you will re- 
call that the United States emphasized this aspect 
of international cooperation in the Act of Bogota, 
which was signed last September by the nations 
of the Americas.'' It is our hope that the various 
committees of the OECD will be concerned with 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 3, 1960, p. 537. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



the social implications of their activities. It is 
also our hope that the secretariat will include spe- 
cialized personnel concerned with social questions 
in order to assure adequate support for this aspect 
of the work of the OECD. 

The OECD Convention is a good convention. 
It is broad and flexible. It provides a framework 
wliich will enable our new Organization to de- 
velop and adjust as circumstances require. Wliat 
we do in the OECD will be fruitful to the extent 
that we work together in seeking solutions for 
the important economic problems crying for our 
attention. The United States intends to cooperate 
wholeheartedly in this task. And, in this task, we 
are fortunate in having as Secretary-General a 
man of the capabilities and stature of Thorkil 
Kristensen, to whom we look for leadership in 
carrying out the mandates upon which we have 
agreed. 

We have, in truth, entered into a whole new era 
in free-world economic cooperation. The steps we 
have taken toward closer economic cooperation 
will, I am confident, help bring us forward to new 
heights of prosperity and well-being as members 
of a peaceful and secure community of free na- 
tions which offers the fullest opportunity for every 
human being to achieve a better life in freedom. 



TEXT OF CONVENTION AND SUPPLEMENTARY 
INSTRUMENTS 

Press release 693 dated December 13, for release December 14 
OECD Convention 

The Convention on the Organization for Economic 
co-opekation and development 

The Governments of the Republic of Austria, the King- 
dom of Belgium, Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark, the 
French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the 
Kingdom of Greece, the Republic of Iceland, Ireland, 
the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the 
Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Norway, the 
Portuguese Republic, Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the 
Swiss Confederation, the Turkish Republic, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the 
United States of America ; 

Considering that economic strength and prosperity are 
essential for the attainment of the purposes of the United 
Nations, the preservation of individual liberty and the 
increase of general well-being ; 

Believing that they can further these aims most effec- 
tively by strengthening the tradition of co-operation which 
has evolved among them ; 

Recognizing that the economic recovery and progress 



of Europe to which their participation in the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Co-operation has made a 
major contribution, have opened new perspectives for 
strengthening that tradition and applying it to new tasks 
and broader objectives; 

Convinced that broader co-operation will make a vital 
contribution to peaceful and harmonious relations among 
the peoples of the world ; 

Recognizing the increasing interdependence of their 
economies ; 

Determined by consultation and co-operation to use 
more effectively their capacities and potentialities so as 
to promote the highest sustainable growth of their econ- 
omies and improve the economic and social well-being of 
their peoples ; 

Belie\'ing that the economically more advanced nations 
should co-operate in assisting to the best of their ability 
the countries in process of economic development; 

Recognizing that the further expansion of world trade 
is one of the most important factors favoring the economic 
development of countries and the improvement of inter- 
national economic relations ; and 

Determined to pursue these purposes in a manner con- 
sistent with their obligations in other international or- 
ganizations or institutions in which they participate or 
under agreements to which they are a party ; 

Have therefore agreed on the following provisions 
for the reconstitution of the Organization for European 
Economic Co-opera tiou as the Organization for Economic 
Co-operation and Development : 

Article 1 
The aims of the Organization for Economic Co-opera- 
tion and Development (hereinafter called the "Organiza- 
tion" ) shall be to promote policies designed : 

(a) to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth 
and employment and a rising standard of living in Mem- 
ber countries, while maintaining financial stability, and 
thus to contribute to the development of the world 
economy ; 

(b) to contribute to sound economic expansion in Mem- 
ber as well as non-member countries in the process of 
economic development ; and 

(c) to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a 
multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with 
international obligations. 

Article 2 
In the pursuit of these aims, the Members agree that 
they will, both individually and jointly : 

(a) promote the efficient use of their economic re- 
sources ; 

(b) in the scientific and technological field, promote the 
development of their resources, encourage research and 
promote vocational training ; 

(c) pursue policies designed to achieve economic growth 
and internal and external financial stability and to avoid 
developments which might endanger their economies or 
those of other countries ; 

(d) pursue their efforts to reduce or abolish obstacles 



January 2, 1961 



11 



to the exchange of goods and services and current pay- 
ments and maintain and extend the liberalization of capi- 
tal movements ; and 

(e) contribute to the economic development of both 
Member and non-member countries in the process of eco- 
nomic development by appropriate means and, in par- 
ticular, by the flow of capital to those countries, having 
regard to the importance to their economies of receiving 
technical assistance and of securing expanding export 
markets. 

Article 3 

With a view to achieving the aims set out in Article 1 
and to fulfilling the undertaliings contained in Article 2, 
the Members agree that they will : 

(a) keep each other informed and furnish the Organi- 
zation with the information necessary for the accomplish- 
ment of its tasks ; 

(b) consult together on a continuing basis, carry out 
studies and participate in agreed projects ; and 

(c) co-operate closely and where appropriate take co- 
ordinated action. 

Article ,} 
The Contracting Parties to this Convention shall be 
Members of the Organization. 

Article 5 
In order to achieve its aims, the Organization may : 

(a) take decisions which, except as otherwise provided, 
shall be binding on all the Members ; 

(b) make recommendations to Members; and 

(c) enter into agreements with Members, non-member 
States and international organizations. 

Article 6 

1. Unless the Organization otherwise agrees unanimous- 
ly for special cases, decisions shall be taken and recom- 
mendations shall be made by mutual agreement of all the 
Members. 

2. Each Member shall have one vote. If a Member ab- 
stains from voting on a decision or recommendation, such 
abstention sliall not invalidate the deci.sion or recommen- 
dation, which shall be applicable to the other Members but 
not to the abstaining Member. 

3. No decision shall be binding on any Member until it 
has complied with the requirements of its own constitu- 
tional procedures. The other Members may agree that 
such a decision shall apply provisionally to them. 

Article 7 

A Council composed of all the Members shall be the 
body from which all acts of the Organization derive. The 
Council may meet in sessions of Ministers or of Perma- 
nent Representatives. 

Article 8 

The Council shall designate each year a Chairman, who 
shall preside at its ministerial sessions, and two Vice- 
Chairmen. The Chairmen may be designated to serve one 
additional consecutive term. 

Article 9 
The Council may establish an Executive Committee 
and such subsidiary bodies as may be required for the 
achievement of the aims of the Organization. 



Article 10 

1. A Secretary-General responsible to the Council shall 
be appointed by the Council for a term of five years. 
He shall be assisted by one or more Deputy Secretaries- 
General or Assistant Secretaries-General appointed by the 
Council on the recommendation of the Secretary-General. 

2. The Secretary-General shall serve as Chairman of the 
Council meeting at sessions of Permanent Representatives. 
He shall assist the Council in all ai)propriate ways and 
may submit proposals to the Council or to any other body 
of the Organization. 

Article It 

1. The Secretary-General shall appoint such staff as 
the Organization may require in accordance with plans of 
organization approved by the Council. Staff regulations 
shall be subject to approval by the Council. 

2. Having regard to the international character of the 
Organization, the Secretary-General, the Deputy or Assist- 
ant Secretaries-General and the staff shall neither seek 
nor receive instructions from any of the Members or from 
any Government or authority external to the Organiza- 
tion. 

Article 12 
Upon such terms and conditions as the Council may 
determine, the Organization may : 

(a) address communications to non-member States or 
organizations ; 

(b) establish and maintain relations with non-member 
States or organizations ; and 

(c) invite non-member Governments or organizations 
to participate in activities of the Organization. 

Article IS 
Representation in the Organization of the European 
Communities established by the Treaties of Paris and 
Rome of 18th April, 1951, and 25th March, 1957, shall 
be as defined in Supplementary Protocol No. 1 to this 
Convention. 

Article H 

1. This Convention shall be ratified or accepted by the 
Signatories in accordance with their respective constitu- 
tional requirements. 

2. Instruments of ratification or acceptance shall be 
deposited with the Government of the French Republic, 
hereby designated as depositary Government. 

3. This Convention shall come into force: 

(a) before 30th September, 1961, upon the deposit of 
instruments of ratification or acceptance by all the Sig- 
natories ; or 

(b) on 30th September, 1961, if by that date fifteen 
Signatories or more have deposited such instruments 
as regards those Signatories ; and thereafter as regards 
any other Signatory upon the deposit of its instrument of 
ratification or acceptance ; 

(c) after .30th September, 1901, Imt not later than two 
years from the signature of this Convention, upon the 
deposit of such instruments by fifteen Signatories, as 
regards those Signatories ; and thereafter as regards any 
other Signatory upon the deposit of its instrument of rati- 
fication or acceptance. 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



4. Any Signatory which has not deposited its instru- 
ment of ratification or acceptance when the Convention 
comes into force may take part in the activities of the 
Organization upon conditions to be determined by agree- 
ment between the Organization and such Signatory. 

Article 15 

When this Convention comes into force the reconstitu- 
tion of the Organization for European Economic Co-op- 
eration shall take effect, and its aims, organs, powers 
and name shall thereupon be as provided herein. The 
legal personality possessed by the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Co-operation shall continue in the Organ- 
ization, but decisions, recommendations and resolutions 
of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation 
shall require approval of the Council to be effective after 
the coming into force of this Convention. 

Article 16 

The Council may decide to invite any Government pre- 
pared to assume the obligations of membership to accede 
to this Convention. Such decisions shall be unanimous, 
provided that for any particular case the Council may 
unanimously decide to permit abstention, in which case, 
notwithstanding the provisions of Article 6, the decision 
shall be applicable to all the Members. Accession shall 
take effect upon the deposit of an instrument of accession 
with the depositary Government. 

Article 11 

Any Contracting Party may terminate the application 
of this Convention to itself by giving twelve months' no- 
tice to that effect to the depositary Government. 

Article IS 

The Headquarters of the Organization shall be in Paris, 
unless the Council agrees otherwise. 

Article 19 

The legal capacity of the Organization and the privi- 
leges, exemptions and immunities of the Organization, its 
officials and representatives to it of the Members shall 
be as provided in Supplementary Protocol No. 2 to this 
Convention. 

Article 20 

1. Each year, in accordance with Financial Regulations 
adopted by the Council, the Secretary-General shall pre- 
sent to the Council for approval an annual budget, 
accounts, and such subsidiary budgets as the Council shall 
request. 

2. General expenses of the Organization, as agreed by 
the Council, shall be apportioned in accordance with a 
scale to be decided upon by the Council. Other expendi- 
ture shall be financed on such basis as the Council may 
decide. 

Article 21 

Upon the receipt of any instrument of ratification, ac- 
ceptance or accession, or of any notice of termination, 
the depositary Government shall give notice thereof to 
all the Contracting Parties and to the Secretary-General 
of the Organization. 



In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 
duly empowered, have appended their signatures to this 
Convention. 

Done in Paris, this 14th day of December Nineteen 
Hundred and Sixty, in the English and French languages, 
both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which 
shall be deposited with the Government of the French 
Republic by whom certified copies will be communicated 
to all the Signatories. 

Supplementary Protocol No. 1 

Supplementary Protocol No. 1 to the Convention on 
THE Organization fob Economic Co-operation and 

Development 

The signatories of the Convention on the Organization 
for Economic Co-operation and Development ; 
Have agreed as follows : 

1. Representation in the Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development of the Euroi^ean Communities 
established by the Treaties of Paris and Rome of ISth 
April, 1951, and 2.5th March, 19.o7, shall be determined in 
accordance with the institutional provisions of those 
Treaties. 

2. The Commissions of the European Economic Com- 
munity and of the European Atomic Energy Community 
as well as the High Authority of the European Coal and 
Steel Community shall take part in the work of that 
Organization. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 
duly empowered, have appended their signatures to this 
Protocol. 

Done in Paris, this 14th day of December, Nineteen 
Hundred and Sixty, in the English and French languages, 
both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which 
shall be deposited with the Government of the French 
Republic, by whom certified copies will be communicated 
to all the Signatories. 

Supplementary Protocol No. 2 

Supplementary Protocol No. 2 to the Convention on the 
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Develop- 
ment 

The signatories of the Convention on the Organization 
for Economic Co-operation and Development (hereinafter 
called the "Organization") ; 

Have agreed as follows : 

The Organization shall have legal capacity and the 
Organization, its officials, and representatives to it of the 
Members shall be entitled to privileges, exemptions, and 
immunities as follows : 

(a) in the territory of the Contracting Parties to the 
Convention for European Economic Co-operation of 16th 
April, 1948, the legal capacity, privileges, exemptions, and 
immunities provided for in Supplementary Protocol No. I 
to that Convention ; 

(b) in Canada, the legal capacity, privileges, exemp- 
tions, and immunities provided for in any agreement or 
arrangement on legal capacity, privileges, exemptions. 



January 2, J 96 J 



13 



and immunities entered into between the Government of 
Canada and the Organization ; 

(c) in the United States, the legal capacity, privileges, 
exemptions, and immunities under the International Or- 
ganizations Immunities Act provided for in Executive 
Order No. 10133 of 27th June, 1950 ; " and 

(d) elsewhere, the legal capacity, privileges, exemp- 
tions, and immunities provided for in any agreement or 
arrangement on legal capacity, privileges, exemptions, and 
immunities entered into between the Government con- 
cerned and the Organization. 

In witness whebeof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 
duly empowered, have appended their signatures to this 
Protocol. 

Done in Paris this 14th day of December, Nineteen Hun- 
dred and Sixty, in the English and French languages, both 
texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall 
be deposited with the Government of the French Republic, 
by whom certified copies will be communicated to all the 
Signatories. 

Protocol on Revision of OEEC Convention 

Protocol on the REv^SION or the Convention foe Euro- 
pean Economic Co-operation of 16th April, 1948 

The governments of the Republic of Austria, the King- 
dom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the French 
Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom 
of Greece, the Republic of Iceland, Ireland, the Italian 
Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Norway, the Portu- 
guese Republic, Spain, and the Kingdom of Sweden, the 
Swiss Confederation, the Turkish Republic, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland being the 
Contracting Parties to the Convention for European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation of 16th April, 1948, (hereinafter called 
the "Convention") and the Members of the Organization 
for European Economic Co-operation ; 

Desirous that the aims, organs, and powers of the Or- 
ganization be re-defined and that the Governments of 
Canada and the United States of America be Members 
of that Organization as re-constituted ; 

Have agreed as follows : 

Article 1 
The Convention shall be revised and as a consequence 
thereof it shall be replaced by the Convention on the Or- 
ganization for Economic Co-operation and Development to 
be signed on today's date. 

Article 2 

1. This Protocol shall come into force when the Con- 
vention on the Organization for Economic Co-operation 
and Development comes into force. 

2. The Convention shall cease to have effect as regards 
any Signatory of this Protocol when the Convention on the 
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 
comes into force. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, 



' For text, see ibid., Aug. 7, 1950, p. 235. 
14 



duly empowered, have appended their signatures to this 
Protocol. 

Done in Paris, this 14th day of December, Nineteen Hun- 
dred and Sixty, in the English and French languages, both 
texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall 
be deposited with the Government of the French Republic, 
by whom certified copies will be communicated to all the 
Signatories. 

Memorandum of Understanding 

Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of 
Article 15 op the Convention on the Organization 
for Economic Co-operation and Development 

Article 15 of the Convention on the Organization for 
Economic Co-operation and Development (hereinafter 
called the "Convention") provides that decisions, recom- 
mendations and resolutions (hereinafter called "acts") 
of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation 
shall require approval of the Council of the Organization 
for Economic Co-operation and Development (hereinafter 
called the "Council") to be effective after the coming into 
force of the Convention. 

Pursuant to a resolution adopted at the Ministerial 
Meeting of 22nd-23rd July, 1960, a Preparatory Commit- 
tee has been established and instructed to carry further 
the review of the acts of the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, to determine which acts should 
be recommended to the Council for approval, and to rec- 
ommend, where necessary, the modifications required in 
order to adjust these acts to the functions of the Organi- 
zation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 

At the said Ministerial Meeting it was agreed that there 
should be the maximum possible degree of certainty as 
regards approval by the Council of acts of the Organiza- 
tion for European Economic Co-operation in accordance 
with the recommendations of the Preparatory Commit- 
tee ; it was also agreed that Canada and the United States, 
not being Members of the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, should have a certain latitude 
with respect to the said recommendations. 

Therefore the Signatories of the Convention have agreed 
as follows : 

1. The representatives of the Signatories on the Council 
shall vote for approval of acts of the Organization for 
European Economic Co-operation in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Preparatory Committee, except 
as otherwise provided hereinafter. 

2. Any Signatory which has not been a Member of the 
Organization for European Economic Co-operation shaU 
be released from the commitment set out in paragraph 
1 with respect to any recommendation or part thereof of 
the Preparatory Committee which it specifies in a notice 
to the Preparatory Committee no later than ten days 
after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or ac- 
ceptance of the Convention. 

3. If any Signatory gives notice pursuant to paragraph 
2, any other Signatory, if in its view such notice changes 
the situation in regard to the recommendation or part 
thereof in question in an important respect, shall have 
the right to request, within fourteen days of such notice, 

Department of State Bulletin 



that the Preparatory Committee reconsider such recom- 
mendation or part thereof. 

4. (a) If a Signatory gives notice pursuant to para- 
graph 2 and no request is made pursuant to paragraph 
3, or, if such a request having been made, the recon- 
sideration by the Preparatory Committee does not result 
in any modification of the recommendation or part there- 
of in question, the representative on the Council of the 
Signatory which has given notice shall abstain from vot- 
ing on the act or part thereof to which the recommendation 
or part thereof in question pertains. 

(b) If the reconsideration by the Preparatory Com- 
mittee provided for in paragraph 3 results in a modified 
recommendation or part thereof, the representative on the 
Council of the Signatory which has given notice may ab- 
stain from voting on the act or part thereof to which 
the modified recommendation or part thereof pertains. 

(c) Abstention by a Signatory pursuant to subpara- 
graph (a) or (b) of this paragraph with respect to any 
act or part thereof shall not invalidate the approval of 
that act or part which shall be applicable to the other 
Signatories but not to the abstaining Signatory. 

5. The provisions of this Memorandum relating to 
actions to be taken before the voting in the Coimcil shall 
come into force upon its signature ; the provisions relat- 
ing to the voting in the Council shall come into force for 
each Signatory upon the coming into force of the Con- 
vention as regards that Signatory. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned have appended 
their signature to this Memorandum. 

Done in Paris, this 14th day of December, 1960, in the 
English and French languages, both texts being equally 
authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited with 
the Government of the French Republic, by whom certified 
copies will be communicated to all the Signatories. 



U.S. Places Responsibility for Lao 
Fighting on U.S.S.R. and Partners 

Following is the text of a note handed to Soviet 
Ambassador Mikhail A. Menshikov on December 
17 by Deputy Under Secretary Raymond A. Hare, 
together with the text of a Soviet note of De- 
cember 13. 



U.S. NOTE OF DECEMBER 17 

Press release 699 dated December 17 

The Government of the United States aclcnowl- 
edges the receipt of the note of the Government of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics dated De- 
cember 13, 1960. 

The Government of the United States categor- 
ically rejects the charges leveled against it in the 



Soviet Government's note. The United States con- 
demns as a violation of every standard of legal 
conduct the recent Soviet action in airlifting 
weapons and ammunition in Soviet planes to rebel 
military forces fighting the loyal armed forces of 
the Eoyal Government in Vientiane. Thus the 
responsibility for the present fratricidal war in 
Laos, about which the Soviet Goveriunent claims 
to be concerned, rests squarely and solely upon the 
Soviet Government and its partners. 

The United States has repeatedly made clear 
its consistent policy of supporting the Kingdom 
of Laos in its determination to maintain its in- 
dependence and integrity.^ Such support will 
continue. The United States has warned against 
efforts to seize control of or to subvert that free 
nation. 

The Soviet allegation that Lao Army troops 
have been recently armed with weapons which 
they have not had before is completely false. 
Such supplies as have been furnished by the 
United States to the forces in Laos, in whatever 
region, have been provided pursuant to a long- 
standing agreement with Laos, and with the ap- 
proval of the legal Government of Laos. The Lao 
Army had been equipped with M-24 tanks and 105 
millimeter howitzers long before the August 9, 
1960 rebellion against the Eoyal Lao Government. 
The United States has not in fact supplied any 
equipment of this type to Laos since 1957. The 
United States has never supplied 120 millimeter 
mortars, armed aircraft, or armed or armored ves- 
sels to Laos. The United States has not brought 
any arms or ammunition into Laos since the end of 
November. No United States-supplied helicop- 
ters have been used to direct artillery fire. Fur- 
thermore, such American advisers as have been in 
the coimtry either administering the American 
Military Aid Program or in the Franco-American 
training program are located at various training 
sites and supply depots and have not led any mili- 
tary actions. 

It is communist and communist- fostered subver- 
sive activities, the guerrilla warfare of the Pathet 
Lao forces, and now the Soviet airlift of weapons 
which have led directly to the suffering and chaos 
which have befallen Laos. The Soviet Govern- 
ment and its agents have attempted to carry out 
this latest, grave action clandestinely, under the 



' Bui-LETiN of Sept. 26, 1960, p. 499. 



January 2, 7967 



15 



cover of delivering food and petroleum products. 
However, tlieir haste to strengthen the rebel forces 
in Laos has resulted in widespread knowledge of 
these Soviet arms deliveries, which have included 
the howitzers which the rebels are now using 
against loyal troops of the Lao Government, a 
government formed at Royal request pursuant to 
the National Assembly's action. The destruction 
which these Soviet weapons have brought to the 
capital city of Laos and the suffering and loss to 
its people is the direct result of this Soviet 
intervention. 

At the same time, communist-controlled north 
Viet-Nam, which has long aided and furnished 
direction to the Pathet Lao guerrillas in Laos, 
has been making war-like preparations, calling up 
additional troops and moving military units west- 
ward toward the Lao border. 

In the liglit of these facts the Government of 
the United States, in rejecting the false charges of 
the Soviet Government in its note of December 
13, places the responsibility for the current strife 
in Laos where that responsibility properly be- 
longs — squarely upon the U.S.S.E. and its agents. 
The Government of the United States, further- 
more, condemns in strongest terms the illegal Rus- 
sian delivery of military equipment to the rebels 
in Laos. 

It has always been the objective of the United 
States to assist the people of Laos in developing 
their free political institutions, in improving their 
social and economic well being and in preserving 
their national integrity. The policy of the United 
States towards Laos remains the same today. 



SOVIET NOTE OF DECEMBER IS' 

Unofficial translation 
No. 128/OSA 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics considers it necessary to state the following to 
the United States Government. 

In the declaration of September 22, 1960 concerning 
events in Laos, the Soviet Government already drew at- 
tention to the serious threat to i>eace in this area of 
Southeast Asia arising from the unceremonious interven- 
tion of the United States and several of its partnei-s in 
the aggressive SEATO bloc in Laos Internal affairs. 
However, if two or three months ago the United States 



" Deliveretl to American Ambassador Llewellyn E. 
Thompson at Moscow by Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister 
Vasiliy V. Kuznetsov on Dec. 13. 



16 



Government somehow tried to camouflage its illegal ac- 
tion in Laos, recently the United States has in fact become 
a direct participant in military operations on the side of 
the rebels against the legal government of Laos and the 
Laotian people. 

Flouting the sovereign rights of the Laotian govern- 
ment headed by Prince Souvanna Phoumi, the United 
States now extends overt support to the rebel group of 
Nosavan, .supplies it with arms, military equipment, mili- 
tary stores, and money. Rebel troops have proved to be 
.supplied with such arms as have never until the present 
been in the Laotian Army : lOSmm howitzers, 120mm mor- 
tars, heavy tanks, military aircraft, helicopters, armored 
launches, and other equipment. 

The rebels have been trained in the use of these arms 
by numerous American advisers and instructors, whom the 
United States Government has sent and continues to send 
to their camp. Moreover, near the town of Pakadin there 
was shot down by government troops a reconnaissance 
aircraft No. 830 on board which were four American 
officers. During engagements between government troops 
and the rebels, American helicopters of "Sikorsky" type 
regularly fly over Thailand territory, directing the ar- 
tillery fire of the rebels. From this it is evident that 
American military advisers and instructors not only train 
the rebels, but also directly lead their military actions 
against troops of the legal government of Laos. The 
United States Government also widely uses its ally in 
the SEATO military pact, Thailand, which makes avail- 
able the territory of the country for active military op- 
erations against government units and carries out a tight 
economic blockade of Laos. 

As the facts show, the United States Government com- 
pletely ignores the repeated appeals and also the official 
demand of the legal government of Prince Souvanna 
Phoumi, expressed in the December 5 declaration, that the 
United States cease delivery of weapons and military sup- 
plies to the rebels. 

All this is a glaring violation on the part of the Unite<l 
States Government of Article 12 of the final declaration of 
the 19.'j4 Geneva Conference on Indo-China,' in which is 
contained the obligation of each participant of the confer- 
ences, including the United States, to respect the sover- 
eignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of 
Laos, and refrain from any interference in its internal 
affairs. 

AVith its overt actions against the legal Laotian govern- 
ment of Prince Souvanna Phoumi, which has proclaimed 
as its program a policy of peace, neutrality, and national 
unity, the United States Government seeks to compel the 
Laotian people to leave this path which it has chosen, and 
to put Laos again in the service of a policy of military 
pacts and aggressive preparations, foreign to the people of 
Laos. 

However, it is appropriate to recall that once such a 
policy already suffered failure in Laos. The Laotian 
people overthrew the government which carried out the 
policy of turning Laos into a United States military base 
and semi-colony. Realization of the legitimate striving 



' For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 2, 1954, p. 164. 

Department of State Bulletin 



of the Laotian people for cessation at last of fratricidal 
war and for national unity in conditions excluding any 
foreign intervention must not be hindered. 

Being one of the participants and chairmen of the 
Geneva Conference on Indo-China, the Soviet Government 
decisively protests the United States intervention in the 
internal affairs of Laos and condemns this intervention. 
This undermines the Geneva agreements and is directed 
against the freedom and independence of the Laotian peo- 
ple, against its inalienable right to conduct a policy of 
peace, neutrality, and friendship with all peoples. 

The Soviet Government cannot ignore the threat to 
peace and security in Southeast Asia arising from the 
crude United States interference in the internal affairs of 
Laos, and places on the United States Government all 
responsibility for the consequences which can arise as a 
result of the aggressive actions of the United States and 
some of its allies in the SEATO military bloc in relation 
to the Laotian people. 



U.S. Replies to Czechoslovak Note 
on IVfasaryk Stamp 

Press release 696 dated December 14 

Following is the text of a note to the Ambassa- 
dor of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in 
Washington, delivered on December 13, 1960. 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His Excellency the Ambassador of the Czecho- 
slovak Socialist Kepublic [Miloslav Euzek] and 
refers to the Ambassador's note dated November 6, 
1960 ^ and mailed to the Department of State in an 
envelope postmarked November 21, 1960, concern- 
ing the refusal of the Czechoslovak authorities to 
deliver United States mail bearing postage stamps 
honoring tlie late President Thomas Masaryk of 
Czechoslovakia.^ 

The Government of the United States must re- 
ject the unfounded and imsubstantiated assertions 
contained in the Ambassador's note that issuance 
of the Masaryk stamp represented an "oiEcial 
endorsement of the inimical campaign against 
Czechoslovakia" and further constituted "an 
attempt of the United States Government to inter- 
fere in the internal affairs of Czechoslovakia." 

The honoring by the United States Government 
of a revered Czechoslovak patriot and the founder 
of the modern Czechoslovak State, whom Czecho- 



^ Not printed. 

' For text of a U.S. note of Aug. 24, 1960, see Bulletin 
of Sept. 12, 1960, p. 414. 

January 2, 1 96 1 

57817(5—60 3 



Slovakia itself until recent weeks honored in the 
name of one of its leading universities, cannot be 
considered by any objective observer as an "un- 
friendly act.'' The issuance of stamps as a means 
of commemorating the anniversary of the birth 
of honored personages of various nationalities is 
an accepted international philatelic practice which 
the United States Government has followed for 
many years and more recently in its Chainpions 
of Liberty series. When the individual so hon- 
ored is held in high international esteem not only 
as a great humanitarian but also as the President- 
Liberator of his country, there is no basis for at- 
tempting to establish that this constitutes inter- 
vention in the affairs of the native country of the 
man. For the Czechoslovak Government to allege 
f urtlier that issuance of the Masaryk commemora- 
tive stamp can "worsen mutual Czechoslovak- 
American relations and contribute to the suste- 
nance of a tense international atmosphere" sug- 
gests that the Czechoslovak authorities themselves 
seek any pretext, no matter how transparent, to 
shift responsibility from themselves for any 
deterioration in relations. 

It is necessary to correct a further inisrepre- 
sentation in the Czechoslovak note. The Am- 
bassador refers to verbal representations made at 
the Department of State on February 5, 1960, con- 
cerning various but unidentified press reports 
about imspecified actions which the United States 
Government allegedly intended to midertake in 
connection with the issuance of th& Masaryk 
stamp. The representative of the Department of 
State did not in any sense recognize the "justice 
of the Czechoslovak position" as the Ambassador's 
note alleges, but did take that opportunity to as- 
sure the Ambassador that the United States Gov- 
ernment had no hostile intent toward the Czecho- 
slovak Government in issuing the Masaryk com- 
memorative stamp. He made clear that the United 
States Government planned no hostile demonstra- 
tions, the matter about which the Ambassador had 
made representations. 

The misrepresentation by the Czechoslovak 
authorities of a tribute to a great humanitarian 
and an outstanding Czechoslovak patriot as an 
unfriendly act toward Czechoslovakia is beyond 
comprehension. 

Department or State, 
Washington, December 13, 1960. 



U 



President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota 
at Zero for First Quarter of 1961 



White House press release dated December 16 
STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

I have today [December 16] by proclamation 
fixed at zero the quota for imports of Cuban sugar 
during the first quarter of 1961. The proclamation 
expresses my finding that such action is in the 
national interest of the United States. It is appli- 
cable to imports of Cuban sugar through March 
31, 1961, the expiration date of the present Sugar 
Act. 

Since my proclamation of July 6 of this year the 
Government of Cuba has continued to follow a 
policy of deliberate hostility toward the United 
States and to commit steadily increasing amounts 
of its sugar crop to Communist countries. This 
further confirms the view I expressed at tliat time 
that the United States cannot now rely upon Cuba 
to supply a large part of the sugar needs of Ameri- 
can consumers.^ 

To replace supplies normally obtained from 
Cuba the Department of Agriculture will shortly 
authorize the unjjortation of nonquota sugar from 
other countries. These authorizations will be made 
in accordance with the formula laid down in the 
present Sugar Act as amended. 

Despite my urgent recommendations to the con- 
trary, Congress has provided that one of the coun- 
tries from which replacement sugar must be pur- 
cliased under this act is the Dominican Republic." 
In view of the unanimous condemnation of the 
present Government of the Dominican Republic by 
the Organization of American States,^ replace- 
ment sugar purchases from that country will con- 
tinue to be subject to special import fees. When 
the new Congress convenes next month I shall 
again recommend that it relieve the Executive 
from the obligation to purchase such sugar from 
the Dominican Republic. 



^ For a statement by President Eisenhower and text of 
the proclamation, see Bulletin of July 25, 1960, p. 140. 

' For text of the President's message to Congress and a 
statement by Under Secretary Dillon, see iMd., Sept. 12, 
1960, p. 412. 

'Ihid., Sept. 5, 1960, p. 355. 



PROCLAMATION 3383' 

Deteemination of Cuban Suoae Quota To Supplement 
Peoclamation No. 3355 

Whebeas section 40S(b)a) of the Sugar Act of 1948, 
as amended by the act of .July 6, 1960 (Public Law 86- 
.592; 74 Stat. 330), provides that the President shaU 
determine, notwithstanding any other provision of title 
II of the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, the quota for 
Cuba for the balance of the calendar year 1960 and for 
the three-month period ending March 31, 1961, in such 
amount or amounts as he shall find from time to time 
to be in the national interest, and further provides that 
in no event shall such quota exceed such amount as would 
be provided for Cuba under the terms of title II of the 
Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, in the ab.senee of section 
408(b) ; and 

Whereas section 408(b) (1) of the Sugar Act of 1948, 
as amended, further provides that determinations made 
by the President thereunder shall become effective imme- 
diately upon publication in the Federal Register; and 

Whereas section 40S(b) (2) and section 408(b)(3) of 
the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, authorize the Presi- 
dent, subject to certain requirements, to cause or permit 
til be brought or imported into or marketed in the United 
States a quantity of sugar not in excess of the amount 
by which the quotas which would be established for Cuba 
imder the terms of title II of such act exceed the quotas 
established for Cuba by the President pursuant to section 
408(b) of the act; and 

Whereas, by Proclamation No. 3355 of July 6, 1960, the 
President determined the quota for Cuba for the balance 
of the calendar year 19(50; and 

Whereas, pursuant to section 408(b) (1) of the Sugar 
Act of 1948, as amended, I find it to be in the national 
interest that the amount of the quotas for sugar and for 
liquid sugar for Cuba under the Sugar Act of 1948, as 
amended, for the three-month period ending March 31, 
1961, should be zero : 

Now, therefore, I, D WIGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, acting imder and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by section 408(b) 
of the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, and section 301 of 
title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of 
the United States : 

1. Do hereby determine that in the national interest the 
amount of the quotas for sugar and for liquid sugar for 
Cuba pursuant to the Sugar Act of 1948, as amended, for 
the three-month period ending March 31, 1961, shall be 
zero ; and 

2. Do hereby continue the delegation to the Secretary 
of Agriculture of the authority vested in the President 
by section 408(b) (2) and section 408(b) (3) of the Sugar 
Act of 1948, as amended, such authority to be continued 
to be exercised with the concurrence of the Secretary of 
State. 

This proclamation shall become effective immediately 
upon publication in the Federal Register. 



' 25 Fed. Reg. 13131. 



18 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



In witness wheeeof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States o£ America 
to be aflSxed. 

Done at the City of Washington this sixteenth day of 

December in the year of our Lord nineteen 

[seal] hundred and sixty, and of the Independence 

of the United States of America the one 

hundred and eighty-fifth. 

By the President : 
Douglas Dillon, 
Acting Secretary of State. 



U.S. Prepared To Give Economic Aid 
to States of Conseil de I 'Entente 

Following is the text of a letter from Secretary 
Herter to Prime Minister Felix Houphouet- 
Boigny of the Republic of the Ivory Coast. Simi- 
lar letters toere sent to Priine Minister Hubert 
Maga of the Republic of Dahomey, Prime Min- 
ister Hamani Diori of the Republic of Niger, and 
President Maunce Yameogo of the Republic of 
Upper Volta. 

Press release 694 dated December 14 

October 31, 1960 
Dear AIr. Prime Minister : The Government of 
the United States and I personally have been 
deeply impressed by the regional association de- 
veloped by tlie leaders of the Conseil de V Entente. 
At a time when there seems to be a tendency else- 
where to develop into smaller entities, it is encour- 
aging to observe the friendly cooperation and com- 
munity of intent existing between the Republic of 
the Ivory Coast and the other three countries. 

The survey team of the International Coopera- 
tion Administration which recently visited the 
Entente States has provided considerable infor- 
mation on common problems and plans for eco- 
nomic and regional development. The Govern- 
ment of the United States is prepared to make a 
significant contribution to the Entente States to 
help accelerate their economic development and 
strengthen regional cooperation. 
I was delighted to have a chance to meet His 



Excellency Mamadou Coulibaly at the United 
Nations General Assembly ^ and to have an oppor- 
tunity to discuss mutual problems with him. 
Sincerely yours, 

Christian A. Herter 



World Bank Provides Libraries 
on Economic Development 

The International Bank for Eeconstruction and 
Development announced on December 13 that it is 
providing small libraries on economic development 
to selected agencies and institutions in coimtries 
whose officials have participated in the work of the 
Bank's Economic De\-elopment Institute. The In- 
stitute is a staff college maintained by the Bank 
for senior officials of its member countries, and the 
library project is designed to supplement its work. 
The Rockefeller Foundation is bearing half the 
cost of the project. 

It has been apparent for some time that the Fel- 
lows of the Institute, when they return to their 
ministries or banks, feel the need of having avail- 
able the kind of reading and reference material to 
which they are introduced at the Institute. The 
libraries provided by the Bank are designed to 
meet this need, at least in part. They will offer 
both basic reference materials on development 
problems and a balanced selection of development 
literature of a sort that will be useful in training 
courses of various kinds. 

Each of the libraries will consist of approxi- 
mately 400 books, articles, and papers, in English 
only, and it is hoped that they can be assembled 
and distributed in the first half of 1961. The li- 
braries will be offered to governments, central 
banks, or other public institutions — not to individ- 
uals. The choice of the institutions will be made 
by the Bank. Although the recipient institutions 
will be asked to fulfill certain conditions, such as 
those covering the care of the libraries, no financial 
contribution will be required. 



^ Heads of U.N. delegations from the other three coun- 
tries were Francois Aplogan, Dahomey; Ossoufou Djer- 
makoye, Niger ; and Bakary Traore, Upper Volta. 



January 2, 7 96 J 



19 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings' 

Scheduled January 1 Through March 31, 1961 

2d ICAO Special Limited Mediterranean Regional Air Navigation Meeting .... Paris Jan. 3- 

UNICEF ]3xecutive Board and Program Committee New York .... Jan. 4- 

FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council: 9th Meeting Karachi Jan. 6- 

10th International Conference of Social Work Rome Jan. 8- 

ITU Study Group on Mobile Services Manual Geneva Jan. 9- 

U.N. ECdSOC Commission on Human Rights: 13th Session of Subcommission on Geneva Jan. 10- 

Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 

FAO Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice: 5th Session . . New Delhi .... Jan. 13- 

IMCO ^d Hoc Committee on Rules of Procedure: 3d Meeting London Jan. 13- 

FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control: 9th Session . . . Rome Jan. 16- 

ILO Tripartite Meeting on Social Consequences of Coal Crisis Geneva Jan. 16- 

IMCO Council: 4th Session London Jan. 17- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Trade: 4th Session Bangkok Jan. 17- 

FAO Emergency Meeting on African Horse Sickness and African Swine Fever . . Paris Jan. 17- 

lAEA Board of Governors: 21st Session Vienna Jan. 24- 

U.N. ECOSOC Plenipotentiary Conference To Adopt a Single Convention on Nar- New York .... Jan. 24- 

cotic Drugs. 

SEATO Heads of Universities Conference Karachi Jan. 25- 

U.N. ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources: 13th Session . . . Bangkok Jan. 26- 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 4th Meeting Tokyo Jan. 30- 

U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: Working Party on Standardiza- Geneva Jan. 30- 

tion of Perishable Foodstuffs. 

FAO Group of Experts on Rice Grading and Standardization: 6th Session New Delhi .... January 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: Research Committee Tokyo January 

CENTO Ministerial Council: 9th Meeting Ankara Feb. 1- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa: 3d Session Addis Ababa . . . Feb. 6- 

U.N. ECOSOC Population Commission: 11th Session New York .... Feb. 6- 

14th World Health Assembly New Delhi .... Feb. 7- 

U.N. ECAFE Inland Transport and Communications Committee: 9th Session . . Bangkok Feb. 9- 

lADB Board of Governors: 2d Meeting Brasilia Feb. 20- 

GATT Council of Representatives of the Contracting Parties Geneva Feb. 22- 

ILO Governing Body: 148th Session (and its committees) Geneva Feb. 23- 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Panamd Feb. 23- 

U.N. ECOSOC Committee on Nongovernmental Organizations New York .... Feb. 27- 

U.N. ECE Ad Hoc Working Party on Gas Problems Geneva February 

11th Inter-American Conference Quito March 1- 

U.N. Plenipotentiary Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities . . . Vienna March 2- 

FAO Committee of "Government Experts on the Uses of Designations, Definitions, Rome March 6- 

and Standards for Milk and Milk Products. 

GATT Committee II on Expansion of International Trade Geneva March 6- 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights: 17th Session Geneva March 6- 

U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 17th Session New Delhi .... March 8- 

U.N. ECE Steel Committee: 25th Session Geneva March 13- 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women: 15th Session New York .... March 13- 

FAO European Commission for Control of Foot and Mouth Disease: 8th Session . Rome March 14— 

GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade Geneva March 21- 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 3d Session Mexico, D.F . . . March 22- 

Development Assistance Group: 4th Meeting London March 27- 

SEATO Council: 7th Meeting Bangkok March 27- 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee: 51st Session Geneva March 27- 

U.N. ECOSOC Committee on Industrial Development New York .... March 27- 

Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 6th Meeting of Technical Advi- Turrialba March 

sory Council. 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: 9th Session Geneva March 



' Prepared in the OflSce of International Conferences, Dec. 16, 1960. Following is a list of abbreviations : CENTO, 
Central Treaty Organization ; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Par East : ECE, Economic Commission 
for Europe ; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council ; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization ; GATT, General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ; lADB, Inter- American Development Bank ; IAEA, International Atomic Energy 
Agency ; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization ; ILO, International Labor Organization ; IMCO, Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Organization ; ITU, International Telecommunication Union ; SEATO, Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization ; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund. 

20 Departmenf of State Bulletin 



United States Presents Views on Colonialism 



FoUoxoing are statements made in tlie plenary 
session of the U.N. General Assembly hy James J . 
Wadsworth, U.S. Representative, together with 
the text of a Ii3-poioer resolution adopted on 
December H. 

STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 6 

U.S. delegation press release 3602 

Through all its life the United Nations has 
been deeply concerned with the progress of de- 
pendent peoples toward self-government and 
independence. That progress has embraced 
nearly 800 million people. It has become the 
greatest tide of political liberation m all history. 

This year, with the admission of 17 newly 
established nations to our midst, the independence 
movement has reached a climax. It is well, there- 
fore, in the presence of so many nations which 
have achieved mdependence in recent times, that 
this session of the General Assembly should 
consider the future of this momentous movement. 
The movement itself is natural, just, and irresisti- 
ble. It is determined not so much by what we 
say here as by historic forces which cannot be 
reversed. But it seems reasonable to hope that 
our deliberations here may help to speed it and to 
make it more orderly, more peaceful, and more 
just for the scores of millions whose future is 
bound up with it. 

No people supports the idea of freedom and 
national independence more eagerly or more 
proudly than the people of the United States. 
All delegations here are aware of the historical 
background which led the f oimders of my country 
to make and carry into effect the famous Declara- 
tion of Independence which we celebrate every 
Fourth of July. After 150 years of colonial rule 
and after the economic and social development 
of the original colonies had attained a point where 
they were able to stand on their own feet, and 
when repressive acts reached a point where they 
were regarded as unendurable, our leaders issued 



this unmortal Declaration. By it they brought 
into being a new nation, fomided on certain self- 
evident truths: "that all men are created equal, 
that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain unalienable Rights, that among these are 
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That 
to secure these rights, Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the 
consent of the governed." 

Our founders declared, and we still hold, that 
these truths are not the heritage of any partic- 
ular race or nation but of "all men." And so it 
has proved in fact, for tlie influence of that Dec- 
laration reverberated around the world and still 
reverberates today. 

Therefore the general sentiment of the Ameri- 
can people has always been that freedom and 
independence are among the basic natural rights 
of every people and nation. Our public opinion 
has shown no ambition to dominate other na- 
tions and has had little enthusiasm for colonial 
ventures, whether by ourselves or by others. 
Wlien a former colony emerges as a new nation, 
we instinctively remember our own origin and 
respond with heartfelt rejoicing. 

In this debate, on a subject where so many 
nations have greater experience than we, it would 
be idle for the United States to try to preach 
to anybody. Nor shall we tiy to rouse passions 
by lurid accusations. "We are more interested in 
the future than in the past. We believe that the 
rapid progress of the independence movement is 
essential to peace. In this statement we shall tiy 
to set forth some of the broad principles by which 
that progress must be governed. 

The Drive for Independence 

From its very founding the United Nations 
conceived of the long-established colonial gov- 
ermnents, which then embraced a major part of 
the globe, not as sources of profit to the govern- 
ing power but rather as "a sacred trust" and a 



Januar/ 2, 1 96 1 



21 



means of progress for dependent peoples. This 
was made plain by article 73 of the charter, the 
Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Ter- 
ritories. That article makes clear that the ad- 
ministering powers have a responsibility to the 
community of nations, that the interests of the 
indigenous populations come first, and that 
among those interests are progress toward self- 
government and free institutions and the realiza- 
tion of their "political aspirations" — which in 
most cases has meant independence. The same 
article also makes clear that the pace and method 
of progress must take into account the "partic- 
ular circumstances of each territory and its 
peoples and their varying stages of advancement." 

In the 15 years of the United Nations, article 
73 has been put into effect with gi-eater speed and 
on a grander scale than any other provision of 
the charter. Some 34 comitries, containing over 
775 million people, have attained independence 
since 1946. Nearly all are members of the United 
Nations with delegates in this hall. In Africa 
alone no less than 21 states have made this transi- 
tion, until two-thirds of the whole area of Africa 
is free and independent. And, as the representa- 
tive of the United Kingdom [David Ormsby- 
Gore] reminded us in his statement early in this 
debate, still others will follow in the years just 
ahead. 

Now, this success has given a powerful impetus 
to the drive for independence and full self-gov- 
ernment in other countries which are still depend- 
ent today and which feel themselves to be part 
of the same great stream of history. It is natural 
and healthy that this should be so. The very 
presence in our midst of a greatly increased num- 
ber of new nations, all free to express their views 
as they think right, imparts to this question a new 
urgency. 

It is equally fitting that, within the context of 
the charter provisions to which I referred just 
now, an effort should be made to state the sense 
of the General Assembly in a new declaration 
which accords with the circumstances of 1960. 
For that task no one among us is so well qualified 
as the nations of Africa and Asia, to most of 
whom this question is a matter of firsthand experi- 
ence and who are the sponsors of the draft resolu- 
tion before the Assembly.^ We of the United 



' U.N. doc. A/L. 323 and Add. 1-6. 
22 



States would like to be in a position to support 
their declaration. We hope that whatever ques- 
tions of language may remain can be worked out. 
We applaud their initiative and the spirit which 
animates it. 

The U.S. Point of View 

In this statement, rather than dissect the draft 
resolution, I shall try to set forth in broad terms 
the point of view of the United States. 

First let me say what we mean by colonialism. 
There is no need for a formal definition. We have 
learned from history certain of its characteristics. 
It is the imposition of alien power over a people, 
usually by force and without the free and formal 
consent of the governed. It is the perpetuation of 
that power. It is the denial of the right of self- 
determination — whether by suppressing free ex- 
pression or by withholding necessary educational, 
economic, and social development. 

Obviously not all colonial regimes have been the 
same. Some have been benevolent and have ex- 
pended great sums for the benefit of the indigenous 
people; others have been harsh and repressive. 
Some have understood the justice and inevita- 
bility of progress by tlie indigenous people to full 
self-government and self-determination and have 
shaped their policies accordingly ; others have not. 
But, however important these differences, the fact 
remains that colonialism in any form is undesira- 
ble. Neither the most benevolent paternalism by 
a ruling power nor the most grateful acceptance 
of these benefits by indigenous leaders can meet 
the test of the charter or satisfy the spirit of this 
age. 

In fact the only colonial rule which can meet 
that test is that which energetically works to turn 
over full power to the indigenous people and thus 
seeks to bring itself to an end as soon as possible. 

Time and again that test has been met. The 
vast lands which in generations past were over- 
seas possessions of Western nations have been 
transformed by the joint efforts of the governing 
and the governed, until today the complete end of 
this traditional colonial era is a certainty. In 
spite of inevitable friction and some tragic in- 
stances of violence this historic transformation has 
been largely peaceful. For that blessing great 
credit is due to statesmen and leaders on both 
sides. 

Mr. President, the United States devoutly hopes 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



that the complete ending of the colonial age will 
be still more peaceful and harmonious. That this 
should be so is manifestly in the future interest 
of all concerned. We cannot help remarking on 
the fact that some speakers who have taken a 
prominent part in tliis debate, and who maintain 
that they themselves are all free and independent 
and have no colonies, have outdone all the rest 
of the speakers here in the violence of their lan- 
guage. They give the impression that they would 
prefer, for reasons best known to themselves, to 
see the colonial regimes of which they speak 
brought to an end by violence, with the greatest 
possible hatred and bitterness on both sides. 

A New and Lethal Colonialism 

Now, we could describe at this point, if it would 
be helpful to any suffering people to do so, a 
new colonial system which does not span any 
oceans but which is nonetheless as complete a 
violation of the rights of man as any that has 
ever existed. This colonial system was imposed by 
force on many peoples of many races, many of 
whom had for centuries been free and mdependent 
states and had been members of the League of 
Nations. Some lost their independence even in 
form; all of them lost it in fact. This entire 
system is disguised by censorship, by ruthless 
thought control, and by an elaborate misuse of 
words like "democratic" and "autonomous." But 
its tragic reality is attested by the millions who 
have escaped from it and by the tens of thousands 
who died in their vain efforts to shake it off. 

That is the new colonialism. In the very years 
when the old colonialism was being transformed 
by the independence movement the new colonial- 
ism was spreading to still other nations. It is the 
largest colonial empire in all the world. Yet it 
seeks to spread still further under the false banner 
of "liberation." Fortunately its further spread 
has been checked by the increasing ability of free 
peoples to understand the reality through the 
disguise. We are convinced that this new colonial 
system, too, will die out — and, we hope and pray, 
peacefully. Its time, perhaps, is not yet, but its 
time will come. Meanwhile, when we hear the 
practitioners of this new colonialism launch their 
thunderbolts against the old, we are tempted to 
recall that old proverb : "What you do speaks so 
loud that I cannot hear what you say." 



The arch practitioner of this new and lethal 
colonialism demonstrated to us as recently as last 
Sunday [December 4] the true colors of its cyni- 
cal and hypocritical nature, which it hides under 
the false banner of liberation and behind masses 
of words and slogans expounding freedom from 
colonial domination and independence for all 
peoples of the world. I hardly need refresh your 
memories that it was the Soviet Union which last 
Sunday morning in the Security Council vetoed 
the resolution proposing the admission of the 
recently free and independent Islamic Eepublic 
of Mauritania.^ This veto, a barefaced attempt 
to blackmail the Security Council into accepting 
a package deal, has effectively prevented Mauri- 
tania from achieving its full status and rights 
in the community of nations. Mr. President, fel- 
low delegates, I ask you to think about the impli- 
cations of the Soviet Union's action on Sunday 
morning. Particularly consider this veto on the 
admission of a sovereign state to the United 
Nations when the representative of the Soviet 
Union next takes the floor to champion, with 
hollow oratory, the independence and equal rights 
of all peoples. 

I have made this short digression to describe 
the "new colonial system" so that we may not 
forget the many millions of people who suffer 
under this "new colonialism" and whose fate, 
rightly or wrongly, most members of the General 
Assembly have chosen not to consider at this time. 
At the same time we should recall that the resolu- 
tion now before us quite rightly speaks out against 
colonialism in all its manifestations, just as did 
the historic declaration following the Bandung 
conference. 

Irresistible Force of Nationalism 

I return now, however, to the old colonial sys- 
tem. In the view of the United States certain 
points are clear. 

First, the ending of the colonial era is already 
far advanced, and its complete end is certain. The 
sentiment of nationalism is one of the strongest 
and most irresistible forces of modern times. It 
should not be thwarted or suppressed — indeed it 
cannot be. Modern history records many in- 
stances of nations which were partitioned or com- 
pletely extinguished, only to emerge again as 



' Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1960, p. 976. 



January 2, 1961 



23 



members of the family of nations. Some of these 
are sitting in our midst today ; others may be here 
tomorrow. In any case those who have respon- 
sibility mider chapter XI of the United Nations 
Charter for the administration of non-self-gov- 
erning territories must realize that their tutelage, 
at best, can only be temporary. Any attempt to 
prolong it by mmecessai-y delays, or any failure 
to prepare for it with all possible speed, will only 
frustrate the mevitable and sow a harvest of bit- 
terness which will persist long after independence 
has been achieved. 

Second, it is not enough merely to liquidate the 
old ; it is necessary also to plan soundly for what 
will replace it. In this the wishes of the indige- 
nous people must be jDaramount. Experience 
shows that a separate independence is usually, but 
by no means always, the people's choice. For in- 
stance, contrary to the impression left by the 
declaration which Mr. [Valerian A.] Zorin read,' 
the people of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
do not now desire independence. They are fully 
self-governing and have freely chosen to be associ- 
ated with the United States as a self-governing 
commonwealth.* There are strong economic, fi- 
nancial, and other reasons behind their decision. 
On November 8 they reelected Governor [Luis] 
Muiioz Marin, who is a strong advocate of the 
commonwealth solution and, in fact, one of its 
chief architects, by a clear majority of 58 percent 
in a free election. Another 32 percent advocated 
statehood, or full political integration with the 
United States. 

There are other examples of countries which, 
on emerging from colonial rule, have freely 
chosen to join with a neighboring state in a single 
sovereignty. 

Solutions like these may also be preferred by 
other peoples, particularly those who live in small 
and widely scattered islands. Thus independence 
is only the most obvious of several possible choices. 
The essential point is that the people should choose. 

My third point is related to this principle of 
popular choice. The vital test for the administer- 
ing authority of every dependent area is the test 
of free consultation with the people through free 
elections or through some equally valid means of 
self-determination. This means more than a cer- 
emony in which the people are permitted to ratify 



' U.N. doe. A/4.502 and Corr. 1. 
' Bulletin of Oct. 24, 19G0, p. 656. 



a single, predetermined decision. It means an 
actual choice among alternatives. That is the es- 
sence of the principle of self-determination of 
peoples which is included among the purposes 
of the United Nations. It is futile to ai'gue that 
the people may make the wrong decision or a 
decision which will be bad for them. At some 
moment, and better soon than late, the administer- 
ing authority must trust in the people's wisdom 
and put their destiny in their own hands. This 
has been done with success in so many cases that 
there can be no denying its practical validity. Let 
more use be made of free elections, then, so that 
peoples everywhere may be free to determine their 
destiny. 

Determination of a Timetable 

Finally, Mr. President, I come to the question 
of time. How soon shall the remaining depend- 
encies become independent or decide their future ? 

Tlie United States believes that steps must be 
taken immediately toward self-government or in- 
dependence. In many cases this process is already 
far advanced. Where it is not so advanced, there 
must be no delay. Certainly no administering 
authority should maintain the colonial status or 
relationship one day longer than may be necessary 
to enable each territory to stand on its own feet 
in the strenuous conditions of the modem world. 
IMoreover the detennination of a timetable should 
not be arbitrary but should be the result of con- 
tinuous consultation with the indigenous peoples 
and their leaders. 

The charter makes it clear, in its Declaration 
Eegarding Non-Self-Goveming Territories, that 
the progressive development of free political in- 
stitutions is to be carried out "according to the 
particular circumstances of each territory and 
its peoples and their varying stages of advance- 
ment." All the members of the United Nations, 
in subscribing to the charter, have accepted this 
principle ; and its wisdom has been fully demon- 
strated by experience. If independence is to be 
real and not merely formal, it must be accom- 
panied by economic, social, and political growth 
and stability. Even in the same region there 
may be wide variations in this regard. The 
Trust Territory of Western Samoa, which will 
soon have a plebiscite regarding its future, has 
a very advanced society compared to the Trust 



24 



Department of State Bulletin 



Territory of New Guinea, large parts of which 
are still unexplored and unknown to the outside 
world. To deal with both as if they were in com- 
parable stages of advancement would not insure 
to either ''their just treatment, and their pro- 
tection against abuses," as pledged in the charter. 

AVe can sum up our views on the matter of 
tinaing in this way. Common sense, and the 
terms of the charter as well, make it inescapable 
that independence — or whatever other final result 
the jieople may choose — must be reached in pro- 
gressive steps. Sometimes the remaining road is 
short : in other cases it is still long. A long road 
should not be attempted in one leap. It is a poor 
service to any people to convert them overnight 
from colonial subjection to a paper independence 
which they are not equipped to sustain. TJie re- 
sult is certain to be a collapse into chaos and vio- 
lence — and perhaps an attempt by other stronger 
powere to put them under a new yoke. It is sim- 
ply jumping from the frying pan into the fire. 

Yet none of these cautions is an excuse for de- 
lay with the urgent business in hand. Adminis- 
tering authorities should consult with the people 
to establish timetables of progress. Steps along 
the way must be immediate. Both the adminis- 
tering authority and the people must feel an ur- 
gent obligation to speed the day of full liberation. 
That obligation is imposed upon us by history. 
To shirk it would lead only to tragic and needless 
conflict. 

Value of U.N. for Emerging Nations 

Mr. President, we are speaking here of one of 
the great liberating movements of history : the 
creation of new sovereign nations. It is fitting 
to recall to ourselves how much this movement 
already owes — and how much it is sure to owe in 
the future — to the United Nations. Not only has 
this Organization under its charter already taken 
a substantial and creative interest in the liberat- 
ing process itself; the United Nations also pro- 
vides — and this may be even a greater service in 
the long run — a house for the community of na- 
tions. Here the world's many independent na- 
tions, in all their variety and despite all their dis- 
cord, can find a sound and strong framework 
within which to dwell in peace. 

This priceless value of the United Nations for 
the emei'ging nations was recognized by President 
Eisenhower when he proposed, in his address to 

January 2, 1 96 1 



the General Assembly on September 22,'* a United 
Nations program for Africa. Among the points 
in this program are an immediate increase in 
the size of tlie United Nations Expanded Pro- 
gi-am of Technical Assistance and of the United 
Nations Special Fmid, expansion and permanent 
status for tlie United Nations program to provide 
operational and executive persomiel to newly de- 
veloping countries, special attention to Africa by 
the World Bank and the International Monetary 
Fund, and a new United Nations program of edu- 
cation so that the peoples of Africa can more 
rapidly acquire "the mental tools to preserve and 
develop their freedom." 

We shall develop these proposals further when 
the Assembly considers the item which our delega- 
tion proposed entitled "Africa: A United Na- 
tions Program for Independence and Develop- 
ment." ^ AVe shall welcome particularly the ideas 
of the African states on that program. Already 
we have been greatly interested to hear a number 
of speakers from Africa, during the present de- 
bate, emphasize their wish that aid to Africa 
should come as much as possible through the 
United Nations. With that attitude we entirely 
agree. 

By such steps as these, Mr. President, we shall 
take the most statesmanlike course of all— the 
course which strengthens the independence of na- 
tions and at the same time strengthens the world 
institutions which bind us together in peace. 
Only from that unity in diversity can a peaceful 
world community be built. And only in such a 
community can freedom be achieved, and securely 
sustained, for all the peoples of the world. 

President Eisenhower in his address to the 
General Assembly described this ideal in these 
words : 

This concept of unity in freedom, drawn from the 
diversity of many racial strains and cultures, we would 
like to see made a reality for all mankind. This con- 
cept should apply within every nation as it does among 
nations. We believe that the right of every man to par- 
ticipate through his or her vote in self-government is as 
precious as the right of each nation here represented to 
vote its own convictions in this Assembly. I should like 
to see a universal plebiscite in which every individual 



" Ibiil., Oct. 10, 1960, p. 5.51. 

"For a statement by Mr. Wadsworth in the General 
Committee on Sept. 28, together with the text of his 
letter and explanatory memorandum to the Secretary- 
General, see Hid., Oct. 24, 1960, p. 657. 

25 



In the world would be given the ojjportunity freely and 
secretly to answer this question: Do you want thia right? 
Opposed to the idea of two hostile, embittered worlds 
in perpetual conflict, we envisage a single world com- 
munity, as yet unrealized but advancing steadily to- 
ward fulfillment through our plans, our efforts, and our 
collective ideas. 

Thus we see as our goal, not a superstate above na- 
tions, but a world community embracing them all, rooted 
in law and Justice and enhancing the potentialities and 
common purposes of all peoples. 

In light of those ideals, Mr. President, we re- 
joice to see the age of colonies pass into history 
and a host of new nations emerging into the com- 
munity of freedom. Let that great community 
grow steadily to completion, overcoming all fa- 
natical divisions and groundless ambitions, until 
it embraces — as one day it surely must — all the 
members of the family of man. 



STATEMENT OF DECEMBER 14 

U.S. delegation press release 3618 

I wish to exjilain the attitude of the United 
States toward the 43-power resolution just 
adopted without opposition and the reasons for 
our abstention in the vote. 

Tlie United States, as I said in my previous in- 
tervention in this debate, warmly supports and 
endorses the interest and concern of the United 
Nations in promoting larger freedom for peoples 
everywhere. The support of freedom is a con- 
cept springing from deeply held beliefs of the 
American people. We accordingly welcomed the 
underlying purpose of this resolution, sponsored 
by the 43 delegations, which we understand to be 
the advancement of hiunan freedom in the broad- 
est sense. The concept of human freedom, as the 
resolutioii which has just been passed makes per- 
fectly clear, applies not only to peoples who are 
achieving self-government or independence under 
the administration of the various member states 
but also to other peoples whose desire to live under 
free institutions of their own choosing is brutally 
stifled. Freedom is, indeed, indivisible. 

There are difficulties in the laniniaire and 
thought of this resolution, which I will comment 
on more specifically in a moment, which made it 
impossible for us to support it, because tliey 
seemed to negate certain clear provisions of the 
charter. This we deeply regret. These questions 
of language could not liave been straightened out, 



and we regret it because, as I have said, the United 
States endorses the support of the United Nations 
as set forth in its charter for the basic quest of 
people everywhere for political institutions and 
governmental forms in keeping with their rights 
to live in dignity and in freedom. 

One thing is clear, however. This resolution 
applies equally to all areas of the world which 
are not free, whether they are in tlie Western 
Hemisphere, in Africa, Asia, or Europe. It 
speaks of freedom from alien subjugation, domi- 
nation, and exploitation for all peoples. It pro- 
claims that "all peoples have the right to self- 
determination." It condemns colonialism in all 
its manifestations. Members of the United Na- 
tions would not be true to their trust and respon- 
sibilities under the charter if they failed to 
consider the plight of some of the peoples to whom 
the charter's provisions and those of the new dec- 
laration are clearly relevant. I refer specifically 
to peoples living imder Soviet colonial domina- 
tion, whose plight I mentioned briefly in my pre- 
vious intervention. 

We found difficulties, as I noted earlier, in the 
language and thouglit of this resolution. For 
instance, it is hard to understand why a resolution 
on this broad subject should be completely silent 
on the important contributions which the admin- 
istering powers, including my own Government, 
have made in the advancement of dependent peo- 
ples toward self-government or independence. 
Tlie resolution is also heavily weighted toward 
complete independence as the only acceptable goal, 
thus ignoring the charter pro^nsions for self- 
government of dependent areas within larger po- 
litical contexts. We see this reflected in the title 
of the resolution and in many of the preambular 
and operative paragraphs. The penultimate pre- 
ambular paragraph, for example, speaks of the 
"inalienable right" of all peoples "to complete 
freedom," which seems to point to full independ- 
ence in all cases. For our part, we must question 
the wisdom of espousing principles which would 
result in some cases in unnecessary political frag- 
mentation and which also fly in the face of the 
political and economic realities in many areas of 
the world. Full democratic self-goverimient 
within a larger and stable political system is some- 
times more worthy as an immediate objective than 
full political independence. 

In examining with care, as we have done, the 



26 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



major aspects of tliis resolution we have reached 
the conclusion that operative paragraphs 3, 4, and 
5 are susceptible to serious misinterpretations 
which could cause basic misunderstanding of the 
attitude of the various governments here on the 
need for orderly and effective preparations for 
self-government or independence in accoi'dance 
with the charter provisions. Although we are sure 
that this was not the intent of the sponsors of the 
resolution, paragraph 3 permits the interpretation 
that the question of preparation for independence 
is wholly irrelevant. Adequate preparation for 
self-government or independence is a matter of 
elementary prudence and is a responsibility which 
must be accepted by tliose administering depend- 
ent peoples. It is clearly essential that emerging 
peoples be reasonably able to undertake the re- 
sponsibilities tliey will have to face. On the other 
hand, we would never agree that false allegations 
in respect of political, economic, social, or educa- 
tional preparation should be used to retard po- 
litical development. 

Paragraph 4, written in unqualified language, 
seems to preclude even legitimate measures for 
the maintenance of law and order. This is, of 
course, incompatible with the obligations of ad- 
ministering authorities toward the peoples under 
their administration. 

As for paragraph 5, here again is a very strong 
statement that only "complete independence and 
freedom" is tlie acceptable political goal for de- 
pendent peoples. This paragraph also calls for 
immediate steps to transfer all powers to the peo- 
ples of trust and non-self-governing territories 
witliout any conditions or reservations. 

The record of the United States in taking steps 
for the self-government or independence of jDeo- 
ples under its administration is an open book. We 
are proud of that record. We have taken many 
steps in the past; we are taking steps now, and we 
will take further steps in the future. We will do 
this in a manner consonant with our international 
responsibilities under the charter and our respon- 
sibilities for people under our administration. 

Like many other members of the United Na- 
tions, we regard the provisions of chapters XI 
and XII of the charter, which deal specifically 
with non-self-governing and trust territories, as 
controlling. So far as the territories for wliich 
we are responsible are concerned, the United States 
Government will continue to advance these terri- 



tories and their peoples toward self-government or 
independence in accordance with the provisions of 
tlio charter and tlie obligations we have assumed 
in tlie trusteeship agreement. 

I would call attention, Mr. President, to a very 
wise statement which was made not long ago from 
this rostrum by tlie distinguished representative 
of India [V. K. Krishna Menon] in which he said, 
while discussing his country's or his delegation's 
position on another matter, "We did not feel that 
we could fully support it unless we could support 
every word of it." And this is the major reason 
why the United States has felt constrained to ab- 
stain on this particular vote. 

I should like to say, however, that I am sure that 
the devotion of the United States to the princi- 
ples of human freedom and political advancement 
will be judged by what tlie United States has done, 
is doing, and will continue to do in the cause of 
freedom. I have every confidence that our support 
of tliese principles will be considered on the basis 
of our record in action — as it really is and not as 
it is distorted or may in the future be distorted by 
the words of others. 

Very briefly, Mr. President, I turn to the Soviet 
draft which the U.S.S.R. delegation presented 
before the Assembly in this debate.^ That draft 
would have added nothing useful to the 43-power 
resolution, which we all knew would be adopted 
without opposition. We regretted that the Soviet 
representative insisted on pressing it, as well as 
on pressing his amendments ^ to the 43-power 
resolution. 

In view of the Soviet record of imperialism and 
colonialism in the relatively brief history of the 
U.S.S.R., and particularly since World War II, 
it would have been a travesty to adopt a Soviet 
proposal on this question, and we therefore voted 
against it. 

43-POWER RESOLUTION" 

The Oeneral Assembly, 

Mindful of the determination proclaimed by the peoples 
of the world in the Charter of the United Nations to 
reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity 



' U.N. doc. A/4502 and Corr. 1 ; put to the vote in two 
parts, neither of which was adopted. 

" U.N. doc. A/L.328 ; both Soviet amendments were 
rejected. 

°U.N. doc. A/RES/1514{XV) (A/L.323 and Add. 1-6) ; 
adopted on Dec. 14 by a vote of 89 to 0, with 9 abstentions. 



January 2, J 96 J 



27 



and worth of the human i)erson, iu the equal rights of 
men and women and of nations large and small and to 
promote social progress and better standards of life 
in larger freedom. 

Conscious of the need for the creation of conditions of 
stability and well-being and peaceful and friendly re- 
lations based on respect for the principles of equal rights 
and self-determination of all peoples, and of universal 
respect for, and observance of, human rights and funda- 
mental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, 
sex, language or religion, 

Recognizing the passionate yearning for freedom in all 
dependent pe<:)ples and the decisive role of such peoples 
in the attainment of their independence, 

Aioare of the increasing conflicts resulting from the 
denial of or impediments in the way of freedom of such 
peoples, which constitute a serious threat to world peace. 

Considering the Important role of the United Nations 
in assisting the movement for Indeijendence in Trust 
and Non-Self-Governing Territories, 

Recognizing that the peoples of the world ardently de- 
sire the end of colonialism in all its manifestations, 

Convinced that the continued existence of colonialism 
prevents the development of international economic co- 
operation, imi)edes the social, cultural and economic de- 
velopment of dependent peoples and militates against 
the United Nations ideal of universal peace, 

Affirming that peoples may, for their own ends, freely 
dispose of their natural wealth and resources without 
prejudice to any obligations arising out of international 
economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual 
benefit, and international law, 

Believing that the process of liberation is irresistible 
and irreversible and that, in order to avoid serious crises, 
an end must be put to colonialism and all practices of 
segregation and discrimination associated therewith, 

Welcotning the emergence in recent years of a large 
number of dependent territories into freedom and inde- 
pendence, and recognizing the increasingly powerful 
trends towards freedom in such territories which have 
not yet attained independence. 

Convinced that all peoples have an inalienable right to 
complete freedom, the exercise of their sovereignty and 
the integrity of their national territory. 

Solemnly proclaims the necessity of bringing to a speedy 
and unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and 
manifestations ; 

And to this end 

Declares that : 

1. The subjection of peoples to alien subjugation, dom- 
ination and exploitation constitutes a denial of funda- 
mental human rights, is contrary to the Charter of the 
United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion 
of world peace and co-operation. 

2. All peoples have the right to self-determination ; by 
virtue of that right they freely detennine their political 
status and freely pursue their economic, social and cul- 
tural development. 

3. Inadequacy of political, economic, social or educa- 
tional preparedness should never serve as a pretext for 
delaying independence. 



4. All armed action or repressive measures of all kinds 
directed against dependent peoples shall cease in order 
to enable them to exercise peacefully and freely their 
right to complete independence, and the integrity of their 
national territory shall be respected. 

5. Immediate steps shall be taken, in Ti'ust and Non- 
Self-Governing Territories or all other territories which 
have not yet attained independence, to transfer all powers 
to the peoples of those territories, without any condi- 
tions or reservations, in accordance with their freely 
expressed will and desire, without any distinction as to 
race, creed or colour, in order to enable them to enjoy 
complete independence and freedom. 

6. Any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption 
of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a 
country is incompatible with the purposes and principles 
of the Charter of the United Nations. 

7. All States shall observe faithfully and strictly the 
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the Uni- 
versal Declaration of Human Rights and the present 
Declaration on the basis of equality, non-interference in 
the internal affairs of all States, and respect for the 
sovereign rights of all peoples and their territorial 
integrity. 



Need for Progress in Dealing 
With Palestine Refugee Problem 

Statement hy Francis 0. Wilcox 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

No one can doubt the importance of the Pales- 
tine refugee problem. Not only does it affect the 
lives of millions of people; it also has a direct 
bearing on peace and stability in the Middle East. 
Our consideration this year of the Palestine refu- 
gee problem will afford us opportunities for tlie 
exercise of judicious restraint and for the applica- 
tion of the highest statesmanship. The U.S. dele- 
gation strongly hopes that the present discussion 
of this problem will result in a better outlook for 
progress toward a solution. I appeal to all mem- 
bers here to deal with this question calmly, con- 
structively, and in moderation. 

At this session, and particularly at the Ifith ses- 
sion of the General Assembly when the activities 
of UNRWA [United Nations Relief and Works 
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East] 
will be thoroughly reviewed, w-e urge all delega- 
tions to proceed from the premise that the crucial 
factor is the present and future welfare of the 



' Jlade in the Special Political Committee on Nov. 16 
(U.S. delegation press release 3577). 



28 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Palestine refugees themselves. If we all work 
from that basic premise, real progress will be 
possible. 

Given the present tragic impasse, UNEWA has 
had to continue essential services for the Palestine 
refugees. UNRWA is performing this task most 
creditably. It is gratifying that the Agency, inso- 
far as its relatively limited resources allow, is 
striving to increase such promising programs as 
vocational training. We note with approval the 
Director's plans to expand the Agency's vocational 
training programs. The world community should 
insure that as many as possible of the yoimg peo- 
ple, the new generation among the refugees, are 
prepared for useful employment. Wlierever they 
finally make their homes, these refugees should be 
ready to lead productive lives, to take their place 
as self-reliant members of their society. 

Tlie conmiittee has before it Director [John E.] 
Davis' commendable 3-year program for UNRWA 
activities.^ All who are genuinely concerned about 
the fata of the Palestine refugees must note with 
regret and even dismay that the pledges of finan- 
cial support for UNKWA's work in 1961 are con- 
siderably short of the required sum. 

The concern of my Government for the Pales- 
tine refugees has been manifested clearly and 
concretely.' Over the years we, along with the 
Governments and people of the United Kingdom, 
France, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, 
have contributed the gre^t bulk of the support 
needed to sustain the refugees and to give them 
some hope for the future. Many other member 
states have contributed as they could. Nor should 
we forget that the Arab host governments have in 
many significant ways contributed some of their 
resources to the physical and educational welfare 
of the refugees. But certain other member states 
have not contributed as they could. I find it ironic 
indeed that some member states, claiming great re- 
sources and proclaiming their profound sympathy 
for the refugees, have been unwilling to help in a 
concrete fashion. 

The large fuiancial assistance that is needed 
from the contributing governments to support 
UNEWA is often referred to in general terms. 



' U.N. doc. A/4478. 

' For a statement made by George D. Aiken concerning 
a U.S. pledge to UNRWA, see Bulletin of Nov. 21, 1960, 
p. 803. 



To emphasize the size of UNRWA's task, I should 
like to be more specific. Smce May 1, 1950, the 
contributing governments have voluntarily con- 
tributed a total of nearly $319 million. Last year, 
that is, the 12 months ending December 31, 1959, 
the contributing governments gave $32% million. 
Since UNRWA began, the six largest contributors 
have been : the United States, over $222 million ; 
the United lijngdom, almost 61 million; France, 
over 11 million; Canada, almost 9 million; Aus- 
tralia, about 2 million; and New Zealand, well 
over a million. As Dr. Davis has made clear in 
his report, the total expenditure in 1961 should 
amount to 36.5 million. These are large sums; 
they give a realistic estimate of the magnitude of 
the problem with which we are confronted. 

My Government is encouraged to see that since 
the adoption of Resolution 1456 * at the 14th Gen- 
eral Assembly, efforts to rectify mifortunate ir- 
regularities in the distribution of relief supplies 
have been expanded and intensified. I would like 
to commend the UNRWA staff and the govern- 
ments concerned for the progress they are making 
in overcoming this particular deficiency. I would 
urge that these efforts be vigorously pursued. It 
is now clear to everyone of good will that the 
reason for rectifying the refugee relief rolls is to 
insure that those refugees qualified to receive 
UNRWA rations and services do, in fact, receive 
them. Thus it is our conviction that the bona fide 
refugees will benefit if this process is maintained 
and completed without undue delay. 

Before discussing some related elements of the 
Palestine refugee problem, let me extend on be- 
half of my Government sincere congratulations to 
Director Davis and to his staff for the devotion 
to duty, the sense of responsibility, and the imagi- 
nation they have shown in assisting the refugees. 
They have won deep respect for their conduct of 
UNRWA's affairs from the refugees themselves, 
from tlie host governments, and from the con- 
tributing governments. I have complete; con- 
fidence that they will continue faithfully to carry 
out the mandate of the Agency. 

While few would dispute the need for the tem- 
porary provision of necessary services to the Pales- 
tine refugees, more and more frustration is being 
felt in various quarters over the lack of progress 



* For background and text of resolution, see ibid., Jan.^ 
4, 1960, p. 31. 



January 2, 1 96 1 



29- 



toward a fundamental solution. Each year the 
Palestine refugee population grows by almost 30,- 
000 people. About half of the refugees are young 
people born after their parents left their former 
homes. In spite of these facts we cannot allow 
ourselves to become resigned to this problem as 
if it were unsolvable or had some kind of inevit- 
ability attached to it. 

My Government shares the keen disappoint- 
ment of other members that the parties directly 
concerned have apparently not indicated, since the 
14th session of the General Assembly, their will- 
ingness to approach the refugee problem with 
adequate flexibility and with due adherence to 
principles often confirmed by the General Assem- 
bly. However, we are fully aware that the Arab 
states and Israel are separated by a complex of 
problems. The Palestine refugee issue is one of 
the most important of these. A solution to this 
problem would clearly be in the long-range in- 
terests of all the states in the area, whatever the 
short-range advantages of its perpetuation may 
seem to be to one party or another. 

Mr. President, I cannot overemphasize this 
point. No one stands to gain from the present 
impasse. 

It is not fair to the people of the Middle East, 
who could profit so much from an era of tran- 
quillity and progress. 

It is not fair to the United Nations, which has 
devoted so much time and energy and patience and 
money to the solution of this problem. 

It is not fair to the contributing states, which 
year after year have been contributing to the sup- 
port of the refugees with the fervent hope that 
some constructive outcome could be found. 

It is not fair especially to a million refugees 
who, by the force of circumstances, have been de- 
nied those opportunities for the pursuit of hap- 
piness that all free men should enjoy. 

For far too long this impasse has persisted. We 
have delayed. We have procrastinated. We have 
put off until tomorrow what we should have done 
today. 

Last year the Assembly requested the United 
Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine to 
make further efforts in connection with the prin- 
ciples enunciated in paragraph 11 of Eesolution 
194(111).= Since then, the Commission has done 
what it reasonably could. I must say, however, 
that the PCC cannot fruitfully work in a vacuum. 



Such progress as may be secured through the ef- 
forts of the Commission or by any other means 
before our review of this problem at the 16th 
General Assembly depends fundamentally on the 
attitudes and the actions of the parties directly 
concerned, of the Arab host governments and the 
Government of Israel. As the delegate of a coun- 
try represented on the Commission, I can say that 
the PCC would welcome and carefully consider 
any reasonable proposals by any of the parties di- 
rectly concerned for possible courses of action. I 
suggest also that other member states who are con- 
cerned about this problem, and who may have pro- 
posals to make, transmit such proposals to the 
Commission for its quiet and deliberate considera- 
tion. 

During the last several years the governments 
concerned directly with the Palestine refugee prob- 
lem have not utilized the Commission by pro- 
posing possible solutions ; yet that has by no means 
stopped the work of the Commission. Early this 
year the Commission decided to accelerate the 
completion of its important program to identify 
and evaluate the real property left behind by the 
Palestine refugees. It is greatly to be hoped that 
all member states will, as required, assist the Com- 
mission in the early completion of this formidable 
technical task. In addition, the Commission has 
prepared objective and detailed working papers 
on the subjects of compensation and repatriation. 
These papers will be of considerable value to those 
who are closely concerned with future endeavors 
to seek a solution of the problem. 

In conclusion I should like to emphasize five 
points which are of particular importance if we 
are to make progress in dealing with the problem 
of the Palestine refugees : 



"In paragraph 11 of Resolution 194(111), adopted on 
Dec. 11, 1948, the General Assembly resolved "that the 
refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at 
peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so 
at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation 
should be paid for the property of those choosing not to 
return and for loss of or damage to property which, under 
principles of international law or in equity, should be 
made good by the Governments or authorities respon- 
sible" and instructed the Conciliation Commission "to fa- 
cilitate the repatriation, resettlement and economic and 
social rehabilitation of the refugees and the payment of 
compensation, and to maintain close relations with the 
Director of the United Nations Relief for Palestine Refu- 
gees and, through him, with the appropriate organs and 
agencies of the United Nations. . . ." 



30 



Department of State Bulletin 



1. We must continue to support the Director of 
UNKWA and his staff in the constructive ap- 
proacli outlined in his latest report. 

2. We must recognize the precarious financial 
position of the Agency, and all governments 
should consider to what extent they can contribute 
or increiise their contributions. Also the financial 
burden should be more equitably shared than has 
been the case heretofore. 

3. The Agency and the host governments must 
continue their efforts to rectify irregularities in the 
distribution of relief supplies. 

4. The Palestine Conciliation Commission must 
continue its efforts to prepare the way for prog- 
ress toward a solution of the refugee problem. 

5. The Governments directly concerned must, in 
recognizing their primary responsibility for the 
fair and peaceful resolution of this issue, take 
greater initiative toward the attainment of a so- 
lution. 

Finally, I should like again to make a plea to this 
committee for the generous application of realism 
and compassion in dealing with this problem, 
which involves the welfare of a million people and 
the stability of the Near East. 



U.S. Affirms Interest in Development 
of Colombo Plan Countries 

Statement ty Theodore C. Achilles 
Counselor of the Department of State ' 

Before turning to our annual report I would like 
to join those who have already spoken in express- 
ing deep appreciation to our Japanese hosts. They 
have given us in full measure the genius for organ- 
ization of the Japanese mind and the warm hospi- 
tality of the Japanese heart. Indeed, all that we 
see in Japan today bears effective witness to the 
sterling qualities of the Japanese people and their 
leaders. 

Mr. Chairman, my Government is proud indeed 
to have been a member of the Colombo Plan Con- 
sultative Committee virtually from its inception a 
decade ago. In its own relatively short national 



' Made at the 12th Ministerial Meeting of the Consulta- 
tive Committee on Cooperative Economic Development in 
South and Southeast Asia at Tokyo on Nov. 16. Mr. 
Achilles was U.S. Eepresentative at the ministerial 
meeting. 



existence my country has sought freedom and 
progress for its own people, and today the average 
American wishes these same privileges for our 
friends everywhere. We recognize the community, 
the universality, of the basic aspirations of all man- 
kind for freedom, for dignity, and for a better life 
for himself and his children. We recognize our 
growing interdependence, a concomitant of the jet 
age, and the new challenges and opportunities 
that are its counterpart. And finally we recognize 
that millions of people are learning every day 
about new material aspects of life in the 20th cen- 
tury. They want to share in this better life that 
man's ingenuity has made possible, and they want 
to do so quickly. 

The Colombo Plan has demonstrated during 
this decade of its existence an excellent balance 
between high aspirations and a commonsense, 
practical attention to the realities of economic life 
and development. It is well suited to deal with 
even greater responsibilities in the years ahead. 
We are entering a decade in which, in Prime Min- 
ister [Hayato] Ikeda's words, the problem of eco- 
nomic development in less advanced countries 
becomes the biggest problem facing the world's 
economy. The draft report which lies before us 
shows that we have all become more sophisticated 
in our appraisal of economic development require- 
ments. For example, we are increasingly cog- 
nizant that the various segments of our economies 
must be developed in a balanced fashion; that 
industrial development, social progress, and the 
improvement of socioeconomic institutions are 
closely interrelated ; and that both public and pri- 
vate sectors must act as partners in accelerating 
economic growth and vitality. 

We have also reached a clearer understanding 
of the essential responsibilities for economic de- 
velopment that rest, by the very nature of eco- 
nomic realities, upon each individual Colombo 
Plan member. This is not, of course, to deny the 
vast importance of cooperative efforts, including 
external assistance in its various forms. Ameri- 
cans can speak with feeling on this subject, for 
our success in building a strong nation in the 
19th century owed a great deal to European ex- 
ample and investment. But external assistance 
can only supplement, it cannot supplant, vigorous 
efforts at home, notably the accumulation of capi- 
tal and the effective utilization of both human and 
natural resources. Political, intellectual, and 



January 2, 7 96 J 



31 



moral leadership must be drawn from the peoples 
of the developing countries themselves. It is they, 
therefore, who will determine the ultimate suc- 
cess of all economic development endeavors. 

The report shows, however, the important sup- 
plementary part which external assistance, includ- 
ing that from the United States, has played in 
helping to promote the economic development of 
Colombo Plan countries during the past year. It 
is a source of satisfaction to note that since the 
beginning of the Colombo Plan my country has 
contributed economic aid of various types to the 
countries of the area in an amount that now ap- 
proximates $71/^ thousand million. It is, perhaps, 
pertinent to not« that U.S. commitments of aid 
during the past year ($11/^ thousand million) 
exceeded those of the preceding year by $270 
million. 

U.S. Assistance Programs 

The reason "why my Government maintains, as 
an integral part of its foreign policy, an active 
program of economic assistance to those free- world 
countries in the earlier stages of development has 
been stated countless times. In simple words it is 
our recognition of the basic universality of all our 
aspirations and of our increasing interdependence. 
The objectives of the Asian people to achieve free- 
dom, peace, and human dignity are also our ob- 
jectives. It is because of these common objectives 
that my Government places so high a value on the 
Colombo Plan as an instrument to encourage the 
fullest international economic cooperation among 
its members. The experience and methods de- 
veloped in this association have aroused interest 
elsewhere — in Latin America and, as our Canadian 
colleague has emphasized, also in Africa. 

I shall not deal at length with the instrumen- 
talities through which United States assistance 
programs are channeled, for I am sure that they 
are familiar to the members of the Committee. I 
should, however, make special mention of our 
abiding interest in technical cooperation as basic 
to any joint effort to accelerate economic develop- 
ment. We intend to be as responsive to the needs 
for this type of cooperation as our annual budget 
permits. While our technical cooperation pro- 
grams are essentially bilateral in character, they 
have in various instances been of assistance in pro- 
moting regional activities of the type suggested by 
the distinguished Burmese delegate. 



32 



Multilateral Development Activities 

My Government recognizes equally the impor- 
tance of multilateral activities in this field, as is 
demonstrated by our initiative in tlie creation of 
the United Nations Special Fund. The resources 
of the Fund and of the Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance have not yet reached a total 
figure which would take advantage of the U.S. 
pledge offered on a matching basis. We hope that 
contributions will increase. We hope also that the 
United Nations' new OPEX program for pro- 
viding trained administrators to less developed 
countries can be enlarged. President Eisenhower 
recently indicated in his address to the United 
Nations General Assembly - that the United States 
is prepared to join other countries in contributing 
increased funds to this program and that the pro- 
gram should be placed on a permanent basis. 

We have also given considerable attention to our 
Development Loan Fund, now in operation for 
about 3 years. This institution was, of course, 
designed to permit the United States to provide 
development capital under more flexible terms. 
Over half of the Fimd's operation is made up of 
commitments within the Colombo Plan area. My 
Government contemplates further expansion of 
the Fund's resources in order that it may continue 
to meet a maximum share of the demands made 
upon it. 

In addition to its own lending institutions, its 
mutual security programs, teclmical cooperation, 
and sales of agi'icultural surpluses, the United 
States during the past 2 years has taken a strong 
initiative in stimulating or strengthening inter- 
national means of accelerating development. Co- 
operative efforts have now led to a large increase 
in the resources of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development and the Inter- 
national Monetai-y Fund and to tlie creation of the 
International Development Association. 

The IDA is a new venture in international de- 
velopment financing. It will provide financing of 
a kind not now available from any other broadly 
based multilateral institution. The need of many 
developing countries for capital imports far ex- 
ceeds their capacity to service loans on normal 
banking terms. It is the purpose of the IDA, like 
the U.S. Development Loan Fund, to provide sup- 
plementary capital on flexible terms for sound 



^ For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1060, p. 551. 

Department of State Bulletin 



projects and programs that could not otherwise be 
set in motion. 

The articles of agreement of the IDA have come 
into force, and the IDA will soon begin operations. 
We are hopeful that, in accordance with tlie spirit 
of its articles, the IDA will operate in a vigorous 
and flexible manner to meet the needs of develop- 
ing countries that cannot be met from the resources 
of the IBRD, with which it is affiliated. However, 
if the IDA is to do the job for which it was 
created, countries which have so far failed to take 
the necessary steps to become members should, of 
course, do so. 

Development Assistance Group 

If man's right to hope for more than a bare 
struggle for existence is to be fulfilled, to use 
Prime Minister Macmillan's words, collaboration 
must be expanded among those more advanced na- 
tions capable of providing assistance. The emer- 
gence of many newly independent nations adds a 
new dimension to the intensity and urgency of the 
problem. There has been a heartening response 
through international cooperation. Our prosper- 
ing free-world friends have joined with us in 
establishing the Development Assistance Group. 
The members of this group are those countries 
which are making available, or may be in a posi- 
tion to make available, a significant flow of long- 
tenn funds to underdeveloped areas. 

At present the Group is composed of 10 coun- 
tries and the European Economic Conununity. 
Japan, the only member country outside of Europe 
and North America, has not allowed the disad- 
vantage of distance in terms of meeting and com- 
munications to restrict its full participation in the 
work of the organization. Here in Tokyo one 
can see the amazing economic progress which has 
taken place in Japan and can be confident that 
Japan will play an even more important role in 
extending assistance to less developed areas. The 
statement at our opening session by Prime Minis- 
ter Ikeda was heartening in this respect. 

The Development Assistance Group is not an 
operating organization. It exists to provide an 
opportunity for capital-exporting countries to dis- 
cuss the question of techniques to facilitate the 
flow of long-term funds to less developed areas. 
In addition to exchanging information about ex- 
isting programs and institutions, the DAG mem- 
bers have agi'eed on the basis for exchanging 



comparable data on the total flow of funds from 
their countries to less developed areas. This 
should help to meet in part the situation to which 
the distinguished delegates of the Philippines and 
Burma have drawn attention. DAG members 
have also discussed the question of preinvestment 
technical assistance and how it might be made 
more effective. 

We believe that DAG can perform a useful 
function in expanding both the volume and use- 
fulness of development assistance from the indus- 
trialized countries. My Government continues to 
be prepared to discuss bilaterally with any govern- 
ment, and in fact is continuously discussing with 
many governments, ways in which our assistance 
can be made more helpful. 

Importance of Individual Initiative 

Mr. Chairman, all of the members here have 
problems of economic development; we are all 
developing at varying rates. In the case of my 
own country, many factors have borne on its de- 
velopment. One factor that is basic is encourage- 
ment, within a framework of stable legal and 
social institutions, to individuals to exercise such 
initiative and drive as they possess. 

We believe tliat in countries in the Colombo 
Plan area, as in my own country, a proper scope 
for individual initiative, an encouragement of in- 
dividual savings and investment, and an encour- 
agement of a free flow of foreign investment will 
hasten the development of industries and bring a 
pattern of solid and enduring growth. 

My Government has been making tremendous 
efforts to encourage American investors to look 
boldly afield in the underdeveloped areas. We 
have tried to expand and improve our system of 
tax and commercial treaties, investment guaranty 
arrangements, and other institutional and legisla- 
tive measures, to encourage the outflow of pro- 
ductive private capital. Even in our public 
lending operations this objective is a continuing 
element. 

The potential reservoir of private resources is 
much larger than that available to Governmonts 
for public lending purposes. Moreover, private 
investment normally cames with it an effective 
built-in teclinical assistance component. Its util- 
ity in these respects explains, no doubt, the world- 
wide competition for its acquisition. The reser- 
voir of investment funds never appears adequate 



January 2, J 96 J 



33 



for all requirements; investorg are, and can be, 
selective as to where they direct their funds. 

The role of government is of great importance, 
indeed essential, in contemporary efforts to ac- 
celerate economic development, including the 
attraction of foreign capital. It is particularly 
important, we believe, that governments help to 
maintain a proper environment for economic de- 
velopment in all its varied aspects. 

The magnitude of the task of accelerating eco- 
nomic development is becoming increasingly ap- 
parent. So is its urgency. A decade ago my 
Goverimient thought in terms of "aid," in large 
amounts but over a short period. As the nature of 
the problem has become increasingly clear, my 
Government is thinkmg less and less in terms of 
short-term "aid" and more and more in terms of 
"accelerating development." By this we mean the 
mobilization and development of resources, public 
and private, within the less developed areas and 
elsewhere. This is the task as we see it. 

In closing, I would reiterate the deep interest of 
my Government in the sound and rapid economic 
development of the countries in this region. It 
will continue to cooperate in every appropriate 
way toward these ends. The progress covered in 
our draft report is indeed heartening for the tasks 
that lie ahead. 



Signatures: Iraq, November 7, 1960; Guatemala, Decem- 
ber 2, 1960. 
Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement, 1960. Done 
at Karachi September 19, 1960. Enters into force on 
the date the Indus Waters Treaty of September 19, 1960, 
between India and Pakistan enters into force and will 
take effect retroactively from April 1, 1960. 
Signatures: Australia, Canada, Federal Republic of 
Germany, New Zealand, Pakistan, United Kingdom, 
United States, and the International Bank for Re- 
construction and Development. 

Patents 

Agreement for the mutual safeguarding of secrecy of In- 
ventions relating to defense and for which applications 
for patents have been made. Done at Paris September 
21, 1960. 

Approval deposited: United States, December 8, 1960. 
Ratification deposited: Norway, December 13, 1960. 
Enters into force: January 12, 1961. 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention. Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. Sintered into force 
January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 

Accessions deposited: Niger, November 14, 1960; Sene- 
gal. November 1.5, 1960. 

Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) annexed to 
the international telecommunication convention of De- 
cember 22, 1952 (TIAS 3266), with appendixes and final 
protocol. Done at Geneva November 29, 1958. Entered 
into force January 1, 1960. TIAS 4390. 
Notification of approval: United Arab Republic, October 
31, I960. 

Trade and Commerce 

General agreement on tariffs and trade, with annexes and 
schedules, and protocol of provisional application. Con- 
cluded at Geneva October 30, 1947. TIAS 1700. 
Admitted as contracting party: Nigeria, October 1, 1960. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Finance 

Articles of agreement of the International Bank for Re- 
construction and Development. Opened for signature 
at Washington December 27, 1945. Entered into force 
December 27, 1945. TIAS 1502. 

Notification of withdrawal: Dominican Republic, De- 
cember 1, 1960. Effective December 1, 1960. 

Articles of agreement of the International Finance Cor- 
poration. Done at Washington May 25, 1955. Entered 
into force July 20, 1956. TIAS 3620. 
Notification of tvithdrawal: Dominican Republic, De- 
cember 1, 1960. Effective December 1, 1960. 

Articles of agreement of the International Development 
Association. Done at Washington January 26, 1960. 
Entered into force September 24, 1960. TIAS 4607. 
Signature and acceptance: Denmark, November 30, 1960. 

34 



BILATERAL 



Canada 

Agreement relating to the disposition of the remaining ele- 
ments of the CANOL pipeline facilities in Canada. Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Washington March 31, 
1960. Entered into force March 31, 1960. 

Korea 

Insured parcel post agreement. Signed at Seoul July 15 
and at Washington August 17, 1960. 
Entered into force: January 1, 1961. 

Norway 

Agreement relating to a mutually financed shipbuilding 
program of the Norwegian Navy. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Oslo November 29, 1960. Enters into force 
on the date Norway gives notice of approval by the 
Norwegian Parliament. 

Poland 

Protocol to the claims settlement agreement of July 16, 
1960 (TIAS 4545). Signed at Warsaw November 29, 
1960. Entered into force November 29, 1960. 

Rumania 

Agreement providing for cultural and other exchanges. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington December 
9, 1960. Entered into force December 9, 1960. 



Department of State Bufletin 



January 2, 1961 



Ind 



e X 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1123 



Africa. United States Presents Views on Colo- 
nialism (Wadsworth, text of resolution) ... 21 

Asia. U.S. Affirms Interest in Development of 

Colombo Plan Countries (Achilles) 31 

Cuba. President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero 
for First Quarter of 1961 (text of proclama- 
tion) 18 

Czechoslovakia. U.S. Replies to Czechoslovak Note 

on Masaryk Stamp (text of U.S. note) .... 17 

Dahomey. U.S. Prepared To Give Economic Aid to 

Statos of Conseil de I'Entente (Herter) ... 19 

Department and Foreign Service. Export Expan- 
sion and the Foreign Service (Merchant) ... 3 

Economic Affairs 

Export Expansion and the Foreign Service (Mer- 
chant) 3 

President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero for First 

Quarter of 1961 (text of proclamation) ... 18 

U.S., Canada, and Members of OEEC Sign Con- 
vention Establishing Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development (Dillon, texts of 
communique and convention) 8 

U.S. Prepared To Give Economic Aid to States of 

Conseil de I'Entente (Herter) 19 

World Bank Provides Libraries on Economic 
Development 19 

Europe. U.S., Canada, and Members of OEEC 
Sign Convention Establishing Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development (Dillon, 
texts of communique and convention) .... 8 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 20 

U.S., Canada, and Members of OEEC Sign Conven- 
tion Establishing Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development (Dillon, texts of 
communique and convention) 8 

U.S. Affirms Interest in Development of Colombo 

Plan Countries (Achilles) 31 

World Bank Provides Libraries on Economic Devel- 
opment 19 

Ivory Coast. U.S. Prepared To Give Economic Aid 

to States of Conseil de I'Entente (Herter) ... 19 

Laos. U.S. Places Responsibility for Lao Fighting 
on U.S.S.R. and Partners (texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes) 15 

Middle East. Need for Progress in Dealing With 

Palestine Refugee Problem (Wilcox) .... 28 

New Zealand. President Congratulates New Zea- 
land Prime Minister on Taking Office (Eisen- 
hower, Holyoake) 7 

Niger. U.S. Prepared To Give Economic Aid to 

States of Conseil de I'Entente (Herter) ... 19 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. United States 
Presents Views on Colonialism (Wadsworth, 
text of resolution) 21 

Presidential Documents 

President Congratulates New Zealand Prime 

Minister on Taking Office 7 

President Sets Cuban Sugar Quota at Zero for 

First Quarter of 1961 18 



Refugees. Need for Progress in Dealing With 

Palestine Refugee Problem (Wilcox) .... 28 

Switzerland. Letters of Credence (Lindt) ... 7 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 34 

U.S., Canada, and Members of OEEC Sign Conven- 
tion Establishing Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development (Dillon, texts of 
communique and convention) g 

U.S.S.R. 

U.S. Places Responsibility for Lao Fighting on 
U.S.S.R. and Partners (texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes) 15 

United States Presents Views on Colonialism 

(Wadsworth, text of resolution) 21 

United Nations 

Need for Progress in Dealing With Palestine 
Refugee Problem (Wilcox) 28 

United States Presents Views on Colonialism 

(Wadsworth, text of resolution) 21 

Upper Volta. U.S. Prepared To Give Economic 
Aid to States of Conseil de I'Entente (Herter) . 19 

Name IndesD 

Achilles, Theodore C 31 

Dillon, Douglas g 

Eisenhower, President 7, 18 

Herter, Secretary 19 

Holyoake, Keith 7 

Lindt, August R 7 

Merchant, Livingston T 3 

Wadsworth, James J 21 

Wilcox, Francis 28 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 12-18 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to December 12 which 
appear in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 673 
of December 6, 683 of December 9, and 687 of 
December 10. 

Snbject 

Mazzocco designated ICA representa- 
tive in Ivory Coast (biographic 
details). 

Herter : arrival at Brussels. 

OECD Convention. 

Herter: letter to chiefs of state of 
Conseil de I'Entente. 

OECD communique. 

Note to Czechoslovakia on Masaryk 
stamp. 

Dillon : signing of OECD Convention. 

Second-stage talks on West Indies 
bases concluded. 

Note to U.S.S.R. concerning Laos. 

* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


•691 


12/13 


t692 
693 
694 


12/13 
12/13 
12/14 


695 
696 


12/14 
12/14 


697 
1698 


12/14 
12/15 


699 


12/17 




the 



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January 9, 1961 



NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL HOLDS MINISTERIAL 

MEETING AT PARIS • Message From President 
Eisenhower, Staietnents by Secretary Herter, and Text of 
Communique ....•.....••. 39 



PRESIDENT'S REPRESENTATIVE ON CUBAN REF- 
UGEE PROBLEM SUBMITS REPORT 



45 



SECURITY COUNCIL DEBATE ON CONGO RESULTS 

IN 92D SOVIET VETO • Statements by James J. 
Wadsicorth and James W. Barco, and Text of Resolution . . 51 

U.N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY CONTINUES DISCUS- 

SION OF THE CONGO • Statement by Ambassador 
Wadsuiorth and Texts of Resolutions ......•••.. 56 

Boston Public Library 
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Vol. XLIV, No. 1124 • Publication 7124 



January 9, 1961 



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North Atlantic Council Holds Ministerial Meeting at Paris 



The North Atlantic Council held its regular 
ministerial session at Paris from December 16 to 
IS. Following are texts of a message from Presi- 
dent Eisenhower which was read by Secretary 
Herter at the opening session on December 16, a 
final communique issued on December 18, and 
stafe?)ients made by /Secretary Herter on Decem- 
ber 12 upon his departure from Washington, on 
December 13 upon his arrival at Brussels, and on 
December 18 after the fi/nal session. 



MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT EISENHOWER 

As I near the end of my two terms of office 
as President of the United States, it is a source 
of great encouragement and satisfaction to con- 
sider the immense progress made by the Noi'th 
Atlantic Alliance during the last decade. 

In those earlier years when I had the honor 
to be Supreme Allied Commander Europe, no one 
would have been so bold as to predict the degree 
of progress we have made in the collective de- 
fense: the great infrastructure complex, the in- 
creasingly effective shield forces, and the nuclear 
power which supports our Alliance. 

We have formed habits of close political con- 
sultation. As we now face many complex prob- 
lems which include but also transcend military 
defense, we must seek to strengthen and develo^D 
these habits in increasing measure. 

To meet these challenges, we will need to show 
an even greater unity of thought and action than 
we have achieved to date. Together we must 
build a community which will best safeguard the 
individual freedom and national values of its vari- 
ous peoples and at the same time provide effective 
means of dealing with problems with which none 
of us, alone, can deal effectively. 

I am confident that the Alliance will meet this 
challenge, as it has met others in the past. I 
believe that the long-range planning on which you 
are now embarked will make a notable contribu- 
tion to tills end. 



As you thus continue your labors on behalf of 
peace, the well-being and freedom of our peoples, 
I wish you success — now and in the years ahead. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



TEXT OF COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 700 dated December 19 

1. The regular Ministerial session of the North 
Atlantic Council was held in Paris from Decem- 
ber 16th to 18th, 1960. 

2. The Ministers engaged in an extensive review 
of the international situation — political, military 
and economic. In pursuance of decisions previ- 
ously taken, they also considered the question of 
long-term planning on the basis of a progress 
report from the Secretary General and sugges- 
tions put forward by governments. 

3. The Covmcil reaffirmed the solidarity of the 
Alliance and their dedication to the principle of 
the settlement of all disputes by peaceful means, 
without recourse to the use of force or threats. 
They declared their determination to work for a 
lasting improvement in international relations, in 
wliich freedom, national independence and law 
would be respected. This would be true peaceful 
coexistence free from all idea of world domination. 

4. The Council deplored the lack of progress 
during the past year on disarmament, resulting 
from the Communist states' withdrawal from the 
Ten-Power Conference before even examining the 
Western proposals.^ The Comicil reaffirmed their 
support for the principles expressed in those pro- 
posals as a basis for attaining their common ob- 
jective of general and complete disarmament by 
stages under effective international control. They 
expressed their hope for the early resumption of 
negotiations. 

5. The Council regretted the lack of progress on 
the reunification of Germany on the basis of self- 



' For background, see Bulletin of Aug. 22, 1960, p. 2C7. 



Jonuary 9, 196? 



39 



determination. With regard to Berlin, the Coun- 
cil reaffirmed their declaration of December 16th, 
1958.- In face of the recent Soviet threats and 
harassing tactics, they once again declared their 
determmation to protect the freedom of the people 
of West Berlin. 

6. In order that the Atlantic Alliance may pur- 
sue its constructive purposes in peace and without 
fear, confronted as it is by tlie menace of growing 
Communist military strength, the North Atlantic 
nations must be able to respond to any attack with 
whatever force might be appropriate. 

There must be a proper balance in the forces of 
the Alliance of nuclear and conventional strength 
to provide the required flexibility. The Ministers, 
in the light of the annual review, took note of the 
progress which had been made, and expressed their 
determination to continue their efforts to improve 
the deteri-ent and defensive strength of the 
Alliance. 

7. In this connection, the United States Govern- 
ment suggested the concept of an MRBM [medi- 
um-range ballistic missile] multilateral force for 
consideration by the Alliance. The Council took 
note of the United States suggestion with great in- 
terest and instructed the pennanent represent- 
atives to study the suggestion and related matters 
in detail. 

Tlie Coimcil welcomed the assurance of the 
United States to maintain in the NATO area 
United States nuclear weapons made available to 
NATO. 

8. At the same time, the Comicil agreed on the 
equal importance of strengthening the shield 
forces of NATO in other respects so that there can 
be no possibility of miscalculation or misimder- 
standing of the Alliance's determination and abil- 
ity to resist aggression by whatever means are 
appropriate and necessary. 

9. The Ministers noted with satisfaction the 
steps so far taken in response to the proposals 
made by the Defense Ministers in the spring 1960 
in the field of logistics and for cooperation in 
research, development and production of military 
equipment. They urged all parties concerned to 
press on with the projects already selected and 
to study what further projects are suitable for co- 
operative action. 



10. The Ministers examined the report submit- 
ted to them on long-term planning, in particular 
with regard to political consultation and economic 
problems. 

11. They reaffirmed their determination to pur- 
sue within the Alliance comprehensive political 
consultation designed to achieve the closest pos- 
sible coordination of their views and unity of 
action. They studied ways and means of achiev- 
ing this result. 

12. In the economic field, they welcomed the 
creation of the OECD [Organization for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and Development] ,^ which, by 
promoting balanced economic growth and the ex- 
pansion of world trade, will benefit all the nations 
of the free world. 

13. They emphasized the importance they 
attach to the development of the less-favored 
coimtries of the Alliance. 

14. Comprismg as they do many of the more 
industrially developed coimtries, the Atlantic na- 
tions recognize their special responsibility in the 
field of aid to underdeveloped countries. 

15. The Ministers instructed the permanent 
representatives to follow up previous studies to 
enable the countries of the Alliance to watch the 
development of the Commimist economic offensive 
and to concert the necessary defensive measures. 

16. The Secretary General was invited to draw 
up a report on these various questions which will 
be examined at the spring Ministerial meeting of 
the North Atlantic Council. 

17. This meeting will take place at the invita- 
tion of the Norwegian Government in Oslo in 
May 1961. 



STATEMENTS BY SECRETARY HERTER 
Departure Statement, Washington, December 12 

Press release 690 dated December 10, for release December 12 

I am embarking on a twofold mission to Brussels 
and Paris. In Brussels I shall be acting as the 
personal representative of President Eisenhower 
at the wedding festivities of His Royal Highness 
King Baudouin and Dona Fabiola de Mora y 
Aragon. 

Subsequently I shall take part in the ministerial 
meeting of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 5, 1959, p. 4. 



'/fttU, Jan. 2, 1961, p. 8. 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



tion in Paris.* This meeting will place particular 
empliasis on reviewing the current state of inter- 
national relations and the status of our defenses. 
We have come a long way in NATO in the last 
few years. We have substantially strengthened 
our defenses as well as the process of political 
consultation in the Alliance. 

The NATO Ministers will likewise be discussing 
suggestions made by the United States Govern- 
ment last year looking toward the formulation of 
plans for meeting jointly the changing conditions 
of the coming decade. 

The North Atlantic Alliance has been successful 
in the past. I am confident of its future. 

Arrival Statement, Brussels, December 13 

Press release 692 dated December 13 

I am delighted to be among you at this happy 
time and to have the opportunity to share with 
you personally the joy occasioned by the wedding 
of your King and Dofia Fabiola de Mora y 
Aragon. As the special representative of Presi- 
dent Eisenhower I bring with me from the Presi- 
dent and people of the United States best 
wishes for the future happiness of King Baudouin 
and Dofia Fabiola. The ties of friendship and 
mutual respect which have long linked our two 
peoples are further strengthened by the common 
joy this wedding is inspiring throughout both 
countries. The memories of the warmth and 
friendliness I encoimtered in Brussels when I 
served here as a yoimg man heighten my pleasure 
in being with you at this time and deepen my 
regret that I will not be able to remain with you 
as long as I would like. Unfortunately urgent 
preparations in relation to the NATO Ministers' 
meeting will require my presence in Paris on 
Wednesday. But though I must leave Brussels 
on the eve of the royal wedding, my thoughts and 
those of my fellow countiymen will be here on 
Thursday with the Belgian people, their King, 
and their new Queen. 

Statement After Final Session, December 18 

Press release 701 dated December 19 

This ministerial meeting of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization has been a significant one. 
Tlie Ministers of the 15 countries have been 



• For a list of the members of the U.S. delegation, see 
ibid., Dec. 26, 19G0, p. 978. 



fran]<: in giving the views of their governments 
on NATO and the world situation. This ex- 
change is always helpful. It underlines the sig- 
nificant progress achieved in political consulta- 
tion within NATO. 

The most important element of discussion in 
the meeting just concluded was the long-range 
plan for NATO. As you know, NATO was con- 
stituted as a defensive organization when the 
threat of Soviet military power to Western Eu- 
rope became apparent at the time of the Berlin 
airlift. NATO therefore was basically a military 
alliance. 

As the Organization developed, however, it be- 
came apparent that it had great values in addition 
to that of military defense. It became a highly 
useful organ of political consultation. People 
generally are unaware of the variety and depth 
of tlie consultation that takes place in the weekly 
meeting of the permanent representatives in 
the North Atlantic Council. Prospective develop- 
ments in various parts of the world, often far out- 
side the NATO area, are brought up for infor- 
mation and discussion. NATO therefore has 
served as a binding force of considerable effect. 
A unity of thought and action formerly incon- 
ceivable in peacetime has been achieved through 
the Organization. 

The member nations have therefore come to be- 
lieve that NATO should continue as an Organ- 
ization many years into the future. For this 
reason the Organization is engaged in impor- 
tant long-range planning to determine how the 
Organization can most effectively fulfill its vital 
objectives in the years to come in both the mili- 
tary and the nonmilitary fields. 

The United States is glad to assist in this ef- 
fort to make NATO a long-range institution for 
tlie defense of the freedom of the North Atlantic 
Community. 

This has been the fourth ministerial meeting 
of the North Atlantic Council in which I have 
participated. It is, as you know, my last. It has 
been a true pleasure to take part in these Coimcil 
meetings with my distinguished and capable col- 
leagues from the 14 other members of the Al- 
liance. I am encouraged at the continuous prog- 
ress made by NATO. I am confident that, while 
it will continue to have many problems, it has the 
basic strength and unity to meet them 
successfully. 



January 9, 1 96 J 



41 



Stage-Two Talks Concluded 
on West Indies Bases 

Following is the text of a commwniqite which 
was released simultaneously on December 8 at 
London, Port-of-Spain, and Washington during 
the second stage of talks on renegotiation of the 
19^1 leased bases agreement between the United 
Kingdom and the United States, together with a 
report of the U.S. delegation which was released 
at Washington on December 15. 



COMMUNIQUE OF DECEMBER 8 

Press release 681 dated December 8 

The first part of stage two of the West Indies 
bases talks was successfully concluded today at a 
conference held at the Crown Point Hotel in the 
small West Indian island of Tobago.^ The pur- 
pose of the conference was to revise the 1941 leased 
bases agreement between the United Kingdom and 
the United States of America by virtue of which 
considerable areas of Trinidad and Tobago were 
leased to the United States of America for defense 
purposes for a period of nmety-nine years. 

The participants in the conference were the 
United States and the United Kingdom, as signa- 
tories to the original agreement, the federation of 
The West Indies, which has not yet attained inde- 
pendence, and the Territory of Trinidad and To- 
bago, which is a self-governing unit of the federa- 
tion. The chairman of the conference was His 
Excellency Sir Solomon Hochoy, KCMG, CBE, 
the first West Indian Governor of Trinidad and 
Tobago. The delegations were headed by The 
Honorable John Hay Whitney, United States Am- 
bassador to the Court of St. James's, representing 
the United States of America ; The Honorable Mr. 
Hugh Fraser, Parliamentary Under Secretary to 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies, represent- 
ing the United Kingdom; The Honorable Sir 
Grantley Adams, Prime Minister of the West In- 
dies, representing the federation ; and The Honor- 
able Dr. Eric Williams, Premier of Trinidad and 
Tobago, representing the Territory of Trinidad 



' For text of a communique issued at the close of the 
first stage of the talJjs, see Bulletin of Nov. 28, 1960, 
p. 822; for an announcement of the stage-two talks, see 
ihid., Dec. 12, 1960, p. 889. 



and Tobago. Under the new arrangements ap- 
proved by the four parties, the United States of 
America agrees to abandon some twenty-one thou- 
sand acres of the land leased under the 1941 agree- 
ment, including unused portions of the naval sta- 
tion at Chaguaramas. Agi-eement has also been 
reached with regard to the provision by the United 
States of economic and technical assistance to 
Trinidad and Tobago with particular reference to 
the strengthening of the defenses of the Territory 
and of the Western Hemisphere. The areas re- 
tained by the United States of America for a 
period of some 17 years enable the United States 
Naval Station at Chaguaramas to fulfill important 
defense and electronic research missions. The 
agreement reached is in furtherance of the prin- 
ciples as outlined in the statement issued at the 
termination of stage one of the West Indies bases 
talks in London last month which emphasized the 
right of The West Indies, on attaining indepen- 
dence, to form its own alliances, and also the will- 
ingness of The West Indies to play its part in the 
defense of the Western Hemisphere. The areas 
to be released to the Government of Trinidad and 
Tobago are as follows : 

1. All the areas outside of the North West 
Peninsula ; 

2. A beach area approximately four-fifths of a 
mile in length, commencing at the boundary west 
of Tembladora and ending at a point east of the 
first pier at Carenage Bay ; 

3. A portion of Tucker Valley, approximately 
one thousand acres in extent, and including ap- 
proximately seventy-five per cent of the citrus 
plantation; 

4. Scotland Bay. 

It has also been agreed that other plantation 
areas should be placed under the administrative 
control of the Government of Trinidad and To- 
bago, subject to the necessary security provisions. 
Tetron Bay, which remains under United States 
lease, is to be developed for joint use by the United 
States, the federation of The West Indies, and the 
Government of Trinidad and Tobago for the 
operation and training of naval construction imits, 
the granting of base facilities to the West Indies 
Naval Force, and the resiting of the Trinidad 
and Tobago Marine Police Launch Station. The 
United States would also provide facilities for 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



vocational training involving the use of the ma- 
chine shops in the main Chaguaramas Bay east of 
Staubles Bay. Scotland Bay and the defense sites 
on Monos Island and Green Plill would be made 
immediately available to the United States in the 
event of hostilities, with provision for compensa- 
tion by the United States Government. A portion 
of Waller Field, 14 acres in extent, including the 
airfield, would also be made available to the United 
States in the event of hostilities. Surplus water 
from the wells in the Nortli "West Peninsula as 
determined by hydrological survey would be made 
available to tlie Government of Trinidad and To- 
bago. The United States of America has prepared 
a program for economic utilization of areas in the 
North West Peninsula estimated to cost approxi- 
mately United States $1.1 million. The area to be 
retained by the United States of America under 
the new lease consists of the remaining portions of 
the North West Peninsula, including the main 
naval station at Chaguaramas Bay, the missile 
tracking and communication facility, and the 
northern portion of Tucker Valley. 

With regard to the duration of tenure of the 
area retained, the delegations of the United States 
and Trinidad and Tobago have agreed upon and 
those of the Federal and United Kingdom Govern- 
ments have acceded to the following terms : 

1. By the end of 1962 the United States Gov- 
ernment would complete the agreed release of 
areas and the provision of facilities. From the 
time of signing the agreement until the end of 1962 
the Government of Trinidad and Tobago will have 
the right to utilize the areas involved, subject to 
normal security arrangements. 

2. At the end of a further period of five years 
(i.e. at the beginning of 1968) the parties would 
undertake a joint review of the operation of the 
agreement and the need for its continuation in 
the existing or modified form. 

3. Unless they agree that it should be termi- 
nated, the agreement would then continue subject 
to such modifications as might be agreed upon 
for a further period of five years, at the end of 
which time (i.e. at the beginning of 1973) the 
parties would jointly reconsider the strategic need 
in the light of the world situation at that time for 
the defense facilities enjoyed thereunder. 

4. If agreement were not reached within a 
period of one year (i.e. by tlie end of 1973) on 



the continued need for these facilities the United 
States Government would have a period of four 
years (i.e. matil the end of 1977) in which to com- 
plete their withdrawal. 

Agreement in principle has been reached on the 
terms and conditions of a new agreement proposed 
by Trinidad and Tobago under which the areas 
retained shall be held by the United States of 
America. These include a general description of 
the rights of both parties, jurisdiction arrange- 
ments, financial and tax concessions, the use of 
the public facilities of Trinidad and Tobago, in- 
cluding Parco Airport, training of local personnel, 
and local procurement and establishment of a 
Joint Consultative Board with representatives of 
the United States, Trinidad and Tobago, and The 
West Indies to keei> the implementation of the 
new agreement under constant review. 

The delegations of the United States of Amer- 
ica and of Trinidad and Tobago recognize the 
need for economic and tecluiical assistance to Trin- 
idad and Tobago, in keeping with the desire of all 
participating governments to promote the eco- 
nomic and social development of the people of The 
West Indies. Accordingly, the United States 
delegation agrees that the United States would 
provide such aid as the Government of the United 
States may approve. The United States delega- 
tion strongly recommends that United States par- 
ticipation in the following high-priority pi'ojects 
be on a grant basis : 

1. Improvement of the port facilities of Port- 
of-Spain ; 

2. Construction of additional road facilities be- 
tween Port-of-Spain and Chaguaramas, including 
land reclamation in the Cocorite area ; 

3. Eehabilitation of the Trinidad Government 
Kailway ; 

4. Development of a College of Arts and 
Sciences at the branch of the Univei-sity College 
of The West Indies m Trinidad. 

Stage two of the conference is to be continued 
immediately in the other territories — St. Lucia, 
Antigua, and Jamaica — in which bases were leased 
to the United States of America, beginning with 
talks in St. Lucia on December 9. Decisions 
reached in stage two will be incorporated in the 
final agreement to be drawn up at stage three of the 
conference to be held in February 1961. 



January 9, 796? 



43 



The talks were marked by the high level of cor- 
diality and friendly relations which had been 
established at stage one in London. 



REPORT OF U.S. DELEGATION 

Press release 698 dated December 15 

The United States delegation, headed by Jolni 
Hay "Wliitney, United States Ambassador at Lon- 
don, returned to Washington last evening from 
second-stage talks held in The West Indies involv- 
ing renegotiation of the 1941 leased-bases agree- 
ment. These talks were held in four of the unit 
territories of The West Indies federation, where 
there are operating installations used by the 
United States Navy and also where the United 
States Air Force has facilities for programs of 
space and missile research and development. 
Meetings were held with representatives of the 
Unit Governments of Trinidad and Tobago from 
November 28 to December 9, in St. Lucia, Decem- 
ber 9-10, in Antigua, December 11-12, and in 
Jamaica, December 13-14. 

Delegations from the federation Government 
of Tlie West Indies and from the United Kingdom 
were present at tlie talks between United States 
representatives and members of the four Unit 
Governments. A series of agreements in principle 
were concluded, with which all the Governments 
concerned have associated themselves. Work will 
begin in London in January to incorporate the 
agreed principles into a formal agreement to re- 
place the 1941 agreement. 

The United States has not been using and does 
not foresee future need for approximately 80 per- 
cent of the areas acquired in 1941. For this reason 
the United States has taken the initiative and 
agreed to release these unconditionally to the Unit 
Governments concerned. 

The areas retamed are vital links in the defense 
against submarine incursions in the Caribbean and 
in providing support to the Cape Canaveral test 
launching programs. Among the areas to be re- 
tained are, for example, the antisubmarine base at 
Chaguaramas in Trinidad, down-range space and 
missile test- vehicles tracking facilities in St. Lucia, 
an oceanographic research station and space- 
vehicle tracking facilities in Antigua, and naviga- 
tional aid facilities in Jamaica. It was agreed 
that these essential defense areas may be retained 



for at least 17 years, a period wliich will meet fore- 
seeable needs. In addition, the period can be ex- 
tended beyond 17 years by mutual agreement. 

The United States delegation also discussed eco- 
nomic and social development programs in each 
of the areas visited. The United States has agreed 
to finance in whole or in part certain projects in 
economic and technical assistance during the cur- 
rent fiscal year. In addition, the delegation agreed 
to recommend that appropriate United States au- 
thorities give sympathetic consideration in the 
future to loan or grant assistance for other projects 
important to long-term West Indian development. 

Upon his return from The West Indies talks 
Ambassador Wliitney said : 

The agreements reached in this field were in no sense 
quid pro quo's for the military facilities we retain. The 
United States has a vital and continuing interest in West 
Indian economic stability irrespective of our interest in 
purely military aspects — although the two are of course 
interrelated. Because of its geographical proximity the 
people of The West Indies and of the United States inev- 
itably are closely bound together. Many Americans go to 
The West Indies. Substantial numbers of them live 
there. We share common destinies, and this is a historic 
step for all concerned. 

Perhaps the most unique feature of these talks was that 
we were negotiating with The West Indies when it is still 
not, though soon to be, fully independent. The United 
States recognized that there were advantages in negotiat- 
ing with the West Indians while they were in the process 
of determining their future. 

I am more convinced than ever as a result of these talks 
that the West Indians value freedom and the Ideals of 
democracy much the same as we do. They have no illu- 
sions about communism and the bondage it imposes. I am 
confident that, as a result of these talks and the agree- 
ments reached, our common objectives of strengthening the 
defenses of the Western Hemisphere and the free world 
have been measurably advanced. 

One of the leading figures in the emerging West 
Indies federation, Dr. Eric Williams, Premier of 
Trinidad and Tobago, pledged himself to see that 
the new agreement would be carried out in spirit 
as well as in letter. In a statement given at the 
conclusion of the talks in Tobago, Dr. Williams 
commented that it made all the difference that this 
was an agi-eement wliich had been negotiated by 
rather than for the peoples of The West Indies. 
Similarly, the Prime Minister of the federation, 
Sir Grantley Adams, the Cliief Minister of St. 
Lucia, Mr. G. F. L. Charles, the Chief Minister of 
Antigua, Mr. V. C. Bird, and the Premier of 
Jamaica, Mr. Norman Manley, all pledged their 
support of the undei-standings reached. 



44 



Department of State Bulletin 



The thii-d and final stage of The West Indies 
bases negotiations will take place early in Febru- 
ary 1961 at Port-of-Spain, Trmidad. At that time 
a new master agreement will be signed replacing 
the 1941 leased-bases agreement and subsequent 
agreements. 



U.S. Notes Reports of Israel's 
Atomic Energy Activities 



President's Representative on Cuban 
Refugee Problem Submits Report 



Department Statement 



Press release 702 dated December 19 



The Department of State has noted press re- 
ports of statements by Israeli Government spokes- 
men concerning the peaceful character of Israeli 
atomic energy activities. The Department wel- 
comes these leported assurances that the Govern- 
ment of Israel has no intention of producing 
nuclear weapons and that its program is concerned 
exclusively with the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy. 

U.S.-Israeli cooperation in the field of atomic 
energy is limited to research cooperation mider 
Presideiit Eisenhower's atoms-for-peace program. 
In the same way as we have done in many coun- 
tries in pursuance of our atoms-for-peace program, 
we have assisted Israel in constructing near Reho- 
both a small research reactor for peaceful pur- 
poses and we have exchanged miclassified atomic 
energy information with Israel. Our bilateral 
agreement with Israel ' provides that our as- 
sistance may not be developed into military use 
and that safeguards, including inspection, will be 
enforced to this end. 

United States cooperation or assistance in any 
program to develop a nuclear weapon capability 
would not be possible. Such action would be 
precluded both by our policy of discouraging the 
proliferation of independent nuclear weapons 
capabilities and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Act. 

As a result of unofficial reports to the effect that 
a new and larger nuclear reactor was under con- 
struction in Israel, the Secretary of State called 
in the Ambassador of Israel [Avraham Harman] 
on December 9 to express his concern and to request 
information. A response has not yet been received. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

December 19, 1960. 

Dear Mr. PRESmENT: On November 10th you 
asked me to act for you to look into problems 
relating to more than 30,000 Cuban refugees now 
in this country, and to report to you.^ 

On December 2d you authorized me also to act 
for you on a temporary emergency basis to deal 
with urgent situations of hardship affecting some 
of these refugees. This was because it had become 
clear that such action was needed immediately, 
while several weeks would be required to assemble 
firm statistical information as to the niunbers of 
these people in need of help, on which to base a 
responsible final report to you. For such immedi- 
ate needs you made available to me moneys from 
the contingency fund of the Mutual Security 
Program. 

At that time I stated that as soon as possible I 
would submit an interim report. Its purpose is to 
furnish for you, for the public here and abroad, 
and for the refugees themselves, as much informa- 
tion about the problem and the steps being taken 
as can be given pending the development of the 
firmer statistical data above mentioned wliich is 
now in process. Such an mterim report is here- 
with respectfully submitted. 
Faithfully yours, 

Tract S. Voorhees 
The President 
The White House 
Washington, B.C. 

INTERIM REPORT ON THE CUBAN REFUGEE 
PROBLEM 

The influx of Cuban Refugees 

For the second time within four years our country has 
become the place of refuge for very large numbers of 
human beings who have come to our shores for asylum 
from oppression in their homelands. 

Four years ago the United States opened its heart and 
its homes to 38,000 Hungarians.' 



^Treaties and Other International Acts Series 3311. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 12, 1960, p. 888. 

° For text of the final report of the President's Com- 
mittee for Hungarian Refugee Relief, see i&id., June 17, 
1957, p. 984. 



1 Jonoary 9, 1967 



45 



Today almost a like number of Cubans have sought 
safety here — principally during the last eighteen months. 
This Is the first instance in many years in which the 
United States has been the country of first asylum for 
large numbers of refugees. The Hungarians, of course, 
fled first to neighboring countries. Mo.st of them went to 
or through Austria. There they were carefully inter- 
viewed, enabling us to make arrangements for their ar- 
rival here, their care and their resettlement. 

As to the Cubans, a very different situation exists. 
They have entered the United States in many ways : 
some with no visas ; some on regular immigrant visas ; 
some on a "parole" status, as was the ease with most of 
the Hungarians ; and a very large majority technically as 
tourists. 

But these Cubans are really refugees rather than tour- 
ists, for they cannot safely return home. 

Their problems have not until now received the atten- 
tion accorded the Hungarian influx as the circumstances 
underlying their arrival have been far less dramatic. 

Recently the flow has tended to increase above the fig- 
ure of about 1,000 a week which had prevailed for many 
months. Almost all of them come in at Miami, and the 
majority have remained there. 

Many of these refugees are unquestionably among the 
finest citizens of Cuba, including professional men and 
leaders in many other fields. For example, some 300 
Cuban doctors have entered the Miami area alone. 

Recently, the refugees have spilled over in substan- 
tial — but as yet undetermined — numbers to other Florida 
cities and beyond Florida to such cities as New York, New 
Orleans, Los Angeles and Atlanta. The extent of the 
problem in these cities other than Miami is under sepa- 
rate study, but it has not been possible for me to develop 
any dependable appraisal of these conditions in time for 
this interim report. 

Unquestionably, the most acute crLsis exists in Miami. 
My temporary emergency activit.v has accordingly cen- 
tered principally there, and in initiating efforts to resettle 
refugees from that area. 

United States Policy Toward tiie Cuban Refugees 

The firm policy of the United States has been not to 
require the departure of any Cubans who have cnme to 
us while iiresent harsh conditions prevail in their home- 
land — whether they arrive without visas, as tourists, or 
otherwise. All who have arrived and have wanted to 
stay have been granted asylum. 

Problems Facing These Refugees 

The harsh restriction imposed by the present Cuban 
Government, under which none of these people can now 
bring with them more than .$5.00 in U.S. money, has 
caused widespread immediate hardship. 

The resources, both of many of the refugees and of 
those who have so far taken them in, are now either non- 
existent or rapidly dwindling, and the capacity of these 
Miami hosts to care for refugee cases is already over- 
taxed. So, as more and more arrive, the situation in 
Miami becomes increasingly acute. 



Job opportunities for Cubans in the Miami area are 
at best limited. Also, it is patently not fair to citizens 
of Miami seeking employment for this large number of 
Cubans to be compelled to look for jobs in that area 
alone. 

One firm figure, large enough to be of statistical sig- 
nificance, is that the Catholic Center reports that some 
2,500 Cuban adults have registered with it for employ- 
ment for whom no jobs have been obtainable. Many of 
these persons are heads of families. 

About 3,500 Cuban refugee children have been taken 
in as students in the Dade County public schooks. The 
fact that only 7 percent of them have been able to pay 
even the $50 charge provided under Florida law for non- 
resident pupils is an indication of the financial stringen- 
cies affecting these families. For all of the rest the $oO 
charge has been waived by the Miami area school authori- 
ties. A preliminary sampling indicates that perhaps 200 
of these pupils are living under conditions such that they 
do not have either 35 cents to buy a school lunch or the 
food at home to pack a lunch. Lunches for them have 
been furnished free by the Dade County school system. 
The school oflScials believe that in these cases there is 
probably also a lack of proper nourishment at home. 
Miami area public school principals have reported en- 
thusiastically about the ability and conduct of the Culian 
pupils. 

An additional 3,000 pupils have been taken into the 
parochial schools — a very heavy load for them to carry. 

On October 26 last, the City Manager of Miami "made 
the determination that an emergency situation exists," and 
that "this problem is caused by displaced people from 
Cuba." 

Measures Already Taken To Help 

It has been possible so far to care for the great influx 
of Cuban refugees in large part because of the remark- 
able generosity of the 50.000 or more Cub.TUs who are 
permanent residents of the Miami area. These Cubans 
have taken many of the refugees into their homes and 
provided for them in some way, even at great personal 
sacrifice. 

However, this inspiring exhibition of humanity, by 
cushioning the situation, has itself tended to mask the 
extent and seriousness of it. 

Of course the permanent resident Cubans are far from 
being alone in inspiring efforts to help these troubled 
people. As mentioned, there have been the emergency 
programs of Miami public and parochial schools. 

An outstanding program has been set up by the Most 
Reverend Coleman F. Carroll, Bishop of the Catholic 
Diocese of Miami, and a dedicated group under him. 
This has been carried on, not only through the parochial 
schools as mentioned, but principally through the "Cen- 
tre Hispano Catolico." Half of a large school building 
was converted many months ago into an excellent refugee 
center. It has literally poured out mercy to thousands, 
but its resources — physical and financial — are now over- 
taxed. Also it has lacked funds for the essential step 
of re.settling these refugees in other areas where they 
can get jobs and make now homes. 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



steps Needed and Now Being Taken 

A most iiuportaut part of any solution of these condi- 
tions must be to relocate and find jobs elsewhere for as 
large a number of Cuban refugees as possible. This is 
urgently necessary, both to relieve the pressures in Miami 
and to enable these self-respecting i)eople again to be- 
come self-supporting. 

While the U.S. Immigration Service knows the num- 
ber of Cubans in this country, both on an immigrant and 
non-immigrant status, reliable figures are not yet avail- 
able as to how extensive the hardship situations among 
them are. There are of course many reports of severe 
individual hardship eases. To determine reliably the ac- 
tual extent of such conditions requires new machinery 
to obtain a large amount of statistical data very promptly. 
This is now underway. 

Using as a nucleus the Cuban Refugee Emergency 
Employment Center, which, through Governor LeRoy 
Collins' initiative, was set up in Miami several weeks 
ago, additional space in the same building — a former 
school — has been made available by Mr. O. W. Campbell, 
the Dade County Manager, to an extent adequate for a 
multi-purpose Cuban Refugee Emergency Center. This 
is being conducted on a temporary, austere and flexible 
basis to serve immediate needs, but one cannot escape the 
feeling that something like this may be required for some 
time to come. 

The purposes of this Center are to provide a focal 
point for the immediate resettlement and welfare efforts 
of national and local agencies and to obtain the firm in- 
formation required to determine whether a longer range 
effort is necessary. The address of the Cuban Refugee 
Emergency Center is 223 N.W. Third Avenue, Miami 36, 
Florida. 

The Ford Motor Company has made available Mr. Leo 
C. Beebe, who, four years ago was Vice Chairman, at 
Camp Kilmer, of the President's Committee for Hungar- 
ian Refugee Relief, and Mr. Charles Pink, Mr. Beebe's 
deputy at Kilmer. They are on the job, and their work 
with the Hungarians has given them experience of the 
greatest value in the present situation. 

The International Business Machines Corporation im- 
mediately made available expert assistance — as it had 
done in setting up our classification machinery at Camp 
Kilmer. A comprehensive questionnaire for use in inter- 
viewing these refugees has been developed, which is ac- 
ceptable to all interested U. S. Departments and Agencies 
as well as to the private and public agencies active in the 
Miami area. 

The Center's work has been fully coordinated with that 
of the Centro Hispano Catolico, above mentioned, and 
with the program of the International Rescue Committee 
(I.R.C.). 

Under Mr. Nicholas Biddle, head of its Caribbean Divi- 
sion, the IRC had, in addition to its work for Cuban 
refugees in New York, organized actively in Miami. It 
has now moved its local operations from other offices in 
Miami to the new Center. 

The United HIAS at the initiative of Mr. James P. 
Bice has already started work in the Center and other 
resettlement agencies are in the process of doing so. 

January 9, 7 96 J 



As part of the Center project, a survey has been made 
of the minimal medical services requisite. Arrangements 
to furnish these promptly are being made. 

The National Catholic Welfare Conference is going to 
provide at the Cuban Refugee Emergency Center addi- 
tional warm clothing as necessary for all refugees being 
resettled. 

The American National Red Cross is preparing to sup- 
ply all refugees coming to the Center with a kit of toilet 
articles as it did for the Hungarians. 

Surveys of educational problems also have been or 
are being made, both as to those refugees of university 
age and caliber, and those in the primary and secondary 
age groups. 

The use of U.S. owned surplus footls to help to the 
full extent feasible in this situation is being studied. 

The Center will, I hope, by about January 15 develop 
enough solid information concerning the entire situation, 
and especially the extent of hardship, upon which to 
base a u.seful report with recommendations. If this con- 
firms the general opinion that the problem is extensive 
and of a continuing nature, the report will contain rec- 
ommendations for the organization, and other steps 
requi.site to meet it. In any case it should give reliable 
information about the situation. 

The Mutual Security Program fluids which you pro- 
vided are so far being used for two purposes. These 
are basically the same as those for which we utilized 
similar funds for the Hungarian refugees : — 

The first is to assure reimbursement to the religious 
and other resettlement agencies for costs of transpor- 
tation of Cuban refugees from Miami to points at which 
jobs can be obtained for them and for reasonable inci- 
dental resettlement expenses. This is absolutely essen- 
tial if we are to bring about any adequate degree of re- 
settlement, relieve congested conditions in the Miami 
area and help the refugees to become self-supporting. 

The second purpose is to meet the expenses of the 
Cuban Refugee Emergency Center above mentioned. 
Its work is vital to a full understanding and a start 
toward solution of the problem, as well as in reliev- 
ing immediate distress. Its functions are of course on 
a much smaller scale than was the case at Canip Kil- 
mer, and will not include bed, board or hospitalization 
facilities. 

If it should prove necessary, beyond what private 
charity can do, such Mutual Security funds will also be 
utilized for assistance to Cuban refugee children in 
extreme need. 

The Cuban Refugee Committee of Miami, which joined 
with Governor LeRoy Collins in the original appeal to 
you for help, is continuing in existence at my request 
in a general advisory capacity. This Committee is com- 
posed of leading citizens representative of important 
civic and professional groups. It was spontaneously 
organized to secure some solution of this grave 
problem in Miami. 

The American Council of Volimtary Agencies for For- 
eign Service, under the Chairmanship of Bishop Edward 
E. Swanstrom — who also heads the National Catholic 
Welfare Conference (NCWC) — has agreed to assist in 



47 



mobilizing the religious and other agencies experienced in 
resettlement of refugees which did the herculean job of 
resettling the Hungarian refugees. My function is to be 
of such temporary assistance to these private agencies as 
is possible while they do the job for which they are so 
uniquely fitted, and to which they are so dedicated. 

Under the leadership of Mr. James MacOracken of the 
Church World Service and Dr. John H. Haldeman of the 
Greater Miami Council of Churches, the Protestant 
churches in the Miami area and the national Protestant 
welfare and resettlement agencies are coordinating their 
efforts and organizing their resources to assist in the 
work of the Cuban Refugee Emergency Center. 

It has been my hope that spontaneous corporate and 
other private charitable help will be sufficient to supple- 
ment that already being given by the resident Cuban com- 
munity and others to relieve hardship cases. To this end, 
generous gifts have recently been made, among others, 
by the Rockefeller Foundation, the TEXACO Company, 
and by His Eminence Francis Cardinal Spellman. 

Vigorous campaigns for funds are underway by the 
International Rescue Committee, and by the AMVETS 
under the personal direction of National Commander 
Harold Russell. 

The United States Committee for Refugees, headed by 
Mr. Maxwell M. Rabb, has undertaken to assist nationally 
with efforts to bring about a more adequate public under- 
standing of the need for helping the Cuban refugees, 
especially in securing jobs for them ; also to make for me 
a survey of the Cuban refugee problem in cities other 
than Miami ; and to assist us in other ways. 

A Cooperative Effort 

My studies and activities throughout have been con- 
ducted in the closest cooperation with Governor LeRoy 
Collins of Florida and his immediate staff ; the Florida 
State Industrial Commission ; Mayor Robert King High 
of Miami and City Manager Merviu Reese; the Dade 
County authorities, represented by Mr. O. W. Campbell, 
County Manager; Bishop Carroll of the Catholic Diocese 
of Miami ; and with the Cuban Refugee Committee of 
Miami above mentioned. 

At the appropriate time, I plan to seek an appoint- 
ment with the incoming Governor of Florida, the Hon- 
orable Ferris Bryant, to seek his help in continuing 
present cooperative working relationships. In the mean- 
time I am keeping him fully informed. 

Also, I of course promptly made contact with Senator 
Spessard L. Holland, Senator George Smathers and Con- 
gressman Dante B. Fascell of the Fourth Florida Dis- 
trict, in i)erson or through their staffs. I have kept them 
informed and asked for their advice. 

From the above officials and groups, and many others, 
I have throughout received the utmost in helpfulness. 
The steps recently taken, as herein reported, have there- 
fore been coojierative joint efforts, rather than anything 
I have been able to do personally. 

Because your authorization to me to act in this situa- 
tion makes me the representative of the President of the 



United States, I have, of course, not used such position 
for any fund-raising punioses. However, as the situa- 
tion is better understood, I am in hopes that spontaneous 
expressions of .sympathy through tangible action by cor- 
porations, by foundations, by other organizations and 
individuals will be even more extensive. In crises such 
as this, non-governmental contributions supply an indis- 
pensable resource for which government funds are no 
substitute. 

An equally important role which the U.S. public can 
play is active help to the resettlement agencies in pro- 
viding jobs and homes in various parts of the country 
for these refugees, as the American people did so gen- 
erously for the Hungarians. The resettlement agencies 
will soon be requesting help in this task. 

From the beginning of my work, former President 
Herbert Hoover has generously acted as my adviser. I 
have maintained close and frequent contact with him. 
His unparalleled experience and wisdom in refugee and 
relief matters are the best assurance I can give to you 
of sound action and recommendations. 

Need for National Understanding and Help 

The groundwork for a coordinated effort has now been 
laid. The time has come when it is important for the 
American people to realize the problem and the need for 
action — as they did in the case of the Hungarian refu- 
gees. For the entirely understandable reasons stated, our 
people have not yet realized this new situation and the 
opportunity it gives to prove in action the true humani- 
tarian spirit of America. When this new challenge is 
better understood, I am sure that the United States will 
show its traditional heartwarming sympathy by effective 
action for the Cuban refugees, as it did so magnificently 
for the Hungarians four years ago. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Tract S. Voorhees 

The White House, 
Washington 25, B.C. 
December 19, 1960. 



President Salutes Memory 
of Brazil's World War 11 Dead 

The White House on Decemher 22 made public 
the foU owing message from President Eisenhower 
to Juscelino Kuhitschek, President of Brazil. 

White House press release dated December 22 

December 22, 1960 
Dear Mr. President : The memorial ceremonies 
which are being held today in lionor of the 
Brazilians who gave their lives in the Second 
World War have a special significance for me 
personally and for the peoi^le of my coimtry. As 



48 



Department of State Bulletin 



wartime Commander of the Allied Forces, I had 
personal knowledge of Brazilian courage on the 
field of battle, where members of the armed forces 
of the United States of Brazil and of the United 
States of America, allied in the struggle against 
totalitarianism, fought and died together. I am 
convinced that the spirit of common endeavor, 
whicli characterized our relations then, still 
permeates them today. 

Now we are partners in a common struggle to 
develop and strengthen our free institutions, to 
make the benefits of our growing economies 
available to all our citizens, and to find ways to 
further understanding among all nations. On be- 
half of myself and the people of the United States, 
I salute the memory of your coimtrymen who, in 
time of war, made the ultimate sacrifice. Remem- 
bering their courage, we can continue to work to- 
gether in time of peace for the high purposes they 
so gallantly defended. 

With warm regard, 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Immigration Quota Established 
for Mauritania 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202(a) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, each independent coun- 
try, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and 
territory under the International trusteeship system of the 
United Nations, other than independent countries of 
North, Central, and South America, is entitled to be 
treated as a separate quota area when approved by the 
Secretary of State ; and 

"Whereas under the provisions of section 201(b) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act, the Secretary of 
State, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney 
General, jointly, are required to determine the annual 
quota of any quota area established pursuant to the 
provisions of section 201(a) of the said Act, and to report 
to the President the quota of each quota area so deter- 
mined; and 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202(e) of the 
said Act, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General, jointly, are required to 
revise the quotas, whenever necessary, to provide for any 
political changes requiring a change in the list of quota 
areas ; and 

Whereas the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, a former 



Autonomous Republic within the French Community, be- 
came independent on November 28, 1960 ; and 

Whereas the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General have jointly determined 
and reported to me the immigration quota hereinafter 
set forth : 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the aforesaid Act 
of Congress, do hereby proclaim and make known that 
the annual quota of the quota area hereinafter desig- 
nated has been determined in accordance with the law to 
be, and shall be, as follows : 

Quota Area Quota 
Mauritania lOO 

The establishment of an immigration quota for any 
quota area is solely for the purpose of compliance with 
the pertinent provisions of the Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act and is not to be considered as having any signifi- 
cance extraneous to such purpose. 

Proclamation No. 3298 of June 3, 1959, entitled "Immi- 
gration Quotas,"" is amended by the addition of the 
immigration quota established by this proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America to 
be afiixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-first day 

of December in the year of our Lord nineteen 

[seal] hundred and sixty and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 

and eighty-fifth. 



^_J (.Jl.9-^ C-^Z-JC^-K.C^ At^<J-^ 



By the President : 
Christian A. Hebteb, 
Secretary of State. 



United States and Iran Discuss 
Aid Programs 

Following is the text of a joint statement re- 
leased simultaneously on December 2^ at Wash- 
ington and Tehran. 

Press release 707 dated December 24 

In the spirit of the close and friendly ties that 
exist between the United States and Iran, Mr. 
Khosro Hedayat, the Deputy Prime Minister of 
Iran, recently visited Washington to discuss 
various aspects of Iran's economic development 
program. During the course of his visit, Mr. 



" No. 3384 ; 25 Fed. Reg. 13681. 
January 9, 7967 



'For text, see Bulletin of July 6, 1959, p. 19. 



49 



Hedayat and his party, which included Ahmad 
Majidian, Governor of the Bank Melli; Eeza 
Moqadam, Deputy Governor of the Central Bank 
of Iran ; and Cyprus Samii of the Plan Organiza- 
tion, met with Assistant Secretary of State Edwin 
Martin; Mr. Vance Brand, Managing Director, 
Development Loan Fund; and high officials of 
the Export-Import Bank and the International 
Cooperation Administration. 

At the conclusion of his visit, Mr. Hedayat ex- 
pressed deep appreciation of the understanding 
and cooperation he had received from the United 
States Government, which he regarded as a fur- 
ther expression of the great interest the United 
States has in the future of the Iranian people. He 
was particularly pleased that a loan agreement 
was concluded with the Development Loan Fund 
for $26.2 million which will be used to finance an 
important portion of Iran's new road network 
linking the Persian Gulf with the Caspian Sea. 
He was also gratified that the Export-Import 
Bank has authorized a loan agreement for $15 
million, to be signed shortly in Tehran, which will 
be used to finance the purchase of United States 
goods which are essential to Iran's economic de- 
velopment. During the course of his visit, 
mutually satisfactory arrangements were also 
made with the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration for the utilization of other funds the 
United States Government is making available to 
Iran. 

The United States Government and the Im- 
perial Government of Iran are confident that this 
assistance will contribute to further improvement 
in the standard of living of the Iranian people 
and will help Iran to fulfill its important role in 
the community of free nations. 



Lebanon To Receive 15,000 Tons 
of Wheat for Drought Relief 

Press release 704 dated December 23 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 23 the grant of 15,000 tons of wheat to 
Lebanon to relieve a grain shortage caused by 
drought. 

The grain, which will be supplied to Lebanon by 
the U.S. International Cooperation Administra- 
tion under provisions of title II of the Agricul- 



tural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(P.L. 480), will be distributed free of charge to 
needy persons by the Lebanese Government. 

Arrangements are now being made to ship the 
grain to Lebanon in the earliest possible time. 

Transfer of the grain to the Government of 
Lebanon was formally agreed upon in a cere- 
mony on December 23 attended by the Lebanese 
Ambassador to the United States, Nadim Dimech- 
kie, and officials of the ICA and U.S. Depart- 
ment of State. 



Steps Taken To Modify Concessions 
on Bicycles and Spring Clothespins 

Press release 705 dated December 23 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 23 that steps were being taken under the pro- 
cedures of the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade to withdraw or modify the trade agreement 
concessions which the United States has granted 
on bicycles and spring clothespins. 

This action is being taken as a consequence of 
the action of the Supreme Court on December 12 
in refusing to hear the Government's appeal in 
the case of United States v. Schmidt Pritchard 
and Company. In this case one of the rates in 
the President's Proclamation 3108 ^ concerning 
bicycles was invalidated, and doubt was cast upon 
the validity of the other three rates in that proc- 
lamation and upon the rates in Proclamation 
3211 ^ concerning spring clothespins. The Presi- 
dent has indicated that it is his intention to give 
consideration to entering into trade agreements 
with certain foreign countries in order to assure 
the application of the rates provided for in Proc- 
lamations 3108 and 3211. 

Public notice of this action was given in the 
Federal Register on December 22, 1960.^ The 
Tariff Commission has set January 7, 1961, as the 
date for public hearings in connection with the 
so-called peril-point investigations which it must 
conduct with respect to these articles. 



' For text, see Buxletin of Sept. .5, 1955, p. 400. 
"- For text, see iM6., Dec. 16, 1957, p. 959. 
' 25 Fed. Reg. 13248. 



50 



Department of State Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Security Council Debate on Congo Results in 92d Soviet Veto 



The Security Council was convened on De- 
cember 7 at the request of the Soviet Union to 
consider urgent measures in connection with the 
latest events in the Congo. Following are state- 
ments made hy U.S. Representatives James J. 
Wadsworth aivd James W. Barco, together with 
the text of a four-fower draft resolution which 
loas vetoed iy the Soviet Union on Deceniber H. 

STATEMENT BY MR. WADSWORTH, DECEMBER 9 

U.S. delegation press release 3609 

It has been my hope that the present Security 
Council discussion of the Congo situation could 
be made to serve the useful purpose of promoting 
peace and security in the Congo and the establish- 
ment of conditions there which will advance the 
welfare of the Congolese people. These are the 
objectives of the United Nations, and they are 
the objectives of the United States Government 
as well. 

However, it is the Soviet Union that has re- 
quested these meetmgs of the Security Council, 
and I sincerely regret to say that the Soviet rep- 
resentative [Valerian A. Zorin] has made it clear 
that he does not have constructive purposes in 
view. Under a mask of humanitarian concern 
he is again proposing the Soviet pattern for 
chaos in the Congo leading to Soviet domina- 
tion. This Council has during the past few 
months overwhelmingly rejected such proposals 
on previous occasions, and so has the General 
Assembly.^ 

The Soviet Union has persistently pursued its 
efforts to gain control in the Congo. Over and 
over again they have made proposals in the 



^ For background, see Bulletin of Aug. 1, 1960, p. 159 ; 
Aug. 8, 1960, p. 221; Sept. 5, 1960, p. 384; Oct. 3, 1960, 
p. 527 ; and Oct. 10, 1960, p. 583. 



United Nations designed to weaken the forces for 
stability in the Congo. They have taken other 
steps, some open, some clandestine, to this same 
end. 

Soviet Charges U.S. "Plot" 

On the basis, presumably, that the best defense 
is to attack, Mr. Zorin has ci-ied "Plot." He 
claims that the United States is skillfully 
manipulating events in some vast plot in the 
Congo. 

He accuses the United States Embassy in 
Leopoldville, in particular, of "masterminding 
gangster activities in the Congo." I find this is 
a strange but perhaps understandable allegation 
to come from the gentleman who was Soviet 
Ambassador in Prague in 1948 when the Soviet- 
directed coup was pei-petrated against the 
democratic government of Czechoslovakia. 

But if we are to believe the Soviet representa- 
tive, what then were the steps involved in the 
American conspiracy, the great plot in the 
Congo? A series of totally incredible and fan- 
tastic events must have taken place. First, the 
United States must have pei-suaded the Belgians 
to grant independence to the Congo. Then the 
Soviet thesis would have it to be that the United 
States must have persuaded the Congolese to 
rebel against the Belgians. And, presmnably, the 
United States, in tliis Soviet fantasy, would then 
have immediately reversed its course and inspired 
the Belgians to send in military forces to put 
down the Congolese rebellion. While it was 
'doing this, we must then have persuaded the 
Congolese to request direct military assistance 
from the United States, which the United States 
then immediately rejected in favor of channeling 
all aid through the United Nations. As part of 
this deep, dark conspiracy, as part of this plot, 
apparently, the United States would then have 



January 9, 1961 



51 



had to agree to its own exclusion from the United 
Nations forces — which, of course, it did, not as 
part of a plot — and then the United States would 
publicly support total withdrawal of the Belgians 
instead of using the veto in the Security Council 
to prevent it. Instead of introducing its own 
forces in the Congo, the United States brought in 
by a mammoth air and sea operation more than 
15,000 members of the United Nations forces 
presently in the Congo. And all of this, accord- 
ing to the Soviet Union and its friends, was part 
of a vast conspiracy designed to reimpose colo- 
nialism on the Kepublic of the Congo. 

Perhaps the U.S.S.E. believes this. Perhaps 
they believe that this constitutes evidence of 
United States imperialism in the Congo. But 
any country able to exercise independent judg- 
ment will reject it as absurd. If the Soviet Union 
really expects the other members of the Council 
and of the United Nations to believe these fan- 
tastic charges about United States plotting, it 
shows a most flagrant contempt for the 
intelligence of United Nations members. 

We well understand the Soviet attacks upon 
the United States. They are about as trust- 
worthy as the Soviet claim which was made on 
the day the Security Council first took up this 
problem, and there it was stated as gospel that the 
15th United States Infantry and the 24th In- 
fantry Division were about to go to the Congo. 
Just about as trustworthy as other charges that 
are made about the imminence of immediate 
military invasion of small countries. 

We understand, of course, vei-y well the pur- 
poses behind the present efforts to undermine the 
authority of the Chief of State, President [Joseph] 
Kasavubu, and to force upon the Congolese people 
other leaders more amenable to Soviet purposes. 
We undei-stand very well, indeed, the purpose 
behind the proposal to disarm the Congolese 
National Army. We understand in the same 
context why it is that the Soviet Union continues 
its personal, vitriolic attacks upon the Secretai^- 
General, upon the office of the Secretary-General, 
upon the United Nations Command, and upon 
the United Nations operations there. I think it 
should be underlined that the United States has 
not the slightest intention of giving way to this 
kind of pressure. We think that the Security 
Council of the United Nations and the General 
Assembly have made their positions equally clear. 



52 



The essential facts in the present situation are 
straightforward. And this is without any refer- 
ence whatever to differences of opinion, which 
are, of course, possible, and differences of inter- 
pretation, which are sometimes completely sincere. 
President Kasavubu is, without doubt, the Chief 
of State of the Kepublic of the Congo. The 
United Nations General Assembly has recently 
accepted his credentials and those of the delega- 
tion named by him.^ As for the status of Mr. 
[Patrice] Lumumba in the political system of the 
Republic of the Congo, this is a matter which can 
only be dealt with by the Congolese Government 
and the people themselves. It is a problem of 
internal Congolese jurisdiction and not one for 
the Security Council or the General Assembly to 
judge, to choose between sides in an internal con- 
flict and interfere in the internal affairs of a 
sovereign state member of the United Nations. 

U.S. Position 

However, since this question has been raised 
again in the Security Council, I will once again 
make our view quite clear. We accept fully 
the position of President Kasavubu that Mr. 
Lumumba was legally removed from his former 
office in accordance with the procedures stipulated 
in the basic constitutional instrument of the 
Republic of the Congo. There is no question as 
to the right of the Congolese authorities to place 
Mr. Lumumba under arrest. It is the evident 
judgment of these authorities that the activities 
of Mr. Lumumba have constituted a threat to the 
security of the state. A warrant for his arrest 
was signed by the President of the Republic and 
has been outstanding for some time. He was 
apprehended in the process of fleeing to Stanley- 
ville. It was widely understood throughout the 
world that had he reached Stanleyville he would 
have attempted either to establish a separatist 
regime or to seek to usurp power in the Congo in 
opposition to the Chief of State. The Soviet 
Union's anger in calling this meeting is explain- 
able simply because this plan, which they sup- 
ported, did not succeed. 

There could be no question, however — and the 
United States feels strongly about this — that Mr. 
Lumumba is entitled to humane and equitable 
treatment. In this connection we welcomed the 



= Ibid., Dee. 12, 1960, p. 904. 

Department of State Bulletin 



statement last night by the representative of the 
Kepublic of the Congo (Leopoldville) [Mario 
Cardoso] in which he read to us a portion of 
President Kasavubii's letter dated 7 December 
1960 to the Secretary-General.'' In this letter the 
President made absolutely clear his acceptance of 
the obligations of our charter and his dedication 
to the task of restoring a reign of justice anti 
respect for human rights in the Eepublic of the 
Congo. 

I believe it to be ratlier widely known, though 
perhaps not officially, that on December 4 
the United States Government instructed the 
American Ambassador at Leopoldville to inform 
President Kasavubu and Colonel [Joseph] 
Mobutu that the United States Government hoped 
that former Prime Minister Lumumba would be 
afforded humane treatment, including regular 
visits by a physician from the International Red 
Cross, and that he would be given a fair trial. 

On a parallel basis, the United States Gov- 
ernment also thinks that the Red Cross 
representatives should visit other places in the 
Congo. 

We now have a disturbing report from the 
Secretary-General's special representative in 
the Congo [Rajeshwar Dayal] regarding the 
current activities and the current situation in 
Stanleyville. This is document A/4590. We be- 
lieve that effective, vigorous action is required by 
the United Nations Force to prevent widespread 
loss of life and brutalities in Orientale Province. 
This situation appears to be an extension or a 
worsening of the problem referred to by the 
Secretary-General in his letter of December 5 to 
President Kasavubu, produced in document 
S/4571, in the following words: 

In making various eflforts to use its good offices for the 
freeing from illegal detention of Mr. [Alphonse] Songolo 
and other parliamentarians, to our great regret still held 
in Stanleyville, the United Nations has suggested that the 
International Red Cross be asked to examine the detained 
persons and their places and conditions of detention and 
otherwise to obtain the necessary assurances for their 
safety. 

I might add that our information is that 
Minister Songolo and other members of Parlia- 
ment have been illegally detained by Lumumba 
supporters in Stanleyville for over a month and 
that Mr. Songolo was so badly beaten that he has 



' U.N. doc. S/4571/ Add. 1. 
January 9, J 96 J 



lost the sight of one eye and may lose the sight 
of another as a result of his continued denial of 
proper medical treatment. Any Red Cross rep- 
resentatives sent to the Congo should clearly visit 
these Senators and Deputies illegally held in 
Stanleyville. 

While we do not believe that it is appropriate 
for us to seek to interpret Congolese law, we have 
every expectation that due process of law will be 
observed in the handling of the case of Mr. 
Lumimiba. In Stanleyville it is unfortunately 
evident that dissident elements have prevented the 
application of proper legal procedures and that 
arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and gross 
mistreatment is the common, everyday practice. 

U. N. Objective in Congo 

If the Security Council can deal with the prob- 
lem of law and order in the Congo as a matter of 
general concern and broad importance, a useful 
purpose can be served by these discussions. The 
objective of the United Nations, which we should 
endorse and which we should seek to advance, is 
the establishment of conditions in the Congo 
which will promote law and order and the gen- 
eral observance of fundamental human rights. 
In the view of the United States, this purpose 
could be very significantly advanced if all mem- 
bers of the United Nations — and I repeat, all 
memiers — ^would give full support and recogni- 
tion to what has been characterized as one of the 
only two standing institutions in the Congo, the 
office of the President, Mr. Kasavubu, and give 
full support to his efforts to restore law and 
order throughout the Congo. This would rein- 
force United Nations efforts in the Congo and 
hasten the day when the United Nations can give 
its primary attention to the positive task of re- 
vitalizing the Congolese economy and improving 
the conditions of life of the Congolese people. 

This is what urgently needs to be done — not to 
destroy the United Nations action through as- 
saulting the Secretary-General or the United 
Nations command nor to seek to erode the 
strength of the command itself. 

The Soviet Union has not sought this meeting 
out of any desire for the United Nations to suc- 
ceed in the Congo. It has sought it to try once 
again to destroy the United Nations effort and the 
office of the Secretary-General with it. In the 
jargon of the U.S.S.R., the President of the Congo 



53 



is a "traitor" and tlie Secretary-General a 
"lackey," and so on it goes. The motives back of 
such charges are reprehensible. These accusa- 
tions are self-serving, and, as far as we are 
concerned, they are unworthy of serious 
consideration. 

The United States shares the views of the 
Secretary-General when he said here yesterday: 

I believe, and many believe with me, that this Organiza- 
tion in all its frailty represents the sole approach which 
may give us a chance to reduce the risk that the constant 
frictions — large and small — which characterize the life of 
our present-day world, build up to a tension easily 
triggered into a clash in which we would all be engulfed. 
I also believe that it is essential for the growth of a 
human society in which the dignity of the human being 
will be respected that every effort is made to make this 
^tep in the direction of an organized world community a 
success. 

Now, Mr. President, in spite of recriminations, 
charges, countercharges, and all the rest of the 
tensions that have been created by your having 
brought this subject before the Security Council 
at this time, we still hope that something good 
may come of the travail through which the infant 
state of the Congo (Leopoldville) is now passing. 

For our part, we will continue to give full sup- 
port to efforts through the United Nations — let 
me reemphasize that, through the United Nations, 
not outside the United Nations — to promote sta- 
bility and progress in that unhappy land. I ask 
the representative of the Soviet Union to reflect 
soberly on the heavy responsibility which must be 
borne by any who seek to thwart these efforts and 
who must pursue unilateral policies jeopardizing 
the interests of the Congolese people and the 
peace of the world. 

We have had and we will have more before this 
debate is over of emotional appeals, of juridical 
appeal, of various other appeals calculated to 
sway the opinions of the members of this body 
and of the rest of the United Nations. I person- 
ally believe, in utmost sincerity, that we must 
think not of our own prestige, not of any quarrel 
between ideologies East or West, not necessarily 
even as to who or what group or what interested 
party within the Congo should or should not be 
in the ascendancy, but that we should tliink of tlie 
Congolese people and we should remember that 
the more difficulty we make for them, the more 
easy we make it for Congolese to kill other 
Congolese. And this is something that the 



United Nations is obviously not set up to do. We 
should remember our obligations under the char- 
ter. We should work first, last, and always for 
the Congolese people in this regard. 



STATEMENT BY MR. BARCO, DECEMBER 14 

U.S. delegation press release 3617 

I liad hoped that it would be unnecessary for 
me to speak, as I had explained earlier this 
evening. I find now that it is necessary. It is 
necessary because the record has been so distorted 
and certain speakers in this debate have made 
statements approaching dishonesty to such an 
extent that I cannot allow sucli a record to go 
uncorrected. 

It is one tiling to hear distortions relating to 
the viewpoint of a certain delegation with respect 
to tlie policy of another delegation or of another 
country. This is often lieard in the Security 
Council. But I find it extremely distm-bing to 
liear statements made here concerning positions 
taken in the Security Council during the course 
of the debate which are complete distortions of 
what has been said. I will return to tliat in a 
moment. 

I feel also that I should speak about the state- 
ment you made, Mr. President [Mr. Zorin], this 
evening and to make one or two comments on it. 

It is impossible, it seems to me, to be shocked 
any longer by statements of the representative of 
the Soviet Union. But if it were, the speech we 
heard tonight woidd shock all those interested in 
the success of the United Nations effort in the 
Congo, which should mean all around this table. 

The representative of the Soviet Union tonight 
readied his zenith of distortions, hypocrisy, and 
prevarication. If he thinks, as he said at one 
point, that one should not take offense at his re- 
marks, he is very much mistaken. We, for our 
part, cannot fail to take offense on behalf of the 
loyal members of the United Nations Secretariat 
who liave been so viciously attacked by the repre- 
sentative of the Soviet Union. The United States 
members of the Secretariat, whether engaged in 
the arduous duties that have befallen them in the 
Congo or elsewhere, are international civil serv- 
ants. Perhaps the representative of the Soviet 
Union does not know what an international civil 
servant is. An international civil servant is not 



54 



Department of State Bulletin 



•controlled by the country of his origin, is not a 
;spy on his country's behalf, is not a frovocateur, 
is not a saboteur. 

The record of the Soviet Union's nationals in 
the Secretariat is known to all. The Soviet Union 
is, to my knowledge, the only country among the 
■entire United Nations membership whose nationals 
have been apprehended engaging in espionage on 
behalf of the Soviet Union while employed by the 
United Nations. 

I need not speak of the devotion to the ideals of 
the United Nations that has characterized those 
Americans who serve the United Nations and who 
are so well known to all of us here. Mr. Zorin has 
singled some of them for his abuse. Toniglit he 
also impugned the general dealing with communi- 
cations in the Congo, and I assume he meant 
General Wheeler, who made such a great contribu- 
tion to the clearing of the Suez Canal in 1956-57. 
This is something that others around this table 
should take offense at besides me. 

It should not be necessary, but let me say again 
that the United States has no control over our 
citizens who work for the United Nations in the 
Congo or elsewhere. 

We do not try to exei'cise any control over them. 
We do not want to exercise any control over them, 
and others besides me can bear witness on this fact. 
We want our citizens who work for the United 
Nations to work for the United Nations, not for 
the United States. 

"Wlien the Soviet Union takes the same attitude 
toward its own citizens, we can begin to hope for 
a better world. 

But tonight Mr. Zorin's attack on the Secre- 
tariat in the Congo is of a piece with the Soviet 
Union's attitude toward the United Nations as a 
whole, toward the Congo, and toward any troubled 
area in the world. By such statements as he 
made tonight the Soviet representative reveals 
the real motives of the Soviet Union. These are 
to wreck the United Nations, to niin the Congo, 
to plmige Africa into chaos, and to rule supreme. 

The difference between the attitude of the Soviet 
Union and most of the other membere of the 
Council and the United Nations is that the Soviet 
Union wants the United Nations to fail, while 
the others want it to succeed. The Soviet Union 
wants to make the Congo a cockpit of the cold 
war, and possibly a hot one, while others do not. 
The Soviet Union wants to destroy the office of the 



Secretary-General, while others want it to grow 
and become more influential. The Soviet Union 
is trying to bankrupt the United Nations, while 
others want the Organization to be sound and 
healthy. 

Between such irreconcilable goals there is no 
ground for sacrifice of principle. And for our 
part the United States will continue to give its 
support to the United Nations, to United Nations 
action in the Congo, and to the Secretary-General 
and the Secretariat for their services, to the princi- 
ples and puiposes of the United Nations. 

Tlie representative of Poland asked what kind 
of solution the United States wanted, and I have 
just said what kind of solution we want, but I 
will make it more explicit. We want a solution 
which does not include interference from the out- 
side with the integrity of the Congo. We want 
a solution which leads to the well-being of the 
Congolese people. We want a solution which the 
United Nations can be proud of. We do not want 
interference from the Soviet Union, from our- 
selves, or from other African countries. We want 
to help. We dont believe that the Soviet Union 
does. 

Now, I spoke of the fact that there had been 
statements made here which approached dis- 
honesty. Two membei-s of the Security Council 
attempted to impute to a majority of the Council 
a desire to see the release of Mr. Lumumba. That 
was not the desire of the majority of the members 
of the Council. The vote on the resolution pro- 
posed by the representative of Poland * makes 
that very clear. But I am disturbed that this 
attempt to distort what the members of the Coun- 
cil had said has been made here. Certainly 
othei-s besides the United States felt that the 
arrest of Mr. Lumumba is a matter for the Congo- 
lese authorities, which they have a right to do. 
That position was very clear. It could not have 
been clearer before the proposal of the representa- 
tive of Poland. It is equally clear since the 
representative of Poland made his statement and 
his resolution was rejected. 

As for the United States, Mr. Wadsworth, 
speaking for the United States on the 9th of 
December, said : 

There is no question as to the right of the Congolese 
authorities to place Mr. Lumumba under arrest. It is 



*U.N. doc. S/4598; rejected by the Ouneil on Dec. 14 
(a.m.) by a vote of 3 to 6, with 2 abstentions. 



January 9, J 96 J 



55 



the evident judgment of these authorities that the activi- 
ties of Mr. Lumumba have constituted a threat to the 
security of the state. 

I believe that this attempt to make the majority 
of the Coimcil appear to have another view is a 
very serious thing and much to be regretted. 

Now I come to my last point. The representa- 
tive of Guinea has referred to the last paragraph 
of the draft resolution submitted by the Soviet 
Union in document S/4579 and the fact that this 
resolution was rejected.' I call the attention of 
the representative of Guinea and the members of 
the Council to the fact that the wording of this 
resolution is, in the first place, a distortion of 
what has taken place in the United Nations, and 
it is very clear that it is such a distortion. 

This paragraph in the Soviet representative's 
draft resolution would call upon the Government 
of Belgium — and note these words — "in accord- 
ance with the decision of the United Nations Se- 
curity Council and the special emergency session 
of the United Nations General Assembly, im- 
mediately to withdraw Belgian military, para- 
military and civil personnel from the Congo." 

No resolution of the Security Council or the 
special emergency session of the United Nations 
General Assembly called upon the Government of 
Belgivmi to withdraw their civil personnel from 
the Congo. Any attempt to make this appear to 
be the case is, to say the least, a distortion. I 
think that the practice of imputing such distor- 
tions is one which the Council must take very 
seriously if the Council is to do useful business for 
peace and to uphold the United Nations principles. 

I have not spoken at this length to keep the 
members of the Council here at 3 : 20 in the morn- 
ing out of any desire to inflict anything upon them. 
These are serious matters, and they are not mat- 
ters which I can allow to go unnoted. 

FOUR-POWER DRAFT RESOLUTION « 

The Security Council, 

Having considered the item on its agenda, 

Deeply concerned at the continuation of unsettled con- 



" The Soviet draft resolution was rejected by the Coun- 
cil on Dec. 14 (a.m.) by a vote of 2 to 8, with 1 abstention. 

' U.N. doc. S/4,'j78/Rev. 1 ; not adopted, owing to the 
negative vote of a permanent member of the Council 
(U.S.S.R.). The vote on Dec. 14 (a.m.) was 7 to 3 (Cey- 
lon, Poland, U.S.S.R.), with 1 abstention (Tunisia). 



ditions in various parts of the Republic of the Congo, 
which has led to acts of violence against persons of 
both Congolese and non-Congolese nationality, including 
United Nations personnel. 

Bearing in mind the obligations assumed by the United 
Nations to assist in the restoration of law and order in 
the Republic of the Congo, including the safeguarding of 
civil and human rights for all the inhabitants of the 
country, 

1. Declares that any violation of human rights in the 
Republic of the Congo is inconsistent with the purposes 
that guide the United Nations and expects that no meas- 
ures contrary to recognized rules of law and order will 
be taken by anyone against any persons held prisoner 
or under arrest anywhere in the Republic of the Congo, 

2. Expresses the hope that the International Commit- 
tee of the Red Cross will be allowed to examine detained 
persons throughout the Republic of the Congo and their 
places and conditions of detention and otherwise to ob- 
tain the necessary assurances for their safety, 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to continue his efforts 
to assist the Republic of the Congo in the restoration of 
law and order throughout its territory and in adopting 
all necessary measures tending to safeguard civil and 
human rights for all persons within the country. 



U.N. General Assembly Continues 
Discussion of the Congo 

FoUoiolng is a statement hy James J. Wads- 
toorth, U.8. Representative to the General Assem- 
ily, made in plenary session on December 17, 
together with texts of an eight-power draft reso- 
lution rejected hy the Assembly on December 20, 
a U.S.-U.K. draft resolution which failed of 
adoption hy one vote, and an Austrian proposal 
adopted unanimously on December 20 by which 
the Assembly decided '■Ho continue this item on 
the agenda of its resumed session." 

STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR WADSWORTH 

U.S. delegation press release 3824 

Once again the General Assembly meets to carry 
on the responsibilities of the United Nations in 
the Congo.^ The United States takes this oppor- 
tunity to consider the policies and activities of 
the United Nations in the Congo in the light of 
the latest events. 

Through all these debates on the Congo the 



■ For statements made by Mr. Wadsworth during the 
debate on the Congo in the fourth emergency special 
session of the Assembly, Sept. 17-20, see Bulletin of 
Oct. 10, 1960, p. 583. 



56 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



United States, however our motives have been 
misrepresented, has had in mind no aim other 
than to help the people of the Congo. Thus we 
shall also continue to help the community of 
nations. In this issue there is no room whatever 
for any outside interest, whether of a nation or 
of an ideology. That is the spirit in which Ave 
shall take part in this debate, and we tinist that, 
M'hatever honest differences of opinion may 
emerge, the same spirit will animate the greatest 
possible number of delegates here. 

This debate takes place in a settmg of recent 
important events, some of them ominous for the 
United Nations and for the Congo. The arrest 
of Mr. [Patrice] Lumumba has been made the 
occasion for acts and threats of unspeakable 
violence by individuals who have wrested control 
of certain areas in Orientale Province. These 
same poople have now asserted a spurious claim 
to be rec gnized as the government of the Congo. 
Meanwhile we have learned from the Secretary- 
General of the tragedy of widespread starvation 
in Kasai Province, where hundreds of people are 
threatened with death by starvation every day. 
At this difficult moment, of all times when support 
of the United Nations is absolutely imperative, 
certain member states have stated an mtention 
to withdraw their troops from service in the 
United Nations Force in the Congo. 

Some Hopeful Signs 

That much of the situation is indeed dark. But 
there are also hopeful signs. One is the General 
Assembly's action last month in seating President 
[Joseph] Kasavubu and his delegation as the 
representatives of the Republic of the Congo 
(Leopoldville).^ Another is the vigorous action 
of the United Nations m safeguarding lives 
against the vengeful threats of Messi*s. [Antoine] 
Gizenga and [Bernard] Salumu in Stanleyville — 
an action which, I am glad to say, has been praised 
by delegates of virtually all shades of opinion ex- 
cept the Soviet Union. And the tliird hopeful 
sign is that the United Nations, in spite of all the 
difficulties of the Congo operation, has remained 
faithful to its fimdamental aims. 

It is well to remind ourselves what those aims 
have been since the first United Nations action in 
this crisis last July. Stated most simply, they 



'76id., Dec. 12, 1960, p. 904. 
January 9, 1961 



have included assistance in the promotion of law 
and order — as the Secretary-General stated it, "in 
the basic sense of protecting the lives and property 
of the inhabitants of the Republic of the 
Congo" — the evacuation of Belgian troops, the 
preservation of the unity and integrity of the en- 
tire nation, the safeguarding of himian rights, and 
the maintenance of essential services. All these 
aims have had to be pursued as well as possible 
without overstepping the charter or the mandate 
given to the Secretary-General and the United 
Nations Force by the Security Coimcil and the 
General Assembly. This has meant inevitably 
that the United Nations has had to refrain from 
using force to decide questions which the Con- 
golese people and their leaders, in the exercise of 
their sovereign independence, must decide for 
themselves. 

In the light of these facts and these United Na- 
tions aims, I shall consider some of the recent 
events and issues that have arisen. 

The Matter of Mr. Lumumba 

I turn first to the matter of Mr. Lumumba. I 
would like at the outset to make tlus point clear. 
We do not challenge the motives of some of those 
who have differed with us about this, although 
we think their position is wrong. We recognize 
that m many cases it springs from sincerely held 
and honest convictions, and we recognize the sup- 
port some governments are giving to the purposes 
of the United Nations in the Congo. The United 
States recognized Mr. Lumumba and did its best 
to deal with him as long as he was constitutionally 
in power. However, Mr. Lumumba was removed 
as Prime Minister in accordance with the pro- 
cedures specified in the constitutional instrument 
of the Republic of the Congo. His position in the 
political life of the Congo cannot be decided by 
the United Nations or by any of us unilaterally 
but only by the Congolese people. Mr. Lumumba 
is now under arrest on the basis of a legal warrant 
issued by the authority of the President of the 
Republic of the Congo. He is charged with seri- 
ous crunes imder the fundamental law of the 
Republic. Wlien he was arrested, he was on his 
way to Stanleyville, where his supporters made no 
secret of their intention either to make him the 
head of a separatist regime or to help liim usurp 
power in the Congo as a whole. 

The Secretary-General has appealed to Presi- 



57 



dent Kasavubu to see that Mr. Lumumba receives 
due process of law and is not mistreated and the 
Red Cross doctoi-s be allowed to visit him. This 
is proper. However, the Secretary-General is also 
right in refusing to use the military power of the 
United Nations Force to secui-e the release of a 
man legally imprisoned on the authority of the 
Chief of State. As the Secretary-General stated 
yesterday, no mandate has been given which au- 
thorizes military initiative by the United Nations 
Force in the Congo: "The Force has the right 
of self-defense in a position which it holds under 
orders in the maintenance of its mandate. It can- 
not attack units of any kind." 

There may be some who want a situation in 
which Africans kill Africans, but clearly the 
United Nations Force was not sent to the Congo 
for this purpose. 

The only acknowledged head of tlie Congo is 
President Kasavubu, the Chief of State, whose 
credentials were accepted by the General Assem- 
bly on November 22. We think that, as a matter 
of elementary constitutional practice, any peace- 
ful solution of the political crisis in tlie Congo 
must start with the person of the recognized Presi- 
dent. However, Mr. Lumumba has set himself in 
direct opposition to President Kasavubu and has 
made common cause with the faction which has 
now set up a sort of shadow government in Stan- 
leyville — under what outside inspiration we all 
know well. It is perfectly obvious that the tender 
concern of the Soviet LTnion with the welfare of 
Mr. Lumumba does not arise from humanitarian 
impulses. 

The United States fully supports just and hu- 
mane treatment for all prisoners, including Mr. 
Lumumba, even though his supporters in the 
Congo have shown no mercy to certain of his 
political opponents. We also support such treat- 
ment for Minister [Alphonse] Songolo and the 
other Congolese leaders who have been illegally 
detained and brutally treated in jail in Stanley- 
ville but whose mistreatment does not seem to 
arouse any concern on the part of Mr. [Valerian 
A.] Zorin. We have expressed our concern to 
President Kasavubu and Colonel [Joseph] Mo- 
butu, and we gave further expression to it in a 
draft resolution in the Security Council last Tues- 
day, which was vetoed by the Soviet Union early 
Wednesday morning.^ As the Assembly knows. 



' See p. 51. 
58 



the Secretary-General has made similar represen- 
tations and has received assurances on this score 
from President Kasavubu. 

Meanwhile we believe that the Secretary- 
General and the United Nations Force are to be 
commended for the speed and effectiveness with 
which they moved to prevent acts of savage vio- 
lence which the pro-Lumumba forces in Stanley- 
ville threatened to cari-y out in those parts of 
Orientale Province where they have seized power. 
This action should rank with the heroic United 
Nations efforts to stamp out tribal fighting in 
northern Katanga in which Congolese have been 
killing each other. Those who suggest that the 
United Nations should leave the Congo should 
consider the consequences : a many-sided civil war 
which would invite outside interference, rapacious 
tribal warfare, widespread starvation, and a fur- 
ther breakdown of the whole stracture of the 
countiy. Foreign domination would be inevita- 
ble, but from what quarter? 

The Part Played by Belgium 

Now I turn to another important aspect of the 
Congolese situation : the part played by the former 
administering power and by its nationals. As the 
Secretary-General has confirmed, Belgian military 
forces have long since been removed from the 
Congo. The United States fully supported that 
withdrawal as an essential step. We further be- 
lieve that there must be absolutely no military aid 
to any faction in the Congo from any nation, ex- 
cept through the United Nations and pursuant to 
United Nations policies. 

Mr. Zorin complained in the Security Council 
that "Belgian colonizers" had returned to the 
Congo — which I suppose is his way of referring 
to teclinicians of all sorts including even doctors, 
nurses, teachers, civil and sanitary engineei-s. He 
said "the instructions" called for the removal of 
these "colonizers." 

Now if this is what Mr. Zorin meant by techni- 
cians, then I think several points must be 
made. The first is that there is no place in 
the Congo for Belgian "colonizers" or anj' other 
"colonizers." The age of colonialism in the 
Congo is over. Clearly, any technicians who 
come to the Congo, which desperately needs 
civilian assistance, must come there not as rulers 
but as fi-iends, not to command but to help. 

Second, at a time when this need is so great, it 

Department of State Bulletin 



would be traffic and nonsensical for the invaluable 
help of qualitied persons to be withheld because 
of pride or misunderstanding on any side. 

The most important consideration in this field 
is that, whatever help is given by anybody, it must 
harmonize with and reinforce the United Nations 
effort. We must not work at cross-purposes in 
the Congo. This calls for sound arrangements 
and, even more, for a spirit of forbearance and 
teamwork in a common cause, which is the good 
of the Congolese people. 

Mr. Zorin's solution, namely, the indiscriminate 
and immediate ejection of all Belgian nationals 
from the Congo, would strip that suffering country 
of its greatest single source of outside advice and 
is proposed without the slightest I'eference to the 
desires of the Government of the Republic of the 
Congo. It is a destructive solution. As a practical 
matter the Secretary-General was right when he 
said in the Security Council : "Unless the United 
Nations disposes of the necessary funds, how can 
the United Nations insist on withdrawal of tech- 
nicians provided on a bilateral basis to meet essen- 
tial needs ... ?" 

The Soviet Union, we cannot fail to note, is 
totally opposed to making any contribution to the 
United Nations effort m the Congo — either for the 
United Nations Force or for economic aid. 

Congolese National Army 

Now I come to another point, perhaps the 
crucial point in the set of sweeping proposals 
which Mr. Zorin brought to the Security Council 
and now brings before us here. This is that the 
Congolese National Army under Colonel Mobutu 
should be disarmed — presumably by force — by the 
United Nations. 

As the Secretary-General has pointed out, any 
such action would far exceed the mandate of the 
United Nations. It would be a direct violation 
of the sovereignty of the Republic of the Congo. 
In fact, the representative of the Republic of 
the Congo, Mr. [Mario] Cardoso, was en- 
tirely justified in saying that any such attempt 
against the will of his Government would be 
aggression. 

Furthermore, even if there were a legal basis for 
taking this step, its result would obviously be to 
weaken the constructive forces of the country and 
strengthen those who oppose the constitutional 
institutions of the country, including the Stanley- 



ville faction, which appears to have the full back- 
ing of the Soviet Union. That is the purpose 
which Mr. Zorin had in mind in proposing this 
step. He wants to clear the field militarily for 
those whom the Soviet Union could rely on to 
promote its purposes in the Congo. 

Now, the United States believes that it is most 
important that the Congolese National Army 
should be brought and kept under effective civilian 
control. It should not operate as a political force 
in its own right but as an arm of an established 
and legitimate government under President Kasa- 
vubu. Under those circumstances it will be pos- 
sible for the United Nations Force to resume 
the program of reorganizing and training the 
army and putting it, as the Secretary-General said 
in his statement of December 7, "in such a shape 
as to make it capable to take care of the situation 
itself." Once that is done, the United Nations 
will have achieved its primai-y tasks of promoting 
law and order and of preserving the unity and 
integrity of the entire nation and the Congolese 
Government will be in a position to resume re- 
sponsibility for the internal peace and security 
of the nation. 

Convening of Congolese Parliament 

Finally, Mr. President, I come to another ques- 
tion about which much has been said : the proposed 
convening of the Congolese Parliament. Cer- 
tainly full constitutional government should be 
restored in the Congo as soon as possible. But 
for the United Nations to attempt to impose this 
would be quite wrong. Only the Congolese people 
and their leaders themselves can take the necessary 
initiatives to establish parliamentary government 
in the conditions of tranquillity and mutual toler- 
ance which it requires in order to function at all. 

And let us keep in mind the conditions under 
which the Parliament, or at least a portion of the 
Parliament, last met. To use the words of the 
distinguished representative of the Congo, in his 
vivid statement to the Security Council on De- 
cember 12, former Prime Minister Lmnumba 
obtained votes to his liking from a gi'oup of 
representatives who met "under the menace of 
bayonets or punishment." The results were de- 
scribed by Mr. Dayal * in his first report as "some- 

■■ Rajeshwar Dayal, special representative of the Secre- 
tary-General in the Congo; for texts of his first and sec- 
ond progress reports, see U.N. doc. S/4531 and S/4557 
and Corr. 1. 



January 9, J 96 7 



59 



what uncertain both as to substance and count." 
We believe the United Nations can and should 
do much to assist in establishing conditions in 
which Parliament can meet and function in secu- 
rity and freedom from outside interference, but 
the initiative must come from the Congolese people 
and their leaders. 

Mr. President, those are the views of the United 
States on specific issues which have arisen. These 
are the views which compel us to oppose the draft 
resolution submitted by Ghana and six others in 
document A/L. 331. We find this resolution 
insufficient in many aspects, particularly in its 
complete lack of attention to the danger of out- 
side intervention, and we find it totally unaccept- 
able in its many-sided attempt to intervene in the 
domestic affairs of a member state. 

The Broader Considerations 

Mr. President, before I close I must say a word 
about the broader considerations. 

From the outset of the emergency in the Congo 
the United States, along with the great majority 
of the United Nations members, has whole- 
heartedly supported this Organization as the only 
possible instrument to restore peace and independ- 
ence to the suffering people of the Congo. We 
have channeled all our aid, military transport, 
technical, administrative, and fuiancial, through 
the United Nations and have repeatedly urged 
others to follow our example. Today we belie-\'e 
that more than ever. Only the United Nations 
has at its disposal both the great resources and 
the great and impartial principles which the emer- 
gency demands. 

I woidd remind the Assembly once again that 
the United States could have taken another course. 
At the very beginning, just after the Belgian 
intervention, the Congolese Government asked the 
United States for direct military assistance. We 
refused, Mr. President, and insisted that all mili- 
tary aid be channeled through the United Nations. 
We provided a massive airlift, in which 15,000 
troops from every quarter of the globe were 
brought to the Congo. We did not pick and 
•choose and say, "We will not carry your troops 
because we disagree with your policy." We car- 
ried all the troops which the United Nations asked 
us to carry. 

As to the Soviet Union, it has already become 



quite clear that the Soviet Union has other aims 
as regards the Congo. Its preferred candidates 
for power are those who are least likely to achieve 
a solution to the Congo's problems without vio- 
lence and bloodshed. It wishes to foment hatred 
between races and between tribes. It wishes to 
disarm the only Congolese military force. It 
wishes to cut the Congo off from tecluiical aid 
through the United Nations. It wants a civil 
war in the Congo in order to promote its own 
evil designs. In short, every aspect of Soviet 
policy is designed either to weaken and divide or 
to gain power in the Congo for those who will do 
the will of Moscow. It is a straight policy of 
"rule or ruin." It is a policy fraught with danger 
for international i)eace and security. 

That is not our attitude toward the people of 
the Republic of the Congo. They have suffered 
much, and they still face a difficult future. To 
overcome the difiiculties three things are needed : 

First, that the Congo should not become an 
imwilling victim in the struggle of an ambitious 
nation or group of nations eager to build new 
empires. 

Second, that the Congolese people and their 
leaders should make the most strenuous and dis- 
ciplined effoi-ts on their own behalf to win their 
birthright as an independent nation and in this 
task should cooperate willingly with the United 
Nations. 

And, finally, that we, the members of the 
United Nations, should support the Organization 
in foul weather as well as fair. Only great prob- 
lems and gi-eat difficulties can truly measure 
our fidelity to the charter. Let us meet our dif- 
ficulties in such a way that freedom and peace 
in Africa may be advanced and that we shall 
have no reason to fear the judgment of history. 

TEXTS OF RESOLUTIONS 

Eight-Power Draft Resolution ° 

Tlie Oencral Assembly, 

Recalling its resolution 1474 (ES-IV) of 20 September 
1960" as well as the resolutions of 14 and 22 July and 



°U.N. doc. A/L.331/Rev. 1; sponsored by Ceylon, 
Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, U.A.R., and 
Yugoslavia ; rejected by the General Assembly on Dec. 
20 by a vote of 28 to 42, with 27 abstentious. 

" For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1960, p. 088. 



^0 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



of 9 August 1960 of the Security Council and in par- 
ticular the request therein to the Secretary-General to 
continue to take vigorous action, 

In view of the grave and ominous developments and 
continuing deterioration in the Congo, the prevalence of 
anarchic conditions and the absence of effective Central 
authority. 

Noting with grave concern the hostile attitude and 
resistance of armed detachments to the operation of 
the Unite<i Nations m the Congo as recently reported 
by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General 
and also the continuation of lawlessness, violence and 
continuing deterioration of the economic situation in 
the Congo, 

Conscious of the inescapable and urgent responsi- 
bility of the United Nations both in the interests of the 
Congo as well as in the interests of peace and security 
which stand endangered and for the avoidance of grave 
civil war, 

1. Considers that the United Nations must henceforth 
implement its mandate fully to prevent breach of peace 
and security, to restore and maintain law and order 
and the inviolability of persons, including United Na- 
tions and diplomatic personnel and property, in accord- 
ance with the Charter and to take urgent measiires to 
assist the people of the Congo in meeting their most 
pressing economic needs ; 

2. Urges the immediate release of all political pris- 
oners under detention, more particularly, members of 
the Central Government of the Congo and officials of 
Parliament and others enjoying Parliamentary immunity ; 

3. Urges the immediate convening of Parliament and 
the taking of necessary protective measures thereto by 
the United Nations, including custodial duties ; 

4. Urges that measures be undertaken forthwith to pre- 
vent armed units and personnel in the Congo from any 
interference in the political life of the country as well as 
from obtaining any material or other support from 
abroad ; 

5. Draws the attention of the Government of Belgium to 
ita grave responsibilities in disregarding the resolutions of 
the United Nations ; 

6. Demands that all Belgian military and quasi-mili- 
tary personnel, advisers and technicians be immediately 
withdrawn in pursuance of the resolutions of the United 

i Nations, the repeated pledges and assurances given by the 
i Government of Belgium and in the interest of peace and 
I security ; 

7. Decides that a Standing Delegation appointed by the 
General Assembly and representing it which should func- 
tion in full co-operation with the United Nations Special 
Representative be located in the Congo. The delegation 
should be composed of the representatives of such Mem- 
ber States as have been considered by the General Assem- 
bly itself as specially qualified to advise on the United 
Nations operations in the Congo ; 

S. Recommends that all necessary economic and tech- 
nical assistance should be afforded to the Congo through 
the United Nations by Member States promptly so that 
such assistance be not used as an instrument or a channel 
for continuing foreign intervention. 



U.S.-U.K. Draft Resolution ' 

The Oencral Assembly, 

Recalling resolution 1474 (ES-IV) adopted at its 
emergency special session on 20 September 1900, and the 
Security Council resolutions of 14 July, 22 July and 9 
August 1960, 

Noting with anxiety the continued existence of un- 
settled conditions in various parts of the Republic of the 
Congo which have involved acts of lawlessness and of 
violence against persons of both Congolese and non-Con- 
golese nationality, including personnel of the United 
Nations, 

ilindjul of the obligations and responsibilities assumed 
by the United Nations to assist in the restoration and 
maintenance of law and order for the purpose of securing 
the maintenance of international peace and security, and 
of safeguarding civil liberties and the political independ- 
ence and territorial integrity of the Republic of the 
Congo, 

Recognizing that the aforementioned obligations and 
responsibilities are still an urgent United Nations con- 
cern and that all necessary action should be taken to 
assure the continuation and success of the United Nations 
operation in the Congo in accordance with the pertinent 
resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security 
Council and the general purposes and principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations, 

1. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to dis- 
charge the mandate entrusted to him by the United Na- 
tions in accordance with the resolutions of the Security 
Council and the General Assembly referred to above and 
to continue to use the presence and the machinery of the 
United Nations to assist the Republic of the Congo in 
the restoration and maintenance of law and order 
throughout its territory ; 

2. Further requests the Secretary-General to continue 
his vigorous efforts to ensure that no foreign military or 
para-military personnel are introduced into the Congo or 
are in the Congo in violation of the pertinent resolutions 
of the Security Council and resolution 1474 (ES-IV) of 
the General Assembly ; 

3. Calls upon all states to refrain from the direct and 
indirect provision of arms or other materials of war and 
military personnel and other assistance for military pur- 
poses in the Congo during the temporary period of mili- 
tary assistance through the United Nations, except upon 
the request of the United Nations through the Secretary- 
General for carrying out the purpose of this resolution^ 
resolution 1474 (ES-IV) of the General Assembly and 
the resolutions of 14 July, 22 July and 9 August 1960 
of the Security Council, and also to refrain from direct 
or indirect measures that might facilitate such actioa 
on the part of others ; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General, with due regard to 
paragraph 4 of the Security Council resolution of 9 August 
1960, to do everything possible to assist the Chief of 
State of the Republic of the Congo in establishing con- 



' U.N. doc. A/L. 332 ; rejected by the General Assembly 
on Dec. 20 by a vote of 43 to 22, with 32 abstentions. 



January 9, J967 



61 



ditions in which Parliament can meet and function in 
security and freedom from outside interference ; 

5. Declares that any violation of human rights in the 
Republic of the Congo is inconsistent with the purposes 
that guide the United Nations action in the Congo and 
expects that no measures contrary to recognized rules of 
law and order will be taken by anyone against any per- 
sons held prisoner or under arrest anywhere in the 
Republic of the Congo, and requests the Secretary- 
General to continue his efforts to assist the Republic of 
the Congo in ensuring respect for these rules and for 
«ivil and human rights for all persons within the 
country ; 

6. Expresses the hope that the International Commit- 
tee of the Red Cross will be allowed to examine detained 
persons throughout the Republic of the Congo and their 
places and conditions of detention and otherwise to ob- 
tain the necessary assurances for their safety ; 

7. Expresses the hope that the forthcoming round-table 
conference to be convened by the Chief of State and the 
forthcoming visit for the purpose of conciliation to the 
Republic of the Congo by certain representatives ap- 
pointed by the Advisory Committee will help to resolve 
internal conflicts by peaceful means and to preserve the 
unity and integrity of the Congo ; 

8. Requests all Congolese to lend practical co-operation 
to the United Nations in order that the purposes that 
guide the United Nations operation in the Congo can be 
fruitfully achieved ; 

9. Calls on all states to co-operate in giving effect to 
this resolution. 

Austrian Resolution ^ 

The General Assemhly, 

Hav'mg considered, the item on its agenda "The situa- 
tion in the Reijublic of the Congo", 

Noting that the previous resolutions of the Security 
Council and the General Assembly on this subject are 
still in effect, 

Decides to continue this item on the agenda of its 
resumed session. 



Current U. N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ' 

General Assembly 

Dissemination of Information on the United Nations and 
the International Trusteeship System in the Trust Ter- 
ritories. Establishment of U.N. information centers in 



' Adopted without objection by the General Assembly 
on Dec. 20. 

' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. Other 
materials (mimeographed or processed documents) may 
be consulted at certain designated libraries in the United 
States. 



or near the trust territories. A/4542 and Corr. 1. 
October 19, 1960. 7 pp. 

Africa: A United Nations Programme for Independence 
and Development. Letter dated October 20, 1960, from 
the Representative of the United States to the United 
Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. A/4515/ 
Add. 1. October 20, 1960. 5 pp. 

United Nations Emergency Force. Report of the Sec- 
retary-General. A/4486/ Add. 1. October 21, 1960. 
1. p. 

Assistance to Refugees. Report of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral on the World Refugee Year. A/4546. October 22, 
1960. 4.3 pp. 

Note Verbale Dated 20 October 1960 From the Chairman 
of the Delegation of the Union of South Africa Ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General Concerning State- 
ments Made in Plenary on October 14 and 17. A/4558. 
November 3, 1960. 3 pp. 

Letter Dated 11 October 1960 Prom the Minister for For- 
eign Affairs of Israel and Chairman of the Israel Dele- 
gation to the General Assembly Addressed to the 
President of the General Assembly Concerning the 
Rehovoth Declaration of 1960. A/4570. November 10, 
1960. 5 pp. 



U.S. Explains Position 
on Question of Algeria 

Following is a statement made l>y U.S. Eepre- 
sentative to the General Assembly Francis O. 
Wilcox in Com/mittee I {Political and Security) 
on December 15, together with text of a 7'esolution 
adopted in plenary session on December 19. 



STATEMENT BY MR. WILCOX 

U.S. delegation press release 3621 

The problem of Algeria is, of course, an ex- 
tremely difficult one, a problem which is compli- 
cated by deep feelings and emotions on all sides. 
Like all highly charged political issues, it cannot 
be met by a purely rational approach. Yet in the 
circumstances in which we are meeting here, an 
appeal to reason is not without its value. 

^Vliile we are debatmg this issue here, important 
events in Algeria and in France are taking place 
whose impact and effect on the question of Algeria 
could be crucial. Our discussion takes place in 
time of crisis. The recent reports of bloodshed 
in Algeria and the tragic loss of life are of very 
deep concern to all of us. These events are a 
cogent and sharp reminder of the need to achieve 
as soon as possible a just, democratic, and peace- 
ful solution of the Algerian problem. 

Very recently steps have been taken which offer 
hope that progress can soon be made. On No- 
vember 4 President de Gaulle took another sig- 



62 



Department of State Bulletin 



nificant step ■when he spoke of an Algerian Al- 
gei-ia. This statement, tlie scheduled referendum 
on January 9, and the recent trip of President 
de Gaulle to Algeria are further concrete evi- 
dence of the intention of France to apply the 
fundamental policy of self-determination an- 
nounced in his statement of September 16, 1959. 
We hare every confidence that President 
(de Gaulle, who has given wise and courageous 
leadership to France, is striving sincerely and 
vigorously to settle this problem. We believe he 
is in a unique position to do so successfully and 
that nothing should be done to impede his efforts. 
We realize full well that there are formidable ob- 
stacles. If there were an easy way out, it would 
have been found long before this. But with good 
faith and moderation, accompanied by a coopera- 
tive spirit on the part of all concerned, we are 
confident that a solution can be achieved in the 
interests of all the people of Algeria. 

At the same time, events of recent days impose 
on us here in this Assembly the very heavy re- 
sponsibility of making certain that any action 
which may be taken by the United Nations will 
not aggravate the present difficult situation. We 
must be extremely careful to do nothing in the 
present uncertain and explosive atmosphere which 
would increase tension in metropolitan France or 
in Algeria or would otherwise make a peaceful 
solution more difficult to obtain. 

In this connection I should like to recall that 
the abiding hope of the United States has been 
to see a just and liberal solution of the Algerian 
problem based on the full and free exercise of the 
right of self-determination by the Algerian people. 
The tragic loss of life suffered during the past 
week serves as a grim reminder of the urgency of 
an early and equitable solution of the problem. 

We continue to believe that a peaceful solution 
of this question is imperative and that it can best 
be achieved through negotiations among the 
parties principally concerned. 

We further believe that we here in this Assem- 
bly can make a positive contribution to the Al- 
gerian problem by making clear, as has already 
been done by a number of countries in this debate, 
that the road to real progress lies in a renewal of 
discussions. We are at the threshold of one of 
those historical occasions in which those prin- 
cipally concerned should seek a solution through 
direct means. We hope that the voices of reason 



and moderation in this Assembly will be heard 
and heeded. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, there is one other point 
which I would like to make. The sj^onsors of this 
resolution ^ midoubtedly favor a peaceful solu- 
tion. There can be no doubt of that whatever in 
my mind. I respect their motives, and I respect 
their good intentions. But this cannot be said of 
the Soviet Union, whose prime objective is to sow 
the seeds of confusion, discord, and mistrust in 
Algeria. The Algerian question is difficult 
enough, and injection by the Soviet Union of 
blatant and inflammatory falsehoods in this de- 
bate can only serve to complicate matters rather 
than help them. 

I shall not trespass, INIr. Chairman, on the time 
of the committee to refute the charges he [Vale- 
rian A. Zorin, representative of the Soviet Union] 
has made against my country. But I want liim 
and the members of this committee to know that I 
think they are in very bad taste and that I resent 
them. Frankly, I should like to see the debate in 
this committee kept at a higher level. 

Now, with regard to the resolution before us, 
the criterion which we apply in deciding our posi- 
tion on such a resolution is whether, in our judg- 
ment, its adoption would contribute constructively 
to a solution of the tragic Algerian problem or 
whether it would hinder such a solution. Would 
it pi'event or would it encourage a deterioration of 
an extremely difficult and delicate situation? 
This, of course, is a matter of judgment which 
each delegation must determine for itself in the 
light of its own interpretation of the situation. 
We see a number of difficulties with the provisions 
of this resolution which I will not take the time 
of the committee to outline in detail. Let me say, 
however, that these difficulties include certain op- 
erative paragraphs, particularly paragraph 4, as 
well as preambular paragraphs 7 and 9. 

My delegation considers, Mr. Chairman, that 
adoption of the present resolution would impede 
rather than assist a peaceful solution of the prob- 
lem. We will vote, therefore, against the 
resolution. 

We sincerely believe this resolution would not 
achieve the objectives wliich the sponsors hope 
for it. On the contrary, we think that the very 
fact of its passage would encourage extremists in 
both Algeria and in France to persist in their 



" U.N. doc. A/C.1/L. 265 and Add. 1-3. 



ianuary 9, 1 96 J 



63 



present course and would serve to prolong the 
conflict and to make the achievement of a peace- 
fid solution by negotiation more difficult and 
formidable. 

In saying this, Mr. Chairman, I want to make 
perfectly clear, once more, the deep and abiding 
interest of the United States in promoting the 
cause of human liberty in the world. "VVe believe 
in the right of people to determine their own 
destiny, and we agree with other delegations pres- 
ent that the Algerian people should freely deter- 
mine their own destiny. The principal issue at 
stake here is precisely how this objective can be 
achieved, and the United States has indicated how 
we believe this can best be done. 

My delegation recognizes the legitimate desire 
that the referendum be carried out under neutral 
and impartial supervision to assure the free ex- 
pression of opinion by the population of Algeria. 
In this connection we welcome President 
de Gaulle's willingness to invite impartial ob- 
servers to witness the referendum and believe this 
opportunity should be fully utilized. For the 
reasons which I have briefly set forth, Mr. Chair- 
man, we will vote against the resolution.^ 

TEXT OF RESOLUTION ^ 

The General Assembly, 

Having discussed the question of Algeria, 

Recalling its resolution 1012 (XI) of 15 February 1957 
by which the General Assembly expressed the hope that 
a peaceful, democratic and just solution would be found 
through appropriate means, in conformity with the princi- 
ples of the Charter of the United Nations, 

iJeeom»j(7 /«H7ter its resolution 1184 (XII) of 10 Decem- 
ber 1057 by which the General Assembly expressed the 
wish that pourparlers would be entered into, and other 
appropriate means utilized, with a view to a solution, 
in conformity with the purposes and principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations, 

Noting with regret that the pourparlers contemplated 
in resolution 1184 (XII) did not materialize. 

Recalling Article 1, paragraph 2, of the Charter of the 
United Nations, 



"The United States voted against draft resolution 
A/C.I/L. 265 and Add. 1-3 as adopted by Committee I 
on Dec. 15. On Dee. 19 the United States abstained from 
voting on the resolution as it was finally adopted by 
the plenary session of the General Assembly. 

'U.N. doc. A/RES/1575(XV) (A/C.l/L. 265 and Add. 
1-3) ; adopted on Dec. 10 by a vote of 63 to 8, with 27 
abstentions (U.S.). 



Deeply concerned with the continuance of hostilities in 
Algeria, 

Considering that the present situation in Algeria also 
constitutes a threat to international peace and security. 

Recalling its resolution 1405 (XV) of 18 October 1900 by 
which the General Assembly urges that immediate and 
constructive steps should be adopted in regard to the 
urgent problems concerning the peace of the world. 

Taking note of the fact that the two parties concerned 
have accepted the right of self-determination as the basis 
for the solution of the Algerian problem. 

Recognizing the passionate yearning for freedom of 
all dependent peoples and the decisive role of such peo- 
ples in the attainment of their independence. 

Convinced that all peoples have an inalienable right 
to complete freedom, the exercise of their sovereignty 
and the integrity of their national territory, 
/ 1. Recognizes the right of the Algerian people to self- 
determination and independence; 

2. Recognizes the imperative need for adequate and 
effective guarantees to ensure the successful and just 
implementation of the right of self-determination on the 
basis of respect for unity and territorial integrity of 
Algeria ; 

3. Recognizes further that the United Nations has a 
responsibility to contribute towards its successful and 
just implementation. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and U.A.R. Sign 
income Tax Convention 

Press release 703 dated December 21 

A convention between the United States and the 
United Arab Republic for the avoidance of double 
taxation of income, prevention of fiscal evasion 
with respect to income, and elimination of 
obstacles to international trade and investment 
was signed at Washington on December 21, 1960, 
by Christian A. Herter, Secretary of State, and 
Dr. Mostafa Kamel, Ambassador of the United 
Arab Republic in Washington. 

The provisions of the convention follow, in gen- 
eral, the pattern of income tax conventions 
presently in force between the United States and a 
number of other countries. In accordance with 
the announced administration policy of assisting 
in the promotion of private investment in under- 
developed countries by allowing a credit for in- 
come tax mcentives granted in such countries, the 



64 



Department of State Bulletin 



convention contains a provision for this purpose, 
of the kind commonly referred to as a tax-spar- 
ing provision. 

The convention provides that upon the exchange 
of instruments of ratification it shall be applicable 
(a) in the United States, to income or profits de- 
rived during taxable years beginning on or after 
January 1 of the calendar year next following the 
year in wliich the exchange takes place, and (b) 
in the United Arab Republic, to various items of 
income, as specified, beginning on or after either 
January 1 or July 1 of the calendar year next 
following the year in which the exchange takes 
place. 

The convention will be submitted to tlie Senate 
for advice and consent to ratification. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Agriculture 

Convention on the Inter-American Institute of Agricul- 
tural Sciences. Done at Washington January 15, 1944. 
Entered into force November 30, 1944. (58 Stat. 1169.) 
Ratification deposited: Peru, December 20, 1960. 

Protocol of amendment to the convention on the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences of January 
15, 1944 (58 Stat. 1169). Opened for signature at 
Washington December 1, 1958.' 
Ratification deposited: Peru, December 20, 1960. 

Economic Cooperation 

Convention on the Organization for Economic Co-operation 
and Development and two supplementary protocols. 
Signed at Paris December 14, 1960. Enters into force 
on date all ratifications or acceptances are deposited 
before September 30, 1961 ; on that date if 15 instru- 
ments have been deposited ; on date 15 instruments are 
deposited not later than 2 years after signature. 
Memorandum of understanding on the application of 
article 15 of the Convention on the Organization for 
Economic Co-operation and Development. Signed at 
Paris December 14, 1960. Entered into force Decem- 
ber 14, 1960, for those provisions relating to actions to 
be taken before the voting in the Council. Enters into 
force for the provisions relating to the voting in the 
Council on the date the Convention enters into force. 
Signatures: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, 
France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ice- 
land, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nor- 
way, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, 
United Kingdom, and United States. 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Costa Rica, December 16, 1960. 



BILATERAL 

Brazil 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of December 31, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3725, 
3864, 4074, 4144, 4183, 4239, and 4311). Effected by ex- 
change of notes at Washington December 9, 1960. 
Entered into force December 9, 1960. 

Chile 

Agreement amending the agreement of June 28 and July 
16, 1960 (TIAS 4589), for the loan of a U.S. naval 
vessel to Chile. Effected by exchange of notes at Wash- 
ington December 2 and 7, 1960. Entered into force 
December 7, 1960. 

China 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of August 30, 1960, as amended (TIAS 4563 and 
4628). Effected by exchange of notes at Taipei De- 
cember 1, 1960. Entered into force December 1, 1960. 

Indonesia 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of March 2, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3513, 4086, 
and 4512). Effected by exchange of notes at Djakarta 
December 7, 1960. Entered into force December 7, 1960. 

Japan 

Agreement amending the agreement of January 11, 1958 
(TIAS 3982), providing for the financing of an educa- 
tional exchange program. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Tokyo December 2, 1960. Entered into force 
December 2, 1960. 

United Arab Republic 

Convention for avoidance of double taxation and pre- 
vention of fiscal evasion of income, and elimination of 
obstacles to international trade and investment. Signed 
at Washington December 21, 1960. Enters into force 
upon exchange of ratifications. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force. 
January 9, J 96 J 



Recess Appointments 

The President on December 12 appointed W. Wendell 
Blancke to be Ambassador to the Gabon Republic, the 
Republic of Chad, and the Central African Republic. 

Designations 

William J. Mazzocco as ICA Representative in the 
Republic of the Ivory Coast, effective December 9, 1960. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 691 dated December 13.) 

Elliott B. Strauss as ICA Representative in the 
Malagasy Republic, effective December 22, 1960. (For 
biographic details, see Department of State press release 
679 dated December 8.) 



65 



k 



Resignations 

James W. Barco as Deputy Representative of the 
United States to the United Nations and as Deputy 
Representative in the U.N. Security Council, effective 
January 20. (For an exchange of letters between Presi- 
dent Eisenhovrer and Ambassador Barco, see White House 
press release dated December 19, 1960.) 

Amory Houghton as Ambassador to France, effective 
January 19, 1961. (For an exchange of letters between 
President Eisenhower and Ambassador Houghton, see 
White House press release dated December 13.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale iy the Superintendent of Doeutnents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, W(i.-<liiiif/t<in. 25, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free puiiications, which may ie ob- 
tained, from, the Department of State. 

Technical Cooperation in Industry. Pub. 702.3. Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Series 57. 23 pp. 15^. 

A pamphlet describing U.S. technical assistance to newly 
developing countries through education, training, and 
guidance in the development of manual, technical, admin- 
istrative, managerial, and entrepreneurial skills. 

Technical Cooperation in Education. Pub. 7024. Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Series 58. 31 pp. 15^. 

This booklet reports U.S. efforts to help the newly devel- 
oping countries establish educational systems patterned to 
meet their needs. 

The Educational and Cultural Exchange Program — 24th 
Semiannual Report to Congress, July 1-December 31, 
1959. Pub. 7053. International Information and Cul- 
tural Series 74. 21 pp. Limited distribution. 

A report summarizing activities carried out during the 
first half of fiscal year 1960. 

The Conference on Antarctica — Washington, October 15- 
December 1, 1959. Pub. 7060. International Organiza- 
tion and Conference Series 13. xv, 78 pp. 35^. 

This volume contains public documents of the conference 
and includes text of the treaty and various related papers. 

Educational & Cultural Exchange, 1959. Pub. 7066. In- 
ternational Information and Cultural Series 75. 49 pp. 
25^. 

A review of the Department of State's activities during 
1959 on international educational exchange programs. 

Disarmament— The Intensified Effort, 1955-1958 (Re- 
vised). Pub. 7070. General Foreign Policy Series 155. 
66 pp. SO<t. 

A booklet summarizing U.S. efforts since the end of World 
War II to negotiate a sound and safeguarded agreement on 
the regulation, control, and reduction of armaments and 
armed forces. 



Point 4 in Colombia. Pub. 7071. Inter-American Series 
61. 10 pp. Limited distribution. 

An address made by Charles P. Fossum, Director of the 
U.S. Operations Mission in Colombia, International Co- 
operation Administration, before the American Society of 
Bogota, at Bogota, Colombia, on July 26, 1960, discussing 
the scope of technical programs in Colombia. 

The U.S. in the U.N. Pub. 70S0. International Organi- 
zation and Conference Series 16. 8 pp. lOif. 

A pamphlet containing the text of President Eisenhower's 
letter of transmittal accompanying his report to Congress 
on U.S. participation in the United Nations during 1959. 

An Address by President Eisenhower to the UN General 
Assembly, September 22, 1960. Pub. 7086. International 
Organization and Conference Series 17. 12 pp. Limited 
distribution. 

Text of tJie address by the President at the Fifteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations September 22, 1960. 

Berlin— City Between Two Worlds (Revised). Pub. 7089. 
European and British Commonwealth Series 61. 22 pp. 
20«S. 

Another in the popular Background series, this pamphlet 
discusses the problems of the people of East and West 
Germany for the reunification of their country. 



TIAS 4460. 332 



North American Regional Broadcasting. 

pp. $2.25. 

Agreement and Final Protocol between the United States 
of America and Other Governments. Signed at Washing- 
ton November 15, 1950. Entered into force April 19, 1960. 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. TIAS 4461. 

.553 pp. $1.50. 

Declaration on the provisional accession of the Sv/iss Con- 
federation to the agreement of October 30, 1947. Done at 
Geneva November 22, 1958. Entered into force with re- 
spect to the United States of America and Switzerland 
April 29, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4528. 3 pp. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Turkey, amending the agreement of December 22, 1959. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Ankara May 31, 1960. En- 
tered into force May 31, 1960. With aide memoire dated 
May 31, 1960. 

Education — Cooperative Program in the Dominican Re- 
public. TIAS 4529. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Dominican Republic, modifying and extending the agree- 
ment of March 16, 1951, as modified and extended. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Ciudad Trujillo June 2 and 7, 
1960. Entered into force June 7, 1960. 

Amity, Economic Relations and Consular Rights. TIAS 
4530. 26 pp. 15<J. 

Treaty and protocol between the United States of America 
and Muscat and Oman and Dependencies. Signed at 
Salalah December 20, 1958. Entered into force June 11, 
1960. 

Air Service — Certain Aeronautical Facilities and Serv- 
ices in Greenland. TIAS 4531. 10 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Denmark. Signed at Copenhagen July 7, 1960. Entered 
into force July 7, 1960. 

Defense— Loan of Vessel to Haiti. TIAS 4534. 6 pp. 50. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Haiti. Exchange of notes — Signed at Port-au-Prince July 
8, 19C0. Entered into force July 8, 1960. 



66 



Deparlmenf of State Bulletin 



January 9, 1961 



Ind 



e X 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1124 



Atomic Energy. U.S. Notes Reports of Israel's 

Atomic Energy Activities 45 

Brazil. President Salutes Memory of Brazil's 

World War II Dead 48 

Central African Republic. Blancke appointed Am- 
bassador 65 

Chad. Blancke appointed Ambassador 65 

Congo, Republic of the 

Security Council Debate on Congo Results in 02d 
Soviet Veto (Barco, Wadsworth, text of resolu- 
tion) ol 

U.N. General Assembly Continues Discussion of the 

Congo (Wad.swortb, texts of resolutions) ... 56 

Cuba. President's Representative on Cuban Re- 
fugee Problem Submits Report (Voorhees, text 
of report) 45 

Department and Foreign Service 

Designations (Mazzoceo, Strauss) 65 

Recess Appointments (Blancke) 65 

Resignations (Barco, Houghton) 66 

Economic Affairs 

Steps Taken To Modify Concessions on Bicycles and 
Spring Clothespins 50 

United States and U.A.R. Sign Income Tax Conven- 
tion 64 

France 

Houghton resigns as Ambassador 66 

U.S. Explains Position on Question of Algeria 

(Wilcox, text of resolution) 62 

Gabon. Blancke appointed Ambassador .... 65 

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration 
Quota Established for Mauritania (text of proc- 
lamation) 49 

Iran. United States and Iran Discuss Aid Pro- 
grams 49 

Israel. U.S. Notes Reports of Israel's Atomic 

Energy Activities 45 

Ivory Coast. Mazzoceo designated ICA representa- 
tive 65 

Lebanon. Lebanon To Receive 15,000 Tons of 
Wheat for Drought Relief 50 

Malagasy Republic. Strauss designated ICA repre- 
sentative 65 

Mauritania. Immigration Quota Established for 

Mauritania (text of proclamation) 49 

Military Affairs. Stage-Two Talks Concluded on 
West Indies Bases 42 

Mutual Security 

Lebanon To Receive 15,000 Tons of Wheat for 

Drought Relief 50 

Mazzoceo designated ICA representative. Ivory 

Coast 65 

Strauss designated ICA representative, Malagasy 

Republic 65 

United States and Iran Discuss Aid Programs . . 49 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlan- 
tic Council Holds Ministerial Meeting at Paris 
(Eisenhower, Herter, text of communique) . . 39 

Presidential Documents 

Immigration Quota Established for Mauritania . . 49 
North Atlantic Council Holds Ministerial Meeting 
at Paris 39 



President Salutes Memory of Brazil's World War 

II Dead 48 

Publications. Recent Releases 66 

Refugees. President's Representative on Cuban 
Refugee Problem Submits Report (Voorhees, text 
of report) 45 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 65 

Stage-Two Talks Concluded on West Indies Bases . 42 
United States and U.A.R. Sign Income Tax Con- 
vention 64 

U.S.S.R. Security Coimcil Debate on Congo Re- 
sults in 92d Soviet Veto (Barco, Wadsworth, text 
of resolution) 51 

United Arab Republic. United States and U.A.R. 

Sign Income 'Tax Convention 64 

United Kingdom. Stage- Two Talks Concluded on 

West Indies Bases 42 

United Nations 

Barco resigns as U.S. deputy representative ... 66 

Current U.N. Documents 62 

Security Council Debate on Congo Results in 92d 
Soviet Veto (Barco, Wadsworth, text of resolu- 
tion) 51 

U.N. General Assembly Continues Discussion of the 

Congo (Wadsworth, texts of resolutions) ... 56 
U.S. Explains Position on Question of Algeria 

(Wilcox, text of resolution) 62 

West Indies, The. Stage-Two Talks Concluded on 
West Indies Bases 42 

Name Index 

Barco, James W 51, 66 

Blancke, W. Wendell 65 

Eisenhower, President 39, 48, 49 

Herter, Secretary 40 

Houghton, Amory 66 

Mazzoceo, William J 65 

Strauss, Elliott B 65 

Voorhees, Tracy S 45 

Wadsworth, James J 51, 56 

Wilcox, Francis O 62 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 19-25 

Press releases may be obtained from the OflSce 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to December 19 which ap- 
pear in this issue of the Buiietin are Nos. 681 of 
December 8, 690 of December 10, 692 of December 
13, and 698 of December 15. 

No. Date 

700 12/19 

701 12/19 



702 12/19 

703 12/21 
701 12/23 
705 12/23 

t700 12/23 



707 12/24 



Subject 

NATO communique. 

Herter : statement following NATO 
meeting. 

Israel atomic energy activities. 

Income tax convention with U.A.R. 

Wheat grant to Lebanon. 

Concessions on bicycles and spring 
clothespins. 

Eisenhower : funds for office of In- 
spector General and Comptroller, 
Mutual Security. 

Discussion of aid programs with Iran. 



tHeld for a later Issue of the Buixetin. 



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Vol. XLIV, No. 1125 



January 16, 1961 



THE UNITED STATES AND NEW CROSSROADS IN 

WORLD ECONOMY • by Assistant Secretary Martin . . 71 



NEW TARIFF RATES ESTABLISHED FOR CERTAIN 

WOOL FABRICS • White House Announcement and Text 

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Boston Public Library 
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ITED STATES 
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Vol. XLIV, No. 1125 • Publication 7125 
January 16, 1961 



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The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued fay the 
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The United States and New Crossroads in World Economy 



hy Ed/win M. Martin 

Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 



As an economist I have had some experience 
with the risks of economic forecasting. I suspect 
forecasting what future historians will say about 
the present is even more risky. Nevertheless, I 
shall be bold and predict that in the history 
books of 2500 A.D., if man is still dependent 
on such pedestrian things as books, the chapter 
on the 20th century will be quite a long one, 
recording it as a major turning point in the 
development of human society on this planet. 
Tliere will be many things to talk about, from 
the scientific revolution to the two most destruc- 
tive wars up to that date. But I would suspect 
that the most significant feature of 20th cen- 
tury life will prove to have been the founda- 
tion laid in that era for the history of mankind 
during a good many ensuing centuries by the suc- 
cess with which our century handled the problems 
created by the final disintegration of many ancient 
ocieties and cultures under the impact of West- 
em "progress" and the dissolution of such organiz- 
ing forces as were represented by the world empires 
of the 19th century. The emergence of a multi- 
tude of new nations and their transformation, 
along with numerous independent but heretofore 
aloof countries, into active participants in the 
stream of modern world history will surely ap- 
pear as a major event. Will it prove to have been 
a constructive influence or a destructive one ? To 
do what we can to influence the answer to this 
question is our great responsibility. 
1 I can think of no problem which the human race 
'has faced in its past which has been more chal- 
lenging, more difficult, or more important than this 



' Address made before the American Historical Associa- 
tion and the Mississippi Valley Historical Association at 
New York, N.Y., on Dec. 29. 



one. Let us look first at some of the factors which 
make it such a uniquely difficult task. But before 
doing so may I insert a brief word of warning 
before I proceed largely to ignore it. It is usual 
to speak of the less developed countries as if they 
were all similar in their characteristics and could 
all be the subject of accurate generalizations. 
This is, of course, not true, but there are, I be- 
lieve, enough areas of likeness that one can safely 
draw some overall conclusions in the interests of 
brevity. 

For several generations the growing impact of 
Western ideas and standards has been under- 
mining the traditional social and cultural and 
economic structures which, at their own levels, 
had provided a cohesive force for a majority of 
the world's population. With the advent of mod- 
ern means of communication and transport, this 
destructive process has been enormously ac- 
celerated in the last 40 years. One should not 
overlook the impact of World War II in giving 
many participants in the fighting armies a chance 
to see at first hand how the rich nations of the 
West lived. 

Nationalism and Demand for Material Achievement 

Along with the disintegration of old standards 
the West has contributed two new ambitions, both, 
in their immediate impact, more destructive than 
constructive. The first is nationalism and the 
desire for political independence at almost all 
costs. The second is the urgent demand for a 
higher standard of living, for a society which in 
its materialistic splendor can hope someday, and 
sooner rather than later, to match the riches of 
the industrial countries of Europe and North 
America. Not only does this establish an enor- 



^anuaty 76, 1 96 1 



71 



mously difficult goal to reach, but the very em- 
phasis on material achievement, desperately 
needed as it is, rmis the risk of obscuring the 
importance of nonmaterial values without which 
the discipline and sacrifices necessary to material 
success can hardly be expected to emerge. 

On ground already made relatively barren, or at 
least disorganized, culturally and intellectually by 
Western interventions these two seedlings have 
had a rank growth. It is impossible to expect 
people in the position of most of these countries 
to appreciate the long period of work and of 
sacrifice, the cycles of success and failure, the 
slow development of complex organic relationships 
within a society, to say nothing of a certain amount 
of geographical good fortune, which has been 
necessary to produce the relatively rich, stable, 
and politically democratic national societies which 
the less developed countries seem to wish to emu- 
late. So we face an emotionally charged demand 
by a vast number of people, divided into illogi- 
cally boundaried nations, for an overnight miracle, 
an instantaneous creation of something great and 
good out of little more than an urgent desire and 
need to have it. This demand is a powerful force 
which will change a large part of the world ; the 
only issue is whether or not it will be for the 
better. 

We must not forget, in judging what may ap- 
pear to be immaturity on their part in reaching 
too impatiently for these hardly won fruits, that 
we ourselves, with the advantage of several cen- 
turies of solid, largely constructive, experience be- 
hind us, still show important evidences of rather 
gross immaturity. Without probing too deeply 
into our societies, one need only mention the ac- 
tivities of Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy 
in our own generation. 



U.S. Interest in Less Developed Areas 

The same technical pi'ogress that has accelerated 
the umrest in the less developed areas has also 
made it impossible for the industrialized countries 
like the United States to treat as of no interest 
the success or failure of the efforts of these striv- 
ing nations to become responsible members of the 
modem world with a rapidly rising standard of 
living. Time distances have been so reduced that 
this once large planet is now but a neighborhood. 
Our ability to lead the kind of life we wish to lead 
liere in tli* United States is inextricably bound up 



with the kind of neighborhood which surrounds 
us. 

Moreover we have to fear not just civil disorder 
and economic chaos among our neighbors but their 
organization under the leadership of the new 
force which is directed from the Kremlin and their 
use to achieve its goal of world communism, to 
which the United States is the principal obstacle. 
Our future is bound up with their success in reach- 
ing their goals; the Soviets can feed best on their 
failures. This makes our task not only urgent but 
a global one. We can only disregard the needs of 
a country at our peril. 

For our own safety as well as our future op- 
portunities for development of our way of life, we 
must take a direct interest in assisting the gi-owth 
to maturity of these new and relatively less de- 
veloped countries of the world. From what I 
have said it should be clear that I consider the 
existence of a Communist Soviet Union, actively 
engaged in seeking new satellites in Asia and 
Africa and Latin America, as a seriously compli- 
cating factor but not as the sole or even primary 
reason why the people of the United States should 
want to be of assistance. 

Within this broad framework of urgency and 
difficulty there are other more specific complica- 
tions. AVe have reached a state in medical science 
that insures that every step ahead taken by most 
of these peoples will reduce death rates without a 
corresponding change in birth rates and will 
thereby sharply limit the prospects for future 
progress. For to us economic progress must be 
measured not just in terms of national wealth but 
of individual wealth. The per capita investment 
required for even a low annual per capita income 
is substantial. It would be hard enough to find 
and combine together all the resources needed to 
give the existing populations a reasonably rising 
level of living, but to do so for populations which 
are expanding more rapidly all the time becomes a 
truly herculean task. 

The rapid rate of current scientific development 
also creates new and especially difficult problems. 
It would be hard enough to help these people to 
jump from the wheel age to the automobile age or 
from wood to fuel oil, but when to be a respectable 
citizen of the present-day world it becomes a ques- 
tion of rockets and nuclear power the difficulties 
are enormously increased. It is hard to find a 
qualified expert who is interested in taking a 
peasant to the next stage from a hand-pushed 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



■wooden plow, when all his experience has been in 
developing means to move from the single tractor- 
drawn plow to the multiple gang- plow technology. 
And the same applies in a hundred other fields. 
Moreover the sensitive citizen of one of these 
countries is easily led to wonder whether he is 
being treated properly if he is not offered the latest 
developments of Western technology. A funda- 
mental distrust can easily be created from such an 
apparent treatment as a second-class citizen. Too 
often these countries are not satisfied to concentrate 
on better roads and better water transportation or 
even railroads; they must all have their own 
jet airline. 

While most countries wish to do all they can 
to pay their own way to a higher standard of 
living, we appear to them to have created obstacles 
to their doing so. Somewhat like our farmers, 
the people of the less developed countries feel, 
with some justice, that they are between economic 
millstones in which the prices of the manufac- 
tured products they buy are constantly rising 
to provide better incomes to the well-organized 
workers and managers and owners of the indus- 
trialized world, while the prices of the primary 
products they sell fail to keep pace, even often 
fall sharply. Moreover, their sales volume is also 
often subjected to wide fluctuations as the rich 
countries go through periods of recession and 
boom. This is not a small problem for just a few 
countries: 45 of them receive over 60 percent of 
their export income from one or two commodities. 
To add insult to injuiy, when they try to export 
manufactured products at low prices, based on the 
low incomes their workei-s will accept, they are 
faced with quotas and tariffs and cries of market 
disruption. 

It is certainly to our interest that they expand 
their exports so that they can pay for the sup- 
plies and parts needed to keep their new factories 
operating, pay us back the money we are pvo- 
viding to build them, and be able to assume an 
increasing share of the foreign exchange costs 
of development themselves as truly independent 
nations. Our statesmanship will be tested to the 
fidl in achieving a reconciliation between their 
need to export to live and our need to protect our 
people and industries against the social disloca- 
,tions of sudden swamping by imports. It will 
probably prove a harder nut to crack than se- 
j curing large enough foreign-aid appropriations. 



I suspect that we have created a further diffi- 
culty for ourselves by letting "development" be 
handled too much by the economists as primarily 
an economic problem ; we also have gone too far 
in accepting the materialistic measure of success. 
Time and again I have heard discussions of "de- 
velopment" turn on percentage growth in gross 
national product as if health, education, govern- 
mental efficiency, even an individual's happiness 
in his environment didn't really matter. Perhaps 
we are led to this bias by the ease of measuring 
economic progress in precise terms. It's a lazy 
man's answer. 

Creating Proper Political Framework 

Not only are other areas of development im- 
portant in themselves, but success in economic de- 
velopment is entirely dependent on success in 
creating a mature political and social framework 
in which economic activities can take place. 

There must, of course, be political order. There 
must also, however, be a positive sense of loyalty 
which will enlist sacrifices for the common good 
by all citizens if the hard work, the savings, the 
cooperative effort, which are required if outside 
help is to do any good, are to be forthcoming. 

National or international agencies can develop 
economic plans and make recommendations as to 
what should come first. But only the local gov- 
ernment can in the last analysis decide what its 
national objectives are and in what order they 
shall be reached, and thus enlist a full measure 
of support from its citizens. It must be wise and 
strong to do this task well, and it is not a simple 
one. Even we have great difficulty, for example, 
in deciding as a nation such a broad question as 
what proportion of our economic output should 
go for consumer goods and what proportion 
should go for public services, like schools, hos- 
pitals, and roads. But for capital-starved new 
countries decisions in much greater detail are 
essential to maximizing their rate of growth. 

In addition to the question of what to spend 
resources on, there is always the question of how 
fast an expansion should be sought. The gap be- 
tween present levels of living and what would be 
decently humane, to say nothing of Western levels, 
is in every case so great that it is hard to resist 
trying to do some of eveiything at once and to 
spend much more rapidly than available resources 
in fact permit. The result is inevitably an infla- 
tion which destroys the desire to save and forces 



January 76, 1967 



73 



a new start after serious real losses. There are 
no more difficult political — or economic — decisions 
than those involved in this question of the proper 
balance between growth with inflation versus de- 
flation with stagnation, as we in this country 
should well know. 

Closely related to this problem of inflation is 
that of a sound public fiscal system which, without 
curbing local initiative, will provide the local 
resources for the basic economic infrastructui'e 
needed to match aid from abroad. 

There must also be chosen an appropriate 
political attitude toward foreign private enter- 
prise. It is seldom that public enterprise alone 
can do the whole job. Not only does private en- 
terprise have unique capacities, but it is an addi- 
tional source of capital in a situation where 
capital is nearly always the scarcest resource. 
Here again these countries are faced with one of 
their most difficult policy decisions, as they nat- 
urally fear greatly the loss of real independence 
through possible economic imperialism, with which 
they have in many cases had some past experience. 
Even as mature a countiy as Canada is now find- 
ing cause for concern in the proportion of its 
enterprises which are owned in the United States. 

And lastly a responsible government must find 
the means to insure that its growing wealth is 
equitably shared among its people, not all con- 
centrated in the hands of a few. Here in the 
United States we can well understand the strains 
put upon a society in reaching and maintaining a 
workable and acceptable compromise between tlie 
superficial logic of equality and the practical im- 
portance of stimulating effort and sacrifice by 
appropriate material rewards. 

I have mentioned just a few of the difficult 
political decisions which a country must make if 
its economic development is to succeed. I have 
said nothing about such less dramatic but still 
difficult questions as adequate staffing of the bu- 
reaucracy, its efficient operation free of connip- 
tion, and similar problems. "What I have said 
should indicate that the creation of proper politi- 
cal attitudes, of a proper understanding of the 
role of the government and the nature of a soimd 
political process for reaching decisions, as well 
as an understanding of difficult political-economic 
issues themselves, is an essential prerequisite to 
the organization and execution of an adequate 
economic development program. Of course, there 
are also many important noneconomic objectives 



to be achieved by sound political development. | 

It is far more difficult to create proper attitudes 
and understanding in people, whether they are 
operating in a well-established cultural system or 
just beginning to create a new one, than helping 
them to learn to dig ditches or pile up bricks 
and mortar or repair a jeep. To the extent that 
it is a matter of attitudes and understanding, there 
is moreover undoubtedly less that can be done 
from the outside. Nevertheless, for all the reasons 
cited, I do believe that we must give more atten- 
tion to the problems which many of these people 
face in creating a political system with a sense 
of depth of the sort which you as historians must 
well understand from your studies. Political de- 
velopment should take its place on tlie world stage 
alongside the present star — economic development. 

Availability of Resources 

If we could assume that the political founda- 
tions required for economic development did exist 
and would continue to improve as the economic 
problems presented for solution became more com- 
plicated with the development of a more intricate 
economic system, we would then find ourselves 
faced with several important issues in the eco- 
nomic field alone. Basically they are issues of 
availability of resources. 

I want to talk first about people. Since the 
peoples being helped must do most of the work, 
must rvm tlie factories which we build for them, 
must operate their own economy in the end, it is 
essential that we provide the traming which is 
appropriate to the kinds of economic development 
projects and programs wliicli are shaping their 
future. While our funds for this purpose have 
probably been quite inadequate, and, with the 
emergence of 16 new states in Africa this year 
looking for rapid economic progress as the normal 
and obvious result of independence, will become 
even more so, we still have not been able to fill 
all the jobs for which we had money. 

Not only do we need more people, but we need 
many more people with a sense of mission and a 
spirit of enthusiasm of the sort which can multiply 
the impact of the technical knowledge which they 
possess. Most of you are teachers and will be 
familiar with what I mean when I say that the 
task before us is one which challenges the most 
skilled of our teachers. The gap between teacher 
and student is usually far greater than you will 
find in your classroom. By the same token the 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



teaching genius required to bridge that gap, to 
select from the technical knowledge and experience 
of a rich and complicated society the knowledge 
that the citizens of one of the newer states need 
to acquire first and can best assimilate as a first 
step along the progress to full understanding — 
all this requires a teaching artist of the first or- 
der. In many cases he will have to start, not 
by explaining a new and better way to do some- 
thing, but by proving that to change at all from 
the ways of the ancestors is a good thing. But 
he must also have technical knowledge, practi- 
cal experience, and a willingness to live for pe- 
riods of time in foreign lands, often under highly 
imcongenial conditions. 

I do not see how we can meet the challenge of 
the 20th century to which I referred earlier with 
any degree of adequacy, or feel any assurance 
about our own longer term future, unless we can 
awaken in this country and in the industrialized 
countries of Europe a missionary spirit, embodied 
in an adequate number of inspired teachers who 
can show the way to the higher civilization, in all 
its facets, which we believe we possess. There is 
encouraging evidence that the newer generation 
coming out of our universities is inspired by this 
challenge and does see how exciting in terms of 
accomplishment such a life can be. 

Need for Material Resources 

But given this army of people we also need 
material resources in unprecedented amounts. 
Personally I think we need a rapid expansion in 
the flow of capital soon, though it will take a little 
time to develop the political and economic re- 
sources in the less developed countries to absorb 
efficiently the large quantities of additional capital 
that they will eventually need. But we must be 
prepared to step up its availability as rapidly as 
it can be utilized. 

Our ability to expand our capital assistance has 
fortimately been greatly increased in the past few 
years, which have seen the greatest expansion of 
needs. For we have clearly crossed the line be- 
tween the period of postwar economic reconstruc- 
tion and the next era in the economic history of 
the industrialized West, as yet minamed. The 
most dramatic symbol of tliis change is the dis- 
appearance of the dollar gap and the appearance 
of a U.S. balance-of -payments problem of consid- 
erable gravity. But with united efforts we can 



now provide goods and finance on a constantly en- 
larging basis. With the establishment of the new 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and De- 
velopment, whose charter was signed this month 
in Paris,^ the Atlantic world is better organized to 
press ahead with its common economic tasks. 

Total public and private investment now going 
into the less developed countries has been esti- 
mated to be about $5 billion a year. This, well 
used, might provide an annual per capita increase 
in gross national product of 1% to 2 percent. It 
has been estimated that, if we assmne it is 1% 
percent per year and continue at this level of in- 
vestment for 40 years, we can raise the average 
per capita income in the less developed countries 
of the free world from about $100 a year to $200 
a year. Meanwhile, if present trends continue, 
U.S. per capita income will increase not by $100 
but by nearly $4,000, and that of the rest of the 
industrialized free world by $2,600. 

In large part this is such a discouraging result 
because it assumes present trends in population 
growth. But even apart from that it is indicative 
of the enormous problem which we face in giving 
these less fortunate people even a slight sense 
of progress, let alone a decent standard of living. 
The gap between "have" and "have not" countries 
would on these assumptions widen hugely by 2000 
A.D., unless we should destroy our own future 
through mismanagement. 

I have no pat solution to offer to this discourag- 
ing picture. I think it justifies what I said at the 
outset about the crucial nature of the decisions 
which we must make in the next few years. We 
do not have long to toy with the problem. We 
must either face it and solve it, or reap the disas- 
trous consequences of failure. 

I have suggested some lines along which we 
might seek encouragement. I have mentioned the 
need for more and better technicians, improved 
use of resovirces and harder work through im- 
proved political arrangements, a cutback in popu- 
lation increase, and better export markets for less- 
developed-area products, all of which would 
increase the rate of improvement forecast above. 
Again I should also remind you that gross national 
product, even per capita, is a limited measure of 
progress, failing (except indirectly) to take into 
account such things as better education and health 
and government. 



2 Bttlletin of Jan. 2, 1961, p. 8. 



January 16, 1961 



75 



Favorable Developments 

To add a further optimistic note, which under- 
lines what we are capable of, if we have the will, 
I suggest you think back to 1945, perhaps even 
1950, and ask yourselves if you then thought the 
bulk of the African colonies could become in- 
dependent by consent by 1960. Current troubles 
in the Congo should not obscure the larger fact, 
which has been no mean achievement in statesman- 
ship, to say nothing of what has been done in the 
vast Indian peninsula and in Southeast Asia. 

The fact that the seriousness of this problem is 
recognized in ever-widening circles is also a good 
omen for success. I sometimes get the impression 
that nearly all of my economic professorial friends 
who 10 years ago were busy on books about the 
dollar gap are now turning out books on economic 
development. I sincerely hope that the best brains 
in the fields of political science, sociology, and 
history will also bring their contributions to bear 
on the solution of this crucial and difRcult issue 
and not assume that it is one to be left to the 
economists. 

We need help from all sources, and I think most 
of all from those so-called less scientific and less 
practical domains which deal with the relations 
between human beings in the realm of the mind 
and the spirit. But imless we Americans can, by 
our own actions and leadership, demonstrate and 
convince the peoples of the free world that there 
are important things in life besides the standard 
of living, that there are other objectives worth 
seeking and having, we shall, I fear, be faced with 
a real prospect of failure. Both our race against 
time for material prosperity itself and the prob- 
able need to achieve political maturity despite 
less-than-hoped-for material progress, as well as 
success in our across-the-board competition with 
Soviet communism for men's loyalties, depend on 
the growth of a belief in moral values on which 
day-to-day discussions can be founded. 

Perhaps our major problem in promoting eco- 
nomic growth is that we are not in command of 
the situation. We are better able to transmit the 
fruits of growth than the seed. The process we 
are trying to set in motion and help to sustain re- 
quires widespread transformations in attitudes, 
institutions, and structure. It requires leaders 
committed to economic and social progress and 
competent to organize, administer, and inspire 
their own people. We cannot bestow leadership. 



We can set some examples in behavior and atti- 
tudes, and we do command substantial resources 
that are important determinants of growth, in 
particular capital and technical skills. Wliere 
governments are making a determined effort to 
propel their economies forward, it is imperative 
that we help them in full measure. Where gov- 
erning groups resist change in the interest of priv- 
ilege or are weak, unstable, and ineffective in 
translating ideas into action, our problem is to try 
to fashion our assistance in such ways as to en- 
courage the transformations that are needed. 
Wliat is clear is that the process will be long-term 
and that it will require substantial and sustained 
effort on our part, guided by the wisest leadership 
we possess. 



U.S. Calls for Consultations 
on Situation in Laos 

Following are texts of two Department state- 
inents read to netos correspondents iy Joseph W. 
Reap, j>ress officer, on December 31 and January 1. 

Statement of December 31 

The Department is following with close atten- 
tion the grave situation in Laos, including in par- 
ticular reports of intervention from the outside.^ 
It is also consulting witli Allied governments. 
Mindful of its obligations under the SEATO 
Treaty, the United States Government would take 
the most serious view of any intervention in Laos 
by the Chinese Communists or Viet Minh armed 
forces or others in support of the Communist 
Pathet Lao, who are in rebellion against the Royal 
Laotian Government. 

statement of January 1 

The Department has instructed Ambassador U. 
Alexis Johnson, the U.S. Permanent Representa- 
tive on the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Council, to ask for a meeting of the Council as 
early as possible. We have furtlier instructed our 
ambassadors to all SEATO capitals to inform the 
governments to which they are accredited of these 
new developments in Laos and to explain the 



' For an exchange of notes between the United States 
and the U.S.S.R., see Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1961, p. 15. 



76 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



United States view that these developments war- 
rant consultation by the SEATO Council. 

We have begun preliniinaiy consultations with 
some of our Allies here in Washington. 



NASA To Promote Commercial Use 
of Communication Satellites 

Statement hy President Eisenhower 

White House press release dated December 31 

The commercial application of commimication 
satellites, hopefully within the next several years, 
will bring all the nations of the world closer to- 
gether in peaceful relationships as a product of 
this Nation's program of space exploration. 

The world's requirements for communication 
facilities will increase severalfold during the next 
decade, and communication satellites promise the 
most economical and eiiective means of satisfying 
these requirements. 

Increased facilities for overseas telephone, inter- 
national telegraph, and other forms of long- 
distance person-to-person communications, as well 
as new facilities for transoceanic television broad- 
casts, through the use of manmade satellites, will 
constitute a very real benefit to all the peoples of 
the world. 

This Nation has traditionally followed a policy 
of conducting international telephone, telegraph, 
and other communications services through pri- 
vate enterprise subject to governmental licensing 
and regulation. We have achieved communica- 
tions facilities second to none among the nations 
of the world. Accordingly, the Government 
should aggressively encourage private enterprise 



in the establishment and operation of satellite re- 
lays for revenue-producing purposes. 

To achieve the early establishment of a com- 
munication satellite system which can be used on 
a commercial basis is a national objective which 
will require the concerted capabilities and funds 
of both Government and private enterprise and 
the cooperative participation of communications 
organizations in foreign countries. 

Various agencies of Government, including the 
Department of State, the Department of Defense, 
and the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, 
have important interests and responsibilities in the 
field of communications. 

With regard to communication satellites, I have 
directed the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration to take the lead within the executive 
branch both to advance the needed research and 
development and to encourage private industry to 
apply its resources toward the earliest practicable 
utilization of space teclinology for commercial 
civil communication requirements. In carrying 
out this task NASA will cooperate closely with 
the Federal Conununications Commission to make 
certain that the high standards of this Nation for 
communications services will be maintained in the 
utilization of communication satellites. 

Letters of Credence 

Mali 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Re- 
public of Mali, Abdoulaye Maiga, presented his 
credentials to President Eisenhower on December 
27. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and 
the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 708 dated December 27. 



January 16, 7967 



77 



International Consultations on Rubber 



hy Sydney L. W. Mellen 



Rubber illustrates with classic simplicity several 
of the typical features of an international com- 
modity problem. As an export product it is vital 
to the economic welfare and progress of 10 or 12 
underdeveloped countries, most of them in the 
southern periphery of Asia but 2 or 3 in tropical 
Africa, and it is an essential raw material in all 
industrial countries. It is subject to sharp fluctu- 
ations in price. Over the past 45 years, in the 
course of alternating periods of oversupply and 
scarcity, the price has swung several times from 20 
cents or less a pound to 70 cents or more, including 
extremes of 2% cents in 1932 and $1.21 in 1925, 
with severe hardship occuning in producing areas 
in times of oversupply and serious dislocations or 
even threats to defense capability in the indus- 
trialized countries in times of scarcity. In recent 
years great technological advances have been made 
in the growing of natural rubber and especially in 
the production of synthetic rubber. 

Governments have made several efforts to deal 
with these problems. The first major attempt was 
the ill-fated Stevenson Scheme of the 1920's, im- 
perfect in conception and calamitous in final out- 
come. It was essentially an attempt to control 
supply withm the British Empire, but the control 
provisions were unwieldy, and one of the two larg- 
est producers, the Netherlands East Indies, de- 
clined to participate. It is suggestive that during 
the life of the Scheme production in the East In- 



• Mr. MeUen is Chief of the Commodities 
Division, Department of State. He was the 
U.S. delegate to the 15th meeting of the In- 
ternational Rubber Study Group at Kuala 
Lumpur, Malaya, September 19-23, 1960. 



dies increased twice as fast as in British Malaya, 
the other major producer. 

Some years later, in response to the great de- 
pression, another attempt at governmental inter- 
vention was made, this time in the form of the 
International Rubber Regulation Committee, 
sanctioned by international treaty. This was a 
much more sophisticated undertaking, and it oper- 
ated from 1934 until the middle of World War II 
with a certain measure of success, though there was 
still mistrust in some coxmtries. It was in effect 
an agreement among producing countries for the 
purpose of controlling the supply, but it covered 
nearly all of the world's output and was more flexi- 
ble in operation. Representatives of consuming 
industries in the United States and elsewhere par- 
ticipated in an advisory capacity. 

The International Rubber Study Group 

In 1945 the latest mechanism for international 
cooperation was established, in the form of the 
International Rubber Study Group, with the 
United States participating fully for the first time. 
This organization, for which the term "interna- 
tional study group" was invented, has grown and 
developed over the past 15 years and gives eveiy 
appearance of having a long, useful life ahead of 
it. It has been followed by the organization of 
nearly a dozen international commodity study 
groups in recent years. It has no control powers 
at all ; its essential function is to provide for the 
exchange of information and views among tlie 
principal producing and consuming countries. 
Primarily it builds up and publishes statistics and 
other information, including especially forecasts 
of supply and demand. 

Originally organized by the Governments of the 
Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United 



78 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



States, the International Rubber Study Group is 
open to all countries with a substantial interest in 
rubber and now has a membership of 23 govern- 
ments.^ Meetings have been held at intervals of 
1 or 2 years. Since 1947 the Study Group has had 
a secretariat in London, consisting of an experi- 
enced secretary-general and a small staff. There 
is also a Management Committee supervising the 
work of the secretariat between meetings of the 
Group. 

A problem which has received close attention 
in the International Rubber Study Group almost 
from the beginning lias been that of fluctuations 
in the price of natural rubber and the possibility 
of international action to achieve a greater meas- 
ure of stability. In 1952 a working party exam- 
ined tills problem rather exhaustively. In the fol- 
lowing year the Study Group reported that the 
majority of countries producing natural rubber 
and some consuming countries considered it neces- 
sary and practicable to adopt measures to avoid 
burdensome surpluses and serious shortages but 
that other countries were not convinced of the ne- 
cessity of such a scheme. The United States was 
included in the latter group. The Study Group 
then concluded that it could not recommend sum- 
moning a conference to negotiate an international 
commodity agreement. In succeeding years the 
Group continued to consider the subject but always 
without reaching a general consensus as to the 
means by which a stabilization of prices should be 
achieved or as to the necessity of a buffer stock 
agreement or any other form of international com- 
modity agreement. 

At all its meetings the Study Group has dis- 
cussed the statistical position of rubber and made 
short-term forecasts. Member governments have 
presented statements on important developments 
in their coimtries. Problems concerning the mar- 
ket for rubber and the expansion of its use have 
regularly been discussed. Some of the other sub- 
jects frequently considered have been strategic 



I 'Australia, Austria, Belgium, Burma, Cambodia, Can- 
ada, Ceylon, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, the Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, 
Japan, Liberia, the Federation of Malaya, the Netherlands, 
Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and 
Viet-Nam, plus Nigeria since its independence on Oct. 1, 
1960. In recent years the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation and the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development have sent observers to meetings of the 
Rubber Study Group. 



stockpile policies, the development of agreed inter- 
national type descriptions and packing specifica- 
tions for natural rubber, the development of high- 
yielding strains of natural rubber, and progress 
in synthetic rubber. 

The 1960 Meeting 

The 15th meeting of the International Rubber 
Study Group was held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, 
September 19-23, 1960. As at previous meetings, 
the U.S. delegation included not only Government 
officials but prominent leaders of the U.S. rubber 
industry and trade. The two major items on the 
agenda were a review of the world supply-demand 
position and the problem of the instability of the 
price of natural rubber. 

On the first of these subjects, the Study Group 
made estimates of natural and synthetic rubber 
requirements and supply during the calendar year 
1960. It estimated that the world might constune, 
i.e. turn into manufactured goods, some 2,070,000 
long tons of natural rubber and 1,770,000 long 
tons of synthetic rubber, apart from synthetic 
rubber produced in nonmember countries. The 
Study Group estimated that the world production 
of natural rubber would be 2,055,000 tons and 
that synthetic rubber production in member coun- 
tries would be 1,940,000 tons. In addition it esti- 
mated that some 160,000 tons of natural rubber 
would be delivered during the year from govern- 
ment stockpiles. The Study Group concluded that 
the estimated surpluses of production over con- 
sumption, amoimting to 145,000 tons of natural 
rubber and 170,000 tons of synthetic, would per- 
mit commercial stocks to be built up to more nor- 
mal levels. 

The Study Group also noted continuing prog- 
ress in the development of new and improved 
types of both natural and synthetic rubber and 
in particular the development of stereo-regular 
synthetic rubbers which have now reached the 
stage of commercial production, constituting a 
new competitive element. 

The review of progi-ess in natural rubber dealt 
with the farsighted and effective efforts being 
made by some rubber-growing countries to in- 
crease productivity and reduce costs of production. 
As an outstanding example, Malaya has been car- 
rying out with the aid of the governmental taxing 
power and subsidies a vast program of replanting 
with high-yielding strains, which is designed to 



January 16, 1961 



79 



cover the country's entire rubber acreage in time. 
Since replanting increases the yiehl per acre 
rouglily threefold and drastically reduces the cost 
of production per pound, countries like Malaya 
will be able to export rubber profitably at prices 
substantially lower than heretofore. 

Stereo-regular Synthetic Rubbers 

The stereo- regular synthetic rubbers (so named 
because of the regular patterns of their molecular 
structure, a characteristic which they share with 
natural rubber) do indeed constitute a new com- 
petitive element in the world rubber situation and 
one which is likely to become increasingly sig- 
nificant in the coming 5 or 10 years. The discus- 
sion and conclusions of the Study Group on this 
subject were based largely on information fur- 
nished by the U.S. delegation, since the United 
States lias been the leader in the development of 
the stereo-regular rubbers. 

The latter are of two main types, cis-polyiso- 
prene and cis-polybutadiene. Cis-polyisoprene, 
which has been called "synthetic natural rubber," 
is for all practical purposes interchangeable with 
natural rubber. For some months it has been 
produced in this countiy and sold commercially 
in small quantities, at prices below the market 
price of natural rubber. It is now being produced 
at a rate of about 20,000 tons a year, or 1 percent 
of world production of natural rubber. In 
November 1960 the selling price was reduced from 
32 cents a pound to 27 cents a pound; the lead- 
ing grade of natural rubljer had for some weeks 
been selling at approximately 30 cents a pound, but 
soon afterward it fell to al)out 28i/^ cents. Cis- 
polybutadiene is somewhat ditferent from natural 
rubber l^ut in some respects superior, and it con- 
tributes some very desirable characteristics when 
blended with natural rubber or cis-polyisoprene. 
It has been manufactured in pilot plants by sev- 
eral companies and for the past several months 
has been produced by one of them on a small 
commercial scale and sold at 30 cents a pound. 

Additional plants for the production of botli 
types of stereo-regular rubber are now under con- 
struction or planned. It is expected that by the 
end of 1962 there will be a total production 
capacity of about 230,000 tons a year in the United 
States, and additional plants are scheduled for 
construction thereafter in the United States and 
Europe. Many of these plans, however, are sub- 



ject to change depending upon market conditions. 
If the market price of natural rubber should rise 
again to 35 or 40 cents a pound, where it sold 
during most of 1960, and seem likely to stay at 
some such level, then the construction of stereo- 
regular plants would undoubtedly be accelerated. 
On the other hand, if the market price of natural 
rubber should fluctuate around 25 cents a pound 
and seem likely to stay there for some time, plans 
for the constiiiction of additional stereo-regular 
plants would m all probability be deferred, in the 
absence of new technological advances, since 
boards of directors would in that situation hesitate 
to approve the required investment of tens of mil- 
lions of dollars. 

Instability of Natural Rubber Prices 

The Study Group gave due weight to these con- 
siderations in its discussion of the instability of 
natural rubber prices. On the one hand the Group 
concluded that the increasing production of stereo- 
regular rubbers would m the long run exercise an 
important stabilizing influence on natural rub- 
ber prices at competitive levels. On the other 
hand the delegations of several countries em- 
phasized that the actual or potential competition 
of the new synthetic rubbers made it necessary 
for the rubber-growing countries to concentrate 
on replanting programs to increase their yields 
per acre and lower their costs of production. 
There appeared to be a spreading awareness that 
stabilizing the price of natural rubber at a high 
level might well have disastrous consequences for 
the rubber-growing countries in the long run. 

In any case, no specific proposals were made 
for an international price stabilization agreement, 
and it was clear that many of the delegations, in- 
cluding those of some of the rubber-growing 
countries, felt that such an agreement would not 
be the right solution for the problems confronted 
in the case of rubber. There were a number of 
additional reasons for this attitude, including 
the great practical difficulties involved in negotiat- 
ing and enforcing such an agreement and the sub- 
stantial cost of a buffer stock of appropriate size. 

At the same time the Study Group fully ap- 
preciated the importance of a greater measure of 
stability in the price of natural rubber, especially 
for countries whose economies are largely de- 
pendent on exports of that commodity. It felt 
that a sigiiificant contribution to the reduction of 



80 



Department of State Bulletin 



excessive fluctuations, supplementing the con- 
tribution made by the stereo-regular rubbers and 
indeed the conventional types of synthetic rubber, 
could be made by a variety of unspectacular meas- 
ures including, for example, better and more 
widely disseminated statistics and other informa- 
tion. A number of measures of this nature were 
considered by the Study Group, and the Manage- 
ment Committee was instructed to study them. 
Several delegates referred to the important work 
being done in this field by the United Nations 
Commission on International Commodity Trade, 
which is to hold its next meeting in May 1961. 

The United States gave an indication of the 
importance which it attaches to the work of the 
International Rubber Study Group by inviting 
the Group to hold its next meeting at Washington. 
The invitation was accepted, and it was decided 
that this next meeting would be held in the spring 
of 1962. 

It was also decided that as a general rule the 
Management Committee should, in each year when 
there was no meeting of the full Study Group, 
hold two meetings which would be open to all 
member governments, one in May or June and one 
in the late autumn. These special enlarged meet- 
ings would be primarily for the purpose of de- 
veloping and publishing estimates of the world 
rubber position, but they would also consider other 
matters of general interest. In conjunction with 
this plan there appeared to be fairly general agree- 
ment that full meetings of the Study Group might 
now be held ordinarily only once every 2 years, 
probably in May or June. The combined result 
may be to facilitate and improve the substantive 
technical work of the organization, while limiting 
the frequency of full-dress meetings. 

The U.S. Rubber Disposal Program 

The press communique issued by the Interna- 
tional Rubber Study Group at the close of its 
recent meeting included the following statement : 

The Group noted that disposals of natural rubber are 
now taking place from government stockpiles and ex- 
pressed its appreciation of the fact that the disposal 
arrangements adopted by the United States of America 
and the United Kingdom were decided after full con- 
sultation with all member countries having a substantial 
interest in the production of natural rubber. 

This refers to the disposal plan announced by 
the U.S. Government in September 1959 and the 



smaller disposal plan announced at the same time 
by the Government of the United Kingdom. The 
two plans had been the subject of extensive con- 
sultations with the governments of the rubber- 
growing countries. To avoid premature reports 
and speculation, the consultations had been carried 
on not through the International Rubber Study 
Grouj) but on a confidential govermnent-to- 
government basis. 

In the case of the United States it had been 
determined early in 1959, after a lengthy review 
and recalculation of current maximum require- 
ments in the event of an emergency, that there 
was an excess of 470,000 long tons of rubber in the 
national stockpile. Since this was a large amount, 
representing a total market value at that time of 
something like $350 million and almost one- 
fourth of a year's world production, long and 
careful deliberation was given to the question of 
whether and how the excess could be disposed of 
without disruption of world markets. It was rec- 
ognized, in the first instance by the executive 
branch and at a later stage by the Congress, that 
foreign policy considerations were important. An 
ill-considered disposal action by the U.S. Govern- 
ment could have a very serious impact on a number 
of foreign countries with whom it is important to 
the United States to maintain relations of friendly 
mutual confidence. In some of the rubber-grow- 
ing areas the United States has in recent years 
provided substantial amounts of economic aid. 

In the highly volatile markets for natural rub- 
ber, psychological factors are so important that 
at times a relatively small imbalance in the world 
supply-demand situation can cause a wide move- 
ment of prices. For example, the bullish psychol- 
ogy which prevailed generally during 1959 
coupled with an overall deficiency of less than 
60,000 tons in that year caused a rise from 30 cents 
a pound in February to 45 cents in November. 
Conversely, the somewhat bearish psychology 
which prevailed durmg the last half of 1960i 
coupled with a surplus estimated at 145,000 tons 
for the year resulted in a decline from about 4T 
cents in June to 281/^ cents in November. 

The consequences of price changes such as these 
are much more serious for rubber-growing coun- 
tries than for the United States— both relatively, 
because the rubber-growing coimtries are smaller 
and less diversified, and also in some cases ab- 
solutely, because the volume of their comparable 



January 16, 1961 



81 



rubber transactions is actually greater. Thus rub- 
ber exports now represent well over 60 percent 
of the value of total exports in Malaya and Viet- 
Nam, and close to 50 percent in Liberia and In- 
donesia. They represent smaller but still impor- 
tant percentages in Cambodia, Thailand, Ceylon, 
and Nigeria. Other important areas are also con- 
cerned. In absolute terms, a drop of 10 cents a 
pound in natural-rubber prices results in a loss of 
$150 million or more to Malaya or Indonesia in 
the foreign exchange receipts from a year's rubber 
exports. In many cases governmental revenues 
are heavily dependent on rubber prices and wages 
can be seriously affected. 



How the Program Was Developed 

For these reasons the U.S. Government recog- 
nized at an early stage that a disposal of excess 
rubber could hardly be undertaken unless there 
was to be a program containing real safeguards 
against market disruption. It was not simply a 
matter of the U.S. Government's satisfying itself 
that sales would be carried out prudently and cir- 
cumspectly ; it was considered essential to proceed 
in such a way that at the outset the rubber-grow- 
ing countries would also be reasonably confident 
of this. Advice and suggestions were obtained 
from the U.S. industry and trade. After pro- 
tracted discussions within the Government a plan 
and certain implementing procedures, which to- 
gether can be referred to as the disposal program, 
were developed and were then discussed with the 
governments of the interested foreign countries. 
Those governments thereupon tendered views and 
suggestions regarding possible changes. The U.S. 
Government found it possible and desirable to 
adopt a number of these changes, at least in part. 

The disposal program finally adopted contem- 
plated the sale of the 470,000 tons of excess rubber 
over a period of about 9 years. It included the 
following graduated scale of prices and quantity 
limits to be put into effect at the outset : 

Maximum disposal per 
Price range calendar quarter 

(Cents per pound) (Long tons) 

Under 30 No disposals 

30 up to but not including 32 9,000 

32 up to 34 18,000 

34 up to 36 27,000 

36 and above No limit 

82 



In the consultations with foreign governments 
it was invariably made clear that any U.S. dis- 
posal plan for rubber was subject to approval by 
tlie Congress. It was made clear also that the dis- 
posal program to be adopted finally by the United 
States would be not an intergovernmental agree- 
ment but a decision of the U.S. Government alone, 
taken after careful study and considtation with in- 
terested foreigii governments. It was made clear, 
finally, that the U.S. Government might in the fu- 
ture adopt changes in its disposal program, even 
substantial ones such as a change in the graduated 
scale of prices and quantity limits given above. 
If and when there is a basic and lasting change in 
the rubber market — because of developments in 
stereo-regular rubber or for any other reason — the 
rubber disposal program will have to be brought 
into conformity. Contingencies not originally 
foreseen may arise at any time and may in some 
cases require that action be taken. The U.S. Gov- 
ernment informed the other substantially in- 
terested governments, however, that it was its 
intention not to adopt any change of a substantial 
nature in its disposal program without first con- 
sulting them. 

There have been certain misconceptions about 
the Government's rubber disposal program. One 
is that it is somehow a price-stabilizing scheme. 
The mere possession of a very large stockpile in- 
ventory, to be sure, has some influence on markets. 
The disposal program, however, is a program for 
orderly disposal of rubber and not a program for 
stabilizing prices. At any given time the market 
price of natural rubber is determined by supply 
and demand. Tliere are many variables, and sev- 
eral of them are more important than any an- 
ticipated volume of stockpile sales: the level of 
production in the major rul)ber-growing areas; 
the volume of purchases of rubber by the Soviet 
Union, the European satellites, and Communist 
China; the level of tire production and general 
business activity in the United States and the 
other major consuming countries in the free 
world; and the proportion of synthetic rubber 
used in manufacturing tires and other products 
in the free world. 

The existence of upper and lower extremes in 
the graduated scale of prices and quantity limits 
has suggested to some people a resemblance to 
buffer stocks. This resemblance is entirely super- 
ficial. The differences are of fundamental im- 

Departmenf of Sfate Bullefin 



portance. A buflfer stock undertakes (perhaps in 
conjunction with the regulation of exports) to pre- 
vent market prices from falling below a stated 
floor price, by buying at that level, and to prevent 
them from rising above a stated ceiling price, by 
selling at that level. The graduated scale in the 
rubber disposal program has no such purpose. 
There is no intention whatever of preventing the 
market price of rubber from falling below the cut- 
off price, as it is called — at present 30 cents a 
pound — or from rising above 36 cents a pound. In 
fact for the first 12 months after the program was 
publicly announced the market price of the leading 
grade of rubber was consistently and often sub- 
stantially above 36 cents a pound, and then, after 
a period of less than 3 months in which prices 
stayed within the 30-36 cent range, the market 
price dropped below 30 cents a pound (resulting 
in the suspension of sales) and had not yet recov- 
ered when this article went to press. 

The real purpose of the cutoff price of 30 cents 
a pound in the graduated scale established at the 
outset is twofold : to avoid having sales by the 
U.S. Government exert a downward pressure on 
market prices at times when the market is weak 
for other reasons, and to avoid selling rubber from 
the stockpile at prices disadvantageous to the U.S. 
Government. In order to prevent the market 
price of natural rubber from falling below the 
cutoff price, it would be necessary to stand ready 
to buy all the rubber offered in the world at that 
price or lower ; the disposal program of course con- 
templates no purchases at all, and it is unthinkable 
that it should. At the other end of the scale, the 
absence of any limitation on the volume of sales 
at prices of 36 cents a pound or higher is intended 
to enable the U.S. Government to take full ad- 
vantage of especially favorable market conditions 
in disposing of its excess rubber. 

In spite of occasional misconceptions or com- 
plaints, the United States rubber disposal program 
has on the whole been reasonably successful so 
far. Since the commencement of sales on October 
17, 1960, nearly 100,000 tons of rubber have been 
sold. Yet this sizable and potentially disruptive 
operation has been carried out without significant 
market impact and without injury to the foreign 
relations of the United States. The note of ap- 
preciation expressed in the press communique of 
the recent International Rubber Study Group 
meeting has been heard in other forums also. 



It seems just possible that, if the Government 
should in this case succeed in disposing of a large 
stockpile excess without causing injury or alarm to 
the producing interests concerned, the operation 
might provide a helpful pattern for the disposal 
of other portions of the Government's large excess 
stockpile inventories in cases where other produc- 
ing interests, foreign or domestic, are concerned. 
It appears that in large measure the favorable 
results so far are attributable to three factors: 
the timing of the disposal to coincide at the outset 
with a period of imdersupply and of high market 
prices ; the principle of a cutoff price and some sort 
of graduated scale of prices and quantity limits, 
established in advance but subject to change in 
conformity with changing conditions ; and careful 
and serious prior consultation with the interested 
foreigii governments. 

U.S. Officials and Foreign Minister 
of Ecuador Conclude Talks 

Following is the text of a joint announcement 
made hy the United States and Ecuador on Decem,- 
her 30. 

Press release 713 dated December 30 

Foreign Minister Jose R. Chiriboga of Ecuador 
has consulted during the past few days with high- 
level officials of the Department of State and of 
various United States Government financial 
institutions concerning President Jose Maria 
Velasco Ibarra's economic and social development 
plans and the part that the United States can play 
in assistuig Ecuador to realize these plans to raise 
the standard of living of its people. Various mis- 
sions from the United States have already per- 
formed preliminary surveys of the projects 
Ecuador hopes to accomplish m the fields of low- 
cost housing, electrification, road construction, 
provision of potable water to various Ecuadorean 
coimnunities, and economic mapping of the coun- 
try. On the basis of these studies and the dis- 
cussions with Foreign Minister Chiriboga, U.S. 
officials are confident that promjjt consideration 
can be given to the proposals for loans that 
Ecuador plans to submit in the near future. 

The projects discussed that appear to be promis- 
ing include the following : Assistance to Ecuador 
in establishing savings and loan institutions that 



January 16, 1961 



83 



will permit low-cost housing to be made available 
to people of moderate means, as well as assistance 
in initiating "self-help" housing in Ecuador. 

Construction of first-class roads from Santo 
Domingo to Esmeraldas and from M. J. Calle to 
Huaquillas. 

Municipal water systems wliich would con- 
tribute to the economic growth of Ecuador and 
the welfare of its citizens. 

Electric power installations in the Manta-Bahia 
de Caraques area, with accompanying transmis- 
sion systems, and projects to increase the power 
generating capacity in Cuenca, Alao-Riobamba, 
San Jose, and Loja. 

Mapping of Western Ecuador as a preliminary 
to establishing development projects. 

United States officials are awaiting receipt of 
loan applications for these projects, and for others 
which are still in the preliminary state, and look 
forward to careful consideration of these projects 
as they are submitted and to further mutual con- 
sultation with the Government of Ecuador. 



U.S. and Togo Sign Economic 
and Technical Aid Agreement 

FoUotoing is the text of a joint Togo-U.S. 
communique released at Lome, Republic of Togo, 
on December 28. 

Press release 711 dated December 29 

In an exchange of notes ^ between Mr. Sylvanus 
E. Olympio, Prime Minister of the Republic of 
Togo, and Leland Barrows, Ambassador of the 
United States, an Economic and Teclmical Assist- 
ance Agreement was concluded on December 22, 
1960, between the Government of Togo and the 
Government of the United States of America. 

The accord provides for establishment at Lome 
of an operations mission of the International 
Cooperation Administration, the agency charged 
with administration of American foreign assist- 
ance programs in the economic, technical and 
related fields. 

The first members of the mission will arrive at 
Lome in January 1961, and their first task will 
be to discuss with Togolese authorities specific 
projects to be realized imder the accord. 



' Not printed. 
84 



Highway equipment, comprising various vehi- 
cles and spare parts, that the Government of the 
United States agreed to grant to the Government 
of Togo in an exchange of notes on November 9, 
1960, will be furnished under the December 22 
agreement. 

Paul Amegee, Togo Minister of Public Works, 
accompanied by an engineer, will travel to the 
United States shortly to select equipment to be 
provided. 

U.S. Helps Viet-Nam Finance 
Jet Runway Construction 

Press release 715 dated December 30 

The Department of State on December 30 an- 
nounced the award of a contract to the E. V. Lane 
Corp., Palo Alto, Calif., for construction of a 
heavy-duty jet runway which will be built with 
U.S. financial assistance at the Tan Son Nhut 
Airport at Saigon, Viet-Nam. 

The runway will cost approximately $4,106,000, 
of which about 80 percent will be dollar financing 
by the U.S. International Cooperation Adminis- 
tration and 20 percent local currency (piastres) 
financing by the Government of Viet-Nam. 

The project will facilitate the handling of jet 
plane ti'affic at the Saigon airport, which serves 
a number of international airlines. 

A contract with the Lane Corporation was 
signed on December 29 by Bui Quay Lan, First 
Secretary of the Vietnamese Embassy, represent- 
ing his Government, and Julius Kessler, ICA con- 
tract officer, representing the United States. 

U.S. Grants Iceland $6 Million 
for Monetary Stabilization 

Press release 714 dated December 30 

The Governments of Iceland and the United 
States announced on December 30 that in an ex- 
change of notes on that day a grant of $6 million 
was extended by the United States to Iceland. 
Notes were exchanged at Washington, where 
representatives of the Department of State and 
the Icelandic Embassy affirmed that tlie grant was 
intended as a means of assisting Iceland in attain- 
ing its goal of monetary stabilization. 

This grant will be used to pay for the importa- 
tion of various commodities in the same manner 

Department of State Bulletin 



as for loans which in past years have been obtained 
from the International Cooperation Administra- 
tion. In order to insure that the grant will 
confer maximum benefit upon Iceland's foreign ex- 
change position and contribute to the stabiliza- 
tion program as intended, the counterpart of the 
money in Icelandic kronur will be placed in a 
special closed account with the Icelandic Central 
Bank. 

Initial talks took place during January of 1960, 
when assurances were given for necessary financial 
assistance in an amount up to $6 million. This 
was to be further negotiated during the latter 
part of the year. Discussions began again at the 
end of August, when the State Department agreed 
to the request of the Icelandic Government for the 
$6 million grant. 

Yugoslavia To Receive Aid for Reform 
of Foreign Exchange and Trade 

Press release 709 dated December 27 

In association with the International Monetary 
Fund and a number of European countries the 
U.S. Government announced on December 27 its 
intention to assist Yugoslavia in carrying out a 
reform of its foreign exchange and foreign trade 
system. 

The Yugoslav reform involves the establish- 
ment of a unitary exchange rate of 750 dinars per 
U.S. dollar and the introduction of a system of 
customs tariffs. The Yugoslav Government also 
intends to liberalize considerably its import con- 
trols and to reduce bilateralism in its foreign trade. 
These measures represent a major simplification 
and liberalization of Yugoslavia's present system 
of complex multiple exchange rates with restric- 
tions on most imports and invisible payments. 
They will facilitate Yiigoslavia's foreign trade and 
payments relations and will serve to integrate 
Yugoslavia more closely with the international 
economy. 

The credits from the U.S. Government, totaling 
approximately $100 million, will be provided from 
the following sources : 

Mutual Security Program $25 million 

Export-Import Bank 50 million 

Development Loan Fund 25 million 



Total 



100 million 



In addition to the financial support to be pro- 
vided by the United States the International 
Monetary Fmid will make available up to $75. 
million in various currencies held by the Fmid, 
and a number of European comitries, including^ 
Austria, Italy, France, the Netherlands, Switzer- 
land, and the United Kingdom, as well as private 
German banks, will provide credits in excess of 
$100 million. 

President Directs Use of Mutual 
Security Funds for Office of IGC 

Following is the text of a letter from President 
Eisenhower to Secretary Herter concerning th& 
Office of Inspector General and Comptroller^ Mu^ 
tual Security. 

Press release 706 dated December 23 

December 23, 1960 
Dear ]\Ir. Secretary : The Comptroller Genera} 
of the United States informed you by letter dated 
December 8, 1960, that unless certain documents 
were furnished to the Subcommittee on Foreign 
Operations and Monetary Affairs of the House 
Committee on Government Operations by Decem- 
ber 9, 1960, mutual security program funds would 
no longer be available for expenses of the Office 
of the Inspector General and Comptroller estab- 
lished under Section 533A of the Mutual Security 
Act of 1954, as amended, and any such use of pro- 
gram f imds after that date would be disallowed by 
the General Accounting Office. The Comptroller- 
General subsequently advised you by letter dated 
December 13, 1960 that since the documents had 
not been furnished, program funds were not avail- 
able to liquidate obligations incurred after Decem- 
ber 9, 1960, and any such payments made would be 
disallowed. 

This position, I am advised by the Attorney 
General, is based upon an erroneous interpreta- 
tion of law which would reach an unconstitutional! 
result and that mutual security funds continue to 
be available for expenses of the Office of Inspector 
General and Comptroller. 

Accordingly, you are hereby directed until the 
end of my term of office on January 20, 1961, to. 
cause to be certified and presented vouchers for 
the payment of the expenses of the Office of In- 



January 16, 7 96 J 



85 



spector General and Comptroller out of mutual 
security program funds as heretofore. 

A copy of my directive to the Secret ai-y of the 
Treasury on this subject is enclosed for your 
information.^ 

In this instance files and reports of investiga- 
tions of individuals prepared by the Office of In- 
spector General and Comptroller were requested, 
aa were also Mutual Security Program evaluation 
reports prepared by the same office. In adherence 
to a principle steadfastly mamtained by my pred- 
ecessors and by me, I certified on December 2, 
1960, that the requested documents not be fur- 
nished and set forth my reasons for this decision 
in my Certification (copy attached). As is indi- 
cated in that Certification, it is my practice that 
facts shown by Mutual Security Program evalua- 
tion reports be furnished and in tliis case that was 
done several weeks ago. 

The Comptroller General's decision of Decem- 
ber 8, 1960, meant either that the described 
docmnents would have to be furnished to the Con- 
gress despite a Presidential determination that it 
would be against the public interest to do so, or 
that the Office of Inspector General and Comp- 
troller, Mutual Security, woidd cease to function 
for lack of fmids, thereby terminating the vital 
means, originated by the Congress itself, by which 
the Executive Branch evaluates the Mutual Se- 
curity program and prevents and ferrets out any 
wrongdoing or waste that might arise in the ad- 
ministration of that program. I could not con- 
scionably pei-mit either of these alternatives to 
happen. 

This decision meant also, for the approximately 
90 people employed in the Office of Inspector 
General and Comptroller, Mutual Security, that 
work in that Office would smnmarily cease on one 
day's notice. While measures have been taken by 
the Department of State to avert temporarily the 
effects of the Comptroller General's action, these 
measures could not be continued for long and in 
due course there would be a dispersion of highly 
trained investigators and other skilled personnel 
assembled over a period of more than a year. 
One result of the action I am taking, therefore, 
will be the preservation of a valuable organization 
which could not be effectively lexionstituted ex- 



cept over a considerable period of time and at 
great expense. 

In approving the bill containing the 1959 
amendments to the Mutual Security Act, I made 
the following statement as to the effect of the 
provision here in question and two similar provi- 
sions also contained in that bill : ^ 

I have signed this bill on the express premise that the 
three amendments relating to disclosure are not intended 
to alter and cannot alter the recognized Constitutional 
duty and power of the Executive with respect to the 
disclosure of information, documents, and other mate- 
rials. Indeed, any other construction of these amend- 
ments would raise grave Constitutional questions under 
the historic Separation of Powers Doctrine. 

The fundamental Constitutional principle here 
involved was recognized by the Congress itself as 
I'ecently as May of tliis year when the House 
Conferees on the Mutual Security Act of 1960, in 
commenting in their report on another provision 
in the Mutual Security Act relating to the fur- 
nishing of documents, said : 

The committee of conference recognizes that the sepa- 
ration of iwwers under the Constitution makes it impossi- 
ble for the Congress to infringe the prerogatives of the 
Executive by legislative action and that consequently this 
provision would serve to indicate the will of the Congress 
but that it could neither prescribe nor limit the constitu- 
tional powers of the Executive. 

Every effort was made, as you know, to 
persuade the Comptroller General to reconsider 
his decision, or at least to postpone Iris December 
ninth deadline. Those efforts having failed, I 
have concluded that I have no alternative but to 
direct certification and disbursement. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The Honorable Christian A. Herter 
Secretary of State 
Washington, 25, D.C. 

Certification 

I am advised that on October 31, 1960, there were 
delivered to the Secretary of State, the Director of the 
International Cooperation Administration, and the Man- 
aging Director of the Development Loan Fund written 
requests from the Chairman of the Subcommittee on For- 
eign Operations and Monetary Affairs of the Committee 
on Government Operations of the House of Representa- 
tives for certain documents relating to the United States 
aid program in seven South American countries. 



' Not printed here. 
86 



"' Bulletin of Aug. 10, 1959, p. 207. 

Department of State Bulletin 



As I have stated on other occasions, it is the estab- 
lished policy of the Executive Branch to provide the 
Congress and the public with the fullest possible infor- 
mation consistent with the national interest. However, 
the Executive also has a recognized Constitutional duty 
and power with respect to the disclosure of information, 
documents and other materials relating to its operations. 

It is vital to the national interest that the officials and 
employees of the Executive Branch be able to conduct 
its operations in an effective manner. It is essential to 
effective operations that such officials and employees be 
in a position to be fully candid in advising with each 
other on policy, personnel or other official matters, that 
they be able to engage in frank and informal exchanges 
of views with foreign officials and other foreign persons, 
and that they be in a position to conduct effective investi- 
gations into the conduct and suitability of personnel and 
other matters. The disclosure of certain conversations, 
communications or documents relating to the foregoing 
matters can tend to impair or inhibit essential investi- 
gative, reporting or decision-making processes or the 
proper conduct of our foreign relations, and such dis- 
closure must therefore be forbidden, as contrary to the 
national interest, where that is deemed necessary for 
the protection of the orderly and effective operation of 
the Executive Branch. 

I have accordingly found it necessary to forbid the 
disclosure of certain of the documents which are included 
or understood to be included in the written requests re- 
ferred to above. These documents are identified in the 
lists '' attached to this certificate. 

1. Of these documents, those which contain references 
to statements or policy of the National Security Council 
or the Operations Coordinating Board recommend changes 
in such statements or policy or reflect the advice to the 
President of members of his cabinet and others of his 
principal advisers. Another document requested contains 
advice to the Secretary of State by one of his principal 
assistants concerning policy matters as to which recom- 
mendations were to be made to the President. The Presi- 
dent must be free to receive the confidential advice of 
his officers in the Executive Branch. Such documents 
as these have traditionally not been disclosed outside of 
the Executive Branch and in my opinion such disclosure 
would be contrary to the national interest. 

2. A number of the docmnents requested relate to infor- 
mal conversations or communications between United 
States officials and foreign officials of the highest rank 
or other foreign persons of importance. The disclosure 
of documents of this character outside of the Executive 
Branch would have an adverse effect upon the willingness 
of such foreign officials and other persons to engage in 
the frank and informal exchanges of views which are 
essential to the proper conduct of our foreign relations. 

3. Several of the documents requested relate to person- 
nel matters and contain statements as to the performance, 
efficiency, loyalty, character or other qualities of partic- 
ular personnel of the United States Government. It has 



' Xot printed here. 
January 76, J96J 



been the traditional policy of the Government that the 
disclosure of documents of this character outside of the 
Executive Branch would be contrary to the proper pro- 
tection of individuals and could tend to inhibit the candid 
evaluation of per.sonnel. 

4. A number of the documents requested contain inves- 
tigative matter such as unsubstantiated allegations, con- 
fidential sources of information, techniques of investi- 
gation and the like. The disclosure of documents of this 
character would be unfair to the individuals concerned 
and would tend to impair the ability of the Executive to 
conduct effective investigations. 

5. The requests are also understood to include evalua- 
tion reports and exchanges of several airgrams describing 
recommendations or otherwise referring to such reports 
as to the Mutual Security Program, prepared by the 
Department of State or the International Cooperation 
Administration. For the reasons which I have stated 
in connection with prior requests for similar reports, 
such documents may not be released, but the facts shown 
by such reports are to be furnished. 

6. One document requested contains a statement given 
in confidence to a United States Ambassador by a person 
who specifically requested that his confidence be respected. 
The protection of such confidences is necessary to pre- 
serve the ability of United States officials abroad to obtain 
information in the course of their duties as representa- 
tives of the President. 

In the case of a number of documents requested, more 
than one of the above reasons for not furnishing the 
document is applicable. 

I accordingly certify, pursuant to Section 101(d) of 
the Mutual Security and Related Agencies Appropriation 
Act, 1961, that for the reasons set forth above I have 
forbidden the furnishing, pursuant to the requests re- 
ferred to above, of the documents identified on the at- 
tached list. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
Decembee 2, 1960. 



New Tariff Rates Established 
for Certain Wool Fabrics 



WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated December 28 

The President has issued a proclamation estab- 
lishing new tariff rates for imports of certain 
woolen and worsted woven fabrics after January 
1, 1961. 

The new rates are set forth in the proclamation. 
The new rate will be 38 percent ad valorem for 
most fabrics valued over $2 per pound and will be 
76 cents per pound, with a maximum ad valorem 
of 60 percent, for lower priced fabrics. 



87 



At the present time these fabrics are subject to 
a compound tariff duty consisting of a specific 
duty and ad valorem rates, both of which vary 
according to the nature of the fabric. The 
specific duty of 371/4 cents per pound, which is 
compensatory for the duty on raw wool, will re- 
main unchanged. The ad valorem rates presently 
in effect have since 1956 been subject to a tariff 
quota under which the rates for most fabrics were 
25 percent ad valorem for imports within the quota 
limits and 45 percent for imports after the quota 
was filled. Exceptions were made for certain 
specialty fabrics which entered at lower rates even 
after exhaustion of the quota. With the exception 
of these specialty fabrics the new ad valorem 
portion of the duty will be 38 percent for fabrics 
valued over $2 per pound and 76 cents per pound 
for lower priced fabrics, with a maximum ad 
valorem limit of 60 percent. 

The total duty, including the specific rate, re- 
sulted in an average incidence in 1959 of 45 per- 
cent on all imports. The incidence of the new 
rates, computed on the basis of 1959 trade data, 
would be 48 percent for fabrics valued over $2 
and upwards of 57 percent for lower priced 
fabrics. 

The new tariff rates have been the subject of 
negotiations with the interested supplier countries. 



PROCLAMATION 3387' 

White House press release dated December 28 

Modifying the Duty on Certain Wool Fabrics 

1. Whereas, pursuant to the authority vested in hitn 
by the Constitution and the statutes, including section 
350(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 48 Stat. 
943, 57 Stat. 125, 59 Stat. 410, the President on October 30, 
1947 entered into a trade agreement with certain foreign 
countries, which trade agreement consists of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Protocol of 
Provisional Application of the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, together with a Final Act, 61 Stat. 
(Parts 5 and 6) A7, All and A2051 ; including a schedule 
of United States concessions (hereinafter referred to as 
"Schedule XX— Geneva 1947") ; 

2. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2761A of December 16, 
1947,' 61 Stat. (pt. 2) 1103, the President proclaimed such 
modifications of existing duties and other import restric- 



tions of the United States of America and such con- 
tinuance of existing customs or excise treatment of ar- 
ticles imported into the United States of America as were 
then found to be required or appropriate to carry out 
the trade agreement specified in the first recital of this 
proclamation on and after January 1, 1948 ; 

3. Whereas items llOS and 1109(a), and the appro- 
priate headings, in Part I of Schedule XX — Geneva 1947, 
which items were given effect by the proclamation of 
December 16, 1947, read as follows : 



Tarlfl 
Act of 
1930, para- 
graph 



1108 



1109(a) 



Description of products 



Woven fabrics, weighing not more than 
four ounces per square yard, whoU y 
or in chief value of wool, regardless 
of value: 

If the warp is wholly of cotton or 
other vegetable fiber, 

other 



Note: The United States reserves 
the right to increase the ad valorem part 
of the rate applicable to any of the fab- 
rics provided for in item 1108 or llOOfa) 
of this Part to 45 per centum ad valorem 
on any of such fabrics which are entered 
in any calendar year in excess of an ag- 
gregate quantity by weight of 5 per 
Centura of the average annual produc- 
tion of similar fabrics in the United 
States during the 3 immediately pre- 
ceding calendar years 
Woven fabrics, weighing more than 

four ounces per square yard, wholly 

or in chief value of wool, regardless of 

value. 



Rate of duty 



30^ per lb. and 26% ad 

val. 
37!-^* per lb. and 28% 

ad val. 



ZlMt per lb. and 26%. 
ad val. 



■25 Fed. Reg. 13945. 

' For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 28, 1947, p. 1258. 



4. Whereas, pursuant to the authority cited in the first 
recital of this proclamation, on April 21, 1951, the Presi- 
dent entered into a trade agreement with certain foreign 
countries, which trade agreement consists of the Torquay 
Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(3 UST (pt. 1) 615, (pt. 2) 1841), including a schedule 
of United States concessions constituting a United States 
Schedule to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(3 UST (pt. 1) 1125) (hereinafter referred to as "Sched- 
ule XX— Torquay 1951") ; 

5. Whereas by Proclamation No. 2929 of June 2, 1951 
(65 Stat. C12), the President proclaimed, effective June 6, 
1951, such modifications of existing duties and other im- 
port restrictions of the United States and such continu- 
ance of existing customs or excise treatment of articles 
imported into the United States as were then found to be 
required or approi)riate to carry out the trade agreement 
specified in the fourth recital of this proclamation ; 

6. Whereas Item 1109(a), and the appropriate head- 
ings, in Part I of Schedule XX annexed to the said 
Torquay Protocol, whicli item was given effect by the 
said proclamation of June 2, 1951, read as follows : 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



Tariff 

Act of 

1930, para- 

grapb 


Description of products 


Rate of duty 


1109(a) 


Woven green billiard cloths in the 
piece, weighing over 11 but not 
over 15 ounces per square yard, 
wholly of wool, regardless of value. 


37^ie per lb. and 20% 
ad val. 



Note: This item shall be subject to the note in item 1108 in Part I of 
Schedule XX (original). 

and item 1109(a) was made effective as of June 6, 1951 
by the letter of the President to the Secretary of the 
Treasury dated June 2, 1951 (3 C.F.R. 1949 ed., 1951 
Supp., p. 530; 16 F.R. 5386), pursuant to the procedure 
described in Part 1(b)(1) of said Proclamation No. 2929 
of June 2, 1951 ; 

7. Whereas the President, by Proclamation No. 3160, 
of September 28, 1956,^ which proclamation has been 
amended by Proclamation No. 3225, of March 7, 1958,' by 
Proclamation No. 3285, of April 21, 1959,' and by Procla- 
mation No. 3317, of September 24, 1959," invoked the 
right reserved in the notes to item 1108 in Part I of 
Schedule XX— Geneva 1947 and to item 1109(a) in 
Part I of Schedule XX — Torquay 1951 by increasing to 
not more than 45 per centum the ad valorem part of the 
rate applicable to any of the fabrics provided for in 
item 1108 or 1109(a) of Part I of Schedule XX— Geneva 
1947 (including any of the fabrics provided for in item 
1109(a) of Part I of Schedule XX— Torquay 1951) in 
excess of amounts, not greater than 5 per centum of 
the average annual production of similar fabrics in the 
United States during the three immediately preceding 
calendar years, to be notified by him to the Secretary of 
the Treasury for each year ; 

8. Wheeeas Article XXVIII of the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade provides that a contracting party 
may, pursuant to procedures provided for therein, modify 
or withdraw concessions in its schedules to that 
Agreement ; 

9. Whereas the procedures of Article XXVIII of the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade are being com- 
plied with to the extent necessary to permit the modifica- 
tion on January 1, 1961 of the concessions provided for 
in the items set forth in the third and sixth recitals of 
this proclamation so that such items may read as herein- 
after proclaimed in Part I of this proclamation ; 

10. Whereas reasonable public notice of the intention 
to conduct the trade agreement renegotiations necessary 
to accomplish the modifications of the concession here- 
inafter proclaimed in Part I of the proclamation was 
given, the views presented by persons interested in such 
renegotiations were received and considered, and informa- 
tion and advice with respect to such renegotiations were 
sought and obtained from the Departments of State, 
Agriculture, Commerce, and Defense, and from other 
sources ; 



11. Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the Trade Agree- 
ments Extension Act of 1951, 65 Stat. 72, as amended, 
I transmitted to the United States Tariff Commission for 
investigation and report a list of articles imported into 
the United States of America to be considered for pos- 
sible modification of duties and other import restrictions, 
imposition of additional import restrictions, or continu- 
ance of existing customs or excise treatment in such 
renegotiations, and the Tariff Commission made an in- 
vestigation in accordance with that section and thereafter 
reported to me its determinations made pursuant thereto 
within the time specified therein ; and 

12. Whereas, as a result of the modifications of the 
concessions set forth in the third and sixth recitals of 
this proclamation which are hereinafter proclaimed in 
Part I of this proclamation, I determine that it is re- 
quired or appropriate to carry out the trade agreements 
specified in the first and fourth recitals of this proclama- 
tion that, on and after January 1, 1961, the proclamations 
specified in the second and fifth recitals of this proclama- 
tion be modified as proclaimed in Part II of this proclama- 
tion, and that the justification for the proclamations 
specified in the seventh recital of this proclamation will 
then cease to exist : 

Now, therefore, I, DwiGHT D. Eisenhower, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution 
and statutes, including section 350 of the Tariff Act of 
1930, as amended, do hereby proclaim that, effective 
January 1, 1961 : 

Part I 

1. The concessions provided for in items 1108 and 
1109 ( a ) in Part I of Schedule XX— Geneva 1947 set forth 
in the third recital of this proclamation are hereby modi- 
fled so that such items, and appropriate headings, read 
as follows: 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 8, 1956, p. 5.56. 
* For text, see ibid., Apr. 21, 1958, p. 673. 
^ For text, see ibid., May 18, 1959. p. 720. 
" For text, see ibid., Oct. 19, 1959, p. .500. 



Tariff 






Act of 


Description of products 


Rate of duty 


1930, para- 






graph 






1108 


Woven fabrics, weighing not more than 
four ounces per square yard, wholly 
or in chief value of wool: 
Hand-woven fabrics with a loom 
width of less than thirty inches; 
and other fabrics. If valued over 
$4 per pound and wholly or in chief 
value of wool of the sheep, in solid 
colors, Imported to be used In the 
manufacture of apparel for mem- 
bers of religious orders: 






With warp wholly of cotton or other 


30(! per lb. and 25% 




vegetable fiber. 


ad val. 




Not with warp wholly of cotton or 


37Hf! per lb. and 25% 




other vegetable fiber. 


ad val. 




Other: 






With warp wholly of cotton or other 






vegetable fiber, valued- 








$1.06 per lb., but not 






over 30* per lb. plus 






60% ad val. 






30i per lb. and 38% 






ad val. 



January 16, 196? 



89 



TarifE 






Act of 


Description of products 


Rate of duty 


1930, para- 






graph 






1108 


Other (con.): 




(con.) 


Not with warp wholly of cotton or 
other vegetable fiber, valued— 






Not over $2 per pound 


$1.13H per lb., but not 






over 37iii per lb. 






plus 60% ad val. 




Over $2 per pound 


37Ht per lb. and 38% 






ad val. 


1109(a) 


Woven fabrics weighing over 4 ounces 
per square yard, wholly or in chief 
value of wool; 






Hand-woven fabrics with a loom 


37H<i per lb. and 26% 




width of less than 30 inches; and 


ad val. 




serges weighing not over 6 ounces 






per square yard, wholly or in 






chief value of wool of the sheep. 






valued at over $4 per pound, in 






soUd colors, imported to be used 






in the manufacture of apparel for 






members of religious orders. 






Other fabrics, valued— 






Not over $2 per pound 


$1.13H per lb. but not 






over 37Ht per lb. 






plus 60% ad val. 




Over $2 per pound 


37H* per lb. and 38% 






ad val. 



2. The concession provided for in item 1109(a) in Part 
I of Schedule XX — Torquay 1951 set forth in the sixth 
recital of this proclamation is hereby modified so that 
such item, and appropriate headings, read as follows : 



TaritT 
Act of 
1930, para- 
graph 


Description of products 


Rate of duty 


1109(a) 


Woven green billiard cloths in the piece, 
weighing over 11 but not over 15 
ounces per square yard, whoUy of 
wool. 


37^^ per lb. and 30% 
ad val. 



Pabt II 

The provisions of items 1108 and 1109(a) of Part I 
of this proclamation shall be applied, and all proclama- 
tions of the President heretofore issued under the author- 
ity of section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 
are terminated insofar as they are inconsistent with this 
proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America 
to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 28th day of Decem- 
ber in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 
[seal] and sixty, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one himdred and eighty- 
fifth. 



XJ CA^y C-tZJO-tCi^ A*»o^ 



By the President : 
Livingston T. Merchant, 
Acting Secretary of State. 



IFC Reports High Level 
of Investments in 1960 

Investments of the International Finance 
Corporation during 1960 continued at the high 
level reached in the previous calendar year ; 13 in- 
vestments were made, aggregating the equivalent 
of $18.6 million, some $8.4 million above last year's 
record. The Corporation has now made 36 invest- 
ments totaling $45 million in 17 member countries. 

Of the projects in which IFC invested during 
1960, eight are owned and managed by residents 
of the country where the project is located, four 
are joint enterprises of local and foreign owner- 
ship and management, and one is a subsidiary of 
a foreign firm. The sizes of enterprises helped by 
IFC during the year ranged from the equivalent 
of about $600,000 to $22 million, with IFC's own 
investments ranging from $156,000 to over $3 
million. 

Seven of the year's investments — in Tanganyika, 
Argentina, Venezuela, Finland, and Italy — were 
made in countries where IFC had not previously 
invested. The purposes for which IFC invest- 
ments were made show the usual concentration on 
industrial enterprises. 

In Tanganyika IFC invested in a new com- 
pany to grow and mill sugarcane and to produce 
refined sugar for the Tanganyikan market. 

In Argentina two investments were made, one 
for a wide range of steel products and the second 
for pulp and paper. 

In Australia a private enterprise producing rub- 
ber products received a supplemental investment 
to increase its output capacity and add a new 
product line. 

In Chile additional funds were used to defray 
extra costs incuiTed by the company in building 
a new cement plant. 

In Colombia IFC is assisting a company in the 
construction of a plant to manufacture metal cans 
for food packing and for general use. 

In Mexico a jointly owned manufacturing com- 
pany used IFC funds to finance production of 
high-speed twist drills. 

In Venezuela two companies, one producing 
steel and steel products and the other food prod- 
ucts, also received funds from the Corporation. 

In Italy a locally owned company is using an 
IFC investment to construct a plant near Naples 
for the manufacture of low- and medium-voltage 
circuit breakers. 



90 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



In Finland two locally owned companies, one 
producing textiles and the other pulp, lumber, 
machinery, and shipbuilding, were able to expand 
operations with the help of IFC investment funds. 

In India an IFC investment will assist a com- 
pany in producing refractory bricks. 

Participations by private investors in IFC 
investments, which in December 1959 totaled 



$3,175,000, increased during the year to $5,839,000. 
During the year, Spain and the Sudan joined 
the Corporation ; at the same time Cuba and the 
Dominican Republic withdrew from membership 
in the "World Bank, thus automatically ceasing to 
be members of IFC. Total membership numbers 
58 countries, with a subscribed capital of $96.2 
million. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings' 

Adjourned During December 1960 

UNESCO General Conference: 11th Session Paris Nov. 

ITU CCITT: 2d Plenary Assembly . ._ New Delhi Nov. 

Geneva Nov. 

Washington Nov. 



Mexico, D.F Nov. 28-Dec. 10 

Katmandu Nov. 30-Dec. 6 



U.N. ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems: 12th Session 
OAS Special Meeting of Government Representatives on lA- 

ECOSOC. 
Inter- American Statistical Institute: Committee on Improvement 

of National Statistics. 
U.N. ECAFE Inland Transport and Communications Committee: 

5th Session of Highway Subcommittee. 

ICEM Council: 13th Session Geneva Dec. 1-9 

WMO Commission on Chmatology: 3d Session London Dec. 1-16 

Inter- American Children's Institute: 41st Meeting of Directing Montevideo Dec. 5-9 

Council. 

U.N. ECE Inland Transport Committee: 20th Session Geneva Deo. 5-9 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: 4th Colombo Dec. 5-12 

Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources Development. 
ILO African Regional Conference: 1st Session Lagos Dec. 5-17 



14-Dec. 13 

21-Dec. 15 

28-Dec. 2 

28-Dec. 9 



Geneva . 



Dec. 8-10 



U.N. ECE Housing Committee: Ad Hoc Meeting of Rapporteurs 

on Rural Housing. 

CENTO Economic Committee London . . 

U.N. ECOSOC Regional Seminar on the Participation of Women in Addis Ababa 

PubUc Life. 

OECD Ministerial Conference Paris .... 

UNESCO Executive Board: 58th Session Paris. . . . 

UNESCO International Center for the Study of the Preservation Rome . . . 

and the Restoration of Cultural Property: 1st General Assembly. 

U.N. ECAFE Industry and Natural Resources Committee: Metals Rourkela, India Dec. 14-21 

and Engineering Subcommittee. 

NATO Ministerial Council Paris Dec. 16-18 

U.N. ECE Coal Trade Subcommittee Geneva Dec. 19-20 

U.N. Special Fund: 5th Session of Governing Council New York Dec. 19-22 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 30th Session (resumed) . . . New York Dec. 21-22 



Dec. 12-16 
Dec. 12-23 

Dec. 13-14 
Dec. 14-15 
Dec. 14-16 



In Session as of December 31, 1960 

Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests . . . . Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

5th Round of GATT Tariff Negotiations Geneva Sept. 1- 

U.N. General Assembly: 15th Session (recessed Dec. 20, 1960, New York Sept. 20- 

until Mar. 7, 1961). 



' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Dec. 28, 1960. Following is a list of abbreviations : CCITT, 
Comity eonsultatif international t^Wgraphique et tei^phonioue : CENTO, Central Treaty Organization; ECAFE, 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East ; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe ; ECOSOC, Economic and 
Social Council; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; lA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social 
Coimcil ; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; ILO, International Labor Organization; 
ITU, International Telecommunication Union ; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; OAS, Organization of 
American States ; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ; U.N., United Nations ; UNESCO, 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ; WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 



January 76, I96J 



91 



U.S. Reaffirms Confidence 
in Worl< of IAEA 

■Statement hy Francis 0. Wilcox 

U.S. Representative to the General Assemhly ^ 

It is refreshing, in the midst of the political 
turmoil that plagues this troubled world of ours, 
to pause for a few moments to talk about the solid 
progress that is being made in the peaceful uses 
of atomic energy. 

Sometimes — like all my colleagues here at the 
"United Nations — I get a little discouraged because 
we are not able to move ahead faster in the solu- 
tion of our major political problems. 

I am greatly encouraged when I look at the 
work of the specialized agencies. Slowly but 
surely these agencies are movmg ahead in their 
great task of bringing a better life and liigher 
standards of living to many j^eople in many lands. 
Without many headlines and without much fan- 
fare they are gradually building a solid reputation 
for the United Nations throughout the world. 

My delegation is pleased once again to welcome 
to the Assembly the Director General of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency [W. Sterling 
Cole], and I want to thank him for his interesting 
and informative statement on the accomplisliments 
of tlie Agency during the last year and to wish 
him and his staff every success in the future. 

The United States welcomes the close working 
relations which have developed between the 
Agency and the United Nations. In particular 
■we are pleased to note the considerable degree of 
cooperation between the United Nations Radia- 
tion Committee and the IAEA and believe that 
this should be continued and developed. In addi- 
tion we would like to stress our hope that the 
Agency will play a major role in the proposed 
third United Nations Conference on the Peaceful 
Uses of Atomic Energy. 

The report for 1959-1960 ^ is an impressive 
record of the accomplislmaents of tliis Agency for 
the period to Jvme 30. 

The Agency is now making a substantial con- 
tribution to the technically less developed world 
in preparing many states for a fuller use of atomic 



^Made in plenary session on Dec. 12 (U.S. delegation 
press release 3613). 

' U.N. doc. A/4531 and Corr. 1 and Add. 1. 



energy for peaceful purposes. It has provided 
tecluiical assistance in nuclear matters to 45 of 
its members. This has been done through sur- 
veys, expert advice and consultation, and the pro- 
vision of equipment and supplies. In what is its 
most important accomplishment in 3 short years 
the Agency has offered training to a thousand 
scientists and teclinicians. In this way the Agency 
is building solidly for future generations. 

My Government is also particularly happy with 
the Agency's activities in the field of health and 
safety. It is here in the regulatory field where 
the Agency can make an invaluable contribution 
to all areas of the world. The Agency should be 
supported to the utmost in its work in setting 
standards in the transportation of radioisotopes 
and other radioactive materials and in preparing 
draft conventions to give adequate liability cov- 
erage both for land-based reactors and nuclear- 
ship operation. The Agency has already given 
much attention to the subject of safe design and 
operation of critical assemblies, research reactors, 
and power reactors. In the important field of 
disposal of radioactive waste the Agency, it is 
hoped, will press forward in its research and 
study. 

It is not my intention to discuss all these ac- 
tivities at length or to go into the details of other 
programs of the Agency, such as its conferences 
and symposia, its promotion of research, and 
its information and publication activities. We 
would like, however, to express our satisfaction 
with all these operations. It should be mentioned 
also that the Agency is making some progress as 
a supplier of nuclear materials. Most notably, 
the Government of Finland is acquiring special 
nuclear material as well as a Triga reactor 
through the Agency. A part of this fuel is being 
drawn from the United States offer to the Agency 
of over 5,000 kilograms of enriched uranium. 
Finland also directly benefited from the United 
States annual free offer of $50,000 of uranium for 
research purposes through the Agency. 

We have always given the Agency our energetic 
support, both financially and in the supply of 
technical know-how. Since the Agency came into 
being, we have contributed one-half of the volun- 
tary fund for teclinical assistance, including fel- 
lowships, and we have never placed restrictions en 
the use of these funds. We have followed a gen- 
eral policy of offering financial assistance in freely 



92 



Department of State Bulletin 



convertible currency to be spent how and -wher- 
ever the Agency and its members should decide. 
In addition to our vokmtary contributions we 
have tried to help the Agency during the early 
years by special grants which have totaled almost 
$1 million. Furthermore, we have placed 
$150,000 worth of research contracts through the 
Agency and have granted more than 200 cost- free 
fellowships. 

I believe it appropriate here, Mr. President, to 
refer to the difficult financial problems facing the 
Agency. As the members of the General Assem- 
bly know, the heart of the Agency's teclinical as- 
sistance program depends upon the voluntary 
contributions of the members. Contributions to 
the general fund, however, have fallen below ex- 
pectations, even though at the last conference 
many members pledged substantially greater 
amounts. The United States, while continuing 
its contributions amounting to as much as 50 per- 
cent of the budget each year, sincerely hopes that 
the trend started at the September conference will 
continue and that the program of the Agency will 
not be crippled for lack of funds. The programs 
which will be most directly affected by a failure 
to achieve the targets set for voluntary contribu- 
tions will be those aimed at helping the under- 
developed members, namely, the provision of 
teclinicians, supplies and equipment, and train- 
ing and fellowships. 

In this connection, Mr. President, my delega- 
tion would like to express our full support for the 
sentiment behind the draft resolution ^ put for- 
ward by Brazil, Ghana, India, and Yugoslavia 
in the Second Committee. In urging the Agency 
to continue the development of its technical 
assistance program, the sponsors call on the more 
developed countries to increase their voluntary 
contributions to the operational fund. We as- 
sociate ourselves with this resolution. We hope 
that the one economically developed country 
which has managed in one way or another not 
to contribute a single usable kopeck to the opera- 
tional fund will heed this resolution. 

In his statement earlier this afternoon the rep- 
resentative of the Soviet Union [Valerian A. 
Zorin] deprecated the work of the IAEA. He 
went on to say that the United States had stood 



' U.N. doe. A/C. 2/L. 512/Rev. 1. 
January 16, 7 96 J 



in the way of the Agency's doing its job, and he 
accused the United States of seeking to interfere 
in the affairs of other countries. 

As I have already pointed out, the U.S.S.K, 
has contributed nothing, nothing at all, to the op- 
erational budget of the Agency. As to interfer- 
ence in the affairs of others, the members of the 
Assembly will be able to judge for themselves 
what great power it is that has interfered, often 
by force, in the internal affairs of many, many 
nations. Indeed, what United Nations member 
represented here in the General Assembly has not 
felt the cold reach of Soviet Communist inter- 
ference? If the Soviet Union would only devote 
half as much time and constructive energy to sup- 
porting the United Nations as it does to criticizing 
the United States, we would make much more 
progress in our quest for world peace. 

One of the fundamental requirements of the 
Agency's statute is to insure that assistance pro- 
vided by the Organization is not used to further 
any military purpose. My delegation is pleased 
to note that the conference this last September 
examined the principles and procedures of safe- 
guards prepared by the Board of Governors. 
This plan of safeguards was the result of exhaus- 
tive study by men of technical competence and by 
the Board itself; the safeguards document was 
accepted by a substantial majority of members. 
The United States Government, to demonstrate 
that in its view the type of inspection contem- 
plated does not compromise the sovereignty of the 
member states, offered to place several of its own 
facilities under the safeguards system. We 
agreed to consult with a number of our bilateral 
partners in the field of peaceful uses of atomic 
energy to transfer the safeguards responsibilities 
to the Agency when it is in a position to assume 
these responsibilities. 

Mr. President, it is not my intention to draw 
any elaborate comparisons with the general sub- 
ject of controlled disarmament; however, we be- 
lieve that the Agency safeguards system offers an 
opportunity where, with a bit of good will, the 
member states can demonstrate that developments 
in atomic energy, fostered by the Agency, are 
aimed at furthering the welfare and health of the 
world conmiunity and not at its destruction. 

In conclusion I would like to quote from a mes- 
sage sent by President Eisenhower to the recent 
IAEA General Conference. This quote illus- 

93 



trates the satisfaction of my Government with 
the activities of the Agency. 

"In three short yeai's", the President noted, "the 
Agency has become the prime international or- 
ganization in the nuclear field. Its activities are 
stimulating much of the global effort to bring to 
more people more benefits of this still new atomic 
age. This Agency is an organization that has no 
secrets ; an organization devoted to the sharing of 
effort, research and information; one in which the 
major powers can lay aside political differences 
to work for the common good. . . . My country 
will continue to support this organization and I 
wish for it continued progress and success." 



U.S. Explains Votes in Committee I 
on Three Nuclear Resolutions 

Statement hy Francis O. Wilcox 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly ^ 

My Government fully recognizes and sympa- 
thizes with the high motivations and spirit which 
prompted the submission of the two resolutions on 
nuclear tests contained in Dociunents L.256 and 
L.258. Moreo\-er, we share the sense of urgency 
reflected in the appeal to the states concerned that 
an agreement on controlled suspension of nuclear 
weapons tests should be achieved at an early date. 
However, my Government has serious reservations 
about these resolutions which compel it to abstain 
in the vote on operative paragraph 2 and on the 
resolution as a whole. These reservations were 
voiced last year during the debate on this subject.^ 
In the light of the passage of another year without 
the conclusion of an agreement on the cessation 
of nuclear tests, the seriousness with which we 
hold these reservations is understandably greater. 

We are disturbed by the statement in the first 
operative paragraph of the resolution that there 
remain only a "few" questions to be resolved be- 
fore an agreement on cessation of nuclear testing 
can be acMeved. 

I wish to point out again, as we did in consider- 
able detail in our statement of November 29,^ that 



'Made in Committee I (Political and Security) on 
Dec. 19 (U.S. delegation press release 3626). 
' BtJLLETiN of Dee. 21, 1959, p. 917. 
' Ibid., Dec. 19, 1960, p. 930. 



many of these problems are not merely side issues 
which can be easily removed by compromise. 
They are questions of a fundamental nature affect- 
ing the security interests of all countries. Upon 
the satisf actoi-y solution of these problems depends 
the success of the Geneva conference. These basic 
issues include such questions as the staffing of on- 
site inspection teams, special aircraft sampling 
flights, the niunber and the installation schedule 
of control posts, safeguards for a seismic research 
program, criteria for conducting on-sit« inspection, 
high-altitude provisions, duration of the morato- 
rium on small underground tests, the number of 
on-site inspections to be carried out annually in 
the territories of the Soviet Union, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States, explosions for 
peaceful uses, and voting on budgetary and finan- 
cial questions. 

My Government has a much more fundamental 
problem with operative paragraph 2, which urges 
the parties concerned in these negotiations to con- 
tinue their present voluntary suspension of the 
testing of nuclear weapons. 

Last year, when the United States supported 
a similar resolution,* my Government subscribed 
to a volimtary test moratorium. However, on 
December 29, 1959, President Eisenhower an- 
nounced that the moratorium would end on 
December 31, 1959.^ 

At the same time he announced that the United 
States would not resume nuclear weapons tests 
without stating in advance its intention to do so. 
This is still the policy of the United States 
Government. 

My Government is frankly concerned over the 
possibility that an indefinite extension of the 
voluntai-y suspension on nuclear testing may come 
to be regarded as an acceptable alternative to the 
achievement of a safeguarded agreement on nu- 
clear testing. The United States does not wish to 
encourage any such belief. We believe the pos- 
sibility of reaching an agreement on the suspen- 
sion of nuclear tests would only be reduced and 
the chances of resumed testing would be in- 
creased if such an impression were given cur- 
rency. Negotiations at Geneva will not succeed — 
let me repeat, they will not succeed — if only one 
side is interested in building a reasonable control 
system. 



* For text, see Hid., Dec. 21, 1959, p. 919. 
' Ibid., Jan. 18, 1960, p. 78. 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



A system of agreed controls is an absolutely in- 
dispensable prerequisite to the pennanent cessa- 
tion of nuclear tests. We do not believe, as some 
here seem to do, that simply stationing a delega- 
tion in Geneva is an acceptable substitute for such 
controls. 

Furthermore — this is a point we cannot ignore 
here, as we cannot ignore it in other areas of dis- 
armament — Soviet secrecy prevents us from hav- 
ing any clear idea about what is going on in that 
country. Therefore the United States is not pre- 
pared to accept indefinite, self-imposed restraints 
which we have no way of knowing are not being 
systematically violated. 

Thus far the Unit«d States has reached no 
decision as to whether or when nuclear weapons 
tests will be resumed. Last year Ambassador 
[Henry Cabot] Lodge told the General Assembly, 
"... I can assure you that the United States 
will continue to do everything in its power to en- 
hance the prospects of success at Geneva." ^ To- 
day I reaffiiTTi that statement. 

Mr. Chairman, because of the considerations I 
have just described, my delegation requests a 
paragraph-by-paragraph vote on these two 
resolutions. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, may I turn briefly to an 
explanation of our vote on the Irish resolution 
[L. 253 and Add. 1-3]. I would like to make 
clear the position of my Government with regard 
to the resolution introduced by the distinguished 
Foreign Minister of Ireland [Frank Aiken] 
and to the problem to which it is addressed. 

I believe it is well known that the United States 
does not wish to see the proliferation of national 
nuclear weapons production capabilities and own- 
ership. This view has been expressed many 
times in the past by my Government. It is, more- 
over, reflected in our public laws, which forbid 
the, transfer of nuclear weapons to any other 
country and also forbid the transfer of informa- 
tion which might assist any other country not 
already having a substantial nuclear capability to 
design or manufacture nuclear weapons. 

The concern with which my country has viewed 
the prospects of an increasing number of national 
states having nuclear weapons has also been re- 
flected in our efforts in disarmament negotiations. 
In the first instance these efforts were directed at 



preventing a nuclear arms race. Many here will 
remember the Baruch proposals and the subse- 
quent General Assembly resolution of November 
4, 1948, which, had they been accepted, would 
have halted the nuclear race before it had gotten 
under way. The more recent proposals my Gov- 
ernment has made in the nuclear field are aimed 
at bringing that race to a halt and beginning the 
reduction of existmg nuclear weapons stocks.^ 

Our concern over the spread of independent 
national nuclear capabilities is based on a belief 
that it would increase the complexities of bringing 
the nuclear race under control. The growth of 
independent national capabilities would also tend 
to increase the chances that nuclear war migiit be 
started by accident, by miscalculation, or even by 
design. It would further destabilize the already 
precarious military balance in the world. These 
practical considerations are the basis for our con- 
cern, not any belief that the nuclear powers have 
a superior moral right to possess nuclear weapons 
or even to deny them to otliers. The nuclear 
powers caimot expect other nations indefinitely 
to deny to themselves such weapons as they may 
believe are required for their defense if they, tlie 
nuclear powers, refuse to accept the responsibility 
of halting their own buildup of nuclear weapons 
and refuse to begin the process of their 
destruction. This is why we have for so long 
sought action in the nuclear field by the nuclear 
powers. One of our concerns with this resolution, 
therefore, is that it does not recognize the central 
responsibility of the nuclear powers. 

In the arrangements wliich the United States 
has found it necessary and desirable to conclude 
with NATO in the interests of collective self- 
defense, we have sought to give expression to the 
above policy. The United States and its NATO 
partners have arrangements under which the 
defense forces of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization have atomic weapons available for 
their protection. American, as well as Allied, 
forces have in their possession the vehicles capable 
of cariying such weapons. The weapons them- 
selves are maintained in a stockpile system under 
the custody of the United States in accordance 
with existing United States policy and law. This 
system provides the Alliance with effective 
resources to defend itself against an antagonist 
whose armed forces have at their disposal the 



'/6!(?., Dec. 21, 1959, p. 917. 
January 16, 1961 



' For background, see ibid., Sept. 26, 1960, p. 482. 



95 



most modern and destructive weapons and the 
means of their delivei-y. 

In today's world the most satisfactory pro- 
tection against nuclear war is adequate defense, 
and we intend to maintain that defense. Ulti- 
mately the only reliable protection against nuclear 
war lies in disarmament agreements with effective 
international control provisions which would go to 
the heart of the nuclear threat. 

There is a further feature of the Irish resolution 
which causes my Government concern. It calls 
for unverified commitment of indefinite duration. 
Such commitments are an unacceptable substitute 
for verified agreements. Unlike the United 
States, where democratic institutions insure full 
public discussion, certain areas of the world are 
closed societies, and without control arrangements 
suspicions of violations are likely to result. Trust 
is decreased and suspicion increased under such 
arrangements. The cause of disarmament would 
suffer rather than be advanced by such 
commitments. 

Because my Government fully recognizes and 
sympathizes with the motivation behind the Irish 
resolution, we will not vote against it. For the 
reasons I have mentioned, however, we cannot 
support the resolution and will therefore abstain. 

Attendance of Government Scientists 
at International Conferences 

Following is the text of a letter jrom, Walter G. 
'Whitman, Science Adviser, Department of State, 
to Daniel M. Singer, General Counsel of the Fed- 
eration of American Scientists. 

December 19, 1960 
Dear Mr. Singer : A reply to your letter of Oc- 
tober 31, directed to the attention of Mr. Walter 
Rudolph, was postponed since the matter at is- 
sue — the participation of federally-employed sci- 
entists in the Fifth International Biochemistry 
Congress to be held at Moscow next August — was 
under consideration in the Department. 

The Department has recently indicated to the 
Department of Health, Education and Welfare 
that it has no objection to that Department's plans 
for the participation of its scientists in the Bio- 
chemistry Congress. This is in accord with the 
Department's policy of not hindering the partici- 



pation of Government employees in international 
scientific meetings if membership and participa- 
tion are not based upon political consideration and 
such attendance is in the national interest. 

The Department does not usually accredit an 
official United States Government delegation to 
take part in international conferences at which the 
attendance of nationals of imrecognized regimes is 
expected. This does not, however, preclude Gov- 
ernment employees from taking part in nongovern- 
mental meetings at Government expense without 
accreditation if the Department of State deter- 
mines that their participation is in the national 
interest. Without accreditation, a participant 
does not represent nor speak for his government. 

I regret that this reply has been delayed, but 
hope that it answers your questions. 
Sincerely, 

Walter G. Whitman 

Mr. Daniel M. Singer, 
Federation of American Scientists, 
1700 K Street, N.W. 
Washington 6, D.C. 

United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

SEATO Heads of Universities Conference 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 30 (press release 712) that it had designated 
three American educators to participate in a 
Conference of Heads of Universities sponsored by 
the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization to be 
held at the University of Karachi in Pakistan, 
January 25-February 1. The educators are : 

William E. Stevenson, President Emeritus of Oberlin 
College, Oberlin, Ohio, and current Chairman of the 
Middle East University Survey Commission 

Douglas M. Knight, President of Lawrence College, Apple- 
ton, Wis. 

Robert G. Van Duyn, Chief, Education Division, U.S. 
Operations Mission to Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand 

The Karachi conference is part of the cultural 
and educational program sponsored by SEATO 
since 1957 to increase and deepen cultural contacts 
and promote mutual understanding among the 
people of Southeast Asia and of member states. 
It is one of a series of seminars on educational 
problems which SEATO expects to sponsor. 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



In January 1960 a preparatory commission met 
at Bangkok to draw up plans for the conference. 
It developed agenda topics which include an 
appraisal of coojieration among miiversities in 
Southeast Asia, pi'oblems of university adminis- 
tration and curricula, language problems in edu- 
cation, and other subjects. 

The University of Karachi has extended invita- 
tions to participants and observers from the 
SEATO member countries and several nonmember 
Asian countries. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 
Aviation 

Protocol to amend convention for unification of certain 
rules relating to international carriage by air signed at 
Warsaw October 12, 1929 (49 Stat. 3000). Done at 
The Hague September 28, 19.55." 
Signature: Pakistan, August 8, 1960. 
Ratifications deposited: Venezuela, August 26, 1960; 
Netherlands, September 21, 1960. 

Finance 

Articles of agreement of the International Development 
Association. Done at Washington January 26, 1960. 
Entered into force September 24, 1960. TIAS 4607. 
Signatures and acceptances: Ireland, Israel, and Tm-- 
key, December 22, 1960. 

Health 

Constitution of the World Health Organization. Opened 
for signature at New York July 22, 1946. Entered into 
force April 7, 1948. TIAS 1808. 

Acceptances deposited: Congo (Brazzaville), October 
26, 1960 ; Senegal, October 31, 1960. 

Shipping 

Convention on the Intergovernmental Maritime Consul- 
tative Organization. Signed at Geneva March 6, 1948. 
Entered into force March 17, 1958. TIAS 4044. 
Acceptances deposited: Ivory Coast, November 4, 1960; 
Senegal, November 7, 1960; New Zealand, November 
9, 1960. 

Trade and Commerce 

Sixth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva April 11, 1957.' 
Signatures: Brazil and Chile, November 21, 1960. 

Eighth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva February 18. 19.59. 
Will enter into force on date on which signed by all 
contracting parties to the General Agreement. 



' Not in force. 



Signatures: Austria (subject to ratification), February 
18, 1959; Netherlands, February 19, 1959; Rhodesia 
and Nyasaland, February 20, 1959; Denmark, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1959 ; Norway, April 23, 1959 ; Sweden, May 
5, 1959; Luxembourg, May 13, 1959; New Zealand, 
May 19, 1959 ; Greece, Pakistan, and Union of South 
Africa, May 22, 1959 ; United Kingdom, May 25, 1959 ; 
Belgium and Indonesia, May 26, 1959 ; Ceylon, Czech- 
oslovakia, and Finland, May 29, 1959; India and 
Japan, June 24, 1959; Peru, July 14, 1959; Ghana 
(subject to ratification), October 13, 19.59; Malaya, 
November 6, 1959 ; Brazil, November 9, 1959 ; Canada, 
November 16, 1959; Australia, December 14, 1959; 
France, October IS, 1960 ; United States, December 16, 
1960. 

Declarations co^nfirming signature: Austria, December 
2, 1959; Ghana, March 28, 1960. 

Acknowledged applicable rights and obligations of 
United Eingdotn: Nigeria, October 11, 1960. 

Declaration on relations between contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the 
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Done at 
Geneva May 25, 1959. Entered into force for the United 
States November 19, 1959. TIAS 4385. 
Signatures: Switzerland, November 15, 1960; Malaya, 
November 17, 1960 ; Pakistan, December 8, 1960. 

Declaration on provisional accession of Israel to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva 
May 29, 1959. Entered into force for the United States 
December 19, 1959. TIAS 4384. 
Signature: Malaya, November 17, 1960. 

Ninth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva August 17, 1959. 
Will enter into force on date on which signed by all con- 
tracting parties to the General Agreement. 
Signatures: Norway, August 17, 19.59; Union of South 
Africa, August 28, 1959; Austria (subject to ratifica- 
tion), September 3, 1959 ; Czechoslovakia and Sweden, 
October 29, 1959; Ceylon, October 31, 1959; Canada, 
Denmark, and United Kingdom, November 6, 1959; 
Brazil, November 9, 1959; Peru, November 16, 1959; 
Netherlands, December 2, 1959; Australia, December 
14, 19.59; Belgium (subject to ratification), February 
9, 1960 ; Japan, April 26, 1960 ; Malaya, May 19, 1960 ; 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, May 24, 1960; France, 
October 18, 1960; United States, December 16, 1960. 
Declarations confirming signature: Austria, March 16, 

1960 ; Belgium, April 5, 1960. 
Acknowledged applicable rights and obligations of 
United Kingdom: Nigeria, October 11, 1960. 

Declaration on relations between contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the 
Government of the Polish People's Republic. Done at 
Tokyo November 9, 1959. Entered into force November 
16, 1960. 
Signatures: Burma, November 3, 1960; Switzerland, 

November 15, 1960 ; Ceylon, November 16, 1960 ; New 

Zealand, December 7, 1960; Pakistan, December 8, 

1960. 
Declaration confirtning signature: Ghana, November 

16, 1960. 

Declaration on provisional accession of Tunisia to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Done at 
Tokyo November 12, 1959. Entered into force for the 
United States June 15, 1960. TIAS 4498. 
Signatures: Ceylon, November 16, 1960 ; Malaya, Novem- 
ber 17, 1960 ; Greece, November 18, 1960 ; Pakistan, 
December 8, 1960. 

Declaration on provisional accession of Swiss Confedera- 
tion to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 
Done at Geneva November 22, 1958. Entered into force 
for the United States April 29, 1960. TIAS 4461. 
Signature: Malaya, November 17, 1960. 



ianuary 76, 7961 



97 



United Nations 

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization. Done at London November 
16, 1945. Entered into force November 4, 1946. TIAS 
1580. 
Signatures: Ivory Coast, October 13, 1960; Dahomey, 

October 18, 1960; Mali, October 21, 1960; Congo 

(Brazzaville), October 24, 1960; Nigeria, November 2, 

1960 ; Senegal, November 3, 1960. 
Acceptances deposited: Dahomey, October 18, 1960; 

Congo (Brazzaville), October 24, 1960; Ivory Coast, 

October 27, 1960. 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Malagasy Republic, December 15, 
1960. 

BILATERAL 
Uruguay 

Agreement setting forth an understanding concerning the 
rate of exchange under the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 20, 1959, as supplemented 
(TIAS 4179, 4238, 4356, 4375, and 4406). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Montevideo September 13 and 16, 
1960. Entered into force September 16, 1960. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Resignations 



Dempster Mcintosh as Ambassador to Colombia, effec- 
tive December 31, 1960. ( For an exchange of correspond- 
ence between President Eisenhower and Ambassador 
Mcintosh, see White House press release dated 
December 24.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale ly the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, B.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may he ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4532. 3 pp. 

5(t. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 



Poland, amending the agreements of June 7, 1957, Febru- 
ary 15, 1958, and June 10, 1959, as amended. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Washington July 21, 1960. Entered 
into force July 21, 1960. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4533. 

7 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Thailand, amending the agreement of March 13, 1956, as 
amended. Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. Entered 
into force July 26, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4535. 14 pp. 

100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 

Poland. Signed at Washington July 21, 1960. Entered 

into force July 21, 1960. With exchanges of notes. 

United States Educational Commission in Korea. TIAS 

4536. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and the 
Republic of Korea, amending the agreement of April 28, 
1950. Exchange of notes— Signed at Seoul June 30, 1960. 
Entered into force June 30, 1960. 

Uranium Reconnaissance. TIAS 4537. 6 pp. 50. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Brazil, amending the agreement of December 26, 1957. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington December 2, 
1958. Entered into force December 23, 1959. And ex- 
tension agreement. Exchange of notes — Signed at Wash- 
ington December 23, 1959, and January 6 and July 6, 
1960. Entered into force July 6, 1960. 

Defense — Weapons Production Program. TIAS 4538. 
9 pp. 100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Italy. Exchange of notes — Signed at Rome July 7, 1960. 
Entered into force July 7, 1960. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4539. 
2 pp. 50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Brazil, amending the agreement of August 3, 1955, as 
amended. Signed at Washington June 11, 1960. Entered 
into force August 2, 1960. 

Exchange of Official Publications. TIAS 4540. 5 pp. 50. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Cambodia. Exchange of notes — Signed at Phnom Penh 
July 15, 1960. Entered into force July 15, 1960. 

Air Transport Services. TIAS 4541. 3 pp. 50. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Mexico, extending the provisional arrangement of March 
7, 1957, as amended and extended. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Mexico June 30, 1960. Entered into force June 
30, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4542. 10 pp. 

100. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
the United Arab Republic. Signed at Cairo August 1, 
1960. Entered into force August 1, 1960. With exchanges 
of notes. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4543. 3 pp. 
50. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
India, supplementing the agreement of May 4, 1960. 
Signed at New Delhi July 29, 1960. Entered into force 
July 29, 1960. With related letter. 



98 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



January 16, 1961 Index 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1125 



Atomic Energy 

U.S. Explains Votes in Committee I on Three Nu- 
clear Resolutions (Wilcox) 94 

U.S. Reaffirms Confidence in Work of IAEA (Wil- 
cox) 92 

Aviation. U.S. Helps Viet-Nam Finance Jet Run- 
way Construction 84 

Colombia. Jlclutosh resigns as Ambassador ... 98 

Department and Foreign Service 

President Directs Use of Mutual Security Funds for 

Office of IGC 85 

Resignations (Mcintosh) 98 

Economic Affairs 

International Consultations on Rubber (Mellen). . 78 
IFO Reports High Level of Investments in 1960 . . 90 
NASA To Promote Co mm ercial Use of Communica- 
tion Satellites (Eisenhower) 77 

New Tariff Rates Established for Certain Wool Fab- 
rics (text of proclamation) 87 

The United States and New Crossroads in World 

Economy (Martin) 71 

U.S. Grants Iceland $6 Million for Monetary Sta- 
bilization 84 

U.S. Officials and Foreign Minister of Ecuador Con- 
clude Talks (test of joint announcement) ... 83 
Yugoslavia To Receive Aid for Reform of Foreign 

Exchange and Trade 85 

Ecuador. U.S. Officials and Foreign Minister of 
Ecuador Conclude Talks ( text of joint announce- 
ment) 83 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. SEATO Heads 

of Universities (Conference (delegation) .... 96 
Iceland. U.S. Grants Iceland $6 Million for Mone- 
tary Stabilization 84 

' International Organizations and Conferences 
Attendance of Government Scientists at Interna- 
tional Conferences (Whitman) 96 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 91 

International Consultations on Rubber (Mellen). . 78 
IFC Reports High Level of Investments in 1960 . . 90 
SEATO Heads of Universities Conference (delega- 
tion) 96 

Laos. U.S. Calls for Consultations on Situation in 
Laos 76 

Mali. Letters of Credence (Maiga) 77 

Mutual Security 

President Directs Use of Mutual Security Funds for 
Office of IGC 85 

The United States and New Crossroads in World 
Economy (Martin) 71 

U.S. and Togo Sign Economic and Technical Aid 
Agreement (text of communique) 84 

U.S. Helps Viet-Nam Finance Jet Runway Con- 
struction 84 

Presidential Documents 

NASA To Promote Commercial Use of Communica- 
tion Satellites 77 



New Tariff Rates Established for Certain Wool 

Fabrics g^ 

President Directs Use of Mutual Security Funds for 

Office of IGC 85 

Publications. Recent Releases gg 

Science 

Attendance of Government Scientists at Interna- 
tional Conferences (Whitman) 96 

NASA To Promote Commercial Use of Communica- 
tion Satellites (Eisenhower) 77 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 

SEATO Heads of Universities Conference (delega- 
tion) 96 

U.S. Calls for Consultations on Situation in 
Laos 'jQ 

Togo. U.S. and Togo Sign Economic and Technical 

Aid Agreement (text of communique) .... 84 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 97 

United Nations 

U.S. Explains Votes in Committee I on Three Nu- 
clear Resolutions (Wilcox) 94 

U.S. Reaffirms Confidence in Work of IAEA (Wil- 
cox) 92 

Viet-Nam. U.S. Helps Viet-Nam Finance Jet Run- 
way Construction §4 

Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia To Receive Aid for Re- 
form of Foreign Exchange and Trade 85 

Name Index 

Elsenhower, President 77 85 87 

Maiga, Abdoulaye 77 

Martin, Edwin M 71 

Mcintosh, Dempster gg 

Mellen, Sydney L. W 73 

Reap, Joseph W 75 

Whitman, Walter G gg 

Wilcox, Francis O 92 94 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 26-January 1 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Release issued prior to December 26 which ap- 
pears in this issue of the Bdixetin is No. 706 dated 
December 23. 



No. 
708 
709 

♦710 
711 

712 

713 

714 
715 



Date 

12/27 
12/27 

12/29 
12/29 

12/30 

12/30 

12/30 
12/80 



Subject 

Mali credentials (rewrite). 

Aid to Yugoslavia for foreign ex- 
change and trade systems. 

Length-of-service awards. 

Economic and technical aid agreement 
with Togo. 

Delegation to SEATO Heads of Uni- 
versities Conference (rewrite). 

Consultations with Ecuadorean For- 
eign Minister. 

Financial aid to Iceland. 

Aid to Viet-Nam for construction of 
jet runway. 



*Not printed. 




Department 



of 



State 




United States 
Government Printing Office 

DIVISION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

Washington 25, D.C. 



PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID 

PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, $300 

(GPO) 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



DOCUMENTS ON DISARMAMENT 

November 15, 1945, through December 29, 1959 



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atomic energy, the reduction of annaments and armed forces, 
safeguards against surprise attack, the problem of nuclear weap- 
ons tests, various problems of outer space, and related questions. 

All the palmers in the collection have previously been released, 
but this is the first time that some of them have been made widely 
available. Volume I covers the years 1945-56 and Volume II the 
period 1957-59. The number of papers selected for the 5 years 
from 1955 through 1959 is much larger than for the preceding 10 
years. This is because the developments of recent years bear more 
directly upon the current negotiations in this general field and 
because recent years have witnessed intensified discussion of nu- 
clear testing, safeguards against surprise attack, and outer space. 



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^3S3, //73 6 




ICiAL 

KLY RECORD 

TED STATES 
EIGN POLICY 



U.S. BREAKS TIES WITH GOVERNMENT OF CUBA, 
IMAINTAINS ITS TREATY RIGHTS EN GUANTA- 

NAMO BASE • Statements by President Eisenhower 
and James C. Hagerty and Exchange of Notes 103 

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HEARS 
CUBAN COMPLAINT AGAINST UNITED STATES, 

ADJOURNS WITHOUT A VOTE • Statements by 
James J. Wadsivorth and James W. Barco 104 

UNITED STATES PROPOSES ABOLITION OR REDUC- 
TION OF U.S. AND SOVIET TRAVEL RESTRIC- 
TIONS 118 

THE CHANGING POSITION OF AFGHANISTAN IN 

ASIA • Article by Ambassador Henry A. Byroade . . . 125 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTIVIENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIV, No. 1126 • Publication 7128 
January 23, 1961 



For sale by the i3upcrlntendent of Documents 

U.S. Government PrlnttoR Office 

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The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Dlrccror of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 20, 1968). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the DEPAnTMENT 
OF State Bulletin as the source will bo 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. Ttie BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
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which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
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national relations are listed currently. 



U.S. Breaks Ties With Government of Cuba, 
Maintains Its Treaty Riglits in Guantanamo Base 



Following is a statement hy President Eisen- 
hower accompanied hy an exchange of notes re- 
garding the termination of diplomatic and 
consular relations ietween the United States and 
Cuba, together with a statement hy James G. 
Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President, re- 
garding treaty rights of the United States in the 
Guantanamo Naval Base. 



TERMINATION OF RELATIONS 

White House press release dated January 3 
Statement by President Eisenhower 

Between 1 and 2 o'clock this morning the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba delivered to the United States 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the United States 
Embassy in Habana [Daniel M. Braddock] a note 
stating that the Govei'nment of Cuba had decided 
to limit the personnel of our Embassy and con- 
sulate in Habana to 11 persons. Forty-eight 
hours was granted for the departure of our entire 
staff with the exception of 11. This unusual 
action on the part of the Castro government can 
have no other purpose than to render impossible 
the conduct of normal diplomatic relations with 
that Government. 

Accordingly I have instructed the Secretary of 
State to deliver a note to the Charge d'Affaires 
ad interim of Cuba in Washington which refers 
to the demand of his Government and states that 
the Government of the United States is hereby 
formally terminating diplomatic and consular re- 
lations with the Government of Cuba. Cojiies of 
both notes are being made available to the press. 

Tliis calculated action on the part of the Castro 
government is only the latest of a long series of 
harassments, baseless accusations, and vilification. 
There is a limit to what the United States in self- 



respect can endure. That limit has now been 
reached. Our friendship for the Cuban people is 
not affected. It is my hope and my conviction 
that in the not too distant future it will be possible 
for the historic friendship between us once again 
to fiiid its reflection in normal relations of every 
soi"t. Meanwhile our sympathy goes out to the 
people of Cuba now suffering imder the yoke of a 
dictator. 

United States Note i 

January 3, 1961 
Sik: I have the honor to refer to a note dated 
January 2, 1961, from the Government of Cuba 
to the Charge d'Affaires of the United States 
Embassy in Habana stating that the Government 
of Cuba has decided that personnel of the Em- 
bassy and Consulate of the United States in the 
City of Habana, regardless of nationality, shall 
not exceed eleven persons. 

This imwarranted action by the Government of 
Cuba places crippling limitations on the ability of 
the United States Mission to carry on its normal 
diplomatic and consular f imctions. It would con- 
sec^uently appear that it is designed to achieve an 
effective termination of diplomatic and consular 
relations between the Government of Cuba and 
the Government of the United States. Accord- 
ingly, the Government of the United States hereby 
formally notifies the Government of Cuba of the 
termination of such relations. 

The Government of the United States intends 
to comply with the requirement of the Govern- 
ment of Cuba concerning the withdrawal of all 
but eleven persons within the period of 48 hours 
from 1 :20 a.m. on Januai-y 3, the time of the de- 



Jan uar/ 23, 1967 



' Addressed to Dr. Armando F16rez Ibarra, Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim at the Cuban Embassy in Washing- 
ton, D.C. 



103 



livery of the note under reference. In addition, 
the Government of the United States ■will with- 
di*aw its remaining diplomatic and consular 
personnel in Cuba as soon as possible thereafter. 

The Government of Cuba is requested to with- 
draw from the United States as soon as possible 
all Cuban nationals employed in the Cuban Em- 
bassy m Washington and in all Cuban Consular 
establishments in the United States. 

The Government of the United States is re- 
questing the Government of Switzerland to as- 
sume diplomatic and consular representation in 
Cuba on behalf of the Government of the United 
States.^ 

I take this opportmiity to reiterate to you the 
assurances of my reciprocity of your considera- 
tions. 

Christian A. Herter 

Cuban Note 

Habana, January 2, 1961, Year of Education 
Me. Chakge D'AFFAIRES : I have the honor to inform 
you that the Revolutionary Government has decided that 
under present circumstances the personnel of the Embassy 



and Consulate of Cuba in the City of Washington, whether 
diplomatic, consular, or of other character, whatever their 
nationality, should not exceed eleven persons. Likewise 
it has decided that the personnel of the Embassy and 
Consulate of the United States in the city of Habana, 
whether diplomatic, consular or of other character, what- 
ever their nationality, should likewise be limited to eleven 
persons. 

For the purpose of facilitating the departure of the 
persons who for this reason must abandon the national 
territory, a period of 48 hours has been fixed from the 
time of receipt of this note. 

I take the opportunity, Mr. Chargd d'Affaires, to re- 
iterate to you the assurance of my reciprocity of your 
considerations. 

Carlos Olivabes 



STATEMENT BY MR. HAGERTY 

White House press release dated January 4 

The termination of our diplomatic and consular 
relations with Cuba has no effect on the status of 
our naval station at Guantanamo. The treaty 
rights under wliich we maintain the naval station 
may not be abrogated without the consent of tlie 
United States. 



United Nations Security Council Hears Cuban Complaint 
Against United States, Adjourns Without a Vote 



The Security Cov/ncil met January If. and 5 to 
consider a complaint {S/4605) addressed to the 
President of the Secunty Council iy Raul Roa, 
Cuban Minister for External Relations, charging 
that the United States loas '■'■about to perpetrate, 
loithin a few hours, direct military aggression 
against the Government and people of Cuba.'''' 
Following are texts of statements inade by U.S. 
Representatives James J. Wadsworth and James 
TF. Barco. 



FIRST STATEMENT BY MR. WADSWORTH, 
JANUARY 4 

U.S. /U.N. press release 3630 

Mr. President [Omar Loutfi of the U.A.K.], 
with your permission I would like to start my re- 



' Tlie Government of Switzerland assumed responsi- 
bility for representation of U.S. interests in Cuba on 
Jan. 7. 



104 



marks on a happy note — first, by extending a 
cordial welcome to you as the United Arab Re- 
public joins us in the work of the Security Council 
and as you assume your responsibilities as our 
President for the month of January. I would 
also like to associate myself with my other col- 
leagues around this table in welcome to our three 
other new colleagues here. The United States de- 
rives the greatest pleasure from the prospect of 
working with the representatives of Chile, Turkey, 
and Liberia. We know that the Council will 
benefit gi-eatly from the wisdom and esiierience 
of their representatives, and we are happy to con- 
vey to them, as well as to you, Mr. President, our 
congratulations and best wishes. Finally, Mr. I 
President, a word of thanks to the representatives i 
of Argentina, Italy, Poland, and Tunisia. As has | 
been said by more than one delegation here, they' 
will be missed. 

Now, to the business before us, namely, the 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



question of the agenda of this particular session 
of tl:e Security Council. 

Last night, as the members of the Council know, 
the United States Government announced the 
termination of diplomatic relations with Cuba.^ I 
need not tell you with what heavy hearts we took 
that step. The Cuban people are our friends. We 
have worked hard, in the face of great and con- 
tinued provocation, to prevent the leaders of Cuba 
from choking off these friendly i-elations; but that 
is what they seemed determined to do. Over 
nearly 2 years they have piled msult upon injury 
to a point where our diplomacy could not function 
any more. 

Now, in these false and hysterical charges which 
have been laid before the Security Council by 
the Cuban Government, we have a fi-esh reminder 
of the strategy of harassment by which they 
brought us — and I think definitely on puqjose — 
to last night's decision. 

As the members of the Council know, the United 
States has a tradition of many years' standing of 
not opposing full and free debate on charges 
leveled against us in the United Nations — no 
matter how baseless the charges may be nor how 
discredited in world opinion. In conformitj' with 
that tradition we will not oppose the inscription 
of this complaint by the Foreign Minister of 
Cuba [Eaul Eoa], even though it is totally 
fraudulent. 

The United States has nothing to hide and 
nothing to fear from these charges. They are 
false and cannot stand the light of day. If any- 
body has reiison to fear a debate on this question 
it is the Cuban leaders themselves, who have been 
crying "wolf!" for the past 6 months over an 
alleged "imminent invasion" — I repeat for the 
past 6 months — of their country and thereby are 
fast making themselves ridiculous in the eyes of 
the world. 

Let me remind the Comicil that last July the 
"iForeign Minister of Cuba came here to the Coun- 
cil and accused the United States — without proof, 
lof course — of aggressive intentions against his 
Icountry — a charge which the Council did not 
|3ustain.^ In August he made similar accusations 
igainst us at the meeting of Foreign Ministers of 



the Organization of American States in San 
Jose — again without proof; and again he got no 
support.'* Then in September the Prime Minister 
of Cuba [Fidel Castro] made a 4-hour speech 
about it in the General Assembly.* Then in Oc- 
tober Dr. Eoa came to the General Assembly with 
charges about a "large-scale invasion which the 
United States Government is prepared to launch 
at any moment," and then he asked for an im- 
mediate plenary debate on it.^ 

Eeealling that record of wild charges in recent 
months, we are no longer very much surprised 
to read Dr. Eoa's letter of December 31, in which 
he says in the very first sentence that the United 
States "is about to perpetrate, within a few hours, 
direct military aggression against the Govern- 
ment and people of Cuba." Those are his actual 
words — -"within a few hours." It is the same 
midnight brew, dipped from the same cauldron 
of hysteria. I reject categorically the ridiculous 
charges of the Cuban Government. 

Cuban Memorandum of December 31 

Mr. President, we have searched among the 
adjectives of Dr. Eoa's memorandum, and we have 
found just two specific charges which seem to be 
new. We are charged, first, with engineering 
the diplomatic isolation of Cuba. This charge 
comes with ill grace from a goveriunent which has 
made itself an instrument of the most cruel im- 
perialism of all times; which has had a part in 
armed incursions into the territory of other Amer- 
ican states; which has incited disorder and tur- 
bulence through minority groups ; which has usexi 
its diplomatic officials — or at least those who have 
remained in its service — for interventionist ac- 
tivities; and which has continually and violently 
repudiated the i-egional organization of which it 
is a member. 

Now, any diplomatic isolation of Cuba comes 
as a result of Cuba's own actions. Of coui-se, the 
United States Government has consulted and will 
continue to consult with other American govern- 
ments regarding the consequences of these Cuban 
activities and attitudes and many other Cuban 
actions which have contributed to tension m the 



^ See p. 103. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 8, 1960, p. 199. 

Vanuary 23, 1 96 J 



' Ibid., Sept. 12, 1960, p. 395. 

' For texts of U.S. replies, see Hid., Oct. 17, 1960, p. 
621, and Oct. 31, 1960, p. 690. 
^ For baekground, see ibid., Nov. 21, 1960, p. 787. 



105 



international relations of the hemisphere. But 
to say that the actions and decisions which these 
governments have taken within their own right 
are otlier than their own sovereign will is insult- 
ing to them as well as to the intelligence of the 
Security Council. And to attribute such actions 
to the United States Government is false and 
absurd. 

Alleged Document on Intervention 

In the jungle of adjectives of Dr. Eoa's letter, 
we find one other comparatively new accusation 
and it has to do with a nebulous docmnent. Dr. 
Roa asserts in his letter, ". . . there exists a docu- 
ment of the Department of State, circulated to all 
the Foreign Ministries on the American conti- 
nent, in which it is stated, . . . that President 
Eisenhower's Government — " 

[Ambassador Wadsworth was interrupted on a point of order 
by the representative of the U.S.S.R.. after which he resumed as 
follows : ] 

Mr. President, had it not been for the point of 
order of our distinguished representative from the 
U.S.S.R., I would have finished long ago. I may 
also say that normally I would take very seriously 
any point of order made by Mr. [Valerian A.] 
Zorin having to do with the improper use of sub- 
stance in a procedural address. He is the greatest 
expert on that in the entire United Nations. How- 
ever, I am not in substance. I am discussing the 
request of the Cuban Government for a meeting of 
the Security Council. The explanatory memo- 
randum which came with the request for this 
meeting today explains why they want a meet- 
ing — therefore, wliy they want an agenda 
adopted^and I am discussing the adoption of the 
agenda. I will huriy along to my long-planned 
finish as soon as I can, and I thank the President 
for his forbearance. 

I was saying, when the point of order was called, 
that in this letter there is a quote wliich says that 
"there exists a document of the Department of 
State, circulated to all the Foreign Ministries on 
the American continent, in which it is stated, . . . 
that President Eisenhower's Government is pre- 
pared to order a military intervention in Cuba." 
The United States Government knows of no such 
document. We certainly did not originate any 
such document. 

However, I do not place too much stress on these 



106 



particular charges because we know from experi- 
ence from Dr. Koa's persistence in error that as 
soon as we answer these points he will produce 
a half a dozen more — again without logic or 
evidence. 

But let there be no doubt in anybody's mind, 
Mr. President, as we approach this debate on sub- 
stance; the real attacker here is the Cuban Govern- 
ment. The weapons are character assassination 
and false alarms. The target is not just the 
United States but all those governments of the 
Western Hemisphere whose policies the leadership 
in Habana does not happen to like. And the 
launching point for tlie propaganda invasion is 
right here in the United Nations. 

In fact, false propaganda, bad as it is, is only 
one of the weapons being used. I will go into that 
when I get into substance. But these are the real 
threats in the Western Hemisphere. It is and 
has been a matter of concern to the Organization 
of American States, which is the competent 
regional organization. In fact, the last time that 
the Government of Cuba brought these charges to 
the Security Council, the Council suggested very 
politely that they be taken first before the Organi- 
zation of American States. 

As to Cuba's monotonously reiterated charges, 
they have been by no means neglected. My 
Government has twice requested convocation of 
the Ad Hoc Connnittee, which was created hy the 
Seventh Meeting of the American Foreign Minis- 
ters in San Jose, to look into the facts of such 
charges.' These efforts have been deliberately 
ignored by the Government of Cuba, which 
obviously desires only to build false propaganda 
fires rather than liave its complaints dealt with 
within the regional organization. But since we 
are accused here by the principal agent of the 
threat involved, we are prepared to describe to 
the Council, after tlie agenda is adopted, just what 
the threat is and where it comes from. 

And we liope that the Government of Cuba, 
having failed three times out of three to gain sup- 
port in the United Nations for its propaganda, 
will realize at last that such tactics do not hurt 
us and that it is not so easy as one miglit think 
to pervert the United Nations to serve the selfish 
purposes of any nation. 



' For background, see ibid., Nov. 14, 1960, p. 747. 

Department of State Bulletin 



SECOND STATEMENT BY MR. WADSWORTH, 
JANUARY 4 

U.S./U.N. press release S631 

Beginning in the spring and summer of 1959 a 
series of invasion attempts upset the peace of the 
Caribbean area. Panama, Nicaragua, the Domin- 
ican Republic, and Haiti were the victims. In 
evei-y case it has been established beyond reason- 
able doubt that the expeditions liad the support 
of Cuban officials. In the case of the invasion of 
Panama in June of 1959, the investigating commit- 
tee appointed by the Council of the Organization 
of American States studied the facts and con- 
cluded that — and I quote from their report — 
"the Republic of Panama was the victim of 
an invasion organized abroad that sailed from a 
Cuban port and was composed entirely of for- 
eigners." In fact, the chairman of the committee 
was able to confirm that 82 out of the 84 invaders 
who were taken prisoner were Cubans. The in- 
vasions of Haiti were apparently attempted with 
the complicity of the Cuban Ambassador there 
and his five military attaches. 

Finally, Mr. President, by plunging their coun- 
try into tliis subversive and military activity which 
is far beyond the resources of Cuba acting alone, 
the leaders of Cuba have put that unhappy coun- 
try more and more into the hands of international 
communism. 

Last February, when the First Deputy Premier 
of the Soviet Union, Mr. [Anastas I.] Mikoyan, 
visited Cuba, a communique was issued in Habana 
about Mr. Mikoyan's conversations with the Cuban 
leaders. It contained this statement: "Expres- 
sion was given to the constant striving of both 
governments to implement active and joint ac- 
tivity in the United Nations." We have already 
seen evidences of that joint activity — not only to- 
day but as when, last September, the General As- 
sembly voted on a Soviet proposal for a plenary 
debate on its discredited charge of United States 
aerial aggression. There were only 10 votes for 
that proposal : the 9 votes of the Soviet bloc, which 
virtually always votes together, and — Cuba. 

And now, Mr. President, I submit tliat we see 
another example of that "joint activity" right 
here in the Council. It has been remarked to me, 
and I think truly, that the Soviet Union must find 
it very convenient that the Security Council should 
be hearing this spurious Cuban charge of an 



imaginary United States aggression at a point 
when world opinion might otlierwise be noticing 
certain events in Laos or in the Congo. 

Such is the record of Cuba's self-isolation in the 
past 2 years. Wliat began 2 years ago as a bright 
hope for the Cuban people, applauded widely by 
the American people and by the Eisenhower ad- 
ministration, as well as throughout the world, 
quickly turned into a reign of terror at home and 
thence into a danger to the peace and freedom of 
the entire hemispliere. 

Now, Mr. President, severely provoked though 
we are, as last night's action will attest, the United 
States' aims regarding Cuba have not changed. 
In the face of tliis situation we sliall cooperate 
with our allies in the Western Hemisphere to help 
maintain its security against aggression from 
wliatever source. 

And we will never cease to look for a way back 
to peace and friendship between Cuba and the 
United States. 

OAS Good Offices Committee 

Now, in all these efforts the United States has 
placed the greatest emphasis — and we think 
rightly so — on the Organization of American 
States. We believe strongly in the Organization 
of American States and in the int«r-American 
tradition. At San Jose last August the OAS 
created an Ad Hoc Committee of Good Offices, 
composed of representatives of Brazil, Chile, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela, to 
provide a forum where the difficulties between 
Cuba and the United States might be ironed out. 
Last September 12 the United States proposed 
that the committee be convened in order to clarify 
the facts in the controversy between ourselves and 
Cuba. On October 28 we reiterated that proposal 
in a note to the Secretary General of the OAS 
and promised to cooperate fully with the commit- 
tee, on the sole condition that Cuba would do the 
same. 

Perhaps if that offer had been accepted, Mr. 
President, the false, vague, and somewhat hyster- 
ical charges which we have heard today could have 
been brought into some reasonable order and 
studied in a calm atmosphere, an atmosphere gen- 
erated between sister states. Evidently that is not 
what the Cuban Government wanted. They 
would rather come in here and fling wild charges 



January 23, 7961 



107 



about. As long as they are in that frame of mind, 
we see no chance for improvement. 

I noted particularly over the simultaneous 
translation that Dr. Roa stated specifically that 
Cuba could not accept any resolution of the Secu- 
rity Council which would ask the Government of 
Cuba and the Government of the United States, 
as it is presently constituted, to get together and 
talk these things over. This again is another evi- 
dence of the attitude which is held by the Govern- 
ment of Cuba. 

But we will never despair, Mr. President, and 
we will never cease to look for the day when Cuba 
will break out of the prison of hatred in which 
her present rulers have confined her and will re- 
join the community of nations. 

After listening to Dr. Roa's speech I have no 
reason to change what I said in my brief state- 
ment this morning about the Cuban charges as set 
forth in his letter to the Council. The charges in 
the speech, just like those in the letter, are com- 
pletely without foundation and given to us in a 
rather hysterical manner. I rather seriously doubt 
that Dr. Roa himself believes them. To try to 
refute them all in detail would be like making a 
point-by -point rebuttal of Alice in WoiiderJand. 

There was one thing that he said toward the 
early part of Ms speech — and I am sorry I do 
not have the verbatim of it — but over the simul- 
taneous translation it soimded something like this : 
that the actions of the United States, as he was 
about to give them in his speech to us, were un- 
believable. I agree. They are unbelievable, and 
they should not be believed. 

Now, my delegation will make not very much 
comment on Dr. Roa's speech imtil we have had 
an opportunity to see it in writing. But I will 
say a few words about the main charges in his 
letter, which is before the Council in Dociunent 
S/4605 and which we have had a brief opportiuiity 
to study. 

First Charge 

First, as I mentioned very briefly this morning, 
the letter charges that there is some sort of a "con- 
fidential note," some sort of a "document of the 
Department of State," in which the United States 
Government has informed the foreign ministries 
in the Western Hemisphere of our intention to 
cari-y out a militai-y intervention in Cuba under 



certain contingencies, namely, if construction is re- 
sumed on "seventeen sites for the lamiching of 
Soviet rockets." Alice in Wonderland ? 

On the first page of Dr. Roa's letter this was 
all stated flatly as a fact : the United States note 
exists, it has been circulated, and words are 
quoted from it in quotation marks. But then, 
at the bottom of page 2 and the top of page 3, the 
existence of the note is rather oddly attributed to 
"cabled despatches from Montevideo, Uruguay." 
Now, that is the sort of evidence which is being 
presented to the Security Council to support a 
charge of aggression, of "imminent invasion" — 
the most serious chai-ge, I am sure that Dr. Roa 
realizes, that one nation can make against another 
on the basis of "cabled despatches from Monte- 
video, Uruguay." 

Now, we have great respect for the free news- 
papers of Montevideo, just as we do for the free 
newspapers of New York. But it is common ex- 
perience, at least in societies such as ours — perhaps 
Dr. Roa has not had this experience — that reports 
appear from time to time in free newspapers in 
any city which turn out, upon examination, to be 
inaccurate or even entirely erroneous. And I know 
all of us around this table have been subjected to 
such erroneous reporting from time to time, and 
in many, many cases which we all know of, the 
newspaper in question has printed a retraction. 

Now, in addition to the fact that some of these 
reports may be erroneous, there is always the pos- 
sibility of what we call "inspired press stories," 
particularly in the case of the Communist-guided 
Prensa Latina. 

Tlie United States Government has not circu- 
lated any document or note of any kind relating 
to the supposed construction of Soviet missile 
bases in Cuba or stating an intention to launch 
a military intervention against Cuba. And per- 
haps it is significant, Mr. President, that, in spite 
of a welter of photographs and in spite of a large 
number of quotations from various newspaper 
and magazine articles, the Security Council has 
not been shown any such document. Cannot we 
all realize, understanding international relations 
as we do at this table, that if any Cuban authority 
had come to any United States authority about 
this so-called document, we could have told them 
that this particular press report was completely 
erroneous? They obviously did not want to be 



108 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



told tliat. They would much rather spread it in 
the press and come to the Security Comicil of the 
United Nations and make a big noise about it. 

Now, so much for our latest "invasion plot." 
That is a good example of the kind of second-hand 
rumor which Dr. Roa uses instead of evidence. 

As you see, Mr. President, in order to keep this 
invasion scare in perspective, we must keep in 
mind recent Cuban propaganda. For the past 
year or more it has been the j^ractice of the Cuban 
leadei-s, particularly of Prime Minister Castro, to 
ascribe to the United States an intention to carry 
out a military invasion of Cuba and to urge all 
patriotic Cubans to be ready to die fighting the 
Yankee invaders. We had a sample here when 
Dr. Eoa asked for an immediate debate on what 
he called "the large-scale invasion which the 
United States Government is preparing to launch 
at any moment against Cuba." You can just 
imagine the headlines in which these charges 
were spread across the pages of the controlled 
press of Cuba in order to whip the Cuban people 
into a state of fear and alarm. Of course there 
was no invasion. There was never any plan for 
any such invasion. And the matter lay on the 
agenda of the Political Committee of the General 
Assembly for 7 weeks without being raised again 
by anybody, even tliough the United States had 
indicated its full agreement that if any real emer- 
gency came up the Cuban item could be moved 
directly to the head of the list. And so the As- 
sembly adjourned the first part of its session. 

Then the New Year approached and with it 
the second anniversai-y of the accession to power 
of the Castro regime. The mommg papers in 
Habana on December 31 all carried a lurid scare 
story under one identical banner headline, one 
headline in all the papers: "Yankee Invasion 
Inuninent." That night Prime INIinister Castro 
addressed a banquet in Habana and devoted one 
hour of his speech to the new invasion charge, 
with particular emphasis on the supposed United 
States docimient, alleging the construction of 
Soviet rocket bases in Cuba — the same nonexistent 
document with which Dr. Roa has attempted to 
startle the Security Coimcil. 

So, unfortunately, Mr. President, that is the 
daily or an example of the daily mental diet for 
the Cuban people, whose free press has been 
strangled by the Castro regime. 



Second Charge 

Now I come to the second principal charge in 
Dr. Roa's letter, that our "sinister plan," so-called, 
against Cuba was developed "with the open co- 
operation of Cuban war criminals who have 
sought refuge in the United States — including 
mercenaries, adventurers, spies, saboteurs and ter- 
rorists of every kind." 

Well now, of course, it is a fact that thousands 
of Cubans, including editors, intellectuals, and 
professional men in all fields, have fled from Cuba 
in the past 2 yeare. Many hundreds of them have 
taken refuge in the United States. They are not 
war criminals. Like most Americans, the great 
majority of them, includmg nearly all the original 
chief lieuteaiants of Dr. Castro, supported the 
Castro revolution until they were sickened by the 
suppression of freedom in Cuba in all fields of 
endeavor. Those who were not able to get to 
the United States or to some other free comitry 
for asylum are in prison. They were sickened 
by the suppression of freedom, by the wiping 
out of every political party except the Communist 
Party, by the complete muzzling of the press, 
radio, and television, by the taking over of tlie 
maiversities and the labor movement by the regime, 
the subjection of the courts to political control, 
the widespread execution and imprisonment of 
mdividuals who were suspected of political op- 
position. Yes, Mr. President, there are a great 
many Cubans who do not choose to live in Cuba 
under these circiunstances. But the United States 
is only one of many free comitries which have 
given them asylum. 

Now, our Federal and local governments, as 
well as some private organizations, have given 
emergency assistance to some of these refugees 
who had to leave Cuba without money or prop- 
erty and must make a new start somewhere.'^ 
We are doing our best to find housmg and jobs 
for them and schooling for their children. We 
have informed the Council of the Organization 
of American States all about these steps and have 
expressed the hope tliat other American Republics 
might wish to cooperate in dealing with this 
purely hmnanitarian problem. Now, those are 



' For text of au iuterim report on the Cuban refugee 
problem made to President Eisenhower by Tracy S. 
Voorhees on Dee. 19, see Hid., Jan. 9, 1961, p. 45. 



January 23, 1961 



109 



all actions which any free country would take as a 
matter of common humanity. 

But, to imply, as Dr. Roa has done, that we 
have supported military incursions by Cuban ref- 
ugees into Cuba is absolutely false. It is natural 
and readily understandable that some Cubans on 
our shores should want to engage in activities 
against the government which has done them so 
much harm. But the United States Government 
has been in no way associated with such activities. 
On the contrary, we have made unusual and special 
efforts to prevent violation of our laws. 

Third Charge 

Now for the third charge in Dr. Koa's letter. 
It is that the United States "is now engaged in 
a manoeuvre with a view to the diplomatic isola- 
tion of Cuba within Latin America." As evidence 
for tliis Dr. Roa cited the fact that Guatemala 
and Peru had broken diplomatic relations with 
Cuba and tliat the Uruguayan Government was 
reported in the press to be contemplatmg the 
same action. He added that other governments 
seemed to be considering the same step. 

Now, Mr. President, of course the United States 
consults witli other American Republics on mat- 
ters of common concern, including our relations 
with Cuba and their i-elations with Cuba and the 
position of Cuba in our Western Hemispheric 
situation. For Dr. Roa to say that we have used 
"tremendous pressure" on other American Repub- 
lics to cause them to break relations with Cuba is 
entirely false. It shows how far he has slipped 
into the totalitarian state of mind in which there 
are only two possible relationships between gov- 
ernments : either command and obedience, or open 
hostility. 

Now, anybody who knows the extent to which 
Cuban diplomatic missions throughout this hem- 
isphere have been used for subversion and hostile 
propaganda can understand why some of the sov- 
ereign governments should find it necessai-y to 
break relations with Cuba — and this requires no 
underscoring from us. 

Harassment of U.S. Citizens 

In this context let me add one word about the 
actions of the United States last night in breaking 
our diplomatic relations with Cuba. This was 
a step which we took, as I said this morning, with 



heavy hearts, and we were driven to it. Probably 
nowhere in the history of recent civilization has 
any government been as forbearing in the face of 
provocation as has the United States Government 
in connection with Cuban actions. For many 
months the Cuban Government, and particularly 
the Foreign Ministi-y over which Dr. Roa presides, 
has made noniial diplomatic contact by our Em- 
bassy virtually impossible. Our country has beeii 
made the chief target for all Cuban hate propa- 
ganda; our nationals have been the chief victims 
of their harassment. In the first 10 months of 
1960 at least 43 United States citizens were har- 
assed and arrested without charges by the Cuban 
police. I stress the phrase "without charges." 
This is not the action of a government with the 
ideals which have been professed by the leaders 
of the Cuban revolution. In one of these cases 
last August 18 an American woman and her two 
young sons were dragged from their car by a mob 
and beaten while the Cuban police stood by and 
watched; then the police took them to headquar- 
ters and questioned them intensively before releas- 
ing them many hours later, still without 
giving any reason for the arrest. 

Then on September 15 at 1 a.m. armed repre- 
sentatives of the Cuban Army's Department of 
Investigations foi'ced their way into the apart- 
ment of a woman staff member of the United 
States Embassy in Habana. They searched her 
apartment, refusetl to tell her of any charges 
against her, and would not let her make contact 
with her Embassy. She was taken to police head- 
quarters. Our Embassy was still not allowed to 
talk to her. Forty hours later, after vigorous 
representations by our Ambassador, she was re- 
leased and ordered to leave Cuba immediately — 
without any charges ever being filed against her. 

Dr. Roa speaks with great eloquence of the 
ideals and principles of the Cuban revolution. 
These are only two of many incidents. In these 
circumstances of constant harassment the United 
States Government suggested to its citizens in 
Cuba that, unless there were compelling reasons 
to keep them there, they should consider return- 
ing to the United States. We gave similar advice 
to Americans who might be thinking of traveling 
there because we, the United States Government, 
were not in a position to defend them against 
arrest witliout charge, against detention without 
charge, against all kinds of harassment and era- 



110 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



barrassment. And in view of the increasing diffi- 
culty of providing this protection for citizens 
through regular diplomatic channels, it was our 
duty to give this advice. And I think every mem- 
ber of the Security Council would agree that his 
country would do the same under similar circum- 
stances. 

Now, then, as the world knows, only yesterday 
morning the Cuban Government suddenly issued 
an order, without warning, that the United States 
Embassy should be reduced arbitrarily to 11 per- 
sons. All members of the Embassy above that 
number were summarily ordered to leave within 
48 hours and were said by Prime Minister Castro 
to be engaged in "espionage." 

Such hostile and provocative actions by the 
Cuban Government have long since destroyed the 
confidence and mutual respect which are essential 
to effective diplomatic relations and have made 
the maintenance of the United States Embassy in 
Habana impossible. 

Events Inside Cuba 

In our opinion, the leadei-s of the Cuban revolu- 
tion have isolated their nation from the rest of 
the nations even though the representative of 
Cuba has boasted this morning that "We do not 
stand alone." They have isolated their nation at 
least from the rest of the Western Hemisphere, 
which were their natural friends, by their exti'eme 
thirst for power and domination and fanatical 
intolerance of any and all dissent. From this 
state of mind have flowed many tragic results : 

The imposition of censorship and thought 
control ; 

The banning of all political parties except the 
Communists ; 

Siunmary justice by drumhead courts, which 
have arbitrarily caused hundreds to be put to 
death ; 

The consequent flight of many thousands of 
refugees, including many of Cuba's ablest citizens ; 

Economic troubles arising from irresponsible 
policies and a constant defection of political and 
economic leaders; 

The official creation of a "Yankee Devil," whom 
the unfortunate Cuban people, including the 
smallest school children, are taught to fear and 
despise as being ready to invade their beloved 
fatherland ; 



An open advocacy of subversion and violent 
revolution throughout Latin America; 

The mortgaging of Cuba's economic future for 
the purchase of large quantities of arms from the 
Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia; 

The military mobilization of hundreds of thou- 
sands of Cubans ; 

And, finally, the gradual transformation of an 
increasingly insolvent Cuba into a political and 
economic dependency of the Soviet Union and a 
springboard for Soviet ambitions m the Western 
Hemisphere. 

I shall not dwell at length on the events inside 
Cuba, even though they are the I'eal source of the 
turmoil. But since this Council, the Security 
Council, is charged with the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security, something must be 
said about those aspects of Cuba's policy which 
have not only contributed to its moral isolation 
in the Western Hemisphere but have caused great 
dangers to peace in the region. 

I began my remarlcs this afternoon, Mr. Presi- 
dent, with a very brief description of the invasions 
whicli had taken place over the last 2 years, and 
we must all recognize, because it is openly avowed, 
that subversion in the Western Hemisphere is a 
definite policy of the Castro government. High 
officials of the Cuban Government have proclaimed 
that the Governments of Latin America do not 
represent the peoples of Latin America. On 
August 30, 1960, Prime Minister Castro said: 
"What happened in Cuba will some day happen 
in America." By that I suppose he meant the 
United States. "And if for saying this we arc 
accused of being continental revolutionaries, let 
them accuse us. If for saying this we are accused 
of wanting there to be revolution in all of America, 
let them accuse us." I do not know of anything 
that could be much clearer Uian that. 

But to nail down the last nail, 2 days later, on 
September 1, Foreign Minister Koa said that the 
Cuban revolution "will act as a springboard for 
all tlie popular forces of Latin America following 
a destiny identical to that of Cuba." 

Role of International Communism 

Now, if the rulers of Cuba set out by themselves 
to carry out such a policy, it would be dangerous 
enough. But it is made far more dangerous by 
the fact that it is openly espoused and abetted 



January 23, 7967 



111 



by the entire international Communist movement 
and by tlie leaders of the Soviet Union. Just a 
month ago in Moscow the leadei-s of the Com- 
munist parties of the world, in their directive on 
worldwide Communist strategy, jiroclaimed that 
"the victory of the popular revolution in Cuba is 
a splendid example for the peoples of Latin 
America." 

These words have been supported with weapons. 
I will not take the time of the Coimcil to go 
through the listmg of the tyj^es of weapons, of 
the militai-y technicians that came with them, of 
the establishment of the huge civilian militia, far 
beyond the needs of defense and international se- 
curity. But the Cuban program of disruption in 
Latin America imder the Castro government is 
already well known. It is aimed at the establish- 
ment of regimes of the Castro-Communist mold. 

I know that all of the members of the Council, 
Mr. President, do not need to be reminded that 
when the Castro govenmient first came to power 
the people of the United States, the Government 
of the United States — now called various names 
by the Cuban representative — rejoiced. They re- 
joiced together with the Cuban people, who had 
been given promise after promise of a more won- 
derful day to come. 

As I said earlier, it was not imtil they were 
sickened by the realization that many of these 
promises were empty, were not being fulfilled, 
and i^robably never would be that the very able 
lieutenants of Dr. Castro started gradually to move 
away and finally to turn their backs on the regime, 
to the extent that perhaps only two or three still 
remain, one of them Dr. Castro's brother and the 
other one not even a Cuban. 

We of the United States are truly sorry that 
the gi-eat ideals as expressed by the leaders of the 
movement, I believe it is called, of the 26th of 
July, have been thus spumed by the existing re- 
gime in Cuba. For if they could have been fol- 
lowed through, if they could have come true, you 
never would have had anything like this meeting 
of the Security Council or the July meeting of 
the Security Council, or the speeches made in the 
General Assembly in September and in October. 

We realize as much as anyone else the crying 
need on the part of the peoples of Latin America 
for true self-determination, and we can only de- 
plore the fact that apparently this time the people 
of Cuba have been taken in by empty promises. 

112 



From the standpoint of the United States, as 
I said this morning, the charges brought today by 
the Foreign Minister of Cuba are empty, are 
groundless, are false, are fraudulent; and I sup- 
pose that in the lexicon of diplomacy one might 
find perhaps 40 or 50 other words to indicate that 
they are without basis in fact. 

I ask the members of the Security Council to 
study the charges, to study the history of the rela- 
tionships between Cuba and the United States 
over the past 2 years, which has become an open 
book to all of you Comicil members, and then to 
decide on the basis of merit as to whether these 
charges should be considered in a serious vein. 
We believe that they should not be. 

We believe actually that there should be no 
resolution before this Council taking any cog- 
nizance of these charges whatever. I hope, Mr. 
President, that as we draw to the close of our 
deliberations on this particular item, this particu- 
lar position as to resolutions will be recognized 
and supported by the great majority of the 
Council. 



STATEMENT BY MR. BARCO, JANUARY 5 

U.S. /U.N. press release 3634 

I wish to make one or two comments on several 
of the very interesting speeches that we have 
heard this afternoon. I say "interesting" because 
at least two of them represented a lack of content 
and a tone which, in view of the way in which this 
debate began, I find somewhat extraordinary and 
something to be noted well by this Council. I 
refer in particular to the statement of the Foreign 
Minister of Cuba and to the statement of the repre- 
sentative of the Soviet Union. 

I feel that it is necessary and desirable that the 
members of the Council remember what this meet- 
ing began witli. The Foreign Minister of Cuba 
alleged as the reason for these meetings that the 
United States was preparing to invade Cuba 
"within a few hours." Today he made a general 
attack on the United States with no submission of 
any evidence whatsoever of liis previous allega- 
tion that the United States was going to invade 
Cuba "within a few liours." This is not the first 
time, members of the Council will remember, that 
tlie Foreign Minister of Cuba has made this kind 
of charge and on the basis of which he has ob 
tained meetings of the Security Council and has 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



taken up the time of the General Assembly. I 
think that this is a matter which is of very serious 
concern to all those who are interested in truth, 
in tlie purposes of the United Nations, and in the 
obligations of all the members of the Security 
Council. 

His vague statement we heard today, devoid of 
any evidence, does not belong in a Security Coun- 
cil meeting called for the purpose of considering 
such a serious allegation. It is an abuse of the 
privilege of coming here. It is an imposition on 
the good will of tlie members, and it subverts the 
seriousness of purpose of the Security Council. 
It is a device which should not be allowed. 

The representative of the Soviet Union made 
one allegation in an otherwise rather extraordi- 
nary statement when he said that the breaking off 
of diplomatic relations by the United States was 
in itself a tlireat to Cuba of aggression from the 
United States. I find this in itself rather extraor- 
dinary coming from the representative of the 
Soviet Union, who knows what aggression is. He 
knows it as the representative of the Soviet Union. 

I find it rather extraordinaiy that he and the 
representative of Cuba have sought to make the 
breaking of diplomatic relations by the United 
States witli Cuba something which is uncomiected 
with the fact that the Cuban Government limited 
diplomatic representation of the United States to 

II and that this occurred before rupture of diplo- 
matic relations by the United States and that they 
have further sought to imply that we in the United 
States had in some way restricted Cuba to 11 mem- 
bers of its diplomatic mission in the United States, 
which, of course, is not true. But it is typical of 
the type of statement that we hear from these 
representatives trying to distort the facts and the 
sequence of events. 

I have one further thing to say about the state- 
ment of the representative of the Soviet Union. 
He expressed a viewpoint which, I submit, is not 
the viewpoint of other members of this Council. 
He can speak for himself and for his Govern- 
ment. If this is his viewpoint, very well. But I 
hope that lie will not expect that others here ac- 
cept as a summation of this debate and as a con- 
cluding note his rendition of the facts. 

I think it is noteworthy that the representative 
of the Soviet Union ended up his statement with 
a fjuite mild approach, in view of the way in which 
this all began, a quite mild approach to the new 



United States administration. I found this quite 
significant, but I would remind the representative 
of the Soviet Union that the American people are 
united and tliat our policy is consistent. 

I would like to make one comment on the state- 
ment of you, Mr. President, as representative of 
the United Arab Republic, when you quoted from 
the New York Times editorial of January 3. The 
statement that you read is, quite true, a part of 
that editorial. I take no exception to it. It is in 
an editorial in which the New York Tirnes ex- 
presses its own incredulity "that the Cubans can 
believe we are about to invade their island." 
Then, after some further comment, it says that, as 
you said, Mr. President, "This is the simple fact 
that the Cuban revolutionary leaders do sincerely 
believe in the danger of an armed attack some day 
or otlier from the United States." 

Now, I can accept that there exist fantasies in 
the minds of the revolutionai'y leaders in Cuba, 
and the fact that they exist is something that needs 
to be dealt with. And I think that the New York 
Times editorial puts it in right perspective when 
it went on to say that it could help to lessen the 
tensions between us "if there were some way of 
persuading the Cuban leaders, and especially 
Premier Castro, that we have no intention of in- 
vading Cuba or of permitting an invasion from 
our shores." 

I submit, Mr. President, that the best tiring 
that this Council can do is to ti-eat this utterly 
fantastic allegation with which the Cuban Foreign 
Minister came here in that spirit and to convince 
the representatives of Cuba tliat they are wrong. 

It is in this spirit that I express our sympa- 
thetic understanding for the efforts of the repre- 
sentatives of Chile and Ecuador which, I feel, 
wisely have not been pressed. 

I should like to conclude by saying that, as is 
always the case, the distinguished representative 
of China, Dr. T. F. Tsiang, put the question in 
proper perspective when he said this afternoon 
that the best thing that the Security Council could 
do when allegations of this kind are made is to 
pass a resolution which concludes, as is the case 
here, that they have not been substantiated. Cer- 
tainly this is the viewpoint of the United States, 
and I feel that the Security Council could do well 
to ponder this question for the future if the 
Security Council is to remain an effective organ 
for peace. It should not allow the type of allega- 



January 23, 1961 



113 



tion that we have lieard here fall to the ground by 
the very presentation of those who have alleged 
it without pointing this out. This, as I say, would 
be the viewpoint of the United States. We are 
not pressing that on the Council. We think that 
it is clear to all.' 



Letters of Credence 

Ecuador 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Ecuador 
Alejandro Teodoro Ponce Luque, presented his 
credentials to President Eisenhower on January 3. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 1 dated January 3. 

Nigeria 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Feder- 
ation of Nigeria, Julius Momo Udochi, presented 
his credentials to President Eisenhower on Jan- 
uary 6. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks 
and the President's reply, see Department of State 
press release 6 dated January 6. 



U.S. Cites Evidence of Soviet and 
North Vietnamese Aid to Lao Rebels 

DEPARTMENT STATEMENT OF JANUARY 3 

Press release 2 dated January 3 

The Department of State, in view of the serious- 
ness of the current situation in Laos, considers it 
necessary to make generally available the infor- 
mation now in its possession concerning the exten- 
sive Soviet and north Vietnamese participation 
in the Communist military operations against the 
Royal Lao Government and the Lao people.^ 

Since the withdrawal of Kong Le forces, accom- 



' The Council adjourned on Jan. 5 without taking action. 

'For a U.S.-U.S.S.R. exchange of notes on the situa- 
tion in Laos, see Bulletin of Jan. 2, 1961, p. 15 ; for 
Department statements of Dec. 31 and Jan. 1, see ibid., 
Jan. 16, 1961, p. 76. 



panied by Pathet Lao units, from Vientiane on 
December 15, 1960, the Soviets and north Viet- 
namese Communists have been engaged in an ex- 
tensive airlift of war material to the Communist 
forces in the general area of Vang Vieng, Phong 
Hong, and Sam Neua, and most recently in the 
operations around Xieng Khouang. Substantial 
numbers of north Vietnamese Communist person- 
nel were also parachuted into and landed in these 
areas from Soviet and north Vietnamese aircraft. 

While we do not know the exact total, hard 
evidence shows that Soviet and north Vietnamese 
transport aircraft since December 15 have made 
at least 180 sorties into Laos in support of the 
Kong Le/Pathet Lao forces. These aircraft con- 
sisted mostly of Soviet and north Vietnamese IL- 
14's (a Soviet-made aircraft comparable to the 
Convair) . 

These 180 sorties were in addition to the 34 
known flights into the Vientiane airport between 
December 3 and December 14. As is known, dur- 
ing this period Soviet IL-14 aircraft introduced 
into the battle for Vientiane 105-mm. howitzers, 
ammunition, gasoline, combat rations, and other 
war material. North Vietnamese military per- 
sonnel were also landed or parachuted in to aug- 
ment Kong Le's forces outside Vientiane who were 
engaged in the battle for Vientiane. 

The registration numbers of Soviet aircraft en- 
gaged in this airlift include 52042, 52051, 52065, 
61797, 52008, 52043, 61796, 61798, and 61800. The 
last five of these aircraft were involved in the 
clandestine Soviet airlift in the Congo. 

Soviet heavy transport aircraft have been trans- 
iting Communist China into the north Vietnamese 
cities of Hanoi and Haiphong, backmg up the 
illegal airlift into Laos. 

The chronology of this illegal Soviet and north 
Vietnamese airlift into Laos from December 15 
is as follows : 

NuTnhtT of 
Date Location flight! 

Dec. 15 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 1 

16 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 8 

17 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 1 

18 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 8 

Sam Neua 3 

20 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 1 

23 .... Vientiane- Vang Vieng . . 8 

24 .... Vang Vieng 10 

Sam Neua 5 

25 .... Vang Vieng 11 

Sam Neua 10 

26 .... Vang Vieng 8 

Sam Neua 10 

27 .... Vang Vieng 9 

Sam Neua 10 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



28 .... Vang Vieng 8 

Sam Neua 8 

29 .... Vang Vieng 9 

Sara Neua 9 

30 ... . Vang Vieng 11 

Sana Neua 10 

31 .... Vang Vieng 8 

Jan. 1 . . . . Vang Vieng 10 

2 . . . . Vang Vieng 8 

Total 184 



DEPARTMENT STATEMENT OF JANUARY 7 

Press rele.ise 9 dated January 7 

In September 1959 the Department of State 
issued a "White Paper" on Laos.- That paper 
described in detail the manner in which the Com- 
mimists, directed and materially assisted from 
Hanoi, Peiping, and Moscow, were working to 
obtain control over Laos through a combination 
of diplomatic maneuvers, political subversion, and 
guerrilla warfare. 

Despite these Communist actions, Laos had been 
making steady progress in welding itself together 
as a nation. This progress was beginning to pro- 
vide some degree of security against Communist 
subversion and political maneuver, and the Lao 
Army was achieving a capability adequate to deal 
with domestic Communist guerrillas. During 
1958, 1959, and 1960, successive Lao govenmients 
under Prime Ministers Souvanna Phouma, Phoui 
Sananikone, Khou Abhay, and Prince Somsanith 
issued repeated public statements of Laos' inten- 
tion to follow a policy of neutrality and of its 
determination to observe its international imder- 
takings. 

By July 1959 the Communists evidently had 
concluded that their opportunities for gaining 
control of Laos through subversion, propaganda, 
and small-scale guerrilla activity were being fore- 
closed by the country's increasing stability. In 
mid-July they launched a series of military ac- 
tions on an increasingly expanded scale in the two 
northern provinces of Laos bordering on north 
Viet-Nam and Communist China. These actions 
were made possible through external direction and 
assistance. Then, following a Lao appeal to the 
United Nations, this Communist military advance 
terminated almost simultaneously with the ap- 



''A limited number of copies of a pamphlet entitled 
The Situation in Laos are available upon request from 
the Office of Public Services, Department of State, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C. 

January 23, 7961 



pearance on the scene of a subcommittee of the 
Security Council,^ and every attempt was made 
by the Communists to erase evidences of external 
support. 

When such support was withdrawn, Com- 
munist military activity subsided and the course 
of internal progress in Laos was resumed. Prog- 
ress toward domestic stability and tranquillity 
continued until August 9, 1960, when the Kong 
Le coup plunged the country into chaos. Al- 
though originally there may have been some 
doubt concerning the inspiration for Captain 
Kong Le's action, his motivation and support, 
those doubts have been dispelled by the tragic 
events of the past few weeks. His initial col- 
laboration with the Pathet Lao, including arming 
them from the Royal arsenals, his clandestine co- 
operation with foreign Communist governments, 
and the baneful effect on Laos are all now a mat- 
ter of history. 

This series of events culminated in the abandon- 
ment of the capital by the Prime Minister and 
most of his Cabinet, who fled the country be- 
tween December 9 and December 15. They thus 
abandoned any realistic pretense of fulfilling their 
responsibilities as a government. 

On December 8 most of the deputies of the 
National Assembly had taken advantage of the 
anti-Communist movement in Vientiane led by 
Colonel Kouprasith to escape from the capital, 
which since the coup of August 9 had come mider 
increasing Communist control. These deputies 
subsequently went to Savannakhet, where they 
rejoined others who had managed to make their 
way tliere earlier. On December 12, the 38 depu- 
ties who had escaped unanimously voted censure 
of and no confidence in the Souvanna government, 
which was thereupon dismissed by the King's 
Royal Ordinance. On December 14 another Royal 
Ordinance appointed as the provisional govern- 
ment the government presided over by Prince 
Botm Oum. The end of the fighting in Vien- 
tiane made it possible for the King to call a meet- 
ing of the National Assembly in the capital, and 
on January 4 the Assembly gave a unanimous 
vote of confidence in the Boun Omn government. 

Despite the above actions and immediately fol- 
lowing Prince Souvanna's flight from Vientiane, 
the Soviets openly intervened by airlifting mili- 



' For background, see Buixetin of Sept. 28, 1959, p. 456. 

115 



tary supplies and personnel to the capital. Their 
planes, which had been bringing in foodstuffs and 
fuel, began miloading howitzers, mortars, and 
personnel to operate them. The result was the 
bloody struggle for the capital (December 13 to 
16) between the Royal Lao forces and the Com- 
munist-supported rebels. 

Following the withdrawal from Vientiane of 
Communist forces, the Soviets and Vietnamese 
Communists continued an extensive airlift of war 
materiel, including personnel, to rebel forces in 
the interior of the country. During the period 
December 15 through January 2, at least ISO sor- 
ties by transport aircraft were flown into Laos 
in support of these forces. 

Such Commmiist intervention is of course di- 
rectly related to the geographical position of Laos 
contiguous to Commiuiist Cliina and Conununist 
north Viet-Nam and separating the Communist 
bloc from the rest of southeast Asia. Although 
the country is small, sparsely populated, mili- 
tarily dwarfed by its Communist neighbors, and 
lacking in economic development, any evidence of 
its progress as an independent nation appears to 
cause frustration in Hanoi, Peiping, and Moscow. 
This can only be due to the thwarted expansionist 
intent of the Commimists, but the public expres- 
sion of this frustration takes the fonn of an 
alleged fear of a tlireat from Laos. Anyone who 
has ever been in Laos can testify to the absurdity 
of such a fear. 

It is obvious to all that Laos is not a military 
threat to any of its neighbors, least of all to the 
strong military regimes in north Viet-Nam and 
Communist China. It is equally obvious that 
Laos cannot defend itself alone against the various 
kinds of overt and covert attacks which north 
Viet-Nam and the Communist Chinese with Soviet 
aid can mount against it. Under these circum- 
stances, Laos can remain independent only if the 
non-Conmiunist nations of the world render the 
assistance it has requested to maintain its 
independence. 

The United States, in pui-suing its basic objec- 
tive of insuring the right of free nations to pre- 
serve their independence, has furnished aid to 
Laos for some yeare. This aid is designed solely 
to provide the basic elements of internal order 
and of social and economic viability necessary for 
survival and the welfare of the Lao people. These 
efforts have been supplemented by help from other 



friendly comitries and fi'om the United Nations. 

United States aid has been extended to Laos 
within the framework of existing international 
agreements and at the request of the Royal Lao 
Govenmient. No United States aid has been 
given except pursuant to agreements with that 
Government, nor has any been given without its 
knowledge and approval. This includes aid 
given to the Royal Lao Army during the recent 
premiership of Prmce Souvanna Phouma. The 
Soviet Union's constant repetition of charges to 
the contrary in both its propaganda and official 
communications to other governments can only be 
explained as an effort to divert world attention 
from the Soviet Union's recent illegal deliveries 
of munitions and military supplies to pro-Com- 
mimist rebels. No government of Laos has ever j 
asked for these deliveries which the Soviet Union ' 
is airlifting to Laos in growing quantities. 

Although the Cormnunists' assertion that Laos 
threatens the security of the Communist world 
is incredible, much thought and effort have been 
given to assuring the Communists that Laos does 
not and cannot pose such a threat. In addition 
to repeated statements of neutrality, successive 
governments of Laos have again and again as- I 
serted that they would not permit the establish- 
ment of foreign military bases on its soil, except 
those permitted by the Geneva Agreements, and 
that they would not enter into any militai-y pacts. 
For its part, the United States has often stated 
the fact that it was not engaged in building any 
militai'v base there. The LTnited States has never 
sought to persuade Laos to enter into a military 
alliance. 

In fact, the Communists are luider no such mis- 
apprehensions. It is clear that it is not fear of 
military attack from Laos which motivates Com- 
munist intervention but rather a determination 
to take over the country in line with the Com- 
munists' well-knowm and indeetl oft-stated objec- 
tive of ultimate global dominion. If Laos should 
be seized by the Communists, the effects could 
be far-reaching and the implication for other small 
and vulnerable states all too evident. 

The United States believes that it can best con- 
tribute to a solution of the Laos problem: 

First, by attempting to further international 
recognition and understanding of the true nature 
of Communist intentions and actions in Laos; 

Second, by the United States itself continuing 



116 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



clearly to show that it has no intention and no 
desire to establish a Western military position 
in Laos; 

Third, by joining with other free nations to 
support and maintain the independence of Laos 
through whatever measures seem most promising. 

The Lao nation is entitled to an opportunity 
which it lias never really had since its birth to 
develop in an atmosphere of peace and tranquil- 
lity, with an assurance that its national eilorts 
Avill not be thwarted by predatory threats from 
without. The history of its struggles to date 
reveals the incontrovertible fact that there never 
has been any threat to the security of Laos but 
that which has come from its Communist neigh- 
bors. These efforts to vmdermine its national 
integrity have been insidious and constant. 

The United States on its part has contributed 
considerable wealth and effort to help this new 
nation develop its economy and its social and 
political institutions. It is recognized that this 
effort is of little avail if the nation does not have 
the capability of protecting itself from attacks 
from without and the maintenance of security 
against disruptive influences from within. In 
the spirit of the Geneva Agreement which ended 
the war in Laos in 1954, and with the full coopera- 
tion and at the request of all successive govern- 
ments, the United States has worked toward 
these objectives. 



that the continuance of such intervention could 
only serve to promote diversion and civil war in 
Laos and lead to a situation which would imperil 
not only the integrity of the Kingdom of Laos 
but also the security of neighboring coimtries. 

The present situation could pose a grave threat 
to international peace and security. The Council 
Representatives felt that eveiy effort should be 
made to find a solution by peaceful means in ac- 
cordance with the principles of the United Nations 
Charter and the Manila Treaty. At the same time, 
Mr. Pote Sarasin recalled the statement made on 
November 9 ^ that all SEATO member coimtries 
remained determined to continue to develop and 
maintain their readiness to fulfill anywhere in the 
treaty area their obligations imder the Manila 
pact. 

The Council Representatives welcomed the con- 
vening of the Laos Assembly at Vientiane and ex- 
pressed the hope that this would open the way 
to early reconciliation of all those elements in the 
Kingdom devoted to maintaining the integrity 
and genuine independence of their country. 



U.S. Rejects Charges of Harassment 
of Soviet Ship ''Faieshty" 

Following is an exchange of notes hehveen the 
United States and the Soviet Union. 



SEATO Council Representatives 
Consider Situation in Laos 

Following is the text of a com/munique released 
at the close of a meeting of the Council Repre- 
sentatives of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organiza- 
tion at Bangkok, Thailand, on January ^. 

The Secretary General, Mr. Pote Sarasin, an- 
nounced to the press that the Comicil Representa- 
tives met January 4 to consider the serious 
situation in Laos, in particular the events that had 
taken place there during the past week. 

They noted with concern the reports of increas- 
ing supply of war materials by Soviet aircraft 
from North Vietnam to Communist rebel elements 
engaged in operations against the Royal Laotian 
Army and the people of Laos. 

The Council Representatives were convinced 

ianuaty 23, 7961 

580032—61 3 



TEXT OF U.S. NOTE 3 

Press release 5 dated Jtmuary 5 

January 4, 1961 

The Department of State refers the Embassy 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to 
the note 138/OSA of December 20, 1960 from 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics to the Embassy of the 
United States of America in Moscow alleging 
that an American destroyer carried out maneuvere 
in the Mediterranean Sea on November 4, 1960 
which seriously endangered the Soviet ship 
Faleshty, and wishes to state the foUowing. 

A careful investigation of the facts has clearly 



' Not printed here. 

^ Delivered to the Soviet Embassy at Washington, D.C., 
on Jan. 4. 



117 



established that the American ship which passed 
the Falefihty on November 4 did not carry out 
any provocative maneuvers. No alerts were 
sounded for a mock attack, as alleged in the 
Ministiy's not«, nor did the American ship ever 
approach the Falesh ty in such a way as to endan- 
ger the Soviet ship. 

It is common practice for ships moving in inter- 
national waters to establish mutual identification. 
This, the investigation clearly showed, was the 
full extent of the American vessel's action. 

Under the circumstances, the Government of 
the United States rejects the Soviet Government's 
charges. 

Department of State, 
Washingf07i, January ^, 1961. 

TEXT OF SOVIET NOTE 

UiuifEcial translation 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. ex- 
presses its respects to the Embassy of the United States 
of America and on instructions of the Soviet Government 
has the honor to state the following : 

The Soviet cargo motor vessel Faleshty of the Black 
Sea State Shipping Agency en route from Marseille to 
Odessa on November 4 at 1100 hours — Moscovr time — 



was met in the Mediterranean by Destroyer No. 817 of 
the U.S. Navy in an area of 42°30'6" North latitude 
and 6°41'1" East longitude. The American destroyer 
for some time followed a parallel course and then ap- 
proached the Soviet ship more closely. After reaching 
a distance some 3 to 4 miles off the motorship FaleKhty, 
the destroyer made several turns and then again took a 
course approaching the Soviet shij). 

After the American destroyer reached a distance of 
some 70-80 meters offside the Soviet ship and still con- 
tinued coming closer to it, the captain of the motor 
vessel was forced to stop the engines to prevent a col- 
lision. It could be seen from the motor vessel that an 
alert had been sounded on the destro.ver and that as 
a result the crew had manned the guns. Those maneu- 
vers of the American destroyer, which continued for 1 
hour, were carried out dangerously close to the Soviet 
motorship and constituted a serious danger to both the 
motor vessel and to its crew. 

The actions of the American destroyer with respect to 
the Soviet merchant ship Faleshty cannot be classified 
but as provocative, and as measures violating the princi- 
ples of freedom of navigation in the open sea and scorn- 
ing the elemental principles of international law. 

Directing attention to the provocative actions of the 
American destroyer toward the Soviet merchant motor- 
ship Faleshty, the Soviet Government demands that 
persons responsible for these actions be rigorousl.v 
punished and that the U.S. Government take proper 
measures .so that similar actions toward Soviet merchant 
ships will not be allowed to take place in the future. 
Moscow, December 20, 1960 



United States Proposes Abolition or Reduction 
of U.S. and Soviet Travel Restrictions 



Press release S dated January 6 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

In a not-e delivered on January 6 to the Soviet 
Ambassador at Wa.shington, the United States 
proposes that i-epresentatives of the two Govern- 
ments meet in the near future to discuss the 
abolition or reduction of the travel restrictions 
maintained by the U.S.S.R. and the United 
States. The note reviews the repeated efforts 
made during recent yeai-s by the United States 
Government to achieve the abolition or reduction 
of these restrictions and points out the failure of 
the Soviet Government to respond to these initia- 



tives, despite its professed willingness to discuss 
the question. The note describes the arbitrary 
manner in which the Soviet Government adminis- 
ters its travel restrictions and concludes that this 
contrasts sharply with the Soviet Government's 
professed desire to better relations significantly 
with the United States, since maintenance by the 
Soviet Union of the closed area system on so large 
a scale can only contribute to fostering suspicions 
and promoting tensions. The note also takes ac- 
count of the changes made in the Soviet system 
of closed areas on August 18, 1959, and informs 
the Soviet Government of amendments made in 
U.S. travel regulations tis a consequence. 



118 



Department of State Bulletin 



U.S. NOTE OF JANUARY 6 

January 6, 1961 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments 
to His Excellency the Ambassador of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics [Mikhail A. Menshi- 
kov] and has the honor to refer to note No. 485/Pr 
of August 18, 1959, from the Ministry of Foreign 
AlTairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
to the Embassy of the United States of America 
at Moscow which contained new restrictions ap- 
plicable to foreignere traveling in the U.S.S.R. 
Reference is also made to the notes from the 
Secretary of State to the Ambassador of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of January 3, 
1955 ^ and November 11, 1957,- which establish 
regulations concerning travel by Soviet citizens 
in the United States comparable to those previ- 
ously imposed by the Soviet Government on the 
movement of citizens of the United States in the 
Soviet Union. 

The United States Government first instituted 
a system of closed areas on January 3, 1955, as a 
result of the absence of any indication that the 
Soviet Government was willing to relax substan- 
tially its long-standing travel restrictions which 
have been in effect since 1941. The Department's 
note of that date stated that, if the Soviet Govern- 
ment should liberalize its regulations restricting 
the travel of United States citizens in the Soviet 
Union, the United States Government would be 
disposed to reconsider its regulations. In the six 
years that have passed since that date, the United 
States has on a number of occasions reiterated its 
desire for mutual abolition of closed areas. For a 
short while in 1957, it appeared that the Soviet 
Government might consider reducing the barriers 
to travel. In its note of August 28, 1957,^ to the 
American Embassy at Moscow, the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics stated that "it is ready to discuss with 
the Embassy the question of the exclusion from 
the list of cities and localities in the U.S.S.R. 
forbidden for visits by foreigners of a number of 
cities and localities in the U.S.S.R. on a basis of 
reciprocity." The expectation raised by this note 
unfortunately was not fulfilled. 



In reply to the Ministiy's note, the Department 
on November 11, 1957, reiterated the United States 
Government's desire for abolition of closed zones 
and proposed such an abolition. There was no 
reply to this note. On May 22, 1958, the Depart- 
ment addressed a new note ^ to the Embassy of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which 
offered concrete proposals for a mutual reduction 
of closed areas in the absence of an agreement to 
abolish restricted zones completely. This pro- 
posal also went without reply. On August 19, 
1958, the Department once more reminded the 
Embassy that no response had been received to 
the United States proposals for easing travel re- 
strictions.^ No reply was received to this note. 
On a number of occasions since August 1958 the 
subject has been raised with Soviet officials 
by United States representatives. As of the pres- 
ent time, despite its professed willingness to dis- 
cuss the travel restrictions question, the Soviet 
Government has still not even acknowledged the 
proposals of the United States Government. 

In the most recent amendments to the Soviet 
closed areas restrictions on August 18, 1959, the 
Soviet Government opened several cities as well as 
a remote part of the Soviet Arctic. The same 
regulations, however, provided for the closing of 
four of the largest cities in the U.S.S.R. and 
30,000 square miles of territory. 

The regulations contained in the Department's 
notes of January 3, 1955 and November 11, 1957 
as amended have therefore been revised as indi- 
cated in the enclosure. The Soviet Government 
will note that the areas closed in the United 
States continue to be reciprocal for those closed 
in the Soviet Union. Although the Soviet note 
of August 18, 1959 was not a direct response to 
the various United States proposals cited above, 
certain changes were made which correspond to 
changes proposed in the Department's note of 
May 22, 1958. The United States Government is 
willing, therefore, to honor the commitment con- 
tained in the note of May 22, 1958 by opening for 
travel by Soviet citizens the city of Newark, New 
Jersey and a direct highway from Baltimore, 
Maryland to Niagai'a Falls, New York. 

Not only has the Soviet Government remained 
unwilling to discuss the abolition or reduction of 



' For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1955, p. 193. 
" For text, see ibid., Dec. 9, 1957, p. 934. 
' For text, .see ibid., p. 936. 



' For text, see ibid., June 16. 1958, p. 1007. 

° For text of a note, see ibid., Sept. 8, 1958, p. 385. 



January 23, J 961 



119 



its impediments to free travel, but the Soviet 
authorities have periodically applied travel re- 
strictions in such a way as to close areas that are 
supposedly open. This practice of "temporarily" 
closing an area has on occasion reached the extent 
of declaring the whole of the Soviet Union "tem- 
porarily"' closed, as was the case m the spring of 
1959. The city of Vorkuta was "temporarily" 
closed year after year until it was officially closed 
on August 18, 1959. Parts of Central Asia and 
the Caucasus are regularly closed "temporarily" 
each year. On the basis of the official notifications 
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, over 25 per cent of 
the Soviet Union is formally closed to travel by 
foreigners. In practice, this percentage is often 
considerably higher. 

Thus the practice of the Soviet authorities is in 
sharp contrast with the stated willingness of the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of So- 
viet Socialist Republics to discuss reduction of 
closed areas as M-ell as with the expressed desire 
of the Soviet Government to better relations sig- 
nificantly between the two countries. The United 
States Government finds it difficult to believe that 
the continued closing of such large parts of the 
Soviet Union, which precludes any possibility of 
contact between the people living in these areas 
with people from the rest of the world, is con- 
ducive to an improvement in the relations between 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
United States. On the contrary, the maintenance 
of the closed area system on so large a scale can 
only contribute to fostering suspicions and pro- 
moting tensions. 

The Government of the United States reiterates 
its firm preference for the mutual abolition of 
closed zones. If, however, the Soviet Government 
is not prepared at this time to abolish its closed 
areas, the United States Government would agree 
to a partial easing of travel restrictions through 
the opening of at least some areas on a reciprocal 
basis. It proposes, therefore, that representatives 
of the two Governments meet at an early date to 
discuss this question on the basis of the United 
States proposals of November 11, 1957 and May 
22, 1958, as well as on the basis of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs note of August 28, 1959 and 
of any other proposals which the Soviet Govern- 
ment may wish to make. 



Enclosure : 

Areas Closed to Travel by 
Soviet Citizens in Possession 
of Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics Passports 

Department of State, 
Washington, January 6, 1961. 

AREAS CLOSED TO TRAVEL BY SOVIET CITIZENS 
IN POSSESSION OF UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST 
REPUBLICS PASSPORTS. 

(This list replaces the lists of closed areas contained 
in the Department's notes of January 3, 1955 and Novem- 
ber 11, 1957, as amended.) 

A. Border Zones Closed to Travel by Soviet Citizens 
in Possession of U.S.S.R. Passports 

1. USA-Canadian Border 

In addition to the shores of the Great Lakes included 
within closed areas, the following lake shores are closed 
by a band fifteen miles wide in the states and counties 
listed : 

a. Lake Superior: Minnesota — Cook, Lake, St. Louis ; 
Wisconsin — Douglas, Bayfield, Ashland, Iron ; Michigan — 
Gogebic, Ontonagon, Houghton, Keweenaw, Baraga, Mar- 
quette, Alger, Luce, and Drummond Island. 

b. Lake Michigan: Michigan — Emmet. 

c. Lake Euron: Michigan — Cheboygan, Presque Isle, 
Alpena, Arenac. 

d. Lake Erie: Ohio — Lake, Ashtabula. 

2. USA-Mexican Border 

In addition to San Diego County, California and Co- 
chise County, Arizona, the Mexican border is closed by 
a band fifteen miles wide except for that portion of the 
border which falls in Webb County, Texas. 

B. States and Counties Closed to Travel by Soviet 
Citizens in Possession of U.S.S.R. Passports 

Alabama: Baldwin, Calhoun, Coffee, Colbert, Dale, Eto- 
wah, Geneva, Jefferson, Lamar, Lauderdale. Limestone, 
Madison, Mobile, Pickens, Russell. 

Alaska:' Aleutian Islands, Islands in the Bering Sea, 
Kodiak Island. 

Arizona: Cochise, Maricopa, Mohave, Yavapai. 

Arkansas: Cleburne, Conway, Crittenden, Cross, Faulk- 
ner, Grant, Jefferson, Lee, Lonoke, Mississippi, Monroe, 
Prairie, Pulaski, Saline, St. Francis, Van Buren, White, 
Woodruff. 

California: Alameda, Butte, Contra Costa,' Kern. Los 
Angeles,' Madera (except for Yosemite Park), Marin 



° Also closed is a band 15 miles wide running from 
Xushagak Peninsula north along the Bering Sea and east 
along the Arctic Ocean to the border of Canada. 

' Closed except for that portion which lies less than 25 
air miles from San Francisco. 

' As detailed in Part D. 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



(except for Muir Woods National Monument), Merced. 
Monterey, Napa, Orange, Riverside, Sacramento, San 
Benito, Sau Bern.ardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, San 
Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, 
Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Sutter, Ventura. 

Colorado: Adams, Alamosa, Arapahoe, Boulder, Clear 
Creek, Costilla, Custer, Douglas, Elbert, El Paso, Fremont, 
Gilpin, Huerfano, Jefferson, Larimer (except for Rocky 
Mountain National Park), Park, Pueblo, Teller, Weld. 

Connecticut: Fairfield," Hartford, Litchfield, Middle- 
sex, New London, Tolland, Windham. 

Pclaware: Kent, New Castle. 

Florida: Bay, Brevard, Broward, Calhoun, Dade, Duval, 
Escambia, Flagler, Holmes, Indian River, Jackson, Mar- 
tin, Monroe, Nassau, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm 
Beach, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volu- 
sia, Walton, Washington. 

Georgia: Bibb, Bryan, Bulloch, Burke, Calhoun, Cam- 
den, Chatham, Chattahoochee, Cobb, Columbia, Crawford, 
De Kalb, Dougherty, Effingham, Elbert, Fulton, Glynn. 
Hart, Houston, Jenkins, Jones, Lee, Liberty, Lincoln, 
Lumpkin, Mcintosh, Mitchell, Monroe, Peach, Richmond, 
Screven, Terrell, Twiggs, Wilkinson, Worth. 

Idaho: Ada, Bingham, Bonneville, Butte, Clark, Fre- 
mont, Jefferson, Madison, Owyhee, Teton. 

Illinois: Dn Page, Edgar, Kane, Lake, Massac, McHenry, 
Pulaslci, Vermilion. 

Indiana: Adams. Allen, Benton, Blackford, Boone, Car- 
roll, Cass. Clay, Clinton, Dearborn, Decatur, De Kalb, 
Delaware, Elkhart, Fayette, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, 
Grant, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, 
Huntington, Jasper, Jay, Johnson, Kosciusko, Lagrange. 
Lake, La Porte, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Miami, Mont- 
gomery, Morgan, Newton, Noble, Ohio, Owen, Parke, 
Porter, Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Rush, St. Joseph, 
Shelby, Starke, Steuben, Tipton, Union, Vermillion, Vigo, 
Wabash, Warren, Wayne, Wells, White, Whitley. 

loica: Harrison. 

Kansas: Butler, Chase, Cloud, Coffey, Cowley, Dickin- 
son, Douglas, Ellsworth, Harvey, Jackson, Jefferson, 
Kingman, Lincoln, Lyon, Marion, McPherson, Morris, 
Osage, Ottawa, Pottawatomie, Reno, Rice, Saline, Sedg- 
wick, Shawnee, Sumner, Wabaunsee. 

Kentucky: Anderson, Ballard, Boone, Bourbon, Boyle, 
Bracken, Breckinridge, Bullitt, Butler, Caldwell, Callo- 
way, Campbell, Christian, Clark, Crittenden, Daviess, 
Edmonson, Estill, Fayette, Franklin, Garrard, Grant. 
Grayson, Green, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, Hart, 
Henderson, Henry, Hopkins, Jackson, Jefferson, Jes- 
samine, Kenton, Larue, Livingston, Logan, Lyon, Madi- 
I son, Marshall, Meade, Mercer, Muhlenberg, McLean, 
MeCracken, Nelson, Nicholas, Ohio, Oldham, Owen, 
Pendleton, Robertson, Scott, Shelby, Spencer, Todd, Trigg, 
Trimble, Union, Washington, Webster, Woodford. 

Louisiana: Acadia, Ascen.sion, Assumption, Caddo, Cal- 

' casieu, Cameron, De Soto, East Baton Rouge, East 

Feliciana, Iberia, Iberville, Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, 

Lafayette, Lafourche, Livingston, Plaquemines, Pointe 



Coupee, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. Helena, St. James, 
St. John the Baptist, St. Martin, St. Mary, St. Tammany, 
Tangipahoa, Terrebonne, Vermilion, West Baton Rouge, 
West Feliciana. 

Maine: Androscoggin, Aroostook, Cumberland, Hancock, 
Knox, Penobscot. Sagadahoc, AValdo, Washington, Tork. 

Maryland: Anne Arundel,'" Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, 
Cecil, Charles, Frederick, Harford, Howard, Kent, Queen 
Anne.s, St. Marys, Washington. 

Massachusetts: Baru.stable, Berkshire, Bristol, Dukes, 
Essex, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Middlesex," 
Nantucket. Norfolk," Plymouth, Worcester. 

Michigan: Alcona, Bay, Chippewa, Genesee, Huron, 
Iosco, Lapeer, Livingston, Mackinac, Macomb, Midland, 
Monroe, Oakland, Saginaw, St. Clair, Sanilac, Shiawassee, 
Tuscola, Wayne. 

Minnesota : Polk. 

Mississipi)i: Clay, Jackson, Lowndes, Monroe, Oktib- 
beha. 

Missouri: Benton, Cooper, Johnson, Morgan, Pemiscot, 
Pettis, St. Charles, St. Louis, St. Louis City. 

Montana: Beaverhead, Cascade, Chouteau, Deer Lotlge, 
Fergus, Golden Valley, Judith Basin, Lewis and Clark, 
Silver Bow, Teton, Wheatland. 

Nebraska: Butler, Cass, Douglas, Gage, Johnson, Otoe, 
Saline, Sarpy, Saunders, Seward, Washington, York. 

Nevada: Clark, Lincoln, Nye. 

New Hampshire: Hillsboro, Rockingham, Strafford. 

New Jersey: Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumber- 
land, Essex, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Middlesex," Mon- 
mouth,'^' Morris,'^ Ocean, Passaic," Salem, Somerset, 
Sussex, Union, Warren. 

New Mexico: Bernalillo, Chaves, Lincoln, Los Alamos, 
Otero, Rio Arriba, Sandoval, Sante Fe, Sierra, Socorro, 
Taos, Torrance. 

New York: Albany, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Dela- 
ware, Erie, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jeffer- 
son, Lewis, Madison, Monroe, Montgomery, Nassau," 
Niagara, Oneida, Onondaga, Orange, Orleans, Oswego, 
Otsego, Schenectady, Schoharie, Seneca, St. Lawrence, 
Suffolk, Wayne. 

North Carolina: Cumberland, Duplin, Greene, Harnett, 
Hoke, Johnston, Lenoir, Sampson, Wayne, Wilson. 

North Dakota: Grand Forks, McHenry, McKenzie, 
Moimtrail, Renville, Walsh, Ward, Williams. 

Ohio: Allen, Ashland, Auglaize, Butler, Champaign, 
Clark, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Darke, Defiance, Delaware, 
Erie, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, 
Hardin, Henry, Huron, Jackson, Logan, Lorain, Lucas, 



° Closed except for that portion of the county west of 
Route 33. 

January 23, 1961 



"Closed except for that portion south of U.S. 50 and 
South River. 

" Closed except for those portions of these counties 
which lie less than 25 air miles from the center of Boston, 
Mass. 

" Closed except for those portions of these counties 
which lie less than 25 air miles from the center of New 
York, N.Y. 

" Closed except for the Oyster Bay area north of Route 
25A and the beach area south of Route 27. 



121 



Madison, Marion, Medina, Mercer, Miami, Montgomery, 
Morrow, Ottawa, Paulding, Picl£away, Pilte, Preble, Put- 
nam, Richland, Ross, Sandusky, Scioto, Seneca, Shelby, 
Stark, Summit, Union, Van Wert, Wayne, Williams, 
Wood, Wyandot. 

Oklahoma: Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Cleveland, 
Comanche, Cotton, Creek, Garvin, Grady, Greer, Harmon, 
Jackson, Jefferson, Kay, Kiowa, Logan, McClain, Noble, 
Oklahoma, Osage, Pawnee, Stephens, Tillman, Tulsa, 
Washington, Washita. 

Oregon: Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Hood River, Mult- 
nomah. 

Pennsylvania: Adams, Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, 
Bedford, Berks, Blair, Butler, Cambria, Carbon, Chester, 
Columbia, Cumberland, Dauphin, Delaware, Fayette, 
Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Juniata, 
Lackawanna, Lancaster, Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, 
Luzerne, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montgomery, Montour, 
Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Schuylkill, 
Snyder, Somerset, Union, Washington, Westmoreland, 
York. 

Rhode Island. 

South Carolina: Aiken, Allendale, Bamberg, Barnwell, 
Beaufort, Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, 
Hampton, Jasper, Orangeburg. 

South Dakota: Butte, Custer, Harding, Lawrence, 
Meade, Pennington, Perkins. 

Tennessee: Anderson, Bedford, Bledsoe, Blount, Brad- 
ley, Campbell, Cannon, Cheatham, Clay, Coffee, Cumber- 
land, Davidson, De Kalb, Dickson, Dyer, Fentress, 
Franklin, Giles, Grundy, Hamilton, Hickman, Houston, 
Humphreys, Jackson, Knox, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, 
Lincoln, Loudon, McMinn, Macon, Marion, Marshall, 
Maury, Meigs, Monroe, Montgomery, Moore, Morgan, 
Overton, Perry, Pickett, Polk, Putnam, Rhea, Roane, 
Robertson, Rutherford, Scott, Sequatchie, Sevier, Smith, 
Stewart, Sumner, Trousdale, Union, Van Buren, Warren, 
Wayne, White, Williamson, Wilson. 

Texas: Anderson, Aransas, Armstrong, Austin, Bastrop, 
Bell, Bexar, Bowie, Brazoria, Brazos, Burleson, Caldwell, 
Calhoun, Callahan, Camp, Carson, Cass, Chambers, Chero- 
kee, Collingsworth, Colorado, Comal, Dallam, Dallas, Deaf 
Smith, Delta, Denton, De Witt, Donley, Ellis, Falls, 
Fayette. Fort Bend, Franklin, Freestone, Galveston, 
Goliad, Gonzales, Gray, Gregg, Grimes, Guadalupe, Hans- 
ford, Hardin, Harris, Harrison, Hartley, Hays, Hemphill, 
Henderson, Hill, Hopkins, Hutchinson, Jackson, Jefferson, 
Johnson, Jones, Karnes, Kaufman, Lamar, Lavaca, Lee, 
Leon, Liberty, Limestone, Lipscomb, Madison, Marion, 
Matagorda, Milam, Montgomery, Moore, Morris, Navarro, 
Nolan, Ochiltree, Oldham, Orange, Panola, Parker, Potter, 
Rains, Randall, Red River, Refugio, Roberts, Robertson, 
Rockwall, Runnels, Rusk, San Jacinto, Shackelford, 
Shelby, Sherman, Smith, Tarrant, Taylor, Titus, Travis, 
Upshur, Van Zandt, Victoria, Walker, Waller, Washing- 
ton, Wharton, Wheeler, Williamson, Wilson, Wood. 
Utah: Salt Lake, Tooele, Utah. 
Vermont: Chittenden, Grand Isle, Lamoille, 
yirffmia.- Accomack, Clarke, Fauquier, Floyd, Frederick, 
Gloucester, Isle of Wight, King George, Loudoun, Mont- 



122 



gomery, Nansemond, Norfolk, Northampton, Page, 
Pulaski, Princess Anne, Prince William, Rappahannock, 
Richmond, Shenandoah, Southampton, Stafford, Warren, 
Warwick, Westmoreland, Wythe, York. 

Washington.^* 

West Virginia: Berkeley, Brooke, Hancock, Jefferson, 
Marshall, Ohio. 

Wisconsin: Kenosha, Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine. 

Wyoming: Goshen, Laramie, Platte. 

C. Cities in Otherwise Open Areas Which Are Closed 
to Travel by Soviet Citizens in Possession of U.S.S.R. 
Passports 

Ashland, Kentucky 

Charleston, West Virginia 

Charlestown Area of Boston, Massachusetts 

Haines, Alaska 

Huntington, West Virginia 

Kalamazoo, Michigan 

Memphis, Tennessee 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Renton, Washington 

Seward, Alaska 

Skagway, Alaska 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Youngstown, Ohio 

P. Cities in Otherwise Closed Areas Which Are Open 
to Travel by Soviet Citizens in Possession of.U.S.S.R. 
Passports 

Anaheim, California 
Austin, Texas 

Baltimore, Maryland 
Berkeley, California 
Boise, Idaho 
Boulder, Colorado 
Buffalo, New York 

Camden, New Jersey 
Chattanooga, Tennessee 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Columbus, Ohio 

Dearborn, Michigan 
Denver, Colorado 

Elizabeth, New Jersey 
El Paso, Texas 

Flint, Michigan 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 
Fort Worth, Texas 

Gatlinburg, Tennessee 
Gary, Indiana 

Hammond, Indiana 



"Closed except for those portions of King County 
which lie less than 25 air miles from the center of 
Seattle and including city of Seattle but excluding 
Renton. 

Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulhfin 



Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
Jacksonville, Florida 
KnoxviUe, Tennessee 

Lawrence, Kansas 
Lenox, Massachusetts 
Little Rock, Arkansas 
Los Angeles, California ^ 
Lynn, Massachusetts 
Marblehead, Massachusetts 
Metuchen, New Jersey 
Miami, Florida 
Miami Beach, Florida 
Murray Hill, New Jersey 

Nashville, Tennessee 
New Brunswick, New Jersey 
New Orleans, Louisiana " 
Newark, New Jersey 
Niagara Falls, New York 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 
Omaha, Nebraska 
Palo Alto, California 
Portland, Oregon 
Providence, Rhode Island 

Reading, Pennsylvania 
Sacramento, California 
Saginaw, Michigan 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Antonio, Texas 
San Jose, California 
Savannah, Georgia " 
Shreveport, Louisiana 
South Bend, Indiana 
Spokane, Washington 
Stockbridge, Massachusetts 
Swampscott, Massachusetts 
Syracuse, New York 

Topeka, Kansas 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 

Utica, New York 

Worcester, Massachusetts 



" The following portions of the City of Los Angeles 
and adjacent Los Angeles County are open : Pacific Ocean 
between Manchester Avenue (Route 10) and Topanga 
Canyon Road (Route 27) ; Topanga Canyon Road (Route 
27) to Ventura Road (Route 101) ; Ventura Road (Route 
101 to Sherman Oaks, thence Route 134) ; Route 134 
along San Fernando Boulevard and Colorado Boulevard 
to Verdugo Road (Route 2) ; Route 2 to Little Jimmy 
Spring area in Angeles National Forest, then by a line 
running south to Crystal Lake Recreation Area in Angeles 
National Forest on Route 39 ; Route 39 to San Bernardino 
Road (Routes 60, 70 and 99) ; Routes 60, 70, 99 to Rose- 
mead Boulevard (Route 19) ; Route 19 to Santa Anna 
Freeway (Route 101) ; Route 101 to Slauson Boulevard; 
Saluson Boulevard to Sepulveda Boulevard (Route lOlA) ; 
Route 101 A to Manchester Avenue (Route 10) ; Man- 
chester Avenue (Route 10) to Pacific Ocean. 

" Open except for port areas of these cities. 



E. Specified Routes of Automotive Transit Through 
Areas Closed to Travel by Soviet Citizens in Posses- 
sion of U.S.S.R. Passports 

1. From Washington, D.C., and return : 

a. To Baltimore via U.S. Route No. 1 or Washington- 
Baltimore Expressway. 

b. To Morgan County, West Virginia, via Virginia 
Route No. 7 and Route No. 9. 

c. To Spotsylvania County, Virginia, via U.S. Route 
No. 1. 

d. To Maryland Eastern Shore counties via U.S. Route 
No. 50. 

2. From Baltimore, Maryland, to New York, New York, 
and return through Farnhurst, Delaware, via U.S. Route 
No. 40 and New Jersey Turnpike. 

3. Prom New York, New York, and return : 

a. To Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., 
(See 1 and 2 above) . 

b. To the Oyster Bay, New York, area via Route 25D 
and Glen Cove Road. 

c. To Sullivan County, New York, via Highway 17 
across Orange County. 

4. From Baltimore, Maryland, to Niagara Fall.s, New 
York : U.S. Highway 111 from Baltimore to Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, U.S. Highway 15 from Harrisburg to edge 
of open zone south of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, New 
York State Thruway from east edge of Erie County, New 
York, to Buffalo, New York. New York Highway 206 and 
New York State Thruway, Buffalo to Niagara Falls. 

5. U.S. Route 1 between New York and Philadelphia and 
intermediate open points. 

6. New Jersey 73 between Interchange No. 4 on the New 
Jersey Turnpike and Philadelphia. 

7. New Jersey Route 38 between Camden and the inter- 
section of New Jersey 38 and New Jersey 73 east of 
Camden. 

8. New Brunswick, New Jersey — access by New Jersey 
Turnpike to the New Brunswick tollgate, New Jersey 18 
to New Brunswick. 

9. Metuchen, New Jersey — access by U.S. 1 from New 
York or Philadelphia to New Jersey 501, New Jersey 501 
to Metuchen. 

10. Murray Hill, New Jersey — access from Elizabeth 
via New Jersey 82 past Springfield, southwest via New 
Jersey 512, to New Providence, southeast from New Provi- 
dence to Murray Hill. 

11. Lenox and Stockbridge, Massachusett.? — by Inter- 
state Highway 90 and U.S. 7 from New York State. 

12. Chicago to Western Illinois — Congress Street Ex- 
pressway, East-West ToUway, Route 30 across Du Page 
County. 

13. Across Northern Ohio via the Ohio Turnpike. 

14. Across Northern Indiana via the Indiana Toll Road. 

15. KnoxviUe to Gatlinburg, Tennessee — U.S. Highway 
441. 

16. Kansas City, Kansas, to Lawrence, Kansas — Kan- 
sas Turnpike. 



January 23, 1 96 J 



123 



17. Denver to Boulder, Colorado — Deuver-Boulder Toll 
Road. 

18. San Francisco to Berkeley — via the Bay Bridge. 

19. Los Angeles to Anaheim, California, by U.S. High- 
way 101. 

20. Muir Woods, California, from San Francisco by 
U.S. Highway 101, California Highway 1, Panoramic 
Highway and Muir Woods Road. 



SOVIET NOTE OF AUGUST 18 

No. 485/Pr 

The U.S.S.R. Ministry of Foreign Affairs presents its 
compliments to the Embassies and Missions and has 
the honor to communicate that the following changes have 
been made in the lists of places and localities in the 
U.S.S.R. closed to visits by foreigners which were trans- 
mitted previously : 

1. Excluded from the List of places and localities of 
the U.S.S.R. closed to visits by foreigners are: 

(a) the cities — Ashkhabad, Vilnyus, Erevan, Tallin 
(provided it is reached by the Leningrad-Tallin railroad), 
Batumi, Echmiadzin. 

(b) the area of the Taymyr National Okrug within 
the confines : to the south of the line formed by the south 
bank of the Khatanga Gulf, the Khatanga River, the 
Novaya River and the Yangoda River to its confluence 
with the Pyasina River ; to the east of the line formed by 
the Pyasina River to the settlement of Kresty and the 
eastern edges of the lakes Keta and Khantayskoye. 

2. Transit will be permitted on the automobile route 
Moscow-Brest. 

3. To be added to the List of places and localities 
closed to visits by foreigners are : 

Vorkuta 

Gorki 

Dnepropetrovsk 

Kazan 

Kuybyshev 

the Kabardino-Balkarskaya A.S.S.R. 

the island of Novaya Sibir 

the territory of the Yamalo-Nenetskiy National Okrug 
of Tyumen Oblast in the area encompassed by the 
rivers Nyda, Nadym and Tanlova 

the territory of the Yakutsk A.S.S.R. in the area en- 
compassed by the rivers Timiara, Dyanyshka and 
Lena. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

General Assembly 

Note Verbale Dated 12 November 1900 From the Chair- 
man of the Delegation of Sweden Addressed to the 
Secretary-General Concerning A/4558. A/4572. No- 
vember 14, 1960. 3 pp. 
Note Verbale Dated 14 November 1960 From the Chair- 
man of the Norwegian Delegation to the General As- 
sembly Addressed to the Secretary-General Concerning 
A/4558. November 14, 1900. 3 pp. 
Question of Assistance to Libya 

Communication dated October 13, 1960, from Prime 
Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Libya 
addressed to the Secretary-General. A/4576, Novem- 
ber 14, 1960, 27 pp. ; 
Report of the Secretary-General. A/4575, November 
15, 1960, 6 pp. 
Question of the Future of Western Samoa. Constitution 
of the Independent State of Western Samoa, as adopted 
on October 28, 1960, transmitted by the Permanent Rep- 
resentative of New Zealand to the United Nations by 
note verbale of November 10, 1960, to the Secretary- 
General. A/C.4/454, November 15, 1960, 67 pp.; and 
Add. 1. November 30. 1960, 18 pp. 
Letter Dated 18 November 1960 From the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs of Cuba Addressed to the President of 
the General Assembly Concerning U.S. Naval Aid to 
Guatemala and Nicaragua. A/45S1. November 19, 
1960. 4 pp. 
Opportunities for International Co-operation on Behalf 
of Former Trust Territories and Other Newly Independ- 
ent States. Report of the Secretary-General. A/4585. 
November 22, 1960. 21 pp. 
Letter Dated 25 November 1960 From the Representative 
of the United States Addressed to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral Concerning Soviet Allegations Regarding West 
Germany. A/4595. November 26, 1960. 3 pp. 
Letter Dated 25 November 1960 From the Permanent 
Representative of the United Kingdom Addressed to the 
Secretary-General Concerning Soviet Allegations Re- 
garding West Germany. A/4597. November 28, 1960. 
3 pp. 
Question of Hungary. Report of the U.N. Representative 

on Hungary. A/4606. December 1, 1960. 18 pp. 
The Situation in the Republic of the Congo 

Second progress report of the Special Representative 
in the Congo and excliaiige of messages between the 
Secretary-General and the Permanent Representative 
of Belgium and between the Secretary-General and 
Mr. Tshombe, President of the Provincial Government 
of Katanga. A/4557, Xoveml)er 2, 1960, 63 pp. : 
Letter dated 11 November I960 to the President of the 
General Assembly from Patrice Lumumba, Prime 
Minister of the Republic of the Congo. A/4571, 
November 12, 1960, 4 pp. 



Moscow, 18 August 1959 



To all Embassies and Missions, 
Moscow. 



' Printed materials may be secured in the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. 
Other materials (mimeographed or processed documents) 
mav be consulted at certain libraries in the United States. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



The Changing Position of Afghanistan in Asia 



hy Hem^y A. Byroade 
Ambassador to Afghanistan 



Although the cold war is generally understood 
to typify the rivalry between the Communist and 
free worlds, in fact the cold war assumes different 
aspects in different parts of the world. In Europe, 
for example, it is symbolized by a relatively closely 
defined frontier separating the open from the 
closed societies. Many Americans and, rather 
curiously, many Asians tend to force the same 
conceptual framework on the cold war in Asia. 
My own belief is that the cold war, as seen from 
Afghanistan, is only a metamorphosis of an older 
pattern of conflict. 

Think of Afghanistan in the 18th and 19th cen- 
turies, surrounded by the advancing forces of 
Russia and Britain. In the exact center, Afghan- 
istan remained i-elatively untouched, while the 
great unperial forces of the century whirled 
around it, one coming vip through India, on the 
flanks through Iran, Kaslimir, and even Tibet, 
while the other steadily and ruthlessly subjugated 
the Muslim states of central Asia. The Russians 
moved from Orenburg to Termez and Khushka 
and the British from Madras to Peshawar and 
Quetta, squeezing, always squeezing, but leaving 
the core more or less intact. Perhaps a more ac- 
curate figure of speech would be to compare 
Afghanistan to the eye of a storm or the vortex of 
a whirlpool. 

Although the progress of the British northward 
is well known and well chronicled, we are apt to 
forget the progress of Russia through central Asia, 
perhaps because the old Russian Empire shared 
one trait with the Soviet Empire today — namely, 
a pathological obsession with secrecy. Although 
its authenticity has never been proved, I cannot 
forbear a reference to the alleged testament of 
Peter the Great, who epitomized the object of the 
Russian push by counseling his successoi-s "to ap- 



proach as near as possible to Constantinople and 
India. ^Vlioever governs there will be the true 
so\"ereign of the world. Advance as far as India, 
which is the depot of the World. Arrived at this 
point we shall have no longer need for England's 
gold." 

Whatever the validity of Peter's will, it is a fact 
that, after taking the Caucasian peninsula early 
in the 19th centuiy, the Russians moved by force 
to take Samarkand, Taslikent, and Turkestan in 
the 1860's, Khiva in 1873, and by the turn of the 
centui-y had extended their influence to the Oxus 
River north of Afghanistan. Although the Rus- 
sians occasionally sought to extend their influence 
into Afghanistan, and fluctuating British liome 
policy resulted in two aberrational thrusts into 
Afghanistan, that country was generally squeezed 
but not swallowed. 

Finalh', in 1907, the Afghan position in the 
eye of the storm was formalized in the Aiiglo- 
Russian convention which sought, in the face of 
a rising German militarism, to stabilize the Rus- 
sian and British spheres of influence in Asia. 
Persia was divided into spheres of influence, Tibet 
was neutralized under titular Chinese suzerainty, 
and Russia declared Afghanistan to be outside her 
sphere of influence while Britain agreed not to 
annex or occupy Afghanistan. 

After World War I the first sign of a changing 
pattern appeared when Britain returned to Af- 



• The above article is based on an address 
made by Ambassador Byroade at Princeton 
University, Princeton, N.J., on December 
15, 1960. 



January 23, 1961 



125 



ghanistan control over its own foreign relations, 
thereby withdrawing British influence southward. 
At the same time, however, Russia — far from 
withdrawing — was advancing under the new So- 
viet leadership to consolidate its conti-ol over the 
Asian Muslim states, the last of which, Bokhara, 
was finally subjugated in 1922, just at the time the 
Soviet-sponsored Congress of the Peoples of the 
East, in Balai, was proclaiming the end of im- 
perialism. In the face of overwhelming Soviet 
power, Afghanistan was compelled to abandon its 
support of Bokhara. 

Finally, in 1947, the old pattern was broken up 
with the withdrawal of Britain from the subcon- 
tinent, the independence of India and Pakistan, 
and the rivalry between these two new states. 
With this change the old rules of the game were 
outmoded. Sine© 1947 Afghanistan has been seek- 
ing to cope with the changed circumstances. 
These changes are great. 

A New Pattern in Afghanistan 

The old bilateral pattern was simple. The Af- 
ghans may have resented the constriction it im- 
posed, but they could rely on Britain and Eussia 
to restrain each other. Now the pattern is com- 
plex and requires more vigilance. Now there are 
the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as 
Britain in a different and less omnipresent role, 
plus Iran, India, and Pakistan, not to mention 
Communist China hovering in the wings. The 
point is that the alternatives in a six- or eight- 
handed game of poker are more difficult to calcu- 
late than in a two-handed game of chess. 

Not only is the new pattern more complex, but 
the old area balance has been upset. "Wliereas the 
southern flank became weaker by a massive devo- 
lution of power, the northern flank, monopolized 
by the totalitarian military power of the U.S.S.R., 
remained intact. Afghan neutrality before 1947 
rested on the balance of British and Russian 
power, manifested right up to the frontiere of 
Afghanistan. Tlie balance now has to be main- 
tained, if Afglianistan is to remain neutral, by a 
combination of neighboring states and the power 
of the United States, acbnittedly great in Afghan 
eyes but also very, very far away by comparison. 

One way of righting the balance woidd have 
been to encourage the military strengthening and 
political orientation toward the West of the coun- 
tries south of the Soviet Union. Indeed, from 



1949 to 1954, Afghanistan seemed inclined in that 
direction and sought both military aid and pro- 
tection from tlie United States. However, con- 
trary to tlie Communist legend that the United 
States is always busy forcing military aid and 
pacts on smaller nations, tlie United States was 
not yet prepared to undertake the organization of 
a militaiy counterforce in the area. By 1954, 
therefore, lacking either military support or se- 
curity ties with the United States, Afghanistan 
began casting about for another formula. The 
Soviet Union came along and provided it by offer- 
ing military aid. In the same general period, 
Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey took the initiative to 
create an alliance wliicli sought and eventually re- 
ceived U.S. support. The Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization and the Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion are manifestations of this effort to restore 
balance. 

Superficially the organization of SEATO and 
CENTO might seem partially to restore the pre- 
war pattern, if not a precise balance, leaving 
Afghanistan in a position similar to the one it 
occupied before the war. Unfortunately this is 
not the case. The most pertinent fact in this con- 
nection is that, while Afghan relations with the 
U.S.S.R. since 1954 have become progressively 
closer and more deeply intertwined, some rather 
broad gulfs separate Afghanistan from its 
Muslim neighbors on the west, south, and east. 

Afghan-Iranian relations are cordial enough 
but rather distant in view of the wide, desolate 
wastes which separate the main political and eco- 
nomic centers of the two countries. Relations 
also are marred by tlie fact that, in the one area 
where the two countries have a common interest 
which could and should be cooperatively devel- 
oped, tliey are unable to come to agreement. I 
refer to the lower Helmand Valley and the lack 
of agreement between Afglianistan and Iran on 
the proper division of the waters of the Helmand 
River. 

On the other side of Afghanistan, relations with 
Pakistan have become exceedingly chilly because 
of a dispute over the future of Pushtun tribes liv- 
ing outside of Afglianistan and across a frontier 
which has been internationally recognized for 
nearly 70 years. Clearly there are many problems 
in the administration of these tribes straddling 
the border, and there is ample room for coopera- 
tion between the two countries in the economic, 



126 



Departmenf cf Slate DuUetin 



social, and cultural fields of development. Ironi- 
cally enough, in some respects Afghanistan and 
Pakistan daily face identical problems in the tribal 
areas on tlieir respective sides of the frontier and 
might well benefit from cooperation. 

Another indigenous Afghan factor which 
changes the situation from prewar days is tlie 
Afghan determination to force the rate of national 
economic and social development as rapidly as 
possible. The historical origin and significance of 
Afghanistan's underdevelopment may be illus- 
trated by changing the former analogy of a storm 
to that of a lamb roasting on a spit over a hot 
fire. The outside of the meat may be seared and 
blackened by the flames while the center remains 
raw. Thus did Asia revolve slowly through the 
political fires of the 18th and 19th centuries, while 
Afghanistan was left raw and imdeveloped in the 
center. Turkestan, Bokhara, Kazakhstan, and 
Kirghizia all suffered deeply from the fires of the 
last two centuries while the Arab states, Iran, 
Pakistan, India, and southeast Asia were sorely 
tried, but they all also profited in military, eco- 
nomic, social, and educational development, leav- 
ing Afghanistan at a relative disadvantage. 

From one point of view this is the price Afghan- 
istan paid for the insulated hennit-like freedom it 
maintained during the earlier centuries, a freedom 
which was dependent as much on the balance of 
two world forces as it was upon Afghanistan's 
own policies. Some might say that the price was 
worth paying, and some of the most traditionalist 
Afghans probably would be willing to go on pay- 
ing the price of underdevelopment in return for 
a kind of cocoon-like independence behind moun- 
tainous barriers. It is at least doubtful that this 
would be possible. In any event it is not the 
policy of the Afghan Government, which, on the 
contrai-y, feels almost obsessively the need to catch 
up with its neighbors. 

Afghans realize that this underdevelopment 
dangerously exposes their country precisely at the 
time when it has suddenly been swept into the 
changing pattern of world forces. As they see it, 
Afghanistan is today surrounded by dynamic 
forces on every side. The rapid Russianization of 
the Muslim central Asian states to the north, the 
menacing posture of the beehive state. Communist 
China, the herculean efforts of India toward in- 
dustrialization, the rapid development of Pakistan 
on the east and south, and the expanding economy 



of Iran on the west — all symbolize the great dis- 
tance Afghanistan must still run if she is to catch 
up. Situated in the middle of tliese dynamic 
forces, the people of Afghanistan can no longer 
accept the role of an underdeveloped trough be- 
tween two great powers in rough balance, particu- 
larly since the old balance no longer exists, from a 
regional point of view at least, in the face of the 
devolution of power in south Asia as contrasted 
with the accelerated aggrandizement of power in 
the north. 

This, then, is the framework within which it is 
useful to consider Afghanistan today. I suggest 
that now we narrow the focus and look briefly at 
what is occurring within the country itself. 

Economic and Social Transformation 

Over the past 5 years Afghanistan has made a 
dramatic response to the challenges presented by 
the great political and economic changes occurring 
in Asia. I believe that it can safely be said that 
the country has already emerged as an active ele- 
ment in the Middle East-South Asia complex of 
nation states. 

The basis of this transformation was the adop- 
tion of a program of forced draft economic de- 
velopment, for which large-scale foreign aid was 
obtained. Another fundamental departure was 
the reequipping and modernization of the armed 
forces. At the same time the government en- 
couraged far-reaching social changes, symbolized 
by the recently publicized lifting of the veil, and 
undertook the expansion and modernization of 
educational facilities, both in the general and tech- 
nical fields. Modern techniques of public ad- 
ministration have gradually been introduced in 
the highly centralized bureaucracy Avhich governs 
the country. 

These changes add up to revolution — in the case 
of Afghanistan, revolution from above, for it has 
been the leaders of the present Government who 
have provided the impulse and set the course on 
which the country has embarked. Of necessity, 
so sweeping a program of economic and social 
change has been accompanied by a campaign to 
build up national unity. Press and radio stress 
the cultural and military heritage shared in com- 
mon by the Afghan peoples, despite their divei-sity 
of languages and their multiple ethnic and tribal 
origins. Wliile much is made of the past, at least 
equal or greater emphasis is placed on the present 



January 23, 1 967 



J 27 



and future needs of a developing state : education, 
technical training, hard work, and the cooperation 
of all ages and sexes in the tasks of development. 
Using the Pushtu-speaking tribes as tlie basis, the 
Goverrunent is endeavoring to impart a Pushtu 
character to this modern national state it is in the 
process of creating, replacing the Persian cast 
which had been deeply etched into it. 

While much attention is understandably focused 
on Afghanistan's relations with her neighbors, it 
is also instructive to note the manner in which the 
Afghans are establishing a place in the broader 
international arena. 

Over the past few years one or another of the 
emerging nation's toji leaders have paid official 
visits to many of the world's capitals. King 
Zaher only recently completed state visits to the 
United Arab Kepublic and Yugoslavia, while dur- 
ing the past year President Eisenhower, Prime 
Minister Nehru of India, Prime Minister Sharif 
Emami of Iran, and West German Vice Chancel- 
lor Erhard, as well as Premier Khrushchev and 
other Commimist bloc leaders, have been in Kabul. 
This partial list is indicative of the spreading 
range of diplomatic contacts which the Afghan 
Government now maintains. In increasing num- 
bers lower level officials are complementing these 
top-level trips with technical and study missions 
abroad, while comparatively large numbers of 
Afghan students, a substantial proportion in the 
United States, are pursuing full courses of in- 
struction in overseas universities. 

These broadening contacts are not only in- 
dicative of the internal changes which have 
begun to shape Afghanistan into a modern 
state; they also underline the Afghan passion 
for independence and the continuing sense of self- 
identity which so sharply marks the Afghan 
character. 

Changing Patterns of Trade 

Just as Afghanistan's political role in the world 
is changing in accordance with postwar rearrange- 
ments of world forces, so is its economic role. 
Afghanistan's foreign trade has experienced a 
significant growth in the last 10 years. Its princi- 
pal exports are fresh and dried fruits; furs, prin- 
cipally karakul or the so-called Persian lamb ; raw 
cotton, wool, including some very fine cashmere; 
and caipets. Imports cover a wider range. Tea 



and sugar loom large among imported foodstuffs. 
The largest import, however, has been textiles al- 
though this commodity will decrease in import- 
ance with increasing domestic production. Motor 
vehicles and spare parts and petroleum products 
are large items. Miscellaneous manufactures and 
consumer goods make up the balance. 

This increase in total foreign trade has not 
occurred in equal proportions for all of Afghan- 
istan's trading partners. Since 1954, especially, 
the share of the Soviet Union and its satellites 
has increased more than that of the free world. 
To an extent this trend is natm-al. In fact, prior 
to 1954 trade with the Soviet Union itself was 
surprisingly low in the light of the fact that the 
Soviet economy is somewhat complementary to 
that of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's other two 
neighbors have basic economies wliich are more 
or less parallel to Afghanistan's. So it is imder- 
standable that Pakistan is only Afghanistan's 
seventh most important trading partner and trade 
with Iran has been minimal. 

Trade with and through Pakistan in recent 
years has been hampered occasionally by the gen- 
eral state of unsatisfactory political relationships 
existing between the two countries and by the 
inadequacy of Pakistan's port facilities and trans- 
portation system, severely overtaxed by its own 
development program. Thus the traditional 
route of outlet to the sea is slow and at times 
uncertain. Under these circumstances conces- 
sions, apparent or real, by the Soviet Union are 
attractive to Afghanistan. However, Soviet bar- 
ter transactions have many flaws such as blocked 
accoimts, limited range of selection of goods, low 
quality, and the ever-present danger that the 
Soviets may dump imported Asian products in the 
regular markets of the Asian comitries. 

Considering purely economic and geogi'aphical 
factors, it would appear natural for the Soviet 
Union to be one of Afghanistan's principal trad- 
ing partners ; yet we must never lose sight of the 
fact that in the Soviet Union foreign trade is 
merely an adjunct of foreign policy. Mr. Khru- 
shchev himself has said that they value trade 
more for its political aspects than for its economic 
importance. So far there is no evidence that tlie 
U.S.S.R. has used its economic position to exert 
direct political pressure on Afghanistan. On the 
contrary it has made its offei's more attractive 
with such devices as seemingly low prices arrived 



128 



Department of Slate BuUetin 



at through artificial exchange rates, and by offer- 
ing consiuner goods on a consigimient basis. 

An Afghanistan excessively dependent on the 
U.S.S.R. as a source of supply and as a market 
for its exports would be higlily vuhierable to a 
shift in Soviet foreign economic policy. For in- 
stance, Afghanistan already relies on the Soviet 
Union for an estimated 75 percent of its petro- 
leiun requirements and almost all of its imported 
sugar and matches, as well as a goodly propor- 
tion of its metallic building materials. On the 
export side the U.S.S.E. takes over 70 percent 
of Afghanistan's cotton exports and over 75 per- 
cent, by quantity, of wool exports. A shift in 
Soviet foreign economic policy could even now 
cause a serious temporaiy economic maladjust- 
ment in Afghanistan at a time when the Afghan 
Government is deeply committed to an all-out 
program of economic development. 

The Soviet Union has chosen to make Afghani- 
stan a battleground in the economic cold war. 
The free world faces a commercial challenge in 
this situation. The United States in particular, 
engaged in a vigorous exix)rt promotion program, 
cannot afford to ignore the market potential of 
Afghanistan as it has in the past. Not only do 
the smaller, less develoiwd nations of the world 
collectively constitute an important market for 
American exports, but these same countries are 
all developing and will in time hidividually pro- 
vide significant markets. American private 
busmess should begin to recognize Afghanistan 
as a distinct market area and attempt to promote 
sales. The U.S. trade mission last summer was 
a good step in this direction. 

The fact that American-made products already 
enjoy a good, if limited, market in Afghanistan 
indicates acceptability. There is much evidence 
that Afghan importers prefer U.S. quality even 
on slightly stiffer terms. Afghanistan is not lost 
to the free world as a trading partner, but more 
vigorous sales activity is needed to maintain and 
strengthen our position. Wliile the Soviet 
Union's totalitarian state-trading system has some 
tactical political advantages, the American free- 
enterprise system is in the long rmi a better and 
more reliable trading partner for Afghanistan. 

Let me turn now to the keystone of the arch 
supporting the new Afghanistan now abuilding — 
foreign aid. 



U.S. Aid to Afghanistan 

First, ^\jnerican aid. The U.S. interest in 
Afghanistan is not limited by cold-war considera- 
tions. Our record shows a continuing basic 
interest in helping Afghanistan, along with other 
developing countries. We have not succeeded 
fully in convincing the Afghans that our real in- 
terest is to assist them as a nation and as a people 
for their own sake. I hope that we can fuad more 
effective ways to convince them that this is the 
case. 

Let us look at the record. U.S. aid to Afghani- 
stan actually began in 1950 with the first Export- 
Import Bank loan for Helmand Valley develop- 
ment. Li 1952 the United States began a modest 
technical cooperation program. While these were 
small beginnings, they must be inteq^reted against 
the background of the times in which they oc- 
curred. From 1946 until 1952 U.S. aid had gen- 
erally to be concentrated, because of the great need 
and danger to world peace, in areas and countries 
actually defending themselves against active Com- 
munist expansionism as revealed by Soviet efforts 
to absorb Azerbaijan in 1946, the Soviet-sponsored 
coup d'etat in Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 
1947, the Berlin blockade in 1948, and the Com- 
munist invasion of south Korea in 1950. 

U.S. aid to Afghanistan has come from several 
sources. Before World War II the Afghan 
Government decided to embark upon a long-range 
irrigation and land reclamation project in the 
Helmand Valley, and it employed Japanese engi- 
neer to design and supervise the original plans. 
During World War II work in the Helmand Val- 
ley ceased, and after the war the Government, 
using its own fimds, employed Morrison-Knudsen 
to expand and carry out the original project. The 
cost of the Helmand Valley development greatly 
exceeded the original estimates, and in 1950 on 
the application of the Afghan Government the 
Export-Import Bank made a loan of $21 million 
to permit the Afghans to continue with the devel- 
opment of the valley. In 1954 another loan of 
$18.5 million was made for the same purpose. 
Later, when we extended aid to Afghanistan 
under the Mutual Security Program, a part of our 
assistance was allocated to the Helmand Valley — 
to help the Afghans complete the project and 
realize adequate returns from it by assisting with 
the solution of drainage problems, combating 
salinity, and teaching the farmers how to use irri- 



January 23, 1961 



129 



gation processes properly. "Wliile the concept of 
the Helmancl Valley development is basically 
Afghan, U.S. financing and the employment of a 
U.S. contractor by the Afghans have tended to 
identify the United States closely with it. 

In fiscal year 19.52 the United States began very 
limited technical cooperation in Afghanistan by 
granting $100,000 for an education program. 
Our technical assistance has gradually grown 
from that small beginning until, in fiscal year 
1960, $4.9 million was allocated and in the current 
year we are providing $4 million for these pro- 
grams. While we have aided the Afghans in 
a variety of fields, the technical cooperation pro- 
gram has concentrated on education, agriculture, 
and public administration. English has become 
the most important foreign language in Afghan- 
istan, and a good part of our funds have been 
used to finance English-language teacher train- 
ing. Technical assistance has also been given to 
Kabul Univereity and to the Agricultural High 
School and the Afghan Institute of Technology. 
Since 80 to 90 percent of the people in Afghan- 
istan are dependent on agriculture for a liveli- 
hood, our aid in agi'icultural research, improve- 
ment, and extension should, over a long period, 
help achieve a better standard of living for the 
people. And as a i"esult of the introduction of 
new budgeting and accounting procedures by the 
public administration team financed by our pro- 
gram, the Government of Afghanistan has mod- 
ernized its fiscal and accounting processes and 
in 1959-60 presented its first modern budget. 

In fiscal year 1956 the U.S. Government ex- 
tended its first "special assistance," that is, devel- 
opment assistance, to Afghanistan amounting to 
$15.3 million. This special assistance was allo- 
cated principally to the air transportation project 
through which the United States helped the 
Afghans to establish their own airline, Ariana, 
and are helping them constnict an international 
airport at Kandahar. Wliile the airstrip has 
been completed and is being used, work on the 
secondary installations is still in progress, but 
Kandahar International Airport should be in 
full operation by 1962. 

Another of the principal fields in which we have 
helped the Afghans with special assistance funds 
has been the building of an adequate internal 
road system. This is an essential part of tlieir 
development program as there is no rail or water 



130 



transportation in the country. We are helping 
them pave tlie road from Kabul to tlie Pakistan 
border via Jalalabad. We have undertaken to 
design and will construct and pave the road from 
Kabul to Kandahar and then pave the existing 
road built by Morrison-Knudsen from Kandahar 
to the Pakistan border at Spin Baldak, thereby 
improving Afghanistan's links with the port of 
Karachi. We have also given some special assist- 
ance to the Helmand Valley project and in the 
fields of industry, mining, and education. 

In 1953 the U.S. Government financed the pur- 
chase of wheat by Afghanistan by making it a 
loan of $1.5 million. In both 1957 and 1958 we 
granted the Afghans 40,000 tons of wheat mider 
title II of Public Law 480. In 1959 we granted 
them 50,000 tons of wheat under title II valued 
at about $7 million a year. The funds derived 
from the sale of the wheat were used to meet 
local-currency costs of U.S. -supported projects in 
the country's development progi-am, but this was 
accomplished only by receiving special permis- 
sion from Washington to handle the wheat grants 
in this manner. The latest agreement, signed in 
November 1960,^ provided for a grant of 50,000 
tons of wheat under new legislation which permits 
the U.S. Government to help landlocked countries 
by paying freight to the point of entry into the 
country rather than to the nearest seaport, and 
also under a second provision, which permits sur- 
plus commodities to be sold within the country 
with the local currency derived therefrom to be 
used in the economic development program of the 
country. This second provision is a temporary 
one, but I hope that the Congress in its next ses- 
sion will extend this permission. 

U.S. aid commitments from all sources to Af- 
ghanistan from 1949 to June 30, 1960, amounted 
to approximately $168 million. The fiscal 1961 
program envisages the expenditure of $4 million 
for technical cooperation and approximately $9 
million for special assistance. The size of the bill 
is an indication of the magnitude of our activities 
in the country. 

Of lesser financial proportions, but of consider- 
able importance, has been the contribution of the 
Asia Foundation, an American philanthropic 
foundation, which, on a limited budget, supplies 
advisers for various ministries in the Afghan Gov- 



' Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1960, p. 872. 

Department of State Bvlletin 



eminent and supports several small technical 
assistance programs. 

CARE is just beginning to operate a fairly sub- 
stantial program which will have great impact 
througliout Afghanistan once it gets into full 
operation. And in November 1960, Dr. Tom 
Dooley came to Kabul. In the course of a brief 
visit he, on behalf of Medico, entered into an 
agi'eement with the Government of Afghanistan 
luider which Medico will help equip and support 
a hospital in Kabul and will send doctors and 
nurses to assist in its management and to train 
Afghans to carry on the worli thus started. 

Soviet Bloc Aid 

It is well to remember, however, tliat we are 
not alone in the field. The Soviets also granted 
aid to Afghanistan in 1954, when they made the 
Afghan Government a relatively modest low- 
interest, long-term loan of $3.5 million. These 
funds were used to finance construction of grain 
elevators at Kabul and at Pul-i-Khumri and a 
flour mill and bakery in Kabul, and to pave some 
streets in the city of Kabul. Incidentally, the 
Western press usually gives the Soviets credit for 
actually paving the streets in Kabul. The 
Afghans resent this, stating that the municipality 
of Kabul did use Soviet loan funds to buy paving 
equipment and to pay two or three Soviet tech- 
nicians to teach them how to use this equipment, 
but they insist — and they are correct — that the 
streets were actually paved by the Afghans. 

In the same year Czechoslovakia extended the 
Afghans a credit which was used to build a cement 
plant. 

"WHien Khrushchev and Bulganin visited Af- 
ghanistan in December 1955, the scope of Soviet 
aid quickly changed. At that time they agreed to 
extend a $100 million line of credit to the Afghans 
to help with the construction of several large- 
scale projects. Under this credit the Afghans 
have financed, or are financing, the Bagram mili- 
tary airfield some 40 miles north of Kabul, the 
Naghlu hydroelectric project to generate electric- 
ity for Kabul and the industries developing in 
the area, and the Darunta irrigation and hydro- 
electric project near Jalalabad, which will irrigate 
some 60,000 to 75,000 acres and generate 10,000 
kilowatt hours of electricity. Part of the $100 
million has been used to import consumer goods 
to generate local currency to support these various 



projects. In 1959 the Soviets agreed to construct 
a heavy-duty road from Kushka on the Soviet 
border to Kandahar, through Herat, reportedly 
on a grant basis. It is estimated that this road 
will cost about $80 million. In addition the Sovi- 
ets are helping the Afghans to construct the road 
from Kabul northward through the Salang pass 
to the port of Qizil Qala on the Oxus River. This 
road, when completed, will give the Afghans an 
all-weather access road to the north and will cut 
off some 120 miles in distance. The Soviets have 
successfully assisted with petroleum exploration, 
as deposits of crude oil and natural gas have been 
found in the north near Andkhui, although the 
magnitude of their discoveries has not been re- 
vealed. They have also made two grants of 50,000 
tons of wheat. 

The value and terms of grants or loans for mili- 
tary equipment to the Government of Afghanistan 
by both the Soviets and the Czechoslovaks are 
kept secret. However, Soviet bloc aid, exclusive 
of military, is estimated at $217 million in credits 
and grants, including $5 million in credits from 
Czechoslovakia and $1.5 million in credits from 
Poland. 

Other Sources of Aid 

The other large contributor to the economic 
development of Afghanistan has been the United 
Nations, including the Special Fund, the Chil- 
dren's Fund, the World Health Organization, and 
the Food and Agriculture Organization. Since 
the United Nations began aiding Afghanistan it 
has made $8 million available for its programs 
in the country, and it currently has about 70 tech- 
nicians on the job. Their activities are related 
to Afghanistan's overall development program 
and cover a wide range in scope, for example, 
teaching in Afghan schools and special training 
centers, basic surveys of natural resources, assist- 
ance in strengthening institutions required for the 
provision of government services, vocational 
training in technical fields, and malaria eradica- 
tion. 

The German Government has made available to 
Afghanistan grants of $1.5 million and credits of 
$50 million. These funds have been used to carry 
out geological and hydrological surveys and to 
assist in mechanical training. German private 
loans have helped to establish the Gulbahar tex- 
tile mill. Various other nations have made small 



January 23, 796J 



131 



contributions to the Afghan development program, 
including France, Japan, and Communist China. 
It should also be remembered that the sums con- 
tributed by the Afghans themselves to their de- 
velopment program are large in relation to the 
limited revenue of the Afghan Government. Dur- 
ing the past 5 years, through the budgets of the 
various ministries and through expansion pro- 
grams of independent and quasi-independent agen- 
cies, the Afghan Government has spent over $165 
million on development projects. "When I use the 
term "independent and quasi-independent agen- 
cies," I refer to organizations such as the Elec- 
tricity Supply Board, which has made investments 
for developing sources of electricity, and the 
Baiik-i-Milli, which has made large investments 
in the model Gulbahar textile mill. 

Comparing U.S. and Soviet Aid 

Observers often try to compare and contrast 
the U.S. and Soviet aid programs in Afghanistan. 
Most of them have tended to credit the Soviet 
Union with having achieved a greater impact by 
the magnitude and method of execution of its 
program. This may be true in the short rmi, but 
I am not personally convinced that it need be, or 
in fact will be, in the long run. 

In the field of military aid, of course, the con- 
trast is total and complete. The U.S.S.R. has 
furnished military equipment to Afghanistan 
while the United States has not. Tliis fact has 
undoubtedly affected our total position in that 
country, especially in light of the fact that the 
Government of Afghanistan made repeated re- 
quests to the United States in the early 1950's for 
a military aid program and only turned to the 
U.S.S.R. after it was convinced that such a pro- 
gram would not be forthcoming from the United 
States. At the same time, the Soviet military aid 
program, unlike American militaiy aid generally, 
is based on credits, not grants, and therefore 
creates an economic burden on Afghanistan which 
will some day have to be borne by the economic 
development program. 

The United States found it impossible to meet 
Afghanistan's military assistance requests for rea- 
sons which seemed logical enough in the early 
1950"s and entirely consistent with Afghan neu- 
trality. This was a most complex problem involv- 
ing regional and global considerations which 
cannot be adequately covered here. For one thing, 



the United States had no desire to extend the area 
of the cold war. Afghanistan had no obligations 
to meet toward any regional defense system. Mil- 
itary aid outside some area defense framework 
might have been misiuiderstood and might have 
had the effect of exacerbating existing intra-area 
differences. Wliatever the logic of the U.S. 
position may have been, this bit of history 
has had an important bearing on the total position 
of Afghanistan in the world and upon the devel- 
opment of general Afghan- American relations. 

In all other forms of aid the picture is more 
even. It is true that the total foreign-currency 
value of Soviet aid is greater than that of the 
United States. It is also generally true that their 
projects, largely because they can be plainly seen 
by the people, have made a greater initial impact 
than have many of ours. But this may not be a 
proper evaluation in terms of a long-range esti- 
mate. As in Russia itself, the U.S.S.R. seems to 
stress quantity rather than quality in its work. 
In construction, for instance, the standards tlie 
United States employs will leave Afghanistan 
with a much smaller maintenance problem than 
will the quicker methods employed by the Soviet 
technicians. Also, such a long-range project as the 
development of the Helmand Valley would be 
bound to give rise to a period of disappointment 
and criticism in any country that was in a hurry. 
Only after years of work have some of our difficult 
reclamation progi'ams in the United States borne 
fruit. The Helmand Valley project is a long- 
range one, and I believe that the time is not far 
off when the real merits of this project will be 
more and more noticeable and more fully appreci- 
ated by the Afghans. Consider also the vital field 
of education. Assisting in the education of the 
youth of Afghanistan may not be as dramatic as 
building a grain silo for everyone to see. But it is 
far more important to the advancement and well- 
being of the people of Afghanistan. 

The greatest criticism has been on the slowness 
of the U.S. programs. In many fields this criti- 
cism is not justified, and in some cases the Afghan 
officials would not hesitate to say that some of the 
delays can be laid at their own doorstep. But we 
must admit that in some fields criticism is fully 
justified. Our construction projects have in gen- 
eral been so noticeably slow in getting underway 
that they have obscured from public attention the 
other work which was going along in an entirely 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



satisfactory manner. While projects such as the 
education progi'am and the general technical coop- 
eration prognvni have been proceeding on schedule, 
public attention has often been focused on con- 
struction projects ■which have been woefully be- 
liind schedule. 

The delays in some of these projects have been 
such as to cause many an Afghan to question the 
whole policy of the United States toward their 
country. They could not believe that America was 
unable to meet commitments on construction proj- 
ects such as Kabul University, and on roads and 
airi^orts. The delays of course had nothing to do 
with policy motivations or any lack of desire to 
assist the Afghan nation. Nor were they the re- 
sponsibility of any individual or groups of indi- 
viduals. In fact, a great deal of pei-sonal effort 
on the part of a great many people was expended 
in trying to get these projects underway. Basi- 
cally, the blame should lie, I believe, on some 
requirements in the mutual security legislation, as 
well as on organizational and bureaucratic difficul- 
ties inherent in trying to operate in such a remote 
coimtry under our normal peacetime methods, 
which are so replete — and normally properly so — 
with private-enterprise competitive j^rocesses and 
all the checks and balances that such a system 
implies. 

I am happy to report that our construction 
projects are now in much better shape and that 
our total aid program is on the move. The Corjis 
of Engineers has agreed to take responsibility, as 
the agent of the International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration, to construct the Kabul-Kandahar- 
Spin Baldak Road. The Corps of Engineers is 
now pushing the completion of design to match 
their own high standards and will soon be in a 
position to let contracts to private firms for the 
construction of this huge project, which they them- 
selves will supervise. The contracts will actually 
be let in the field, and the whole process will be 
greatly simplified. I do not believe that we could 
be better organized than we are at present on this 
project. 

Similarly the remaining portions of the airport 
construction program have been awarded to a 
recognized and capable American firm. The air- 
strip at Kandahar International Airport is in use, 
and construction has begun on the first country 
airport, in Herat. Also Kabul University, the first 
large modern university in Afghanistan, is now 



under construction. The Bureau of Reclamation 
has been engaged by ICA to can-y out our respon- 
sibilities in the Helmand Valley. They are now 
on the job, with several much needed and highly 
qualified men arriving there in December. As we 
progress from the planning to the construction 
stage, the people of Afghanistan will, I feel cer- 
tain, develop a new attitude of confidence in U.S. 
intentions and abilities. 

Wlien one considers all of these things 
together — trade trends, the foreign aid picture 
reflecting an obsessive conviction of the absolute 
necessity for development, and the delicate posi- 
tion of Afghanistan with a strong monolith to the 
north and intra-area difficulties to the south — one 
sees the magnitude of the problems facing Af- 
ghanistan today, as well as the problems facing 
the free world as it considers its own interests in 
the future of Afghanistan. The steering of the 
course and the final destination depend largely 
on the policies followed by the Afghan Govern- 
ment, and there will be many critical decisions in 
the future that only Afghanistan itself can make. 
Our policies must necessarily be continually re- 
viewed in the light of decisions taken by Afghan- 
istan, based upon its sovereign right to guide its 
own destiny. But the outcome will also depend 
to some extent upon forces outside Afghanistan, 
including not only the Russians but us and our 
friends and allies. We should realize that Af- 
ghanistan is a sort of "economic Korea" and a 
prime example of the change in the nature of the 
present world struggle which has been mislabeled 
"peaceful competition." The dangers faced in 
this new type of struggle may be as great as the 
ones faced in Korea itself ; in some ways they may 
be greater, since the process is deceptive because 
of its slow and nondramatic nature and more 
difficult for the peoples of free societies to under- 
stand. 

It is essential that America and Afghanistan 
come to know one another better, and it is espe- 
cially important that Americans try to understand 
the complexities of the position of Afghanistan in 
Asia. Let us not be misled by oversimplification 
of a situation as complicated as this one. It is 
not enough to remember one catchy and spectacu- 
lar adjective, from superficial press treatment 
which is too often inclined to treat as all black or 
all white situations which cannot, even remotely, 
be described accurately by such cliches. Let us 



January 23, I96I 



133 



rather see the present-day Afghanistan in the light 
of the challenge faced by the Afghans them- 
selves — and by us, as we try to assist in insuring 
that that country can in fact succeed in its devel- 
opment effort, which seems such an absolute neces- 
sity, and at the same time retain its neutrality and 
its proud independence. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Caribbean Organization 

Agreement for the establishment of the Caribbean Or- 
ganization and annexed statute. Signed at Washington 
June 21, 1060.' 
Approval deposited: France, December 27, 1960. 

Law of the Sea 

Convention on the territorial sea and contiguous zone. 
Done at Geneva April 28, 1958.' 

Ratification deposited: Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, November 22, 1960." 
Convention on the continental shelf. Done at Geneva 
April 29, 19.58.' 

Ratification deposited: Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, November 22, 1960. 
Convention ou the high seas. Done at Geneva April 29, 
1958.' 

Ratification deposited: Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, November 22, I960." 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail, with final protocol. Done at Ottawa October 3, 
1957. Entered into force April 1, 1959. TIAS 4202. 
Application to: Land Berlin, August 30, 1960. 
Ratification deposited: Somalia, November 16, 1960. 

Publications 

Convention concerning the exchange of oflBcial publica- 
tions and government documents between states. 
Adopted at Paris December 3, 1958.' 
Ratification deposited: Guatemala, November 23, 1960. 



Convention concerning the international exchange of pub- 
lications. Adopted at Paris December 3, 1958. 
Ratification deposited: Guatemala, November 23, 1960. 
Enters into force: November 23, 1961.' 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention. Signed at 
Buenos Aires December 22, 1952. Entered into force 
January 1, 1954. TIAS 3266. 

Accessions deposited: Chad, November 25, 1960; Cen- 
tral African Republic, December 2, 1960 ; Congo 
(Brazzaville), December 1.3, 1960. 
International telecommunication convention with six an- 
nexes and final protocol. Done at Geneva December 21, 
1959. Entered into force January 1, 1961."^ 
Ratification deposited: United Kingdom, December 1, 

1960." 
Accession deposited: Federation of Rhodesia and Ny- 
asaland, December 14, 1960. 
Radio regulations, with appendixes, annexed to the 
international telecommunication convention, 1959. 
Done at Geneva December 21, 1959.' 
Notification of approval: Federal Republic of Germany, 
November 21, I960.' 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Cameroun, December 17, 1960. 

Weights and Measures 

Convention for the creation of an international office of 

weights and measures. Signed at Paris May 20, 1875. 

Entered into force January 1, 1876. 20 Stat. 709. 

Accession deposited: Venezuela, November 18, 1960. 
Convention amending the convention relating to weights 

and measures of May 20, 1875, supra. Done at Sevres 

October 6, 1921. Entered into force February 10, 1923. 

42 Stat. 1686. 

Accession deposited: Venezuela, November 18, 1960. 

BILATERAL 

Brazil 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of December 31, 1956, as corrected and amended 
(TIAS 3725, 3864, 4074, 4144, 4183, 4239, and 4311). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington Decem- 
ber 29, 1960. Entered into force December 29, 1960. 

France 

Convention of establishment, protocol, and declaration. 
Signed at Paris November 25, 1959. Entered into force 
December 21, 1960. TIAS 4625. 
Proclaimed by the President: December 8, 1960. 

Togo 

Agreement providing for economic and technical assist- 
ance to Togo. Effected by exchange of notes at Lom6 
December 22, 1960. Entered into force December 22, 
1960. 



^ Not in force. 

" Reservations made at time of signing confirmed in 
ratification. 
' With reservation and declaration. 



* Will not enter into force for United States. 
^ Not in force for the United States. 
° Includes the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. 
' With a statement. 



134 



Departmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



January 23, 1961 



Ind 



e X 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1126 



Afghanistan. The Changing Position of Afghan- 
istan in Asia (Byroade) 125 

Cuba 

United Nations Security Council Hears Cuban Com- 
plaint Against United States, Adjourns Without 
a Vote (Barco, Wadsworth) 104 

U.S. Breaks Ties Witli Government of Cuba, Main- 
tains Its Treaty Rigtits in Guantanamo Base 
(Eisenhower, Hagerty, U.S. and Cuban notes) . . 103 

Ecuador. Letters of Credence (Ponce Luque) . . 114 

Laos 

SEATO Council Representatives Consider Situation 
in Laos (text of communique) 117 

U.S. Cites Evidence of Soviet and North Viet- 
namese Aid to Lao Rebels 114 

Mutual Security. The Changing Position of Af- 
ghanistan in Asia (Byroade) 125 

Nigeria. Letters of Credence (Udochi) .... 114 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. SEATO 
Council Representatives Consider Situation in 
Laos (test of communique) 117 

Treaty Information. Current Actions 134 

U.S.S.R. 

U.S. Cites Evidence of Soviet and North Vietnamese 
Aid to Lao Rebels 114 

United States Proposes Abolition or Reduction of 
U.S. and Soviet Travel Restrictions (texts of U.S. 
and Soviet notes) 118 

U.S. Rejects Charges of Harassment of Soviet Ship 

"Faleshty" (texts of U.S. and Soviet notes) . . 117 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 124 

United Nations Security Council Hears Cuban Com- 
plaint Against United States, Adjourns VS^ithout 
a Vote (Barco, Wadsworth) 104 



Viet-Nam, North. U.S. Cites Evidence of Soviet 
and North Vietnamese Aid to Lao Rebels . . . 



114 



Name Index 

Barco, James W 112 

Byroade, Henry A 125 

Eisenhower, President 103 

Hagerty, James C 104 

Herter, Secretary 103 

Olivares, Carlos 104 

Ponce Luque, Alejandro Teodoro 114 

Udochi, Julius Momo 114 

Wadsworth, James J 104 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 2-8 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

No. Date Subject 

1 1/3 Ecuador credentials (rewrite). 

2 1/3 Statement on situation in Laos. 

*3 1/4 Dedication of new State Department 

building. 
*4 1/5 Herter : dedication of new building. 

5 1/5 Note rejecting alleged harassment 

Soviet ship Faleshty. 

6 1/6 Nigeria credentials (rewrite). 
*7 1/6 Cultural exchange (Guatemala). 

8 1/6 U.S. and Soviet travel restrictions. 

9 1/7 Statement on Laos. 



of 



*Not printed. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



DOCUMENTS ON DISARMAMENT 

November 15, 1945, through December 29, 1959 



Department 

of 

State 




This two-volume publication contains important postwar docu- 
ments regarding negotiations on the international control of 
atomic energy, the reduction of armaments and armed forces, 
safeguards against surprise attack, the problem of nuclear weap- 
ons tests, various problems of outer space, and related questions. 

All the papers in the collection have previously been released, 
but this is the first time that some of them have been made widely 
available. Volume I covers the years 1945-56 and Volume II the 
period 1957-59. The number of papers selected for the 5 years 
from 1955 through 1959 is much larger than for the preceding 10 
years. This is because the developments of recent years bear more 
directly upon the current negotiations in this general field and 
because recent years have witnessed intensified discussion of nu- 
clear testing, safeguards against surprise attack, and outer space. 



Publication 7008 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




ICIAL 

KLY RECORD 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1127 January 30, 1961 

THE STATE OF THE UNION • Message of President 

Eisenhower to the Congress {Excerpts) 139 

SECRETARY HERTER SUMMARIZES U.S. FOREIGN 
POLICY UNDER THE EISENHOWER ADMINIS- 
TRATION, 1953-61 143 

CLARENCE RANDALL SUBMITS REPORT ON FOR- 
EIGN ECONOMIC POLICY 157 

THIS WE BELIEVE • by Assistant Secretary Berding .... 151 

UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL SIGN EXTRADITION 

TREATY # Department Announcement and Text of Treaty . 164 



TED STATES 
EIGN POLICY 



For index gee inside back cover 




Vol. XLIV, No. 1127 • Publication 7131 
January 30, 1961 



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Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

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The printing of this publication has been 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1961). 

I^ote: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
OF State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy , 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO THE CONGRESS (EXCERPTS) 



To the Congress of the United States: 

Once again it is my constitutional duty to assess 
the state of tlie Union. 

On each such previous occasion during these 
past 8 years I have outlined a forward course 
designed to achieve our mutual objective — a better 
America in a world of peace. This time my func- 
tion is different. 

The American people, in free election, have se- 
lected new leadersliip which soon will be entrusted 
with the management of our Government. A new 
President shortly will lay before you his proposals 
to shape the future of our gi-eat land. To liim, 
every citizen, whatever his political beliefs, pray- 
erfully extends best wishes for good health and 
for wisdom and success in coping with the prob- 
lems that confront our Nation. 

For my part, I should like, first, to express to 
you of the C!ongress, my appreciation of your de- 
votion to the common good and your friendship 
over these difficult years. I will carry with me 
pleasant memories of this association m endeavors 
profomidly significant to all our people. 

We have been tlirough a lengthy period in 
which the control over the executive and legisla- 
tive branches of Government has been divided be- 
tween our two great political parties. Differences, 
of course, we have had, particularly in domestic 
affairs. But in a united determination to keep 
this Nation strong and free and to utilize our vast 
resources for the advancement of all mankind, we 
have carried America to unprecedented heights. 

For this cooperative achievement I thank the 
American people and those in the Congress of 
both parties who have supported programs in the 
interest of our coimtry. 



I should also like to give special thanks for the 
devoted service of my associates in the executive 
branch and the hundreds of thousands of career 
employees who have implemented our diverse 
Government programs. 



' H. Doc. 1, 87th Cong., 1st sess. ; read by a reading clerk 
in the House of Representatives on Jan. 12 and commu- 
nicated to the Senate on Jan. 13. 



My second purpose is to review briefly the 
record of these past 8 years in the hope that, 
out of the sum of these experiences, lessons will 
emerge that are useful to our Nation. Support- 
ing this review are detailed reports from the sev- 
eral agencies and departments, all of which are 
now or will shortly be available to the Congress. 

Throughout the world the years smce 1953 
have been a period of profound change. The 
hmnan problems in the world grow more acute 
hour by hour; yet new gains in science and tech- 
nology continually extend the promise of a better 
life. People yearn to be free, to govern them- 
selves; yet a tliird of the people of the world 
have no freedom, do not govern themselves. The 
world recognizes the catastrophic nature of nu- 
clear war; yet it sees the wondrous potential of 
nuclear peace. 

During the period, the United States has forged 
ahead xinder a constructive foreign policy. The 
continuing goal is peace, liberty, and well-being — 
for others as well as ourselves. The aspirations 
of aU peoples are one — peace with justice in free- 
dom. Peace can only be attained collectively as 
peoples everywhere vmite in their determination 
that liberty and well-being come to all mankind. 

Yet while we have worked to advance national 
aspirations for freedom, a divisive force has been 
at work to divert that aspiration into dangerous 
channels. The Communist movement throughout 
the world exploits the natural striving of all to 
be free and attempts to subjugate men rather than 
free them. These activities have caused and are 



January 30, 1961 



139 



continuing to cause grave troubles in the world. 

Here at home these have been times for care- 
ful adjustment of our economy from the artificial 
impetus of a hot war to constructive growth in 
a precarious peace. "VVHiile building a new eco- 
nomic vitality without inflation, we have also in- 
creased public expenditures to keep abreast of the 
needs of a growmg jwpulation and its attendant 
new problems, as well as our added international 
responsibilities. We have worked toward these 
ends in a context of shared responsibility — con- 
scious of the need for maximum scope to private 
effort, and for State and local, as well as Federal, 
governmental action. 

Success in designing and executing national 
purposes, domestically and abroad, can only come 
from a steadfast resolution that integrity in the 
operation of Government and in our relations 
with each other be fully maintained. Only in 
this way could our spiritual goals be fully ad- 
vanced. 

Foreign Policy 

On January 20, 1953, when I took office, the 
United States was at war. Since the signing of 
the Korean armistice in 1953, Americans have 
lived in peace in highly troubled times. 

During the 1956 Suez crisis, the U.S. Govern- 
ment strongly supported United Nations action — 
resulting in the ending of the hostilities m Egypt. 

Again in 1958, peace was preserved in the Mid- 
dle East despite new discord. Our Government 
responded to the request of the friendly Lebanese 
Government for military help, and promptly 
withdrew American forces as soon as the situation 
was stabilized. 

In 1958 our support of the Eepublic of China 
during the all-out bombardment of Quemoy re- 
strained the Communist Chinese from attempting 
to invade the offshore islands. 

Although, unhappily, Communist penetration 
of Cuba is real and poses a serious threat, Com- 
munist-dominated regimes have been deposed in 
Guatemala and Iran. The occupation of Austria 
has ended and the Trieste question has been settled. 

Despite constant threats to its integrity, West 
Berlin has remained free. 

Important advances have been made in building 
mutual security arrangements — which lie at the 
heart of our hopes for future peace and security 
in the world. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organi- 



zation has been established; the NATO alliance 
has been militarily strengthened; the Organiza- 
tion of American States has been further devel- 
oped as an instrument of inter- American cooper- 
ation; the Anzus treaty has strengthened ties 
with Australia and New Zealand, and a mutual 
security treaty with Japan has been signed. In 
addition, the CENTO Pact has been concluded, 
and while we are not officially a member of this 
alliance we have participated closely in its 
deliberations. 

The atoms-for-peace proposal to the United 
Nations led to the creation of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency. Our poUcy has been 
to push for enforcible programs of inspection 
against surprise attack, suspension of nuclear test- 
ing, arms reduction, and peaceful use of outer 
space. 

The United Nations has been vigorously sup- 
ported in all of its actions, including the con- 
demnations of the wholesale murder of the people 
of Tibet by the Chinese Communists and the brutal 
Soviet repression of the people of Hungary, as 
well as the more recent U.N. actions in the Congo. 

The United States took the initiative in nego- 
tiating the significant treaty to guarantee the 
peaceful use of vast Antarctica. 

The U.S. Information Agency has been trans- 
formed into a greatly improved medium for ex- 
plaining our policies and actions to audiences 
overseas, answering tlie lies of Communist propa- 
ganda, and projecting a clearer image of Amer- 
ican life and culture. 

Cultural, technological, and educational ex- 
changes with the Soviet Union have been encour- 
aged, and a comprehensive agreement was made 
which authorized, among other things, the dis- 
tribution of our Russian language magazine 
Amerika and the highly successful American 
exhibition in Moscow. 

This country has continued to withhold recog- 
nition of Communist China and to oppose vigor- 
ously the admission of this belligerent and un- 
repentant nation into the United Nations. Red 
China has yet to demonstrate that it deserves to 
be considered a peace-loving nation. 

With Communist imperialism held in check, con- 
structive actions were imdertaken to strengthen 
the economies of free world nations. The 
U.S. Govermnent has given sturdy support to the 
economic and technical assistance activities of 



140 



Department of State Bulletin 



the U.N. This country stimulated a doubling of 
the capital of the World Bank and a 50-percent 
capital increase in the International Monetary 
Fund. The Development Loan Fund and the 
International Development Association were es- 
tablished. The United States also took the lead 
in creating the Inter-American Development 
Bank. 

Vice President Nixon, Secretaries of State 
Dulles and Herter, and I traveled extensively 
through the world for the purpose of strengthen- 
ing the cause of peace, freedom, and international 
understanding. So rewarding were these visits 
that their very success became a significant factor 
in causing the Soviet Union to wreck the planned 
summit conference of 1960. 

These vital programs must go on. New tactics 
will have to be developed, of course, to meet new 
situations, but the imderlying principles should 
be constant. Our great moral and material com- 
mitments to collective security, deterrence of 
force, international law, negotiations that lead to 
self-enforcing agreements, and the economic inter- 
dependence of free nations should remain the 
cornerstone of a foreign policy that will ultimately 
bring permanent peace with justice in freedom 
to all mankind. The continuing need of all free 
nations today is for each to recognize clearly the 
essentiality of an unbreakable bond among them- 
selves based upon a complete dedication to the 
principles of collective security, effective co- 
operation, and peace with justice. 

National Defense 

For the first time in our Nation's history we 
have consistently maintained in peacetime, mili- 
tary forces of a magnitude sufficient to deter and 
if need be to destroy predatory forces in the world. 

Tremendous advances in strategic weapons 
systems have been made in the past 8 years. Not 
until 1953 were expenditures on long-range ballis- 
tic missile programs even as much as a million 
dollars a year; today we spend 10 times as much 
each day on these programs as was spent in all 
of 1952. 

No guided ballistic missiles were operational at 
the beginning of 1953. Today many types give 
our Armed Forces unprecedented effectiveness. 
The explosive power of our weapons systems for 
all purposes is almost inconceivable. 

Today the United States has operational Atlas 



missiles which can strike a target 5,000 miles away 
in a half hour. The Polaris weapons system be- 
came operational last fall and the Titan is sched- 
uled to become so this year. Next year, more than 
a year ahead of schedule, a vastly improved 
ICBM, the solid-propellant Minuteman, is ex- 
pected to be ready. 

Squadrons of accurate intermediate range ballis- 
tic missiles are now operational. The Thor and 
Jupiter IRBM's based in forward areas can hit 
targets 1,500 miles away in 18 minutes. 

Aircraft which fly at speeds faster tlian sound 
were still in a developmental stage 8 years ago. 
Today American fighting planes go twice the 
speed of sound. And either our B-58 medium- 
range jet bomber or our B-52 long-range jet 
bomber can carry more explosive power than was 
used by all combatants in World War II — Allies 
and Axis combined. 

Eight years ago we had no nuclear-powered 
ships. Today 49 nuclear warships have been 
authorized. Of these, 14 have been commissioned, 
including 3 of the revolutionary Polaris sub- 
marines. Our nuclear submarines have cruised 
under the North Pole and circumnavigated the 
earth while submerged. Sea warfare has been 
revolutionized, and the United States is far and 
away the leader. 

Our tactical air units overseas and our aircraft 
carriers are alert; Army units, guarding the 
frontiers of freedom in Europe and the Far East, 
are in the highest stat« of readiness in peacetime 
history; our Marines, a third of whom are de- 
ployed in the Far East, are constantly prepared 
for action; our Reserve Establishment has main- 
tained high standards of proficiency, and the 
Ready Reserve now numbers over 2^^ million 
citizen-soldiers. 

The Department of Defense, a young and still 
evolving organization, has twice been improved 
and the line of command has been shortened in 
order to meet the demands of modern warfare. 
These major reorganizations have provided a more 
effective structure for unified planning and di- 
rection of the vast Defense Establishment. Grad- 
ual improvements in its structure and procedures 
are to be expected. 

U.S. civil defense and nonmilitary defense ca- 
pacity has been greatly strengthened and these 
activities have been consolidated in one Federal 
agency. 



January 30, 7 96 J 



141 



The defense forces of our allies now number 
5 million men, several thousand combatant ships, 
and over 25,000 aircraft. Programs to strengthen 
these allies have been consistently supported by 
the administration. U.S. military assistance goes 
almost exclusively to friendly nations on the rim 
of the Communist world. This American con- 
tribution to nations who have the will to defend 
their fi-eedom, but insufficient means, should be 
vigorously continued. Combined with our allies, 
the free world now has a far stronger shield 
than we could provide alone. 

Since 1953, our defense policy has been based 
on the assumption that the international situation 
would require heavy defense expenditures for an 
indefinite period to come, probably for years. In 
this protracted struggle, good management dic- 
tates that we resist overspending as resolutely as 
we oppose underspending. Every dollar uselessly 
spent on military mechanisms decreases our total 
strength and, therefore, our security. We must 
not return to the crash-program psychology of 
the past when each new feint by the Communists 
was responded to in panic. The "bomber gap" 
of several years ago was always a fiction, and the 
"missile gap" shows every sign of being the same. 

The Nation can ill afi'ord to abandon a national 
policy which provides for a fully adequate and 
steady level of effort, designed for the long pull ; 
a fast adjustment to new scientific and technolog- 
ical advances; a balanced force of such strength 
as to deter general war, to effectively meet local 
situations and to retaliate to attack and destroy 
the attacker; and a strengthened system of free 
world collective security. 



immigration 

Over 32,000 victims of Communist tyranny in 
Hungary were brought to our sliores, and at tliis 
time our comitiy is working to assist refugees 
from tyranny in Cuba. 

Since 1953, the waiting period for naturaliza- 
tion applicants has been reduced from 18 months 
to 45 days. 

The administration also has made legislative 
recommendations to liberalize existing restrictions 
upon immigration while still safeguarding the na- 
tional interest. It is imperative that our immi- 
gration policy be in the finest American tradition 

142 



of providing a haven for oppressed peoples and 
fully in accord with our obligation as a leader 
of the free world. 



Conclusion 

In concluding my final message to the Congress, 
it is fitting to look back to my first — to the aims 
and ideals I set forth on February 2, 1953 : ^ To 
use America's influence in world affairs to advance 
the cause of peace and justice, to conduct the 
affairs of the executive branch with integrity 
and efficiency, to encourage creative initiative in 
our economy, and to work toward the attainment 
of the well-being and equality of opportimity of 
all citizens. 

Equally, we have honored our commitment to 
pursue and attam specific objectives. Among 
them, as stated 8 years ago : strengthening of the 
mutual security program; development of world 
trade and conmierce; endmg of hostilities in 
Korea; creation of a powerful deterrent force; 
practicing fiscal responsibility; cliecking the 
menace of inflation; reducing the tax burden; 
providing an effective mtemal security program; 
developing and conserving our natural resources ; 
reducing govermnental interference in the affairs 
of the fanner; strengthenmg and improving serv- 
ices by the Department of Labor, and the vigilant 
guarding of civil and social rights. 

I do not close this message implying that all is 
well — that all problems are solved. For progress 
implies both new and continuing problems and. 
unlike Presidential administrations, problems 
rarely have terminal dates. 

Abroad, there is the continuing Communist 
threat to the freedom of Berlin, an explosive 
situation in Laos, the problems caused by Com- 
munist penetration of Cuba, as well as the many 
problems connected with the development of the 
new nations in Africa. These areas, in particular, 
call for delicate handling and constant review. 

At home, several conspicuous problems remain: 
promoting higher levels of employment, with 
special emphasis on areas in which heavy un- 
employment has persisted ; continuing to provide 
for steady economic growth and preserving a 
sound currency; bringing our balance of pay- 
ments into more reasonable equilibriiun and con- 
tinuins: a high level of confidence in our national 



■ Bulletin of Feb. 9, 195.S, p. 207. 



Department of State Bulletin 



and international financial systems; eliminating 
heavily excessive surpluses of a few farm com- 
modities; and overcoming deficiencies in our 
health and educational programs. 

Our goal always has been to add to the spiritual, 
moral, and material strength of our Nation. I 
believe we have done this. But it is a process 
that must never end. Let us pray that leaders of 
both the near and distant future will be able to 



keep the Nation strong and at peace, that they 
will advance the well-being of all our people, that 
they will lead us on to still higher moral standards, 
and that, in achieving these goals, they will main- 
tain a reasonable balance between private and 
governmental responsibility. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 
The White House, January 12, 1961. 



Secretary Herter Summarizes U.S. Foreign Policy 
Under the Eisenhower Administration, 1953-61 



On January 6 Secretary Herter submitted his 
resignation as Secretary of State to President 
Eisenhower. Following is an exchange of letters 
between the President and Secretary Herter, to- 
gether with a sum/mary of U.S. foreign policy 
for the years 1953-61 which was enclosed in the 
Secretary's letter. 



White House press release dated January 12 
EXCHANGE OF LETTERS 

President Eisenhower to Secretary Herter 

Januaky 11, 1961 

Dear Chris : As Secretary of State for nearly 
two years, and for the two years just preceding as 
Under Secretary, you have made a distinguished 
contribution, for which the people of our country 
have cause for deep gratitude. As I accept your 
resignation, concluding your official service in this 
vital and important field as of January twentieth, 
I pay tribute to both your ability and devotion. 

Never have you lost sight of our main goals. 
First, of course, we have sought to stay at peace, 
and this we have done. I know you find deep 
satisfaction in this, just as I do. 

Notwithstanding the periods of crisis and peril 
the years have brought — and will continue to 
bring — we have demonstrated our will for peace, 
wliile safeguarding security and furthering justice 
and freedom. Collective security arrangements 
have been maintained and strengthened, preserv- 
ing free peoples against Communist encroaclunent 



January 30, J967 



and oppression. We have worked hard and long 
to bring under control the threat of nuclear war, 
through proposals for safeguarded international 
control measures, and patient and persistent 
negotiation to this end. We have sought to ad- 
vance the use of the atom for peace. We have 
ranged our influence on the side of human dignity, 
and national and individual freedom and sought 
to achieve greater mutual miderstanding between 
the United States and other nations. We have 
helped other countries in the course of self -devel- 
opment through our mutual security programs and 
efforts. Despite all provocation and hostility, we 
have avoided being drawn away from our con- 
structive efforts into a mere sterile struggle with 
the Communist bloc. 

For the years that lie ahead, bound to be 
marked by grave and complex problems but bear- 
ing bright promise of progress, I know we both 
believe that the nation's best hope lies in continued 
pursuit of these objectives, and we both pray that 
our coimtry may continue to march successfully 
toward them. 

For your steady hand and wise counsel through- 
out our service together, and for the privilege I 
have had of working with you in close association, 
I am deeply grateful. 

You have my best wishes for happy years ahead 
for yourself and your family. 

With warm regard. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



143 



Secretary Herter to President Eisenhower 

January 6, 1961 
Dear Mr. President: I hereby submit my res- 
ignation as Secretary of State, effective on Janu- 
ary 20, 1961. 

It has been an inspiring privilege to have had 
the opportunity of serving imder your leadersliip. 
During the past eight years much has been accom- 
plished under your command of United States 
foreign policy. I am enclosing a brief summary 
which tells the story only in part. During most 
of those years John Foster Dulles, a truly great 
American, was Secretary of State and the greater 
part of the accomplishments referred to in this 
summary were effected, or at least begun, diunng 
his incumbency. 

With warmest personal regards and renewed 
expression of gratitude for the many kindnesses 
you have accorded me, I remain 
Faithfully yours, 

Christian A. HERTEai 



SUMMARY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY 

United States Foreign Policy 

Under the Eisenhower Administration, 

1953-1961 

introduction 

During the past eight years while the United 
States has experienced stability and growth at 
home, abroad there have been widespread and 
profound changes. 

Great historical forces have been at work which 
our country has some capability to influence but 
certainly not to control. 

Man's developing control over disease is un- 
balancing nature's past ratios of deaths and births. 
Since President Eisenhower's first inaugural, the 
human race has been growing at a rate of about 
40 million additional persons per year. Our 
world has about 300 million more people as Presi- 
dent Eisenhower leaves office than in 1953. Since 
1953 the number of independent nations in the 
world has increased by almost 30 percent. 

There are two outstanding elements in the deep 
unrest and change we are witnessing around the 
world. Peoples are realizing that scientific and 
technological gains give promise for them and 
their children of a better life — if only the needed 



skills and capital plant can be accumulated. 
There is a new and urgent awareness that although 
the misery of man exists as a fact it need not con- 
tinue to exist. 

Just as strong is the yearning of peoples to 
govern themselves. Under bursting pressures for 
political independence, dependent territories are 
being transformed almost overnight into nations — 
some with little benefit of the nation-building 
process which is indispensable if they are to 
become fully responsible members of a world 
community. 

The masses of people of the Soviet and 
Chinese empires, harnessed to do the work and 
the will of their master Communist parties, have 
sharply increased the power of the USSR and 
Red China. Although Communist imperialism 
has not captured any more governments since 1954, 
Communist hostility toward free nations has 
continued. 

Wliile gradually becoming aware of the cata- 
strophic nature of nuclear war — the recognition 
of which had led the US in 1946 to propose inter- 
nationalization of atomic energy — the Communists 
have yet to show serious interest in a responsible 
approach to disarmament. And so the world is 
in a highly disturbed and dangerous situation. 

In these years of ever-present danger what has 
been the US effort to preserve security and free- 
dom and to channel into constructive directions, 
as best we can, these surging forces which are 
rolling over our world? 



The United States has sought to strengthen col- 
lective security, deter the use of force, create 
international status in new areas of activity, pro- 
gress toward safeguarded arms control, promote 
negotiation of outstanding international disputes, 
increase the role of the United Nations and make 
of the interdependence of a shrunken world a 
foi'ce for peace rather tlian a breeding ground for 
war. Each of these efforts is discussed in turn 
below. 

A. Collective Security 

Forty some countries have associated with the 
United States in regional or bilateral security 
pacts. These mutual security arrangements no 
longer are simply military alliances. They are the 
framework of consultative processes that day by 



144 



Deparfmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



day are steadily improving the collaboration of 
free nations. 

During these years NATO has evolved into an 
effective military and political instrument 
enabling the Atlantic Community to thwart Soviet 
efforts to dominate Western Europe.^ 

In 1954, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organiza- 
tion was created to strengthen the determination 
and capability of the nations of that area to resist 
the expansionist thrusts of Commimist China. 
In recent years, certain additional nations of the 
area which are not members of the Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization have also come to under- 
stand and appreciate its importance for the pres- 
ervation of freedom. 

The Anzus treaty which has strengthened the 
close ties between Australia, New Zealand and the 
US is another illustration of how our security 
alliances contribute to the development of com- 
mon purposes in other fields than military. 

In 1954 at the Tenth Inter-American Confer- 
ence at Caracas, there was promulgated the 
"Declaration of Solidarity" of the American 
States. It declared that the domination or control 
by the International Communist Movement of the 
political institutions of any American state would 
threaten us all and endanger the peace of the 
Americas. During recent years, the Organization 
of American States has further developed as an 
instrument of hemispheric cooperation. The 
August 1959 Conference of the Foreign Ministers 
of the American Republics in Santiago clearly 
demonstrated the determination of these Republics 
to maintain peace in the hemisphere through com- 
mon action on problems creating international 
tensions. An outstanding example of this com- 
mon action came in early 1959 when Panama was 
threatened by revolution fomented outside her 
borders. Prompt action by the Inter- American 
Peace Commission was an important factor in 
ending this threat. We are working continuously 
with the other American Republics in the Organ- 
ization of American States and in the Inter- 
American Peace Commission to reduce inter- 
national tensions in tliis Hemisphere, particularly 
in the Caribbean area where they are now most 
acute. 



'Witnessing the Importance attached to NATO by the 
United States for several years the US representative 
to the North Atlantic Council has participated in meetings 
of the Cabinet and NSC [National Security Council] when 
in Washington. [Footnote in original.] 



In the Middle East, the United States, although 
not a member, has strongly supported the Baghdad 
Pact organization which was established in 1955. 
Although the Government of Iraq has withdrawn, 
this organization — now known as the Central 
Treaty Organization — remains a solid instrument 
of collective security for the Northern Tier of 
States in the Middle East. 

The situation in the Middle East today is clearly 
improved as compared with 1958 as a result of 
actions by the States in the area, the United Na- 
tions, and the United States. 

President Eisenhower's reception during his 
"good will" trips in the free world has shown how 
significant these travels have been in the battle for 
the minds of men. His world-wide reputation 
as a man of peace has served strikingly to 
strengthen the cause of peace wherever he has 
gone. 

Most of the countries he visited had never before 
welcomed an American President. 

The purpose of such trips by the leader of the 
strongest free-world country was to demonstrate 
tangibly and at firsthand to the people of other 
lands that we value their friendsliip, and that we 
share their hopes and aspirations. The purpose 
was not to "negotiate" or to arrange treaties or 
take other detailed steps appropriate to diplo- 
matic channels, but to strengthen and solidify 
friendship for the United States. 

By the Declaration of Conunon Purpose of 
1957 " the United States and the United Kingdom 
demonstrated the extremely close relations which 
bind our two nations. 

With American support, Germany has made a 
rapid economic recovery and is now among our 
strongest allies. In France, we are witnessing 
an inspiring example of national renewal. Free 
China's extraordinary economic development is 
a symbol to the entire Far East of how much 
more freedom can do to improve the lot of people 
than can slavery. 

B. Deterrence of Force 

The United States has sought to establish the 
principle of renimciation of aggressive force and 
has shown its ability and will to deter use of force. 

At the time of the Suez episode in 1956 and the 
Israeli-Egyptian hostilities, the United Kingdom 



• For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 11, 1957, p. 739. 



January 30, 1967 



145 



and France, and then Israel, responding to the 
overwhelming opinion of the United Nations, 
withdrew their armed forces and accepted a United 
Nations solution. 

"Wlien Lebanon considered itself threatened 
from without and appealed to the United States 
for emergency aid, we responded with promptness 
and efBciency. "Wlien the emergency was relieved 
by United Nations action, we promptly withdrew 
our forces. 

In the Far East, the Chinese Communists, with 
Soviet backing, initiated military action in 1958 
designed, as they put it, to "expel the United 
States" from the Western Pacific. We stood be- 
side the Republic of China in its successful resist- 
ance to that attack. 

In October 1958, the Dulles-Chiang Declara- 
tion ^ memorialized the imdertaking by the Ee- 
public of Cliina that it would rely primai'ily upon 
peaceful principles and not upon force to secure 
the freeing of the mainland. 

The United States and Japan signed in 1960 
a new Security Treaty * providing more equitable 
and workable relationships with this important 
Far Eastern ally. 

C. International Status 

We have sought acceptance for a new principle 
of international law — where national control has 
not been established, the nations should seek a 
maximum scope for international status. 

Three United States proposals exemplify this 
approach. 

1. Polar Areas 

In April 1958, the United States proposed in 
the United Nations Security Council a system of 
international inspection of the Arctic area to re- 
duce the danger of surprise attack over the north 
polar region and to reduce the danger of miscal- 
culation. This proposal was vetoed by the Soviet 
Union. 

In May 1958, the United States proposed that 
the countries which heretofore have shown partic- 
ular interest in Antarctica, including the Soviet 
Union, join in negotiating a treaty to guarantee 
the peaceful use of Antarctica and continue inter- 
national scientific cooperation there. The treaty 



has been ratified by ten signatories including the 
United States.^ 

2. Atoms for Peace 

In his famous address at the United Nations 
on December 8, 1953,'^ President Eisenhower pro- 
posed a method to "find the way by which the 
miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be ded- 
icated to liis death, but consecrated to his life." 

Under the "Atoms for Peace" program, we have 
negotiated bilateral agreements with thirty-nine 
nations. Eesearch reactor grants have been ap- 
proved for seventeen nations. Negotiations are 
under way with others. We have developed close 
and constructive relations with EUKATOM [Eu- 
ropean Atomic Energy Community], the Atomic 
Energy Community of France, Germany, Italy, 
Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. 

The International Atomic Energy Agency, pro- 
posed by President Eisenliower, designed to pro- 
mote peaceful uses of atomic energy around the 
world, was finally established in 1957. It gives 
promise of the beginnings of an international 
approach to the problems of atomic energy. 

3. Outer Sface 

In January 1957, the United States proposed 
to the United Nations that steps be taken to ensure 
peaceful use of outer space. In January 1958, 
President Eisenhower proposed to the Soviet 
Union "that we agree that outer space should be 
used only for peaceful purposes." 

We subsequently proposed in the United Na- 
tions a program of peaceful cooperation in outer 
space and the creation of an ad hoc committee 
on peaceful uses of outer space. The Soviet 
Union refused to participate in the initial com- 
mittee that was created. It eventually joined, in 
December 1959, in establishing a United Nations 
24-member committee on the peaceful uses of 
outer space. This committee is responsible for 
studying means for giving effect to programs in 
peaceful uses of outer space and is to make prep- 
arations for an international conference in 196L 

4. Arms Control 

In 1957, the US, UIv, France, and Canada put 
forward a program for reducing conventional 



' For text, see itml., Nov. 10, 1058, p. 721. 
* For text, see iUd., Feb. 8, 1960, p. 184. 



" For text, see iUil., Dec. 21, 1959, p. 911. 
" IMa., Dec. 21, 1953, p. 847. 



146 



Departmeni of Sfafe Bullefin 



and nuclear annaments, wliicli the Soviet Union 
rejected out of hand. The basic principles under- 
lying this program were approved by the United 
Nations General Assembly by an overwhelming 
vote later that year. In 1958, President Eisen- 
hower projwsed to the Soviet Union that the US, 
USSE, and several other nations meet to con- 
sider tecluiical problems connected with the pre- 
vention of surprise attack; the Soviet Union 
accepted this proposal, but its insistence on using 
the discussions to air political — rather than tech- 
nical — proposals made the meetings fruitless. In 
1960, the US submitted a comprehensive program 
for reduction of armaments, looking to the even- 
tual goal of general and complete disarmament, 
to the Ten Nation Disarmament Commission. 
The Soviet Union did not even deign to reply; 
it walked out of the negotiations just before the 
US proposal was submitted. 

The nuclear test suspension negotiations which 
at one time gave promise of success, after many 
months have yet to reach any conclusion. 

D. Internationa! Negotiation 

India-Pakistan Dispute over the Indus Waters 

The United States has encouraged and assisted 
the "World Bank in connection with the success- 
ful settlement of the serious dispute between India 
and Pakistan over the Indus Waters. 

Negotiations loith the Communists 

1. We made the Korean armistice which ended 
the hostilities in Korea. 

2. We participated in the Geneva Conference 
of 1954 which ended the hostilities in Indocliina. 

3. We continue to seek in the Warsaw talks 
with the Chinese Commimists to assure that in the 
Taiwan area force should not be relied upon by 
either side. 

4. We joined with the Soviet Union in conclud- 
ing the Austrian Peace Treaty which liberated 
Austria. 

5. In 1955, President Eisenhower met with the 
Soviet leaders at the Summit in Geneva. At that 
time, he presented his famous "Open Skies" 
proposal. 

6. In 1958, we made a comprehensive agreement 
with the Soviet Union for exchanges in the fields 
of culture, technology and education. This agree- 



ment operated successfully for two years and has 
been extended for two more.^ 

We have endeavored to bring home to the peo- 
ples of the USSE a true picture of the United 
States. Vice President Nixon's trip to the Soviet 
Union in 1959 served to emphasize directly to the 
Soviet people the desire of the United States for 
peace and fi-iendship. 

7. In November 1958, the Soviet Union threat- 
ened to take unilateral action against Western 
rights in Berlin by May 1959 unless the tliree 
Western powers accepted the Soviet proposal for 
a so-called free city. The United States, United 
Kingdom and France refused, with full NATO 
support, to compromise their rights or to negoti- 
ate under duress. When the Soviet Union then 
indicated that its deadline was of no particular 
significance, the three Western powers agi'eed to 
negotiate concerning the question of Germany, in- 
cluding Berlin and a peace treaty, at a Foreign 
Ministers Conference. I spent ten weeks in Gen- 
eva in 1959 seeking a settlement of the German 
problem and, failing that, of a fair agreement on 
Berlin. This conference clarified and naiTOwed 
our differences vsdth the Soviet Union but did not 
produce agreement. Nevertheless, West Berlin 
remains free. 

At the invitation of President Eisenliower the 
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
USSE visited the United States in 1959 and saw 
at first hand the power and the peacefulness of the 
American people. 

In the spring of 1960 President Eisenhower 
stood ready to meet the Soviet leader at the 
planned Summit meeting in Paris. Soviet policy 
torpedoed the meeting. 

E. United Nations 

In the last eight years, the United States has 
repeatedly taken the lead in trying to strengthen 
the United Nations and the processes of interna- 
tional cooperation which the United Nations rep- 
resents. A few examples follow. 

1. The "Atoms for Peace" program was pro- 
posed by President Eisenhower to the United 
Nations in December 1953. 

2. In the economic field, we played a leading 
role in bringing about a new specialized agency 

'For test of an agreement of Nov. 21, 1959, see Hid., 
Dec. 28, 1959, p. 951. 



January 30, 1961 



147 



of the United Nations: the Special Fund. This 
Fund, which was set up by the United Nations 
General Assembly, provides resources for broad 
regional and basic technical assistance and for 
survey projects more extensive than those financed 
by the United Nations Teclmical Assistance 
Program. 

3. As previously mentioned, the United States 
also took the lead at the General Assembly in 
creating a committee on outer space. 

4. We have continued to try to strengthen the 
United Nations procedures. Thus in January 
1958 the United States renewed its proposal to 
restrict use of the veto in the Security Council. 
Tliis offer was refused by the Soviet Union. 

5. When the 1958 crisis arose in the Middle 
East, we promptly notified the United Nations 
of the action that we were taking in Lebanon to 
meet that crisis and called for an emergency ses- 
sion of the General Assembly to deal with the 
crisis. President Eisenhower proposed measures 
to counter the immediate threat in Lebanon and 
Jordan, and also proposed long-range measures 
to improve basic conditions in the Middle East 
namely an Arab Development Institution, a stand- 
by United Nations force, and possibly a United 
Nations study of Middle Eastern arms control. 

6. We cooperated vigorously with other nations 
in the General Assembly to resist Soviet attempts 
to weaken or destroy the Organization during the 
Congo crisis. We have wholeheartedly supported 
the United Nations in its complex task of keeping 
the peace in chaotic Congo. 

7. We have strongly supported the General As- 
sembly in the adoption of resolutions condemning 
offenses against mankind, such as the wholesale 
murder of the people of Tibet by the Chinese 
Communists and the brutal Soviet military repres- 
sion of the Hungarian people within the borders 
of their homeland. 

From the outset of this Administration the 
United States Ambassador to the United Nations 
has sat as a member of the President's Cabinet, 
an arrangement which was inaugurated to 
strengthen the Ambassador's hand in carrying out 
his responsibilities. 

In recent years, there has been a growing clar- 
ification of understanding aroimd the world of 
the real purpose of the Commmiist leaders — to 
subject all the world to the dominant influence and 
control of international Communism. In the Mid- 
dle East, the designs of Communism are now far 



more clearly realized than a few years ago. Brutal 
Cliinese Communist repression in Tibet and border 
incursions and demands against India have 
brought home aggressive Communist designs more 
clearly to the peoples of South Asia. In Southeast 
Asia, liberty-loving peoples are struggling success- 
fully to remain masters in their newly built na- 
tional homes. In Europe, there are a number of 
inspiring examples of national renewal and reces- 
sion of Communist influence. 

F. Growth and Interdependence 

President Eisenhower's policies have been based 
on a belief that economic growth and inter- 
dependence are necessary conditions for stable and 
free nations. Here are a number of things that 
the Eisenhower Administration has done in the 
last eight years to promote that growth and 
interdependence : 

1. It has strongly supported the Reciprocal 
Trade Agreements Program. At President 
Eisenhower's request the Congress in 1958 
strengthened and extended this program for a 
period of four years, the longest single extension 
during the 25-year history of the program. The 
value of American foreign trade (excluding mili- 
tary exports) in 1953 was $23.2 billion and in 
1959 was $31.5 billion. In 1960 our foreign trade 
will be over $34 billion. 

2. In 1957 the Congress, at the request of Presi- 
dent Eisenhower, established the United States 
Development Loan Fund. The Congress pro- 
vided an initial appropriation of $300 million. 
This was a major step to meet the needs of less 
developed countries for loans on terms less rigor- 
ous than those offered from existing sources. In 
1958, 1959 and 1960 the Congress appropriated a 
total of $1.65 billion more for the Development 
Loan Fund. It was the first United States finan- 
cial institution set up specifically to help less de- 
veloped countries. In its short life the Fund 
has made a significant contribution to economic 
growth. Qualifying projects awaiting its review 
are far more numerous than the Fund can handle. 

3. The United States has also moved vigorously 
to encourage the flow of private investment to less 
developed and other free nations. Under the 
Eisenhower Investment Guarantee Program which 
provides insurance against noncommercial risks 
nearly 40 nations have signed agreements and con- 
siderably over $200 million in insurance contracts 



148 



Department of State Bulletin 



have been issued. The United States has nego- 
tiated and sought to negotiate treaties designed to 
create more favorable conditions for private 
investment abroad. "VVe have encouraged and 
assisted the creation in foreign countries of de- 
velopment banks to make loans to private enter- 
prise and of local productivity centers to render 
tliat enterprise more productive. We encouraged 
the creation in 1956 of the International Finance 
Corporation, as an affiliate of the World Bank, to 
make investments in private enterprise abroad. 

4. In February 1959, at Presidential request, tlae 
Congress authorized $3,175 and $1,375 billion in- 
creases in the United States subscriptions to the 
World Bank and International Fund. 

5. The President also authorized the Secretary 
of the Treasury to discuss with other governments 
the possible establisliment of an International De- 
velopment Association, as an affiliate of the World 
Bank. These discussions were fruitful, the 
agency has been created, and we may expect to 
see it in operation in the near future, helping to 
mobilize free world resources to meet the less 
developed countries' need for financing on flexible 
terms. The Congress has authorized $320 million 
and appropriated $74 million as US contribution 
to this agency. 

6. At United States initiative, eighteen Euro- 
pean nations have joined Canada and the United 
States in reconstituting the Organization for Eu- 
ropean Economic Cooperation. This organization 
will permit more effective cooperation in promot- 
ing sound economic growth in the free world and 
in mobilizing the resources of its industrialized 
members to help the newly-developing lands.* 

7. The United States took the lead in establish- 
ment of an institution to promote economic devel- 
opment in Latin America. On April 9, 1959, the 
charter of a $1 billion Inter-American Bank was 
initialed in Washington. The ratification of this 
agreement by the United States and by all the 
other American states — except Cuba — has brought 
into being a sizeable new source of funds for 
economic development loans to our good neigh- 
bors. The Bank's charter also provides for assist- 
ing in the development of managerial and teclmi- 
cal skills, and the Bank will assist in social 
development projects where necessary. 

In the Act of Bogota (1960) » we joined with 

' For background, see ibid., Jan. 2, 1961, p. 8. 
* For text, see ibid., Oct. 3, 1960, p. 537. 



Latm American states to assist in large-scale at- 
tack on the problem of improving living stand- 
ards. The Congress has authorized $500 million 
for financing social development activities in this 
area. 

8. In August 1958, President Eisenhower of- 
fered the cooperation of the United States in the 
establisliment of an Arab regional development 
financing program if the Middle Eastern states 
concerned were prepared to support such a ven- 
ture. Exchanges of views among these states have 
taken place and the initiative now lies with them. 

9. A Common Market for Europe has long been 
officially supported by President Eisenhower and 
in January 1958 the six-nation Common Market 
of Western Europe became a reality. Measures 
have also been taken to create an area of freer 
trade among seven other nations of Western 
Europe. In addition. Western European curren- 
cies have become more freely exchangeable and 
there is a strong movement for broader economic 
cooperation in Western Europe. The support of 
the United States played no small part in these 
accomplisliments. 

10. The United States has also moved to en- 
courage and participate in the study of key raw 
material problems of particular concern to less 
developed coimtries. Through our good offices 
and on our initiative, the International Coffee 
Study Group was established in June 1958 to con- 
sider possible means of dealing with problems aris- 
ing in international trade of coffee. Tlirough this 
study group the Mexico City Emergency Coffee 
Agreement was continued and expanded to con- 
sider the present imbalance in world coffee supply 
and demand. The United States encouraged the 
establishment of the new International Coffee 
Agreement in 1959. It also participated in the 
organization of the International Lead and Zinc 
Study Group in 1959; it is a member of this 
study group, as well as all of the other interna- 
tional commodity study groups which deal with 
rubber, cotton, wool, rice, grains, citrus fruits, 
cocoa, olive oil, and coconuts and coconut products. 
The United States at the ECOSOC meeting in 
July 1958 agi-eed also to become a member of the 
Commission on International Commodity Trade, 
which considers general problems relating to 
international trade in basic commodities, and 
has continued its active participation in this 
Commission. 

11. On the initiative of President Eisenhower 



January 30, 1967 



149 



an International Food for Peace Conference was 
held in May 1959 to discuss ways and means of 
utilizing wheat to relieve hxinger and to promote 
economic development among the less developed 
countries of the free world. This Conference 
established a Food for Peace Wlieat Utilization 
Committee to consider specific problems, such 
as how to make more effective use of wheat in 
improving living standards. This committee has 
smce held several meetings, and other wheat ex- 
porting countries have expressed their willingness 
to cooperate to the fullest possible extant in 
carrying out the objectives of the Food for Peace 
program. The President proposed further action 
to fulfill this program in his September 1960 
appearance before the United Nations General 
Assembly. 

12. The President's address at the United 
Nations also contained a five-point program 
designed to promote the security and the economic 
well-being of the new African nations. 

13. Parallel with these new initiatives, the 
Eisenhower Administration has contmued vigor- 
ously to support and strengthen the Mutual 
Security Program, which provides economic and 
military aid to free countries around the world. 

14. The Administration has moved energeti- 
cally to deal with our imf avorable balance of pay- 
ments with other nations. We have constantly 
and forcefully urged the removal of trade re- 
strictions on American goods. By the end of 1960 
most of our trading partners had removed dis- 
crimination and had taken significant steps to 
reduce quantitative restrictions against our 
exports. 

In conclusion. President Eisenhower's foreign 
policy has rested on two simple propositions: 
Peace, liberty, and well-being for the United 
States. This depends in good part on the peace, 
liberty, and well-being of other nations. 



I submit this brief summary to highlight the 



specific efforts made during the last eight years 
to achieve our foreign policy objectives. 

The condition of the world, as outlined in the 
opening paragraphs, still leaves much to be done 
if these objectives are to be achieved. 

Serious tensions must still be relieved, and 
legitimate human needs still remain to be met. 
The courses charted in the past eight years should 
provide the basis for continuing progress to this 
end. 



United States and Bulgaria Open 
Claims Negotiations 

Press release 14 dated January 11 

Representatives of the United States will begin 
negotiations with representatives of the Bulgarian 
Government at Washington on January 12 on 
certain outstanding financial issues between the 
United States and Bulgaria. 

The United States wUl seek in the forthcoming 
negotiations to arrive at a final settlement of out- 
standing claims of U.S. nationals against 
Bulgaria. 

In August 1955 the Government of the United 
States, acting mider the terms of the treaty of 
peace signed at Paris on Februai-y 10, 1947, and 
under international law, vested certain Bulgarian 
assets which had remained blocked in the United 
States since World War II. This action, author- 
ized under Public Law 285, 84th Congress, pro- 
vided for the distribution of the proceeds of the 
vested assets to American nationals having claims 
against Bulgaria. 

The adjudication of American claims against 
Bulgaria in accordance with Public Law 285 was 
completed on August 9, 1969, and awards (ex- 
clusive of interest) were made totaling $4.6 mil- 
lion. The available funds for compensation to 
recipients of awards total about $2.7 million. 



150 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



This We Believe 



hy Andrew H. Berding 

Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs * 



My dear friends on both sides of the Atlantic: 
I am grateful to you for the opportunity to par- 
ticipate in this unique international program 
which links the Eotary Clubs of Scranton and 
West Berlin by transoceanic telephone. I am par- 
ticularly happy to be able in this way to convey 
to Mayor [Franz] Amrelin and the free people 
of West Berlin the best wishes of all Americans 
for a happy and prosperous New Year. I express 
to them our sincere hope that the year 1961 will 
bring closer the restoration of all Berlin as the 
capital of a Germany reunified in peace and 
freedom. 

My pleasure in appearing on this program is 
multiplied by the fact that twice in the last 3 
years I have been privileged to be in West Ber- 
lin, once with Secretary Dulles and once with 
Secretary Herter. I was inspired by the picture 
I saw there of a stalwart, energetic, resourceful 
people, determined to protect their freedoms and 
to strive for national independence. They were 
confident, industrious, pi-osperous. The shops 
were bright and full of new products. Despite 
the political clouds that hung over it, this was es- 
sentially a happy city. 

Just across the border, the East Berlin I could 
see was in dismal contrast. The devastation of the 
last war was only too evident. There was an 
absence of life, of brightness, of real progress. 

If all the peoples of the world could only queue 
up to visit the two parts of Berlin and see for 
themselves the vivid contrast between life imder 



* Address made at Scranton, Pa., on Jan. 9 before the 
Rotary Club of Scranton and the Rotary Club of West 
Berlin, Germany, by transoceanic telephone (press re- 
lease 12). 



democracy and life under conomunism, the Com- 
munist threat would soon disappear. 

As we stand in the first days of the New Year 
and look back over the past decade and a half, 
we find that a imique relationship has developed 
between the people of the United States and the 
beleaguered citizens of Free Berlin. During this 
critical period Berlin has been a focal point in the 
global struggle between Soviet imperialism and 
the free world. In a true sense it may be said that 
Berlin has borne the brmit of the postwar Soviet 
drive to divide Germany and absorb it mto the 
Soviet empire. 

When it was evident that the United States and 
its Western allies had no intention of permitting 
the Soviets to achieve their objectives in Ger- 
many, Berlin became subjected to a constant and 
relentless Soviet campaign of threats and 
pressure. 

The pressures have been as subtle as the unpre- 
dictable stoppages of truck traffic on the 110 
miles of autobahn linking Berlin with West Ger- 
many and the rest of the free world. They have 
been as harsh as the abortive blockade of 1948- 
1949 imposed by the Soviets in an effort to starve 
the city into submission. 

The campaign of threats has also varied in na- 
ture and intensity, but it, too, has been constant. 
It was climaxed by the Khrushchev ultimatum 
of November 1958 calling for the withdrawal of 
Western forces from Berlin and the abandonment 
of West Berlin to inevitable Communist absoi-p- 
tion. This Soviet demand has been accompanied 
by the specter of a separate Soviet-East German 
peace treaty, with its implied thi-eat to Allied and 
West German access to Berlin. 

But the effect of these Soviet tactics has been 



January 30, 1 96 J 



151 



quite the opposite than that intended. Instead 
of fear, discouragement, and resignation, which 
the Kremlin had hoped to create, we have seen 
a stiffening of resolve, a stubborn refusal to lose 
heart, and a firm determination to remain free. 
This has become a source of pride to free men 
everywhere. 

West Berlin's Position 

For those unfamiliar with the Berlin problem, 
the situation there is understandably paradoxical. 
Viewed from a traditional military point of view. 
West Berlin would be extremely difficult to de- 
fend against an attack launched by the nearly 
half million Soviet and East German forces which 
surround it. Yet the United States, Great Britain, 
and France are solemnly pledged to maintain 
their garrisons there "as long as their responsibil- 
ities require it" and to defend the city against an 
attack from any quarter. 

From an economic point of view, too, West Ber- 
lin's position is unique. While it can boast a 
remarkable economic recovery which has seen it 
rise from the rubble to become free Germany's 
largest industrial city. West Berlin is nevertheless 
unlikely to achieve economic self-sufficiency imder 
present circumstances. 

All this can become understandable only when 
the true significance of Berlin is clearly compre- 
hended. For Berlin is no ordinary city, and its 
role in contemporary history is no ordinary role. 
Berlin means many things to many people. 

To the Soviets West Berlin has long been a bit- 
ter irritant or, in Mr. Klirushchev's words, a 
"cancer." Its climate of freedom and impressive 
prosperity stands in sharp contrast to the denial 
of personal freedom and the drab economic situa- 
tion in the surrounding Communist-controlled 
area. It gives the lie to Communist dogma and 
propaganda and makes more difficult the bolshevi- 
zation of East Germany. 

For the free people of the Federal Eepublic 
and the 16 million East Germans living under 
Communist domination, cruelly and arbitrarily 
separated from their relatives and compatriots. 
West Berlin has become a rallying point and a 
symbol of their hope for the eventual reunification 
of their country. 

For the East Germans, West Berlin not only 
provides an avenue of contact with the free world 



to which they yearn to belong but also a refuge 
to which they can flee when life imder commimism 
has become unbearable to them. 

The continued maintenance of freedom in West 
Berlin is also of great significance to the millions 
in Eastern Europe to whom the city is a beacon of 
hope and a symbol of the struggle of free men 
everywhere to preserve their freedom. 

It seems hardly necessary to remind either an 
American or a West Berlin audience of the stake 
which the United States and the rest of the free 
world have in the preservation of West Berlin's 
freedom. The loss of that freedom would set in 
motion a chain of events which would have most 
serious political consequences. 

But the loss of West Berlin must also be viewed 
in human terms. We are dealing here not with 
an abstract political problem but with the fate of 
two and a quarter million people who have 
courageously stood their ground in the shadow of 
massive Soviet-bloc power. Their loss of freedom 
would have a disastrous effect on the morale of 
free people everywhere. 

The men in Moscow are well aware of why Ber- 
lin is so important to the free world. That is why 
the Communist rulers have chosen Berlin as one 
of their priority targets in the cold war. 

Berlin, therefore, is a key test of Western deter- 
mination and good faith in upholding the rights of 
free men against the encroachments of Communist 
power. 

Reunification of Germany tlie Only Solution 

The United States and its Western allies believe 
that the Berlin problem can be solved only within 
the context of the reunification of Germany. The 
efforts of the Western Powers and the Federal 
Eepublic to bring about the reunification of Ger- 
many have been numerous — but fruitless. The 
three Western Powers, and in recent years the 
Federal Republic, have proposed that reunifica- 
tion be carried out through the formation of a 
truly representative all-German government. 
Such a government, we have insisted, can come 
into being only as a result of free all-German elec- 
tions. We have also maintained that a reunited 
Germany should be free to decide for itself its 
internal political, social, and economic structure 
and what international commitments of a political 
or military nature it desires to undertake. 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



For the Soviets free elections are anathema, 
since they would inevitably result in the rejection 
of the Communist system in East Germany and 
the return of that area to the free world. A clear 
demonstration of tliis is the West Berlin elections 
of December 1958, held at the height of the crisis 
created by the Soviet threat against the city. 
Despite the fact that they were subjected to 
all kinds of Commimist pressure, the free people 
of West Berlin went to the polls in unprecedented 
numbers and administered a resounding defeat to 
the Communists by giving them less than 2 per- 
cent of their votes. 

One of the Soviet stipulations in connection with 
a reunification plan is that the so-called "social 
gains" in the Soviet Zone — that is, the Conununist 
system — must be preserved. It is worth noting 
that since 1949 over two and a half million East 
Germans have found these "social gains" so un- 
attractive that they have rejected them by fleeing 
to the free society of West Berlin and the German 
Federal Republic. This movement, whereby men 
vote in essence with the soles of their shoes, 
steadily continues. In this last year 200,000 
refugees from East Germany have come to the 
Federal Republic, the majority of them through 
West Berlin. 

In response to our call for free elections the 
Soviets have invariably made counterproposals 
which omit free elections. They have proposed a 
loose confederation based on parity between 52 
million West Germans and 16 million East Ger- 
mans. Each group would have an independent 
goveriinient. This proposal, if accepted, would 
serve the Soviet purpose of perpetuating the divi- 
sion of Germany. It would isolate the Federal 
Republic and open it up to Communist infiltration 
from the east. 

We have sought in vain to make clear to the 
Soviets that, while a divided Germany involves 
a constant threat to peace in Europe, a reunified 
Germany would not constitute a threat to the 
security of the Soviet Union. We have offered 



to join in international guarantees to this end. 

As we look to the future it is probable that the 
West will again engage in talks with the Soviets 
on the problem of Germany and Berlin. On the 
basis of past experience it would be unrealistic 
for us to expect an easy or speedy solution. Cer- 
tainly there is nothing in Mr. Khrushchev's recent 
public statements to indicate that Soviet objec- 
tives with respect to Germany and Berlin have 
changed one iota, although there has been some 
apparent change in Soviet tone and tactics. 

Wliile it would be inappropriate for me to 
speak for the new American administration, I 
feel safe in predicting that in any future negotia- 
tions on the problem of Germany, including 
Berlin, we will continue to be guided by the fol- 
lowing principles : 

1. We believe in unity for the German people 
in one nation under a government of their own 
choice. 

2. We believe in freedom of choice for a reuni- 
fied Germany to determine its internal political, 
economic, and social structure and its international 
relationships. 

3. We will take no action which will expose 
the two and a quarter million free people of West 
Berlin to Communist control or threaten their 
essential ties with the Federal Republic. 

As Americans we take pride in the record of the 
United States in honoring both its legal and 
moral obligations. In relation to our commit- 
ments in Berlin this record will remain inviolate. 

In conclusion, permit me to say a few words in 
German. Zrim Schluss erlauben Sie mir ein paar 
Worfe auf deutsch. Ich mochte Ihnen, Heriin 
Burgermeister, und den tapferen Bw'gem Berlins 
mekie besien Wiinsche und die des mnerikanischen 
Volkes fiir ein glucJcliches und freies Neues Jakr 
aussprechen. In English this is: I should like to 
express to you, ]Mayor Amrehn, and to the coura- 
geous citizens of Berlin my best wishes and those 
of the American people for a happy New Year in 
freedom. 



January 30, 1961 

5S06S1— 61 3 



153 



New State Department Building Dedicated 




NEW STATE EXTENSION, dedicated on January 5 at a ceremony held in the south lobby just inside the diplo- 
matic entrance at 22d and C Streets, NW. Secretary Herler spoke briefly to an audience that inchided Secretary- 
designate Dean Rusk, members of the diplomatic corps. Members of Congress, and administration officials. In 
his remarks Mr. Herter made special mention of the Foreign Service roll of honor, a marble plaque which lists 
Foreign Service personnel who have lost their lives in the performance of their duties. Formerly located in the 
lobby of the older part of the building, it has been moved to the lobby of the diplomatic entrance. A color 
guard of United States Marines flanked the plaque during the ceremony, and the Marine Corps Band played 
before Deputy Under Secretary Henderson introduced Mr. Herter. 

The newly extended building covers an area of four square blocks between Virginia Avenue and C Street 
and 21st and 23d Streets and brings under one roof approximately 7,500 employees and almost all of the Depart- 
ment's Washington operations, including the International Cooperation Administration. It contains an 800-seal 
auditorium near the 23d Street entrance and an international conference room, with a seating capacity of approxi- 
mately 425, which can accommodate delegates from 103 nations. Both the auditorium and the international 
conference room are equipped with facilities for simultaneous interpretation and radio and television coverage. 
Additional rooms for conferences and committee meetings and a delegates' lounge adjoin the international con- 
ference r»)om, and there are two or three general conference rooms on each floor. 

On the seven floors of office space the geographic and functional bureaus and the major organizational units 
are arranged in vertical patterns with most of the assistant secretaries' offices located on the sixth floor. The 
Secretary's office is on the seventh floor and overlooks the Lincoln Memorial and the Potomac. Adjoining it is 
a small private dining room with kitchen facilities and a lounge. On the eighth floor there is a dining room 
furnished with a horseshoe table that will accommodate 124 guests at state dinners. Reception rooms and a 
special kitchen for catering service adjoin the dining room. 

The Department's new library is located in the south and central part of the new extension, covering a total 
area of 58,000 square feet on the second, third, and fourth floors. Tlie book stacks are on four levels, served 
by an elevator and a book lift, and will house tiie present Departmental collection of 500,000 volumes, with room 
for expansion. 



154 



Department of Slate Bulletin 




Above, THE SECRETARY'S OFFICE 



Belotc, THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ROOM 




January 30, 1961 



155 



U.S. Voluntary Relief Agencies 
Expand Congo Feeding Programs 

Press release 20 dated Jauuary 13 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
nary 13 that a second U.S. voluntary relief agency 
will undertake an emergency feeding program to 
help avert famine in the Congo. The Seventh-day 
Adventists Welfare Services, which has main- 
tained medical dispensaries in the Congo for a 
number of years, has been given 80,000 pounds 
each of surplus U.S. nonfat dry milk, corn meal, 
and rice to assist in launching a pilot feeding proj- 
ect in Kasai and Katanga Provinces in the Congo. 

Meantime, in view of the serious food situation 
which has developed in the Congo, a food distribu- 
tion program which Church World Service 
(CWS) , a voluntary relief organization sponsored 
by U.S. Protestant churches, has been operating 
there is being stepped ui> considerably with ex- 
panded donations of surplus foods by the U.S. 
Government. 

In addition to approximately 855,000 pounds of 
dry milk and 200,000 pounds of flour originally 
allocated to CWS for its 1961 feeding program in 
the Congo, the United States recently donated 
approximately 1,600,000 pounds of rice to CWS 
for emergency distribution in Kasai Province. 
Approximately one-third of these commodities 
has already been shipped. CWS has also sent 
drugs valued at more than $500,000 donated by 
U.S. pharmaceutical houses to the Congo. 

The grants of food to U.S. voluntary relief 
agencies for emergency distribution in the Congo 
are supplementary to substantial quantities of 
food which the U.S. Government is providing 
through the United Nations to help ease the food 
crisis in the Congo. The United States has also 
made known its readiness to supply additional 
quantities of surplus agricultural commodities for 
this purpose. 

These food shipments through the United Na- 
tions include 2,200,000 pounds of diy milk, au- 
thorized last September, and 13,200,000 pounds of 
corn meal which is now being shipped to the Congo 
at a scheduled rate of 3,300,000 pounds a month, 
with the firet shipment due to arrive in Matadi, 
Congo, February 7 or 8. Most of the dry milk has 
already been shipped to the Congo in vessels which 
sailed from U.S. ports the latter part of 1960. 
The firet shipment left Charleston, S.C., in 



August, another in October from Duluth, Minn., 
one in November from Green Bay, Wis., and two 
in December from Norfolk, Va. 

U.S. emergency shipments of food to the Congo 
origmally started when the crisis developed there 
last sununer. Initial supplies were airlifted in 
order to reach their destination at the earliest 
possible time. Airlifts included approximately 
220,000 pounds of flour from U.S. stocks which j 
were available at Lome, Togo, and approximately 
600,000 pounds of flour from U.S. Army stocks in 
Frankfurt, Germany. 

The United States also airlifted at least 200,000 
individual Anny "C" rations to the Congo during 
the early part of the food crisis. In addition 
100,000 pork-free rations were shipped in by sea. 

Total cost to the U.S. Government of foods 
made available to the Congo so far, including 
transportation costs, is estimated in excess of $2 
million. The foods came primarily from surplus 
stocks of the Commodity Credit Corporation. 



U.S. Expresses Regret for Incident 
involving Nigerian Diplomat 

Following is the text of a note on hehalf of the 
U.S. Govei'nment delivered on January 12 to 
Julius M. Udochi, Ajubassador of Nigeria at 
Washington, concerning refusal of service at 
Charlottesville, Fa., on January 5 to C. C. Uchuno, 
Second Secretary of the Nigerian E7n'bassy. 

Press release 17 dated January 12 

January 12, 1961 
Excellency: I have the honor to refer to 
reports appearing in the local press since January 
6 indicating that Mr. C. C. Uchmio, Second Secre- 
tary of the Nigerian Embassy, was refused service 
at a restaurant located in the railway station in | 
the city of Charlottesville, Virginia, on January 
5, 1961. 

I am requesting the Chairman of the Interstate 
Coimnerce Commission, which has jurisdiction in 
the matter, to make a full investigation and the 
Department of State will communicate further 
with you once his report is received. In the mean- 
time, I wish to express my profound regret for 
any discriminatory treatment shown to Mr. 
Uchuno, with the hope that you will understand 
that this discourteous act is in no wav indicative 



156 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



of the feeling of the Government or the people 
of the United States toward the Government and 
people of the Federation of Nigeria. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of 
my highest consideration. 



Christian A. Herter 



His Excellency 
Julius M. Udochi, 
Nigerian Ambassador. 



Clarence Randall Submits Report 
on Foreign Economic Policy 

On January 3 Clarence B. RanAall submitted to 
President Eisenhower his resignation as Special 
Assistant to the President in the Field of Foreign 
Economic Policy and as Chairman of the Council 
on Foreign Economic Policy., to be effective Jan- 
uary 20.^ Appended to his letter of resignation 
was th-e following resume covering the period of 
his White House service. 

Januarys, 1961 

My dear Mr. President : It has been my privi- 
lege to serve you during virtually your entire 
Administration, first as your Chairman of the 
Commission on Foreign Economic Policy,^ then 
as your Special Consultant on Trade, and since 
July 10, 1956 as your Special Assistant in the 
area of foreign economic policy. On that date you 
also directed that I assume the chairmanship of 
the Council on Foreign Economic Policy.' 

During this period I have in addition carried 
out four special assignments of varying character 
in the foreign field. In the summer of 1953 I 
undertook a special mission to Turkey, the pur- 
pose of which was to make recommendations as 
to what most urgently needed to be done by an 
underdeveloped country with a view to attracting 
foreign private investment capital. In January 
1956 I carried out a second mission to Turkey 
at the request of the Secretary of State, and the 



' For an exchange of letters between President Elsen- 
hower and Mr. Randall, see White House press release 
dated January 10. 

' For background, see Bulletin of Aug. 31, 1953, p. 279. 

'For a letter from the President to Mr. Randall, see 
iUd., July 23, 1956, p. 143. 



Secretary of the Treasury, in connection with mat- 
ters which they then had under negotiation. In 
May of 1960 I went to Spain as the United States 
representative at the opening of the new training 
institute for the career service staffs of the Span- 
ish Government, which had received American 
support. Then in September of 1960 I was the 
United States representative in Geneva at the 
opening of the new negotiations on trade barriers 
held under the auspices of the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade.* 

My principal responsibility in the field of for- 
eign economic policy has been the coordination of 
policy among the various Departments and Agen- 
cies. Whenever a problem in this field has crossed 
departmental lines, it has been my endeavor, act- 
ing solely by personal initiative, to bring about 
mutual understanding and unity of purpose be- 
fore new policy was put into effect. Assisted by 
my small but able staff, I did this informally from 
day to day. Then as major issues began to shape 
up, I saw to it that they were laid before the 
Covmcil on Foreign Economic Policy where con- 
sensus could be arrived at more formally by per- 
sonal discussion among top-level officials. 

You directed that the Council on Foreign 
Economic Policy have the following membership: 
the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Agriculture, 
or their principal deputies, your Special Assist- 
ant for Economic Affairs, your Special Assistant 
for National Security Affairs, and a member of 
the Council of Economic Advisers. Your Special 
Assistant for Security Operations Coordination 
was added as a member in later instructions. I 
was directed to invite heads of other departments 
and agencies to participate in meetings when 
matters of direct concern to them came under 
consideration. Pursuant thereto, I regularly 
invited the Director of the Bureau of tlie Budget, 
the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, 
the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of 
Labor, the Secretary of Defense, and the Director 
of the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, or 
their principal deputies. 

In order that I might be fully advised on the 
foreign activities and problems of the Govern- 
ment, you invited me to attend meetings of the 
Cabinet and the National Security Council, and 



*For a statement by Mr. Randall, see ihid., Sept. 19, 
1960, p. 453. 



January 30, 1961 



157 



asked me to establish appropriate working re- 
lations with the National Security Council, the 
National Advisory Council on International 
Financial and Monetary Problems, and such other 
groups within Government as might be necessary. 

Foremost among the matters to which I may 
have made some contribution has been the advance- 
ment of a liberal trade policy in world affairs, for 
which you have provided constant inspiration and 
leadership. It has not been easy at all times to 
withstand the importunities of those who, for 
their own short term advantage, would retard the 
long term national benefit. But the leadership 
of the Administration in this field has gone 
steadily forward. Trade barriers the world 
around have been steadily reduced, and the un- 
questioned leadership of the United States in this 
movement has not only been of great advantage 
to our own economy, but has strengthened im- 
measurably the economy of the entire free world. 

It would be of little value to attempt to list in 
detail all the various subjects as to which my 
office played some part in arriving at common 
ground where foreign economic policy questions 
were involved, but a few might be noted that 
would illustrate the scope of our endeavors. 

We dealt with such matters as the extent of 
controls on trade with the Sino-Soviet Bloc, the 
effect of surplus agricultural commodity disposal 
on the markets of friendly nations, and the entire 
range of international commodity problems. We 
assisted in arriving at common positions with 
respect to the economic aspects of many inter- 
national conferences. Often we were asked to 
develop agreement with respect to proposed pieces 
of legislation, such as P.L. 480 and the extension 
of the Sugar Act. 

Frequently the National Security Council 
requested the Council on Foreign Economic 
Policy to develop proposals in such areas as the 
effect of the antitrust laws on U.S. trade and 
investment policy, economic defense matters, and 
special questions having to do with unusual trade 
competition from various particular countries. 
Tax questions affecting foreign economic policy 
were referred to us by the National Advisory 
Council. 

Often the Council on Foreign Economic Policy 
acted on its own motion to initiate policy as, for 
example, with respect to the extent of differentials 



under the Buy American executive order, the effect 
on the United States of the formation of the 
European Common Market and the Free Trade 
Area, acquisitions for, and disposals from, the 
supplemental stockpile, agricultural assistance to 
developing comitries where crops produced were 
in surplus in the United States, antitrust questions 
in connection with the European Coal and Steel 
Community, the stimulation of private foreign 
investment, the economic aspects of the develop- 
ment of Africa South of the Sahara, the en- 
couragement of private home ownership in the 
developing coimtries, Asian regional economic co- 
operation, and a great nvunber of special problems 
in the field of international travel. 

Further to equip myself for my responsibility, 
I made it a practice from time to time to visit our 
embassies in various parts of tlie world. In the 
course of each such visit, I held a conference 
participated in by all of the senior members of 
the embassy staff. I first reviewed for them pend- 
ing questions in the field of foreign economic 
policy, and then in turn sought their advice and 
counsel. I particularly sought to be alerted as to 
new questions that might be shaping up. I did 
this in South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the 
Far East, and in Europe. Invariably I was able 
to bring home to the Council new insight into old 
problems, or to suggest to them the imminence of 
new problems. 

From time to time I received direct assignments 
from you that were special in their nature. For 
example, pursuant to your instructions I prepared 
a report on International Travel which the Con- 
gress had requested by the Mutual Security Act, 
and I coordinated the views of the various Depart- 
ments with respect to the Fairless Report on the 
Mutual Security Program. 

Often the Council on Foreign Economic Policy 
was convened for the dissemination of informa- 
tion, as distinguished from discussion loolring to- 
ward formal action. These conferences covered 
a wide range of problems, such as those relating to 
the International Labor Organization, the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe, the pros and cons 
of specific import control actions such as in the 
fields of lead, zinc, and oil, balance of payments 
problems, and the economic aspects of the Cuban 
situation. On these occasions some well-informed 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



officer was asked to give all of the Departments 
tlie benefit of his thinking on the problem at hand. 

Soviet economic penetration activities were dis- 
cussed regularly on the basis of reports and brief- 
ings by appropriate officials. 

One of the most significant recent discussions 
within the Council has had to do with the broad 
subject of how the Government might establish 
new guidelines for United States policy with re- 
spect to organizations of workers in under- 
developed countries, to the end that democratic 
elements within those organizations might be 
strengthened. 

One further function which was specially as- 
signed to me was that of simplifying and 
strengthening the structure of interagency com- 
mittees. In carrying this forward, several ad hoc 
committees were terminated, the Economic De- 
fense Advisory Committee and the Advisory Com- 
mittee for Export Control relationship was 
simplified, and a reporting system was established 
within the Cabinet Secretariat to give continuous 
supervision with respect to the establishment and 
continuing need for such interagency comjnittees. 

Ad hoc committees when established were given 
precise terms of reference with provision for dis- 
solution upon completion of their tasks. Wliere 
necessary, new permanent committees were 
established as follows: the Trade Policy Com- 
mittee, the Interdepartmental Travel Policy Com- 
mittee, and the Supplemental Stockpile Advisory 
Committee on Barter. 

As one of its functions, the Council on Foreign 
Economic Policy maintained a Handbook on 
Foreign Economic Policy which was kept current 
by periodic loose-leaf insertions. This Handbook 
was iised extensively throughout Government as 
a ready reference to current foreign economic 
policy. 

At no time has administrative responsibility 
been vested in my office, and I am fully convinced 
that tliis was sound. My function has been solely 
one of proposing and coordinating ideas and poli- 
cies. My entire purpose has been to caiTy out as 
faithfully as possible those policies which you had 
initiated, and as to which I knew that you held 
strong convictions. 

Smcerely yours, 

Clarence B. Kandall 



President Delegates Authority 
for Administration of P.L. 480 

AN EXECUTIVE ORDERS 

Administration op the Agricultukal Trade Develop- 
ment AND Assistance Act op 1954, as Amended 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 
301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as Presi- 
dent of the United States, it is ordered as follows : 

Section 1. Department of Agriculture, (a) Except 
as otherwise provided in this order, the functions con- 
ferred upon the President by Titles I and IV of the 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 (7 U.S.C. 1691-1694; 1731-1736) are hereby dele- 
gated to the Secretary of Agriculture. 

(b) The administration on behalf of the United 
States of the credit provisions of agreements entered into 
pursuant to Title IV of the Act ( including the receiving of 
payments under agreements) shall be performed by such 
Federal agency or agencies as shall hereafter be desig- 
nated therefor by the President. 

(c) The Department of Agriculture shall transmit to 
the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States and to the Committees on Agriculture and Appro- 
priations thereof the reports required by the provisions 
of paragraph (5) of the act of August 13, 1957, 71 
Stat. 345 (7U.S.C. 17(Ma). 

Sec. 2. Department of State — administration of Title II. 
The functions conferred upon the President by Title II 
of the Act (7 U.S.C. 1701-1709) are hereby delegated to 
the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 3. Department of State — other functions, (a) The 
functions of negotiating and entering into agreements 
with friendly nations or organizations of friendly nations 
conferred upon the President by the Act are hereby dele- 
gated to the Secretary of State. 

(b) All functions under the Act, hovpever vested, 
delegated or assigned, shall be subject to the responsi- 
bilities of the Secretary of State with respect to the 
foreign policy of the United States as such policy re- 
lates to such functions. 

(c) The provisions of Part II of Executive Order No. 
10893 of November 8, 1960,2 are hereby extended and 
made applicable to the functions provided for in the 
Act and to United States agencies and personnel concerned 
with the administration abroad of such functions. 

Seo. 4. Foreign currencies, (a) (1) The amounts of 
foreign currencies which accrue under Title I of the 
Act to be used for the loans described in section 104(g) 
of the Act, and the amounts of such currencies to he 
used for loans by the Export-Import Bank pursuant to 
section 4(d) (5) of this order, shall be the amounts thereof 
specified, or shall be the amounts thereof corresponding 
to the dollar amounts specified, for such loans in sales 



' No. 10900 ; 26 Fed. Reg. 143. 

" For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1960, p. 869. 



January 30, 7961 



159 



agreements entered into pursuant to section 3(a) of this 
order. The Department of State may allocate or trans- 
fer to the Development Loan Fund foreign currencies to 
be used for loans made by the latter under section 104(g) 
of the Act in pursuance of section 4(d) (7) (i) hereof. 

(2) Except as otherwise provided in section 4(a)(1) 
hereof and except as otherwise required by law (74 
Stat. 233; 238; section 104(h) of the Act), and, if 
applicable, within the amounts purchasable with the sev- 
eral appropriations, the Director of the Bureau of the 
Budget shall from time to time fix amounts of foreign 
currencies which accrue under Title I of the Act to be 
used for the purposes described in the respective lettered 
paragraphs of section 104 of the Act. To the extent 
necessary, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget 
shall allocate among the Government agencies concerned 
the amounts of foreign currencies so fixed. 

(3) The function conferred upon the President by 
the penultimate proviso of section 104 of the Act of waiv- 
ing the applicability of section 1415 of the Supplemental 
Appropriation Act, 1953 (31 U.S.C. 724), is hereby dele- 
gated to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized 
to prescribe regulations governing the purchase, custody, 
deposit, transfer, and sale of foreign currencies received 
under the Act. 

(c) The foregoing provisions of this section shall not 
be deemed to limit section 3 of this order, and the pro- 
visions of subsection (b) of this section shall not be 
deemed to limit subsection (a) thereof. 

(d) The purposes described in the lettered paragraphs 
of section 104 of the Act (7 U.S.C. 1704) shall be carried 
out, with foreign currencies made available in consonance 
with law and the provisions of this order, as follows: 

(1) Those under section 104(a) of the Act by the 
Department of Agriculture. 

(2) Those under section 104(b) of the Act by the 
Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. The func- 
tion conferred upon the President by that section of 
determining, from time to time, materials to be con- 
tracted for or to be purchased for a supplemental stock- 
pile is hereby delegated to the Director of the Office of 
Civil and Defense Mobilization. 

(3) Those under section 104(c) of the Act by the 
Department of Defense or the Department of State, as 
those agencies shall agree, or in the absence of agree- 
ment, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall 
determine. 

(4) Those under sections 104(d) and 104(e) of the 
Act by the Department of State, except to the extent 
that section 104(e) pertains to the loans referred to in 
subsection (d) (5) of this section. 

(5) Those under section 104(e) of the Act by the 
Export-Import Bank of Washington to the extent that 
section 104(e) pertains to loans governed by that portion 
of such section added by the act of August 13, 1957, 71 
Stat. 345. 

(6) Those under section 104(f) of the Act by the re- 
spective agencies of the Government having authority to 
pay United States obligations abroad. 



(7)(i) Those under section 104(g) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by the Development Loan Fund, 
as they shall agree, (ii) The function conferred upon 
the President by section 104(g) of the Act of determining 
the manner in which the loans provided for in section 
104(g) shall be made is hereby delegated to the Secre- 
tary of State with respect to loans made by the Depart- 
ment of State pursuant to the assignment of purposes 
effected under item (i) of this paragraph, and to the 
Development Loan Fund with respect to loans made by 
the Development Loan Fund pursuant to such assignment 
of purposes, (iii) As used herein, the term "the Develop- 
ment Loan Fund" means the Managing Director of the 
Development Loan Fund, acting subject to the immediate 
supervision and direction of the board of directors of the 
Development Loan Fund ; but, notwithstanding the fore- 
going, the Development Loan Fund, with respect to this 
order, shall be subject to the supervision and direction of 
the Secretary of State. 

(8) Those under sections 104(h), 104(o), 104(p), and 
104(q) of the Act by the Department of State. 

(9) Those under sections 104(1) and 104 (m) of the 
Act by the United States Information Agency. 

(10) Those under section 104(j) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by the United States Informa- 
tion Agency in accordance with the division of responsi- 
bilities for the administration of the United States 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (62 
Stat. 6) provided by Reorganization Plan No. 8 of 1953 ' 
(67 Stat. 642) and Executive Order No. 10477 of August 
1, 1953,' and by subsequent agreement between the De- 
partment of State and the United States Information 
Agency. 

(11) Those under section 104(k) of the Act as follows ; 
(i) Those with respect to collecting, collating, translating, 
abstracting, and disseminating scientific and technological 
information by the Director of the National Science 
Foundation and such other agency or agencies as the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget, after appropriate 
consultation, may designate, (ii) Those with respect to 
programs of cultural and educational development, health, 
nutrition, and sanitation by the Department of State, 
(iii) All others by such agency or agencies as the Director 
of the Bureau of the Budget, after appropriate consulta- 
tion, may designate. As used in this paragraph the term 
"appropriate consultation" shall include consultation with 
the Secretary of State, the Director of the National Sci- 
ence Foundation, and any other appropriate Federal 
agency. 

(12) Those under section 104(1) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by any other agency or agencies 
designated therefor by the Secretary of State. 

(13) Those under section 104 (n) of the Act by the 
Librarian of Congress. 

(14) Those under section 104 (r) of the Act by the 
Department of State and by the United States Informa- 
tion Agency, as they shall agree. 



"For text, see ibid., June 15, 1953, p. 854. 
* For text, see ibid., Aug. 24, 1953, p. 238. 



160 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



(e) In negotiation [sic] international agreements in 
pursuance of the Act, the Secretary of State shall en- 
deavor to avoid restrictions which would limit the appli- 
cation of normal budgetary and appropriation controls to 
the use of those foreign currencies accruing under Title 
I of the Act which are to be available for operations of 
United States Government agencies. 

Sec. 5. ReseT^ation of functions to the President. 
There are hereby reserved to the President the functions 
conferred upon him by section 108 of the Act (including 
that section as affected by section 406 of the Act), with 
respect to malsing reports to Congress. 

Sec. 6. Definition; references, (a) As used in this 
order, the term "Act" and the term "Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act of 1954" mean the Agri- 
cultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 
(68 Stat. 454) as amended from time to time, and Include, 
except as may be inappropriate, provisions thereof amend- 
ing other laws. 

(b) References in any prior order not superseded by 
this order to any provisions of any Executive order super- 
seded by this order shall hereafter be deemed to be refer- 
ences to the corresponding provisions, if any, of this order. 

(c) References in this order or in any other Executive 
order to this order or any provision of this order shall 
be deemed to include references thereto, respectively, as 
amended from time to time. 

Sec. 7. Superseding and saving provisions, (a) To the 
extent not heretofore superseded, the following-described 
orders and parts of orders are hereby superseded : 

(1) Executive Order No. 10560 of September 9, 1954." 

(2) Executive Order No. 10685 of October 27, 1956.* 

(3) Executive Order No. 10708 of May 6, 1957.' 

(4) Executive Order No. 10746 of December 12, 1957.* 

(5) Sections 1 and 2 of Executive Order No. 10799 of 
January 15, 1959. 

(6) Executive Order No. 10827 of June 25, 1959.° 

(7) Executive Order No. 10884 of August 17, 1960." 

(8) Without prejudice to section 3(c) of this order, 
the text enclosed in parentheses in section 304(a) (2) of 
Executive Order No. 10893 of November 8, 1960. 

(b) Except to the extent that they may be inconsistent 
with this order, all determinations, authorizations, regu- 
lations, rulings, certificates, orders, directives, contracts, 
agreements, and other actions made, issued, or entered 
into with respect to any function affected by this order 
and not revoked, superseded, or otherwise made in- 



' For text, see ibid., Oct. 4, 1954, p. 501. 

• For text, see ibid., Nov. 12, 1956, p. 780. 

' For text, see ibid., June 3, 1957, p. 905. 
■ For text, see ibid., Dec. 30, 1957, p. 1044. 

• For text, see ibid., July 13, 1959, p. 55. 

" For text, see ibid., Sept. 5, 1960, p. 366. 



applicable before the date of this order, shall con- 
tinue in full force and effect until amended, modiiied, or 
terminated by appropriate authority. 



The White House, 
January 5, 1961. 



TAC Corrects Supplemental List 
of Imports for GATT Negotiations 

TaADE-AOEEEMENT NEGOTIATIONS UNDEB GENEEAL AQEEB- 

ment on Tabiffs and Trade' 

Correction to Supplemental List of Articles Imported Into 
the United States 

In the Federal Register of November 23, 1960 there was 
published by the Interdepartmental Committee on Trade 
Ag^reements supplementary notice with regard to proposed 
trade-agreement negotiations under the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade with various foreign govern- 
ments,' together with a list, supplementary to the original 
list, of additional articles imported into the United States 
to be considered in the proposed trade-agreement negotia- 
tions for possible modifications of duties and other import 
restrictions, imposition of additional import restrictions, 
or specific continuance of existing customs or excise treat- 
ment (25 F.R. 11119-22). 

Certain handkerchiefs were erroneously described under 
paragraph 1529(b) of the supplemental list as handker- 
chiefs "wholly or in chief value of rayon or other syn- 
thetic textile, made with handmade or hand-rolled hems, 
and valued not over 70 cents per dozen." This classifica- 
tion of articles is corrected to read — 

Wholly or in chief value of rayon or other synthetic tex- 
tile, made with handmade or hand-rolled hems, or 
valued over 70 cents per dozen. 

Persons interested in the above-described handkerchiefs 
desiring to appear and be heard at the public hearings of 
the Committee for Reciprocity Information and the United 
States Tariff Commission scheduled in connection with the 
supplemental list of articles (25 F.R. 11119 and 25 F.R. 
11122) should notify the Secretary for the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information or the Secretary of the Tariff 
Commission not later than 10 days after the date of pub- 
lication of this notice in the Federal Register. Written 
statements of persons not desiring to be heard orally 
should be submitted not later than 20 days after the 



' 26 Fed. Reg. 15. 

' For text of the TAC announcement and notice of Inten- 
tion to negotiate, together with the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information's notice of public hearings, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 12, 1960, p. 897. 



January 30, J 96 1 



161 



date on which this notice is published in the Federal 
Register. 

By direction of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Trade Agreements this 3d day of January 1961. 

John A. Biech, 
Chairman, Interdepartmental 
Committee on Trade Agreements. 

By direction of the Committee for Reciprocity Informa- 
tion this 3d day of January 1961. 

Edwabd Yakdlet, 
Secretary, Committee for 
Reciprocity Information. 

By direction of the United States Taim Commission this 
3d day of January 1961. 



[seal] 



DoNN N. Bent, 

Secretary. 



Designation of Restricted Waters 
Under Great Laices Pilotage Act 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas, pursuant to section 3(a) of the Great Lakes 
Pilotage Act of 1960 (Public Law 86-555; 74 Stat. 259)," 
the President is directed to designate and by proclama- 
tion announce those United States waters of the Great 
Lakes in which registered vessels of the United States 
and foreign vessels shall be required to have in their 
service a United States registered pilot or a Canadian 
registered pilot for the waters concerned; and 

Whereas the aforesaid section 3(a) provides that these 
designations shall be made with due regard to the public 
Interest, the efeective utilization of navigable waters, 
marine safety, and the foreign relations of the United 
States : 

Now, THEREFORE, I, DwiGHT D. EISENHOWER, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3(a) of 
the Great Lakes Pilotage Act of 1960, do hereby designate 
and proclaim the following areas in which registered 
vessels of the United States and foreign vessels shall be 
required to have in their service a United States regis- 
tered pilot or a Canadian registered pilot for the waters 
concerned, on and after the effective date of regulations 
Issued by the Secretary of Commerce pursuant to the 
Act: 

(1) District 1. All United States waters of the St. 
Lawrence River between the international boundary at 
St. Regis and a line at the head of the river running (at 
approximately 127° true) between Carruthers Point 
Light and South Side Light extended to the New York 
shore. 



(2) District 2. All United States waters of Lake Erie 
westward of a line running (at approximately 026° true) 
from Sandusky Pierhead Light at Cedar Point to South- 
east Shoal Light ; all waters contained within the arc of a 
circle of one mile radius eastward of Sandusky Pierhead 
Light ; the Detroit River ; Lake St. Clair ; the St. Clair 
River, and northern approaches thereto south of latitude 
43°05'30" N. 

(3) District 3. All United States waters of the St. 
Marys River, Sault Sainte Marie Locks and approaches 
thereto between latitude 45°57' N. at the southern ap- 
proach and a line (at approximately 020° true) from 
Point Iroquois Light to the westward tangent of Jackson 
Island at the northern ajiproach. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twenty-second 

day of December in the year of our Lord nine- 

[seal] teen hundred and sixty, and of the Independence 

of the United States of America the one hundred 

and eighty-fifth. 



Xy (..xj^/LiUjU-tuu, A^lt^'Sy 



" No. 3385 ; 25 Fed. Reg. 13681. 

° For background, see Bulletin of Mar. 14, 1960, p. 417. 



By the President : 
Christian A. Herter, 
Secretary of State. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

86th Congress, 2d Session 

Merchant Marine Legislation. Hearings before the Sub- 
committee on Merchant Marine of the House Merchant 
Marine and Fisheries Committee. February 3-June 22, 
1960. 190 pp. 

The Communist Threat in Latin America. Hearings be- 
fore the Subcomittee on Inter-American Affairs of the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee. June 17-24, 1960. 
81pp. 

Communist Penetration of Radio Facilities : Conelrad — 
Conmiunicatious. Hearings before the House Un- 
American Activities Committee. Part 1. August 23-24, 
1960. 46 pp. 

Communist Anti-American Riots: Mob Violence aa an 
Instrument of Red Diplomacy — Bogotd, Caracas, La 
Paz, Tokyo. Staff study of the Subcommittee to In- 
vestigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws to the Senate 
Judiciary Committee. August 26, 1960. 66 pp. [Com- 
mittee print] 

Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapons 
Tests : Analysis of Progress and Positions of the Par- 
ticipating Parties, October 1958-August 1960. Pre- 
pared by the Subcommittee on Disarmament of the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee. October 1960. 
110 pp. [Committee print] 

Report on the Far East : Part I — Japan and United States 
Policies. Report of Senator Mike Mansfield to the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee. October 21, 1960. 
7 pp. [Committee print] 



162 



Departmenf of State Bultetin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Participates in Fifth Meeting 
of ECAFE Mighway Subcommittee 

Report iy Alfred Van Dyke 
U.S. Delegate 

The fifth meeting of the Highway Subcommit- 
tee of tlie Inland Transport Committee of tlie 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East 
met in Katmandu, Nepal, November 30 to Decem- 
ber 7, 1960. 

For the first time in its history Nepal was host 
to an international conference. In attendance 
were delegates from 16 nations : Australia, Burma, 
Cambodia, Ceylon, Eepublic of China, France, 
India, Japan, Malaya, Nepal, Pakistan, Philip- 
pines, Thailand, Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, United Kingdom, and United States. France, 
the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States are considered outside members. 
The International Road Federation and the per- 
manent International Association of Road Con- 
gresses were among the organizations represented. 

Of principal interest on the agenda was the 
subject of ways and means of obtaming aid for 
highway development in the ECAFE region. 
Also included in the agenda wei-e these subjects : 

1. The proposed Trans- Asia Highway (from 
Turkey to Ceylon and Malaya, with a possible ex- 
tension to Indonesia) ; 

2. Traffic engineering and traffic safety; 

3. Terminology used in bituminous construc- 
tion; 

4. Current methods of highway training and 
administration ; 

5. Highway transport ; 

6. Regional research institutes ; and 

7. Training facilities for highway officials. 

The conference agreed that all efforts should 
be made to develop the Trans-Asia Highway 
scheme but that national highways in the respec- 
tive countries should not be neglected. The 
United States delegate indicated general U.S. sup- 



port and interest in the conception and execution 
of the project. Other items on the agenda were 
of less importance. However, the conference in- 
dicated its support for advancement of each of the 
items. 

The U.S. delegate was Alfred Van Dyke, Chief 
of Transportation, U.S. Operations Mission, 
Ceylon. The U.S. advisers were Ernest H. Fisk, 
Coimselor, American Embassy, Katmandu, Nepal, 
and Paul C. Thompson, U.S. Bureau of Public 
Roads, USOM, Nepal. 

It was proposed that the next meeting of the 
Subcommittee be held at Colombo, Ceylon, in 1963. 

SEATO Fellowship Program 
for 1961-62 Announced 

Press release 18 dated January 13 

For the fifth consecutive year the Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization is offering a number of 
postdoctoral research fellowsliips to established 
scholars of the member states. 

The object of the SEATO fellowship program 
is to encourage study and research of social, eco- 
nomic, political, cultural, scientific, and educa- 
tional problems which give insight into the present 
needs and future development of the southeast 
Asia and southwest Pacific areas. 

Grants are normally for a period of 4 to 10 
months and include a monthly allowance of $400 
and air travel to and from the coimtries of re- 
search. Candidates are selected on the basis of 
special aptitude and experience for carrying out 
a major research project. Academic qualifica- 
tions, professional experience, and published 
material are taken into account. 

The competition for the awards for the 1961-62 
academic year is now open. American citizens 
may apply to the Executive Committee on Inter- 
national Exchange of Persons, Conference Board 
of Associated Research Councils, 2101 Constitu- 
tion Ave., Washington 25, D.C. American candi- 
dates for the awards are nominated by the 



January 30, 1961 



163 



Department of State, with SEATO selecting the 
final award winners. 

A total of 44 awards were made during the first 
4 years of the SEATO fellowship program. The 
member states of SEATO are Australia, France, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S., Pakistan Exchange Ratifications 
of Treaty of Friendsliip and Commerce 

Press release 16 dated January 12 

The instruments of ratification of the treaty 
of friendship and commerce between the United 
States and Pakistan ^ were exchanged at Karachi 
on January 12. The exchange was made by Am- 
bassador William M. Eountree and M. Hafizur 
Kahman, Minister for Commerce of Pakistan. 
This action completes the formal procedures con- 
nected with bringing the treaty into force. By 
its tei-ms it will become effective on Februai-y 12, 
1961, one month after the exchange of ratifications. 

The treaty was signed at Washington on Novem- 
ber 12, 1959.= The United States Senate gave its 
advice and consent to ratification on August 17, 
and it was ratified by President Eisenhower on 
August 29, 1960. 

The treaty is similar to the treaties of friend- 
ship, commerce and navigation that the United 
States has concluded with a number of countries 
in recent years, as concerns provisions dealing 
with the carrying on of business activities and 
related matters, and with trade. Unlike most of 
these treaties, however, it does not contain pro- 
visions on the subject of navigation. 

It is the first treaty of its type that has been 
concluded between the United States and Pak- 
istan. Its 24 articles and the protocol include 
provisions on basic personal freedoms, the status 
and treatment of persons and corporations, the 
protection of persons and property, treatment of 



' S. Ex. F, 86th Cong., 2d sess. 

' BtTLLETiN of Nov. 30, 1959, p. 811. 



imports and exports, exchange regulations, and 
other matters affecting the status and activities of 
the citizens and enterprises of either country when 
within the territories of the other. It clearly 
endorses the principle of nondiscriminatory treat- 
ment of business enterprises and provides spe- 
cifically that such enterprises established by na- 
tionals and companies of either party within the 
territories of the other shall be assured treatment 
therein as favorable as that accorded like enter- 
prises of whatever nationality. 

The new treaty is regarded as a significant testa- 
ment to the very close friendship of the two 
coimtries and as an effective means for promoting 
mutually beneficial economic relations between 
them. 



United States and Brazil 
Sign Extradition Treaty 

Press release 19 dated January 13 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

An extradition treaty was concluded on January 
13 at Rio de Janeiro between the United States 
and Brazil. The treaty was signed for the United 
States by Ambassador John Moors Cabot and for 
Brazil by Foreign Minister Horacio Lafer. 

The treaty, which contains 22 articles, generally 
follows the pattern of other extradition treaties 
to which the United States is a party. Article II 
contains a list of common crimes generally subject 
to extradition. Other articles specify the condi- 
tions which must be satisfied and the procedure 
which must be followed in order to obtain the 
extradition of a fugitive from justice. 

The treaty will come into force 1 month after 
exchange of ratifications by the two Governments. 



TEXT OF TREATY 

Treatt or Extradition Between the United States of 
America and the United States of Brazil 

The United States of America and the United States 
of Brazil, desiring to make more effective the coopera- 
tion of their respective countries in the repression of 
crime, have resolved to conclude a treaty of extradition 
and for this purpose have appointed the following 
plenipotentiaries : 



164 



Department of State Bulletin 



The President of the United States of Ajnerlca : 

His Excellency, John Moors Cabot, Ambassador of 
the United States of America to Brazil, and 
The President of the United States of Brazil : 

His Excellency Horacio Lafer, Minister of State for 
External Relations, 

who, having communicated to each other their respective 
full powers, found to be in good and due form, agree as 
follows : 

Article I 
Each Ck)ntracting State agrees, under the conditions 
established by the present Treaty and each in accordance 
with the legal formalities in force in its own country, 
to deliver up, reciprocally, persons found in its territory 
who have been charged with or convicted of any of the 
crimes or offenses specified in Article II of the present 
Treaty and committed within the territorial jurisdiction 
of the other, or outside thereof under the conditions 
specified in Article IV of the present Treaty ; provided 
that such surrender shall take place only upon such 
evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the 
place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be 
found, would justify his commitment for trial if the crime 
or offense had been there committed. 

Article II 
Persons shall be delivered up according to the pro- 
visions of the present Treaty for prosecution when they 
have been charged vdth, or to undergo sentence when 
they have been convicted of, any of the following crimes 
or offenses : 

1. Murder (including crimes designated as parricide, 
poisoning, and infanticide, when provided for as separate 
crimes) ; manslaughter when voluntary. 

2. Rape; abortion; carnal knowledge of (or violation 
of) a girl under the age specified by law in such cases in 
both the requesting and requested States. 

3. Malicious wounding; willful assault resulting in 
grievous bodily harm. 

4. Abduction, detention, deprivation of liberty, or en- 
slavement of women or girls for immoral purposes. 

5. Kidnapping or abduction of minors or adults for the 
puriwse of extorting money from them or their families 
or any other person or persons, or for any other unlaw- 
ful end. 

6. Bigamy. 

7. Arson. 

8. The malicious and unlawful damaging of railways, 
trains, vessels, aircraft, bridges, vehicles, and other means 
of travel or of public or private buildings, or other struc- 
tures, when the act committed shall endanger human 
life. 

9. Piracy, by the law of nations; mutiny on board a 
vessel or an aircraft for the purpose of rebelling against 
the authority of the Captain or Commander of such vessel 
or aircraft. 

10. Burglary, defined to be the breaking into or enter- 
ing either in day or night time, a house, office, or other 
building of a Government, corporation, or private person, 
with intent to commit a felony therein; housebreaking. 

11. Robbery. 



12. Forgery or the utterance of forged papers. 

13. The forgery, falsification, theft or destruction of the 
official acts or public records of the government or pub- 
lic authority, including Courts of Justice, or the uttering 
or fraudulent use of the same. 

14. The fabrication or the utterance, circulation or 
fraudulent use of any of the following objects: counter- 
feit money, whether coin or paper; counterfeit titles or 
coupons of public debt, created by national, state, pro- 
vincial, territorial, local, or municipal governments ; coun- 
terfeit bank notes or other instruments of public credit ; 
and counterfeit seals, stamps, dies, and marks of State 
or public administration. 

15. The introduction of instruments for the fabrication 
of counterfeit coins or bank notes or other paper currency 
as money. 

16. Embezzlement by any person or persons hired, sal- 
aried or employed, to the detriment of their employers or 
principals. 

17. Larceny. 

18. Obtaining money, valuable securities or other prop- 
erty by false pretenses, or by threats of injury. 

19. Receiving any money, valuable securities or other 
property knowing the same to have been unlawfully ob- 
tained. 

20. Fraud or breach of trust by a bailee, banker, factor, 
trostee, executor, administrator, guardian, director or of- 
ficer of any company or corporation or by anyone in any 
fiduciary capacity. 

21. Willful non-support or willful abandonment of a 
minor or other dependent person when death or serious 
bodily injury results therefrom. 

22. Perjury (including willfully false expert testi- 
mony) ; subornation of perjury. 

23. Soliciting, receiving, or offering bribes. 

24. The following offenses when committed by public 
officials : extortion ; embezzlement. 

25. Crimes or offenses against the bankruptcy laws. 

26. Crimes or offenses against the laws of both countries 
for the suppression of slavery and slave trading. 

27. Crimes or offenses against the laws relating to the 
traffic in, use of, or production or manufacture of, nar- 
cotic drugs or cannabis. 

28. Crimes or offenses against the laws relating to the 
illicit manufacture of or traffic in substances Injurious to 
health, or poisonous chemicals. 

29. Smuggling, defined to be the act of willfully and 
knowingly violating the customs laws with intent to 
defraud the revenue by international traffic in merchan- 
dise subject to duty. 

30. Aiding the escape of a prisoner by force of arms. 

31. Use of explosives so as to endanger human life or 
property. 

32. Procuration, defined as the procuring or transport- 
ing of a woman or girl under age, even with her con- 
sent, for Immoral purposes, or of a woman or girl over 
age, by fraud, threats, or compulsion, for such purposes 
with a view in either case to gratifying the passions of 
another person; profiting from the prostitution of 
another. 

33. The attempt to commit any of the above crimes 



January 30, 1967 



165 



or offenses, when such attempt is made a separate offense 
by the laws of the Contracting States. 

34. Participation in any of the above crimes or offenses. 

Aeticlb III 

Except as othemvise provided in the present Treaty, 
the requested State shall extradite a person accused or 
convicted of any crime or offense enumerated in Article 
II only when both of the following conditions exist: 

1. The law of the requesting State, in force when the 
crime or offense was committed, provides a possible pen- 
alty of deprivation of liberty for a period of more than one 
year ; and 

2. The law in force in the requested State generally 
provides a possible penalty of deprivation of liberty for 
a period of more than one year which would be applicable 
if the crime or offense were committed in the territory of 
the requested State. 

Abticle IV 

When the crime or offense has been committed outside 
the territorial jurisdiction of the requesting State, the 
request for extradition need not be honored unless the 
laws of the requesting State and those of the requested 
State authorize punishment of such crime or offense in 
this circumstance. 

The words "territorial jurisdiction" as used in this 
Article and in Article I of the present Treaty mean : 
territory, including territorial waters, and the airspace 
thereover, belonging to or under the control of one of 
the Contracting States ; and vessels and aircraft belong- 
ing to one of the Contracting States or to a citizen or 
corporation thereof when such vessel is on the high seas 
or such aircraft is over the high seas. 

Aeticle V 

Extradition shall not be granted in any of the following 
circumstances : 

1. When the requested State is competent, according to 
its laws, to prosecute the person whose surrender Is 
sought for the crime or offense for which that person's 
extradition is requested and the requested State intends 
to exercise its jurisdiction. 

2. When the person whose surrender is sought has al- 
ready been or is at the time of the request being prose- 
cuted in the requested State for the crime or offense for 
which his extradition is requested. 

3. When the legal proceedings or the enforcement of 
the penalty for the crime or offense committed has become 
barred by limitation according to the laws of either the 
requesting State or the requested State. 

4. When the person .sought would have to appear, in 
the requesting State, before an extraordinary tribunal or 
court. 

5. When the crime or offense for which the person's 
extradition is requested is purely military. 

6. When the crime or offense for which the person's 
extradition is requested is of a political character. 
Nevertheless 

a. The allegation by the person sought of political pur- 



pose or motive for the request for his extradition will not 
preclude that person's surrender if the crime or offense 
for which his extradition is requested is primarily an 
infraction of the ordinary penal law. In such case the 
delivery of the person being extradited will be dependent 
on an undertaking on the part of the requesting State 
that the political purpose or motive will not contribute 
toward maliing the penalty more severe. 

b. Criminal acts which constitute clear manifestations 
of anarchism or envisage the overthrow of the bases of 
all political organizations will not be classed as political 
crimes or offenses. 

c. The determination of the character of the crime or 
offense will fall exclusively to the authorities of the re- 
quested State. 

Article VI 
When the commission of the crime or offense for which 
the extradition of the person is sought is punishable by 
death under the laws of the requesting State and the 
laws of the requested State do not permit this punish- 
ment, the requested State shall not be obligated to grant 
the extradition unless the requesting State provides as- 
surances satisfactory to the requested State that the 
death penalty will not be imposed on such person. 

Abticle VII 
There is no obligation upon the requested State to grant 
the extradition of a person who is a national of the 
requested State, but the executive authority of the re- 
quested State shall, subject to the appropriate laws of that 
State, have the power to surrender a national of that 
State if, in its discretion, it be deemed proper to do so. 

Aeticle VIII 

The Contracting States may request, one from the other, 
through the channel of their respective diplomatic or con- 
sular agents, the provisional arrest of a fugitive as well 
as the seizure of articles relating to the crime or offense. 

The request for provisional arrest shall be granted pro- 
vided that the crime or offense for which the extradition 
of the fugitive is sought is one for which extradition 
shall be granted imder the present Treaty and provided 
that the request contains : 

1. A statement of the crime or offense of which the 
fugitive is accused or convicted ; 

2. A description of the person sought for the purpose 
of identification ; 

3. A statement of the probable whereabouts of the 
fugitive, if known ; and 

4. A declaration that there exist and will be forth- 
coming the relevant documents required by Article IX 
of the present Treaty. 

If, within a maximum period of 60 days from the date 
of the provisional arrest of the fugitive in accordance 
with this Article, the requesting State does not present 
the formal request for his extradition, duly supported, 
the person detained will be set at liberty and a new 
request for his extradition will be accepted only when 
accompanied by the relevant documents required by 
Article IX of the present Treaty. 



166 



Department of State Bulletin 



Article IX 
The request for extradition shall be made through 
diplomatic channels or, exceptionally, in the absence of 
diplomatic agents, it may be made by a consular officer, 
and shall be supported by the following documents : 

1. In the case of a person who has been convicted of 
the crime or offense for which his extradition is sought : 
a duly certified or authenticated copy of the final sentence 
of the competent court. 

2. In the case of a person who is merely charged with 
the crime or offense for which his extradition is sought : 
a duly certified or authenticated copy of the warrant of 
arrest or other order of detention issued by the com- 
petent authorities of the requesting State, together with 
the depositions upon which such warrant or order may 
have been issued and such other evidence or proof as 
may be deemed competent in the case. 

The documents specified in this Article must contain a 
precise statement of the criminal act of which the person 
sought is charged or convicted, the place and date of the 
commission of the criminal act, and they must be ac- 
companied by an authenticated copy of the texts of the 
applicable laws of the requesting State including the laws 
relating to the limitation of the legal proceedings or the 
enforcement of the penalty for the crime or offense for 
which the extradition of the person is sought, and data or 
records which will prove the identity of the person sought. 

The documents in support of the request for extradition 
shall be accompanied by a duly certified translation 
thereof into the language of the requested State. 

Article X 
When the extradition of a jperson has been requested 
by more than one State, action thereon will be taken as 
follows : 

1. If the requests deal with the same criminal act, pre- 
ference will be given to the request of the State in whose 
territory the act was performed. 

2. If the requests deal with different criminal acts, 
preference will be given to the request of the State in 
whose territory the most serious crime or offense, in the 
opinion of the requested State, has been committed. 

3. If the requests deal with different criminal acts, but 
which the requested State regards as of equal gravity, 
the preference will be determined by the priority of the 
requests. 

Article XI 
The determination that extradition based upon the re- 
quest therefor should or should not be granted shall be 
made in accordance with the domestic law of the requested 
State, and the person whose extradition is desired shall 
have the right to use such remedies and recourses as 
are authorized by such law. 

Article XII 
If at the time the appropriate authorities of the re- 
quested State shall consider the documents submitted by 
the requesting State, as required in Article IX of the 
present Treaty, in support of its request for the extra- 
dition of the person sought, it shall appear that such 



documents do not constitute evidence sufficient to warrant 
extradition under the provisions of the present Treaty of 
the jjerson sought, such person shall be set at liberty un- 
less the requested State or the proper tribunal thereof 
shall, in conformity with its own laws, order an extension 
of time for the submission by the requesting State of 
additional evidence. 

Article XIII 

Extradition having been granted, the surrendering 
State shall communicate promptly to the requesting State 
that the person to be extradited is held at Its disposition. 

If, within 60 days counting from such communication — 
except when rendered impossible by force majeure or by 
some act of the person being extradited or the surrender 
of the person is deferred pursuant to Articles XIV or 
XV of the present Treaty — such person has not been 
delivered up and conveyed out of the jurisdiction of the 
requested State, the person shall be set at liberty. 

Article XIV 
When the person whose extradition is requested is 
being prosecuted or is serving a sentence in the requested 
State, the surrender of that person under the provisions 
of the present Treaty shall be deferred until the person 
is entitled to be set at liberty, on account of the crime 
or offense for which he is being prosecuted or is serving 
a sentence, for any of the following reasons: dismissal 
of the prosecution, acquittal, expiration of the term of 
the sentence or the term to which such sentence may 
have been commuted, pardon, parole, or amnesty. 

Article XV 
When, in the opinion of competent medical authority, 
duly sworn to, the person whose extradition is requested 
cannot be transported from the requested State to the 
requesting State without serious danger to his life due 
to his grave illness, the surrender of the person under the 
provisions of the present Treaty shall be deferred until 
such time as the danger, in the opinion of the competent 
medical authority, has been sufficiently mitigated. 

Article XVI 

The requesting State may send to the requested State 
one or more duly authorized agents, either to aid in the 
identification of the person sought or to receive his 
surrender and to convey him out of the territory of the 
requested State. 

Such agents, when in the territory of the requested 
State, shall be subject to the applicable laws of the re- 
quested State, but the expenses which they incur shall 
be for the account of the State which has sent them. 

Article XVII 
Expenses related to the transportation of the person 
extradited shall be paid by the requesting State. The 
appropriate legal officers of the country in which the 
extradition proceedings take place shall, by all legal means 
within their power, assist the officers of the requesting 
State before the respective judges and magistrates. No 
pecuniary claim, arising out of the arrest, detention, 
examination and surrender of fugitives under the terms 



January 30, 7967 



167 



of the present Treaty, shall be made by the requested 
State against the requesting State other than as specified 
in the second paragraph of this Article and other than for 
the lodging, maintenance, and board of the person being 
extradited prior to his surrender. 

The legal officers, other officers of the requested State, 
and court stenographers in the requested State who shall, 
in the usual course of their duty, give assistance and 
who receive no salary or compensation other than specific 
fees for services performed, shall be entitled to receive 
from the requesting State the usual payment for such 
acts or services performed by them in the same manner 
and to the same amount as though such acts or services 
had been performed in ordinary criminal proceedings 
under the laws of the country of which they are officers. 

Article XVIII 
A person who, after surrender by either of the Con- 
tracting States to the other under the terms of the present 
Treaty, succeeds in escaping from the requesting State 
and takes refuge in the territory of the State which has 
surrendered him, or passes through it in transit, vrill be 
detained, upon simple diplomatic request, and surren- 
dered anew, without other formalities, to the State to 
which his extradition was granted. 

Article XIX 

Transit through the territory of one of the Contracting 
States of a person in the custody of an agent of the 
other Contracting State, and surrendered to the latter 
by a third State, and who is not of the nationality of 
the country of transit, shall, subject to the provisions 
of the second paragraph of this Article, be permitted, 
independently of any judicial formalities, when re- 
quested through diplomatic channels and accompanied 
by the presentation in original or in authenticated copy 
ot the document by which the State of refuge has granted 
the extradition. In the United States of America, the 
authority of the Secretary of State of the United States 
of America shall be first obtained. 

The permission provided for in this Article may never- 
theless be refused if the criminal act which has given rise 
to the extradition does not constitute a crime or offense 
enumerated In Article II of the present Treaty, or when 
grave reasons of public order are opposed to the transit. 

Article XX 
Subject to the rights of third parties, which shall be 
duly resi)ected : 

1. All articles, valuables, or documents which relate to 
the crime or offense and, at the time of arrest, have 
been found in the possession of the person sought or 
otherwise found in the requested State shall be sur- 
rendered, with him, to the requesting State. 

2. The articles and valuables which may be found in 
the possession of third parties and which likewise are 
related to the crime or offense shall also be seized, but 
may be surrendered only after the rights with regard 
thereto asserted by such third parties have been 
determined. 



Article XXI 
A person extradited by virtue of the present Treaty 
may not be tried or punished by the requesting State for 
any crime or offense committed prior to the request for 
his extradition, other than that which gave rise to the 
request, nor may he be re-extradited by the requesting 
State to a third country which claims him, unless the 
surrendering State so agrees or unless the person 
extradited, having been set at liberty within the request- 
ing State, remains voluntarily in the requesting State for 
more than 30 days from the date on which he was re- 
leased. Upon such release, he shall be Informed of the 
consequences to which his stay in the territory of the 
requesting State would subject him. 

Article XXII 

The present Treaty shall be ratified and the ratifi- 
cations thereof shall be exchanged at Washington as 
soon as possible. 

The present Treaty shall enter Into force one m»nth 
after the date of exchange of ratifications. It may be 
terminated at any time by either Contracting State giving 
notice of termination to the other Contracting State, 
and the termination shall be effective six months after 
the date of such notice. 

In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed 

the present Treaty and have affixed hereunto their seals. 

Done in duplicate. In the English and Portuguese 

languages, both equally authentic, at Rio de Janeiro this 

13th day of January, 1961. 

For the United States of America: 
John M. Cabot I 

For the United States of Brazil: 
HORACIO Lafer 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 
Done at New York June 4, 1954. Entered into force 
September 11, 1957. TIAS 3879. 
Extension to: Hong Kong, November 11, 1960. I 

Displaced Persons and Refugees 

Agreement extending and supplementing the agreement 
of June 6, 1955 (TIAS 3471), relating to the continua- 
tion of the operations of the International Tracing 
Service. Effected by exchange of notes at Bonn AprU 
28 and May 5, 1960. Entered into force May 5, 1960. 

Protocol renewing and amending the agreement of June 
6, 1955 (TIAS 3471), constituting an International Com- 
mission for the International Tracing Service. Done 
at Bonn August 23, 1960. Entered Into force May 5, 
19C0. 

Signatures: Belgium, Prance, Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Greece, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
United Kingdom, and United States, August 23, 1960. 

Protocol renewing and amending the agreement of June 



168 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



6, 1955 (TIAS 3471), on the relations between the 
International Commission for the International Trac- 
ing Service and the International Committee of the Red 
Cross. Signed at Bonn and at Geneva September 30 
and October 7, 1960, by the Chairman of the Inter- 
national Commission for the International Tracing Serv- 
ice and a representative of the International Committee 
of the Red Cross. Entered into force May 5, 1960. 

Finance 

Articles of agreement of the International Development 
Association. Done at Washington January 26, 1960. 
Entered into force September 24, 1960. TIAS 4607. 
Signatures and acceptances: Japan, December 27, 1960; 

Finland, Ghana, and Morocco, December 29, 1960; 

Chile, France, Nicaragua, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia, 

December 30, 1960. 
Signatures: Austria and Mexico, December 31, 1960. 
Acceptances deposited: Philippines, October 28, 1960; 

Honduras, December 23, 1960; Iraq, December 29, 

1960. 

Health 

Constitution of the World Health Organization. Opened 
for signature at New York July 22, 1946. Entered into 
force April 7, 1948. TIAS 1808. 

Acceptances deposited: Ivory Coast, October 28, 1960; 
Gabon, November 21, 1960. 

Sugar 

International sugar agreement, 1958. Done at London 
December 1, 1958. Entered into force January 1, 1959. 
TIAS 4389. 
Accession deposited: New Zealand, November 28, 1960. 

Trade and Commerce 

Ninth protocol of rectifications and modifications to the 
texts of the schedules to the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. Done at Geneva August 17, 1959.' 
Signatures: Luxembourg, November 8, 1960; Chile, No- 
vember 21, 1960 ; Pakistan, December 8, 1960. 
Declaration on relations between contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the 
Government of the Polish People's Republic. Done at 
Tokyo November 9, 1959. Entered into force November 
16, 1960. 

Signatures: Burma, November 3, 1960; Switzerland, 
November 15, 1960 ; Ceylon, November 16, 1960 ; New 
Zealand, December 7, 1960; Pakistan, December 8, 
1960. 
Declaration confirming signature: Ghana, November 16, 
1960. 



BILATERAL 

Argentina 

Agreement for the loan of additional United States naval 
vessels to Argentina. Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington December 27 and 29, 1960. Entered into 
force December 29, 1960. 

Iceland 

Agreement providing for an assistance grant in support of 
Iceland's economic stabilization program. Effected by 
exchange of notes at Washington December 30, 1960. 
Entered into force December 30, 1960. 

New Zealand 

Agreement supplementing the civil air transport agree- 
ment of December 3, 1946 (TIAS 1573). Effected by 

* Not in force. 



exchange of notes at Washington December 30, 
1960. Entered into force December 30, 1960. 

Pakistan 

Treaty of friendship and commerce and protocol. Signed 
at Washington November 12, 1959. 
Ratifications exchanged: January 12, 1961. 
Enters into force: February 12, 1961. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Defense and State Departments Begin 
Exchange Program for Key Personnel 

The Department of State and the Department 
of Defense announced on January 9 ( Department 
of State press release 13) that the Secretaries of 
State and Defense have approved phuis to ex- 
change outstanding civilian and military key per- 
sonnel for training assignments in selected posi- 
tions of each Department. 

Secretary of State Christian A. Herter and Sec- 
retary of Defense Thomas S. Gates, Jr., partici- 
pated in a ceremony held at the Department of 
State on January 9 to set the exchange program 
in motion. John N. Irwin II, Assistant Secretary 
of Defense (International Security Affairs), and 
Raymond A. Hare, Deputy Under Secretary of 
State for Political Affairs, who arranged the pro- 
gram for their respective Departments, also took 
part in the ceremony. 

The exchange program is designed to promote 
mutually a better imderstanding of foreign affairs 
and military problems and a continuing develop- 
ment of personnel in both Departments who share 
understanding and perspective in the area where 
foreign policy and military policy coincide. The 
personnel, nominated for their qualifications in 
high-level policy and command and staff duties, 
will be full-fledged members of the staffs to which 
assigned and will ftinction as an integral part of 
the host agency. In the selections particular em- 
phasis will be placed on educational backgrotmd, 
future potential, skill, past training, experience, 
and ability to meet the requirements of the posi- 
tion to which assigned. Assignments will be for a 
period of approximately 2 years. 

The proposal for this exchange program was 



January 30, 7967 



169 



made by Secretary Herter on June 10, 1960, be- 
fore the Subcommittee on National Policy Ma- 
chineiy of the Senate Committee on Government 
Operations.^ 

A total of 11 people from each Department wiU 
be nommated to participate in the first group of 
exchanges. The Department of Defense will ex- 
change four from the Office of the Secretary of 
Defense, two each from the Departments of the 
Army, Navy, and Air Force, and one from the 
Joint Staff. Personnel will generally be of colonel 
or lieutenant colonel rank or equivalent. 

The following nominees have been selected for 
the first exchange, and it is expected that the 
remainder of the group will be nominated within 
the next few weeks. 

Department of Defense 

Raymond J. Albright, Office of the Secretary of Defense 

Col. Cullen A. Brannon, Jr., USAF, Joint Staff 

Lt. Col. Marvin C. Kettelhut, USA, Department of the 

Army 
Capt. Ross E. Freeman, USN, Department of the Navy 
Col. Harry J. Halbrestadt, USAF, Department of the Air 

Force 

Department of State 

Frederic H. Behr, Bureau of Intelligence and Research 

Robert W. Dean, Bureau of Intelligence and Research 

John Y. Millar, Bureau of European Affairs 

Peter Rutter, Office of the Special Assistant for Atomic 

Energy Affairs 
Donald L. Woolf , Armed Forces StafiE CoUege, Norfolk, Va. 



Designations 

Earl O. Finnie as Director, U.S. Operations Mission, 
Haiti, effective December 8. (For biographic details, see 
Department of State press release 15 dated January 11.) 

"William P. Hughes as Director, U.S. Operations Mis- 
sion, Bolivia, effective January 9. 

Sidney B. Jacques as Director, Office of International 
Resources, effective January 4. 

James R. Johnstone as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Foreign Buildings, effective January 9. 



Resignations 

Vance Brand as Managing Director of the Develop- 
ment Loan Fund, effective January 20. (For an exchange 
of letters between President Eisenhower and Mr. Brand, 
see White House press release dated January 3.) 

Douglas Dillon as Under Secretary of State, effective 
January 4. (For an exchange of letters between Presi- 



dent Eisenhower and Mr. Dillon, see White House press 
release dated January 4.) 

Eric H. Hager as Legal Adviser of the Department 
of State, effective January 20. (For an exchange of 
letters between President Eisenhower and Mr. Hager, see 
White House press release dated January 9.) 

Christian A. Herter as Secretary of State, effective 
January 20. (For an exchange of letters between Presi- 
dent Eisenhower and Secretary Herter, see p. 143.) 

Ogden R. Reid as Ambassador to Israel, effective Janu- 
ary 20. (For an exchange of letters between President 
Eisenhower and Ambassador Reid, see White House press 
release dated January 13.) 

Gerard C. Smith as Assistant Secretary for Policy 
Planning, effective January 20. (For an exchange of 
letters between President Eisenhower and Mr. Smith, see 
White House press release dated January 9.) 

John Hay Whitney as Ambassador to Great Britain, 
effective January 20. (For an exchange of letters between 
President Eisenhower and Ambassador Whitney, see 
White House press release dated December 31.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



' Bulletin of July 4, 1960, p. 3. 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
emment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.G. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4544. 9 pp. 

10^. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 

Iran. Signed at Tehran July 26, 1960. Entered into force 

July 26, 1060. With exchanges of notes — Signed at Tehran 

July 26 and 28, 1960. 

Settlement of Claims of United States Nationals. TIAS 
4545. 11 pp. 10^. 

Agreement, with annex, between the United States of 
America and Poland. Signed at Washington July 16, 
1960. Entered into force July 16, 1960. With exchange 
of notes. 

Army Mission to Argentina. TIAS 4546. 13 pp. 10(J. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Argentina. Signed at Buenos Aires August 2, 1960. En- 
tered into force August 2, 1960. 

Grant for Procurement of Nuclear Research and Training 
Equipment and Materials. TIAS 4547. 5 pp. 5^. 
Agreement between the United States of America and 
Brazil. Exchange of notes — Dated at Rio de Janeiro 
October 20, 1959, and February 27. 1960. Entered into 
force February 27, 1960. 

Atomic Energy — Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4557. 

7 pp. 10<}. 

Agreement between the United States of America and 
Indonesia. Signed at Washington June 8, 1960. Entered 
into force September 21, 1960. 



170 



Department of Sfafe Bu//ef/n 



January 30, 1961 



Index 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1127 



Agriculture. President Delegates Authority for 
Administration of P.L. 480 (text of Executive 
order) 159 

Asia. U.S. Participates in Fifth MeeHng of 

ECAFE Highway Subcommittee (Van Dylie) . . 103 

Bolivia. Hughes designated USOM director . . 170 

Brazil. United States and Brazil Sign Extradition 

Treaty (text of treaty) 164 

Bulgaria. United States and Bulgaria Open Claims 
Negotiations 150 

Canada. Designation of Restricted Waters Under 

Great Lakes Pilotage Act (text of proclamation) . 102 

Claims and Property. United States and Bulgaria 

Open Claims Negotiations 150 

Congo, Republic of the. U.S. Voluntary Relief 

Agencies Expand Congo Feeding Programs . . 156 

Congress, The 

Congressional Documents Relating to Foreign 

Policy 162 

The State of the Union (Eisenhower) 139 

Department and Foreign Service 

Defense and State Departments Begin Exchange 

Program for Key Personnel 169 

Designations (Finnie, Hughes, Jacques, John- 
stone) 170 

New State Department Building Dedicated . . . 154 

Resignations (Brand, Dillon, Hager, Herter, Reid, 

Smith, Whitney) 170 

Economic Affairs 

Clarence Randall Submits Report on Foreign Eco- 
nomic Policy 157 

Jacques designated director, Office of International 
Resources 170 

TAG Corrects Supplemental List of Imports for 

GATT Negotiations (text of notice) 161 

U.S., Pakistan Exchange Ratifications of Treaty of 

Friendship and Commerce 164 

U.S. Participates in Fifth Meeting of ECAFE High- 
way Subcommittee (Van Dyke) 163 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. SEATO FeUow- 

ship Program for 1961-62 Announced .... 163 

Germany. This We Believe (Berding) .... 151 

Haiti. Finnie designated USOM director .... 170 

International Information. Designation of Re- 
stricted Waters Under Great Lakes Pilotage Act 
(text of proclamation) 162 

International Organizations and Conferences 

TAG Corrects Supplemental List of Imports for 

GATT Negotiations (text of notice) 161 

U.S. Participates in Fifth Meeting of ECAFE 

Highway Subcommittee (Van Dyke) .... 163 

Israel. Reid resigns as Ambassador 170 

Mutual Security 

Brand resigns as Managing Director, Development 

Loan Fund 170 

Finnie designated USOM director, Haiti .... 170 

Hughes designated USOM director, Bolivia . . . 170 

Nigeria. U.S. Expresses Regret for Incident In- 
volving Nigerian Diplomat (text of note) . . . 156 

Pakistan. U.S., Pakistan Exchange Ratifications 
of Treaty of Friendship and Commerce . . . 164 



Presidential Documents 

Designation of Restricted Waters Under Great 

Lakes Pilotage Act 162 

President Delegates Authority for Administration 

of P.L. 480 159 

Secretary Herter Summarizes U.S. Foreign Policy 

Under the Eisenhower Administration, 1953-61 . 143 

The State of the Union 139 

Publications. Recent Releases 170 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. SEATO Fel- 
lowship Program fur 1901-62 Announced . . . 163 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 168 

U.S., Pakistan Exchange Ratifications of Treaty of 

Friendship and Commerce 164 

United States and Brazil Sign Extradition Treaty 

(text of treaty) 164 

United Kingdom. Whitney resigns as Ambassa- 
dor 170 

Name Index 

Berding, Andrew H 151 

Brand, Vance 170 

Dillon, Douglas 170 

Eisenhower, President 139, 143, 159, 162 

Finnie, Earl O 170 

Hager, Eric H 170 

Herter, Secretary 144, 156, 170 

Hughes, William P 170 

Jacques, Sidney B 170 

Johnstone, James R 170 

Randall, Clarence B 157 

Reid, Ogden R 170 

Smith, Gerard C 170 

Van Dyke, Alfred 163 

Whitney, John Hay 170 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 9-15 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

No. Date Sabject 

*10 1/9 Mazzocco designated ICA representative 
in Ivory Coast (biographic details). 
*11 1/11 Herter : Foreign Service Association. 

12 1/9 Berding: "This We BeUeve." 

13 1/9 State-Defense training program for key 

personnel (rewrite). 

14 1/11 U.S.-Bulgaria claims negotiations. 

*15 1/11 Finnie designated USOM Director, Haiti 
(biographic details). 

16 1/12 U.S.-Pakistan treaty of friendship and 

commerce. 

17 1/12 Herter: note on incident Involving 

Second Secretary, Nigerian Embassy. 

18 1/13 SEATO research fellowships for 1961- 

62. 

19 1/13 U.S.-Brazil extradition treaty. 

20 1/13 Congo feeding programs. 



* Not printed. 



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A Survey of the 
STRATEGIC TRADE CONTROL PROGRAM 

1957-1960 



Of 

State 



This 50-page pamphlet covers the Fourteenth Keport to Congress 
on operations under the Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 
1951 (Battle Act). The report summarizes the developments of the 
program for the years 1957 through 1960, among which are included 
sections on the 1958 List Kevision, the 1959 Battle Act Changes, the 
1959 List Eeview, Battle Act Revisions in 1960, and Preparations for 
the 1960 International List Review. 

The appendixes contain the text of the Act, the Trade Controls 
of Free- World Countries, as well as other data and statistical tables. 



Publication 7088 



25 cents 



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Washington 25, D.C. 

Enclosed find: 



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Please send me copies of A Survey of the Strategic Trade Control 

Program, 1957-1960. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





HE 

FFICIAL 

VEEKLY RECORD 

IF 

INITED STATES 

-OREIGN POLICY 



Vol. XLIV, No. 1128 February 6, 1961 

THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT 

KENNEDY 175 

PRESIDENT EISENHOWER'S FAREWELL TO THE 

NATION 179 

SPRAGUE COMMITTEE REPORTS TO PRESIDENT 
EISENHOWER ON U.S. INFORMATION ACTIVI- 
TIES ABROAD 182 

SOVIET COMPLAINT ON BELGIAN ACTIVITY IN 
CONGO REJECTED BY SECURITY COUNCIL • 

Statement by James W. Barco 199 



For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLIV, No. 1128 • Publication 7134 
February 6, 1961 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Peice: 

82 Issues, domestic $8.60, foreign $12.25 

Single copy, 25 cents 

Use of funds for printing of tills publication 
approved by the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget (January 19, 1961). 

Note; Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
o» State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developmen ts in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, and legis- 
lative material in tlie field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



The Inaugural Address of President Kennedy 



Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. 
Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice 
President Nixon, President Truman, Eeverend 
Clergy, Fellow Citizens : 

We observe today not a victory of party but 
a celebration of freedom — symbolizing an end as 
well as a beginning — signifying renewal as well as 
change. For I have sworn before you and Al- 
mighty God the same solemn oath our forebears 
prescribed nearly a centuiy and three quarters ago. 

The world is very different now. For man 
holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all 
forms of human poverty and all forms of himian 
life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for 
which our forebears fought are still at issue around 
the globe — the belief that the rights of man come 
not from the generosity of the state but from the 
hand of God. 

"We dare not forget today that we are the heirs 
of that first revolution. Let the word go forth 
from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, 
that the torch has been passed to a new generation 
of Americans — born in this century, tempered by 
war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud 
of our ancient heritage — and unwilling to witness 
or permit the slow undoing of those hiunan rights 
to which this Nation has always been committed, 
and to wliich we are committed today at home and 
aroimd the world. 

Let every nation know, whether it wishes us 
well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any 
burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, 
oppose any foe to assure the survival and the suc- 
cess of liberty. 

This much we pledge — and more. 



'Delivered on Jan. 20 (White House press release; as- 
delivered text). 



To those old allies wliose cultural and spiritual 
origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful 
friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a 
host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is 
little we can do — for we dare not meet a powerful 
challenge at odds and split asimder. 

To those new states whom we welcome to tlie 
ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form 
of colonial control shall not have passed away 
merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. 
We shall not always expect to find them support- 
ing our view. But we shall always hope to find 
them strongly supporting their own freedom — 
and to remember that, in the past, those who 
foolislily sought power by riding the back of the 
tiger ended up inside. 

To those people in the huts and villages of half 
the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass 
misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them 
help themselves, for whatever period is required — 
not because the Communists may be doing it, not 
because we seek their votes, but because it is right. 
If a free society cannot help the many who are 
poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. 

To our sister republics south of our border, we 
offer a special pledge — to convert our good words 
into good deeds — in a new alliance for progress-v^ 
to assist free men and free governments in casting 
off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful rev- 
olution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile 
powei-s. Let all our neighbors know that we shall 
join with them to oppose aggression or subversion 
anywhere in the Americas. And let every other 
power know that this hemisphere intends to re- 
main the master of its own house. 

To that world assembly of sovereign states, the 
United Nations, our last best liope in an age where 
the instruments of war have far outpaced the in- 



Fefarwory 6, J 961 



175 



struments of peace, we renew our pledge of sup- 
port — to prevent it from becoming merely a forum 
for invective — to strengthen its sliield of the new 
and tlie weak — and to enlarge the area in which its 
writ may run. 

Finally, to those nations who would make them- 
selves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a 
request : that both sides begin anew the quest for 
peace, before the dark powers of destruction un- 
leashed by science engulf all luimanity in planned 
or accidental self-destruction. 

We dare not tempt them with weakness. For 
only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can 
we be certain beyond doubt that they will never 
be employed. 

But neither can two great and powerful groups 
of nations take comfort from our present course — 
both sides overburdened by the cost of modern 
weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady 
spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter 
that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand 
of mankind's final war. 

So let us begin anew — remembering on both 
sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and 
sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never 
negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to 
negotiate. 

Let both sides explore what problems imite us 
instead of belaboring those problems which 
divide us. 

Let both sides, for the first time, formulate 
serious and precise proposals for the inspection 
and control of arms — and bring the absolute power 
to destroy other nations under the absolute control 
of all nations. 

Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of sci- 
ence instead of its terrors. Together let us explore 
the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap 
the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and 
commerce. 

Let both sides unite to heed in all cornere of the 
earth the command of Isaiah — to "undo the heavy 
burdens . . . [and] let the oppressed go free." 

And if a beacliliead of cooperation may push 
back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join 
in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of 
jjower, but a new world of law, where the strong 
are just and the weak secure and the peace 
preserved. 



All this will not be finished in the first one 
hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first 
one thousand days, nor in the life of this adminis- 
tration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this 
planet. But let us begin. 

In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than 
mine, will rest the final success or failure of our 
course. Since this country was founded, each 
generation of Americans has been summoned to 
give testimony to its national loyalty. The 
graves of young Americans who answered the call 
to service surroiuid the globe. 

Now the trumpet summons us again — not as a 
call to bear arms, though anns we need — not as 
a call to battle, though embattled we are — but a 
call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, 
year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient 
in tribulation"- — a struggle against the common 
enemies of man : tyranny, poverty, disease, and 
war itself. 

Can we forge against these enemies a grand and 
global alliance. North and South, East and West, 
that can assure a more fruitful life for all man- 
kind ? Will you join in that historic effort? 

In the long history of the world, only a few 
generations have been granted the role of defend- 
ing freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I 
do not shrink from this responsibility — I welcome 
it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange 
places with any other people or any other genera- 
tion. The energy, the faith, the devotion which . 
we bring to this endeavor will light our country I 
and all who serve it — and the glow from that fire 
can truly light the world. 

And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what 
your country can do for you — ask what you can • 
do for your country. 

My fellow citizens of the world : ask not what 
America will do for you, but what together we 
can do for the freedom of man. j 

Finally, whether you are citizens of America or 
citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high 
standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask 
of you. With a good conscience our only sure 
reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, 
let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking 
His blessing and His help, but knowing that here 
on earth God's work must truly be our own. 



176 



Department of State Bulletin 



President and President-Elect Discuss 
Current World Situation 

Following is a statement released at the 'White 
House on January 19 hy James C. Hagerty, Press 
Secretaiy to President Eisenhower, and Pie'rre 
Salinger, Press Secretary to President-elect John 
F. Kennedy. 

White House press release dated January 19 

The President and the President-elect met today 
for the second time since the election for a full 
discussion of the current world situation.^ Dur- 
ing these discussions the President-elect and the 
incoming Cabinet members who attended these 
meetings were brought up to date on a number of 
matters affecting the security of the United States. 

World areas imder discussion included the Far 
East, Africa, Western Europe and the Caribbean. 

The President and the President-elect met alone 
in the President's office and then met in the Cabi- 
net Room with the current and incoming Secre- 
taries of State, Treasury and Defense for a 
continuation of the discussions. 



Letters of Credence 

Cameroun 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Eepub- 
lic of Cameroim, Aime-Raymond N'Thepe, pre- 
sented his credentials to President Eisenliower 
on January 16. For texts of the Ambassador's 
remarks and the President's reply, see Department 
of State press release 22 dated Januaiy 16. 

Ivory Coast 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Repub- 
lic of the Ivory Coast, Konan Bedie, presented 
his ci-edentials to President Eisenliower on Jan- 
uary 17. For texts of the Ambassador's remarks 
and the President's reply, see Department of 
State press release 25 dated January 17. 

Venezuela 
The newly appointed Ambassador of Venezuela, 



Jose Antonio Mayobre Cova, presented his cre- 
dentials to President Eisenliower on Januaiy 16. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 21 dated January 16. 



U.S. Rejects Soviet Allegations 
on ''Sverdlovsk" Incident 

Following is an excliange of notes hetween the 
United States and the Soviet Union concerning a 
Soviet allegation that the Sverdlovsk, a Soviet 
merchant ship, had been stopped by U.S. naval 
vessels in the Caribbean Sea on January 13. 

UNITED STATES NOTE > 

Press release 31 dated January 19 

The Department of State refers the Embassy of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the Note 
No. 10/OSA dated January 14, 1961 from the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics to the Embassy of the United 
States of America in Moscow which alleges that 
an American "patrol craft" and two other United 
States "military vessels'' attempted to halt the 
Soviet ship Sverdlovsk while the Soviet ship was 
sailing in the Caribbean Sea. 

An investigation of the allegations contained in 
the Ministry's note has established that the Soviet 
ship Sverdlovsk was not stopped in the Caribbean 
Sea by American ships. The American ships 
which encoiuitered the Sverdlovsk in the Carib- 
bean Sea on the night of January 13 exchanged 
routine identification signals in accordance with 
normal maritime practice. No signals of any 
other kind were given. Moreover, at no time did 
the American ships come nearer to the Sverdlovsk 
than 3.5 miles. 

In view of these facts, the United States Gov- 
ernment sees no basis for protest on the part of 
the Soviet Government. 

Depart3ient of State, 
Washington , January 19, 1961. 



^ For a statement concerning the first meeting, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 26, 1960, p. 968. 



' Delivered to tlie Soviet Embassy at Wastiington on 
Jan. 19. 



Fefaroory 6, 1967 



177 



SOVIET NOTE 2 

Unofflcial translatloa 
No. 10/OSA 

The Foreign Ministry of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics deems it necessary to state the following on 
behalf of the Soviet Government: 

According to a report just received from the captain 
of the Soviet tanker Sverdlovsk, now in neutral waters of 
the Caribbean Sea, the tanker was met by an American 
patrol craft which, without any basis, ordered it to come 
to an immediate halt. Two more U.S.A. military vessels 
quickly approached the tanker, also ordering the captain 
of the Sverdlovsk to stop. 

The activities of the American naval vessels with 
respect to the Soviet tanker Sverdlovsk cannot be ap- 
praised other than as a crude violation of the principles 
of freedom of navigation on the open seas and tramping 
underfoot the norms of international law. 

The Government of the U.S.S.R. protests to the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.A. in connection with the provocative acts 
of the American naval vessels, demands their immediate 
cessation and punishment of the guilty persons. 



Department Limits Travel 
to Cuba by Americans 

Press release 24 dated January 16 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 16 that in view of the U.S. Government's in- 
ability, following the break in diplomatic relations 
between the United States and Cuba/ to extend 
normal protective services to Americans visiting 
Cuba, U.S. citizens desiring to go to Cuba must 
until further notice obtain passports specifically 
endorsed by the Department of State for such 
travel. All outstanding passports, except those 
of U.S. citizens remaining in Cuba, are being de- 
clared invalid for travel to Cuba miless specifi- 
cally endorsed for such travel. 

The Department contemplates that exceptions 
to these regulations will be granted to persons 
whose travel may be regarded as being in the best 
interests of the United States, such as newsmen or 
businessmen with previously established business 
interests. 

Permanent resident aliens cannot travel to Cuba 
unless special permission is obtained for tliis pur- 
pose through the U.S. Inmiigration and Natural- 
ization Service. 



Federal regulations are being amended to put 
these requirements into effect.^ 

These actions have been taken in conformity 
with the Department's normal practice of limit- 
ing travel to those countries with which the United 
States does not maintain diplomatic relations. 



U.S.-Honduran Trade Agreement 
Terminated in Part 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 29 dated January 19 

The Governments of the United States and 
Honduras have mutually agreed to terminate 
parts of the United States-Honduran Trade 
Agreement of 1935. 

The parts of the trade agreement which are 
to be terminated are the schedules of tariff con- 
cessions and the provisions directly related to 
these schedules. The general provisions of the 
agreement are to remain in effect. This ar- 
rangement maintains certain mutually beneficial 
trade advantages, such as most-favored-nation 
treatment and assurances that both countries will 
administer their import policies on an equitable 
basis. 

The request for this termination was made by 
the Goverimient of Honduras. The Government 
of Honduras has stated that termination will 
facilitate measures designed to develop and sta- 
bilize the Honduran economy, as well as aid in 
the creation of a Central American customs 
union. 

The exchange of notes ^ terminating parts of 
the United States-Honduran Trade Agreement of 
December 18, 1935, took place on January 18, 
1961, at Tegucigalpa, and the partial termination 
will become effective February 28, 1961. 

PROCLAMATION 3390 * 

Terminating the Hondukan Trade Aoreement in Part 

Whereas, under the authority vested in him by section 
3.50(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, amended by the act of 
June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act To Amend the Tariff Act 



( 



2 Handed to American Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thomp- 
son at Moscow on Jan. 14 by Soviet Deputy Foreign 
Minister Vasiliy V. Kuznetsov. 

' Bui,LETiN of Jan. 23, 1961, p. 103. 



= For text of I'ublic Notice 179 of Jan. 16, see 26 Fed. 
Reg. 492. 
" Not printed. 
•26 Fed. Reg. 507. 



178 



Department of State Bulletin 



of 1930", 4S Stat. 943, the President entered into a trade 
agreement with the President of the Republic of Honduras 
on December IS, 1935, 49 Stat. 3S51, and i)roclaimed such 
trade agreement by proclamation dated February 1, 1936, 
49 Stat. 3S51 ; and 

Whereas the Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the Republic of Hon- 
duras have agreed to terminate the schedules of con- 
cessions of such trade agreement and the provisions re- 
lated thereto as of the beginning of February 28, 1961 ; and 

Wheeeas paragraph (6) of section 350(a) of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended, authorizes the President to 
terminate, in whole or in part, any proclamation carry- 
ing out a trade agreement entered into under such 
section : 

Now, THBHiEFOKE, I, DwiOHT D. EISENHOWER, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and by 
virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution 
and the statutes, including section 350(a) (6) of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, as amended, do hereby proclaim that the 



aforesaid proclamation dated February 1, 1936 shall 
terminate insofar as it relates to the schedules of con- 
cessions in the trade agreement and the provisions re- 
lated thereto, as of the beginning of February 28, 1961. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 
Done at the City of Washington this 18th day of 

January in the year of our Lord nineteen hun- 
[seal] dred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 
and eighty-fifth. 



/O' ljL>y C-fZJO-tCi^ Aao>/v^ 



By the President : 
Christian A. Herter, 
Secretary of State. 



President Eisenhower's Farewell to the Nation 



Address iy President Eisenhower ^ 



My fellow Americans: Three days from now, 
after half a century in the service of our country, 
I shall lay down the responsibilities of office as, 
in traditional and solemn ceremony, the authority 
of the Presidency is vested in my successor. 

This evening I come to you with a message of 
leavetakmg and farewell and to share a few final 
thoughts with you, my countrymen. 

Like every other citizen, I wish the new Presi- 
dent and all who will labor with him Godspeed. 
I pray that the coming years will be blessed with 
peace and prosperity for all. 



Our people expect their President and the Con- 
gress to find essential agreement on issues of great 
moment, the wise resolution of which will better 
shape the future of the Nation. 

My own relations with the Congress, which 
began on a remote and tenuous basis, when long 



^ Delivered to the Nation by television and radio on 
Jan. 17 (White House press release) . 



ago a member of the Senate appointed me to West 
Point, have since ranged to the intimate durmg 
the war and immediate postwar period and, fi- 
nally, to the mutually interdependent during 
these past 8 years. 

In this final relationship the Congress and the 
administration have, on most vital issues, coop- 
erated well to serve the national good rather than 
mere partisanship and so have assured that the 
business of the Nation should go forward. So my 
official relationship with the Congress ends in a 
feeling on my part of gratitude that we have been 
able to do so much together. 

II 

We now stand 10 years past the midpoint of a 
century that has witnessed four major wars 
among great nations. Three of these involved 
our own country. Despite these holocausts, 
America is today the strongest, the most influen- 
tial, and most productive nation in the world. 
Understandably proud of this preeminence, we 



February 6, 1961 



179 



yet realize that America's leadership and prestige 
depend not merely upon our unmatched material 
progress, riches, and military strength but on how 
we use our power in the interests of world peace 
and human betterment. 

Ill 

Throughout America's adventure in free gov- 
ernment our basic purposes have been to keep the 
peace, to foster progress in himian achievement, 
and to enhance liberty, dignity, and integrity 
among people and among nations. To strive for 
less would be unworthy of a free and religious 
people. Any failure traceable to arrogance or 
our lack of comprehension or readiness to sacrifice 
would inflict upon us grievous hurt both at home 
and abroad. 

Progress toward these noble goals is persistently 
threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world. 
It commands our whole attention, absorbs our 
very beings. We face a hostile ideology — global 
in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, 
and insidious in method. Unhappily the danger 
it poses promises to be of indefinite duration. To 
meet it successfully there is called for not so much 
the emotional and transitory sacrifices of crisis 
but rather those which enable us to carry for- 
ward steadily, surely, and without complaint the 
burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle — 
with liberty the stake. Only thus shall we re- 
main, despite every provocation, on our charted 
course toward pennanent peace and human 
betterment. 

Crises there will continue to be. In meeting 
them, whether foreign or domestic, gi'eat or small, 
there is a recurring temptation to feel that some 
spectacular and costly action could become the 
miraculous solution to all current difficulties. A 
huge increase in newer elements of our defense, 
development of imrealistic programs to cure every 
ill in agriculture, a dramatic expansion in basic 
and applied research — these and many other pos- 
sibilities, each possibly promising in itself, may 
be suggested as the only way to the road we wish 
to travel. 

But each proposal must be weighed in the 
light of a broader consideration : the need to main- 
tain balance in and among national programs — 
balance between the private and the public econo- 
my, balance between cost and hoped-for advantage, 
balance between the clearly necessary and the 



comfortably desirable, balance between our essen- 
tial requirements as a nation and the duties 
imposed by the Nation upon the individual, bal- 
ance between actions of the moment and the na- 
tional welfare of the future. Good judgment 
seeks balance and progress; lack of it eventually 
finds imbalance and frustration. 

The record of many decades stands as proof 
that our people and their Government have, in 
the main, understood these trutlis and have re- 
sponded to them well in the face of stress and 
threat. But threats, new in kind or degree, con- 
stantly arise. I mention two only. 

IV 

A vital element in keeping the peace is our 
Military Establishment. Our arms must be 
mighty, ready for instant action, so that no poten- 
tial aggressor may be tempted to risk his own 
destruction. 

Our military organization today bears little 
relation to that known by any of my predecessors 
in peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of 
World War II or Korea. 

Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United 
States had no armaments industry. American 
makers of plowshares could, with time and as re- 
quired, make swords as well. But now we can no 
longer risk emergency improvisation of national 
defense; we have been compelled to create a per- 
manent armaments industry of vast proportions. 
Added to this, Syo million men and women are 
directly engaged in the Defense Establishment. 
We annually spend on military security more than 
the net income of all United States corporations. 

This conjunction of an immense Military Estab- 
lishment and a large arms industry is new in the 
American experience. The total influence — eco- 
nomic, political, even spiritual — is felt in every 
city, every statehouse, every office of the Federal I 
Government. We recognize the imperative need 
for this development. Yet we must not fail to 
comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, re- 
sources, and livelihood are all involved ; so is the 
very structure of our society. 

In the councils of government we must guard 
agamst the acquisition of unwarranted influence, 
whether sought or unsought, by the military- 
industrial complex. Tlie potential for the dis- 
astrous rise of misplaced power exists and will 
persist. 



180 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



We must never let the weight of this combina- 
tion endanger our liberties or democratic processes. 
We should take nothing for granted. Only an 
alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the 
proper meshing of the huge industrial and military 
machinery of defense with our peaceful methods 
and goals so that security and liberty may prosper 
together. 

Akin to and largely responsible for the sweep- 
ing changes in our industrial-military posture has 
been the technological revolution during recent 
decades. In this revolution research has become 
central ; it also becomes more formalized, complex, 
and costly. A steadily increasing share is con- 
ducted for, by, or at the direction of the Federal 
Government. 

Today the solitary inventor, tinkering in his 
shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of 
scientists in laboratories and testmg fields. In the 
same fashion the free university, historically the 
fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, 
has experienced a revolution in the conduct of 
research. Partly because of the huge costs in- 
volved, a Goveriunent contract becomes virtually 
a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every 
old blackboard there are now hundreds of new 
electronic computers. 

The prospect of domination of the Nation's 
scholars by Federal employment, project alloca- 
tions, and the power of money is ever present and 
is gravely to be regarded. 

Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery 
in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to 
the equal and opposite danger that public policy 
could itself become the captive of a scientific- 
teclmological elite. 

It is the task of statemanship to mold, to balance, 
and to integrate these and other forces, new and 
old, within the principles of our democratic sys- 
tem — ever aiming toward the supreme goals of 
our free society. 



Another factor m maintaining balance involves 
the element of time. As we peer into society's fu- 
ture, we — you and I, and our Government — must 
avoid the imjiulse to live only for today, plunder- 
ing for our own ease and convenience the precious 
resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the 
material assets of our grandchildren without risk- 
ing the loss also of their political and spiritual 



heritage. We want democracy to survive for all 
generations to come, not to become the insolvent 
phantom of tomorrow. 

VI 

Down the long lane of the history yet to be writ- 
ten, America knows that this world of ours, ever 
growing smaller, must avoid becoming a com- 
munity of dreadful fear and hate and be, instead, 
a proud confederation of mutual trust and respect. 

Such a confederation must be one of equals. 
The weakest must come to the conference table 
with the same confidence as do we, protected as 
we are by our moral, economic, and military 
strength. That table, though scarred by many 
past frustrations, cannot be abandoned for the 
certain agony of the battlefield. 

Disarmament, with mutual honor and confi- 
dence, is a continuing imperative. Together we 
must learn how to compose differences, not with 
arms but with intellect and decent purpose. Be- 
cause this need is so sharp and apparent I confess 
that I lay down my official responsibilities in this 
field with a definite sense of disappointment. As 
one who has witnessed the horror and the linger- 
ing sadness of war, as one who knows that another 
war could utterly destroy this civilization which 
has been so slowly and painfully built over thou- 
sands of yeai-s, I wish I could say tonight that a 
lasting peace is in sight. 

Happily I can say that war has been avoided. 
Steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been 
made. But so much remains to be done. As a 
private citizen I shall never cease to do what little 
I can to help the world advance along that road. 

VII 

So, in this my last good night to you as your 
President, I thank you for the many opportunities 
you have given me for public service in war and 
peace. I trust that in that service you find some 
things worthy ; as for the rest of it, I know you 
will find ways to improve perfonnance in the 
future. 

You and I, my fellow citizens, need to be strong 
in our faith that all nations, under God, will reach 
the goal of peace with justice. May we be ever xm- 
swerving in devotion to principle, confident but 
humble with power, diligent in pursuit of the 
Nation's great goals. 



February 6, 7961 



181 



To all the peoples of the world, I once more 
give expression to America's prayerful and con- 
tinuing aspiration; 

We pray that peoples of all faiths, all races, all 
nations, may have their great human needs satis- 
fied ; that those now denied opportunity shall come 
to enjoy it to the full ; that all who yearn for free- 
dom may experience its spiritual blessings; that 



those who have freedom will understand, also, its 
heavy responsibilities ; that all who are insensitive 
to the needs of others will learn charity ; that the 
scourges of poverty, disease, and ignorance will 
be made to disappear from the earth ; and that, in 
the goodness of time, all peoples will come to live 
together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force 
of mutual respect and love. 



Sprague Committee Reports to President Eisenhower 
on U.S. Information Activities Abroad 



On December 23 Mans-field Sprague, Chairman 
of the President's Comm^ittee on Information 
Activities Abroad, submitted to President Eisen- 
hower the Committee's conclusions and recom- 
mendatioiis} On January 11 the White Hou^e 
released tlie following excliange of letters between 
the President and Mr. Sprague, with highlights 
of the Committee''s recommendations and extracts 
from the Connmittee\s report. 

White House press release dated January 11 
EXCHANGE OF LETTERS 

President Eisenhower to Mr. Sprague 

Jantjaet 9, 1961 
Dear Mr. Sprague : I have read with deep in- 
terest the conclusions and recommendations of the 
Committee on Information Activities Abroad 
which were submitted to me with your letter of 
December twenty-third. 

I am impressed by the comprehensive nature of 
the study conducted by your committee and the 
breadth and vision which characterize it. As you 
know, I am asking that study be started on it at 
once by the departments and agencies involved in 
the matters it covers. Also, I am having it placed 
in the permanent records of the Government 
readily available for future use. With much of 
the report, and a great many of its conclusions 



^For announcement of appointment of the Committee, 
see Bulletin of Mar. 7, 1960, p. 365. 



and recommendations, I am in full and instant 
accord. Certain other conclusions and recom- 
mendations will of course require, and receive, 
further consideration. Altogether, I think it is 
a document of exceptional value to an informed 
understanding of this subject, and for this reason 
have determined to put as much of it as possible 
into the public domain. Your committee was not 
asked to make an miclassified report and indeed 
you have dealt with many things which must re- 
main classified m the interest of national security. 
Even with these omitted, however, it deserves — 
and I hope will receive — wide attention. 

There are certain of your conclusions and recom- 
mendations which merit particular notice. The 
first of these has to do with the emphasis on the 
total U.S. information effort, particularly in 
Africa and Latin America. I share the commit- 
tee's view that there should be continued expansion 
of these activities, carried out in an orderly way 
so as to permit the preparation of sound plans 
and the recruitment and training of qualified 
personnel. 

Also worthy of serious attention is the stress 
laid by the committee upon the training process 
so that those members of the Government who 
engage in operations may fully understand the 
broad policy considerations which underlie our 
programs and be fully equipped to act in the total 
interest of the United States. 

There would be, I hope, general acceptance of 
the view that in the long run the soundest program 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



of all might well be the one to give assistance to 
educational development. Such a program should 
of course be well delined in scope and timing be- 
fore extensive commitments are made. 

We have long recognized the values in the pro- 
grams of excliange of persons, and serious atten- 
tion should be given to your committee's recom- 
mendation that they be expanded, particularly 
with African countries. Also, I fully agree that 
improvement in planning and making arrange- 
ments for exchange personnel while they are in 
this country is a most desirable goal. 

In our foreign programs, there will be wide 
agreement as to the importance of giving careful 
attention to the impact of program actions on for- 
eign opinion both in the formulation of policy and 
in the execution of programs. It is my hope that 
all agencies and departments will continue to take 
appropriate organizational and training measures 
to this end. As your committee properly jjoints 
out, appropriate emphasis also must be given to 
public opinion in the field which we have tradi- 
tionally looked upon as formal diplomacy. 

There is little question in my mind that the crea- 
tion of the Operations Coordinating Board was a 
major step forward. I think it has well justified 
its existence and I would hope that it will be con- 
tinued as an important element in the national 
policy machinery. In any event, I share the judg- 
ment of your committee that regardless of any 
changes that may be made in this machinery, the 
functions now performed by the Operations Coor- 
dinating Board must continue to be provided for. 

Finally, I express my personal thanks to you, 
and through you to the members of your commit- 
tee and to the committee staff, for the long and 
arduous work devoted to the preparation of this 
study. I know of the tremendous amount of time 
you and your colleagues have devoted to this con- 
structive effort. The country is indeed indebted 
to you all. 

With warm regard, 
Sincei'ely, 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

Mr. Sprague to President Eisenhower 

December 23, 1960 

Dear Mr. President: I am pleased to submit 
herewith the Conclusions and Recommendations of 
your Committee on Information Activities 

February 6, 7967 



Abroad. During the past several months, in ac- 
cordance with your letter of December 2, 1959,^ 
we have carried out a comprehensive survey of 
what we have called "Tlie United States Informa- 
tion System". We have also considered the psy- 
chological aspects of United States diplomatic, 
economic, military and scientific programs which 
have impact abroad. Likewise, we have rejiorted 
on several of the activities of private groups and 
institutions bearing upon foreign attitudes toward 
this country. 

This Committee effort is the second special study 
initiated by you to help shape the evolution of 
policies and programs in a new and increasingly 
important aspect of United States foreign policy. 
Like the President's Committee on International 
Informational Activities, chaired by Mr. William 
H. Jackson, we have tried to be completely ob- 
jective and non-partisan.^ We have approached 
our task not as special pleaders for informational 
and related programs but have attempted to relate 
them to the total responsibilities of government 
in the international field. 

We have consulted numerous persons in govern- 
ment, both within the departments and agencies 
represented on the Committee and elsewhere. We 
have also attempted to give weight to the views 
of knowledgeable persons outside government. 

We have taken the view that an ad hoc effort 
of this kind should avoid intensive investigation 
of particular operating problems, but should con- 
centrate on overall policies and programs. We 
have tried to pro\'ide guidance and a coherent 
foundation of criteria and concepts which will 
have continuing value to operating officials in 
dealing with concrete problems. 

The timing of this study is highly appropriate. 
Developments on the international scene in the 
course of our work have continuously re-empha- 
sized, even dramatized, the relevance and signifi- 
cance of the problems you assigned to us for study. 

The Committee has brought a rich background 
of cumulative governmental and private experi- 
ence to its work. Out of such experience, plus 
the deep and occasionally differing personal con- 
victions of its members, a survey has been pro- 
duced which we trust will have validity and 
utility in the trying years ahead. 



- Not printed here. 

' For a summary of the first study, see Bulletin of 
July 27, 1953, p. 124. 



183 



As you will see from our recommendations, the 
Committee has f omied three general conclusions : 

a. On the whole, the United States informa- 
tional system and efforts to integrate psycliolog- 
ical factors into policy have become increasingly 
effective ; 

b. The evolution of world afl'airs, the effec- 
tiveness of the Communist apparatus, and the 
growing role of public opinion internationally 
confront us with the necessity of continuing im- 
provement in this aspect of government, on an 
orderly but urgent basis. 

c. This will involve the allocation of substan- 
tially greater resources over the next decade, bet- 
ter training of personnel, further clarification of 
the role of information activities, increasing the 
understanding and competence of government 
officials to deal with informational and psycho- 
logical matters, and improvement in the mecha- 
nisms for coordination. 

Wliile recommending greater efforts and ex- 
penditures, the Committee is mindful of the im- 
portance of balanced budgets. Informational 
programs must be looked upon as part of the 
total National Security effort. If this requires 
greater sacrifices by the American people, we be- 
lieve that they should be enjoined to make them. 

During the course of our deliberations a number 
of salutary actions have been taken within gov- 
ernment in areas under discussion by the Com- 
mittee which otherwise might have resulted in 
specific recommendations. Even with respect to 
some of the recommendations made by the Com- 
mittee, we understand that action is already being 
initiated. The Committee has been encouraged in 
its efforts by such concrete examples of initiative 
and forward thinking. 

The Committee has received the full cooperation 
of various government agencies. We have been 
greatly impressed by the contributions of many 
able people in government who on their own time 
and without extra compensation prepared special 
materials for us. 

The Staff of the Committee, whose names are 
later appended, have rendered outstanding service. 
Without their able and conscientious help this 
study would not have been possible. Especially 
we should like to commend Mr. Waldemar A. 
Nielsen, Executive Director, who was loaned to us 
by the Ford Foundation. His assistance was of 



the very highest order of competence and 
dedication. 

I should like to note that in addition to the 
valuable contributions of the individual members 
of the Committee, the alternates for the repre- 
sentatives of the Departments of State and Defense 
and for the Directors of the Central Intelligence 
agency and the United States Information Agency 
have been extremely helpful throughout. They 
are, respectively, Raymond A. Hare, Haydn 
Williams, John A. Bross and Abbott Washburn. 

The Committee will place in the custody of 
your Assistant for National Security Affairs an 
organized collection of staff papers which contain 
information and analyses which should be of ref- 
erence value to the operating officials concerned 
with informational and psychological matters. 
These working papers should be treated as such 
and not as having been officially approved by the 
Committee. 

Joining with me in forwarding the following 
chapters are the other members of the Committee : 
George V. Allen, Allen W. Dulles, Gordon Gray, 
Karl G. Harr, Jr., Jolm N. Irwin II, C. D. Jack- 
son, Livingston T. Merchant and Philip D. Keed. 
Respectfully, 

Mansfield D. Sprague 



HIGHLIGHTS OF RECOMMENDATIONS BY THE 
PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON INFORMATION 
ACTIVITIES ABROAD 

The report of the President's Committee on Informa- 
tion Activities Abroad was transmitted to the President 
by Mr. Mansfield D. Sprague, Chairman, on Saturday, 
December 24, 1060. The Committee, which began its 
work in mid-February 1960, has made a broad study of 
the U.S. information system including official mass media 
activities, cultural, educational and exchange programs 
and programs designed to expose and combat the world- 
wide subversive and propaganda apparatus of the Sino- 
Soviet Bloc. In addition, the Committee has considered 
means of maximizing the constructive effect on foreign 
opinion of all U.S. foreign policies and programs. 

Seven of the major recommendations of the Committee 
are summarized below : 

1. The scale of the total U.S. information effort will 
have to be progressively expanded for some time to come. 
There is urgent need for substantial increases in the 
critical areas of Africa and Latin America. The Execu- 
tive Branch should seek Congressional approval for 
orderly growth of these activities to permit the prepara- 
tion of sound plans and the recruitment and training of 
qualified personnel. 



184 



Department of State Bulletin 



2. Tlie expansion of training programs is a fundamental 
requirement. Long range efforts sliould be made on two 
fronts : broad training in the informational and psycho- 
logical aspects of policy for ofHcials in various govern- 
ment agencies wliose programs strongly affect foreign 
opinion ; and specialized training of staffs directly en- 
gaged in informational programs. In addition to in- 
service and specialized training programs, greater use of 
cross-assignment between information and non-informa- 
tion agencies would be helpful. 

The Committee also recommends that consideration be 
given to the establishment of a National Security In- 
stitute under the National Security Council to provide 
high-level training in dealing with the interrelated aspects 
of the present world struggle for top officers from eco- 
nomic, diplomatic, information and military agencies. 
However, if it is judged impossible to create a separate 
institute, the Committee recommends that consideration 
be given to broadening existing training institutions. 

3. The Committee recommends a new approach in 
developing a major program of assistance to educational 
development abroad. Such a program would contribute 
to economic, social and political objectives and would 
serve to identify the U.S. with one of the great universal 
human aspirations — education. The proposed program 
might include the initiation of such projects as assistance 
in building and equipping model schools, laboratories and 
libraries abroad as symbols of American help; the cre- 
ation of new regional institutes and training centers in 
such fields as public administration, agricultural tech- 
nology and the management of enterprises ; the develop- 
ment of large mobile training centers to provide basic 
skills in health, agriculture and mechanical trades to 
thousands of trainees at a time ; the contribution of funds 
for "opportunity scholarships" to enable young people in 
various countries on the basis of open competition to 
acquire an education ; a program of training for young 
Americans to work abroad in performing such tasks as 
school teaching and assisting in village development. 
Two members of the Committee felt that the program 
suggestions needed further definition as to scope and 
timing. 

The Committee suggested a study of the possible use- 
fulness of creating a new quasi-independent foundation 
for international educational development to give voice 
and leadership to the broad program. 

■i. Exchange of persons programs should be expanded, 
particularly with African countries. However, it is es- 
sential that steps be taken to improve the handling of 
exchangees while in this country. The goal should be 
to give every student or lead