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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"



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cKo * ^.J5.3..AJ^30 

VOL.45 

1961 





> THE rJEPARTMENT OF STATE 




INDEX 



VOLUME^XLV: Numbers 11 

July 3-December 25, 1961 




FFICIAL 

!£EKLY RECORD 

I 

NITED STATES 
IREIGN POLII 



Issue 








Number 


Date 


of Issue 


Pages 


1149 


July 


3, 1961 


1- 48 


1150 


July 


10, 1961 


49- 96 


1151 


July 


17, 1961 


97- 136 


1152 


July 


24, 1961 


137- 172 


1153 


July 


31, 1961 


173- 220 


1154 


Aug. 


7, 1961 


221- 264 


1155 


Aug. 


14, 1961 


265- 308 


1156 


Aug. 


21, 1961 


309- 352 


1157 


Aug. 


28, 1961 


353- 388 


1158 


Sept. 


4, 1961 


389- 428 


1159 


Sept. 


11, 1961 


429- 472 


1160 


Sept. 


18, 1961 


473- 504 


1161 


Sept. 


25, 1961 


505- 536 


1162 


Oct. 


2, 1961 


537- 576 


1163 


Oct. 


9, 1961 


577- 616 


1164 


Oct. 


16, 1961 


617- 660 


1165 


Oct. 


23, 1961 


661- 696 


1166 


Oct. 


30, 1961 


697- 736 


1167 


Nov. 


6, 1961 


737- 780 


1168 


Nov. 


13, 1961 


781- 828 


1169 


Nov. 


20, 1961 


829- 872 


1170 


Nov. 


27, 1961 


873- 912 


1171 


Dec. 


4, 1961 


913- 956 


1172 


Dec. 


11, 1961 


957- 996 '^^ 


1173 


Dec. 


18, 1961 


997-1036 


1174 


Dec. 


25. 1961 


1037-1076 



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DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Publication 7369 

Released July 1962 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Qowmmcnt Printing OlDce 
Waslilngton 25, D.C. — Price 30 cents 



INDEX 

VOLUME XLV: Numbers 1149-1174, July 3-December 25, 1961 



Abboud, Ibrahim, 721 
Ackerman, William C, 262 

Act for International Development (1961), 321, 941 
Adams, Walter, 59 
Adenauer, Konrad, 804, 919, 967 

Advertising material and commercial samples, interna- 
tional convention to facilitate importation of, 693 
Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, U.S., 59 
Advisory Committee, FSI, meeting and list of members, 

34 
Advisory Committee, State, 3d conference, 552 
Advisory Committee on Cooperatives, Special, 450, 933 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, National, 418 
Afghanistan : 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Transit trade, dispute with Pakistan, acceptance of 

U.S. offer of good offices, 761 
U.S. grant of wheat to, 84 
Africa {see also individual countries) : 
African and Malagasy States, meetings of, 809 
Communist guerrilla warfare, threat of and efforts to 

combat, address (Rostow), 234, 237 
Developments in, exchange of views re, joint com- 
munique (Balewa, Kennedy), 324 
Economic development : 

Need for, address (Williams), 117 
Problems of, addresses (Williams), 863, 864, 974 
Role of trade imions in, address (Williams), 27 
U.S. position and aid, 1.53, 865, 975 
Education, importance of and need for, addresses : 

Bowles, 741 ; Williams, 72, 116 
Educational exchange for, efforts for improvement, 

address (Coombs), 327 
Newly independent states of, article (Pearcy), 604, 607, 

608 
Operation Crossroads, remarks (Williams), 151 
Political rights for women in, article (Tillett), 346 
Southern Africa, address (Williams), 638, 863 
Soviet setbacks in, address (Bowles), 858 
U.N. role in, address (Sisco), 162 
U.S. chiefs of mission conferences, 246, 479 
U.S. policy and relations, addresses and remarks (Wil- 
liams), 25, 151, 1.56, 600, 641, 861, 885 
Visits of Assistant Secretary Williams, 192, 638, 642 
Agency for International Development {see also Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration) : 
Administrator, confirmation (Hamilton), 657 
Appointments and designation, 734, 953, 993, 1072, 1073 
Budget for 1962, proposed amendment to, 200 
Cooperatives, use of, Advisory Committee on, 4.50, 933 
Deputy Administrator, appointment (Coffin), 1072 

Index, July Jo December J967 

639744—62 1 



Agency for International Development — Continued 
Establishment of : 

Executive order re, 900 

Interim delegation of authority to Secretary of State 
for, letter (Kennedy), 679 
Programs of : 

Administration and elements of, address and state- 
ment : Cleveland, 292, 295 ; Rusk, 454 
Fertilizer procurement policy, review of, 934 
In : Brazil, 1003 ; Chile, 771 ; Nicaragua, 771 ; Nigeria, 

1020 ; Paraguay, 771 
New investment guaranty program {see also Invest- 
ment guaranty), initiation of, 897 
Regional Administrators, appointments : 
Africa (Hutchinson), 1073 
Latin America (Moscoso), 953 
Near East and South Asia (Gaud), 953 
U.S. AID Mission, designations of directors: El Salva- 
dor, 826 ; Senegal, 778 
Agrarian reform. See Land reform 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, proto- 
col amending convention on, 385, 910 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs: 
Agreements with : Austria, 425 ; Bolivia, 1034 ; Ceylon, 
574, 657; Chile, 613; China, 386, 1034; Congo 
( Leopold ville), 973, 1072; El Salvador, 502; Fin- 
land, 349, 470 ; France, 133 ; Germany, 530 ; Greece, 
262, 870; Iceland, 386, 470, 733, 826, 910; Indo- 
nesia, 657, 953, 1034; Iran, 92; Israel, 386, 778; 
Italy, 133; Pakistan, 92, 169, 262, 502, 870; Para- 
guay, 262 ; Peru, 470 ; Portugal, 1072 ; Sudan, 1034 ; 
Syrian Arab Republic, 993; Turkey, 386, 826; 
U.A.R., 262, 613, 778, 1034; Uruguay, 657; Vene- 
zuela, 953; Viet-Nam, 306; Yugoslavia, 262 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(1954), administration of. Executive order on, 902 
Dispo.sal policy : 
Consultations with Argentina re, joint communique, 

290 
Statement (Stevenson), 367 
Food-for-peace program. See Food-for-peace 
Report on, announcement re, 409 

Role in economic development, statement (Klutznick), 
942 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 

(1954), administration of. Executive order on, 902 
Agriculture (see also Agricultural Sciences, Inter- Ameri- 
can Institute of ; Agricultural surpluses ; and Food 
and Agriculture Organization) : 
Congo, Republic of the, U.S. aid for development, 554 

1079 



Agriculture — Continued 
Exports of U.S. products : 

Addresses : Kennedy, 1043 ; Rusk, 706 
Italian controls, relaxation of, 33 
Japan, developments in, statement (Bowles), 991 
Land-grant colleges, role in, 978, 979, 984 
Land reform. See Land reform 
OECD, increased productivity in, 1019 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, review of pro- 
grams in, statements ( Coding ) , 205, 215 
Agriculture, Department of, 33 
AID. See Agency for International Development 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Aircraft. See Aviation 
Airmail, universal postal convention (1957) provisions 

re, 133, 306, 349, 656 
Akers, Anthony B., 46 

Albania, Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, 306 
Algerian question : 

Developments and U.S. views re, address and state- 
ment : Rusk, 748 ; Williams, 886 
Refugees, U.S. contributions to, statement (Jones), 258 
Alianza para el Progrcun. See Alliance for Progress 
Alliance for Progress : 

Concept and principles of, addresses, message, remarks, 
and statements : Ball, 842 ; Berle, 289 ; Bowles, 792 ; 
Dillon, 356 ; Kennedy, 355 ; Rusk, 277 ; Stevenson, 
758 
Establishment of by American Republics : 
Charter and declaration for, texts, 462 
Remarks and statements: Dillon, 460; Kennedy, 317, 
4.J9, 460 
Financing of, U.S. contributions and support, remarks 
and statements : Dillon, 443, 444, 445, 446 ; Kennedy, 
462, 465, 466, 1000 
lA-ECOSOC role in. See Inter-American Economic 

and Social Council 
Importance of, address and statement : Farland, 82 ; 

Rusk, 149 
Pan American Union, agreement making available cer- 
tain funds to, 1034 
Peru-U.S. support for, text of joint communique (Ken- 
nedy, Prado), 075 
Problems confronting, addresses and remarks : 

Bowles, 484, 7.39 ; Duke, 1005 ; Stevenson, 139 
Progress of, remarks (Kennedy), 999 
Projects in: Brazil, 251; Argentina, 108; Chile, 771; 
Colombia, 316; Costa Rica, 31G; Ecuador, 316; El 
Salvador, 316; Guatemala, 108; Honduras, 316; 
Nicaragua, 771 ; Panama, 108 ; Paraguay, 771 
Question of controls over, statements (Dillon), 445, 

446 
South American interest and hope in, statement (Ste- 
venson), Gl 
Special assistance under, 772 

Visit of Ambassador Stevenson to Latin America for 
consultations on, report, 311, 313, 315, 316 
Alsike clover seed, decision against increasing duty on 

imports, 683 
Ambassadors. See Diplomatic representatives and under 

Foreign Service 
American Republics. See Latin America and individual 
countries 

1080 



American States, Organization of. .See Organization of 

American States 
Amity (see also Friendship) and economic relations, 
treaty with Viet-Nam, 495, 496, 574, 734, 866, 870, 
1034 
Angola : 

Situation in : 

Developments and U.S. views re, addresses (Wil- 
liams) , 117, 640, 887 
Security Council request for report on, statement 
(Yost) and text of resolution, 88 
U.S. missionaries arrested in, Portuguese release of, 
1010 
Antarctic treaty : 

Current actions on, 45, 91, 168 
First consultative meeting, U.S. delegation to, 167 
Significance of, statement (Kennedy), 91 
Apartheid policy in South Africa, U.S. position, addresses 

(Williams), 117, 888 
Arab states (see also individual countries) refugees, aid 

to, statement (Jones) , 258 
Argentina : 

Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 139,142 
Economic Mission to, U.S., joint communique (Argen- 

tina-U.S.),289 
President Frondizi, meeting with President Kennedy, 

text of joint communique, 719 
Tax reforms in, 445 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic Treaty, 91 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 217, 

574,613,870 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S., 218 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Radio regulations (1959), 386 
Training of economists, U.S. aid, 108 
U.S. relations with, joint communique (Argentina, 
U.S.), 291 
Armaments (see also Disarmament, Military equipment, 
and Nuclear weapons) : 
International reduction and control of : 
Economic resources made available from, statement 

(Stevenson), 365 
U.S. position and proposals : 

Address and statements : McCloy, 416 ; Rusk, 178, 

412, 413, 494 ; Stevenson, 1023, 1027 
Text of U.S. declaration, 651, 652, 653, 654 
Supply to the Congo, need to prevent, statement 
(Stevenson), 1062, 1063 
Armed forces : 

Congo (Lcopoldvillo), need for retraining, statements 

(Stevenson), 1063, 1065 
Disbanding of, joint U.S.-Soviet statement re, 590 
East German, size of, 973 
Force levels for, U.S. proposal, 652, 653 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 501, 530 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



Armed forces — Continued 
In Germany : 
Rights and obligations of, agreement abrogating con- 
vention on, 501 
Status-of-forces agreement, NATO, agreements re, 
349 
NATO, strengthening of, statements (Rusk), 276, 277, 

279. 286 
On foreign soil, U.S. and Soviet views, statement 

(Stevenson), 498 
United Nations permanent armed force. See under 
United Nations 
Armed forces, U.S. : 
Abroad, relations of U.S. Ambassador with, letter 

(Kennedy), 994 
Dominican Republic, stationing of U.S. naval vessels 

near, statement (Morrison), 1002 
In Germany : 
Berlin, increase in, statement (Johnson), 392 
Status of NATO forces in, agreements with Federal 
Republic re, 349 
In Laos, address (Harriman), 86 

Strengthening and buildup, proposed, report and 
statement : Kennedy, 268, 271 ; Rusk, 286 
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, U.S., establish- 
ment of: 
Proposal for, letters, report, and statements: Kennedy, 
99, 646, 762 ; McCloy, 99, 415, 764, 769 ; Rusk, 412, 
492, 705 
Legislation : 
Remarks on signing (Kennedy), 646 
Text of draft bill, 101 
Arrest, arbitrary, U.N. Human Rights Commission pro- 
posal for study of, article (Tree), 128, 130 
Ashford, Howard J., Jr., 778 

Asia, South A.sia, and Southeast Asia {sec also Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization and individual countries) : 

Ambassadorial conference at New Delhi, address 

(Bowles), 479 
Aspirations of and U.S. policy toward, address (John- 
son), 1011 
Communist activities in (see also Laos situation and 
Viet-Nam), address and joint communique: Ken- 
nedy, Khan, 240 ; Rostow, 234, 237 
Economic development. See Colombo Plan 
Newly independent states of, article (Pearcy), 606, 607 
Population problem in, address (Bowles), 741 
Refugees, U.S. aid to, statements (Jones), 258, 384 
Role of Jap^n in, address (McConaughy), 665 
Situation in : 
Statement (Rusk), 749 
U.S.-Japanese joint communique, 57 
Views on communism, address (Lindley), 549 
Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Atlantic Charter, 20th anniversary of signing, exchange 

of telegrams (Churchill, Kennedy), 401 
Atlantic Community (see also North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization) : 
Cooperation in, address and statement: Ball, 842; 
Bowles, 792 

Index, July to December 1 96 J 



Atlantic Community — Continued 
Need to strengthen : 
Italian-U.S. joint communique, 60 
Statement (Rusk), 629 
Status of, report (Kennedy), 272 
Atlantic Fisheries, Northwest. See Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries 
Atomic energy, mutual defense purposes of, agreement 
for cooperation with France : 
Current action, 530, 733 

Request for congressional approval, letters and memo- 
randum, 556 
Text, 559 
Atomic energy, nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of (sec also Atomic Energy 
Agency) : 
Agreements for cooperation : 
Procedures for approval of, Executive order re 

amendment of, 411 
Statement (Seaborg), 645 
With Greece, current action, 574 
U.S. proposal for, address (Rusk), 508 
Uranium 235, increase in availability of, statements: 
Kennedy, 643 ; Seaborg, 644 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
General conference, 5th session, confirmation of U.S. 

representative to, 656 
Statute of and amendment to, 133, 425, 733, 910 
U.S. delegation, appointment of science and technical 

adviser to, 953 
U.S. representatives, confirmation, 93 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., 543, 807 
Atomic radiation. See Radioactive fallout 
Australia : 
Antarctic treat.v, 91 
Austrian state treat.v, 470 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of Israel 

and Argentina, 574 
GATT, schedule I, protocol replacing, 693 
Patent applications, classified, agreement with U.S. 

approving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 733 
Tracking station, agreement with U.S. re establishment 

of, 133 
Ultra-violet survey of southern skies, agreement with 
U.S. re cooperation in joint program for, 349 
Austria : 

Fund for Settlement of Certain Property Losses of 
Political Persecutees, filing of claims against, 553 
Refugees in, migration to Sweden. 568 
Sequestrated property, law regarding release of, enacted, 

252 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities agreement with U.S., agree- 
ment re close-out of collection accounts of, 425 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention and protocol 

on, 306 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 613 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
OECD, convention on, 992 
Refugee housing construction, u.se of counterpart 

funds for, agreement with U.S. re, 826 
State treaty, 470 

1081 



Automotive traffic, inter-Americau, convention (1943) on 

regulation of, with annex, 349 
Aviation : 
Air access to Berlin, U.S. and Soviet positions, report 

and texts of notes, 477, 511, 513 
Air transport : 
International, current problems, statement (Martin), 

684 
Negotiations with : Argentina, 290 ; Canada, 119 ; Ire- 
land, lOCO ; Japan, 108 ; Netherlands, 197 ; Panama, 
554 ; Soviet Union, 163, 197 ; Venezuela, 373, 433 
Responsibilities and liabilities of carriers, Warsaw 
convention and Hague protocol amendment re, 692, 
1033 
U.S. study of policies re, contract for, 815 
Aircraft : 

German Federal Republic, Soviet charge of provoca- 
tive flights by, U.S. reply, texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes, 632 
Hijacking and transport of Eastern Airlines plane to 
Cuba: 
Efforts for return, 334, 335 

Release of, announcement and exchange of notes 
with Cuba, 407 
Seizures or hijacking of, statements (Rusk), 277, 278, 

280, 281 
U.K. sale to Communist China, statement (Rusk), 
1058 
Civil Aviation Organization, International, 261, 869 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air navigation equipment, agreement with Germany 

extending 1955 agreement for lease of, 694 
Air navigation services in Greenland and the Faroe Is- 
lands, amendment of agreement for joint financing 
of, 261 
Air services for West Indies, U.K.-U.S.-West Indies 

agreement re, 118 
Air services transit, international agreement, 777 
Air transport, agreement with New Zealand, 169 
Aircraft, convention for unification of certain rules 

relating to precautionary attachment of, 45 
Aircraft and aircraft parts manufactured in U.S., 

agreement with New Zealand re, 870 
Aircraft operations, relief from double taxation on 

income from, agreement with Colombia for, 349 
Canada-U.S. air .Icfense region of NATO, agreement 

with Canada re improvement, 92 
Certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft, 
agreement with Switzerland re reciprocal accept- 
ance of, 870 
Certificates of airvvorthiness for Lockheed-Azcdrate, 
S.A., planes, agreement U.S.-Mcxico re acceptance 
by U.S., 694 
Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 168, 

349, 809, 1072 
Continental air defense system, agreement with 

Canada re extension and strengthening, 733 
Landing rights for commercial aircraft, agreement 

with Indonesia extending arrangement for, 470 
Rights in aircraft, international recognition of, 380 
TACAN, agreement with Canada relating to addition 
of Cape Dyer to annex of 19.19 agreement re estab- 
lishment, maintenance, and operation of, 694 

1082 



Ayub Khan, Mohammed, 54, 239 

Bahamas, convention on road traffic, 530 
Balance of payments : 
Foreign policy aspects of, statement (Ball), 121 
Japanese and U.S. positions, U.S.-Japanese discussions, 

joint communique, 892 
Restrictions for underdeveloped countries, GATT pro- 
visions concerning, article (Catudal), 36 
U.S. position and steps to improve : 
Address and statement: Dillon, 586; Kennedy, 1041 
Duty-free exemption of U.S. tourists, proposed bill 

to reduce, statement (Martin), 126 
Foreign aid expenditures effects on, address (La- 

bouLsse), 323 
Promotion of U.S. trade, article and report: Rusk, 

198 ; Weiss, 249, 250 
Relation of foreign investments to, address (Martin), 
712 
Balewa, Abubakar Tafawa, 197, 324 
Ball, George W. : 

Address and statements: 

Economic development, problems of, 579 
Foreign economic policy, 298, 838 

International economic imbalance, problem of, 121 
OECD, proposal for 50 percent increase in GNP, 1014 
Appointments : 

Board of Directors of Panama Canal Co., 93 
Chairman, U.S. delegation to GATT textile meeting, 

217, 337 
U.S. representative to GATT Ministerial meeting, 947 
Under Secretary of State. 1072 
Interview for CBS TV program "At the Source," tran- 
script, 838 
Visit to Far East, 130 
Barnes, William, 502 

Baseball gloves. Tariff Commission escape-clause reports 
on. President requests more data on, texts of letters, 
119 
Bases, military, U.S., in Morocco, survey team to study 

conversion for development purposes, 973 
Basutoland, development.s in, address (Williams), 639 
Bechuanaland, developments in, address (Williams), 639 
Been, Omer, 440 
Belgium : 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade prob- 
lems in, 90 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
Eqjiipment and materials, agreement with U.S. re dis- 
position of, 349 
Friendship, establishment, and navigation, treaty 

with U.S., 495, 574, 733 
GATT, declarations on provisions of art. XVI : 4, 

613, 693 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding, 
825 
OECD, convention on, 992 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 

Department of State Bulletin 



•\ 



Belgrade conference of nonalined nations : 
Disarmament position, statements : Rusk, 849 ; Steven- 
son, 1027 
Meeting of representatives witli President Kennedy: 
Proposal for, 518 
Remarks and statements : Keita, 540 ; Kennedy, 540 ; 

Sukarno, 539 
Texts of messages exchanged, 541, 543 
U.S. message to (Kennedy), 478 

U.S. views re, address and statements : Cleveland, 885 ; 
Rusk, 448, 629 
Bell, ,Tolin O., 953 
Berger, Samuel D., 46 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., 218, 288 
Berlin {see also Germany : Reunification of) : 
Addresses, article, correspondence, remarks, and state- 
ments : Ball, 840 ; Bowles, 480, 486 ; Chapman, 895 ; 
Cleveland, 797 ; Bowling, 478 ; Johnson, 391 ; Ken- 
nedy, 107, 223, 224, 267, 268, 272, 395, 440, 540, 
541, 023, 917 : Lindley, 548 ; Miller, 815 ; Rusk, 51, 
53, 54, 55, 56, 112, 113, 114, 145, 146, 179, 180, 
276, 280, 282, 284, 285, 286, 361, 362, 434, 435, 
436, 437, 438, 447, 448, 510, 709, 746, 747, 748, 
750, 803, 804, 805, 846, 847, 919, 922, 923, 925; 
Stevenson, 1023 ; Wehmeyer, 968 ; Williams, 600, 885 
Blockade (1948), article (Wehmeyer), 971 
East Berlin : 
Access of U.S. civilians to, statement (Rusk), 925 
Soviet proposals for, U.S. and Western views, state- 
ment (Kennedy), 224; and text of note, 229 
Use as base for Communist intelligence activities, 

1009 
Western rights in, statement (Rusk), 750 
East German wall closing East-West Berlin border, 
erection of : 
Significance of, address and statements : Ball, 840 ; 

Chapman, 895 ; Miller, 815 
Statements (Rusk), 435, 436, 923 

U.S. and Western protests and Soviet replies, ex- 
change of notes, 395; and letter (Cowling), 478 
Warsaw Pact powers declaration proposing, 400 
Economic sanctions, question of use against Soviet 

Union, U.S. decision, 334 
Free access to Berlin, Western rights, article, notes, 
report, and statements : Rusk, 413, 438 ; text of re- 
port, 477; U.S. notes, 431, 511; Wehmeyer, 969, 
970, 971, 972 
International Court of Justice, question of considera- 
tion by, statement (Rusk), 180 
Khrushchev's problems at home, question of effect on, 

statement (Rusk), 846 
Military tenability of West in, statements (Rusk), 

114, 847 
Mission of Vice President Johnson, remarks and state- 
ments : Johnson, 391 ; Kennedy, 395 ; Rusk, 437 
Negotiations and consultations on : 
Consultations of Western allies : 
Address and statements : Cleveland, 797 ; Rusk, 

53, 146. 147, 447, 448, 804, 919 
Four Power talks (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.), 
communique, 545; statements (Rusk), 286, 361 
NATO Permanent Council meeting, communique, 
361 



Berlin — Continued 

Negotiations and consultations on — Continued 

Exploratory talks with Soviet Union, statements 

(Rusk),709. 804, 805 
Question and possibility of with Soviets, U.S. views, 
addresses and statements : Kennedy, 272, 540, 541, 
917; Lindley, 548; Rusk, 112, 276, 280, 284, 285, 
435, 437, 438, 447, 448, 510, 923 
U.S. consultations with: China, 372; Germany, 967; 
India, 927 : Sudan, 723 
Neutral nations attitude on, statement (Rusk), 437 
President Kennedy's report to the Nation on, 267 
Quadripartite status : 
Text of agreement establishing, 230 
U.S. and Soviet views, article, notes, and statements : 
Rusk, 436, 750; U.S. and Soviet notes, 512, 513; 
Wehmeyer, 970 
Soviet proposals and position : 
Charges and allegations against Western Powers and 
Federal Republic, U.S. refutes, texts of U.S. and 
Soviet notes, 431 
Demilitarized free city proposal, notes and state- 
ment: Kennedy, 223; Soviet notes, 232, 514; U.S. 
notes, 224, 513 
Peace treaty with East Germany, implications of, 
statements and notes : Kennedy, 107, 223 ; Soviet 
note, 231 ; U.S. notes, 225, 512 
Statements : Bowles, 486 ; Kennedy, 267 ; Rusk, 51, 53, 
56, 276, 282, 283, 284, 803, 805; Stevenson, 1023 
United Nations, question of role in, statements (Ru.sk), 

180, 284, 28.5, 437, 709 
U.S. and Western commitments and rights in, addresses, 
messages, note, and statements : Becu, Kennedy, 
440; Kennedy, 541, 623; Rusk, 53, 113, 146, 179, 
434, 803, 80.5, 846, 847; U.S. note, 225; Williams, 
600, 885 
U.S. garrison, increase in, statements: Johnson, 392; 

Rusk, 437 
U.S. request for distribution of views on, Soviet refusal, 

Department statement and texts of notes, 717 
West Berlin: 

East German restrictions on travel to, U.S. views on, 
statement and note: Rusk, 363; text of note, 431, 
432 
Freedom and security of, U.S. and Western commit- 
ments to, address, communiques, note, and state- 
ments: Bowles, 480, 486; Chen-Kennedy, 372; 
Johnson, 391 ; Kennedy, 107, 223, 267, 268, 272, 395 ; 
NATO communique, 361; Rusk, 112, 113, 145, 146, 
276, 282, 284, 361, 805 ; U.S. note, 225 
International wheat agreement (1959), application 

to, 657 
Relations with Federal Republic, U.S. and Soviet 

views re, texts of notes, 512, 514 
Soviet ciarges of interference and subversive activ- 
ities by Federal Republic and U.S., U.S. reply: 
texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 396, 397, 398, 431, 
432, 433, 512, 514 ; Warsaw Pact powers declaration, 
400 
World public opinion re, statement (Rusk), 285 
Bermuda principles on international air transport, 684 
Betio Island, weather station on, agreement with U.K. 
for reopening of, 657 



Index, July fo December 7961 



1083 



Bizerte question : 

General Assembly resolution on, 600 
U.S. views, statements: Stevenson, 498; Yost, 3iS, 344 
Black, Robert B., 778 
Blumentbal, W. Michael, 340 
Boerner, Alfred V., 1073 
Bohlen, Charles E.. 62, 165 
Bolivar, Sim6n, 151 
Bolivia : 

Economic development: 
Appointment of U.S. special representative to assist, 

470 
Pledge of U.S. aid, letters (Estenssoro, Kennedy), 
251 
Political conditions in, remarks (Stevenson), 140 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 1034 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Radio communications between amateur stations on 
behalf of 3d parties, agreement with U.S. re, 870 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 46 
U.S. tin disposal policy, Bolivian concern over, letter 
(Kennedy) replying, 772 
Bonds, German dollar, agreement on validation with Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, 1.33, 169, 306 
Bonin and Ryukyu Islands, U.S.-Japan exchange views on, 

text of communique, 58 
Bontempo, Salvatore A., 306 
Boucher, Albert L., 306 

Boundary and Water Commission (U.S. and Mexico), In- 
ternational, appointment of U.S. commissioner, 449 
Boundary Commission, International (U.S.-Canada), U.S. 

commissioner, swearing in, 732 
Bowen, Howard R., 118 
Bowles, Chester : 
Addresses and statements: 
Alliance for Progress, 739 
Challenges confronting the U.S., 11, 1006 
Economic assistance, objectives and review of, 988 
Foreign policy : 
Problems of, 479 

Regional briefing conferences, 850 
Review and objectives of, 875 
Housing discrimination in Washington, effect of, 154 
United Nations and the Real World, 791 
Cbairuian of regional operations conferences, announce- 
ments, 246, 678 
U.S. representative to 13th ministerial session of Co- 
lombo Plan, 909 
Boxes, paper or wood, agreement with Sweden granting 

compensatory tariff concession on imports, 569 
Brancel, Fred, 1010 
Brandt, Willy, 180 
Brazil : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 745 
Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 140. 142 
Economic development: 

Northeast region, officials to visit U.S. to discuss, 140 
U.S. aid, 190, 444, 1003 



Brazil — Continued 
Military collaboration with U.S., remarks (Berle), 288 
President Quadros, proposed visit to U.S., announce- 
ment, 360 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Extradition, treaty with U.S., 92 

GATT, negotiations for establishment of new sched- 
ule III, procfes verbal and protocol re, 657 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreement re parcel post, 386 
Rare earth sodium sulphates and manganese ores, 
agreement amending agreement with U.S. re settle- 
ment of debt from agreement of 1954 for purchase 
of, 386 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 614 
Brezhnev, Leonid I., 1(54 
Briggs, Frank P., 166 
Briggs, Herbert W., 131 

British East Africa, radio regulations (1959), 261 
British Guiana : 

Question of U.S. aid, statements (Rusk), 443, 444 
Visit of Premier Jagan to U.S., 809 
Broadcasting. Sec Radio 
Bryan, Belton O., 694 

Budget problems, address (Kennedy), 1044 
Bulgaria : 

International telecommunication convention (1959), 

261 
Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, 306 
Burma : 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

1947 agreement with U.S., 530 
Flood victims, U.S. aid, telegram (Kennedy), 612 
Laos situation, visit of Ambassador Harriman for con- 
sultations re, 643 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 349 
Burns, John H., 953 
Burris, Philip H., 6.57 
Butterworth, W. Walton, 470 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic : 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

952 
Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, 306 

Calendar of international conferences and meetings 
{see also subject), 44, 127, 260, 341, 422, 497, 561, 
649, 775, 867, 935, 1022 
Cambodia, highway project, statement (Labouisse), 612 
Cameroun, economic, technical, and related assistance, 

agreement with U.S., 386 
Canada : 
Air services, consultations with U.S. re, announcement 

and joint communique, 119 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade problems 

in, 90 
Imports, quantitative limits on, lack of legislation re, 

337n. 
Inten\ational Boundary Commission (U.S.-Canada,), 

U.S. commissioner, swearing in, 732 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), report 
on water levels of Lake Ontario, released, 1059 



1084 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Canada — Continued 
Niagara River and Falls, construction re, 43, 369 
St. Croix River Basin development, U.S. approval of 

IJO recommendations, 680 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Cape Dyer, agreement with U.S. relating to addition 

to 1959 agreement re TACAN, 694 
Continental air defense system, agreement with U.S. 

re extension and strengthening, 733 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 778 
GATT, declarations re provisions of art. XVI : 4, 

613, 693 
NATO, agreement with U.S. for improving air de- 
fense, furthering defense sharing, and assistance 
to certain governments, 92 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, declaration of under- 
standing re international convention for, 573 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
Pelee Passage area of Lake Erie, agreement with U.S. 

re channel improvement work in, 870 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreement re parcel post, 386 
Surplus property, agreement with U.S. re disposal of, 

574 
Wolfe Island Cut in St. Lawrence River, agreement 
with U.S. re dredging of, 870 
U.S.-Canadian relations and investments, address (Mar- 
tin), 710 
Capitalism, address (Kennedy), 1047 
Captive Nations Week, 1901, proclamation, 325 
Caramanlis, Constantine, 932 
CARE. See Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, 

Inc. 
Cargo, William I., 93 

Caribbean, air services in, U.K.-U.S.-West Indies agree- 
ment re, 118 
Caribbean Commission, agreement establishing termi- 
nated, 656 
Caribbean Organization, agreement for establishment and 

annexed statute, 261, 501, 530 
Castro, Fidel, 281, 314, 1070 

Catholic Congress on Rural Life Problems, Fourth Inter- 
national, 744 
Catudal, Honors M., 35 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Central African Republic: 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation convention (1944), international, 168 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 656 
WMO convention, 169 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 953 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, ICA 

grant to, 83 
Central American customs union, proposed, U.S. views, 

address (Dillon), 360 
Central Treaty Organization, telecommunications system, 

signing of contract for construction, 642 
Ceramic mosaic tile. Tariff Commission escape-clause re- 
port on. President requests more data re, texts of 
letters, 119 

Index, July fo December 1967 



Ceylon : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 523 

GATT tariff negotiations with U.S., results of, 373 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 574, 

657 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, schedule VI, protocol replacing, 694 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Chad, Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 115 
Chapman, Gordon W., 894 
Charter and Declaration of Punta del Este. See Punta 

del Este 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations Char- 
ter 
Cheese, increase in imports from Argentina, joint com- 
munique (Argentina, U.S.), 291 
Chen Cheng, 372 
Chiari, Roberto, 82, 932 

Children, draft convention on protection of infants, ar- 
ticle (Maktos),950 
Children's Fund, U.N. : 
Activities of, address (Bowles), 793 
Support for, statement requesting (Kennedy), 732 
Chile : 

Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 140, 142 
Education, U.S. aid, 772 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1960 agreement, 613 
Antarctic treaty, 91 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Earthquake reconstruction, agreement with U.S. pro- 
viding loan, 470 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Weather facility at Punta Arenas, agreement with 
U.S. re establishment, 574 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 657 
China : 

Failure of U.S. policy in, address (Bowles), 12 
Two-China policy, question of, statement (Rusk), 1057 
China, Communist (see also Communism and Sino-Soviet 
bloc) : 
Border dispute with India, statement (Rusk), 1058 
Economic situation in, joint communique (Chen, Ken- 
nedy), 373 
Failures of Communist system in, address (Johnson), 

1011 
Ideological dispute with Moscow, address and state- 
ments : Bowles, 859 ; Rusk, 179, 803 
Laos situation, Communist role in, statement (Rusk), 

112, 113, 114 
Problem of, address (Bowles), 15, 486, 851, 859 
Representation in the U.N., question of : 

Republic of China-U.S. views, joint communique 

(Chen, Kennedy), 372 
U.S. position, statements (Rusk), 110, 111, 181, 753, 
1057 
Subversive literature In South America, remarks 
(Stevenson), 142 

1085 



China, Communist — Continued 
U.K. sale of aircraft to, statement (Rusk), 105S 
U.S. recognition, question of, statement (Rusli), 113 
China, Republic of : 
Agricultural and industrial production, increase in, 

1012 
50th anniversary of revolution : 

Congratulations on, message (Kennedy), 719 
U.S. stamp commemorating, 372 
Question of recognition of Outer Mongolia, effect on 

U.S.-Chinese relations, statement (Rusk), 181 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 386, 

1034 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Naval vessels, agreement with U.S. for loan, 470 
Publications, conventions concerning exchange of, 46 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
1072 
Visit of Vice President Chen to U.S., joint communique 
(Chen, Kennedy), 372 
Cholera outbreak in Hong Kong, U.S. donation of vaccine, 

449 
Christopher, Warren M., 90, 410, 776 
Chung, II Kwon, 115 
Churchill, Winston, 401 
Cieplinski, Michel, 350, 727 
Cinematography, U.S.-U.S.S.R. Standing Committee on 

Cooperation in the Field of, 680, 770 
Civil aviation. See Aviation 

Civil Aviation Organization, International, 261, 869 
Civil defense, proposed increase in budget for, report 

(Kennedy), 270, 271 
Civil Service Commission, delegation of functions to re 

foreign aid. Executive order, 901 
Civilian persons, Geneva convention (1949) relative to 

protection in time of war, 501, 530 
Claims : 
Against the U.S. : 

Japan, agreement for settlement of claims of dis- 
placed residents of Bonin Islands, 133 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, negotiations 
on land claims in, statement (Coding), 207 
Austria : 
Fund established to settle property losses of political 

persecutees, 553 
Sequestrated property in, legislation on reclaiming, 
252 
U.S. claims against: 
Italy, war damage claims, agreement supplementing 

1957 memorandum of understanding vrith, 350 
Japan, negotiations re damage in Trust Territory of 
the Pacific Islands with, statement (Coding), 208 
Yugoslavia, decision re compensation procedures 
under 1948 agreement, 523 
Clay, Lucius D., 448 
Cleveland, Harlan, 292, 796, 881 
Clover seed, alsike, decision against increasing duty on 

imports, 683 
Coerr, Wymberley DeR., 716 

Coexistence with Sino-Soviet bloc, statement (Rusk), 181 
Coffee, international agreement, U.S. views on, statements 
(DUlon),359, 444 



Coffin, Frank M., 1072 
Cold war : 

Concepts of, statement (Rusk), 805 
Labor's role in, address (Chapman), 894 
Cole, Charles W., 657 

Collective security (see also Mutual defense) : 
Arrangements : 
Pakistan-U.S. views, joint communique (Kennedy, 

Khan), 241 
Strengthening and reappraisal of, statement (Rusk), 
454 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. See Southeast 

Asia Treaty Organization 
Europe. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Latin America. See Organization of American States 
Near and Middle East. See Central Treaty Organiza- 
tion 
Collet, Michel, 491 
Colombia : 
Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 141, 142 
Education system, U.S. aid, 317 
ICEM technical assistance, 566 

OAS Foreign Ministers meeting on extracontinental in- 
tervention, i^roposal for, 1058, 1069 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Relief from double taxation on earnings from opera- 
tions of ships and aircraft, agreement with U.S. 
for, 349 
Visit of President Kennedy, proposed, 1059 
Colombo Plan : 
10th anniversary of, statement (Kennedy), 144 
13th Ministerial session : 
Statement (Bowles), 988 
U.S. representatives to, 909 
Colonialism (see also Self-determination and Trust ter- 
ritories) : 
Decline of, addre.sses : Cleveland, 204 : Stevenson, 69 
Emergence of new nations since 1931, address 

(Bohlen), 63 
U.S. position, address (Kennedy), 623 
Commerce, Department of: 

Foreign aid, delegation of functions to. Executive order, 

901 
Italian liberalization of controls on U.S. imports, joint 
statement with Departments of Agriculture and 
State, 33 
Role in implementing international textile agreement, 

letter (Kennedy), 773 
Role in promoting U.S. foreign commorce, report 
(Rusk), 198,199 
Commercial agreements. See Trade : Treaties 
Commercial samples and advertising material, interna- 
tional convention to facilitate importation of, 693 
Committee on Development Plans (inter-American), pro- 
posed, 359 
Commodity trade problems {see also Agricultural sur- 
pluses and individual commodity) : 



1086 



Departmeni of Sfofe Bulletin 



Commodity trade problems — Continued 
Asian, U.S. views re, address (Jolinson), 1013 
Latin American : 
Charter of Punta del Este proposals re, 468 
U.S. views and efforts, statements (Dillon), 359, 444 
Less developed and newly developing countries, address 

and statements : Ball, 123, 301 ; Stevenson, 367 
U.S. views, statement (Ball), 583 
Common marljets {see also European Economic Commu- 
nity ; European Economic Cooperation, Organization 
for ; European Free Trade Association ; and Latin 
American Free Trade Association) : 
Emergence of and U.S. policy, addresses and article : 
Bowles, 792; Dillon, 360; Rusk, 703; Weiss, 248 
GATT application to, article (Catudal), 38 
Communications. See Radio ; Satellites : Communica- 
tion; and Telecommunications 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Germany, 
East; Sino-Soviet bloc; and Soviet Union) : 
Aggression and subversive activities : 
Africa, address (Williams), 27, 862 
East Berlin, 1009, 1010 

Less developed countries, address (Rostow), 233 
South Asia, Joint communique (Khan, Kennedy), 240 
U.N. role in combatting, address (Sisco), 160 
Use of trade union movement for, addresses : Chap- 
man, 895 ; Kennedy, 1048, 1049 ; Williams, 27 
Viet-Nam, letter and statements : Kennedy, 810 ; Rusk, 
920, 921, 922, 1053, 1055 
Asian views on, address (Lindley), 549 
Cuba, takeover in and threat and activities in Latin 
America, address, remarks, report, and statements : 
Berle, 288; Farland, 79; Morrison, 1069; Rostow, 
234 ; Rusk, 149, 281, 749, 1057 ; Stevenson, 141, 142, 
143, 312, 314, 315 
Differences within Communist bloc, address and state- 
ments : Bowles, 859 ; Rusk, 179, 803 
Doctrine of inevitable revolution, address and state- 
ments : Bohlen, 64 ; Rusk, 283, 848 
Doctrine re capitalist societies, address (Bowles), 795 
Failures of, addresses, remarks, and statements : Ball, 
840 ; Berle, 289 ; Bowles, 744 ; Chapman, 895 ; John- 
son, 1011 ; Miller, 815 
Free world ideological struggle with, address (Coombs), 

980 
Imperialism and objectives, addresses and statements : 
Bowles, 854; Farland, 78; Kennedy, 1040; Rusk, 
177, 182, 451, 454, 455, 751 
International challenge and threat of and efforts to 
combat, addresses, communique, letter, report, and 
statements : Bowles, 877, 878, 879, 880 ; Chen, 372 ; 
Dillon, 253 ; Kennedy, 268, 372 ; Lindley, 547 ; Mc- 
Conaughy, 634 ; Rusk, 253, 846 
Newly developing nations, exploitation of situation in, 

address (Khan), 245 
Peruvian views, address (Prado),677 
Propaganda. See Propaganda 
Refugees : 
Communist activities in field of, remarks (Cieplinskl), 

728 
U.S. support of programs for, statements (Jones), 
258, 381, 382, 383 
Strategy of, addresses : Kennedy, 2, 4 ; Lindley, 547 

Index, July to December 1967 



Communism — Continued 
22d Congress of Communist Party, Khrushchev address 
to, U.S. views, address and statements : Chapman, 
895 ; Rusk, 746, 753, 803 
Conferences and organizations, international (see also 
sul)ject), calendar of meetings, 44, 127, 260, 341, 422, 
497, 561, 649, 775, 867, 935, 1022 
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville), universal postal con- 
vention (1957), 261 
Congo, Republic of the ( Leopold ville) : 
Agricultural development, U.S. aid, 554 
Armed forces, need for retraining of, statements 

(Stevenson), 1063,1065 
Government, formation of and question of type of, ad- 
dress and statement : Rusk, 1057 ; Williams, 670 
Situation in. See Congo situation 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 973, 

1072 
Civil aviation convention ( 1944 ) , international, 349 
Cultural property, convention and protocol for pro- 
tection in event of armed conflict, 45 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
IAEA, statute of, 733 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 386 
U.S. policy. Department statement, 550 
Congo situation : 

Foreign military assistance and mercenaries in, need 
for cessation, statements (Stevenson), 1062, 1064, 
1066 
Katanga Province, secession of and hostilities in : 
Cease-fire, need for, statements : Department, 550 ; 

Rusk, 630, 1056 
Developments re, address and statement : Stevenson, 

1062 ; Williams, 670 
Reintegration of, U.S. support for, statements : Rusk, 

1053, 1057; Stevenson, 1062, 1064, 1065 
U.N. action and efforts : 
Texts of resolutions, 1067, 1068 
U.S. support, statements: Department, 856; Rusk, 
1053, 1055, 1056 ; Stevenson, 1061 
Nigeria-U.S. views, joint communique (Balewa, Ken- 
nedy), 325 
Orientale Province, Gizenga activities in, statement 

(Stevenson), 1061, 1062, 1063 
Security Council consideration, statements (Stevenson) 

and texts of resolutions, 1061, 1068 
Soviet activities and position, address, statements, 
and note : Cleveland, 799 ; Soviet note, 188 ; Steven- 
son, 1066, 1067 ; Williams, 669, 671 
U.N. operation in : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : Bowles, 794 ; 
Rusk, 1056; Sisco, 160, 161; Stevenson, 598, 599, 
1061 ; Williams, 669 
Cost of, addresses (Stevenson), 784, 962 
Indian-U.S. contributions, text of joint communique 

(Kennedy, Nehru), 928 
U.S. contribution and support, address and state- 
ments : Rusk, 920, 1056 ; Williams, 671 
Congress, U.S. : 
Address to joint session by President Prado of Peru, 
676 

1087 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 

Control of aid appropriations, question of, address 

(Labouisse), u23 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists of, 42, 75, 
ir,-, 200, 259, ;i04, 3S5, 4.5S, 4S)G, G48, CSS, 774, 1021, 
1000 
Legislation : 

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, establish- 
ing: 
Letters, remarks, report, and statement: Kennedy, 
99, 646, 762 ; McCloy, 99, 415, 764, 769 ; Rusk, 412, 
492 
Text of draft bill, 101 
Cultural and educational affairs, international, ad- 
dresses : Coombs. 331 : Kennedy, (503 ; Miller, 813 
Foreign aid, long-term authorization for, 401, 492 
Immigration and Nationality Act, amending, remarks 

(Cieplinski), 728 
Investment guaranty program, authorizing, 897 
Peace Corps, establishing, 603 
Legislation, proposed : 
Aid to : Aged, education, unemployed, public works, 

and youth, address (Kennedy), 1049, 1950 
Duty-free exemption of U.S. tourists, proposing reduc- 
tion of. Department support, statement (Martin), 
126 
Foreign aid program, 200, 253, 275 
Industrial property convention, Lisbon revision, bUl 

to implement, statement (Hadraba), 125 
Lead and zinc imports, increasing tariffs on, 340, 646 
Military and civil defense programs, proposed in- 
crease in budget, report (Kennedy), 269, 270, 271 
Oil pollution convention (1954), proposed bill to 

implement, statement (Lister), 304 
Refugee aid programs, draft bill to centralize au- 
thority to conduct and support, letter (Kennedy), 
255 
Taxation on investments abroad, address (Kennedy), 

1043 
U.S. foreign commerce. Department views on bill to 
promote, report (Rusk), 198 
Presidential messages, reports, etc. See Kennedy: 

Message and letters to Congress 
Senate approval requested for : 
Treaty of amity and economic relations with Viet- 

Nam, 496 
Treaty of friendship, establishment, and navigation 
with Belgium, statement (Kerr), 495 
Senate report on U.S. and world trade, background and 

recommendations of, article (Weiss), 250, 251 
Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy, A New 
Look at Trade Policy Toward the Communist Bloc: 
The Elements of a Common Strategy for the West, 
report released, 923, 924 
Conrad, William E. F., 778 
Conservation of living resources of high seas, convention 

on. 425 
Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Devel- 
opment in South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo 
Plan 
Contiguous zone and territorial sea, convention on, 425, 
869 



Continental shelf, convention on, 869 

Contingency fund, request for funds for, statement 

(Rusk), 454 
Control Commission for Viet-Nam, International, opera- 
tion and effectiveness of, statements (Rusk), 021, 922, 
1056 
Cook, Mercer, 169 

Coombs, Philip H., 193, 326, 691, 822, 978 
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Inc., 82 
Cooperatives, encouragement of use of in development, 

83, 450, 933, 977 
Cooperatives, Special Advisory Committee on, 450, 933 
Copyright convention, universal, and protocols 1, 2, and 3, 

45, 91, 869, 1033 
Cosgrove, John P., 178 
Costa Rica : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 1059 
Education program, U.S. aid, 317 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention of, 
final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Cotton imports, U.S. : 
Investigation of duty on requested, letter (Kennedy), 

1021 
Proclamation imposing restrictions on, 555 
Cotton Textile Committee, Provisional : 
Establishment, 336, 337, 528 
First meeting : 
Text of communique, 906 
U.S. delegation, 776 
Cotton textiles : 

India-U.S. exchange views on trade in, 681 
International trade in, arrangements re: 
Address (Ball), 302 

Current actions, 528, 693, 778, 826, 870, 1034 
GATT meeting on, 90, 217, 302 
Interagency machinery to implement, establishment 

of, letter (Kennedy), 773 
Text of agreement on, 336 
Japanese, exports to U.S. : 
Addresses : Ball, 301 ; Rusk, 55 
Bilateral agreement regarding: 
Current action, 826 
Text of, 571 

U.S. delegation for negotiation of, 410 
Court of Justice, International. See International Court 

of Justice 
Crawford, William A., 1073 
Crosscurrents Press, 717, 718 
Cuba: 

Communist takeover and threats to inter-American 

system. See Communism : Cuba 
Developments in, address (Farland), 79 
Dominican situation, charge of U.S. intervention in, 

statement (Morrison), 1000 
Government in arms in exile, U.S. views on, 716 
lA-ECOSOC conference at Punta del Este, activities 

at, statements (Dillon), 442, 461 
IBRD, withdrawal from, 411 

Peruvian and Colombian proposals for hemispheric 
action on, statements (Rusk), 747, 807, 920 



1088 



Department of State Bulletin 



Cuba^Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, international recognition of rights in, con- 
vention on, 386 
Narcotic drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under inter- 
national control drugs outside scope of 1931 con- 
vention, 306 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
tJ.S.-Cuban relations : 
Cuban charges against U.S. in General Assembly, 
U.S. reply to, statements: Rusk, 807; Stevenson, 
731 
Free transportation for Cubans with visas or waiv- 
ers. Department announcement, 238 
Hijacliing or seizures of aircraft : 
Exchange of Electra airplane for Cuban naval ves- 
sel, announcement and exchange of notes, 407 
Statements : Department, 334, 335 ; KusIj, 277, 278, 
280, 281 
Refugees in U.S., HEW program of aid to, statement 

(Jones), 259 
Travel in Cuba, restrictions on and warning to U.S. 

citizens re. Department announcement, 108 
U.S. relations and policy, statements: Dillon, 461; 
Rusk, 149, 181, 439 
Culbertson, Robert E., 533 

Cultural relations and programs {see also Educational 
exchange and Exchange of persons) : 
African culture, need for appreciation and understand- 
ing, address (Williams), 117 
Importance of , statement (Rusk), 182, 183 
Japanese-U.S., formation of joint committees re : 
Addresses (McConaughy), 635, 666 
Text of communique, 58 
Legislation enacted re, addresses and remarks: Coombs, 
326, 327, 329, 331, 982 ; Kennedy, 603 ; Miller, 813 
Moscow International Film Festival, U.S. delegation, 

131 
Role of State Department in, address (Miller), 811 
Soviet-U.S. exchanges : 

Discussions re, Department announcement, 333 
Exchange of films, joint committee review of and 
proposals re, 680, 770 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol 
(1956) for protection in event of armed conflict, 
45, 92, 217, 386 
Educational, scientific and cultural materials, agree- 
ment and protocol on importation of, 425 
Currency convertibility, IMF activities, statement (Dil- 
lon), 584,587 
Customs (see also Tariff policy) : 
Duty-free exemption of U.S. tourists, reduction of, pro- 
posed, statement (Martin), 126 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on temporary 

importation of, 217, 425, 952 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 217, 385, 910, 992 
Customs unions (see also Common markets), application 
of GATTto, article (Catudal), 38 



Cyprus: 

Air services transit, international agreement, 777 
Technical cooperation, agreement with U.S., 164, 262 
Czayo, George M., 470 
Czechoslovakia : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Continental shelf, convention on, 869 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of 

Argentina to, 218 
High seas, convention on, 869 

Industrial property, convention of Paris for protec- 
tion of, 870 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 
869 
U.N. official, U.S. requests departure of, texts of notes, 

66 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 350 

DAG. See Development Assistance Group 
Dahomey : 

Economic, technical, and related assistance, agreement 

with U.S., 133 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 169 
Darlington, Charles F., 614 
Daughters, Donald L., 94 
Dean, Arthur H., 375, 440, 476, 936 
Declaration of Punta del Bste, 462, 742 
Declaration of San Jos6, 564 

Defense (see also Collective security. Military base, and 
Mutual defense) : 
Brazilian-U.S. collaboration on, remarks (Berle), 288 
Communications satellite contribution to, statement 

(Farley), 420 
Expenditures in Latin America, need for review of, 

statement (Dillon), 359 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent appli- 
cations have been filed, agreement for safeguarding, 
777, 825, 952 
NATO research activities re, article (Spielman), 522 
U.S.-Canadian agreement for improving air defense, 
furthering defense sharing, and assistance to cer- 
tain NATO governments, 92 
U.S. commitments, relation to trade problems, address 
(Kennedy), 1042 
Defense, Department of: 

Forces abroad, relations of U.S. Ambassador to, letter 

(Kennedy), 994 
Foreign aid program, delegation of functions to re, 

Executive order and letter (Kennedy), 679, 900 
Relationship with Disarmament Agency, statements 

(MeCloy, Rusk), 414, 417 
Role in formulation of foreign policy, statement 

(Rusk), 179 
State Department: 
Cooperation between, statement (Ru.sk), 457 
Exchange of key personnel between, 92 
Democracy, addresses, remarks, and statement: Cleve- 
land, 797, 881 ; Louchheim, 725 ; Rusk, 147 
Denmark : 

Copyright convention, universal, and protocols 1 and S, 
1033 



Index, July to December 1967 



1089 



Denmark — Continued 

Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade in, 

870 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, general conven- 
tion (182C) with U.S., terminated, 169 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty with U.S. 
with protocol and minutes of interpretation, 92, 132, 
169, 300 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent applica- 
tions have been filed, agreement for safeguarding, 
952 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
De Oliveira Campos, Eoberto, 745 
Department of Agriculture, 33 

Department of Commerce. See Commerce, Department of 
Department of Defense. See Defense, Department of 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 259 
Department of State. See State Department 
Department of the Treasury, 614, 901 

Dependent territories {see also Colonialism and Trust ter- 
ritories), acquisition of independence in, article 
(Pearcy), 604 
De Tocqueville, Alexis, 797 

Development Act, International, 1901, 321, 941 
Development Advisory Service, IBRD, 581 
Development Assistance Committee, role of, statement 

(Ball), 581 
Development Assistance Group (DAG) : 
Chairman (Riddleberger), appointed, 10 
5th meeting (Tokyo) : 
Announcement of, 130 
Text of communique, 302 
Role of, address and statements: Ball, 122, 300; De- 
partment, 10 
Development Association, International : 
Articles of agreement, 501, 656, 1033 
Demands on, statement (Ball), 581 
Development Bank, Inter-American, social progress trust 

fund of, 92, 359 
Development Loan Committee, establishment. Executive 

order on, 901 
Development Loan Fund, abolition of. Executive order on, 

900 
Dillon, Douglas, 253, 318, 356, 441, 460, 584 
Diplomacy, remarks and statements : Rusk, 282, 287 ; 

Stevenson, 403, 405 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 

Czech U.N. official, departure from U.S. requested, 66 
Discrimination against, U.S. efforts to eliminate, 154, 

551, 671 
Hospitality to, discussions with State officials re, 32 
Presentation of credentials : Brazil, 745 ; Ceylon, 523 ; 
Chad, 115; Costa Rica, 1059; India, 599; Korea, 
115; Laos, 745; Liberia, 745; Nepal, 362; Poland, 
238 ; Portugal, 543 ; Sierra Leone, 238 
Protection and courtesy, U.S. campaign to insure, 491 
Travel in U.S., efforts to encourage and exi)and, 552 
Diplomatic recognition and relations : 

Cuban government in exile, U.S. policy on recognition, 

statement and telegram (Coerr, Reap) , 716 
Kuwait, establishment of with, 588 



Diplomatic recognition and relations — Continued 
New states or governments, list of U.S. actions since 

1953 recognizing, 716 
Syrian Arab Republic, TJ.S. recognition of, 715 
Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, 306 
Diplomatic representatives abroad, U.S. See Foreign 

Service 
Disarmament (see also Armaments, Arms Control and 
Disarmament Agency, Nuclear weapons, and Outer 
space) : 
Belgrade conference of nonalined nations, views on, 

statement (Stevenson), 1027 
Complete and general disarmament, new U.S. proposal 
submitted to General Assembly : 
Addresses and letter: Kennedy, 620; Rusk, 704; 

Stevenson, 650 
Text of proposed declaration, 650 
Disengagement proposals re Europe, U.S. views, state- 
ments (Rusk), 752 
Economic resources and problems from, statement 

(Stevenson), 365 
Indian-U.S. views, joint communique, 928 
International disarmament organization, U.S. proposal 

for, 651, 653 
Italian-U.S. views, joint communique, 60 
Japanese-U.S. views, joint communique, 58 
Need for treaty on, address (Stevenson), 963 
Negotiations : 

Forum for, composition of (see also U.S.-Soviet ex- 
exchange infra), General Assembly res. re, 1031; 
statement (Stevenson), 1029; and U.S. memoran- 
dum, 591 
History of, review of, statement (Stevenson), 1024 
Need for preparation and planning, statements : Mc- 

Cloy, 415 ; Rusk, 412, 413, 494 
Soviet proposal to merge test ban negotiations with, 

Soviet aide memoire, 23 ; U.S. note, 21 
U.S. efforts, review of, letters and reports (Kennedy, 

Mcaoy),762 
U.S.-Soviet exchange of views re : 

McCloy-Khrushchev talks, statement (Rusk) , 279 
Moscow meeting, joint statement of agreed prin- 
ciples, report to General Assembly, and U.S. 
memorandums and letters, 589; report on (Mc- 
01oy),766 
Washington meeting, joint communiques, 57, 106; 
statement (Rusk), 56 
Soviet position and proposals : 
Address, remarks, and statements: Berle, 288; 
Bowles, 795; McCloy, 416, 766; Rusk, 147, 148, 
704 ; Stevenson, 1025 
Texts of Soviet aide memoire, declaration, and note, 
24, 189, 518 
Sudanese-U.S. views, joint communique, 723 
U.S. position and proposals: 
Addresses, letters, report, and statements : Cleveland, 
800 ; Kennedy, 542. 620, 762 ; McCloy, 415, 595, 766 ; 
Rusk, 147, 148, 178, 412, 413, 494, 509, 704, 752, 849 ; 
Stevenson, 365, 404, 650, 789, 963, 1024 
Texts of U.S. declaration, memorandums, and notes, 
21, 185, 591, 650 
Disarmament agency, U.S. See Arms Control and Dis- 
armament Agency, U.S. 



1090 



Department of State Bulletin 



Disarmfiruent Commission, U.N., U.S. proposal for re- 
sumption of disarmament negotiations, 591 
Discrimination. See Racial relations 
Disputes, peaceful settlement of, U.S. position, address 

(Cleveland), 800 
District of Columbia Housing Committee, 154 
Documents, foreign public {see also Publications), draft 

convention on legalization, article (Maktos), 949 
Dollar bonds, German, agreement re validation with Fed- 
eral Republic of Germany, 133, 169, 306 
Dominican Republic : 

IBRD, witbdrav^al from, 411 
Situation in : 
Cuban charges of U.S. intervention in, U.S. reply, 

statement (Morrison), 1000 
Developments and U.S. views, statements : Depart- 
ment, 1003; Morrison, 500, 1001; Rusk, 931, 1054, 
1035 ; Woodward, 929 
OAS role, statements : Morrison, 500, 1000 ; Rusk, 54, 
56 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 

protocol amending convention on, 910 
IFC, articles of agreement, 1033 
International Bank, articles of agreement, 612 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
U.S. consulate at Ciudad Trujillo, redesignated Con- 
sulate General, 523 
Double taxation on income from operation of ships and 
aircraft, agreement with Colombia for relief from, 
349 
Dowling, Walter C, 478 
Downs, William R., 145, 838 
Drozniak, Edward, 238 
Drugs, narcotic : 

Manufacture and distribution of, convention (1931) 

limiting and regulating, 349, 693 
Opium, production, trade, and use of : 
Convention (1912) and protocols relating to, 693 
Protocol (1953) regulating, 92 
Protocol (1946) amending agreements, conventions, 

and protocols re, 993 
Protocol (1948) bringing under international control 
drugs outside the scope of 1931 convention, 92, 306, 
349, 693, 993 
Duggan, William R., 1072 
Duke, Angier Biddle, 154, 1004 
Duncan, John P., Jr., 90S 
Dunlavey, Ronald, 845 
Dutton, Frederick G., 1072 

Duty-free exemption, reduction of U.S. tourists'. Depart- 
ment support of bill for, statement (Martin), 126 

Earthquake reconstruction and rehabilitation, agreement 

with Chile providing loan for, 470 
Eastern Air Lines, hijacked plane, 334, 335, 407 
East-West contacts, need for expansion of, address 

(Bowles), 856 
ECE. See Economic Commission for Europe, U.N. 
ECLA. See Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N. 

Index, July to December 1961 



Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Achievements of, statement (Klutznick), 939 

Committee for Industrial Development, 939, 942 

Documents, lists of, 132, 167, 424, 777, 909 

Problems confronting, statement (Stevenson), 363 
Economic and social development {see also Economic and 
technical aid. Foreign aid programs, and Less devel- 
oped countries) : 

Africa. See under Africa 

Cooperatives, encouragement of use of, 83, 450, 933, 977 

Demand for, address and statement ; Ball, 839 ; Cleve- 
land, 293 

GATT provision for encouraging, article (Catudal), 36 

Latin America. See Alliance for Progress 

Long-range financing and planning, addresses, letter, 
and statements : Bowles, 18 ; Cleveland, 295, 797 ; 
Dillon, 253, 357, 443, 445, 446 ; Kennedy, 5, 355, 401, 
492 ; Labouisse, 322 ; Rusk, 253, 277, 705 

Need for balance in programs, statement (Stevenson), 
363 

OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development 

Problems of, addresses and statement: Ball, 579; Mar- 
tin, 715 ; Stevenson, 757 

Programs of and U.S. cooperation with : Argentina, 289, 
290, 719 ; Bolivia, 251 ; Brazil, 196 ; British Guiana, 
809; China, 373; Cyprus, 164; Ghana, 153; Hon- 
duras, 350 ; Japan, 636 ; Korea, 929 ; Liberia, 809 ; 
Nigeria, 155, 325 ; Pakistan, 164, 241 ; Panama, 81, 
728 ; Sudan, 723 ; Tanganyika, 297 ; Viet-Nam, 28 ; 
West Indies, 252 

Research and talented leadership in, importance, ad- 
dresses and statement : Cleveland, 296 ; Klutznick, 
944 ; Rusk, 9 

Role of education in : 
Addresses, remarks, and statement : Coombs, 193, 822 ; 

Rusk, 820 ; Stevenson, 365 
OECD conference to discuss, 691 

Self-help concept, addresses and remarks : Bowles, 17, 
740, 742, 743 ; Cleveland, 296 ; Labouisse, 321 ; Rusk, 
9 ; Stevenson, 142, 759 

South and Southeast Asia. See Colombo Plan 

Trust Territory of Pacific Islands, review of progress 
in, statements (Coding), 203, 206, 214, 215 

U.N. role in, U.S. proposals and views, addresses (Cleve- 
land) , 297, 799, 800 

U.S. policy, addresses and remarks: Cleveland, 295; 
Labouisse, 319, 321, 322, 323 ; Rusk, 627 ; Williams, 
155 

Western leadership and cooperation, need for, ad- 
dresses : Cleveland, 296 ; Labouisse, 321 ; Rusk, 177, 
178 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see also 
Agency for International Development, Agricultural 
surpluses. Alliance for Progress, Colombo Plan, Ex- 
port-Import Bank, Foreign aid programs, Inter- 
American Development Bank, International Bank, 
International Cooperation Administration, Interna- 
tional Development Association, International Fi- 
nance Corporation, and United Nations: Technical 
assistance programs) : 

Addresses and statements : Bowles, 483, 484, 988 ; Cleve- 
land, 295 ; Rostow, 236 ; Rusk, 6 

1091 



Economic and technical aid — Continued 

Aid to : Afghanistan, 84 ; Africa, 153, 865, 975 ; Brazil, 
1003 ; Cameioun, 3S6 ; Colombia, 316 ; Colombo Plan 
area, 989; Costa Eica, 316; Cyprus, 164, 262; Da- 
homey, 133; Ecuador, 169, 316; El Salvador, 316; 
Honduras, 316, 350 ; Malagasy Kepublic, 262 ; Niger, 
92; Pakistan, 245; Panama, 729; Paraguay, 734; 
Thailand, 118 ; U.K., 262 ; Upper Volta, 92 
Bilateral and multilateral basis of, statement (Ball), 

839 
Continuation of, need for, letter to Congress (Dillon, 

Rusk), 253 
Financial limit on, question of, address (Bowles), 482 
ICEM activities, article (Warren) , 566, 567 
Italian-U.S. discussions re, joint communique, 60 
Japanese-U.S. discussions re, texts of joint comumni- 

ques, 58, 892, 893 
Problems of, DAG communique, 304 
Procurement policy for, 903, 1042 
Soviet-bloc aid, addresses, and statements : Ball, 841 ; 

Kennedy, 5; Labouisse, 320; Rusk, 149, 805 
Yugoslavia, U.S. policy, statement (Rusk), 750 
Economic and technical cooperation, agreements with 

Honduras, 350 
Economic and Trade Affairs, Joint United States-Japan 
Committee on: 
Establishment of: 

Agreement on, texts of communique and notes, 57 
Current action, 92 
First meeting of, delegations, statement (Rusk), and 

text of joint communique, 890 
Role of, addresses : Ball, 299 ; McConaughy, 635 
Economic Commission for Europe, U.N., 21st session of 
Housing Committee of, U.S. delegate and advisers, 90 
Economic Commission for Latin America, U.N., use of 

advisory groups for planning, 944 
Economic Development Institute, IBRD, 580 
Economic Integration, Central American Bank for, ICA 

grant to, 83 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (.see also individual 
countries) : 
Aid to foreign countries. See Economic and technical 

aid 
Domestic economy : 

Challenges to, address (Bowles), 1007 
Business and government cooperation, address (Ken- 
nedy), 1040 
Expansion of, need and efforts for, addresses: Ball, 

299, 300; Kennedy, 1049 
Foreign aid procurement policy, 903, 1042 
Japanese-U.S. discussions re, 892 
Status of, report and statements : Ball, 1015 ; Dillon, 
585 ; Kennedy, 270 ; Stevenson, 364 
Foreign economic policy : 
Address (Ball), 298 

Balance-of-payments problem. See Balance of pay- 
ments 
Foreign aid program. See Foreign aid 
State Department role, statement (Rusk), 457 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Economic relations and amity, treaty with Viet-Nam, 495, 
496, 574, 734, 866, 870, 1034 



Economic sanctions, decision against application to Soviet- 
bloc countries. Department statement, 334 
Ecuador : 
AUiance-for-Progress projects announced for, 317 
Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 141 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, protocol for protection in event of 

armed conflict, 92 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention and protocol, 

306 
Economic assistance, agreement with U.S. providing, 

169 
Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1956 agreement for financing, 910 
IDA, articles of agreement, 1033 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Publications and documents, convention for exchange 
of, 656 
U.S. Operations Mission, appointment of director, 94 
Education {see also Cultural relations and programs. Edu- 
cational exchange, and Exchange of persons) : 
Africa : 

Need for, addresses (Williams), 72, 741, 864 
U.S. aid and interest, addresses (Williams), 116, 153 
Economic development, importance of and role in : 
Addresses, remarks, and statement : Coombs, 193, 822 ; 

Rusk, 820 ; Stevenson, 365 
OBCD conference to discuss, 691 
Federal aid to, need for, address (Kennedy), 1050 
Foreign students in the U.S. See Foreign students in 

the United States 
Grant to University of Iceland, 680 
Importance in understanding world problems, address 

(Rowan), 984 
Indian Institute of Technology, formation of U.S. edu- 
cational consortium to aid, 927 
International education affairs, role of State Depart- 
ment in, address (Miller), 811 
Land-grant colleges, role of, addresses and message: 

Coombs, 978 ; Kennedy, 979 ; Rowan, 984 
Latin America : 
Need for, message and statement : Dillon, 358 ; Ken- 
nedy, 355 
U.S. aid, 108, 317, 771 
Less developed countries, need for and problems of, ad- 
dresses and remarks: Coombs, 193, 328, 330, 825; 
Rusk, 705 
Programs in Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, 
statements : Goding, 206, 214 ; Nakayama, 209, 210 
Public, 24th international conference on, U.S. delegation, 

131 
Responsibility of educated men, address (Kennedy), 699 
Women, UNESCO activities in promotion of, article 
(Tillett),348 
Educational, cultural, and scientific cooperation, U.S.- 
Japan agree to form committees, text of communique, 
58 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agreement 
and protocol on importation of, 425 



1092 



Department of State Bulletin 



Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, D.N. : 
Constitution of, current action, 1034 
Infoi'mation media in less develojied countries, develop- 
ment and study of. article (Tree), 128, 129 
Study on education of women, article (Tillett), 348 
Educational Commission in Turl^ey, U.S., agreement 

amending 1946 agreement establishing, 46 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Cultural relations, Education, and Exchange of per- 
sons) : 
Accomplishments and proposed improvements, address 

(Coombs), 329 
Agreements with : Burma, 530 ; Ecuador, 910 ; Ethiopia, 
1071; Iran, 425; Nepal, 262; Paraguay, 262; Thai- 
land, 306 
Educational Exchange, U.S. Advisory Commission on, 59 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
EFTA. See European Free Trade Association 
Egger, Rowland A., 449 
El Salvador : 
AUiance-f or-Progress project announced for, 317 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 449, 

502 
Peace Corps program, agreement with U.S. estab- 
lishing, 1034 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 3S6 
U.S. AID Mission, designation of director, 820 
Emergency Force, U.N., unpaid bills of, addresses ( Steven- 
son), 784,962 
Escapee Program, U.S., statements (Jones), 258, 383 
Establishment, friendship, and navigation, treaty with 

Belgium, 495, 574, 733 
Estenssoro, Victor Paz, 252 
Ethiopia: 
Educational exchange program, agreement with U.S., 

1071 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Europe (see also individual countries and European or- 
ganizations) : 
Migration from. See Intergovernmental Committee for 

European Migration 
Neutral or buffer zone proposal, U.S. views re, state- 
ments (Rusk), 752, 847 
Refugees, improved status of and U.S. support of pro- 
grams for, letter and statements : Jones, 257, 258, 
381, 383; Kennedy, 256 
Security of («ee also North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion), question of negotiations on, statements 
(Rusk), 752, 753 
Soviet setbacks in, address (Bowles), 858 
U.N. Economic Commission for, U.S. delegate and ad- 
visers to 21st session of Housing Committee, 90 
U.S. ties with and policy toward, address (Bowles), 483 
Unity of : 
Address (Bowles), 792 

U.S.-German support, text of communique, 968 
Visit of Secretary Rusk for consultations, 276, 278, 361 
Western Europe : 
Economic recovery, U.S. aid, address (Bowles), 14 
Trade policies, U.S. views, statement (Ball), 124 

Index, July to December 7967 

639744—62 3 



Europe — Continued 

Western Europe — Continued 
U.S. investment in, addresses (Kennedy), 1043, 1051 
European Advisory Commission, 969 

European Communities, U.S. representative to, confirma- 
tion, 470 
European Economic Community : 

Commission of, participation in meetings of textile-con- 
suming nations, 90 
Development and progress, U.S. views, address and 

statements : Ball, 841 ; Kennedy, 1045, 1052 
Trade with : 

Japan and Latin America, concern over, address, re- 
port, and statement: Dillon, 360; Kennedy, 1046; 
Stevenson, 316 
U.S., need for revision of U.S. policy, addresses : John- 
son, 1014 ; Kennedy, 1045, 1051 ; Rusk, 707 
U.S. support and views, address, article, and statement : 

Ball, 124 ; Bowles, 488 ; Weiss, 248, 249 
United Kingdom, question of membership of, address 
and statements : Bowles, 488 ; Kennedy, 362 ; Rusk, 
179 
European Economic Cooperation, Organization for, work- 
ing party on payments, statement (Ball) , 122 
European Free Trade Association, tariff policy of, state- 
ment (Ball), 124 
European Migration, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration 
Evans, John W., 947 

Examination, Foreign Service, announced, 532 
Exchange of persons program (see also Educational ex- 
change) : 
Actors and film specialists, U.S.-Soviet, memorandum 

of agreement proposing, 771 
Types of, address (MiUer), 812 

U.S. and Japanese governors, exchange of visits pro- 
posed, 721 
Women's role in, address (McGhee), 31 
Executive orders : 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 

1954, administration of (10972), 902 
Atomic energy agreements, amendment of procedures 

for approval of (10956), 411 
Foreign aid program, delegation of functions for ad- 
ministration of (10973), 900 
Latin American aid program, delegation of functions 
for administration of (10955), 334 
Exhibit, King Tut, U.A.R. loan to U.S., 978 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, U.N., U.S. 
support, statements : Klutznick, 942 ; Stevenson, 367 
Export-Import Bank, exporter credit guaranty program : 
Appropriations request, 200 

Authority for requested, report (Rusk), 198, 199 
Exports (see also Imports and Trade) : 
Latin American : 
Need for expansion of, message, remarks, and state- 
ment: Dillon, 359; Kennedy, 355; Stevenson, 142 
Proposals re, charter of Punta del Este, 468 
Less developed countries, need for expansion and sta- 
bility of earnings, article and statements : Ball, 
123 ; Stevenson, 364 ; Weiss, 249 

1093 



Exports — Continued 
U.S.: 
Agricultural products, address (Rusk), 706 
Program for expansion of : 

Address and article : Kennedy, 1043 ; Weiss, 247, 250 
Credit guaranty system, proposed, 198, 199, 200 
Extradition : 
Convention and protocol with Sweden, 825, 826 
Treaty with Brazil, 92 

Fanfani, Amintore, 60 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 

Far East. See Asia 

Far East Refugee Program, statement (Jones), 384 

Farland, Joseph S., 75 

Farley, Philip J., 418 

Faroe Islands, air navigation services in, amendment of 

agreement on joint financing of, 261 
FCC. See Federal Communications Commission 
Federal Communications Commission, role in communi- 
cations satellite system, statement (Farley), 421 
Fellowships, NATO science, 521 
Fertilizer, AID procurement policy, review of, 934 
Figs, dried, decision against reopening escape-clause action 

on imports, 730 
Film Festival, Moscow International, U.S. delegation, 131 
Films, U.S.-Soviet exchange of, meeting of Joint com- 
mittee to review progress of, announcement, joint 
statement and memorandum of agreement, 680, 770 
Finance Corporation, International, articles of agree- 
ment, 573, 1033, 1072 
Finland : 
GATT tariff negotiations with U.S., results announced, 

373 
Peace treaty ( 1947 ) , cited, 972 
President, visit to U.S., 510, 760, 889 
Soviet pressure on, U.S. views, 866, 924 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 349, 

470 
IAEA, amendment to statute of, 910 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
U.S. friendship for, message (Kennedy), 889 
Fish and fisheries : 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the 

high seas, convention on, 425 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. See Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries 
Salmon Fisheries Commission, International Pacific, 

appointment of U.S. member, 869 
Tuna, biology of, U.S. invited to FAO world meeting 
on, 130 
Flood relief, aid to : Burma, 612 ; Somali, 987 
Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. : 

Conference of, U.S. delegation to 11th session of, 908 
Freedom-from-Himger Campaign, U.S. support, re- 
marks (Kennedy), 1020 
World meeting on the biology of tuna, U.S. invitation 
to, 130 
Food-for-peace program : 
Aid to: Afghanistan, 84; Africa, 9G4; BrazU, 196; 
Congo ( Lfiopoldville) , 973; El Salvador, 449; 
Peru, 678 



Food-for-peace program — Continued 
Refugees, proposed expanded use of for, statement 

(Jones), 259 
Review of activities of, report, 409 
Use for economic development, removal of limitation 
on, 291 
Foot-and-mouth disease, U.S. support of programs for 
eradication of, joint communique (Argentina, U.S.), 
291 
Foreign aid programs {see also Agency for International 
Development and Economic and technical aid) : 
Administration of: 
Delegation of functions re. Executive orders, 334, 

900; letters (Kennedy), 679 
Statement (Rusk), 281 
Budget for : 

Amendments proposed, 200 
Request, statement (Rusk), 451 
Financial limit to, question of, address (Bowles), 482 
Elements and objectives of new program, addresses and 
statements : Ball, 581, 839, 840 ; Bowles, 17 ; Cleve- 
land, 295, 797 ; Dillon, 443, 445, 446 ; Kennedy, 492 ; 
Laboulsse, 319; Rusk, 277, 705; Stevenson, 366 
Importance of and need for support of, addresses, letter, 
and statement : Dillon, Rusk, 253 ; Kennedy, 3 ; 
Lindley, 549 ; Rusk, 6, 52 
Legislation : 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, provisions re: 
Investment guaranty program, 898 
Procurement policy, 903 
Long-term authorization for, request and remarks on 

signing (Kennedy), 401, 492 
Status of, letter and statements: Dillon, Rusk, 253; 
Rusk, 179, 200, 275, 439 
Philosophy of, address (Williams), 155 
Procurement policy, address and determination (Ken- 
nedy), 903, 1042 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, 898, 903 
Foreign commerce corps, proposed. Department views on, 

198 
Foreign correspondents press center at New York, estab- 

Ushed, 491 
Foreign economic policy. See under Economic policy and 

relations 
Foreign Ministers (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.) : 
Paris meeting, statements (Rusk), 919, 1054, 1056 
Washington meeting, text of communique, 545 
Foreign Ministers of American States, proposed meeting 
to consider threats to peace, OAS Council action on 
Colombian proposal, statements: Morrison, 1069; 
Rusk, 1058 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
Briefing conferences on : 
Dallas and Kansas City, announcement of and ad- 
dresses (Bowles), 611, 850 
Denver and San Francisco, announcement and par- 
ticipants, 165 
Overseas, announcements and participants, 192, 246, 
479, 678 
Challenges to and problems of, addresses : Bowles, 850, 

860, 1007 ; Kennedy, 915 ; Rusk, 175, 702 
Congressional documents relating to. See under Con- 
gress 



1094 



Departmenf of SJofe Bullef'in 



Foreign policy, U.S. — Continued 
Development and review of, addresses (Bowles), 850, 

875 
Formulation of: 

Pentagon role in, statement (Rusk), 179 
Responsibility for, statements (Rusk), 149, 150 
Legislation. See under Congress 

Principles and objectives of, addresses and statements : 
Bowles, 17, 481; Cleveland, 799; Chapman, 897; 
Labouisse, 319; Rostow, 235, 236; Rusk, 412, 493, 
625, 848 ; Stevenson, 789 ; Williams, 602 
Kelationsbip of: 

Communications satellites to, statement (Farley), 418 
Cultural exchange, address (Coombs), 329 
Foreign aid, statement (Rusk), 451 
Refugee aid programs, statement (Jones), 259 
Role of U.S. citizens in, address (Miller), 331 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 100th anniver- 
sary of publication, announcement re, 1073 
Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 
Ambassadors, Minister, and chiefs of mission : 
Appointments and confirmations, 46, 169, 350, 386, 

470, 588, 614, 657, 715, 910, 953, 1073 
Authority and responsibility of, letter (Kennedy), 
993 
Consulate General at Dar-es-Salaam, elevated to em- 
bassy status, 1072 
Consulates : 
Ciudad Trujillo, redesignated consulate general, 523 
Turkey : Adana, established, 778 ; Iskenderun, 
closed, 778 
Examination, announced, 532 
FSI, 4th senior seminar, announced, 533 
History of, published, 502 
Labor attach^, functions of, 896, 897 
Regional operations conferences, announcements and 

participants, 192, 246, 479, 678 
Role in promotion of foreign commerce, report (Rusk), 

198 
Science officers, appointments, 169, 350 
Selection Boards, meetings announced, 533 
Visas issued during FY 1961, chart, 524 
Foreign Service Institute: 
Advisory Committee, meeting and list of members, 34 
4th senior seminar, annoimced, 533 
The Foreign Service of the United States: Origins, De- 
velopment, and Functions, released, 502 
Foreign students in the United States : 
Coordination of affairs of, address (Miller), 813 
Increasing experience of, meeting on, announcement 

and message (Kennedy), 893 
Number of, address (Coombs), 328 
Sub-Sahara African, report on aid to, released, 894 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Foster, William, 646, 1058 
France : 
Algerian question. See Algerian question 
Bizerte problem. See Bizerte question 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade problems 

in, 90 
Former dependent areas, French impact on, article 

(Pearcy), 608 
German problems. See Berlin and Germany 

Index, July io December 1 961 



France — Continued 
NASA Project Relay, participation in, statement 

(Farley), 418 
Nuclear tests, Soviet views, 189, 516, 517 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities agreements, agreement 
with U.S. re closeout of collection accounts of, 133 
Atomic weapons systems for mutual defense pur- 
poses, agreement with U.S. for cooperation in op>- 
eration of, 530, 556, 733 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re International trade 

in, 826 
GATT, declaration re provisions of art. XVI : J,, 613, 

693 
Industrial property, Paris convention (1883) for pro- 
tection of, application to possessions, 45 
Nonimmigrant visas for treaty traders and investors, 

agreement with U.S. for reciprocal issuance, 778 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
WHO constitution, amendments to arts. 2i and 25, 
261 
Western Foreign Ministers meetings, 545, 919, 1054, 
1056 
Frederick, Pauline, 434 
Free trade areas. See Common markets 
Freedom, U.S. commitment to, address and remarks: 

Rusk, 627 ; Williams, 153 
Freedom-from-Hunger Campaign, remarks (Kennedy), 

1020 
Friedkin, Joseph, 449 

Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties (see also 
Amity) : 
List of, 530 

Treaty with Denmark, 92, 132, 169, 306 
Friendship, establishment, and navigation, treaty with 

Belgium, 495, 574, 733 
Frondizi, Arturo, 719 
FSI. See Foreign Service Institute 
Fulbright Act, achievements and purposes of program 

under, address (Coombs) , 326, 327, 329 
Fulbright-Hays Act, addresses and remarks : Coombs, 331, 

982 ; Kennedy, 603 ; Miller, 813 
Furtado, Celso, 140, 196 

Gabon : 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

733 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 614 
WMO convention, 46 
Garceran de Vail y Souza, Julio, 716 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Gaud, William S., 953 
General Assembly, U.N. : 
Acting Secretary-General, appointment, 904 
Committee I (Political and Security), consideration of 
nuclear testing items, statements (Dean, Steven- 
son), 936 
Disarmament, U.S.-U.S.S.R. report to, 589 
Documents, lists of, 132, 167, 374, 424, 529, 777, 819, 

909, 952 
Importance and accomplishments, address (Stevenson), 
961 

1095 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 

Issues confronting, address (Stevenson), 785, 786 
Resolutions : 

Bizerte question, 500 

Disarmament, composition of forum for negotiations, 

1031 
Nuclear testing, urging cessation of and conclusion of 

treaty on, 938 
Soviet 50-uiegaton bomb, requesting Soviet Union to 
refrain from testing, 807, 817 
3d special session, consideration of Bizerte question, 
statement (Stevenson) and text of resolution, 498 
16th session : 

Address to (Kennedy), 619 
Agenda of, 190, 689 

Problems confronting, remarks (Rusk), 625 
U.S. representatives, confirmation, 529 
U.N. membersbip of Outer Mongolia, Mauritania, and 
Sierra Leone, approval of, 65ojt, 906re 
Geneva Accords (1954), 922, 1053, 10.^8 
Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests : 
Negotiations : 

Resumption of, U.K.-U.S. proposal and willingness 

and Soviet acceptance : statements and texts of 

notes : Dean, 937 ; Stevenson, 819 ; texts of notes, 965 

Review of, report, statement, and U.S. note : McCloy, 

765 ; Stevenson, 817 ; text of note, 18 
Status and prospects, statements: Kennedy, 376; 
Rusk, 114 ; White House, 475 
Publication on, published, 817n. 
Soviet position and proposals, statement and Soviet 

note : Dean, 377, 378 ; text of note, 18G 
U.K.-U.S. position and proposals, address, letter, state- 
ments, and U.S. note: Cleveland, 797; Dean, 376, 
380; Rusk, 55, 279, 849; U.K.-U.S. letter, 191, 476; 
U.S. note, 184, 544 
U.S. representative: 
Return to, statements (Kennedy), 376, 440 
Recall of, 476 
Geneva conventions on treatment of prisoners of war, 

wounded and sick, and civilians (1949) , 501, 530 
Geneva international conference for the settlement of 

the Laotian question, statement (Harriman), 85 
Germany : 

Berlin. See Berlin 

Competition between Communist and non-Communist 

world in, address (Bowles), 480, 486 
Peace treaty for: 

Soviet proposal and position, aide memoire, article, 
declaration, and statement : Khrushchev, 517, 518 ; 
Rusk, 746 ; Wehmeyer, 972 ; text of aide memoire, 
231 
Western position and efiforts, article, statement, and 
U.S. note: Kennedy, 223; Wehmeyer, 972; text of 
note, 224 
Problems of, negotiations on : 
With allies : 
Foreign Ministers discussions, 545, 1054 
Statements (Rusk), 276, 361, 746, 748, 752 
With Soviet Union, address and statements : 
Kennedy, 917 ; Rusk, 746, 747, 748 
Remilitarization of , article (Wehmeyer), 973 

1096 



Germany — Continued 
Reunification of : 

Soviet position, statements : Kennedy, 107 ; Stevenson, 

1023 
Western and U.S. proposals and views : 

Remarks and statements : Kennedy, 223, 225 ; Rusk, 

112,147,361,448 
Texts of communiques and note : German-U.S., 967 ; 
NATO, 361 ; U.S. note, 226 
Western rights in, legal basis of, article (Wehmeyer), 

968 
Zones of occupation in, text of Three Power agreement 
(1944), 230 
Germany, Bast : 
Airspace, Soviet charge of German Federal Republic's 
planes violation of, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 
632 
Berlin, activities in. See Berlin 

Developments and situation in, addresses, report, and 
statements: Bowles, 480, 859, 879; Johnson, 393; 
Kennedy, 267, 272 ; Rusk, 284, 285 
Intelligence oflicial, defection to West, 1009 
Question of U.S. recognition of, statements (Rusk), 

113, 180 
Refugees. •S'ee Refugees : German 
Remilitarization of, article (Wehmeyer), 973 
Soviet threat of separate peace treaty with : 
Proposal for, 231 

U.S. views, statements and notes : Kennedy, 107 ; 
Rusk, 51, 53, 56 ; texts of notes, 225, 512 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 
Berlin. See Berlin 
Chancellor Adenauer, visit to U.S. : 
Statements (Rusk), 804, 919 
Text of joint communique, 967 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade prob- 
lems in, 90 
Development of, comparison with East Germany, ad- 
dresses (Bowles), 859, 878 
Flights of aircraft of, Soviet charges against, U.S. 

reply, texts of U.S. and Soviet notes, 632 
Foreign and military policies, U.S. and Soviet views, 

texts of notes: Soviet, 231, 232; U.S., 226 
ICEM, German views on policies of, 566 
Rearmament of, question of, statements (Rusk), 276, 

708 
Soviet charges re activities in West Berlin and U.S. 
replies, texts of declaration and notes : Soviet 
notes, 396, 398, 399, 433, 514 ; U.S. notes, 431, 432, 
512; Warsaw Pact powers declaration, 400 
Trade with Soviet bloc, statement (Rusk), 751 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. con- 
cerning closeout of collection accounts of 1955 
agreement re, 530 
Air navigation equipment, agreement with U.S. 

extending 1955 agreement for lease of, 694 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Experimental communications satellites, intercon- 
tinental testing of, agreement with U.S. re, 993 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Foreign forces in, convention on rights and obliga- 
tions of, agreement abrogating, 501 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of 

Argentina, Israel, and Tunisia, 574 
GATT, 9th protocol of rectifications and modifieations 

to texts of schedules to, 217 
Industrial property, Paris convention for protection 

of, 693 
Military equipment, materials, and services, agree- 
ment amending 1956 agreement with U.S. re sale of, 
1072 
NATO status-of-forces agreement, agreements re, 

349 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954) , international, 573 
Penal matters and information, agreement with U.S. 

re reciprocal legal assistance in, 470 
Validation of German dollar bonds, agreement with 
U.S. re, 133, 169, 306 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, address, remarks, and 

statements : Johnson, 391 ; Kennedy, 395 
Western Foreign Ministers meetings, 545, 919, 1054, 
1056 
Ghana : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation, international convention on, protocol 

(1954) amending, 869 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, 9th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules, 1034 
Peace Corps program, agreement with U.S. for es- 
tablishment and operation of, 350 
U.S. aid to, question of, address (Bowles), 484 
Volta River project : 

U.S. aid and cooperation, letter (Kennedy) , 153 
U.S. study mission on, 771 
Gilpatric, Roswell, 558, 801 
Gizenga, Antoine, 1061, 1062 

Glass, cylinder, crown, and sheet. Tariff Commission es- 
cape-clause report on, President requests more data 
re, texts of letters, 119 
Gnome project, approval of, 807 

Goa, India-Portugal dispute over, statement (Rusk), 1058 
Goding, M. Wilfred, 201, 211 
Golden, Wendell L., 1010 
Goodwin, Richard N., 1073 
Gopallawa, William, 523 
Gordon, Lincoln, 614 
Government, U.S. system of, obligation to understand, 

remarks (Ru.sk), 630 
Governors. U.S. and Japanese, proposed exchange of visits 

of, 721 
Grain marketing problems, U.S.-Argentine talks on, joint 

communique, 290 
Grants, development, purpose of and request for funds, 

statement (Rusk), 4.52 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom 
Greece : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 262, 
870 



Greece — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Atomic energy, civil uses of, agreement with U.S. 

amending 1955 agreement, 574 
Naval vessels, agreement extending agreement (1957) 

with U.S. for loan of, 953 
OECD, convention on, 992 
U.S.-Greek relations, telegram (Kennedy), 932 
Greenland, air navigation services in, amendment of 

agreement on joint financing of, 261 
Greulich, WilUam W., 169 

Guam, convention concerning certification of able sea- 
men, 425 
Guatemala : 
Economic and social development program, U.S. aid, 108 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 953 
Guerrilla warfare, threat of and efforts to combat, ad- 
dress (Rostow),233 
Guevara, Che, 442 
Guinea : 
Peace Corps director, proposed visit, 24 
U.S. aid to, question of, address (Bowles) , 484 
Gullion, Edmund A., 386 
Giirsel, Cemal, 409, 866 

Hadraba, Theodore J., 125 

Hague Conference on private international law, 9th ses- 
sion, article (Maktos) , 948 
Hague protocol amending Warsaw convention re respon- 
sibility and liability of airlines in international air 
transportation, 692, 1033 
Haiti : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 790 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aircraft, convention for unification of certain rules 

relating to precautionary attachment of, 45 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Industrial property, Paris convention for protection 

of, 1033 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Hamady, Dan R., 90 
Hamilton, Fowler, 657, 1058 
Hammarskjold, Dag : 

Death of and tribute to, addresses and statements: 
BaU, 579; Bowles, 795; Kennedy, 596, 619; Wil- 
liams, 638 
Soviet attack on, 188 
Harriman, W. Averell, 85, 643, 692, 1073 
Heads of Government meeting, question of, U.S. position, 
letter and statements : Kennedy, 541 ; Rusk, 279, 438 
Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of, 259 
Health and sanitation : 

ICA programs, improvement of, award for study, 84 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, programs in, 
statements : Goding, 206, 214 ; Nakayama, 211 



Index, July to December 1961 



1097 



Health and sanitation — Continued 

U.S. researcli grant to Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 

87 
WHO, 261, 793, 1033 
Health for Peace Act, 88 
Health Organization, World : 
Activities of, address (Bowles), 793 
Constitution of, current actions, 261, 1033 
Herder, Robert W., 826 
HEW. See Health, Education, and Welfare, Department 

of 
Hickerson, John D., 279 

High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N., accomplishments 
and U.S. support, statements (Jones), 257, 258, 382 
High seas, convention on the, 425, 869 
Hightower, John, 434 

Highway project in Cambodia, statement (Labouisse), 612 
Hlasny, Karel, 66 
Holy See, The, Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, 

306 
Honduras : 

Economic and technical cooperation, agreements with 

U.S., 350 
Educational development, U.S. aid, 317 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Hong Kong : 
Cholera outbreak, U.S. donation of vaccine, 449 
Refugees in, U.S. aid, 258 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 91 
Hougen, Olaf A., 169 
Housing : 

Diplomatic housing in Washington, efforts to secure, 154 
ECE Housing Committee, 21st session, U.S. delegation, 

90 
Low-cost in Latin America : 

Guaranty program to encourage, 898, 899 
Need for, statement (Dillon) , 359 
Refugee, use of counterpart funds for construction of, 
agreement with Austria re, 826 
Housing Committee, District of Columbia, 154 
Housing Committee of the U.N. Economic Commission 
for Europe, U.S. delegate and list of advisers to 21st 
session of, 90 
Human Rights, U.N. Commission on, 17th session, article 

(Tree), 128 
Human rights {see also Racial relations), U.N. advisory 

services in field of, article (Tree), 129, 130 
Humelsine, Carlisle H., 613 
Hungary : 
Cardinal Mindszenty, question of discussions with U.S. 

re, statement (Rusk), 1057 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 302 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
952 
U.S.-Hungarian travel procedures, change in, 67 
Uprising in, 5th anniversary of, U.S. commemoration of, 
745 
Hurt, Alfred M., 694 
Hutchinson, Edmond, 1073 



IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
lA-ECOSOC. See Inter-American Economic and Social 

Council 
IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 
ICA. See International Cooperation Administration 
Iceland : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 386, 

470, 733, 826, 910 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
OECD convention, 992 

WHO constitution, amendments to arts. S^ and 25, 
261 
University of Iceland, U.S. grant to, 680 
ICEM. See Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 
ICFTU. See International Confederation of Free Trade 

Unions 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IDB. See Inter-American Development Bank 
Ide, William Carter, 993 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
Ikeda, Hayato, 57, 303 

ILO. See Labor Organization, International 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

Organization 
IMF. See International Monetary Fund 
Immigration : 

Cubans with visas or waivers, U.S. offer of free trans- 
portation to, announcement (Department), 238 
Immigrant and nonimmigrant visas issued during FT 

1961, chart, 524 
Quota established for Sierra Leone, text of proclama- 
tion, 74 
U.S. policy, legislation revising, remarks (Cieplinski), 
728 
Imports (see also Customs; Exjiorts; Tariff policy, U.S.; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and Trade) : 
Escape-clause actions, GATT provisions concerning, 37 
Italian restrictions on U.S. goods, liberalized, 33 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aircraft, reciprocal acceptance of certificates of air- 
worthiness for, agreement with Switzerland re, 
870 
Aircraft and aircraft parts into New Zealand, agree- 
ment re, 870 
Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate, 693 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment and protocol on, 425 
Private road vehicles, customs convention on tempo- 
rary importation of, 217, 425, 952 
U.S.: 

Cotton, proclamation imposing restrictions on, 555 
Cotton textiles from Japan, agreement re, 571, 826 
From Common Market, address (I^ennedy), 1046 
Importance and value of, addresses and article : 

Bowles, 853 ; Stevenson, 364 ; Wei.ss, 247, 249 
Lead and zinc, legislation restricting, statements: 
Blumeuthal, 340 ; Martin, 040 



1098 



Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



Imports — Continued 
U.S. — Continued 
Protection of industries affected by, recommendation 

for, address (Kennedy), 1052 
U.S. policy, addresses : Bowles, 878 ; Rusk, 707 
Increasing the Effectiveness of Western Science, NATO 

report, 519, 522, 523 
Independence : 
Dependent nations achievement of, addresses : Bohlen, 

63; Bowles, 791 
Newly independent nations, U.S. policy, address (Ros- 

tow), 235 
U.N. as a safeguard of, address (Stevenson), 70 
Independence Day, greetings from Soviet leaders to U.S., 

exchange of messages (Kennedy, Soviet), 163 
India : 
Agricultural and industrial production, increase, 1012 
Aid to, international cooperation in, addresses : La- 

bouisse, 322 ; Rusk, 9, 706 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 599 
Cotton textiles, international trade in, discussions with 

U.S., 681 
Developments in, address (Bowles), 488 
Disputes with Communist China and Portugal, state- 
ment (Rusk), 1058 
EEC, question of Indian membership In, address 

(Bowles), 488 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of: 

Argentina, 218 ; Israel, 217 
GATT, 9th protocol of rectifications and modifications 

to texts of schedules to, 217 
Institute of Technology at Kanpur, U.S. aid for develop- 
ment, 927 
Nuclear testing, resolution for cessation of and agree- 
ment on, 938 
Nuclear weapons, proposed prohibition on distribution 

of, statement (Stevenson), 817 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 54, 926 
Relations with Pakistan, address (Bowles), 487 
Soviet policy toward, address (Bowles), 858 
Indian Institute of Technology at Kanpur, 927 
Indonesia : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 657, 

953, 1034 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 574 
High seas, convention on, 869 
IFC, articles of agreement, withdrawal, 1033 
Landing rights for U.S. commercial aircraft, agreement 
with U.S. extending arrangement for, 470 
Industrial development : 
Human factor in, need for consideration, statement 

(Bowles), 992 
Less developed countries, problems of, article (Weiss), 

249 
Nigeria, AID contract for, 1020 
U.N. role in, statement (Klutznick), 939, 942 
Industrial Development, Committee for, 939, 942 
Industrial Development Center, U.N., establishment, 939 
Industrial property, Paris convention (1883) for protec- 
tion of , Lisbon revision (1958) : 



Industrial property, Paris convention — Continued 
Current actions, 46, 693, 826, 870, 1033 
Statement (Hadraba), 125 
Industrialized free-world nations : 
Japan, address (McConaughy), 666 
Need for cooperative efi:ort in aid to less developed 
countries, addresses and statement ; Ball, 300, 302 ; 
Cleveland, 295, 296; Labouisse, 321; Stevenson, 
366 
Infants, draft convention on protection of, article 

(Maktos), 950 
Information activities and programs (see also Publica- 
tions and. United States Information Agency) : 
Exchange of information : 

Soviet refusal of U.S. proposal for exchange re Berlin 

situation, 717 
With Japan, proposed, joint communique, 893 
Less developed countries, U.N. role in expansion of, 

article (Tree), 129 
Need for informed public on foreign policy, address 
(Rusk), 175 
Information Agency, U.S. See United States Informa- 
tion Agency 
Interagency Group on International Aviation, 692 
Interagency Textile Administrative Committee, establish- 
ment, letter (Kennedy), 773 
Inter- American automotive traflBc, convention (1943) on 

i-egulation of, 349 
Inter-American Development Bank, social progress trust 
fund : 
Agreement on, current action, 92 
Aid to Panama and Venezuela, 359 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council : 
Panel of experts, selection of, remarks (Kennedy), 999 
Special meeting at Punta del Este : 
Accomplishments and U.S. proposals, statements 

(Dillon, Rusk), 441 
Charter of, adopted, text, 463 
Declaration to the Peoples of America, text, 462 
Importance of and prospects for, remarks, report, 
and statement : Kennedy, 317 ; Rusk, 277 ; Steven- 
son, 315, 316 
Message, remarks, and statement to : Dillon, 356, 460 ; 

Kennedy, 355 
Planning for in Latin America, statement (Steven- 
son), 61 
U.S. delegation : 

Departure for, remarks (Kennedy) , 318 
List of members, 318 

Return, ceremonies welcoming, remarks and state- 
ments : Dillon, 460 ; Kennedy, 459, 460 ; Rusk, 441 
Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, protocol 

amending convention of, 385, 910 
InteP-American system, strengthening and revitalizing, 

U.S.-Argentine views, 721 

Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee, role in 

communications satellite system, statement (Farley), 

421 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration: 

Accomplishments and U.S. support, statements (Jones), 

258, 380, 381 
14th session of Council and 17th session of Executive 
Committee, article (Warren), 565 



/ndex, July fo December 7961 



1099 



Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization : 
Conference on prevention of pollution of the sea by oil, 

proposed, statement (Lister), 305 
Convention on, current action, 1033 
International Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency, International 
International Bank for Keconstruction and Development : 
Articles of agreement, 168, 501, 530, 612 
Board of Governors meeting, statement (Ball), 579 
Consortia arrangements for financing develcpment, 

DAG views re, 304 
Development Advisory Service, 581 
Development loans, volume of, 941 
Economic Development Institute, 580 
Financial statement, 410 

IDA. See International Development Association 
Volta River project, role in, letter (Kennedy), 153 
International Boundary and Water Commission (U.S.- 
Mexico), appointment of U.S. commissioner, 449 
International Boundary Commission (U.S.-Canada), U.S. 

commissioner, swearing in, 732 
International Civil Aviation Organization, 261, 869 
International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic 

Fisheries, 45, 166 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 440, 

895 
International Control Commission for Viet-Nam, operation 
and effectiveness of, statements (Rusk), 921, 922, 1056 
International Cooperation Administration (see also 
Agency for International Development) : 
Abolition of, Executive order on, 900 
Aid to : Afghanistan, 84 ; Argentina, 108 ; Brazil, 196 ; 
Central American Bank for Economic Integration, 
83 ; Colombia, 317 ; Costa Rica, 317 ; Ecuador, 317 ; 
El Salvador, 317 ; Guatemala, 108 ; Honduras, 317 ; 
Panama, 108 
Executive Secretary, designation (Toner), 502 
General Counsel, confirmation (Rubin), 350 
International health program, award to Johns Hopkins 

for study of, 84 
Self-help public works projects of, 292 
Study and review on use of cooperatives in aid pro- 
gram, 83, 450, 033 
U.S. Operations Mission : 
Appointment of directors and representatives : Chile, 
218; Ecuador, 94; Korea, 306; Libya, 694; Peru, 
533 ; Somali, 694 ; U.A.R., 694 ; Venezuela, 694 
Establishment in Cyprus, 164 

Far East directors, meeting with Under Secretary 
Ball, 130 
International Court of Justice : 
Berlin situation, question of consideration of, statement 

(Rusk), 180 
Statute of, current action, 910 
U.S. position, address ( Stevenson ) , 962 
International Development Association : 
Articles of agreement, 501, 656, 1033 
Demands on, statement (Ball), 581 
International Finance Corporation, articles of agreement, 

573, 1033, 1072 
International Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada) : 
Lake Ontario, report on water levels of, released, 1059 



International Joint Commission — Continued 
Niagara River and Niagara Falls, construction in : 
Authorization for study, 42 
U.S. application for approval, 369 
St. Croix River basin, recommendations re develop- 
ment, U.S. approval, 680 
International Labor Organization, 347 
International law (see also International Court of 
Justice) : 
Growth of law among nations, U.S. commitment to, re- 
marks (Rusk), 627 
Private, Hague conference on, 9th session, article 

(Maktos), 948 
Rule of law, extension and enforcement of, U.S. pro- 
posal, address (Kennedy), 622 
U.N., first step toward world society under law, address 
(Stevenson), 71 
International Law Commission, U.S. nomination for elec- 
tion to, 131 
International Monetary Fund : 
Aid to less developed countries, statement (Ball), 123 
Articles of agreement, 168, 501, 530 

Board of Governors meeting, statement (Dillon), 584 
International organizations (see also subject) : 

Calendar of international meetings, 44, 127, 260, 341, 

422, 497, 561, 649, 775, 867, 935, 1022 
Copyright convention (1952) universal, protocol 2, ap- 
plication to works of, 45, 92, 869 
Economic development activities, request for U.S. con- 
tributions, statement (Rusk), 453 
Soviet attack on impartiality of executives of, U.S. 

views of, note, 185 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands contact with, 
statement (Coding), 208 
International Radio Consultative Committee, 421 
International Telecommunication Union, 420 
Intervention, extracontinental in American States, OAS 
consideration, statements : Morrison, 1069 ; Rusk, 19 
Inventions, agreement for safeguarding inventions relat- 
ing to defense for which patent applications have 
been filed, 777, 825, 952 
Investment guaranty program : 
Agreements with : Argentina, 218 ; Uruguay, 734 
New program : 
Address (Martin), 714 

Description of and procedures for ai)plying, 897 
Investment of private capital abroad : 
Addresses : Kennedy, 1043, 1051 ; Martin, 710 
Africa, addresses (Williams) , 863, 977 
Latin America, need for stimulation, joint communique 
and statement: Dillon, 358; Kennedy, Prado, 676 
Less developed countries, need for in, address, state- 
ment, and communique: Ball, 300; DAG com- 
munique, 303 ; Stevenson, 3G6 
Nigeria, encouragement of, U.S.-Nigerian joint com- 
munique, 1.57 
Protection of. See Investment guaranty program 
U.S. efforts to promote, address and statement : Klutz- 
nick, 941 ; Martin, 712, 713, 714 
IRAC. See Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Commis- 
sion 



noo 



Department of State Bulletin 



Iran: 

Central Treaty Organization, 642 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1960 

agreement with U.S., 92 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Educational exchange program, agreement amending 

agreement (1949) with U.S. for financing, 425 
Industrial property, Paris convention for i)rotection 
of, 1033 
Iraq, Security Council consideration of Kuwait com- 
plaint of threat from, statement (Plimpton), 165 
Ireland : 
Air transport, discussions with U.S., 1060 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Dijilomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 574 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 349 
Slavery convention (1926), protocol (1953) amend- 
ing, 870 
UNESCO constitution, 1034 

White slave traffic, protocol (1949) amending inter- 
national agreement and convention for suppression 
of, 530 
Isolationism, present and past views on, addresses 

(Bowles), 850, 853, 875 
Israel : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 386, 

778 
Continental shelf, convention on, 8G9 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 217, 574, 

613 
High seas, convention on, 869 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 869 
Italy: 
Airmen in the Congo, massacred, 1061, 1064 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade prob- 
lems in, 90 
Former dependent areas, Italian Impact on, article 

(Pearcy), 609 
Liberalization of import controls on U.S. goods, 33 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., joint communique and 

members of party, 60 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1956 

agreement with U.S., 133 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
GATT, declaration on extension of standstill pro- 
visions of art. XVI : .J, 870 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 574 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, declaration of under- 
standing re international convention for, 612 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 305, 

573 
Publications and documents, exchange of, conven- 
tions re, 656 
War damage claims, agreement supplementing mem- 
orandum of understanding with U.S. re, 350 



Italy — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
WHO constitution, amendments to arts. 24 and 25, 
261 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union 
Ivory Coast, first anniversary of independence, address 

(WiUiams), 638 
Izmir international fair, greetings to Turkey for, letter 
(Kennedy), 409 

Jagan, Cheddi, 443, 809 
Japan : 

Agricultural and industrial production, increase, 1012 
Civil aviation consultations with U.S., 168 
Claims re war damages in Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands, negotiations re, statement (Coding), 208 
Developments in, addresses (Bowles), 858, 991 
Exchange of visits of U.S. and Japanese governors, pro- 
posed, 721 
Joint United States-Japan Committee on Scientific Co- 
operation, establishment and functions, 636, 1059 
Land reform, address (Bowles), 740 
Nuclear testing, resumption of, note protesting, 545 
Peace treaty with U.S., statement (Rusli), 56 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 57 
Ryukyu Islands. See Ryukyu Islands 
Trade relations : 
Discrimination against under GATT, U.S. support for 

elimination of, 893 
Joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and 
Economic Affairs. See Joint United States-Japan 
Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs 
Textiles : 

Exports to U.S., problem of and negotiations and 

agreement re, 55, 301, 410, 571, 826 
International arrangements re, 826 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Claims against U.S. by displaced residents of Bonin 

Islands, agreement for settlement with U.S., 133 
Contributions to U.S. administrative and related ex- 
penses in, agreement with U.S. re, 910 
Cotton textile exports to U.S., agreement with U.S. re, 

571, 826 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
GATT, declaration on extension of standstill pro- 
visions of art. XVI : /,, 693 
Joint U.S.-Japanese Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs, agreement establishing, 57, 92 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
Radio regulations (1959), 953 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
952 
U.S.-Japanese relations, addresses (McConaughy), 634, 

663 
U.S. science attach^, appointment, 350 
Visit of Under Secretary Ball, 130 
Jebb, Gladwyn, 159 

Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 84 
Johnson, Lyndon B., 391 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 1011 

Joint Commission (U.S.-Canada), International. See 
International Joint Commission 



Index, July fo December 7961 



1101 



Joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs : 
Establisliment of : 
Address (Ball), 299 
Agreement for : 
Current action, 92 

Texts of communique and notes, 57, 58 
First meeting of : 
Question of Secretary Rusk attending, 753 
Statement (Rusk) and text of communique, 890 
Role of, address (McConaughy), 635 
Joint United States-Japan Scientific Committee, 636, 1059 
Jones, Roger W., 257, 380 

Kaiser, Philip M., 169 

Kashmir issue, U.S.-Pakistan exchange of views on, joint 

communique (Kennedy, Khan), 241 
Katanga. See under Congo situation 
Kayira, Legson, 73 
Kaysen, Carl, 667 
Keita, Modibo, 518, 540 
Kekkonen, Urho K., 510, 760 
Kelfa-Caulker, Richard E., 238 
Kennedy, John P. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Alliance for Progress, 311, 999 

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations, 1047 
Antarctic treaty, 91 

Berlin and German problems, 107, 223, 267, 395, 540 
Brazil, economic aid for, 196 
Colombo Plan, tribute on 10th anniversary, 144 
Communications satellite policy, 273 
Dag Hammarskjold, death of, 596 
Educated men, public responsibility of, 699 
Educational and cultural exchange, 811 
Foreign aid program, 3, 401, 492 
Foreign policy, challenges to, 915 
Freedom-from-Hunger Campaign, 1020 
Fulbright-Hays Act, statement on signing, 603 
General Assembly, 16th session of, problems confront- 
ing and U.S. proposals re, 619 
Geneva conference on discontinuance of nuclear 

weapon tests, negotiations, 376, 440 
lA-ECOSOC conference at Punta del Este, 317, 459, 

460 
Labor movement and the U.S. economy, 1047 
National Association of Manufacturers, 1039 
Nuclear test ban treaty, need for Soviet agreement 

on, 106 
Nuclear tests : 

Ad hoc panel on, 238 
Soviet resumption of, 844 
U.S. policy and resumption, 475, 844 
Pakistan-U.S., 10 years of economic cooperation, 164 
Peace Corps, legislation establishing, 603 
Trade agre<>ments program, appointment of special 

assistant for, 411 
U.K. entry into EEC, 362 

U.N. decade of development, proposing, 619, 940 
U.S. trade policy, need for new approach, 1039, 1047 
UNICEF, requesting support for, 732 
Uranium 235, action to increase availability of, 643 

1102 



Kennedy, John F. — Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 

Venezuelan Independence Day, ceremony, 151 

Visit of Vice President Johnson to Berlin and West 
Germany, 395 
Correspondence and messages : 

Atlantic Charter, 20th anniversary of, 401 

Berlin situation, ICFTU support of U.S. position on, 
message to General Secretary Becu, 440 

Bolivia, economic aid for, letter to President Paz, 
251 

Burma, U.S. sympathy for flood, 612 

Chiefs of U.S. diplomatic missions, authority and 
responsibilities, 993 

China, congratulations on 50th anniversary of revolu- 
tion, message to Chiang Kai-shek, 719 

Communications satellites, proposed special study of, 
115 

Cotton products, request for investigation of duty on 
imports, 1021 

Finland, U.S. friendship, message to President Kek- 
konen, 889 

Foreign aid procurement policy, determination on, 
903 

Foreign aid program, interim delegations of authority 
issued to Secretaries of Defense and State re, 679 

Foreign students in U.S., 894 

Greece, friendship and cooperation with, message to 
Prime Minister Caramanlis, 932 

Independence Day greetings from Soviet leaders, reply 
to, 163 

Izmir international fair, 409 

John J. McCloy. thanks for contributions in disarma- 
ment field, 762 

Land-grant colleges, centennial of, 979 

Latin American development, message to lA-ECOSOC 
meeting, 355 

Nigeria, greetings and congratulations on anniversary 
of independence, message to Governor General 
Azikiwe, 667 

Nonaliued nations conference at Belgrade, 478, 541 

Panamanian-U.S. relations, letter to President Chiari, 
932 

Science and world affairs, conference on, 553 

Tariff concessions on certain items, request for more 
data on, 119 

Textile agreement, international, establishing inter- 
agency machinery to implement, 773 

Tin, surplus, U.S. di.sposal policy, 772 

Tung oil and tuug nuts, study requested on import 
restrictions on, 045 

Turkey-U.S. friendship and cooperation, message to 
President Giirsel, 866 

U Thant, election as Acting Secretary-General, 905 

Viet-Nam, 6th anniversary of Republic of, letter to 
President Diem, 810 

Volta River project, cooperation viith Ghana on, let- 
ter to President Nlcrumah, 153 
Decisions on : 

Escape-clause action on : dried figs, 683 ; rugs and 
clover seed, 083 

Project Gnome, approving, 807 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 

Department of State BuUeiin 



Kennedy, John F. — Continued 
Meetings with: 

Heads of State and oflBcials of, remarks, statements, 
and joint communiques : Argentina, 719 ; China, 
372 ; Finland, 760 ; Germany, 967 ; India, 926 ; Italy, 
60; Japan, 57; Korea, 928; Liberia, 808; Nigeria, 
324; Pakistan, 239, 240; Peru, 674; Senegal, 888; 
Sudan, 721 ; Tanganyika, 297 
Representatives of Belgrade conference of nonalined 
nations, exchange of remarks, statements, and let- 
ter, 518, 539 
Secretary Rusk, prior to departure for Europe, 361 
Message and letters to Congress : 
Atomic weapons system for mutual defense, agree- 
ment with France for cooperation in operation of, 
requesting approval, 556 
Disarmament Agency, U.S., request for establishment 

of and test of draft bill, 99 
Foreign aid budget for 1962, proposed amendments 

to, 200 
Refugee aid programs, draft bill to centralize au- 
thority to conduct and support, 255 
Proclamations. See Proclamations 
Visit to Venezuela and Colombia, projwsed, announce- 
ment, 1059 
Kenworthy, E. W., 434 
Kenya, U.S.-U.K. agreement for technical cooperation, 

application to, 262 
Kerr, Peyton, 495 
Khampan, Prince, 745 
Khan, Mohammed Ayub, 54, 239 
Khrushchev, Nikita S. : 

Address to 22d Congress of Soviet Communist Party, 
U.S. views, address and statements : Chapman, 895 ; 
Rusk, 746, 753, 803 
Coexistence policy, cited, 547 
Independence Day greetings to U.S., 163 
Political problems of, question of effect on Berlin situa- 
tion, statement (Rusk) , 846 
U.N., attacks on, statement (Rusk), 183 
U.S.-U.K. proposal for atmospheric test ban, declaration 
replying to, 515 
Killen, James S., 306 
King, Edward J., 732 
Kiwauuka, Beuedicto, 701 
Klutznick, Philip M., 9.39 
Knight, Ridgway B., 715 
Koirala, Matrika Prasad, 362 
Kone, Jean Marie, 157 
Korea, reunification of, U.S.-Republic of Korea views, 

text of joint communique, 929 
Korea, Republic of : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 115 
Chairman of Council for National Reconstruction, visit 

to U.S., 551,928 
Developments in, U.S. views, statements (Rusk), 275, 

919 
Policies of Government of, joint communique (Chen, 

Kennedy), 372 
Secretary Rusk's proposed visit to, 753 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 



Korea, Republic of — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Income and social security taxes, exemption of U.S. 
personnel under contract to work on economic 
an(J technical programs in Korea from, agreements 
withU.S. re, 350 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international 
1072 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 46 
U.S. economic adviser to, designation, 306 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 306 
Koren, Henry L. T., 386 
Kosaka, Zentaro, 59 
Kristensen, Thorkil, 692 
Kuwait : 

Diplomatic relations with U.S., established, 588 
Question of date of independence, article (Pearcy), 

606 
Security Council consideration of complaint of threat 
to independence, statement (Plimpton), 165 

Labor : 

Able seamen, convention concerning certification, 425 
Africa, trade union development in, address (Williams), 

26 
Migrant, agreement with Mexico amending and extend- 
ing 1951 agreement, 262 
Role in cold war struggle, address (Chapman), 894 
Skilled and semiskilled, need for in Latin America, 

567 
U.S. labor movement, importance and cooperation of, 
address (Kennedy), 1048 
Labor attach^ program, address (Chapman), 896, 897 
Labor Organization, International, 347 
Labouisse, Henry R., 83, 165, 319, 612 
Lake Erie, Pelee Passage area of, agreement with Canada 

re channel improvement work in, 870 
Lake Ontario, IJC report on water levels of, released, 

1059 
Land-grant colleges and universities: 
Centennial of, address and message : Coombs, 978 ; Ken- 
nedy, 979 
Role in international affairs, address (Rowan), 984 
Land reform : 

Japanese progress, address (Bowles), 740 
Latin America, need for and problems of, address, 
message, and statements : Bowles, 741, 742, 743 ; 
Dillon, 358, 445 ; Kennedy, 355 
Pakistani program, address (Khan), 243 
Landis, James M., 163, 197 
Laos: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 745 
IBRD and IMF, articles of agreement, 168 
Situation in. See Laos situation 
Laos situation : 
Cease-fire urged, statement (Harriman), 85 
China-U.S. concern over, joint communique (Chen, 

Kennedy), 372 
Geneva international conference for settlement: 
Progress of, statement (Rusk), 109, 749 
Seating of Laotian representatives urged, statement 
(Harriman), 87 



Index, July to December 1961 



1103 



Laos situation — Continued 

Geneva international conference — Continued 
Working groups, proposed establisliment of, state- 
ment (Uarriman), 86 
Government, negotiations on formation of, statement 

(Rusk), 749 
International Control Commission, work of, statement 

(Rusk), 109 
Neutrality of, support for : 

ludian-U.S. joint communique, 928 
Statements (Rusk), 111, 112 
Question of Communist use as base for activities in 

Viet-Nam, statement ( Rusk ) , 921 
SEATO role in, statement (Rusk) , 54 
Sino-Soviet role in, statements (Rusk), 109, 112, 113, 

114 
Three Princes discussions in Ziirich, statement (Rusk), 

109 
U.S. position, address (Kennedy) , 623 
Laporte, Otto, 350 

Latin America (see also Caribbean, Inter-American, Pan 
American, Organization of American States, and in- 
dividual countries) : 
Alliance for Progress. See Alliance for Progress 
Ambassador Stevenson's visit, 61, 311 
Communist activities in. See Communism : Cuba 
Economic and social development. See Alliance for 

Progress 
Economic integration, efforts for and U.S. viev^s, ad- 
dress, article, message, and statement: Bowles, 
792 ; Dillon, 357, 360 ; Kennedy, 355 ; Weiss, 248 ; text 
of Charter of Punta del Este, 467 
Economic planning institute at Santiago, proposed, 944 
Housing, low-cost, U.S. guaranty program to encour- 
age financing, 898, 899 
ICEM programs in, article and statement : Jones, 382 ; 

Warren, 566, 567 
Ports, U.S. cooperation for development, address 

(Rusk), 564 
Responsibility for handling problems of, statement 

(Rusk), 150 
Role in the U.N., address (Stevenson), 755, 756 
U.N. Economic Commission for, use of advisory groups 

for planning, 944 
U.S. increased attention to, address (Bowles), 483 
U.S. representatives in, regional operations conferences, 

678 
Women's role in, address (Farland), 80 
Latin America, Task Force on, 150, 218 
Latin American Free Trade Association, 248, 360 
Law, International. See International law 
Law Commission, International, U.S. nomination for elec- 
tion to, 131 
Law of the sea, conventions on, 425, 869 
Lead and zinc imports, proposed legislation restricting, 

statements : Blumenthal, 340 ; Martin, G46 
League of Nations, U.S. rejection of, addresses (Bowles), 

12, 877 
Lebanon : 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Atomic Energy Agency, International, statute of, 133 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 300 
Sugar agreement (1958), international, 470 

1104 



Lebanon — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

169 
WHO constitution, amendments to arts. 24 and Z5, 
261 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 910 
Lee, Charles Henry, 218 

Legislation {see also under Congress), imiformity of, ques- 
tion of achieving, article (Maktos), 951 
LeMaster, Edwin, 1010 

Less develoijed countries (see also Newly independent 
countries) : 
Aid to (see oZso Economic and social development and 
Economic and technical aid), need for and Increase 
in, address and communiques: DAG communique, 
303 ; Germau-U.S. joint communique, 968 ; Italian- 
U.S. joint communique, 60; Japanese-U.S. joint 
communiques, 58, 892, 893; McConaugby, 636; 
OECD communique, 1019 
Challenge of, address (Bowles), 15 
Communications satellite for, benefits of, statement 

(Farley), 419, 420 
Economic offensive of Soviet-bloc countries, addresses 
and statements : Ball, 841 ; Kennedy, 5 ; Labouisse, 
320 ; Rusk, 7, 149, 805 
Economic problems of, address, article, and statements : 

Ball, 122, 298, 301, 579 ; Weiss, 249 
Education, need for and problems of, addresses and 
remarks: Coombs, 193, 320, 330, 825; Rusk, 705 
GATT provisions for economic development, article 

(Catudal),36 
Guerrilla warfare in, threat of and efforts to combat, 

address ( Rostow ) , 233 
Information media in, U.N. Human Rights Commis- 
sion proposals for expansion of, article (Tree), 128, 

129 
International migration programs, contribution to 

strengthening, letter (Kennedy), 256 
Investment of private capital in, addresses and com- 
munique : DAG communique, 303; Kennedy, 1043, 
10.51; Martin, 713, 714, 715; Stevenson, 364, 366 
Revolution of rising expectations in, address and state- 
ment : Ball, 839 ; Cleveland, 293, 294 
U.S. role and policies, addresses and articles : Labouisse, 
319, 321, 323 ; Rostow, 236 ; Rusk, 705 ; Weiss, 249 
Western-Soviet struggle for, address (Lindley), 549 
Liberia : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 745 
President, visit to U.S., 808 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Military equipment and materials, agreement with 

U.S. for furnishing of, 218 
OU pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
Radio relay facilities in, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing 1900 agreement re, 7u3 
Tunisia, proposed res. in Security Council for cease- 
fire in, text, 343 
U.S. economic aid, discussions on, 809 
Libya : 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
US. Operations Mission, designation of director, 694 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



Liechtenstein : 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Drugs, protocol (1948) bringing under international 
control drugs outside scope of 1931 convention, 92 
Opium, protocol (1953) regulating the production, trade, 
and use of, 92 
Liggit, C. Reed, 164 
Llndley, Ernest K., 94, 546 
Lisagor, Peter, 434 
Lister, Ernest A., 304 

Loan Committee, Development, establishment of, Execu- 
tive order, 901 
Loans, International Bank, 410, 041 

Loans, U.S. (see also Export-Import Bank and Agency for 
International Development), development loans: 
Long-term authorization requested, statements : Dillon, 

358 ; Kennedy, 401 ; Rusk, 452 
To be repayed in dollars, address (Labouisse), 322 
Loginov, Tevgeui F., 163, 197 
Louchheim, Mrs. Katie, 725 
Luthuli, Albert, 888 
Luxembourg : 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade in, 

826 
GATT, declarations on provisions of art. XVI : 4, 613, 

693 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing annex B of 1950 agreement, 733 

MacArthur, Douglas, 279 

Machinery, textile, depreciation of, new schedule for an- 
nounced, 730 

Mack, Julian, 169 

MacPhail, Donald B., 694 

Maennel, Guenter, 1009 

Mak, Dayton, 588 

Maktos, John, 948 

Malagasy and African States, meetings of, 809 

Malagasy Republic, economic, technical, and related as- 
sistance, agreement with U.S. providing, 262 

Malaya, Peace Cori)s program in, agreement with U.S. 
establishing, 613 

Mali: 
Greetings to U.S. people, statement (Keita), 540 
Officials of, visit to U.S., 157 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural property, convention (1954) and protocol for 

protection in event of armed conflict, 217 
IAEA, statute of, 425 
Military assistance, agreement with U.S., 262 

Mansfield, Mike, 112 

Manganese ores, agreement amending agreement with 
Brazil re settlement of debt from agreement of 1954 
for purchase of, 386 

Margrave, Robert N., 574 

Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovernmental. 
See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Or- 
ganization 

Marriage, establishment of minimum standards and safe- 
guards for women, article (Tillett), 346 

Mars, Louis, 790 

Marshall, George C, 507 

Marshall plan, 320 

Index, July to December I96T 



Martin, Edwin M., 126, 646, 684, 710 

Maryland, public accommodations bill. Department urges 

passage of, 551, 671 
Mauritania : 

U.N. membership, admission to : 
Action of Security Council and General Assembly, 

906» 
Support for, joint communique and statements : Chen, 

Kennedy, 372; Stevenson, 654; Yost, 905, 906 
U.N. Charter and ICJ Statute, 910 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 169 
McCloy, John J., 99, 100, 415, 507, 595, 762 
McConaughy, Walter P., 634, 663 
McElroy, Stanley L., 734 
McGhee, George C, 29, 1073 
McUvaine, Robinson, 169 
McKinney, Robert M., 169 

Medical center at New Delhi, India, establishment, 9 
Merchant, Livingston T., 761 
Meteorological Organization, World, convention of (1947), 

46, 169 
Mexico : 
Development in, address (Bowles), 741, 742 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Certificates of airworthiness for aircraft of Loekheed- 
Azcarate, S.A., agreement for acceptance by U.S. 
694 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Equipment, national police force, agreement with U.S. 

re transfer of, 169 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
Migrant labor, agreement amending and extending 

1951 agreement with U.S., 262 
Oil pollution convention (19.54), international, 573, 

574 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Radio broadcasting in standard band, agreement 
(19.57) with U.S., 34, 46, 92 
U.S.-Mexlco International Boundary and Water Com- 
mission, appointment of U.S. commissioner, 449 
Meyer, Armin H., 910 
Micronesia, progress and development in, statements : 

Coding, 201, 211 ; Nakayama, 208 
Middle East. See Near and Middle East 
Migrant labor, agreement amending and extending 1951 

agreement re, with Mexico, 2G2 
Migration, European, Intergovernmental Committee for. 
See Intergovernmental Committee for European Mi- 
gration 
Military assistance («ee also Military equipment, ma- 
terials, and services ; and Mutual defense) : 
Appropriations requests, 200, 455 

China, continued aid to, joint communique (Chen, Ken- 
nedy), 373 
Korea, text of joint communique (Kennedy, Park), 

929 
Mali, agreement with concerning, 262 
Need for continuance, letter to Congress (Dillon, Rusk), 
253 

1105 



Military assistance — Continued 

Procurement policy for, Presidential determination, 903, 

1042 
Viet-Nam, statements (Rusk), 921, 1055 
Military base in Morocco, survey team to study con- 
version for development purposes, 973 
Military equipment, materials, and services : 
Disposition of, agreements with: Belgium, 349; U.K., 

1072 
Furnishing of, agreement with Liberia re, 218 
Sale of, agreement amending 1956 agreement with 
Germany re, 1072 
Military establishments : 
Abolition of, U.S.-Soviet joint statement re, 590 
U.S.: 
Need for, address (Bowles) , 876 
Status of, statements : Kennedy, 845 ; Rusk, 801 
Strengthening and buildup of : 
Report and statement : Kennedy, 268, 271 ; Rusk, 708 
Soviet views, 516 
Miller, Francis Pickens, 46, 331, 811 
Milne, A. A., cited, 884 
Mindszenty, Cardinal, 1057 
Missile defense alarm system station, agreement with 

U.K. on setting up, 306 
Missionaries arrested in Angola, Portuguese release of, 

1010 
Moline, Edwin G., 694 
Monaco : 

Industrial property, convention of Paris for protection 

of, 870 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
530 
Money orders : 

International, agreements for exchange with : Morocco, 

1072; Netherlands Antilles, 92 
Postal Union of Americas and Spain agreement re, 386 
Mongolian People's Republic : 
U.N. membership : 

Admission of, U.N. action, 906n. 
U.N. Charter and ICJ Statute, 910 
U.S. position, statements: Rusk, 629; Stevenson, 654; 
Yost, 905 
U.S. recognition of, question of, address and statements : 
Bowles, 487 ; Rusk, 113, 181, 280 ; White, 408 
Morgan, John H., 502 
Morocco : 

Money orders, international, agreement with U.S. for 

exchange, 1072 
U.S. base in, study on conversion of for development 
purposes, 973 
Morrill Act, 079, 980 
Morris, Patrick F., 094 
Morrison, deLesseps S., 350, 500, 1000, 1069 
Moscoso, Teodoro, 953, 1000 

Moscow International Film Festival, U.S. delegation, 131 
Mozambique, developments in, address (Williams), 640 
Munitions control program, delegation of functions re. 

Executive order, 900 
Mutual defense assistance agreements: 
Atomic energy for, agreement with France for coopera- 
tion, 530, 556, 733 

no6 



Mutual defense assistance agreements — Continued 

Continental air defense system, agreement with Canada 

re extension and strengthening, 733 
Japan, agreement re Japanese contributions under 1954 

agreement, 910 
Korea, reaffirmation of U.S. aid under, joint communi- 
que, 929 
Luxembourg, agreement amending annex B of 1950 

agreement, 733 
Military equipment, materials, and services. See Mili- 
tary equipment, materials, and services 
Norway, agreement amending annex C of 1950 agree- 
ment, 694 
Mutual defense treaties and arrangements. See Central 
Treaty Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation, Organization of American States, and South- 
east Asia Treaty Organization 
Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. 
See Fulbright-Hays Act 

Nacvalac, Miroslav, 66 
Nadelmann, Kurt H., cited, 949 
Nakayama, Tosiwo, 208 
Narcotic drugs. See Drugs, narcotic 

NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.K. 
and France participation in Project Relay, statement 
(Farley), 418 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naval deserters, Spain waives right for return of, 71 
Naval vessels. See under Ships and shipping 
Navigation, friendship, and commerce treaties. See 

Friendship 
Navigation congress, international, meeting of, 563 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
Central Treaty Organization, 642 
Refugees from communism, USEP resettlement of, 

statement (Jones), 258 
Soviet policy in, address (Bowles), 858 
U.S. chiefs of mission conferences, 246, 479 
Nehru, Braj Kumar, 599 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 54, 926 
Nepal : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 362 

Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

for financing, 262 
IBRD and IMF, articles of agreements, 530 
Netherlands : 
Air transportation, negotiations concluded with U.S., 

197 
Cotton textiles, meeting on international trade prob- 
lems in, 90 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Caribbean Organization, agreement establishing, 501 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
GATT, declarations re provisions of art. XVI : 4, 613 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 
OECD, convention on, 1072 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573, 574 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
386 

Department of State Bulletin 



Netherlands Antilles, international money orders, agree- 
ment with U.S. for exchange of, 92 
Neutral nations : 
Berlin situation, attitude on, statement (Rusk), 437 
Conference at Belgrade : 
Meeting of representatives with President Kennedy : 
Date for, 518 

Remarks and statements : Keita, OiO ; Kennedy, 539, 
540 ; Sukarno, 539 
Soviet resumption of testing, question of lack of stand 

re, statement (Rusk), 849 
Texts of messages exchanged, 478, 541, 543 
U.S. views re, address and statements : Cleveland, 885 ; 
Rusk, 448, 629 
Finland, U.S. views, statement (Rusk), 924 
Politics and forms of, address (Cleveland), 883 
Question of reducing U.S. aid to, statement (Rusk), 

630 
Soviet policy for, address and statements (Rusk), 177, 

185, 188 
Sudanese neutrality, 723 
Types of, address (Lindley), 550 

U.S. policy and relations, address and statements: 
Bowles, 855 ; Rusk, 182, 925 
New Delhi medical center, establishment, 9 
New York City, cooperative development project, 882 
New Zealand : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, agreement amending 1960 agreement 

with U.S. re, 169 
Aircraft and aircraft parts manufactured in U.S., 

agreement with U.S. re importation of, 870 
GATT: 
Declaration on provisional accession of Argentina 

to, 218 
Declarations on provisions of art. XVI : 4, 613, 693 
Ninth protocol of rectifications and modifications to 
texts of schedules to, 217 
IBRD and IMF, articles of agreements, 501 
IFC, articles of agreement, 573 
Oil pollution convention ( 1954 ) , international, 573 
Telecommunications convention (1959), international, 
169 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 46 
Newly independent nations (see also Less developed 
countries) : 
Aid to. See Economic and social development and Eco- 
nomic and technical aid 
Anti-imperialistic inclinations, address (Stevenson), 69 
Article (Pearcy), 604 
Challenge of , address (Farland),77 
Problems confronting, addresses and remarks : Khan, 

245 ; Stevenson, 405 ; Williams, 601 
U.N. importance to, address (Bowles) , 795 
U.S.-Soviet objectives in, comparison of, address 
(Bowles), 16 
Niagara River and Niagara Falls, development in, 43, 369 
Nicaragua : 
Copyright convention, universal, and protocols 1, 2, 

and 3, 91 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention of, 
final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 

Index, July to December 1 96 1 



Nicaragua — Continued 

School construction program, U.S. aid, 772 
Niger : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ment with U.S. providing, 92 
Narcotic drugs : 
Manufacture and distribution of, convention (1931) 

limiting and regulating, 693 
Opium and other drugs, convention (1912) and pro- 
tocols relating to suppression of abuse of, 603 
Protocol bringing under International control drugs 
outside scope of (1931) convention, 693 
Postal convention (1957), universal, with final pro- 
tocol, annex, regulations of execution, and provi- 
sions re airmail with final protocol, 133 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 777 
Slavery convention (1926), 778 

White slave trafiic, agreement for repression of, 778 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 169 
Nigeria : 

Economic and social development of, U.S. -Nigeria co- 
operation for, address (Williams) and joint com- 
munique, 155 
IBRD membership, 411 
Independence, greetings on 1st anniversary, message 

(Kennedy), 667 
Industrial development, U.S. aid, 1020 
Prime Minister Balewa, visit to U.S., 197, 324 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, inter- 
national convention to facilitate importation of, 693 
Copyright convention, universal, 1033 
Cultural property, convention (19.54) and protocol 

for protection in event of armed conflict, 386 
Customs facilities for touring, convention concerning, 

385 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment and protocol on importation of, 425 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 

seas, convention on, 425 
Geneva conventions (1949) on treatment of prisoners 

of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 501 
High seas, convention on, 425 
IDA, articles of agreement, 1033 

Narcotic drugs, convention (1931) on limiting man- 
ufacture and regulating distribution of and pro- 
tocol (1948) bringing under international control 
drugs outside scope of 1931 convention, 349 
Obscene publications, agreement for repression of cir- 
culation of, 656 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 306 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (19.54) 

on temporary importation of, 425 
Slavery convention (1926), .501 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

425 
Wheat agreement, international (19.59), 92 
White women, repression of trade in, agreement 
(1949) on, 386 
Niven, Paul, 145 
Nobel Peace Prize for 1960, 888 
Nolan, Charles P., 373 

1107 



Nonalined nations. See Neutral nations 
Nonintervention, i)rincii)le of, U.S.-Peruvian support, 676, 

677 
Non-self-governing territories. See Self-determination 

atid Trust territories 
North American air defense system, agreement with Can- 
ada re extension and strengthening of, 733 
North Atlantic Council : 
Berlin and German problems, position on, communique, 

361 
Ministerial meeting (Paris) , 28th : 
Statement (Rusk), 1054 
U.S. delegation, 1071 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Council of. See North Atlantic Council 
European governments supplementary contributions to, 

question of, statements (Rusli), 277, 286 
Germany, Federal Republic of, participation of, Soviet 
and U.S. views on, U.S. note, 226, and Soviet aide 
memoire, 231, 232 
Nuclear deterrent for, question of, statements (Rusk), 

922, 1057 
Purpose of, statement (Ball) , 841 
Research fellowship program, 1962-63, 868 
Science program, article (Spielman), 519 
Secretary General, visit to U.S., 529 
Soviet attacks against, texts of notes and declaration: 

396, 398, 399, 400, 510, 517 
Status of, U.S.-Federal Republic of Germany review, 

text of joint communique, 967 
Status of forces in Germany, agreements re, 349 
Strengthening of, address, letters, and statement: Gil- 
patric, Seaborg, 557 ; Kennedy, 556 ; Rusk, 177, 280 
U.S.-Canadian agreement for improving air defense, 
furthering defense sharing, and assistance to cer- 
tain NATO governments, 92 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries : 

Convention for and declaration of understanding re, 

573, 612, 1072 
International Commission for the : 
11th annual meeting, 45 
U.S. commissioner, swearing in, 166 
Norwa.v : 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 1034 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declarations on provisions of art. XVI : 4< 613, 

693 
Mutual defense assistance, agreement with U.S. amend- 
ing annex C of 1950 agreement re, 694 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573, 574 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

501 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 
992 
Novins, Stuart, 838 

Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy and Nuclear weapons 
Nuclear Testing, Ad Hoc Panel on, 238, 376 
Nuclear weapons : 
Distribution of, Indian proposal prohibiting, U.S. 
views, statement (Stevenson), 817 



Nuclear weapons — Continued 

Elimination of, joint U.S.-Soviet statement, 590 
Mutual defense purposes, agreement with France for 

cooperation in operation of systems, 530, 5.56 
NATO, question of U.S. supply to, statements (Rusk), 

922, 1057 
Production, control, and delivery of, U.S. propos.il and 
position re, address, declaration, and statement : 
Kennedy, 622 ; Rusk, 708 ; text of declaration, 652, 
653 
Tests. See Nuclear weapons tests 
Threat to world survival, address (Farland), 78 
U.S. capability, statements : Kennedy, 844 ; Rusk, 801 ; 
White House, 845 
Nuclear weapons tests : 
Cessation and control of : 
Atmospheric test ban, U.K.-U.S. proposal : 
Joint U.K.-U.S. proposal, text, 476 
Soviet rejection, declaration (Khrushchev) and 
U.K.-U.S. statement re, 515 
Indian-U.S. views, text of joint communique, 928 
Soviet position and proposals, aide memoire, declara- 
tion, note.s, and statements: Dean, 377, 378, 379; 
Khrushchev, 515; Rusk, 147, 148; Soviet aide me- 
moire and note, 22, 23, 186 ; Stevenson, 818, 1025 ; 
U.S. notes, 19, 20, 21, 185 
Treaty on : 
General Assembly res. calling for conclusion of, 
statement (Dean) and texts of resolutions, 936 
Need for, communiques, letter, and statements : 
Abboud, Kennedy, 723 ; Ikeda, Kennedy, 58 ; 
Kennedy, 106; Stevenson, 816; U.K.-U.S. letter, 
190 
Negotiations on. See Geneva conference on the dis- 
continuance of nuclear weapon tests 
U.K.-U.S. proposed treaty, address and statements: 

Dean, 379 ; Rusk, 279, 704 
U.S. urges prompt Soviet agreement on, text of 
notes, 18, 22, 184 
U.S. position and proposals, address, letter, notes, 
and statements: Kennedy, 542, 621; Rusk, 148; 
Stevenson, 818, 1025, 1027 ; texts of notes, 20, 21, 184 
Detection and identification of: 

U.S. panel to study, establishment and report of, 238, 

376 
U.S. research program, statements: Dean, 375, 377, 
379 ; Kennedy, 543 
Fallout from. Sec Radioactive fallout 
Peaceful uses, approval of U.S. Project Gnome, 807 
Resumption of : 
Japanese protest re, text of note, 545 
Soviet : 
Declaration (Khrushchev), 517 
U.S. views re, addresses and statements: Cleve- 
land. 797; Dean, 476; Department, 965, 907; 
Kennedy, 106. 475. 844 ; SIcCloy, 763, 765 ; Rusk, 
704; Stevenson, 816, 818, 819, 936, 1025; White 
House, 475, 476, 843 ; Williams, 668 
Western Foreign Ministers communique, 545 
U.S., announcement of and U.S. policy re, letter and 
statements: Department, 966, 967; Kennedy, 475, 
542, 844; Rusk, 148, 704; White House, 543 



no8 



Department of State Bulletin 



Nuclear weapons tests — Continued 
Soviet 50-megaton explosion : 
General Assembly res. requesting Soviet refrain from 

testing, text, 817 
U.S. views, statements: Rusk, 748, 807; White House, 
749 
Nyasaland. See Rhodesia and Nyasaland 
Nyerere, Julius, 297 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

Obscene publications, agreement (1910) for repression 

of circulation of, 656 
Oceanography, NATO research in, article (Spielman), 

522 
O'Donnell, Ashton J., 953 
OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and 

Development 
Oil: 
Overseas investments in, address (Martin), 713 
Pollution of sea by, 1954 convention for prevention of: 
Current action, 573 

Implementation of, support for bill, statement (Lis- 
ter), 304 
Okotie-Eboh, Festus S., 155, 156 

Operation Crossroads Africa, remarks (Williams), 151 
"Operation Weekend," 553 
Opium, convention and protocols regulating production, 

trade, and use of, 92, 693 
Oreamuno Flores, Jos6 Rafael, 1059 

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development : 
Conference on economic growth and investment in 
education : 
Address and remarks: Coombs, 104, 822; Rusk, 820 
Announcement of, 691 
Convention on, with supplementary protocols : 
Current actions, 992, 1033, 1072 
Entry into force, message (Rusk), 655 
Development centre, proposed, DAG communique, 304 
Establishment and functions, statement (Ball), 121 
Ministerial Council, meeting of : 
Gross national product, call for 50 percent increase 
in, statement (Ball) and text of communique, 1014 
Statement (Rusk), 919 
Role in aid to less developed countries, U.S.-German 

joint communique, 968 
U.S. policy toward, statement (Ball), 842 
Organization of American States : 
Collective action in the Americas, report (Stevenson), 

316 
Council of : 
Approval of meeting to consider extracontinental in- 
tervention, statements : Morrison, 1069 ; Rusk, 1058 
Special session on Dominican situation, statement 

(Morrison), lOOOu 
U.S. repre.sentative on, confirmation, 350 
Cuban situation, proposed OAS consideration of, state- 
ments (Rusk), 149, 747, 920 
Dominican situation : 

Role in, statements (Rusk), 54, 56, 920 
Special Committee Subcommittee on, activities of, 
U.S. views, statements : Morrison, 500 ; Woodward, 
929 



Organization of American States— Continued 
Role in economic and social development programs, 

statement (Dillon), 358 
U.S.-Peruvian support, joint communique (Kennedy, 
Prado), 676 
Ormsby-Gore, David, 790 
Osgood, Thomas H., 169 

Outer Mongolia. See Mongolian People's Republic 
Outer space (see also Satellites, earth) : 
Peaceful uses of, need for international cooperation 

in, remarks ( Stevenson ) , 402, 403, 404 
Research program, joint, agreement with U.K. for 

establishment, 574 
U.S. proposals and views, addresses, declaration, letter, 
and statements: Cleveland, 800; Farley, 418; Ken- 
nedy, 115, 273, 622 ; Rusk, 180, 181 ; text of declara- 
tion, 652 

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, report on U.S. 
administration, statements: Coding, 201, 211; Naka- 
yama, 208 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, International, ap- 
pointment of U.S. member, 869 
Pacific Science Congress, 10th meeting of. Department 

announcement, 424 
Paine, Thomas, cited, 986 
Pak, Chung Hee, 551, 928 
Pakistan : 

Central Treaty Organization, 642 

Division of, article (Pearcy),610 

President, visit to U.S., 54, 239 

Relations with India, address (Bowles), 487 

Transit trade dispute with Afghanistan, acceptance 

of U.S. offer of good offices, 761 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 92, 

169, 262, 502, 870 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Ar- 
gentina, 870 
Radio regulations (19.59), with appendixes, annexed 
to international telecommunication convention 
(1959), 169 
U.S. economic cooperation with, statement (Kennedy), 
164 
Palestine Refugees, U.N. Relief and Works Agency for, 
request for U.S. contribution to, statement (Jones), 
258 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, U.S. research grant to, 

87 
Pan American Union : 
Alliance for Progress funds for, agreement with U.S. 

re, 1034 
Technical assistance, U.S. contribution, 999 
Panama : 

Civil aviation consultations with U.S., 554 

Economic mission, discussions at Washington, joint 

statement, 728 
Education program, U.S. aid, 108 

Social and economic situation in, address (Tarland), 81 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
IDA, articles of agreement, 656 



Index, July to December 1 96 1 



1109 



Panama — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 

protocol of amendment to convention (1944), 385 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
U.S.-Panamauian relations, letter and statement: Ken- 
nedy, 932 ; Rusk, 925 
Panama Canal, U.S. rights and policy re, letter and state- 
ment : Kennedy, 932 ; Rusk, 925 
Panama Canal Company, appointment to Board of Direc- 
tors, 93 
Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H., 238 
Paraguay : 

Education program, U.S. aid, 772 
Political conditions in, remarks (Stevenson), 140 
Question of U.S. aid to, statement (Ball), 843 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Economic, technical, and related assistance, agree- 
ments with U.S. re, 734 
Educational exchange programs, agreement with U.S. 

for financing, 262 
IDA, articles of agreement, 501 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Sugar agreement, international, 733 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
1072 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 350 
Parcel post, agreement re of Postal Union of the Americas 

and Spain, 386 
Paris convention (1883) for protection of industrial prop- 
erty, Lisbon revision (195S) : 
Current actions, 40, 693, 826, 870, 1033 
Statement (Hadraba), 125 
Park, Chung Hee, 551, 928 

Passports (see also Visas), State Department proce- 
dures, streamlining of, remarks (Cieplinski), 727 
Patents : 

Applications, classified, agreement with Australia ap- 
proving procedures for reciprocal filing of, 733 
Industrial property, protection of. See Paris conven- 
tion 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent applica- 
tions have been filed, agreement for safeguarding, 
777, 825, 952 
Patterson, John M., 657 
Paz Estenssoro, Victor, 773 
Peace : 
Prospects for, statement (Rusk), 114 
U.S. proposal for keeping, 653 
Peace Corps : 
Expan.sion of, proposed, address (Williams), 865 
Legislation establishing, statement on signing (Ken- 
nedy), 603 
Programs in, agreements for establishment : El Salva- 
dor, 1034; Ghana, 350; Malaya, 613; Philippines, 
10.34 
Visit of Director Shrivcr to Guinea, 24 
Peaceful coexistence, Soviet policy, addresses: Farland, 
77 ; Lindley, 547 



Peal, S. Edward, 745 

Pearcy, G. Etzel, 604 I 

Pelee Passage area in Lake Erie, agreement with Canada 1 
re channel improvement work in, 870 ■ 

Penal matters and information from penal register, agree- 
ment with Germany re reciprocal legal assistance in, 
470 
Pereira, Pedro Theotonio, 543 . 

P6rez de la Cova, Carlos, 373 I 

Peru : I 

Cuban activities in Latin America, proposal for in- f 
vestigation and meeting on, statements (Rusk) , 747, 
807 
Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 140 
GATT tariff negotiations with U.S., results of, 373 
President Prado, visit to U.S., 674 
Relief aid to, question of administration of, statement 

(Rusk), 277 L 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : ^ 

Agricultural commodities, agreement amending 1960 

agreement with U.S., 470 
IDA, articles of agreement, 656 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
U.S. Operations Mission, appointment of director, 533 
U.S. school-lunch program at Puno, 678 
Petersen, Howard C, 411 
Petroleum. See Oil 
Philippines : 

Elections in, statement (Rusk), 919 
Floating drydock, agreement with U.S. for loan of, 826 
Peace Corps program, agreement with U.S. establish- 
ing, 1034 
Phoumi, Nosavan, 109 
Plimpton, Francis T. P., 165 
Plowshare project, 543, 807 
Poland : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 238 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Antarctic treaty, 45 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on relations with contracting par- 
ties of, 217, 613 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, international conven- 
tion for, 1072 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 305, 574 
Police force, international. See United Nations : Perma- 
nent armed force I 
Political development, progress in Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands in, statements : Coding, 202, 212 ; 
Nakayama, 208, 209 
Pollution of sea by oil, international convention (1954) 

for prevention of, 304, 573 
Population explosion, problem of, statement (Ball), 582 
Portugal : 
African territories, developments in, address (Wil- 
liams), 640, 863 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 543 
Angola question. See unrfer Angola 
Goa, dispute with India over, statement (Rusk), 1058 
IBRD, membership In, 411 



mo 



Department of State Bulletin 



Portugal — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 1072 
Ck)tton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 870 
Geneva conventions (1949) relative to treatment of 
prisoners of war, wounded and sick, and civilians, 
530 
Postal convention (1957), universal, 530 
OECD, convention on, 992 
U.S. missionaries arrested in Angola, release of, 1010 
Postage stamp to commemorate 50th anniversary of Chi- 
nese revolution, 372 
Postal convention (1957), universal, with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution, and provisions re 
airmail, 133, 261, 306, 349, 530, 656 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention of, 
final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Potsdam agreement and conference (1945), 227, 971 
Prado, Manuel, 674 

President's Scientific Advisory Committee, 106 
Press, the, presentation of foreign policy to iJublic, ad- 
dress (Rusk), 175 
Press center for foreign correspondents, established at 

New York, 491 
Prisoners of war, Geneva convention (1949) re treatment 

of, 501, 530 
Private capital, investment abroad. See Investment of 

private capital abroad 
Private enterprise, role in Latin America, statements : 

Ball, 843 ; Dillon, 443 
Private international law, Hague conference on, 9th ses- 
sion of, article (Maktos),948 
Proclamations by the President : 
Captive Nations Week, 1961 (3419), 325 
Cotton products, imposition of import restrictions on 

(3428), 555 
Sierra Leone, immigration quota established for (3417), 

74 
Sweden, granting compensatory tariff concession to 
(3431), 682 
Procurement policy, U.S., address and determination 

(Kennedy), 903, 1042 
Propaganda : 
Latin America, need to combat Cuban and Communist 

campaign in, remarks (Stevenson), 141, 142 
Soviet charges of Western and German activities in 
Berlin, texts of notes, 396, 398 
Property : 
Cultural, convention (1954) and protocol (1956) for 
protection in event of armed conflict, 45, 92, 217, 
386 
Foreign governments, sovereign immunity of, U.S. posi- 
tion, 407 
Industrial, Paris convention (1883) for the protection 

of. See Paris convention 
Sequestered property in Austria, enactment of law 

re release of, 252 
Surplus, agreement with Canada re disposal of, 574 
Protection of infants, draft convention on, article 
(Maktos),950 

Index, July to December 7967 



Provisional Cotton Textile Committee. See Cotton Textile 

Committee 
Public health programs in Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands, statements : Coding, 206, 214 ; Nakayama, 211 
Public Health Service, research grant to Pan American 

Sanitary Bureau, 87 
Public Law 480. See Agricultural surpluses 
Public opinion : 

Berlin situation, statement (Rusk), 285 
Importance of, addresses (Cleveland), 798, 883 
Publications : 

Congressional. See tender Congress 

IJC, report on Water Levels of Lake Ontario, released, 

1059 
NATO, report Increasing the Effectiveness of Western 

Science, 519, 522, 523 
State Department : 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 100th anni- 
versary of, 1073 
The Foreign Service of the United States: Origins, 

Development, and Functions, released, 502 
Geneva Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear 
Weapon Tests: History and Analysis of Negotia- 
tions, published, 817 
Lists of recent releases, 94, 133, 169, 218, 425, 534, 658, 

734, 953, 1073 
Report on United States Government Assistance to 
Sub-Sahara African Students Seeking Higher Edu- 
cation in the United States, released, 894 
A Threat to the Peace: North Viet-Nam's Effort To 
Conquer South Viet-Nam, report released, 1053 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Foreign public documents, draft convention on legali- 
zation, articles (Maktos),949 
Obscene publications, agreement for repression of cir- 
culation of, 656 
Official and government documents, conventions con- 
cerning exchange of, 46, 656 
United Nations, lists of current documents, 132, 167, 
374, 424, 529, 777, 909, 952 
Puerto Rico : 

Certification of able seamen, convention re, 425 
Political status of, statement ( Stevenson) , 731 
Punta Arenas, agreement with Chile re establishment of 

weather facility at, 574 
Punta del Este, Charter of : 

Remarks and statement : Dillon, 441 ; Kennedy, 999 
Text, 463 
Punta del Este, Declaration of : 
Address (Bowles), 742 
Text, 462 

Quadros, Janio da Silva, 360 

Rabi, I. I., 520 

Racial relations and discrimination : 
African position, address (Williams), 117 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, problem in, address (Wil- 
liams), 639 
South Africa, apartheid policy in, U.S. views, addresses 

(Williams), 117, 888 
U.N. Human Rights Commission proposals re, article 
(Tree), 129, 130 

nil 



Racial relations and discrimination — Continued 
U.S. problems: 

Diplomatic representatives in U.S. See Diplomatic 

representative in U.S. 
Employment, efforts to eliminate, address (Kennedy), 

1050 
Exchange students, address (Coombs), 330 
U.S. progress in eliminating and policy, addresses and 
remarks : Bowles, IOCS ; Louchheim, 726 ; Steven- 
son, 959; Williams, 153 
Radiation, atomic. Sec Radioactive fallout 
Radio {see also Telecommunications) : 

IRAC study in radio frequencies for space communica- 

cations, statement (Farley), 421 
ITU proposed radio conference at Geneva, 420 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Broadcasting in standard band, agreement (1957) 

with Mexico concerning, 34, 46, 92 
Communications between radio amateurs on behalf 
of 3d parties, agreements with: Bolivia, 870; Uru- 
guay, 657 
Regulations (19.59) annexed to international telecom- 
munication convention (1959), 46, 169, 261, 386, 
530, 657, 733, 953, 1033 
Relay facilities, agreement with Liberia amending 
1960 agreement, 733 
Radio Advisory Commission, Interdepartmental, 421 
Radio Consultative Committee, International, 421 
Radio Corporation of America, 642 
Radioactive fallout : 

Rongelap people in Pacific Islands trust territory, situ- 
ation of, statement (Coding), 216 
U.K.-U.S. proposal to ban tests in atmosphere produc- 
ing, text of, 476; Soviet reply, 515, 517 
Randall, Clarence B., 771 
Rayburn, Sam, 918 
Reading rooms, American, agreement with Yugoslavia re 

establishment of, 133 
Reap, Joseph W., 716 

Recognition. See Diplomatic recognition and relations 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See International Bank 
Refugees and displaced persons : 

Algerian, U.S. aid to, statement (Jones), 258 
European : 
ICEM aid to. See Intergovernmental Committee for 

European Migration 
Improved situation of, letter and statement : Kennedy, 

2.56 ; Jones, 381, 383 
U.S. support, statement (Jones), 257, 258 
German, flight to West Berlin, address, note, and state- 
ments: Kennedy, 223; Lindley, 548; Rusk, 285, 
362, 430; text of note, 229 
Housing, use of counterpart funds for construction of, 

agreement with Austria re, 826 
High Commissioner for, U.N., accomplishments and 

U.S. support, statements (Jones), 257, 258, 382 
U.S. aid programs : 
Administration of, proposed legislation re, letter 

(Kennedy), 255 
Need for continuing, statements (Jones) , 257, 380 
Remarks (Cieplinski), 727 

1112 



Refugees and displaced persons — Continued 
Works of, application of universal copyright conven- 
tion to, protocol /, 45, 92, 869, 1033 
Zanzibar, U.S. aid to, 71 
Relay project, 418 
Relief and rehabilitation. See Refugees and individual 

countries 
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 

Near East, U.N., 258 
Rendall, Edwin C, 614 
Research {see also Science) : 
Disarmament, need for programs re, statements: Mc- 

Cloy, 416 ; Rusk, 414 
Economic development, importance to, addresses and 
statement : Cleveland, 296 ; Klutznick, 944 ; Rusk, 9 
NATO programs, 521, 868 
Nuclear, U.S. programs, announcement and statements: 

Dean, 375, 377, 379 ; Kennedy, 543, 807 
Outer space, agreement with U.K. for establishment 

of joint program, 574 
U.S. research grant to Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 
87 
Revolution of rising expectations, address and statement: 

Ball, 839 ; Cleveland, 293, 294 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland : 

Developments in, address (Williams), 639 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina to, 218 
GATT, declarations on provisions of art. XVI: 4, 613, 

693 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 600 
Riddleberger, James W., 10, 303 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 91, 530, 777 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 217, 425, 952 
Rolfson, John, 801 
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 70S 
Rostow, Walt W., 233, 1073 
Rowan, Carl T., 984 
Ruanda-Urundi, copyright convention, universal, and 

related protocols, 869 
Rubin, Seymour J., 350 

Rugs, Wilton and velvet. President requests additional 
information re proposed escape-clause action on, 683 
Rumania : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 

Narcotic drugs, protocols (1946, 1948) on, 993 

Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) on 

temporary importation of, 217 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 217 
WHO constitution, amendments to arts, 24 and 25, 
261 
U.S. Minister, appointment, 1073 
Rural Education Institute, Chile, 772 

Rural Life Problems, Fourth International Catholic Con- 
gress on, 744 
Rusk, Dean : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements (see also Meetings 
infra) : 
Adenauer, Chancellor, visit to U.S., proposed, 804, 
919 

Department of State Bulletin 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Aircraft seizures, question of, 277, 278, 280, 281 
Algerian situation, 748 
Alliance for Progress, concept of, 149, 277 
Belgrade conference of neutral nations, 448, 629, 849 
Berlin situation. See Berlin 
British Guiana, question of U.S. aid to, 443, 444 
Central Europe, proposed neutral or buffer zone in, 

847 
China, Communist : 

U.N. representation question, 110, 111, 181, 753 

U.S. recognition, question of, 113 
China, question of two-China policy, 1057 
Citizen groups, exchange of views with, 11 
Clay, General, role in Berlin situation, 448 
Cold war, understanding concept of, 805 
Communism, 182, 283, 751, 846, 848 
Congo situation, 630, 920, 1053, 1055, 1056, 1057 
Cuba: 

Charge of U.S. preparations for invasion, 807 

Communism in, 281, 1057 

OAS consideration of, proposals for, 807, 920 

U.S. policy and relations, 149, 181, 439, 447 
Cultural exchange programs, importance of, 182, 183 
The Current Danger, 507 

Development, international cooperation for, 563 
Diplomacy, methods of, 282, 287 
Disarmament, U.S. and Soviet positions, 56, 147, 148, 

279, 752, 849 
Disarmament agency, need for, 412, 492 
Dominican Republic, developments in, 54, 56, 447, 920, 

931, 1054 
Education, importance to economic development, 820 
European officials and NATO Council, meetings with, 

361, 1054, 1056 
European security, 752 

Finland, independence and neutrality of, 924 
Foreign aid program : 

Appropriation request. 451 

Congressional action on, 179, 275, 281, 439 

Importance and need for, 6, 52, 277 
Foreign policy : 

Formulation of, 149, 150, 179 

Objectives, 412, 493, 625, 848 

Problems of, 175, 702 
Free world unity, strengthening, 628 
Germany : 

Negotiations on problems of, 276, 746, 751, 1054 

Reunification of, 112, 147, 448 
Germany, East: 

Question of U.S. recognition, 113, 180 

Refugees, 285 

Situation in, 284, 285 

Soviet proposed peace treaty with, 51, 53, 56 
Germany, Federal Republic of : 

Rearmament of, 276, 708 

Trade with Soviet bloc, 751 
Heads of Government (France. U.K., U.S.). question 

of meeting of, 279, 438 
Hungary, question of discussions on Cardinal Mind- 

szenty, 1057 
lA-ECOSOC meeting in Uruguay, 277, 441 

Index, July to December 1 96 J 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements— Continued 

India, disputes with Communist China and Portugal, 

1058 
Japan : 

Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs, 
753, 890 

Peace treaty, 56 

Textile export quota talks, 55 
Khrushchev address to 22d Congress of Soviet Com- 
munist Party, 746, 753, 803 
Korea, developments in, 275, 919 
Laos situation, 54, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 749 
Latin America, U.S. policy in, 149, 150 
Less developed countries, Sino-Soviet offensive In, 

149, 805 
MacArthur, General, visit to Philippines, 279 
Military strength, U.S., 708, 802 
NATO: 

Nuclear deterrent for, question of, 922, 1057 

Strengthening, 277, 280, 286 
Neutral nations, U.S. position and relations, 114, 182, 

630 
Nuclear weapons : 

Need for control over, 708 

U.S. capability, 801 
Nuclear weapons tests : 

Ce.s.sation of, negotiations on and draft treaty on, 
55, 147, 279 

Soviet resumption, 148, 748, 807 
OAS, 920, 1058 

OECD Ministerial meeting, 919 

Outer Mongolia, U.N. membership and U.S. recogni- 
tion questions, 113, 181, 280, 629 
Outer space, peaceful uses of, 180, 181 
Panama-U.S. relations, 925 
Peace, prospects for, 114 
Peru, 277, 747 
Philippine elections, 919 
Political processes of democracies, need for Soviet 

understanding of, 147 
Rayburn, Sam, tribute to, 918 
SEATO, 7th anniversary, 528 
Secretary of State, role of, 145, 150 
Secretary of the Treasury, negotiation of agreements 

by, 446 
Security Council, use of double veto in. 111 
Sino-Soviet bloc, 114, 149, 181 
Soviet Union : 

Berlin situation, position, 276, 282, 283, 284 

Dispute with Peiping, 179, 803 

Economic assistance programs, 805 

Germany, East, proposed peace treaty, 51, 53, 56 

Negotiating with, 282, 284, 802 

Nuclear tests, 148, 748, 807 

Troika proposal, 183, 293 
State Department: 

Administration and organization, 280, 287, 613, 
1058 

Foreign policy statements, 178 

Question of two State Departments, 149 

Role in national security affairs, 455 
Stevenson, Ambassador, visit to Argentina, 54 

1113 



Busk, Dean — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Trade policy, 924 
U.S. system of government, obligation to understand, 

630 
United Kingdom : 
Berlin position, 286 
EEC membership, 179 
NATO, support of, 277, 279 
Sale of aircraft to Communist China, 1058 
United Nations : 

Berlin situation, question of consideration of, 180, 

284, 285, 437, 709 
Secretary-General, selection of, 628, 629, 752, 753, 
806 
Viet-Nam, Communist aggression and U.S. policy re, 

750, 920, 921, 922, 1053, 1055, 1056, 1057, 1058 
Yugoslavia, U.S. policy on aid to, 750 
Correspondence and messages : 

Atomic weapons systems for mutual defense, agree- 
ment with France, transmitting to President, 557 
Foreign aid program, request for congressional sup- 
port, 253 
Foreign commerce, views on bill to promote, 198 
Japan-U.S. Committee on Trade and Economic Af- 
fairs, establishment, 58 
OECD, entry into force of convention establishing, 655 
Government service of, statement (Spivak), 434 
Interviews for TV and radio broadcasts, transcripts of, 

145, 282, 434, 708, 801, 845 
News conferences, transcripts of, 51, 109, 275, 441, 746, 

918, 1053 
Secretary of State, role of. See Secretary of State 
U.S. representative to NATO Ministerial meeting, an- 
nounced, 1071 
Visit to Spain, proposed, 1054 
Ryukyu Islands : 

Economic and social problems, survey mission to, 667 
U.S.-Japanese discussions re, text of communique, 58 

St. Croix River Basin development, U.S. approval of IJC 

recommendations, 680 
St. Lawrence River. Wolfe Island Cut in, agreement with 

Canada re dredging of, 870 
Salinger, Pierre, 392» 

Salmon Fisheries Commission, International Pacific, ap- 
pointment of U.S. member, 869 
Samoa, Western, Trust Territory of, telecommunication 

convention (1959), international, 733 
Sanction.?, decision against application to Soviet-bloc coun- 
tries, statement (Department), 334 
San Jos6, declaration of, background of, 564 
Sanjuan, Pedro, 551, 671 
Satellites, earth (.see also Outer Space) : 
Communications satellites : 

Experimental, agreement with Germany re intercon- 
tinental testing of, 993 
U.S. proposals and policy re, address, letter, and 
statement: Farley, 418; Kennedy, 115, 273, 022 
Navigational satellite program, agreement with Aus- 
tralia re tracking station for, 133 
Use of, remarks (Stevenson), 402 



Saudi Arabia : 

International telecommunication convention (1959), 

380 
Military as.sistance to Kuwait, 106 
Scan, John, 282, 801 

Science (see also Atomic energy. Nuclear weapons, 
Outer space. Research, and Satellites) : 
Conference on science and world affairs, message (Ken- 
nedy), 553 
Foreign Service science officers, appointments, 169, 350 
Japanese-U.S. cooperation, 58, 036, 1059 
NATO program, article (Spielman), 519 
Progress in, need for political adaptation, remarks 

(Stevenson), 402 
U.N. conference on application of, proposed, 939 
Science Committee, NATO, 520 
Science Congress, 10th Pacific, meeting of. Department 

announcement, 424 
Scientific, educational, and cultural materials, agreement 

and protocol on importation of, 425 
Scientific Advisory Committee, President's, 106 
Scientific Cooperation, Joint U.S.-Japan Committee on: 
Establishment and functions, 636, 1059 
Proposal for, text of communique, 58 
Sea, law of the, conventions on, 425, 869 
Seaborg, Glenn T., 558, 644, 656 
Seal of the United States, 1004 

Seals, conservation of. International Commission for the 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries recommendation re, 45 
Seamen, able, convention concerning the certification of, j. 

425 
SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Sebald, William J., 167 
Secretary-General of the United Nations. See under 

United Nations 
Secretary of State : 

Disarmament agency, relationship and responsibilities 
re, letters and statements: Kennedy, McCloy, 100, 
101, 103 ; McCloy, 416 ; Rusk, 414, 492 
Foreign aid program functions, interim delegation of 

authority, letter (Kennedy), 679 
Latin American aid program, administration of, Ex- 
ecutive order, 334 
Role of, statements (Rusk), 145, 150 
Textile agreement, international, role in implementing, 

letter (Kennedy), 774 
Travels of, statement (Rusk), 150 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Congo situation, consideration of, statements (Steven- 
son) and texts of resolutions, 1061 
Documents, lists of, 374, 424. 529, 777, 909 
Kuwait situation, consideration of, statement (Plimp- 
ton), 105 
Resolutions : 
Angola situation, prompt report on conditions In re- 
quested. 88 
Congo, efforts to unify, 1068 
Tunisia, call for cease-fire in, 343 
Tunisia, consideration of complaint of French aggres- 
sion against, U.S. view.s, statements (Yost) and 
text of resolution, 342 



1114 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



Security Council, U.N. — Continued 
U.N. membership : 
Applications for, consideration of, statement (Steven- 
son), 654 
Chinese representation question, question of consid- 
eration of, statement (RusIj), 110, 111 
Recommendations on, 655n, 906n- 
Veto power : 
Address (Bowles), 793 
Soviet use of, 161, 166?!., 961, 1067n 
Use of double veto, statement (Rusk), 111 
Selection Boards, Foreign Service, meetings announced, 

533 
Self-determination : 
African position on, address (Williams), 116 
German problems, application to : 
Neutral nations position, statement (Rusk), 437 
U.S. and Western position, statements and note : Ken- 
nedy, 223; Rusk, 146, 448; text of U.S. note, 226, 
229 
Nigerian-U.S. views, joint communique (Balewa, Ken- 
nedy), 324 
Peruvian-U.S. views, 676, 677 
Soviet policy toward, address (Rusk), 509 
Sudanese-U.S. views, joint communique (Abboud, Ken- 
nedy), 723 
U.S. position and support, addresses : Bowles, 481, 482, 
485 ; Kennedy, 623 ; Lindley, 549 ; Williams, 885, 886 
Senegal : 
AID mission director, designation, 778 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
President, visit to U.S., 888 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 169 
Senghor, Leopold Sedar, 888 
Shelton, Turner B., 131 
Ships and shipping : 
Cuban naval vessel, U.S. release of : 
Announcement and texts of U.S. and Cuban notes, 407 
Statement (Rusk), 447 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Loan to Philippines of floating drydock, agreement re, 

826 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 304, 

573 
Relief from double taxation on income from opera- 
tions of, agreement with Colombia for, 349 
U.S. naval vessels. See infra 
U.S. naval vessels : 
Brazil, transfer of to, remarks (Berle),288 
Dominican Republic, stationing of U.S. vessels near, 

statement (Morrison), 1002 
Loan of, agreements with : China, 470 ; Greece, 953 
Short-range tactical air navigation facilities in Canada, 
agreement relating to addition of Cape Dyer to annex 
of 1959 agreement re establishment, operation, and 
maintenance of, 694 

Shriver, Robert Sargent, Jr., 24 
Sierra Leone : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 238 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, international, convention on, 1072 



Sierra Leone — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

GATT, annexes, declarations, proces verbal, protocols, 

and schedules concerning, 217, 613, 657, 693, 733 
ICJ, statute of, 910 
U.N. Charter, 910 

Wheat agreement (1959), international, 1072 
WHO constitution, 1033 
U.N. membership for, 655, 910 

U.S. immigration quota, proclamation establishing, 74 
Sino-Soviet bloc (see also Communism and individual 
countries) : 
Challenge to free world, address (Farland), 77 
Economic offensive, addresses and statements : Ball, 
841 ; Kennedy, 5 : Labouisse, 320 ; Rusk, 7, 149, 805 
Free world coexistence with, question of, statement 

(Rusk), 181 
Imperialistic intentions, address and statement (Rusk), 

114, 177 
Sanctions against, decision against application, Depart- 
ment statement, 334 
Tensions within, address and statements : Bowles, 859 ; 

Rusk, 179, 803 
Trade, article and statement : Rusk, 751 ; Weiss, 249 
Sisco, Joseph J., 158 
Slavery, agreements and protocol for repression of white 

slave traffic, 386, 530, 778 
Slavery convention (1926), and amending protocol, 501, 

778, 870 
Slim, Mongi, cited, 947 
Small Business, Office of, 900 
Smith, Howard K., 145, 838 

Smith-Mundt program. See Educational exchange 
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, 878 
Smyth, Henry DeWolf , 93 
Smyth, Mabel M., 59 
Snow, WiUiam P., 350 
Snowdon, Henry T., 119 

Social development. See Economic and social develop- 
ment 
Sodium sulphates and manganese ores, agreement amend- 
ing agreement with Brazil re settlement of debt from 
agreement of 1954 for purchase of, 386 
Somali : 
Flood, U.S. aid, 987 

U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 694 
South Africa, Republic of: 
Apartheid policy, address (Williams), 888 
Assistant Secretary Williams, proposed visit to, 192 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession of Argen- 
tina, 574 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
7th anniversary, statement (Rusk), 528 
Role in Laos, statement (Rusk), 55 
Sovereign immunity, principle of, application to acts of 

hijacking and piracy, 277, 335, 407 
Sovereign states, prerequisites for establishing, article 

(Pearcy), 605 
Soviet Union (see also Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Re- 
public, Communism, Sino-Soviet bloc, and Ukrainian 
Soviet Socialist Republic) : 
Africa, Soviet activities in, address (Williams), 862 



Index, July to December 7967 



1115 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Agreements and negotiations with, addresses and 
statements : Bowles, 485, 489 ; Kennedy, 917 ; Rusk, 
282, 284, 802 ; Stevenson, 1020 

Berlin situation. See Berlin 

Communist China, dispute with, address and state- 
ments : Bowles, 859 ; Rusk, 179, 803 

Congo situation, Soviet activities and position, address, 
statement, and note : Cleveland, 799 ; Soviet note, 
188 ; Stevenson, 1066, 1067 ; Williams, 669, 671 

Disarmament position. See Disarmament and Nuclear 
weapons 

Doctrine of inevitable revolution, 283 

East German-Soviet proposed peace treaty : 
Soviet aide memoire, 231 

U.S. views, statements and notes: Kennedy, 107; 
Rusk, 51, 53, 56 ; texts of notes, 225, 512 

Economic offensive. See Less developed countries: 
Economic offensive 

European security, Soviet concern, statement (Rusk), 
276 

Federal Republic of Germany, Soviet charges against 
and relations with. Bee Germany, Federal Re- 
public of 

Finland : 
Peace treaty with (1947) , 972 
U.S. views on Soviet pressure on, 866, 924 

Geneva conference on the discontinuance of nuclear 
weapon tests. See Geneva conference 

German problems. See Berlin and Germany 

Hungary, Soviet intervention in, 745 

Labor movement, Soviet use of, address (Chapman), 
896 

Laos, Soviet role in, statements : Harriman, 85 ; Rusk, 
109, 112, 113 

Nuclear weapons tests. See Nuclear weapons tests 

Objectives of, address (Bowles), 851 

Peaceful coexistence policy, addresses : Farland, 77 ; 
Lindley, 547 

Policy of noncooperation, address (Rusk), 508 

Problems confronting, addresses and statement: 
Bowles, 15, 489 ; Coombs, 981 ; Rusk, 283 

Programs of, setbacks to, addresses (Bowles), 841, 857, 
878 

Social structure of, Soviet reply to U.S. views of, note, 
190 

Suppression of freedoan and self-determination, state- 
ment (Stevenson), 498 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 

"Troika" proposal. See "Troika" 

20-year plan, address (Chapman), 895 

United Nations, Soviet participation and position, ad- 
dresses, remarks, and statements : Bowles, 793 ; 
Cleveland, 292, 798 ; Rusk, 176, 703 ; Stevenson, 598, 
756, 787 ; Williams, 668, 669, 671 

U.S.-Soviet relations : 
Address and statement : Bowles, 855 ; Stevenson, 1027 
Air transport negotiations with U.S., 163, 197 
Cultural exchanges, U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 333 
Economic sanctions against, decision against appli- 
cation of. Department statement, 334 

1116 



Soviet Union — Continued 

U.S.-Soviet relations — Continued 

Film exchanges, joint committee review of, 680, 770 
Independence day greetings to U.S., exchange of mes- 
sages (Kennedy, Soviet), 163 
Veto in Security Council, use of, 166», 961, 1067n 
Sow, Malick Adam, 115 
Space. See Outer space 
Spain : 

Naval deserters in U.S., right for return of waived, 71 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 826 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 
of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 
agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
733 
Visit of Secretary Rusk, proposed, 1054 
Special Fund, U.N., U.S. support and proposal for fi- 
nancial service under, statement (Klutznick), 942, 
943 
Specialized agencies, U.N., accomplishments of, address 

(Bowles), 793 
Spielman, Herbert, 519 
Spivak, Lawrence, 434 
Staley, Eugene A., 28 
Starlund, George C, 869 
State Advisory Committee, 3d conference, 552 
State Department (see also Agency for International De- 
velopment, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 
Foreign Service, and Peace Corps) : 
Administration and organization of: 
Statements (Rusk), 280, 287, 1058 
Study group on, established, 613 
Appointments and designations, 46, JH, 262, 306, 350, 386, 

470, 574, 657, 694, 778, 953, 993, 1072, 1073 
Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations, ap- 
pointment (Dutton), 1072 
Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs, appoint- 
ment (Harriman), 1073 
Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Aflfairs, con- 
firmation (Woodward), 350 
Counselor of the Department and Chairman of Policy 

Planning Council, appointment (Rostow), 1073 
Foreign commerce corjis, proposed. Department views 

on, 198 
Foreign policy briefing conferences. See under Foreign 

policy 
Foreign policy statements of, statement (Rusk), 178 
Foreign Service Institute, 34, 533 
Foreign students in U.S., meeting on, 893 
Hospitality for foreign visitors, discussions with State 

officials re, 32 
Italian liberalization of controls on U.S. exports, joint 
statement with Departments of Commerce and 
Agriculture, 33 
Labor attach^ program, address (Chapman), 896 
Officers holding Presidential commissions (1944-1961), 

chart, 370 
Operations center, establishment, 456 

Department of State Bulletin 



state Department — Continued 
Passport and visa procedures, streamlining o(, remarks 

(Cieplinski),727 
Personnel exchange programs with : Defense Depart- 
ment, 92 ; Treasury Department, 614 
Policy Planning Council, 456 
Publications. See under Publications 
Role in : 
Educational and cultural affairs, address (Miller), 

Sll 
Foreign aid program, delegation of functions, Execu- 
tive order, 900 
Foreign economic policy, 457 
National security affairs, statement (Rusk), 455 
Task Force on Latin America, resignation of chairman, 

218 
Under Secretary for Political Affairs, appointment 

(McGhee),1073 
Under Secretary of State, appointment (Ball), 1072 
State trading enterprises, GATT provisions concerning, 

article (Catudal),35 
Stateless persons and refugees, protocol 1 concerning 
application of the universal copyright convention 
(1952) to works of, 45, 92, 869, 1033 
Stephansky, Ben S., 46 
Stevenson, Adlai E. : 
Addresses, letter, message, remarks, report, and state- 
ments : 
American tradition and international law, 959 
Bizerte question, 498 
Congo situation, 1061 
Cuban charges against U.S. in General Assembly, 

replying to, 731 
Disarmament, U.S. position and proposals, 650, 1023 
Economic and social development, need for balance 

in, 363 
Latin America, problems confronting Alliance for 

Progress in, 139 
Nuclear weapons tests : 
Need for treaty banning, 816 
Soviet resumption, 936 
Science, diplomacy, and peace, 402 
South American trip, 61, 311 
U.N. membership applications of Mauritania, Outer 

Mongolia, and Sierra Leone, 654 
U Thant, election as Acting U.N. Secretary-General, 

904 
United Nations : 
Role and importance of, 68, 597, 724, 960 
16th anniversary of, 783, 785 
Western Hemisphere, relationship between, 754 
Argentine assassination plot against, statement (Rusk), 

54 
Skill as negotiator, address (Cleveland), 882 
Stikker, Dirk, 529 

Students, foreign. See Foreign students 
Subversive activities, Communist. See Communism : 

Aggression and subversive activities 
Sudan : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 1034 
Visit of President Abboud to U.S., 721 
Sugar : 
Argentine, prospect of U.S. quota for, 291 



Sugar — Continued 

International sugar agreement (1958), 470, 733 
Sukarno, Dr., 518, 539 
Summit meeting, question of, U.S. position, letter and 

statements : Kennedy, 541 ; Rusk, 279, 438 
Support assistance, purpose of and funds for, statement 

(Rusk), 453, 454 
Surplus property, agreement with Canada re disposal of, 

574 
Surprise attack, prevention of, U.S. proposal, 652 
Swaziland, developments in, address (Williams), 639 
Sweden : 
ICEM, resignation from, 568 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Copyright convention, universal, and protocols 1, 2, 

and 3, 45 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 870 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Extradition, convention and protocol on with U.S., 

825, 826 
GATT, art. XVI : 4. declarations concerning, 1034 
OECD, convention on, 992 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573, 

574 
Tariff concession, compensatory, agreement with U.S. 
granting, 569, 613, 682 
U.S. science officer, appointment, 169 
Switzerland : 

Representation of U.S. interests in Cuba, 335 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Certificates of airworthiness for imported aircraft, 
agreement with U.S. re reciprocal acceptance of, 
870 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 613 
OECD, convention on, 992 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 169 
Syrian Arab Republic : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 993 
Government, U.S. recognition of, 715 
Political developments in, article (Pearcy), 605 

TACAN. See Short-range tactical air navigation facil- 
ities in Canada 
Tanganyika : 

Development program, U.S. cooperation and aid. Joint 

communique (Kennedy, Nyerere), 297 
U.K.-U.S. agreement for technical cooperation, applica- 
tion to, 262 
U.S. consulate general at Dar-es-Salaam, elevation to 
Embassy status, 1072 
Tariff Commission, U.S. : 

Findings re tariffs on imports of toweling and watch 

movements, 490 
Presidential requests for data or investigations of tariffs 
on imports of : cotton products, 1021 ; gloves, glass, 
and tile items, 119 ; tung oil and tung nuts, 645 
Tariff policy, U.S. (see also Customs; and Tariffs and 
trade, general agreement on) : 
Clinical thermometers, decision re escape-clause action 
on imports, 339 



Index, July fo December 1967 



ni7 



Tariff policy, U.S. — Continued 

Clover seed, alsike, decision against increasing duty on, 

683 
Cotton imports. See Cotton 
rigs, dried, decision against reopening escape-clause 

action on imports, 730 
Lead and zinc imports, proposed legislation restricting, 

statements: Blumenthal, 340; Martin, 646 
Rugs, Wilton and velvet, President requests additional 

information re escape-clause action, 683 
Senate report recommendations re, article (Weiss), 251 
Toweling of flax, hemp, or ramie, decision against re- 
opening escape-clause action on imports, 490 
Tung oil and tung nuts, study requested of import 

restrictions on, letter (Kennedy), 645 
Watch movements, decision against reopening escape- 
clause action on imports, 490 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 
Analysis and objectives of, articles : Catudal, 35 ; 

Weiss, 247 
Contracting parties : 
Ministerial meeting, U.S. representative, 947 
19th session of, chairman of U.S. delegation, 947 
Cotton textiles. See Cotton textiles: International 

trade and Cotton Textile Committee 
Declarations, proces-verbal, and protocols : 
Annecy protocol of terms of accession to, 733 
Brazil, negotiations for establishment of new sched- 
ule III for, procfes-verbal and protocol re, 657 
Declarations giving effect to and extending standstill 

provisions of art. XVI : 4, 613, 693, 870, 1034 
Declarations on provisional accessions of: Argen- 
tina, 217. 218, 574, 613, 870 ; Israel, 217, 218, 613 ; 
Switzerland, 013 ; Tunisia, 574, 613 
Declarations on relations with: Poland, 217, 613; 

Yugoslavia, 613 
Procfis-verbal of rectiiicatiou concerning protocols 

amending part I and art. XXIX and XXX, 613 
Protocol replacing schedule I (Australia), 693 
Protocol replacing schedule II (Ceylon), 694 
Protocols amending and modifying, 613, 657, 093, 694, 

733 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of schedules, 

protocols of, 217, 613, 657, 693, 694, 733, 1034 
Supplementary concessions to, 6th protocol, 613 
Torquay protocol to, 733 
Japan, discrimination against under art. XXXV, U.S. 

support for elimination of, 893 
Negotiation of tariif concessions between U.S. and Cey- 
lon, Finland, and Peru, 373 
Organization for Trade Cooperation, agreement on, 657 
Sierra Leone, admitted as contracting party, 217 
Sweden, compensatory concession to, 569, 613, 682 
Task Force on Latin America, 218 
Taxation : 

Argentina, reform in system, 445 

Depreciation allowances for textile machinery, new 

schedule announced, 730, 1044 
Double taxation on income from operations of ships and 
aircraft, agreement with Colombia for relief from, 
349 
Exemption of U.S. personnel under contract to work 
on economic and technical programs in Korea from 

1118 



Taxation — Continued 

Exemption of U.S. personnel — Continued 

Income and social security taxes, agreements with 
Korea re, 350 
Income tax, progressive, U.S., address (Bowles), 740 
Latin America : 
Declaration of Punta del Este, provision re, 742; 

743 
Need for reforms in, message and statement: Dillon, 
359 ; Kennedy, 355 
Legislation re investment of capital, proposed, addresses 
(Kennedy), 1043, 1051 
Taylor, Maxwell D., 750, 1057 
Technical aid to foreign countries. See Economic and 

technical aid 
Technical assistance, U.N. See under United Nations 
Telecommunication Union, International, 420 
Telecommunications : 

CENTO telecommunications system, signing of contract 

for construction, 642 
Communications satellites. See wider Satellites 

Radio. See Radio 
Telecommimication convention (1959), international, 
with six annexes, 169, 261, 386, 501, 530, 657, 733, 
952, 1033, 1072 
Telecommunication convention (1952), international, 
telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958) 
annexed to, 1072 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 1072 
Television and radio broadcasts, transcripts of inter- 
views for, 145, 282, 434, 708, 801, 838, 845 
Ten-Nation Committee, U.S. proposal for resumption of 

disarmament negotiations in, 591 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on the, I 

425, 809 
Textile machinery, tax credit for depreciation, new sched- 
ule, 730, 1044 
Textiles. See Cotton textiles 
Thailand : 

Educational exchange programs, agreement amending 

1950 agreement with U.S. for financing, 306 
Radio regulations (1959) annexed to international tele- 
communication convention (1959), 46 
U.S. economic mission to, announcement, 118 
Thant, U, 904, 961 

Thermometers, clinical, decision against reopening escape- 
clause action on, 339 
A Threat to the Peace: North Viet-Nam's Effort To Con- 
quer South Vict-Nam, report released, 1053 
Thuan, Nguyen Dinh, 28 
Tillett, Mrs. Gladys A., 345 

Tin, surplus stockpile, U.S. disposal policy, letter (Ken- 
nedy), 772 
Tin agreement, international, proposed U.S. accession, 

360 
Tobago : 

Private road vehicles, customs convention on tempo- 
rary importation of, 952 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for, 
extension to, 910 
Togo, telecommunication convention (1059), inter- 
national, 657 

Department of State Bulletin 



Toner, Joseph S., 502 
Tonesk, William J., 993 
Torch of Friendship (Miami), 1004 
Tourism. See Travel 

Toweling of flax, hemp, or ramie, decision against reopen- 
ing escape-clause action on imports, 490 
Tracliing station, agreement with Australia for coopera- 
tion in the establishment and operation of, 133 
Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses. Customs, Eco- 
nomic policy. Exports, Imports, and Tariff policy) : 
Afghan-Paliistani transit trade dispute, acceptance of 

U.S. offer of good oflices, 761 
Argentina, proposals for expansion of U.S. trade with, 

joint communique, 289, 290 
Barriers to, need for reduction of : 
Address (Ball), 300 
OECD communique on, 1020 
Commodity trade problems. See Commodity trade 
Common markets. See Common markets 
Controls for security reasons, GATT provision con- 
cerning, article (Catudal),37 
Dominican Republic, suspension of trade with, U.S. 

position, statements (Rusk, Woodward), 931 
European Economic Community. See European Eco- 
nomic Community 
Germany, Federal Republic of, trade with Soviet bloc, 

statement (Rusk), 751 
Japanese trade. See under Japan. 
Nigeria, mission to study expansion of with U.S., joint 

communique, 157 
Latin American, expansion of, need for and proposals 
to, message, remarks, and statement : Dillon, 359 ; 
Kennedy, 355 ; Stevenson, 142 
Less developed countries, problems of, address and 

statements: Ball, 301, 583; Stevenson, 367 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Amit.v and economic relations with Viet-Nam, 495, 496, 

574, 734 
Cotton textiles, arrangements re international trade 

in, 336, 528, 693, 778, 826, 870, 1034 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaties, list 

of, 530 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty with 

Denmark, 92, 132, 169, 306 
Friendship, establishment, and navigation, treaty 

with Belgium, 495, 574, 733 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Nonimmigrant visas for treaty traders and investors, 
agreement with France for reciprocal issuance, 778 
Trade Cooperation, Organization for, agreement on, 
657 
U.S. trade : 
With Communist bloc, report on, released, 023, 924 
Need for expansion of, addresses, report, and state- 
ments: Bowles, 853; DiUon, 587; Kennedy, 1051; 
Rusk, 198, 564 
Policy : 

Need for new approach and adjustment in, ad- 
dresses and statements : Ball, 842 : Kennedy, 
1039 ; Rusk, 706, 924 
Objectives and major Issues of, article (Weiss) , 247 



Trade — Continued 

U.S. trade — Continued 
Trade agreements program : 
Address, article, and statement : Kennedy, 1045 ; 

Rusk, 924 ; Weiss, 250, 251 
Special assistant for, appointment, 411 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint United States-Japan 

Committee on, 57, 92, 635, 890 
Trade fair, Izmir international, 409 
Trade Unions, International Confederation of Free Trade 

Unions, 440, 895 
Trade Unions, World Federation of, 895 
Trademarks, protection of. See Industrial property 
Travel : 

Berlin, access to and travel within. See Berlin 

Cuba, restrictions on and warning to U.S. citizens re, 

Department announcement, 108 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., efforts to encourage 

and expand, 552 
Hungarian-U.S. travel regulations, procedures changed, 

67 
Inter-American automotive traflBe, convention (1943) 

on regulation of, 349 
Road traffic, convention (1949) on, 91, 530, 777 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facili- 
ties for, 217, 385, 910, 992 
U.N. headquarters area, enlargement of, 1032 
U.S. efforts to attract tourists, address (Kennedy), 1042 
Treasury, Department of the : 

Foreign aid program, delegation of function to, Execu- 
tive order, 901 
Personnel exchange program with State Department, 
614 
Treaties, agreements, etc., international {for specific 
treaty, see country or subject) : 
Current actions on, 45, 91, 133, 168, 217, 261, 306, 349, 
385, 425, 470, 501, 530, 573, 612, 656, 693, 733, 777, 
825, 869, 910, 952, 992, 1033, 1072 
Need for expansion in field of, address (Stevenson), 963 
Question of Secretary of Treasury negotiating, state- 
ment (Rusk), 446 
Tree, Mrs. Marietta, 128 
Trezise, Philip H., 694 
Trinidad : 

Private road vehicles, customs convention on temporary 

importation of, 952 
Touring, convention concerning customs facilities for 
extension to, 910 
"Troika" proposal, Soviet, U.S. views, addresses, remarks, 
and statements : Cleveland, 293 ; Dean, 377, 379 ; Sisco, 
161; Stevenson, 784, 788, 961; Rusk, 148, 183, 626, 
628, 806 
Tnist territories, U.N. : 
Pacific Islands, U.S. administration, statements : Goding, 

201, 211 ; Nakayama, 208 
Western Samoa, 733 
Trusteeship Council, U.N., lists of documents, 132, 168, 424 
Tshombe. Moise, 1062, 1063 
Tubby, Roger, 165, 673 
Tubman, William V. S., 808 
Tuna, biology of, FAO world meeting on, 130 



Index, July to December 796J 



1119 



Tung oil and tung nuts, study requested of import re- 
strictions on, letter (Kennedy), 645 
Tunisia : 

Bizerte question, statement (Stevenson) and text of 

General Assembly resolution, 498 
Complaint of French aggression against. Security Coun- 
cil consideration, statement (Yost) and text of 
resolution, 342 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 262 
GATT, declaration on provisional accession to, 574, 

613 
Kadio regulations (1959), 530 

Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
733 
Turkey : 

Central Treaty Organization, 642 

Izmir international fair, letter (Kennedy), 409 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 386, 

826 
GATT, declaration on relations between Poland and 

contracting parties, 217 
GATT, declarations on provisional accessions of 

Tunisia and Argentina, 574 
OECD, convention on, 992 

U.S. Educational Commission in Turkey, agreement 
amending 1946 agreement establishing, 46 
U.S. consulates : 

Adana, established, 778 
Isljenderiin, closed, 778 
U.S.-Turlvish relations, letter (Kennedy), 866 
Twenty-nation committee for discussion of disarmament, 

U.S. proposal, 591 
Tyler, William R., 470 

U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 

U.S.-U.S.S.R. Standing Committee on Cooperation in the 

Field of Cinematography, 680, 770 
Uganda : 

Chief Minister, visit to U.S., 701 

U.K.-U.S. agreement for technical cooperation, applica- 
tion to, 262 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic : 

Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 
733 
Ulbricht, Walter, 229 
Ultra-violet survey of southern skies, agreement with 

Australia re cooperation in joint program for, 349 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization, U.N. 
UNHCR. See High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N. 
UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Union of South Africa. Sec South Africa, Republic of 
United Arab Republic : 
Agricultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 202, 

613, 778, 1034 
King Tut exhibit, loan to U.S., 978 
Political developments in, article (Pearcy), 605 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international, 

530 
U.S. Operations Mission, designation of director, 694 



United Kingdom : 

African territories, developments In, address (Wil- 
liams), 639 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 790 
Common Market, question of U.K. role and participa- 
tion in, address and statements: Bowles, 488; 
Kennedy, 362 ; Rusk, 179 
Cotton textiles, meeting to discuss international trade 

problems in, 90 
Disarmament. See Disarmament 
Foreign students in, address (Coombs), 330 
Former dependent areas, U.K. impact on, article 

(Pearcy), 608 
Germany, problems of. See Berlin and Germany 
ICEM membership, 568 
Kuwait request for military aid, statement (Plimpton), 

166 
NATO forces, question of U.K. support, statement 

(Rusk), 277, 279 
Nuclear tests, cessation of. See Geneva conference on 
the discontinuance of nuclear weapon tests and 
Nuclear weapons tests 
Relay project, U.S., U.K. participation in, statement 

(Farley), 418 
Sale of aircraft to Communist China, statement (Rusk), 

1058 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services for West Indies, U.K.-U.S.-West Indies 

agreement, 118 
GATT, declarations on provisions of art. XVI : 4, 613, 

693 
GATT, proc6s-verbal re negotiations for establish- 
ment of new schedule III — Brazil, 657 
IMCO, convention on, 1033 
Industrial property, Paris convention for protection 

of, 1033 
Inventions relating to defense for which patent ap- 
plications have been filed, agreement for safe- 
guarding, 777 
Military equipment and materials, agreement amend- 
ing 1957 agreement with U.S. re disposition of, 1072 
Missile defense alarm system station in, agreement 

with U.S. on setting up, 306 
OECD, convention on, 992 

Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
Publications and documents, exchange of, conven- 
tion concerning, 656 
Space research, agreement with U.S. for establish- 
ment of joint program, 574 
Technical cooperation in respect of territories for 
international relations of which the U.K. is re- 
sponsible, agreement with U.S. re, 262 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision, 1958), 1072 
Weather station on Betio Island, agreement with | 
U.S. re reopening of, 657 
Tunisian complaint of French aggression, U.K. position 

on, statements (Yost), 343, 344 
U.S. science officer, appointment, 169 
Western Foreign Ministers meetings, 545, 919, 1054, 
1056 



1120 



Departmenf of State Bulletin 



United Nations : 

Addresses : Bowles, 791 ; Cleveland, 796 ; Stevenson, 69, 
597, 724, 754 

Admission of new members : Mauritania, Outer Mon- 
golia, and Sierra Leone. See individual country 

Assessment and future, addresses: Sisco, 158; Steven- 
son, 960 

Berlin situation, question of consideration by, state- 
ments (Rusk) , 180, 284, 285, 437, 709 

Charter. See United Nations Charter 

Communist China's representation, question of. See 
under China, Communist 

Congo problem, action on. See Congo situation 

Czech official, U.S. requests departure of, texts of 
notes, 66 

Development decade, U.S. proposal for, address and 
statement: Kennedy, 619; Klutznick, 939 

Documents, lists of, 132, 167, 374, 424, 529, 777, 819, 909, 
952 

Financial crisis, addresses (Stevenson), 784, 962 

General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Headquarters : 
Area, U.S. enlargement of, 1032 

Communist efforts to move from U.S., statement (San- 
juan), 552 

Permanent armed force for, proposed, U.S. position, 
addresses, declaration, remarks, and statement: 
Cleveland, 800 ; Stevenson, 404, 964, 1030, 1031 ; text 
of declaration, 651, 6.53, 654 

Politics of nonalinement in, address (Cleveland), 883 

Regional economic commissions. See Economic Com- 
mission 

Representatives in U.S., U.S. assures protection and 
courtesy, 491 

Science and technology, conference on application of, 
proposed convening of, 939 

Secretary-General : 
Acting, election of U Thant, statement and telegram 

( Kennedy, Stevenson ) , 904 
Belgrade conference of nonalined nations, views re, 

statement (Rusk), 629 
Dag Hammarskjold, death of. See HammarsUjold 
Selection of, problem of and U.S. position, addresses 
and statements : Cleveland, 801 ; Kennedy, 619, 620 ; 
Rusk, 626, 628, 629, 750, 752, 753, 806; Stevenson, 
755, 784 
Soviet attacks on and position re (see also "Troika" 
proposal), address, note, and statement: Rusk, 183; 
Sisco, 159, 161 ; Stevenson, 756 ; text of Soviet note, 
188 

Security Council. See Security Council 

16th anniversary of, address and message (Stevenson), 
783, 785 

Soviet participation and position. See under Soviet 
Union 

Specialized agencies (see also name of agency), ac- 
complishments of, address (Bowles), 793 

Support for, U.S. joint communiques with: Japan, 57; 
Liberia, 809; Nigeria, 325; Peru, 676; Sudan, 723 

Technical assistance programs : 

Advantages of, address (Cleveland), 297 
Need for strengthening and expansion, statement 
(Klutznick), 942 



United Nations — Continued 
Technical assistance programs — Continued 

Role in newly developing countries, statement 

(Stevenson), 363 
Special Fund, U.S. support and proposal for financial 

service under, statement (Klutznick), 942, 943 
U.S. support, statements : Ball, 839 ; Stevenson, 367 
Trust territories. See Trust territories and Trusteeship 

Council 
U.S. policy and support, address and remarks (Rusk), 

508, 626, 702 
Viet-Namese situation, question of action by, statement 
(Rusk), 922 
United Nations Charter: 

Addresses and remarks : Cleveland, 881 ; Stevenson, 405, 

960 
Current actions on, 910 
U.S. support, address (Rusk), 176 
United Nations Children's Fund : 
Activities of, address (Bowles), 793 
Support for, statement requesting (Kennedy), 732 
United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 17th ses- 
sion of the, article (Tree), 128 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 

15th session, article (Tillett), 345 
United Nations Day (1961), 785, 791 

United Nations Disarmament Commission, proposed re- 
sumption of negotiations in, 591 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, U.N. 
United Nations economic commissions. See Economic 

Commission 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, U.N. 
United Nations Emergency Force, unpaid bills of, ad- 
dresses (Stevenson) , 784, 962 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, ac- 
complishments and U.S. support, statements (Jones), 
257, 258, 382 
United Nations Refugee Fund, 382 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine 
refugees (UNRWA), U.S. support of, need for, 
statement (Jones), 258 
United Nations Special Fund, 942, 943 
United Nations Trusteeship Council, lists of documents, 

132, 168, 424 
United Nations Visiting Mission to the Trust Territory 
of the Pacific Islands, recommendations of, state- 
ments : Coding, 201, 213, 215 
United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 

See Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 
United States Atomic Energy Commission, 543, 807 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See Claims 
Duty-free exemption of returning U.S. tourists, proposed 

reduction of, statement (Martin), 126 
Foreign policy : 
Exchange of views with on, statement (Rusk), 109, 

111 
Need to be informed on, address (Rusk), 175 
Role in, address (Miller) , 331 



Index, Ju// to December 1967 



1121 



United States citizens and nationals — Continued 

Obligation to understand U.S. system of government. 

remarks (Rusk), 630 
Protection of : 
Cuba, warning on violation of regulations on travel 

to, 108 
Missionaries arrested in Angola, U.S. efforts re, 1010 
United Nations, views re, address (Stevenson), 786 
United States Educational Commission in Turkey, agree- 
ment amending 1946 agreement establishing, 46 
United States Escapee Program, statements (Jones), 258, 

383 
United States Information Agency : 

Foreign aid, delegation of functions to re. Executive 

order, 901 
Foreign correspondents press center in New York, 491 
United States-Japan Committee on Scientific Cooperation, 

establishment and functions, 636, 1059 
United States Tariff Commission. -See Tariff Commission 
Universal copyright convention and protocols 1, 2, and 

3, 45, 91, 869, 1033 
Universal postal convention (1957), 133, 261, 306, 349, 

530, 656 
Universities and colleges, role of, addresses : Coombs, 328, 

331, 982 ; AVilliams, 117 
University of Iceland, U.S. grant to, 680 
UNRWA. See United Nations Relief and Works Agency 

for Palestine Refugees in the Near East 
Upper Volta, economic, technical and related assistance, 

agreement with U.S. providing for, 92 
Uranium 235, increase in availability of, statements: 

Kennedy, 643 ; Seaborg, 644 
Uruguay : 

Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 140, 142 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S. 

amending and supplementing agreements re, 657 
Automotive traflBc, inter-American, convention (1943) 

on regulation of, with annex, 349 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
Investment guaranties, agreement with U.S. re, 734 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, conven- 
tion of, final protocol and regulations of execution, 
and agreements re parcel post and money orders, 
386 
Radio communications between radio amateurs on 
behalf of 3d parties, agreement with U.S. re, 657 
USEP. See United States Escapee Program 
USIA. See United States Information Agency 

Vasona, Adalbert Krieger, 289 

Vatican (The Holy See), Vienna convention on diplomatic 

relations, 306 
Vela project, 375, 379, 543 
Venezuela : 

Air transport con.sultations with U.S., 373, 433 

Economic and political conditions in, remarks (Steven- 
son), 139 

ICA representative in, designation of, 694 

ICEM technical assistance, 566 

Independence Day ceremony, remarks (Kennedy), 151 

Land reform program, 445 

1122 



Venezuela — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 953 
Continental shelf, convention on, 869 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
High seas, convention on, 869 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, convention 

of, final protocol and regulations of execution, and 

agreements re parcel post and money orders, 386 

Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention on, 

869 
WHO constitution, amendments to arts. 24 and 25, 
261 
Visit of President Kennedy, proposed, announcement, 
1059 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 

Veto power. Security Council. See under Security Council 
Vienna convention on diplomatic relations, and optional 

protocol, 306 
Viet-Nam : 

Communist aggression and activities : 

General Taylor's mission re, statements (Rusk), 750, 

1057 
Geneva Accords, question of application, statements 

(Rusk), 922, 1058 
Guerrilla warfare, countering, address (Rostow), 237 
International Control Commission, operation and ef- 
fectiveness of, statements (Rusk), 921, 922, 1056 
Laos, Communist use as base of operations, question 

of, statement (Rusk), 921 
U.S. position and aid, address and statements : Ken- 
nedy, 623 ; Rusk, 920, 1055 
U.S. report on, released, 1053 

United Nations, question of referral to, statement 
(Rusk), 922 
Freedom in, maintenance of, joint communique (Chen, 

Kennedy), 372 
Thuan, Nguyen Dinh, visit to U.S., 28 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural commodities, agreement with U.S., 306 
Amity and economic relations, treaty with U.S., 495, 
496, 574, 734, 866, 870, 1034 
6th anniversary of Republic, letter (Kennedy), 810 
U.S. financial and economic mission to, 28 
Viet-Nam, north, aggression against Republic of Viet- 
Nam. See Viet-Nam: Communist aggression 
Virgin Islands : 

Convention concerning certification of able seamen, 425 
Tariff policy for, 38 
Visas : 

Immigrant and nonimmigrant, issued during FX 1901. 

chart, 524 
Nonimmigrant visas for treaty traders and investors, 
agreement with France for reciprocal issuance, 778 
State Department procedures, streamlining of, remarks 
(Cieplinski), 727 
Voice of America, 845 
Volta River project, Ghana, U.S. position, 153, 771 

Wailes, Edward T., 350 

War damage claims, agreement supplementing 1957 
memorandum of understanding with Italy, 350 

Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



War victims, protection of, Geneva conventions (1949) 

on, 501, 530 
Warren, George L., 565 

Warsaw convention re responsibilities and liabilities of 
carriers in international air transportation, views in- 
vited on, 692, 1033 
Warsaw Pact powers, declaration on Berlin and Germany, 

400 ; U.S. views on, note, 397 
Watch movements, decision against reopening escape- 
clause action on imports, 490 
Water Levels of Lake Ontario, IJC report, released, 1059 
Watson, Robert S., 614 
Way, Marion, Jr., 1010 
Weather : 
Prediction and control of, U.S. proposal for coopera- 
tion, address (Kennedy), 622 
Stations : 
Betio Island, agreement with U.K. for reopening, 657 
Punta Arenas, agreement with Chile for establish- 
ment, 574 
World Meteorological Organization, convention of 
(1947), 46, 169 
Wehmeyer, Donald A., 968 
Weiss, Leonard, 247 

West Indies, The (see also Tobago and Trinidad) : 
Air services agreement for, U.K.-U.S.-West Indies, 118 
Economic development projects, U.S. aid, 252 
Western Foreign Ministers (France, Germany, U.K., 
U.S.) : 
Paris meeting, statements (Rusk), 919, 1054, 1056 
Washington meeting, text of communique, 545 
Western Hemisphere, political solidarity and economic 
cooperation in, address and joint communiques : 
Frondizi, Kennedy, 719, 721 ; Kennedy, Prado, 676 ; 
Prado, 677 
Western Science, Increasing the Effectiveness of, NATO 

report, 519, 522, 523 
Wheat agreement (1959), international, 92, 657, 1072 
White, Lincoln, 408 

White slave traffic, agreements and protocol for repres- 
sion of, 386, 530, 778 
WHO. See World Health Organization 
Wiener, Ernest G., 491 
Wiesner, Jerome B., 424 
Williams, G. Mennen : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Africa : 

Challenge to trade unions, 25 
Economic development problems, 974 
Education, U.S. interest, 116 
NeedforU.S. aid, 72 
Tasks and opportunities in, 861 
U.S. policy toward, 600 
Algeria, Angola, and Apartheid, 885 
Congo, lessons of, 668 
Economic cooperation with Nigeria, 155 
Operation Crossroads Africa, 151 
Southern Africa, dependent areas, 638, 863 



Williams, G. Mennen — Continued 

Visits to Africa, 192, 638, 642, 863 
Willis, Benjamin C, 131 

Wills, draft convention on form of, article (Maktos) , 950 
WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Wofford, Harris, 154 
Wolf, Franz B., 815 
Wolfe Island Cut in St. Lawrence River, agreement with 

Canada re dredging of, 870 
Women : 

Influence and responsibility, address (Farland), 75, 76, 

80 
Role of, addresses : Louchheim, 725 ; McGhee, 29 
U.N. Commission on the Status of Women, 15th session, 
article (Tillett), 345 
Woodward, Robert F., 350, 929, 932»i 

World affairs and science, conference on, message (Ken- 
nedy), 553 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Court. See International Court of Justice 
World Federation of Trade Unions, 895 
World Health Organization : 

Activities of, address (Bowles), 793 
Constitution of, current actions, 261, 1033 
World Meteorological Organization, convention (1947) of, 

46, 169 
World Refugee Year, statement (Jones) , 257 
Wounded and sick in time of war, Geneva conventions 
(1949) on treatment of, 501, 530 

Yost, Charles W., 88, 342, 344, 905 

Youth, problems of and aid to, address (Kennedy), 1049 
Youth Employment Opportunities Act, proposed, 1050 
Yugoslavia : 

Claims against, decision re compensation procedures 

under 194S agreement with U.S. re, 523 
Independent development of, address (Bowles), 858 
Relation to Soviet bloc, statement (Ball), 840 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agi'ieultural commodities, agreements with U.S., 262 
American i-eading rooms, memorandum of understand- 
ing re establishment, maintenance, and operation 
of, with U.S., 133 
Civil aviation, international convention on, protocol 

(1954) amending, 869 
Diplomatic relations, Vienna convention on, 306 
GATT, declaration on relations with, 613 
Oil pollution convention (1954), international, 573 
U.S. aid to, 484, 750 

Zanzibar : 

U.K.-U.S. agreement for technical cooperation, applica- 
tion to, 262 
U.S. aid to refugees, 71 
Zinc and lead imports, proposed legislation restricting, 

statements: Blumenthal, 340; Martin, 646 
Zorin, V. A., 767 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0FFICE;1962 



nrHE DEPARTMENT U\- t>IAIt 



7 "^ b' -5 . / , 





Vol. XLV, No. 1149 



July 3, 1961 



KLY RECORD 



FOREIGN AID, AN OPPORTUNITY IN A CRUCIAL 

YEAR • Remarks by President Kennedy and Secretary 
Rusk 3 

THE DECISION CONFRONTING AMERICA • by Under 

Secretary Bowles H 

UNITED STATES URGES PROMPT SOVIET AGREE- 
MENT ON NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY • Texts 

of U.S. Note and Soviet Aide Memoire 18 

AFRICA: CHALLENGE TO AMERICAN TRADE 

UNIONS • by Assistant Secretary Williams 25 

THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND 
TRADE: AN ARTICLE-BY- ARTICLE ANALYSIS 
IN LAYMAN'S LANGUAGE— Continued • by 
Honore M. Catudal 35 



TED STATES 
[|GN POLICY 



Boston Public Library; 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 9- 1961 



For index see inside back cover 



DEPOSITORY 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLV, No. 1149 • Publication 7217 
July 3, 1961 



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developments in the field of foreign 
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Department, and statements and ad- 
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Foreign Aid, an Opportunity in a Crucial Year 



Following are texts of remarks made hefore the 
National Conference on International Economic 
and Social Development at Washington on June 
15 and 16 hy Secretary Rusk and President 
Kennedy. 



PRESIDENT KENNEDY, JUNE 16 

White House press release dated) June 16 ; as-delivered text 

I was most anxious to come here today because 
I think that the work that you are doing and the 
effort that you are making represents a fulfillment 
of your responsibilities as citizens at the highest 
level. 

There is no work in which you could be en- 
gaged in these days that is more important to the 
welfare of your coimtry, to the security of the 
cause of freedom. There is no work probably 
which is more thankless, there is no work probably 
that may be less appreciated, but I hope the very 
fact that all those matters may be true gives a 
sense of satisfaction. The easiest work and the 
popular work, I think, can be left to many hands. 
But this work requires the effort of committed and 
dedicated citizens. So I was extremely anxious 
to come here today to express my appreciation to 
you for the effort that you have made and hope 
the work in which you are engaged will be under- 
stood by our fellow citizens across the country, 
that from this meeting a new understanding of 
this great national commitment and effort will 
pass through the country so that in the coming 
weeks we will be able to commit ourselves to a 
program in the coming months and years that will 
give us a greater degree of security. 

As I said in my speech the other night,^ I cannot 
understand those who are the most vigorous in 
wishing to stem the tide of communism around 
the world and who are at the same time bom- 



' Bulletin of June 26, 1961, p. 991. 
July 3, 7967 



barding the Congress and the administration with 
attacks on this program. We all get used to 
paradoxes, but I must say that in all my political 
life that is one of the most extreme. This is a 
program which does offer hope of stemming the 
advance. I know of no program at the present 
time, other than those that go to the actual mili- 
tary security of the United States and the 
strengthening of the Armed Forces of this coun- 
try, that offers a comparable return. And there- 
fore we should recognize the close identification 
of this effort — the effort to protect those societies 
which wish to be free. Because it does involve 
our own security. 

This is an effort that brings about beneficial 
results and fulfills responsibilities that we have 
as human beings to those who are less fortunate. 
This is a program that involves very importantly 
the security of the United States. And it is there- 
fore, in my opinion, a program that deserves the 
support of every American who recognizes the 
real nature of the struggle in which we are 
engaged. 

Now I know that there are those who are tired 
of carrying what they regard as a burden, and it is 
a burden. But if they say that, then they mean 
they are tired of the struggle. And the struggle 
is reaching its climax in the sixties. And as I 
am not tired of the struggle, and you're not tired 
of the struggle, and this country isn't tired of 
struggling, we should be willing to pay and bear 
our burdens in this regard for a longer period of 
time. And if we are tired of that, then we should 
recognize the implications of that fatigue. 

In 1952, when foreign aid was developed on this 
scale, it was regarded as a period of transition and 
trial. In 1952 the Communists were seeking to 
expand their influence primarily through military 
means. In 1962 the United States was concerned 
about Korea-type control and invasions with ac- 
tual military forces. Now, however, we have seen 
an entirely different concept which the Commu- 



nists are frankly and generously explaining to us 
at great lengths — Mr. Ivhrushchev's speech in Jan- 
uary, he reiterated it again in Vienna — the so- 
called war of liberation, which is not the Korean 
type of war, where armed forces of one side pass 
across en masse the frontier of another country, 
but instead the seizure of power internally by what 
he considers the forces of liberation but which are, 
as we know, in many cases forces which are Com- 
munist controlled, and which are supported from 
outside the country, but which are internal in their 
operation. It is for these reasons and because of 
this change in the Communist strategy, which they 
believe offers them the best hope of success, that 
this work is more important today than it has ever 
been before. 

I think that we should recognize that efforts to 
seize power in these countries, particularly those 
that are bordering the periphery of the Communist 
bloc, can be stemmed only — particularly in those 
countries where poverty and ignorance and illit- 
eracy are the order of the day — can be stemmed 
only by one thing. And that is governments 
which are oriented and directed toward assisting 
the people and identified with causes which mean 
a better life for the people of those countries. 

Quite obviously we cannot stem any tide which 
is inevitable. But I do not believe it inevitable 
that the governments in those areas should adopt 
policies which are reactionary. I think it is in- 
evitable that they will adopt policies which are 
progressive, and I think we should assist them. 
If we are not prepared to assist them, then quite 
obviously they cannot carry this burden in many 
cases by themselves. And if we are not prepared 
to assist them, whatever efforts they make will be 
doomed to failure. So I think that what we want 
to see in these areas are governments which are 
concerned with the life of their people, which are 
making a genuine effort, which are making and 
putting forth programs which over a period of 
time promise a better life for the people. And 
then we should be prepared to play our part, and 
that is what we arc suggesting in this program, and 
that, in my opinion, is in the best interest of our 
country at this time. 

Mistakes and Successes in Foreign Aid 

Now I know it's possible to go through foreign 
aid in the past and show the mistakes that have 
been made. But, as [Senator] Hubert Humphrey 



and all of us know who have been through this, 
we can go through any section of the Government 
and show where mistakes have been made in the 
past and where money has been wasted. It isn't 
just in foreign aid. It is difficult to spend the peo- 
ple's money in an effective way, always wisely, al- 
ways with judgment, always with integrity, and 
we find errors which have been made in many sec- 
tions of governmental spending in the past. The 
Hoover Commission's findings were only one indi- 
cation of things that they unveiled about waste in 
Government. It is done every day in military es- 
tablishments, in the White House, in the Congress. 
There is waste. There is waste in our private ex- 
penditures. What we have got to do is to try to 
make sure that there is as little waste as possible, 
that we have the best people directing these pro- 
grams that we can, that we do it as well as we can. 

When I talked with Ambassador [Ellsworth] 
Bmiker, who was in India — who had a distin- 
guished record there — the other day, he said he did 
not believe in his long experience as head of one of 1 
the most important companies in the United 
States — he did not believe that he had ever seen 
money as usefully and as wisely spent as the Amer- I 
ican assistance which he saw in India. We can 
show the obvious examples of the waste, but we 
can show many, many countries which, if we had 
not helped them in the past 10 years, would have 
long ago collapsed. My trip through Western 
Europe indicates the extraordinary success of one 
facet of this program. 

Now I tliink, if we are going to talk about the 
mistakes, we should also talk about the successes. 
Western Europe is an obvious one, and there are 
others. The efforts we have made in India, that 
we are making in Pakistan, have also been most 
helpful. There isn't any doubt in my mind that 
if we had not played a role in other countries, in 
the Middle East, in Asia, and in southeast Asia, 
and up through the island chain, the countries 
Svould have collapsed. 

So you may say that Laos is an unfortunate 
example — and perhaps it was and perhaps it is 
and perhaps the money was not wisely spent ; and 
there have been other examples. But I can show 
you also examples of countries that would today 
be Communist dominated if, it had not been for 
this effort, and I think we should consider the pro- 
gram in totality. Even so, we must recognize that 
mistakes have been made in the past and that a 



Department of State Bulletin 



real effort is being made in this program to 
improve it. 

First, we are attempting to reorganize the 
agency so that there is one man in charge of all the 
aid programs in each country who will have the 
responsibility, instead of the present duplication. 

Secondly, we are attempting to reorganize so 
that we get in personnel. We are going to attempt 
to borrow them from some of our most successful 
companies. We are attempting to recruit them 
from all parts of the United States. And any- 
one of talent and experience in this field who 
wishes to serve is invited now to join us in a posi- 
tion which may not have great public acclaim 
but which will make a measurable contribution in 
this area. 

And thirdly we are attempting — and we think 
this most important— to provide long-range financ- 
ing for this program. We want to be able to say 
to a country which is attempting an economic pro- 
gram, "If you do such and so over a period of 5 
years, devote so much to public investment, do 
so much in tax reform, do so much in agriculture 
and all the rest, then we are prepared to support 
you year by year to the amount of X assistance." 
That is far better than our being able to say, 
"Well, we can do this in 12 months, and after 
that we don't know if we can do anything." What 
incentive is there for them to devote a percentage 
of their national income to a particular area unless 
they are sure that we are going to play a support- 
ing role ? 

Mr. [Eugene R.] Black in the World Bank has 
seen the effectiveness of this kind of long-range 
planning on a responsible basis, which has been the 
secret of the World Bank success. And no bank 
could function either locally or through the world 
if it only loaned for 12 months on any program 
which required a 5- or 10-year development period. 
So that I think that the Congress will have under 
the proposal we have suggested great authority in 
case the money is in any way wasted. They con- 
tinue to maintain their control of it. What they 
can do, I think, would be to permit us under this 
program to provide a more effective use of the 
taxpayers' money. 

And let me say finally that since my return from 
abroad I've found in Washington and about the 
country the desire to do something, to stop the 
spread of communism, to bolster the cause of free- 
dom, to exercise initiative in world affairs; and I 
have heard talk about new military commitments 



and troop deployments, and there have been extra 
funds to be made available to our military pur- 
poses. All of this is important. But the so-called 
"war of liberation" Mr. Khrushchev has described 
cannot be stopped by a new B-58 squadron. They 
cannot be deterred — these internal movements can- 
not be deterred by military guarantees. They 
cannot for the most part be resisted by American 
intervention in the absence of outside Communist 
troop intervention. 

I therefore urge those who want to do something 
for the United States, for this cause, to channel 
their agencies behind this new foreign aid pro- 
gram to help prevent the social injustice and eco- 
nomic chaos upon which subversion and revolt 
feed, to encourage reform and development, to 
stabilize new nations and weak governments, to 
train and equip the local forces upon whom the 
chief burden of resisting local Communist subver- 
sion rests. 

Communist-Bloc Aid 

Those who oppose foreign economic and mili- 
tary assistance should know that the Communists 
do not oppose it, that their aid to less developed 
countries is rising sharply, that they have already 
sent some 8,000 technicians into these areas, and 
that they make credits available on a long-term 
basis without subjecting the recipient country to 
the perils of annual legislative review. Even in 
our own hemisphere, Communist-bloc aid is dan- 
gled before the eyes of those who have long been 
devoted to freedom but have longed for an end to 
their poverty. We have read in recent weeks 
about the proposal which grandiosely states but 
which is somewhat incompletely filled in — but at 
least it is proposed — to give Bolivia a loan of $150 
million for a steel mill with supporting equip- 
ment — in our own hemisphere, by the Soviet 
Union. In short there is no point in speaking out 
against the spread of communism unless we are 
willing to do our part in giving those who are 
fighting communism the weapon to fight it. There 
is no point in calling for vigorous action to protect 
our security if we are unwilling to pay the price 
and maintain the burden necessary for that se- 
curity, and, as the late Arthur Vandenberg said 
long ago, "There is no point in throwing a drown- 
ing man 20 feet off the beach a 10-foot rope." 

I don't say that our program will be free from 
error. Mistakes will be made, and setbacks will 



July 3, J 96 J 



be suffered. But I am more concerned about the 
waste to our security which will result from too 
small a program in this critical year and too short 
a period of authority than I am about anything 
else. I am less concerned about the dangers of 
meeting our full responsibility than I am about 
doing too little and too late in a crucial year — 
and this well may be the crucial year of 1961. 

I therefore want to say to all of you that I am 
most grateful to you for coming. I hope that your 
example of support will be followed by citizens 
across the country. It is difficult for me to believe 
that, in the climactic period of this great era, the 
United States is going to fail to meet its responsi- 
bility to itself and to those who look to it. I be- 
lieve that we have an opportimity to play our part. 
I am confident that we are going to do so. And I 
think it is most important that those who are bur- 
dened and those who are fatigued and those who 
feel that we have been through this so much for so 
many years — I would think that they should real- 
ize that that challenge will be with us for a long 
time to come. This is an obligation and an oppor- 
tunity. There is more than self-interest and anti- 
communism involved. I want it to be said that 
this generation of Americans, jealous of its rights, 
conscious of its responsibilities, met its responsi- 
bility in the year 1961 and in the years to come— 
met it with all the resources and all the wisdom and 
all the judgment, and, meeting it, prevailed. 



SECRETARY RUSK, JUNE 15 

Press release 407 dated June 16 

I must confess to mixed feelings as I find myself 
on this particular spot this evening, after having 
sat at more comfortable tiibles for most of your 
previous annual meetings. I shall not attempt to 
compete with the galaxy of experts on your pro- 
grams but rather to make some brief and quite 
informal personal remarks about my own reac- 
tions to the foreign aid issue now before the 
Nation. 

I^t me say that we are deeply grateful for your 
presence and for your demonstrated interest in 
economic and social development beyond our 
borders. It is sometimes said that foreign aid has 
no natural constituency in the United States. 
I think this is wrong, even though the constituency 
is not highly organized and not always as vocal as 
some of those who oppose it. This conference 



itself — bipartisan, nonpartisan, much of it non- 
political — is broadly representative, and the voices 
here deserve attention and respect. 

But the solid support of the participating organ- 
izations and of those individuals who have made 
this conference possible is itself a public service 
of the highest order. 

Constituents of Foreign Aid 

The main constituents of foreign aid, as I see 
it, are those Americans who by the tens of millions 
have shown their readiness to do what has to be 
done to build a decent world order, who have 
carried on the traditional reputation of the Ameri- I 
can people for concern about misery and want, 
both at home and abroad, and who have made a 
deep commitment in their own personal lives to 
the survival and growth of freedom. 

We would make a great mistake in the midst of 
our political debates were we to underestimate the 
American people at this sobering moment in our 
national history — underestimate their mixture of 
idealism and practicality, their mixture of im- | 
patient energy and determined resist^ince — for I 
believe the American people know that the stakes 
in foreign aid involve every home and every com- 
munity across the land. I am also convinced that 
our foreign aid programs are the principal 
instruments we have to support the vital interests 
of the American people in a peaceful way. 

I wish it were possible for every county court- 
house to show a map of the world with pins on it 
showing where the men and women of that county 
have served in the defense of freedom in the last 
20 years and a map of the county itself showing 
the homes of those who have made sacrifices in this 
great struggle for freedom. For the issues of 
this struggle reach us all in the remotest corners of 
the land, wherever we go about our business. 

Experience in Foreign Aid 

There is a phrase around Washington these days 
that foreign aid is in trouble. You have heard it ; 
you will hear it again. I hope I am right in mider- 
standing what that phrase means and what it 
does not mean. For as we move into the con- I 
sideration of our aid programs for another year, 
we cannot help but be conscious of the fact — and 
it has been mentioned here in your conference — | 
that we can now look back upon some 15 years of 
experience in postwar foreign aid — those emer- 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



gency days of immediate postwar relief, those 
necessary days of aid to Greece and Turkey, those 
challenging days of the Marshall plan, the in- 
spiriting idea of the point 4 program, the initiation 
of development loans and grants, the use of agri- 
cultural surpluses for assistance abroad. 

It would be natural and right if we as a nation 
should pause and look back over those 15 years 
of experience. Let's start with you yourself in 
this conference. As I have sat at one or another 
of these tables in past years as a constituent of 
foreign aid, I have found myself hoping a little 
anxiously that those who were proposing the pro- 
gram would give us something to support; those 
who are committed to foreign aid cannot help 
but want to know whether the best job possible is 
being done, whether the right questions are being 
asked, whether the resources are being put to the 
best advantage. 

Wlien a new administration comes in, it is a 
suitable occasion for a serious and critical review 
of such a 15-year experience; indeed, it is a neces- 
sary occasion. President Kemiedy has himself led 
the way in looking deeply into this bipartisan ex- 
perience in the postwar period to see what can be 
learned from it which will help us in the years 
ahead, as well as to reexamine the character and 
the purpose of foreign aid. This review should 
include an examination of our successes to try to 
understand how they came about, to find those 
elements of success which might be transferred to 
other situations — the innovations, individuals, 
ideas, and institutional structures and procedures 
which might be drawn from one success to build 
another somewhere else. We should also look at 
some of our disappointments to find out whether 
they were caused by action or inaction on our part, 
or whether they resulted from forces beyond our 
control, and to see to what extent we can protect 
ourselves against such disappointments in the 
future. 

How can we make our investments better invest- 
ments ? How can we increase their yield ? How 
can we make a dollar go further ? We must try to 
teach the public good administration by practicing 
it ourselves. We must find out how we can act 
more speedily, more effectively, more perceptively, 
more relevantly as we go about this business of 
aid. We must learn to share these burdens with 
those who are ready, willing, and able to share 
them. We and other advanced countries must 



act more effectively together, must join public and 
private effort in a more effective common cam- 
paign, and must deal intelligently with questions 
of priorities. 

If resources are scarce, the more important, the 
more urgent, the more enduring must come first. 
In addition to the administration's searching — 
a searching which is still going on — the Congress, 
too, is giving the aid program a rigorous review. 
No one knows that better than those of us who 
have recently been witnesses before congressional 
committees. It is right that they should make 
this review, not merely because it is their consti- 
tutional duty but also because, when you look back 
over these last 15 years, you will find on the con- 
gressional committees an accumulation — indeed, 
a wealth — of responsible experience which would 
be hard to match anywhere in the country. 

One can sympathize with the remark of the dis- 
tinguished Senator who referred to all the "revolv- 
ing experts who have paraded before us down 
through the years." For these representatives of 
the people luive had to accept their own responsi- 
bilities in the development of most of our aid pro- 
grams since World War II. They have struggled 
with the national policy involved; they have 
studied the situations to which aid is applied. 
Many of them have visited programs in the field, 
and they have acquired much knowledge to con- 
tribute to these programs. The programs will be 
better for liaving been thoroughly examined and 
criticized in this process. 

That we must do a better job in foreign aid, no 
one can seriously deny. But if we say that foreign 
aid is in trouble and mean by that that we as a 
nation are unwilling to make a serious effort on 
the scale now proposed to Congress — roughly 1 
percent of our gross national product — then we 
have cause for deep concern, for that would mean 
that we citizens are in trouble, that the free world 
is in trouble, that the future of this Republic is 
in trouble. 

Do we, each one of us, occasionally have isola- 
tionist nostalgia? Perhaps so, but there are no 
isolationists in the Kremlin. Are we preoccupied, 
as understandably we might be, with our own great 
unfinished tasks here at home in our schools, in 
our unemployment, in our health, in the care of 
our aged? The Eed Chinese are pressing their 
programs abroad in the face of desperate and 
widespread hunger at home, making large 



July 3, 1 96 1 



demands upon their slender resources of foreign 
exchange. Can we imagine that we can be secure 
while others are living at the edge of terror or 
that we can be prosperous if others are in misery ? 
Are we worried about costs, and have we thought 
of the costs of war ? 

"Development Diplomacy" 

We are approaching our aid effort this year in 
an attempt to find the right answers to a number 
of the questions wliich have been actively dis- 
cussed here in this conference. We are looking 
genuinely for simplified administration, for 
responsibility which runs from the group in the 
country involved imder the leadership of the am- 
bassador through a regional assistant administra- 
tor to the administrator. We are looking for an 
organization which can be expected to make timely 
decisions when resources can be used to the best 
advantage, to delay only when delay is intentional, 
and to put responsibility upon identifiable 
individuals. 

We hope to gear our assistance programs to the 
special situation in each country. For looking 
back over the last 15 years, I think it is becoming 
more and more apparent that each country is 
unique in its situation. One country may be 
moving by historical accident to independent 
nationhood with limited natural resources, with 
relatively underdeveloped talents, with limited 
administrative apparatus, but with a people who 
are sharing fully all of the revolution of rising 
expectations. Another may have reached a higher 
stage of development and be ready for longer 
range planning and for major capital investment 
if such can be mobilized both internally and in 
external financial markets. Others may be 
attempting gallantly to get on with their develop- 
ment but may be subject to direct penetration, 
terrorism, and subversion by those who would 
strike down development by violence in the very 
heart of the society itself. 

But in each country these things can be studied 
under the leadership of an ambassador, who must 
turn now more and more to what Eugene Black, 
Director of the World Bank, has called "develop- 
ment diplomacy." Each country must try to put 
together the types of arrangements which will 
bind into a general national program the various 
elements of aid which might be available through 
a consortium, through multilateral agencies. 



tlirough private organizations, but most of all 
through self-help. 

We hope to be able to take a longer range look 
at development, to recognize that development is 
not just a dam here or a factory there or a road 
over here but that development requires advance 
on a broad front and that development takes 
time — tliat first things have to be done first. One 
of the first of these is the development of human 
talent. 

But in doing so we must not make what might 
be a fatal mistake. I have mentioned it before, 
and I expect to mention it more than once again. 
We in the West have tended to say that develop- 
ment obviously takes a long time. Look at us. It 
took two or three centuries for us to get where we 
are following our industrial revolution. But we 
cannot concede this point to totalitarianism, nor 
need we do so. For the rate of development which 
has occurred in the Western World — in the free 
world — since 1917 has been breathtaking. It has 
transformed the lives of the peoples of the West. 
Science, knowledge, and technology can be trans- 
ferred. Indeed, that has explained a good deal of 
the rapid development of the Soviet Union. 

People in the so-called underdeveloped countries 
are not sentenced to two centuries of development. 
There are the means at hand to move promptly, to 
build with satisfying speed, if they and we and 
other free peoples can help them do so — and do so 
under free institutions. 

We are consulting closely with our friends to 
work out modes of partnership in aid programs 
through the OECD [Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development] and the Develop- 
ment Assistance Committee, which is to become the 
new agency of OECD for that purpose. We are 
looking with our friends for some division of labor 
so that each can concentrate his efforts where they 
will be most effective. 

We are concerned about the knowledge needed 
for development. Indeed, one of the most inter- 
esting parts of the new aid program is provision 
for research on these matters, not just the technical 
and scientific research needed to answer specific 
programs — such as bilharziasis in Egypt or the 
problem of particular food crops adjusted to un- 
usual climatic conditions, or heredity of salic soils, 
or whatever it might be— but knowledge about the 
processes of change. 

How do you get people to accept promptly a new 



8 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



variety of bean, shall we say, which produces four 
times the yield of the accustomed variety, if the 
bean turns out to be the wrong color and of a some- 
what different taste? How do you get people to 
change social habits to take prompt advantage of 
the opportunities for public health? There are 
many elements here about which we know much 
too little. 

Continuing Search for Talent 

We expect to give a great deal of attention to 
talent— the talent of those who extend aid as well 
as of those who receive. For in most situations it 
would not be hazardous to say that the genuine 
bottleneck in development is perhaps not money 
but people — people with the training, professional 
capacity, leadership, and motivation to take charge 
of development processes and to lead nations in 
their development effort. 

Our own search for talent here in this country 
will continue. I would like to comment — this has, 
of course, been done before — on some of the carica- 
tures that have been made about people in our aid 
programs overseas. There is no question but that 
we have had some misfits. There is no question 
but that all those who have gone abroad have not 
made a success of their efforts. For they, too, are 
people, and people are just that way. But there 
is great dedication, great capacity, and gi-eat gal- 
lantry in the experience of those who have served 
this country in our foreign aid programs in all 
parts of the world. 

I am thinking, too, of the wives of those who 
have gone abroad to serve, committed to bringing 
up children under difficult health hazards or to 
finding an adequate way to educate their children 
so that they can take their place again in the edu- 
cational life of our own country upon returning 
home. We shall continue to need talent of the 
highest order. The combination of professional 
capacity and willingness to serve is still scarce in 
our society, and the talent hunt shall go on and on. 

Importance of Self-Help 

There will be adjustments in our aid programs 
flowing from some of the concepts we have been 
talking about. One of the most important adjust- 
ments is a new emphasis on the need for mobilizing 
peoples in their own development. For here is 
where self-help is important. We have learned in 
our own society, we have learned from experience 



elsewhere, that economic and social development 
cannot come from outside one's own border, that it 
requires a people on the move and also interested, 
dedicated, committed, alert, ambitious, energetic 
effort on the part of the people themselves. 

The premiums go to those leaders who know 
how to mobilize that dedication, take advantage of 
this upsurge of interest and demand, and trans- 
form it into a spirit of achievement and hope 
throughout the society. Some of these adjust- 
ments in our programs will of course take time. 
We cannot dart in and out of situations on a mo- 
ment's notice. Aid programs involve other gov- 
ernments and other peoples, and changes require 
careful and sometimes lengthy negotiations. Ed- 
vication, persuasion, and pre^Daration will be neces- 
sary, and some of the changes will not and cannot 
be apparent for some time to come. 

I would urge, Mr. Taft [Charles P. Taft, co- 
chairman of the conference] , that members of the 
conference consider going back to their constitu- 
encies with certain central ideas in mind. In 
response to questioning — public questioning, con- 
gressional questioning, administrative question- 
ing — we shall try to register our determination to 
do the best possible job with the resources which 
are entrusted to us. This is something which we 
cannot prove overnight, but the determination is 
there. 

I hope you can go back with a sense of exhilara- 
tion of what is happening to people's lives as a 
result of our help. Many of you have visited pro- 
grams conducted by voluntary and private organi- 
zations or by the United Nations. Some of you 
have been in villages in so-called backward coun- 
tries which are already far more advanced 
scientifically and technically and in social terms 
than were the farms on which you and I grew up. 

Some of you may have visited the great medical 
center now being built in New Delhi, which was 
started by a million-pound grant from New Zea- 
land under the Colombo Plan, to which the Gov- 
ernment of India contributed its own resources 
and which ICA [International Cooperation Ad- 
ministration] and private agencies also supported. 
This center of teaching and research may well 
match the best of our medical institutions in the 
Western World. 

You may have visited commimity development 
pi'ograms where villages themselves have taken 
charge of their own affairs, building schools, de- 
veloping sanitation, and improving crops. Or you 



July 3, 7 96 J 



may have seen something of the tens of thousands 
of men and women who have been trained under 
these programs and who are back at their posts 
and getting on with the world's work more effec- 
tively as a result. These things are hard to meas- 
ure in dollar terms, but one is deeply reassured 
when he sees them at first hand. 



distant villages. I think there is no distortion of 
any serious import in this part of our activity. 

Let people understand through these associa- 
tions what America is all about. I think they 
have confidence in that kind of America because 
that is America at its best. 



Fundamental Issues Involved 

I should like also to mention the fundamental 
issues which are involved in our readiness to go 
ahead with foreign aid. We cannot afford to be 
weary; we cannot afford to say we have done 
enough. If each of us could have been in Vienna 
to hear Mr. Khrushchev talk about the kind of 
world he sees coming into being,' foreign aid would 
not be in trouble in the United States. For the na- 
ture of the struggle in the world is such that it 
makes some of our problems here at home appear 
insignificant. 

It sometimes seems remarkable that, with this 
deadly struggle in process, we tear ourselves to 
pieces here at home while deciding what we are 
to do. Yet when one stands back and looks at the 
somewhat boisterous process of democracy, one 
would not wish it to be otherwise. 

I hope you can take back with you some of the 
quiet assurance which comes from comradeship 
with men and women all over the world in these 
joint undertakings. Mr. Khrushchev uses the 
word "peace," the word "democracy," the words 
"the people," and thereby pays tribute to the 
power of some of the great central ideas of the 
human race. In that sense, he is a hobo catching 
a free ride on others' ideas. 

One thing that has been deeply impressive to 
me is to see in how many directions and in how 
many ways the American people have stretched 
out their hands to establish ties with men and 
women all over the earth with whom they share 
common purposes. We find few who would rather 
be hungry than fed, or ignorant than informed, 
or naked than clothed. We find few men and 
women who do not believe in the worth of in- 
dividual dignity, peace, and justice. 

These are the people with whom we are in 
partnersliip in quiet ways, whether in imiversities 
or in rice paddies, whether in great engineering 
projects or in home economics demonstrations in 



James W. Riddleberger Named DAG 
Chairman, Leaves for Fifth Meeting 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

President Kennedy annoimced on June 10 
(White House press release (Palm Beach, Fla.)) 
that the members of the Development Assistance 
Group (DAG) have approved his nomination of 
career Ambassador James W. Riddleberger to be 
chairman of the DAG. This appointment is in 
response to a resolution ^ adopted by DAG, during 
its fourth meeting at London in March 1961, that 
an American be made chairman. 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 404 dated June 18 

Ambassador James W. Riddleberger, chairman 
of the Development Assistance Group (DAG), 
will leave Washington on June IS for Ottawa to 
confer with officials of the Canadian Government. 
From Ottawa Ambassador Riddleberger will 
proceed to Paris, arriving there on June 20. He 
will visit a number of other European capitals, 
including London, Bonn, and Rome. 

The purpose of Ambassador Riddleberger's 
trip is to prepare for the fifth meeting of the 
DAG, to be held at Tokyo July 11-13.= Ambassa- 
dor Riddleberger will arrive at Tokyo on July 6. 

The Development Assistance Group was formed 
in January 1960 as an interim organization 
pending the coming into force of the OECD [Or- 
ganization for Economic Cooperation and Devel- 
opment], when it will become the Development 
Assistance Committee. As such it will be a major 
committee of the OECD whose membership con- 
sists of Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, 



' For background, see Bulletin of June 26, 1961, p. 991. 



' For text, see Bulletin of Apr. 17, 1961, p. 554. 

' For texts of communiques of previous meetings, see 
ibid., Apr. 11, 1960, p. 577; Oct. 24, 1960, p. 645; and 
Apr. 17, 1961, p. 5.53. 



10 



Department of State Bulletin 



Italy, Japan (not a member of the OECD), the 
Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the 
United States, and the Commission of the EEC 
[European Economic Community]. The DAG/ 
DAC is founded on the premise that, in order 
to provide effectively the necessary assistance for 
helping the less developed countries to help them- 
selves, it is necessary for the United States and 



other donor countries to coordinate their aid 
efforts. To this end the Committee will provide 
an informal forum for frank discussion and 
coordination of policies designed to equitably 
mobilize an appropriate amount of resources from 
the donor coimtries and to make them available to 
the less developed countries on terms that reflect 
their development needs. 



The Decision Confronting America 



hy Under Secretary Bowles ^ 



It is a great pleasure for me to join with you in 
the midst of your annual convention to pay tribute 
to the book as an instrument of international ex- 
change and understanding. The survival power 
of books and of the ideas which they communicate 
is a testimony to man's development down through 
the centuries. 

We human beings may carve each other up and 
destroy each other's civilizations, but somehow, 
almost miraculously, our thoughts and ideas sur- 
vive us as the written word and live on to become 
the driving, liberating force for new generations. 

Almost as impressive is the book's disregard 
for manmade national boundaries. From the 
Bible to the Communist Manifesto, from Tom 
Paine to Boris Pasternak, no boimdary, no censor, 
has long been able to hold back a book. In the 
short run this may occasionally cause us some 
problems; in the long run mankind is the better 
and the freer for it. 

Ever since the invention of printing in China 
and its spread westward, we have all owed a 
special debt to the publishers and distributors of 
books. 

In this regard I must confess my own very 
special indebtedness. Like others in public life, 
I have been forced from time to time to spend some 
years in the political wilderness of unemployment. 



' Address made before the American Booksellers As- 
sociation at Washington, D.C., on June 12 (press release 
387). 



I think I can truthfully say that I owe my even- 
tual rehabilitation in no small degree to Cass Can- 
field, Evan Thomas, and their colleagues at 
Harper's, for it was they who enabled me to keep 
my thoughts flowing outward through the four 
books which they published for me during the lean 
years of the previous administration. That indeed 
is a weighty obligation. 

But it is not only about current or recent books 
that I want to talk to you tonight. Instead, I 
would like to look far ahead to a group of authors 
whose writings will have a direct bearing on our 
activities during the recent past and the turbulent 
years ahead. 

I am speaking of the historians of a generation 
or so hence, who will write in judgment on our 
Nation, its relations with the world and its con- 
tributions to increased world stability. In con- 
sidering the standards by which they will judge 
us, we may be able to achieve some perspective on 
our present responsibilities. 

Wliat will these historians say about America's 
influence over the course of events in the mid-20th 
century? What will they conclude about our 
efforts to keep mankind from total self- 
destniction ? Wliat will they say about our suc- 
cess or failure in turning our extraordinary new 
industrial capacity to serve the cause of peace and 
plenty ? 

I believe that they will focus their attention on 
at least five areas of decision in the first seven 



Jufyr 3, 1 961 



11 



decades of the 20tli century. In two instances 
they may say that we failed, in two others tliat we 
succeeded; the fifth still hangs in the balance. 

Wliat, then, were these five decisions? 

First was our tragic failure in 1919 to join the 
League of Nations and to throw our power and 
prestige behind a program to preserve the newly 
won peace. 

Second was our equally costly failure to under- 
stand the revolutionary upheaval in China and 
its relevance to our future security, following the 
collapse of the Manchu Empire in 1911. 

Third was our success in meeting the Nazi 
threat to Western Europe. 

Fourth was our brilliant and decisive response 
to the awesome challenge posed by the postwar 
economic and political chaos in Europe. 

Fifth, and finally, is the fundamental decision 
which we face in the 1960's in regard to our re- 
lations with two-thirds of the people of this earth, 
who live in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and 
Latin America, whose rising hopes and demands 
for a better life have created the most powerful, 
the most dangerous, and yet promising revolution 
in the long and eventful history of the human 
race. 

This final decision involves a deep-seated, totally 
unprecedented, and far-reaching commitment, not 
only by the American Government but by the 
American people as well. It is a decision to pledge 
our power, our resources, our energies, and our 
fortitude in support of individual dignity, ex- 
panding economic opportunities, and a greater 
measure of social justice for all men everywhere 
and in opposition to those who would destroy those 
universal rights and values. 

Today, despite bold steps by the new adminis- 
tration, our national willingness to accept this 
challenge hangs in the balance. 

The League of Nations-the First Challenge 

Tlie past is prologue, and an essential require- 
ment for wise and bold decisionmaking now is a 
sense of history that enables us to stretch our 
minds and broaden our perspectives. Let us 
therefore briefly examine our reaction to each of 
the first four areas of decision in the hope that 
it may provide us with a fresh approach in deal- 
ing with the fifth. 

There is little need for more than a brief refer- 



ence to the consequences of our failure to join the 
League of Nations in 1919. 

In 1917 the United States had entered World 
War I as an innocent newcomer to international 
politics. Fortunately we entered it under the 
leadership of a President who realized that the 
world of 1914 had vanished forever. 

Recently it has been fashionable to dismiss 
Woodrow Wilson as a visionary. And yet his 
vision was rooted in a higher realism, a clearer 
sense of the nature of reality, than that of almost 
any of his contemporaries. Over and over again 
Wilson warned us that if we rejected his vision 
and seceded from the emerging world community, 
we would not only "break the heart of the world" 
but would pay for our failure in blood. "There 
will come, sometime," he warned us, "in the venge- 
ful providence of God, another struggle in which 
not a few hundred thousand fine men of America 
will have to die, but as many millions as are neces- 
sary to accomplish the final freedom of the people 
of the world." 

But the habits of isolationism were still strong 
and its advocates skillful and determined. We 
had acted generously enough, they said, in sending 
our boys overseas to "solve Europe's problems." 
Now it was time to bring them home, to keep them 
home, and to accept the call for a return to 
normalcy. 

And so Woodrow Wilson was repudiated and his 
League of Nations rejected. America, which could 
have provided the spirit and the sinews necessary 
for the beginnings of world order, turned its back 
on the future. 

I believe that the historical judgment of 2000 
A.D. upon America's withdrawal from world re- 
sponsibility in 1919 will be severe. 

Chlna-the Second Challenge 

Now let us consider the second great area of 
decision, which grew out of the challenge of the 
Chinese revolution. 

In 1911, after 2,000 years of remarkable con- 
tinuity, the Chinese Empire came to an end. It 
collapsed under the combined effects of internal 
decay and the impact of the West. With it col- 
lapsed the ideology of Confucianism, which had 
acted as a social cement for much of China's long 
history. 

Since the mid-18th century, Americans had had 
a special regard for the Chinese people— had had 



12 



Department of State Bulletin 



many close connections with China. American 
merchants, missionaries, doctors, and teachers had 
traveled to China by the thousands. Additional 
hundreds of young Chinese had graduated from 
American universities. With our acquisition of 
the Philippines in 1898 and the announcement of 
the "open door" policy which soon followed, Amer- 
ica became a Pacific power with an officially de- 
clared interest in the preservation of China's ter- 
ritorial integrity. 

At the birth of the Chinese Republic we were 
admirably positioned to understand the physical 
and psychological needs of the emerging new 
China and to exert a positive and perhaps decisive 
influence over economic and political developments 
there. Yet we were so busy watching the soaring 
stock market, listening to our new jazz bands, and 
enjoying the benefits of our booming economy that 
only a handful of farsighted Americans were even 
conscious of the challenge. 

When in 1920 and 1921 Sun Yat-sen urgently 
pressed us for substantial loans with which to fur- 
ther the unification and economic development of 
China, we abruptly turned him down. And so, 
following a similar turndown in the capitals of 
Western Europe, a now desperate Sun Yat-sen 
turned to the new Communist government in Mos- 
cow for the help which the Atlantic nations had 
denied him. 

Although the Bolsheviks were in conflict over 
the internal problems generated by their own rev- 
olution, the Kremlin recognized the stakes which 
were being played for in China and eagerly 
grasped the opportunity. Had not Lenin himself 
asserted that the road to Paris runs through Pei- 
ping and Calcutta? 

By 1923 Soviet technicians, Soviet political ad- 
visers, and Soviet capital began flowing into China. 

At the Washington Disarmament Conference 
the year before, the Harding administration com- 
pounded our failure to understand China's desper- 
ate economic needs. By agreeing to dispense with 
a major part of our new Navy in return for 
Japan's agreement to accept some limitations on 
her own forces, we abdicated our power position 
in the western Pacific and opened the door for 
the series of Japanese aggressions which led to 
Pearl Harbor 19 years later. 

But more opportunities and more blunders were 
yet to come. In 1927, when Sun's successor, 
Chiang Kai-shek, turned against the Commimists 



and outlined his plans to establish a modernized 
non-Communist state, we were granted another 
opportunity to retrieve past mistakes. But once 
again America — fat, contented, far away, and 
secure — failed to understand the challenge. 

In 1931 the Japanese Army moved into Man- 
churia. Firm American action there might still 
have checked Japanese aggression and given China 
a chance to emerge as an independent and politi- 
cally stable nation. But again the opportunity 
was lost. 

At the League of Nations in Geneva, crisis- 
weary Britain and France refused to act. And in 
spite of Secretary of State Stimson's earnest ef- 
forts to assert American leadership from Wash- 
ington, our Government remained content with 
moral lectures and the ineffective doctrine of non- 
recognition. 

There is no need to dwell on the grim and un- 
happy story of China since 1931. The 1930's 
found us caught up in our own problems, unwill- 
ing to provoke the naval power of Japan or to 
give the wobbly Chinese Government the assist- 
ance it needed so desperately. 

No one knows precisely when we finally lost our 
capacity to influence events in China. Some ob- 
servers assert that as late as 1941 a comprehensive 
American military, political, and economic effort 
might have provided an effective democratic al- 
ternative to communism. By the end of the war, 
however, it had become clear that nothing less 
than massive American military intervention 
could change the course of events. 

In view of public weariness with war and crises 
and the efforts of political leaders in both parties 
to cater to this natural state of mind, the necessary 
action was not even debated. 

So it was that we failed to meet the second great 
foreign policy challenge of our century. May I 
add that we Americans will live with the conse- 
quences of this failure for many generations to 
come. 

Supporting Britain — tlie Third Challenge 

The third challenge was one which we belatedly 
but effectively recognized and met. 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a powerful sense 
of history. He understood that we had sprung 
from Europe and were irrevocably a part of Eu- 
rope. He understood that a Europe under Nazi 



July 3, 7 96 J 



13 



domination would mecan a world in which 
America's own freedom would be fundamentally 
challenged. 

Beginning with his "quarantine the aggressor" 
speech in 1938, Franklin Roosevelt began grad- 
ually to move the American people toward a 
similar understanding. 

In early September 1939, when the Nazi Panzer 
divisions and Stukas struck suddenly across the 
Polish border, our first instinct was withdrawal 
into isolationism. The Neutrality Act, curbing 
shipments to the Western European nations, ex- 
pressed our national mood. 

Yet the old myths of self-sufficiency were weak- 
ening. We were beginning belatedly to recognize 
the interdependence of nations that Woodrow Wil- 
son had pleaded with us to accept. And so in 
Britain's darkest and finest hour we came to her 
support. 

In the following years American industry and 
military power provided the decisive power that 
crushed the totalitarian forces which American 
membership in the League of Nations might have 
kept from exploding into aggression in the first 
place. 

Rebuilding Free Europe — the Fourth Challenge 

The fourth challenge began to take shape soon 
after the end of hostilities in Europe. Western 
Europe's cities were in ruins from years of bomb- 
ing and street fighting. Food, fuel, and building 
materials were inadequate. The entire European 
economy was on the verge of collapse, with mount- 
ing inflation everywhere. 

In the meantime, a few hundred miles away in 
East Germany and Poland, stood nearly 200 Soviet 
Army divisions ready and able to roll, almost un- 
opposed, to the English Channel. 

The American people, returning instinctively to 
our isolationist tradition, had been looking 
forward eagei'ly to a crisis-free future of peace 
and plenty. We had disbanded our armies, put 
our ships in mothballs, converted our defense fac- 
tories to peaceful production, and settled down 
again to enjoy the world's highest living standard. 
Then, suddenly and alarmingly, thoughtful Amer- 
icans began to sense the new threat to world peace 
which was rapidly taking shape across the At- 
lantic. 

The initial Soviet pressure was aimed at Greece 
and Tui-key. The British, who for 200 years had 



provided the shrewd diplomacy and military 
power that had effectively blocked Russia from the 
Mediterranean, were no longer able to meet the 
challenge. Simultaneously all through Western 
Europe, Communist parties which had been ef- 
fectively associated with the underground re- 
sistance to nazism were vigorously on the move to 
sow confusion, to establish united fronts, and 
ultimately to seize power. 

At this critical moment we were fortunate to 
have in our State Department a man with a deep- 
seated sense of Europe's past and our relation to 
Europe's future. I refer to Dean Acheson, who 
perhaps more than any other American understood 
the nature of the challenge and our responsibility 
to meet it. We were equally fortunate in having as 
our Secretary of State in 1947^8 General George 
Marshall, a towering figure of integrity and in- 
telligence. In Harry Truman we had a President 
whose raw courage and unswerving sense of pur- 
pose will assure him a privileged position in the 
history of our times. And in Congress there were 
Vandenberg of Michigan, Herter of Massachu- 
setts, Russell of Georgia, Fulbright of Arkansas, 
and many other men of vision and toughness — 
Republicans and Democrats alike— who imder- 
stood wliat was required of us and who did not 
hesitate to act. 

The men and the crisis came together, and the 
result was a brilliant creative national effort that 
checked the Soviet military, political, and eco- 
nomic threat, rebuilt the foundations of a new 
free Europe, and almost certainly saved us from 
a third world war. The Truman Doctrine for the 
defense of Greece and Turkey was followed by the 
Marshall plan for the economic and political re- 
covery of Western Europe. Then came the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization for the military de- 
fense of Western Europe and the dramatic Berlin 
airlift, with which we demonstrated that we Amer- 
icans and our allies had the will as well as the 
resources. 

In 1949 as the fresh challenge of the newly free, 
desperately poor, yet largely uncultured nations 
began to emerge, we again broke new ground 
through the point 4 proposal for a constructive 
partnership with Asia, Africa, and Latin 
America. 

These were years of brilliant, creative, non- 
partisan response to an unprecedented challenge. 
They were years in which our leaders led and the 



14 



Department of State Bvlletin 



American people, ai-oused and informed, re- 
sponded with the dedication and intelligence 
which mark a great nation. 

The Fifth and Greatest Challenge 

We come now to the fifth and greatest chal- 
lenge in this series of momentous situations which 
have so sharply tested us Americans in the first 
60 years of this century. 

This fifth challenge is now only gradually com- 
ing to be understood. But unless we muster the 
determination and tlie means to cope with it, the 
price of failure may be even more costly than our 
failure to understand the challenge posed by the 
growing interdependence of nations after "World 
War I and the upheaval in Cliina wliich followed 
it. 

In the 19th centuiy and the first decades of the 
20th, world peace could be said to rest almost 
exclusively on the balance of power in Europe. 
Since the end of the Second World War, this has 
been fundamentally changed. Hundreds of mil- 
lions of Asians and Africans who once responded 
to orders from London, Paris, and The Hague 
have won their freedom. The emergence of these 
new and underdeveloped nations inevitably has 
created a wholly new challenge for the American 
Government and its people. 

This situation with its new and far broader 
dimensions has been further compounded by the 
fact that this revolutionary development has oc- 
curred at precisely the time when modem tech- 
nology is rapidly widening the already highly 
explosive gap between the rich white minority, 
on the one hand, most of whom live around the 
North Atlantic basin, and the poor colored major- 
ity, on tlie other, who live largely in the southern 
hemispheres. 

Meantime, moving toward the forefront in 
world affairs is the new Chinese giant, intent on 
overnight industrialization, with 650 million 
dynamic people, a doctrinaire, aggressive leader- 
ship, inadequate natural resources, and a tempting 
power vacuum in southeast Asia, which is rich 
in the petroleum and rice producing lands that 
China needs so urgently. 

Finally, there is the Soviet Union, with a steel 
capacity of 60 million tons, an annual rate of 
industrial growth nearly three times our own, 
graduating twice as many engineers and scientists, 
and with enormous power in nuclear weapons and 



conventional military forces. Since her clumsy 
efforts in China in the 1920's, the Soviet Union 
has come to understand the decisive importance of 
the underdeveloped areas. In recent years her 
leaders have developed a new flexibility, new 
subtlety, and new economic and political skill in 
dealing with them. 

Now any one of these current developments 
which affect national power so profoundly would 
be enough to tax to the utmost the skill, strength, 
and patience of our country. Together, they pose 
the greatest challenge that any society has ever 
faced, a test of our values, our nerves, and our 
intelligence. 

Wliat will be our national reaction to this ulti- 
mate test of our capacity to survive and to prosper 
as a free society ? 

Three courses are open to us — to lash out in reck- 
less frustration, to withdraw into a futile isola- 
tionism, or confidently to accept the challenge and 
muster the means, the patience, and the will to 
proceed with the task of building a free-world 
community. 

The first two would almost certainly doom us to 
catastrophic failure. Only the third offers the 
possibility of a more just and peaceful world. 
Yet the third is by all odds the most difficult of 
the three. It requires us patiently, wisely, and 
courageously to come to grips with the realities 
of our age. It calls for sober, mature, pragmatic 
action in the pursuit of one simple objective : the 
creation of a free-woi"Id community where choice 
is possible, where the dignity of the individual is 
recognized and protected, where the economic op- 
portunities for all people are constantly 
expanding. 

In a far simpler context Great Britain effec- 
tively played such a role in the century prior to 
World War I. But it is a new role for us, which 
places extraordinary demands on our people, on 
Congress, our diplomats, and our military person- 
nel for wisdom, restraint, steadfastness, and 
patience in the years ahead. 

Strengths and Weaknesses of U.S. and U.S.S.R. 

Now let us examine more precisely what is re- 
quired of us. 

The first essential is that we understand the 
nature of the forces wliich are upsetting tlie old 
order, disrupting old societies, creating fervent 
new hopes and expectations, often threatening 



July 3, 7 96 J 



15 



the peace while offermg the promise of a better 
future to hundreds of millions of people. 

At the heart of the revolution lies the universal 
promise of expanded human dignity, greater op- 
portunity for the individual, and an increased 
measure of justice. Although its ways are often 
violent, irrational, and destructive, this revolution- 
ary promise is based on the human values which 
may be found in almost every religion on earth. 
Although the Soviet Union did not create this 
revolutionary wave, it is seeking to divert it for 
its own purposes. In this effort the Soviet Union 
has some very major advantages. 

First of all, the Kremlin clearly understands 
the revolutionary forces which were loosened by 
World War I and which have been unleashed by 
World War II with a strong assist from our gal- 
loping new industrial, agricultural, and commun- 
ications technology. It appreciates the fact that 
we are living in a period of historic ferment which 
allows any powerful political dogma an opportu- 
nity to accomplish its aims. 

Moreover, the image of the Soviet Union is not 
blurred by racial conflicts or a record of discrim- 
ination against the darker skinned people of the 
world. 

Although the Soviet Union's industrial and eco- 
nomic resources are substantially less than our own, 
they are more than adequate to the task. Equally 
important, the Soviet Union has the capacity 
through its totalitarian government to focus its 
resources — educational, industrial, economic, or 
political— where they can best serve the Soviet 
cause, which is usually at the weakest point in the 
internal structure of the new nation. 

Yet there are many formidable obstacles in the 
way of Soviet success. For one thing, the an- 
nounced national and ideological objectives of the 
Soviet Union are sharply opposed to the new na- 
tionalism which has become the driving force of 
the new nations of Asia and Africa and the awak- 
ening lands of Latin America. Because the Soviet 
Union is opposed to nationalism, it is also opposed 
to the United Nations, where these new nations 
have found a global forum in which to express 
their views. The Soviet Union is also deeply op- 
posed to formal religion, which it considers "the 
opiate of the people." It is committed not to the 
expanded freedoms which the whole world seeks 
but to the harnessing of the individual to the 
service of the state. 



Now what about the strengths and weaknesses 
of the United States? 

Our disadvantages as we approach the chal- 
lenge of the decisive 1960's are substantial. 

The most damaging of these is the fact that the 
American people and their Congress have not yet 
fully awakened to the requirements. They are 
uncertain about the nature of the problem and are 
skeptical of its meaning for their own future. 

In addition, we are plagued with a long record 
of racial discrimination. Paradoxically, our in- 
tensified efforts to solve this problem may be ex- 
pected to create a continuing series of "incidents" 
which will tend to create distrust among the two- 
thirds of the people of the world whose skins are 
darker than most of ours. 

Finally, while our economy is gradually recover- 
ing from a recession, we are nowhere near produc- 
ing to our full capacity. More than 5 million of 
our ablest skilled people are still out of work, 
and 20 percent of our machines remain idle. Be- 
cause we are failing to produce what we could pro- 
duce, our opposition to foreign imports is inevi- 
table, with cries for higher tariffs and increased 
isolationism. 

Although these disadvantages are sobering, it 
would be a profound mistake to underestimate our 
very great strengtlis. 

Our first great asset is that we were born a 
revolutionary people, under a towering revolu- 
tionary leadership. Even more important, this 
revolution has been a continuing one. Great Amer- 
ican liberal leaders such as Jefferson, Jackson, 
Lincoln, Wilson, and Roosevelt have risen one 
after another to challenge the American people to 
reexamine their society, to renew their commit- 
ments to liberty and freedom, and to adapt their 
constitutional principles to the fast-flowing de- 
velopments of a changing world. The armed rev- 
olution of 1776 set America free. But it was the 
peaceful revolution headed by Thomas Jefferson 
which gave political meaning to that revolution, 
and it was the leadership of Andrew Jackson and 
those who followed him which created a tradition 
of increasing economic justice for all citizens. 

Another great asset is our extraordinary Amer- 
ican educational system, which has prepared us 
to respect others, to honor the individual, and to 
look on differences of religion, national origin, and 
viewpoint not only as a right but as a national 
strength. 



16 



Department of State Bulletin 



But the most important advantage of all is one 
of which we appear least aware : the fact that what 
we want for the people of the new emerging con- 
tinents is precisely what they want for themselves. 

We have no desire for satellites or nations sub- 
servient to our will. We have no wish to control 
others or to force them into tidy, preconceived 
concepts of history. For the people of Tangan- 
yika, Bolivia, Burma, Korea, and of other nations, 
young and old, we want expanded economic op- 
portunities, increased dignity and justice, more 
doctors to take care of their sick, more food to feed 
their hungry, more and better schools to wipe out 
their illiteracy, improved conmiunications so that 
we can better understand each other, the right to 
travel, to trade, to move freely, to speak, to think, 
and to worship in their own way, within cultures 
of their own choosing. 

This identity of objectives is the primary, over- 
riding advantage of the United States in its ef- 
forts to create a peaceful, prosperous, non-Com- 
munist world partnership. The fact that the 
Soviet Union's objectives for the people of the 
new nations are so deeply antagonistic to their 
own is the fundamental point of Soviet weakness. 
Yet the central question remains : Wliat will we 
do with our great and varied strengths? How 
will we apply them? Can we muster the tmder- 
standing to meet the challenge and to rally our 
forces to deal with it effectively ? 

Essential Global Program 

Let me briefly list the kind of global program 
which I believe to be essential. 

1. It is essential, above all, that we understand 
honestly, and clearly explain to the American 
people, the real objectives of our overseas efforts. 

Our national purposes are positive and con- 
structive, not negative and destructive. The rev- 
olution to which I refer would still exist if there 
were no communism anywhere on earth. Our ob- 
jective, therefore, is not simply to defeat com- 
munism, important as we know this to be, but 
rather to rally the energies of other people to help 
them to build their own countries in their own 
ways and within the framework of their own his- 
tory and cultures. Our objective can be briefly 
stated : to help assure for the people of the world 
their freedom of choice. 

2. It is equally important that we understand 

Jo/y 3, 1 96 J 

598546—61 3 



the totality of the effort which we must make. 

A powerful American military apparatus is of 
the utmost importance to discourage and, if nec- 
essary, to defeat armed aggression. It is also 
essential that we learn to help others to deal with 
internal subversion, above all to encourage the 
individual motivation that will enable those whom 
we assist to use their training and weapons to 
protect their right to build free, prosperous na- 
tions of their own. 

3. Although military power against external 
aggression and internal security measures are es- 
sential in blocking Communist efforts, they should 
be only the starting point for our American effort 
in the sixties. If we are to seize and hold the 
initiative, we must concentrate most of our effort 
in helping others to build for the future. 

Most important of all, our objectives must look 
beyond the goal of a greater material production — 
more wheat, more bicycles, more shoes, and more 
machinery — to the human values. Progi'ess must 
be achieved in a way that gives the people them- 
selves a greater sense of participation and in- 
creased individual justice. 

Proposed Aid Program 

The new aid program which will be debated 
in Congress and throughout the country in the 
coming weeks lies at the heart of this gi'eat ef- 
fort.^ The success or failure of Mr. Kennedy's 
proposals to Congress will demonstrate to the 
world both the extent of our willingness to face 
up to the realities of our age and the wisdom which 
we are prepared to apply to these realities. 

Behind these proposals stand four firm con- 
victions : 

First, our assistance can be truly effective only 
to the degree that it reaches directly to the people 
of the recipient countries — that it gives them a 
sense of personal participation, of justice, and a 
better life. 

Second, our aid should be directed primarily 
to those nations that are willing to help them- 
selves : to tax their people equitably, reform land 
tenure, extend rural credit, and strive for social 
justice. 



" For President Kennedy's message to Congress on for- 
eign aid, see Buixetin of Apr. 10, 1961, p. 507 ; for state- 
ments by Secretary Rusk, see ibid., June 19, 1961, p. 947, 
and June 26, 1961, p. 1000. 



17 



Third, our successes and failures of the past 13 
years have clearly shown the need for the new 
kind of comprehensive aid agency that is proposed 
in the legislation now befoi-e Congress. 

And finally, this same 13-year record has shown 
the need for longer term financing of economic 
development at more adequate levels. Only on 
the basis of such a long-term commitment can our 
friends in other lands plan for effective use of our 
aid. 



Such, then, is the scope of the challenge and the 
nature of the decision that confronts the Ameri- 
can people. "Wliat will be our response ? 

If we are true to our heritage, there can be but 
one answer. I^t us see to it that the historians of 
the year 2000 will be able to record that America's 
response to the fifth great decision of the present 
century was confident, bold, compassionate — and 
everlastingly right. 



United States Urges Prompt Soviet Agreement on Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 



Following is the text of a U.S. note delivered to 
the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs on June 
17 concerning the Geneva nuclear test ban nego- 
tiations, together with a Soviet aide memoire 
handed to President Kennedy iy Premier Nikita 
Khrushchev dmnng their meeting at Vienna 
June 2-li.?- 



U.S. NOTE OF JUNE 17 

White House press release dated June 17 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and has the honor to state the following : 

An international agreement for the discontin- 
uance of nuclear weapons tests is and will continue 
to be a prime objective of the United States Gov- 
ernment. The United States and the United King- 
dom have proposed a treaty ^ that will achieve this 
goal. This proposed treaty is the result of almost 
three years of painstaking effort on the part of the 
United States and the United Kingdom to work 
out an effective agreement with the Soviet Union 
to which we hope other governments would 
promptly adhere. This agreement would point 
the way toward ending the arms race in safety and 
in trust; it would remove any hazards involved 



in testing. It would restrict the number of coun- 
tries producing nuclear weapons, thereby reducing 
the possibility of nuclear war. 

During more than two yeai'S of negotiations, 
prior to their resumption on March 21, 1961, the 
areas of disagreement between the parties had 
apparently been substantially narrowed.^ In 
fact, it appeared that more progess had been made 
in this negotiation than in any other in the general 
field of disannament. Each side had modified 
its position in response to the position of the other 
side. The United States, therefore, redoubled its 
efforts to find common ground in the hope that this 
might lead to an agreement. 

Beginning with the opening day of the resumed 
sessions on March 21, the United States and the 
United Kingdom delegations advanced a series of 
new proposals. Building upon the base estab- 
lished by the almost three years of arduous nego- 
tiation, the United States and the United King- 
dom, in an effort to move toward the Soviet point 
of view, proposed : (1) to fix the number of on-site 
inspections in the Soviet Union, the United States, 
and the United Kingdom somewhere between 12 
and 20, depending upon the annual incidence of 
suspicious seismic events; (2) to reduce the num- 
ber of control posts on Soviet territory; (3) to 
establish a Control Commission with equal repre- 
sentation for both sides; (4) to institute means for 
controlling nuclear tests in outer space; (5) to 



' For background, see Buixetin of June 26, 1961, p. 991. 
' For text, see ihii., June 5, 1961, p. 870. 



18 



' For background, see iV\d., Sept. 26, 1960, p. 482. 

Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



extend to three years the proposed moratorium on 
those weapons tests which tlie control system can- 
not presently detect and which, therefore, will be 
excluded from the treaty pending the outcome 
of a research program; and (6) to open up for 
internal and external inspection the nuclear 
devices to be used in research on test-detection or 
for peaceful engineering uses. 

There was, imfortunately, no corresponding 
movement on the part of the Soviet Union to this 
narrowing of the differences between the parties, 
as might have been anticipated in view of the 
many Soviet statements as to the importance of 
arriving at a prompt agreement banning nuclear 
weapons tests. Instead, since the resumption of 
the test ban negotiations on March 21, 1961, the 
Soviet Union has withdrawn its agreement to a 
single impartial administrator of the control sys- 
tem, and reiterated without change all of its other 
positions on outstanding issues. It now argues 
that reaching agreement on a test ban should be 
subordinated to the solution of other disarmament 
problems in spite of the fact that it was the Soviet 
Union that had insisted on separating the two 
questions at the outset. 

The Soviet proposals would prevent achieve- 
ment of the objective of effective control. They 
would amount to adoption of the principle of self- 
inspection and would permit any country, if it 
wished, to evade the agreement with impunity. 
At the same time, the Soviet Union proposes, as 
an alternative to complete acceptance of its posi- 
tion, to choke off negotiations at Geneva, on which 
so much work has been done, and to merge them 
into the general disarmament negotiations in which 
we would have to start all over again. 

The positions taken by the Soviet delegation at 
Geneva and at Vienna and summarized in the 
Soviet aide-memoire of June 4, 1961, make it ap- 
pear that the Soviet Union does not want an 
agreement banning nuclear weapons testing. 
Nothing in the statements of the Soviet Union 
explains such a major change in its position on a 
question of fundamental importance to the 
peoples of the world. In this situation, the United 
States Government has an obligation to declare 
its position and to state clearly its disagreement 
with the Soviet aide-memoire. 

The United States believes that a treaty pro- 
liibiting nuclear weapons tests, like other agree- 
ments in the field of disarmament, must contain 



effective provisions for control. It has sought to 
devise a treaty which will provide for such effec- 
tive control and at the same time assure that no 
party to the treaty and no operator of the control 
system could hurt the interests of another party 
or abuse the authority granted by the treaty. 
Through long and patient negotiations the United 
States and the United Kingdom had worked out 
arrangements with the Soviet Union which deline- 
ated the requirements of such a control system 
and which had appeared to be acceptable to both 
sides. 

The Soviet Union, in its aide-memoire of June 
4, 1961, states that it too favors effective inter- 
national control. But the Soviet proposals and 
the position taken in the Soviet aide-memoire 
negate the entire concept of effective international 
control. Moreover, by insisting on vesting con- 
trol of the inspection system in an imworkable, 
three-headed administrative council, the Soviet 
Union has imdone all that had been apparently 
successfully achieved during the long series of 
previous negotiations to reconcile the require- 
ments of an effective system of inspection with the 
Soviet concern about security and secrecy. This 
proposal was a retrograde step from the position 
previously taken by the Soviet Government in 
favor of a single, impartial administrator to be 
chosen by both sides, with his duties prescribed 
by the treaty. 

The aide-memoire mentions that it is necessary 
only to have the testimony of objective readings 
of instruments for a party to demand that an in- 
spection be made and that there is no way for the 
administrative council to put obstacles in the way 
of inspection. The aide-memoire passes over the 
fact that there must be some authority within the 
control system to certify wliich seismic events, 
according to objective criteria, are eligible for in- 
spection, and to arrange, direct, and dispatch an 
inspection team. Under the proposed treaty the 
certification for inspection, and the dispatch of the 
inspection teams, would be done by the Adminis- 
trator. Under the Soviet proposal, any member 
of the Administrative Council could block the cer- 
tification of the event as eligible for inspection by 
simply failing to agree that the criteria have been 
met. Any member could, in addition, obstruct or 
delay the dispatching of an on-site inspection team 
and hence render it ineffective. No matter what 
explanation is attempted, the fact remains that the 
Soviet proposal for a tripartite administrative 



July 3, 1961 



19 



council involves a built-in veto over the operation 
of the control system. 

The Soviet aide-memoire of June 4, 1961, at- 
tempts to justify the Soviet position by contending 
that one man at the head of the inspection system 
might take arbitrary action against Soviet 
interests. 

The United States representative at Geneva has 
inquired of the Soviet representative what partic- 
ular functions of the proposed Administrator give 
the Soviet Union concern. He has pointed out 
that the powers and duties of the Administrator 
are precisely set out in the treaty. Moreover, he 
has pointed out that the Administrator would re- 
ceive directions from the Control Commission set 
up by the treaty on which both sides in the negoti- 
ations would have equal representation and which 
would have responsibility for all politically impor- 
tant decisions which had not been determined by 
the treaty itself. There is no reason, therefore, for 
any signatory nation to fear that positive acts of 
the Administrator could impair its security. 
What it ought to fear are the possibilities for ob- 
struction, nullification, and confusion, which a 
three-headed council would multiply intolerably. 

The Soviet aide-memoire suggests that the 
"Western" powers would most likely nominate for 
the Administrator a person from a "neutral" coun- 
try and questions whether such an official even 
though chosen by unanimous consent "would take 
a neutral" stand with regard to the Communist 
countries. It states that "there do not and cannot 
exist, any neutral persons" and questions whether a 
single administrator could "ensure impartial 
implementation" of an agreement. 

Tlie United States cannot accept the idea that 
there are no men in the un-aligned countries with 
sufficient objectivity and sense of duty to carry out 
explicit provisions of international agreements. 
It is the firm belief of the United States that there 
are such men and they play an important role in 
the hope for developing a more stable world order. 
No one should be misled by the fact that the Soviet 
proposal purports to assign a role to the neutral 
as a member of the three-man administrative coun- 
cil. It is a role which could be effectively exer- 
cised only with the concurrence of the U.S.S.R. 

The Soviet proposal for a tripartite administra- 
tive council is not, of course, the sole point at issue 
in the Geneva negotiations. The present Soviet 
proposals for on-site inspection of possible viola- 
tions of the nuclear test treaty are completely un- 



workable. The need for rapid and efficient on-site 
inspection of such events has been agreed in prin- 
ciple since the 1958 Experts Conference.* How- 
ever, the technical criteria proposed by the So- 
viet delegation for judging the eligibility of such 
disturbances are entirely contrived and would in 
themselves rule out any possibility for inspection 
of many events which could in fact be nuclear 
explosions. 

Beyond this, the Soviet Union has proposed that 
the number of on-site inspections be tightly re- 
stricted to three per year. This number represents 
a completely inadequate sampling of the more 
than 100 large seismic events which, on the aver- 
age, will occur every year in the Soviet Union. 
Only a small percentage of this number can be 
identified as earthquakes. Any one of the remain- 
der might be a clandestine nuclear test. 

The United States has proposed that the number 
of inspections in the Soviet Union, the United 
States and the United Kingdom should vary be- 
tween a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 20, de- 
pending upon the actual number of events that 
occur. This could hardly represent a threat to the 
security of the Soviet State or present an oppor- 
tunity for veiled espionage. To begin with, the 
inspections would be carried out by international 
inspection teams whose freedom of movement 
would be narrowly circumscribed to a very small 
area and which would operate only in response to 
carefully-defined objective instrument readings. 
The location of the areas to be inspected would be 
determined solely by earth tremors which are not 
within the control of the party requesting inspec- 
tion. In addition, the United States has proposed 
a provision which would allow the Soviet Union 
to assign any number of observers to accompany 
each inspection team to insure that its members 
will not engage in espionage activities. If the So- 
viet Union cannot accommodate this degree of 
carefully supervised activity in its territory by an 
international body, the prospect for any appreci- 
able progress toward effectively controlled dis- 
armament in a peaceful world is indeed dim. 

The Soviet Union still insists that the chief of 
any control post established in its own territorj' be 
a citizen of the U.S.S.R. The United States be- 
lieves that this is fundamentally contrary to the 
aim of objective international surveillance. The 



• For background, see ibid., Sept. 22, 1958, p. 452 ; July 6, 
1959, p. 16 ; and May 23, 1960, p. 819. 



20 



Department of State Bulletin 



Soviet Union insists as well that on-site inspection 
teams operating in its own territory be staffed in 
large measure by its own nationals and headed by 
one of its nationals. This would frustrate com- 
pletely the purpose of on-site inspection of sus- 
picious events. 

The United States is at a loss to understand the 
Soviet position on the moratorium on small under- 
ground tests. It has been clear that under the 
present state of scientific knowledge the type of 
control system contemplated in the treaty could 
not be relied upon for determining whether or not 
such tests had taken place. The moratorium was 
proposed to allow time for a joint research pro- 
gram to be pursued vigorously and cooperatively 
to develop techniques for detecting these small 
underground tests so that the treaty could be ex- 
tended to cover them. The Soviet Union has 
abandoned its original commitment to join in this 
program and repudiated the position of its sci- 
entists that the program is necessary. The present 
Soviet position means that the Soviet Government 
attaches no importance to the detection of these 
explosions and amounts to a demand for a perma- 
nent unpoliced ban on small underground nuclear 
tests. For its part, the United States has allocated 
a large smn for, and is prepared to can-y out, a 
research program to improve detection techniques 
so that the treaty can be extended to cover all tests 
as quickly as possible. The United States calls 
upon the Soviet Government to join with it in this 
program. 

The aide-memoire of the Soviet Government 
asks whether it is not better "to start with the 
main, cardinal, question, i.e., the question of gen- 
eral and complete disarmament" and suggests that 
both problems be solved "interdependently." 
Quite apart from this being a total reversal of the 
Soviet position which originally insisted on treat- 
ing the test ban separately, the delays and com- 
plexities involved in merging the test ban negotia- 
tions into the general disarmament discussions are 
unacceptable. 

The delay in reaching a test ban agreement 
which would result from merging the test ban 
negotiations mto the comprehensive disarmament 
negotiations suggests that the Soviet Union is at- 
tempting to continue a situation in which the 
United States accepts an unenforced commitment 
not to test. This would leave the Soviet Union, 
with its closed society, its government unaccount- 



able either to a parliament or to an informed pub- 
lic opinion, and its actions shrouded in a veil of 
secrecy, free to conduct nuclear weapons tests 
without fear of exposure. For almost three years, 
the United States has been willing to assume the 
risk of not testing nuclear weapons without the 
certainty that the Soviet Union has likewise 
stopped its testing. The national security and de- 
fenses of the free world do not allow this risk to 
be assumed indefinitely. 

If the Soviet proposal means that progress in a 
test ban negotiation be delayed pending agi'eement 
in other fields of disarmament it is equally objec- 
tionable. The United States believes that the 
progress already made in the negotiations should 
be continued, not stopped, and that the chances for 
reaching agreement on banning nuclear weapons 
tests should not be pushed further into the future 
or be made dependent upon progress in other areas 
of disarmament. The United States believes that 
the most expeditious and effective way to reach 
final agreement on a test ban treaty is to keep the 
test ban talks separate from other disarmament 
discussions. Moreover, a successful conclusion of 
the test ban negotiations would facilitate to a great 
degi-ee progi-ess on other disarmament steps. 

To throw away the progress made toward a 
test ban agreement would mean a set-back to the 
world's hopes for disarmament. It would mean 
the further proliferation of nuclear weapons and 
the testing of such weapons by an ever-greater 
number of countries. In view of the ease of clan- 
destine nuclear testing under an unpoliced ban, it 
means that each government will face an increas- 
ing need to take whatever steps may be necessary in 
its own defense, including nuclear testing. These 
are the consequences of failure to agree and for 
which the U.S.S.E., which seems bent on making 
success impossible, would liave to take the 
responsibility. 

There are wider consequences for which 
the U.S.S.R. would also have to take the respon- 
sibility. After World "War II, the leading powers 
joined in establishing a world organization 
because of a common conviction, resting upon the 
evidence of history, that a world made up of 
numerous, sejDarate sovereign powers, acting with- 
out regard to their responsibilities in the interna- 
tional community, was a world in which wars were 
too easily bred. There was a widespread feeling 
that states must be willing to place some limit 
upon the free exercise of sovereign powers in the 



July 3, 1961 



21 



interests of the larger community of nations. 
This has been the trend of history. Now, the 
Soviet Government apparently desires to return 
to a period of history when the sovereign state 
admitted no limitation to its actions. The posi- 
tions maintained by the Soviet Union at Geneva 
appear to mean that, even with all that is at stake, 
the Soviet Union is not ready to abate in some 
small degree its regime of secrecy and jealously- 
guarded sovereignty. 

This attitude offers small prospect for a con- 
structive outcome of the Geneva test ban negoti- 
ations. It also offers little hope for the 
development of the kind of world, under an inter- 
national rule of law, in which general disarmament 
can take place. The United States urges the 
U.S.S.E. to give careful consideration to the U.S. 
position as stated in this note. An effective test 
ban treaty promptly concluded at the negotiations 
in Geneva is of the utmost importance to the 
peoples of the world. To a world grown im- 
patient with protracted tensions and unease, 
it would signify the willingness of the major 
powers to subordinate a narrow concept of their 
national interests to the higher aim of creating a 
more peaceful and stable world ordei'. It would 
brighten the prospects for agi-eement in other 
areas of conflicting interests. An effective test 
ban treaty should be signed without delay. 



SOVIET AIDE MEMOIRE OF JUNE 4 

The Soviet Government deems It necessary to present its 
considerations on the question of ending atomic and hy- 
drogen weapon tests. As is known, negotiations between 
representatives of the USSR, the United States and Great 
Britain have been going on in Geneva for more than two 
and a half years. However, there still are great diffi- 
culties on the road toward the conclusion of an agreement. 

The Soviet Union did and is doing everything it can to 
come to terms with the United States and Great Britain 
on a treaty to end nuclear weajwn tests. As is known, 
in order to remove obstacles toward agreement it has 
made substantial concessions to the Western partners in 
the talks, having accepted a number of proposals sub- 
mitted by them. 

The position of the Soviet Government at the Geneva 
talks is simple and clear. The Soviet Union wants nu- 
clear weapon tests of all kinds to be ended everywhere 
and for all time. But the Soviet Government cannot 
agree and will never agree to the test-ban treaty be- 
coming an empty scrap of paper which could be used as 
a cover for further experiments with nuclear weapons 
for the purpose of improving tliom and developing new 
means of mass destruction. There can be no exemptions 



from the treaty : All kinds of nuclear weapon tests must 
be banned — in the air, under water, underground and in 
outer space. 

In view of the present unsatisfactory position at the 
Geneva conference, the Soviet Government should like to 
state once more its position on fundamental issues which 
remain unsolved to this day. 

The Question of a Moratorium. As is known, the 
Soviet Government agreed to the American proposal that 
the treaty should temporarily exclude from the ban 
underground tests of nuclear weapons below a definite 
threshold value. Now we must reach agreement on a 
moratorium on underground nuclear explosions tem- 
porarily not covered by the treaty. It goes without 
saying that the agreement on a moratorium must be of 
such a nature that no nation could violate it arbitrarily 
and resume test explosions of nuclear bombs. In view of 
this the Soviet Government is firmly convinced that the 
expiration of the moratorium, an agreement on which 
would be reached by the parties concerned, should not 
absolve nations of their commitment not to hold under- 
ground explosions. 

Question of Control. The Soviet Union, just as the 
United States, considers that strict international control 
must be established over the cessation of tests. It is 
quite obvious that this control can be effective only if it 
rests on the mutual consent of the sides and not on the 
desire to take advantage of the control machinery to 
impose the will of one group of states upon another 
group. 

The Soviet Government has examined all aspects of the 
question of how to safeguard equal rights of the sides in 
the implementation of control, and has drawn the firm 
conclusion that the staffing of the control agencies must 
be based on equal representation of the sides. It is 
precisely in conformity with this principle that the Soviet 
Union proposes that an understanding be reached on 
the composition of the chief executive agency — the Ad- 
ministrative Council. 

The refusal to accept the proposal on instituting an 
administrative council of three equal representatives, 
one each from the principal groups of states — the socialist 
states, the countries belonging to Western military blocs, 
and the neutralist states — is justified by allegations that 
the Soviet Union seeks to obtain some special rights in 
the control organization. This assertion, of course, has 
no foundation whatever. What is the real meaning of 
the Soviet proposal? It is precisely to preclude the possi- 
bility of one side obtaining any special advantages or 
prejudicing the security of one or another group of states. 
We want to safeguard not formal but real equality of the 
sides while putting into effect the treaty on a ban on 
nuclear weapon tests. 

The Control Commission, on which all principal groups 
of states will be represented, can adopt sound, just deci- 
sions, taking into consideration the interests of all states. 
However, it is not enough to take such decisions. It is 
imperative to guarantee their impartial implementation. 
Impartiality cannot be guaranteed if the implementation 
of the decisions is entrusted to one man alone. 

The history of contemporary international relations 
knows many instances in which one man, being under the 



22 



Department of State Bulletin 



influence of some alignment of states or acting for its 
benefit, carried out already agreed decisions in a wrong 
way. Of course this benefited only one group of states, 
whose interests this man furthered, but harmed other 
states, for it is well known that while there are neutral 
states there are no — nor can there be — neutral men. 

Agreement on the cessation of nuclear weapon tests di- 
rectly affects the interests of the safety of states, and the 
Government of the United States undoubtedly will agree 
that maximum caution must be observed in solving such 
kinds of problems. In present conditions — when the world 
is divided into military blocs, when large armies are 
maintained, when the threat of a nuclear conflict con- 
tinues to hang over the world — it is impermissible that 
questions affecting the interests of the security of states 
and the destinies of peoples should depend on the decisions 
of one man. 

Furthermore the appointment of one man for imple- 
menting adopted decisions on control can be regarded as 
dictatorship, a desire to impose one's will. Indeed it can 
hardly be expected that the Western Powers would con- 
sent to the appointment of this man from some socialist 
country. They would rather suggest for this post a man 
from a neutral country. 

But is there any guarantee that such a man will take a 
neutral, impartial stand with regard to the socialist coun- 
tries? We cannot agree to such an approach. The Soviet 
Union cannot tolerate dictatorship from any side. We 
want to have equal conditions for all, and we shall never 
consent to being placed in an unequal position. 

We are confident that the Government of the United 
States subscribes to the opinion that any international 
agreement must contain guarantees precluding ill-inten- 
tioned and unjustified actions against a state, party to the 
agreement. This is the inalienable and lawful right of 
each state, each government. Proposing that a collegial 
executive body of representatives of the three groups of 
states be instituted, the Soviet Union proceeds from the 
desire to guarantee to the states the implementation of 
precisely this right. 

Objecting to the Soviet proposal on the composition of 
the Administrative Council, the representatives of the 
United States and the United Kingdom at the Geneva 
conference alleged that it is tantamount to establishing a 
right of "veto" with regard to inspections. But such al- 
legations cannot be assessed otherwise than as a con- 
tinuation of the old line of distorting the position of the 
USSR on control questions. 

One might recall in this context that the Soviet Gov- 
ernment, as early as May 1059, explaining its proposal on 
the establishment of quotas of inspections, emphasized 
that on-the-spot inspections within the limit of the agreed 
quotas must be effected at the request of the side inter- 
ested in the inspection without any voting in the Control 
Commission or any other agency. 

All that is needed are objective readings of instruments 
at control posts indicating that a phenomenon took place 
in some part of the given country which might be suspected 
as a nuclear explosion. If there is siich objective reading, 
the Soviet proposal envisages that neither the Control 
Commission nor any other body of the control organization 
can interfere with the satisfaction of the demand of the 



side for an inspection. Hence no obstacles to inspection, 
to which the United States representatives refer when 
speaking of the so-called veto, can be created by the 
Administrative Council. 

Of course there are other questions too, and many of 
them are bound to arise in the course of carrying out the 
treaty on the cessation of nuclear weapon tests, on which 
the executive agency will have to take decisions. A situa- 
tion cannot be tolerated in which unilateral decisions 
would be taken and conditions for arbitrariness created. 
The danger of arbitrariness is multiplied if there is a 
single administrator. The possibility of arbitrariness and 
unilateral decision is fully precluded if the structure of 
the executive agency proposed by the Soviet Government 
is adopted. It follows that the question of the veto is 
artificially conceived. 

The Soviet Government is convinced that adoption of 
the Soviet Union's proposal on the composition of the 
Administrative Council would remove one of the big 
obstacles to agreement on the treaty. 

There is still another question on which there are 
differences. There is the question of the size of the quota 
of inspections. The Soviet Government hopes that the 
Government of the United States will also adopt a real- 
istic approach to the question of the number of on-the-spot 
inspections. Our proposal on three inspections a year 
each on the territory of the USSR, the United States and 
the United Kingdom provides quite adequate guarantees 
against vioLitions of the treaty on the cessation of nuclear 
weapon tests. The demand for an excessive number of 
inspections, on which the United States and the United 
Kingdom insist, cannot but suggest the idea that in this 
case by no means is concern shown for the establishment 
of effective control. 

Assessing the position of states on questions of inspec- 
tion, one cannot, of course, disregard the circumstance that 
while there are military alignments of states in the world, 
inspections can be used for intelligence purposes. Such 
is the position with regard to the talks on the cessation 
of nuclear tests. 

We have set forth with utmost frankness our considera- 
tions on the ways of overcoming the difliculties that have 
arisen. Our approach provides a sound foundation for 
the conclusion in the near future of a treaty on the cessa- 
tion of nuclear weapon tests. 

At the same time, objectively assessing the situation 
obtaining around the problem of banning nuclear tests, one 
should evidently acknowledge the fact that the parties 
to the Geneva talks, it seems, now find it difficult to agree 
on the cessation of nuclear tests. 

Would it then not be better for our countries to take up 
the main, cardinal question — the question of general and 
complete disarmament? In this context we welcome 
President Kennedy's statement in his latest message to 
Congress ° to the effect that the conclusion of a treaty on 
an effective ban on nuclear tests would be the first major 
step toward disarmament. Indeed let us solve both prob- 
lems in their interdependence; then the main obstacle 
which the Western Powers now see in the Soviet proposal 
for setting up a three-member administrative council will 
he eliminated. 



' For text, see il)id., June 12, 1961, p. 903. 



July 3, 1961 



23 



The Soviet Government, as is well known, has already 
more than once emphasized that the Soviet Government, 
on its part, is willing vmconditionally to accept any West- 
em control proposals if the Western Powers accept the 
proposal for general and complete disarmament. 

The Soviet Government reaffirms its readiness, and in 
this case agrees, to sign a document which will include 
the Western proposals on the cessation of nuclear tests. 

We can take this step because the question of the 
security of states will be on a different level in conditions 
of general and complete disarmament : There will be no 
armies, nor will there be threats of attack by one state 
on another. 

When all states disarm and have no means for attack on 
other countries, then conditions will indeed be created 
under which each country will have proper guarantees of 
its security. No state will have the possibility secretly to 
set up armed forces which will threaten any other state 
or group of states. In these conditions we are ready to 
accept any control proposed by the Western Powers. 

Now, when an arms race is under way in the world and 
antagonistic military alignments exist, we must preserve 
our armed forces in the interest of the security of our 
country and our allies. If the armed forces of states are 
maintained, control cannot be separated from intelligence. 
Control will not be associated with intelligence only when 
armed forces are abolished and armaments destroyed. 
Then indeed universal control will be necessary to see to it 
that no state or group of states could secretly manu- 
facture arms or arm themselves to prepare an aggression 
against other states. Strict and effective control against 
the arming of states cannot be avoided. 

At the same time it must be acknowledged that in 
present conditions control does not in the least guarantee 
against attack on one country by another because arms 
and armed forces are not only maintained but also 
strengthened, strengthened especially in the field of 
nuclear weapons, which the United States President him- 
self admitted. Cessation of nuclear weapon tests does 
not mean cessation of their manufacture and stockpiling, 
the risk of war is not reduced. In these conditions each 
state has the right to suspect that intelligence agencies 
would be set up on the plea of control. 

If general and complete disarmament is effected, the 
states need maintain only agreed, restricted contingents 
of militia or police necessary for keeping internal order 
and protecting the personal safety of citizens. These 
forces cannot create a threat of attack on other countries. 



In necessary cases these contingents can be used by the 
Security Council if some state takes aggressive action 
nevertheless. Of course all main groups of states must 
be equally represented in the leadership of such inter- 
national forces, i.e., it must be indeed an international 
leadership. 

The Soviet Government is profoundly convinced that 
in our time the most realistic way of solving the dis- 
armament problem is by general and complete disarma- 
ment under effective international control. This has 
been acknowledged by the majority of the world's states, 
as borne out both by the resolution of the Fourteenth 
Session of the General Assembly and the discussion of 
disarmament problems at the Fifteenth Session of the 
United Nations General Assembly. 

The Soviet Government expresses the hope that the 
Government of the United States will take into con- 
sideration the ideas .set forth in this memorandum and, 
on its part, will facilitate a solution of the problem of 
general and complete disarmament, including the task of 
permanently discontinuing all nuclear weapon tests. 



Mr. Shriver Visits Guinea 
as President's Representative 

Press release 384 dated June 10 

Secretary Rusk announced on June 10 that Rob- 
ert Sargent Shriver, Jr., Director of the Peace 
Corps, will visit President Sekou Toure of Guinea 
June 14 and 15 as a personal representative of 
President Kennedy. 

President Toure had invited President Kennedy 
to visit Guinea. President Kennedy, ■who was xm- 
able to leave the country at this time, asked Mr. 
Shriver to represent him. President Toure had 
indicated that he would welcome Mr. Shriver's 
visit and that he would discuss possible Peace 
Corps activity in Guinea with Mr. Shriver. 

Mr. Shriver will leave Washington on June 13 
and return on June 16. He will be accompanied 
by George Carter, a senior Peace Corps official, 
and possibly another member of his staff. 



24 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Africa: Challenge to American Trade Unions 



iy G. Mennen Williams 

Assistant Secretary for African, Affairs ^ 



It is a real joy to bring greetings to this Fourth 
National Trade Union Conference on Civil Eights. 
The goals you seek are the stuff of progress for a 
better life for all peoples everywhere. I read 
with particular interest your program, because it 
indicates that you are determined to do many of 
the things at home that will permit us to have 
an effective policy abroad. 

As America is able to realize more fully the 
ideal of human dignity with full enjoyment of 
civil rights by everyone, our ability to give mean- 
ingful leadership will increase in a world where 
a large proportion of the people have suffered 
limitations on their freedom because of colonial- 
ism and limitations on their dignity because of 
discrimination on the basis of color. 

Certainly I wish you strength and success in 
your efforts to promote human dignity and 
brotherhood. 

Your program recognizes the challenges of 
American life. With you I believe that, while 
much good has been done, there are many re- 
maining tasks and there is a great urgency about 
getting them done. The things I have believed in 
and worked for during my public life have taken 
on a new significance since I have become associ- 
ated with the State Department in charge of 
African affairs. Believe me, the world has shrunk 
and the United States is the cynosure of all eyes. 
A pin doesn't drop here but what the sound is 
picked up all over Africa and, I understand, in 
Asia as well. 

Throughout my recent trip in Africa I was 
conscious of the impact made by those xmfortu- 
nate incidents where an African diplomat in 



^ Address made before the Fourth National Trade 
Union Conference on Civil Rights at Forest Park, Pa., 
on May 29 ( press release 352 ) . 



America had been refused service, or was slighted 
or insulted in some other way. At every one of 
many press conferences on my trip, the subject of 
discrimination was brought up. We here carry a 
double burden because these things are magnified 
and distorted and because the progress we make 
gets less attention in the press than the bad news 
does. 

American Policy Toward Africa 

America's policy toward Africa must neces- 
sarily be a many-faceted thing, but I believe there 
are a number of cardinal points that you will 
recognize immediately. 

First of all, America's commitment to freedom 
must be clear and unequivocal. In the past 
Africans have raised the question whether we 
were going to follow our revolutionary traditions 
or whether we were going to be guided exclusively 
by ties of alliance with colonial countries. The 
speeches of the President and of Adlai Stevenson 
have been eloquent testimony of our dedication to 
freedom. Many of our votes in the U.N. have 
strengthened what we have said. But we will be 
faced with further dilemmas, and it is important 
that we recognize the all-importance of choosing 
freedom. And may I say I am sure that such 
a choice will not only strengthen freedom but 
our alliances as well. 

Second, it is important to recognize that the 
countries of Africa, just as their friends and neigh- 
bors around the world, are anxious to have a better 
life for their people. Their hunger is especially 
acute since their per capita income averages less 
than any other continent, some $132 per person 
per year, and in tropical Africa this drops to only 
$89. Since most of these countries have not had 
the opportunity to develop either their physical 



Jo/y 3, 7 96 J 



25 



or human resources to any proper extent, there are 
insufficient capital and skills to facilitate the 
progress desired. This is why outside assistance 
and technical aid is of such vast importance. 
This is why the United States along with the 
rest of the developed Western World must give 
consideration to assisting long-range programs of 
economic and social development to help these 
peoples help themselves. 

Third, the newly developing countries of Africa 
seek recognition of their own personality — the 
often-referred-to African personality. They as- 
sert that they will not become mere rubber stamps 
of any other people, that they have a tradition 
and culture which has made many contributions 
to the world and will make many more. That 
the Africans are right in this belief we cannot 
question, and it must be a significant part of our 
relationship to appreciate the worthwhile values 
that Africans cherish and to develop an under- 
standing of them. I am confident that the Afri- 
cans have values the understanding and release 
of which will do much to help make a richer and 
happier world. 

Fourth, the African peoples have a fierce desire 
for racial equality. Colonialism, even at its best, 
all too often involved white rulers and colored 
subjects in Africa and elsewhere. So discrimi- 
nation was to some degree inherent and of course 
in some instances was exacerbated by policy or 
practice. In any event American policy must take 
into account that our efforts will fall short of 
genuine success unless we recognize this factor 
both abroad and at home. 

What American Unionists Can Do 

What you do here and the f ollowup you produce 
when you return home will in some ways be as 
important as decisions about to be made in the 
State Department or in Congress. 

There is much that American unionists can do 
not only as citizens but as union men and women. 
As I traveled in Africa I was fortimate to have 
the advice and help of a Labor Department official 
who came out of the trade union movement. 
Wherever we went he saw all the African trade 
union leaders and often visited their halls and 
members. Wliat's more, he saw to it that I had 
the opportunity to become acquainted with these 
fine people. I was reminded again, as I was in 
the Middle East, in South America, and elsewhere, 



that in many respects trade union people are 
alike the world over. I was also struck by 
the interest African trade unionists had in our 
American trade union movement. One of the 
things they had a particular interest in was 
our labor conti-act. In one country I was asked 
to prevail upon our union leadership here at home 
to send them a trade union expert in tliis field to 
help them out. 

The union movement in Africa varies greatly 
in its forms and effectiveness, and except in North 
Africa it has a very short history to date. But 
everywhere it has provided a training ground for 
leadership, close to the people and imbued with 
the quest for individual rights and for the status 
and dignity of the group. A number of Africa's 
best known nationalist leaders — for example, 
Sekou Toure in Guinea and Tom JNIboya in 
Kenya — built their strength and worked for in- 
dependence in the trade unions, and many key 
officials of the new governments came up the same 
way. Our own unions have, as you well know, 
given both moral and material support to strug- 
gling new unions of Africa, independently and 
through the ICFTU [International Confedera- 
tion of Free Trade Unions]. In so doing they 
have gained for America a valuable entry on the 
credit side of our African ledger, because in sup- 
porting the union cause they have advanced the 
cause of freedom. With all that must be done to 
safeguard African freedom and to gain its full 
fruits in social progress, I very strongly hope 
that Amei'ican trade unions will continue and 
step up their vital contributions in Africa. 

I was fortunate in being able to visit the 
ICFTU labor college in Kampala, Uganda. 
American support had much to do with its found- 
ing in 1958, and its small faculty includes an able 
Negro trade unionist from Chicago, George Mc- 
Cray. About 40 young trade imion people are 
in the present 4-month training session, represent- 
ing various English-speaking countries of Africa. 
ICFTU plans to open a similar school in French- 
speaking West Africa, and we must hope for 
early realization of this project. 

Need for Trained Personnel 

My point here is that African nations are des- 
perately in need of trained personnel for all oc- 
cupations and institutions. At the top, African 
societies can boast a competent and sometimes 



26 



Department of State Bulletin 



brilliant elite. But at the working levels, in po- 
litical and social institutions, in commerce and 
industry, there is a woeful lack of competent and 
experienced personnel, as might be expected in 
any fast-developing coimtry. This might not be 
thought crucial if we were to accept the picture 
of a static society in these new countries. But I 
can assure you that there is a restless impatience 
in the city and countryside, brought to ferment 
by political independence. Aspirations for a 
better standard of living are an active force, an 
insistent knocking on the dooi'S of the new politi- 
cal leaders. 

The way out is economic development — that is, 
in delivering to the people some semblance of all 
they expect and hope for. And here we see the 
problem at once. To build, to produce, requires 
not only capital investment but human invest- 
ment. There is work to be done, but the workers 
are not yet trained or even, perhaps, on the scene. 
To generalize, the picture in most areas is one in 
which subsistence-level farmers and fishermen 
must increasingly give up tribal values for an 
urban, wage-earning existence while learning 
scores of totally unfamiliar skills. This is a 
tremendous adjustment for any sizable element of 
a society to make. There are bound to be new 
tensions and discontents, even where there is fair 
success in matching the needs of the developing 
economy. 

Trade unions will liave a vital role in this great 
transition. This will be true on the technical, 
economic, and social levels, even though in most 
cases the unions will remain, as they are now, 
committed to political aims and in some cases 
actually acting as arms of political parties. Our 
tradition, of course, visualizes trade unions pur- 
suing economic, social, and political goals but 
free of political domination from outside the 
ranks. But we must recognize that the urgency 
of economic development is a direct political goal 
for countries determined to catch up in the mod- 
ern world. Political leaders must, if they can, 
make common cause with labor if the job is to 
get done. In this situation traditional trade 
union prerogatives may sometimes be tightly cir- 
cumscribed, but there is reason to hope that the 
unions will be able to maintain a fair degree of 
autonomy. 

I see in this picture another challenge to free- 
dom and to us here today. It is a challenge to 
the long tradition of the free labor movements 



and to America's leadership in a world where free 
labor has gone a long way to establish human 
dignity. 

The challenge to American unionists is to join 
wholeheartedly in support of the African struggle 
against ignorance, poverty, and disease. This we 
must do for the African peoples, as President 
Kennedy said in his inaugural,^ "not because the 
Communists may be doing it, not because we seek 
their votes, but because it is right. If a free so- 
ciety cannot help the many who are poor," the 
President added, "it cannot save the few who are 
rich." 



Communist Influence in Africa 

The timeliness of this viewpoint will, I hope, be 
evident to you. We seek to respond to human need 
out of long conviction that neglected needs are 
the breeding grounds of trouble and an invitation 
to tyranny. Such a tyranny is at the door in 
Africa, too. Trade unions there as everywhere 
are the special target of the new imperialism. The 
Communist nations are busy extending their in- 
fluence in Africa. They are placing their major 
effort on the official level and are standing ready 
to extend economic aid where the West will not 
or cannot step in. But quietly and persistently 
they are also working on two main groups — stu- 
dents and trade unionists. In 1959 and 1960 the 
Soviet bloc was host to 30 labor delegations from 
tropical Africa alone — a considerable margin over 
the labor visitors in this country in the same 
period. From among these people the Commu- 
nists may make some converts, but it will suffice 
for their purposes if they can promote unscru- 
pulous ambitions and cultivate discontent among 
a citizenry inexperienced in the ways of 
communism. 

The Communists and their agents also make 
great efforts to penetrate and influence African 
labor conferences. These past few days they have 
been at work in Casablanca, where imion leaders 
are meeting to decide on the formation of an All- 
African Trade Union Federation. We may be 
sure they are laboring mightily to exploit lin- 
gering grievances from the colonial past of some 
countries and the colonial present in the remain- 
ing areas of Africa. 

So I think our challenge, our obligation, is clear. 
It is to strengthen the responsible forces in sup- 



' BtJi-LETiN of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 



July 3, 1961 



27 



port of the new leaders of Africa and to assist 
them as partners in their development plans. 

You in tlie trade union field have a special re- 
sponsibility in this part of our foreign affairs, 
because you have a special talent. As I watched 
my friend Phil Delany work with his African 
counterparts, I recognized that communication 
with our African neighbors was not only a matter 
of being able to speak French or the various 
African languages, although there is no question 
of the importance of spoken languages. Phil was 
communicating with these people. I really don't 
think it was his Irish brogue they understood, but 
it may well have been his Irish heart and I am 
sure it was his background and understanding of 
the trials and tribulations and of the aspirations 
of working people the world over. There are 
many things that working hands and hearts the 
world over have in common. You here today pos- 
sess these common attributes in great abundance 
and you have seasoned them with a wisdom, a 
philosophy, and a devotion to your fellow men 
that has already enlisted you in the never-ending 
battle to bring a better life, and dignity, and hap- 
piness to mankind. These are your special, your 
vital assets. 

So in the name of President Kennedy, who 
shares your aspirations and who has dedicated 
himself and his administration to these same goals, 
I ask you for your hands and hearts in America's 
great venture to help the people of Africa to 
realize their freedoms and the more abundant life 
the Lord and Father of us all intended for every 
one of His children. 



Vietnamese Government Official 
Visits Washington 

The Department of State announced on June 9 
(press release 378) tliat Nguyen Dinh Thuan, Sec- 
retary of State for the Presidency in Charge of 
Security Coordination, Government of the Repub- 
lic of Viet-Nam, would arrive at Washington on 
June 12 for several days of talks with officials of 
the U.S. Government on matters of mutual inter- 
est to both Governments. 



This visit represents a continuation of the im- 
portant consultations between the two nations un- 
dertaken by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson on 
his recent visit to Viet-Nam ^ and reflects the de- 
termination of our Government to be of the great- 
est possible assistance to the Republic of Viet-Nam. 
Mr. Thuan conferred with leading U.S. officials on 
matters concerning Viet-Nam's economic develop- 
ment and security programs. 



U.S. Special Financial Group 
Visits Viet-Nam 

Press release 402 dated June 15 

A group of U.S. financial and economic experts 
met with Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson on 
June 15 before leaving Washington for Viet-Nam. 
The mission will confer with officials of the Re- I 
public of Viet-Nam for the purpose of developing 
jointly a plan of coordinated financial action 
which would be in support of counterguerrilla 
activities and would serve as a base for correlated 
programs for economic growth and development. 

The U.S. special financial group will be headed 
by Eugene A. Staley, research director, Stanford 
Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. Other 
members are : Col. Edward Black, military assist- 
ant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense ; William 
Diehl, chief, Far Eastern Division, Office of Inter- \ 
national Finance, Treasury Department; Paul 
Geren, Deputy Director, Office of International 
Financial and Development Affairs, Department 
of State; Herman Kleine, Assistant Deputy Direc- 
tor for Operations, International Cooperation 
Administration; and Warren Silver, Operations 
Center, Office of the Secretary of State. 

The group will leave June 16 and arrive at 
Saigon on June 19 for a stay of approximately 3 
weeks. 



' On May 24 Vice President Johnson returned to the 
United States from a 2-weelc tour of south and southeast 
Asia ; for text of a joint communique of the Vice President 
and President Ngo Dinh Diem of the Republic of Viet- 
Nam, see Bulletin of June 19, 1961, p. 956. 



28 



Department of State Bulletin 



Women and the Goal of World Community 



hy George C. McGhee^ 



I look out over the green lawns and through the 
towering trees and past the friendly collegiate 
buildings, where my daughter and others' 
daughters have spent the years that made them 
women. This centennial year reminds us all of 
the origins of this great college. We all know 
that Matthew Vassar believed women were en- 
dowed with the same capacities of intelligence 
as men. In this he was most certainly correct. 
Vassar students have been provided with op- 
portunities for rigorous intellectual training 
of the highest order. We take pride in this, and 
we expect that Vassar will continue to perfect its 
proud tradition. 

I look at the faces of those who are being hon- 
ored here today because they have accomplished 
their tasks and must now move on so others may 
follow. I will in my brief words seek to relate 
the lives of those who go from here today to the 
world in which we all must live in years to come. 
That world, which I left behind on my desk in 
Washington, is very different from this lovely 
Vassar world. I cannot, even here, erase it from 
my mind. 

It is a world of discord and strife, of nations 
threatened, of hopes and successes — but also of 
disappointments. We of the generation that 
brought you into this world have not left you a 
legacy of which we can be altogether proud. 

And yet Americans still dream of a world in 
which the principles upon which our own Nation 
was founded would apply to all peoples and all 

' Address made at the commencement exercises at Vas- 
sar College, Poughkeepsie, N.T., on June 5 (press release 
363 dated June 3). Mr. McGhee is Counselor of the 
Department of State and Chairman of the Policy 
Planning Council. 

Jo/y 3, 1967 



nations. We still seek a world order grounded 
in the inherent worth and dignity of every man, 
where relationships between peoples and nations 
would permit the widest possible freedom of 
choice and action. 

Two generations of Americans, groping for 
such a rational, harmonious world, have had their 
hopes frustrated by the aggression of dictators 
bent on world conquest. The United Nations, 
planned in the aftermath of war when peace 
seemed assured, has made progress in many fields 
and embodies still our highest hopes. However, 
its efforts to bring lasting peace and security to 
the world have been thwarted by the deliberate 
designs of the Communist nations. 

Our initial response to the Soviet threat, and 
that of the half a hundred countries with whom 
we are allied in the world today, was a very 
natural one. It was aimed at protecting the free 
world from further encroachment by aggressive 
powers. Its design can be summarized by the word 
"containment." Unfortunately, however, al- 
though it is first necessary to contain, contain- 
ment as a concept provides no positive goals. 

Containment tended to divide our world into 
friends and foes. Those who were not standing 
side by side to hold back the tide were considered 
to be against us. In recent years we have come 
to understand that we can live with all truly free- 
dom-loving nations and tliat each can, indeed, be 
an added source of strength for us all. 

It is the Communists who cannot face diversity 
in the world. As a totalitarian system they must 
mold others in their own form. A neutral nation 
to them is not a lasting asset but a liability. We, 
as a nation based on diversity, have learned that 
we can live with diversity. 

But we must do more than merely accept and 



29 



adjust to the attitudes of othei-s which differ from 
our own. This is but a step in our path of prog- 
ress. We must go one step further. If we are to 
succeed, we must create now a vision of a more 
stable and enduring world beyond the "cold war," 
a vision of a peaceful world community which 
would provide a rallying point for all free nations. 

The concept of world community is difficult to 
define. It must, in the final analysis, be based on 
an attitude of mind — an instinctive community 
"feeling." It will grow among men to the extent 
to which men are able to attain among themselves 
a consensus. This consensus must then be made 
tangible through the association of like-minded 
men in the carrying out of common endeavors. 

It is, perhaps, in terms of the development of 
this consensus that the real meaning can be found 
in the education you have received here. Consen- 
sus among men must flow from a consensus within 
man himself — among his divergent and often 
contradictory motivations and desires. Educa- 
tion has no higher purpose than to achieve that 
consensus — the inner harmony of the individual 
which makes him or her serene and confident be- 
fore the world. 

To this must be added a consensus within our 
own society. Foreign policy is essentially a pro- 
jection of our society and behavior at home. Only 
as our society is sound and good can our foreign 
policy reflect and project that soundness and good- 
ness. A successful African policy will depend on 
how we deal with race relations in our own Ameri- 
can communities. If we lend a friendly hand to 
the underprivileged at home, we are more likely to 
be successful in our relations with the underprivi- 
leged abroad. 

The Contribution Women Can Make 

But how should I speak of the contribution 
women can make in the achievement of the con- 
sensus which can lead to the world conununity? 
You women, although you are willing to isolate 
yourselves during the process of your education, 
do not, I find, wish to be considered in a different 
context from men. And yet, in certain deep re- 
spects, I feel you must. Of the many univei-sals 
which can bind the people of the world together, 
many can best be spoken by the tongues of women. 

It is not just tliat women are closest to the life 
process itself but that, in carrying out the fmic- 
tions which nature and custom have assigned to 



women, you sense most intimately life's perplexing 
diversities. This is so in part because many of 
you will pass through several distinct stages in 
your lives. 

For example, many of you will want to begin 
careers, and some of you will continue in them to 
highest achievement. Others of you, however, will 
test your mettle in the marketplace for a brief 
period and then enter that different life of home 
and family. But once your children are off to 
school, you may have an opportunity to loosen 
the web of personal relationships in your family 
and set forth again on some new activity outside 
your home. Women may lead many different 
lives. 

You, too, are the ones who come to imderstand 
best the long cycles of change and growth which 
no man or woman can alter. Women have a dif- 
ferent clock than men. They know there is no 
way to hurry the time of growth, waiting for 
children to be born or to mature. You therefore 
know that it takes time to weave the fabric of 
a close, enduring relationship, or for the seasons 
to roll by, or for the garden to develop to its full 
delight. Women in all coimtries possess this kind 
of deep knowledge. 

In one of her poems, Emily Dickinson suggests 
my thought: 

Could you tell me 

How to grow 

Or is it unconveyed 

Like melody or witchcraft? 

As you create your own families and as you par- 
ticipate in wider spheres of community and pro- 
fessional life, you, like women everywhere, will 
know how it is to grow. Even if you can't say 
much about it, if you have the gift of melody 
your families and associates will be led to under- 
stand this too. 

Men have less awareness of these matters. 
Moreover, they are apt to be too immersed in the 
stormy aspects of business or the professions, 
where one man's advantage is often gained at an- 
other man's expense. It is man who makes war 
and politics. It is difficult for man to heal the 
divergencies he himself creates. 

By contrast, women throughout the world 
ideally typify values that go unchallenged. It 
is yours to create and protect life itself in all its 
aspects, and nearly all of you will share this im- 
perative. You are the ones who have the sense 



30 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



to know, in this technological age, which toys 
are lethal. As Phyllis McGinley put it : 

Deciding on reflection calm 
Mankind is better off with trifles ; 
With band-aid rather than the bomb, 
With safety match than safety rifles. 

You also have a particular role to play as con- 
servers of the community's culture. As mothers 
and teachers of young children, you will con- 
sciously and unconsciously instill in the next gen- 
eration the values and the teachings of the past. 

As Miss Blanding [Sarah Blanding, president 
of Vassar College] has written on another occa- 
sion, you have the double responsibility to choose 
what of the tradition is worth passing on and 
what had best be left as the folly of today and 
not imjaosed on the young men and women of 
tomorrow. 

Opportunities for International Interchange 

In doing this, you live in an unusually exciting 
era to use your gifts. For the community of which 
we are in truth a part is exploding beyond the 
comprehension of our fathers — and often of our- 
selves. How inconceivable that over one million 
Americans would be living abroad on their coun- 
try's business or on their own aifairs ! "Who would 
have thought tliat on nearly every American cam- 
pus — including Vassar- — there would be students 
from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe. 
"With their presence they have brought to us the 
insight of our common humanity. 

Only recently the first multinational group of 
women from 12 Latin American countries has 
come to our country on a program sponsored by 
our Government. These women are social work- 
ers, public health and rehabilitation workers, rural 
teachers, and small-community leaders. They 
represent the new era of opportunity which has 
been opened to women of all nations and which 
has led to their more intimate involvement in 
world affairs. 

The fates of all peoples are today tied together 
in a way we could not have imagined even 25 
years ago. "With the European countries from 
which most of us came, the links have always 
been closest. These linl^s lie not solely in our com- 
mon past, which our liberal arts curriculum so 
richly underlines. We are now part of one living, 
interacting future. 

But we cannot be complacent in our reach 



toward Europe. "We cannot call ourselves edu- 
cated if we know only the European past and 
ignore the Asian and the African future. 

The community we must embrace is not just 
our familiar neighborhood, encompassed within a 
neatly drawn circle of congenial replicas of our- 
selves. In every community, if we have the wit, 
we can reach out to strangers and help them to feel 
the warmth of understanding and of friendship. 
To visitors from far-off lands you can offer the 
touch of fellowship. "Women share more easily 
their friendship — their joys and sorrows. 

In "Washington, for example, there is a group 
of young women just beginning their families who 
use their few hours of free time to assist the wives 
of African diplomats to learn American ways of 
life — from pablum to baby sitters — and how we 
think and live. In turn, these women have come 
to know something about Moslem dietary habits, 
the large family group, the art and culture of 
Africa. This is the dialog of the 1960's. These 
young women are searching for a wider commu- 
nity than their mothers could ever have imagined. 

No more challenging to your imaginations, but 
more demanding, may be your opportunity to live 
in these variegated lands, where the centuries are 
telescoped and change can be at a breakneck speed. 
To bridge the gap between yourselves and your 
hosts will require all your hard-won intellectual 
skills and your gift of sensitivity. The wider 
community will not come of itself but must be 
reached for. 

The Concept of an Open World Society 

And from a community among peoples will 
come a community of nations, freely associated in 
a growing awareness of common destiny. This is 
not a community that enforces one view. The 
community we seek is based on freedom — which 
leads to variety and change. "We are dedicated 
to defend the right of people and nations to be 
different. 

"We see the rising tide of modernization pene- 
trating into hitherto protected backwaters of the 
world. "We respect and assist the efforts of many 
peoples to find a unique synthesis of their tra- 
ditional ways with these disruptive forces. 

We see a world where new groups and new gen- 
erations press forward toward the levers of 
control, seeking to turn the flow of economic and 
political forces in new directions. "We must wel- 



Ju/y 3, 7961 



31 



come this wind of change. We must help those 
who want to make tomorrow throw up the win- 
dows and let the fresh draft in — even if some 
fusty relics of the past may catch cold and have to 
retire to bed. 

Yet evolving a feeling of identity in a world of 
diversity will not be simple. Most of you come 
from homes of reasonable comfort. By most peo- 
ples' standards you belong to the "have and have- 
mores." We must bridge the gap between our- 
selves and the free world's vast majority who are 
poor and uneducated and are now demanding their 
birthrights as men created in God's image. 

We must multiply opportunities for interna- 
tional interchange. These should not be indis- 
criminate, hit-or-miss affairs but tailored to in- 
dividual needs and interests. We must bring 
authors, philosophers, businessmen, historians, 
and men and women in other fields together with 
their colleagues in other countries for discussion of 
each other's problems and aspirations. Men and 
women of politics, public administrators, jour- 
nalists and other opinion formers, and diplomats 
should meet their counterparts in relaxed sur- 
roundings for leisurely exploration of interests 
and ways of knitting together a peaceful world 
community of diverse peoples. 

The world's great religions grope toward a simi- 
lar transcendent reality by different routes. There 
should be closer interchange among them designed 
to find not their differences, which are so easy to 
uncover, but the threads of common ideals and 
purposes. 

We are the senior partners in the non-Commu- 
nist world, whether we wish it or not. But we 
must be ready to welcome and support initiatives 
from elsewhere too. We do not believe with 
Thucydides' Athenian that the weaker must be 
kept down by the stronger. On the contrary, we 
seek that nice balance which acknowledges that 
with power comes wider responsibility and wider 
partnership. It is part of this balance that the 
weaker are not to be exploited by the stronger. 
In our own experience we know this can be accom- 
plished. In the monolithic order of Moscow or 
Peiping, unhappily, such a world is not yet 
conceivable. 

Ours is a conception of an open world society. 
Our vision must reach out to meet the needs 
of the free world's peoples, not only their economic 
needs but also their need for respect, for under- 



32 



standing, and for a sense of participation in the 
world's affairs. We must work constructively 
toward such a world of true community, so that 
in the end the brash claims of the mockers who 
would deny us our freedoms will sound hollow 
and their true nature will be clearly revealed. 
And— who knows — perhaps, as so often in the past, 
the outsiders themselves may be attracted into 
our world conmiunity and changed and assimi- 
lated. Edwin Markham has a little quotation that 
might fit : 

He drew a circle that shut me out, — 
Heretic, rebel, a thing to flout. 
But Love and I had the wit to win : 
We drew a circle that took him in. 

Achieving the world community will not be an 
easy task. Governmental policy alone cannot ac- 
complish it. Our leaders of opinion and of our 
many private groups must also understand and 
work toward that goal. Each of you must work 
toward it. It is not merely a matter of a program 
or of institutions, but of individual vision and 
commitment. 

Your Edna St. Vincent Millay suggested the 
vision when she wrote : 

The world stands out on either side 
No wider than the heart is wide; 
Above the world is stretched the sky, — 
No higher than the soul is high. 

These are deeper dimensions of our world than f 
those of science. Our challenge — and yours — is 
to infuse the world's far reaches with the sense 
of humankind, one in its vast numbers and variety, 
feeling the identity of human beings, making of 
this riven world a community. 

U.S. and State Officials Discuss 
Hospitality for Foreign Visitors 

Press release 408 dated June 16 

The State Department on June 16 met with rep- 
resentatives of 12 State Governors to find the 
means to assure friendly and dignified treatment 
for representatives of foreign countries who may 
be traveling in the United States.^ 

Angier Biddle Duke, Chief of Protocol, called 
the meeting at the request of President Kennedy, 



* For background, see Bulletin of May 15, 1961, p. 732. 
Department of Slate Bulletin 



, and the group voted to continue as an advisory 
group to the Office of Protocol, which will coordi- 
nate all activities to achieve the desired objectives. 
Under Secretary Bowles spoke to the group and 

I emphasized the need for cooperation by State 
officials to insure a friendly welcome to these im- 
portant government representatives and the signif- 
icance of this to our conduct of foreign policy. 
Definite proposals were submitted to encourage 
the travel of foreign diplomats, extend State 
hospitality to foreign diplomats, and promote the 
establishment of State hospitality committees. 

The following representatives from the Wliit« 
House, the Department of State, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia government were present at the 
conference : 

White House: Frederick G. Button and Frank D. Reeves, 
Assistants to the President 

Department of State: John T. Abernethy, Special Assist- 
ant, Bureau of African Affairs; Rudolph Aggrey, 
Bureau of African Affairs; Wendell B. Coote, Deputy 
Director, Office of West African Affairs; Michael 
DiLegge, Bureau of African Affairs ; Wayne Fredericks. 
Special Assistant for Program Planning, Bureau of 
African Affairs ; Mrs. Eleanor Israel, Consultant to the 
Chief of Protocol ; William E. Murnighan, Office of the 
Assistant Legal Adviser for Near Eastern, South Asian, 
and African Affairs ; Carl T. Rowan, Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Public Affairs ; Charles W. Russell, Spe- 
cial Protocol Affairs Section ; Pedro A. Sanjuan, Direc- 
tor, Special Protocol Affairs Section ; and Eddie N. Wil- 
liams, Special Protocol Affairs Section 

D.O. Oovemment: Commissioner Walter Tobriner 

Representatives of State Governors included : 

California: C. Thomas Bendorf 

Connecticut: C. Perrie Philips, Deputy Commissioner of 
Finance and Control 

Florida: Scotty Eraser, Administrative Assistant, Office 
of the Secretary of State 

Illinois: Mrs. Clifton Utley 

Maryland: Mrs. John B. Ramsay 

Michigan: Frederick B. Routh, Fair Employment Prac- 
tices Commission 

New Jersey: Edwin C. Landis, Jr., Personal Secretary to 

Governor Meyner 
New York: Berent Friele 
North Carolina: H. L. Riddle, Jr. 
Pennsylvania: Elliott M. Shirk, Executive Director, Fair 

Employment Practices Commission 

Texas: Glenn E. Garrett, Director, Texas Good Neighbor 
Commission 

Virginia: Peyton B. Winfree, Jr., Executive Assistant to 
the Governor 



Italy Relaxes Controls 
on Imports From U.S. 

Press release 394 dated June 14 

Following is a joint statement hy the Depart- 
ments of State, Commerce, and Agricultwre. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica welcomes the recent announcement of the Gov- 
ernment of Italy that a number of commodities, 
including important agricultural items, will not 
be subject to licensing controls after June 27, 1961. 
This liberalization measure, which was published 
in the Italian Offixial Gazette on June 12, 1961, 
greatly reduces the ntmiber of products which are 
subject to control. 

According to the recently published Italian de- 
cree, imports of the following commodities will be 
completely liberalized: frozen and canned fruit; 
grapefruit and pineapple juice; fresh or dried 
citrus fruit; melon and citrus peel, fresh or pre- 
served with sugar; rye and rye flour for use as 
animal fodder; raw, unrendered fats; lard stearin, 
oleostearin, and tallow stearin ; lard, oleo, and tal- 
low oil ; fats and oils of fish ; fixed vegetable oils 
other than soya oil and linseed oil ; hydrogenated 
animal and vegetable oils; margarine and sper- 
maceti ; propellant powders for hunting purposes ; 
and mining, blasting, and safety fuses. The Ital- 
ian Government will continue to allow the impor- 
tation of barley from November 1 to April 30 each 
year and of corn (maize) from January 1 to June 
30 each year. During these periods no licenses will 
be required. 

The Italian Government has also recently an- 
nounced that quotas have been opened for some 
commodities which remain under licensing control. 

The commodities and quotas for 1961 are as 
follows : 

Poultry meat $200,000 

Honey $322,000 

Grain sorghum and flour 500 metric tons 

Soya oil $500,000 

Degras $100, 000 

Tetraethyl lead and antiknock prepara- 
tions based on tetraethyl lead . . . 120 metric tons 

Printing machinery $484, 000 

Trucks $1,200,000 

Motorcycles, scooters, side cars, and 
parts $600,000 

These are in addition to the quotas annoimced 
earlier in the year for raisins, linseed oil, and 
automobiles. 



Ju/y 3, 1 961 



33 



This is the latest of a sei-ies of liberalization 
steps taken by the Government of Italy, including 
moves annoimced in January, June, and Novem- 
ber 1960.^ Although quantitative restrictions on 
imports have not yet been completely eliminated, 
Italy has made considerable progress and has gone 
far toward removing discrimination against 
United States products. As far as the United 
States is concerned, there are now no restrictions 
on over 96 percent of the 6,785 items included in 
the Italian customs tariff. There are, however, 
some important trade items still under restriction. 



FSI Advisory Committee 
Meets at Washington 

Press release 393 dated June 14 

The newly constituted Advisory Committee to 
the Foreign Service Institute held its first meeting 
on June 14 at the Institute. The following persons 
were invited by Secretary Rusk to form this 
group : 

Frances P. Bolton, House of Representatives 
Robert D. Calkins, President, The Brooldngs Institution, 

Washington, D.C. 
John Exter, Senior Vice President, First National City 

Bank, New Tork, N.Y. 
Loy W. Henderson, career ambassador (retired), Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Felix E. Larkin, Executive Vice President, W. R. Grace 

and Co., New York, N.Y. 
Albert H. Marckwardt, Acting Director, English Language 

Institute, University of Michigan. 
Robert D. Murphy, President, Corning Glass International, 

New York, N.Y. 
John J. Sparkman, United States Senate 

The committee met with top administrative 
officers of the Department of State and the 
Institute and Thomas C. Sorensen of the U.S. In- 
formation Agency and John J. Grady of the Inter- 
national Cooperation Administration. Following 
a luncheon given by the chairman, Roger W. Jones, 
Deputy Under Secretary for Administration, the 
committee was received by Secretary Rusk. 



' For background, see Bulletin of Feb. 15, 1960, p. 249, 
and Dec. 26, 1960, p. 973. 



Carl W. Strom, until recently Ambassador to | 
Bolivia, assumed his duties as Director of the 
Foreign Service Institute on May 29. 



Radio Broadcasting Agreement 
With Mexico Enters Into Force 

Press release 386 dated June 12 

On June 9, 1961, the American Ambassador at 
Mexico City and the Mexican Minister for For- 
eign Relations exchanged the mstruments of rati- 
fication of the agreement signed on January 29, 
1957,^ between the United States of America and 
the United Mexican States concerning radio 
broadcasting in the standard broadcast band. 
The agreement was brought into force by that 
exchange. 

Tlie main features of the agreement with 
Mexico are as follows : 

1. The agreement will govern the relationship 
between the two countries in the use of the stand- 
ard broadcast band and will remain in effect for 
a period of 5 years unless replaced by a new 
agreement or unless terminated by either Govern- 
ment as a result of a 1-year notice to the other 
Government. 

2. Under the agreement each country i-etains 
the same number of class I-A (clear) channels 
as provided in the North American Regional 
Broadcasting Agi-eement (NARBA) of Decem- 
ber 13, 1937, with the nighttime secondary use, 
as specified in the agreement, by each country of 
a few of the other country's clear chaimels. In 
addition, the United States agrees to give class 
I-A protection to Mexico on 540 kilocycles. 

3. Each of the countries can increase the day- 
time power of its secondary stations on certain 
clear channels of the other. 

4. At specified distances from the border the 
maximum power of local stations can be increased 
from 250 to 500 watts at night and to 1 kilowatt 
during the daytime. In addition, at specified dis- 
tances from the border the maximum power of 
stations on regional channels can be increased 
from 5 to 25 kilowatts. 



* Bulletin of Feb. IS, 1957, p. 288. 



34 



Department of State Bulletin 



The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: An Article-by-Article 
Analysis in Layman's Language — Continued ^ 



by Honore M. Catvdal 



Article XVI : Subsidies 

Article XVI provides, in section A, that if any 
contracting party maintains a subsidy, includmg 
any form of income or price support, which op- 
erates to increase exports or to decrease imports 
of any product, the nature and extent of the sub- 
sidy must be reported to the Contracting Parties 
together with a statement showing why the sub- 
sidy is necessary and an estimate of its effect on 
imports or exports. If the subsidy seriously 
prejudices the trade of any other contracting 
party, the country maintaining the subsidy must, 
upon request, discuss with the parties concerned, 
or with the Contracting Parties, the possibility of 
limiting the subsidization. 

Section B of tliis article contains additional 
provisions that are designed to limit the use of 
export subsidies. Contracting parties should seek 
to avoid the use of subsidies on the exportation of 
primary products. If, however, such subsidies are 
employed, they shall not be applied in a manner 
which would result in obtaining for the sub- 
sidizing country more than an equitable share of 
the world export trade in the product concerned. 
In determining an equitable share, account is to 
be taken of the shares of the various contracting 
parties in such trade during a previous represent- 
ative period and of any special factors affecting 
the trade in the product concerned. 

As to products other than primary products, 



' The first part of this article, containing an intro- 
duction and summary statement, with an article-by- 
article analysis of the agreement through article XV, 
appears in the Bulletin of June 26, 1961. Mr. Catudal is 
an adviser in the Trade Agreements Division of the De- 
partment of State. 



this section of article XVI aims at the eventual 
prohibition of export subsidies for nonprimary 
products (i.e. manufactures), beginning at the 
"earliest practicable date" after January 1, 1958. 
The Contracting Parties have drawn up a sup- 
plementary agreement, which has not yet entered 
into force, designed to make this prohibition ef- 
fective for the comitries agreeing to it. Mean- 
while a "standstill" arrangement under this article 
has been extended from time to time, whereby 
it is agreed generally that contractmg parties 
would not introduce new or increased subsidies 
on the exportation of nonprimary products as 
compared with any subsidization of such jjroducts 
existing on January 1, 1955. 

Article XVI also calls for a review of the op- 
eration of its provisions from time to time in 
order to appraise their effectiveness. A panel of 
experts, first appointed in November 1958, has 
submitted several reports designed to assist the 
Contracting Parties in such review. 

Article XVII : State Trading Enterprises 

Article XVII lays down the rule that an enter- 
prise which is given exclusive or special privileges 
by the state shall conduct its trading operations 
involving imports or exports on a nondiscrimina- 
tory basis. To this end it is provided that (a) 
purchases and sales involving imports or exports 
by a state trading enterprise shall be made solely 
in accordance with commerical considerations such 
as price, quality, etc., and (b) the enterprises of 
other contracting parties must be given an op- 
portunity to compete for the international 
business of the state trading enterprise in ac- 
cordance with customary business practice. (A 



Jo/y 3, 7967 



35 



note to articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, and XVIII 
provides that the provisions of those articles ap- 
ply to import restrictions made effective through 
state trading operations.) 

These general rules applicable to state trading 
do not apply to ordinary purchases by a govern- 
ment for governmental use, such as purchases for 
the armed forces, for strategic stockpiles, or for 
similar purposes. For such purchases the article 
provides a rule of "fair and equitable" treatment. 

Further provisions of this article recognize 
that state trading enterprises may be operated in 
such a manner as to create serious obstacles to 
trade and that negotiations to limit or reduce 
such obstacles are important to the expansion of 
international trade. The article also establishes 
a reporting procedure to provide information 
about state trading enterprises maintained by con- 
tracting parties. The reporting procedure is 
designed to provide interested contracting parties 
■with the information needed for possible negotia- 
tions or for a complaint against a contracting 
party if it is believed the latter is operating a state 
trading enterprise in a manner inconsistent with 
the provisions of the agreement. 

Article XV 1 11: Economic Development 

Article XVIII sets out in detail the conditions 
and circumstances under which underdeveloped 
countries may deviate from the normal rules and 
provisions of the GATT in order to encourage 
economic development (e.g. the establishment of 
new industries) and thereby seek to raise their 
standard of living. The article contains five parts, 
a preamble and sections A to D. 

The preamble, or introductory statement (para- 
graphs 1-6), defines the objectives and scope of 
the article. It states in substance that raising the 
standard of living of underdeveloped countries 
which should result from their economic develop- 
ment will facilitate the attainment of the objec- 
tives of the GATT; hence, underdeveloped 
countries occupy a special position and should be 
granted special facilities (i.e. they should not be 
held strictly to the same rules of commercial policy 
as the more industrialized countries). Underde- 
veloped countries are defined as those countries 
whose economies "can only support low standards 
of living" and are "in the early stages of develop- 
ment" (paragraph 4(a)). 



Section A (paragraph 7) sets out a procedure 
whereby an underdeveloped country, in order to 
facilitate the establislmaent of a new industry, may 
modify or withdraw a tariff concession in its 
GATT schedule (i.e. increase the bound duty on 
a product) by negotiation and agreement with the 
country with which the concession was initially 
negotiated and with other substantially interested 
countries. As in article XXVIII negotiations, 
compensatory concessions would normally be 
granted, but if agreement cannot be reached, the 
underdeveloped coimtry may nevertheless proceed 
to increase the bound duty, provided the Contract- 
ing Parties find that adequate compensation has 
been offered or that a reasonable effort has been 
made to do so. In the latter case, the affected 
countiy could withdraw equivalent concessions. 

Section B (paragraphs 8-12) establishes special 
provisions on balance-of-payments restrictions for 
the underdeveloped countries, in recognition of 
the special and persistent pressures upon the 
financial reserves of these countries. These rules 
are substantially the same as those in article XII, 
except that consultations of underdeveloped 
countries with the Contracting Parties on balance- 
of-payments restrictions maintained under article 
XVIII are to be held at approximately 2-year 
intervals instead of every year. 

Section C (paragraphs 13-21) authorizes under- 
developed countries to use protective import 
quotas under certain conditions in order "to pro- 
mote the establishment of a particular industry 
with a view to raising the general standard of 
living." With regard to "unbound items" (i.e. 
products on which tariff concessions have not been 
made) , the country is required to notify the Con- 
tracting Parties of its desire to impose restrictions 
and to delay action for a stated period during 
which it may be asked to consult. At the end of 
the period, it may proceed, whether or not its 
action has been approved, subject only to possible 
compensatory action by other countries. If ap- 
proval is obtained, the country is released from the 
relevant GATT obligation. If the product is one 
on which a concession has been granted, the 
coimtry must not only consult with substantially 
interested contracting parties but also obtain the 
approval of the Contracting Parties before it can 
impose a proposed restriction. Such approval 
shall be given if agreement has been reached dur- 



36 



Department of State Bulletin 



ing consultation with the other interested parties 
' or, in the absence of such agreement, within a 
stated period, if it is found that the underdevel- 
oped country has offered adequate compensation 
or made reasonable efforts to reach agreement. 
Any restrictions imposed under this section must 
be nondiscriminatory. 

Section D (paragraphs 22-23) lays down pro- 
cedures whereby a country whose economy is in 
I the process of development but which is not an 
underdeveloped country in the sense of paragraph 
4(a) may impose nondiscriminatory import re- 
strictions (i.e. quotas) to assist in the establish- 
ment of a new industry if the prior approval of 
the Contracting Parties is obtained. 

Article XIX: Emergency Action on Imports 
of Particular Products — ^'■Escape Clause'"' 

Article XIX contains the standard "escape 

clause" of the GATT which has been required to 

be included in U.S. trade agreements since 1947, 

, at first by Executive order and now by the Trade 

Agreements Extension Act of 1951. 

This article authorizes the suspension, with- 
drawal, or modification of a tariff concession (or 
other obligation) if, as a result of unforeseen 
developments and of the concession, there is such 
an increase in imports of a product as to cause or 
threaten serious injury to a domestic industry 
producing like or directly competitive products. 
Such suspension, withdrawal, or modification is 
permitted "to the extent and for such time as may 
be necessary to prevent or remedy the injury." 

A country which proposes to suspend or modify 
a concession pursuant to the escape clause must 
consult with the other contracting parties affected, 
either before or immediately after taking such 
action, with a view to reaching agreement. In 
these consultations contracting parties having a 
substantial interest in the concession that is being 
suspended or modified may in practice request sub- 
stantially equivalent compensatory concessions 
from the country taking the initial action. If 
agreement is not reached, the affected contracting 
parties may in turn suspend, withdraw, or modify 
substantially equivalent concessions in their own 
schedules. 

i 

Article XX: General Exceptions 

Article XX contains a number of general ex- 
ceptions to the rules of the GATT, in addition to 



those permitted in various special circumstances 
by other articles of the agreement. Generally 
speaking, the exceptions permitted by article XX 
are exceptions to the general ban against the use 
of export and import prohibitions and quotas set 
forth in article XI. Most of them are of the 
kind which have customarily been included in 
international commercial agreements for many 
years. 

Among the customary exceptions listed in this 
article are measures to protect public morals or 
human, animal, or plant life or health (i.e. sani- 
tary and quarantine regulations) ; measures re- 
lating to the exportation or importation of gold 
or silver; measures to enforce customs laws and 
monopolies, protect patents and copyrights, and 
prevent deceptive practices ; and measures to pro- 
tect national artistic treasures and to conserve 
exhaustible natural resources. In addition there 
are exceptions for measures for the equitable dis- 
tribution of commodities in short supply and 
measures taken pursuant to international com- 
modity agreements complying with approved 
standards. 

The opening sentence of this article (often re- 
ferred to as the "headnote") is an important limi- 
tation on the export and import prohibitions, 
quotas, and other measures permitted as excep- 
tions. It is designed to assure that the exceptional 
measures are not used as disguised restrictions on 
international trade and are not used to discrimi- 
nate arbitrarily between countries where the same 
conditions prevail. 

Article XXI : Security Exceptions 

Article XXI recognizes that some trade con- 
trols may be necessary for reasons of national 
security. Accordingly the article states that 
nothing in the agreement is meant to prevent a 
contracting party from taking any action pur- 
suant to its obligations under the United Nations 
Charter for the maintenance of peace and security ; 
or from taking any action which it considers nec- 
essary for the protection of its essential security 
interests in time of war or other international 
emergency, or from taking action relating to fis- 
sionable materials or to the traffic in arms and 
other implements of war. It is also made clear 
that the agreement does not require a contracting 
party to furnish information which it considers 
contrai-y to its essential security interests. 



July 3, 1 96 1 



37 



Article XXII : Consultation; 

Article XXIII : Nullification or Impairment 

It is impossible to foresee and to provide in 
detail for all possible developments and problems 
which may affect commercial relations between 
nations. Accordingly GATT has prndently pro- 
vided general procedures for consultation and con- 
ciliation to bring about the adjustment of difficul- 
ties and problems arising under the agreement. 

Article XXII establishes the formal basis for 
consultation concerning any matter affecting the 
operation of GATT and provides that each con- 
tracting party will give sympathetic consideration 
to representations which another party may make. 
In addition to such customary bilateral discussion 
regarding problems arising under the agreement, 
the Contracting Parties acting jointly are au- 
thorized, at the request of any contracting party, 
to consult with any party or parties regarding 
any matter not satisfactorily resolved by bilateral 
consultations. 

Article XXIII goes a step further and estab- 
lishes orderly procedures to be followed in the 
event that any measure should be taken (even 
though not prohibited by the agreement) , or any 
situation should arise, which would have the effect 
of impairing or nullifying the benefits of the 
agreement or impeding the attainment of its 
objectives. 

In the case of such measures or developments, 
the first step is the normal procedure of discussion 
and consultation directly between the parties con- 
cerned. If this fails to bring about a satisfactory 
adjustment within a reasonable time, the matter 
may be referred to the Contracting Parties for 
investigation and appropriate recommendation or 
ruling. In exceptional and serious circumstances 
the Contracting Parties may authorize one party 
to suspend the application to any other party or 
parties of such concessions or obligations under the 
agreement as are determined to be appropriate. 
If this should be done, a contracting party ad- 
versely affected by such action would have the 
right to withdraw from the agreement on 60 days' 
notice. 

Part III — Procedural and Other Matters 

Article XXIV: 2'emtorlal Application — Cu^- 
tom^ Unions and Free-Trade Areas 

Article XXIV deals with the territorial ap- 



plication of the GATT (i.e. whether and how it 
is applicable to colonies, etc.) and with exceptions 
to the general rules of nondiscrimination for fron- 
tier traffic, customs unions, and free-trade areas. 

The first paragrapli provides in effect that the 
terms of the agreement are to apply to the "metro- 
politan" (i.e. the home or main) customs terri- 
tories of the contracting pailies, and such other 
separate customs territories as are specified by 
the parties, and that each separate customs ter- 
ritory is to be treated for the purpose of applying 
the GATT as though it were a separate contract- 
ing party. 

The term "customs territory" is defined as mean- 
ing a territory wliich maintains its own (i.e. sepa- 
rate) tariffs and other commercial regulations for 
a substantial part of its trade with other 
territories. 

Note : The Virgin Islands, maintaining its own 
tariffs for foreign imports, is a customs territory 
separate from the "metropolitan" customs terri- 
tory of the United States, but Puerto Rico is not, 
because U.S. tariff duties apply there. 

The 3d and 11th paragraphs deal with special 
exceptions to the general rule of nondiscrimina- 
tion: (a) frontier or border traffic between ad- 
jacent countries; (b) the trade of Trieste with 
contiguous countries; and (c) the trade between 
India and Pakistan. 

The final paragraph of the article sets forth in 
general terms a broad commitment by the con- 
tracting parties to take reasonable measures to 
assure observance of GATT provisions by local 
authorities (e.g. provinces, states, municipalities, 
etc.) within their territories. 

The greater part of this article (paragraphs 4 
to 10) deals with customs unions and free-trade 
areas. There is recognition that closer integra- 
tion between national economies is a desirable 
objective and that a customs union or a free-trade 
area may serve to facilitate international trade, 
even though such arrangements involve a devia- 
tion from the GATT rules of nondiscrimination 
which ordinarily apply. Accordingly the purpose 
of such arrangements should be to facilitate trade 
between the members and not to raise barriers to . 
trade with outside countries. I 

As defined in this article, a customs union (a) 
eliminates tariffs and other restrictions on sub- 
stantially all the trade between the parties to 



38 



Department of State Bulletin 



the union and (b) establishes a common schedule 
of tariffs and restrictions for substantially all the 
trade between the union and countries outside the 
union. A free-trade area meets the first of these 
criteria but not the second ; that is to say, it elimi- 
nates trade barriers between the parties, but each 
party to the free-trade area arrangement retains 
its own tariffs for outside (i.e. nonmember) 
countries. 

Article XXIV provides in substance that the 
GATT rules relating to nondiscrimination shall 
not prevent contracting parties from establishing 
a customs union, or a free-trade area, or an in- 
terim agreement (i.e. an agreement not providing 
for immediate and complete free trade in the area 
but approaching this by stages) leading to the 
formation of either, provided that certain condi- 
tions are met. The principal conditions are (1) 
that the tariffs and other restrictions imposed on 
trade with outside countries are not on the whole 
to be made higher or more burdensome; and (2) 
that any interim agreement must include a defi- 
nite plan and schedule for the formation of a 
customs union or free-trade area within a reason- 
able length of time. 

Other provisions of the article set out proce- 
dures for the review by the Contracting Parties 
of proposed customs unions, free-trade areas, and 
interim agreements, in order to assure that they 
conform to the standards and conditions laid 
down in the article. 

Article XXV: Joint Action hi/ Contracting 
Parties— Waivers 

Article XXV provides that representatives of 
the contracting parties shall meet from time to 
time in order to give effect to those provisions of 
the GATT that involve joint action (e.g. resolu- 
tions, decisions, waivers, etc.) and, generally, in 
order to facilitate the operation of the agreement. 
Throughout the agreement the term "Contracting 
Parties" (in capital letters) refers to the parties 
acting jointly. At these meetings each contract- 
ing party is entitled to one vote and, except as 
otherwise provided in the agreement, decisions 
are made by a majority vote. 

In exceptional circumstances, not elsewhere pro- 
vided for in the GATT, the Contracting Parties 
may, by a two-thirds majority vote, waive any 
obligation imposed upon a contracting party by 
the agreement. 



Article XXVI : Acceptance and Entry Into Force 

Since 1948 the GATT has been applied by the 
United States on a provisional basis, pursuant to 
the Protocol of Provisional Application of Octo- 
ber 30, 1947. 

Article XXVI sets out the procedure for bring- 
ing GATT definitively into force by the deposit 
of instruments of acceptance (i.e. ratification) 
by countries accounting for 85 percent of the 
total foreign trade of all the contracting parties 
computed in accordance with the figures set forth 
in annex H of the agreement. ( Note : Under this 
formula GATT cannot be brought definitively into 
force without acceptance by the United States 
and the United Kingdom, each of which accounts 
for approximately 20 percent of the total for- 
eign trade, as listed in annex H.) 

The acceptance or ratification of the agreement 
by a contracting party extends to all territories 
for which that country has international re- 
sponsibility, except those dependent territories 
having separate customs regimes which are ex- 
plicitly excluded at the time of acceptance. With 
regard to a separate customs territory included in 
the acceptance of a contracting party and which 
thereafter acquires full autonomy in the conduct 
of its external commercial relations and other 
matters covered by the agreement, provision is 
made whereby such a previously dependent ter- 
ritory will be deemed a contracting party upon 
sponsorship by the contracting party previously 
responsible for it. Under this procedure, several 
former dependent territories, such as Indonesia, 
Malaya, and Ghana, liave become full contracting 
parties in their own right. 

Article XXVI also covers various other proce- 
dural matters, such as the date of the agi-eement, 
authentic texts, registration with the United Na- 
tions, etc. 

Note: The 1947 Protocol of Provisional Ap- 
plication requires the application of the provisions 
of part II of GATT only "to the fullest extent not 
inconsistent with existing legislation." By a res- 
olution of March 7, 1955, the Contracting Parties 
agreed that an acceptance of the agreement under 
article XXVI would be valid even if accompanied 
by a similar reservation, namely, that part II of 
the agreement would be applied to the fullest 
extent not inconsistent with legislation which ex- 
isted on October 30, 1947, or, in the case of later 



Ju/y 3, 1967 



39 



acceding contracting parties, legislation which 
existed on the date of the protocol providing for 
such accession. 

Article XXVII: Withholding or Withdrawal 
of Concessions 

In order to take account of the different dates 
at which the tariff concessions and other provisions 
of the GATT could be applied by the various 
countries which participated in the 1947 tariff ne- 
gotiations at Geneva and in subsequent tariff con- 
ferences, as well as the possibility that some 
countries might later withdraw from, or cease 
to apply, the agreement, article XXVII author- 
izes contracting parties to withhold or withdi'aw 
the particular tariff concessions which were ini- 
tially negotiated with the country failing to apply, 
or withdrawing from, the GATT. However, other 
contracting parties having a substantial interest 
in these concessions must he consulted. 

Thus, when China ceased to participate in the 
GATT, the United States availed itself of this 
procedure and, after consultation with other in- 
terested parties, withdrew a number of tariff 
concessions of particular interest to, and initially 
negotiated with, China. 

Article XXVIII: Modification of Schedules 

The procedures set forth in article XXVIII 
have provided a remarkable combination of stabil- 
ity and necessary flexibility for the tariff sched- 
ules annexed to the GATT. 

On the one hand, under these procedures there 
is in substance agreement by contracting parties 
to apply generally their respective schedules, for 
successive, automatically renewable, 3-year 
periods, by undertaking to refrain from using, 
except at the end of such periods, the right pro- 
vided for in article XXVIII to modify or with- 
draw particular concessions. 

On the other hand, recognizing that not every 
one of the thousands of tariff rates bound in the 
schedules could forever remain unchanged, article 
XXVIII does in fact permit any contracting 
party, at the beginning of each 3-year period, to 
modify or withdraw particular tariff concessions 
in its scliedule by renegotiating such concessions 
with the contracting parties primarily affected. 

Note: During the original 1947 GATT nego- 
tiations it was agreed that the tariff schedules re- 
sulting from the negotiations should bo stabilized 



or "bound" for at least 3 years by providing that 
the right to modify or withdraw concessions under 
article XXVIII should become effective on and 
after January 1, 1951. Thereafter, the assured 
life of the schedules has been extended on several 
occasions by action of the Contracting Parties. 
January 1, 1961, marks the beginning of the cur- 
rent 3-year period of stability. 

A country desiring to modify or withdraw 
existing tariff concessions under article XXVIII 
could do so on January 1, 1958, or at the beginning 
of any subsequent 3-year period, by negotiation 
and agreement or consultation with the countries 
with which the concessions were initially nego- 
tiated and with such other countries as are deter- 
mined by the Contracting Parties to have a 
substantial trade interest in the particular prod- 
ucts affected. In such negotiations a key guiding 
principle of article XXVIII provides that the 
negotiating countries will endeavor to maintain 
the general level of reciprocal and mutually ad- 
vantageous concessions not less favorable to trade 
than the level existing prior to the negotiations. 

In line with this principle the country desiring 
to modify or witlidraw existing concessions 
usually seeks to obtain the agreement of the other 
countries concerned by offering "compensation" 
in the form of new concessions on items of com- 
parable trade interest to the latter. However, if 
agreement is not reached that the compensation 
is adequate for the modification proposed, the 
country proposing the modification is nevertheless 
free to take the action and the other countries 
concerned are authorized to withdraw substan- 
tially equivalent concessions initially negotiated 
with the country making the modification. 

In addition to the normal procedure permitting 
modifications or withdrawals of concessions at 
the beginning of a 3-year period (sometimes re- 
ferred to as a "bound" period), additional flexi- 
bility is provided in paragraph 4 of article 
XXVIII. This provides that "^n special cir- 
cumstances'''' the Contracting Parties may author- 
ize the renegotiation of particular concessions at 
any time (i.e. during the "boimd" periods), 
subject to specified procedures and conditions. 
Once "special circumstances" renegotiations have 
been authorized by the Contracting Parties, the 
procedure is much the same as the normal article 
XXVIII procedure described above. Here, 
again, the main guiding principle is the endeavor 



40 



Department of State Bulletin 



to maintain tlie general level of reciprocal and 
mutually advantageous concessions between the 
negotiating countries no less favorable to trade 
than that existing prior to the negotiations. 

Article XXVIII his: Tarijf Negotiations 

Between articles XXVIII and XXIX is an 

article numbered "XXVIII bis," which eventu- 
ally will be renumbered "XXIX" when the pres- 
ent article XXIX is deleted from the GATT upon 
the entry into force of the protocol amending 
part I and articles XXIX and XXX. 

Article XXVIII bis sets out basic general rules 
for tariff negotiations sponsored by the Contract- 
ing Parties. There is, first, recognition that cus- 
toms duties often constitute serious obstacles to 
trade and that negotiations directed to the reduc- 
tion of the general level of tariffs and other 
charges on imports and exports are of great im- 
portance to the expansion of international trade. 
Accordingly the article explicitly authorizes the 
Contracting Parties to sponsor such negotiations. 
Although contracting parties are not obligated to 
participate in multilateral tariff negotiations, 
there is recognition that the success of such nego- 
tiations depends upon widespread participation 
by trading nations. 

The article provides that negotiations may be 
carried out on a selective, product-by-product 
basis, or by the application of such multilateral 
procedures as may be accepted by the contracting 
parties concerned. (Note: The selective, product- 
by-product method of negotiation is the one which 
has actually been used in all GATT tariff con- 
ferences since 1947.) 

Article XXVIII bis further provides that 
tariff negotiations shall be conducted in a way 
that takes into account (1) the needs of individual 
countries and individual industries, (2) the special 
needs of less developed countries, and (3) all other 
relevant circumstances. Negotiations may be di- 
rected toward the reduction of duties or the bind- 
ing of duties against increase above specified 
levels. In principle, the binding against increase 
of low duties or of duty-free treatment is recog- 
nized as a concession equivalent in value to the 
reduction of high duties. 

Article XXIX: Relation of GATT to the Havana 
Charter 

Since it became apparent that the Havana Char- 
ter for an International Trade Organization would 



not come into force, the text of the present article 
XXIX may be regarded as of historical interest 
only. It is to be deleted and replaced by the im- 
mediately preceding article (which is presently 
numbered "Article XXVIII bis") upon the entry 
into force of the protocol amending pait I and 
articles XXIX and XXX of GATT. 

Article XXX: Amendments 

Article XXX provides that amendments to 
part I of GATT or to articles XXIX or XXX be- 
come effective only when accepted or ratified 
by all of the contracting parties but that other 
amendments become effective, for the parties ac- 
cepting them, upon acceptance by two-tliirds of 
the contracting parties. 

The article also provides that the Contracting 
Parties may decide that any party which has not 
accepted an amendment made effective under the 
two-thirds rule may be required to withdraw from 
the agreement. 

Arti<;le XXXI: Withdrawal From. GATT 

Article XXXI provides in substance that any 
contracting party shall be free to withdraw from 
the GATT (i.e. terminate its GATT obligations) 
upon giving 6 months' notice in writing. Also, 
as in the case of acceptance of the agreement, a 
contracting party may separately withdraw on 
behalf of its autonomous separate customs 
territories. 

This general provision for withdrawal does 
not affect the provisions for withdrawal under 
special circumstances, as set forth in articles 
XVIII (paragraph 12), XXIII, and XXX 
(paragraph 2). 

Finally, as a matter of practice, this provision 
for withdrawal upon 6 months' notice contem- 
plates the definitive entry into force of GATT 
under article XXVI, but since this has not oc- 
curred, the GATT continues to be applied pro- 
visionally, subject to withdrawal on 60 days' 
notice. 

Article XXXII: Contracting Parties 

Article XXXII is really a definition of the 
term "contracting party" as used in the GATT. 
It provides that any government which is apply- 
ing the General Agreement, whether definitively 
imder article XXVI, or provisionally under the 
Protocol of Provisional Application, or as an ac- 



Jo/y 3, 796 1 



41 



ceding country under article XXXIII, is to be 
considered a "contracting party'' under the terms 
of the agreement. 

There is also a provision whereby, after the 
GATT enters into force definitively under arti- 
cle XXVI, those contracting parties which have 
accepted the agreement definitively may decide 
that any contracting party which has not so ac- 
cepted it shall cease to be a contracting party. 

Article XXXIII: Accession 

Article XXXIII provides in broad, general 
language for the accession (i.e. adherence or par- 
ticipation) of new contracting parties to the 
GATT, on terms to be agreed upon in each case 
between the acceding government and the Con- 
tracting Parties. The acceding government may 
accede on its own behalf or on behalf of a sepa- 
rate autonomous customs territory. Decisions 
on the terms of accession are made by a two-thirds 
majority of the Contracting Parties. 

Note: Since the original negotiations among 
23 countries at Geneva in 1947, many other coun- 
tries have acceded to the GATT under article 
XXXIII. "While this article does not spell out 
the details for accession, the normal procedure 
for full accession has involved tariff negotiations 
between the acceding coimtry and certain con- 
tracting parties. At the end of tlie negotiations 
a protocol of accession is dra^-n up, pursuant to 
which the acceding coimtry agrees to assume gen- 
erally the obligations of the GATT and to make 
specified concessions in its own tariff in return for 
the benefits, including the tariff concessions, of 
the General Agreement. In addition to full ac- 
cession pursuant to this article, an-angements 
have sometimes been made by a separate agree- 
ment for a country (e.g. Switzerland in Novem- 
ber 1958) to accede provisionally to the GATT 
or otherwise to participate in the work of the 
Contracting Parties (e.g. Yugoslavia). 

Article XXXIV: Annexes 

Article XXXIV incorporates the annexes to 
GATT as an integral part of the agreement. 

Annexes A to F list the territories referred to 
in article I (paragraph 2) for whicli existing 
preferential arrangement can be continued as an 
exception to the general most-favored-nation 
obligation. 



Annex G lists the dates for establishing maxi- 
mum margins of preference for certain comitries 
which chose dates other than April 10, 1947, as 
provided in article I (paragraph 4). 

Annex H gives the percentage shares of world 
trade of each of the contracting parties, for the 
purpose of detennining -when GATT will enter 
into force definitively under article XXVI. 

Annex I contains a number of important notes 
and supplementary provisions. For example, 
there are agreed definitions and explanations of 
certain words and phrases used in the articles. 

Note : Annex J, which was deleted February 15, 
1961, contained an alternative set of rules govern- 
ing the application of discriminatory import re- 
strictions for balance-of-payments reasons by 
countries electing the so-called "Geneva option" 
under paragraph (d) of article XIV as that ar- 
ticle read prior to its amendment on February 15, 
1961. 

Article XXXV : N onap plication Between Particu- 
lar Contracting Parties 

Article XXXV pennits a contracting party to 
withhold the application of its schedule of tariff 
concessions, or of the entire agreement, from an- 
other contracting party witli which it has not 
entered into tariff negotiations. 

Note: At the present time (early 1961) there 
are 14 contracting parties wliich continue to in- 
voke article XXXV against Japan, thereby de- 
clining to undertake GATT obligations toward 
Japan, although 9 of them in fact accord most- 
favored-nation treatment to that country. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

87th Congress, 1st Session 

Economic Development in Underdeveloped Areas Through 
Use of Agricultural Surpluses. Report to accompany S. 
1720. S. Kept. 290. May 26, 1961. 6 pp. 

Providing for the Establishment of a White Fleet. Re- 
port to accompany S. Res. 154. May 29, 1961. 2 pp. 

International Food and Raw Materials Reserve. Report 
to accompany S. Res. 128. S. Rept. 291. May 29, 1961. 
4 pp. 

Departments of State and Justice, the Judiciary, and Re- 
lated Agencies Appropriation Bill, Fiscal Year 1962, 
Report to accompany H.R. 7371. H. Rept. 442. May 29, 
1961. 28 pp. 



42 



Department of State Bulletin 



I 



U.S., Canada Authorize IJC To Make 
Study of Niagara River and Fails 

Press release 401 dated June 15 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Governments of the United States and 
Canada have agreed upon the text of a joint sup- 
plementary Reference to the International Joint 
Commission on the Niagara River and Niagara 
Falls. The Governments in similar letters to the 
respective sections of the Commission on May 5, 
1961, requested the Commission to undertake in- 
vestigations and report whether any measures 
might be undertaken which would increase the 
amount of water available for the purpose of 
power production without impairing the beauty 
of the Falls. 

The original Niagara Reference/ which was 
made pursuant to the Niagara Treaty of 1950,^ 
requested the Commission's recommendations 
"concerning the nature and design of the remedial 
works necessaiy to enhance the beauty of the Falls 
in the Niagara River." Certain remedial works 
were carried out and a control stinicture was built 
in light of the recommendations^ made by the 
Commission in its 1953 report under the Niagara 
Reference. 



TEXT OF SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCE 

Following is the text of the supplementary 
Reference sent to the United States Section of the 
CoTnimission. 

Mat 5, 1961 
SiBs: The Governments of the United States of Amer- 
ica and of Canada have agreed, in the light of the Con- 
clusions of the International Niagara Board of Control's 
Report on Construction of Niagara River Remedial 
Works dated September 30, 1960, to request the Inter- 
national Joint Commission to investigate and report on 
the measures necessary to ijermit compliance with the 
objectives of the International Joint Commission's re- 
port to Governments of May 5, 19.j3 under the Niagara 
Reference of October 10, 1950 when full use is being made 
of the waters available for power purposes under the 



' For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 23, 1950, p. 658. 
' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2130. 
'Bulletin of June 1, 1953, p. 783. 



Niagara Treaty of 1950, having particular regard to 
Articles III, IV and V of this Treaty. 

The Commission is requested speeiflcally to investigate 
and determine whether or not such compliance can be 
achieved through : 

(i) the extension of the control structure in the Niag- 
ara River which was constructed pursuant to the rec- 
ommendations of the International Joint Commission's 
Report of May 5, 1953 ; and 

(ii) the construction of other related works if neces- 
sary. 

If the Commission determines that the extension of 
the control structure and the construction of other re- 
lated works will permit such compliance, the Interna- 
tional Joint Commission is requested to make : 

(i) recommendations concerning the nature and de- 
sign of the proposed additional works ; 

(ii) recommendations concerning the allocation, as be- 
tween the United States and Canada, of the task of con- 
struction of such additional works ; 

(lii) an estimate of the cost of such works and rec- 
ommendations concerning the allocation of these costs, 
taking into consideration Article II of the Treaty; 

(iv) an estimate of the advantages accruing from the 
construction of whatever works are recommended. 

The International Joint Commission is also requested 
to report whether, without detriment to the scenic beauty 
of Niagara Falls, the flows over the falls could be less 
than those now specified in the Niagara Treaty of 1950 
and, if so, what would be the minimum flows of water 
consistent with the preservation of the scenic beauty of 
Niagara Falls at all times and seasons and with objectives 
(a), (b), and (c) of the International Joint Commission's 
Report to Governments of May 5, 1953. 

In the conduct of its investigations, and otherwise in 
the performance of its duties under this Reference, the 
International Joint Commission may take into account 
the Joint Brief submitted to the Governments of 
the United States and Canada by the Power Authority 
of the State of New York and the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario on "proposed extension to Niagara 
River remedial works and on certain proposed operational 
procedures" dated March 15, 1961, a copy of which is 
enclosed.* The International Joint Commission may use 
the services of engineers and other specially qualified 
personnel of technical agencies of the United States and 
Canada, and will, so far as possible, make use of in- 
formation and technical data which has been acquired 
by such technical agencies or which may become avail- 
able during the course of the investigation, thus avoiding 
duplication of effort and unnecessary expense. 

The International Joint Commission is requested to re- 
port on the matters raised in this Reference, and par- 
ticularly on the matters raised in the first three para- 
graphs above, as soon as possible. 



* Not printed here. 



Ju/yr 3, 1 961 



43 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings^ 

Scheduled July 1 Through September 30, 1961 

IMCO Maritime Safety Committee: 3d Session of Subcommittee on London July 3- 

Tonnage Measurements. 

24th Conference on Public Education Geneva July 3- 

European Civil Aviation Conference: 4th Session Strasbourg July 4- 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 32d Session Geneva July 4- 

International Film Festival Moscow July 9- 

FAO Meeting on Plant Exploration and Introduction Rome July 10- 

U.N. ECE Conference of European Statisticians: 9th Session .... Geneva July 10- 

Development Assistance Group: 5th Meeting Tokyo July 11- 

WMO Regional Association III (South America): 3d Session .... Rio de Janeiro July 11- 

Inter-American Economic an"d Social Council Punta del Este, Uruguay . . . July 15- 

International North Pacific Fisheries Commission: Working Party on Nanaimo, British Columbia . . July 15- 

Oceanography of the Committee on Biology and Research. 

FAO North American Forestry Commission: 1st Session Mexico, D.F July 24- 

IBE Council: 27th Session Geneva July 

South Pacific Commission: Urbanization Committee Noumea July 

PAIGH: 7th General Assembly Buenos Aires Aug. 1- 

9th Pan American Consultation on Cartography " " 

6th Pan American Consultation on Geography " " 

9th Pan American Consultation on History " " 

U.N. ECAFE Seminar on Planning and Administration of National Com- Bangkok Aug. 7- 

munity Development Program. 

U.N. ECAFE Conference on Community Development Bangkok Aug. S- 

2d FAO Latin American Meeting on Higher Agricultural Education . Quito Aug. 14- 

2d FAO World Eucalyptus Conference Sao Paulo Aug. 14- 

15th Annual Edinburgh Film Festival Edinburgh Aug. 20- 

U.N. ECOSOC Meeting of Experts on Explosives Geneva Aug. 28- 

ICAO Diplomatic Conference on the Unification of Certain Rules Relat- Guadalajara Aug. 29- 

ing to International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person Other 

Than the Contracting Carrier. 

International Conference on Currency Counterfeiting Copenhagen Aug. 29- 

WHO Regional Committee for Western Pacific: 12th Session Wellington Aug. 31- 

South Pacific Commission: Women's Interest Seminar Apia, Samoa August 

U.N. Conference on Elimination or Reduction of Future Statelessness . New York August* 

FAO Cocoa Study Group: Working Party on Grading London Sept. 1- 

International Criminal Police Organization: 30th General Assembly . . Copenhagen Sept. 4- 

Caribbean Commission: 31st Meeting San Juan Sept. 5- 

U.N. ECAFE Seminar on Industrial Statistics Bangkok Sept. 5- 

U.N. Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation: 10th Session . New York Sept. 5- 

4th ICAO North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting Paris Sept. 14- 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Vienna Sept. 18- 

Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation, and International 

Development A.ssociation: Annual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

International Conference on Fish in Nutrition Washington Sept. 19- 

8th Inter-American Travel Congress Rio de Janeiro Sept. 22- 

U.N. ECAFE Conference of Asian Economic Planners India Sept. 24- 

lAEA General Conference: 5th Regular Session Vienna Sept. 26- 

U.N. Scientific Advisory Committee Vienna Sept. 27- 

ICAO Legal Committee: 14th Session Montreal September 

ICEM Subcommittee on Budget and Finance: 4th Session Washington September 

' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, Juno 16, 1961. Asterisks indicate tentative dates. Following 

is a list of abbreviations: ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for 
Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; IAEA, International Atomic 
Energy Agency; IBE, International Bureau of Education; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; PAIGH, Pan American Institute of Geography and History; 

U.N., United Nations; WHO, World Health Organization; WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 



44 Department of State Bulletin 



Fisheries Commission Concludes 
Eleventh Annual Meeting 

Press release 389 dated June 12 

Greater protection and conservation of fish and 
seal populations in the northwest Atlantic fishing 
areas were promised at the 11th annual meeting 
of the International Commission for the North- 
west Atlantic Fisheries just concluded at Wash- 
ington. Representatives of 12 nations engaged 
in fishing operations in the ICNAF area, which 
comprises more than 1 million square miles, 
adopted measures designed to produce greater 
uniformity in the ICNAF conservation regula- 
tions. 

The 6-day meeting, ending June 10, also pro- 
duced agreement among the delegates to take 
steps toward the conservation of the fast-declining 
population of harp and hood seals in the area. 
Following a report by the Canadian delegation 
_ that the harp and hood populations "during the 
last decade have been reduced by 50 to 65 per- 
cent," the Commission passed a resolution to 
amend the present convention to provide ( 1 ) that 
harp and hood seals of the northwest Atlantic 
area be brought under the provisions of the Inter- 
national Convention for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries and (2) that a separate panel be estab- 
lished for the purpose of dealing with the con- 
servation requirements of the harp and hood seal 
I populations. 

The Commission elected the following officers 
to sei-ve for 2 years : 

Commission Chairman: George R. Clark, Deputy Minister 

of Fisheries, Ottawa, Canada 
Commission Vice Chairman: B. Dinesen, Under Secretary 

of the Fisheries Ministry, Copenhagen, Denmark 

The following were elected to serve 1-year 
terms: 

Chairman of the Standing Committee on Research and 
Statistics: R. H. J. Beverton, Deputy Director of Re- 
search, Ministry of Fisheries Laboratories, Lowestoft, 
Suffolk, United Kingdom 

Chairman of the Standing Committee on Finance and 
Administration: J. H. MacKichan, General Manager of 
United Maritime Fishermen, Ltd., Halifax, Nova Scotia 

The International Commission for the North- 
west Atlantic Fisheries was established under a 
convention between 10 North American and Euro- 
pean countries which came into force on July 3, 
1950. Since then, two additional governments 



have become parties to the convention, namely, 
the Federal Republic of Germany (1957) and the 
U.S.S.R. (1958). The present member nations 
are : Canada, Denmark, France, Federal Republic 
of Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, 
Spain, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, and United 
States. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Antarctica 

The Antarctic Treaty. Signed at Washington December 1, 
1959.' 
Accession deposited: Poland, June 8, 1961. 

Aviation 

Convention for the nnification of certain rules relating to 
the precautionary attachment of aircraft. Opened for 
signature at Rome May 29, 1933. Entered into force 
January 12, 1937.' 
Accession deposited: Haiti, January 19, 1961. 

Copyriglit 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Septem- 
ber 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Sweden, April 1, 1961. 

Protocol 1 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the application of that convention to the works of 
stateless persons and refugees. Done at Geneva Sep- 
tember 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Sweden, April 1, 1961. 

Protocol 2 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the application of that convention to the works of 
certain international organizations. Done at Geneva 
September 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 
1955. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Sweden, April 1, 1961. 

Protocol 3 to the universal copyright convention concern- 
ing the effective date of instruments of ratification or 
acceptance of or accession to that convention. Done at 
Geneva September 6, 1952. Entered into force August 
19, 1954. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Sweden, April 1, 1961. 

Cultural Property 

Convention for protection of cultural property in event of 

armed conflict, and regulations of execution ; 
Protocol for protection of cultural property in event of 
armed conflict. 
Done at The Hague May 14, 1954. Entered into force 

August 7, 1956.' 
Accession deposited: Congo ( Leopold ville), April 18, 
1961. 



' Not in force. 

' Not in force for the United States. 



July 3, 1 96 1 



45 



Property 

Convention of Paris for the protection of industrial prop- 
erty of March 20, 1883, revised at Brussels December 14, 
1900, at Washington June 2, 1911, at The Hague Novem- 
ber 6, 1925, at London June 2, 1934, and at Lisbon Octo- 
ber 31, 1958. Done at Lisbon October 31, 1958.' 
Ratification deposited: France (applicable to Metropoli- 
tan, Algerian, Saharan, Guadeloupe, Guiana, Martin- 
ique, and Reunion Departments, and Overseas Terri- 
tories), March 24, 1961. 

Publications 

Convention concerning the exchange of official publica- 
tions and government documents betvpeen states. 
Adopted at Paris December 3, 1958. Entered into force 
May 31, 1961." 
Ratification deposited: China, April 26, 1961. 

Convention concerning the international exchange of pub- 
lications. Adopted at Paris December 3, 1958." 
Ratification deposited: China, April 26, 1961. 

Telecommunications 

Badio regulations, with appendixes, annexed to the inter- 
national telecommunication convention, 1959. Done at 
Geneva December 21, 1959. Entered into force May 1, 
1961." 
Notification of approval: Thailand, April 10, 1961. 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 
Accession deposited: Gabon, June 5, 1961. 



BILATERAL 

Mexico 

Agreement concerning radio broadcasting in standard 
broadcast band, and six annexes. Signed at Mexico, 
D.F., January 29, 1957. 
Entered into force: June 9, 1961. 

Turkey 

Agreement amending the agreement of December 27, 1949, 
as amended (TIAS 2111, 3737, and 4458), for the es- 
tablishment of the U.S. Educational Commission in Tur- 
key. Effected by exchange of notes at Aniiara April 21 
and May 30, 1961. Entered into force May 30, 1961. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 12 confirmed the following nomina- 
tions : 

Anthony B. Akers to be Ambassador to New Zealand. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 416 dated June 20.) 

Samuel D. Berger to be Ambassador to the Republic of 
Korea. ( For biographic details, see Department of State 
press release 395 dated June 14.) 



The Senate on June 14 confirmed the nomination of 
Ben S. Stephansky to be Ambassador to Bolivia. (For 
biographic details, see Department of State press release 
422 dated June 21.) 



Appointments 

Francis Pickens Miller as Special Assistant to the As- 
sistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, 
effective June 6. (For biographic details, see Department 
of State press release 392 dated June 14.) 



' Not in force. 

' Not in force for the United States. 



Clieck List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 12-18 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 12 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 352 of May 29, 
363 of June 3, 378 of June 9, and 384 of June 10. 

Subject 

U.S. participation in international con- 
ferences. 

Broadcasting agreement with Mexico. 

Bowles : American Booksellers Asso- 
ciation. 

Delegation to ECE Housing Committee 
(rewrite). 

International Commission for North- 
west Atlantic Fisheries. 

Bohlen : "Our Changing World." 

State-Defense personnel exchange (re- 
write). 

Francis P. Miller appointment (bio- 
graphic details). 

FSI Advisory Committee. 

Italian trade liberalization. 

Berger sworn in as Ambassador to 
Korea (biographic details). 

Visit of Prime Minister of Japan (re- 
write). 

Smyth sworn in as U.S. representative 
to IAEA (biographic details). 

Williams : Michigan Committee of 
United Negro Fund. 

Hadraba : protection of industrial 
property. 

Cargo sworn in as deputy U.S. repre- 
sentative to IAEA (biographic de- 
tails). 

Study of Niagara River and Falls. 

Special financial mission to Viet-Nam. 

Cultural exchange (international mar- 
keting program). 

Riddleberger leaves for DAG meeting. 

Harriman : Geneva conference on Laos. 

Cultural exchange (Theater Guild 
tour). 

Rusk : Conference on International 
Economic and Social Development. 

Governors' meeting on hospitality to 
foreign visitors. 

• Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



No. 


Date 


*3S3 


6/12 


386 
387 


6/12 
6/12 


t388 


6/12 


389 


6/12 


t390 
t391 


6/14 
6/13 


•392 


6/14 


393 

394 

•395 


6/14 
6/14 
6/14 


t396 


6/14 


•397 


6/15 


t398 


6/15 


t399 


6/15 


•400 


6/15 


401 

402 

•403 


6/15 
6/15 
6/16 


404 
1405 
•406 


6/16 
6/16 
6/16 


407 


6/16 


408 


6/16 



46 



Department of State Bulletin 



July 3, 1961 I n 

Africa. Africa: Challenge to American Trade 
Unions (Williams) 25 

American Principles. The Decision Confronting 
America (Bowles) 11 

Atomic Energy. United States Urges Prompt 
Soviet Agreement on Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 
(texts of U.S. note and Soviet aide memoire) . . 18 

Bolivia. Stephansky confirmed as Ambassador . 46 

Canada. U.S., Canada Authorize IJC To Mal^e 

Study of Niagara River and Falls 43 

Congress, The. Congressional Documents Relating 

to Foreign Policy 42 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Miller) 46 

Confirmations (Akers, Berger, Stephansky) ... 46 

FSI Advisory Committee Meets at Washington . . 34 

Economic Affairs 

Fisheries Commission Concludes Eleventh Annual 

Meeting 45 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: 
An Artiele-by-Article Analysis in Layman's 

Language — Continued (Catudal) 35 

Italy Relaxes Controls on Imports From U.S. . . 33 
James W. Riddleberger Named DAG Chairman, 

Leaves for Fifth Meeting 10 

Radio Broadcasting Agreement With Mexico En- 
ters Into Force 34 

U.S., Canada Authorize IJC To Make Study of 

Niagara River and Falls 43 

U.S. Special Financial Group Visits Viet-Nam . . 28 

Educational and Cultural Affairs 

Miller appointed Special Assistant to Assistant 

Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs . 46 
U.S. and State Officials Discuss Hospitality for 

Foreign Visitors 32 

Women and the Goal of World Community 

(McGhee) 29 

Guinea. Mr. Shriver Visits Guinea as President's 

Representative 24 

International Organizations and Conferences 
Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 44 

Fisheries Commission Concludes Eleventh Annual 

Meeting 45 

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: 
An Article-by-Article Analysis in Layman's 
Language — Continued (Catudal) 35 



d e X 



Vol. XLV, No. 1149 



James W. Riddleberger Named DAG Chairman, 

Leaves for Fifth Meeting 10 

United States Urges Prompt Soviet Agreement on 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (texts of U.S. note and 
Soviet aide memoire) 18 

Italy. Italy Relaxes Controls on Imports From 

U.S 33 

Korea. Berger confirmed as Ambassador .... 46 

Labor Affairs. Africa : Challenge to American 
Trade Unions (Williams) 25 

Mexico. Radio Broadcasting Agreement With 
Mexico Enters Into Force 34 

Mutual Security 

Africa : Challenge to American Trade Unions 

(Williams) 25 

The Decision Confronting America (Bowles) . . 11 

Foreign Aid, an Opportunity in a Crucial Xear 

(Kennedy, Rusk) 3 

Mr. Shriver Visits Guinea as President's Repre- 
sentative 24 

New Zealand. Akers confirmed as Ambassador . 46 

Presidential Documents. Foreign Aid, an Oppor- 
tunity in a Crucial Year 3 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 45 

Radio Broadcasting Agreement With Mexico En- 
ters Into Force 34 

U.S.S.R. 

The Decision Confronting America (Bowles) . . 11 
United States Urges Prompt Soviet Agreement on 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (texts of U.S. note 

and Soviet aide memoire) 18 

Viet-Nam 

U.S. Special Financial Group Visits Viet-Nam . . 28 
Vietnamese Government Official Visits Washing- 
ton 28 

Name Index 

Akers, Anthony B 46 

Berger, Samuel D 46 

Bowles, Chester 11 

Catudal, Honors M 35 

Kennedy, President 3 

McGhee, George C 29 

Jliller, Francis Pickens 46 

Riddleberger, James W 10 

Rusk, Secretary 3 

Stephansky, Ben S 46 

Thuan, Nguyen Dinh 28 

Williams, G. Mennen 25 



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State 



HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S 
NEW ACT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 



This pamphlet summarizes the international development program 
and contains the statement made by the Secretarj' of State before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee in support of the Act for Inter- 
national Development and the International Peace and Security Act. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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Vol. XLV, No. 1150 



July 10, 1961 




HE 

FFICIAL 

'EEKLY RECORD 



?^ 



NITED STATES 
OREIGN POLICY 



SECRETARY RUSK'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF 

JUNE 22 51 

OUR CHANGING WORLD • by Partes E. Bohlen 62 

A NEW GENERATION AND THE FUTURE OF AFRICA • 

by Assistant Secretary Williams 72 

A NEW BIRTH OF FREEDOM • by Ambassador Joseph S. 

Farland 75 

THE UNITED NATIONS, FIRST STEP TOWARD A 

WORLD UNDER L\Wm by Ambassador Adlai E.Stevenson . 68 

Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 9- 1961 
DEPOSITORY 

For index see inside back cover 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLV, No. 1150 • Pubucation 7220 
Julv 10, 1961 



For sale by the Superintendent o( Documents 

U.S. Qovernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Fbice: 

ta Issaes, domeitlc $8.(0, foreign $12.26 

Single copy, 2f> cents 

Use of funds for printing of this publica- 
tion approved by the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget (January 19, 1961). 

Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and Items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Dkpabtment 
o» State Bulletin as the source will be 
appreciated. 



The Department of State BVLLETIS, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the tcork of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by tlie White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
tions of the Department. Informa- 
tion is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to 
which tlie United States is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral international interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
United Nations documents, anil legis- 
lative material in the field of inter- 
national relations are listed currently. 



Secretary Rusk's News Conference of June 22 



Press release 42S dated June 22 

Secretary Rusk : These days tlie ticker seems to 
be bringing in news from many quarters. In view 
of the current interest in the subject, I should 
like to begin with a comment on Germany and 
Berlin. 

Due to the de facto division of Germany, tlie 
entire situation in that country is abnonnal. The 
Soviet position in regard to this matter is predi- 
cated on the belief that the division of Germany 
is normal, that the division of Berlin is normal, 
and that the sole abnormality that persists is West 
Berlin. This is not a formulation of tlie problem 
which is acceptable to the United States. 

The militant tone of the speeches made yester- 
day in Moscow by Chairman Khrushchev and other 
Soviet leaders must be a source of keen disappoint- 
ment to those who seek to advance the cause of 
peace. Tlie effect of these speeches, as the Soviet 
leaders must have known, can only be to heighten 
world tensions. The Soviet leaders are aware that 
they cannot, by any action on their part, extinguish 
the rights of tlie Western Powers in Berlin. Al- 
though cloaked in the propaganda line that all 
that they propose to do is to sign a peace treaty 
with a portion of Germany which they control, 
their intention is to renounce unilaterally obli- 
gations assumed in solemn international agi'ee- 
ments. In this connection I might recall that the 
State Department on March 24, 1960, released 
the text of the basic agreement ^ concerning the 
areas which the respective forces of the four oc- 
cupying powers would occupy in Germany and 
Greater Berlin. 

The United States and its allies have assumed 
certain basic obligations to protect the freedom 
of the people of West Berlin. Western forces are 
in the city by right and remain there to protect 
those freedoms. The people of West Berlin wel- 



' Bulletin of Apr. 11, 1000, p. 5'A. 
July 10, 1 961 



come and support those forces, whose presence 
gives tangible expression to our obligation. It 
is obvious that the United States could not accept 
the validity of any claim to extinguish its posi- 
tion in Berlin by unilateral action. 

Since the Soviets precipitated the present Ber- 
lin crisis in November 1958, the United States and 
its allies have repeatedly confirmed their position ' 
both on the substance of the problem and on their 
willingness to seek peaceful solutions. I need not 
review here the history of the long and frequent 
exchanges of diplomatic notes, of the Geneva Con- 
ference of Foreign Ministers of 1959, and of dis- 
cussions which have taken place at the level of 
heads of government. In all of these the United 
States and its allies have been sincerely motivated 
by a desire to end the tensions over Gennany and 
Berlin which the Soviet threats have created. But 
sucli solutions cannot be at the expense of our 
obligations and of the basic principles of freedom 
and self-determination. 

There are many contradictions and historical 
fallacies in the present position of the Soviet 
leadei-s. Chairman Khrushchev's description, in 
liis speech of yesterday, of the alleged origins of 
World War II will scarcely impress any serious 
historian. 

The Soviets talk constantly of peace but threaten 
the obvious peace which exists in West Berlin. 
Having purported to turn over East Berlin to 
the so-called Gei-man Democratic Republic, in 
violation of existing agreements, they now propose 
to move in upon the position of West Berlin. If 
the world is full of anxiety and uneasiness over 
Berlin, this arises directly from the threat of the 
Soviets to the rights of others and to the liberty 
of the West Berliners rather than to anytliing 
in the present situation in Berlin. 

Demands and threats which create a crisis over a 
subject which involves the vital intei'ests of other 



51 



people do not promote that real peace which the 
world desires. 

The United States and those associated with us 
are clear and firm about our obligations to our- 
selves and to the people of West Berlin. 

I might just add an informal comment that the 
Allied Governments are consulting among them- 
selves and with others about a reply to the recent 
Soviet aide memoire on the subject of Berlin." 
These consultations will take a little more time, 
but when that reply is given it will undoubtedly 
be made public. 

Foreign Aid Proposals 

I should also like to comment on the President's 
foreign aid proposals now being considered by the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee.^ 

These proposals reflect a searching review of our 
15 years' experience with foreign aid. It is right 
and natural that Congress will wish to subject our 
recommendations to critical examination. "Wliat 
comes out of the deliberations between the Execu- 
tive and the Congress must be a program adequate 
to the urgent needs of the woi'ld situation. 

Foreign aid is much more than a reaction to 
Communist pressure, but such pressure under- 
scores the seriousness of the struggle in which we 
and other free peoples are engaged. No one who 
has studied Mr. Khrushchev's Januai-y 6 speech or 
his speech of yesterday can have any doubts about 
it. No one who heard him in Vienna talk about 
the world he hopes to achieve doubted it. The 
President's report to the Nation after Vienna * left 
no doubt about the nature of the contest. 

The great task of economically advanced na- 
tions is to build and strengtlien freedom through- 
out the world. The foreign aid bill, as the Presi- 
dent has said, is the single most imj^ortant program 
available for building the frontiers of freedom. 
This is not a time to draw back from or to weaken 
that program. Foreign aid in the full amounts 
and with the flexibility requested by the President 
is vitally — and I mean vitally — necessary to the 
continued life of our country and the free world 
of which we are a part. 



^ An aide memoire on the subject of Berlin was handed 
to President Kenne<ly by Premier Khrushchev during their 
meeting at Vienna June 2-4. 

' For background, see Bulletin of June 12, 1961, p. 
90.3; June 19, 1961, pp. 947 and 977; and June 26, 1961, 
p. 1000. 

' Ibid., p. 991. 



This is true for two principal reasons. There 
is a revolution in progress going on in the world 
today. The greatest question of our day is 
whether those peoples can carry out that revolu- 
tion as free men. It is our task and our oppor- 
tunity to help lead that revolution to a successful 
conclusion. The goal of the Communist nations 
is to capture and subvert that revolution. They 
are working tirelessly toward that end. If we 
shrink or falter, if our efforts are too little, we 
can expect to see one free nation after another 
go under. 

This is imdoubtedly the most complex and diffi- 
cult task our Government and our people have ever 
undertaken, to help nations at various stages of 
development to make firm economic and social 
progress. 

To succeed in this task we must have the most 
capable administrators and the most skilled tech- 
nicians. We must have funds adequate to the 
needs, and we must have the flexibility to work 
with nations willing to plan for their own progress 
and to help them make their plans succeed. 

This is a serious work, and we must undertake 
it with a seriousness needed to accomplish it. The 
authority and the funds for which the President 
has asked the Congress are needed in full if our 
response is to match the requirements of the 
situation. 

I think you have had this afternoon from the 
Wliite House a communique in connection with 
the ^^sit of Prime Minister Ikeda [of Japan] and 
his party.'^ I think I will not repeat that here but 
simply call to your attention that this has been 
a most productive visit, one wliich we not only 
greatly enjoyed but from which we have drawn a 
great benefit. 

I think I might take some questions now. 

Western Powers' Position in Berlin 

Q. Mr. Secretary, during the Berlin hlockade 
we did not forcibly resist the cutoff of our ground 
access to the city, and then during the Geneva 
negotiations we mode some rather significant con- 
cessions in order to bring about some change in the 
status of Berlin, and then most recently we have 
not interveiied, in Laos as some •people thought 
we would and some thought we should. In the 
light of thifs history, hoio can loe now convince the 
Russians, and indeed some of our allies, that ive 

" See p. 57. 



52 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



will actvMlly he firm as we say we will he in 
Berlin? 

A. I think the principal point on that is that 
the position of the Western Powers in Berlin is 
a powerful one, that the NATO alliance is a strong 
alliance, that the obligations of the Western Pow- 
ers are clear, and that Mr. Khrushchev must be 
given every opportunity, as he will be, to avoid a 
miscalculation on a matter of that sort. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, this is a related question. 
Many people feel Senator [3Iike] Mansfield was 
flying a kite for the administration when he made 
his proposal last week on the Berlin question. 
Would you comment on that? 

A. I think Senator Mansfield answered that in 
pointing out that he was speaking as an individ- 
ual Senator. He was not speaking for the admin- 
istration. 

Q. What is your feeling about the Mansfield 
proposal? 

A. Well, there will be imdoubtedly some public 
discussion and debate of an issue as important as 
Berlin, but the attitude of the President and of 
the occupying powers and the NATO countries 
has been expressed on many occasions. That at- 
titude stands. I think that's all I would say on 
that at the present time. 

Current Crisis on Berlin 

Q. Mr. Secreta-)~y, Premier Khrushchev in his 
speech said fie intends to sign a peace treaty with 
the East Germans at the end of the year. Now 
this is being viewed in some quarters as an ulti- 
matum. Do you look on it as an ultimatuin? 

A. I wouldn't use a rather simple and easy word 
to cover a very complex and difficult situation. 
Obviously the statements made by Mr. Khrushchev 
before, during, and after Vienna are serious state- 
ments and ought to be taken seriously. The sub- 
stance of what he said is very similar to the posi- 
tions taken some 2 years ago about Berlin, but I 
think it would be wrong for us to try to cover a 
situation of this sort with too simple a character- 
ization, such as this word "ultimatum." 

Q. Could I pose the same question this xoay: 
Do you consider that the current crisis on Berlin 
as it now appears to he developing for the rest of 



this year represents in fact the most serious Soviet 
or Communist threat to the West since the end of 
World War II or the beginning of the cold-war 
period f 

A. Well, again I should like to avoid a super- 
lative. This I think is a serious situation, serious 
enough to engage a lot of our attention — the at- 
tention of the Western World^and indeed the 
attention of all those in other parts of the world 
who are concerned with building a peace. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you have said im, your earlier 
retruirhs that the United States had shoion its 
willingness in the past to seek peaceful solutions. 
Is it our current belief that a peaceful solution 
to the Berlin crisis is possible, and, if so, can you 
tell us on what basis we would seek a peaceful 
solution? 

A. I wouldn't wish to speculate about the future 
on a question of that sort. If you go back to 1946 
and follow the record from there, the West has 
made many attempts to find a settlement for these 
problems involving the windup of World War 
II and has had little or no cooperation from the 
Soviet Union. This takes us back to the first Ber- 
lin blockade ; it can take us back to Korea ; it can 
take us back to the earlier negotiations about the 
reunification of Germany; it can take us back to 
the settlements in Central Europe and Eastern 
Europe. There has been a continuous effort on 
the part of the West to wind up peacefully and 
honorably and effectively the results of World 
War II. Had we had anytliing like a comparable 
point of view from the Soviet Union on these 
questions, they would have long since been re- 
solved. 

Q. Mr. Secretat^, you have said that our posi- 
tion stands, and I believe that Mr. Kennedy said 
there was no intention to depart from our posi- 
tion of defending our rights in Berlin. The 
question that I have concerns the necessity for 
som£- kind of consultation with our allies before 
answering this aide memoire. The position has 
been ansioered so many times that it leads me to 
ask whether there are new elements to be con- 
sidered or whether there are new approaches being 
considered to the problems which have not been 
imdertaken before or considered before. 

A. I think it would be natural and normal when 
we receive an aide memoire from the Soviet Union 



Jo/y JO, J 96 7 



53 



on Berlin and on Germany to talk that question 
over with other fiox'ernments who have a direct 
interest and stake in the question, as well as a 
number of other governments. We are in "West 
Berlin with the ITnited Kinfjdom and France. 
The Government of the Federal Kepublic of Ger- 
many is obviously involved. NATO has expressed 
itself on Berlin and of course the NATO gov- 
ernments have an interest in that problem, as do 
other governments in other places. The fact that 
we are consulting other governments with respect 
to the reply does not mean that ^ve don't know 
what to say. We want to be sure that we are in 
touch with them. We think they have a right 
to be consulted. From our point of view it is 
very important they be consulted before we pub- 
lish a reply to an important comnumication such 
as the one Mr. Khrushchev recently made about 
Berlin. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you said the sitvMtion was 
abnormal, and then you said Mr. Khrushchev 
would he given every opportunity not to make 
a miscalculation. By that are you implying the 
possibility if the sitiuttion gets serious enough for 
another summit conference, and if freedom is not 
negotiable in Berlin, what is? 

A. I did not suggest any particular mode or 
method of communication. We will undoubtedly 
be having further exchanges among governments 
on Berlin, including exchanges with the Soviet 
Union, but questions of any special form of discus- 
sion are wholly for the future. But you can be 
sure that there will be representations back and 
forth from governments on this question for some 
time to come. 

Visits of Indian and Pakistan Leaders 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in another area, there h-ave 
been reports th<tt Prime Minister Nehru, of India 
might come here in the near future, and there 
was also the White House amwuncement that 
President Ayub Klutn of Pakistan toill advance 
Ms visit from November to July. Could you tell 
us what the significance of these moves is and how 
desirable the visits are? 

A. Well, let me say right away the two are 
not related. It would be, of course, extremely 
helpful if Mr. Nehru and tlie President could 
have a chance to talk over a great many matters, 
but there are no delinite plans or dates or arrange- 



ments for that at the present time. President 
Ayub's visit was expedited as a result of the Vice 
President's visit out there," and we are looking for- 
ward to seeing him in mid-July with great antici- 
pation. There are a great many things we would 
like to talk about, of coui-se, with lx>th these great 
leaders, but these arrangements are not linked or 
interrelated. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there ha^ been a report that 
there was an assassination pilot against Ambas- 
sador Stevenson in Argentina. Can you tell us 
lohat you knoio about that? 

A. I gather that that report started because 
one of our Marine guards was wounded by a civil- 
ian in the Argentine, hut that occurred after 
Ambassador Stevenson had left. There was no 
indication whatever that there was any connection 
between that incident and any visit made by Mr. 
Stevenson. I am glad to say that the Marine 
guard seems to be in no danger and seems to be 
recovering nicely. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in any permanent peace settle- \ 
ment, is it being contemplated that the present 
border of Central and Eastern Europe might I 
changed? 

A. Well, these are questions which undoubtedly . 
will be considered in the future as they have been 
in the past. I think it would be quite wi-ong for 
me to speculate about or comment specifically on 
questions of that sort at this ix)int. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, following the assassination of 
General Trujillo, there was some hope expressed 
that the Dominican Republic with the aid of the 
Organization of American States icould go 
through a peaceful transition to democracy, and 
the OAS committee went doivn tliere for 7 days 
with the express statement of the State Depart- 
ment that they should remain there a little longer. 
Does the United States have any plan now to 
ask the Organisation of American States to take 
a neio look at conditions there? 

A. Well, such plans as there might be are not in 
that specific form at this point. We do thijik 
that the visit of the OAS connnittee was a veiy 
helpful episode, and we think that tiie OAS 
must continue to be interested in the events of the 
Dominican Republic and keep in touch with them. 

' For text of a communique between Vice President 
.Tohnson and President Ayub, see Bulletin of June 19, 
1961, p. 9G0. 



54 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



^Ve ourselves are following the situation in the 
Dominican Republic very closely, and I hope very 
much that matters there can move toward normal 
and constitutional government as rapidly as 
■ possible. 

Q. Mr. Secretary.! t^^ three Laotian princes have 
issued a co^nmunique in Zurich tohich pledges to 
form a government of national union. Tlie com- 
rrmnique says that this government toould not seek 
the protection of any foreign alliance or any e.r- 
ternal guarantee. Do we con.^lder that this auto- 
matically ends the protective umhreUa that the 
SEATO [Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation] 
alliance has given to Laos? 

A. Well, the communique of the three princes, 
which I have just in tlie last few minutes seen 
from the tickers, is a statement which came out 
of their own consultations. It was not put for- 
ward as a governmental statement. But a declara- 
tion of tliat sort could not aft'ect the intergovern- 
mental arrangements as far as SEATO is 
concerned. The SEATO governments liave made 
these security arrangements and have made certain 
applications of them in their own interest in the 
security of the region of southeast Asia. It will 
be for tliose who make up SEATO to make any 
determination on a question of that sort, and that 
has not come before SEATO. 

Q. Mr. Secretary^ Is it true that discussions xolth 
the Japanese on the export quota on textiles have 
reached an impasse and that there is a likelihood 
that no agreement vjill l>e reached for this year? 

A. The question of textile trade with Japan is, 
of course, one of the very important questions be- 
tween our two countries. We can expect at any 
one time some fairly complicated issues between 
two great trading nations such as Japan and the 
United States, where we are moving about $1 bil- 
lion worth of products in each direction each year 
at the present time. The textile problem needs to 
be taken up on a multilateral basis; the principal 
consumers of textile imports and the principal 
producers of textile exports need to think about 
the stabilization of an orderly world market which 
affords opportunity for reasonable growth.' And 
so we will be in a considerable period of discussion 
among governments on this very complicated and 
difficult jDroblem of textiles. I would not say that 
we and the Japanese have reached an impasse 



' See p. 90. 
Jo/y JO, J 96 J 



on the matter. I think we have made some real 
progress. 

Q. Mr. Secretary., to go hack to Berlin again., 
the impression which I think you have left- — and 
I wonder if it is the correct one — Is that despite 
the fact that this Government here feels that the 
crisis has been entirely of Soviet origin, neverthe- 
less the United States and its allies are willing to 
sit doivn and try to negotiate once again with the 
Soviet Union over the whole question of Germany 
and Berlin. Is that a correct inference? 

A. A question of that sort tends to put any 
official in somewliat of a box. On the one side you 
are never in a position to say — or would want to 
say — that you are going to quit coimnnunicating 
among governments about any important question. 
On the other side, the implication that you are 
going to communicate among governments, and 
are willing to communicate among governments, 
is easily interpi-eted as meaning a radical revision 
of position. Tliis is not the case. The essential 
thing is that the three Western Powers, as the 
President put it, are in Berlin not by sufferance 
but by right, and those rights can't be terminated 
by unilateral action taken by the Soviet Union. 
You start from there. And our commitments to 
the people of West Berlin are very strong and 
\ery far-reaching. 

Geneva Test Ban Talks 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in vieio of the deadlock in 
the Geneva test han talks, xvhat are tlie Intentions 
of the administration {!) for continuing those 
talks and (2) for resumption of atomic tests? 

A. Well, firet, we do expect to continue those 
talks and take advantage of any opportimity that 
might come for moving toward a treaty. Wliat 
we really want in the nuclear test field is an in- 
ternational treaty which provides cessation of such 
tests with adequate inspection and control. We 
have had a serious setback in the uncooperative 
attitude of the Soviet Union in the Geneva discus- 
sions. We do not intend to merge these talks with 
general disarmament discussions. 

Of course, in the absence of an effective treaty 
the question of a moratorium inevitably arises, and 
the question of the national security interests of 
the United States is one which has to be clearly, 
thoroughly canvassed. Those are matters that are 
being looked into very carefully at the present 

55 



time, of course. But I would not wish to speculate 
today about what the decisions would have to be 
or might be on that question. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, some days ago — to come bach 
to the other question. — some days ago the State 
Dej)artment very clearly expressed its disappoint- 
ment in the fact that the coimnittee stayed — that 
the OAS com,m,ittee had stayed such a sliort tims 
in the Dominican Repuhlic. You., however, have 
called this visit of this committee a very helpful 
episode. I wonder if anything has happened in 
the intervening period to change the Departments 
view of it? 

A. Perhaps I just don't use as many adjectives 
as my colleagues. We think that the OAS must 
continue to follow the situation in the Domini- 
can Republic. How and m what way, how best to 
do it, is something that has to be worked on. But 
I personally believe the OAS committee left the 
Dominican Republic somewhat too soon. But that 
at the moment is behind us. We start from where 
we are and go on from here. 

Question of East German Peace Treaty 

Q. On the question of Berlin again, is our con- 
cern directed toward the signing of an East Ger- 
man peace treaty or toii^ard a possible effort to oust 
the West from. West Berlin? Suppose they sign 
such a treaty and make no effort to cut off tlie 
access routes? 

A. Well, again, we don't want to speculate too 
much about future contingencies here in the situa- 
tion. But any attempt to freeze the position in 
Germany without due regai"d to the wishes of the 
German people would be, in our judgment, a very 
unfortunate step to take. The Soviet Union and 
its representatives have stood up in the United Na- 
tions from time to time and made a great play o\'er 
their commitment to the notion of self-determina- 
tion in various parts of the world. They have 
been unwilling to apply that same principle to 
Central Europe. 

If you want to start at the heart of the matter, 
our own national interest starts with our posi- 
tion in West Berlin and our commitment to the 
people of that city. This doesn't mean that this 
exhausts our interest in it. We also have, stem- 
ming out of wartime agreements, an interest in 
East Berlin. As a nation that was at war with 
Germany and one of the United Nations, we have 



an interest in a peace settlement for Germany. 
But I wouldn't want to water down in any way 
the heart of our interest, which is our position in 
West Berlin and our commitments to the people 
of that city. 

Q. In that connection, sir, the question lia-n 
arisen as to whether we would object to having 
the East Germans sign papers on the access 
routes. 

A. Well, that is a question I'd prefer to leave 
for the future. Because obviously, as a policy 
matter, this is not something that we like at all, 
and it's something about which we will be very 
much concerned, and this would be a matter of 
discussion among governments. But this is all 
for the future. 

Talks on Resuming Disarmament Negotiations 

Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us how the 
McCloy-Zorin * talks are going, lohether they are 
making any progress, xohether you think the dis- 
armament talks will get started by Jxdy 31? 

A. These talks, I think, are now in about their 
third day. They are a continuation of talks that 
began at the United Nations' resumed session of 
the General Assembly. By agreement between 
the Governments, these talks are still in their pri- I 
vate stage. We do not expect to be making public 
statements immediately upon the nature of the 
talks or the progress of the talks. Other govern- 
ments are being kept informed. It would be, I 
think, much too early to say whether we are hope- 
ful that anything might come out of them. They 
are continuing, however. We meet again 
tomorrow. 

Q. Mr. Secreta?'y, Premier Khrushchev, in 
ptstifying his proposal to go ahead with a sepa- 
rate peace treaty with East Germany, drew an 
analogy with the Western treaty without the 
Russians with Japan. Do you accept that 
analogy? 

A. We do not. There are several important 
difTerenccs between the Japanese Peace Treaty 
and this proposal to sign a treaty with the so- 
called East German Republic. In the case of 
Japan, there was a representative, elected govern- 



" John .T. McCloy, Adviser to the President, and Valeri.TU 
A. Zorin, Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister ; for text of a 
joint comuuinique, see p. 57. 



56 



Department of State Bulletin 



ment representing a unified nation with which 
to sign a peace treaty. There were 49 nations, 
I beheve, which did in fact sign that peace 
treaty. The Soviet Union was consulted by the 
then Ambassador, Jolin Foster Dulles, in tlie early 
stages and liad an opportunity to consult freely 
prior to the meeting of the Japanese Peace Con- 
ference in San Francisco. They did not avail 
themselves of the full opportunity that was there 
for them for consultation. 

At the conference itself the Russians attended, 
and the conference agreed to proceed to sign a 
treaty. That treaty did not purport to, nor did 
it, affect any tangible rights of the Soviet Union 
in Japan. The situation in Berlin involves quite 
a different situation, with the United States and 
France and the United Kingdom exercising very 
specific rights and obligations in West Berlin. 
There was nothing like that in the Japanese situa- 
tion at all. Nor did we have a representative 
government in Germany to decide for all of Ger- 
many and certainly not a representative govern- 
ment in the so-called East German Republic. I 
think the situations are quite different. 

Q. Thank you, Mr. Secretary. 



U.S., U.S.S.R. Discuss Framework and 
Forum for Disarmament Talks 

Joint Commvunique 

Today, June 19, in Washington, in accordance 
with the agreement previously reached between 
the Government of the U.S.S.R. and the Govern- 
ment of the U.S.A., an exchange of views was 
opened on questions relating to disarmament and 
to the resumption of negotiations in an appropriate 
body, whose composition is to be agreed upon. 

The Delegation of the U.S.S.R. includes: V. A. 
Zorin, Deputy Foreign Minister of the U.S.S.R., 
Permanent Representative of the U.S.S.R. to the 
United Nations (Head of the Delegation) ; M. A. 
Menshikov, Ambassador of the U.S.S.R. to the 
United States; A. A. Gryzlov, Col. Gen.; I. G. 
Usachev, Deputy Director of the Department of 
International Organizations of the U.S.S.R. For- 
eign Ministry ; as well as advisers and experts. 

Participants from the United States include : 
John J. McCloy, Adviser to the President; Ed- 
mund A. Gullion, Deputy Director, U.S. Disarma- 



ment Administration ; Adrian Fisher, Deputy to 
the Adviser to the President; Ronald I. Spiers, 
Director, Political Staff, U.S. Disarmament Ad- 
ministration ; Robert E. Matteson, Director, Policy 
Staff, U.S. Disarmament Administration ; as well 
as advisers and experts. 

The American and Soviet sides have exchanged 
views upon the procedure of the work and on the 
ways of solving the problems before them. 



Prime Minister of Japan Concludes 
Official Visit to Washington 

Prmie Minister Hayato Ikedci of Japan made 
an official visit to Washington June 20-23. Fol- 
lowing are texts of a joint communique issued hy 
President Kennedy and Prime Minister Iheda on 
June 22 and an exchange of notes hetween Secre- 
tary Busk and Japanese Foreign Minister Zentaro 
Kosaha, together with a list of the menibers of 
the Prime Minister's official party. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

White House press release dated June 22 

President Kennedy and Prime Minister Ikeda 
concluded today a constructive and friendly ex- 
change of views on the present international situ- 
ation and on relations between the United States 
and Japan. Secretary Rusk, Foreign Minister 
Kosaka, and other U.S. and Japanese officials par- 
ticipated in tlie conversations. 

The President and the Prime Minister discussed 
various problems confronting the j^eoples of the 
world who are resolved to defend their freedom, 
and they reaffirmed the determination of the two 
countries to intensify their efforts toward the es- 
tablishment of world peace based on freedom and 
justice. The President and the Prime Minister 
stressed that the common policy of the two coun- 
tries is to strengthen the authority of the United 
Nations as an organ for the maintenance of world 
peace. 

The President and the Prime Minister expressed 
their concern over the unstable aspects of the situ- 
ation in Asia and agreed to hold close consultations 
in the future with a view to discovering the ways 
and means by which stability and well-being 
might be achieved in that area. Their discussion 
of the Asian situation mcluded an examination 



Ju/y /O, J 96 1 



57 



of various problems relating to Communist China. 
They also exchanged views concerning the rela- 
tions of their respective countries with Korea. 

The President and the Prime Minister recog- 
nized the urgent need for an agreement on a nu- 
clear test ban accompanied by effective inspection 
and control measures, agreeing that it is of crucial 
importance for world peace. They also expressed 
their conviction that renewed efforts should be 
made in the direction of general disarmament. 

The President and the Prime Minister reviewed 
the world economic situation. They agreed on the 
need for continued close cooperation among the 
free countries of the world, particularly in pro- 
moting the growth of international trade and fi- 
nancial stability. They agreed that both countries 
should pursue liberal ti-ade policies looking to an 
orderly expansion of trade between the two coun- 
tries. 

The President and the Prime Minister stressed 
the importance of development assistance to less 
developed countries. The Prime Minister ex- 
pressed a particular interest in this connection in 
development assistance for East Asia. They 
asreed to exchange views on such assistance and 
agreed that both countries would make positive 
efforts to the extent of their respective capacities. 

The President and the Prime Minister ex- 
pressed satisfaction with the firm fomidation on 
which the United States-Japanese partnership is 
established. To strengthen tlie partnership be- 
tween the two countries, they agreed to establish 
a Joint United States-Japan Committee on 
Trade and Economic Affairs at the cabinet level, 
noting that this would assist in achieving the 
objectives of Ai-ticle II of the Treaty of Mutual 
Cooperation and Security.^ The President and 
the Prime Minister also recognized the impor- 
tance of broadening educational, cultural and 
scientific cooperation between the two countries. 
They therefore agreed to fonn two United States- 
Japan committees, one to study expanded cultural 
and educational cooperation between the two 
countries, and the other to seek ways to strengthen 
scientific cooperation. 

The President and the Prime Minister ex- 
changed views on matters relating to the Ryukyu 
and Bonin Islands, which are imder United States 
administration but in which Japan retains rcsid- 



' For text, see Bulletin of Feb. 8, 1960, p. 18-1. 



ual sovereignty. The President affirmed that the 
United States would make further efforts to en- 
hance the welfare and well-being of the inhab- 
itants of the Eyukyus and welcomed Japanese 
cooperation in these efforts; the Prime Minister 
affirmed that Japan would continue to cooperate 
with the United States to this end. 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES 

Press release 429 dated June 22 
U.S. Note 

June 22, 1961 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to recent 
discussions between the President of the United 
States of America and tlie Prime IMinister of 
Japan concerning the desirability of developing 
arraaigements for consultations between our two 
Governments on economic mattei-s of mutual con- 
cern. In this connection, it was noted that in 
Article II of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation 
and Security between the United States of America 
and Japan, signed at Washington, January 11). 
1960, both Parties agreed that "They will seek to 
eliminate cojiflict in their international economic 
policie^s and will encourage economic collabora- 
tion between them." These discussions reATuled a 
desire on the pait of both Governments to estab- 
lish a committee for periodic consultation between 
their respective Cabinet niembei-s having major 
responsibility for economic policy. 

I have the honor to propose, therefore, that our 
two Governments agree : 

(a) That there shall be established a Joint 
United States-Japan Committee on Trade and 
Economic Affairs; 

(b) That the Committee shall consist: 

for the United States of Americ.v. of the 
Secretaries of State, the Treasury, the In- 
terior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, 
and, 

for Japan, of the Ministers for Foreign 
Affairs, Finance, AgTiculture and Forestry, 
International Trade and Industry, and 
Labor, and the Director General of the Eco- 
nomic PI aiming Agency, 
together with such other officials of Cabinet 
rank as either Government niay designate 
from time to time, as the need arises; 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



(c) That the Committee's fimctions shall be: 

( 1 ) To consider means of promoting eco- 
nomic collaboration between tlie two 
countries ; 

(2) In particular, to exchange inforamtion 
and views on matters which might ad- 
versely affect the continued expansion 
of mutually profitable trade and on 
questions relating to the economic as- 
sistance pi'ograms of the two countries 
wluch require joint consideration; 

(3) To report to the resijective Govern- 
ments on such discussions in order 
that consideration may be given to 
measures deemed appropriate and 
necessary to eliminate conflict in the 
international economic policies of the 
two countries, to provide for a fuller 
measure of economic collaboration, and 
to encourage the flow of trade; 

(d) That the Committee shall meet once a year 
or more often, as may be considered necessaiy by 
the two Govermnents : 

(e) That the Committee shall meet alternately 
in the United States and Japan, the Chairman 
to be the United States Secretary of State or 
another member designated by the United States 
Government when meetings are held in the United 
States and the Japanese Minister for Foreign 
Affairs or another member designated by the 
Japanese Government when meetings are held in 
Japan. 

If the Government of Japan is agreeable to 
the foregoing proposals, I suggest that the present 
note and Your Excellency's reply to that effect 
should constitute an agreement between our two 
Governments which shall take effect this day and 
shall remain in force until such time as either 
Government shall have given notice in writing 
of its desire to terminate the agreement. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 
consideration. 

Dean Rusk 

Secretary of SUite of the 
United States of America 

His Excellency 

Zentaro Kosaka, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan. 



Japanese Note 

June 22, 1961 
Excellency : I have the honour to refer to Your Ex- 
cellency's note of today's date in which you ijropose the 
establishment of a Joint United States-Japan Committee 
on Trade and Economic Affairs. 

I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that the 
Government of Japan concurs in these proposals and 
agrees that your note and the present reply shall con- 
stitute an agreement between our two Governments which 
shall take effect this day and shall remain in force until 
such time as either Government shall have given notice 
in writing of its desire to terminate the agreement. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to extend to Your 
Excellency the assurance of my highest consideration. 



Zentako Kosaka 



The Honorable 

Dean Rusk 

Secretary of State 

of the United States of America 



MEMBERS OF PRIME MINISTER'S PARTY 

The Department of State announced on June 
14 (press release 396) that the following would 
make up the official members of Prime Minister 
Ikeda's party : 

Hayato Ikeda, Prime Minister of Japan 

Mrs. Hayato Ikeda 

Zentaro Kosaka, Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Koichlro Asakai, Ambassador of Japan 

Kiichi Miyazawa, Member of the House of Councilors 

Shigenobu Shima, Deputy Vice-Minister for Foreign 
Affairs 

Nobuhiko Ushiba, Director of the Economic Affairs Bu- 
reau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs 

Toshiro Shimanouchi. Counselor of the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs 

Hiroshi Hitomi, private secretary to the Prime Minister 

Yoshiro Okawara, private secretary to the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs 



Two New EVSembers of Commission 
on Educational Exchange Confirmed 

The Senate on June 12 confirmed the appoint- 
ment of Walter xVdams and Mabel M. Smyth to 
be members of the U.S. Advisory Commission on 
Educational Exchange. (For biographic details, 
see Department of State press release 412 dated 
June 19.) 



July 10, J 96 1 



59 



U.S. and Italy Reaffirm Common Aim 
of Promoting Peace and Progress 

ATnintore Fanfani, President of the Comicil of 
Ministers of the Italian Republic^ made an infor- 
mal visit to tlie United States June 11-16. Fol- 
lowing is the text of a joint comrmimique issued 
hy President Kennedy and Prime Minister Fan- 
fani at the conclusion of their discussions, held 
June 12 and 13, and a list of the members of the 
Prime Minister's party. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

White House press release dated June 13 

President Kennedy and Prime Minister Amin- 
tore Fanfani today concluded a cordial and con- 
structive two day series of consultations on a broad 
range of international problems and matters of 
interest to the governments and peoples of the 
United States and Italy who are engaged in the 
work of defending freedom and strengthening 
peace. The two reviewed the important role 
which Italy has played in the rebuilding of post- 
war Europe and the extraordinary rise of Italian 
strength and vigor in this era. 

They reaffirmed the strong ties of friendship 
and heritage which bind the two countries. 

The President and the Prime Minister met alone 
for a period of time and were later joined in dis- 
cussions by Foreign Minister Antonio Segni, Sec- 
retary of State Dean Rusk, Ambassador Sergio 
Fenoaltea, Ambassador G. Frederick Reinhardt 
and other high officers of the foreign ministries 
of both countries. President Kennedy informed 
the Prime Minister in detail concerning his re- 
cent conversations with Premier Khriishchev in 
Vienna ^ and views were exchanged on the prin- 
cipal issues involved, including Berlin and dis- 
armament. The President and the Prime Minister 
found themselves in complete agreement on the 
need for strengthening the Atlantic community 
both as an instrument of defense and in its politi- 
cal and economic aspects and for maintaining and 
developing the closest Western consultations on 
all major international questions. 



' Bulletin of June 2G, 1961, p. 991. 



There was concurrence on the need for continu- 
ing international efforts to reach a workable agree- 
ment on disarmament with adequate safeguards. 
They also agreed on the importance and utility of 
further progress towards European integration 
and on the need for continuing Western solidarity 
in the face of the unremitting Communist chal- 
lenge to the cause of freedom. 

The two leaders also discussed in detail the 
problems related to economic and technical as- 
sistance to the newly-emerging and developing 
countries of the world with particular reference 
to the coimtries of the Mediterranean area, Latin 
America and Africa — areas where Italy has espe- 
cially close ties based on history, culture and eco- 
nomic association. 

Prime Minister Fanfani stated in this regard 
that the Italian Government — within the limits of 
Italy's capabilities and of the engagements already 
undertaken for the development of Italy's south- 
ern regions — is ready to participate with its con- 
tribution to the implementation of these programs 
which will be agreed upon. It was agreed that in 
making plans for the further elaboration of the 
program for assisting emerging and developing 
nations the two governments should maintain con- 
tact between themselves and with the many other 
friendly governments as well as the governments 
concerned whose support and participation are 
essential to the success of the program. 

Prime Minister Fanfani also had meetings dur- 
ing his visit with the Secretary of State, Mr. Dean 
Rusk, and the Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. 
Douglas Dillon. Foreign Minister Segni also 
met with Secretary of Defense Robert S. Mc- 
Namara. The Italian leaders also met with lead- 
ers of both Houses of Congress. 

This meeting again confirmed the profound and 
intimate relations between the two countries and 
the common aspirations of these governments to 
maintain peace and security and freedom in the 
promotion of the welfare of the peoples of the 
world. 

Prime Minister Fanfani is expected to leave 
Washington by car tomorrow morning, June 14, 
for further visits in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and 
New York before his return to Italy on June 16. 
Foreign Minister Segni will return to Italy on 
June 14. 



60 



Department of Sfafe Bullefin 



MEMBERS OF PARTY 

The Department of State announced on June 9 
(press release 380) that the following would ac- 
company Prime Minister Fanfani during his visit 
to the United States : 

Antonio Segni, Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Sergio Fenoaltea, Ambassador of Italy 

Giovanni Fornari, Director General of Political Affairs 

Francesco Paolo Vanni D'Archirafi, Diplomatic Adviser 
to Prime Minister Fanfani 

Federico Sensi, Chief of Cabinet to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs 

Vittoriano Manfredi, Counselor of Embassy 

Hombert Bianchi, Chief of the Press Office of the Presi- 
dency of the Council 

Felice Marchioni, Chief of Protocol of the Presidency 
of the Council 



Ambassador Stevenson Returns 
From Visit to South America 

Stateinent hy Ambassador Stevenson ^ 

I am mighty glad to be home again after this 
fast and tiring journey. But it was successful in 
all respects. We have enjoyed an extraordinary 
welcome and hospitality everywhere and ex- 
changed views, in the frankness permitted by true 
friendship, about common problems and 
aspirations. 

Since our departure on June 4th, my colleagues 
and I have visited all 10 coimtries of South 
America.^ I have talked in each capital with the 
chief of state and his ministers. So far as time 
permitted, we have also talked with other persons 
representing different sections of public opinion — 
leaders of political parties, labor and business 
leaders — and students. And of course we have 
talked with representatives of the press. 

My heart was warmed by the very cordial re- 
ception we have received everywhere. This has 
been gratifying to me personally. It has also been 
a demonstration of the confidence of our Latin 
American neighbors in President Kennedy and 
his policies and of their good will toward the 



'■ Made at Washington National Airport on June 22 
(press release 433 dated .Tune 23). Mr. Stevenson is U.S. 
Representative to the United Nations. 

' For a statement by President Kennedy and a Depart- 
ment announcement, see Bulletin of June 19, 1961, p. 970. 



people of the United States. The hostile mani- 
festations were few and inconsequential. 

We found a tremendous interest and hope in 
the Alliance for Progress.^ The conviction is uni- 
versal that more rapid social and economic de- 
velopment is imperative. While this is a 
long-range undertaking, it is important to demon- 
strate promptly tliat we are making progress on 
this front. We were gratified by the awareness of 
South American leaders that old molds have to be 
broken and that society which does not translate 
economic progress into social progress is doomed. 

For our part, we have assured our South Ameri- 
can friends that we are sincerely interested in 
helping them to help themselves. Though there 
are common problems of poverty, disease, illit- 
eracy, housing, high birth rates, education, land 
and tax reform, each country in America is dif- 
ferent and resolutely asserts that fact. We tliink 
we have made our view clear to all that it is up to 
each country to do what is required to put its 
house in order and then to mobilize and use its 
resources, together with external assistance, ef- 
ficiently and for the benefit of all its people. 

In each country there have been discussions of 
the preparations for the forthcoming ministerial 
meeting in Uruguay of the Inter- American Eco- 
nomic and Social Council. We found that much 
planning has already been done for tliis meeting. 
The planning was at a stage where an exchange of 
views on the agenda was mutually helpful in each 
couiitry. And I have to add that there is wide- 
spread concern about whether Congress will sup- 
port the Alliance for Progress program so as to 
make it truly eifective. 

These consultations have served to reaffirm the 
close relationsliip between social and economic 
progress and the preservation and strengthening 
of democratic institutions. 

Each country has its own political problems, 
and if I have any reservations it is the preoccupa- 
tion in most coimtries with domestic in contrast to 
international problems. Political liberty camiot 
long subsist without economic progress and social 
justice. Yet to barter liberty for social gains is 
too high a price. And if there was any idea that 



' Ibid., Apr. 3, 1961, p. 471, and June 19, 1961, p. 971. 



July JO, J 96 1 



61 



communism in Cuba is only a problem for the 
United States, I believe we dispelled this illusion. 
I wish again to say how much I regret not 
having been able to consult with all the American 
governments who joined with us in adopting the 
Act of Bogota.* I want to assure them that their 
problems and views are of no less interest and con- 



cern to us, because within the time available it was 
impossible for me to visit them also. And I hope 
that omission can be quickly rectified by another 
representative of the President. 

I am looking foi'ward now to reporting to the 
President and to the Secretary' of State on the de- 
tails of our consultations during the past 18 days. 



Our Changing World 



iy Charles E. Bohlen 

Special Assistant to the Secretary of State '■ 



So swift are the events in the world which press 
in on us from the outside, so deep the changes 
within our own country, that it is extremely diffi- 
cult to take one central factor on an occasion such 
as this. I have, however, selected the word 
"change" for this address. 

This word assumed special significance in the 
last 30 years — the period of one generation. 
From the point of view of history it has been par- 
ticularly acute and striking during this period. 
For many hundreds of years prior to that period, 
change was slow. Through generations the ele- 
raents of change proceeded in easy fashion, oc- 
casionally marked by violent outbreaks, and the 
fundamental basis on which the world was or- 
ganized appeared to any person at any given time 
as an orderly and leisurely process. The evolu- 
tion of the human race was a subject primarily for 
historians, to be studied at leisure, analyzed care- 
fully, and pondered upon. 

Nostalgia for the good old days is essentially a 
privilege of age. It is not a function or a neces- 
sity of youth. But let us then look at the changes 
which have occurred in the world in the space 
of one generation, customarily accepted as 30 
years. Much of the times, which I will briefly 
discuss, will have no more relevance to your con- 

' For text, see ilnil., Oct, 3, lOOO, p. 5:57. 
' Address made nt conmienrement exercises at Radoliffe 
College, Cambridge, Mass., on June 14 (press release 300). 



sciousness or your activities than those relating to 
the times of ancient Greece or Rome. They will 
be studied with interest, I trust, and understand- 
ing, I hope, since that which has preceded us con- 
tains the elements of change we have to deal with 
today. 

The changes I am about to describe have oc- 
curred with such bewildering speed that it is 
extremely difficult for any individual, no matter 
how closely associated with the affairs of this 
world, to keej^ pace with them. Many of these 
changes are obvious and can be readily recognized. 
Emergence into full nationhood of some 41 coun- 
tries, out of 111 generally recognized nations of 
the world today, is readily understood and ac- 
cepted as such by those in whose lifetime it has 
occurred. But the subtleties, the concealed nature 
of change, are difficult to ascertain and almost im- 
possible to comprehend. They involve the psy- 
chological adjustment of human beings to different 
and altered objective circumstances. They in- 
volve, on our part, an absorption and an adjust- 
ment which severely taxes the capacity of the 
human being, especially if he is dealing with 
events which include in themselves some of these 
changes. 

Change, by its very nature, is an infectious 
thing, and there is always the tendency in every 
human being to consider that what he learns in 
youth is the absolute and that change should be 
regarded as due to malevolence or "crackpotism" 



62 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



or some other quality which by popular expression 
we have come to regard as a temporary aberration, 
with little or no relevance to the main tides of this 
life. 

It is one of the characteristics of the human 
being to resist realities of change as a temporary, 
immaterial matter which does not require much 
adjustment on his part. In fact I would say in 
a larger sense that one characteristic of any given 
human society is to have an image of itself which 
is at least 30 to 40 years out of date. 

The World of 1931 

Thirty years ago we in the United States were 
confronted with a world that seemed stable in its 
institutions, fixed in its prospects, and dedicated 
in its reasoning to the precepts of Western Chris- 
tian civilization. There were then, however, 
visible in the existing world, signs of the changes 
which were to bui-st upon it and to uproot many 
of its most cherished beliefs. These changes were 
at work in one of the potentially great powers of 
the world— Russia. They were at work in Ger- 
many while the seeds of disruption were in prog- 
ress in the Republic of Weimar that culminated 
in the rise to power of Adolph Hitler. They 
were at work, although far beneath the surface, in 
the entire colonial areas of the world. 

These signs were foreseen by a few, but by very 
few. Even in the ability to foresee the coui-se of 
human events the full dimensions of the incipient 
changes were perhaps mercifidly hidden. The 
growth of teclmology was apparent, but little 
understood. The growth of the media of com- 
munication — the radio and, more recently, tele- 
vision — was clearly on the march ahead, but not 
fully comprehended. In an orderly but troubled 
world the signs of change were slowly growmg 
without too much impact upon those who were 
directing events. 

The vast areas of the world which occupy so 
much of our attention seemed to be securely witliin 
the hands of the Western democraci&s. Africa — 
with the exception of Liberia and the Union of 
South Africa — was entirely under colonial rule. 
Some were under the League of Nations mandate, 
with its implicit promise of eventual independ- 
ence ; others were under the direct rule of France 
and England, which emerged from World War I, 
on paper at least, as the dominant nations of the 
world. 



In Asia the situation was somewhat more spotty. 
The Philippines, an American colonial possession 
at that time, were about to receive — in 1935 — the 
promise of eventual independence, wMch played 
so great a part in the attitude of the Philippine 
people toward the United States. Japan was in- 
dependent. China too was independent but with 
a series of interlaced accommodations which the 
Western Powei-s had enforced upon it. China 
was torn by civil war and hardly capable of being 
accepted as an independent power. Thailand was 
the only independent countiy in southeast Asia. 
Indonesia was Dutch; Indochina, French. 

Moving westward, we found the English in con- 
trol over the vast human and material resources 
of India. The Middle East, with so-called inde- 
pendent governments, was nonetheless firmly 
under the influence of the two Western democ- 
racies, France and England. 

Indeed, an examination of the world in 1931 
revealed that, apart from Europe, only South 
America, the United States, the British Common- 
wealth, Japan, and possibly China, and the ex- 
ceptions noted in Asia were independent in any 
true sense of the word. The British Fleet stood 
guard throughout the entire world. The United 
States at this period of its development was pro- 
tected by these two great democracies of Western 
Europe. We had little to worry about except the 
development of our own continent. 

The World as It Looks Today 

Now let us look at the world as it looks today. 
World War II smashed the two great power cen- 
ters, Germany and Japan, which had sought to 
impose their will upon the civilized world. But 
we have been engaged in restoring what we de- 
stroyed. Entirely different landscape came into 
being as a result of that event. 

In Asia the tide of freedom has rolled far and 
fast and there is not in that area a single colonial 
possession of any importance held by any Western 
power. The Philippines, in conformity with the 
miderstanding reached with the United States in 
1935, became a free and independent country. 
Indonesia, after a brief but bitter struggle with 
the Dutch, emerged into nationhood. India, 
after a period of internecine strife, developed into 
two countries, India and Pakistan, which have 
already made their mark on international history. 
China, beset by internal change, has come to be 



Jo/y 10, J 961 



63 



the second Communist power in the world. The 
countries of Eastern Europe display the unmis- 
takable imprint of an alien hand. The countries 
of the Middle East, without exception, have 
emerged as a series of independent countries. 
Africa, that vast Dark Continent, has in the last 
10 yeare given signs of the deep thirst for inde- 
pendence among its varied peoples. There are 
now from Africa 24 new nations, with all the 
characteristics of newly won independence, 
fiercely proud of the new status they have 
achieved, sensitive to any slights, and impatient 
of any imagined bonds. In Africa there remain 
some areas which have not yet achieved their 
independence, but if we can read the signs of 
coming events, they most certainly will. 

The change that has affected these vast areas of 
the world has not, of course, been without effect on 
the fonner possessing coimtries. If we examine 
merely those areas of the former colonial empires 
of the world and consider what unheard-of 
changes they have imposed upon our country, this 
in itself should bring home to us, with the utmost 
clarity and sharpness, the effect upon our country 
and its position in the world today. 

America's Response to Change 

The dimensions of American activities in the 
foreign field in the last 30 years have moved ahead 
faster than their results can be absorbed by the 
popular consciousness. And this simple fact is 
of immediate importance. 

Our civilization is the most successful in ma- 
terial results of any that have existed before in 
history. We are a people replete with the good 
things of life, with a greater degree of our citizens 
enjoying these fruits of our system, with shorter 
hours of work, with more leisure — a society which 
by its own spectacular successes has produced a 
greater state of well-being for the great majority 
of its citizens, more secure in the enjoyment of the 
rights of self-government than any recorded soci- 
ety in history, either past or present, can register. 

However, there are many aspects of our civiliza- 
tion which, despite these positive achievements, 
should cause us as citizens of this country to give 
pause before we assert our supremacy before the 
world. There is the racial problem, whose main 
elements are clear enough to you, so that I need 
not elaborate upon them. There is the problem of 
education — how to have our children enjoy the 



essential requirement of education. There is also 
the character of our free economy, which seems 
to require, every so often, a period of recession. 

These are domestic problems, and it is not my 
intention to go into them at any length ; but they 
do have an impact on our foreign policy, and every 
one of you, no matter what position you occupy in 
our society, will have a direct part in the resolu- 
tion of these problems. In this sense you will be 
an active participant in the formulation of our 
foreign policy, for every citizen in this country 
does have such an impact. What he or she does in 
his daily life will help build up the image — I 
would prefer another word — of the United States , 
and its efforts throughout the world. I 

If we neglect those things which should be done 
at home, we can hardly seek to preach abroad what 
we would like to see done. The world is in full 
motion today. New forces — that is, new to us — 
are at work changing the entire landscape of the 
world. This process will undoubtedly continue at 
an accelerated pace during the entire lifetime of 
everyone present here. Our internal reactions will 
have to step up to keep pace with those happening 
in the world. This is not an easy process or one, in 
general, which our education and training has 
equipped us to deal with. It is, however, in es- 
sence, the difference between revolution and 
evolution. 

Change is inevitable. But the nature of change, 
the degree of response with which we meet it, is 
perhaps the most important facet in the entire 
process. If we accept as a fact that change is in- 
evitable, then our ability to adjust in time — and 
totally — becomes much easier. The response of 
the coming generation, the ability to absorb and 
adjust to the process of change, will be perhaps 
its most determinant quality. 

If our society with its inherent freedom, its 
flexible method of adjustment, can rise to the 
measure of this task, there is real hope that we 
can dominate the tumults of the immediate future. 

Erroneous Assumption of Communism 

In addition to the factor of change by itself, we 
are confronted with the presence and involvement 
of an adversary, alert, vigorous, and ruthless. 
This adversary is accepted under the frequently 
but not always misleading term of "communism." 
Time will not permit me to go into any depth or 
detail as to the nature of this phenomenon and its 



64 



DepartmenI of State Bulletin 



progress to the dimensions that it has acquired 
today. It is sufficient at this time merely to state 
that it is based upon a body of thought which 
recognizes, even more fully than I have today, the 
question of change in the world and the possibility 
of exploiting it. It brings 43 years of experience 
in practice and, despite variations produced by 
different objective circumstances, holds firmly to 
the central core of its being — the class struggle. 
This is that all human affairs are subject to the 
control of what is termed the class conflict; that 
class conflict, with the smooth working of an exer- 
cise in logic, is presented as universal in its applica- 
tion to this world. It knows no doubts. But it 
does have fears. It is the great example of an 
erroneous assumption, translated through the 
mechanisms of power into a clear and sobering 
actuality. 

From the planting of this seed in Russia in 
1917, when there were less than 400,000 members 
of the Bolshevik Party in that country, it has de- 
veloped and has spread to encompass almost 1 
billion people. Backed by all the panoply of 
power that modem science can give it, it has tested 
and perfected its methods of application. 

The holders of this creed — and creed it is — have 
no understanding of the glorious freedom of 
choice. They see in change a blind process that 
leads humanity to one, and only one, end. This 
is clearly intolerable to the human spirit as we see 
it. The spirit of choice is one of the manifesta- 
tions of human freedom. There is no other — 
and this is for what we fight. 

It is indeed a formidable adversary, but, with 
the greatest advances it has made on the face of 
the globe since 1917, it has still within it the fal- 
lacy of erroneous assumption. And despite the 
glitter of its material consequences, it was launched 
on error. For truth, in the long run, always pre- 
vails, and we have against this doctrine the cause 
which, by its very nature, is unconquerable — 
freedom. The deepest aspirations of mankind 
recorded tlirough the flow of history have always 
been a society and a condition under which the in- 
dividual human person will find some expression 
for himself. We must hold fast to these simple 
and, as has been truly said, eternal verities. They 
are infinite in their variety; they affect but are 
unaffected by the vast challenge of our times. 
We must beware of accepting as permanent that 
which is a convenience and which has worked 

July 10, 1967 

599427—61 3 



very well in a given situation. We must learn to 
segregate out that which is eternal and that which 
is not. 

The Prospects Ahead 

There must be to you one central question in 
contemplating the prospects which lie ahead. 
Tliat is, what can you do during this period to 
make your individual contribution to your coun- 
try's efforts to safeguard the values which you 
have received and which we are all trying to 
protect? In his inaugural speech,^ President 
Kennedy said : 

. . . ask not what your country can do for you — ask 
what you can do for your country. 

It is difficult for you to find a comforting an- 
swer to this question. It is not for us who are 
in your Government to set forth a pattern and 
a concrete purpose for your lives. There is no 
ready answer, I can assure you. You must be 
aware of the fact that change is the normal and 
not the imusual — but the central reality of our 
times. This change, the manner in which this 
change is dealt with — whether it be within the 
limited sphere of our own life or in the larger 
sphere of government activity — this change should 
be recognized as a natural concomitant of your 
life. We must draw from within us those things 
which the study of history has shown to be true 
and permanent and stick to those with all the 
consciousness and dedication wliich we can muster. 

What I have described, very briefly, of the 
fmidamental changes that have occurred in the 
last generation are nothing to what will occur in 
the next. And it is you and your counterparts 
who are now stepping out into it who will bear the 
bnmt of the new epoch of the 1960's and 1970's 
and 1980's. The changes will be more rapid and 
more profoimd even than the ones I have depicted 
to you. The thresholds of sciences have been at- 
tacked on all sectors. The cumulative effects of 
these efforts will be known in the coming years. 
But the invisible change which will accompany 
the more obvious ones will require from you a 
greater flexibility and, in contrast, a greater at- 
tachment to the eternal verities if we are to sur- 
vive. I do not use the word "survival" in its 
customary sense. I use it as the preservation 
of the essential qualities of our civilization and 
not in the more usual form as a physical thing. 



' Bulletin of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 



65 



It will require of you a great deal more resilience 
toward novelty and change than was required of 
your predecessors. You must shorten the tune of 
its application as it affects your everyday life. 
I am sure that this will come if only because life 
is infinitely adjustable. 

Life is the great guide and teacher. No words 
that I might say here or words that you read will 
give you the answer. You will ask it, and I know 
you will give it. But do not ever consider that 
what you have learned and understood here in 
Radcliffe, which has so great and real a pride 
in the history of education, can fully equip you 
for what the immediate period ahead will present 
to you. I envy this modem generation, not only 
your youth — that is always something age envies — 
but more for the nature of the uncertain future 
you face. There is little that draws upon the best 
in people as uncertainty. You are a generation 
that is called upon to act in ways we cannot at 
tliis time understand. But if, as I am sure, the ed- 
ucation you have received here will equip you to 
distinguish truth from falsehood, however attrac- 
tive and persuasive, and with understanding, you 
will bear what the future will bring with honesty, 
faith, and even with gaiety. 

It will very possibly be grim but will most cer- 
tainly be exciting. I congratulate you most sin- 
cerely on your accomplishment and wish you well 
in all you do and in all you face. 



Czechoslovak U.N. Official Violates 
Status; U.S. Requests Departure 

NOTE TO U.N. SECRETARY-GENERAL 

U.S./n.N. press release 8734 dated June 20 

June 20, 1961 

The United States Mission to the United Na- 
tions presents its compliments to the Secretary 
General of the United Nations and, on instruc- 
tions from the Department of State, wishes to 
bring the following facts to his attention. 

On June 13 the United States Mission to the 
United Nations informed the Permanent Mission 
of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic to the 
United Nations that the United States Govern- 
ment possessed irrefutable information that Mr. 



Miroslav Nacvalac had engaged in activities which 
constituted an abuse of the privilege of his resi- 
dence within the meaning of Section 13(b) of the 
Headquarters Agi'eement and requested that ar- 
rangements be made for Mr. Nacvalac's immedi- 
ate departure from the United States. A copy 
of this note was delivered to the Secretary Gen- k 
eral on the same day. 

Mr. Miroslav Nacvalac is known to the United 
States Government as Cliief of Czechoslovak Ci- 
vilian Intelligence Operations in the United 
States and has a long background in Czechoslo- f 
vak intelligence work. 

Mr. Nacvalac arrived in the United States on 
July 8, 1958, as a member of the Permanent Mis- 
sion of Czechoslovakia to the United Nations. 
As of June 13, 1961, he was Counselor of that 
Delegation. He had earlier been in the United 
States as "an inspector" and as a member of the 
Czechoslovak Delegation to the United Nations 
General Assembly. 

On November 3, 1958, Mr. Nacvalac travelled 
from New York City to pay a secret visit to 
Mr. Karel Hlasny, a language instructor of the 
Army Language School in Monterey, California. 
Mr. Nacvalac solicited the cooperation of Mr, 
Hlasny in return for an exit permit for Mr. 
Hlasny's fiancee, who was then in Czechoslovakia. 
Mr. Nacvalac informed Mr. Hlasny of code signals 
to be utilized in arranging future meetings, em- 
phasizing the need for absolute secrecy. 

On January 11, 1959, Mr. Nacvalac travelled 
to Los Angeles, California, where he met with 
Mr. Hlasny by previous arrangement. Mr. 
Nacvalac assigned Mr. Hlasny certain intelligence 
targets and paid him $600. Mr. Nacvalac was 
particularly interested in the identities of gov- 
ernment employees attending the Army Language 
School and information concerning any character 
weaknesses that they might possess. 

On April 2, 1960, Mr. Nacvalac met Mr. Hlasny 
at Monterey, California; and received informa- 
tion from him for which he paid $400. 

Mr. Hlasny at this meeting indicated that he 
would not cooperate further until his fiancee was 
released from Czechoslovakia. 

In August of 1959 Mr. Hlasny's fiancee arrived 
in the United States. 

On November 14, 1959, Mr. Nacvalac met Mr. 
Hlasny at San Francisco, California, by pre- 
arrangement, paid liim $500, and received in- 
formation from Mr. Hlasny. 



66 



Deparimenf of State Bulletin 



On April 2, 1960, Mr. Nacvalac met Mr. Hlasny 
at San Francisco, California, in furtherance of this 
espionage operation. 

On Januaiy 21, 1961, Mr. Nacvalac met Mr. 
Hlasny at San Francisco, California, paid him 
$200, received information of the United States 
Government marked classified, and supplied Mr. 
Hlasny with a camera. 

During his contacts with other American citi- 
zens, Mr. Nacvalac indicated an interest in dis- 
cussing the possibility of defecting and remaining 
in the United States. 

On June 13, 1961, at a meeting at the Gripsholm 
Kestaurant in New York, the time and place of 
Mr. Nacvalac's choice, it became unmistakably 
clear that his alleged interest in remaining perma- 
nently in the United States was not motivated by 
sincere political convictions. 

The action of the United States in requesting 
Mr. Nacvalac's immediate departure was based 
on his higlily improper activities heretofore cited 
which had no relationship with his duties as a 
member of the Permanent Delegation to the United 
Nations. The action of the United States Govern- 
ment is clearly authorized \mder Section 13(b) of 
the Headquarters Agreement between the United 
States and the United Nations, which states that, 
in the case of abuse of privilege of residence by any 
member of any permanent delegation, it is under- 
stood that the privileges granted elsewhere in this 
Agreement (Section 11) shall not be construed 
so that such members shall be exempt from the 
laws and regulations of the United States regard- 
ing the residence of aliens. Mr. Nacvalac's 
activities clearly constitute an abuse of his privi- 
leges of residence. 

In view of the fact tlmt communications to the 
United Nations from the Czechoslovak Permanent 
Mission dated June 16, 1961, and June 19, 1961, 
on this subject have been circulated by the United 
Nations pursuant to the request of the Czecho- 
slovak Permanent Mission, the United States 
Mission requests that tliis note be circulated to all 
Members of the United Nations. Circulation of 
its note to the Czechoslovak Permanent Mission 
dated June 13, 1961, a copy of which is attached,^ 
is also requested. 



' Not printed here. 



NOTE TO CZECHOSLOVAK REPRESENTATIVE 

Press release 421 dated June 21 

June 21, 1961 
Tlie United States Mission to the United Na- 
tions has the honor, upon instruction from its 
Govenmient, to inform the Acting Permanent 
Kepresentative of the Czechoslovak Socialist Re- 
jjublic to the United Nations of the following de- 
cision taken by the Government of the United 
States of America. 

The status accorded Miroslav Nacvalac pursu- 
ant to Section 101(a) (15) (G) of the Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act by virtue of his entry 
into the territoi-y of the United States of America 
as a member of the Permanent Mission of the 
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic to the United 
Nations is herewith revoked. The effect of this 
revocation of status is to place Miroslav Nacvalac 
in the category of an alien illegally in the United 
States of America. 

Under the laws and regulations of the United 
States of America, Miroslav Nacvalac may elect 
either to depart vohmtarily, or in lieu of such 
voluntary departure, be removed.'' 

U.S. Changes Procedures Governing 
Travel of Hungarian Officials 

Press release 436 dated June 23 

The U.S. Government was informed by the Gov- 
ernment of the Hmigarian People's Republic on 
June 21, 1961, that, effective July 1, 1961, the 
existing authorization requirement for travel of 
U.S. Government personnel in Hungary would be 
replaced by a procedure mider which U.S. per- 
sonnel may travel within Hungary upon advance 
notification to the Hungarian Government of the 
planned travel. The U.S. Government has, there- 
fore, informed the Government of the Hungarian 
People's Republic that, effective July 1, 1961, per- 
sonnel of the Hungarian Legation in Washington 
and the Hungarian Mission to the United Nations 
in New York may travel within the United States 
upon advance notification to the U.S. Government 
of the planned travel. 

These procedures apply, as heretofore, only to 
travel which exceeds a radius of 25 miles from 
Washington or New York City or 40 kilometers 
from Budapest, as appropriate. 

^ Mr. Nacvalac left the United States on June 22. 



July 10, 7961 



67 



The United Nations, First Step Toward a World Under Law 



hyAdlaiE. Stevenson 

U.S. Representative to the United Nations' 



It has become a truism to say that our world is 
insanely dangerous. But truisms are true, and 
this one is worth examining more closely. Wliy 
is our world so dangerous? Why is the path 
ahead of us mined at every step? If we do not 
grasp the nature of our peril, we are not likely 
to deal with it rationally and creatively. We 
shall be driven from crisis to crisis, reacting 
blindly to forces we do not control. Panic 
steps in, and with panic vanishes all hope of 
surmoimting and guiding the turbulence through 
which we have to pass. 

I think there are two dominant themes in our 
present predicament. One is as old as mankind, 
the other is wholly new; but together they spell 
potential disaster. The first is the collapse, in 15 
brief years, of the old imperial structures which 
for the last hundred years at least have given 
some sort of order and coherence to the world. 
We do not regret their passing. On the contrary, 
our own principles of liberty and national self- 
determination hastened the dissolution of empires. 
But we must be aware of the consequences. All 
through history the ending of imperial rule has 
led to times of violence and upheaval. The freed 
peoples look for new political forms and alle- 
giances. And all too often new imperialisms 
thrust in to take the place of the old. As Turkish 
power collapsed in the Balkans, the Russian 
empire and the Austro-Hungarian empire com- 
peted for the succession, backing local rulers and 

' Address prepared for the commencement exercises 
at Ilofstra College, Hempstead, N.Y., on June 5 (U.S./U.N. 
press release 3728). Ambassador Stevenson left on a spe- 
cial mission to South America on June 4 ; the address 
was read by John Cranford Adams, president of Hofstra 
College. 



turning local quarrels into major issues in 
Europe's balance of power. We know what came 
out of those fatal struggles — a devastating and 
worldwide war. 

Today the ending of Europe's empires in Asia 
and Africa — and the ending of America's eco- 
nomic predominance in Latin America — has 
opened the way to new pressures coming from 
Moscow and Peiping which are none the less im- 
perialist for their ideological disguise. All em- 
pires tend to idealize themselves. The ideal of 
Greek culture took Alexander to the Indies ; Rome 
had its civilizing mission, Europe its whit© man's 
burden. Communist world brotherhood is the 
latest nationalization of overwhelming state 
power — but it can be imperialist just the same, 
as the people of Hungary or Tibet will testify. 
And its pressures are no less dangerous than those 
of Czarist Russia in the Balkans before 1914. 

Now let us look at the other face of our peril: 
We cannot afford a war. The certainty of atomic 
destruction inhibits all the quick, brusque solu- 
tions which only a himdred years ago would have 
sent Russian divisions to pinch off the free salient 
of West Berlin — or perhaps U.S. Marines to pick 
off the nuisance of Castro. This caution is no 
doubt the only wholly good byproduct of our 
terrible weapons. But the risk remains. The 
world's posture has never seemed more warlike, 
and the perils of war have never been more dire. 

This is the background against which we have 
to judge all our institutions, all our uistruments, 
all our policies. There is really only one question 
to ask. Does this or that body, does this or that 
approach, increase or diminish the risk of war? 
Even the institutions in which mankind's liigher 
hopes have been implanted must face the question 



68 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



on this overriding issue. Even the United Na- 
tions, which, in its foundations at least, was dedi- 
cated overwhelmingly to the cause of peace, must 
undergo our scrutiny. We have to ask whether 
it is really contributing to the pacification of our 
world, whether its forums are really stilling pas- 
sion and affording reason a chance to be heard, 
whether, in short, it is fulfilling or failing in its 
role as guardian of the jDeace. 

The Charges of "Incoherence" and "Bias" 

Tliere are critics who are beginning strongly to 
question whether the United Nations, constituted 
as it is and behaving as it now does, can really 
fulfill its peacemaking function. There are, I be- 
lieve, two main lines of attack, and both converge 
on the same point— the fact that again and again 
any solution of crises through the machinery of 
the United Nations depends upon a two-thirds 
vote in a world assembly now made up of 99 mem- 
bers and likely to pass the hundred mark at any 
moment. These nations represent an unbelievable 
variety of history, interests, experience, and 
maturity. Their ability to agree on any course of 
action is inherently limited by the immense differ- 
ences in their angles of vision. Regional differ- 
ences, historical differences, barriers of race and 
culture cross and recross the more prosaic fron- 
tiers of self-interest and national concern. 

For this reason it is exceedingly difficult to 
secure a consensus on most issues, and the severer 
critics argue that to submit to such procedures 
not only produces incoherence in the United 
Nations ; it exports the incoherence to the scene of 
operations and makes the confusion worse than 
might otherwise have been the case. 

Nor is incoherence the gravest charge. In the 
last year or so it has become increasingly obvious, 
say the critics, that a profoundly anti-Western 
bias has crept into the United Nations debates. 
The majority of the new nations have emerged to 
independence out of one form or other of Western 
colonial control. Many of them have an instinc- 
tive bias against their ex-masters. All of them 
respond compulsively to anything that suggests 
a Western relapse into colonialism. For historical 
reasons they do not react with the same concern 
against aggressive acts by Russia or China. The 
Africans urge sanctions against South Africa, but 
no one suggests they should be applied to Russia 
over its East European tyranny. Even so re- 



spected a world statesman as Mr. Nehru was slow 
to condemn Russian oppression in Hungary. But 
he was quick to denounce America's backing for 
the anti-Castro landings in Cuba. 

How then can the Western Powers use and re- 
spect an institution whose inherent bias seems to 
be against them and whose members appear to 
apply two quite different standards of judgment — 
one of excuse or indifference toward the ill doings 
of the Commimist great powers, one of loud con- 
demnation and hostility toward the West? This 
surely, so the argument runs, cannot lead to peace. 
The United Nations is becoming a forum for a 
further steady undermining of the Western 
World, a further whittling away of any effective 
balance of world power. 

Wliat are we to say to these criticisms? I be- 
lieve that the charge of incoherence is not borne 
out by the record. The United Nations has con- 
tinued to evolve and maintain a policy for mini- 
mal security in the Middle East — even after the 
debacle at Suez. It did act in the Korean crisis. 
Its mediators, its control commissions, its on-the- 
spot investigations have held before the eyes of 
the world the fundamental obligation not to settle 
issues by force. Even the interventions which 
have been most resented — the bringing of Algeria 
before the United Nations or the discussion of the 
responsibilities of the colonial powers to hasten 
independence — may have somewhat strengthened 
the forces making for negotiation and away from 
violence. 

Similarly the accusation of bias is not so 
straightforward as it appears. The United Na- 
tions is not responsible for the fact that most of 
the new nations are ex-colonial. Their anti- 
imperialist inclinations are simply a fact of con- 
temporary life. The United Nations is not 
responsible for the fact that Russia does not seem 
to most peoples in Asia, Africa, or Latin America 
to be imperialist. This view simply reflects the 
fact that in Africa and Latin America Russia was 
not the colonial master. In Asia the spread of 
Russian power has been on a slow continental 
scale — lUie the spread of American power to the 
Pacific — and the local peoples, unlike the Bantu of 
South Africa or the fellahs of Algeria, have been 
brought very fully into the educational and 
economic expansion of the Soviet Union. 

It may be illogical to exclude Khazaks and 
Uzbeks and Armenians from the ranks of people 



July 10, 1961 



69 



deserving self-determination, but the United 
Nations did not create the distinction. It is there 
in the minds of tlie current leaders of the new 
nations. 

An International Basis for Restoring Order 

But if the bias is there, why submit disputes to 
the United Nations at all ? It is here we have to 
ask the crucial question : What is the alternative? 
Do not forget the historical background of our 
day. Empires are collapsing. New power sys- 
tems backed by a fanatic faith seek to take their 
place. Most of the disputes that come to the 
United Nations concern this crumbling back- 
ground of pressure and coiuiterpressure. The 
Congo crisis, which has brought so many of these 
criticisms to a head, is preeminently such a crisis. 
The Belgian withdrawal was followed by anarchy 
with which on the one hand the Belgians stepped 
back and on the other the Russians began to step 
in. In these circumstances any direct interven- 
tion by the West would have been interpreted as 
an attempt to reimpose colonialism. Local 
opinion would have swung over to support the 
Communists, and the West would have been left 
in the impossible position of fighting a guerrilla 
war against a background of implacable local 
hostility. 

I need hardly underlme the fact that in the 
little wars that mark the end of empire — and can 
lead to the big wars that end everything — local 
opinion is decisive. The British could not defeat 
the Communist guerrillas in Malaya until inde- 
pendence was a fact and the local people won over. 
So long as Communists claim that they are fighting 
imperialism, local opinion swings their way — as 
it did, tragically, in Cuba. It follows that direct 
Western interventions tend of their very nature 
to produce a revulsion of local feeling which 
threatens the effectiveness of the intervention. We 
cannot change this fact. A hundred years of co- 
lonialism lie behind it. Half a decade is too short 
in which to produce a decisive change. 

The result is that in situations such as the Congo 
the Western World would be almost powerless if 
there were no United Nations force available to 
restore order, check a takeover by an outside 
power — Eastern or Western — and gradually build 
up the preconditions of genuine independence. Di- 
rect Western action would only hasten a Com- 
munist takeover. By putting the whole task of 



restoring order onto an international basis, favor- 
ing neither East nor West, there is at least a chance 
of avoiding first a Western defeat and secondly 
the risk of spiraling war. In short, wliile nations 
cannot intervene in the internal affairs of other 
nations, the United Nations can. 

It is surely significant that it is since the United 
Nations frustrated the Communists' plans of 
rapid infiltration in the Congo that Mr. Khru- 
slichev has been trying to extend his veto to the 
whole Organization and make sure that neither 
the Secretary-General nor any other organ of the 
United Nations shall be free to act or inteiwene. 
We by the same token must support and back with 
all our influence the only instrument by which the 
end of the Western system of colonialism can be 
prevented from opening the doors to the new im- 
perialism of the East. 

Purposeful International Action 

And this is not, I hasten to add, only a Western 
interest. It is above all the new nations them- 
selves that need an impartial instrument with 
which to keep themselves out of the perils of great 
power rivalry. As President Nkrumah [of 
Ghana] has reminded Africa: ""When the buU 
elephants fight, the grass is trampled down." 
The ability of the new nations to interpose the 
United Nations between their own quarrels and 
the great powers' struggles is their best hope of 
safeguarding the independence they have so 
urgently wanted and so recently received. Never 
before have emergent nations had such an instru- 
ment for their defense. Never before has the 
attempt been made to overcome the perils of 
postimperial transition by purposive international 
action. AH the rivalries, all the dangers, all the 
threats are as old as empire itself. Only the 
United Nations is new. It alone therefore offers 
the hope that this time the ending of empire will 
not lead to general war. 

But our support of the United Nations looks 
beyond the doubts and incoherences of this 
troubled year. We can hope that the passing 
years will make more plain the transformation of 
Western society from a group of colonial powers 
into a peaceful association of nations bent on 
sharing their great wealth with the developing 
world. As the mood changes, the pressing need 
for the United Nations as an instrument of 
pacification in the immediate postcolonial phase 



70 



Department of State BuUetin 



will give ground to wider and more inspiring 
tasks. The United Nations remains and must 
remain the arena in which the great dialog of 
humanity is carried on. That dialog is too vital 
for us to depreciate the institution which en- 
shrines it. 

We are going through a rough period in our 
relations with Eussia at this time. But we can 
recall that in the past the United Nations has 
been used as the venue for the negotiating of a 
more peaceful phase. The Berlin blockade was 
called off in the corridors of the United Nations. 
The Korean war ended under its auspices. So 
did the Suez crisis. Now the Congo appears to 
be on the way to order. We must hope and pray 
that similar disengagements will be possible in 
the future, and we must stand ready to seize the 
opportunities whenever they come. And they 
will come, I am sure, the more easily if the United 
Nations provides constant intercourse and maxi- 
mum contact between all the powers. 

Nor do I limit the vital significance of the 
United Nations to these pragmatic matters, im- 
portant though they are. In its ultimate role 
the United Nations is mankind's only frail shield 
against the rule of brute force. We know so well 
what we must do if we are to avoid the horrors 
of nuclear destruction. We must build up in our 
narrow world institutions of law, of cooperation, 
of arbitration and back them with police power. 
This is how we have moved from anarchy to 
ordered peace inside domestic society. This is 
how we must proceed in the world at large. 
Nothing less than a world tmder law can be our 
aim in the era of the megaton bomb. 

Toward this end the United Nations is a first 
step. Like the king's peace which in the days of 
Henry II covered only certain routes and cer- 
tain sanctuaries, the United Nations' jurisdiction 
is still limited — limited by the good will of all its 
members, limited by the forbearance of the more 
powerful and the modesty and good sense of the 
weaker brethren. 

This is not all we need. But it is something. 
To weaken it, to turn away from it, to leave it to 
its destructive antics would be the equivalent of 
declaring bankrupt men's best hopes for peace. 
This we must not do. We must not "despair of 
the republic" — the republic of all mankind who 
live in fear and long for peace and in the United 
Nations have at least set their foot a first step on 
the way to a world society under law. 



Spain Waives Right To Have 
Two Naval Deserters Returned 

Press release 431 dated June 22 

The Spanish Government has informed the 
Department of State that it has decided to waive 
its right to have two Spanish naval deserters, 
Juan Perez Varela and Manuel Martin Prieto 
Alba, returned to Spain pursuant to article XXIV 
of the Treaty of Friendship and General Rela- 
tions of 1902 between Spain and the United 
States.^ The Department of State had previously 
acknowledged the international obligation of the 
United States to return the seamen at the request 
of the Spanish Government. 

The two naval seamen deserted from Spanish 
naval vessels in United States ports in the spring 
of 1960. Considerable interest has been aroused 
by their case, which has been the subject of litiga- 
tion in United States courts and of proposed legis- 
lation in Congress. The court decisions recognized 
that under the provisions of the treaty the United 
States Government has an obligation to return 
such deserters to the Spanish authorities. 

The volimtary action by the Spanish Govern- 
ment in relinquishing its right in the case of these 
two naval seamen has been taken consequent to 
a petition to the Spanish Chief of State signed 
by them. It does not alter the position that the 
provisions of the treaty are applicable in such 
cases. 



U.S. Aids Zanzibar Refugees 

Press release 426 dated June 22 

The U.S. Government is providing emergency 
food and medical supplies to the Government of 
Zanzibar to relieve suffering among the Indian 
Ocean island's residents made homeless as a result 
of recent disturbances there. Powdered milk, 
fruit juices, drugs, and bandages will arrive in 
the morning of June 23, 1961, in the port of 
Zanzibar City. The emergency supplies will be 
drawn from the stores of two U.S. Navy ships, 
part of the Solant Amity (South Atlantic Amity) 
group currently on a good-will torn- of ports on 
Africa's east coast. 



'■ 33 Stat. 2105. 



July 10, 7961 



71 



A New Generation and the Future 
off Africa 

hy G. Mennen WUliains 

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs ^ 

From -what I know of the dreams men share, 
dreams renewed and refreshed by young people 
like yourselves, I believe that the age-old visions 
of a more abundant life for all mankind give us 
our sense of direction today as always. They 
shape our work and bring us into touch with the 
aspirations of our closest neighbors, our national 
leaders, and the most remote far-distant villagers 
of the human brotherhood. 

I feel that President Kennedy has in effect pre- 
ceded me here, for the words of his inaugural 
address ^ had also to do with a "commencement" 
for these stirring days of 1961. He said, "I do 
not believe that any of us would exchange places 
with any other people or any other generation." 

The future is two things : It is inevitable, and 
it is yours — it is in the hands of your generation. 
But it is not in your hands alone, for we must 
look broadly at the word "generation" and recog- 
nize the stake which youth everywhere shares 
with you in this inevitable future. The question 
is, first, what you will make of the American 
future, but the second question is already part 
of the first and that is: Wliat will America do 
together with other peoples for the freedom and 
dignity of man? 

I recently traveled to 16 of the countries of 
Africa, most of them supi-emely of this genera- 
tion in having attained their independence only 
yesterday. I was tremendously impressed by the 
dedication of tlie leaders of these new countries, 
most of them relatively young men. They are 
determined to improve the life of their people 
despite tremendous odds — odds difficult to 
imagine. 

How do you build a better life for peoples who 
may be 90 percent illiterate, racked with disease 
and malnutrition, divided by tribe and language, 
enjoying as little as $40 per capita income each 
year? Indeed, it would be impossible without 
faith, without a stirring in the souls of the people 
to do their best, to be greater than themselves. 

' Address made at commencement exercises at Ferris 
Institute, Big Rapids, Mich., on June 11 (press release 
375 dated June 9). 

» Bulletin of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 



The young people of Africa share this vision 
of human uplift. This is their future. It is an 
extraordinary and noble challenge, in which we 
are called upon to share as greatly as we can. 

Education is seen as the key that will imlock 
the African future. For this, no sacrifice seems 
too great. Students walk hundreds of miles to 
school, go to neighboring countries to work, sacri- 
fice almost beyond imagination to secure a college 
education. Communities construct school build- 
ings with voluntary labor at their own expense, 
as we did in America's frontier days, so that their 
young people can enjoy this new opportunity. 
This is the spirit in many parts of Africa today. 

All this reminds me of Ferris Institute, which 
was organized as an opportunity school to provide 
the benefits of education to boys and girls who 
worked on the farms and in the mines and forests 
of the Upper Peninsula. The young people 
caught the spirit of the opportunity thus offered 
them and came here determined to equip them- 
selves for a full life in the service of their com- 
mimities and their State. 

If we look with some pride at what Ferris In- 
stitute has done for the people of Michigan, we 
are, in so doing, measuring one of the great needs 
of Africa. You have helped equip this wonderful 
State with the vital skills that have advanced us 
to the front rank in the technological develop- 
ment and productive capacity of America. You 
have been a widely noted model in this, and such 
achievement is among the models which motivate 
the eager new generation in much of the world, 
and surely in Africa. 

During my trip I was delighted to be able to 
visit the University of Nigeria, in the company of 
the distinguished African nationalist leader who 
is now Governor General of Nigeria, Dr. Nnamdi 
Azikiwe. Dr. Azikiwe, incidentally, received his 
education in America and has an encyclopedic 
knowledge of our history and its great documents, 
which he quotes with great fondness and special 
relish to American visitors, perhaps to help make 
sure we will not imderrate the tremendous vitality 
and meaning of our heritage in the greater world. 
Wliat made this visit so rewarding was that 
Michigan State University has had a direct hand, 
in cooperation with our Government aid program, 
in bringing this brand new, bustling Nigerian imi- 
versity to life. 

I had a further pleasure, in the city of Ibadan 



72 



Department of State Bulletin 



in western Nigeria, of visiting a vocational school 
which is being developed by Western Michigan 
University. 

Elsewhere on my trip I was constantly re- 
minded of the boon which education is to those 
who hmiger for it, who have a true and urgent 
need and use for it, but woefully little chance — 
boy for boy and girl for girl — of assuaging that 
hunger. An incident at the airport in ]\Ioga- 
discio, in the Somali Eepublic, which forms the 
tip of the great Horn of Africa, is symbolic. 
Thei-e, as at evei-y stop on our trip, we were 
greeted by high government officials with some 
ceremony. All at once the proceedings were in- 
terrupted by the appearance of a yomig Somali in 
work clothes, who rushed up to me and demanded, 
"Where is my scholarship?" We did not travel 
with scholarships, but we did look into this young 
man's request. 

The Story of Legson Kayira 

There is another example of which you may 
have read. This is the case of a penniless African 
boy with strong legs and a wonderful determina- 
tion, by the name of Legson Kayira. In October 
of 1958, with only a dream and those strong legs 
to go on, he bid his mother and brothers goodby 
in their village in Nyasaland and set out "to go to 
school in the United States." He walked 2,000 
miles through Tanganyika, Uganda, and the 
Sudan, stopping on the way at U.S. Information 
Service libraries. At one of them he picked up 
the catalog of Skagit Junior College in the State 
of Washington and wrote applying for a scholar- 
ship. The college granted it promptly, and with 
the help of Americans there and in Africa, Legson 
Kayira's airplane ticket and promises of food and 
housing were provided. Last December, 2 years 
after he began this journey into the future, this 
yoimg African — who is not quite sure of his age, 
but thinks it is between 18 and 20 — arrived in the 
United States. 

This much you may recall reading. I would 
like to add something now to the story, taken from 
a letter written by Legson Kayira to one of the 
Americans who helped him reach his destination. 
He wrote : 

Allow me to thank you for your great kindness. Never 
in my whole life saw I such kindness as you and so many 
other Americans possess. All my tireds are off because the 
Statue of Liberty says "Give me your tired . . ." and I 
have given him. 



I arrived just yesterday. People were awaiting me at 
the Seattle Airport and I was driven to Skagit some sev- 
enty miles. At the college I was warmly welcomed and 
a coffee was served in my honor. On first seeing the col- 
lege, I loved it. It is wonderfully beautiful. The people 
around here like all true Americans are very generous and 
willing to help. It seems to me that they were created 
for the purpose of helping the poor as well as the rich; 
for their help is not selective. 

I really enjoyed my stay in Washington, D.C., and I 
hope to see you there again, but the time is only known to 
Him that makes it. I am now busy adjusting myself to 
this new way of life. It will take me a long time to rise 
from the pit of ignorance to the top of civilization, but I 
am not very much frightened. 

God bless you, in your undertakings, helping the educa- 
tion pilgrims on their way to the land of knowledge. 

Here is a strong, generous, and challenging pic- 
ture of America's meaning for the less favored 
peoples of the world. Not all yoimgsters in Nyasa- 
land or other parts of Africa have Legson Kayira's 
vision — and stamina. But a great many harbor 
the same inner desire and are anxious to lift them- 
selves up for service to their struggling nations, 
and to sacrifice to do so. In a concluding para- 
graph of his letter, Legson Kayira wrote: 

I shall try my very best, so that hundreds or thousands 
of my friends now home come over here for their higher 
studies. 

Freedom Is Indivisible 

This image of America is our strength, our 
greatness. It is also our obligation, yours and 
mine, private citizen and public servant — the obli- 
gation to respond to what others expect of us. Do 
they expect too much? Can we live up to such 
expectations ? WTiat will it cost to help as we are 
asked to help? 

The answer to these questions depends on how 
we reply to another. That is, do we accept that 
freedom is for us today the great cause that it was 
at America's founding and in her greatest times 
ever since, and that freedom is indivisible? If 
this tradition lives in your hearts today, if the an- 
swer is yes — that freedom is indivisible — then you 
will know that we cannot fail to multiply and 
magnify that readiness to help which a few Amer- 
icans gave to the dreams of a brave African boy. 
If this means hard work and sacrifices for us, too, 
let us find how to persist and glory in a task that 
supports so great a cause as freedom. 

From where I sit as Assistant Secretary of State 
for African Affairs, it seems to me that the kind of 
world our children and grandchildren will have is 



July 10, 1 96 1 



73 



going to depend upon whether we can assist the 
emerging nations of Africa to realize the fidl 
meaning of human dignity, to build political in- 
stitutions of freedom, to earn a decent standard 
of living, banishing the old enemies of ignorance, 
poverty, disease, and tyranny. Because of lost op- 
portunities of education and experience, Africa 
must look to the rest of the world not only for 
capital but for technical aid — teachers, doctors, 
professional people of all kinds, along with arti- 
sans and experts in all the middle skills, and men 
and women wlio can teach them. This may be 
where some of you can help. We need as many of 
you as are qualified and ready to join in one or 
another form of this foreign service to your 
country. 

But the strength of America, its ability to lead, 
is challenged on this continent as well as elsewhere 
in the world. We cannot exert world leadership 
unless we can put our own house in order. We 
must, for example, harness automation for the 
benefit of mankind so that it will produce abun- 
dance and not unemployment. We must see that 
the wonders of medicine are at the service of all 
and that poverty as well as disease are rolled back. 
We must see that men and women can find self- 
fulfillment in art and culture and the wonders of 
nature as well as in productive and satisfying 
labor. And at every step of this road there is a 
challenge for all of us in every American city and 
country village. 

Today we are especially reminded that courage, 
dedication, good sense, and deep understanding 
are needed in every walk of our society. Freedom 
and human dignity are on trial in every corner of 
our land. A recent report challenges residential 
integration in the suburbs of the North, and bus 
riders test equal opportimity in the South. 

It will not be sufficient that President Kennedy 
can scale the heights of greatness, as he surely will, 
or that other leaders in our Government can rise 
to national crises. The struggle for human 
decency, the deeds of heroism, the acts of gentle- 
ness and human imderstanding must take place in 
every corner of this land and in every part of our 
society if we are going to be worthy of the chal- 
lenge of our times. 

On his return from Europe, President Kennedy 
reported of his meetings in Vienna that they con- 
veyed a somber mood. This, he said, "simply 
demonstrated how much work we in the free world 
have to do and how long and hard a struggle must 



be our fate as Americans in this generation as the 
chief defenders of the cause of liberty." ' 

However you reckon your future in the world, 
wherever your place in it may be, you have a call 
to greatness, as flesh and blood of the United 
States of America, as individuals in your offices 
and homes, your fields and churches. 

Today you are finishing one challenge and turn- 
ing to new ones. You have been put to the test, 
and you already sense something of your strength. 
Meeting your new challenges will, I feel certain, 
bring you your greatest joys and satisfactions. 

I am convinced each one of you has before you a 
life of opportunity, of fulfillment, of dedicated 
service. You have before you your happiest days. 
May the Good Lord inspire you and walk with 
you every step of the way. 



Immigration Quota Established 
for Sierra Leone 

A PROCLAMATION' 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202 fa) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, each independent 
country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and 
territory under the international trusteeship system of 
the United Nations, other than independent countries of 
North, Central, and South America, is entitled to be 
treated as a separate quota area when approved by the 
Secretary of State ; and 

Whebeas under the provisions of section 201(b) of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General, 
jointly, are required to determine the annual quota of any 
quota area established pursuant to the provisions of sec- 
tion 201(a) of the said Act, and to report to the President 
the quota of each quota area so determined ; and 

Whereas under the provisions of section 202(e) of the 
said Act, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General, jointly, are required to 
revise the quotas, whenever necessary, to provide for any 
political changes requiring a change in the list of quota 
areas ; and 

Whereas, the former British Colony and Protectorate 
of Sierra Leone became independent on April 27, 1961 ; 
and 

Whereas the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and the Attorney General have jointly determined 
and reported to me the immigration quota hereinafter 
set forth : 

Now, therefore, I, .John F. Kennedy, President of the 
United States of America, acting under and by virtue of 



' Ihid., June 26, 1961, p. 991. 
' No. 341T ; 26 Fed. Reg. 5387. 



74 



Department of State Bulletin 



the authority vested in me by the aforesaid Act of Con- 
gress, do hereby proclaim and make known that the 
annual quota of the quota area hereinafter designated 
has been determined in accordance with the law to be, 
and shall be, as follows : 



Quota Area 
Sierra Leone . . . 



Quota 

. 100 



The establishment of an Immigration quota for any 
quota area is solely for the purpose of compliance with 
the pertinent provisions of the Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act and is not to be considered as having any 
significance extraneous to such purpose. 

Proclamation No. 3298 of June 3, 1959, entitled "Immi- 
gration Quotas," ■ is amended by the addition of the im- 
migration quota established by this proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this twelfth day of 

June in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

[seal] and sixty-one and of the Independence of the 

United States of America the one hundred and 

eighty-fifth. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY 



By the President : 
Dean Rusk, 
Secretary of State. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

87th Congress, 1st Session 

Structure and Functions of the Bureau of International 
Organization Affairs, Department of State. Hearing 
before the Subcommittee on International Organiza- 
tions and Movements of the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee. March 21, 1961. 39 pp. 

United Nations Operations in the Congo. Hearing before 
the Subcommittee on International Organizations and 
Movements of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. 
April 13, 1961. 28 pp. 

Section-by- Section Analysis of Proposed Foreign Assist- 
ance Bill. A bill to promote the foreign policy, secu- 
rity, and general welfare of the United States by 
assisting peoples of the world in their efforts toward 
economic and social development and internal and ex- 
ternal security, and for other purposes. Jime 9, 1961. 
43 pp. [Committee print] 

Amendment to Charter of International Finance Corpora- 
tion. Report to accompany H.R. 6765. H. Rept. 501. 
June 12, 1961. 4 pp. 

Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. 
Report of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 
S. Rept. 372. June 14, 1961. 44 pp. 

Free Entry of Electron Microscopes. Report to accom- 
pany H.R. 3385. H. Rept. 546. June 16, 1961. 2 pp. 

Caribbean Organization. Report to accompany H.J. 
Res. 384. S. Rept. 440. June 21, 1961. 4 pp. 



' For text, see Bulletin of July 6, 1959, p. 19. 



A New Birth of Freedom 

iy Joseph S. Farland 
Ambassador to Panama ^ 

The President of the United States has asked 
me, as liis personal representative, to convey to you 
his best wishes for tlie success of the 70th conven- 
tion of the General Federation of Women's Clubs 
and to express his gratification and commenda- 
tion for your clioice of a program empliasizing 
international matters, a program which should 
assist in creating greater understanding between 
nations and peoples. This I am delighted to do. 

At the same time I would like to tell you how 
greatly honored I am that your federation has 
afforded me the occasion to meet with you this eve- 
ning. It is a privilege for which I am most grate- 
ful because it presents a challenging opportunity 
to discuss certain serious international problems 
that confront our great Nation. Would that my 
subject could be one of levity or in a lighter vein, 
but time and events negate that possibility. Seri- 
ous are the international problems, and the welfare 
and future of us all are cardinally related to the 
decisions necessitated by these problems — decisions 
that are not subject to postponement. This you 
know, but it should be reiterated since you as a 
federation are the largest group of organized 
women in the world ; being such, it is patently nec- 
essary that you continue to recognize the vast 
power for good which you possess and the need to 
continue full exercise of that power. 

Tliere is much truth in the belief that the des- 
tiny of the world will be determined even more by 
the decisions of the women of the Americas than 
at the conference tables of the world's political and 
military powers. Thus, I would be derelict to the 
occasion if I failed to stress the tremendous in- 
fluence which you individually and as a federation 
exert, not only in our homes but also in local, na- 
tional, and international affairs. And it is neces- 
sary to recognize that such influence is accompa- 
nied by heavy responsibility, since it involves a 
resultant direct relationship with the formulation 
of those decisions. What you do or do not do will 
continue to influence markedly and decisively all 
facets of our democratic way of life. Now, more 
than ever before, your role is of maximum im- 

' Address made before the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, at Miami Beach, Fla., on June 8 (press 
release 372). 



Ju// 10, 1 96 1 



75 



portance — ^your role is vital. This is why I feel it 
particularly opportune to discuss tonight areas 
in which you can effect important contributions; 
to review some of the problems and dangers that 
threaten our basic principles of social, economic, 
and governmental relations, which, in turn, affect 
the peace we strive for in this world ; and, in part, 
to give you an accoimting of how our Government 
is channeling and conducting its activities in fur- 
therance of these selfsame democratic principles 
as related to the country to which I am accredited 
as your Ambassador — the Eepublic of Panama. 

Woman's Increasing Role in America's Development 

Since the very genesis of our Nation women have 
helped in multiple ways to mold and strengthen 
the sinews of America. As homemakers, the lov- 
ing care and training given their children have 
been fruitful in the growth and well-being of the 
individual, the community, and the Nation. As 
teachers, they have instilled the ideals of good 
citizenship in millions of our children during their 
most formative years in elementary schools and 
high schools and, year by year, have assumed in- 
creasing responsibility in whetting and satisfying 
the eager intellectual curiosity of the tidal wave 
of students overflowing in our colleges and 
universities. 

Women participate as never before in the civic 
affairs of the Nation, judiciously exercising their 
hard-won right to vote. Thus they keep faith 
with that small group of women — and, to keep the 
record straight, a few men — who met at Seneca 
Falls, New York, in July 1848 "to discuss the so- 
cial, civil, and religious conditions and rights of 
woman." From the ideas expressed at that his- 
toric meeting grew the woman's suffrage move- 
ment which did, indeed, so mightily move public 
opinion that our Constitution was amended 72 
3'ears later to guarantee woman's right to express 
her political preferences with the ballot. 

Not only do women now hold with distinction 
large numbers of high-ranking administrative 
positions in local, State, and Federal agencies, 
but also they hold many important seats in our 
Nation's legislative bodies and enjoy increasing 
representation in its various judicial systems. 
The United States has been ably represented by 
its women who have served as delegates, advisers, 
and technical consultants at dozens of inter- 
national conferences and in crucially important 



posts at the United Nations. Our Foreign Serv- 
ice has many women career officers who are just 
as competent, just as dedicated, as any man. And 
the wives of the officers of an embassy often are 
as important as their husbands in the sometimes 
touchy task of maintaining friendly relations 
with countries all over the globe. 

The women of the United States more and more 
are turning their inquiring minds toward every 
field of science in industrial, government, and uni- 
versity laboratories. Medicine has benefited not 
only from their talents but also from their in- 
stinctive tenderness. It is significant recognition 
of woman's ability in this field that a woman 
physician watches over the health of our Presi- 
dent. More than 22 million women have taken 
their place in the total work force engaged in com- 
merce and industry, stimulating the economic 
grovflh of our country. They help produce the 
innumerable goods and services that are needed 
to maintain, above and beyond our incomparable 
standard of living, the security of the free world. 
In all the fields of aiis and culture, the women of 
the United States have shown a great variety of 
natural gifts, winning national and international 
fame for their accomplishments. 

In retrospect, the most amazing fact in this long 
list of achievements by the American woman is 
that she has never surrendered her pi'imary role 
as a homemaker. She has instead, through hard- 
ship, sacrifice, and often heroic effort, from the 
time of the colonial pioneers to the present day, 
expanded her horizons of service to include not 
only her own family but also her neighbors near 
and far, her commimity, her coimtry, and the 
world. She works for her loved ones and for 
people she may never meet in lands she may never 
see. Therein lies her spiritual greatness and the 
fulfillment of her duty and destiny as a woman. 

In all faith and all reverence I believe that this 
pattern of development which, as a way of life, 
came into being in tliis hemisphere, this dedica- 
tion of devotion by its women in companionship 
with its men from the earliest period of settlement, 
is part of a providential design. Let us never 
forget that not only our country but also every 
other one of the American family of nations 
which share so many bonds in common was 
founded by men and women who believed in God 
and sought to live in accordance witli His laws. 
There is no other great group of nations in the 



76 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



world of which it can be said — and it is most truly 
said of the American peoples — that at the very 
moment of their entrance on the visible stage of 
history they thanked God for having brought 
them thus far and sought His guidance for all 
their future. In every one of our American Re- 
publics — whether the first settlers were Catholic 
or Pi'otestant, whether they spoke English, Span- 
ish, French, or Portuguese — the little group that 
landed to found a dwelling place and a homeland 
knelt devoutly in that prayer of thanksgiving and 
petition for blessing. That repeated act of faith 
and prayer was most moving, most significant. 

Challenges of an Uncertain Decade 

Mankind has survived many critical periods in 
the centuries past, but there is good reason to be- 
lieve that not since the Dark Ages has there ex- 
isted a world situation so replete with danger as 
the present. The cold war is an inescapable in- 
fluence on every facet of our lives, and the threat 
of total all-out war is constantly with us. 
Throughout much of the world mankind is view- 
ing political and social disruption and in some 
instances stark chaos. Many millions of our fel- 
low men not only lack the barest necessities of 
life, but — what is most tragic — even more are filled 
with utter despair. The astounding progress of 
modem science, publicized in its reach for the 
stars, has accentuated the crisis by making pos- 
sible the total destruction of mankind. The de- 
velopment of transportation and conununication 
facilities has tended to bring into more dangerous 
rivalry the divided ends and pui-poses of man. 
We have been brought closer together physically — 
only to disagree. 

Caught up in the backwash which followed 
World War I, the timid and weak sought tempo- 
rary shelter in one tyranny or another. The po- 
litically indifferent were prone to permit abjectly 
the erosion of their political values and of their 
principles. Many of those who believed in human 
rights and personal liberties faltered in their 
faith. And the powerful and violent imposed their 
tyrannies in the name of freedom. As the result 
of tliis degeneration, the world finds itself mo- 
rassed in political and ideological conflict. Small 
wonder then that we must rally to the support of 
our leaders and help them plan and implement the 
new policies and programs to meet the immense 
challenges of the times in which we are privileged 



to live and to serve. I would like to pinpoint for 
you those challenges that will most profomidly 
affect our lives and security m tliis imcertain 
decade. 

The first is, without doubt, the rapid emergence 
of new nations, sometimes explosively, from the 
fast-shrinking areas of old colonial domination. 
A surgetide of national independence is sweep- 
ing over many lands and may not recede until 
perhaps a minimum of 120 sovereign states shall 
make up the community of nations. Varied are 
the reasons giving impetus to this nationalistic 
outbreak, but interwoven repetitiously through 
the pattern is the quest for freedom, nationally 
and individually, and the yearning for economic 
and social betterment. These are the self-same 
forces that galvanized the 13 tiny colonies to Her- 
culean action, that modeled our national heritage. 
It is well to remember that, most certainly, the 
Boston Tea Party was not a festive society get-to- 
gether. Will these new states choose democratic 
freedom, or will they succumb to totalitarian com- 
munism? The final choice necessarily must be 
theirs. But an enlightened American policy of 
economic and social assistance can be an important 
factor in their decision. Here then is a crucial 
decision, for it will shape the foreseeable future of 
our civilization. 

The second important challenge is the imabat- 
ing hostility of the Sino-Soviet Communist bloc 
to the nations of the free world. This totalitarian 
bloc poses a worldwide threat and particularly a 
threat to the emerging nations wliich face the 
possibility of being victimized by a more terrible 
form of colonialism than they have ever known or 
imagined. 

There are several choices open to us. We can 
work hard and do all within our power to con- 
vince the developing nations that democracy and 
the rapid economic growth they need to survive 
go hand in hand. Or, at the other end of the 
spectrum, we can stand by and let the newer na- 
tions sample the promises of a Commimist society 
and discover for themselves the cruel emptiness of 
these promises, with all the hiunan destruction 
this entails. 

To cloud the issue Soviet imperialists speak of 
"peaceful coexistence" between the free world and 
that which lies in bondage behind the Iron Cur- 
tain. The meaning of these words is clear. It is 
the slogan under which the 20th-century Commu- 
nist imperialism aims to conquer the world with- 



Ju/y 10, 1 96 J 



77 



out risking general war. Former independent 
states, with long and illustrious histories, forcibly 
subjugated by the Sino-Soviet bloc are tragic re- 
minders of tliis process. It is these peoples, such 
as the Hungarians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithua- 
nians, Tibetans, to cite but a few, who can elo- 
quently testify about the real meaning of "peaceful 
coexistence." These people have not only been 
forcibly deprived of rights of sovereignty; they 
have lost the inalienable rights of freedom to 
which all peoples of the world, regardless of 
race, creed, or color, aspire ; they have had taken 
from them those inalienable rights which democ- 
racy champions — life, liberty, the pursuit of 
happiness, the worth of the individual, and his 
endowment with human dignity. 

We speak much of human rights and personal 
liberty, even as we are witness today to so many 
evidences of man's degradation of man. And we 
must ask ourselves, in the light of conflicting tes- 
timony, from whence we obtain the concept of 
the dignity and worth of human nature. Some, 
perhaps a majority, would reply that this has 
come as a rationale of the sociologist, the philoso- 
pher, the statesman, but the answer for validity 
must go deeper : The worth of human personality 
is the gift of our Creator, who has called us to 
be His children. Take out of our national life 
the worship and service to God, take out every 
conception of the divine within humanity, all that 
we mean by the soul, and you have devitalized 
democracy. Without God, political idealism by 
itself cannot survive. That is why Lenin in 1913 
dogmatically stated that "Every religious idea, 
every idea of a god, even flirting with the idea of 
God is imutterable vileness ... of the most dan- 
gerous kind, 'contagion' of the most abominable 
kind. Millions of sins, filthy deeds, acts of vio- 
lence and physical contagions . . . are far less 
dangerous than tlie subtle, spiritual idea of a god 
decked out in the smartest 'ideological costumes.' " 
The symbol of the Cross or the symbol of the 
hammer and sickle — it is under these symbols that 
we must not only cast our vote but cast our lives. 

Tlie third staggering challenge is more closely 
tied to the physical survival of our world. It is 
posed by tlio terrible destructive power of the 
thermonuclear weapons, the missiles systems that 
deliver them, and the increa,sing membership in 
the so-called "nuclear club." After World War 
II our Nation demobilized to the point where it 

78 



possessed not one division, not one air group ready 
for combat. Our democracy's deep reluctance to 
maintain a military establisliment in time of peace 
gave rise to danger through weakness. We are 
squarely on the horns of a great dilemma. It 
would be sheer folly not to develop the arms and 
military forces needed to deter every kind of 
Communist aggression. Yet it would be equally 
foolhardy not to urge on the world a policy of 
arms control to reduce the dangers to civilization 
of thermonuclear warfare. Logic and the ulti- 
mate survival of humanity demand that the 
United States and the Soviet Union come to an 
agreement in this crucial area of their many dif- 
ferences — but an effective one, not one simply to 
reach an agreement. The problem of disarma- 
ment would be simple if the political issues could 
be resolved. Answerability for the breakdown 
of the thermonuclear control conferences to date 
is solely Eussia's responsibility, solely Russia's 
intransigency. 

U.S. Answer to Communist Imperialism 

We must be willing to deal with those challenges 
in the traditionally active and resourceful ways 
of our forefathers. There is every indication tliat 
we will continue to do just that. In his already 
classic inaugural address,^ President John F. 
Kennedy inspired millions of Americans to action 
and millions of our friends abroad to hope, when 
he said : 

Let the word go forth from this time and place, to 
friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to 
a new generation of Americans — bom in this century, 
tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, 
proud of our ancient heritage — and unwilling to witness 
or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to 
which this Nation has always been committed, and to 
which we are committed today at home and around 
the world. 

The entire address should be read and reread 
by all of us, for it is America's virile answer to 
Communist exploitation of national weakness and 
human misery for its expansionist ends. It is our 
Nation's answer to communistic imperialism — im- 
perialism on a scale unknown to the Caesars. 
Can the leaders of the Communist world doubt 
that we were all as one with the President when 
he expressed our singleness of purpose in these 
plirases ? 



' Bulletin of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or 
ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet 
any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to as- 
sure the survival and the success of liberty. 

Now that our purpose has been stated in lan- 
guage that no aggressor can misunderstand, how 
are we to wage this very hot cold war? I en- 
dorse the ideas of General David Samoff, who 
more than 5 years ago warned us that, "For 
Moscow, the real alternative to a nuclear show- 
down is not 'peace' but political-psychological 
warfare of a magnitude to weaken, demoralize, 
chip away and ultimately take over what remains 
of the free world." He strongly urged "that we 
renounce all delusions of easy solutions and com- 
promises; that instead we mount a political 
counter-strategy as massive, as intensive and as 
clear about its ultimate goals as the strategy of 
the enemy itself." Thus our moral and physical 
strength should take the bold initiative and be 
brought to bear in full measure on Communist- 
created crises before they can wreak their planned 
havoc on the free world. We can no longer sur- 
render our freedom in precious bits and pieces 
for the fool's gold of temporarily relaxed tensions 
and the false security of coexistence offered by 
those who boast they will bury us. 

One of the clearest and most present dangers 
we face is allowing those among us who have 
become the proponents of a cold-war status quo 
to lull us into not making our best, our urgently 
needed, efforts vigorously to defend and extend 
the heritage of our free society to those who 
hunger for its benefits. They are those who argue 
that a poor peace is preferable to any war. They 
are the timid, grasping at the broken straws of 
illusionary security, struggling to keep alive the 
disappearing old order of things. These straws, 
one by one, are either being blown away by the 
healthy winds of long-pent-up demands for hu- 
man justice or are wilting before the insidious, 
miasmic emanations of international communism. 

This head-in-the-sand view with regard to the 
present revolutionai-y world situation is com- 
pletely at odds with logic and reality. Refusing 
to face our responsibilities with strong national 
purpose and determination can only lead us to 
the ignominious sacrifice of so many of our ideals 
that the very survival of our system of govern- 
ment will be put in grave doubt. We cannot deny 
the sacred principles of our hard-won democracy 
by such craven, creeping surrender to those who 



seek our downfall. Let us not speak of defending 
the status quo until the world has a firm, unalter- 
able peace won on our democratic terms and 
enjoyed by everyone everywhere. 

The bold and energetic restatement of our his- 
toric image as champions and defenders of lib- 
erty everywhere, I repeat, has been made in tough, 
clear, and unmistakable language by our Presi- 
dent. Action, strength, and sacrifice must be the 
keynotes of our national life and our foreign 
policy in this decade of daring dedication. We 
give them gladly in the sobering realization that 
a reluctance to act would make a mockery of free- 
world leadership and would sicken the hearts of 
those millions yet enslaved by Iron Curtains, false 
doctrines, disease, ignorance, hunger, and hopeless 
poverty. 

Events in Cuba 

Let us consider a situation close to all of us 
in the United States — very close at hand, indeed, 
here in Miami. The course of events in Cuba 
daily emphasizes the stark loss of freedom to the 
people of that freedom-loving nation and under- 
lines the threat to the Americas posed by the 
Communist-dominated Castro regime, alined 
with and supported by the Sino-Soviet bloc. The 
cause of freedom is coincident with the destinies 
of humanity ; consequently, the temporary loss of 
freedom by the Cuban people to a tyrannical and 
dictatorial police state, which now bears the out- 
ward semblance of Cuba but not its noble and 
valiant spirit, constitutes a tragedy not only for 
Cubans but for mankind. 

The initial setback of the Cuban people in the 
fight to regain their freedom has succeeded in 
further identifying the tyranny for what it is — a 
ruthless Communist dictatorship. Therein, at 
least, the effort of these patriots has not been 
wholly in vain. The issue is now clearly deline- 
ated for even those who formerly did not wish 
to see: At stake is the survival of hviman liberty 
in the Americas, and on this issue each of us — 
every one of us as free individuals, each one of 
our countries as free peoples — must take our 
stand. 

With a well-established Communist beachhead 
in the heart of our hemisphere and with continued 
onslaught of Communist imperialism everywhere 
else, the nations of the Americas and of the free 
world must continue to build and strengthen bonds 



i\i\Y 10, 7967 



79 



of alliance and friendship and must together re- 
dedicate themselves to those principles which we 
hold to be essential truths as we face today's ines- 
capable choice. Russia may have been the first to 
free man from the forces of gravity, but the 
United States was the first to free man from des- 
potism. And it is significant that even in a space 
probe the free world's first astronaut controlled the 
direction of his flight and thus, in this sense, the 
course of his destiny. 

New Motivations for Women of Latin America 

For your attention tonight I wish to present an 
observation wliich for the most part heretofore 
has gone imstated. In enunciating this observa- 
tion I do so as a reporter. The idea is not mine ; 
it is an idea indigenous to the area in which I serve 
and is being promulgated by those who are coun- 
terpart to you. It is true that there are in all of 
Latin America forces in motion and counterplay — 
forces as subtle as an idea posed by innuendo, 
forces as brutal and tyrannic as the mob cry of 
paredon. The women of Latin America, far from 
being immune to the political, social, and economic 
changes that are developing, are becoming acutely 
conscious of their secondary role through the cen- 
turies past and in contraposition are developing 
an awareness to the challenge of today and tomor- 
row, a determination to assume positive and active 
participation in current events which affect their 
home and their nation. Within expanding realms 
of interest these women are determined to become 
more influential in the formulation of decisions — 
local, national, and international — which will have 
a marked bearing upon the future courses of 
events. 

What I am reporting in no wise minimizes the 
great and significant contributions already made 
by the women of Latin America to the total life 
of their countries, both in colonial times and in 
the not-too-distant past. Women have been par- 
ticularly prominent in many pioneer movements in 
this hemisphere. In the difficult period of coloni- 
zation four women in Latin America ruled as gov- 
ernors — Isabel, the wife of Hernando de Soto, 
whom he left in Cuba as acting governor when he 
set out on his last expedition ; Catalina Montejo, 
who governed in Yucatan after her father's death ; 
Beatrix, the wife of Alvarado, Conquistador of 
Guatemala, who assumed the governorship when 
her husband was slain in battle; and Brites de 



Albuquerque, who governed an important province 
of Brazil in the 16th century. During the present 
century, as a matter of fact, Latin women have 
served in more and varied cabinet roles than have 
the women of the United States ; and the propor- 
tion of women who have assiuned the duties of 
city government far exceeds that of the United 
States. 

But what is really exciting and vibrant, what is 
really impelling and forceful, is that a change in 
custom and emphasis is pulsating through the 
social complex. Women no longer are satisfied 
with the legacy of a negative or at best passive ap- 
proach to the social, political, and economic factors 
which affect their lives and the lives of those they 
love. They are looking for new spiritual and 
moral antecedents, and new directives, upon which 
to base a way of life as well as the establishment of 
new norms, both political and economic. With 
greater devotion and increased recognition of the 
importance of religion in their lives, they no longer 
feel that, in support of their church and its moral 
teachings, they should be the principal representa- 
tive of the family at a time when the church, as 
never before, requires total participation of all the 
family. They are determined to bring new empha- 
sis and allegiance to the home and to the family 
unit which will have far-reaching effects on past 
social practices. Thus, perforce, they can no 
longer observe as spectators the interplay of po- 
litical activity — good, bad, or indifferent — that has 
flowed willy-nilly about them, for theirs is an in- 
terest motivated not by materialism or by self- 
aggrandizement but rather by principles of 
morality, by love of family, by concern for the best 
in their national heritage. In essence this is a new 
birth of freedom; this is a force to be reckoned 
with: Democracy can underestimate this move- 
ment only to its loss ; communism can ignore this 
movement only at its peril. 

Worldwide Responsibility of American Women 

I spoke before of the responsibility that goes 
hand in hand with your influence as effective 
opinion molders and full participants in the demo- 
cratic processes that characterize our national and 
international affairs. If for no other reason, your 
responsibility is worldwide because you are an 
international organization, but, irrespective of 
this, your responsibility of necessity would be 
international even though the organization were 
solely provincial. 



80 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Your forthcoming international convention in 
Rio de Janeiro presents an excellent opportunity 
further to promulgate your program of service. 
The seminare on the "Participation of Women in 
Public Affairs" which will be held in other Latin 
American Republics after the convention can in- 
spire thousands of women there to effective civic 
action. Impatient with the continuing inability 
of their men to accomplish the change by them- 
selves, they possess the energy, desire, and ability 
to heal the deep woimds in their social structure. 
I repeat, they are hungering to speed up the social 
and economic evolution with which they are now 
identified. I strongly urge that eveiy attempt be 
made to fully assist the women of Latin America 
in this movement which is under way. 

Further, I suggest that you continue to inform 
yourselves as completely as you can of your Na- 
tion's problems at home and abroad. The dynam- 
ics of bold, constructive action is the constructive 
criticism bom of informed public opinion. You 
must find and devote more time to analyzing the 
statements of the world's leaders and the import 
of the dizzying succession of events that daily 
change the international situation; this you owe 
to yourselves and to your country. You must 
bring an imderstanding of this world into your 
homes. May I also suggest that at some free 
moment each day you ask yourself what you, you 
personally, have done to assist our Nation in its 
struggle to keep alive the principles of freedom 
and human rights ? By daily dedication you can 
institute a chain reaction of incalculable force and 
benefit. You collectively are about 5 million 
strong; however, not only as an organization but 
as individuals you represent a force, believe me, 
far beyond your own calculation. Wlien you 
wonder what you as one person, or your local 
club as one small hometown group, can do, it is 
well to remember that a very few dedicated 
disciples 2,000 years ago spread a Gospel that 
changed the basic concepts of man's relationship 
with man and showed him the path to God. 
Ideas, and dedication to those ideas, not only can 
be but are the strongest of all forces in today's 
struggle. 

A crusade — a really viable crusade — is needed 
again to redefine and reaffirm our concepts of 
human rights and human values ; and in this cru- 
sade I suggest the imperative need to bear in mind 
that principle which must be an integral part of 



our daily lives and a continuing guide for all 
governments that cherish freedom and whose 
people worship God. It is the thesis that empha- 
sizes the God-given origin of man, that stresses 
the dignity of the individual, that spells out the 
individual's personal value to society, that ac- 
knowledges his basic and inalienable rights as a 
member of society. In the harsh light of the 
many dangers that today face the United States 
in its role as the leader and the hope of those who 
cherish liberty, you can have no greater responsi- 
bility. It is time to face up to the fact that the 
wages of ignorance and complacency can only be 
a disastrous national defeat followed by the loss 
of freedom for ourselves and those we defend. 

The bitter seeds of Old World feudalism in 
Latin America have continued to genninate into 
the present, concentrating wealth and political 
power in the hands of a few and thereby denying 
the just aspirations and great expectations of the 
humble masses for a better life. Here again your 
opportunity is clear, your interest could not be 
more opportime. You must share with these 
women what you have learned from your own ex- 
perience so that they also may successfully or- 
ganize their human material resources to break 
the bonds of ignorance and hunger that now op- 
press too many of their fellow citizens. Your ac- 
complishments, to which I rendered tribute at the 
start of my remarks, can be their beacon pointing 
to the fulfillment of the difficult tasks they have 
set for themselves, accomplishments wliich can be 
their passport to full participation m the solution 
of 2Gth-century problems which has too long been 
frustrated by 18th-century social and economic 
thinking. 

The Situation in Panama 

In spite of the achievements and progress of a 
people whom I greatly admire, Panama, too, has 
been the victim of social and economic stultifica- 
tion irrespective of a close and special relationship 
to the United States, which relationship produced 
the Panama Canal, an engineering miracle of in- 
calculable benefit to the whole world. It is only 
too obvious to those who live in or pass through 
the Republic, as many of your own members will 
soon do, that her social and economic development 
has not kept pace with the patent prosperity re- 
flected by the high standard of living enjoyed by 
United States citizens in the Canal Zone. Publi- 



Jo/y 70, 1967 



81 



cized tliough this situation has been, the applicable 
test is the real or fundamental needs of the people 
and the ability of their Go\ermnent to meet those 
needs. When such needs, brought about by popu- 
lation increase or otherwise, cannot be met, the 
stage is set for communistic agitation. In addi-ess- 
ing his nation last October President Roberto F. 
Chiari noted the danger which arises from such a 
situation when he stated : 

The imbalance between the increase in needs and the 
available means to satisfy them is the primary cause of 
the economic, social and political disorders in under- 
developed countries such as Panama. When these con- 
vulsions reach a critical stage they also lead the masses — 
out of despair because of the absence of peremptory 
remedies — to fall for the illusory promises of agitators 
seeking to establish totalitarian regimes. 

But I can assure you that, devoted as it is to the 
ideals of freedom and development, the Republic 
of Panama and the United States have taken joint 
positive action to prevent the germs of commmiism 
from breeding on the human misery born of social 
and economic imbalances on the social scale. 
Both President Kennedy and President Chiari are 
bringing into play dynamic programs whose im- 
swerving basic spirit is sincere concern for human 
dignity in all its facets. Certainly the brightest 
and perhaps the last and best hope for progress in 
the area through democratic process is President 
Kennedy's Alliance for Progress^ — Alian-za para 
el Progreso — a new program of massive assistance 
to all hemisphere nations willing to institute in- 
ternal reforms and initiate self-help projects of 
immediate benefit to their less fortimate citizens. 
In conformance with the objectives of the Alliance 
for Progress, President Chiari has stated repeat- 
edly Panama's awareness of an imperative need 
for self-help and internal reform. Consequently 
he has undertaken the mobilization of basic re- 
sources toward that end and has begiui the promul- 
gation of fundamental reforms in taxation, in 
educiition, in public health, and in low-income 
housing. 

The keystone of President Kennedy's 10-year 
program is the Act of Bogota.* In accordance 
with our pledge, Congress has authorized, and 
the Pi-esidcnt less than 3 weeks ago signed, an a^'t 
providing some $500 million as a Latin American 

' For texts of an addre.s.s by President Kennedy and a 
message to Congress, see ihid., Apr. .3, 1961, p. 471. 
' For text, see ihid., Oct. 3, lOCO, p. .')37. 



social development fund to be administered pri- 
marily by the Int«r- American Development Bank. 
And it is important for us to remember that the 
spirit and philosophy of the Act of Bogota and 
the program flowing from it spring from the Latin 
Americans themselves. The act was conceived 
and devised by them. This transcendental hemi- 
spheric agreement will bring rapid improvements 
in rural living and land use, housing and commu- 
nity facilities, educational systems and training 
facilities, public health, and the mobilization of 
domestic resources. Consequently your embassy's 
usual diplomatic functions in Panama — and I 
know this is also true of our embassies in the other 
Republics — have been augmented by the duties 
and activities necessary to encourage locally the 
adoption of the psychology' underlying the act and 
to assist in field implementation of its objectives. 

Experts in the various Panamanian Govern- 
ment ministries are readying the presentation of 
urgent self-help projects that will be in addition to 
the many programs of technical assistance already 
bemg carried out by our wide-ranging Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration. The entire 
gamut of human activity, from basic agricultural 
development and highway construction right down 
to nursing education and disease control, is bene- 
fiting from the cooperative efi'orts of the two Gov- 
ernments and their proud, freedom-loving people. 

United States citizens abroad are all — and al- 
ways — representatives of their country. I am 
proud to say that in Panama the community of 
our fellow citizens there is doing an excellent job 
in furthering United States-Panamanian rela- 
tions, and multitudinous are the examples of this 
in charitable, social, recreational, and cultural 
work. Not only the LTnited States Government 
but also private institutions each year provide 
scholarship opportunities for higher studies by 
Panamanian teachers and students. American 
private investment capital continues to play an 
important role in developing new industries and 
jobs, stimulating Panama's economic growth. 

The very fine CARE organization supplies 
nourishing food to the needy and helps fill the huge 
gap in scarce school and laboratory equipment. 
CARE provides a precious daily milk ration to 
over 100.000 Panamanian school children. I am 
gratefully aware of your federation's cooperation 
with CARE in providing to 22 schools in the Gulf 
of Montejo area a series of kits to brighten the 
lives of the children and improve their health. 



82 



Department of State Bulletin 



This area has had little development of its agricul- 
tural, educational, and medical facilities. The 
schoolteacher generally pro\ides the only available 
medical assistance, even to the taking of blood 
specimens for malarial infections. The medical 
aid kit will be invaluable. The classroom supplies, 
physical education, and needle trade materials will 
be greeted with joy by children who may own only 
one shirt or dress, have never used a real liaseball 
bat or glove, and who share the treasured stub of a 
pencil to write their lessons on scraps of old enve- 
lopes or wrapping paper. The tools in the re- 
settlers' kit will help them keep back the jungle 
growth from the school area and maintain a gar- 
den. With all my heart I commend you for this 
generous gesture which will show the humble peo- 
ple of the Montejo area that, although society may 
have long neglected them, it has never forgotten 
that they too are precious members of the world 
community. As a result of this and for many other 
reasons you can be assured that a host of friends 
are looking forward to seeing those of you who will 
vi.sit Panama in July. 

I can think of no more fitting way to close my 
remarks tonight than by urging you to rededicate 
your efforts to bring to fruition the challenge 
enunciated by your President, Mrs. [E. Lee] Oz- 
birn, in her stirring inaugural address on June 17, 
1961, when she said : 

This moment together we pick up the pen to write the 
history of the General Federation in the first two years of 
this exciting, exacting decade. Ours is the challenge to 
write our most .significant record. As you will it, so will 
it be! 

Yes, so will it be ; and yoix pursue this task with 
the proud knowledge that you have proven equal 
to every other challenge in the illustrious record 
of service to our country and to humanity. With 
God's help, with an imconquerable spirit, I am con- 
fident that you will attain your goals now set and 
in so doing serve Him, in truth, as an instrument of 
His peace. 



New Foreign Aid Program To Place 
Greater Emphasis on Cooperatives 

Henry R. Labouisse, Director of the Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration, announced on 
Jmie 23 (press release 432) that greater emphasis 
on development and assistance of cooperatives in 
underdeveloped countries will be among the major 



objectives of the administration's new foreign aid 
program. 

Mr. Labouisse is also chairman of the Presi- 
dent's Task Force on Economic Assistance, which 
drew up plans for the proposed consolidated and 
reorganized foreign aid program,^ the Agency for 
International Development (AID). 

He announced that ICA has already initiated 
a full-scale review of its cooperative assistance 
programs and will seek the guidance of other 
Government and non-Government agencies. The 
study is aimed at evaluating ICx\.'s cooperative 
activities of the past, developing a policy state- 
ment for guidance to field missions regardin<r 
encouragement of the cooperative approach, and 
outlining a specific action program for greater 
emphasis on cooperatives within the new AID 
program. 

Mr. Labouisse said discussions already have been 
held with leaders in the cooperative field in the 
United States regarding selection of a nongovern- 
mental task force representing all phases of co- 
operative endeavor — credit, housing, agricultural 
marketing and supply services, and related fields— 
to assist with the review and development of 
future cooperative programs. 



U.S. Makes Grant to Central American 
Bank for Economic Integration 

Press release 41S dated June 21 

The U.S. Government announced on June 21 
the signing of an agreement for a grant of $2 mil- 
lion by the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration to the Central American Bank for 
Economic Integration. The grant represents a 
portion of $10 million in loans and grants pro- 
gramed for assistance to the Bank by the United 
States. 

The Central American Bank for Economic In- 
tegration was established on May 30, 1961, pri- 
marily to strengthen and consolidate the Central 
American common market — which has been de- 
veloping since 1952 — and to assist in the fuiancing 
of public and private projects related to the in- 
tegration program. To this end, the four Central 
American Governments — Guatemala, El Salvador, 



' For background, see Bulletin of Apr. 10, 1961, p. 507 ; 
June 19, 1961, p. 947 and 977 ; and June 26, 1961, p. 1000. 



July 10, 1961 



83 



Honduras, and Nicaragua — established the Bank 
with an authorized capitalization equivalent to $16 
million. 

In addition to assisting in financing economic 
development the Bank provides technical assist- 
ance to prospective borrowers in the preparation 
and implementation of projects and serves also 
as an intermediary in obtaining credits from other 
financial institutions. 

Membership in the Bank will be open to any 
other country in the area which enters into a defi- 
nite commitment to participate substantially in 
the economic integration arrangement. 

Enrique Delgado signed the agreement on behalf 
of the Bank as president, and D. A. FitzGerald 
signed for ICA. 



United States Provides Afghanistan 
With Another 50,000 Tons of Wheat 

Press release 439 dated June 23 

As part of the U.S. Food-for-Peace Program, 
the Department of State announced on June 23 
the grant of an additional 50,000 tons of American 
wheat to Afghanistan, bringing to 100,000 tons the 
total the United States has made available to this 
south Asian nation during the current U.S. fiscal 
year. 

The wheat is being provided through the In- 
ternational Cooperation Administration under a 
provision of title II of the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act, wliich permits 
ICA to make food-for-peace grants of U.S. sur- 
plus agricultural commodities to help promote 
economic development in recipient countries. 

The wheat will assist Afghanistan to continue 
to meet its current grain needs and at the same time 
provide local currency to finance needed develop- 
ment projects such as rural school construction 
and agricultural projects. 

A formal agreement accepting the grain on be- 
half of the Government of Afghanistan was 
signed at Washington on June 23 by the Afghan 
Ambassador to the United States, Mohammed 
Hashim Maiwandwal, in the presence of Henry R. 
Labouisse, Director of ICA. 

The United States will defray the ocean freight 
costs of shipping the grain to Karachi, Pakistan, 
the Arabian Sea port nearest Afghanistan, and 
also the cost of transshipping the grain across 



Pakistan to the nearest Afghan port of entry, 
where it will be loaded aboard trucks for delivery 
in Afghanistan. 

The shipments will bring to 230,000 tons the 
amount of wheat that the United States has pro- 
vided Afghanistan at that country's request since 
1957. In addition to the 50,000 tons authorized 
earlier this fiscal year (November 1960), other 
U.S. shipments included 40,000 tons each in 1957 
and 1958, and 50,000 tons in 1959. 



Study of ICA Health Program 
To Be Made by Johns Hopkins 

Press release 434 dated June 23 

The Department of State on June 23 annoimced 
an award of $250,000 by the International Co- 
operation Administration to the Jolms Hopkins 
School of Hygiene and Public Healtli for special 
studies over the next 3 years in developing rec- 
ommendations to improve the ICA international 
health program. 

The studies will include developing new meth- 
ods, techniques, and procedures for use in train- 
ing personnel from overseas as well as the United 
States who are engaged in the health program. 
The findings will be available for general use. 

Particular emphasis will be placed upon a train- 
ee's needs and the needs of his country in an effort 
to tailor a postgraduate experience with greater 
local value. Pertinent studies will relate to aca- 
demic instruction and field experience available 
in the United States, including training for U.S. 
personnel to work in foreign countries. 

It was pointed out that foreign students are 
often at a disadvantage because they generally 
come from countries where the health professions 
are much less developed than in the United States. 
Furthermore, the foreign student may not have 
as good a command of the English language as 
his U.S. classmates. 

Attempts will be made at the Johns Hopkins 
School of Hygiene and Public Health to study 
these and other important problems of field train- 
ing, paramedical training, refresher training for 
U.S. personnel in international health, etc. 

The school is one of a small group in the world 
devoted to postgraduate study in public health. 
About one-third of its enrollment are students 
from foreign countries, and many of the American 
students serve abroad after eraduation. 



84 



Department of Sfofe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Urges Start of Serious 
Negotiations on Laos 

Statement hy W. Averell Harriinan ^ 

During the weeks we liave been meeting we have 
listened to a great deal of oratory, some of it 
factual, some of it propaganda, some of it de- 
liberate distortion of the facts. Indeed, some of 
the spokesmen have taken up considerable time in 
this conference not in discussing constructive is- 
sues but in casting aspersions against the delegates 
and the governments of other countries repre- 
sented at this table, including my own. Up to 
the present I have considered that I could leave 
these unanswered and not doubly burden tlie con- 
ference by rebuttal. However, when the day be- 
fore yesterday the Soviet Foreign Minister 
[Andrei A. Gromyko] associated himself with 
these distortions and defamatory remarks, I was 
forced to the conclusion that I had no alternative 
but to set the record straight. 

Soviet Distortions of the Record 

The first point to which I shall address myself 
is that of the responsibility for the delays which 
this conference lias experienced during the past 
month. I need not recall to you what has been 
stated by my delegation and others so many times : 
that it had been agreed an effective cease-fire was 
a prerequisite to the deliberations of this con- 
ference. Tlie delay in this conference has been 
occasioned by the refusal of the Soviet cochairman 
to join with his British colleague to send adequate 
instructions to the ICC [International Control 
Commission] and to call upon the parties in Laos 
to cooperate with the Commission in investigation 
of alleged cease-fire violations in fulfillment of 
its task of supervision and control of the cease- 



• Made before the International Conference for the 
Settlement of the Laotian Question at Geneva on June 1.5 
(press release 405 dated June 16). Ambassador Harri- 
man. is chairman of the U.S. delegation to the conference. 
For bacl^ground, see Bttllhthn of May 15, 1961, p. 710 ; 
June 5, 1961, p. 844 ; and June 26, 1961, p. 1023. 



fire. This refusal persisted despite the fact that 
there were recurring allegations and complaints 
from both combatant parties of serious violations 
of the cease-fire. As Ambassador [Jean] Chauvel 
pointed out here the other day, if there had been 
the will to do so, the necessarj^ instructions could 
have been drawn up in 5 minutes by almost any- 
one in this room. 

The second distortion of the record which must 
be corrected concerns the question of responsibility 
for the recent flagrant breach of the cease-fire at 
Pa Dong. It has been alleged here that the cause 
for the Pa Dong incident was "provocation" by 
the forces of the Royal Lao Government and by 
the United States. It has been claimed that the 
troops stationed at Pa Dong were airdropped in 
that vicinity after the date of the cease-fire appeal 
in Laos. 

The forces at Pa Dong were Royal Lao Govern- 
ment units under command of Colonel Van Pao. 
They had retreated last December from the Plaine 
des Jarres imder rebel attack. Their headquarters 
were established last January at Ban Pa Dong and 
the troops gradually withdrew to a position along 
a ridge which the Pathet Lao considered militarily 
inconvenient. Tliese forces were cut off from any 
passable overland routes to their normal supply 
bases. They have been under almost constant 
attack since May 12, as I have recorded at tliis 
conference. The only practical and effective way 
for them to receive food and other essential sup- 
plies has been through airlifts. The Royal Lao 
Government has consistently asked for an ICC 
investigation on the spot at Pa Dong. My Gov- 
ernment, and I myself at this conference table, 
have similarly called for ICC inspection almost 
from the beginning of this conference. General 
Phoumi [Nosavan] some time ago offered to place 
his Pa Dong airlift under ICC supervision. How, 
under any system of reasoning, can this be con- 
sidered a record of provocation ? 

Yet the Soviet delegate and the Pathet Lao have 
consistently refused to cooperate with proposals 
for an inspection on the spot by the ICC, which 
could report the truth to this conference. This 
refusal alone exposes the insincerity of the charges 



Ju/y ;0, J 96 J 



85 



of provocation. Far from he'mg a response to 
provocation, the attack on Pa Dong was an aggres- 
sive, willful violation of the cease-fire, mounted 
for the specific purpose of eliminating a military 
position to which the Pathet Lao objected. 

Today, Mr. Chairman, we have received press 
reports of an attack on a Royal Lao Government 
position north of Paksane. I wonder what sort 
of so-called "provocations" we can expect to have 
adduced in justification of this apparent breach of 
the cease-fire. If this reported attack results in 
a Royal Lao Government complaint, we assume 
that immediate steps will be taken to investigate 
and to report to this conference. 

Next, in dealing with the truth concerning recent 
Lao history, I shall turn to the question of Ameri- 
can military personnel in Laos. The Soviet For- 
eign Minister said the day before yesterday that 
the Royal Lao Government forces at Pa Dong 
were "headed by American officers."' Let us look 
at the record. At the time of the attack on Pa 
Dong there were seven Americans, only one of 
whom was an officer — and his rank is that of cap- 
tain — among the 1,400 Royal Lao Government 
troops in the area of Pa Dong. This team had 
been attached since the first part of April as 
advisers to Colonel Van Pao's command. No 
effort has been made to conceal their presence 
there. By contrast, among the attacking forces 
were at least two infantry companies of Viet Minh 
troops. There were also Viet Minh specialists 
attached to the Pathet Lao artillery and other 
units. There has been not only a constant denial 
of the presence of these forces but extensive 
eft'orts to conceal that presence from tlie world. 
The Soviet Union has been almost daily supplying 
the forces of the rebels through Xieng Khouang 
by an airlift which originates in north Viet-Nam. 

Tenor of Vienna Communique 

Finally, let me turn to the appeal which the 
Soviet Foreign Minister addressed to my delega- 
tion to "translate into the language of specific 
agi-eements'' the substance of the Vienna communi- 
que.^ As the Foreign Minister of the Republic of 
Viet-Nam [Vu Van Mau] pointed out yesterday, 
one of the significant passages from thatcomnuuii- 
que, which the Soviet Foreign Minister failed to 
mention, specified the importance of an effective 
cease-fire in Laos. I should like in turn to appeal 
to the Soviet delegate to translate not only the sub- 



■ For text, see ihiiJ., .Tune 26, 19G1, p. 909. 



stance but also the tenor of that communique into 
our deliberations here at Geneva. The communi- 
que was a calm, factual statement without bom- 
bast, invective, or pro23aganda content. In con- 
trast, many of the speeches we have heard here 
have been largely propaganda. This conference 
will make little or no progress if it devotes itself 
to the constant repetition of propaganda themes. 
One of the most repeated and most sweeping state- 
ments that we have heard here concerns the con- 
tention that proposals for reasonable responsibility 
for the ICC would make it a "superstate" and 
would derogate from the sovereignty of Laos. 
These sweeping statements do not specify the pre- 
cise manner in which Lao sovereignty would be 
infringed by the operations of the ICC. Let us 
all remember that the only functions which the 
ICC could perform under any proposals which 
have been made to this conference would be those 
of investigating, reporting, and publishing its 
findings. The Commission's only authority flows 
from the moral effect of public knowledge of the 
facts. 

Since all of these activities would be directed 
toward the problem of external intervention in 
Lao domestic affairs, it is difficult for me to under- 
stand how any of them can limit in any sense the 
right of "self-determination for Laos" which the 
Soviet delegate contends is central to his Govern- 
ment's international policy. 

As an American I was glad to hear that the 
Soviet Government's foreign policy is now based 
oia the principle of self-determination. As the 
British cochaii'man has reason to know, this policy 
of self-determination has been the guiding prin- 
ciple of my country since 1776. Historically the 
LTnited States has concentrated its greatest effort 
in the field of foreign policy on this ideal. AVe are 
meeting here today in a palace of nations inspired 
by an American President who spent the full 
measure of his life's vitality on this goal. 

But these rhetorical references to ideals, no 
matter how noble or enduring they may be, will 
not advance us toward the conclusion of the work 
for which we have come to Geneva. We must find 
ways to reduce the decibels of our discussions 
from these plenary meetings to the quiet working 
negotiations which are necessary for progress. As 
the Soviet Foreign Minister is aware, both the 
Secretary of State and I have long since sug- 
gested that one means which the members of 
this conference might consider promising for our 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



work is the establishment of working groups. 
Such groups would permit the paragraph-by- 
paragraph discussion which the Soviet Foreign 
Minister desires. 

Ever since we have been here in Geneva — and 
even before we arrived — my delegation has been 
preparing itself for such discussions by seeking 
out and ascertaining the views of other delega- 
tions. We have paid particular attention to those 
neighbors of Laos m southeast Asia who, because 
of their geographic location, have, in our opinion, 
a sj^iecial and continuing interest in the future of 
Laos. We have studied with care both the Soviet 
and the French drafts. We have listened with 
considerable interest to the suggestions made by 
the distinguished delegate from India [S. Sen]. 

On the basis of these discussions and these 
studies, we are fully prepared to enter into de- 
tailed di'afting work on a paragraph-by-para- 
graph, line-by-line, word-by-word basis. 

In our opinion the proposals which have been 
submitted by Ajnbassador Chauvel are thought- 
ful, constructive documents which should con- 
stitute the basis for our work. We think, per- 
haps, that the French protocol on the Inter- 
national Control Commission could be made more 
precise and somewhat stronger in certain par- 
ticulai-s such as voting procedure, publication of 
reports, and facilities afforded the investigation 
teams. We feel that there shoidd be additional 
provisions to supplement those which it already 
contains. We are willing to join in such discus- 
sions in whatever form the conference may con- 
sider the most useful. There is ample work here 
to keep all of us busy and to command the most 
exacting degree of our attention. Let us turn to 
that work in a workmanlike manner. So long as 
we are free from military threats and from bom- 
bast, either here or in Laos, there is every reason 
to hope that our work can bring useful results. 

Seating Legal Government of Laos 

However, before we can actually bring that 
work to a conclusion and produce a set of docu- 
ments which will embody the product of our 
labors, we must be joined by the legal Govern- 
ment of Laos. In this connection I should like 
to quote from the statement made by the head 
of my delegation, the Secretary of State, on 
May 17. He said : " 



' Ihid., June 5, 1961, p. 844. 



We do not believe that this confei-ence is properly 
constituted without due provision for the delegates of 
the constitutional government of Laos. The Royal Lao- 
tian Government, empowered by the King and Parliament 
to govern Laos, represents that country in the United 
Nations and in other international bodies. It is the only 
authority resting upon that nation's constitution and the 
means established by law for registering the wishes of 
the King and people. We do not see how we can make 
good iirogress without the presence here of the Govern- 
ment of Laos, and we regret, though understand, why it 
does not consider that it can be here under existing cir- 
cumstances. We believe that this, too, is a matter which 
requires the immediate attention of the cochairmen in 
order that this conference of governments may have the 
benefit of the participation of the Government of the very 
country which we are discussing. 

In the spirit of this quotation I should like to 
register my sympathy with the point of order 
raised by the distingtiished delegate of Thailand 
[Konthi Suphamongkhon] on this matter of Lao- 
tian seating. It is not right for us to sit here 
discussing matters of such vital concern to the 
Govermnent of Laos in the absence of its repre- 
sentatives. I would therefore urge the cochair- 
men, as my Secretary of State has done before 
me, to take the initiative and consult with the 
representatives of the Royal Lao Go^•emnlent 
in order to determine whether satisfactory seating 
arrangements can be worked out with them in 
order to enable them to join us here in these delib- 
erations. I am encouraged to hope that such an 
initiative on the part of the cochairmen, taken at 
a time when the three princes are about to begin 
their meeting in the nearby city of Zurich, might 
eliminate this unfortunate situation and enable us 
to move forward in the confidence that our work 
in this room will proceed to the benefit of all the 
Lao people. 



President Approves Research Grant 
to Pan American Sanitary Bureau 

White House press release dated June 12 

The President on June 12 approved a grant of 
$120,750 by the Public Health Service to expand 
the capacity of the Pan American Sanitary Bu- 
reau to plan, organize, and develop international 
medical research projects for the Americas. 
PASB, as the regional office of the World Health 
Organization, is tlie oldest international health 
agency and has had extensive experience in organ- 
izing public health programs related to many 



ivly 10, 1961 



87 



countries, whereas its research experience has been 
more limited. There are special environmental 
factors peculiar to the geographic and climatic 
condition of Latin America which should provide 
opportunities for useful research. With this 
grant the Pan American Sanitary Bureau will 
establish a special medical research planning oiEce 
which will assist in planning collaborative re- 
search projects throughout the Americas. This 
planning office will identify existing research re- 
sources and programs in Latin America and de- 
velop research projects in areas of medicine most 
in need of study. 

In approving this grant the President has exer- 
cised his authority under the International Health 
Research Act of 1960 — the so-called Health for 
Peace Act. It is a tangible expression of the in- 
tention of this country to contribute to the Al- 
liance for Progress in the Western Hemisphere, 
proposed by the President.^ 

In his letter to the Secretary of Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare, approving the grant, the 
President said, ". . . this grant will permit a sub- 
stantial advance in the cooperative endeavor of the 
American States in the field of medical and health 
research." 



Security Council Calls for Prompt 
Report on Angola 

STATEMENT BY CHARLES W. YOST 2 

When the problem of Angola was first brought 
before the Security Council in March of this year.^* 
the United States supported the draft resolution 
which was cosponsored by Ceylon, Liberia, and 
the United Arab Republic. This resolution would 
have established a subcommittee for the purpose 
of reporting on actual conditions in Angola as well 
as measures being taken by Portugal to foster the 
political, economic, and social progress of the 



' Bulletin of Apr. 3, 1961, p. 471. 

""Made In the Security Council on .Tune 9 (U.S./U.N. 
press release .37.30). Mr. Yost is Deput.v U.S. Representa- 
tive in the Security Council. 

' Bulletin of Apr. 3, 1901, p. 497. 



people of Angola. Since reports concerning 
actual conditions in Angola were fragmentarj', 
and in certain cases contradictory, the United 
States considered the appointment of an impartial 
factfinding subcommittee as a useful first step. 

In addition to supporting the three-power res- 
olution. Ambassador Stevenson deplored the loss 
of life which, according to reports, had involved 
all segments of the community and which also 
served to make constructive efforts toward a 
solution of the basic problem more difficult. It 
was our hope that the proposed resolution would 
result in an end to violence and would serve to 
facilitate peaceful change. This draft resolution, 
however, failed of adoption. 

For the reasons I have given, the United States 
supported in the General Assembly resolution 1603 
(XV), adopted by overwhelming vote, which was 
essentially the same as the three-power resolution 
which failed of adoption in the Security Council. 
Subsequently a distinguished subcommittee was 
appointed, consisting of representatives of Bolivia, 
Dahomey, Finland, Malaya, and Sudan, for the 
purpose of examining statements made before the 
Assembly on Angola, receiving further statements 
and documents, and conducting such inquiries as 
the subcommittee may deem necessary in order to 
report to the General Assembly as soon as possible. 

Meanwhile, however, there have been a further 
deterioration of the situation in Angola and fur- 
ther heavy losses of life which we continue 
to deplore most profoundly, which have given rise 
to this meeting of the Council, and which make 
even more urgent and necessary the work of the 
subcommittee. 

Premier Salazar, in a press interview published 
May 31, which has already been quoted here, 
stated his intention to introduce political, eco- 
nomic, and social reforms in Portugal's overseas 
territories, steps which will accelerate progress 
toward self-government. We view this statement 
as an encouraging development and would hope 
that concrete steps will be taken by the Portuguese 
Government in the immediate future. We believe 
Portugal should be given a certain time to an- 
nounce and to carry out concrete reforms in the 
direction which Premier Salazar has forecast. 
One of our objectives in the Council should be to 
bring about a situation — including the cessation of 
bloodshed — in which such steps can be most ef- 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



fectively encouraged and taken. We hope that at 
least in those areas not disrupted by violence po- 
litical, economic, and social reforms will be com- 
menced without delay. 

If the Security Council is to exercise its role 
most effectively in the interests of the people of 
Angola, it must do so, in our opinion, in a construc- 
tive spirit and not one of recrimination. We feel 
that this is in fact the attitude which most Council 
members have adopted. The establislmient of a 
climate which would foster self-determination in 
Angola depends on the cooperation of all con- 
cerned. On the one hand, a lack of political 
progress is an invitation to armed action. On 
the other hand, the contrary may also prove to be 
true. The continuation of violence, we feel, is 
more likely to delay than encourage political prog- 
ress. The task of the Security Council surely 
must be both to produce progress and to do so 
peacefully. Finally, it behooves all states to dis- 
courage rather than condone or encourage violence 
as some have done. 

We hope that all members of the United Nations, 
including Portugal, will cooperate with the sub- 
committee in an effort to determine the facts about 
conditions in Angola. We are confident that the 
subcommittee will present an impartial report, 
thus making a genuine contribution toward a 
peaceful solution. 

It is in this spirit that we approach the resolu- 
tion contained in document S/4:828. Frankly, the 
United States would have preferred several 
changes in the present text. In particular, we are 
anxious that this session should not do anything 
which would appear to prejudge the work of the 
General Assembly subcommittee, which was estab- 
lished explicitly in order to report on the facts of 
the situation in Angola. We will support the 
amendments submitted by the distinguished repre- 
sentative of Chile.^ In particular, we welcome the 
paragraph calling for a peaceful solution in 
accordance with the charter. We also feel that 
the change in the preamble more accurately 
reflects the actual situation. We will also support 
the resolution presented by the distinguished 
representatives of Liberia, the United Arab Re- 
, public, and Ceylon [S/4828], as so amended, in 
the hope that the adoption of this resolution will 



contribute to the peaceful and constructive solu- 
tion which we so earnestly desire. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION' 

The Seourlty Council, 

Havina conskJe7-ed the situation in Angola, 

Deeply deploring the large-scale killings and the 
severely repressive measures iu Angola, 

Taking note of the grave concern and strong reactions 
to such occurrences throughout the continent of Africa 
and in other parts of the world. 

Convinced that the continuance of the situation in 
Angola is an actual and iwtential cause of international 
friction and is likely to endanger the maintenance of 
international peace and security. 

Recalling General Assembly resolution 1542 (XV) of 
1.5 December 1960 declaring Angola among others a Non- 
Self-Governing Territory within the meaning of Chapter 
XI of the Charter as well as General Assembly resolu- 
tion 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, by which the Gen- 
eral Assembly declared without dissent that the subjec- 
tion of peoples to alien subjugation, domination and ex- 
ploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human 
rights, is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations 
and is an impediment to the promotion of world i)eace 
and co-operation and asked for immediate steps to be 
taken to transfer all powers to the peoples of these Ter- 
ritories, without any conditions or reservations, in ac- 
cordance with their freely expressed will and desire, 
without any distinction as to race, creed or colour, in 
order to enable them to enjoy complete independence and 
freedom, 

1. Reaffirms General Assembly resolution 1603 (XV) 
and calls upon Portugal to act in accordance with the 
terms of that resolution ; 

2. Requests the Sub-Committee appointed in terms of 
the aforesaid General Assembly resolution to implement 
its mandate without delay ; 

3. Calls vpcm the Portuguese authorities to desist forth- 
with from repressive measures and further to extend 
every facility to the Sub-Committee to enable it to per- 
form its task expeditiously ; 

4. Ea>presses the hope that a peaceful solution will be 
found to the problem of Angola in accordance with the 
Charter of the United Nations ; 

5. Requests the Sub-Committee to report to the Se- 
curity Council and the General Assembly as soon as 
possible. 



• U.N. doc. S/4833/Rev. 1. 



■^U.N. doc. S/4835 (S/4828 as amended by S/4833/Rev. 
1 ) ; adopted by the Council on June 9 by a vote of 9 to 0, 
with 2 abstentions (France, U.K.). A Soviet amendment 
(S/4834) calling for the insertion at the beginning of 
operative paragraph 3 of the phrase "Condemning the 
colonial war against the Angolan people" failed of adop- 
tion by a vote of 4 (Ceylon, Liberia, U.S.S.R., U.A.R.) 
to 3 (Turkey, U.K., U.S.), with 4 abstentions (Chile, 
China, Ecuador, France). 



July 10, J 96 J 



89 



Textile-Consuming Nations Meet, 
Propose International Consultations 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 425 dated June 21 

Informal meetings began on June 21 in the De- 
partment of State between the ITnited States and 
seven textile-consuming countries. The Execu- 
tive Secretary of the GATT and representatives 
of the EEC Commission are also taking part. 

The meetings are being held to discuss ap- 
proaches to international trade problems in cotton 
textiles. They are part of the preparatory work 
for multilateral consultation between major im- 
porting and exporting countries to consider ways 
of providing a basis for expanding trade that will 
avoid undue disruption of established industries. 
The meetings will continue through June 23. 

Delegates are as follows : 

Belgium: Willy van Cauwenberg, Economic Minister, 
Embassy of Belffiiun 

Canada: S. S. Reisinan, Assistant Deputy Minister, De- 
partment of Finnnee 

France: Jean Wahl, Deputy Director of ForeiiOi Eco- 
nomic Relations, Ministry of Finance and Economic 
Affairs 

Germany: Benno Buengor, Regional Director, Textiles 
Department, Ministry of Economics 

Ituhj: Sergio Parboni, Deputy Director General of 
Foreign Trade, Ministry of Foreign Trade 

Netherlfinrl.^: Dr. G. H. .J. Abeln, Director of Trade, 
Ministry of Economic Affairs 

United Kingdom': Cyril Sanders, Undersecretary, Board 
of Trade 

United. States: George W. Ball, Under Secretary of 
State for Economic Affairs 

GATT Secretariat : Eric Wyndhara White. Executive 
Secretary 

EEC Commission: Wolfgang Ernst, Director for Com- 
mercial Policy, Directorate General for lOxternal 
Relations 



JOINT STATEMENT 

Press release 440 dated June 23 

Informal meetings between the United States 
and Belgium, Canada, France, Gennany, Italy, 
the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, which 
began Wednesday morning [June 21] to discuss 
approaches to international trade problems in 
cotton textiles were concluded today [June 23]. 



The Executive Secretary of the GATT and repre- 
sentatives of the EEC Commission also took part. 
In pursuance of the resolution of the GATT 
Council on June 16, 1961, the countries repre- 
sented at this week's meeting proposed that there 
be convened in Julj^ an international meeting of 
countries with a direct major interest in inter- 
national trade in cotton textiles, whether as ex- 
porters or importers, for the following purposes : 

1. To meet the immediate problem through 
international action designed, at the same time, 

(a) to significantly increase access to markets 
which are at present subject to import restrictions, 

(b) to maintain order! j^ accevSs to markets 
where restrictions are not at present maintained, 
and 

(c) to secure from exporting coimtries a 
measure of restraint in their export policy so as 
to avoid disruptive effects in import markets. 

2. To lay down general guiding principles to be 
followed and to establish international machineiy 
for keeping the situation under review and for 
mo\'ing through cooperative action towards the 
achievement of the abo\-e purposes. 



W. M. Christopher To Represent U.S. 
an Textile Agreement Negotiations 

The Department of State announced on June 23 
(press release 442) the appointment of AVarren 
M. Christopher to represent the United States in 
negotiations for a multilateral textile agreement 
as part of the President's seven-point program of 
assistance to the U.S. textile industry.* 

Mr. Christopher jiarticipated in informal textile 
meetings held in the Department June 21-23. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

ECE Housing Committee 

The Department of State announced on June 12 
( press release 388) that Dan K. Hamady, Assist- 
ant Administrator, Office of International Hous- 
ing, Housing and Home Fmance Agency, would 
serve as U.S. delegate to the 21st session of the 

' Bulletin of May 29, 1961, p. 825. 



90 



Department of State Bulletin 



Housing Committee of the U.N. Economic Com- 
mission for Europe (ECE), which was held at 
Geneva June 12-14. 
Advisers to the delegation included : 

Roy .T. Burroughs, Director, Divisiou of luteruational 
Organizations Affairs, Office of International Housing, 
Housing and Home Finance Agency 

Zaeliary Fisher, Fisher Brothers, New York, N.Y. 

James H. Scheuer, President, Renewal and Development 
Corporation, New York, N.Y. 

Howard J. Wharton, Assistant Commissioner for Rede- 
velopment, Urban Renewal Administration, Housing and 
Home Finance Agency 

The session of the Committee considered, among 
other tilings, the economic asjiects of housing 
policy, town and country planning, and housing 
problems of countries in the coui-se of industrial- 
ization. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Antarctic Treaty Enters Into Force 

Statement by President Kennedy 

White House press release dated June 23 

I wish to express my profound satisfaction on 
the occasion of tlie entry into force today of the 
Antarctic Treaty. This treaty has now been rati- 
fied by all of the 12 countries which participated in 
tlie Conference on Antarctica held in Washington 
in 1959 — Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, 
France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South 
Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States — all of which signed tlie 
treaty at the conclusion of the conference on De- 
cember 1, 1959.' 

This is a significant treaty in several resj^ects. 
First and foremost it provides that the vast Ant- 
arctic Continent shall be used for peaceful pur- 
poses only. Accompanying this provision is the 
important provision whereby the parties have the 
right to send observers anywhere in Antarctica at 
any time to see that the treaty is not being 
violated, and the right of overflight of all areas 
of Antarctica. It could very well provide valuable 

' For background and text of treaty, see Bulletin of 
Dec. 21, 19.59, p. 911. 



practical experience in the field of international 
inspection in other situations. 

The treaty also provides for freedom of scien- 
tific investigation and international cooperation in 
science in Antarctica. Nuclear explosions 
throughout the area are banned, pending general 
international agreement on the subject, although 
the use of nuclear energy for such purposes as 
heat and power is permitted. 

The difficult question of territorial claims in 
Antarctica is in effect set aside by the treaty, which 
states that nothing in tlie treaty shall be inter- 
preted as either a renunciation or recognition of 
claims or bases of claims. The United States has 
never asserted a territorial claim in Antarctica, 
nor has it ever recognized the claims of others. 
By this treaty the United States continues to re- 
serve its rights throughout the whole of 
Antarctica. 

The Antarctic Treaty was conceived by the 
United States, and the conference at which it was 
drawn up was called by the United States 
after nearly 2 years of patient and skillful pre- 
liminary negotiations. It has been signed and 
ratified by countries representing all of the world's 
six continents, many of which held divergent views 
on Antarctica. That this was possible I find very 
encouraging. 

I earnestly believe that the Antarctic Treaty 
represents a positive step in the direction of world- 
wide peace and am genuinely gratified to announce 
its entry into force today [June 23] . 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Antarctica 

The Antarctic Treaty. Signed at Washington Decem- 
ber 1, 1959. 
Ratifications deposited: Argentina, Australia, and Chile, 

June 23, 1961. 
Entered into foree: June 23. 1961. 

Automotive Traffic 

Convention on road traffic, with annexes. Done at 
Geneva September 19, 1949. Entered into force 
March 26, 1952. TIAS 2487. 
Application to: Hong Kong, January 12, 1961. 

Copyright 

Universal copyright convention. Done at Geneva Sep- 
tember 6, 1952. Entered into force September 16, 1955. 
TIAS 3.324. 
Ratifteation deposited: Nicaragua, May 16, 1961. 



iu\Y 10, 7 96 J 



91 



l>r<>t(K'(il 1 to tho universal copyright oonvention con- 
cernins the application of that convention to the works 
of stateless i)ersons and refugees. Done at Geneva 
Septemiier (5, li»r>2. Kntered into force September ItJ, 
v.)",. TIAS .S.324. 
Riitifiration dritositcd: Nicara^ia, May 16. 1961. 

rrot()<'ol 2 to the universal copyright convention con- 
cerning the api)lication of that convention to the works 
of certain international organizations. Done at Geneva 
September 6, 1052. Entered into force September 16, 
105.-,. TIAS 3324. 
Ratification deposited: Nicaragua, May 16, 1961. 

Protocol 3 to the univer.sal coypright convention con- 
cerning the effective date of instruments of ratification 
or acceptance of or accession to that convention. Done 
at Geneva Septeml)er 6, 1952. Entered into force 
August 10, 1954. TIAS 3.324. 
Ratification deposited: Nicaragua, May 16, 1961. 

Cultural Property 

Protocol for the protection of cultural property in the 
event of armed conflict. Done at The Hague May 14, 
1954. Entered into force August 7, 1956.' 
Ratification deposited: Ecuador, February 8, 1961. 

Narcotics 

Protocol bringing under international control drugs out- 
side the scope of the convention limiting the manufac- 
ture and regulating the distribution of narcotic drugs 
concluded at Geneva .luly 13, 1931 (48 Stat. 1543), as 
amended (61 Stat. 2230; 62 Stat. 1796). Done at Paris 
November 19, 1048. Entered into force December 1, 
1049. TIAS 2.308. 
Accciitdiirc deposited: Liechtenstein, May 24, 1961. 

Protocol for limiting and regulating the cultivation of the 
poppy plant, the production of, international and whole- 
sale trade in, and use of opium. Dated at New York 
.Tune 23, 1953.' 
Ratification deposited: Liechtenstein, May 24, 1961. 

Wheat 

International wheat agreement, 1959, with annex. 
Opened for signature at Washington April 6 through 
24, 1939. Entered into force July 16, 1959, for part I 
and parts III to VIII, and August 1, 1959, for part II. 
TIAS 4302. 
Accession deposited: Nigeria, June 16, 1961. 



BILATERAL 



Inter-American Development Bank 

Social progress trust fund agreement, and exchange of 
letters. Signed at Washington June 19, 1961. Entered 
into force June 19, 1961. 

Iran 

Agreement amending the surplus agricultural commodities 
agreement of July 26, 1960, with exchanges of notes 
July 26 and 28. 1960 (TIAS 4544), as amended (TIAS 
4502. 4508, and 4719). Effected by exchange of notes 
at Tehran May 18 and June 1, 1961. Entered into 
force June 1, 1961. 

Japan 

Agreement for the establishment of a Joint United States- 
Japan Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington June 22, 
1061. Entered into force June 22, 1961. 

Mexico 

Agreement concerning radio broadcasting in the standard 
broadcast band, and six annexes. Signed at Mt^xico 
January 29, 1957. Entered into force June 9, 1961. 
Proclaimed hy President of the United States: June 
16, 1901. 

Netherlands Antilles 

Agreement for the exchange of international money 
orders. Signed at Willemstad December 20, 1960, and 
at Washington January 11, 1961. Entered into force 
May 1, 1961. 

Niger 

Agreement providing for the furnishing of economic, 
technical and related assistance. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Niamey May 26, 1961. Entered into force 
May 26, 1961. 

Pakistan 

Agreement amending the surplus agricultural commodities 
agreement of April 11, 1960 (TIAS 4470), as amended 
(TIAS 4579, 4720, and 4743). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Karachi June 3, 1961. Entered into force 
June 3, 1961. 

Upper Volta 

Agreement providing for the furnishing of economic, 
technical and related assistance. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Ouagadougou June 1, 1961. Entered into 
force June 1, 1961. 



Brazil 

Treaty of extradition. Signed at Rio de Janeiro January 
13, 1961.' 
Ratified by President of the United States: May 29, 1961. 

Canada 

Agreement for improving the air defense of the Canada- 
United States region of NATO, for furthering the de- 
fense production sharing program and for the provision 
of assistance to certain other NATO governments. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Ottawa June 12, 1961. 
Entered into force June 12, 1961. 

Denmark 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, with 
protocol and minutes of interpretation. Signed at 
Copenhagen October 1, 1951.' 
Ratified by President of the United States: May 29, 1961. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



' Not in force for the United States. 
' Not in force. 



Second Exchange of Key Personnel 
With Defense Department Begins 

The Department of State announced on June 
13 (press release 391) tliat the second group of 
personnel exchanges between the Department of 
State and the Department of Defense had been 
honored in a ceremony that day in the office of 
the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Chester 
Bowles, Under Secretary of State, and Roswell 
L. Gilpatric, Deputy Secretary of Defense, con- 



92 



Deparlment of State Bulletin 



ducted the ceremony. Tlie senior representatives 
of both Departments also participated in the 
ceremony. 

The program to exchange outstanding civilian 
and military key personnel for training assign- 
ments in selected positions of each Department 
-was initiated January 9, 1961.^ In the first group 
five Foreign Service officers were placed in Army, 
Navy, Air Force, the Joint Staff, and Office of the 
Assistant Secretary of Defense (International 
Security Affairs), respectively, and individuals 
from these organizations were assigned to various 
bureaus in the State Department. 

This interchange of personnel is designed to 
promote a better imderstanding of foreign affairs 
and military problems and a continuing develop- 
ment of personnel in both Departments in areas 
where foreign policy and military policy coincide. 
The men loaned will function as an integral part 
of the host agency. 

The personnel are nominated for their qualifi- 
cations in high-level policy and command and 
staff duties. In the selections, particular emphasis 
is placed on educational background, future po- 
tential, skill, past training, experience, and the 
ability to meet the requirements of the position to 
which assigned. Assignments will be for a period 
of approximately 2 years. 

At the June 13 ceremony the personnel to be ex- 
changed from each Department were congratu- 
lated on tlieir selection by Mr. Bowles and Mr. 
Gilpatric. 

The following nominees have been selected for 
tJie second excliange. 

From Defense 

Col. William R. Sturges, Jr., USAF, from Office of 
Director, Defense Research and Engineering, to Office 
of Science Adviser 

Lt. Col. DeWitt C. Armstrong III, USA, from Depart- 
ment of the Army to Office of British Commonwealth 
and Northern European Affairs 

Capt. George Sharp, USN, from Department of the Navy 
to Office of Inter-American Regional Political Affairs 

Col. William B. Robinson, USAF, from Office of As- 
sistant Secretary of Defense (International Security 
Affairs) to Politico-Military Staff, Deputy Under Secre- 
tary for Political Affairs 

Clarence Grant Shaw, from Office of Secretary of De- 
fense to Division of Communications Services, Office 
of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Operations 

Col. Leslie B. Williams, USAF, from Department of 
the Air Force to Office of Special Assistant to the 
Secretary for Atomic Energy and Outer Space 

^ Bulletin of Jan. 30, 1961, p. 169. 



Lynford A. Lardner, from Office of Assistant Secretary 
of Defense (International Security Affairs) to an as- 
signment to be determined 

From State 

William T. Briggs, from National War College to Office 
of Assistant Secretary of Defense (International 
Security Affairs), Western Hemisphere Regional Office 

James R. Ruchti, from Bureau of African Affairs to 
Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower) 

Robert L. Burns, from Office of Coordinator for Mutual 
Security to Office of Director for Research and Engi- 
neering 

James J. Blalce, from Industrial College of the Armed 
Forces to Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, 
Department of the Army, Strategic Plans and Policy 
(International and Policy Division) 

Theodore A. Tremblay, from Bureau of Intelligence and 
Research to Office of Deputy Chief of Naval Operations 
(Plans and Policy), Strategic Plans Division 

Ellwood Rabenold, from Air War College to Department 
of the Air Force, Directorate of Plans 

William B. Dunham, from U.S. Embassy, The Hague, to 
Department of the Navy, Political-Military Affairs 



IV!r. Ball Appointed to Board 
of Panama Canal Company 

The Department of State announced on June 22 
(press release 430) that Under Secretary Ball 
would be sworn in on June 23 as a member of 
the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Co. 

This appointment is the result of a determina- 
tion made by President Eisenhower in September 
1960 following an agreement by the Secretary of 
the Army and the Secretary of State that the 
Department of State should be represented on 
the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Co. 
at the Under Secretary level. Secretary of the 
Army Elvis J. Stahr, Jr., appointed Mr. Ball on 
May 31, 1961, after he had been nominated by 
Secretary of State Rusk. 

Confirmations 

The Senate on June 13 confirmed the following nomi- 
nations : 

Henry DeWolf Smyth to be U.S. Representative to 
the International Atomic Energy Agency. (For bio- 
graphic details, see Department of State press release 
397 da ted June 15.) 

William I. Cargo to be Deputy U.S. Representative to 
the International Atomic Energy Agency. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release -100 dated 
June 15.) 



July 10, 1961 



93 



Appointments 

Donald L. Daughters as Director, U.S. Operations 
Mission, Ecuador, effective June 19. (For biographic 
details, see Department of State press release 417 dated 
June 21.) 

Ernest K. Lindley as Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary and member of the Policy Planning Council, 
effective June 19. (For biographic details, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 411 dated June 19.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For S'lle hy thr SitpcrintcwJent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
emmciit Printiny Office, Washington 25, B.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from, the Department of State. 

The Newly Independent Nations — 
Morocco. Pub. 7120. African Series 8. 10 pp. lOi?. 
Tunisia. Pub. 7150. African Series 11. 10 pp. 10^. 

Leaflets, in a series of fact sheets, designed to give readers 
a few highlights on the peoples and lands of the newly 
independent nations. 

Your Department of State. Pub. 7168. Department and 
Foreign Service Series Oit. 16 pp. 150. 

This pamphlet reviews briefly the history, functions, and 
organization of the Department of State. 

Mutual Defense Assistance. TIAS 4661. 4 pp. 5^. 
Agreement with Belgiimi, amending Annex B to the agree- 
ment of J'anuary 27, 19.50. Exchange of notes— Signed 
at Brussels December 1 and 23, 1960. Entered into force 
December 23, 1900. 

Defense, Loans of Additional Vessels. TIAS 4662. 
5 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with Brazil. Exchange of notes — Signed at 
Rio de Janeiro November 21 and December 27, lOOO. En- 
tered into force December 27, 1960. And signed at Rio 
de Janeiro December 28 and 29, 1960. Entered into 
force December 29, 1060. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4663. 12 pp. 
10«!. 

Agreement with Chile — Signed at Santiago November 8. 
1960. Entered into force November 8, 1960. With memo- 
randum of understanding and exchange of notes. 

Economic Cooperation: Application to Territories Under 
Jurisdiction of The West Indies Government. TIAS 
4664. 3 pp. 5(!. 

Agreement with the United Kingdom of Great BritJiin and 
Northern Ireland, amending the agreement of July 6, 1948, 
as amended. Exchiinge of notes — Signed at Washington 
June 20 and August 20, 1959. Entered into force August 
20, 1950. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 19-25 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 19 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 372 of June 8, 
375 and 380 of June 9, .'^91 of Jiuie 13, 390 and 396 
of June 14, and 405 of June 16. 



No. Date 

•409 6/19 

t410 6/19 

*411 6/19 

*412 6/19 



*413 6/19 

*414 6/19 

*415 6/20 

*416 6/20 



*4n 



6/21 



Subject 

U.S. participation in international 
conferences. 

Ball : Subcommittee on International 
Exchange and Payments. 

Lindley appointment (biographic 
details). 

New members of Advisory Committee 
on Educational Exchange (biogra- 
phic details). 

Cultural exchange (Finland). 

Cultural exchange. 

U.S. memorandum on Nacvalac case. 

Akers sworn in as Ambassador to New 
Zealand (biographic details). 

Daughters sworn in as Director, 
USOM. Ecuador (biographic 
details). 

Grant to Central American Bank. 

Williams : Operation Crossroads, 
Africa. 

Moyer retires as Director, USOM, 
Korea (biographic details). 

U.S. note on Nacvalac case. 

Stephausky sworn in as Ambassador 
to Bolivia (biographic details). 

Cultural exchange (Cyprus). 

Amendments to Ikeda visit. 

Meeting of textile-consuming nations. 

Aid to Zanzibar refugees. 

Sisco : "A New Look at the U.N. : 
Political Assessment of the Organi- 
zation for the Decade of the Sixties." 

Rusk : news conference. 

Exchange of notes on U.S.-Japan Com- 
mittee on Trade and Economic Af- 
fairs. 

Ball appointed to board of Panama 
Canal Co. < rewrite). 

Spain waives right to have two naval 
deserters returned. 

Cooperatives stressed in foreign aid 
program. 

Stevenson : return from South America. 

Research grant to Johns Hupkius. 

Economic mission to Thailand (re- 
write ) . 

Travel of Hungarian officials. 

Rowan : "New Frontiers in Race 
Relations." 

Martin : reduction of customs exemp- 
tion for U.S. tourists. 

AVheat to Afghanistan. 

Meeting of textile-consuming nations. 

Aviation talks with Canada. 

Christopher appointed U.S. represen- 
tative to textile negotiations (re- 
write). 



* Not printed. 

t Held for a later issue of the Bi-lletin. 



4]S 
t419 


6/21 
6/21 


*420 


6/21 


421 
*422 


6/21 
6/21 


*423 

*424 

425 

420 

t427 


6/21 
6/21 
6/21 
6/22 
6/22 


428 
429 


6/22 
6/22 


430 


6/22 


431 


6/22 


432 


6/23 


433 
434 
t435 


6/23 
6/23 
6/23 


436 
*437 


6/23 
6/24 


t43S 


6/23 


4.39 

440 

;441 

442 


6/23 
6/23 
6/23 
6/23 



94 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



July 10, 1961 



Index 



Vol. XLV, No. 1150 



Afghanistan. United States Provides Afghanistan 

With Another 50,000 Tons of Wheat .... 84 

Africa. A New Generation and the Future of 

Africa (Williams) "'- 

American Principles. Our Changing World (Boh- 

leu) 62 

American Republics 

Ambassador Stevenson Returns From Visit to 

South America 61 

A New Birth of Freedom (Farland) 75 

President Approves Research Grant to Pan Amer- 
ican Sanitar.v Bureau 87 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of June 22 . . 51 

U.S. Makes Grant to Central American Bank for 
Economic Integration 83 

Angola. Security Council Calls for Prompt Report 

on Angola (Yost, text of resolution) 88 

Antarctica. Antarctic Treaty Enters Into Force 

(Kennedy) 91 

Communism 

A New Birth of Freedom (Farland) 75 

Our Changing World (Bohlen) 62 

Congress, The. Congressional Documents Relating 
to Foreign Policy 75 

Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak U.N. OflBcial Vio- 
lates Status; U.S. Requests Departure (tests of 
U.S. notes) 66 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Daughters, Llndley) 94 

Mr. Ball Appointed to Board of Panama Canal 

Company 93 

Confirmations (Cargo, Smyth) 93 

Second Exchange of Key Personnel With Defense 
Department Begins 92 

Disarmament 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of June 22 . . 51 

U.S., U.S.S.R. Discuss Framework and Forum for 

Disarmament Talks (text of joint communique) . 57 

Economic Affairs 

Textile-Consuming Nations Meet, Propose Inter- 
national Consultations (text of joint state- 
ment) 90 

U.S. Makes Grant to Central American Bank for 

Economic Integration 83 

Ecuador. Daughters apr>ointed USOM Director . . 94 

Educational and Cultural Affairs 

A New Generation and the Future of Africa 

(Williams) 72 

Two New Members of Commission on Educational 

Exchange Confirmed 59 

Germany. Secretary Rusk's News Conference of 

June 22 51 

Hungary. U.S. Changes Procedures Governing 

Travel of Hungarian Officials 67 

Immigration and Naturalization. Immigration 
Quota Established for Sierra Leone (text of 
proclamation) "4 

Quota Established for Sierra Leone (a procla- 
mation) 74 

International Organizations and Conferences 

ECE Housing Committee (delegation) 90 

President Approves Research Grant to Pan Ameri- 
can Sanitary Bureau 87 

Smyth and Cargo confirmed to IAEA 93 

Textile-Consuming Nations Meet, Propose Inter- 
national Consultations (text of joint state- 
ment 90 

U.S. Urges Start of Serious Negotiations on Laos 

(Harrimau) 8.5 

W. M. Christopher To Represent U.S. in Textile 

Agreement Negotiations 90 



Italy. U.S. and Italy Reaffirm Conmion Aim of 

Promoting Peace and Progress (text of joint 

communique) 60 

Japan 

Prime Minister of Japan Concludes Official Visit 

to Washington (texts of joint communique and 

exchange of notes) 57 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of Jime 22 . . .51 
Laos. U.S. Urges Start of Serious Negotiations on 

Laos (Harriman) §5 

Mutual Security 

Daughters appointed as USOM Director, Ecuador . 94 

New Foreign Aid Program To Place Greater 

Emphasis on Cooperatives 83 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of June 22 . . 51 
Study of ICA Health Program To Be Made by 

Johns Hopkins '. 84 

U.S. Aids Zanzibar Refugees 71 

U.S. Makes Grant to Central American Bank for 

Economic Integration 83 

United States Provides Afghanistan With Another 

50,000 Tons of Wheat 84 

Non-Self-Governing Territories 

Security Council Calls for Prompt Report on 

Angola (Yost, text of resolution) 88 

U.S. Aids Zanzibar Refugees 71 

Presidential Documents 

Antarctic Treaty Enters Into Force 91 

Immigration Quota Established for Sierra Leone . 74 

Prime Minister of Japan Concludes Official Visit 

to Washington 57 

U.S. and Italy Reaffirm Common Aim of Promot- 
ing Peace and Progress 60 

Publications. Recent Releases 94 

Sierra Leone. Immigration Quota Established for 

Sierra Leone (text of proclamation) 74 

Spain. Spain Waives Right To Have Two Naval 

Deserters Returned 71 

Treaty Information 

Antarctic Treaty Enters Into Force (Kennedy) . 91 

Current Actions 91 

U.S.S.R. 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference of June 22 . . 51 

U.S., U.S.S.R. Di.scuss Framework and Forum for 
Disarmament Talks (text of joint communique) . 57 

United Nations 

Czechoslovak U.N. Official Violates Status: U.S. 
Requests Departure (texts of U.S. notes) . . 66 

Security Council Calls for Prompt Report on An- 
gola (Yost, text of resolution) 88 

The United Nations, First Step Toward a World 

Under Law (Stevenson) 68 

Name Index 

Adams, Walter 59 

Ball, George W 93 

Bohlen, Charles E 62 

Cargo, William I 93 

Daughters, Donald L 94 

Fanfani, Amintore 60 

Farland, Joseph S 75 

Harriman, W. Averell 85 

Ikeda, Hayato 57 

Kennedy, President 57, 60, 91 

Kosaka, Zentaro 57 

Lindley, Ernest K 94 

Rusk, Secretary 51, 57 

Smyth, Henry DeWolf 93 

Smyth, Mabel M 59 

Stevenson, Adlai E 61, 68 

Williams, G. Mennen 72 

Yost, Charles W 88 



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July 17, 1961 



PRESIDENT KENNEDY SENDS CONGRESS DRAFT 
BILL TO ESTABLISH U.S. DISARMAMENT 
AGENCY FOR WORLD PEACE AND SECURITY . . 99 

SECRETARY RUSK'S NEWS CONFERENCE AT 

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THE PROBLEM OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC 

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AMERICA'S INTEREST IN AFRICAN EDUCATION • 

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THE DEPARTIVIENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLV, No. 1151 • Pubucation 7229 
July 17, 1961 



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President Kennedy Sends Congress Draft Bill To Establish 
U. S. Disarmament Agency for World Peace and Security 



Following is a letter of June 29 from President 
Kennedy to Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the 
Senate,^ transmitting a draft of legislation to es- 
tailish a U.S. Disarmament Agency, together with 
a letter to the President from John J. McGloy 
and the text of the draft hill. 

PRESIDENT KENNEDY TO MR. JOHNSON 

White House press release dated June 29 

June 29, 1961 
Dear Mr. President : I am transmitting here- 
with, for consideration by the Congress, a draft ^ of 
legislation to carry out the recommendation con- 
tained in my May twenty-fifth Message,^ for the 
establislmient of a strengthened and enlarged dis- 
armament agency to make an intensified effort to 
develop acceptable political and teclmical alterna- 
tives to the present arms race. 

Today, ability of man to master his environment 
threatens to outpace his ability to control himself. 
The world is more and more interdependent, and 
the people of the earth can now look beyond this 
planet to a new age of discovery, but they have 
not yet been able to banish the primitive threat 
of war. The ingenuity that has made the weapons 
of war vastly more destructive should be applied 
to the development of a system of control of these 
weapons. 

But peace cannot be brought about by concen- 
trating solely on measures to control and eliminate 
weapons. It must also encompass measures to sus- 
tain and strengthen international institutions and 
the rule of law. A disarmament program must 

"An identical letter was sent on the same day to Sam 
Eayburn, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
' S. 2180 (H. 7936), 87th Cong., 1st sess. 
' For text, see Bulletin of June 12, 1961, p. 903. 



take into account the national security ; our foreign 
policy ; the relationships of this country to inter- 
national peace-keeping agencies, including the 
United Nations; and our domestic economic and 
other policies. It should drive toward the creation 
of a peaceful world society in which disarmament, 
except for the forces needed to apply international 
sanctions, is the accepted condition of interna- 
tional life. 

For the past five months, Mr. John J. McCloy, 
my adviser on disarmament matters, has been con- 
ducting, at my request, an extensive study of the 
governmental effoi't and organization necessary to 
give effect to our national purpose in this field. 
He has had available to him the results of search- 
ing studies by individual members and committees 
of the Congress, the agencies of Government prin- 
cipally concerned, national and international or- 
ganizations and eminent private individuals. 
During the course of his study, Mr. McCloy has 
consulted closely with Secretary [of State] Rusk, 
Secretary [of Defense] McNamara, Chairman 
Seaborg [of the Atomic Energy Commission] and 
other high officials. All of these studies and con- 
sultations have inescapably pointed to the conclu- 
sion that a new effort, considerably larger than our 
present effort, in terms of size, range of skills and 
authority will be necessary. This can best be 
accomplished by the creation of a new United 
States agency. 

Following Mr. McCloy's recommendations, I 
am therefore proposing that a new United States 
Disarmament Agency for World Peace and Secu- 
rity be established. Enactment of the proposed 
legislation will permit this agency to deal broadly 
with the whole range of disarmament matters, in- 
cluding research, policies, and programs. 

The importance and broad scope of disarma- 
ment matters require continuing Presidential at- 
tention. The complex inter-relationships between 



iM\y 17, 1961 



99 



disarmament activities, foreign affairs, and na- 
tional security also require that close working- 
level coordination and cooperation be established 
between the new agency and the Departments of 
State and Defense, the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, and other agencies. 

The proposed legislation provides that the Di- 
rector of the new agency function imder the direc- 
tion of the President and the Secretary of State. 
This arrangement will permit coordination of dis- 
armament matters witliin the purview of the var- 
ious agencies; it will give special recognition to 
the need for intermeshing disarmament policies 
and programs with the broad conduct of foreign 
affairs; and it will provide a focal point at the 
highest level of Government for the consideration 
of disarmament matters. 

In the light of these unique relationships the 
Director, as the principal adviser to the President 
in the disarmament field, will have direct access 
to him but will, of course, notify the Secretary of 
State as to the occasion and substance of the ad- 
vice he offers. In addition, the Director will re- 
port to the Secretary of State without going 
through intermediate authority, and he will act as 
the agent of the Secretary of State with authority 
under his direction, to act in his name. Also, I in- 
tend that he participate in all meetings of the Na- 
tional Security Council having to do with 
disarmament. 

I am enclosing a letter from Mr. McCloy de- 
scribing the legislation in more detail. 
Sincerely, 

John F. Kennedy 

Honorable Ltndon B. Johnson 
President of the United States Semite 
Washington, B.C. 



MR. McCLOY TO PRESIDENT KENNEDY 

The White House 
"Waahingtom,, June 23, 1961 

My Dear Mr. President : There is enclosed herewith a 
draft of a bill, "To establish a United States Disarma- 
ment Agency for World Peace and Security." 

The bill carries out the recommendation, contained in 
your Special Message on Urgent National Needs dated 
May 25, 1961, that a strengthened and enlarged disarma- 
ment agency be established. The provisions of the bill 
have been developed in consultation with the agencies 
principally concerned. The Secretary of State, the Secre- 



tary of Defense, the heads of other affected agencies, and 
I, all concur in these provisions. 

The purpose of this legislation is to establish such an 
agency at an authoritative level in the Government, with 
the exceptionally broad competence, functions, and re- 
sources required to work toward the objective of a 
peaceful world society in which disarmament, except for 
the forces needed to apply international sanctions, is the 
accepted condition of international life. An agency of 
such far-reaching scope should be able to bring its point 
of view and recommendations promptly to the highest 
level of Government. The agency should have primary 
resi)onsibility within the Government for disarmament 
matters, but there must be close cooperation and co- 
ordination with other affected agencies, particularly the 
Department of State, since a disarmament program must 
take into account the national security ; foreign policy ; 
the relationships of this country to international peace- 
keeping agencies, including the United Nations ; and our 
domestic economic and other policies. 

The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the 
heads of other affected agencies, and I agree that the 
performance of these tasks requires the establishment 
of the new agency which would be created by the enact- 
ment of this bill. 

The draft legislation provides that the Director of this 
new United States Disarmament Agency for World Peace 
and Security be under the direction of the President and 
the Secretary of State. This arrangement recognizes 
that disarmament considerations are so all-pervasive in 
scope and importance that the President must concern 
himself with these matters on a continuing basis. It 
also recognizes the fact that disarmament policies, nego- 
tiations and programs must be very closely coordinated 
with State Department activities and responsibilities. 
Appropriate provision is also made for coordination and 
cooperation with other affected agencies such as the 
Department of Defense and the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. 

The bill vests the Director with primary responsibility 
for all United States disarmament activities. The agency 
would, in addition, participate in or contribute to the 
formulation of overall policy in areas importantly related 
to or affecting disarmament such as basic national 
security policies, strengthening of the peace-maintaining 
machinery of international institutions, and procedures 
for the settlement of international disputes and the re- 
duction of tensions among nations. 

In addition to providing a focal point for the integra- 
tion of the Government's overall efforts in disarmament, 
establishment of the United States Disarmament Agency 
for World Peace and Security by enactment of the bill 
will make possible the necessary augmentation and co- 
ordination of the various programs of research and de- 
velopment already being conducted by other agencies of 
the Government. When it appears that projects now 
assigned to other agencies would be more effectively 
performed if made the responsibility of the new agency, 
they would be transferred at the direction of the 
President. 

The new agency would be authorized and directed 
by the bill to develop and conduct broad programs of 



100 



Department of State Bulletin 



research, development, and study relating to disarmament. 
It would utilize private or public institutions or its own 
facilities for this purpose. It would take the lead in 
the acquisition of a fund of theoretical and practical 
■ knowledge in the disarmament field. This responsibility 
would encompass the scientific and technical assessment 
of all aspects of arms control, including detection, iden- 
tification, inspection, monitoring, limitation, reduction, 
and control of armed forces and armaments and the 
development and testing of weapons. The Agency would 
also be responsible for studies of the structure and opera- 
tion of international organizations and the methods of 
maintaining peace and security during different stages 
of disarmament. It would analyze the economic and 
political consequences of disarmament and would be re- 
sponsible for assessing the implications of foreign and 
military policies of the United States as they relate to 
possible disarmament measures. In the conduct of re- 
search and development programs by the new Agency, 
full use would be made of the resources of other agencies 
of the Government, as well as of outside facilities and 
personnel. 

The research and planning done by the new Agency 
would provide the basis for recommendations, appropri- 
ately coordinated with other agencies with affected re- 
sponsibilities, for the President, the Secretary of State, 
' and the heads of other agencies. 

Under the bill, the Director would be responsible for 
conducting negotiations based on approved policy, under 
the direction of the Secretary of State. Such negotiations 
may take the form of formal conferences or informal com- 
munications through regular diplomatic missions. 
: It is essential that in this country and throughout the 
I world the public be kept fully informed of United States 
disarmament policy. The Director would work closely 
with the United States Information Agency to assure that 
its broadcasts and other information programs properly 
reflect our disarmament policy. 

Tasks of inspection and control will fall upon the 
shoulders of any government participating in a disarma- 
ment treaty. The bill contemplates that the planning of 
United States participation in any agreed upon inspection 
and control system would be done by the Agency. The 
nature and extent of any such systems are as yet unclear, 
but the Agency would be expected to play the primary 
United States role in developing and, as appropriate, di- 
recting United States participation in such arrangements 
as might result from disarmament activities. 

To assist in the discharge of the various responsibilities 
assigned to the Agency, the bill provides for the appoint- 
ment of an advisory committee of outstanding citizens to 
advise the Director on such matters as he might request. 

The exact nature of the skills or organization required 
to perform the tasks envisaged for the Agency cannot be 
clearly foreseen at this time. Therefore the maximum 
amount of flexibility consistent with responsible direction 
is provided by the bill to permit recruitment by the Agency 
of high caliber personnel, and to permit the establishment 
of internal arrangements adequate to meet changing re- 
quirements. 

In conclusion, I must stress that organization, machinery 
and competent people alone cannot guarantee the success 



of the mission of our country to prevent war, curb the 
arms race, and create lasting conditions of peace. But they 
can assure that the best effort of which we are capable is 
directed toward these ends. 
KespectfuUy, 

John J. McClot 



TEXT OF DRAFT BILL 

A BILL 
To establish a United States Disarmament Agency for 
World Peace and Security. 

Be it eiiacted by the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled, 

Title I — Short Title, Purpose and Definitions 

SHORT title 
Section 1. This Act may be cited as the Disarmament 
Act for World Peace and Security. 

PUBPOSE 

Sec. 2. An ultimate goal of the United States is a world 
which is free from the scourge of war and the dangers 
and burdens of armaments ; in which the use of force 
has been subordinated to the rule of law ; and in which 
international adjustments to a changing world are 
achieved peacefully. It is the purpose of this Act to 
provide impetus toward this goal by creating a new 
agency of peace to deal with the problem of disarmament 

The formulation and implementation of United States 
disarmament policy In a manner which will promote the 
national security require a central organization charged 
by statute with primary responsibility for this field. This 
organization must be so placed within the Government 
that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, 
other ofiicials of the Executive Branch, and the Congress 
with recommendations concerning United States disarma- 
ment policy, and can assess the effect of these recom- 
mendations upon our foreign policies, our national secu- 
rity policies, and our economy. 

This organization must have the capacity to provide 
the essential scientific, economic, political, military, psy- 
chological and technological information upon which 
realistic disarmament policy must be based. It must 
be able to carry out the following primary functions : 

(1) The conduct, support and coordination of research 
for disarmament policy formulation. 

(2) The preparation for and direction of United States 
participation in international negotiations In the disarma- 
ment field. 

(3) The dissemination and coordination of public in- 
formation concerning disarmament. 

(4) The preparation for, operation of, or, as appro- 
priate, direction of United States participation in such 
control systems as may become part of United States 
disarmament activities. 



July 17, 1 96 1 



101 



DEFINITIONS 

Sec. 3. As used in this Act : 

(a) The term "disarmament" includes the elimination, 
reduction, control, limitation, inspection, verification or 
identification, of armed forces and armaments of all kinds 
under international agreement or measure ; including the 
necessary steps in connection with disarmament to create 
and strengthen international organizations for the main- 
tenance of peace. 

(b) The term "Government agency" means any execu- 
tive department, commission, agency, independent estab- 
lishment, corporation wholly or partly owned by the 
United States which is an instrumentality of the United 
States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, 
officer, authority, administration, or other establishment 
in the executive branch of Government. 

(c) The term "Agency" means the United States Dis- 
armament Agency. 

(d) The term "person" means (1) any Individual, 
corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, 
public or private institution, group, Government agency 
other than the Agency, any state or any political subdivi- 
sion thereof, or any political entity within a state, any 
foreign government or nation, any international organiza- 
tion, or other entity, and (2) any legal successor, repre- 
sentative, agent, or agency of the foregoing. 

Title II — Organization 

UNITED STATES DISARMAMENT AGENCY FOR WORLD PEACE AND 
SECURITY 

Sec. 21. There is hereby established the United States 
Disarmament Agency for World Peace and Security. 

DIRECTOR 

Sec. 22. The Agency shall be headed by a Director. 
He shall be appointed by the President, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate. He shall receive 
compensation at the rate of $22,500 per annum. The 
Director shall serve as the principal adviser to the Presi- 
dent on disarmament matters. Under the direction of the 
President and the Secretary of State, the Director shall 
have primary responsibility within the Government for 
disarmament matters. 

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 

Sec. 23. A Deputy Director of the Agency shall be 
appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. He shall receive compensation at 
the rate of $21,500 per annum. The Deputy Director 
shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as 
the Director may prescribe. He shall act for, and exer- 
cise the powers of, the Director during his absence or 
disability or during a vacancy in said office. 

ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 

Sec. 24. Not to exceed four Assistant Directors may be 
appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. They shall receive compensa- 
tion at the rate of $20,000 per annum. They shall perform 
such duties and exercise such jwwers as the Director 
may prescribe. 



BUREAUS, OFFICES AND DIVISIONS 

Sec. 25. The Director may establish within the Agency 
such program and staff bureaus, offices and divisions as 
he may determine to be necessary to discharge his respon- 
sibilities under this Act, including, but not limited to, an 
Office of Public Affairs and an Office of the General 
Counsel. 

general advisory COMMITTEE 

Sec. 26. The President may appoint a General Advisory 
Committee of not to exceed 15 members to advise the 
Director on disarmament policy and activities. The 
President shall designate one of the members as Chair- 
man. The members of the Committee may receive the 
compensation and reimbursement for expenses specified 
for consultants by section 41(d) of this Act. 

Title III — Functions 

research 

Sec. 31. The Director is authorized and directed to 
exercise his powers in such manner as to insure the con- 
duct of research, development and other studies relating 
to disarmament, by private or public institutions or per- 
sons, and to assist in the acquisition of a fund of 
theoretical and practical knowledge in this field. To this 
end, the Director, under the direction of the President, 
is authorized and directed to coordinate the research, 
development and other studies conducted in this field by or 
for other Government agencies in accordance with pro- 
cedures established under section 37 of this Act. To 
the same end, the Director is authorized and directed 
to make arrangements (including contracts, agreements 
and grants) for the conduct of research, development and 
other studies relating to disarmament, including : 

(a) the detection, identification, inspection, monitoring, 
limitation, reduction, control and elimination of armed 
forces and armaments, including thermonuclear, nuclear, 
missile, conventional, bacteriological, chemical and radio- 
logical weapons ; 

(b) the techniques and systems of detecting, identifying, 
inspecting, and monitoring of tests of nuclear, thermo- 
nuclear and other weapons ; 

(c) the analysis of national budgets, levels of indus- 
trial production and economic indicators to determine 
the amounts spent by various countries for armaments ; 

(d) the control, reduction and elimination of armed 
forces and armaments in space, in areas on and beneath 
the earth's surface, and in underwater regions ; 

(e) the structure and operation of international con- 
trol and other organizations useful for disarmament ; 

(f) the training of scientists, technicians, and other 
personnel for manning the control systems which may be 
created by international disarmament agreements ; 

(g) the reduction and elimination of the danger of war 
resulting from accident, miscalculation or surprise attack, 
including (but not limited to) improvements in the 
methods of communications between nations ; 

(h) the economic and political consequences of disarma- 
ment, including the problems of readjustment arising In 
industry and the reallocation of national resources ; 



102 



Deparfmenf of Sfate Butlefin 



(i) the disarmament implications of foreign and na- 
tional security policies of the United States with a view to 
a better understanding of the significance of such policies 
for the achievement of disarmament ; 

( j ) the national security and foreign policy implications 
of disarmament proposals with a view to a better under- 
standing of the effect of such proposals upon national 
security and foreign policy ; 

Ck) methods for the maintenance of peace and security 
during different stages of disarmament ; 

(1) the scientific, economic, political, legal, social, psy- 
chological, military, and technological factors related to 
the prevention of war mth a view to a better understand- 
ing of how the basic structure of a lasting peace may be 
established ; 

(m) such related problems as the Director may deter- 
mine to be in need of research, development or study in 
order to carry out the provisions of this Act. 

EESEAKOH FACII.ITIES 

Sec. 32. The Director is authorized (1) to conduct and 
support research, development and other studies of the 
types specified in the preceding section through use of the 
Agency's own facilities, and (2) to use, with their consent, 
the facilities of other Government agencies or those of out- 
side organizations. In carrying out his responsibilities 
under this Act the Director shall, to the extent feasible, 
make full use of available facilities, Government and pri- 
vate, and may construct such new laboratories as he 
deems necessary. 

POLICY FOEMULATION 

Sec. 33. The Director is authorized and directed to pre- 
pare for the President, the Secretary of State, and the 
heads of such other Government agencies as the President 
may determine, recommendations concerning United 
States disarmament policy. 

NEGOTIATION OF INTEENATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

Sec. 34. Under the direction of the Secretary of State, 
the Director may (a) consult and communicate with or 
direct the consultation and communication with repre- 
sentatives of other nations or of international organiza- 
tions, for the purpose of conducting negotiations concern- 
ing disarmament, or for the purpose of exercising any 
other authority given to the Director by this Act; and 
(b) communicate in the name of the Secretary with 
diplomatic representatives of the United States in this 
country and abroad. 

PUBLIC INFORMATION 

Sec. 35. Under the direction of the Secretary of State, 
the Director shall perform functions pursuant to section 
2(0) of Reorganization Plan 8 of 1953 * with respect to the 
dissemination abroad of information concerning United 
States disarmament activities. 

INSPECTION AND CONTEOL 

< Sec. 36. The Director is authorized (1) to formulate 
plans and malie preparations for the establishment, opera- 
tion, and funding of inspection and control systems which 
may become part of United States disarmament activities 



* For text, see ihid., June 15, 1953, p. 854. 
July 17, J 96 1 



and, (2) as appropriate, to put into effect, direct, or other- 
wise assume United States responsibility for such systems. 

COOPEBATION AND COORDINATION 

Sec. 37. The Director, in consultation with other ap- 
propriate Government agencies and subject to approval by 
the President, shall develop suitable procedures to assure 
cooperation, coordination, and a continuing exchange of 
information among affected Government agencies on all 
significant aspects of U.S. disarmament policy and re- 
lated matters, including current and prospective policies, 
plans, and programs. The Director and such Govern- 
ment agencies shall keep each other fully informed, cur- 
rently and prospectively, of policy decisions, activities, 
statements, studies, research, and other matters which 
are vrithin the scope of their respective responsibilities 
and which affect disarmament matters. 

Title IV — General Peovisions 

GENERAL AUTHORITY 

Sec. 41. In the performance of his functions, the Di- 
rector is authorized to — 

(a) With the consent of the Secretary of State or other 
officer or agency concerned, utilize or employ the services, 
personnel, equipment, or facilities of the Department of 
State, or any other Government agency to perform such 
functions on behalf of the Agency as may appear desirable. 
It is the intent of this section that the Director rely upon 
the Department of State for general administrative serv- 
ices in the United States and abroad to the extent agreed 
upon between the Secretary of State and the Director. 
Any Government agency is authorized, notwithstanding 
any other provision of law, to transfer to or to receive from 
the Director, without reimbursement, supplies and equip- 
ment other than administrative supplies or equipment 
Transfer or receipt of excess property shall be in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Federal Property and 
Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. 

(b) Appoint officers and employees, including attor- 
neys, for the Agency in accordance with the Civil Service 
laws and fix their compensation in accordance with the 
Classification Act of 1949, as amended, except that, to the 
extent that the Director deems such action necessary to 
the discharge of his responsibilities, not to exceed 45 scien- 
tific, technical, administrative and professional personnel 
may be appointed, compensated and removed without 
regard to the provisions of any other law, of whom not to 
exceed 20 may be compensated at annual rates not more 
than $500 in excess of the compensation now or hereafter 
fixed by law for Grade 18 of the General Schedule, and of 
whom not to exceed 2 may be compensated at annual rates 
not more than $1,500 in excess of that now or hereafter 
fixed by law for Grade 18. 

(c) Enter into agreements with other Government 
agencies, including the military departments through the 
Secretary of Defense, under which officers or employees 
of such agencies may be detailed to the Agency for the 
performance of service pursuant to this Act without prej- 
udice to the status or advancement of such officers or 
employees within their own agencies. 

(d) Procure services of experts and consultants or or- 

, 103 



ganizations thereof, including stenographic reporting 
services, as authorized by section 15 of the Act of August 
2, 1946 (5 U.S.C. 53a) at rates not to exceed $100 per diem 
for individuals, and to pay in connection therewith travel 
expenses of individuals, including transportation and per 
diem in lieu of subsistence while away from their homes 
or regular places of business, as authorized by section 5 
of said Act, as amended (5 U.S.O. 73b-2) : Provided, That 
such contracts may be renewed annually. 

(e) Employ individuals of outstanding ability with- 
out compensation in accordance with the provisions of sec- 
tion 710(b) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as 
amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2160), and regulations issued 
thereunder. 

(f) Employ, with the prior approval of the President, 
not to exceed three retired commissioned officers of the 
armed forces who are experts in military strategy or 
weapons systems and whose service shall not be consid- 
ered as employment or holding of office or position bringing 
such individuals within the provisions of section 2 of the 
Act of July 31, 1894 (5 U.S.C. 62) ; section 13 of the Civil 
Service Retirement Act, as amended, (5 U.S.C. 2263) ; 
section 212 of Public Law 72-212, as amended (5 U.S.O. 
59a) ; or any other law limiting the reemployment of such 
officers or governing their simultaneous receipt of com- 
pensation and retired pay or annuities. 

(g) Establish advisory boards to advise with and mal^e 
recommendations to the Director on United States dis- 
armament policy and activities. The members of such 
boards may receive the compensation and reimbursement 
for expenses specified for consultants by section 41(d) 
of this Act. 

(h) Make such investigations and obtain such informa- 
tion, as the Director may deem necessary or proper to 
assist him in exercising any authority provided in this 
Act. 

(1) Acquire, purchase, lease and hold real and personal 
property, including patents, as agent of and on behalf of 
the United States, subject to the provisions of section 355 
of the Revised Statutes, as amended (40 U.S.C. 255), and 
sell, lease, grant and dispose of such real and personal 
property in accordance with the Federal Property and 
Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. 

(j) Accept in the name of the Agency and to hold and 
administer any conditional or unconditional gifts, devises, 
bequests, grants or other donations or contributions of 
money, securities, or real or personal property, for use 
in the furtherance of the purposes of this Act. The Di- 
rector shall not accept any conditional gift, devise, bequest, 
grant or other donation or contribution which is condi- 
tioned upon any expenditure not to be met therefrom or 
from the income thereof unless such expenditure has been 
approved by Act of Congress. 

(k) Delegate, as appropriate, to the Deputy Director or 
other officers of the Agency, with power to redelegate as 
needed, any authority conferred upon the Director by the 
provisions of this Act. 

(1) Make, promulgate, issue, rescind and amend such 
rules and regulations as may be necessary or desirable to 
the exercise of any authority conferred upon the Director 
by the provisions of this Act. 



FOREIGN SEHVICE RESERVE AND STAFF OFFICERS 

Sec. 42. The Secretary of State may authorize the Di- 
rector to exercise, with respect to Foreign Service Reserve 
Officers and Foreign Service Staff Officers and employees 
appointed or employed for the Agency, the following au- 
thority: (i) the authority available to the Secretary of 
State under the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended, 
(ii) the authority available to the Secretary under any 
other provision of law pertaining specifically, or generally 
applicable, to such officers or employees, and (iii) the 
authority of the Board of Foreign Service pursuant to 
the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended. The ap- 
pointment or employment of Foreign Service Reserve 
Officers pursuant to this subsection may be made without 
regard to the term or terms of appointment or employment 
prescribed by section 522 of the Foreign Service Act of 
1946, as amended. 

CONTRACTS OR EXPENDITURES 

Sec. 43. The President may, in advance, exempt ac- 
tions of the Director from the provisions of law relating 
to contracts or expenditures of government funds when- 
ever he determines that such action is essential in the 
interest of United States disarmament policy. 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST AND DUAL COMPENSATION LAWS 

Sec. 44. The members of the General Advisory Com- 
mittee created by section 26 of this Act ; and the members 
of the advisory boards, the consultants, and the in- 
dividuals of outstanding ability employed without com- 
pensation, all of which are provided for in section 41 of 
this Act; may serve as such without regard to the pro- 
visions of sections 281, 283, 284, or 1914 of title 18 of 
the United States Code, or of section 190 of the Revised 
Statutes (5 U.S.C. 99), or of any other Federal law im- 
posing restrictions, requirements, or penalties in relation 
to the employment of individuals, the performance of 
services, or the payment or receipt of compensation in 
connection with any claim, proceeding, or matter involv- 
ing the United States Government, except insofar as such 
provisions of law may prohibit any such individual from 
receiving compensation from a source other than a non- 
profit educational institution in respect of any particular 
matter in which the Agency is directly interested. Nor 
shall such service be considered as employment or hold- 
ing of office or position bringing such individual within 
the provisions of section 13 of the Civil Service Retire- 
ment Act (5 U.S.C. 2263), section 212 of the Act of June 
30, 1932, as amended (5 U.S.C. 59a), or any other Federal 
law limiting the reemployment of retired officers or em- 
ployees or governing the simultaneous receipt of com- 
pensation and retired pay or annuities. 

SECURITY REQUIREMENTS 

Sec. 45. (a) The Director shall establish such security 
requirements, restrictions, and safeguards as he deems 
necessary in the interest of national security. The Di- 
rector may arrange with the Secretary of State or with 
the Civil Service Commission for the conduct of such 
security or other personnel investigations of the Agency's 
officers, employees, consultants, persons detailed from 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



other Government agencies, and its contractors and sub- 
contractors and their officers and employees, actual or 
prospective, as he deems appropriate ; and Lf any such 
Investigation develops any data reflecting that the in- 
dividual who is the subject thereof is of questionable 
loyalty, the matter shall be referred to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, the results of which shall be 
furnished to the Director. 

(b) The Atomic Energy Commission may authorize 
any of its employees, or employees of any contractor, 
prospective contractor, licensee, or prospective licensee of 
the Atomic Energy Commission or any other person 
authorized to have access to restricted data by the Atomic 
Energy Commission under section 2165 of Title 42, to 
permit the Director or any officer, employee, consultant, 
person detailed from other Government agencies, member 
of the General Advisory Committee or of an advisory 
board, contractor, subcontractor, prospective contractor, 
or prospective subcontractor, or officer or employee of 
such contractor, subcontractor, prospective contractor or 
prospective subcontractor, to have access to restricted 
data which is required in the performance of his duties 
and so certified by the Director, but only if (1) the Di- 
rector has determined, in accordance with the established 
personnel security procedures and standards of the 
Agency, that permitting such individual to have access 
to such restricted data will not endanger the common 
defense and security, and (2) the Director finds that 
the established personnel and other security procedures 
and standards of the Agency are adequate and in reason- 
able conformity to the standards established by the 
Atomic Energy Commission under section 2165 of Title 
42, including those for interim clearance in subsection 
(b) thereof. Any individual granted access to such 
restricted data pursuant to this subsection may exchange 
such data with any individual who (a) is an officer or 
employee of the Department of Defense, or any depart- 
ment or agency thereof, or a member of the armed forces, 
or an officer or employee of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, or a contractor or subcontractor 
of any such department, agency, or armed force, or an 
officer or employee of any such contractor or subcontrac- 
tor, and (b) has been authorized to have access to re- 
stricted data under the provisions of sections 2163 or 
2455 of title 42. 

(c) Any and all of the functions of the Director de- 
scribed in this section may be the subject of an agree- 
ment between the Director and the Secretary of State 
under section 41 (a) of this Act. 

COMPTKOLLEaj GENERAL AUDIT 

Sec. 46. No moneys appropriated for the purpose of 
this Act shall be available for payment under any con- 

' tract with the Director, negotiated without advertising, 
except contracts with any foreign government, interna- 

, tional organization or any agency thereof, unless such 
contract includes a clause to the effect that the Comp- 
troller General of the United States or any of his duly 
authorized representatives shall, until the expiration of 
three years after final payment, have access to and the 
right to examine any directly pertinent books, documents, 



papers, and records of the contractor or any of his sub- 
contractors engaged in the performance of, and involving 
transactions related to such contracts or subcontracts: 
Provided, however, That no moneys so appropriated shall 
be available for payment under such contract which in- 
cludes any provisions precluding an audit of the General 
Accounting Office of any transaction under such con- 
tract : And provided further. That nothing in this section 
shall preclude the earlier disposal of contractor and sub- 
contractor records in accordance with records disposal 
schedules agreed uiK)n between the Director and the 
General Accounting Office. 

PBESIDENTIAL AUTHORITY TO TRANSFER CERTAIN FUNCTIONS 

Sec. 47. The President may transfer to the Director 
any functions (including powers, duties, activities, fa- 
cilities, and parts of functions) of any Government agency 
which relate primarily to di.sarmament. In connection 
with any such transfer, the President may provide for 
appropriate transfer of funds, records, property, and for 
necessary civilian and military personnel to be made 
available from the agency from which the transfer is 
made. 

use of FUNDS 

Sec. 48. Appropriations made to the Director for the 
purposes of this Act, and transfers of funds to him by 
other Government agencies for such purposes, shall be 
available to him to exercise any authority granted him by 
this Act, and shall also be available for the following 
uses to carry out the purposes of this Act : 

(1) rent of buildings and space in buildings in the 
District of Columbia : Provided, That to the extent feasi- 
ble, the Director shall rely upon the General Services 
Administration for this purpose ; 

(2) adjoiinistrative expenses incident to carrying out 
the purposes of this Act, including, without limitation, 
expenses of printing and binding without regard to the 
provisions of section 11 of the Act of March 1, 1919 (44 
U.S.C. Ill) ; 

(3) purchase or hire of one passenger motor vehicle 
for the official use of the Director without regard to the 
limitations contained in section 78(c) of title 5 of the 
United States Code or any other law relating to the 
purchase or use of government owned motor vehicles ; 

(4) entertainment and official courtesies (not to ex- 
ceed $25,000 in any fiscal year except as may otherwise be 
provided in an appropriation) ; 

(5) expenditures (not to exceed $50,000 in any fiscal 
year except as may be provided in an appropriation) of 
a confidential character other than entertainment ; Pro- 
vided, That a certificate of the amount of each such ex- 
penditure, the nature of which it is considered inadvisable 
to specify, shall be made by the Director and every such 
certificate shall be deemed a sufficient voucher for the 
amount therein specified ; 

(6) expenses authorized by the Foreign Service Act 
of 1946, as amended, not otherwise provided for ; 

(7) expenses in connection with travel of personnel 
outside the United States, including transportation ex- 
penses of dependents, and transportation of personal 



July 17, 7967 



105 



effects, household goods, and automobileg of such per- 
sonnel, and including all such expenses when any part of 
such travel or transportation begins in one fiscal year 
pursuant to travel orders issued in that fiscal year, not- 
withstanding the fact that such travel or transportation 
may not be completed during the same fiscal year ; 

(8) expenditures necessary to make grants for, and to 
pay expenses incident to, training and study ; 

(9) expenditures in connection with participation in 
International conferences for the purposes described in 
section 34 of this Act, including, but not limited to, rental 
of quarters by contract or otherwise. 

APPBOPEIATIONS 

Sec. 49. (a) There are hereby authorized to be appro- 
priated to the Agency such sums as may be necessary 
and appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act. 
Sums appropriated pursuant to this section for research 
development and studies shall remain available until 
expended. 

(b) Funds appropriated pursuant to this section may be 
allocated or transferred to any agency for carrying out 
the purposes of this Act. Such funds shall be available 
for obligation and expenditure in accordance with author- 
ity granted in this Act, or under authority governing the 
activities of the agencies to which such funds are allocated 
or transferred. 

EEPOBT TO CONGRESS 

Sec. 50. The Director shall submit to the President, 
for transmittal to the Congress, not later than January 31 
of each year, a report concerning activities of the Agency. 
The Director shall include in his report, and shall at 
such other times as he deems desirable submit to the 
Congress, such recommendations for additional legis- 
lation as he deems necessary or advisable. 



Disarmament Talks To Be Resumed 
at Moscow July 17 

Joint Commwnique of June 30 

Press release 466 dated June 30 

Eepresentatives of the Goveriunents of the 
United States and the Soviet Union, who have 
been exchanging views in Washington since June 
19 ' on questions relating to disarmament and the 
resumption of negotiations in an appropriate body 
whose composition is to be agreed upon, have 

' For text of a joint communique released at Washing- 
ton at the opening of the talks on June 19, see Bulletin 
of July 10, 1961, p. 57. 



agreed to recess their further meetings until July 
17. 

The meetings will resume in Moscow in accord- 
ance with an understanding reached between 
representatives of the two Governments prior to 
June 19 that the first half of the discussions would 
be held in Washington and the second half in 
Moscow. 



President Urges Soviet Leaders 
To Accept Test Ban Treaty 

Statement hy President Kennedy ^ 

The Soviet Union's refusal to negotiate seriously 
on a nuclear test ban at Geneva is disheartening 
to all those who have held high hopes of stopping 
the spread of nuclear weapons and the pace of the 
arms race. 

It also raises a serious question about how long 
we can safely continue on a voluntary basis a re- 
fusal to undertake tests in this country without 
any assurance that the Russians are not now test- 
ing. Consequently, I have directed that the Presi- 
dent's Scientific Advisory Committee convene a 
special panel of eminent scientists to take a close 
and up-to-date look at the serious questions in- 
volved, including two questions in particular : 

First, what is the extent of our information on 
whether the Soviet Union has been or could be 
engaged in secret testing of nuclear weapons ? 

Second, to the extent that certain types of tests 
can be concealed by the Soviet Union, what tech- 
nical progress in weapons could be underway in 
that area without our knowledge ? 

These answers will be received and reviewed by 
myself, by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Na- 
tional Security Coimcil m the light of what they 
mean to the security of the free world. In the 
meantime, our negotiating team will remain at 
Geneva. 

Our draft treaty ^ is on the table there, and I 
urge the leaders of the Soviet Union to end their 
intransigence and to accept a reasonable and en- 
forcible treaty, which is our wholehearted desira 



1 Read by the President at a news conference on June 28. 

2 For text, see Bulletin of June 5, 1961, p. 870. 



106 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



President Outlines Implications 
of Berlin Situation 

Statement iy President Kennedy ^ 

White House press release dated June 28 

I should like to comment briefly on Germany 
and Berlin. Soviet and East German leaders have 
followed the recent Soviet aide memoire ^ with 
speeches which were apparently designed to 
heighten tension. It is of the greatest importance 
that the American people miderstand the basic 
issues involved and the threats to the peace and 
security both of Europe and of ourselves posed 
by the Soviet announcement that they intend to 
change unilaterally the existing arrangements for 
Berlin. 

The "crisis" over Berlin is Soviet manufactured. 
The Soviets illegally blockaded the city in 1948 
and lifted the blockade in the spring of 1949. 
From that time imtil November 1958 — almost a 
decade — the situation in Berlin was relatively 
peaceful. The peoples of West Berlin developed a 
vital and thriving city. We carried out our re- 
sponsibilities and exercised our rights of access to 
the city without serious incident, although we were 
never completely free from irritating difficulties 
put in our way. 

In November 1958 the Soviets began a new 
campaign to force the Allied Powers out of Ber- 
lin, a process which led up to the abortive summit 
conference in Paris in May of last year.^ Now 
they have revived that drive. They call upon us 
to sign what they call a "peace treaty" with the 
regime they have created in Eastern Germany. 
If we refuse, they say they themselves will sign 
such a "treaty." The obvious purpose here is not 
to have peace but to make permanent the parti- 
tion of Germany. The Soviets also say that their 
unilateral action in signing a "peace treaty" with 
East Germany would bring to an end Allied 
rights to be in West Berlin and to have free access 
to the city. It is clear that such unilateral action 
cannot affect these rights, •wliich stem from the 



' Read by the President at a news conference on June 28. 

^ An aide memoire on the subject of Berlin was handed 
to President Kennedy by Premier Khrushchev during 
their meeting at Vienna June 2-4. 

" For bacljground, see Bulletin of June 6, 1960, pp. 899 
and 904. 



surrender of Nazi Germany. Such action would 
simply be a repudiation by the Soviets of multi- 
lateral commitments to which they solemnly sub- 
scribed, and have repeatedly reaffirmed, about the 
exercise of the rights of the principal powers as- 
sociated in World War II. If the Soviets thus 
withdraw from their own obligations, it is clearly 
a matter for the other three allies to decide how 
they will exercise their rights and meet their re- 
sponsibilities. But the Soviets say that, when we 
do so, we will be subject to the designs of their 
East German regime and that these designs will 
be backed by force. Recent statements by leaders 
of this regime make it very plain that the kind of 
"free city" which they have in mind is one in 
which the rights of the citizens of West Berlin 
are gradually but relentlessly extinguished. 

No one can fail to appreciate the gravity of this 
threat. No one can reconcile it with the Soviet 
professions of a desire to "coexist" peacefully. 
This is not just a question of technical legal rights. 
It involves the peace and security of the people of 
West Berlin. It involves the direct responsibili- 
ties and commitments of the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and France. It involves the 
peace and security of the Western World. 

In the interest of our own vital security we and 
other Western countries entered into defense ar- 
rangements in direct response to aggressive Soviet 
moves following World War II. These alliances 
are wholly defensive in nature, but the Soviets 
would make a grave mistake if they suppose that 
Allied imity and determination can be undermined 
by threats or fresh aggi-essive acts. There is 
peace in Germany and in Berlin. If it is dis- 
turbed, it will be a direct Soviet responsibility. 

There is a danger that totalitarian governments 
not subject to vigorous popular debate will under- 
estimate the will and unity of democratic societies 
where vital interests are involved. The Soviet 
Government has an obligation both to its own 
people and to the peace of the world to recognize 
how vital is this commitment. 

We would agree that there is unfinished business 
to be settled as concerns Germany. For many 
years the Western nations have proposed a perma- 
nent and peaceful settlement of such questions on 
the basis of the self-determination of the German 
people. Moreover, we shall always be ready to 
discuss any proposals which would give increased 



Jo/y 77, 1 96 1 



107 



protection to the right of the people of Berlin 
to exercise their independent choice as free men. 
The proposals which have now been placed before 
us move in the opposite direction and are so rec- 
ognized throughout the world. Discussions will 
be profitable if the Soviets will accept in Berlin — 
and indeed in Europe — self-determination, which 
they profess in other parts of the world, and if 
they will work sincerely for peace rather than an 
extension of power. 

Alliance-for-Progress Projects Set 
for Panama, Guatemala, Argentina 

Press release 467 dated July 1, for release July 2 

The United States announced on July 2 ap- 
proval of $3,780,000 for Panama, Guatemala, and 
Argentina for the first in a series of Alliance 
for Progress projects to be set in motion by the 
International Cooperation Administration under 
President Kennedy's Inter- American Program for 
Social Progress. 

The projects look toward improving the living 
conditions of millions of Latin Americans. They 
are as follows : 

Panama. In order to assist Panama to increase 
its national educational level, a program will be 
launched to help build and equip approximately 
200 schoolrooms in rural schools of the country. 

Funds will also be used to expand existing proj- 
ect activities for the training of personnel skilled 
in operation and maintenance of heavy equipment. 
Approximately 150 miles of short, simple-type 
farm and pioneer roads will be built as the opera- 
tors receive actual on-the-job training. 

The grant projects will be extended on a co- 
operative basis with the Government of Panama 
continuing its own technical and financial par- 
ticipation as weU as receiving local resource con- 
tributions from assisted communities. 

Guatemala. A program directed toward con- 
tinuing and strengthening Guatemala's already 
demonstrated success in meeting the objectives of 
the Act of Bogota will emphasize assistance in 
agricultural diversification, industrial develop- 
ment, literacy, and improved public administra- 
tion. The principal aims of the program are to 



broaden the historical one-crop basis of the econ- 
omy and to provide the people with an opportu- 
nity to meet the future better prepared to help 
themselves. 

Argentina. In order to increase its reservoir of 
well-trained economists, Argentina will enter into 
a project with the United States directed toward 
improving economics teaching at the University 
of Cuyo in western Argentina. This is a long- 
range effort which will provide the country with a 
school for economic studies that will help satisfy 
its growing needs for trained people in the fields 
of economic planning and development. 

Allocation of funds to individual countries for 
the initial projects will be made upon signing of 
the project agreements. 

It is expected that other approved projects for 
Latin America under the President's new program 
will be announced within a short time. 



Department Warns U.S. Citizens 
on Violating Law on Travel to Cuba 

Department Statement 

Press release 461 dated June 29 

On January 16, 1961, the Department of State 
publicly announced ^ that all U.S. citizens desiring 
to travel to Cuba must obtain passports specifically 
endorsed for such travel by the Department. 

The Department has recently received informa- 
tion that some U.S. citizens are being encouraged 
to visit Cuba via Central or South America, with- 
out complying with the passport requirements. 

Travel to Cuba by a U.S. citizen without a pass- 
port specifically validated by the Department of 
State for that purpose constitutes a violation of the 
Travel Control Law and Regulations (U.S.C., 
title 8, sec. 1185; Code of Federal Regulations, 
title 22, sec. 53.3). 

The Department warns all concerned that a will- 
ful violation of the law is punishable by a fine of 
not more than $5,000, or by imprisonment for not 
more than 5 years, or both. 



' BuiiETiN of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 178. 



108 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Secretary Rusk's News Conference at Chicago, June 27 



Press release 451 dated June 28 

Secretary Rusk: I am very happy to be in Chi- 
cago, even for a few hours. I am here to talk this 
evening to a group of distinguished Chicago citi- 
zens on a private basis, a group being enlisted by 
the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations. 

I will be going back to Washington this eve- 
ning ; so in view of the tight schedule, I think I 
will not open with any speech of my own but will 
go to your questions directly. Suppose we just 
take some questions. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, what do you hope to accom- 
plish iy talking to these Chicagoans? 

A. Well, I think there is a lot to be gained by 
a completely candid and frank expression of views 
between the Secretary of State and citizens who 
can be brought together in small groups to get 
some of the complete background of some of these 
complex situations that we face. 

This is not a matter of dealing in secrets as such, 
because the United States doesn't act in secret in 
the normal course of our affairs, but it makes it 
possible to give more of the background, particu- 
larly those things involving foreign governments, 
where it would not be prudent to discuss them 
publicly at a particular stage of negotiation. 

Geneva Conference on Laos 

Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have any comment on 
the meeting of the Laotian princes of last week in 
Ziirich and the so-called coalition government 
that they set up? 

A. Yes, there are three rather separate aspects 
of this Laotian question. There is first the prob- 
lem of what is going on on the ground in Laos, and 
there the International Control Conunission is 
doing evei-ything that it can within the limitations 
of its circumstances to insure that there is an effec- 
tive cease-fire. The Control Commission has re- 
cently asked for additional facilities, such as heli- 
copters, small aircraft, to permit it to get around 

Ju/y 77, J 96? 



the country more easily to see what is going on. 
We have been trying to get the conference in 
Geneva to make these facilities available, but the 
Soviet representative has been blocking that ef- 
fort, and the Canadians and Indians on the Con- 
trol Commission will have to see what they can 
do on their own to get the facilities to follow up 
what is going on on the ground. 

The second element in it is the discussion among 
the Laotian leaders themselves. It is not easy for 
governments at great distances from Laos to de- 
cide internal questions among the Laotians. This 
is something the Laotians themselves must work 
out. The so-called Three Princes have had recent 
discussions in Ziirich, they have put out a com- 
munique which you have seen, and we are trying 
to follow up on those discussions and find out 
more about exactly what did occur. 

Then there is the conference itself in Geneva,^ 
which is at the moment not making very fast 
progress, partly because of the discussions among 
the Laotian leaders and partly because of serious 
differences among the delegations about the na- 
ture of the future international machmery to 
assist Laos to maintain its neutrality and inde- 
pendence. 

You may have seen on the tickers today that 
Ambassador [W. Averell] Harriman is coming 
back from Geneva very briefly for 2 or 3 days of 
consultation so that we can get a broad review 
from him about the problems before the confer- 
ence, and I believe that Defense Minister Phoumi 
[Nosavan] of the Royal Laotian Government has 
accepted our suggestion that he might go back to 
Laos by way of this country and give us a chance 
to talk with him. 

We are looking forward to this chance to get up 
to date on the most recent, immediate situation 
in the Laotian question. It is still confused, diffi- 
cult, and in some respects distressing. 



' For background, see Builetin of July 10, 1961, p. 85. 

109 



Communist China and the United Nations 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the press has carried reports 
that you told Mr. Kosaka [Zentaro Kosaka, For- 
eign Minister of Japan} about a week ago of a 
new plan the United States has concerning ad- 
mission of Communist China to the United Na- 
tions, or an offer to admit Commiunist China to 
the General Assembly, which, it is expected, China 
will reject. Do yov, have any corrvmentf 

A. Yes. I don't want to accuse my friends of 
the press of inaccuracy, but this story was not 
quite accurate. The problem on the Chinese seat 
in the United Nations is essentially this. Since 
about 1950 we have been trying to deal with that 
question tlirough what is called a moratorium, 
that is, a vote at the beginning of each session of 
the General Assembly which would simply say: 
We will not consider this question imtil next year. 

Now, this moratorium has been successful in 
postponing this issue for about 10 years. I helped 
to invent the moratorium when I was in the De- 
partment before, under Mr. Truman. 

In the last 3 or 4 years our delegations to the 
United Nations have been reporting that there is 
an increasing feeling in the United Nations, par- 
ticularly with the large number of new members 
coming in, that this moratorium formula will no 
longer suffice to deal with the question, that there 
will be more and more delegations who will think 
that at least the question ought to be debated on 
its merits and not be simply postponed, regard- 
less of their attitude on the merits of the question. 

Now, this is the essence of the parliamentary 
problem of the General Assembly of the United 
Nations, where there is no veto, where a bare ma- 
jority can, in the normal course of events, deal 
with procedural questions. 

The principal problem from the point of view 
of those of us who recognize and support the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic of China on Formosa is 
that this question might come to a vote as a creden- 
tials question, that is, as a procedural question 
aimed at the rather simple issue as to which dele- 
gation shall be accredited by the General Assem- 
bly to occupy the seat called China. 

We ourselves believe that this would be a very 
serious step for the General Assembly to take, 
because this is not just a teclinical procedural ques- 
tion of credentials; it is a problem of the most 
far-reaching political importance. It is of great 
importance, of course, to the Republic of China 



on Formosa. It is of very great importance to 
the United States. And we believe it is important 
to the U.N. 

So, in the face of this parliamentary problem, it 
is going to be necessary for all of the members, 
including ourselves and the Government of the 
Republic of China, to consider how this issue can 
be handled from a parliamentary point of view 
in the General Assembly of the United Nations. 
We do not have a single answer or a single plan 
which we are putting forward. 

We are, obviously, discussing a variety of alter- 
natives with other governments about how to deal 
with this situation, and I believe that perhaps the 
story to which you referred came out of the con- 
text of a discussion of many possibilities and many 
alternatives which might be considered. There 
has been no final decision on this question as far 
as we are concerned. 

Q. Do you expect the question to come up be- 
fore the General Assenibly in September? 

A. Oh, yes, it will come up. It is one of those 
hardy perennials. It is always tliere. I am quite 
sure the question will be raised in some form at the 
General Assembly in September. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there are press reports today 
that new forces of commandos are in training in 
Florida. They even have a name, the Intercon- 
tinental Penetration Force. What is the State 
Department position on that? 

A. Well, I am afraid that I haven't seen the re- 
ports, and I don't identify the force that— are these 
Americans or — ? 

Q. They are in part American and said to be 
Venezuelans and other Latin Americans, and soine 
Cubans. 

A. I am not informed on that. I would be, my- 
self, rather skeptical of those reports at this time. 



Question of Using U.N. Veto on China Issue 

Q. Mr. Secretary, one more question on the 
China situation. If this question comes up in the 
Security Council, since you believe it is a sub- I 
stantive question, you would have the right to use 
the veto. Would the United States use the veto 
to keep Comm/unist China out of the Security I 
Council? 

A. Well, this is a question which again has been 
debated for 10 years or more. I believe you were 



110 



Department of State Bulletin 



in Washington at the time the debate started, sir. 
Q. Yes. 

A. If the question arises in the Security Coun- 
cil — incidentally, let me say that the Security 
Council has an independent control of its proce- 
dural questions and its credentials, independent of 
the General Assembly. What happens in the Gen- 
eral Assembly cannot necessarily affect the Secu- 
rity Council. But if the question is posed in the 
Security Council as a credentials question, that 
is, which delegation should be permitted to occupy 
the seat called China, then there would be undoubt- 
edly those who will argue that this is simply a pro- 
cedural question which can be settled by any seven 
votes of the members of the Security Council. 

There are others, however, who will say that 
this is a substantive question to which a veto ap- 
plies. Now there is not an easy way to settle this 
sort of question before the Security Council. It 
may be that that question itself would have to go to 
the World Court for adjudication at some stage, 
but I think the present problem is not in the Secu- 
rity Council but in the General Assembly. 

Q. Well, you can determirie that question under 
a rule of unanimity hy exercising a double veto, 
as the Soviet Union has done. 

A. Well, this question of unanimity, of the 
double veto, is again complicated. We have been 
working for years to overcome some of the dis- 
advantages of the so-called double veto. So this is 
a very technical question on which I wouldn't want 
to give a final judgment here today. It has a lot of 
history, a lot of background, a lot of precedents. 
This matter of the use of a veto in the Security 
Council — you can be sure that it will be a highly 
contested and controversial matter when the mat- 
ter does come up. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have you talked to other 
citizen groufs on an off-the-record basis like this? 

A. Oh, from time to time, yes. Sometimes in 
the Department, sometimes on the outside. There 
are organizations frequently, for example, like the 
Council on Foreign Relations of New York, which 
not infrequently have guests in to talk on an off- 
the-record basis, whether American or foreign. 
This is in no sense an unusual procedure. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in vieio> of the number of peo- 
ple that will be there, how do you expect to make 
off-the-record corrmients? 



A. Oh, I think that responsible people are re- 
sponsible to the extent of exchange of candor for 
discretion. After all, I have never had any diffi- 
culty on those rare occasions when I go off the 
record with colleagues on the press, and their main 
business is to get things out. So I should think 
that one can rely upon responsible citizens in situa- 
tions of tliis sort. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, under wlmt circumstances 
would you, in regard to Cuba, help or endorse an 
invasion or attempt to overthrow astro? 

A. Well, I tliink it would not be prudent for me 
to comment on a contingency of that sort. There 
are types of aggression in which Castro might en- 
gage which would raise that sort of issue directly, 
but let us not speculate on the future of a question 
of that sort. 

Q. Is there any way for the United States to 
take the initiative to overthrow his regime? 

A. I'd prefer not to speculate on that. 

Q. Certain Republicans have criticised the pres- 
ent administration and said it was unthinkable to 
allow the Cuban invasion without providing air 
cover. 'W&aLd we provide air cover for a second 
invasion? 

A. I think I will let that one go by the board. 

Situation in Laos 

Q. Mr. Secretary, how far can we expect the 
situation in Laos to deteriorate? Is there a point 
at which the United States stops negotiations and 
u^es its arms, say, because a couple of months ago, 
or at least a month ago, the President seemed very 
worried by the situation then, and it deteriorated 
considerably at that point. 

A. Well, there has been some deterioration ia 
Laos since the beginning of the year, but in Janu- 
ary the United States agreed with the United 
Kingdom to pursue the path of negotiations to see 
whether or not a negotiated settlement would bring 
about a neutral and independent Laos. That 
course of negotiations has gone on. The alterna- 
tive would be to bring the issue up as a problem for 
SEATO [Southeast Asia Treaty Organization] 
and interested countries. That alternative is 
always in the picture. 

The effort has been to stabilize the situation, to 
get an effective cease-fire, to make it possible for 



July 17, 1961 



111 



negotiations among the Laotians and among gov- 
ernments to bring about a neutral Laos. Most of 
the governments involved, including the Soviet 
Union, have said that they were interested in and 
willing to support a neutral country. 

The problem has been to find out whether they 
mean the same thing as we by the word "neutral," 
and this is the essence of the problem of negotia- 
tions. The situation in Laos itself is, at the pres- 
ent time, reasonably stable. The military situation 
has not changed appreciably for some time, but 
I would not wish to appear to be comfortable or 
optimistic about a situation that is uncertain and 
dangerous. 

Q. Red China has not been one of those coun- 
tries, however, that has agreed to a neutral Laos, 
right? 

A. No, they have committed themselves to it 
publicly, but again you get the same problem. 
When you use a word like "neutrality," do those 
using it mean the same thing ? And this has been 
the problem in many negotiations back and forth 
across the curtain, not just on Laos. 

German and Berlin Questions 

Q. Is Senator {^Mike] MansfieWs proposal on 
Berlin worthy of consideration? 

A. Well, I think anything that Senator Mans- 
field has to say is worthy of thinking about, but 
let me go on to say that he himself made it quite 
clear that he was speaking as an individual Sen- 
ator and not for the administration. This was 
not a trial balloon for the United States Gov- 
ernment, and the essence of the Allied position 
on Berlin is that our rights there and the posi- 
tion of the people in West Berlin cannot be 
changed by the unilateral action by the Soviet 
Government. 

I am not sure this is a complete answer to your 
question, but Senator Mansfield was speaking for 
himself and not for the U.S. Government, and 
said so at the time. 

Q. Is there any acceptable alternative to the 
status quo in Berlin? 

A. Well, since about 1946 the Western Powers 
have been making a series of proposals for settle- 
ment of the German and Berlin questions based 
largely upon the problem of self-determination, 
the unification of Germany, and a peaceful settle- 



ment of that whole situation. Of course, against 
the record, we feel there are some alternatives to 
the status quo in Western Berlin. Those alterna- 
tives which have been proposed by the West have 
been regularly turned down by the other side. 

If you are asking about any possibility of al- 
ternatives which undermine the position of the 
West in West Berlin or which destroy the freedom 
and the prospect of freedom of the people of 
West Berlin, then I don't see that those proposals 
are very productive, very helpful. 

Q. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer has said re- 
cently he didnH figure there is any room for nego- 
tiations with the Russians over Berlin. Would 
you care to comment on that, please? 

A. This is the kind of issue I think I commented 
on in my press conference last Thursday.^ This is 
the kind of problem which quite frequently puts 
a Secretary of State somewhat in a box, because 
on the one side governments are always in a posi- 
tion to talk about things with other governments. 
So in that sense you never close the channels of 
conamunication. Lideed the receipt of an aide 
memoire on Berlin ^ from the Soviets was an 
exercise of that type of channel of communication. 

But if you say that room to negotiate, to talk, 
means that you are going to talk away your posi- 
tion, then that is quite another matter. So when 
you raise the question of negotiations, I would 
simply say this, that there will be exchanges among 
governments and I suppose there will be exchanges 
among governments with the Government of the 
Soviet Union. I mean, at the present time we are 
consulting among our allies and will be consult- 
ing with other governments with respect to a reply 
to the Soviet aide memoire, which will be issued in 
due course and will be made public. 

Q. Are you presently in conference right now 
mith the West German Government concerning 
this particular issue? 

A. Well, we are discussing the draft of a reply 
with several governments at the present time and 
will be discussing it with others. 

Q. Will this include West Germany? 
A. Oh, yes, it will. 



■IMd., p. 51. 

' An aide memoire on the subject of Berlin was handed 
to President Kennedy by Premier Khrushchev during their 
meeting at Vienna June 2-4. 



112 



DeparlmenI of Stale Bullefin 



Q. Sir, if the Berlin situation is so serious, why 
are we not building up our garrison there ? 

A. Well, those are questions that I should not 
comment on publicly at this point. You don't 
want to get into military questions of that sort, I 
am quite sure. 

Q. Since the discussion going on about alterna- 
tives as regards Communist China and the United 
Nations, are there any discussions about the possi- 
bility of diplomatic recognition by the [U.SJ\ 
Government of Comrmmist China? 

A. None whatever, none whatever. And Pei- 
ping has made it clear that they would not them- 
selves even consider such a matter quite apart 
from our attitude unless we were to abandon 
Formosa, which we are not going to do; so that 
is not an active question at all. 

Question on Outer Mongolia 

Q. Are there any discussions going on conceim- 
ing recognition of Outer Mongolia and its 
consequences in the United Nations session this 
fall? 

A. We are studying the question of whether 
Outer Mongolia could be considered as an inde- 
pendent state with whom it would be practical or 
desirable from our own point of view to establish 
relations. That examination continues to go on. 
We have not reached any conclusion with them on 
that subject. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, again referring to this ques- 
tion of Berlin, is the State Department 
presently now figuring on any critical time period 
when the most critical phase of this whole Berlin 
question is likely to come? Khrushchev says it 
will be before December 31 this year. What is 
the State Departmenfs reckoning as far as titne 
is concerned? 

A. Well, the timing is to a certain extent up to 
Mr. Khrushchev, because there is peace now in 
Berlin ; there is peace in Germany ; there is a satis- 
factory situation as far as the peace of the peoples 
of that country are concerned. 

Now the timing wliich might be used by those 
who want to change the situation is something that 
is pretty much up to them. Mr. Khrushchev has 
indicated that he intends to press this matter 
by the end of the year, but that does not mean that 

July 17, 1961 

600100—61 8 



he might not press it in one way or another 
before. We just do not know. 

Q. In your view, Mr. Secretar-y, due to Mr. 
Khrushchev^s own political situation within the 
Soviet Union, can he keep — in your view — delay- 
ing and backing doxon on this question of Berlin 
and still maintain his own image, whatever that 
may be, loith the Soviet people and in the eyes of 
the neutral world? 

A. Well, I think since that is a question which 
bears so directly on Berlin, I really prefer not to 
speculate on that myself. If I were you, I would 
like to speculate about it. 

Rights of Western Powers in Berlin 

Q. If the maintenance of that peace in Germany 
came violently to rest upon the question of whether 
or not the United States is willing to recognize 
East Germany, would we — to save that peace — 
recognize East Germany? 

A. I think the problem of recognition is not 
involved here. The problem is the rights of the 
Western Powers and West Berlin and the freedom 
and safety of the people of West Berlin and what 
actually happens to our access rights. I don't 
believe those things are likely to be significantly 
affected by the far more formal considerations. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there are those who believe 
that the Red Chinese have accomplished what they 
called for in the 1954. Geneva conference, that is, 
a partition of Laos — that that actually has been 
accomplished. At the p-resent time the lines in 
Laos are almost identical to what they called for 
in the 1951}. partition proposal. Do you interpret 
the Laotian situation that way? 

A. I would not read it that way, because I think 
the respective roles of China and the Soviet Union 
have to be taken into account when you think of 
it in that way, and also the position of the forces 
that have been cooperating with Laos, like Sou- 
vanna Phouma, Kong Le, and others. I would 
think that the configuration in Laos is far too un- 
stable and far too scattered to lend itself to an 
analogy of a particular territory which is the ob- 
ject of partition at this point. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you care to say which 
of these states, so-called crucial areas that we have 
been talking about, is the most important ons or 
dangerous one? 

113 



A. It is a little hard to separate out particular 
points in a total confrontation around the world 
and say one is more dangerous than the other. 
But I think in terms of the position of the West 
and of the United Sates in commitments and the 
gravity, the potential gravity, of the situation I 
would say that Berlin is apparently the most seri- 
ous one. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, respecting Laos again, there 
has been some indication that the Co7iwiunist 
Chinese have been a hit more conciliatory. Some 
of the remarks that the Chinese have made have 
been very friendly, even complimentary, to Ameri- 
can officials. In the State Depart7nent''s view 
does this reflect any softening of the Red Chinese 
attitude on the Laotian question? 

A. These questions can only be answered when 
we see anything constructive or acceptable coming 
out of the Geneva conference. There might be 
changes in words or mood, but they are not as 
important as the result. 

Q. One more question along this line: Do you 
thinh the Communist Chinese might possibly use 
a conciliatory approach a.s a wedge to strive more 
for neutral support when this question of Red 
Chinese admission might come up for discussion? 

A. I will not speculate on that. I would think 
that they would think of these as separate issues 
and should be separately decided. 

Prospects for Peace 

Q. Mr. Secretary, in broad, general terms, would 
you say this nation^s chances of peace have im- 
proved during the last year? 

A. I tliink that there is a serious problem which 
has resulted from the effort made by the Sino- 
Soviet bloc to extend their influence to all points 
of the world, leaping over and going around the 
alliances which were constructed beginning late 
in the 1940's. Beginning about 1954 the Sino- 
Soviet bloc made it clear that they were going to 
press their influence in Asia, Africa, Latin Amer- 
ica by a great variety of means. 

This is a kind of competition which I think we 
must take seriously. We and our allies have very 
large resources with which to meet this sort of 
competition. I think we have veiy substantial 
advantages in meeting it, but it must be met. 

I think that the present issue is whether we and 
our allies will take the steps both in the field of 



security and strength and in the field of economic 
and social development to encourage independent 
nations to be independent, to give them the con- 
fidence that they can be independent, and to help 
them mobilize the energies, loyalties, the interest 
of their own people, their own national develop- 
ment, and make them less susceptible to penetra- 
tion from the outside. 

In the longer rim, quite frankly, I am optimistic 
because I believe that freedom is on the winning 
side. It has been historically. It will continue 
to be. I believe that most people in most parts of 
tlie world are committed in their own minds to 
the broad notions of freedom. But in the short 
run we have some problems and some crises, and 
if we settle the ones that are immediately in front 
of us, we will have perhaps a few more on the 
agenda before we are through. But I have tre- 
mendous confidence myself that those who built 
the United Nations in 1945 built for the long run 
and built wiser perhaps than even they them- 
selves knew, and that we are on the winning side 
of this great worldwide struggle. 

Q. One more question, gentlemen, please. 

Q. Let me try once more. Back to one of those 
short-range problems, namely, Berlin. Isn't it 
true that we could not defend Berlin in any kind 
of limited war and that we tuould really in the end 
have to give it up? 

A. You know, I really — I really am not going 
to answer military, strategic, and teclinical ques- 
tions of that sort about the future in a press 
conference. 

Q. This is something that the Secretary of 
State has to consider? 

A. Of course, of course. These questions are 
very important to the actions of the Government 
over the next several months, but these are not 
matters that one talks about in a press conference. 
Sorry. 

Q. I woiild like to ask one more on this nuclear 
test ban sitiuition. What have been the results in 
our consultation with our oion chief negotiator in 
Washington? What progress are you making? 
Has there been any decision to send hi7n back? 
These are three questions really in one, but you can 
answer it one way. 

A. Well, I think on the question of the test ban 
negotiations, the negotiating effort will continue. 



114 



Department of State Bulletin 



But we shall be under no illusion about the pros- 
pects for getting a satisfactory nuclear ban treaty. 
The attitude sliown in the recent negotiations to 
provide by the Soviet Union and their insistence 
upon the "three-headed administrator"' to have 
control over tlie system and their attempt to merge 
the nuclear test talks with the discussions of gen- 
eral disarmament have set back any hopes for a 
nuclear test treaty very far indeed. 

Q. I understand that to mean that you are not 
optimistic? 

A. I am not optimistic about a nuclear test ban 
treaty at this time. Thank you very much, 
gentlemen. 



President Calls for Special Study 
of Communications Satellites 

FoUowing is the text of a letter from President 
Kennedy to Vice President Johnson, xoho is 
Chairman of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Council. 

White House press release dated June 24 

June 15, 1961 
Dear Lyndon: I will appreciate your having 
the Space Council undertake to make the neces- 
sary studies and government-wide policy recom- 
mendations for bringing into optimum use at the 
earliest practicable time operational communica- 
tions satellites. The Federal agencies concerned 
will provide every assistance which you may 
request. 

I am anxious that this new technology be ap- 
plied to serve the rapidly expanding communica- 
tions needs of this and other nations on a global 
basis, giving particular attention to those of this 
hemisphere and newly developing nations through- 
out the world. Such communications needs in- 
clude both governmental and non-governmental 
requirements. Throughout this analysis, public 
interest objectives should be given the highest 
priority. 



Policy proposals should include recommenda- 
tions not only as to the nature and diversity of 
ownership and operation of communications sys- 
tems and parts thereof, but also proposed objec- 
tives. Effective utilization of both our public and 
private resources needs to be assured, as well as 
close cooperation with other countries and their 
communications systems. Continuing coordina- 
tion of the governmental agencies responsible for 
regulatory, space, military, and other aspects of 
this field is essential. 

I will appreciate receiving recommendations 
from you on these and other matters bearing on 
the development and use of commimications satel- 
lites just as promptly as possible. Research and 
development should proceed at an accelerated pace 
while this study is in progress. 
Sincerely, 

John F. Kennedy 

Honorable Lyndon B. Johnson 
Vice President of the United States 
Washington 25, B.C. 



Letters of Credence 

Chad 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Re- 
public of Chad, Malick Adam Sow, presented his 
credentials to President Kennedy on June 27. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 447 dated June 27. 

Korea 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the Re- 
public of Korea, II Kwon Chung, presented his 
credentials to President Kennedy on June 30. 
For texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 462 dated June 30. 



iu\Y 17, 7967 



115 



America's Interest in African Education 



hy G. Mennen Willmtns 

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs ^ 



America's colleges and universities are no new- 
comers to the great endeavor of African educa- 
tion. Indeed, the annals of Jersey College — now 
Princeton — reveal that this, my own alma mater, 
enrolled two ex-slaves, Bristol Yamma and Jolin 
Quamino, a year before the American Declaration 
of Independence. 

These early Princetonians — bom in what is now 
Ghana — were the first of a long line of Africans 
who through the years have been educated in the 
various regions of our land. There is stirring 
history in the sagas of those Africans who first 
came to America for an education. Just after the 
Civil War a number came from Sierra Leone, 
Liberia, and Angola, notably to attend Oberlin 
College and Howard University. In the years 
that followed scores of seekers after knowledge of 
various ages left north, east, south, west, and 
central Africa and journeyed to colleges and uni- 
versities in the United States. After World War 
I they came in ever-increasing numbers. Today 
the demand of Africans to be educated in the 
United States is so great as to require the best 
planning and the most careful cooperation of a 
range of government and private agencies and 
institutions. The scattered elements of tliis im- 
portant history, little known today, are now being 
collected by Dean Horace Mann Bond of Atlanta 
University. I look forward with great interest 
to reading the report of this discerning scholar. 

I bring these facts to your attention because our 
present interest and endeavor in African educa- 
tion is so great that we may tend to forget that 
individual and private groups have worked in this 



' Address made before the Michigan Committee of the 
United Negro College Fund at Detroit, Mich., on June 16 
(press release 398 dated June 15) . 



field for many years. Out of this endeavor have 
grown some of the most important links that the 
United States has with the peoples and with many 
government leaders in various parts of Africa. 

Among the colleges which pioneered in the edu- 
cation of Africans in the United States are many 
of those associated in the United Negro College 
Fimd. Thus it is a particular pleasure for me 
as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs 
to speak to you today. I was happy to serve on 
the Fund's advisory committee during my years 
as Governor of Michigan. It is particularly re- 
assuring to see so many fine Americans working 
together to make certain that these institutions 
are able to continue their service to our nation 
and increasingly to the world. For the private 
Negro college is a vital part of the American sys- 
tem of education. And like its sister institutions 
it is called upon to meet the rising demands of 
youth on this continent and abroad, rising de- 
mands for dignity and a better life. 

Challenges Facing the U.S. 

When I review the challenges facing the United 
States in its African policy today I am heartened 
by the roles private individuals and enterprises 
have elected to assume. Obviously these chal- 
lenges are legion, but there are four that stand out 
clearly above all others. 

The first of these is the challenge of a partner- 
ship in freedom. There is no greater force in 
Africa today than the demand for self-determina- 
tion. Some measure of the magnitude of this de- 
mand may be seen in the fact that 18 new nations 
have come into being in Africa during the past 
18 months. Now there are more African member 
states in the United Nations than there are from 
any other continent — 26 altogether. These new 



116 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



nations are committed to the principle that their 
independence, now that it is won, will be main- 
tained. They intend to keep the love of freedom 
green, and they work to see that it is extended to 
all parts of Africa. 

The nations of Africa look to the United States 
for a clear and miequivocal commitment to free- 
dom. We are proud of our revolutionary origin 
and traditions. The Africans seek in our present 
actions the realization of the promise of our herit- 
age. Most recently we have translated this prom- 
ise into meaningful actions. One example is our 
series of votes in the United Nations on the Angola 
situation. In voting for the Asian-African resolu- 
tion on June 9 last week in the Security Council,^ 
the United States demonstrated that our actions 
will speak as loud as our words when freedom is 
an issue. 

The second challenge is the historic opportimity 
to help the peoples of Africa achieve a more abun- 
dant life. For the peoples of Africa a more abun- 
dant life requires raising the average per capita 
income, which at $132 per year is the lowest of any 
continent. It involves helping the Africans help 
themselves in programs of improved education 
and technical training, revitalized agriculture, and 
expanded public health . We must work with them 
in meeting critical needs for water supply, trans- 
portation, and electric power. Along with other 
developed nations of the free world and private 
enterprise, we must assist the African nations in 
long-range programs of economic and social de- 
velopment. Thus can we help these countries de- 
velop the agricultural and industrial foundations 
of strong and broadly based societies. These, 
along with the love of freedom, are among the 
principal guarantees of the more abundant life. 

The third cardinal challenge is the invitation to 
recognize and respond to "the African personal- 
ity," the cultural ferment of the peoples who feel 
that their own heritage, though long suppressed, 
has made significant contributions to the world 
and will make many more. We must encourage a 
larger appreciation not only of African art, music, 
and dance but also of the philosophical, economic, 
and social bases of the various African societies. I 
am confident that these worthwhile values of Afri- 
can societies have much to offer in the world's 
enrichment. 

The fourth cardinal challenge of our relations 
with the governments and the peoples of Africa 

' Bulletin of July 10, 1961, p. 88. 



is the challenge of racial equality. One of the 
points brought home to me at every stop on my re- 
cent trip to Africa was this : Africans insist upon 
racial equality in their homelands and feel a sense 
of direct concern over color conflicts wherever they 
occur in the world. One of the gains of independ- 
ence for the new nations of Africa is increased in- 
fluence in the United Nations and in other regional 
and world councils. You can be sure that this in- 
fluence will be brought to bear wherever it can work 
toward the elimination of discrimination and in- 
justice based upon race. Our relationships with 
the nations of Africa are complicated by our own 
shortcomings with regard to Americans of African 
descent. These shortcomings are all too often 
brought home to African diplomats who suffer 
the same injustices as Negi-o Americans in living 
and traveling in the United States. 

Our challenge is thus to find clear and lasting 
ways of erasing all barriers of race in America. 
We must work untiringly toward that goal. In 
doing so, we give more redeeming meaning to our 
efforts in behalf of basic human rights abroad. 
Our African friends will respond with vigor to our 
success. 

We must also continue clear and vigorous in our 
opposition to apartheid and in our efforts to per- 
suade the Republic of South Africa to adopt a 
policy consonant with human dignity. 

Involvement of U.S. Colleges and Universities 

American colleges and universities are inextri- 
cably involved in our efforts to meet the challenges 
of contemporary Africa. They are involved first 
of all in the tremendous progi'am of educating and 
training hundreds of African students each year 
in American institutions in the United States and 
in American-aided national and regional colleges 
and universities in Africa. Here the contribution 
is twofold: First, because the mind of the truly 
educated man is free ; and where the mind is truly 
free, the desire for human dignity will not be 
denied. Second, African students are acquiring in 
America skills and knowledge they will use for the 
rest of their lives in their chosen professions or 
vocations, often in the service of their homelands. 

American colleges and universities are provid- 
ing much of the brain power of the teclinical 
assistance, educational, and economic development 
programs of the African nations. This is true 
so far in the cases of the various specialists sent 



Jo/y 77, J 96 7 



117 



abroad under tlie International Cooperation 
Administration, where many of the technical 
advisers are educators on loan. It will be true 
also to a large extent in the programs of the 
Peace Corps, which will call upon recent college 
graduates. 

American colleges and universities are making 
signal contributions to the new knowledge about 
Africa through increasingly important institutes 
of African studies. No other nation has as many 
first-class centers of research and specialized 
training in African subjects. These American 
institutions make a major contribution in help- 
ing the United States meet the challenge of a true 
comprehension of the African heritage. 

American colleges and universities too can pro- 
vide the atmosphere of close association and 
camaraderie where barriers and prejudices of race 
disappear. 

No American college can escape its rendezvous 
on the New Frontier. That is why I was pleased 
to learn that the United Negro College Fund 
institutions are now associated with the African 
Scholarship Program of American Universities 
directed by Dr. David Henry of Harvard. For 
the Negro private college was a pioneer in African 
education. It was involved long before the 
present new emphasis. The late Dr. J. E. K. 
Aggrey and President Kwame Nkrumah of 
Ghana, Governor General Nnamdi Azikiwe of 
Nigeria, and Dr. Hastings Banda of Nyasaland 
are among the best known of the distinguished 
graduates of American Negro colleges. 

For some time now these colleges, predomi- 
nantly for Negi'oes, have served the larger 
community. They have done so not only by 
preparing Negro American youth for life in an 
exacting world. They have done so as well by 
demonstrating without fanfare that they can 
provide a first-class education to those who seek 
it regardless of race. And so their graduates to- 
day include not only thousands of Americans of 
African heritage but Africans, Asians, Latin 
Americans, Europeans, and Americans of 
European ancestry. 

I have no doubt but that the colleges and 
universities of this great nation will meet the new 
and unprecedented demands upon their resources, 
demands of our national effort in Africa and 
wherever men thirst for knowledge and hunger for 
dignity and the good life. 



Special Economic Mission 
Visits Tliailand 

The Department of State announced on June 23 
(press release 435) that a six-man special economic 
mission to Thailand, under the leadership of 
Howard R. Bowen, president of Grinnell College, 
left Washington on that day for Bangkok. The 
group was formed as a consequence of communica- 
tions exchanged between President Kennedy and 
Prime Minister Sarit of Tliailand and talks be- 
tween Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and the 
Prime Minister in which Ambassador Kenneth T. 
Young also participated.^ The mission will study 
the Thai economic situation and will consult with 
Thai officials as to the means whereby Thai and 
available external resources can be marshaled 
effectively within the context of President Ken- 
nedy's new aid proposals to accelerate Thailand's 
economic growth. 

Members of the mission include Sherwood M. 
Fine of the International Cooperation Adminis- 
tration and the following consultants : Henry E. 
Billingsley, John D. Blumgart, and Glenn L. 
Johnson. 



Additional Air Services Announced 
for West indies 

Press release 443 dated June 26 

Delegations representing The West Indies, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States an- 
nounced on June 26 provisional agreement on ad- 
ditional air services in the Caribbean. 

In order to meet the urgent demands of The 
West Indies for additional routes to service ade- 
quately its expanding tourist industry, the United 
States is given the riglit to operate two routes. 
New York-Jamaica and Atlanta-Jamaica. A 
route between Antigua and New York is granted 
to tlie LTnited Kingdom until The West Indies 
achieves independent status, now scheduled to take 
place May 31, 19G2. At that time it will become a 
route for The West Indies. This agreement is 
subject to confirmation by Governments. 



' For text of a joint communique between Vice President 
Johnson and Prime Minister Sarit Thanarat, see Buujitin 
of June 19, 1961, p. 958. 



118 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



The West Indies depends iipon the United 
States for the majority of the tourists who visit 
these islands. 

Tliis arrangement will run until October 1, 1962, 
and is subject to further extension by mutual 
agreement of The West Indies and the United 
States. The delegations were headed by the Hon- 
orable W. Andrew Eose, Minister of Communica- 
tions and Works, The West Indies; Mrs. Alison 
Munro, Under Secretary for Aviation Overseas 
Policy in the United Kingdom Ministry of Avia- 
tion; and Mr. Ernest Lister, Deputy Director of 
the Office of Transport and Communications, 
United States Department of State. 



establishment and allocation of routes between the 
two countries which in its view would be based on 
the needs of the travelling public. One of the ob- 
jectives of the Canadian proposals would be to 
permit carriers of both countries to serve, al- 
though not necessarily on an exclusive basis, the 
major centers generating traffic between the two 
countries. The United States Delegation agreed 
to examine these proposals and present its com- 
ments at meetings to be held in the near future. 



President Asks Tariff Commission 
for More Data on TFiree Cases 



U.S. and Canada Conclude First Stage 
of Aviation Discussions 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 441 dated June 23 

United States and Canadian delegations will 
open aviation consultations on Jmae 26 at Wash- 
ington for the purpose of reviewing the bilateral 
air transport agreement.^ The chairman of the 
U.S. delegation will be Henry T. Snowdon, chief, 
Aviation Division, Department of State. Robert 
T. Murphy, member. Civil Aeronautics Board, 
will represent that agency. The Canadian delega- 
tion will be headed by Jolm E. Baldwin, Deputy 
Minister, Department of Transport, and P. Y. 
Davoud, Chairman, Air Transport Board. 



White House press release dated June 30 
WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

The President announced on June 30 that he had 
referred back to the Tariff Commission for addi- 
tional investigation the three reports upon base- 
ball and Softball gloves, including mitts; ceramic 
mosaic tile; and cylinder, crown, and sheet glass. 

In each of the three cases, the Tariff Commission 
had recommended that the appropriate tariff con- 
cessions in the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade be modified to permit the application of 
higher duties. 

Copies of the President's letters to the chairmen 
of the Finance Committee of the Senate and the 
Ways and Means Committee of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and to the Tariff Commission are 
attached. 



JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 465 dated June 30 

Aviation delegations composed of officials of 
the United States and Canadian Governments con- 
cluded yesterday [June 29] in Washington the 
first stage of consultations relating to the future 
operation of bilateral air services between Canada 
and the United States. During the course of these 
discussions, wliich were held in a friendly and 
cordial atmosphere, the two delegations carried 
out a review of existing bilateral air arrangements. 

The Canadian Delegation submitted certain pro- 
posals concerning principles and criteria for the 



TEXTS OF LETTERS 

President Kennedy to Senator Byrd ' 

June 29, 1961 
Dear Mr. Chairman : In accordance with Section 7(c) 
(1) of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, as 
amended, I enclose a copy of my letter to the members of 
the Tariff Commission regarding escape clause reports on 
baseball and Softball gloves and mitts ; ceramic mosaic 
tile ; and cylinder, crown and sheet glass. Each of these 
investigations was undertaken on Commission initiative 
in consequence of peril-point findings, under procedures 
specified in trade agreements legislation, in the course of 
preparations for the multilateral tariff negotiations now 
in progress at Geneva. 



' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1934, 
3456, and 4213. 



' An identical letter was sent to Representative Wilbur 
D. Mills, chairman of the House Ways and Means 
Committee. 



July 17, J 96 1 



119 



I am advising you that at this time I am neither approv- 
ing nor disapproving in whole or in part the recommen- 
dations made to me by the Tariff Commission in any of 
the reports cited. Rather, because of the omission of 
data in the reports which I believe would be necessary to 
the exercise of an informed judgment, I am returning 
them to the Tariff Commission with a request for more 
complete information. I will make and report my decision 
on these cases to the Congress following receipt of sup- 
plementary reports from the Tariff Commission. 
Sincerely, 

John F. Kennedy 

Honorable Habry F. Byrd 
Chairman 

Committee on Finance 
United States Senate 
Washington, D.O. 

President Kennedy to U.S. Tariff Commission 

June 29, 1961 

Dear Sirs : I have carefully reviewed the reports of the 
Tariff Commission relating to the escape clause investiga- 
tions concerning imports of baseball and Softball gloves, 
including mitts, ceramic mosaic tile, and cylinder, crown 
and sheet glass. In all three cases, I have concluded that 
it would be advisable to defer final decision pending the 
compilation and appraisal of additional up-to-date infor- 
mation and data. In reaching this conclusion, I have 
been assisted and advised by the Trade Policy Committee. 

I appreciate the complexities of the Commission's task, 
and the difficulties encountered in its efforts to assemble 
needed information within very limited periods of time. 
In these three instances, however, it seems to me that it 
would be inadvisable to attempt to resolve the issue pre- 
sented in the absence of more complete data and analysis. 
I am, therefore, returning the three reports and request 
that further Information be obtained and analyzed and 
that supplementary reports be submitted to me as soon 
as possible. 

In making its re-examination, I would appreciate it if 
the Tariff Commission would Investigate and report, in 
particular, its findings with regard to the following 
matters : 

1. In all three reports, it would be useful to have a 
more complete analysis of the impact of pricing practices 
by domestic and foreign producers upon the share of the 
market captured by Imports. I would also like informa- 
tion on the profit relationship to investment in productive 
facilities. 

2. With regard to baseball gloves and ceramic mosaic 
tiles, please appraise the effect of voluntary export quotas 
by Japan upon domestic production and sales. 

3. With regard to ceramic mosaic tiles and sheet glass, 
please obtain and report upon the effect of domestic tech- 
nological Innovations and automation. 



4. With regard to baseball gloves and sheet glass, It 
would be helpful to have average unit price data for do- 
mestic production, in terms of major points of shipment. 
The report provides such data for imported products only. 

5. In the case of sheet glass, I would appreciate an elab- 
oration upon the suggestion that there have been restric- 
tive sales practices by domestic producers, in order that I 
may determine what effect, if any, these practices have 
had upon imports. It would also be useful to study the 
relationship of domestic shipments to general economic 
trends, particularly with respect to those in the construc- 
tion and automobile industries. In addition, I should like 
any Information available on the pricing practices em- 
ployed by those selling the sheet glass that is imported. 

6. With regard to baseball gloves, it would be helpful 
to have (a) more complete data on sales of baseball 
gloves as a proportion of total sales of the firms manu- 
facturing the gloves, and (b) more complete data on 
employment, wages and earnings. Moreover, is there, 
or is there a threat of, competition between imported 
gloves and domestic gloves in the higher price brackets? 

7. Finally, with regard to ceramic mosaic tiles, I would 
appreciate information as to (a) any increase In produc- 
tive capacity during the past five years; (b) the effect 
of that increase, if any, upon current profits; and (c) 
a judgment on the ability of domestic manufacturers to 
satisfy a market demand for less expensive tile. 

The escape clause proceedings are designed to provide 
relief whenever there is a serious injury, or threat of 
serious injury, to any domestic industry, resulting from 
a tariff concession. When fairly and objectively imple- 
mented, this provision permits domestic producers to 
compete on an equitable basis with those supplying 
similar products from abroad. However, we must be 
certain that the use of this provision is constructive 
without being excessive, that it prevents serious injury 
to domestic producers without unduly restricting fair 
competition, and that it permits domestic manufacturers 
to obtain redress without jeopardizing the national 
interest. Any data which the Commission deems relevant 
to this determination should be Included in the report. 

In compliance with the provision of Section 7(c)(1) 
of the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951, I have 
today advised the Chairmen of the Committee on Finance 
of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means 
of the House of Representatives that I am returning these 
three cases to the Commission for further information and 
study. 

Sincerely yours, 



John F. Kennedy 



Honorable Joseph E.Talbot 
Honorable J. Allen Overton, Je. 
Honorable Walter R. Schbiebee 
Honorable Glenn W. Sutton 
Honorable William E. Dowuno 
United States Tariff Commission 
Washington, D.C. 



120 



Departmenf of Slate Bulletin 



The Problem of International 
Economic imbalance 

Statement hy George W. Ball 

Under Secretary for EconoTnio Ajfairs ^ 

Let me say first that the Department of State 
welcomes your initiative in undertaking this in- 
quiry into international exchange and payments. 
The problem of improving the mechanism of in- 
ternational payments is as intricate as it is im- 
portant. I think it wise, therefore, that you are 
planning to hear witnesses from the financial and 
academic communities as well as from Government 
agencies. 

Secretary [of the Treasury Douglas] Dillon and 
Mr. Heller [Walter W. Heller, chairman. Council 
of Economic Advisers] have dealt with the inter- 
national financial and the domestic economic 
aspects of this subject in considerable detail. I 
shall discuss certain of its foreign policy aspects. 

The first — and in fact the principal point I wish 
to make — is that the position of the United States, 
as the leading power in the free world, makes it 
imperative that we have an international finan- 
cial mechanism that contributes to ever-increasing 
economic strength and political unity in the free 
world. Dependable international monetary and 
credit arrangements are indispensable to the ex- 
panding international trade and investment that 
are needed if we are to strengthen the free world 
and outdistance the Communists. 

I was glad to note in your letter to me that your 
committee is concerned with "the general problem 
created by recurrent international imbalances and 
their amplification through movements of 'hot 
money,' " rather than just our present balance-of- 
payments situation. The methods of dealing with 
balance-of -payments deficits are well known. In- 
deed, we have been lecturing our friends around 
the world for many years on how to put them- 
selves in international equilibrium. And I am 
sure that we can take our own advice. But at 
the same time we must not yield to the tempta- 
tion to make our balance-of-payments adjustments 
in ways which thwart our other objectives — of ex- 
panding trade opportunities and encouraging in- 
ternational investment for economic development. 

' Made before the Subcommittee on International Ex- 
change and Payments of the congressional Joint Eco- 
nomic Committee on June 19 (press release 410). 



I hope, therefore, that your committee will ex- 
plore thoroughly and patiently every possible facet 
of the major problem you have so perceptively 
isolated for attention. I do not see this as a rush 
job. The Secretary of tlie Treasury has provided 
us with details about the current trends and con- 
sultative arrangements. These are encouraging. 
But the problem on which your committee is con- 
centrating may well arise again in a world of con- 
vertible currencies, and we must be prepared to 
meet it. 

This problem is a broad one. This afternoon 
I shall concentrate my remarks primarily on three 
aspects. The first has to do with the activities of 
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and 
Development (OECD), the second with the spe- 
cial requirements of the less developed countries, 
and the third with commercial policy, with par- 
ticular reference to Western Europe. 

The OECD 

Pursuant to the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate, the President in April ratified the conven- 
tion on the Organization for Economic Coopera- 
tion and Development.^ Since then several other 
countries have ratified it, and we expect that the 
convention will come into force some time prior to 
October 1. The OECD will have 20 members, in- 
cluding all of the industrialized countries of North 
America and Western Europe. The members, in 
formulating the convention, have recognized "the 
increasing interdependence of their economies" 
and have stated their determination "by consul- 
tation and co-operation to use more effectively their 
capacities and potentialities so as to promote the 
highest sustainable growth of their economies and 
improve the economic and social well-being of 
their peoples." The members have agreed that 
"they will, both individually and jointly . . . pur- 
sue policies designed to achieve economic growth 
and internal and external financial stability and 
to avoid developments which might endanger their 
economies or those of other countries. . . ." 

With this membership and these aims and com- 
mitments, the OECD is a forum well adapted to 
the development of policies designed to minimize 
international economic imbalance and to restore 
international equilibrium when imbalances arise. 



' For background and text of convention, see Bulletin 
of Jan. 2, 1961, p. 8 ; for a statement by President Kennedy 
announcing the ratification, see ibid., Apr. 10, 1961, p. 514. 



Jo/y J 7, J 96 J 



121 



In April of tliis year the United States sent a 
special delegation to the meeting of the Economic 
Policy Committee of the Organization for Euro- 
pean Economic Cooperation (which will continue 
to function until the OECD actually comes into 
being). ^ The delegation included the Chairman 
of the Coimcil of Economic Advisers, the Chair- 
man of the Board of Governors of the Federal Ke- 
serve System, the Under Secretary of the Treas- 
ury for Monetary Affairs, and the Assistant Sec- 
retary of State for Economic Affairs. At this 
meeting it was agreed to establish two high-level 
working parties, one on economic growth and one 
on international payments. 

The working party on payments, which includes 
senior treasury and central bank officials from 
nine countries, has a broad mission: to analyze 
the effects on international payments of monetary, 
fiscal, and other measures and to consult on pol- 
icy measures, national and international, as they 
relate to international payments equilibrium. 
The group is starting out by discussing current 
and prospective developments in the field of in- 
ternational payments and the policies now being 
pursued by member countries that significantly 
affect international payments equilibrium. These 
discussions, which began a month ago and will be 
resumed shortly, will probably cover the whole 
range of subjects important to the payments posi- 
tions of members, such as fiscal policies, interest 
rates, cyclical developments, operations in ex- 
change markets, commercial policies, and capital 
movements. The improved understanding that 
will come out of these discussions should, by it- 
self, promote a greater degree of harmony in the 
policies of national governments. 

In addition, we expect that this group will find 
ways and means of averting or minimizing im- 
balances that can prove disturbing for both sur- 
plus and deficit countries and ascertain how inter- 
governmental action or accommodations can make 
it easier to deal with problems of external im- 
balance without undue constraints on internal pol- 
icy. As such ways and means are devised the 
problems of maintaining international economic 
balance and liquidity will be eased, not only for 
the members of OECD but for the free world as 
a whole. 

When the OECD comes into being, the De- 
velopment Assistance Group (DAG) will become 

' For a statement by President Kennedy on the occasion 
of the delegation's departure, see iMd., May 1, 1961, p. 648. 



one of its major committees — the Development 
Assistance Committee. The role of the DAG, as 
you know, is to enlarge and make more effective 
the individual and joint efforts of the capital- 
supplying countries — the United States, Canada, 
Japan, and the countries of Western Europe — in 
assisting the economic development of the less de- 
veloped countries. Although the DAG is not di- 
rectly concerned with international payments 
questions, the results of its work should help the 
less developed countries deal with their problems 
of international imbalance. 

Less Developed Countries 

Although the industrial countries have a very 
large share of world trade and an even larger 
share of international financial resources, the nu- 
merous less developed countries of the world have 
a very great stake in the international payments 
mechanism and the methods by which it is kept 
functioning. 

In terms of fundamentals, the international pay- 
ments problems of the less developed countries 
may be viewed in the same light as those of the 
developed countries. Any country, regardless of 
its state of economic development, needs working 
balances to finance its day-to-day international 
transactions, and it needs monetary reserves or 
available credits to meet the fluctuations in its 
payments position that arise from time to time in 
response to internal and external developments. 
Moreover, it needs the institutional arrangements, 
administrative skills, and policies to restore equi- 
librium when its payments position goes awry. 

I would understate the needs of the less devel- 
oped countries, however, if I implied that they 
are as well equipped to cope with these problems 
as the more advanced countries. Let me mention 
some of the special disabilities of the less developed 
countries. 

First, they are in nearly all cases driven by 
powerful political and social forces to grow — and 
to grow rapidly. Monetary reserves represent in- 
vestment, but an investment that looks relatively 
unproductive to people who have smelt the yeasty 
air of economic expansion. It is easy to under- 
stand why these countries are strongly tempted to 
use their reserves for more machinery, more steel, 
or more fertilizer. 

Second, the export earnings of many less de- 
veloped countries are highly volatile. The usual 



122 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



pattern is for the export earnings of a less devel- 
oped country to come from a few foods, raw mate- 
rials, or minerals. Both quantities and prices 
show wide fluctuations. Moreover, marketability 
overseas may be threatened by teclinological 
change or inhibited by quotas, preferences, or fiscal 
devices. 

Third, less developed countries are generally 
short of trained administrators, civil servants, and 
financial technicians. These coimtries tend to 
lack the constituents of skilled and effective policy 
formulation and execution, even as they face all 
kinds of difficult governmental problems, particu- 
larly in the financial field, where the public pres- 
sures to discard fiscal and monetary discipline are 
relentless. 

Fourth, their economies lack flexibility. Eco- 
nomic shocks are not easily absorbed, and economic 
adjustments are difficult and slow. If the quan- 
tities or prices of their principal export items 
decline, they have few, if any, ready alternatives. 

Considering these factors, it could be argued 
that less developed countries need more reserves, 
relative to their trade, than more developed coun- 
tries. But usually they must get along on less. 
Some try to restrain imbalance by fluctuating ex- 
change rates or multiple-rate practices; others, by 
maintaining trade restrictions and bilateral trade 
agreements. In some instances these devices have 
been successful in repressing imbalance, although 
they may be costly in terms of their effects on 
growth and the allocation of resources. All too 
frequently, however, less developed countries slide 
into financial crises which disrupt their develop- 
ment efforts and create new political instabilities. 

The United States, other industrial countries, 
and international institutions are providing a 
growing volume of financial and technical help to 
the less developed nations. Directly and in- 
directly, this help will eventually make their prob- 
lems more manageable. What else can and should 
be done ? 

One form of progress would stand out above all 
others : greater stability and growth in the export 
earnings of the less developed countries. The 
United States is placing a new emphasis on the 
problems of instability in international trade in 
agricultural and mineral products. We recognize 
that these commodity problems vitally affect the 
economic development of large areas of the world. 
As President Kennedy said in his Alliance for 



Progress speech of March 13,* ". . . the United 
States is ready to cooperate in serious, case-by-case 
examinations of commodity market problems." 

It is essential that the less developed countries 
obtain enlarged markets in the industrial countries 
for their traditional exports. This means lower- 
ing existing trade barriers and resisting pressures 
for new ones. Moreover, the industrial countries 
must find constructive solutions to the problems 
that have arisen, and will inevitably grow more 
pressing, as a result of the economic advances of 
the less developed countries. The fruits of eco- 
nomic development will appear, in part, as new 
exportable products, increasingly in the field of 
manufactures. These products represent hard- 
won economic gains, to which our taxpayers have 
contributed their money and our Nation its in- 
fluence. If markets cannot be found for them, 
much of the common effort will go to waste. And 
beyond that, the hopes, enthusiasm, and political 
stability that should accompany economic growth 
will be turned into disillusion. 

One final word on the financial side. The Inter- 
national Monetary Fund has been of great help 
to the less developed nations in providing technical 
assistance, in furnishing needed financial resources, 
and in providing moral support to governments 
determined to save their economies from the dis- 
ruption of financial disorder. We think that the 
Fund will be able to do even more for the less 
developed countries within its sphere of com- 
petence. These countries were reminded recently 
by the group of experts appointed by the United 
Nations to study commodity problems = that "mem- 
ber countries have . . . not tested fully the Fund's 
willingness to provide resources to meet difficulties 
arising from commodity fluctuations and should 
be encouraged to do so." The experts also noted 
that "an enhancement of the compensatory role 
of the Fimd is desirable." It would appear that 
the Fund is in substantial agreement with these 
observations. 

Helpful though such compensatory financing 
can be, it cannot provide a satisfactory answer to 
the problems of fluctuations in emplojonent and 
production which stem from unstable exports and 
export revenues. 



' Itid., Apr. 3, 1961, p. 471. 

° For text of a report entitled International Compensa- 
tioti for Fluctuations in Commodity Trade, see U.N. doc. 
E/3447. 



July 17, 1961 



123 



Commercial Policy 

I turn now to the commercial policy aspects of 
this problem of international economic imbalance 
and international liquidity. It seems to me that it 
is always healthy to tell one's self, if not other 
people, that international monetary and financial 
arrangements have as their fundamental purpose 
to facilitate trade in goods and services. They 
have no purpose in and of themselves. On the 
other hand, it is clear that steady growth of trade 
greatly eases the international payments problem. 
Yet even the achievement of a perfectly adjusted 
trade pattern could not, by itself, stop large and 
rapid short-term capital movements, such as we 
have had in the last 2 years, with their potentially 
disruptive influence on trade. 

To state the matter positively, we need an inter- 
national payments mechanism that will make it 
possible for the United States and other countries 
to pursue the commercial policy objective of freer, 
multilateral, nondiscriminatory trade. It is with 
reference to this fundamental objective that I wish 
to discuss commercial policies of our European 
trading partners, a subject to which you have par- 
ticularly asked me to address myself. As you 
know, the United States has lent its support to 
the European Economic Community since its in- 
ception. The Community involves a radical re- 
orientation of the economic fabric of Western 
Europe and has important political consequences. 
It holds great promise for the future prosperity, 
peace, and stability of the area. The political 
stability and steady economic growth of Western 
Europe is of overwhelming significance to the 
whole free world. 

In giving our support to the Community, we 
have recognized that certain trade adjustments 
will be necessary and that our own trading in- 
terests may be affected, at least temporarily. We 
are convinced that in the long run the greatly 
expanded market which is being created will ma- 
terially increase the demand for our exports, just 
as the economic expansion of the United States 
has greatly enlarged Europe's trading oppor- 
tunities over many decades. 

Our experience with the European Economic 
Community to date has been too short to enable us 
to reach any definitive conclusion as to trade 
effects. In 1960, when the Community had made 
internal tariff reductions of 20 percent, our exports 



to the six countries * reached $3.4 billion, exceeding 
the previous record year of 1957 by nearly a quar- 
ter of a billion dollars. However, a good part of 
these tariff reductions were generalized to outside 
countries, including the United States. The best 
indication of future effects we now have is that 
even a very slight increase in the rate of economic 
growth of the six countries would be sufficient to 
produce a demand for foreign goods high enough 
to offset completely the trade diversionary effects 
of the customs union. If the Community growth 
rate should increase significantly, it would follow 
that our trade with the area should increase sub- 
stantially during the coming decade. 

We can take advantage of this expanded market 
in Europe, however, only if the Community con- 
tinues to maintain an outward-looking, liberal 
commercial policy and adopts the lowest possible 
common external tariff. The round of GATT 
tariff negotiations which is presently proceeding 
in Geneva is a start in this direction. The leaders 
of Western Europe are well aware of the impor- 
tance of a liberal trade policy. I am confident that 
they recognize, in this context, both their new 
responsibilities stemming from membersliip in the 
Economic Community and their current status as 
creditor nations on international account. They 
have, in fact, seized from us the leadership in 
liberal trade policy by their concrete offer of an 
across-the-board 20 percent reduction of the com- 
mon external tariff in the industrial area. 

The problem of trade barriers in the agricultural 
field is more difficult for the Community, owing to 
the necessity of its developing a common agricul- 
tural policy. But in our current negotiations we 
are pressing vigorously for more liberal treatment 
of U.S. agricultural exports. 

Some of the questions with respect to interna- 
tional liquidity in connection with the Community 
also arise in connection with the European Free 
Trade Association, the seven members ^ of which 
are likewise in the process of removing trade bar- 
riers among themselves. However, the implica- 
tions of the EFTA in this respect are of a 
somewhat different character, owing to the fact 
that the EFTA, as a free-trade area, does not pro- 
vide for a common external tariff, has no institu- 



° Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the 
Netherlands. 

' Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Swit- 
zerland, and the United Kingdom. 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



tions designed to deal with monetary problems, 
and generally does not contemplate integration as 
far-reaching as that of the European Commvmity. 

In concluding my statement, Mr. Chairman, I 
should like to say again that the central problem 
before your committee is an intricate and many- 
sided one. Some things can be done reasonably 
soon — for example, the provision of standby 
credits to supplement the International Monetary 
Fund's resources — while other things may take 
much longer, such as the development of measures 
to reduce the instability of international com- 
modity markets. 

I commend you and your committee, Mr. Chair- 
man, for taking the initiative in investigating this 
very important problem of international economic 
imbalance, with particular reference to the inter- 
national movements of short-term capital. The 
Department of State will be working on the prob- 
lem, and if we can be of assistance to your com- 
mittee, I hope you will call on us. 



Bill Implements Lisbon Revision 
of Industrial Property Convention 

Statement hy Theodore J . Hadraha 
Director, Office of International Trade'^ 

I am appearing in support of H.R. 5754, which 
is designed to implement in the United States the 
latest revision of the Convention of Paris for the 
Protection of Industrial Property. The bill would 
amend the United States patent and trademark 
laws to permit applicants to claim their right of 
priority in the United States not only from the 
date of their first filing of patent or trademark 
applications but also from the date of a subsequent 
filing in a member country should the first filing 
be withdrawn under certain specified conditions. 

As to the implementation of the latest revision 
of the industrial property convention, under the 
terms of article 17, it is clear that this new revision 
is not self-executing, that is, its ratification would 
not by itself modify our domestic law. Any 
changes in the United States patent or trademark 
laws that are necessary to apply the provisions of 

' Made before Subcommittee 3 of the House Committee 
on the Judiciary on June 15 (press release 399) in support 
of H.R. 5754 (and H.R. 7347, an identical bill) "To carry 
into effect the provisions of the Convention of Paris for 
the Protection of Industrial Property as revised at Lisbon, 
Portugal, October 31, 1958." 



the new revision must be enacted by the Congress. 
Most of the changes embodied in the new revision 
do not require amendments to United States stat- 
utes since such changes are already consistent with 
our law. Only those changes contained in H.R. 
5754 relating to the right of priority provisions of 
our patent and trademark laws will be needed in 
order fully to implement the new convention. The 
United States therefore will be able to deposit its 
instrument of ratification upon the enactment of 
the proposed legislation contained in H.R. 5754. 

The industrial property convention, to which 
the United States and 50 other countries are par- 
ties, was originally adopted in 1883 and was re- 
vised four times (1900, 1911, 1925, and 1934) prior 
to the revision adopted at Lisbon m 1958. The 
Lisbon revision was transmitted to the United 
States Senate by the President on February 17, 
1960,^ and received the Senate's advice and consent 
to ratification on August 17, 1960. The United 
States became a party to the original convention 
of 1883 and the four subsequent revisions. 

The Lisbon revision is not yet in force among 
any countries. It will come into force on June 1, 
1963, with respect to those countries which have 
deposited their ratification before May 1, 1963. 
If before that date six countries ratify the Lisbon 
revision, it will come into force after the sixth 
ratification has been deposited. To date no other 
country has deposited its instrument of 
ratification. 

United States adherence will set an excellent 
example for other coimtries which are considering 
adherence to the new revision. It will also serve 
as tangible evidence of our interest in effecting 
improvements in the protection of industrial prop- 
erty rights through the medium of the industrial 
property convention. This convention is the major 
intergovermnental instrument assuring protection 
abroad of the industrial property of United States 
nationals, namely patents, trademarks, designs, 
commercial names, and related rights. The De- 
partment also considers this convention the most 
effective mechanism for assuring continuing sound 
cooperative relations with other countries in the 
industrial property rights field. It is based on two 
important principles, namely "national treatment" 
and the extension of special rights or advantages. 
Under the "national treatment" principle, each 
member country is required to extend to nationals 

• S. Ex. B, 86th Cong., 2d sess. 



iulf 17, 1961 



125 



of other member countries the same protection and 
rights which it grants to its own nationals in this 
field. Under the second principle, each country 
is required to provide certain rights or special 
advantages for other members' nationals, one of 
the most important of which is the right of priority 
for foreign patent and trademark applicants. 

The changes which have been made in the con- 
vention over the years have strengthened and 
made more effective the patent and trademark pro- 
tection afforded nationals of member countries. 
The Department believes that this latest revision 
provides for significant improvements in the in- 
dustrial property rights field. It was strongly sup- 
ported by the Department in testimony before 
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on June 
21, 1960.^ One of the most important improve- 
ments embodied in this new revision relates to the 
establishment of machinery for interim meetings 
by the member governments between diplomatic 
conferences of revision to enable them to study 
and discuss problems arising under the convention. 
In this connection the revised convention includes 
a provision for regular triemiial meetings of rep- 
resentatives of the member governments. Sig- 
nificant changes have also been effected by the Lis- 
bon revision through a rewriting of the basic pro- 
visions in the convention concerning the protection 
of trademarks. Also for the first time specific 
provision has been made for the protection of 
trademarks associated with services, as distinct 
from those used to identify goods. 

I should also like to emphasize that leading 
business and professional groups in the United 
States interested in the industrial property rights 
field, such as the National Foreign Trade Council, 
the U.S. Council of the International Chamber of 
Commerce, and the Patent and Trademark Sec- 
tion of the American Bar Association, have en- 
dorsed this new revision. In fact, the Department 
is not aware of any business or professional group 
that is opposed to the United States' becoming a 
party to this latest revision. 

The Department accordingly strongly supports 
the enactment of H.R. 5754 at an early date since 
the legislation which it embodies is essential for 
deposit of ratification of the revised convention 
and its entry into force as between the United 
States and other countries. United States par- 
ticipation in the new revision will insure that our 
relations with the other member countries wiU con- 



' Bulletin of July 11, 1960, p. 52. 



tinue on a sound basis in this important area of 
our foreign economic policy relating to the protec- 
tion of industrial property rights. For these rea- 
sons the Department is convinced that enactment 
of H.R. 5754 is most desirable and that it will be 
in the public interest by fully implementing under 
our present laws the Convention of Paris for the 
Protection of Industrial Property, as revised at 
Lisbon. 



Department Supports Bill Reducing 
Duty-Free Exemption to $100 

Statement hy Edwin M. Martin 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs ^ 

Reduction of the duty-free exemption of return- 
ing United States residents was proposed ^ to help 
alleviate the unfavorable balance-of-payments 
position of the United States.* 

The duty-free exemption of returning United 
States residents, as provided for in the Tariff Act 
of 1930, was originally $100 but was raised to $400 
in 1948 and to $500 in 1949 as one of the many 
measures taken by the United States to assist 
foreign countries in earning dollars at a time when 
they were undergoing serious balance-of-payments 
problems. It is only reasonable that the exemp- 
tion should be lowered at this time as a possible 
aid in meeting our balance-of-payments problem. 
H.R. 6611 would make such a reduction for a 
period of 2 years, at which time its effect or need 
could be reviewed. 

Some countries have evidenced their concern 
that this bill will affect tourist travel to tlieir 
countries. It should be emphasized that the bill 
is not intended to reduce the number of Americans 
traveling abroad. Ik fact, it is not expected that 
the bill will, in anj' way, affect the number of 
American tourists going abroad. But tlie reduc- 
tion in the duty-free allowance of returning 
United States residents is expected to affect their 
expenditures for personal purchases of goods to 
be brought to the United States. 

Even at the reduced level of $100, the United 
States duty-fi-ee allowance is more liberal than 

' Made before the Senate Finance Committee on June 23 
( I)ress release 438 ) . 

' For text of draft legislation proposed by President 
Kenne<ly, see Bulletin of Mar. 13, 1961, p. 3S2. 

' For background, see t6td., Feb. 27, 1901, p. 287. 



126 



Department of State Bulletin 



the allowance of most other countries. In re- 
sponse to a circular instruction from the Depart- 
ment which was transmitted to all Foreign Service 
posts on December 6, 1960, the Department learned 



that only about a half-dozen countries have a duty- 
free allowance which might exceed $100. 

For the above reasons the Department supports 
the enactment of H.R. 6611. 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings 



Adjourned During June 1961 

GATT Tariff Negotiations With Greece 

UNESCO Executive Board: 59th Session 

ITU European VHF/UHF Broadcasting Conference 

International Sugar Council: 10th Session 

WHO Executive Board: 28th Session 

ILO Governing Body: 149th Session 

FAO Committee on Commodity Problems: 34th Session .... 
International Lead and Zinc Study Group: Special Working 

Group. 

UNICEF Program Committee 

International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 

11th Annual Meeting. 
IMCO Expert Working Group on Pollution of the Sea by Oil . . 
GATT Committee III on Expansion of International Trade . . . 

International Labor Conference: 45th Session 

NATO Civil Aviation Planning Committee 

UNICEF Executive Board 

U.N. ECE Housing Committee: 21st Session 

FAO Expert Meeting on Economic Effects of Fishery Regulation . 
8th International Electronic, Nuclear, and Motion Picture Expo- 
sition. 

NATO Civil Communications Planning Committee 

FAO Advisory Committee on the Freedom From Hunger Campaign: 

3d Session. 
Experts Meeting on Oslo Convention for Tonnage Measurement 

of Ships. 

ICAO Assembly: Extraordinary Session 

NATO Petroleum Planning Committee 

International Whaling Commission: 13th Meeting 

FAO/ECE Committee on Forest Working Techniques and Training 

of Forest Workers. 

FAO Group on Cocoa: Drafting Committee 

FAO/OIE Meeting on Emerging Diseases of Animals 

IAEA Board of Governors 

FAO Council: 35th Session 

ICAO Air Traffic Services, Caribbean Region: Informal Meeting . 

GATT/OEEC Ad Hoc Meeting on Textiles 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group Standing Committee: 

5th Session. 

In Session as of June 30, 1961 

Conference on Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests .... Geneva Oct. 31, 1958- 

5th Round of GATT Tariff Negotiations Geneva Sept. 1, 1960- 

International Conference for the Settlement of the Laotian Question Geneva May 16- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 27th Session New York June 1- 

11th International Berlin Film Festival 

International Coffee Agreement: 8th Session of Board of Directors 
U.N. EGA Conference of African Statisticians: 2d Session . . . 

International Wheat Council: 32d Session 

NATO Industrial Planning Committee 



Athens May 22-June S'' 

Paris May 25-June 16 

Stockholm May 26-June 22 

London May 29-June 1 

Geneva May 29-June 3 

Geneva May 29-June 16 

Rome May 30-June 16 

New York May 31-June 10 

New York June 5-7 

Washington June 5-10 

London June 5-10 

Geneva June 5-16 

Geneva June 7-29 

Paris June 8-9 

New York June 8-19 

Geneva June 12-14 

Ottawa June 12-17 

Rome June 12-24 

Paris June 13-15 

Rome June 14-16 

Reykjavik June 15-26 

Montreal June 19-21 

Paris June 19-21 

London June 19-23 

Prague June 19-23 

Rome June 19-24 

Ankara June 19-24 

Vienna June 19-30 

Rome June 19-30 

Kingston, Jamaica June 21-23 

Washington June 21-26 

New York June 29 (1 day) 



BerUn June 25- 

Rio de Janeiro June 26- 

Tunis June 26- 

London June 27- 

Paris June 30- 



1 Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 30, 1961. Following is a Ust of abbreviations: EGA, 
Economic Commission for Africa; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; 
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency; ICAO,International 
Civil Aviation Organization; ILO, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 
Organization; ITU, International Telecommunication Union; NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization; OEEC, 
Organization for European Economic Cooperation; OIE, International Office of Epizootics; U.N., United Nations; 
UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's 
Fund; WHO, World Health Organization. 



July 17, 7967 



127 



Human Rights Commission Considers Study on Arbitrary Arrest 



SEVENTEENTH SESSION OF THE U.N. COMMISSION ON HUMAN 
RIGHTS, FEBRUARY 20-MARCH 17 



hy Marietta Tree 



At its 1961 session in New York, February 20 
to March 17, the U.N. Commission on Human 
Rights decided to undertake a study of the right 
of arrested persons to commimicate with legal 
counsel and others and to draft principles on the 
right of everyone to be free from arbitrary arrest, 
detention, and exile. In addition the Commission 
appointed a Committee on Periodic Reports on 
Himian Rights and urged the approval of a pro- 
gram under the aegis of the United Nations and 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to assist less 
developed countries to expand their information 
media. 

The U.S. delegation to the Commission joined 
other members of the Commission in cosponsoring 
proposals on these subjects. Mrs. Marietta Tree 
was the U.S. Representative on the Commission, 
and she was assisted by three advisers: James 
Simsarian, Seymour M. Finger, and John N. 
"Washburn. Philip M. Klutznick, U.S. Repre- 
sentative on the U.N. Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, served on the Commission on Human Rights 
during its initial meetings, prior to the appoint- 
ment of Mrs. Tree as the U.S. Representative. 

The 18 countries represented on the Commis- 
sion are Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, China, 
Denmark, France, India, Iraq, Netherlands, 
Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Ukraine, 
U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United States, and 
Venezuela. Ambassador C. S. Jha of India was 
elected chairman of the Commission. 



9 Mrs. Tree is U.S. Representative on tlie 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights. 



The Commission received a report from its 
committee on the study of freedom from arbitrary 
arrest, detention, and exile and thereupon decided 
to obtain the comments of member states and to 
request the committee to prepare draft principles 
on this subject for the consideration of the Com- 
mission at its next session in 1962. The Philip- 
pines representative is chairman-rapporteur of 
the committee of four countries preparing this re- 
port. The other three countries are Argentina, 
Netherlands, and Pakistan. 

In accordance with the recommendations of its 
committee on the study of freedom from arbitrary 
arrest, detention, and exile, the Commission se- 
lected, as an additional subject for study, the right 
of arrested persons to communicate with legal 
counsel and others. The same committee was in- 
structed to obtain requisite information on this 
subject and to submit a preliminary report to the 
Commission at its 1963 session. A United Na- 
tions seminar on the protection of human rights 
in criminal procedure, held at Vienna in Jime and 
July 1960, also stressed the importance of this 
subject. 

Committee on Periodic Reports 

Following a review of information received 
from 59 countries on developments in the field of 
human rights in their respective countries, the 
Commission decided to appoint a Committee on 
Periodic Reports on Human Rights, consisting of 
the representatives of 6 coimtries, to examine this 
material further just prior to the 1962 session of 
the Commission. Under the procedure established 
by the Commission in 1956, the world human 
rights situation is examined by the Commission 



128 



Departmenf of Sfate Bulletin 



every 3 years with a view to developing comments, 
conclusions, and recommendations of an objective 
and general character, but a satisfactory procedure 
for this purpose has not as yet been worked out. 
The six countries on the committee appointed to 
prepare recommendations concerning the consid- 
eration of this material are Afghanistan, Austria, 
France, India, Panama, and Poland. 

Information Media in Less Developed Countries 

The Commission received an excellent report 
from UNESCO on the development of informa- 
tion media in less developed countries. It included 
an account of two regional meetings on this sub- 
ject, the first at Bangkok in Januaiy 1960 and the 
second at Santiago in February 1961. There will 
be a third regional meeting at Addis Ababa early 
in 1962. 

The Commission stressed three fields of action 
to expand information media in the less developed 
coimtries: (1) steps that the less developed coun- 
tries can take in their own countries; (2) coopera- 
tion by the more developed countries with the less 
developed countries to help meet the urgent needs 
of the less developed countries; and (3) the im- 
portant role of United Nations agencies in as- 
sisting less developed countries in the develop- 
ment and strengthening of information media in 
their countries. UNESCO was asked to prepare 
for the consideration of the Commission next year 
a further report on this subject, which would take 
into account the Addis Ababa meeting early in 
1962. 

In its review of the United Nations advisory 
services program in the field of human rights, the 
Commission expressed satisfaction with the 
seminars on hmnan rights proceeding on a re- 
gional basis in various areas and urged that addi- 
tional attention be given by the U.N. Secretariat 
to offering fellowships and scholarships on topics 
related to human rights. Thus far, regional semi- 
nars are being held on the protection of human 
rights in criminal procedure, the abuse of admin- 
istrative authority, the use of habeas corpus and 
similar remedies in the protection of human 
rights, the status of women in public life, and the 
status of women in family law. Three seminars 
are being planned for 1962. One, to be held in 
India, will consider some aspects of freedom of 
information ; another will be in Singapore on the 
status of women in family law; and the third, 



on judicial and other remedies against the abuse 
of administrative authority, will be held in 
Sweden. 

Racial Prejudice and Religious Intolerance 

During its consideration of the report of the 
U.N. Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimina- 
tion and Protection of Minorities, the Commission 
gave particular attention to the action taken by 
the subcommission on manifestations of anti- 
Semitism and other forms of racial prejudice and 
religious intolerance which had occurred in 
various countries at the end of 1959 and in the 
first half of 1960. The Conamission stressed the 
need to educate public opinion with a view to the 
eradication of racial prejudice and religious intol- 
erance and to take legislative or other appropriate 
measures. 

On the initiative of Afghanistan, India, and 
Pakistan the Commission recommended that the 
U.N. General Assembly arrange for a "Freedom 
From Prejudice and Discrimination Year" in the 
near future and for a "Freedom From Prejudice 
and Discrimination Day" to be observed every 
year. Several countries on the Commission were 
critical of this proposal, since they were of the 
opinion that too many so-called years were being 
observed for various purposes in the United Na- 
tions and the specialized agencies. Some coun- 
tries were also of the opinion that it was sufficient 
to have the annual observance of Human Rights 
Day on December 10, which was imdertaken on 
the initiative of the U.N. General Assembly. The 
Commission agreed that the comments of mem- 
ber states should be obtained on the desirability of 
this proposal and that the matter would be re- 
viewed further by the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil at its July 1961 session. 

A proposal of the Austrian member of the Com- 
mission that the Subcommission on Prevention of 
Discrimination and Protection of Minorities 
undertake a further study of minorities was not 
accepted by the Commission. It was observed that 
the problems of minorities differed drastically in 
different areas of the world. It was generally 
the view in the Commission that it was preferable 
for the subcommission to continue to concentrate 
on the studies of discrimination that it now has 
under consideration. The next two discrimina- 
tion studies of the subcommission concern politi- 
cal rights and the right of everyone to leave any 



July 17, 1967 



129 



country, including his own, and to return to his 
country. 

The Commission expressed satisfaction with 
the convention and recommendation against dis- 
crimination in education adopted by the UNESCO 
General Conference at its 1960 session. UNESCO 
consideration of this subject was a followup of 
a study of discrimination in education initially 
undertaken in the subcommission several years 
earlier. 

The Commission postponed until next year the 
review of recommendations received from the sub- 
commission on draft principles concerning free- 
dom and nondiscrimination in the matter of re- 
ligious rights and practices. 

Decisions Reached at 17th Session 

The United States delegation was satisfied with 
the decisions taken by the Commission at its ses- 
sion this year and accordingly voted in the affirma- 
tive on all of these decisions. Of seven major 
decisions adopted, three were approved unani- 
mously, these being on information media, the 
eradication of racial prejudice and religious in- 
tolerance, and discrimination in education. Una- 
nimity was lacking on the other four issues. On 
advisory services in the field of human rights, the 
vote was 14 to 0, with 3 abstentions (Poland, 
Ukrainian S.S.R., U.S.S.R.). On the studies of 
freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention, and exile 
and the right of arrested persons to communicate 
with legal counsel and others, the vote was 15 to 0, 
with 3 abstentions (Poland, Ukrainian S.S.R., 
U.S.S.R.). On periodic reports on hmnan rights, 
the vote was 15 to 0, with 4 abstentions (Poland, 
Ukrainian S.S.E., U.S.S.E., Venezuela). On the 
Freedom From Prejudice and Discrimination 
Year, the vote was 13 to 0, with 5 abstentions 
(Austria, Denmark, France, Netherlands, United 
Ivingdom) . 

In view of decisions reached at this session, 
the Cormnission will have a number of significant 
subjects to consider at its session next year, in- 
cluding draft principles on religious rights and 
practices, draft principles on freedom from ar- 
bitrary arrest, detention, and exile, a report of the 
subcommission on political rights, periodic re- 
ports from member states on developments in 
the field of human rights in their countries, a re- 
port on human rights advisory services, reports 
from the U.N. Secretary-General on freedom of 



information, and a further report from the 
UNESCO Director General on the expansion of 
information media in less developed comitries. 

Under Secretary Ball Leaves for DAG 
Meeting at Tokyo 

The Department of State announced on June 
27 (press release 448) that Under Secretaiy Ball 
would leave Washington on June 28 to attend the 
meeting of the Development Assistance Group 
at Tokyo July 11-13. 

En route he will stop off at Hong Kong for a 
2-day meeting, July 4-5, of iVmerican economic 
counselors and U.S. Operations Mission directors 
from Far Eastern posts. 

Prior to the DAG meeting, ]\Ir. Ball will have 
discussions with the Japanese Foreign Office and 
business leaders on the subject of U.S.-Japanese 
economic problems. On July 10 he will address 
the America-Japan Society and the American 
Chamber of Commerce. 



U.S. Invites FAO To Hold Meeting 
on Biology of Tuna at San Diego 

Following is the text of a joint statement of the 
Department of State and the Departm,ent of the 
Interior. 

Press release 468 dated June 30 

The United States Government is inviting the 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to 
hold its World Meeting on the Biology of Tuna 
and Tuna-like Fishes in July 1962 in the San 
Diego area in California. The fundamental ob- 
jective of the conference is to assess the potential 
of the world's tuna stocks. The tunas, which were 
discarded fishes a half century ago, are now fished 
in every ocean except the Arctic and the Antarctic 
and by fishermen of many nations. It is hoped 
that from the conference will come a composite 
picture of the rate of utilization and the possibil- 
ities and limits of future development. 

Officials of the Department of State and De- 
partment of the Interior have been conferring for 
some time on arrangements for the meeting. The 
United States tuna industry, whicli is centered in 
California, and the California congressional del- 



130 



Depatlmeni of State Bulletin 



egation have endorsed the proposal for a confer- 
ence. Governor Edmund Brown of California 
has extended the State's hospitality to the mem- 
bers of the conference. 

The decision to hold a world meeting on the 
biology of tuna arose from the successful meetmg 
on sardmes called by the FAO in Rome, Italy, in 
1959. The rapid development of tuna fisheries 
throughout the world emphasized the need for 
tuna researchers to meet and discuss the biological 
and oceanograpliic programs now being conducted. 
The need for coordination of the work of the var- 
ious tuna research scientists is also becoming evi- 
dent as the importance of that resource continues 
to grow. 

The FAO decided that the 1962 meeting should 
cover the biological aspects only of tuna and tuna- 
like fishes. Consideration will be given later to 
meetings on the economic and technological 
phases. 

Under the general plan of the meeting only the 
species of tima and tuna-like fishes which are of 
commercial importance will be considered. The 
scope of the inquiry will include the development 
of the various fisheries, the identity, distribution, 
and behavior, and the potential yields of the 
various stocks; specific problems and outlook for 
future cooperation in coordination of methods and 
research programs; and ways in which inter- 
national cooperation can be made possible. 



H. W. Briggs Nominated for Election 
to International Law Commission 

The Department of State announced on June 
29 (press release 457) that the Secretary of State 
has nominated Herbert W. Briggs of Cornell Uni- 
versity as a candidate for election to the Interna- 
tional Law Commission of the United Nations. 
Professor Briggs is a past president of the Amer- 
ican Society of International Law and editor in 
chief of the American Journal of International 
Law. 

The International Law Commission is a group 
of scholars working together under U.N. auspices 
to promote the progi-essive development of inter- 
national law. Its 21 members are elected for 5- 
year terms by the General Assembly of the United 
Nations from a list of candidates nominated by 
member states. The members of the Commission 



serve in an individual capacity rather than as 
representatives of the states of which they are 
nationals. The next election of members of the 
International Law Commission will take place 
during the 16th session of the General Assembly, 
which is to begin in September 1961. 

Before deciding on the U.S. nominee, the De- 
partment consulted with professional societies and 
heads of colleges of law throughout the United 
States, inviting them to suggest persons of out- 
standing qualifications for the post. 

United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

International Conference on Public Education 

The Department of State announced on June 28 
(press release 454) that the following would be 
U.S. delegates to the 24th International Confer- 
ence on Public Education, sponsored jointly by 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Inter- 
national Bureau of Education (IBE), and held 
at Geneva July 3-14. 

Benjamin C. Willis, chairman, Superintendent of Schools, 
Chicago, 111. 

Hazel F. Gabbard, Office of Education, Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare 

Eas O. Johnson, Chief, Africa, Europe Program Division, 
Office of Educational Services, International Coopera- 
tion Administration. 

Frederika M. Tandler, Office of Education, Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare 

The purpose of these conferences is to provide 
leading educators and government officials the 
opportunity to survey and discuss the progress in 
education. 

Three topics are considered each year. This ses- 
sion will discuss progress of education during 
1960-61, organization of one-teacher schools, and 
preprimary education. 

Moscow International Film Festival 

The Department of State announced on June 28 
(press release 453) the names of the members of 
the delegation which would represent the United 
States at the International Film Festival at Mos- 
cow July 9-23. 

Turner B. Shelton, Director, Motion Picture 
Service, U.S. Information Agency, was named 



July 17, 1961 



131 



chairman of the delegation; and Hans N. Tuch, 
cultural attache, American Embassy at Moscow, 
was named alternate. Other members of the dele- 
gation include: 

Eric Johnston, special representative, President, Motion 

Picture Association of America 
n'illiam Perlberg, Hollywood, Calif. 
Milton Sperling, Hollywood, Calif. 

The Warner Brothers' motion picture "Sunrise 
at Campobello," starring Kalph Bellamy and 
Greer Garson, has been selected as the American 
feature entry in competition. The delegation will 
show out of competition the U.S. Information 
Agency's documentary film "Beyond Silence" 
filmed at Gallaudet College, which was nominated 
for an Academy Award. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography ^ 

General Assembly 

Letter dated April 6 from the representative of the United 
States to the Secretary-General enclosing a U.S. study 
of tensions in the Caribbean area. A/4725. April 6, 
1961. 20 pp. 

Special report of the Trusteeship Council on the future 
of the Trust Territory of the Cameroons under United 
Kingdom administration. A/4726. April 11, 1961. 
3 pp. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Latin America 

Document prepared by the Joint ECLA/FAO Division 
on the role of agriculture in Latin American common 
market and free-trade area arrangements. E/CN.- 
12/551. January 10, 1961. 33 pp. 

Report of the Joint UNESCO/EOLA/OAS Mission on 
the teaching of economics in Latin America, with a 
note by the secretariat. E/CN.12/546/Rev. 1. Jan- 
uary 25, 1961. 85 pp. 

Seminar on industrial statistics, a summary of pro- 
ceedings and conclusions. E/CN.12/561. February 
14, 1961. 50 pp. 

Information paper prepared by the U.N. Special Fund, 
with a note by the secretariat, on U.N. Special Fund 
activities in Latin America. E/CN.12/571. Febru- 
ary 22, 1961. 7 pp. 

Information paper prepared by the TAB secretariat 
on technical assistance provided in 1960 to countries 
and territories of the ECLA region under the ex- 
panded and regular programs. E/CN.12/553. March 
1,1961. 24 pp. 

Economic survey of Latin America : Part I — short-term 
changes in product and income, E/CN.12/565, 
March 1, 1961, 105 pp. ; Part II — sectors of produc- 
tion, Add. 1, March 1, 1961, 89 pp. 



' Printed materials may be secured In the United States 
from the International Documents Service, Columbia 
University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York 27, N.Y. 
Other materials (mimeographed or processed documents) 
may be consulted at certain designated libraries in the 
United States. 



132 



Papers on financial problems prepared by the ECLA 
secretariat for the use of Latin American free-trade 
association. E/CN.12/569. March 1, 1961. 65 pp. 

The Latin American movement toward multilateral 
economic cooperation. E/CN.12/567. March 6, 1961. 
29 pp. 

Report on the consultative meetings on trade policy 
between Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela held at 
Quito, December 7-10, 1960. E/CN.12/555. March 
10,1961. 84 pp. 

Draft annual report (part I) of the Commission to 
the Economic and Social Council. E/CN.12/573. 
March 10, 1961. 72 pp. 

Preliminary report on the status and prosjjects of stock 
farming in Brazil. E/CN.12/559. March 20, 1961. 
36 pp. 

Railway equipment requirements and import regimes in 
selected Latin American countries. E/CN. 12/547. 
March 27, 1961. 54 pp. 

Document prepared by the ECLA/FAO/BTAO Pulp 
and Paper Advisory Group for Latin America on 
present situation and future trends of demand, 
production, and trade of pulp and paper in Latin 
America. E/CN.12/570. April 10, 1961. 128 pp. 
Economic Commission for Africa. UNESCO's program 

for Africa, 1961-62. E/CN.14/102. February 8, 1961. 

11pp. 
Social Commission 

Planning for balanced social and economic develop- 
ment in Norway. E/CN.5/346/Add. 3. March 28, 
1961. 60 pp. 

Planning for social and economic development in 
Burma. E/CN.5/346/Add. 4. April 7, 1961. 58 pp. 

Organization and administration of social services. 
E/CN.5/360. April 11, 1961. 52 pp. 

Planning for balanced social and economic develop- 
ment in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. E/CN.- 
5/346/Add. 5. April 20, 1961. 66 pp. 
Report of the Committee for Industrial Development on 

its first session held at the United Nations, March 27- 

April 21, 1961. E/3476. April 24, 1961. 65 pp. 

Trusteeship Council 

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Basic Question- 
naire. T/1557. March 8, 1961. 34 pp. 

Report of the U.N. Commissioner for the Supervision of 
the Plebiscites in the Southern and Northern Parts of 
the Trust Territory of the Cameroons Under United 
Kingdom Administration. T/1556, April 3, 1961, 250 
pp. ; Appendix, March 20, 1961, 191 pp. ; and Appendix/ 
Add. 2, April 11, 1961, 20 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Ratifications of FCN Treaty 
Exchanged With Denmark 

Press release 463 dated June 30 

Instnmaents of ratification of the treaty of 
friendship, commerce and navigation between the 
United States and the Kingdom of Denmark were 
exchanged on June 30. The exchange was made 
by Secretary Rusk and the Danish Charg^ 

Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



I 



d'Aflfaires, Axel Serup, at a brief formal ceremony. 
This action completes the procedures required for 
bringing the treaty into force. By its terms the 
treaty will enter into force on July 30, 1961, one 
month after the exchange of ratifications. 

The treaty, which was signed at Copenhagen 
October 1, 1951,^ has been approved by the U.S. 
Senate and the Danish Folketing. Upon its entry 
into force it will replace a treaty of friendship, 
conmierce and navigation entered into in 1826,^ one 
of the oldest treaties of its kind still in effect be- 
tween the United States and any foreign country. 

The new treaty consists of 26 articles, a protocol, 
and agreed minutes of interpretation. It is one of 
a series of over 20 such treaties that the United 
States has negotiated in recent years. Its princi- 
pal purpose is to provide a comprehensive legal 
basis, framed in modern terms and responsive to 
modem conditions, for the further growth of gen- 
eral business and other relations between the two 
countries. 

Current Actions 



August 11, 1955 (TIAS 3340), November 8, 1956 (TIAS 
3690), December 27, 1957, as amended (TIAS 3971 and 
4075), and February 28, 1958 (TIAS 4025). Effected by 
exchange of notes at Paris June 12, 1961. Entered into 
force June 12, 1961. 

Germany 

Second agreement regarding certain matters arising from 
validation of German dollar bonds. Signed at Bonn 
August 16, I960.* 

Ratified hy President of the United States: May 15, 
1961. 

Italy 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of October 30, 1956, as amended (TIAS 3702, 3760, 
3762, 3788, 3796, and 4167). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Rome May 23, 1961. Entered into force May 
23, 1961. 

Japan 

Agreement for settlement of claims of Japanese nationals 
formerly resident in the Bonin Islands and certain 
other islands arising from measures taken by the 
United States in connection with the exercise of its 
rights under article 3 of the Treaty of Peace with Japan 
(TIAS 2490). Effected by exchange of notes at Tokyo 
June 8, 1961. Entered into force June 8, 196L 

Yugoslavia 

Memorandum of understanding relating to the establish- 
ment, maintenance, and operation of American reading 
rooms in Yugoslavia. Signed at Belgrade June 14, 1961. 
Entered into force provisionally June 14, 1961. Enters 
into force definitively on the date Yugoslavia notifies 
the United States of its formal acceptance. 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Done at New York October 26, 1956. Entered into 
force July 29, 1957. TIAS 3873. 
Ratification deposited: Lebanon, June 29, 1961. 

Postal Services 

Universal postal convention with final protocol, annex, 
regulations of execution, and provisions regarding air- 
mail with final protocol. Done at Ottawa October 3, 
1957. Entered into force April 1, 1959. TIAS 4202. 
Adherence deposited: Niger, June 12, 1961. 



BILATERAL 

Australia 

Agreement providing for the establishment in Australia of 
a tracking station in connection with the transit navi- 
gational satellite program. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Canberra June 5, 1961. Entered into force 
June 5, 1961. 

Dahomey 

Agreement providing for the furnishing of economic, tech- 
nical and related assistance. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Cotonou May 27, 1961. Entered into force May 
27, 1961. 

France 

Agreement concerning the closeout of the collection ac- 
counts of the agricultural commodities agreements of 



PUBLICATIONS 



1 For text, see S. Ex. I, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 
= 8 Stat. 340. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Oov- 
emment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.G. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may he 
obtained from the Department of State. 

Medical Research Laboratory : Southeast Asia Treaty Or- 
ganization Project in Thailand. TIAS 4665, 4 pp. 5«f. 

Agreement effected by exchange of notes — Signed at 
Bangkok December 23, 1960. Entered into force Decem- 
ber 23, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities: Drought Relief As- 
sistance, Wheat and Barley. TIAS 4666. 6 pp. 50. 

Understanding with Cyprus signed at Nicosia December 8, 
1960. Entered into force December 8, 1960. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities: Drought Relief As- 
sistance, Wheat. TIAS 4667. 3 pp. 5(t. 

Understanding with Cyprus signed at Nicosia December 8, 
1960. Entered into force December 8, 1960. 

Economic and Technical Assistance. TIAS 4668. 7 pp. 



' Not in force. 



Ju/y 77, 7967 



133 



Agreement with Mali effected by exchange of notes — 
Signed at Bamako January 4, 1961. Entered into force 
January 4, 1961. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4669. 8 pp. 

10<f. 

Agreement with Turkey signed at Ankara January 11, 
1961. Entered into force January 11, 1961. With ex- 
change of notes. 

Technical Cooperation: Program for Technical Assist- 
ance. TIAS 4670. 3 pp. 5«*. 

Agreement with Afghanistan amending the agreement of 
June 30, 1953. Effected by exchange of notes — Signed 
at Kabul December 22 and 28, 1960. Entered into force 
December 28, 1960. 

Indus Basin Development Fund. TIAS 4671. 24 pp. 
150. 

Agreement with Other Governments, with annexes, signed 
at Karachi September 19, 1960. Entered into force Jan- 
uary 12, 1961. Operative retroactively from April 1, 1960. 

Patents : Safeguarding of Secrecy of Inventions Relating 
to Defense. TIAS 4672. 9 pp. 10^. 
Agreement with Other Governments signed at Paris Sep- 
tember 21, 1960. Instrument of approval by the United 
States of America deposited December 8, 1960. Entered 
into force January 12, 1961. 

Relief Supplies and Equipment : Duty-Free Entry and Ex- 
emption From Internal Taxation. TIAS 4673. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with Afghanistan amending the agreement of 
April 29 and May 29, 1954. Exchange of notes signed at 
Kabul December 27, 1960 and January 12, 1961. Entered 
into force January 12, 1961. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4674. 4 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with the United Arab Republic amending the 
agreement of August 1, 1960. Effected by exchange of 
notes — Signed at Cairo January 10, 1961. Entered into 
force January 16, 1961. 

Defense: Loan of Vessel to China. TIAS 4676. 6 pp. 54. 

Agreement with China supplementing the agreement of 
February 7, 1959. Effected by exchange of notes — Signed 
at Taipei January 18, 1961. Entered into force January 
18, 1961. 

Termination in Part of Reciprocal Trade Agreement of 
December 18, 1935. TIAS 4677. 3 pp. 5(J. 
Agreement with Honduras. Exchange of notes — -Signed 
at Tegucigalpa January 18, 1961. Entered into force 
January 18, 1961. 

Mutual Defense Assistance: Security of Information, 
Equipment, Materials, or Services. TIAS 4680. 3 pp. 5(f. 

Agreement with Sweden relating to the agreement of 
June 30 and July 1, 1952. Effected by exchange of 
notes — Signed at Washington January 30, 1961. Entered 
into force January 30, 1961. 

Mutual Defense Assistance : Shipbuilding Program. TIAS 
4681. 3 pp. 5<(. 

Agreement with Norway effected by exchange of notes- 
Signed at Oslo November 29, 1960. Entered into force 
January 31, 1961. 

Atomic Energy: Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4682. 
6 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with Costa Rica — Signed at Washington 
May 18, 1956. Entered into force February 8, 1961. 



Friendship and Commerce. TL\S 4683. 17 pp. 10(?. 

Treaty, with Protocol, with Pakistan, signed at Wash- 
ington November 12, 1959. Proclaimed by the President of 
the United States of America February 1, 1961. Entered 
into force February 12, 1961. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4684. 3 pp. 



Agreement with the United Arab Republic, amending the 
agreement of August 1, 1960, as amended. Effected by 
exchange of notes — Signed at Cairo February 13, 1961. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 26-July 2 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases appearing in this issue of the Bulletin 
which were issued prior to June 26 are Nos. 398 
and 399 of June 15 ; 410 of June 19 ; and 435, 438, and 
441 of June 23. 



No. 

443 
•444 

1445 
•446 

447 

448 

•449 



Date 

6/26 
6/26 

6/26 

6/27 

6/27 

6/27 
6/28 



•450 6/28 



Subject 

Caribbean air service agreement. 

U.S. participation in international con- 
ferences. 

Stevenson : National Press Club. 

Mcllvaine sworn in as Ambassador to 
Dahomey (biographic details). 

Chad credentials (rewrite). 

Ball attends DAG meeting. 

Kaiser sworn in as Ambassador to 
Senegal and Mauritania (biographic 
details). 

Cook sworn in as Ambassador to Niger 
(biographic details). 

Rusk : news conference at Chicago. 

Brazil official visits U.S. 

Delegation to Moscow film festival 
(rewrite). 

Delegation to conference on public 
education (rewrite). 

Cieplinski appointed Deputy Admin- 
istrator, Bureau of Security and 
Consular Affairs ( biographic details) . 

Technical aid agreement with Cyprus 
(rewrite). 

Briggs nomination to International 
Law Commission (rewrite). 

Cultural exchange. 

Cultural exchange. 

Hays : "Faith and Works : Kiwanis 
Contribution" (excerpts). 

Travel to Cuba. 

Korea credentials (rewrite). 

FCN treaty with Denmark. 

Rusk : interview on CBS-TV. 

U.S.-Canada communique on air talks. 

U.S.-U.S.S.R. communique on disarma- 
ment talks. 

Alliance for Progress projects ap- 
proved. 

International meeting on biology of 
tuna. 



•Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



451 

t452 

453 


6/28 
6/28 
6/28 


454 


6/28 


•455 


6/28 


t456 


6/29 


457 


6/29 


•458 
•4.59 
•460 


6/29 
6/29 
6/29 


401 
462 
463 
t4G4 
465 
466 


6/29 
6/30 
6/30 
6/30 
6/30 
6/30 


467 


7/1 


468 


6/30 



134 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



July 17, 1961 



Index 



Vol. XLV, No. 1151 



Africa. America's Interest in African Education 

(Williams) 116 

Argentina. AUiance-for-Progress Projects Set for 

Panama, Guatemala, Argentina 108 

Atomic Energy 

President Urges Soviet Leaders To Accept Test 

Ban Treaty 106 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference at Chicago, 

June 27 109 

Aviation 

Additional Air Services Announced for West 
Indies 118 

U.S. and Canada Conclude First Stage of Aviation 

Discussions (text of joint communique) . . . 119 

Canada. U.S. and Canada Conclude First Stage of 
Aviation Discussions (text of joint com- 
munique) 119 

Chad. Letters of Credence (Sow) 115 

Communist China. Secretary Busk's News Confer- 
ence at Chicago, June 27 109 

Congress, The 

Bill Implements Lisbon Revision of Industrial 

Property Convention (Hadraba) 125 

Department Supports Bill Reducing Duty-Free Ex- 
emption to $100 (Martin) 126 

President Asks Tariff Commission for More Data 

on Three Cases 119 

President Kennedy Sends Congress Draft Bill To 
Establish U.S. Disarmament Agency for World 
Peace and Security (Kennedy, McCloy, text of 
draft biU) 99 

The Problem of International Economic Imbalance 

(Ball) 121 

Cuba. Department Warns U.S. Citizens on Vio- 
lating Law on Travel to Cuba 108 

Denmark. Ratifications of FCN Treaty Exchanged 
With Denmark 132 

Disarmament 

Disarmament Talks To Be Resumed at Moscow 

July 17 (joint communique) 106 

President Kennedy Sends Congress Draft Bill To 
Establish U.S. Disarmament Agency for World 
Peace and Security (Kennedy, McCloy, text of 
draft bill) 99 

Economic Affairs 

Bill Implements Lisbon Revision of Industrial 

Property Convention (Hadraba) 125 

Department Supports Bill Reducing Duty-Free Ex- 
emption to $100 (Martin) ......... 126 

President Asks Tariff Commission for More Data 

on Three Cases 119 

The Problem of International Economic Imbalance 

(Ball) 121 

Ratifications of FCN Treaty Exchanged With 
Denmark 132 

Educational and Cultural Affairs 

America's Interest in African Education (Wil- 
liams) 116 

International Conference on Public Education 

(delegation) 131 

Moscow International Film Festival (delegation) . 131 

Germany 

President Outlines Implications of Berlin Situa- 
tion 107 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference at Chicago, 
June 27 109 

Guatemala. AUiance-for-Progress Projects Set for 

Panama, Guatemala, Argentina 108 

Human Rights. Human Rights Commission Con- 
siders Study on Arbitrary Arrest (Tree) . . . 128 

International Law. H. W. Briggs Nominated for 

Election to International Law Commission . . 131 



International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences and Meet- 
ings 127 

International Conference on Public Education 

(delegation) 131 

Moscow International Film Festival (delegation) . 131 

President Urges Soviet Leaders To Accept Test 

Ban Treaty 106 

Under Secretary Ball Leaves for DAG Meeting at 

Tokyo 130 

U.S. Invites FAO To Hold Meeting on Biology of 

Tuna at San Diego 130 

Japan. Under Secretary Ball Leaves for DAG 

Meeting at Tokyo 130 

Korea. Letters of Credence (Chung) 115 

Laos. Secretary Rusk's News Conference at Chi- 
cago, June 27 109 

Mutual Security 

AUiance-for-Progress Projects Set for Panama, 

Guatemala, Argentina 108 

Special Economic Mission Visits Thailand . . . 118 

Panama. AUiance-for-Progress Projects Set for 
Panama, Guatemala, Argentina 108 

Presidential Documents 

President Asks Tariff Commission for More Data 

on Three Cases 119 

President Calls for Special Study of Communica- 
tions Satellites 115 

President Kennedy Sends Congress Draft Bill To 
Establish U.S. Disarmament Agency for World 
Peace and Security 99 

President Outlines Implications of BerUn Situa- 
tion 107 

President Urges Soviet Leaders To Accept Test 

Ban Treaty 106 

Publications. Recent Releases 133 

Science. President Calls for Special Study of Com- 
munications Satellites 115 

Thailand. Special Economic Mission Visits Thai- 
land 118 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 133 

Ratifications of FCN Treaty Exchanged With 
Denmark 132 

U.S.S.R. 

Disarmament Talks To Be Resumed at Moscow 

July 17 (joint communique) 106 

President Outlines Implications of Berlin Situa- 
tion 107 

Secretary Rusk's News Conference at Chicago, 
June 27 109 

United Kingdom. Additional Air Services An- 
nounced for West Indies US 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 132 

H. W. Briggs Nominated for Election to Interna- 
tional Law Commission 131 

Human Rights Commission Considers Study on 

Arbitrary Arrest (Tree) 128 

West Indies, The. Additional Air Services An- 
nounced for West Indies 118 

Name Index 

Ball, George W 121, 130 

Briggs, Herbert W 131 

Chung, II Kwon 115 

Hadraba, Theodore J 125 

Kennedy, President 99, 106, 107, 115, 119 

Martin, Edwin M 126 

McCloy, John J 100 

Rusk, Secretary 109 

Sow, Malick Adam 115 

Tree, Mrs. Marietta 128 

Williams, G. Mennen 116 




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AN ACT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

FISCAL YEAR 1962 

A SUMMARY PRESENTATION 

This 189-page volume describes in detail the new foreign aid pro- 
gram which President Kennedy outlined in his Message to the Con- 
gress, March 22, 1961. 

Part I of this volume reviews the evolution of the U.S. foreign aid 
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of the new International Development program ; Part II outlines the 
"Eequirements of Development"; Part III describes the "Tools for 
Action" required under this program ; Part IV deals with the Agency 
for International Development; Part V covers the "Mobilizing of 
Free- World Contributions" ; and Part VI discusses the effect of U.S. 
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on the increased economic and technical assistance of the Sino-Soviet 
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Publication No. 7205 75 cents 

A NEW PROGRAM FOR 

A DECADE OF DEVELOPMENT 

FOR UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS OF THE WORLD 

This 39-page pamphlet, which contains illustrations and charts, 
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Vol. XLV, No. 1152 



July 24, 1961 



THE 

OFFICIAL 

WEEKLY. RECORD 

OF 

UNITED STATES 

FOREIGN POLICY 



PROBLEMS FACING THE ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS 

IN THE AMERICAS • Remarks by Ambassador Adlai 

E. Stevenson ^^" 

SECRETARY RUSK INTERVIEWED ON "AT THE 

SOURCE" PROGRAM 145 

OPERATION CROSSROADS AFRICA • Remarks by Assist- 
ant Secretary Williams 151 

SECURITY COUNCIL CONSIDERS SITUATION IN 

KUWAIT • Statement by Francis T. P. Plimpton. ..." 165 

A NEW LOOK AT THE UNITED NATIONS : POLITI- 
CAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR 
THE DECADE OF THE SIXTIES • by Joseph j. 

Sisco 158 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 



For index see inside back cover 



X 



^ 7 " 1961 



DEPOSITORY 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLV, No. 1152 • Pubucation 7232 
July 24, 1961 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

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Washington 25, D.C. 

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Note: Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein may 
be reprinted. Citation of the Department 
or State Bulletin as the .source will be 
appreciated The Bulletin Is indexed in 
the Headers' Guide to Periodical Literature. 



Tlie Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly pnhlication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy, 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by tlie President and by 
the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as tvell as 
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international affairs and the func- 
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and international agreements to 
which t/i« United Slates is or may 
become a party and treaties of gen- 
eral interruitional interest. 

Publications of the Department, 
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Problems Facing the Alliance for Progress in the Americas 



Remarks hy Adlai E. Stevenson 

U.S. Representative to the United Nations ^ 



On our journey we covered some 17,000 miles 
and visited all of the 10 capitals of South America, 
and I hope very much — and I expect — that im- 
mediately following my journey there will be a 
similar mission to Central America and to Mexico. 

Our objective was to consult on the planning 
for the Alliance for Progress meeting, presently to 
take place in Uruguay next month, and to con- 
sider all the ways and means of improving co- 
operation between North and South America. 
And I have here for you today — because I was 
told to hurry up and get through with my formal 
business and then you could perhaps ask me some 
questions — I too have an expert. I have with me 
Dr. Lincoln Gordon, who traveled with me 
throughout this journey, along with Ambassador 
Ellis Briggs, who is one of our senior Foreign 
Service officers and who has served as Ambassador 
in other diplomatic posts in Latin America over 
many years. He, unfortunately, has been obli- 
gated to return to his post in Greece, but Dr. 
Luicoln Gordon of the Harvard Business School, 
who has been the head of the President's Task 
Force on the Alliance for Progress program, has 
come here and will help me out if I get in trouble, 
which I suspect will happen any minute. 
[Laughter.] 

Well, if you will permit me I will run through 
these disorderly notes that I have here and then 
perhaps you will be good enough to ask me ques- 

' Made before the National Press Club at Washington, 
D.C., on June 26 (press release 445). Following his re- 
marks Ambassador Stevenson answered questions from 
the audience; for the question-and-answer exchange, see 
press release 445. For a statement made by Ambassador 
Stevenson on June 22 on his return from an 18-day tour 
of South America, see Bulletin of July 10, 1961, p. 61. 



tions. I shall not feel in the least inhibited by the 
presence here of ambassadors of these friendly 
Republics who comprise the southern half of our 
great hemisphere. 

"Well, every country that we visited — almost 
every country — is now under democratic control. 
The political stability of these regimes is under 
severe strain almost everywhere. Communist and 
other extreme left-wing forces have generally 
gained in strength and aggressiveness in the past 
year, I felt. And the danger of right-wing coups 
d'etat in several countries is still evident. 

Country-by-Country Runthrough 

In Venezuela — and I will run through these 
countries rather hurriedly — it is still in the stage 
of continuing fear of a right-wing coup, although 
there are hardening indications that the business 
community, the financial community, and the army 
now recognize the importance of supporting 
democratic institutions and the importance that 
President [Romulo] Betancourt finish his term 
and establish constitutional democracy in that tor- 
mented country. The alternative, of course, is 
further loss of confidence, economic stagnation, 
and rising radicalism. The left-wing Aaolence 
in the Caracas slums, however, remains acute. 
President Betancourt is trying to push ahead on 
sound lines, including the restoration of business 
confidence as well as continued social and economic 
reforms. 

In Argentina President [Arturo] Frondizi's re- 
gime is gettmg stronger, I felt, all the time. He 
is making bold efforts to restore fiscal responsi- 
bility and to recover from the effects of Peron's 
decapitalization of that great country. Eyes there 



Ju/y 24, I9d7 



139 



Dr. Furtado Visits U.S. To Discuss Aid 
for Brazil's Northeast Region 

Press release 452 dated June 28 

As the result of an invitation extended by Am- 
bassador Adlai E. Stevenson in his recent con- 
versations \Wth President Janio Quadros of Brazil, 
Dr. Celso Furtado will shortly visit this country 
as a guest of the U.S. Government. Dr. Furtado 
is Director of SUDENE, the Brazilian Government 
organization responsible for coordinating develop- 
mental activities in the economically distressed 
Brazilian northeast. Accompanied by two assist- 
ants and Leonard V. Saccio, Director of the U.S. 
Operations Mission in Brazil, he is expected to 
arrive at Washington on July 9. 

While at Washington Dr. Furtado will meet with 
representatives of the Department of State, the 
International Cooperation Administration, Food- 
for-Peace, and other Government agencies to dis- 
cuss Brazilian Government plans for dealing with 
the problems of economic and social development 
in the northeast and explore the means by which 
the U.S. Government can assist Brazil in carrying 
out these plans. 



are fixed on the next congressional elections, which 
either will consolidate the regime or open the way 
to a possible new attempt at dictatorship. 

In Brazil President [Janio] Quadros is less 
popular now than he was at the start of Ms admin- 
istration because of his firm austerity measures to 
stop the rampant inflation and the financial dis- 
order which had overtaken our largest neighbor 
in this hemisphere. Communist agitation in the 
Brazilian northeast is increasingly vigorous and 
dangerous, as you all know. The President's at- 
titude on Cuba and on the Communist bloc arises 
partly from a desire, I believe, to establish Brazil's 
political independence on the one hand and is 
reinforced by his fear of alienating domestic 
groups with an underlying sympathy for the 
Cuban revolution. 

In Uruguay social and economic conditions are 
fortmiately not explosive. iVnd the situation is 
relatively stable. Although the system of the col- 
legium executive makes for extreme govern- 
mental weaknesses — as I say, there are nine 
presidents and no one can speak for Uruguay. 
The main focus of the left-wing agitation is 
among students and intellectuals as is so often the 
case. 

In Paraguay General [Alfredo] Stroessner is 



140 



clearly in command. His leadership is short of a 
totalitarian police state by far. But he seems re- 
luctant, although I'm very hopeful that these 
views will be disproved in the near future, to ful- 
fill his pledges of democratization, and some ob- 
servers believe that some subversive, at least 
Communist, forces are more powerful than ap- 
pears to be the case. But I have great hope for 
Paraguay. 

Chile continues to enjoy its broad, traditional, 
ancient devotion to democratic institutions. The 
relative success of [President Jorge] Alessandri 
in controlling inflation has reduced one serious 
source of social discontent, but other sources re- 
main in the continuing economic stagnation and 
the need for positive action on land reform. A 
dangerous sign was the swing of peasants and 
votes this spring to the extreme left for the first 
time, at the same time that the moderate Radical 
Party was gaining support in the urban centers. 

Bolivia, of course, is in an acute and dangerous 
state. President [Victor] Paz Estenssoro, a man 
of vigor and purpose, I felt, is maintaining his au- 
thority but by a tenuous thread. Vice President 
[Juan] Lechin has been unwilling so far to an- 
nounce his firm support for the new stand against 
the Communist mineworkers and the student 
leaders. The basic crisis of governmental au- 
thority is now being played out in that strange 
and wonderful country, with the little army sup- 
porting the President but with real uncertainty 
whether he can sufficiently dominate the situation 
to disarm the private miners and peasant armies 
and provide enough stability so that the long- 
awaited and perfectly feasible economic develop- 
ment can go forward. 

In Peru political circles are preoccupied with 
the 1962 presidential election. While the present 
regime of President [Manuel] Prado and of its 
distinguished Prime Minister, Pedro Beltran, is 
strong, there is not yet clear certainty that their 
coalition of moderate and conservative and anti- 
Communist elements and the left wing of the 
Aprista Party will be able to agree upon a candi- 
date for the next election. At present the antigov- 
ernment front runner would appear to be Fer- 
nando Belaiinde, an attractive and vigorous 
younger man who is preoccupied with many large 
plans for internal development of his fascinating 
countiy but says, for example, that he knows some- 
thing about Peru but nothing about Cuba and 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



avoids foreign policy controversy. While the Gov- 
ernment is trying to make social improvements in 
housing and land settlement with some success, 
there has been as yet no successful basic, funda- 
mental attack on the vicious tax- and land-reform 
problems. But the Government recognizes this 
necessity, as in so many of the countries of Latin 
^Vmerica. Here, too, therefore, the present relative 
calm, except in the universities, probably conceals 
some explosive undercurrents. But we and West- 
ern ideals have no firmer friends than the present 
Government of Peru. 

In Ecuador the Government is headed by Presi- 
dent [Jose Maria] Velasco Ibarra, who seems con- 
fident that there is no Communist problem in his 
country and tliat if there is he can deal with it by 
the force of his personal, peaceful philosophy — 
and he is a great scholar — and also by his extraor- 
dinary personal popularity. The student leader- 
ship in this interesting country has recently been 
captured from the Communists for the first time 
in 16 years. And the program of the Government 
to improve domestic conditions is good and timely, 
in view of the country's badly disordered economy. 

The present leadership in Colomhia is, of course, 
excellent. But the stability of the regime depends 
now on finding a conservative presidential candi- 
date to carry on in the period 1962 to 1966, in ac- 
cordance with the curious bipartisan national- 
front arrangement which was worked out in 1958 
to stop the violence and which replaced the dicta- 
torship at that time. Bandit-type violence re- 
mains a major problem in several outlying prov- 
inces of Colombia, now aggravated by Commu- 
nist infiltration. The domestic program of Presi- 
dent [Alberto] Lleras Camargo is precisely in ac- 
cord with the Act of Bogota and the thinking 
underlying the Alliance for Progress. 

Increased Communist Penetration 

You will want to know something about the ob- 
vious questions that always interest us. Commu- 
nist penetration, and so on, have increased, I be- 
lieve, in vigor and effectiveness since my more 
leisurely journey through these countries in 1960. 
This is marked especially in four groups : the uni- 
versity students, the professors, the school teach- 
ei-s, and the labor unions. Urban slum dwellers, 
especially where there is severe unemployment, are 
also ready victims and hitherto unorganized rural 
areas, of which outstanding examples are north- 



eastern Brazil and rural areas in Chile and Colom- 
bia and Ecuador. 

A good deal of propaganda material is being im- 
ported from Cuba. Several governments com- 
mented on activity by Cuban agents, sometimes 
with the help of Cuban diplomatic missions. The 
Cubans appear, however, to be becoming increas- 
ingly cautious about gunrunning and blatant 
abuses of diplomatic missions for subversive pur- 
poses. I must tell you I was followed on this 
journey or preceded by two or three diplomats 
from Cuba. It sort of reminded me of those truth 
squads that the Republicans had. [Laughter.] 

I remember saying at a diplomatic banquet 
somewhat to the amusement of the audience, m the 
campaign I think of 1956 when the truth squad 
arrived at the airport about the same time that I 
did, that they bore exactly the same relation to the 
truth that the fire engine did to the fire—they 
would extinguish it if they could. [Laughter.] 

The theme of these gentlemen — and very ac- 
complished senior diplomats of the Cuban Foreign 
Service they were — was generally to interrogate 
the Foreign Ministers and the Presidents of the 
countries that I just visited as to their view on 
nonintervention and on self-determination. I 
must recall vividly the responses that some made 
who will have to be nameless because I don't want 
to embarrass them. One of them told me that he 
had said, "Yes, we believe in self-determination 
in this coimtry, and we believe that self-detenni- 
nation means the right of the people to choose all 
of the time. Have you those conditions in Cuba ?" 
Another one said, "Yes, we believe in those princi- 
ples of the American system, of the American 
structure, but we also believe in all of the other 
principles of the American system." I think 
these kinds of responses are indicative of the feel- 
ing that prevails among the thoughtful leadersliip 
in most all of Latin America. 

The alinement of Cuba with the Communist 
movement has greatly added to the appeal of com- 
mimism, however, since it can now take on the guise 
of an indigenous Latin American revolutionary 
movement. There is very widespread popular 
sympathy for the proclaimed goals of the Cuban 
revolution, including land reform, popular educa- 
tion, social equality, the removal of foreign busi- 
ness influences, and defiance of the Yankee 
colossus. The failure of the April invasion at- 
tempt gave added impetus to Communist Castro 
penetration since it seemed to imply immunity of 



Ju/y 24, 1 967 



141 



left extremism in Latin America from United 
States retaliation. There is little popular appre- 
ciation of the sovietization of the Cuban regime. 
Latin America thinks of Cuba — by and large, the 
common ordinary people tliink of Cuba — as a so- 
cial reform, as a social revolution, whereas we 
think of it as communism. They are unaware for 
the most part, I felt, of its establishment as a 
police-state apparatus of terror or the other per- 
versions of the original revolutionary objectives of 
Mr. Castro. 

Intensive Action Needed 

Much more intensive action is evidently needed 
to promote the democratic cause in intellectual 
savants in Latin America. Ministers in several 
countries commented once again on the absence of 
cheap paperback translations into Spanish and 
into Portuguese of United States classics and of 
important nonfiction, contemporary works, includ- 
ing my own. [Laughter.] I am happy to say I 
do have Spanish translations in most cases, and I 
seem to be very well known. I'm not sure whether 
they read them just the day before I arrived or not, 
but they point to the contrast with the highly sub- 
sidized and widely distributed editions that we 
have all encountered in our travels abroad of Marx, 
Lenin, of Mao Tse-tung and other Commmiist 
writers. Far more, as we find now — as you prob- 
ably know — distributed all over South America — 
do-it-yourself handbooks on how to be a guerrilla- 
war fighter, printed in China, "How To Over- 
throw the Catholic Church," printed in China, and 
so on. 

A far more affirmative attack on the problem of 
urban slum conditions and rural insecurity is also 
evidently needed if these large groups, no longer 
politically passive, are to see some hope for a better 
life under free institutions. 

In connection with the misunderstanding of the 
true character of the current developments in 
Cuba, I believe that excellent use could be made of 
students and of professional intellectuals among 
the Cuban exiles, especially those who fought 
with Castro in his early days, to speak and write 
and circulate among their counterparts through- 
out the hemisphere. Their testimony would have 
a credibility which no North American can be ex- 
pected to achieve. 

We encountered a unanimous and intense — and 
I don't exaggerate — intense interest in the Alli- 



142 



ance for Progress program. President Kennedy's 
March 13th address ^ was described as having cre- 
ated a profound impression in Latin America, the 
most favorable since Franklin Roosevelt's an- 
nouncement of the good-neighbor policy. Without 
exception, governments emphasized the political 
importance of making the Uruguay meeting of the 
Inter-American Economic and Social CouncU a 
success — to use their word. And that means not 
merely another in the long line of inter- American 
meetings. 

On the other hand, there was no clear or uniform 
definition of what constitutes success. There 
was a wide variety in the concept of the meetings, 
of objectives and procedures, and great disparity 
in the intensity and the character of national 
preparations for this program. A few govern- 
ments appeared to believe that the meeting would 
be the occasion for the cutting of an aid melon, 
so to speak, with little regard to self-help measures 
or structural reforms in such fields as land tenure 
and taxation. But all paid at least lip service to 
the concept of self-help. And several were in 
deadly earnest on this front. 

In terms of technical work on long-term pro- 
graming for national economic and social develop- 
ment, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, and perhaps 
Venezuela seemed to be well in advance of their 
sister nations. Several others handed us inter- 
esting proposals — some handed us shopping lists, 
so to speak, of public investment projects on 
which they look for aid by loan and otherwise. 

Argentina emphasized the importance in her 
rather special case of industrial development, as 
contrasted with social investment, which has 
made such long progress for so many years in 
that great country. Many governments advanced 
claims for special consideration on political or 
other grounds. In sevei'al cases less emphasis 
was placed on outside aid for public investment 
tlian on trade and commodity price policies. 

Argentina, Uruguay, Chile have declared 
frequently their strong emphatic interest in 
American policy support for their commercial 
negotiations with the European Common Market. 
And there was the most intense interest in joint 
action to stabilize commodity prices and to raise 
the prices of key import items in this country — 
export items for them — notably coffee. Some 14 



'■ For test, see ihid., Apr. 3, 1961, p. 471. 

Deparimeni of State Bulletin 



countries, as you know, of Latin America are 
largely dependent for their foreign exchange posi- 
tion on their export of coffee. 

What the Mission Demonstrated 

I believe our mission greatly clarified the think- 
ing of many South American governments on 
the types of results which we might hope to 
achieve at the Uruguay conference, especially in 
the fields of investment, programing, and the 
coordination of outside aid. We must clearly 
expect active discussion of commercial policy and 
of commodity markets, and we should have well- 
defined positions on these issues. A forthcoming 
attitude in these fields would do much to overcome 
the disappointments which are likely with respect 
to the amounts and the conditions of financial 
aid. 

As to aid, it is a fact that the needs are enor- 
mous. The desire for accelerated growth is great 
and universal, and the capacity for effective use 
of aid is being rapidly augmented by the system- 
atic programing of public investment, often for 
the first time. 

In most cases the general concepts and priori- 
ties are not far out of line with our own thinking. 
It is evident that large increases in the rate of 
economic and social investment and United States 
aid as compared with recent years are expected 
throughout South America. Fortunately most 
of the governments appear to be thinking mainly 
in terms of hard loans which can be financed 
by the World Bank, by the Inter-American 
Development Bank, the Export-Import Bank, 
to the extent that their real credit worthiness 
permits. 

This in turn may be largely dependent, 
of course, on action in the commercial policy 
and commodity market areas. If Congress fur- 
nished the authority for making long-term 
commitments, there is no question but that the 
ability of the Latin American governments to 
carry through sustained development efforts, in- 
cluding the needed structural reforms, will be 
greatly enhanced. 

Our mission demonstrated, I think, the vital 
importance of re-creating confidence in a collective 
approach to the problems of Communist subver- 
sion and of indirect aggression if the inter- 
American system has any hope of survival. The 
abortive Cuban invasion attempt of last April, 



coupled with subsequent public disclosure and 
controversy, did not enhance Latin American 
opinion about the United States — I think we 
might as well face it — because nonintervention is 
still a cardinal article of faith throughout our 
good neighborhood. But I suspect there is a 
great deal of unspoken disappointment, actually, 
that the invasion failed, that even in these cases 
most of them, I dare say, would have denounced 
any unilateral invasion publicly. 

In some countries there has been a tendency to 
regard the Cuban problem as essentially a bilateral 
one between the United States and Cuba, which 
might be negotiable if we only relaxed our hostility 
and permitted the larger Latin American states 
to act as mediators. I believe that we succeeded 
in convincing the Presidents and governments con- 
cerned that the problem is by no means a bilateral 
problem, that such issues between us as compensa- 
tion for expropriated properties are of secondary 
order, which could be negotiated if other circum- 
stances were favorable, and that the real cause of 
concern is the establishment of a beachhead for 
Communist penetration and subversion through- 
out the hemisphere. 

It follows that the issue is one of concern to all 
of the American Republics, affecting Latin Amer- 
ica even more than the United States, because it is 
the Latin countries which are more vulnerable and 
actually the object of indirect aggression today. 
It is they, therefore, who should be primarily con- 
cerned with action to deal with this universal 
problem. 

It was generally and strongly felt that no collec- 
tive action could be officially considered vmtil the 
economic conference was concluded and had dem- 
onstrated its success as a major step toward 
economic and social development, toward the crea- 
tion of some sense of hope among these miserable 
masses in so many of the Latin American countries. 
This conclusion was based partly on the need to 
obliterate the memory of the April invasion effort, 
but far more on the need to show to dissident left- 
wing elements in their countries that there is real 
promise of economic and social progress under 
genuinely democratic regimes working in coopera- 
tion with the United States. 

As to the possibility of collective action after 
the Alliance for Progress meeting in Uruguay, I 
can't predict, of course, with any confidence. But 
I think it's quite possible that there will be strong 



July 24, J 96 J 



143 



leadership in Latin America to deal with tliis new 
form of outside intervention under the Kio Pact 
in the treaties constituting the system of the Amer- 
icas. The action can be meaningful only if it is 
supported, of course, by two of the three largest 
Latin American countries — Argentina, Brazil, and 
Mexico. This point is agreed by all concerned, re- 
gardless of whetlier the legally necessary 14 votes 
could be secured without including any or more 
than one of these three great countries. 

Mexican concurrence at the moment does not 
seem likely. The possibilities of Argentina and 
Brazil concurrence depend, of course, in large 
measure on developments in the inmiediate future. 
This presents many problems which I'm sure, with 
the sympathy and with the imderstanding and 
with the mutual anxiety for accommodation and 
accord that I discovered, can be worked out. 

In my view this is a problem which we are going 
to have to confront for some time to come, and it 
is entirely suitable not only that the problem exists 
but that we deal with it as patiently and as orderly 
and in as persuasive a way as we can. 

Now let me conclude this other hurried once- 
over, this tour de raison, by saying to you that the 
most important discovery to me on this journey 
was that all of the governments of Latin America 
realize now that they have to translate economic 
and social reforms into action, and they have to get 
results, that the old societies must change, that the 
mold of the past is broken by events, by the revolu- 
tion that has swept the world, and that they must 
identify themselves with these essential changes to 
support any successful economic reform move- 
ments. That is to say, they must be for the benefit 
of the people and demonstrably for the benefit of 
the people. I think this is marked progress and of 
the utmost importance. 

I look forward to an increasing realization that, 
with strict correctness and probity and sincerity 
of behavior on both sides, the realization that 
South America needs us and that we need South 
America and that they and we can work in greater 
cooperation to make the American system stronger 
is very likely. 



10th Anniversary of Colombo Plan 

Statement by President Kennedy 

White House press release (Hyannls, Mass.) dated July 1 

I want to pay tribute today [July 1] on its 
10th anniversary to the Colombo Plan for co- 
operative economic development in south and 
southeast Asia, a great international organization 
of which the United States has proudly been a 
member almost from its inception. The Colombo 
Plan is being honored at this time in some 20 
countries which make up its membership. The 
countries of south and southeast Asia which com- 
prise the Colombo area are all struggling to free 
themselves from the ageless burden of poverty. 
Their economic development is the central objec- 
tive of the Colombo Plan. They are helped in 
this by the nonarea members — Australia, New 
Zealand, Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom, 
and the United States. 

The Colombo Plan seeks through friendly con- 
sultation to aid south and southeast Asian coun- 
tries in their individual efforts to develop 
themselves and encourages the fullest possible 
cooperation among all members to achieve this 
objective. 

While the Colombo Plan is not in itself an 
operating agency, it nourishes intimate multi- 
lateral consultations on development problems 
and plans and stimulates practical economic co- 
operation among its members through bilateral 
arrangements. The Colombo Plan has become a 
symbol of the economic aspirations of hundreds 
of millions of people in south and southeast Asia. 

On behalf of the United States I congratulate 
the Colombo Plan on its first decade of dedicated 
service to the noble cause of a better life for the 
peoples of Asia. We are proud to be associated 
in this effort. It illustrates well the type of self- 
reliance and mutual cooperation — learning to help 
each other — wliich the United States particularly 
endeavors to further through its own foreign aid 
program. We hope the constructive influence of 
tlie Colombo Phxn will grow with tlie years. 



144 



Department of State Bulletin 



Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "At the Source" Program 



Following is the transcript of an interview of 
Secretary Rusk on a Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem TV program, '■'■At the Source" on June 29. 

Press release 464 dated June 30 

Announcer: It is at this desk that some of the 
major decisions of our time are made. The CBS 
Television Network takes you to the office of the 
Secretary of State in Washington, D.C. We are 
"At the Source" — the physical setting in which 
Dean Rusk, the Secretary of State, thinks and 
works and acts on important questions of foreign 
policy. 

In an informal and spontaneous discussion re- 
corded earlier today. Secretary Kusk meets with 
chief CBS News Washington correspondent 
Howard K. Smith and CBS News correspondents 
Bill Downs and Paul Niven. 

Now let us join their discussion "At the Source." 
Here is Howard K. Smith. 

Mr. Smith: Mr. Secretary, you've had a long 
and varied experience as a subordinate in the State 
Department, and now that you have had 5 months 
as the head of the State Department, have you 
learned anything you didn't know then ? 

Secretary Rusk : Well, when I was one of 10 As- 
sistant Secretaries back 10 years ago, I thought 
then that life was fairly complicated and busy. 
It's no less so today. I tliink the thing that I did 
not appreciate 10 years ago is that the Secretary 
almost never has the fun of dealing with a simple 
question ; those are handled by his colleagues down 
the line. Most of the questions which come to the 
Secretary's desk and go from there to the Presi- 
dent these days, given the pace and complexity of 
our relations with the rest of the world, are, shall 
I say, most interesting and usually complicated 
and difficult. 

Mr. Down^: Well, Mr. Secretary, we who 
wander aroimd this big building, which is your 
headquarters here, have sort of a saying that if 
you are pessimistic 100 percent of the time, why, 
99 percent of the time you are right. But there 



must be another side of the coin. Hasn't some- 
thing ridiculous happened to you since you've been 
in^ — something funny ? 

Secretary Rusk : Oh, I think there are a number 
of amusing things which happen along the way. 

It might be a little embarrassing to spell them 
out here, but there are always unearned dividends 
in tliis job — some perfectly ridiculous event oc- 
curring somewhere that no one could have pre- 
dicted, with not grave consequences, but which 
adds to the gaiety and enlightenment of the world 
scene. No, there is fun in this job, too. 

West's Commitment in Berlin 

Mr. Niven: I suppose the least funny aspect of 
life today for you is Berlin, Mr. Secretary. It's 
now 21/^ years since Khrushchev said he was going 
to sign a peace treaty vsdth East Germany. Have 
our contingency planners in that time made a 
tentative decision as to where we draw the line? 
Do we let him sign his peace treaty with East 
Germany and wait for the East Germans to stop 
our trucks, or do we resist the peace treaty itself ? 

Secretary Rusk: Mr. Niven, the President 
yesterday in his press conference made a very im- 
portant statement on this question,^ and I don't 
suppose it would be well for high officials to make 
fresh statements on almost a daily basis on such 
a serious question. 

But let me say this in direct answer to your par- 
ticular question : The essence of our commitment 
there — of our rights — and the basis for our con- 
cern about the future in West Berlin is the right 
of the three powers — the United States, United 
Kingdom, and France — in West Berlin — our ob- 
ligations and responsibilities to the people in West 
Berlin, and the commitment of the West to the 
security and freedom of West Berlin. Now there 
are a great many questions which have been dis- 
cussed and talked about — formulae, proposals, 
coimterproposals — but this is the essence of the 



' For text, see Buixetin of July 17, 1961, p. 107. 



Juf/ 24, 7967 



145 



matter : We are there by right, not by sufferance. 
We have obligations to ourselves and to the people 
of West Berlin, and we do not accept the notion 
that those rights can be terminated or that the 
security of the people of that city can be en- 
dangered by the unilateral action taken by someone 
else. 

Mr. Smith: Mr. Secretary, a thing that bothers 
me — and I think bothers a great many people — is 
the thought that we may be prepared to be firm 
against an all-out, all-at-once warlike threat in 
Berlin. But the possibility exists that the Kussians 
won't give us such a challenge. Instead they will 
try to shave away our rights in installments so 
small that none will seem worth fighting about. 

Are we prepared to — to face the possibility that 
they will attempt first to grant East German pup- 
pet police the right to police our traffic, then delay 
the traffic, then harass the traffic? Are we pre- 
pared to meet that threat? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, this is one of the prob- 
lems which will have to be thought about, con- 
sidered, planned for in our discussions within our 
own Government and with other governments. In 
a situation of this sort the Soviets would probably 
try to create an ambiguous situation because these 
are more difficult to handle and deal with and to 
explain publicly. 

Mr. Downs : What do you mean, sir ? 

Secretary Rusk : Along the lines of Mr. Smith's 
comments, that is, to leave it uncertain, to let what- 
ever action occurs occur with hesitancy or with 
concealment or with indirectness, because the un- 
derlying issues are simple and direct and these 
must be understood by our own people and by 
peoples in other countries and it is important to 
keep the ambiguities cleared away so that we 
know exactly what the issues are. 

Mr. Downs : Well, if we agree that freedom is 
not negotiable in Berlin, what is ? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, since 1946 the Western 
Powers have made a series of proposals for a 
permanent settlement in Germany and in Berlin. 
Now these have taken a variety of forms over the 
years. Most of them have had to do with the self- 
determination of the peoples concerned. 

This is an instinctive American reaction to the 
way in which you go about settling questions of 



this sort — ask the people themselves what solution 
they themselves want. And in the long turn of 
history this also may be the wise course in looking 
for a permanent solution because history is full of 
situations where the absence of self-determination 
has led to ambitions, appetites, revanchist ideas 
which in turn disturb the peace. 

Mr. Niven: Do you expect this crisis to unfold 
according to any kind of a timetable, Mr. Secre- 
tary? 

Secretary Rusk: The timetable, of course, de- 
pends upon all parties. Mr. Khrushchev has in- 
dicated that he expects to take certain action by 
the end of the year. That does not mean that he 
might not raise one or another part of this question 
before then. That also does not mean that every- 
one else would wait until the end of the year to 
address themselves to it. So I think that it is 
safe at this time to say, Mr. Niven, that the Berlin 
question is going to be with us as an active ques- 
tion on our agenda both before the Government 
and the American people for the next several 
months anyhow. 

Discussions Among Governments 

Mr. Niven: Is there a hint there that we may 
try to beat him at his own game by proposing 
negotiations ? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, I think there is no ques- 
tion that there will be discussions among govern- 
ments about Berlin, including discussions with 
the Soviet Union. In the first instance, for ex- 
ample, we will be replying to Mr. Ivlirushchev's 
aide memoii-e" on the subject. Wlien you raise 
the question of negotiation, this to some people 
implies a particular form or forum or way of talk- 
ing. What I am saying is that undoubtedly this 
question is going to be discussed — but imder what 
circumstances and in what way it will be reached — 
in the course of discussions among governments 
now going on — 

Mr. Smith: Mr. Secretary, Winston Churchill 
once said that, if the Allies had made it perfectly 
clear to the Germans before either world war that 
they would fight and just where they would draw 



' An aide memoire was handed to President Kennedy by 
Premier Khrushchev during their meeting at Vienna 
June 2-4. 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



the line, there wouldn't have been either world 
war. Would it not, in view of that, be an act 
of wisdom to let the Kussians know exactly what 
we would not permit — for example, if we would 
not permit their East German police to take over 
the stamping of our traffic papers into and out 
of Berlin? 

Secretary Rush: The issue mentioned by Mr. 
Churchill is a central one in relations between 
a dictatorship, or an authoritarian form of gov- 
ernment, and the democracies, because it is rela- 
tively easy for a highly centralized regime to 
underestimate the political processes which go 
on in a democratic society. 

We debate vigorously among ourselves ; we dif- 
fer with each other. We have all sorts of internal 
quarrels as we sort out our political arrangements 
on a democratic basis, and, indeed, in our discus- 
sions with our friends abroad there is considerable 
public discussion of different points of view on 
important questions among thriving democracies. 

Now, there is a temptation on the part of an 
authoritarian ruler to think that this is a sign of 
weakness and lack of unity. Indeed, a miscalcu- 
lation on this point, an estimate that democracies 
would not do what in fact they would do, is a 
source of danger. So there will be a number of 
points of clarification of purpose and procedure 
and issue, aimed at the avoidance of this kind of 
miscalculation. 

Mr. Smith: These will be made public, will they ? 

Secretary Rusk: Public, and I presume in the 
course of intergovernmental discussions, yes. 

Question of German Reunification 

Mr. Downs: Well, Mr. Secretary, Walter Lipp- 
mann this morning said that it is the imstated pol- 
icy of Britain and France to preserve the division 
of Germany as it now is. We, at the same time, are 
calling for reunification of Germany. Is that not 
a dangerous division of policy or opinion on the 
part — between us and our allies ? 

Secretary Rusk : The Western proposals on Ger- 
many and Berlin over the years have been on the 
basis of agreement. And the record there is filled 
with proposals to give the Germans a chance to 
decide on such questions as unification. 

Now, when a new approach or a new move is 
made, such as was made in the Russian aide mem- 



oire that was delivered to us at Vienna, you can 
expect all the governments directly involved to 
review the entire history of the situation, consult 
with each other, and decide how to move from 
here. 

I myself am confident that there will be unity 
and agreement among the governments directly 
concerned and that disunity is not going to be the 
problem. 

Mr. Doions : Someone said that the art of diplo- 
macy is to avoid dead ends. Do you think that 
both sides have avoided a dead end at this stage 
of the game in Berlin ? 

Secretary Rusk : Well, I think it is important not 
to come to the dead end but to explore every pos- 
sibility of working out a tolerable peace that is con- 
sistent with the vital interests of our own country. 

Mr. Niven: Some people have interpreted Mr. 
Khrushchev's speech yesterday as an indication 
that he is in a diplomatic hole he got himself into 
and that he is almost appealing for help from the 
West in getting out of it — that this was a much 
more moderate speech than some of its prede- 
cessors. Do you agree, sir ? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, appraising a particular 
speech is sometimes a little hazardous. Of course 
we read a speech of that sort with considerable 
care and interest, but in view of the record of the 
last several weeks I think one would not wish to 
leap to conclusions too quickly on the basis of a 
single speech. After all, those of us who have to 
make speeches from time to time know how easy 
it is to say things a little differently and without 
necessarily implying too much by it. But this 
will be given very careful study, of course. 

Nuclear Testing and Disarmament 

Mr. Smith : Mr. Secretary, Berlin is topic A in 
the world. Can we talk to you about topic B — 
nuclear testing and disarmament? 

Have you any theories as to why the Russians, 
who seemed to be interested in reaching a treaty 
to ban nuclear tests with us for several yeai-s, sud- 
denly this year seem to have lost interest in it ? 

Secretary Rusk: There may be several reasons 
which move them in that direction. 

I think Mr. Khrushchev, in his aide memoire on 



JvIy 24, 7967 



147 



the subject,' and some of the things that have been 
said in speeches and other places, made it quit© 
clear as to what one of the reasons is. They have 
made, it seems to me, a far-reaching and funda- 
mental decision about their attitude toward inter- 
national organizations and international arrange- 
ments on such things as inspection and control. 
Their experiences in the Congo and their esti- 
mate of the effect of the actions taken by the United 
Nations in the Congo upon their policies in that 
country led them to say that "we are not going to 
subject the interests of the Soviet Union to deci- 
sions made by somebody else." 

Now, this is essentially the origin of the so- 
called "troika" formula — that in these matters 
there will be a Communist, a capitalist, a neutral, 
and that each one of them would have a veto on 
action taken. 

Well, now, obviously, this would lead — if this 
is the principle on which the inspection machinery 
is organized and operated — obviously this would 
lead to self -inspection or to an ability to bar effec- 
tive inspection and control and that would be 
unacceptable for the rest. It's — I tliink it's also 
important to bear in mind that for the Soviet 
Union secrecy is a very great strategic advantage, 
as they see it. Their communications on the sub- 
ject of disarmament, nuclear test control, suggest 
that they look upon international inspection and 
control as a form of espionage — that effective con- 
trol discloses secrets within the Soviet Union. 

Well, this is for them a serious step. But for 
tlie rest of us it is a vital step, because we find it 
difficult to see how you can proceed down the path 
toward disarmament unless you have reasonable 
assurances that none of us will be, as Aristide 
Briand once put it, dupes or victims in this busi- 
ness. 

So we have been discouraged, although not sur- 
prised. We have been discouraged by the atti- 
tude of the Soviet Government in the recent nu- 
clear test discussions in Geneva. We had hoped 
that we could get that agreement, not because this 
represents a major step in disarmament but be- 
cause it was a most significant first step and it 
would have established the principle of inspection 
and control and given us some experience in the 
actual operation of a system of inspection and con- 



' For texts of a Soviet aide memolre of June 4 and a 
U.S. note of June 17 in reply, see Bulletin of July 3, 
1961, p. 18. 



trol. This would then open the way for further 
steps in the disarmament that we all would like 
to accomplish, if we can find a way to do it con- 
sistent with our security. 

Question of Resuming Testing 

Mr. Doions: Mr. Secretary, right now there 
are calls on Capitol Hill and elsewhere in 
the Government to resume testing. From the 
diplomatic viewpoint, do you think after a 3-year 
moratorium that the damage it would do to our 
prestige and power among the neutrals, whom we 
have been trying to woo the most, is worth the 
military gains that we would get out of resuming 
testing ? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, this is a very serious 
question which must, of course, preoccupy the 
mind of President Kennedy. And he com- 
mented on it yesterday.* 

I think that when we balance up these matters 
we will find that, in the first place, the world does 
understand that there is on the table at Geneva a 
reasonable, workable treaty ° submitted with iona 
■fides looking toward the suspension of tests and 
the establishment of a genuine test-ban system. 
Now, I don't think we should assume that, because 
people in other parts of the world as well as our 
own people would hope that progress can be 
made on these matters, they would not fail to 
understand that the rest of the world has a vital 
interest in the steps that the United States may 
have to take in the protection of its own elementary 
security. 

Mr. Niven: Mr. Secretary — 

Secretary Rusk: Tliis is a matter for the future 
and has to be; this is something that the President 
will have to decide in the weeks and months ahead. 

Mr. Niven: Mr. — ^Walter Lippmann has raised 
the possibility that Mr. Khrushchev may want 
tests resumed because Russian scientists need them 
more than we do at this point. Is there any feeling 
in our Government that that may be true ? 

Secretary Rusk: That is the kind of question 
which will have to be examined, but I think that it 
would not be useful for me to comment upon where 
the advantages might lie in the circumstances. 
This is something that has to be judged on a highly 



*Jhia., July 17, 1961, p. 106. 

• For text, see ibid., June 5, 1961, p. 870. 



148 



Department of State Bulletin 



technical basis involving many classified elements, 
and I think any observation on my part -would be 
beside the point. 

U.S. Policy Toward Cuba 

Mr. Smith: Can we turn to Latin America? I 
would like to ask you what exactly is our policy 
toward Cuba? 

One of your spokesmen has said, ". . . Com- 
munism in this hemisphere is not negotiable." 
Then, what do we do about Castro ? 

Secretary Rusk: "Well, there are two main things 
that it seems to me must be done and which are in 
process. 

One is that we must do everything that we can 
to insure that Cuba is not, itself, exploited as a base 
for the future penetration of forces and elements 
from outside the hemisphere into other countries 
of this hemispliere; that is, any attempt to use 
Cuba as a base for agents or arms or whatever it is 
into other countries will require the immediate and 
energetic attention of all the governments and 
countries concerned. 

I think, secondly, that the members of the Or- 
ganization of American States do more than ever 
now recognize that this is something more than a 
bilateral question between Cuba and the United 
States, that it is in fact a problem for the hemi- 
sphere, that it is a potential disturbance to the 
peace of the hemisphere, and that the OAS, itself, 
should give it very serious thought and attention. 
We are developing our diplomacy and our discus- 
sions with other governments along both these 
lines. 

Sino-Soviet Penetration 

Mr. Smith: Well, this penetration is, however, 
going on, is it not? I understand that the other 
day — one day this week in Montevideo — five tons 
of Mao Tse-timg's writings on guerrilla warfare 
were confiscated, and it's thought that they came 
via Cuba channels to Montevideo. 

Secretary Rush: I think we must recognize in 
this country that the Sino-Soviet bloc has made a 
very serious decision that it will try to press its 
opportunities beyond our alliances — jumping over 
the alliances, going around the alliances — in order 
to make as much headway as possible in the so- 
called underdeveloped parts of the world. 

Now, Mr. Khrushchev has indicated that — his 



great interest in these parts of the world — and 
that includes Latin America — in the under- 
developed countries— since 1954 they have been 
putting more and more resources into economic 
and cultural relations, and they have been building 
up their propaganda very rapidly. 

Now, we believe that they will make an effort, a 
serious effort, in Latin America with all the propa- 
ganda and other resources at their disposal. We 
feel that the primary protection against this kind 
of attempted penetration is the mobilization of the 
energies and interests and the loyalties of the peo- 
ple of Latin America in their own economic and 
social development, because, if the peoples of this 
hemisphere show that they are on the move, along 
the lines of President Kennedy's Alliance for 
Progress,^ if they are ready themselves to take 
their own futures in their own hands and can move 
to build up their own education, their health, their 
productivity, this is the way that societies become 
impervious to this sort of penetration. Now there 
are other things in the propaganda field, in the 
cultural relations, in broadcasting, many things 
which we can do more strongly than we are now 
doing. These require funds, and funds are not 
always easy to come by. 

Mr. Downs : Mr. Secretary, without getting into 
sort of washing dirty linen on the CIA and the 
rest of it, have you found that the Central Intel- 
ligence Agency's involvement in the Cuban fiasco 
gave us a black eye pretty well all over the world ? 
Have you found that it dictates policy any place 
else other than it did in Cuba ? 

Secretary Rusk: I don't tliink that I want to 
comment about a specific agency and a specific 
episode. I am reminded of a statement made 
earlier that as far as that particular event was 
concerned, there was something in it for every- 
body. (Laughter.) 

But, no, I tliink that policy of the present ad- 
ministration in our foreign policy is made by the 
President and the Secretary of State and his key 
advisers. 

Mr. Downs : Well, let me ask you another one, 
and let me quote you — I've got it written down 
here, "Rusk's law." 

There has been some discussion about whether 
or not there are two State Departments, one in the 



« For texts of an address and a message to Congress by 
President Kennedy, see ihid., Apr. 3, 1961, p. 471. 



Ju/y 24, 1 961 



149 



Wliite House and one over here in this building 
and in your office, and you wrote back in Foreign 
Affairs a year ago, "No department or agency can 
be coordinated by a parallel department or 
agency." In other words, if you have got two 
agencies working on the same problem, you never 
get together. Do you tliink that is happening ? 

Secretary Riisk: Oh, I'm sorry that I have to 
suggest that is a misquotation. That was a law to 
which I was objecting in this article. That is, I 
do not myself take the view that it should be con- 
sidered infra dig to defer to a companion agency. 

Now, that coordination is something which 
ought to be worked out by the assignment of 
central responsibilities to identifiable individuals 
and departments who, in turn, have the responsi- 
bility for coordination with their neighbors. And 
we do need to work toward a simplification of the 
arrangements by which we come to our decisions, 
and I think the present administration has been 
doing that. 

Handling of Latin American Affairs 

Mr. Downs : Then you find no objection to the 
Presidential task force under Adolf Berle, or any 
conflict with the new Assistant Secretary of State, 
Mr. [Robert F.] Woodward ? 

Secretary Busk: When the new administration 
took responsibility on January 20, there were a 
great many urgent jobs that had to be done 
quickly. For example, the book which my col- 
leagues in the Department kindly prepared for 
me, entitled "Major Issues Facing the New Ad- 
ministration," was a looseleaf book some 3 inches 
thick. Now, there were several things in the Latin 
American field which needed to be done promptly. 
For example, the program imder the so-called 
Bogota program had to be presented to Congress, 
and quickly, to get the program moving. This 
could not have been done in the time available 
through the normal machinery of government ; so 
that task force took that on. The Brazilian fi- 
nancing was a part of it. Some of the steps we 
have taken in Bolivia was a part of it. So that 
task force, during this period of getting started, 
has done some extraordinarily helpful and effec- 
tive things. 

Now, as we settle in and we get our new arrange- 
ments set, the normal procedures will more and 
more, of course, take over. 



Mr. Niven: But I tliink you might agree, sir, 
that Secretary Dulles was perpetually vigilant to 
see that there was no great influence on President 
Eisenhower in the foreign policy field from any- 
body except him, whether it be from Dr. Milton 
Eisenhower or Harold Stassen or anyone. Is this 
something every Secretary has to watch out for ? 

Secretary Rusk: Well, how these procedures 
work is, of course, a matter of interest to any 
Secretary and to any President. But let me just 
comment that Washington, to me, is a city which 
is Allied with quiet diplomacy but a good deal of 
local gossip. 

Actually, the President is in full charge of his 
office and of foreign policy, and he has used the 
Department of State and the other departments 
as he needs them to help him in this job. There is 
close and friendly contact between his personal 
staff and the departments concerned. 

After all, with the abolition of the old Opera- 
tions Coordinating Board, it would be expected 
that certain members of his personal staff and the 
staff of the National Security Council would be 
more active in the liaison field than before. But 
let me assure you that this is not a matter which 
has struck into the actual operations of gov- 
ernment in the way that some of the reports would 
suggest. 

Mr. Smith : Mr. Rusk, are you in favor of Sec- 
retaries of State traveling a great deal? 
(Laughter.) I understand you have traveled 
more than Mr. Dulles in an equal period of time. 

Secretary Rush: Well, there were three slated 
meetings of foreign secretaries that were facing 
me when I first took office, and I felt that I ought 
to go to those meetings and get acquainted with 
my colleagues from other countries. Then there 
was one unplanned meeting at Geneva over Laos. 

I still think that the principal post, the habitual 
post, of the Secretary of State ought to be at his 
desk in Washington. 

I have discussed with some of my colleagues 
among the foreign ministers the problem of organ- 
izing a sort of trade union of foreign ministers 
to create tolerable working conditions for 
ourselves. 

Mr. Smith: Excuse me, sir. I'm afraid that's 
all the time we have. 

On that thought, I would like to thank you very 
much, indeed. We all have a national, nonparti- 



150 



Department of State Bulletin 



san interest in wishing you the very best of luck. 

Secretary Rush: Thank you very much, Mr. 
Smith. 



Venezuelan Independence Day 

Remarks by President Kennedy ^ 

We celebrate today the liberation, 150 years ago, 
of a great American nation, Venezuela. We do 
so before a statue of its liberator, Simon Bolivar, 
an American illustrious among all illustrious 
Americans. By this act we give double testi- 
mony: of our friendship for the land that gave 
him birth and that he launched on the road to 
freedom; of our own rededication to the ideal of 
which he was the first, perhaps the greatest, 
prophet — the imity of the Americas. 

Fifteen years ago this month President 
[Romulo] Betancourt of Venezuela said before 
another statue of Bolivar: "Today our concern 
and interest is to make [Bolivar's] message live, 
to incorporate his ideology in our concepts, to 
follow loyally his luminous example in our daily 
tasks as governors and governed." It is as im- 
portant today as then to do all these things. 

Bolivar, with his insight and genius, pursued 
goals we strive to attain. His greatest dream 
was of a mutually defensive union of all the 
Republics of the hemisphere against the aggression 
of foreign philosophies. Its substance inspires 
the determination of today's statesmen of the 
Americas to protect their heritage of freedom 
from alien encroacliment, to realize to the fullest 
the spiritual and material greatness of their 
nations, to extend to all Americans the benefits of 
freedom and social justice, to make common war 
against poverty and sickness and human inhuman- 
ity to man. 

This determination is today's expression of the 
great world revolution whose principles were 
clarioned from Philadelphia 185 years ago yester- 
day, again from Caracas 150 years ago today, and 
whose aims must never be considered accom- 
plished. It was and is a revolution based on 
ideals of human dignity ; a revolution that inspires 



men as long as men's aspirations continue to ex- 
pand, as they should and must eternally ; a revolu- 
tion so flexible it answers the needs of all countries, 
of all races, of all cultures. Like all great move- 
ments in the history of man, it has followed an 
uneven course. Men have tried to stem it or to 
divert it. Its ideals have been distorted and re- 
defined to sap them of their essence — freedom. 
But always when this revolution has been im- 
periled men have risen to strengthen others' faith 
in it, to mspire them to its defense. In our life- 
times we of the Americas must be such men. And 
I am confident we shall be. 

Allied for progress, for a determined effort to 
realize the dreams of our Founding Fathers and 
of our liberators, we are on the eve of great under- 
takings by the statesmen of this hemisphere. 
May Bolivar's words be a beacon for them : "The 
freedom of the new world is the hope of the 
universe." 



Operation Crossroads Africa 

Remarhs iy G. Mennen Williams 
Assistant Secretary for African Affairs ^ 

Members of Operation Crossroads Africa, I 
salute you. I am very grateful indeed for this 
opportunity to talk to you before you embark 
on your travels to Africa. I should like to say 
at the outset that Operation Crossroads Africa 
enjoys an excellent reputation among the mem- 
bers of my staff in Washington and in our mis- 
sions abroad. We look forward to working with 
you again this year. 

This is the fourth year in which Operation 
Crossroads, through the capable and inspiring 
leadership of Dr. James Robinson, has gathered 
young scholars and professional people like your- 
selves from all parts of our nation to venture forth 
in what will be one of the most memorable ex- 
periences of your lives. 

In the summer of 1958, some 60 eager and for- 
ward-looking young Americans winged their way 
to 5 west African countries. Since then, each sum- 
mer has seen increasing numbers of Crossroaders 
making friends and engaging in very worthiwhile 



'Made at Washington, D.C., on July 5 (White House 
press release) at a wreathlaying ceremony at the statue 
of Sim6n Bolivar on the occasion of Venezuelan Inde- 
pendence Day. 



' Made at the commissioning ceremony for Operation 
Crossroads Africa at Washington, D.C., on June 21 (press 
release 419). 



iulY 24, 7961 



151 



community projects in villages and towns of the 
more remote parts of Africa. This close associa- 
tion with the people of Africa has produced many 
friends for the United States as well as for the 
Crossroaders. 

This year I am told that your gi'oup consists of 
230 participants and that your project groups wOl 
go to work in 14 countries and dependent terri- 
tories in west and east Africa. While the increas- 
ing number of participants reflects the growing 
interest in Africa, it also demonstrates the success 
with which Dr. Kobinson and his associates have 
been able to attract higlily motivated young 
Americans to the philosophy which underlies and 
nourishes Operation Crossroads Africa. 

This philosophy, simply stated, is foimded on 
the idea that a sense of cormnunity can be achieved 
through the active sharing of common experiences 
and common efforts by people of differing races, 
creeds, and nationalities. 

We, as the inheritors of the American legacy, 
must make a continuous effort to rediscover and 
reaffirm what is genuinely human and universal 
in our own national character. We must overcome 
complacency, self-satisfaction, and a sense of 
apartness. Translated into the Crossroads philos- 
ophy, this means that in Africa and other less de- 
veloped areas of the world there must be a moral 
and spiritual sharing as well as an economic and 
technical sharing. Man can endure without goods 
and gadgets, but he cannot live without something 
human and universal that joins him to his fellow 
men. Crossroads Africa seeks to apply in a very 
active and very creative way these principles in 
our relations with the people of Africa. 

Significant Clianges in Africa 

If it were possible to gather once again the 
group of Crossroaders who visited Africa in 1958 
for a second visit to Africa in 1961, they would 
be astonished at the political and economic changes 
which have taken place in Africa in this compara- 
tively short period of time. Since 1958, 19 nations 
have successfully negotiated their freedom 
through the orderly processes of the conference 
table and now enjoy a fruitful relationship with 
the former colonial powers. Some dependent ter- 
ritories are now searching for the proper formula 
which will lead them to increased self-government 
and eventual independence. 

The most significant change on the African 



scene today is that, for the first time in several 
hundred years, Africans are working for them- 
selves, for their own national interests, and for 
their own future. Articulate African leadersliip 
is now guiding the destinies of a lai-ge majority 
of the peoples of Africa and, at the same time, 
greatly influencing the future of the entire con- 
tinent. The symbol of African leadership is very 
often the politician-in-a-hurry. What is planned 
for tomorrow must be done today, and what was 
done yesterday was not done soon enough. Luck- 
ily Africa is also gifted with statesmen who, with 
great skill and wisdom, temper impatience with 
reflection, enthusiasm with prudence, and freedom 
with responsibility. Wliat may be omitted in to- 
day's press about the good works and contribu- 
tions of these statesmen will most certainly be 
enshrined by history for the appreciation of the 
Africa of tomorrow. 

The tasks which confront the leaders and the 
peoples of these African countries and territories 
you will visit are many and complex. They must 
develop tlieir human resources to meet the de- 
mands of modern government and teclmology. 
They must develop their material resources to 
raise the standards of health, education, and the 
conditions of life generally so that the peoples 
may enjoy economic well-being as well as political 
independence. Tliey must undertake the difficult 
task of marrying the many ancient and respected 
traditions of their people with the most suitable 
elements of modern societies in the hope of bring- 
ing forth a sense of self-confidence, national pride, 
and common understanding. They must embark 
on a new set of economic, political, and cultural 
relationships not only with their immediate neigh- 
bors on the African Continent but with other and 
more remote nations, large and small, without 
compromising their national sovereignty or jeop- 
ardizing their newly won political and economic 
freedoms. 

These are the very real challenges which face 
Africa today, and these are the problems which 
you will be discussing and analyzing in the numer- 
ous discussions you will be holding with your new 
friends in Africa. 

You will be asked, I'm sure, how America stands 
on questions of importance to Africans. Your 
presence will be the first and most eloquent an- 
swer, signifying the spirit of American friendship 
and the desire to understand and to help our fel- 



152 



Department of State Bulletin 



low men. You will, I hope, convey four addi- 
tional points. 

U.S. Position on Questions of Importance to Africa 

First, the United States is committed to free- 
dom. It is noteworthy that on Africa Freedom 
Day tMs year, on April 15, President Keimedy 
joined the Secretary of State in honoring the 
African ambassadors in Washington. In a short 
address, the President told his audience : ^ 

I think the fact that there are so many Members of the 
House and Senate . . . and so many members of the 
United States Government [here], indicates our great 
interest, our profound attachment to the great effort 
which the people of Africa are making in working toward 
political freedom and also working toward a better life 
for their people. 

We also are a revolutionary country and a revolu- 
tionary people, and therefore, though many thousands 
of miles of space may separate our continent from the 
continent of Africa, today we feel extremely close. 

Second, the United States is keenly aware of 
the importance which the African peoples attach 
to racial equality^n Afi-ica and elsewhere in the 
world. We acknowledge that race discrimination 
exists in the United States. In pointing to the 
progress we have made, and to the Government's 
unequivocal policy of bringing discrimination to 
an end, we do not expect to win any plaudits nor 
to gloss over what remains to be solved. We 
simply say : We are earnestly working away at the 
problem. 

Third, the American public is becoming in- 
creasingly aware of the "African personality" and 
of the cultural and social values which African 
societies have to contribute to the world's enrich- 
ment. 

Fourth, recalling how our own country received 
help in its earliest days, the United States Govern- 
ment and people wish to extend practical help in 
education and economic development where such 
help is wanted. President Kennedy eloquently 
put it this way in his inaugural address : ^ 

To those people in the huts and villages of half the 
globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we 
pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for 
whatever period is required — not because the Commu- 
nists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, 
but because it is right [emphasis added]. 

This is one side of the exchange implied in your 



program. On the other side, I find that one of 
the most attractive aspects of the Operation Cross- 
roads Africa program is the requirement that each 
of you on your return seek as many opportunities 
as possible to speak and write about your obser- 
vations and experiences while in Africa. Sur- 
prising as it may appear, some people in the 
United States still refer to Africa as the Dark 
Continent. The truth is, as a contemporary 
writer caustically observed, "The darkest thing 
about Africa has always been our ignorance of it." 
I sincerely hope that on your return you will 
make every effort to dispel some of the darkness 
and infoim our fellow Americans of the important 
changes which are taking place in Africa and of 
the great expectations which motivate every facet 
of African society. If you conscientiously fulfill 
this one requirement, even in a most modest way, 
your meeting at the crossroads will help build the 
bridge of understanding between the people of 
America and the people of Africa. 



U.S. Ready To Join With Gliana 
in Volta River Project 

Following it the text of a letter from President 
Kennedy to Kioame Nkrumah, Presid.ent of the 
Refuhlic of Gliana. 

White House press release dated July 6 

Jtjnx! 29, 1961 
Dear Mb. President : I was glad to receive your 
letter ^ regarding the selection of a Chief Execu- 
tive for the Volta Kiver Authority. I think it 
was an excellent idea to ask Prime Minister [John 
G.] Diefenbaker to propose a candidate. We 
have been in touch with our Canadian friends, 
and I am advised that the Prime Minister is 
giving this problem his personal attention and 
hopes to be able to suggest a suitable candidate 
soon. 

I have asked my advisers to try to develop some 
alternative suggestions in the event that others 
do not prove available. At the same time, we have 
been in touch with Mr. Eugene Black of the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, and I know that he is continuing to look 
over the field for possible candidates. 



= Bulletin of May 1, 1961, p. 638. 
' IMd., Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 

July 24, 1961 

600899—61 3 



' Not printed. 



153 



I am delighted to be able to advise you that 
all major issues involved in negotiations for the 
United States Government's share of the financ- 
ing of the dam and smelter have now been resolved. 
The United States Government representatives 
are now working with your representatives here 
to develop the necessary documentation for signa- 
ture and final closing. 

Of course, as we all appreciate, our signing is 
contingent upon your bringing your negotiations 
with the International Bank for Eeconstruction 
and Development to a successful conclusion. 

It is a source of satisfaction to me that we have 
been able to join with your Government in help- 
ing to make this great project possible. It is a 
good omen that this major initial step has been 
accomplished during the first year of your Ke- 
public and it is a satisfaction to me that this was 
achieved during the first year of my Administra- 
tion. I send you my congratulations on Republic 
Day and my sincere hope for the continued prog- 
ress of your nation. 

Witli kindest personal regards. 
Sincerely, 

John F. Kenitedt 



Housing Committee To Help Erase 
Discrimination Against Diplomats 

Press release 477 dated July 6 
DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Several of the District of Columbia's most 
prominent apartment building owners on July 6 
pledged their support to the Department of State 
and its efforts to erase housing discrimination 
against foreign diplomats. These owners, who 
together control several thousand apartments, 
promised to make their facilities available to Afri- 
can and other diplomats. These owners and real- 
tors then formed a volimtary committee whose 
objective is to secure the support of other apart- 
ment owners in the District. Names of members 
of the committee are attached. 

Some of the owners emphasized that their non- 
discrimination pledge does not apply merely to 
diplomats but that their buUdings will be open 
to all citizens who meet normal qualifications, 
without regard to race. One of these, Norman 



Bernstein, told the group that "it would be hypo- 
critical to say that we are going to open our 
buildings to a few African diplomats and not 
open them to colored American citizens." 

The pledge of support for the nondiscrimina- 
tion drive came after Chester Bowles, Under 
Secretary of State, told the group that housing 
discrimination in Washington is "not just a mat- 
ter of property rights, it involves the very se- 
curity of this nation." He told the realtors that 
such discrimination is imdermining a great reser- 
voir of friendship and good will that Africans 
and Asians have for the United States. 

"Young diplomats from these nations are 
coming to the United States with a high sense of 
expectancy," Mr. Bowles explained. "Then they 
run into difficulties that hit them with impact. 
The result is an mihappy, explosive, dangerous 
situation, for many of these people, the future 
leaders of their coimtries, will carry bitter feel- 
ings of hvmiiliation to their graves." 

Harris Wofford, Special Assistant to the 
President, told the group that "there is no sub- 
ject on which the President feels more deeply 
than this one." Wofford said Mr. Kennedy feels 
that there is an urgent need "for a breakthrough 
in this area." 

The session with apartment owners was called 
by the Protocol Office of the Department of State, 
which has had to grapple recently with several 
cases of African diplomats running into rebuffs 
while seeking housing. Angier Biddle Duke, 
Chief of Protocol, who chaired the meeting, told 
the realtors that the challenge to the United States 
would become even greater during the next few 
months as more diplomatic missions from colored 
nations come into Washington. 

Duke said after the meetmg tliat "it was a most 
satisfactory session. It was a good first step 
toward solving one of our most grievous problems. 
I want to pay special tribute to those apartment 
owners who had dared to stick out their necks 
and take the lead. I am aware of some of the 
problems and difficulties that they face; so I am 
doubly grateful that they have put principle above 
profit." 

Some of the realtors said that the session had 
been "educational" and that they had not been 
aware of the extent to which their policies had 
impact on the international scene. 



154 



Department of State Bulletin 



MEMBERS OF D.C. HOUSING COMMITTEE 

Leo Bernstein, Realty Title Insurance Co. 

Norman Bernstein, Norman Bernstein Syndicates 

Morris Cafritz, Cafritz Co. 

Frank J. Luchs, chairman. Shannon & Luchs 

Justin Hinders, Washington Real Estate Board 

George W. De Franceaux, Washington Real Estate Board 

Mark Winkler, Mark Winkler Management, Inc. 

Tighe Woods, Tighe B. Woods, Realtor 

Louis Richman, Richman Bros. 

Robert C. Weaver, Administrator, Housing and Home 

Finance Agency 
Angier Biddle Duke, Chief of Protocol 
Pedro A. Sanjuan, Assistant Chief of Protocol 
Walter M. Tobriner, Commissioner of the District of 

Columbia 



United States and Nigeria Explore 
Means for Economic Cooperation 

FoUowing is an address made by Assistant 
Secretary for African Affairs G. Mennen WU- 
Hams on July 5 at a dinner honoring a Nigerian 
economic mission luhich was making a 3-day visit 
to Washington, together with the text of a joint 
comnnunique issued on July 7 after meetings be- 
tween the mission and departments a/nd agencies 
of the U.S. Government. 



ADDRESS BY MR. WILLIAMS 

Press release 474 dated July 5 

It is a particular pleasure foi' me to welcome 
this Nigerian economic mission to the United 
States. I remember with a great deal of satis- 
faction the fine hospitality of the Nigerian Gov- 
ernment and people during my visit in the new 
federation last spring. And I especially recall 
the good and genial fellowship of the luncheon 
in my honor given by the leader of your mission, 
the Honorable Chief F. S. Okotie-Eboh. Several 
other members of this distinguished delegation 
were present. 

I would like to express our deep-felt f riendsliip 
for Nigeria, our appreciation of its aspirations, 
its inspired leadership, constructive policies, and 
especially the energy and the dedication of the 
Nigerian approach to the task of building a better 
future. 

As yours is an economic mission, you will be 
interested in the philosophy which guides our 



international aid efforts. Tliis philosophy rests 
on a sense of a triple obligation. President Ken- 
nedy pointed out in his foreign aid message to 
Congress ' that our aid is a response, first, to our 
moral obligations as a good neighbor in the inter- 
dependent community of free nations. Second, 
it is a response to the economic obligations in- 
herent in our relative affluence. Tliird, our aid 
is a response to our political obligations in the 
defense of freedom. 

We conceive the 1960's as the crucial "decade 
of development," the period when many less de- 
veloped nations will seek to achieve self-sustain- 
ing economic and social growth. Through such 
development these nations will be able to make 
their full contribution to an enlarged community 
of free, stable, and self-reliant nations and thus 
reduce world tensions and insecurity. 

Achieving Objectives of Development 

How do we go about these objectives? 

The only conditions governing the extension 
of our aid are these : 

We want to make sure that it will be used 
effectively to promote the economic growth and 
strengthen the independence and stability of the 
receiving nations. 

We wish to encourage those nations which place 
a high priority, in deed and in fact, on a national 
development program. 

Development goals, self-help through mobiliza- 
tion of resources, absorptive capacity, social jus- 
tice — -these are the key criteria which we wish 
to employ in determining our aid policies. 

The goals and the means of development, and 
the yardsticks by which development is measured, 
vary greatly from country to country. Every 
truly free nation decides, in light of conditions 
peculiar to itself, to what extent the government 
involves itself in detailed operations and to what 
extent it sets the goals and establishes the frame- 
work within which private activity has free play. 
Keal development cannot be obtained without an 
overall assessment of resources and requirements 
and the setting of priorities. Nigeria is now well 
into the heart of those important decisions. 

The fact that your mission includes private 
businessmen indicates that we share the convic- 
tion that economic development is not a simple, 



' Bulletin of Apr. 10, 1961, p. 507. 



July 24, 1 961 



155 



mechanical combination of capital and labor that 
can be laid down by fiat but a broad human en- 
deavor requiring dedication, difficult choices, and 
drlA'e. It cannot be grafted onto an economy ; it 
has to be generated from within. 

U.S. Role in Africa 

What, then, are our aid objectives in Africa, and 
how do we apply our principles to that continent? 

We must face at once the fact that 24 African 
states have achieved independence since 1951. 
But the successful transition from dependent to 
independent status of the new African countries 
is not simply the culmination or slowing down of 
a political evolution. Independence usually frees 
new political forces which function in changed 
institutional settings. In many instances — for 
reasons known to all of us — the task of nation- 
building begins the day after independence. 

We see the role of the United States in such a 
situation as that of a friend and good neighbor. 
Ours is a historic opportunity to advise and assist 
African nations to fulfill their national aspira- 
tions and develop a harmonious cooperation with 
other African states. 

The help we give must be tailored to the recipi- 
ents' need, to their current stage of development, 
and to their foreseeable potential. African lead- 
ers tell us some of their countries need to place 
primary emphasis on developing their human re- 
sources through education and teclinical assist- 
ance. They may first have to lay the groundwork 
for the development of basic facilities and institu- 
tions. Others are more nearly ready to absorb 
substantial amoimts of development capital. 

In the light of these considerations we are im- 
pressed by the all-pervading spirit of determina- 
tion of the Nigerian people to acliieve through 
economic growth a more abundant life. We have 
noted the efforts of the Government and of pri- 
vate business in your nation to foster economic 
development and to encourage social justice. 

We realize that Nigeria's requirements of ex- 
ternal assistance, both for capital and human re- 
source development, are substantial. But, 
happily, Nigeria has many friends among the 
free world's industrialized coimtries. The United 
States hopes and believes that these friends can, 
among them, meet your reasonable requirements. 
The United States is prepared to do its share in 



the important undertaking of assisting Nigeria 
on the path of rapid economic growth. 

It is my hope and belief that your visit to my 
country will further our progress along this road. 
May you take home with you the true spirit which 
draws the United States closer to Nigeria and the 
nations of Africa. 

JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 481 dated July 7 

A twenty-three man Economic Mission from the 
Federation of Nigeria, led by Cliief Festus S. 
Okotie-Eboh, Federal Minister of Finance, has 
completed a three-day visit to Washington. The 
Mission's arrival in the United States comes near 
the end of an aroimd-the-world tour which has 
taken it to London, Prague, Warsaw, Moscow, 
Peking, Rangoon, Karachi, New Delhi, Hong 
Kong and Tokyo. From Washington the Mission 
will travel to New York for a five-day stay and 
then proceed to Montreal and London. 

In Washington, the Mission was warmly re- 
ceived by the President, the Secretaries of State 
and Treasury, the Acting Secretary of Commerce 
and other high Government officials. The talks, 
which were held in pursuance of the Mission's ob- 
jectives, were characterized by a spirit of imder- 
standing and mutual interest consonant with the 
strong bonds of friendship that exist between the 
two countries. 

The Mission took the occasion of its visit to 
acquaint the United States Government with its 
plans for economic and social development, ex- 
plaining the general outline and major points of 
emphasis of its new Five Year Plan which is now 
in preparation. The Mission expressed its appre- 
ciation for the support and assistance which the 
United States Government has given to the suc- 
cessful implementation of the Nigerian Seven 
Year Plan which is now about to be completed and 
its strong hope that the United States would be in 
a position to assist Nigeria as much as possible in 
the future. 

The United States representatives greatly wel- 
comed this opportunity to receive such a clear 
and authoritative account of Nigeria's develop- 
mental plans. Wliile stressing the importance of 
all industrialized countries of the free world maxi- 
mizing their assistance to the less highly devel- 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



oped countries, the United States representatives 
made clear their government's sympathetic inter- 
est in Nigeria's aspirations and plans for economic 
and social development and the willingness of the 
United States within the framework of Congres- 
sional appropriations and legislation to continue 
to give strong support to Nigeria's efforts. In this 
connection the need was recognized for joint ar- 
rangements which would facilitate continued con- 
sultations on the nature and extent of United 
States assistance to Nigeria as the preparation 
of the latter's Five Year Plan nears completion. 
It was agreed that such arrangements would be 
worked out during the forthcoming visit of the 
Prime Minister of Nigeria to Washington. 

The Mission also took the occasion of its pres- 
ence in Washington to explore means of expand- 
ing trade between Nigeria and the United States 
and increasing the flow of private American in- 
vestment capital into the Nigerian economy. The 
United States Government made clear its complete 
sympathy with both of these objectives and prom- 
ised the full cooperation of its agencies toward 
their attainment. The Department of Commerce 
has arranged a full program in New York for 
the Nigerian Mission with private United States 
commercial, industrial and financial interests. 
In addition, the Department of Commerce is send- 
ing a strong United States trade and investment 
group to Nigeria for a period of eight weeks this 
fall. 

Both the Nigerian Mission and the United 
States Government welcome the opportunity pro- 
vided by the Mission's visit to expand their coop- 
eration in the fields of trade and economic devel- 
opment. Both countries are convinced that the 
strengthening of such ties between them will be 
to their mutual advantage and further the cause 
of world peace and prosperity. 



Mali Officials Visit U.S. 

Press release 483 dated July 8 

The Minister of State and Deputy Chief of 
State of the Republic of Mali, Jean Marie Kone, 
and four distinguished governmental and com- 
munity leaders are expected to arrive at Washing- 
ton on July 10 to begin a brief visit in the United 
States. Secretai-y of State Dean Rusk will meet 
the delegation at Wasliington National Airport. 



The Secretary also will be host at a dinner given 
in honor of the delegation that evening. Wliile 
in Washington the group will visit the Congress 
and several departments and agencies of the Fed- 
eral Government. The visitors will meet with 
Henry R. Labouisse, Director of the International 
Cooperation Administration; Edward R. Mur- 
row, Director of the U.S. Information Agency; 
R. Sargent Shriver, Peace Corps Director; and 
other leading Government officials. They also 
will attend a luncheon given by the Subcommittee 
on African Affairs of the Senate Foreign Re- 
lations Committee with subcommittee chairman 
Senator Albert Gore as host. 

On July 14 the visitors will depart from Wash- 
ington for Denver, Colo. Later they will travel 
to Fargo, N. Dak., Dayton, Ohio, and New York 
City. Mr. Kone is expected to return to Mali on 
July 24; the other members of the delegation may 
remain in this country for a longer period. 

During their trip to various regions of this 
country, the visitors from Mali will have an op- 
portunity to observe the current American scene 
and become familiar with the American people, 
their institutions, and their way of life. 

The members of the delegation are: 

Jean Marie Kone, Minister of State and Minister of 

Justice 
Mamadou Gologo, Secretary of State for Information 

and Tourism 
Assamou Diallo, Member of the National Assembly 
Sekou Kansaye, Member of the National Assembly 
Sori Ibrahima Keita, Secretary General of the Youth 

Committee at Kati 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

87th Congress, 1st Session 

Making Nationals, American and Foreign, Eligible for 
Certain Scholarships Under the Surplus Property Act 
of 1944, as Amended. H. Rept. 559. June 21, 1961. 
7 pp. 

Attendance at Meeting of Commonwealth Parliamentary 
Association. Report to accompany S. Con. Res. 29 and 
S. Res. 168. S. Rept. 447. June 26, 1961. 2 pp. 

Extension of Special Milk Program. Report to accom- 
pany S. 146. H. Rept. 577. June 26. 1961. 3 pp . 

Continuing the Authority of the President Under Title II 
of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act of 1954. as Amended, To Utilize Surplus Agri- 
cultural Commodities To Assist Needy Peoi)les and To 
Promote Economic Development in Underdeveloped 
Areas of the World. Report to accompany S. 1720. 
H. Rept. 579. June 26, 1961. 3 pp. 



July 24, 7967 



157 



A New Look at the United Nations: Political Assessment 
of the Organization for the Decade of the Sixties 



by Joseph J. Sinco 

Director, Office of United Nations Political and Security Affairs ^ 



I am pleased to participate in this program on 
the United Nations arranged by the Johnson 
Foundation and the University of Wisconsin in 
cooperation with the American Association for 
the United Nations and the Foreign Policy Asso- 
ciation. It is through meetings such as these that 
greater public understanding of our foreign policy 
can be achieved. We in the Department of State 
deeply appreciate the opportimity afforded by 
this conference to discuss with you some of the 
vital questions of our policy in the United 
Nations. 

I want to discuss with you the question of the 
capacity of the United Nations to act — to take 
and implftment political decisions today and in the 
days ahead. To achieve any balanced assess- 
ment we must focus on limitations as well as ca- 
pacities, for it is a painful truth that the image 
of the United Nations has perhaps suffered in 
the United States as much from those who have 
tended to overestimate its utility as from doom- 
and-gloom pessimists who see in each new crisis 
the cataclysmic end of the Organization. 

To achieve any balanced assessment we must 
concern ourselves with the underlying and funda- 
mental forces and development which are fast re- 
molding the world and its institutions, which are 
affecting the United Nations' ability to act deci- 
sively on behalf of peace and security, to prevent 
and ameliorate disputes through peaceful means, 



' Address made at the WinRsprend BrieflnR on the 
United Nations at Uaciue, Wis., on June 22 (press 
release 427). 



and to meet the needs and problems of the newly 
emergent nations. 

Changing View of the U.N. 

There are limits to United Nations action, and 
it is good that the American people realize this 
today. No longer is international organization 
viewed as a panacea or a cure-all as it tended to 
be viewed in the roseate days of the San Fran- 
cisco conference. We have learned that the search 
for an all-purpose formula is illusory. 

No longer is the view strongly held that the 
United Nations stands aloof, unaffected by basic 
considerations of power politics. We have come 
to realize more fully that as a voluntary associa- 
tion of sovereign and equal states the United Na- 
tions' ability to act is limited to the consensus 
which can be mobilized. 

We have come to realize more clearly than be- 
fore that, with the universalization of communica- 
tions and man's ascent to outer space graphically 
showing the interdependence of nations, interna- 
tional organization today is a necessity and that 
the United Nations must be able to act quickly in 
given instances if peace — even uneasy peace — is to 
be achieved and preserved. 

We are fully aware that changes in voting 
alinements have taken place and that this is 
principally a reflection of the fundamental change 
in the power balance represented by the shift from 
American predominance with the atomic bomb to 
a period of mutual deterrence. 

We have come to the painful but mature realiza- 
tion that international problems are often suscep- 



158 



Department of State Bulletin 



tible of only modest solutions — rarely complete 
or ideal solutions. We have tended therefore to 
apply to the United Nations a more realistic yard- 
stick of evaluation based on the valid assumption 
that "politics is the art of the possible." 

United States Leadership in the U.N. 

And finally we know more than ever that the 
effectiveness of the United Nations and its ability 
to take and implement important decisions de- 
pends in great measure on the leaderehip of the 
United States. 

In his inaugural address President Kemiedy 

said:* 

To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United 
Nations, our last best hope In an age where the instru- 
ments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, 
we renew our pledge of support — to prevent it from be- 
coming merely a forum for invective — to strengthen its 
shield of the new and the weak — and to enlarge the area 
in which its writ may run. 

The United Nations is not a substitute for 
policy. It is an organization in which states pur- 
sue their own national interests through peaceful 
means. It is an organization in which we must 
continue to pursue our own national interests with 
vigor, determination, resoluteness, firmness, and 
with all the resources of diplomacy and statesman- 
ship at our command. To do otherwise would be 
to give our adversaries the opportimity to shape 
the Organization in their own image. 

And if the United Nations is to continue to serve 
our interests and those of the free world and the 
cause of peace, we 'must redouble our efforts to 
strengthen its capacity to act. 

U.N.'s Capacity To Deal With Aggression 

First is the U.N.'s ability to resist aggression. 
Over the years there have been two schools of 
thought regarding the role of the Organization in 
meeting aggression collectively from whatever 
source. There are those who have maintained 
resolutely that the United Nations is basically 
limited to a role in the field of pacific settlement. 
This essentially British view was expressed co- 
gently by Sir Gladwyn Jebb some years ago. He 
said: 

While acknowledging its due role in the organization 
of collective resistance to aggression, let us try to use the 



' Bulletin of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 
July 24, 196? 



United Nations for its most useful purpose, namely a 
place where the thorniest of international problems may 
at least be debated and where, with infinite patience, a 
fairly satisfactory solution may sometimes be hammered 
out. A place, too, where, if progress is made on the really 
great political issues, an agreement, first on limitation 
and then on reduction of national armaments, may even- 
tually be achieved. A place where much can be done to 
promote a sounder world by encouraging better economic 
and social conditions in the less advanced countries. A 
place, finally, where the two main protagonists in the cold 
war may — who knows? — one day agree to a settlement 
which could avoid the full arbitrament of war. 

And there are those who maintain that peace 
cannot be maintained unless the United Nations 
is in fact the central instrument of an effective, 
universal, collective security system. 

We cannot make any final judgment on this 
question in 1961, just 16 short and perilous years 
after the signing of the charter. In exploring the 
perimeters of the problem, there are three kinds 
of situations to consider: general aggression, 
limited overt aggression, and indirect aggression. 

In order to avoid the holocaust of general war 
and protect our own security, the United States 
must place primary reliance on its own nuclear de- 
terrent and on such regional defense organizations 
as NATO. Tliis is the reality of our times and 
should not be blurred by symbolism or rhetoric. 
The role of the United Nations, symbolic or other- 
wise, in the event of a general conflict woidd de- 
pend on the source as well as the circumstances of 
aggression. 

We know, too, that the United Nations has 
played a significant role in limited war, of which 
Korea is an example. For all of its imperfections, 
it is well to remind ourselves that in 1950 for the 
first time in history collective action through an 
international organization did work successfully 
on the battlefield by repelling Communist aggres- 
sion and without resort to global war. 

In the case of limited overt aggression of the 
traditional type which Korea represents, we can 
continue, in my judgment, to expect a sufficient ma- 
jority in the United Nations to give their political 
support and, in some instances, material help. In 
the face of the pointed Soviet attack on the Secre- 
tary-General, in light of serious and continuing 
differences between the United States and the 
Soviet Union, there are some who would brand 
this statement as overoptimistic since in the 99- 
nation U.N. of today there is a total of 46 states 



159 



from Asia and Africa, many of whom are non- 
alined and who would be reluctant to choose. 

Such an expectation does not appear imduly 
optimistic. While the arithmetic of parliamen- 
tary diplomacy has at times an mireal character, 
because voting alinements do not necessarily re- 
flect real power, it is not insignificant that at this 
past Assembly, on a number of important issues 
where the United States asked or sought decisive 
support, it got it. For example, by 54 to 13 Soviet 
propaganda moves on disarmament were re- 
jected ; ' by 54 to 10 the General Assembly rejected 
a similar Soviet propaganda move on the RB-47 
incident ; * by 53 to 24 the Kasavubu delegation 
was seated ; ' and over vigorous Soviet objection, 
the Assembly by 83 to 11 showed its support for 
the Secretary- General in voting for further U.N. 
measures in the Congo. To be sure there were 
issues where we did not do as well. But the ex- 
amples I have cited at least demonstrate that, with 
vigorous United States leadership, we continue to 
be able to mobilize a stable majority in the United 
Nations on issues that coimt. 

There is reasonable expectation that such would 
be the case in a brush-fire situation involving 
peace or war. The most important requisite of an 
adequate United Nations system for preventing 
and deterring aggression is what might be called a 
consumer demand for it — recognition by govern- 
ments and peoples that, in this age of increasing 
interdependence and nuclear weapons, peace is the 
first need. If there is a lesson to be learned from 
Sputniks, Luniks, Explorers, men in space, and 
ijitercontinental missiles, it is that we live in each 
other's backyards and that we must find the road 
to peace or be destroyed. This fact may yet de- 
velop the requisite consumer demand that would 
make the concept of U.N. collective resistance to 
aggression a reliable political reality. 

The Problem of Indirect Aggression 

But what of indirect aggression, wliich today is 
probably a more serious threat than general war 
or limited overt aggression ? Today open adven- 
turism is increasingly debarred as being too risky. 
The Soviets support so-called "wars of liberation," 
the Communist ideological cloak for indirect asr- 



gression. The challenges in Laos and in the Congo 
are of this character. As President Kennedy ex- 
pressed it recently : ' 

Too long we have fixed our eyes on traditional military 
needs, on armies prepared to cross borders or missiles 
poised for flight. Now it should be clear that this is no 
longer enough — that our security may be lost piece by 
piece, country by country, without the firing of a single 
missile or the crossing of a single border. 

If we can agree that in its 16 short years the 
United Nations has dealt reasonably well with 
armies marching across borders, what about its 
role in situations which are often ambiguous, often 
a mixture of internal and external elements, and 
not easily defined in classical terms of aggression? 

There is no easy answer. Our approach must 
be pragmatic. What are the possibilities? 

The United Nations can help to elucidate the 
problem and provide the basis for action. It is 
unlikely that the United Nations could achieve 
agreement on the definition of indirect aggression 
any more than it has been able to define overt ag- 
gression. To attempt to do so does not appear to 
be a fruitful exercise. But it has not been silent 
on this subject. And it has already provided a 
pragmatic yardstick which members can use to 
judge circumstances. The Essentials of Peace 
Resolution of 1949 '' called upon every nation : 
"To refrain from any threats or acts, direct or 
indirect, aimed at impairing the freedom, inde- 
pendence, or integrity of any state, or at fomenting 
civil strife and subverting the will of the people 
in any state." The Peace Through Deeds Resolu- 
tion of November 17, 1950,* reaffirmed that: 
"... whatever the weapons used, any aggres- 
sion, whether committed openly, or by fomenting 
civil strife in the interest of a foreign power, or 
otherwise, is the gravest of all crimes against 
peace and security througliout the world.'' 

The United Nations has done more. In the 
Congo, where things are looking better these days, 
serious civil war with large-scale military involve- 
ment has been averted because the executive and 
operational arm of the world organization has 
been able to act quickly and effectively. 

There will undoubtedly be other Congos, and 
through such ad hoc United Nations operations 
we may arrive at some criteria of acceptable mul- 
tilateral intervention designed to assist countries 



" IMd., Nov. 7, 1960, p. 723. 

' Ihid., p. 726. 

' IMd., Dec. 12, 1960, p. 904. 



• IMd., May 8, 1961, p. 659. 

' For text, see ibid., Nov. 28, 1949, p. 807. 

• For text, see iMd., Nov. 13, 1950, p. 767. 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



concerned through periods of disorder and to 
prevent unilateral outside incursions involving 
dangers of war. And in doing so, as in the Con- 
go, the national interest of the United States, the 
free world, and the cause of peace is being served. 

Development of U.N. Secretariat 

We know that the Soviets are now seeking to 
inject their veto over the United Nations Secre- 
tariat. This is an attempt to reduce the United 
Nations to ineffectiveness. In the words of Secre- 
tary Eusk, "The United States cannot accept so 
serious an undermining of the agreements and 
purposes of the charter." ' 

The Soviet attack is not surprising. From the 
beginning of the United Nations in 1950 the Secu- 
rity Council was frustrated by tlie abuse of the 
veto. As a result, the United States pressed the 
"Acheson plan," which resulted in the adoption of 
the Uniting for Peace Resolution " in 1950. This 
reflected a shift of institutional activity from the 
Security Council to the General Assembly, an at- 
tempt to marshal the United Nations' resources 
under article 10 of the charter so that the Assem- 
bly could act, including the use of armed force, 
withm 24 hours of the veto. A further shift, this 
time to the Office of the Secretary-General, fol- 
lowed in the years after 1955, when the 60-nation 
U.N. increased to about 80 and subsequently to its 
present total of 99. As the Assembly became more 
cmnbersome, as a two-thirds consensus became 
more difficult to achieve, more and more was 
"turned over to Dag." 

The shift of focus to the Secretary- General's 
office gained by leaps and bounds in two major 
crises. In the Suez crisis, Secretary-General 
Hammarskjold and his staff, within the frame- 
work of the broad and loosely constructed man- 
date, played an unprecedented role in bringing 
about the withdrawal of forces, in clearing of the 
Suez Canal, and in the establishment of the 
United Nations Emergency Force, which today 
continues to help maintain quiet along the armi- 
stice demarcation lines, in Gaza and in Sharm-el- 
Sheikh. 

Tlie Congo operation of the United Nations 
represents the capstone to date in the development 
of the Office of the Secretary-General. It was the 
first case in United Nations history in which there 



• IMd., Apr. 10, 1961, p. 515. 

" For text, see ibid., Nov. 20, 1950, p. 823. 



was full application of article 99 of the charter, 
according to which "the Secretary-General may 
bring to the attention of the Security Council any 
matter which in his opinion may threaten the 
maintenance of international peace and security." 
It is under this article that Security Council pro- 
ceedings on the Congo were started. And since 
the beginning of the United Nations operation in 
the Congo, the Secretaiy-General, operating as 
the agent of the Security Council and General 
Assembly in fulfillment of United Nations resolu- 
tions, has had to act with great skill in micharted 
areas. If the United Nations operation in the 
Congo can bring about more permanent tran- 
quillity, if it can achieve reconciliation among 
various political elements, if it can help the 
Congolese to govern themselves, if it can continvie 
to fill the political vacuum and therefore keep the 
cold war out of Africa, the cause of peace will 
have been served. 

This helps to explain why the U.S.S.R. has 
sought to substitute a three-headed directorship of 
the United Nations in place of the Office of the 
Secretary-General. The "troika" has become a 
fundamental Soviet policy— confirmed once again 
by Mr. Khrushchev in his TV speech last Thurs- 
day [June 15] — the reassertion of the veto by the 
Soviet Union over actions by all international 
organizations. 

There is no doubt of the parliamentary ability 
of the United States to block in the United Na- 
tions the U.S.S.E.'s proposal for a three-headed 
directorship of the United Nations. Nevertheless, 
the injection of this issue is to be regretted because 
it can only retard rather than promote agreement 
on crucial questions. 

U.N.'s Capacity To Achieve Peaceful Settlements 

There is a second area in which the capacity of 
the United Nations to act affects United States 
and free-world interests and the cause of peace. 
It is in the field of pacific settlement. 

The peacemaking record of the United Nations 
is not unimpressive for a fledgling organization of 
16 years which was conceived in preatomic days, 
has withstood the strains and scars of cold war, and 
faces today the opportunities of outer space. 
There have, of course, been failures by the United 
Nations to solve certain international difficulties. 
At the same time it is clear that without the 
United Nations the failures would probably still 



July 24, 7967 



161 



have been written as failures into history, and 
without this Organization the successes in peaceful 
settlement could probably not have been achieved. 
Many problems referred to tlio United Nations, 
often after bilateral remedies have been exhausted, 
contain the seeds of war. "While some of the crises 
continue in a dangerous stage, in many instances 
the trend has been reversed. 

It is axiomatic that nations in conflict with each 
other can sometimes afford to do vis-a-vis the 
United Nations what they think they cannot 
afford to do in their relations with each other: 
make concessions in their policies without fear of 
losmg face. The Secretary-General, as designer 
of the face-saving formula, personifies both the 
neutral nations and "the political voice of man- 
kind" and partakes of the influence they exert in 
the General Assembly. There is no doubt of the 
continuing need of an impartial element which the 
United Nations and the Secretary-General repre- 
sent. Both small and big powers alike have a 
deep interest in maintaining the Unit-ed Nations 
as a bridge between the colossi, a buffer which 
softens the sharp cleavages which arise, and as a 
safety valve to let off steam when the political 
boiler is about to burst the thermometer of inter- 
national affairs. 

New tests lie ahead. The United Nations has 
been the catalyst in helping the new African 
states achieve their independence. They can be 
expected to turn to the United Nations not only to 
help meet their economic needs, to help build 
their nations, but also to protect their independ- 
ence, to help resolve boundary disputes, and to 
guard their human rights. 

In all of this the impartial ground provided by 
the Unit-ed Nations is essential. Moreover, there is 
much more that can be done by tlio United Nations 
in waging preventative diplomacy. If the instru- 
mentality of the United Nations "presence" can 
be applied with prudence, it provides a versatile 
means for successful preventative medicine in 
areas where the big powers have no overriding 
reasons to compete directly but where, in the 
absence of an international tripwire, they might 
be tempted to step in. It can take tlie form of a 
civil field commission with a political function 
such as the United Nations Commission on Korea, 
whose prior presence in Korea made it possible to 
report promptly the facts of Communist aggres- 
sion ; it may be a group of military observers such 

162 



as the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organi- 
zation in Palestine, which today helps maintain an 
uneasy peace there; it could be a subcommittee of 
the Security Council such as was sent to Laos in 
1959 by a procedural vote of the Council ; it might 
be a single person designated by and representing 
the Secretary-General in Jordan in 1958; or it 
might be United Nations personnel, in the capac- 
ity of advisers and administrators of assistance, 
who can keep the United Nations informed of 
trouble spots and potential disputes. 

These are only a few possibilities, and their 
effectiveness depends on the maintenance of the 
United Nations as an impartial "100th power" in 
a 99-nation organization. For this reason the 
small powers, and particularly the new states of 
Africa, have a vital stake in seeing to it that the 
Soviet attack on the United Nations does not im- 
pair the peaceful settlement fimction of the 
Organization and its operational capacity to act. 

The U.N. in the Decade of the Sixties 

In conclusion, let me add one more thought. 
The practical limitations of the United Nations 
were obscured in the days of the San Francisco 
conference. The impression was then current 
that the great powers, dedicated to a universally 
accepted moral law, would maintain peace and 
good will on earth. In the past few years a num- 
ber of serious students of world affairs have re- 
minded us that world law cannot be found in the 
clouds; that upon tliis earth we must give heed 
to the problems of power and of national interest; 
and that there is continued need of skilled diplo- 
macy directed to the solution of pressing and 
dangerous conflicts of power and interest. These 
reminders are timely correctives. But it would 
be a grave misfortune if a reappraisal of the 
United Nations in light of these analyses were to 
weaken rather than strengthen our support of the 
United Nations. 

Ambassador Stevenson has characterized the 
United Nations as "the most influential interna- 
tional body ever known : the greatest hope for the 
just and peaceful settlement of disputes and for 
the defeat of aggression." " The United Nations 
is admittedly imperfect, but nevertheless it is an 
indispensable instrument. It is a sobering fact 
about the contemporaiy international situation 
that mistakes and miscalculations can be more 



' IHd., May 29, 1961, p. 8M. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



costly than they could ever have been in the past. 
Since the dawn of history men have fought for the 
things they valued, and they have progressively 
become more efficient at fighting. Today, how- 
ever, a stage of diminishing returns seems to have 
been reached. As weapons have become more 
destructive they have become more useless as in- 
struments of policy. 

Until the present time it was possible to assume 
that, if the diplomats failed in the pursuit of 
policy, the generals could take over. War was re- 
garded as an accepted method in international 
relations, as a means other than diplomacy of 
achieving objectives of national policy. Today 
this alternative to diplomacy seems no longer to 
exist. This places a very high premium on the 
peaceful appi'oach to the settlement of interna- 
tional disputes. It places a high premium on 
diplomacy and statesmanship. It places a high 
premium on United Nations ability to act promptly 
and effectively, in the security field, in peaceful 
settlement, as an instrument of change, and as a 
builder and helper of new nations. 

We are living in the 20th century, which has 
been called "the century of total war." If such a 
war were to occur, only Toynbee's Pygmies and 
Eskimos might be left to describe it more appro- 
priately as "the century of total destruction." 

The United Nations can help to prevent such a 
frightful development. The world, and particu- 
larly the United States, has much to gain from the 
successful functioning of the United Nations. 
The United Nations has demonstrated tremendous 
flexibility. Flexibility as well as steadfastness of 
purpose will be required in the new era. As we 
enter the new age it would be well to keep before 
us the words of Abraham Lincoln at the beginning 
of another new age. He said : ". . . the dogmas 
of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy 
present. The occasion is piled high with difficul- 
ty, and we must rise with the occasion. As our 
case is new, so we must think and act anew." 



United States and Soviet Union 
Begin Air-Service Talks 

Press release 478 dated July 7 

The Governments of the United States and the 
Soviet Union have agreed to enter into discussions 
concerning the establishment of reciprocal com- 



mercial air services between New York and Mos- 
cow. Negotiations for this purpose are scheduled 
to commence in Washington on July 18. James 
M. Landis, Special Assistant to the President, 
will be chairman of the U.S. delegation, and 
Edward A. Bolster, Director of the Office of 
Transport and Communications, Department of 
State, will be vice chairman. Col. Gen. Yevgeni 
F. Loginov is to head the Soviet group. Pan 
American World Airways, which was certificated 
by the Civil Aeronautics Board several years ago 
to operate a route from the United States to Mos- 
cow, will be represented in observer status on the 
U.S. delegation. 



President Tlianks Soviet Leaders 
for Independence Day Greetings 

White House press release (Hyannls, Mass.) dated July 4 

Following are texts of telegrams exchanged be- 
tween President Kennedy and Nihita S. Khrush- 
chev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of 
the U.S.S.R., and Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of 
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
U.S.S.R., relating to the 185th anniversary of 
American independence. 



PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S MESSAGE 

Jm-T4,1961 
Leonid I. Brezhnev, 

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme So- 
viet, U.S.S.R. 

N. S. Khrushchev, 

Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
U.S.S.R. 

I wish to thank you personally and on behalf 
of the American people for your greetings on the 
occasion of the 185tli Anniversary of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States. 

It is a source of satisfaction to me that on our 
185th Anniversary the United States is still com- 
mitted to the revolutionary principles of indi- 
vidual liberty and national freedom for all 
peoples, which motivated our first great leaders. 
I am confident that given a sincere desire to achieve 
a peaceful settlement of the issues which still 
disturb the world's tranquillity we can, in our 
time, reach that peaceful goal which all peoples 



Jo/y 24, J 96 1 



163 



so ardently desire. A special responsibility at 
this time rests upon the Soviet Union and the 
United States. 

I wish to assure the people of your country of 
our desire to live in friendship and peace with 
them. 

John F. Ivennedt 



SOVIET MESSAGE 

July 3, 1961 
Dear Mk. President : Personally and on behalf of the 
Soviet people we send to the American people, and to 
you personally, our sincere congratulations on the oc- 
casion of this important date in the life of the American 
people, namely, the 185th Anniversary of achieving their 
independence. AVhile sending our congratulations to you 
today, we want to express the hope that the recent 
Vienna meeting,' and the exchange of opinions which 
took place there on questions of Interest to both coun- 
tries, will further the mutual efforts of our governments 
directed to the urgent solution of problems which long 
ago became pressing and which the last war left to us 
after the defeat of the aggressors. History imposed on 
our peoples, on their governments, and on their leaders 
an enormous share of the responsibility for the preser- 
vation of peace, for the future of humanity. In order 
to carry out this great historical mission it is necessary 
to commence building, from both sides, enduring bridges 
of trust, of mutual understanding and of friendship. 
The Soviet Union has always striven and strives now to 
achieve this aim. The Soviet and the American peoples 
by right must go down in history as the two great peoples 
who made a decisive contribution to the cause of ensur- 
ing permanent peace on earth. 

N. Khrushchev 
L. Brezhnev 



Pakistan and United States Complete 
10 Years of Economic Cooperation 

Statement hy President Kennedy 

White House press release (Hyannls. Mass.) dated July 1 

The completion of 10 years of economic coopera- 
tion between Pakistan and the United States 
stands as firm evidence of the friendly relations 
existing between our two countries. In observing 
this significant milestone we are proud to have 
the privilege of working with the people of Paki- 



' For background, see Bulletin of June 26, 1961, pp. 
991 and 999. 



Stan, and it is our firm intention to continue in 
a joint efiFort to secure peace and progress for the 
community of free nations. 

We have made known our deep interest in the 
success of the second 5-year plan, and we intend 
to support the determined effort of the Pakistan 
Government and people to insure its success. 

I wish particularly to offer congratulations to 
President Ayub [Ivlian] and the Government and 
people of Pakistan for the vigor which charac- 
terizes their efforts to build a still stronger nation. 
The achievement of greater human well-being 
motivates free men everywhere. "We in the United 
States admire Pakistan for her steady adherence 
to the goal of human betterment. We join her in 
facing the future with inspiration and confidence. 



United States and Cyprus Sign 
Technical Assistance Agreement 

The Department of State announced on June 29 
(press release 456) that the United States had on 
tliat day signed a teclinical assistance agreement 
with the new Republic of Cyprus. Under terms of 
the agreement, which was signed in Nicosia, 
capital of Cyprus, the United States will establish 
an Operations Mission of the International Coop- 
eration Administration in Nicosia to assist Cyprus 
in its economic development program. 

The first project to be undertaken under the 
agreement will be the sending of two American 
consultants to Nicosia to assist Cyprus in setting 
up a development bank. 

Negotiation of the agreement marks another 
step in economic cooperation between the United 
States and Cyprus since Cyprus attained its in- 
dependence. Last December the United States 
made a grant of 40,000 tons of wheat and 10,000 
tons of barley to assist Cyprus in relieving a grain 
shortage caused by drought. The wheat was for 
distribution to needy persons as direct relief as 
well as for work relief projects related to economic 
development. Tlie barley was for free distribu- 
tion by the Cypriot Government to livestock 
feeders to assist them in maintaining their founda- 
tion breeding stock. 

ICA's mission in Nicosia will be headed by C. 
Reed Liggit, who assisted in negotiating the tech- 
nical assistance agreement. 



164 



Depariment of State Bulletin 



Regional Briefing Conferences Held 
at San Francisco and Denver 

Press release 470 dated July 5 

Eegional briefing conferences on foreign policy, 
conducted by the Department of State, will be 
held at San Francisco July 20, and Denver July 
21, it was announced on July 5 by Roger Tubby, 
Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Charles 
E. Bohlen, Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State, and other principal officers of the Depart- 
ment and the International Cooperation Admin- 
istration will participate in the two meetings, to 
which press, radio, and television news officials 
and officers of nongovernmental organizations 
have been invited. 

The San Francisco conference is jointly spon- 
sored by the Department and the "World Affairs 
Council of Nortlieni California. It will be held 
in the Fairmont Hotel. The San Francisco region 
includes Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, 
Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 

In Denver the University of Denver is cospon- 
sor of the meeting, which will be held in the Uni- 
versity's new law school auditorium. The States 



included are Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, 
Utah, and Wyoming. 

Henry R. Labouisse, Director of the Interna- 
tional Cooperation Administration, will address 
the luncheon sessions at both conferences. De- 
partment officers expected to attend, in addition 
to Assistant Secretary Tubby and Ambassador 
Bohlen, are Walter P. McConaughy, Assistant 
Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs; Wymberley 
DeR. Coerr, Acting Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
American Affairs ; and Clare H. Timberlake, Am- 
bassador to tlie Republic of the Congo. They 
will both speak and answer questions. Mrs. 
Katie S. Louchheim, Consultant on Women's 
Activities for the Bureau of Public Affairs, will 
also attend both conferences. 

The Department scheduled the regional brief- 
ings in response to many requests following na- 
tional conferences in Washington in April and 
May. In his invitation Secretary Tubby wrote: 
"The purpose of the conferences, like the previous 
ones, will be to examine a number of international 
problems and provide opportunity for discussion 
between you who must keep abreast of these issues 
and the senior officers of the Department who are 
responsible for dealing with them." 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Security Council Considers Situation in Kuwait 



The Security Comicll met July 2-8 to consider 
a complaint by Kuwait "in respect of the situation 
arising from, the threat hy Iraq to the territorial 
independence of Kutoait, which is likely to en- 
danger tlie m,aintenance of international peace 
and sec^irity" and a countercomplxdnt hy the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic of Iraq "in respect of the 
situation arising out of the artned threat hy the 
United Kingdom to the independence and security 
of Iraq.'''' Following is a statetnent made on July 
5 hy Francis T. P. Plimpton, Deputy U.S. Repre- 
sentative in the Security Council. 

U.S./U.N. press release 3740 

The Security Council is meeting today because 
the Government of Kuwait has reported that its 



independence is threatened by Iraq and that this 
situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of 
international peace and security. We are con- 
fident that discussion within the Security Council 
can have a moderating effect on the situation 
which now exists in the area. If the Security 
Coimcil, through its consideration of this matter, 
can contribute to an alleviation of tension and 
help to deter developments whicli might further 
threaten the territorial independence of Kuwait, 
the Council will have made a positive contribution. 
For this reason, the United States supported the 
convening of an early meeting of the Council. 
The United States regards Kuwait as a sover- 
eign, independent state and supports the desire of 



Jo/y 24, ?96J 



165 



the Kuwait Government and the Kuwaiti people 
to remain fully independent. In 1960 we con- 
cluded an international agreement directly with 
Kuwait. Kuwait is a member of UNESCO 
[United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization], ICAO [International Civil 
Aviation Organization], and various other inter- 
national agencies. The United States supported 
its admission to these agencies, and we will fully 
support its application for membership in the 
United Nations. 

Eegarding the current situation in Kuwait, we 
would like to make two observations : 

First, there have been a number of recent public 
statements by ranking Iraqi leaders regarding 
their intention with respect to Kuwait. The 
nature of some of these statements is at variance 
with past expressions of Iraqi friendship for Ku- 
wait and with Iraq's often-avowed desire to main- 
tain tranquillity in the Near East. 

In the second place there have been reports 
referred to already by the representatives of the 
United Arab Eepublic and of the United Kingdom 
that Iraqi troop dispositions have been made near 
the border of Kuwait. In the circumstances the 
Ruler of Kuwait has felt it necessary to take pre- 
cautionary defensive measures by inviting mili- 
tary forces of friendly states to assist him in 
strengthening Kuwait's defensive capabilities. 
The Ruler has asked for such help from the Royal 
Government of Saudi Arabia, and we understand 
that Saudi Arabian assistance has been provided. 
He has also requested the military assistance of 
the Government of the United Kingdom, pursuant 
to the agreement concluded by the Governments 
of Kuwait and Great Britain on June 19 of this 
year, and British forces have also been provided. 
The United States believes that Saudi Arabia and 
the United Kingdom have acted appropriately 
and that these actions will tend to insure the 
preservation of peace in the area. 

In this connection we welcome the statement 
by the United Kingdom that "Her Majesty's Gov- 
ernment earnestly hope that the necessity to make 
use of this force will not arise and that it is in- 
tended that it should be withdrawn as soon as 
the Ruler considers that the threat to the inde- 
pendence of Kuwait is over." 

My Government has been informed by the Gov- 
ernment of Iraq that Iraq does not intend to re- 
sort to force in Kuwait and welcomes the similar 



166 



assurances provided to the Security Council by 
the Iraq representative. We trust that the Gov- 
ernment of Iraq will fully respect its obligations 
under article 2, paragraph 4, of the charter, which 
calls on member nations to refrain from "the 
threat or use of force against the territorial in- 
tegrity or political independence of any state, or 
[from acting] in any other manner inconsistent 
with the purposes of the United Nations," and we 
hope that the Ruler of Kuwait may soon receive 
assurances to such effect from the Government of 
Iraq. We are confident that all governments con- , 
cerned will be guided in their actions and state- | 
ments by the common interest of all in preserving 
peace in the Near East.^ 



F. P. Briggs Becomes Commissioner 
for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

The Department of State announced on July 
5 (press release 473) that Frank P. Briggs, As- 
sistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and 
Wildlife, had been sworn in that day as U.S. 
Commissioner on the International Commission 
for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. 

The Commission, on which Mr. Briggs is one of 
three U.S. Commissioners, was established in 1951 
pursuant to a convention which entered into force 
July 3, 1950.^ At the 11th annual meeting of this 
Commission, held at Washington June 5-10, 1961, 
the 12 member nations were represented by a total 
of some 70 Commissioners and advisers.* These 
countries, all having a fishing interest in the area 
of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, are Canada, Den- 
mark, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, 
Portugal, Spain, the U.S.S.R., the United King- 
dom, and the United States. 

The purpose of the convention is to enable the 
member governments to take joint action in the 
conservation of stocks of fish in the northwest 



'On July 7 the U.S.S.R. vetoed a resolution (S/4855) 
calling upon all nations "to respect the independence and 
territorial integrity of Kuwait." The vote was 7 (U.S.) 
to 1 (U.S.S.R.). with 3 abstentions. Another resolution 
(S/4856), sponsored by the U.A.R., which calletl upon 
the U.K. "to withdraw immediately its forces from 
Kuwait," failed of adoption on the same day by a vote 
of 3 to 0, with 8 abstentions (U.S.). 

' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2089 and 
4170. 

' Bulletin of .Tuly 3, 1901, p. 45. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Atlantic Ocean. As part of that joint action the 
Commission, meeting annually, plans, coordinates, 
and reviews programs of fishery research which 
are conducted by the individual member nations. 
If, after adequate research, regulatory measures 
are found to be desirable the Commission recom- 
mends the adoption of such regulations to the 
member governments. In the 11 years of its ex- 
istence the Commission has notably stimulated the 
growth of knowledge of the fisheries of the area 
and the measures necessary for their wise 
utilization. 

This is one of eight international fishery com- 
missions in wliich the United States participates 
with 22 other countries in the conservation of the 
fishery resources of the high seas. 



United States Delegations 
to International Conferences 

First Consultative Meeting, Antarctic Treaty 

The Department of State announced on July 5 
(press release 475) that William J. Sebald, 
American Ambassador to Australia, would serve 
as U.S. representative to the first consultative 
meeting to be held under the Antarctic Treaty, 
which convened at Canberra July 10, 1961. 
George H. Owen, Special Assistant for Antarc- 
tica, Bureau of International Organization 
Affairs, Department of State, served as alternate 
U.S. representative. 

Other members of the delegation included the 
following advisers: 

Thomas O. Jones, Antarctic program director, National 

Science Foundation 
Comdr. Price Lewis, Jr., USNR, Department of the 

Navy 
Donald W. Lamm, First Secretary, American Embassy, 

Canberra 
Warren H. Reynolds, diplomatic historian. Department 

of State 

The Antarctic Treaty provides that Antarctica 
sliall be used for peaceful purposes only and for 
freedom of scientific investigation and interna- 
tional cooperation in science. It was signed at 
Washington on December 1, 1959, at the con- 
clusion of the Conference on Antarctica* and en- 
tered into force on June 23, 1961, upon the deposit 



with the Department of State of the final instru- 
ments of ratification.^ The 12 countries which 
participated in the Conference on Antarctica and 
which signed the Antarctic Treaty are Argentina, 
Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New 
Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, 
the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

Article IX of the treaty provides that consulta- 
tive meetings of representatives of the signatory 
countries and acceding countries which are active 
in Antarctica shall be held from time to time and 
that the first such consultative meeting shall be 
held at Canberra within 2 months after the date 
of entry into force of the treaty. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Mimeographed or processed documents (such as those 
listed lelow) may be consulted at depository libraries in 
the United States. U.N. printed publications may be 
purchased from the Sales Section of the United Nations, 
United Nations Plaza, New York. 

General Assembly 

Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's 
Programme 
Progress report on UNHCR programs for 1959 and 1960 
and on the former UNREF program, as of Decem- 
ber 31, 1960. A/AC.96/110. April 13, 1961. 148 pp. 
Report on the mental health of refugees and in par- 
ticular of special cases in Austria, Germany, Greece, 
and Italy. A/AC.96/116. April 19, 1961. 17 pp. 
Program allocations for 1962. A/AC.96/124. April 19, 
1961. 11 pp. 
International Law Commission 

Third report on consular intercourse and immunities, 
parts 1 and 2. A/CN. 4/137. April 13, 1961. 51 pp. 
Addendum to comments by governments on draft 
articles on consular intercourse and immunities 
(A/CN.4/136) : Netherlands, Add. 4, April 17, 1961, 
13 pp.: Belgium, Add. 6, April 20, 1961. 21 pp.; 
Chile, Add. 7, April 27, 1961, 12 pp. ; Spain, Add. 8, 
May 1, 1961, 8 pp. ; Japan, Add. 9, May 3, 1961, 5 pp. ; 
Indonesia, Add. 10, May 8, 1961, 1 p. 
Letter dated April 21, 1961, from the Korean Minister of 
Foreign Affairs addressed to the Secretary-General con- 
cerning admission to membership. A/4769. May 19, 
1961. 2 pp. 
Letter dated June 3, 1961, from the permanent repre- 
sentatives of the United Kingdom and the United 
States addressed to the Secretary -General transmitting 
a draft treaty on the discontinuance of nuclear weapon 
tests. A/4772. June 3, 1961. 74 pp. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Latin America 

Central American integration and development. 
E/CN.12/586. March 28, 1961. 7 pp. 



' For background and text of treaty, see Bttlletin of 
Dec. 21, 1959, p. 911. 



' For a statement by President Kennedy, see ibid., July 
10, 1961, p. 91. 



July 24, J 961 



167 



Eeouomic development, planning, and international co- 
operation. E/CN.12/582. April 3, 1961. 76 pp. 
Population trends in Latin America in relation to eco- 
nomic and social policy. E/CN.12/583. April 5, 
1001. 20 pp. 
Inflation and growth, a summary of experience in Latin 

America. E/CN.12/563. April 12, 1961. 78 pp. 
Decentralization of the U.N. economic and social activi- 
ties and strengthening of the regional economic com- 
missions. E/CN.12/599. April 29, 1901. .5 pp. 

Comments made on the recommendations of the Survey 
on the Main Trends of Inquiry in the Natural Sciences 
(A/4461) : 
UNESCO. E/3469. April 17, 1961. 25 pp. Spe- 
cialized agencies. E/3488. May 22, 1961. 13 pp. 
States members of the United Nations and the related 
agencies. E/3505. May 23, 1961, 17 pp. ; and Add. 
1, June 8, 1961. 4 pp. 

Report of the Secretary-General on the development of 
scientific and technical cooperation and exchange of 
experience. E/3.515. June 6, 1901. 18 pp. 

Technical assistance activities of the United Nations. 
E/3474. May 8, 1961. 133 pp. 

A preliminary report by the Secretary-General on U.N. 
Assistance for the advancement of women in develop- 
ing countries. E/3493, May 11, 1961, 60 pp.; and 
Cert. 1. June 16, 1961, 1 p. 

Twenty-fifth report of the Administrative Committee on 
Co-ordination on the general review of the development, 
coordination, and concentration of the economic, social, 
and hxrman rights programs and activities of the U.N. 
and the specialized agencies as a whole. E/3495, May 
15, 1901, 49 pp. ; and Add. 1, May 16, 1961, 101 pp. 

Report on the ninth session of the Commission on Inter- 
national Commodity Trade May 1 to 12, 1961. E/3497. 
May 17, 1961. 70 pp. 

Promotion of the international fiow of private capital. 
E/3492. May 18, 1961. 141 pp. 

Assistance to former trust territories and other newly 
independent states. E/3503. May 22, 1961. 4 pp. 

Report of the Commission on Permament Sovereignty 
Over Natural Resources. E/3511. May 26, 1961. 
18 pp. 

Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner 
for Refugees. E/3506. June 1, 1961. 46 pp. 

Review of international commodity problems prepared 
by the Interim Co-ordinating Committee for Inter- 
national Commodity Arrangements. E/3508. June 2, 
1961. 78 pp. 

Report by the Secretary-General on the role of the 
United Nations and its related agencies in the use of 
food surpluses for economic development. E/3509. 
June 8, 1961. 5 pp. 

Report of the Committee on a U.N. Capital Development 
Fund for the economic development of underdeveloped 
countries and financing economic development. E/3ol4. 
June 8, 1961. 32 pp. 

Progress report by the executive secretary of the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe on action taken by the 
Commission pursuant to its Resolution (XV) regard- 
ing improvement of techniques of foreign trade. 
E/3519. June 9, 1901. 5 pp. 



Trusteeship Council 

Report of the U.N. Visiting Mission to the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands, 1961. T/1560. May 26, 
1961. 1.59 pp. 

Report of the Secretary-General on offers by member 
states of study and training facilities for inhabitants of 
trust territories. T/1.565. May 29, 1961. 22 pp. 

Supplementary report supplied by the Administering Au- 
thority on developments in the Trust Territory of New 
Guinea since June 30, 1960. T/1567. June 5, 1901. 
45 pp. 



Observations of UNESCO on the annual report on the 

Trust Territory of New Guinea for the year 1960: 

T/1509. June 7, 1961. 9 pp. 
Observations of UNESCO on the annual report on the 

Trust Territory of Nauru for the year ended June 30, 

1960. T/1571. June 8, 1961. 4 pp. 
Observations of UNESCO on the annual report on the 

Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi for the year 1959. 

T/1572. June 8, 1961. 12 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



United States and Japan Discuss 
Civil Aviation Matters 

Press release 469 dated July S 

Aviation consultations under the United States- 
Japanese bilateral air agreement ^ took place at 
Washington from May 29 to Jime 30, 1961, with a 
brief recess in mid-June to enable members of 
the Japanese delegation to attend the Extraordi- 
nary Assembly of the International Civil Avi- 
ation Organization at Montreal, Canada. The 
respective points of view of the two Governments 
concerning civil aviation matters of mutual in- 
terest were discussed. The consultations were re- 
cessed on June 30 until an appropriate date in the 
near future. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Antarctica 

The Antarctic Treaty. Signed at Washington December 1, 
1959. Entered into force June 23, 1961. 
Proclaimed iy President of the United States: June 23, 
1901. 

Aviation 

Convention on international civil aviation. Done at 
Chicago December 7, 1944. Entered into force April 4, 
1947. TIAS 1591. 

Adherence deposited: Central African Republic, June 28, . 
1961. 

Finance 

Articles of agreement of the International Monetary 
Fund. Opened for signature at Washington Decem- 
ber 27, 1945. Entered into force December 27, 1945. 
TIAS 1501. 
Signature and acceptance: Laos, July 5, 1961. 

Articles of agreement of the International Bank for ' 
Reconstruction and Development. Opened for sig- 



' Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2854 and 
4158. 



168 



Departmenf of Sfate Bullef'm 



nature at Washington December 27, 1945. Entered 
into force December 27, 1945. TIAS 1502. 
Signature and acceptance: Laos, July 5, 1961. 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention with six 

annexes. Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. 

Entered into force January 1, 1961.' 

Ratifications deposited: Lebanon, May 30, 1961;' Neve 

Zealand (includes Cook Islands (including Nine) and 

the Tokelau Islands), May 31, 1961.' 

Radio regulations, with appendixes, annexed to the inter- 
national telecommunication convention, 1959. Done at 
Geneva December 21, 1959. Entered into force May 1, 
1961.' 
Notification of approval: Pakistan, May 13, 1961.' 

Weather 

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. 
Done at Washington October 11, 1947. Entered into 
force March 23, 1950. TIAS 2052. 

Accession deposited: Central African Republic, June 28, 
1961. 



BILATERAL 

Denmark 

Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, with pro- 
tocol and minutes of interpretation. Signed at Copen- 
hagen October 1, 1951. 
Ratifications exchanged: June 30, 1961. 
Enters into force: July 30, 1961. 

General convention of friendship, commerce, and navi- 
gation. Signed at Washington April 26, 1826. Entered 
into force August 10, 1826. 8 Stat. 340. 
Terminated hy above treaty, with exception of articles 
8, 9, and 10: July 30, 1961. 

Ecuador 

Agreement providing for the furnishing of economic assist- 
ance. Effected by exchange of notes at Quito Jime 7 
and 17, 1961. Entered into force June 17, 1961. 

Germany 

Second agreement regarding certain matters arising from 
validation of German dollar bonds. Signed at Bonn 
August 16, 1960. 

Ratifications exchanged: June 30, 1961. 
Entered into force: June 30, 1961. 

IVIexico 

Agreement relating to the transfer of equipment for the 
use of the national police force of Mexico. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Washington June 26, 1961. 
Entered into force June 26, 1961. 

New Zealand 

Agreement amending the supplementary air transport 
agreement of December 30, 1960 (TIAS 4645). Effected 
by exchange of notes at Washington June 30, 1961. 
Entered into force June 30, 1961. 

Pakistan 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities agree- 
ment of April 11, 1960, as amended (TIAS 4470, 4579, 
4720, 4743, and 4772), with exchange of notes. Signed 
at Rawalpindi June 14, 1961. Entered into force 
June 14, 1961. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



New Science Officers Appointed to London 
and Stockholm Embassies 

The Department of State announced on July 5 (press 
release 472) the appointment of two new science officers. 
Olaf A. Hougen, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, is assigned to the American 
Embassy in Sweden, replacing .lulian Mack, and William 
W. Greulich, Professor of Anatomy, Stanford University, 
will proceed to London to take over the duties of Thomas 
H. Osgood. 

The two new appointees are currently being briefed in 
the Department and several Government agencies in 
Washington on the manifold overseas scientific activities 
of the Federal Government. They are the first replace- 
ments of officers who have completed the normal 2-year 
tour under the Department's science program. 



Confirmations 

The Senate on June 22 confirmed the following 
nominations : 

Mercer Cook to be Ambassador to the Republic of 
Niger. (For biographic details, .see Department of State 
press release 450 dated June 28. ) 

Philip M. Kaiser to be Ambassador to the Republic 
of Senegal and to serve concurrently as Ambassador to 
the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. (For biographic de- 
tails, see Department of State press release 449 dated 
June 28.) 

Robinson Mcllvaine to be Ambassador to the Republic 
of Dahomey. (For biographic detaUs, see Department of 
State press release 446 dated June 27. ) 

Robert M. McKinney to be Ambassador to Switzerland. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 491 dated July 13.) 



PUBLICATIONS 



' Not in force for the United States. 

^ With declaration contained in final protocol. 

^With reservations contained in final protocol. 

' With reservations contained in additional protocol. 



Recent Releases 

For sale hy the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, ex- 
cept in the case of free publications, which may be ob- 
tained from the Department of State. 

Air Transport Services. TIAS 4675. 18 pp. 10<}. 
Agreement, with Mexico, with schedule, signed at Mexico 
August 15, 1960. Entered into force provisionally August 
15, 1960. Entered into force definitively January 17, 1961. 



July 24, 7967 



169 



Economic and Technical Assistance. TIAS 4678. 3 pp. 

5«(. 

Agreement with Yugoslavia effected by exchange of 
notes — Signed at Belgrade January 19, 1961. Entered 
into force January 19, 1961. 

Tracking Stations. TIAS 4679. 8 pp. 10(f. 

Agreement with the United Kingdom effected by exchange 
of notes — Signed at London January 20, 1961. Entered 
into force January 20, 1961. 

Friendship, Commerce and Navigation. TIAS 4685. 
11 pp. I0(t. 

Agreement with Italy, supplementing the Treaty of Feb- 
ruary 2, 1958 — Signed at Washington September 26, 1951. 
Instruments of ratification exchanged at Washington 
March 2, 1961. Proclaimed by the President March 8, 
1961. Entered into force March 2, 1961. 



TIAS 4686. 13 pp. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 

m. 

Agreement with China supplementing and amending the 
agreement of August 30, 1960, as amended. Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Taipei February 9, 1961. 
Entered into force February 9, 1961. 

Atomic Energy: Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4687. 

4 pp. 50. 

Agreement with Australia, amending the Agreement of 
June 22, 1956. Signed at Washington September 14, 1960. 
Entered into force March 6, 1961. 

Tracking and Communications Station in the Island of 
Zanzibar. TIAS 4688. 11 pp. 10(#. 

Agreement with the United Kingdom, effected by exchange 
of notes— Signed at London October 14, 1960. Entered 
into force October 14, 1960. 

Atomic Energy: Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4689. 

5 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with Italy, amending the agreement of July 3, 
1957. Signed at Washington July 22, 1959. Entered into 
force March 30, 1961. 

Atomic Energy : Cooperation for Civil Uses. TIAS 4690. 
2 pp. 5^. 

Agreement with Ireland, amending the agreement of March 
16, 1956. Signed at Washington February 13, 1961. En- 
tered into force March 30, 1961. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4691. 3 pp. 

50. 

Agreement with India, amending the agreement of May 

4, 1960, as amended. Effected by exchange of notes — 

Signed at New Delhi March 9, 1961. Entered into force 

March 9, 1961. 

Defense, Weapons Production Program. TIAS 4692. 
9 pp. 100. 

Agreement with the Netherlands, effected by exchange 
of notes— Signed at The Hague March 24, 1960. Entered 
into force provisionally March 24, 1960. 

Mutual Defense Assistance: Disposition of Surplus 
Equipment and Material. TIAS 4695. 3 pp. 5<f. 

Agreement with Norway, amending the agreement of May 
15 and June 20, 1953. Effected by exchange of notes — 
Signed at Oslo September 1, 1960 and January 14, 1961. 
Entered into force January 14, 1961. 

Foreign Service Personnel: Free Entry Privileges. TIAS 
4696. 6 pp. 5(t. 

Agreement with Peru effected by exchanges of notes — 
Signed at Lima November 7 and December 28, 1960, Feb- 



ruary 4 and 13, 1961. Entered into force February 13, 
1961. 

United States Educational Foundation in Greece. TIAS 

4697. 3 pp. 5<f. 

Agreement with Greece, amending the agreement of April 
23, 1948, as amended. Effected by exchange of notes — 
Signed at Athens January 23, 1959 and November 22, 1960. 
Entered into force November 22, 1960. 

Mutual Security: Defense Support Assistance. TIAS 

4698. 3 pp. 5<t. 

Agreement with Pakistan, amending the agreement of 
January 11, 1955. Effected by exchange of notes — Signed 
at Rawalpindi March 11, 1961. Entered into force March 
11, 1961. 



TIAS 4699. 3 pp. 



Surplus Agricultural Commodities. 

50. 

Agreement with Republic of Korea, amending the agree- 
ment of December 28, 1960. Effected by exchange of 
notes — Signed at Seoul March 17, 1961. Entered into 
force March 17, 1961. 

Surplus Agricultural Commodities. TIAS 4700. 3 pp. 
5(t. 

Agreement with Republic of Korea, amending the agree- 
ments of December 28, 1960, and June 30, 1959. Effected 
by exchange of notes — Signed at Seoul March 17, 1961. 
Entered into force March 17, 1961. Operative retroac- 
tively February 2, 1961. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 3-9 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office of 
News, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to July 3 which appear in 
this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 419 of June 21, 
427 of June 22, 445 of June 26, 452 of June 28, 456 
of June 29, and 464 of Jime 30. 

No. Date Subject 

469 7/3 Air talks with Japan. 

470 7/5 Regional briefing conferences on foreign 

policy. 
♦471 7/3 U.S. participation in international 
conferences. 

472 7/5 Science officers named to embassies at 

Loudon and Stockholm (rewrite). 

473 7/5 Briggs sworn in as U.S. Commissioner 

on Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Com- 
mission (rewrite). 

474 7/5 Williams : Nigerian economic mission. 

475 7/5 Delegation to Antarctic Treaty con- 

ference (rewrite). 
*476 7/6 Rusk : death of Marta Santa Cruz. 

477 7/6 Housing for foreign diplomats. 

478 7/7 Air talks with U.S.S.R. 

*479 7/7 Cultural exchange (field and track 

team). 
*480 7/7 Cultural exchange (Venezuela). 
481 7/7 U.S.-Nigeria economic communique. 
t482 7/7 Visit of President of Pakistan 

(rewrite). 
483 7/8 Visit of MaU officials. 

*Not printed. 

fHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



170 



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



July 24, 1961 



Index 



Vol. XLV, No. 1152 



Africa 

Housing Committee To Help Erase Discrimination 

Against Diplomats 154 

Operation Crossroads Africa (Williams) .... 151 

American Republics. Problems Facing the Alliance 
for Progress in the Americas (Stevenson) . . . 139 

Antarctica. First Consultative Meeting, Antarctic 
Treaty (delegation) 167 

Asia. 10th Anniversai-y of Colombo Plan (Ken- 
nedy) 144 

Atomic Energy. Secretary Rusk Interviewed on 

"At the Source" Program 145 

Aviation 

United States and Japan Discuss Civil Aviation 
Matters 168 

United States and Soviet Union Begin Air-Service 
Talks 163 

Brazil. Dr. Furtado Visits U.S. To Discuss Aid for 
Brazil's Northeast Region 140 

Congress, The. Congressional Documents Relating 
to Foreign Policy 157 

Cuba. Secretary Rusk Intervievred on "At the 

Source" Program 145 

Cyprus. United States and Cyprus Sign Technical 
Assistance Agreement 164 

Dahomey. Mcllvaine confirmed as Ambassador . 169 

Department and Foreign Service 

Confirmations (Cook, Kaiser, Mcllvaine, Mc- 

Kinney) 169 

New Science Officers Appointed to London and 

Stockholm Embassies 169 

Economic Affairs 

10th Anniversary of Colombo Plan (Kennedy) . 144 
U.S. Ready To Join With Ghana in Volta River 
Project (Kennedy) 153 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. Operation 

Crossroads Africa (Williams) 151 

Germany. Secretary Rusk Interviewed on "At the 

Source" Program 145 

Ghana. U.S. Ready To Join With Ghana in Volta 
River Project (Kennedy) 153 

International Organizations and Conferences 

F. P. Briggs Becomes Commissioner for Northwest 
Atlantic Fisheries 166 

First Consultative Meeting, Antarctic Treaty (dele- 
gation) 167 

10th Anniversary of Colombo Plan (Kennedy) . 144 

Japan. United States and Japan Discuss Civil 
Aviation Matters 168 

Kuwait. Security Council Considers Situation in 

Kuwait (PUmpton) 165 

Mali. Mali Officials Visit U.S 157 

Mauritania. Kaiser confirmed as Ambassador . . 169 

Mutual Security 

Dr. Furtado Visits U.S. To Discuss Aid for Brazil's 

Northeast Region 140 

Pakistan and United States Complete 10 Years of 

Economic Cooperation (Kennedy) 164 

Problems Facing the Alliance for Progress in the 

Americas (Stevenson) 139 

United States and Cyprus Sign Technical Assistance 

Agreement 164 



United States and Nigeria Explore Means for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation (Williams, text of joint com- 
munique) 155 

Niger. Cook confirmed as Ambassador .... 169 

Nigeria. United States and Nigeria Explore Means 
for Economic Cooperation (Williams, text of 
joint communique) 155 

Pakistan. Pakistan and United States Complete 

10 Years of Economic Cooperation (Kennedy) . . 164 

Presidential Documents 

Pakistan and United States Complete 10 Years of 

Economic Cooperation 164 

President Thanks Soviet Leaders for Independence 

Day Greetings 163 

10th Anniversary of Colombo Plan 144 

U.S. Ready To Join With Ghana in Volta River 
Project 153 

Venezuelan Independence Day 151 

Public Affairs. Regional Briefing Conferences Held 
at San Francisco and Denver 165 

Publications. Recent Releases 169 

Science. New Science Officers Appointed to Lon- 
don and Stockholm Embassies 169 

Senegal. Kaiser confirmed as Ambassador . . . 169 

Switzerland. McKinney confirmed as Ambassador . 169 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 168 

United States and Japan Discuss Civil Aviation 

Matters 168 

U.S.S.R. 

President Thanks Soviet Leaders for Independence 
Day Greetings (Brezhnev, Kennedy, Khru- 
shchev) 163 

United States and Soviet Union Begin Air-Service 
Talks 163 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 167 

A New Look at the United Nations : Political As- 
sessment of the Organization for the Decade of 

the Sixties (Sisco) 158 

Security Council Considers Situation in Kuwait 

(Plimpton) 165 

Venezuela. Venezuelan Independence Day (Ken- 
nedy) 151 

Name Index 

Brezhnev, Leonid 163 

Briggs, Frank P 166 

Cook, Mercer 169 

Downs, William R 145 

Kaiser, Philip M 169 

Kennedy, President 144, 151, 153, 163, 164 

Khrushchev, N. S 163 

Mcllvaine, Robinson 169 

McKinney, Robert M 169 

Niven, Paul 145 

Plimpton, Francis T. P 165 

Rusk, Secretary 145 

Sisco, Joseph J 158 

Smith, Howard K 145 

Stevenson, Adlai E 139 

Williams, G. Mennen 151, 155 



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Part I of this volume reviews the evolution of the U.S. foreign aid 
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Vol. XLV, No. 1153 



July 31, 1961 



FFICIAL 

I'EEKLY RECORD 

,F 

NITED STATES 

OREIGN POLICY 



THE UNDERLYING CRISIS: COERCION VS. 

CHOICE • Address by Secretary Rusk and Question-and- 
Answer Period • •■■'" 

NEW LEARNING PROCESSES FOR DEVELOPING 

NATIONS • Remarks by Assistant Secretary Coombs . . 193 

THE TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC 

ISLANDS • Statements by M. Wilfred Coding and 
Tosiwo Nakayama ^"^ 

SOVIET UNION URGED TO AGREE TO NUCLEAR 
TEST BAN TREATY; ITEM PROPOSED FOR 
16TH SESSION OF U.N. GENERAL ASSEMBLY • 

Texts of U.S. Note of July 15, Soviet Note of July 5, and 
U.S.-U.K. Letter to U.N. 184 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

SEP 7 - 1961 



For index see inside back cover 



DEPOSITORY 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Vol. XLV, No. 1153 • Publication 7236 
July 31, 1961 



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appreciated. The Bulletin is indesed in the 
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication issued by the 
Office of Public Services, Bureau of 
Public Affairs, provides the public 
and interested agencies of the 
Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes se- 
lected press releases on foreign policy , 
issued by the White House and the 
Department, and statements and ad- 
dresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of State ami other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the func- 
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which the United States is or may 
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Publications of the Department, 
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The Underlying Crisis: Coercion vs. Choice 



Press release 4S4 dated July 10 
ADDRESS BY SECRETARY RUSK > 

Last year, as a private citizen, I had the temerity 
to give three lectures on the conduct of our foreign 
relations. They dealt with the roles of the Presi- 
dent, the Secretary of State, and the Congress. 
The first was published ; the other two, happily, 
were not. The three were to make up a thin 
book — how thin I did not then appreciate. One 
matter which I imderestimated was the problem 
of explaining foreign policy in a vigorous de- 
mocracy, a democracy closely associated with more 
than 40 allies and in friendly relations with more 
than 50 so-called "uncommitted nations," with, in 
the background, those also listening who would 
like to bring our democracy down. 

Public officials are engaged in "inservice train- 
ing," and I am grateful to many of you for your 
help— intended and unintended — -with my educa- 
tion during these first months of office. I deeply 
believe that the public should be fully informed 
about the world situation and our courses of action 
to deal with it. In no other way can we mobilize 
both the necessary effort of a people who act 
through consent and the unity which is critically 
necessary in hazardous times. I believe, as well, 
that responsible public officials should in their 
statements seek to serve the public interest and 
not merely its passing curiosity. The public has a 
right to know, including the right to know that its 
serious business is being handled in a responsible 
fashion. For example, if there are differences be- 
tween us and friendly nations about one or another 
aspect of the passing parade of events, these are 
more likely to be resolved by quiet conversation 
than by a public quarrel. If two of our friends 
find themselves in difficulty with each other, it is 
not always conducive to agreement for it to be 

^ Made before the National Press Club at Washington, 
D.C., on July 10. 



publicly known that we have been offering friendly 
counsel. 

And again, if a matter arises which is of deep 
concern to our allies and where unity among allies 
is critical to the sound handling of tlie issues in- 
volved, it is not always easy for the United States 
to sound off prematurely without consultation 
with those whose vital interests are also at stake. 

But our policies are public, our purposes are 
those which the Nation itself enjoins upon its Gov- 
ernment ; in the main, our acts are public, because 
that is the way a democracy moves. But diplomacy 
cannot always be so, or else it would be little more 
than debate, adding its fuel to the vei-y fires it 
hopes to quench. 

The press and public officials have a common 
problem in presenting foreign policy issues to the 
American people. It is the problem of context. It 
arises in part because of the limitations of space 
and time limitations imposed upon both those who 
offer information and those who read or listen to 
it. It is almost never possible to give a complete 
story on each of the events which arouse public 
interest. You and we share the difficulty of reduc- 
ing complexities to manageable proportions and of 
using accurately and economically the moments of 
attention we get from a busy and preoccupied 
nation. 

We are accustomed to think of our foreign rela- 
tions as a series of large or small crises. To do 
so is itself to distort out of context, for it overlooks 
the mass of constructive relationships which are 
steadily building across national fi-ontiers and 
does not convey the sense of the persistent under- 
lying crisis under which the world has lived since 
World War II. 

Building a Decent World Order 

As prelude to your questions, I should like to 
comment today on this underlying crisis from 
which many- — but not all — of the troubles which 
attract our attention are derived. 



July 31, I96I 



175 



Let us start from where we ourselves are and 
what we in this country should like to achieve in 
our relations with the rest of the world. Since 
World War II we have had more than one so- 
called great debate about foreign policy. Actu- 
ally, the greatest debate of all occurred during that 
war, and the most eloquent voice was the war 
itself. Before the fighting was over we had con- 
cluded as a nation that we must throw ourselves 
into the building of a decent world order in which 
such conflagrations could not occur. 

The nature of that world order was set forth 
succinctly in the charter of the United Nations, a 
charter backed by an overwhelming majority of 
the Senate and supported by an overwhelming 
majority of the Nation. It called for a com- 
munity of independent nations, each free to work 
out its own institutions as it saw fit but cooperat- 
ing effectively and loyally with other nations on 
matters of common interest and concern. The 
inevitable disputes were to be settled by peaceful 
means ; and let us not forget that the charter sup- 
posed that the tried processes of negotiation, 
mediation, and adjudication were to be preferred 
over violent or fruitless debate. But parties in 
serious dispute were to seek the help of the broader 
international community in order that disinter- 
ested judgments could be brought to bear upon 
sensitive or inflamed issues. 

As such a world oi'der grew in strength and ef- 
fectiveness, the limitation and reduction of arms 
would become possible, cooperation on economic 
and social problems would improve the lot of man, 
human rights would be strengthened, and the role 
of law would steadily take over from the law of 
the jungle. On matters of political arrangements, 
the underlying thesis was that the people them- 
selves should play the decisive role as the principle 
of self-determination was brought to bear. It was 
then, and remains, our hope that man can take up 
once again the ancient aspirations of the race and 
move to free himself from the burdens of war, 
tyranny, and misery. 

With deference to our shortcomings, I think it 
can be properly said that the United States threw 
itself with honesty and diligence into this great 
effort. It rapidly demobilized — more rapidly than 
events proved wise. It offered its atomic weapons 
to international control. It committed vast re- 
sources to the reconstruction of war-torn nations. 



176 



It cooperated both in the large and in detail with 
the great cooperative ventures of the community of 
nations. Most important of all, it turned aside 
from the ambitions and appetites which have 
historically been associated with great power and 
conformed its national aims to those I have just 
described. 

What Has Gone Wrong? 

What has gone wrong? Wliy, after 15 years, 
is there so much tension and danger in a world 
which had hoped for so much just yesterday? 
To be fair, let us not suppose that all of our 
problems are traceable to a single source. Under 
the best of conditions, the surging tides of nation- 
alism and the insistent demands for economic and 
social improvement would have required great 
skill and understanding to handle the inevitable 
changes which were bound to come in our post- 
war world. But these were manageable, and 
there is no reason to suppose that they could not 
be accommodated in the processes of peaceful 
change. 

The underlying crisis of our generation arises 
from the fact that the Soviet Union did not join 
the United Nations in fact, as well as in form, 
and lend itself to the commitments they and the 
rest of us made in the midst of a gi-eat war. The 
possession of power was transformed once more to 
ambition for more power. The capacity to defy 
law became a contempt for law. Doctrines were 
revised and adapted to promote an imperialism 
as old as the tragic history of man. An entire 
people was sealed off from the rest of the world, 
and secrecy became a prime strategic weapon. 
The institutions of the international community 
were either ignored or undermined from within. 
The Soviet Union has just cast its 95th veto in 
the Security Council of the United Nations.'' 

In the process the very language of interna- 
tional intercourse became distorted and contrived. 
"Peace" lias become a word to describe whatever 
condition would promote their world revolution. 
"Aggression" is whatever stands in its way. "Peo- 
ple's Democracy" is a term applied to regimes no 
one of which has been chosen by free election. 
Self-detennination is loudly espoused but only 
in areas not under Commimist control. 



' For background, see Botxetin of July 24, 1961, p. 165. 
Departmenf of State Bulletin 



The normally attractive word "negotiation" is 
used as a weapon, for the only subjects to be nego- 
tiated are further concessions to Communist ap- 
petite. Agreements are offered but against the 
background of a long and sobering list of broken 
promises ; an agreement is apparently a rest camp, 
where one pauses and refits for a further advance. 
New assurances are offered in the very act of 
withdrawing those earlier given. Law, as one of 
their spokesmen put it, "is like the tongue of a 
wagon — it goes in the direction in which it is 
pointed." And the gains of lawlessness are cited 
as the "new conditions" which justify new in- 
vasions of the rights of others. 

Neutrality is temporary, a pasture growing 
green for future grazing. On January 6 Mr. 
Klinishchev said, "The revolutionary emergence 
of more and more peoples into the world arena 
creates exceptionally favorable conditions for an 
unprecedented broadening of the sphere of influ- 
ence of Marxism-Leninism. The time is not far 
away when Marxism-Leninism will possess the 
minds of the majority of the world's population." 
Apparently, according to one of liis homely 
maxims, "Every vegetable has its season." 

Central Issue of the Crisis 

The underlying crisis is not an ideological con- 
flict between 19th century capitalism and 19th 
century Marxism. It does not result from a bi- 
lateral conflict between the Soviet Union and the 
United States. 

The central issue of the crisis is the announced 
determination to impose a world of coercion upon 
those not already subjected to it. If tliis seems 
exaggerated simplicity, let us not be misled by 
our own reluctance to believe what they say, for 
on this point they have proved that they mean it. 
At stake is the survival and growth of the world 
of free choice and of the free cooperation pledged 
in the charter. There is no "troika" on this 
issue — it is posed between the Sino-Soviet empire 
and all the rest, whether allied or neutral; and 
it is now posed in every continent. 

The underlying crisis has shown itself in many 
fonns — from tlie cynical disregard of the pledges 
on liberated areas, made at Yalta, to the latest 
threats to West Berlin. The calendar of con- 
flict between these two dates is filled with un- 



ceasing attempts to expand an empire — some 
successful but many repelled by those determined 
to be free. 

Strengthening Western Solidarity 

President Keimedy has taken up his great 
task with a deep awareness of the nature of the 
crisis and of the actions required by the continu- 
ing struggle for freedom. 

It is essential to get on with the building of the 
world community designed by tlie charter. This 
we would do in any event; but it is here that 
the breadth and depth of tlie crisis are fully re- 
vealed, and it is here that those who would not 
be coerced can act together for a world of peace. 
We speak of uncommitted nations, and we usually 
mean those who are committed to neither of the 
principal blocs on the present scene. But all na- 
tions have commitments arising out of their own 
interests and out of their own hopes for the future. 
In the United Nations commitments to the char- 
ter can weave the fabric of common interest 
which, by reaching beyond the cold war, may 
determine its outcome. 

No less essential is the strengthening of the 
solidarity of NATO and of the Western Commu- 
nity — possessed of enormous capacity to shape 
the course of events. The political, economic, and 
military strengthening of the Western Community 
is an urgent matter to which the administration 
is giving full attention. The President has also 
seen that the Western World must recapture the 
leadership of its own revolution of political free- 
dom. It is a revolution which tlie West itself 
has taken into every continent and which con- 
tinues to stir men to action. This struggle for 
freedom in the West itself was not painless; nor 
will it be in other places in our own time. But 
we dare not yield its leadership to those who 
would seize it, subvert it, and use it to destroy us. 

The President is also asking us, and other eco- 
nomically advanced free nations, to reassert our 
leadership of the revolution of economic and social 
progress. The world of coercion is offering tempt- 
ing bait for those who are determined to shake 
off their misery and want. We believe that free- 
dom and progress are historic partners and that 
the alleged choice between rapid progress and free 
institutions is false. But this we must prove. 
This is the meaning of the President's Alliance for 



July 31, 1961 



\77 



Progress,^ which is stirring the liopes and the hard 
thinking of the nations of our own hemisphere. 
This is the meaning of the rapidly growing effort 
of the Western Community to throw substantial 
resources behind the economic and social develop- 
ment of less favored nations. This is why the 
President is asking for thoughtful planning, effec- 
tive leadership, and determined self-help from 
those who need external assistance for national 
growth. And this is why the President is asking 
the Congress for aid legislation * and appropria- 
tions which will put us in a position to help gen- 
erate the momentum of development — aid which 
must be provided, in association with others, in the 
amounts and for the periods of time required to 
achieve enduring and satisfying results. 

During these first months the President has 
established direct contact with the leadership of 
many nations in order to give us as quickly as 
possible an accurate imderstanding of their inter- 
ests and views. In his own discussions with them, 
through the Vice President, Ambassador Steven- 
son, and others, he has been able to lay the basis 
for the greater unity of our several alliances and 
the greater effort, which will be required to deal 
with the continuing crisis. 

The President has recognized the changes which 
are occurring in the strategic problems which we 
and our allies must face and is moving, in con- 
sultation with other governments, to bring the free 
world's capabilities up to the needs of the variety 
of dangers which have to be confronted. 

Effort To Relieve Arms Race 

Despite the continuing crisis, we have felt it 
necessary to work diligently and realistically at 
the possibilities of disarmament. Even though 
the political atmosphere is not encouraging, an 
imaginative effort must be made to relieve the 
tensions arising from the arms race itself. We 
cannot understand how the Soviet Union, which 
has expended so much eloquence on disarmament, 
could liave rejected the reasonable and workable 
treaty for the ban of nuclear testing which was 
tabled at Geneva this spring.' "General and com- 
plete disarmament" are apparently among those 
words given a special meaning in the glossary of 
their world revolution. For reasonable people 



' Ihid., Apr. 3, 1061, p. 471. 

♦ Ihid., Apr. 10, 1061, p. 507, and June 19, 19G1, p. 977. 

° For text, see ibid., June 5, 1961, p. 870. 

178 



would suppose that the way to get there is to 
start and that the steps along the way must be such 
as to leave no one, in Aristide Briand's words, as 
"dupes or victims." Nevertheless our work goes 
forward, and we earnestly hope that the Congress 
will support the recent proposals of the President 
to make it effective.® 

Let me conclude by saying that the agenda of 
our foreign relations is filled with problems re- 
quiring and getting urgent attention. If there 
are those looking for still waters, we are not yet 
there. We can move on with confidence if we are 
prepared to do what has to be done. The free 
world has enormous strength, including the inner 
strength of purposes which are deeply rooted in 
the nature of man. 

The world of coercion has its problems too. 
Dissensions within its ranks, national resistance 
to this modern imperialism, and a growing demand 
for freedom are among them. It has learned that 
economic aid does not buy puppets, that intimida- 
tion awakens its own resistance, that the United 
Nations is tougher than it thought, and that 
those who set out to "possess the minds" of man 
have set themselves against the course of history. 

Our democracy must have its turbulent debate. 
Free nations will, of course, differ among them- 
selves as they move to build a common interest 
out of disparate circumstances and varied respon- 
sibility. But the underlying crisis is becoming 
more widely understood, and out of it will come 
the responses which men must make when their 
freedom is at stake. 

Thank you very much. 

QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PERIOD 

John P. Oosgrove, president of fh-e National 
Press Club : Thank you, Mr. Secretary. 

Now, as you ashed for it, the questions are here. 
We have a great number of questions to take up 
as you wish. The first one h : '■'■'Why does the State 
Department speak on foreign issues with many, 
often contradictory, voices instead of one clear 
voice?" 

A. Well, I think we would have to parse this 
question into its particular parts. We try to speak, 
of course, with a single policy, the policy of the 
President and of the Secretary of State. But there 



' Ibid., July 17, 1961, p. 99. 

Department of State Bulletin 



are a great many people in the Department of 
State. You gentlemen have a most expert way 
of getting observations from a great many of them, 
and it is not beyond the limits of human frailty 
that different people will say different things. We 
are working toward this unity of policy, but I 
doubt that we shall ever fully achieve it. 

Mr. Cosgrove: '''■Could you give us a congres- 
sional timetable on how the foreign aid hill will 
progress?" 

A. I wish that I could. The hearings before the 
House Appropriations Subcommittee have been 
under way now for some time, even though the 
authorizing legislation has not passed the Senate 
and the House. We hope very much that that 
f oreigii aid legislation and the appropriations will 
be completed sometime in August. 

Mr. Cosgrove : Of course these are just the warm- 
up questions, you understand. [Laughter.] 

""It has been said that the United Kingdom is 
ieing dragged kicking and screaming into the 
European Common Market. Who is dragging it, 
the U.S. State Department^' 

A. Wliether the United Kingdom joins the 
Common Market is a question, of course, for the 
United Kingdom and the Common Market. We 
are not dragging anybody into anything in this 
situation. This is not a simple and easy question 
for either the United Kingdom or the Common 
Market. The United Kingdom has a great many 
relationships, economic in character, which do 
affect this question. It also has associations on 
the Continent with some who would not find it 
easy or comfortable to go with them into the 
Common Market. This is a problem which de- 
serves a great deal of thoughtful attention on both 
sides in that discussion, and we ourselves are not 
telling either side what the answer ought to be. 

Role of the Pentagon 

Mr. Cosgrove: '^How would you assess the role 
of the Pentagon on the formulation of U.S. foreign 
policy?" 

A. Well, I have spent almost as much time in 
the Pentagon in the past as I have in the Depart- 
ment of State, and my impression of people in uni- 
form is that they do not aspire to policy control 
or domination if there is policy guidance given 



to them. I have known times when, shall I say, "we 
in the Pentagon" were forced to make policy be- 
cause in certain situations we had troops in the 
field and they had to act, and in the absence of 
policy guidance we, in effect, made policy by the 
actions which someone had to take. 

The problem is not one of undue military in- 
fluence on jjolicy. We have no problem of usurpa- 
tion in this country. The problem is fonnulating 
clear policy guidelines and to get these transmitted 
to all the departments for their guidance and in- 
struction. Well, I personally am not worried 
about the possible implications of this question. 

Tensions Between Moscow and Peiping 

Mr. Cosgrove: '"''Is there any solid evidence of a 
rift between Moscow and Peiping?" 

A. I think there is solid evidence of some ten- 
sions between Moscow and Peiping, but I would 
use a little caution in trying to estimate the width 
of such gap as might be developing between them. 
There are some reports, some alleged documents 
and some speculation, some hopes which one must 
treat with a certain reserve. But, on the other 
hand, here are two great systems of power which 
are united in general in a certain doctrinal frame- 
work and which together have certain common in- 
terests vis-a-vis the rest of the world. 

But there are also inherent in that situation cer- 
tain inevitable rivalries, because the peoples and 
governments of these two countries cannot forget 
their own traditions, their own national feelings, 
and at times their own rivalries. I think that 
these irritations are present. I think that they 
are certainly of tremendous interest to everyone 
else. But I would not think that the prospect of 
such divisions would be a sound basis for policy for 
the free world. 

The Berlin Issue 

Mr. Cosgrove :^^Mr. Secretary, General [Thomas 
Z).] White said recently that there was a '■fair 
chance'' of war over Berlin. Do you share that 
feeling?" 

A. I think it would be quite wrong of me to 
speculate about the chances of war. The Berlin 
issue is, of course, a most serious issue. The basic 
rights of the Western Powers in West Berlin are 
being challenged. The long-range security and 
viability of West Berlin are being challenged. 



Jo/y 37, 7967 



179 



And the rights of access are under pressure. 
These moves of the Soviet Union present the rest 
of us with some most serious questions. But I 
do not believe it would be helpful for those of us 
in responsible positions to feel that we must make 
a new statement about Berlin on each occasion on 
which we might meet the public or the press in one 
or another occasion. 

As you know, the aide memoire — the reply to the 
aide memoire' — is now under consultation with 
other governments. We hope to have that avail- 
able for publication before too long. But this is 
going to be a question which will be with us for 
quite a few weeks and quite a few months ahead. 
I would be surprised if there were spot daily news 
on specific developments. This is a matter which 
will require a great deal of thought, intensive 
consultation among governments, and we must 
deal with it as soberly as the issues require. 

Mr. Cosgrove: ^'■What do you think of Mayor 
Brandos [Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin'] 
proposal of a peace conference on Germany loith 
all 52 nations which were at war attending?" 

A. I believe that Mayor Brandt's proposal has 
been commented upon by other high German 
officials and that this discussion is going on in the 
midst of an electoral campaign in Germany. I 
think it is the better part of discretion for me to 
stay out of that one. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Cosgrove: "Would not the Berlin problem 
be eased if the U.S. simply recognized the existence 
of the East German Government?'''' 

A. Well, I supiiose it might be eased in a way. 
It would also be eased if we got out of West Berlin. 
This question of dealing with the many separate 
aspects of the problem, one by one, is not an easy 
one. There is a de facto situation in Germany. 
There has been no indication on the part of the 
West, including West Germany, to upset or disturb 
that status quo by force; so the situation in East 
Germany, insofar as the West is concerned, is 
reasonably stable. 

But these questions of recognition, of long-term 
commitments in Germany are for the future. The 
West has believed for many years, and still does, 
that a permanent settlement in Central Europe 

' An aide memoire on the subject of Berlin was 
handed to President Kennedy by Premier Khrushchev dur- 
ing their meeting at Vienna June 2-4. 



can best be acliieved on the basis of the self-deter- 
mination of peoples. In tangled questions of this 
sort it is instinctive — certainly on the part of the 
American people — to ask the question, "Wliat do 
the people themselves think about it?" And in 
this situation, alas, it has not been possible over 
the years since the war to get that question 
answered. 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■''What do you think of Senator 
[Wayne] Morse's idea to bring the Berlin conflict 
before the World Court via the UJV.?" 

A. I think we can suppose that at some stage 
the Berlin question might well come to the at- 
tention of the United Nations, as do almost all 
important questions involving tensions and threats 
addressed to the peace. 

The problem of our taking one or another aspect 
of it to the World Court is determined in part 
by the almost certain refusal of the Soviet Union 
to accept the jurisdiction of the World Court for 
this purpose. Now, it is true that either the Se- 
curity Coimcil or the General Assembly could ask 
the Court for an advisory opinion on one or an- 
other aspect of the Berlin problem. But the Court 
woidd be free — as it has done on at least one other 
occasion — the Court would be free to decide that 
it would not wish to submit an advisory opinion. 
So there are a good many problems between the 
suggestion and its execution. 

Mr. Cosgrove: Mr. Secretary, here's a very di- 
rect one : '■'How great is the danger of nuclear war 
over BerlinT'' 

A. I think most in the room would agree with 
me that I really ought not to answer this question 
at tliis time. 

Mr. Cosgrove : "How is the repatriation of Ger- 
man prisoners of war in the Soviet Union pro- 
gressing f^ 

A. The repatriation of German prisoners of war 
in the Soviet Union — unfortunately, and I regret 
to say it, I'm simply not briefed on the latest de- 
velopments on this point and cannot factually 
answer. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Cosgrove: "What is the position of the 
United States in reference to the use of space for 
offensive weapons systems?'^ 

A. We would be glad to see space reserved for 



180 



Department of State Bulletin 



peaceful purposes. "We would be glad to see space 
become a basis for the most intimate and intensive 
cooperation among nations for the benefit of all 
mankind. We have been told by the Soviet Union 
that international cooperation in space activities 
can only come after general and complete disarma- 
ment has been achieved. This suggests that such 
cooperation is a long time off. 

Cuba and the Problem of Coexistence 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■'■President Kennedy has said 
that we will never abandon Cuba to communism. 
Can you assure us we have not done so?" 

A. Yes. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Cosgrove: Sometimes the hardest ones are 
the easiest ones, "/s there any possibility of co- 
existence betxoeen the U.S. Goverrwnent and Cas- 
tro'' s cormrvwnistic government?" 

A. The problem of coexistence is a more general 
one between the Sino-Soviet bloc and the free 
world, of which the Cuban affiliation with the 
Sino-Soviet bloc becomes a part. In a certain 
sense we have been coexisting with the Soviet 
Union since 1917 without a direct clash between 
us and them. But I think we have to consider as 
a very serious development the fresh impetus given 
by the Sino-Soviet bloc to its notion of the his- 
torically inevitable world revolution backed with 
considerable energy, substantial resources, and a 
good deal of subtlety and sophistication all over 
the world. 

Since about 195i the Sino-Soviet bloc has been 
moving toward new techniques of penetration and 
subversion, adding to their earlier weapons, not 
substituting for them. So I would suppose that 
this is a part of this underlying crisis about which 
I spoke in my remarks. And I believe that if 
this crisis continues, we are in for some very 
troublesome times ahead and there will come a time 
when the crisis has to be settled. 

Question of China's Seat in the U.N. 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■'■Do you believe Communist 
China might be seated in the U.N. this fall? 
Would we oppose this?" 

A. I think it rather unlikely, indeed most im.- 
likely, that Communist China will be seated in 
the United Nations this fall. And we ourselves 
are certainly not in favor of it. We believe it 



important to support the Government of the Ke- 
public of China and its seat in the United Nations. 

Now, there is a problem, as most of you know, 
in the parliamentary situation in the General As- 
sembly. For 10 years we have been relying upon 
what is called the moratorium, a formula in which 
I have a certain paternal interest because I helped 
to invent it some 10 yeai-s ago. But under this 
formula, this General Assembly simply passes a 
motion, putting off for another year a considera- 
tion of the question of the so-called Chinese seat. 

Now, delegations in recent years have been re- 
porting from New York that this moratorium 
formula is running out of support. Now this is 
confirmed by such information as we have from 
other governments. It certainly at this point 
seems to be a dangerous point on which to rely. 
And so we and other governments, including the 
Government of the Republic of China, must ad- 
dress ourselves to the parliamentary problems 
which will arise in the forthcoming meeting of the 
General Assembly. 

There is no single answer to this question, but 
this is a matter on which feelings run high in 
some places, about which there are differences of 
view and judgment, and something on which we 
shall be consulting with other governments be- 
tween now and the Assembly meeting in 
September. 

Recognition of Outer Mongolia Being Studied 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■'■Mr. Secretary, lohen we recog- 
nise Outer Mongolia, what will be the effect on our 
relations with Nationalist China?" 

A. Well, this question of the recognition of 
Outer Mongolia has been under study, and we 
have been talking with other governments about 
it. We have not taken final steps with regard to 
this at this time. It is a question on which 
governments have different views, and the Govern- 
ment of the Eepublic of China, of course, has some 
strong views about it. But we think that this 
is a point on which allies and demonstrated friends 
can talk about it, can think about it together, and 
consider all of the ramifications and hopefully 
come to some agreement. It may not be possible; 
it is not always necessary for allies to agree with 
each other on every point, and disagreement on 
such a point is no reflection upon the solidarity of 
the alliance itself. 



Jo/y 37, 7961 



181 



Mr. Cosgrove: '■'"'Would you tell us where 
America's defense perimeter in the Pacific is?'''' 
[Lauffhter.l 

A. Ten years and five months ago a speech was 
made at this rostnmi on that subject. I think I 
will let the situation stand as it is because we have 
a network of alliances and commitments in tliat 
part of the world which are now a matter of 
public record and we take them seriously. 

Relations With Neutral Nations 

Mr. Cosgrove: '^Hoio xincominitted are Ghana 
arid Guinea? Do you see any proNems in support 
for natiofis that assume the posture of Ghana or 
Guinea?''^ 

A. Without commenting specifically on two 
particular comitries, let me include these in a 
more general remark— that I think we ought to 
be a little careful about categorizing other nations' 
foreign policies too quickly, because things are 
never quite as simple as that and there are op- 
portunities in relationships which ought to be 
developed. 

I recognize that, in the case of the certain so- 
called neutral countries, a year or so ago it was 
supposed that they had been "lost" or that they 
had joined tlie opposing camp. I think we ought 
to be careful about leaping to such conclusions. 
I think we ought to bear in mind the attitude of 
the football team or the baseball team — play for 
the breaks. If you don't play for them you won't 
be ready for them, and you may very well get 
them. And in a number of these situations there 
are indications that the breaks can occur. And 
we ought to have relationships which will make 
those breaks productive. 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■'■Mr. Secretary, Pakistan's 
President Ayub Khan will he here on Thursday. 
This question pertains to him. Pakistan's Presi- 
dent Ayub Khan complains that we give no special 
consideration to the views and needs of committed 
allies such as Pakistan. What is your policy to- 
ward relations with neutral nations? Do you 
fa/vor discrimination in favor of allies?''^ 

A. A coimtry which has more than 40 allies and 
which has important interests and relations with 
more than 50 so-called imcommitted nations finds 
this a particularly difficult question to answer in 
general terms. I have said in my opening re- 



marks that I do believe that the most far-reaching, 
imderlying issues of our times are those which pit 
the Sino-Soviet bloc against all the rest. And on 
that underlying issue — that is, of national inde- 
pendence, of freedom of choice — there is no appre- 
ciable difference among any of the members of the 
free world, including the neutrals. 

But, on the other hand, we have special relations 
with our allies. The tenns of those alliances do 
not indicate that we would emphasize special 
treatment, although in fact special treatment has 
in the usual case gone forward. "What tliese alli- 
ances represent is a mutual commitment — of our 
strength, of our lives, of our future — to the secu- 
rity and safety of each other. Tliat is the essence 
of the alliance. And other considerations are for 
discussion. I think we ought to be in a position 
where we can develop steadily the strength of our 
alliances but also help to build this great world of 
choice which includes neutral nations. 

Mr. Cosgrove: '■'■On several occasions you re- 
ferred to Khrushchev'' s January 6th speech. 
What is your diagnosis of this speech and its 
meaning for the non-Communist nations in the 
1960's?" 

A. I personally believe that as many Americans 
as can ought to read this January 6th speech of 
Mr. Khrushchev's carefully and with the utmost 
seriousness. This may be superseded in the 
autumn by the conclusions of the Party Congress, 
which will meet in October, but it seems to me to 
represent a frank statement of the long-term pur- 
poses of the Soviet Union and of the international 
Communist conspiracy. I do think that we 
should take it for what it is — a statement of pur- 
pose, and purpose backed by action — and that 
we should not dismiss it simply as a piece of 
propaganda. 

Mr. Cosgrove : '■'■Should more emphasis be given 
to our valuable cultural exchange program so ivell 
handled by the State Department?" 

A. I think Mr. Coombs [Philip H. Coombs, As- 
sistant Secretaiy for Educational and Cultural 
Affairs] must have put this question. [Laughter.] 

We are very much interested in the cultural 
exchange program because we believe it is the 
kind of program which shows America at its best 
and establishes contacts with other nations in an 
atmosphere and a framework which means soli- 



182 



Department of State Bulletin 



darity across the years ahead. I can't exaggerate 
the importance of such programs. This is a field 
in which I spent a good deal of time in private 
life and have seen some of the direct as well as 
the indirect benefits of such activities. I hope 
that we are handling them as well as the question 
suggests, but nevertheless I deeply feel that they 
must be continued and expanded and developed 
further. 

Mr. Cosgrove: Mr. Secretary, I wish toe had 
time for all the questions that we havenH yet 
touched, tut the time is drawing short and hefore 
asking the last question Pd like to present to you 
as a token of our appreciation of your being here 
this certificate and a copy of "Etaoin ShrdJu" the 
first 50 years of the National Press Cluh. 

Now for the last question: '■'■Do you regret that 
article of yours on summit diplomacy in Foreign 
Affairs quarterly?'''' [Laughter.] 

A. No, not really. [Laughter.] I was then in 
the position of a gloriously irresponsible private 
citizen. I think the article made sense and makes 
sense. I think that those who are carrying official 
responsibility have to reserve their right to use all 
instruments freely and flexibly at their disposal 
to get on with the national interest. I think per- 
haps if I were writing that article again today that 
I would add at least a few sentences here and 
there. 



United States Replies to Soviet 
"Troiio" Proposal 

Statement hy Secretary Rusk ^ 

Press release 496 dated July 14 

Throughout history men have dreamed of a 
world organization capable of preserving the 
peace. After World War I the League of Nations 
was established for this purpose but failed because 
of internal weakness and defiance by aggressive 
powers. After World War II the United Nations 
was created to preserve the peace and security 
which are now essential as the alternative to the 
destruction of civilization. 



' Read to news correspondents on July 14 by Harlan 
Cleveland, Assistant Secretary for International Organi- 
zation Affairs. 



It is therefore particularly regrettable that 
Chairman Khrushchev persists in his assault on 
the United Nations. In Moscow this week he 
stated flatly : "To preserve the situation which now 
exists in the United Nations means to pave the way 
to the ruin and death of that international 
organization." 

No one else -wants the "ruin and death" of the 
United Nations. The reason he objects to the 
United Nations, as he said, is "the situation which 
now exists" there. 

The basic situation "which now exists" in the 
United Nations is that the Organization has ac- 
quired a capacity to act to preserve the peace and 
security of the smaller nations which make up the 
great majority of its membership. This does not 
appear to suit the plans of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Khrushchev contends that he wants an or- 
ganization in which "all countries belonging to the 
United Nations have equal rights and enjoy equal 
opportunities." This is what we have now — and 
what he does not like. To destroy these equal 
rights and opportunities, Mr. Khrushchev last 
year launched his proposal for a three-headed Sec- 
retary-General, which he repeated on Monday. 

Under this proposal, the executive organ of the 
U.N. would not be administered by international 
civil servants but by "three persons representing 
the three principal groups of states.''^ This reflects 
Mr. Khrushchev's pretension that the world is di- 
vided into three "blocs." There is only one bloc 
in the United Nations which takes its orders from 
a single authority : the Communist bloc, which 
represents 10 percent of the members. The other 
90 percent are free to think and decide for them- 
selves although they tend to group themselves by 
cultural and political sympathies and common 
interests. 

The so-called "troika" proposal flies in the face 
of everything we know about effective administra- 
tion. But the real point of it is that a majority 
of the members of the United Nations — countries 
in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin 
America — would have a total of one vote among 
them in the executive direction of the U.N. — and 
that vote could be nullified by a veto. The United 
Nations would be powerless to act on any proposal 
that did not suit the purposes of the Soviet Union. 

Thus Mr. Khrushchev's assault against the 
United Nations is, in reality, an attack on the 
"equal rights and equal opportunities" now en- 



Jw/y 31, I96I 



183 



joyed by all members of the General Assembly — 
and the protection afforded them by the U.N.'s 
peace-keeping machinery. 

An impressive majority of the members already 
has answered Mr. Khrushchev's assault on the in- 
tegrity of the United Nations when they rejected 
his outrageous demand, during the Fifteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly, to replace the Secretary-General 
■with a three-headed directorate. Mr. Khrushchev 



made it vei-y clear on Monday that he will con- 
tinue to press his attack. There is no way that the 
Soviet Union can impose his proposal. This would 
mean an amendment of the charter, which requires 
the consent of the United States and other perma- 
nent members of the Security Council. We would 
not consent, nor would the necessary two-thirds of 
the General Assembly. The United Nations will 
not destroy itself. 



Soviet Union Urged To Agree to Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; 
Item Proposed for 16tii Session of U.N. General Assembly 



Following is an exchange of notes between the 
United States and the Soviet Union concerning 
the Geneva test ban negotiations, together with a 
letter of July 15 from the U.S. and U.K. dele- 
gations at the United Nations to the Secretary- 
General requesting inclusion in the agenda of the 
16th session of the General Assembly of an item 
entitled '■^The Urgent Need for a Treaty To Ban 
Nuclear Weapons Tests Under Effective Inter- 
national ControV 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES 

U.S. Note of July 15 

Press release 497 dated July 15 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and has the honor to state the follow- 
ing: 

The United States Government has examined 
the reply of the Soviet Government of July 5, 
1961 to the note of the Government of the United 
States of June 17, 1961 ^ on the question of the 
nuclear test ban negotiations. Apparently in an 
effort to avoid the question of halting nuclear 
weapons tests under effective international con- 
trol, the Soviet note contains a multitude of ir- 
relevant and unwarranted comments. The United 



States Government sees no point in replying to 
these comments. 

Instead, the United States Government prefers 
to confine its reply to the Soviet Government to 
the central issue in the nuclear test negotiations. 
This issue is clear : it is whether the Soviet Union 
is now willing and prepared to reach an accord 
which would halt nuclear weapons tests under 
effective international control. ^ For its part, the 
United States is fully prepared to accept all the 
necessary international controls in its territory to 
insure that nuclear tasting is effectively halted. 
It fails to understand why the Soviet Union con- 
siders tliat these same controls which are strictly 
limited in scope to fit technical and organizational 
requirements would jeopardize its national 
security. 

In an effort to achieve a basis for final agree- 
ment at the earliest possible time, the Governments 
of the United States and the United Kingdom 
have made numerous proposals designed to accom- 
modate Soviet positions on international inspec- 
tion and control. In many cases these proposals 
have met the Soviet position completely. Yet the 
reaction of the Soviet Government to our efforts 
to narrow the gap between the two sides has been 



' For text, see Bixlletin of July 3, 1961, p. 18. 
184 



' For text of a U.S.-U.K. draft treaty submitted to the 
Conference on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon 
Tests on Apr. 18, 1961, see ibid., June .5, 1961, p. 870; for 
a history of the political and technical developments of 
the negotiations from Oct. 31, 1958, to Aug. 22, 1960, see 
xUA., Sept. 26, 1960, p. 482. 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



to create new obstacles to agreement and lately, to 
propose that a treaty banning nuclear weapon tests 
should await agreement on, and perhaps indeed 
implementation of, general and complete dis- 
armament. 

The United States stands ready to negotiate a 
general disarmament agreement as rapidly as this 
can be done. It is clear that an immediate agree- 
ment to end nuclear weapon tests would aid in 
the achievement of such a disarmament agree- 
ment and equally clear that failure to reach agree- 
ment on a test ban would in all likelihood hinder 
efforts to conclude swiftly an accord on disarma- 
ment. The fact that the Soviet Union resists so 
strenuously the limited control measures required 
by a nuclear test ban treaty can only cause grave 
concern for the possibilities of achieving effec- 
tively controlled disarmament. 

This contrast between the attitudes of the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United 
Kingdom, on the one hand, and the Soviet Gov- 
ernment on the other, has been and is being brought 
into sharp relief in the conference proceedings 
on the question of how the control system should 
be managed and directed. 

An issue which the Soviet Government had long 
described as one of the most important facing 
the conference was the issue of the composition 
of the Control Commission. The United States 
and the United Kingdom have agreed to equality 
of representation with the Soviet Union on this 
supreme supervising organ of the control system. 
There would be four representatives from each 
of the two sides and three neutral representatives. 
The Soviet Union and its allies would participate 
directly in the Control Commission in its task of 
setting the guidelines for operation of the control 
system and maintaining supervision over it. 

Despite this significant move, which gave the 
Soviet Union an equal voice with the United 
States and the United Kingdom in guiding the 
affairs of the control system, the Soviet Union 
demanded still greater powers to impose its will 
on the control organization. Retreating from an 
agreed provision of the treaty, the Soviet Union 
has unfortunately chosen to advance the proposal 
that day-to-day administrative and executive au- 
thority over the international control system be 
exercised by a three-man administrative council. 
This council, on which each of the two nuclear 
sides and non-associated states would be repre- 



sented, could take action only by unanimous con- 
sent so that the implementation of both Ihe 
decisions of the Control Commission and the pro- 
visions of the treaty itself could be freely frus- 
trated or vetoed. The effect of this proposal 
would be the paralysis of the entire control organi- 
zation and would surely make a mockery of effec- 
tive international inspection. 

It cannot be argued that this new Soviet pro- 
posal was necessary to protect Soviet security 
interests. Under agreed provisions of the treaty, 
the Soviet Union has received ample assurance 
that administration of the control system will be 
competent and impartial. The Administrator is 
made accountable to the policy-making Control 
Commission, and works under its continuous 
supervision. His appointment and the appoint- 
ment of his first deputy requires the concurring 
vote of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union has 
the right to nominate two Deputy Administrators. 
The staff of the control organization is appro- 
priately divided so as to provide equality between 
the two nuclear sides. Decisions as to the total 
amount of each annual budget, and the decisions 
as to amendment of the treaty, require the con- 
curring vote of the Soviet Union. From this it 
is abundantly clear that concern over the Admin- 
istrator's activities could not have been the moti- 
vating cause for this Soviet demand for a tripartite 
administrative council. 

In an attempted justification for its tripartite 
administrative council proposal, the Soviet Gov- 
ernment states that "There is no one person who 
can live in a society and not be influenced by one 
or another ideology and by mutual relations which 
exist between different groups within society. 
Neutral countries exist, but there are not and can- 
not be neutral people." 

The Government of the United States believes 
that this rejection of the idea of an international 
civil servant acting impartially under guidance 
from international policy-making organs consti- 
tutes nothing less than an attack upon the executive 
capacity of any international organization for 
effective action. There are, of course, many people 
who are capable of exercising independent judg- 
ment in behalf of the international community; 
the whole history of international organizations 
bears witness to this fact. The United States re- 
jects this Soviet contention categorically and is 
convinced that nations which do not wish to sub- 



July 37, T96I 



185 



mit to the domination of great powers will also 
reject it. 

This is a striking example of the Soviet Union's 
attempt to sabotage the Geneva nuclear test ban 
negotiations. It is not the only example, how- 
ever, as was pointed out in the June 17 note of 
the U.S. Government. The Soviet refusal to ac- 
cept more than three on-site inspections a year; 
the demand that international control posts and 
inspection teams in Soviet territory be headed by 
Soviet nationals ; the Soviet insistence on criteria 
for on-site inspection which would seldom, if ever, 
permit an on-site inspection to be made regardless 
of how suspicious a detected event might be — all 
these are examples of tlie Soviet resistance to 
negotiating an effective nuclear test ban agreement 
in Geneva. 

For its part, the United States Government must 
express its profound regret at the turn of events 
that has taken place in the test ban conference. 
The United States still regards the reaching of an 
agreement as a prime objective of its national 
policy. It repeats its readiness to negotiate in a 
reasonable spirit with the Soviet Government on 
the terms of a test ban treaty. Despite the late- 
ness of the hour, the United States believes that 
the Soviet Government cannot be insensible to the 
demands of millions of people everywhere that 
agreement be reached urgently to ban nuclear 
weapons tests under effective control. 

A binding treaty with effective controls would 
guarantee against hazards involved in testing; it 
would be a first step along the road towards ac- 
cord on disarmament and towards the improve- 
ment of East-West relations; and it would inliibit 
the spread of nuclear weapons manufacturing ca- 
pability. The prize we seek is too valuable and 
the consequences of our failure to win it are too 
serious to permit the luxury of indulging in nar- 
row and temporary national interests. The United 
States Government makes common cause with all 
humanity when it urges the Soviet Government to 
allow the negotiators at Geneva to get on with 
their work. 

Soviet Note of July 5 

Unofficial translation 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR presents 
its compliments to the Embassy of the United States of 
America and has the honor to state the following: 

The Soviet Government has examined the reply of the 
Government of the United States of 17 June 1961 to the 



186 



Aide Memoire on the question about suspension of tests of 
nuclear weapons, handed to the President of the United 
States of America Kennedy at the time of the meeting 
with the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the 
USSR, N. S. Khrushchev, in Vienna 4 June of this year.' 
From this reply it is evident that the Government of the 
United States unfortunately has not agreed with proposals 
of the Soviet Government which have as their purpose the 
facilitating and hastening of the solution of the problem of 
suspension for all time of tests of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons. 

AH the contents, and indeed even the tone of the note 
of reply of the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica, bespeali that in place of businesslilse and constructive 
exchange of opinions, the Government of the United States 
has entered another path — the path of distortion of Soviet 
proposals and idle fabrications in connection with the 
position of the Soviet Union. The Government of the 
United States of America clearly is trying to sharpen 
polemic and at the same time to introduce into it elements 
which have no connection with the question discussed. 
All this, as is evident, is intended as efforts to remove from 
the United States responsibility for the fruitless negotia- 
tions in Geneva. In this there is not evident even a 
shadow of a wish to facilitate achievement of agreement 
on suspension of nuclear tests. On the contrary, from the 
American note the thought is directly suggested that the 
Government of the United States is concerned now only 
with one thing — how to justify in the eyes of public opin- 
ion resumption of tests of nuclear weapons which have 
been prepared in the United States of America, under 
what pretext to bum bridges to agreement of the powers 
on prohibition of such tests. Even the American press 
does not hide that the military organization of the United 
States of America — the Pentagon — and the American 
Atomic Energy Commission are only waiting for that day 
when they will be given the signal to continue nuclear 
tests. 

It is evident therefore that the Government of the United 
States of America is trying to present the entire course 
of negotiations of the three powers in Geneva in a distorted 
light. The Soviet Government considers it necessary to 
remind of the basic facts concerning the negotiations on 
the question about suspension of tests of atomic and hydro- 
gen weapons and, in particular, the position of the sides 
at the Geneva Conference. 

The Soviet Union during the course of many years has 
consistently maintained that the world should be delivered 
forever from any nuclear explosions, whipping up the 
race of atomic armament and posing a threat to the life 
and health of people. It was none other than the Soviet 
Union which was first of the atomic powers to pose the 
question about the necessity of ending without delay 
dangerous experiments with nuclear weapons. 

Desirous of facilitating achievement of international 
agreement on this question the Soviet Union even In 
March, 1958, ceased on a unilateral basis tests of nuclear 
weapons although it was known that the USSR had car- 
ried out fewer test explosions than the United States of 



' For text, see ihi4., July 3, 1961, p. 22. 

Department of State Bulletin 



America and England. How then did tlie Governments of 
the United States of America and Great Britain reply to 
this? They replied with a new series of test explosions 
of nuclear bombs unprecedented in their intensity. But 
the Soviet Union continued its line on the general and 
urgent suspension of nuclear tests. 

In 1959 the Soviet Government adopted a decision not 
to resume nuclear explosions if the Western Powers for 
their part would not conduct such explosions. And the 
Soviet Union has strictly adhered to the responsibility 
taken upon itself regardless of the fact that France — an 
ally of the United States of America and Great Britain in 
the NATO military bloc — regularly conducts nuclear tests. 

The Geneva Three-Power Conference Itself was con- 
voked as a result of insistent eiforts of the Soviet Union. 
Indeed, the entire history of the Geneva talks is above 
all a history of incessant searching by the Soviet Union 
for mutually acceptable solutions regarding prohibition of 
all tests of nuclear weapons. It is known that the Soviet 
Union, in the interest of achieving agreement, accepted the 
whole series of proposals of the United States and Eng- 
land on important points of the draft agreement being 
worked out. And if certain progress has been achieved 
at the Geneva Conference, this is in the first instance due 
to the good will and genuine striving of the Soviet Union 
to move forward the matter of ending tests. 

But what has been the position of the Government of the 
United States and other Weistem Powers? Under vari- 
ous invented pretexts they have obstructed the solution 
of this problem. To whom is it not known that it is just 
the Western Powers — and above all the Government of 
the United States — which have for a long time generally 
come out against talks on ending of tests of nuclear 
weapons? 

If one sees the course of the Geneva Conference not in 
a curved mirror, as the Government of the United States 
attempts to do, but in a real light, then it becomes obvious 
to any even slightly objective observer that in fact the 
United States has during the course of the whole Geneva 
Conference exerted efforts to hinder working out of an 
agreement on ending of tests of nuclear weapons. There 
are not a few facts which say that if the positions of the 
United States and Great Britain had not been directed 
toward wrecking agreement, then the work of the Geneva 
Conference would have long ago been completed and an 
agreement would have been signed. 

Favorable conditions, for example, existed in 1958 after 
the Conference of Experts of the United States, England, 
the Soviet Union, and other countries, which thoroughly 
examined methods of detecting nuclear explosions and 
unanimously worked out recommendations on questions of 
controls for suspension of tests of atomic and hydrogen 
weapons.* The matter only remained for the governments 
which participated in the negotiations and approved these 
recommendations to conclude quickly an agreement on 
these bases on suspension of tests of nuclear weapons. 

At the conference of representatives of the USSR, 
the United States of America and Great Britain which 
opened at Geneva, a number of articles of the draft treaty 



' For text of a report of the Conference of Experts, see 
ihid., Sept. 22, 1958, p. 453. 



on cessation of tests was agreed. But this obviously 
seriously disturbed those circles in the United States of 
America who have been and are alarmed by the very 
possib