Skip to main content

Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

See other formats


• iPoston Pub 

^ OF 





Yol. XLIX, Nos. 1253-1279 

July 1-Decemher 30, 1963 




of Issue 






1- 36 





37- 76 






























































Date 0/ Issue 






529- 568 





569- 608 





609- 652 





653- 692 





693- 724 





726- 764 





765- 804 





805- 840 





841- 880 





881- 908 





909- 952 





953- 988 








h '-i 


Publication 7754 

Released December 1964 

'or i*!* by lh»8uperlnt«ndent of Documents, U.S. Oovcrnraent Printing Ollicc, Waslilngton, D.C., 20402- Frlcc 30 cents (Single copy) 
SutMctlpUon prloo tlO.OO; ti.03 additional for foreign moiling 


Volume XLIX: Numbers 1253-1279, July 1-Decembers 30, 1963 

Abu Simbel, temples of, 18 

Academy of Sciences, Soviet, 404 

ACDA. See Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 

Adams, Walter, 297 
Adenauer, Konrad, 116, 697 

Advertising material and commercial samples, inter- 
national convention (1952) to facilitate importa- 
tation of, Cyprus, 109 
Advisory Commission on International Educational 
and Cultural Affairs, 57, 169, 297, 684, 743, 864 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, 57, 438 
Advisory Committee on International Book Programs, 

Advisory Committee on International Business Prob- 
lems, 542 
Advisory Committee on International Organizations, 
The Technical Cootieration Programs of the United 
Nations System, released, 97 
Aerial photography in Africa, importance of (Pearcy), 

Afghanistan : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 410 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34.j, 410, 450, 647 
U.S. cooperation with (Kennedy), 535 
Visit of King and Queen to U.S., 92, 235 
Africa : 
Cartography, importance of (Pearcy), 1014 
Communist interest and techniques to undermine 

freedom in (Williams), 929, 931 
Decolonization, problems in (Stevenson), 333 
Development Bank, proposed establishment (BiBg- 

bam), 719 
Economic and social development in (Fredericks), 

289, 785 
Education, need for expansion : Anderson, 87 ; 

Fredericks, 289 
Foreign aid program, need for (Williams), 436 
Newly independent nations, problems of (Manning), 

Peace Corps program in (Kennedy), 171 
Political developments (Fredericks), 783 
Portuguese territories : 

Self-determination, problems of: Gardner, 505; 

Williams, 434 
U.N. Security Council resolution, 309 
U.S. position: Fredericks, 784; Husk, 360; Steven- 
son, 303, 308 

Africa — Continued 
Role of U.S. private organizations (Williams), 436 
Self-determination of African states: Cleveland, 

4G3 ; Williams, 434 
Students in U.S. and Soviet Union, number of (Wil- 
liams), 930 
U.S. policy: Fredericks, 284; Williams, 432, 932 
Women, role of (Williams), 636 
African Development Bank, U.S. approval for pro- 
posed establishment of, 719 
African Unity, Organization of: 
Objectives of (Fredericks), 786 
U.S. support (Fredericks), 285, 287 
Agency for International Development : 

Exports, relation of AID program to (Kennedy), 

597, 598 
Foreign aid program, administration of: Kennedy, 

254 ; Rusk, 21 
AID mission closed in, 297 

Airport construction, loan agreement suspended 
for, 144 
International aviation policy, statutory responsibil- 
ity (Kennedy), 161 
Purpose and role of: Bell, 832; Kennedy, 808 
Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1427), 664 
Agricultural Act of 1961 (7 U.S.C. 1282), 664 
Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas programs: 
Agreements with: Bolivia, 172; Brazil, 524, 606; 
Colombia, 418 ; Cyprus, 150 ; Dominican Repub- 
lic, 381, 802 ; Ethiopia, 74 ; Greece, 878 ; Guinea, 
950 ; Indonesia, 150, 172 ; Iraq, 524 ; Japan, 150 ; 
Korea, 110, 172, 418; Pakistan, 34; Peru, 606; 
Portugal, 230; Syrian Arab Republic, 984; 
Tunisia, 606; United Arab Republic, 689, 722; 
Viet-Nam, 346, 906 
Food for peace shipment, FT 1963, report to Con- 
gress on, 403 
Korea, U.S. grain provided, 101 
U.S. exports to Europe (G. Johnson), 547 
U.S. studies abroad, use of foreign currency to fi- 
nance, 169 
Wheat export to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 
proposed: Ball, 935; Kennedy, 600; Rusk, 810, 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
(1954) : 
India, agreement amending agreement under title 

III, 110 
7 U.S.C. 1707, 664 



AdvanciHi UH-hiiology, effects of: Kennedy, 58; Free- 
man. 00, &4 ; Rui<k, 001 
Communliit China. probleaiB In (Uilsman). 387 
Cuba, ImiJortance of sugar jiroductlon (Martin), 577 
EEC tarKrt price on grain, i)robleni of (Goeeett), 

Lem develoi)od countries, problems of development 

procoM In (RoBtow), 4iJ6 
Mexico, agrarian reform program In (Martin), 960, 

Xewl for Increased production In (Kennedy), 780 
I'acUlc Islands trust terrltorj- (Godiug), 225 
Ilole. 8C01M? and effects of Industrialization on (Free- 
man), 00 
Trade In agricultural products (see also Commodity 
trade problems) : 
U.S.EKC trade, problems ((Jossett), 293 
World trade ( Herter), 602, 603 
Agriculture, De|>artment of : 
Ckttton sales abroad, propram for (Kennedy), 252 
Food and Agriculture Exposition-Symposium oi)ened 

at Amsterdam, 094 
The World food Budget, published, 63 
Agrousky. .Martin, 340 
Ahmed, Cihulnm, 377 

AID. 8co Agency for International Development 
Air navigation and transport. See Aviation 
Air rates, iutemationni, U.S. views on, 247 
Air Transport Association, International, 247 
Aircraft See Aviation 
.Virmail, universal ixwtal convention (1957) provision.s 

re, Trinidad and Tobago, 273 
Alalni. Mobsln A., 249 
Albania : 

Communist China. U.N. membership proposal (Ste- 
venson), ".'w 
Telecommunication convention (lO-jO) international, 
with aimexes, 762 
Algeria : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 297 

Border dispute, cease-flre agreement with Morocco, 

U.S. approval, 787 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 884 
Soviet arms shlptiiont from Cuba and Egypt, question 

of (RuMlc),817 
TrentlPH, agrwments, etc., 34, 229, 380, 605, 984 
AlKprian'.Moroccan dispute (Rusk), 817 
Allen, Fmncls O., 4.'>0 
Alien, Ilnrold W., 1M5 
Alliance for Progress: 

AppniprlaMiin rwluiilons, dangers of: 
Clay. 47tl; Collin. 517; .lohnson, WO; McNamarn, 
400; Uiwk. 400. r.71, .'■!«». 1003 
Export markets, development of (Kennedy), 598 
liStln America : 

.V iits In: Kennedy, 401, 808, 901; L. 


' continued support (L. Johnson), 912 

Mexico (MarUn),001 

Alliance for Progress — Continued 
Need for strengthening (Rusk), 814 
Objectives and review of: Ball, 832; Battle, 412; 
Bingham, 719; Harriman, 945; Kennedy, 900; 
Martin, 579, 581 ; McXamara, 401 ; Rostow, 424 ; 
Rusk, 401 
2d annual review of, lA-ECOSOC Ministerial Rep- 
resentatives, 800, 937 
Technical assistance programs, importance of 
(Rusk), 21 
American Institute of Indian Studies, U.S. grant to, 

AMVETS (American Veterans of World War II and 

Korea), 433, 434 
Anderson, Jlrs. Eugenie, 87, 138, 141, 142 
Anderson, George W., Jr., 310 
Angola : 

Self-determination, U.S. support (Stevenson), 304 
Antarctica : 

Inspection, purpose and appointment of observers 

for, 513, 932 
Telecommunications, Antarctic Treaty countries 
meeting on, final communique, 107 
ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, U.S.), U.S. support 

(U. Johnson), 81 
Apartheid (see o?«o Racial discrimination) : 

Problems of : Fredericks, 784 ; Gardner, 505 ; Steven- 
son, 333 ; Williams, 435, 931 ; Yost, 337 
U.S. position : Fredericks, 286; Kennedy, 534 ; Plimp- 
ton, 758 ; Stevenson, 769 
Arab-Israeli conflict (Rusk), 24 
Architects, Pan American Congress of, 801 
Argentina : 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 884 
Democracy, maintainence of (Martin), 700 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 74, 229, 230, 345, 410, 

450, 484, 524, 647, 689, 722, 761, 801, 8."}8 
Visit by Gov. Harriman, purpose of (Rusk), 814 
Armaments (see also Disarmament, Missiles, and Nu- 
clear weapons) : 
Control and reduction of : 

International law, importance of (Foster), 829 
Soviet-U.S. possible negotiations re (Rusk), 195 
U.S. position : Foster 7, 824, 825 ; Stevenson, 753 
Cuban arms cache discovery in Venezuela, 913 
Nuclear arms race, halt to (Cleveland), 966 
Portugal, U.S. position on military supply to (Steven- 
son), 307; test of Security Council resolution, 
Dangers of and need to halt (Foster), 828 
National security, effect on (Kennedy) , 237 
Outer space, problems in : Gardner, 371 ; Steven- 
son, 1006 
Solution of (Kennedy), 4 
Safeguard against risk of war : Kennedy, 532 ; Rusk, 

South Africa, U.S. sales forbidden to: Stevenson, 
335; Yost, 337 



Armed forces : 

NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Near East, Soviet position re forces in, 85 
Soviet Union, in Cuba, 360, 361 

Treatment in time of war, Geneva conventions 
(1949), relative to: Cameroon, 950; Malagasy 
Republic, 648; Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 273; So- 
mali Republic, 648; Tanganyika, 273; Trinidad 
and Tobago, 950 
Armed forces, U.S. : 

Berlin, Soviet interference with U.S. convoys to, 812, 

815, 818 
Germany, question of U.S. forces in (Rusk), 357, 729 
Indian technicians, training of, 246 
Korea, Communist aggression against U.S. soldiers 

in, 283 
Military cemeteries, agreement with Belgium correct- 
ing discrepancies re, 838 
Overseas, number and cost of maintaining: McNa- 

mara, 917 ; Rusk, 496, 729, 995 
Viet-Nam, role in : Heavner, 397 ; Manning, 458 
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, U.S. : 
Assistant Director, confirmation, 906 
Background and goals of : Foster, 7, 824 ; Williams, 
433 ; Tyler, 94 
Arts, Advisory Committee on the, appointments, 57, 438 
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also ANZUS 
Council, Pacific, Southeast Asia Treaty Organiza- 
tion, and individual countries) : 
Communist activities : Hilsman, 44 ; Kennedy, 499 
Economic and social development (Hilsman), 390 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 30 
Education, need for (Anderson), 87 
Immigration quota, problem of (Kennedy), 299 
U.S. policy : Hilsman, 386 ; U. Johnson, 78 
Atlantic alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
Atlantic community («ee also Atlantic partnership and 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Background and purpose of: Kennedy, 120, 121, 122, 

123 ; Rostow, 537 
Role of Peace Corps ( Kennedy) , 115 
Atlantic parliamentary assembly, proposed (Schaet- 

zel), 734 
Atlantic partnership: 

Review of : Kennedy, 120 ; Rusk, 726 

Role of U.S. and united Europe in: McGhee, 958; 

Schaetzel, 736 
U.S. position: Bundy, 627; McGhee, 954; Rusk, 729; 
Schaetzel, 731 
Atlantic undersea test and evaluation center, U.S.-U.K. 
agreement for establishment in Bahama Islands 
of, 722 
Atmospheric nuclear tests, international concern (Har- 

riman), 282 
Atmospheric nuclear weapon test ban. See Nuclear 

Test Ban Treaty 
Atomic Energy Agency, International : 
Desalting sea water, U.S. delegation to conference 

on, 563 
Deputy representative (Hefner), confirmation, 566 

Atomic Energy Agency, International— Continued 
Role in nuclear power station established in India, 

Safeguards system extension for international nu- 
clear control, U.S. position (Smyth), 1019 
Statute of: 
Current action : Ivory Coast, 905 
Amendment of art. VI.A.3 : Afghanistan, Argen- 
tina, 647 ; Germany, 450 ; Italy, 372 ; Libya, 565 
U.S. support (L. Johnson), 1019 
Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. : 

Pacific Islands trust territory, health survey con- 
ducted in (Goding), 219 
Uranium 235, additional quantities recommended, 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of : 

Agreements re civil uses of: Belgium, 905; 
EURATOM, 450, 762; India, 143, 345, 802; Ire- 
land, 345 ; Japan, 345, 647 ; Panama, 110 ; Philip- 
pines, 345 ; U.K., 310 
India, negotiations and text of agreement establish- 
ing nuclear power station in, 143, 340 
International cooperation, U.S. supports (L. Johnson), 
Safeguards system, U.S. favors extension of 

(Smyth), 1019 
Uranium 235, U.S. makes additional quantities avail- 
able, 167 
Atoms for peace program, success of (Smyth), 1020 
Australia : 

ANZUS, U.S. support (U. Johnson), 81 
Communication with U.S. via Commonwealth Cable, 

Economic comparison with Communist China (Hila- 

man), 391 
Prime Minister visit to U.S., 51 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 150, 229, 245, 761, 802, 

877, 950 
U.S. scientific attach^, appointment, 150 

Educational exchange agreement with U.S., an- 
nounced, 100 
Persecutee Fund, deadline for filing claims, 550 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 150, 485, 524, 722 
Automotive traffic. See Road traffic 
Aviation : 

Air rates, international : 
Air transport association, international rate 

agreement, 511 
Rates, routes, and capacity problems (Johnson), 

U.S. views, 247 
Air transport, relationship between Industry and 

government (G. Johnson), 512 
Aircraft, U.S. supplying Laos, Soviet views, 500 
Airport construction agreement with Haiti sus- 
pended by U.S., 144 
Coordinator for International Aviation, appointment 

(Ferguson), 186 
Cuban air service, status of (Martin), 576 



Aviation — Continued 

lult-miitlanal jwllry. U-S. : 

Prlni-lpli-w of (O. Johnnon), TMS 
8«tn-lury aHslgned leadership In (Ken- 
nedy). 1(50 
Treatlem aBrwuients, etc : 

Air navlKntlon e<iulpnH'nt, agreement with Ger- 
many re leuHe of, 381 
Air nnvlgiition services, joint Bnancing of, agree- 
ments : 

Kuroe Islands and Greenland, amendment of 
iinnex III, entry Into force, 150 
Air services transit agreement, international 

( liM5), Jamaica, 701 
Air transiiort services agreement with: Mexico, 

.•{71, -IIH; New Zealand, 172 
rarrlage by air. convention (1929) for unification 
of ifrtain rules re : Belgium, Cyprus, 877 ; Den- 
mark. Iceland, .34; Morocco, 877; Norway, 34; 
riirtugal, 877 ; Sweden, 34 ; Uganda, 877 
Civil aviation, international, convention (1944) 
Convention on and other acts commit- 
ted on board aircraft: China, Congo (B), 
Germany. Guatemala, Holy See, Indonesia, 
Italy. Japan, Liberia. Panama. Philippines, 
Sweden. I'.K.. I'.S., Upi>er Volta, Yugoslavia. 
Protocol amending art. .')O(a) re ICAO Council 

membership, Italy, 701 
Protocol amending arts, on sessions of ICAO 

Assembly : Panama, Tanganyika, 761 
Protficol relating to amendment to increase 
number of parties requesting extraordinary 
Assembly meeting: Australia. Finland, Ire- 
land. Ivory Coast, Niger. Norway, Portugal, 
South Africa, Sweden, Tanganyika, Thailand, 
U.K., 701: U.S., 877: Upper Volta. 761 
Ratified by the President a'57 
Ijinding and Imusing fee exemptions for U.S. mili- 
tary aircraft, agreement with India, .''>24 
U.S. alrrrafts, agreement with Saudi Arabia re 
loan of, 273 

Bader, Henri. 006 

Ilnhama I.xlanils. treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 722 
I<alanc4> of payments: 
Exjiort fX|ianslon program, U.S.: 
AII> devpln|iment of (Kennedy), .TOS 
Effort of, 200 
Foreign aid cuts, effect of (ColBn). 518 
IBRI). roleof (Hall). 020 
IMF, U.S. withdrawals to finance deficits authorlze<l. 

2r.«. 4(Ki 
Propoiic<I amendment to facilitate of foreign 

rurrcncli-)! (Kenne<ly), 2(>l 
U.S. «tatu» of and cfffirts to improve: Kennedy, 2."i0, 

BOB. r.n«, 01 1 ; Husk, .im, ooo 

Wheat wile to Rmlet Union and Knstem Europe. 
effort of (Kennedy). (MM) 
Hall. riiH.rge W., .11.',. .lix, fini, k,s.3. <)Xi 

Baruch, Bernard, 93, 356, 432 

Battle Act, puriwse of, 666 

Battle, Lucius D., 411, 864 

A Beacon of Hope: The Exchange-of-Pcrsons Program, 

published, 743 
Belgium : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 484, 485, 648, 689, 
761, 838, 877, 905, 984 

Visit of A'jce President Johnson, 630, 850 
Bell, David E., 830, 1000 
Ben Bella, Ahmed, 884 
Berlin : 

Berlin wall, question of (Kennedy), 125 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 885 

East Berlin, Soviet restrictions protested by U.S., 

Freedom of, U.S. support (Kennedy), 125 

German-U.S. discussions (Adenauer, Kennedy), 117 

Problems and developments in : Rusk, 812 ; Schaetzel, 

Reunification, problem of (Kennedy), 127 

Soviet interference with U.S. convoys to, 818 

U.S. views: McGhee, 819; Rusk, 656 

Western position (Rusk), 813 
Bermuda agreement, U.S. views (G. Johnson), 512 
Betancourt, Romulo, 890 
Bingham, Jonathan B., 28, 68, 561, 712 
Blagonravov, .tVnatoly A., 405 

Blair House, history and significance (Duke), 703 
Blumenthal, W. Michael, 72, 297 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, 869 
Bolivia : 

President's visit to U.S., 787 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 229, 345, 647 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 838 

U.S. officials seized, U.S. assistance offered for re- 
lease, 998 
Bonds, U.N., terms and conditions governing issuance 

of (General Assembly resolution), 185 
Books, Advisory Committee on International Book 

Programs, 933 
Borton, Hugh, 582 
Bourguiba, Habib, 889 
Boyd, Alan S., 247 
Brandt, Willy, 885 
Brazil : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 884 

Santos. U.S. consulate closed. 329 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 310, 345, 484, 524, 566, 606, 
761, 762, 838, 905 

U.S. aid (Rusk), 23 
Brezhnev, Leonid. 159 
Brinkley, David, 499 
Brown, W. Norman, 99 
Bryant, Farris, 43,45 
Buddhists, in Viet-Nam, U.S. position (Heavner), 395, 

Buffman, William B., 802 
Bulgaria : 

Anderson, Minister Eugenie, television and radio 
broadcast by, 141 



Bulgaria — Continued 

"Plastics-USA" exhibit opened, 142 
Trade relations with U.S., 141 
Travel restrictions for citizens in U.S., 860 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 140, 150, 345, 877 

Bull, Odd (Lt. Gen.), 521 

Bundy, McGeorge, 625 

Burma, treaties, agreements, etc., 330, 877 

Burundi, Kingdom of : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 647, 689, 950 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 310, 566 
U.S. Legation raised to Embassy status, 566 

Butler, R. A., 736 

Byroade, Henry A., 525 

Cadwalader, John L., 205 

Calendar of international conferences and meetings 
{see also subject), 33, 102, 206, 302, 378, 439, 552, 
649, 710, 799, 870, 971 
Camargo, Alberto Lleras, 938 
Cambodia, protocol for accession to GATT, Austria, 

Cameroon : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 109, 150, 172, 450, 950 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
Canada : 
Calgary, U.S. consulate raised to consulate general, 

Chairman of Permanent Joint Board on Defense, 

U.S. Section (Matthews), appointment, 566 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 890 
Edmonton, U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Interest equalization tax proposed, U.S.-Canadian 

joint statement, 256 
North Pacific Fishery Conference, U.S.-Canada-Ja- 

pan, 519, 709 
Passamaquoddy-Saint John hydroelectric projects re- 
port, 248 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadlan 
Committee, 8th meeting, delegation to and text 
of amended agreement, 297, 548, 689 
Trade relations with U.S. (G. Johnson), 543 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 273, 345, 485, 606, 648, 688, 

689, 761, 877, 950 
U.S. relations (Tyler), 93, 97 
Canal Zone: 

Income tax, agreement with Panama for withholding 
from compensation paid to Panamanians em- 
ployed within Canal Zone, 802 
U.S.-Panama talks, 246 
Capital Development Fund, UN, U.S. position (Bing- 
ham), 561 
Captive Nations Week, 1963, proclamation, 161 
Cargo Preference Act, 666 
Carr, James K., 563 
Carter, Chester C, 186 

Cartographic Conference for Africa, U.N., 1014 
Cartography, in Africa, definition and purpose 

(Pearcy), 1014 
Castiella y Maiz. Fernando Maria, 686 
Castro, Fidel, 741 

Cemeteries, U.S. military, agreement with Belgium cor- 
recting discrepancies re, 838 
Central African Republic : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 172, 605, 877 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 310 
Central Intelligence Agency, 500 
Cereals and Meats, Committees on (GATT), 72 
Ceylon : 

Oil, U.S. views re proposed legislation on internal 

distribution of, 245 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 110, 418, 566 
Ceylon Petroleum Corporation, 245 
Chad, treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 230, 450, 877 
Chamizal boundary convention between U.S. and Mex- 
ico, texts of convention and memorandum, 199, 201, 
450, 480 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Chayes, Abram, 162 
Cheston, Warren B., 150 
Chiang Kai-shek, 884 
Chiari, Robert F., 246, 888 
Chile, treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 345, 689, 721, 984, 

China, Communist: 
Asia, aggression in : Galbraith, 55, 56 ; Hilsman, 43 ; 

Johnson. 79 ; Rusk, 23 
Disarmament conference, worldwide, proposed 

(Rusk), 359 
Nationalism, growth of (Ro.stow), 928 
Objectives and behavior (Stevenson), 756, 758 
Soviet relations: 
Aid, Soviet withdrawal (Hilsman), 357 
Sino-Soviet dispute. See Sino-Soviet dispute 
Standards of living (Rostow), 427 
Status of social and economic development (Hils- 
man), 387 
United Nations : 
Attitude toward (Stevenson), 757 
Representation, question of (Stevenson), 755 
China, Republic of : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 884 
Cotton textiles, arrangement with U.S. re trade, 789 
Economic progress, comparison with Communist 

China (Hilsman), 390 
Need for supporting assistance to (Rusk), 1003 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, question of nonparticipa- 

tion (Rusk), 360 
U.S. policy toward and relations with : Hilsman, 44 ; 

Stevenson, 757 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 418, 688, 761, 802 
Visit of Minister (without portfolio) to U.S., an- 
nouncement of, 403 
Yiinff Lo Encyclopedia presented to Library of Con- 
gress, 740 
Ching-kuo, Chiang, 403 
Christensen, William H., 485 
Churchill, Winston S., 886 
Civil Aeronautics Board, 161 

Civil emergency planning committee, agreement with 
Canada for establishment of, 950 



CIrllian pcnion« In Ume of war, Geneva conventions 
(IWU) n-lntlve to treatment of: Cameroon, 950; 
MalaKOHy Rppublic. 048; Saudi Arabia. Senegal, 
273 ; Somali Republic. 648 ; Tanganyika. 273 ; Trin- 
idad and Tobago, 1)50 
Claims : 

Austria, filing deadline for persecutees, RTyO 
Bulgaria, agreement for compensation of U.S. claims 

agalnKt, 140. 150 
Ceylon, problem of compensation for American oil 

comiMinlet* taken over by. 245 
Nethorland.sGerman agreement for compensation to 

Nazi victims, 142. 437 
Pacific Islands trust territory, problems of land dis- 
putes in (Coding), 218 
Philippine War Damage Act, Fulbrlght-Hays amend- 
ment providing settlement of, 301 
Clay. Lucius P.. 470 
Cleveland, llnrinn : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements: 
American democracy. 845 
NATO Council meeting re C.X. agenda, 513 
Peace ond human rights, 3S. 670 
"Toasted breadcrumbs of the future," 12 
Dses of diversity, 401. 004 
United Nations, 18th General Assembly, problems 

and progress, 5.'i3 
Visits: Kurope, 92; France, 513 
C<iftin, Frank M., 514 

International coffee agreement, 1902: 
Current actions: Argentina, 73, 801; Australia, 
9.10; Bolivia, 647; Brazil, 905; Cameroon, 109; 
Chile, 721; Colombia, 109; Congo, 524; Costa 
ni.a. .124, 905; Denmark. 73; El Salvador, 109; 
Kthlopla. 721; Germany, 524, 089; Guatemala, 
l.'O; Haiti, .'■.24; Honduras. 647; India, 605; 
Julian. 73; Mexico. 047; Netherlands. 73; Nlea- 
riigua. 229; Nigeria. 172; Norway. 905; Panama, 
MO ; Soviet I'nion. .524 ; Spain, 524. 905 ; Sweden, 
172 ; Switzerland, 524 ; Togo. 721 ; U.S., 172 
i;.S. supiKirt and proposed ratification, 109, 271 
Cold war : 
Communist position (Rostow), 540 
Dangers of (Kennedy), 531 
Education for mnibatiiig (Ullsman),49 
U.N.'s role In (SIsco), 773 
U.S. attitude toward ( Kennedy), 4, 095 
Cold War Kducatlon, Conference on, 43 
Collective securlly («rc aho Mutual defense) : 

Aula, Soulh Asia, and Southeast Asia. See ANZUS 

ami Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Euroix-. Urc North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Western Hemisphere. See Organization of American 
Collier. Oershon Bcresford Oneslmns, 001 
Colombia : 

Aml>a<i.Kador to U.S., credentials, 240 
C^tidiiicnrcs on I'reslili'ut Kennedy's death, 885 
Treatlea. agrecmenU, etc., 84, 109, 229, 345, 380, 418, 
701. 1022 

Colonialism, decline of: Fredericks, 783; Stevenson, 

Commerce, Department of: 
Aviation policy, role in (Kennedy), 161 
Export expansion program : Kennedy, 252, 660 ; 
Rusk, 600 
Commission on National Goals, 866 
Committee of Liberation (Williams), 435 
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Legal 

Subcommittee, U.N., 104 
Committee to Strengthen the Security of the Free 

World, 477 
Commodity Credit Corporation, 660, 602 
Commodity trade problems {see also individual com- 
modity), proposals and efforts to solve (Frank), 
Common markets. See names of market 
Commonwealth Pacific Cable, 969 
Communications {see also Radio and Telecommtmlca- 
tion) : 
Australia, agreement re naval communication sta- 
tion, 150 
Protocol in (Duke), 703 
Satellites : 
Australia, agreement providing space vehicle 

tracking and communication facilities, 802 
Experimental, cooperation in international testing 
of, agreements with : Denmark, Norway, Swe- 
den, G47 
International program, U.S. support (Kennedy), 

Outer space, problems re: Kennedy (cited), 1010; 

Gardner, 368 
Purpose and achievements (Stevenson), 1010 
Space radio communication conference, decision 

by, 835 
Spain, communication facilities and tracking sta- 
tions on Grand Canary Island, 172 
U.S. views (Gardner), 506 
Soviet-U.S. agreement re establishment of direct 
communications link: 
Negotiations (Tyler), 95 
Purpose of: Foster, 828; Rusk, 195, 491 
Texts of agreement, 50, 406 
Space, Project West Ford, 104, 105 
Transmission from U.S. to Australia via Common- 
wealth Cable, 969 
Communism (see also China, Communist; Cuba; Slno- 
Soviet dispute; atid Soviet Union) : 
Africa, techniques and failure to undermine free- 
dom in : Fredericks, 785 ; Williams, 931 
Aggression and subversive activities: 
Europe (Rostow), 922 
Far East (Johnson), 79 
Germany ( Rostow ), 539, 540 
Latin America : Kennedy, 903 ; Martin, 577 
VIet-Nam : Heavner, 394 ; Manning, 4IJ9 
Agricultural production under (Rusk), 992 
Dangers and problems of: Hilsman, 43; Johnson, 
544 ; Rostow, 923 ; Rusk, 197 



Communism — Continued 
Disputes among Communist nations (Cleveland), 

Free-world struggle and measures against: Ken- 
nedy, 171; McNamara, 919; Rostow, 922, 926; 
Rusk, 495 
GNP, rate of growth in Communist bloc (Rostow), 

Laos, Communist violation of Geneva agreement re 

independence of (Hilsman),45 
Trade union movement, effect on (Kennedy), 123 
World objectives : Bundy, 629 ; Harriman, 279 ; Man- 
ning, 457 ; Rusk, 492, 493, 728 ; Williams, 434 
Condolences on the death of John F. Kennedy, 881- 

Conferences and organizations, international. See In- 
ternational organizations and conferences and 
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville) : 
Communist objectives in (Williams), 931 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 172, 450, 688 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
Congo, Republic of the ( Leopold ville) : 
Communist penetration in labor groups (Williams), 

Independence of, problems In achieving (Fred- 
ericks), 783 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 524, 605, 689, 950 
U.N. operations in, financing of : Chayes, 162 ; Plimp- 
ton, 179; Stevenson, 769; General Assembly 
resolution, 184, 185 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
Congress : 
Committee hearings on : 
Communist nations, restriction of credit proposed 

to, 935 
Foreign aid funds, restoration urged : Kennedy, 

477 ; Rusk, 19 
State Department 1964 appropriation request, 
(Rusk), 260 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists, 57, 101, 

144, 205, 204, 437, 551, 752, 792, 985, 1004 
Foreign aid, dangers in proposed reductions in 

(Rusk), 812, 816 
International organizations, congressional support 

for cooperation in, 196 
Legislation : 
Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1427), 664 
Agricultural Act of 1961 (7 U.S.C. 1282), 664 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 

Act, 1954 (7 U.S.C. 1707), 664 
Battle Act, 666 
Cargo Preference Act, 666 
Export Control Act, 667 

Fulbright-Hays amendment to Philippine War 
Damage Act (Department statement and re- 
marks by Hilsman), 301 
Johnson Act (18 U.S.C. 955) , 661 

Congress — Continued 
Legislation — Continued 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1051 

(22 U.S.C. 1611), 666 
Philippine War Damage Act, amendment provid- 
ing settlement of claims, 301 
Legislation proposed : 
Balance-of-payments situation, amendment to ease 

(Kennedy), 204 
Immigration quotas, 298 

Interest equalization tax (Kennedy), 255, 256 
Tax reduction and revision program, effect on 

balance of payments (Kennedy), 251 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress. See 
Kennedy, John F. : Messages 
Peace Corps, recommendation for expansion (Ken- 
nedy), 170 
Senate advice and consent to ratification of : 
Coffee, agreement (1962), international, 109 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, limited, 631 
Senate approval requested for : 

Chamizal boundary convention between Mexico 

and U.S., 480 
Conventions on forced labor, slavery, political 

rights of women (Gardner), 321 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 314, 316, 496 
Congressional Record, quoted re foreign aid (CofBn), 

Conservation of natural resources, need for (Kennedy), 

Consular relations : 
U.S. agreements with : 
Japan, 762 
Korea, 762, 878, 905 
Vienna convention (1963) on: Ghana, 837 
Contiguous zone and territorial sea convention (1958) 

on : Australia, 229 
Continental shelf, convention (1958) on the: Australia, 

229 ; Denmark, 150 
Contingency fund, importance of (Rusk), 1004 
Cook Islands : 
Road vehicles, convention (1954) on temporary im- 
portation, 109 
Touring, convention (1954) concerning customs facil- 
ities for, 109 
Copyright convention (1952), universal: Bahamas, 

172; Peru, 524; Virgin Islands, 172 
Correa Escobar, Jos6 Antonio, 777 

COSPAR. See Space Research, International Commit- 
tee on 
Costa Rica: 
Defense of Western Hemisphere, proposed OAS for- 
eign ministers meeting for consideration of, 813 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 380, 524, 721, 761, 
Cottam, Howard Rex, 310 

Cotton, U.S. program for direct sales abroad (Kenne- 
dy), 252 
Cotton textiles, long-term arrangement re trade in: 
China, 802; Hong Kong, 933; Jamaica, 645, 689; 
Japan, 440, 450 



Ooart of JuaOce, EEC (Lowenfeld), 374 
OoTonant of the League of Nations, 975 
Cronklte, Walter. 498 

AaaetK blocke<l by U.S. to counter Communist snb- 

Toralon. 100, 576 
Eownomlc iiroMruw In ( Martin) , 576 
Hurrl.-auf Flora UisaHtor, L'.S. aid rejected, 741 
KldnupliiK iiKldcnt by Castro's trooi» In British 

wattTH (Uu8k),3«2 
Situation in (UuMk), 817 
Soviet iiiilltao' forces in (Rusk), 300, 361 
Trade. fret>-«-orld boycott ( Martin) , 575 
Travel to, validated iMJssitorts required for, 92 
Treatli-s, atn^Miients, etc., 4H4, 566, 689, 761, 837 
U.S. |H>llcy toward: Kennedy, 903; Martin, 574; 

Rusk, 494 
Venezuela, discovery of Cuban arms cache in, 913 
Cuban crisis, U.S. actions in, success and Interpreta- 
tions of : Galbraith, ZA ; Kennedy, 894 
Cultural rclalioii.s aiul programs (ace aUo Educational 
exchange and Exctiange of persons) : 
Advisory Committee on the Arts, members and ad 

Aoc drama (mnei api)ointed, 438 
Consultants ap|>oiuted, 673 
Japon-U.S. wufereiice on cultural and educational 

intcrc-hnnge. 2d meeting, 582, 659 
Presentation program, music advisers appointed, 57 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cultural agreement with : Iraq, 450 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, 
ugrin-ment and protocol on importation of: Cy- 
prus, l(r.> ; Ivory Coast, 524 
Ciutoma : ( icc aluo Tariff jwlicy ) : 

Commercial samples and advertising material, con- 
vention (19.">2) to facilitate importation: Cy- 
pnis, 109 
Road vehicles, convention (19.54) on temporary im- 
|x»rtatlon : Cook Islands, 109; Costa Rica, 761; 
Cypnw, 109 
Touring, convention (19.'>4) concerning customs fa- 
clIitioM for: Cook Islands, 109; Costa Rica, 721; 
Cyprus, 109 
Cyclone. U.S. aid to Pakistan, 17 
Cyprus, treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 74, 109, 110, 150, 

273. .•W5. 088, 877 
Cyrankli-wicK, Jozef, 888 
Czechoslovakia : 

Anitrassador to U.S.. credentials, 844 
StrugKle for |K>lltlcal Independence (Plimpton), 981 
Travel rc«tri<tlons for citizens In U.S., 860 
Treaties, agri'<-ments, etc., 34, 74, 34.'>, 721, 701, 702 

DAC. «oc Development Assistance Committee 
Uabonioy, treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 450, 565, 566, 

DnvlH. W. Tnie. Jr., 048 
Decade of I>evelopment : 
ObJiHHlve and problems of : RIngham, 28 ; Stevenson, 

Political rigbtit. relatlonshl;) to (Tlllett), 145, 148 
U.S. MUiFport ( Husk). .'.71 

Declaration of Cundinamarca, 941 
Defense («ce also Collective security and Mutual de- 
fense) : 
Armed forces overseas, importance of (Rostow), 

Expenditures, question of: Foster, 8; Kennedy, 253 
Free world, U.S. strategy (Rusk), 992 
Greece, agreement re safeguarding of secrecy of 
invention relating to defense and for which 
patent applications have been filed, 381 
India, U.S.-U.K.-India agreement to strengthen air 

defense of, 245 
Internal defense and security : 
Arms control, importance of (Foster), 824 
Efforts toward : Bundy, 626 ; Rusk, 490 
Problems of (McXamara), 914 
Efforts toward unity for (Rusk), 192 
Soviet threats, role against (McGhee), 955 
SEATO, 1963-64 military exercises by forces of, 863 
Spain, agreement with U.S. renewed, texts of docu- 
ments, 686 
Strategy and complexity of deterrence: Foster, 825, 
826 ; McNamara, 920 
De Gaulle, Charles, 296, 885 
Democracy : 
Addresses and statements : Anderson, 87 ; Battle, 
868 ; Cleveland, 461, 845 ; Galbraith, 52, Martin, 
699 ; Rusk, 843, 1000 
Problems of: 
Africa (Fredericks), 288 
Asia (Hilsman), 392 
Latin America (Kennedy), 902 
U.S. role (Kennedy, cited), 1000, 10O4 
Demography. See Population 
Denmark : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 73, 150, 273, 345, 485, 

647, 761 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, 479, 589 
Department of Agriculture: 

Cotton sales abroad, program for (Kennedy), 252 
Food and Agriculture Exposition-Symposium opened 

at Amsterdam, 594 
The World Food Budget, published, 03 
Department of Commerce : 

Aviation policy, role in (Kennedy), 161 
Export expansion program; Kennedy, 252, 660; 
Rusk, 600 
Department of Defense, role in international aviation 

policy (Kennedy), 161 
Department of State. .See State Department 
Department of the Treasury : 
Cuban assets, controls blocked on, 160 
Interest equalization tax proposal, 256 
Desalination of water, IAEA conference on, 563 
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) : 

Activities and resixmsibility of (Rusk), 27, 196 
luesa developed countries, aid to : Ball, 621 ; Rusk, 



Development Association, International. See Inter- 
national Development Association 
Development Bank, Inter-American. See Inter- 
American Development Bank 
Development Decade, U.N., progress in (Bingham), 

Development loans : 

Appropriation FY 1964, question of:' Coffin, 518; 

Rusk, 1002 
Terms of credit liberalized (Ball), 622 
Dey Ould Sidi Baba, 522 
Dictatorships, U.S. views on (Rusk), 657 
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 46 
Dillon, Douglas, 613, 883 
Diplomacy : 
Protocol in (Duke), 703 
U.N.'s role (Sisco), 775 

Views on modern diplomacy (Sevilla-Sacasa), 997 
Diplomatic relations and recognition : 
Race discrimination problem, effect of (Duke), 702 
Recognition : 
Dominican Republic, 997 
Ecuador, 282 
Honduras, 997 
Viet-Nam, 818 
Vienna convention (1961) and protocol : 
Current actions: Argentina, 837, 838; Cuba, 837; 
Czechoslovakia, 34 ; Guatemala, 837 ; Iraq, 905 ; 
Jamaica, 110 ; Malagasy Republic, 450 ; Switzer- 
land, 905 
U.S. views on Vienna convention on diplomatic 
relations (Rusk), 156 
Diplomatic representatives abroad. See Foreign 

Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. : 
Nonwhite, treatment of (Rusk), 155 
Presentation of credentials: Afghanistan, 410; Al- 
geria, 297; Colombia, 249; Czechoslovakia, 844; 
Ecuador, 777; Guatemala, 160; Korea, 11; Ku- 
wait, 736; Norway, 777; Pakistan, 377; Sierra 
Leone, 904; Uruguay, 844; Yemen Arab Re- 
public, 249 
Soviet attach^, departure from U.S. requested, 137 
White House reception of (remarks by Johnson and 
Sevilla-Sacasa), 996 
Disarmament {see also Armaments, Arms Control and 
Disarmament Agency, Nuclear weapons and Outer 
space) : 
AM VETS continued support for (Williams), 433 
Communist China position (Stevenson), 756 
Economics of (Foster), 7 
Effect on social progress (Bingham), 712 
Outer space, U.N. efforts to prevent weapons from 

orbiting in, 753 
Problems, scope and progress: Cleveland, 554; 

Stelle, 793 ; Tyler, 94 
Soviet-U.S. proposal and status of negotiations: 

Stevenson, 770 ; Tyler, 95 
U.S. views: Gardner, 502; Kennedy, 5; Rusk, 571; 
Stelle, 794 

Discrimination. See Racial discrimination 
Diversity, politics and citadel of (Cleveland), 462, 964 
Dominican Republic : 
Economic and military aid terminated by U.S. 

(Rusk), 624 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 381, 565, 701, 802 
U.S. recognition of new government, 997 
Double taxation, agreements and conventions for avoid- 
ance on income : Netherlands, 905 ; Sweden, 760, 802 
Douglas-Home, Alec, 133, 736, 886 
Drugs, narcotic : 

Manufacture and distribution of : 
Convention (1931) limiting and regulating, Algeria, 
Opium, regulating production trade and use of : 
Convention (1912), Cyprus, 74 
Protocol (1953): Madagascar, 721; Turkey, 310, 
Dryden, Hugh L., 405 
Duda, Karel, 844 
Duke, Angler Biddle, 700 
Dumont, Donald A., 310, 566 

Earthquake, Skopje disaster, proposed U.N. aid, 760 
East-West Cultural Center, establishment in Hawaii, 

264, 684 
ECA. See Economic Commission for Africa 
ECAFE. See Economic Commission for Asia and the 

Far East 
Echo II, 404 

ECLA. See Economic Commission for Latin America 
Economic Affairs and Trade, Joint U.S.-Canadian Com- 
mittee on : 
Agreement amending 1953 agreement, 689 
8th meeting, 297, 548 
Economic and Social Council, Inter-American. See 

Inter-American Economic and Social Council 
Economic and Social Council, U.N. : 

Documents, lists of, 108, 229, 479, 524, 984 
Intensification of demographic studies, research and 

training (resolution), 31 
Report on 36th session (Bingham), 712 
Women employment opportunities (Tillett), 147 
Economic and social development (see also Economic 
and technical aid, Foreign aid programs, and Less 
developed countries) : 
Africa. See under Africa 
Agriculture, role of (Freeman), 66 
Asia (Hilsman),390 

Human freedom, importance of (Rostow), 429 
Latin America. See Alliance for Progress 
Pacific Islands trust territory (Goding), 211, 224, 

Problems of economic development: Bingham, 712; 

Rostow, 422 
Progress achieved (Coffin), 516 
U.S. views : Frank, 173 ; Stevenson, 265 



Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (.tee 
alMo Agency for International Development, Agrl- 
cultural 8un)lu8e8. Alliance for Progress. Economic 
and Hoclnl development, Foreign aid programs, 
Inter-American Development nank. International 
Bank. International Development Association, Or- 
ganization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment, and United Nations: Technical assistance 
programs) : 
Africa, importance of mapping technique develop- 
ments in (Pearcy). 1010 
Aid to: Africa. 'Ki; India. Pakistan. 22; Brazil, 23; 
Indone.Mla, United Arab Republic, 24; Poland, 
Yugoslavia. 25 
Appropriation re<iuest for FY 1904: Johnson, 999; 

Rusk. 1002 
Jamaica, U.S. agreement with. 838 
U.S. iiositlon: Gardner, 507; Rusk. 21 
Economic Commission for Africa, U.N., achievements 

(Pearcy), 1015 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, U.N., 

Buccess of demographic advisory service. 30 
Economic Commission fur Latin America, U.N. : 
Achievements of (Frank). 174 

Demographic advisers recommended (Bingham), 30 

Economic Cooix'ration and Development, Organization 

for. 8cc Organization for £k:onomic Cooperation 

and Development 

E/Conomic Development Loan Fund, Pacific Islands 

trust territory, loan to (Coding), 211 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (sec also individual 
countrict) : 
Domestic economy: 

Defense spending and disarmament, effects (Fos- 
ter), 7 
Foreign aid. etTect of (Bell), 830 
Ix>sH develo|H>d countries, effect of exports to 

(Rusk). COO 
Trade expansion program, Imiwrtance of: Ken- 
ne<ly. 5!tfl; Rusk. .'>90 
Foreign wonomlc [Miiicy: 
Balanre-of-jMiyments problem. See Balance of pay- 
Eastern Europe (Anderson), 89 
EEC. Srr Euro|)ean I'>-onomlc Commission 
Northern Europe (John.son). .ISS 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Trade Ex|uinaion Act of 1902. Sec Trade Expan- 
sion Act 
ECnsfX^ See Economic and Social Council. U.N. 
•■E<r<'(ement," concept of (Gossett), 292 
Ei-undor : 
AmbasHndnr to U.S., cre<lentials, 777 
liilKary Junta government: 
AdmlnlNtralion of (Martin), 700 
U.S. rM^tgnltion of, 2X2 
Tn-nllen. agreements, etc., 005. 000. 702 
Edurntliin (*<r altn Cultural relnllonN and programs. 
Educational exchange, and Exchange of ]M?rsons) : 
Africa. See Africa 

Education — Continued 
Agriculture, science and technical advancement: 

Kennedy, 58 ; Freeman, 60 
Development, need for: Battle, 411, 867; Kennedy, 

Grants for Indian studies, 99 
NATO Research Fellowships, 1964-65, announcement, 

Pacific Islands trust territory, problems in (Coding), 

215, 226 
Sonth-West Africa, need for secondary school train- 
ing in (Yates), 948 
Women, opportunities for and role of: Louchhelm, 
705 ; Tillett, 146 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, Bureau of, consult- 
ants for, 673 
Educational exchange program, international (see also 
Cultural relations. Education, and Exchange of 
persons) : 
Advisory Commission survey at Hawaii's East-West 

center, proposed, 684 
African students In Soviet Union and U.S. (Wil- 
liams), 930 
Agreements with : Afghanistan, 410, 450 ; Argentina, 
410, 450 ; Austria, 100, 150 ; Brazil, 310 ; Ceylon, 
110; India, 150; Iran, 741, 838; Japan, 485; 
Korea, 110; Paraguay, 485; Philippines, 301; 
Sweden, 101, 230 ; Tunisia. 950 
Appropriation request (Rusk), 203 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, report of, 869 
Expansion, recommendation to Congress for, 169 
Philippines, fund established by Fulbright-Hays 
amendment to Philippine War Damage Act, 301 
Review of : Battle, 864 ; Rusk, 742 
U.S.-Japan 2d conference on cultural and educational 
interchange. 5S2, 659 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials, agree- 
ment (1950) and protocol on importation of: 
Cyprus, 109 ; Ivory Coast, 524 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.N., 
U.S. support for preservation of temples proposed 
by, 18 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
Egypt (see also United Arab Republic). 811 
Eighteen-Xation Disarmament Committee : 
Accidental war, U.S. measures proposed to reduce 

risk of (Foster), 828 
Direct communications link between Washington 

and Moscow, agreement signed at, 50 
Disarmament : 

Resolution adopted by U.N., U.S. support for: 

Stelle. 704; Stevenson. 7.")3 
U.S. proposal (Foster), 826 
Nuclear arms race, efforts to halt (Cleveland), 9G6 
Soviet proposals for discussion at. 86 
Eisenhower. Dwight D., 1019 (cited) 
El Salvador, treaties, agreements, etc., 230. 418. 762 
Electric power, Passamaquoddy-Saint John hydroelec- 
tric projects report. 248 
Elizabeth R. 886 




Emergency Force, U.N. : 

Congo, operation in (Chayes), 163 
Financing, problems of, 179, 183, 185 
Middle East, uses and need in: Chayes, 163; Cleve- 
land, 40 
Engen. Hans Kristian, 777 
Erliard, Ludwig, 885 
Establishment, friend.ship, and navigation treaty with 

Belgium, 485, G48 
Estenssoro, Victor Paz, 778 
Ethiopia : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 885 
Emperor's visit to U.S., 674 
Status of women in (Louchheim), 705 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 345, 721 
EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Community 
Europe (see aUo Atlantic partnership, European head- 
ings, individual countries, and North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization) : 
Communist subversive activities in (Rostow), 922 
Eastern Europe : 
Agricultural production, problem of (Rostow), 924 
Developments in (Anderson), 87 
Economic situation in (McGhee), 822 
Nationalism, growth of (Rostow), 928 
Trade expansion, U.S. policy re (Rusk), 364 
U.S. views (Rusk), 656 

Western ideals followed by youth of (Rostow), 929 
Wheat sale from U.S. (Kennedy), 660 
"Grand design" for (Gossett), 296 
Marshall Plan, success of (Cleveland), 847 
Missiles, request for MRBM (Rusk), 194 
Soviet views re (Harriman), 242, 243 
Unification of: 
Atlantic partnership, relationship to (McGhee), 

Germany's role ( Rusk ) , 730 
Integration movement (Schaetzel), 731 
Problems of (Schaetzel), 733 

U.S. support : Bundy, 628 ; Kennedy, 120, 122 ; Mc- 
Ghee, 956, 958; Rusk, 192, 728; Schaetzel, 735 
U.S. views and policy : McGhee, 956 ; Rostow, 537- 

Visits to: 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland, 92 
President Kennedy. 114 
Vice President Johnson, 479, 583 
Western Europe : 

Economic growth: McGhee, 822; Rostow, 924; 

Rusk, 600 
Exports increased by U.S. (Kennedy), 597 
Food and Agriculture Symposium, U.S., opened at 

Amsterdam, 594 
Role of increased respomsibility (Rostow), 927 
■Security through U.S. nuclear strength (Manning), 

Unity, U.S. role in (Kennedy), 135 
European Atomic Energy Community, amendment to 
additional agreement with U.S. re peaceful uses 
of atomic energy, 450, 762 

European Economic Community : 

Agricultural policy : Gossett, 294 ; G. Johnson, 547 
Geneva tariff negotiations 1960-61 (McGhee), 857 
Organizational structure of (Lowenfeld), 372 
Poultry dispute: 

EEC Council action (Herter) , 605 

GATT advisory opinion requested on U.S.-EEO 
problem on, 751 
Negotiations re, U.S. delegation, 72 
U.S. position (Herter), 603 
Purpose and status of (Kennedy), 134 
Tariff negotiations, U.S. position re: Herter, 602; G. 

Johnson, 545 
Trade expansion, effect on (Schaetzel), 733 
U.K. nonmembership in, question of: Gossett, 291; 

Manning, 458 
U.S. views (McGhee), 956 

Unity, U.S.-German efforts for (Adenauer, Kenne- 
dy), 117 
European Free Trade Association, 295, 733 
European Parliamentary Assembly, EEC (Lowenfeld), 

Exchange of persons program (sec also Educational ex- 
change) : 
Expansion between Soviet bloc and U.S., proposed 

(Rusk), 493 
Women, increase of (Louchheim), 98 
Executive orders: 
Allowances to certain Government personnel on for- 
eign duty, amendment of order 10853 (11123), 
Trade agreements program, administration of amend- 
ed, 167 
Exhibit "Plastics-USA" opened in Bulgaria, 142 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance, U.N. (see 
also Special Fund) : 
Financing, problems of (Bingham), 70, 717 
U.S. support (Stevenson), 271 
Export Control Act, 667 
Export-Import Bank : 

Communist nations, credit restriction proposed 

(Ball), 935 
Haiti, default on loan payment by, 144 
Role of (Kennedy), 252 
Spain, loans to, 686, 688 
Exports (see also Imports and Trade) : 
Coffee. See Coffee 

EEC-U.S. poultry dispute, status of (Herter), 603 
Less developed coimtries, GATT discussions (Her- 
ter), 602 
Agricultural products to Europe, factors affecting 

(G. Johnson), 547 
Expansion and promotion program for : 
Chiefs of mission role in (Rusk), 290 
National conference on, announcement, 378 
Progress and importance of : Kennedy, 251, 252 ; 

Bell, 831 
U.S. Agricultural and Food Expositlon-Sympo- 
situn at Amsterdam, 594 



Exports — Continued 
U.S.— CoMllmii'd 

Forelfm uld. effect of ( Uusk ) , 000 
Soviet I'nion nnd Eastern Europe, proposed wheat 
sale to : Ball. 1)3') ; Kennedy, (500, C61 ; Kusk, 810, 
External debts, Germany, agreement (1953) on: Chile, 

Extradition : 
Agreements, conventions, and protocols: Brazil, 762; 

Israel, Sweden, 70L>, 1022 
Venezuela -U.S. agreement to extradite Marcos Perez 
Jimenez and texts of notes, 304, 365 

"Family of Man" citation conferred (Kennetly), 806 

FAO. See IVkkI and Agriculture Organization 

Far East. Sec Asia and individual countries 

Faroe Islands, agreement on joint tlnaucing of certain 

air navigation ser\-ices in, 150 
Federal Aviation Agency, 101 
Federal employment, views on (Galbraith), 52 
Fedorenko. Xlkoial, 104 
Ferguson. Allen R., 186 
Fernando P6o, visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 

Finland : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 761 
Visit of Vice President Johnson to, 479, 585 
Fish and fisheries : 
Appropriation request for U.S. share In International 

commissions (Rusk), 201 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of the 
high seas, convention (1958) on: Australia, 229; 
Venezuela, 380 
North Pacific fisheries : 

Pur seals, protocol amending Interim convention 
(1957) on conservation of: Canada, 688, 689, 
877 ; Japan, Soviet Union, U.S., 688, 089 
International convention for the high seas fisheries 
of the North Pacific Ocean, 2d meeting, 519, 709 
Northwe-st Atlantic fisheries : 
Convention (HMO), international: 

Commi.ssion meetings, location of place for, Po- 
land. 273 
Declaration of understanding. Poland. 172 
I*rotocol to re haqi and hood seals: Canada, 
Denmark, kvland. Italy. 273; Norway, 273, 
984; Poland, Spain, Soviet Union, U.K., U.S., 
273; Frame. Portugal, 310 
F(»o<l nnd Agriculture Ex|H)sllion Symiwsium, U.S., for 

\Vf.>»tem Kurii|)t>, KH 
Fo<k1 and Agrl.ullure Organization, U.N. : 
Background and growth of (Cleveland), 12, !,'>, 40 
Hunger, role In battle against (Kennedy), 58 
Studies by : 

Itcvilnprnrnt Through Food, 02 
Third World Food Survey, 02 
roo«l and Agriculture Ti>chnlcal Information Service 
(OECD). appointment of director, 418 

Food for peace program : 

Haiti, AID program continued in, 297 

Purpose and need for : Bingham, 720 ; Freeman, 60 ; 

Kennedy, 59 ; Rusk, 991 
Report to Congress re FY 1963 accomplishments of, 
Force, threat or use of (Plimpton), 973, 975, 980 
Ford Foundation : 

American Institute of Indian Studies, grant to, 99 
Howard University, grant to : Battle, 868 ; Rusk, 684 
Foreign affairs, protocol and conduct (Duke), 700 
Foreign affairs scholars program at Howard Univer- 
sity : Battle, 80S ; Rusk, 684 
Foreign aid programs, U.S. (see also Agency for Inter- 
national Development, Economic and technical aid, 
and Peace Corps) : 
Africa (Williams), 436 

Aid restriction proposed to Egypt, Indonesia, and Yu- 
goslavia (Rusk), 811 
Appropriation requests for FY 1964 and dangers of 
cuts: L. Johnson, 909; Kenne<ly, 399, 477, 809; 
McNamara, 400; Rusk, 19. 400, 495, 599, 812, 
816, 999 
Communism, role against (Rusk), 495 
Congressional action, review of (CoflSn), 517 
Deputy Inspector General for foreign assistance 

(Haugerud) appointment, 230 
Domestic economy, effect on : Bell, 830; Kennedy, 808 
Expenditures for (Kennedy), 254 
Export expansion, AID role (Kennedy), 598 
Labor, role of (Cleveland), 846 

Latin America, importance of aid to (Clay), 476 
Less developed nations, aid to: Rostow, 920; Rusk, 

Objectives and review of accomplishments: Bell, 
831 ; Cleveland, 848 ; Coffin, 514 ; Galbraith, 56 ; 
L. Johnson, 80 ; Rusk, 571 ; Stevenson, 771 
Role in foreign policy (Rusk), 356 
Women's contributions in (Louchheim), 708 
Foreign buildings program, appropriation request for 

FY 1964 (Rusk), 263 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, 138 
Foreign correspondents. See Press 
Foreign Credit Insurance Association, export credit 

facilities by (Kennedy), 252 
Foreign investment (see also Investment) in U.S. se- 
curities abroad, importance and task force study 
of (Kennedy), 257, 752 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
Briefing conferences: 

Broadcasters and editors, 644 

Regional : Albany, 436 ; Boston, 377 ; Indianapolis, 
Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists, 57, 101, 144, 205, 264, 437, 551, 752, 792, 
Foreign aid program, role of (Rusk), 1000 
Moral values necessary (Rusk), 570 
Objectives, principles, and problems : L. Johnson, 78, 
592 ; Manning, 454, 639 



Foreign policy. U.S. — Continued 

PoliUcs of (Cleveland) , 846 

President Kennedy's goals (Cleveland), 964 

Role of U.S. citizens : Cleveland, 845 ; Kennedy, 633 ; 
Louchhelm, 681 ; Rusk, 990 

U.N. role (Sisco), 774 

World freedom, effect of ( Rusk ) , 843 
Foreign relations in modern societies, conduct of: 

Johnson, 996 ; Sevilla-Sacasa, 997 
Foreign Relations of the United States, series : 

1942, Volume IV, The Near East and Africa, re- 
leased, 34 

19^3, Volume I, General, published, 690 

1943, Volume III, The British Commonwealth, East- 
ern Europe, the Far East, published, 985 

Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 
Allowances to certain Government personnel on for- 
eign duty, amendment of Executive order 10853, 
Ambassadors, appointments, and confirmations, 310, 

519, 525, 566, 648, 838, 906 
Burundi, Legation raised to Embassy, 566 
Consulates closed : Santos, Brazil ; Edmonton, Can- 
ada ; Manchester, England ; Le Havre, France ; 
Cork, Ireland ; Haifa, Israel ; Venice, Italy ; 
Penang, Malaya ; Piedras Negras, Mexico ; 
Basel, Switzerland ; Cardiff, Wales ; and Sara- 
jevo, Yugoslavia, 329 
Consulates raised to consulates general: Calgary, 
Canada, 485 ; Durban, Republic of South Africa, 
Examination, announcement, 186 
Export expansion program, role of (Rusk), 290, 600 
Foreign affairs program at Howard University 

(Rusk), 684 
Negroes, opportunities for (Manning), 642 
Personnel qualifications (Manning), 640 
Science attaches, appointments to: Bonn, 150, 906; 
Canberra, 150 ; Tokyo, 186 ; London, 150 ; NATO 
and ERO, 381 ; Stockholm, 648 
Selection Boards, meeting and members of, 525 
Foreign students in the U.S. (see also Educational 

exchange), 930 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Foster, William C, 7, 824 
Fowler, Henry H., 752 
France : 
Bilateral aid expenditures, 27 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 885 
De Gaulle, Charles, 296, 885 
Germany, importance of reconciliation with (Rusk), 

Le Havre, U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Nuclear knowledge, question of U.S. sharing (Rusk), 

357, 359, 363 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 310, 689, 762 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Cleveland, 92 
Frank, Isaiah, 173 
Fredericks, J. Wayne ; 284, 783 
Free world, U.S. role in defense of (Rostow), 921 

Freedom : 

U.S. commitment to: Anderson, 87;, 842 
Worldwide efforts for: Cleveland, 39; Rusk, 155, 
Freedom-From-Hunger Campaign : 
Challenges to (Freeman), 67 
U.S. support: Kennedy, 59; Stevenson, 270 
Freeman, Orville, 60, 883 
Freight rates, ocean, adjustment needed (Kennedy), 

Friendship, establishment, and navigation treaty with 

Belgium, 485, 648 
Fulbright-Hays Act, 1961, establishment of binaUonal 

commissions, 169 
Fulbright-Hays amendment to Philippine War Dam- 
age Act (1962), 301 

Gabon : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 524 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 52 
Garcia-Bauer, Carlos, 160 
Gardner, John W., 743 
Gardner, Richard N., 320, 367, 501 

GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
General agreement on tariffs and trade. See Tariffs 

and trade, general agreement on 
General Assembly, U.N. : 

Committee IV (Trusteeship), consideration of ex- 
tending apartheid laws to South-West Africa 
(Tates), 946 
Committee V (Administrative and Budgetary), dis- 
cussion of U.N. 1964 budget estimates (MaU- 
Committee VI (Legal), consideration of principles 
concerning relations among states (Plimpton), 
Documents, lists of, 73, 380, 479, 523, 565, 876, 983 
18th session, agenda, 556, 685 
Human Rights, Universal Declaration of (Gardner), 

Hungary, U.S. support for self-determination of 

(Tost), 32 
Problems and progress of (Manning), 643 
Resolutions : 

Administrative and budgetary procedures, U.N. 

working group on examination of, 185 
Duties of states re outbreak of hostilities (Plimp- 
ton), 976 
Financial situation of the U.N., consideration by 

4th special session re, 178 
International law, principles of concerning inter- 
national relations, 973 
Outer space, cooperation in peaceful uses, 754, 

Peace fund, establishment of, 185 
Peacekeeping operations, financing of : 
In the Congo, 184, 185 
General principles to share costs of, 182 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 
Resululluns — Continued 

PortuRuese territories In Africa, self-detennlna- 

tl(in and Independence of , 300 
South Africa, end to repression of persons oppos- 

liiK uparlheld in, 759 
U.N. bonds, terms and conditions re ls.suance of, 

United Nations Emergency Force, 183 
UJC.-U.S. preparatory talks for forthcoming meet- 
ings, 02 
U.N. assessments, action on International Court of 

Justice deci.slon (Chaycs), 1G5 
U.N. financial situation, concern over (Gardner), 

U.S. position: Cleveland, .ISO; Gardner, 501 
U.S. representatives, confirmation, 550 
General Services Administration, .">(} 
Geneva agreement 10C2, Comniuulst violation of Laos 

neutrality and Independence (Ililsman), 46 
Geneva conventions (1940) relative to treatment of 
prisoners of war, wounded and sick, armed forces, 
and civilians In time of war: Cameroon, 950; 
Malagasy Republic, PAH; Snudi Arabia, Senegal, 
273; Somali Republic, C48; Tanganyika, 273; 
Trinidad and Tobago, 050 
Geneva Disarmament Conference. See Eighteen Na- 
tion Dl.sarmament Committee 
Geodetic network In Africa, establishment of (Pearcy), 

Germany, East : 

East Berlin, U.S. position on Soviet restrictions in, 

Struggle for freedom (Rostow), 539 
U.S. iwlicy, 3'>4, S-IS 
Germany, Federal Republic of: 

Adenauer's contribution (Kennedy, Rusk), 697 

Ba<kKruund of modern Germany (Rostow), 536 

Berlin. Sec Berlin 

Bilateral aid, 27 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 885 

France, IniiHirtance of reconciliation with (Rusk), 

German-Berlin question. Western position on (Rusk), 

Netberland victims of Nazi persecution, compensa- 
tion agreement re, 142 
Peace Corps program, 171 
Reunillciitlon of: 

Kxchfinge of views: Adenauer, Kennedy, 117 
Soviet |K)sitl<in (Rostow), 925 
U.S. KupiKjrt: Kennedy, 120; McGbee, 821; Rusk, 
Role In world politics (Rostow), 536 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 381, 418, 450, 485, 524, 

(I.SK. 0S9, 7(i2 
U.S. Arnn-d Forces In (Rusk), 357, 729 
U.S. -German relations (Adenauer, Kennedy), 114, 

U.S. science attncbfs, apimlntment, 150, 000 

Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 
Visits to : 
President Kennedy, 114 
Secretary Rusk, 117 
Western defense, role in (Rostow), 539 
Gettysburg Address Anniversary (Rusk), 842 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 886 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 702, 837 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
al-Ghoussein. Talat, 736 
Gilpatric, Roswell L., cited, 753 
Coding, M. Wilfred, 207, 222 
Gold, U.S. holdings, value of (Kennedy), 257 
Goldstein, Mortimer D., 405 
Gossett, William T., 291 
Goulart, Joao, 884 

"Grand design" for Europe (Gossett), 29C 
Great Lakes, agreement with Canada re pilotage serv- 
ices on, 606 
Greece, treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 345, 381, 689, 878 
Greenland : 
Air navigation services, amendment of annex III of 

19.56 agreements on joint financing of, 150 
Visit of Vice President Johnson to Thule Air Force 
Base in, announcement of, 479 
Gross national product of aid recipients, effect of U.S. 

aid, 26 
Guam, industrial property, convention (1883 revised) 

for the protection of, 230 
Guaranty of private investment. See Investment Guar- 
anty Program 
Guatemala : 
Ambas.sador to U.S., credentials, 160 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 150, 524, 605, 688, 722, 762, 
801, 837. 984 
Gudeman, Edward, 542 
Guellal. Cherif, 297 
Guerrilla warfare in Viet-Nam, U.S., aid against 

Guinea, Republic of: 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 605, 950 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 310 
Gursel, Cemal, 889 

Hackworth, Green Haywood, 205 

al-IIafiz, Aniin, 889 

Halle Selassie I, 674, 701, 787, 885 

Hailsham, Lord, 94 


AID closes mission in, 297 

Airport construction agreement, suspended by U.S., 

Nonpayment of U.N. contributions (Chayes), 165 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 524, 689, 762 

U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 906 
Hall, William O., 525 
Hallstein, Walter, cited, 377 
Hammarskjold, Dag, cited, 40 
Harriinau, W. Averell, 159, 240, 278, 800, 814, 937 
Hassan II, 888 



Haugerud, Howard H., 230 
Health : 

Pacific Island trust territory, developments In public 

health (Coding), 217, 219, 227 
Peace, role in (Cleveland), 676 

Veterans Memorial Hospital, amending agreement 
with Philippines re use of, 230 
Health Organization, World. See World ' Health 

Heavner, Theodore J. C, 393 
Hefner, Frank K., 566 
Heller, Walter, 8S3 
Henderson, Douglas, 838 
Henkin, Louis, 32 

Herter, Christian A., 329, 601, 605, 745 (cited), 751 
High seas, convention (1958) on: Australia, 229; 

Venezuela, 380 
High seas fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, 2d 
meeting of the parties to the international con- 
vention for the, 709 
Hilsman, Roger W., 43, 301, 386, 740 
Hodges, Luther II., 378, 883 

Holy See. convention on offenses and other acts com- 
mitted on board aircraft, 688 
Home, Alec Douglas, 133, 736, 886 
Honduras : 
Economic and military aid stopped by U.S. (Rusk), 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, (547 
U.S. recognition of new government, 997 
Hong Kong, agreement re export cotton textile to 

U.S., 933 
Hot Springs conference (1943), 14,40 
Houphouet-Boigny, Felix, 887 

Howard University, Ford Foundation grant to, 684 
Human rights (see also Racial relations) : 
Disadvantaged grouijs in open society, treatment of 

(Battle), 865 
Problems, scope, and progress : Cleveland, 38 ; Gard- 
ner, 320 ; Rusk, 657 
U.N. role in (Cleveland), 555 

U.S. position: Gardner, 505; Kennedy, 6, 806; Ste- 
venson, 267 
Universal Declaration of (1948), (Gardner), 321 
World struggle for: Kennedy, 533; Rusk, 654 
Human Rights Day, 15th anniversary of (Rusk), 

Hummel, Arthur W., 685 
Hungary : 

Credentials at U.N., U.S. position re (Yost), 32 
Travel restrictions for citizens in U.S., 860 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 761, 762 
Hunger, proposals re elimination of: Kennedy, 58; 

Freeman, 00 
Huntley, Chet, 409 
Hurricane Flora, U.S. aid to Cuba rejected, 741 

IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development 

ICAO (International Civilian Aviation Organization) 

see Aviation : Treaties 
ICC. See International Control Commission for Laos 
Iceland : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 273, 380, 524, 689 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, 479, 592 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IFO. See International Finance Corporation 
Ikeda, Mitsue, 891 
Illia, Arturo U., 884 

ILO. See International Labor Organization 
IMCO. See Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative 

IMF. See Monetary Fund, International 
Immigration {see also Visas) : 
Nonimmigrant visa fees : 

Abolition of, agreement with United Arab Repub- 
lic, 418 
Reciprocal agreement with Spain, 485 
Quota system, recommendation for revision of (Ken- 
nedy), 298 
Imports (see also Customs; Exports; Tariff policy, 
U.S. ; Tariffs and trade, general agreement on ; and 
Trade) : 
Butter substitutes, quotas established, proclamation, 

Duties. See tariff policy, U.S. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Commercial samples and advertising material con- 
vention (1952) to facilitate importation: Cy- 
prus, 109 
Cotton textile, agreement with Hong Kong, 933 
Road vehicles, customs convention (1954) on: Cy- 
prus, Cook Islands, 109 
Zipper chains, agreement with Japan, 449, 485 
Income : 
Double taxation, supplementary conventions for the 
avoidance of : Netherlands, 905 ; Sweden, 760, 
Panama, agreement for withholding from compen- 
sation paid to Panamanians employed within 
Canal Zone, 802 
Per capita income rate in India and Pakistan (Bell), 
India : 
American Institute of Indian Studies, 99 
Chinese Communist aggression : Galbraitb, 55, 56 ; 

Hilsman, 44 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 891 
Economic progress compared with Communist China 

(Hilsmau), 391 
Military aid, U.S.-U.K. policy re, 133 
Per capita income rate (Bell), 833 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 143, 150, 245, 340, 345, 

524, 606, 689, 721, 762, 802 
U.S. aid to : U. Johnson, 81 ; Rusk, 22 
Indonesia : 
Aid, U.S., proposed restriction of (Rusk), 811 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 891 
Malaysia, position re formation of (U. Johnson), 82 



IndoiioAla— ContiDUpd 

"Maiihllludo" confederation : HiUnian, 302 ; U. John- 
son. 82 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 17, 150, 172, 418, 688, 762 
U.S. policy (Rusk).2i 
InduHlrlal development: 
Coiiimuuist Cblna, decline In (Ililsman), 387 
Sco|)e and value: Kliiebain, 720; Kostow, 0(17, 672 
Indu.Hlrlal i)roiHTty, convention (1H83. as revised) for 
protection of: Central African Republic, Chad, 
877 ; Congo ( B ) , 4r)0 ; Guam, 230 ; Ivory Coast, 761 ; 
Laos. 877; Nigeria, 4.'i0; Puerto Rico. 230; Ruma- 
nia. 877 ; Samoa. 230 ; Upper Volta. 877 ; Virgin 
Islands, 230 
Informntlun activities and programs: 

Kxcbange between Soviet bloc and U.S. proposed 

(Rusk), 403 
News to public, media and volume of (Louchheiin), 
InneflS-Rrown, Mrs. II. Alwyn, 673 
Institute of International Education, 742, 744, 866 
Interagency Steering Committee on Intemattoual Avi- 
ation Policy, 160 
Iuter-.\merlcau Committee on the Alliance for Prog- 

ri'Hs, proi)osed establishment of, 039, 945 
Inter- American Development Bank: 
Financial status (Bingham), 5G2 
Latin America, development financing for (Harri- 
man ) , 030, !M2 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, Minis- 
terial meeting : 
2d annual review of Alliance for Progress, 937 
U.S. delegation to, 800. 814 
Inter- American Highway, agreements with Guatemala 

re, 722. 084 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion, convention on: Algeria, 984; Czechoslovalda, 
701 : Tunisia, 110 
Inteniational Atomic Energy Agency. See Atomic En- 
ergy Agency. International 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment : 
Articles of agreement : Algeria, 605 ; Burundi, 647 
CamerfKin, Central African Republic, Chad 
Congo (B). 172; Congo (L), 605; Dahomey. 172 
Gabon. .%24 ; Guinea. 605 ; Republic, 
(M7 : Slall, 605 ; Mauritania. .524 ; Rwanda. 647 
Trinidad and Tobago. 565 ; Uganda. 605 
Board of Governors meeting. 610 
Financial stateii!ent.s. .T,39. .S75 
Pur|K)se and ocblevements of (Ball). 620, 623 
Terms of credit liberalized ( Ball), 621 
International Book Programs, Advisory Committee on, 

International Civil Aviatlun Orgaiilzntlon. Sec under 

Aviation : Treaties 
International ColTee Council meeting, 272 
International CommiHlliy Trade, Commission on, 176 
International Conference on Middle Li-vel Maniwwer, 

International Control (Commission for Laos, 46, 396, 

International (>)uncil of Women, 75th conference, 98 
iDternational Court of Justice : 

South-West Africa, decision on (Tates), 946 
U.N. assessments, advisory opinion (Chayes), 162 
International Development Association : 
Articles of agreement : Burundi, 689 ; Central Afri- 
can Republic, 605; Congo (L), 689; Dahomey, 
605 ; Malagasy Republic, Mali, 689 ; Mauritania, 
605; Rwanda, 689; Trinidad and Tobago, 605; 
Uganda, 689 ; Upper Volta, 229 
Board of Governors meeting, 610 
Less developed countries, aid to (Bingham), 719 
Purpose of: Ball, 622; Dillon, 613; Bingham, 562 
International Disarmament Organization, proposed 

(Tyler), 95 
International Finance Corporation : 
Articles of agreement : Malagasy Republic, Uganda, 

Board of Governors meeting, 610 
Purpose of (Bingham), 562 
International Labor Organization : 
(Constitution of, amendment of: Algeria, Burundi, 
Jamaica, Rwanda, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Uganda, 229 
Role of ( Cleveland ) , 846 

Women employment opportunities (Tillett), 147 
International Law (see also International Court of 
Justice and Law of the sea) : 
Digest of Internatioiwl Law, release of first volume, 

Disarmament and peacekeeping, question of (Fos- 
ter), 829 
International relations, problems of (Plimpton), 977 
Need for development and cooperation in : Kennedy, 

5, 163 ; Stevenson, 1006 
Outer space : 
Development of law, need for: Gardner, 367; 

Stevenson, 1006 
Resolution re principles governing exploration and 
use of, 1012 
Principles of, concerning friendly relations among 

states (Plimpton), 973 
Rule of (Chayes), 162 
International Monetary Fund. See Monetary Fund, 

International organizations (see also suhject) : 
Appropriation request for U.S. participation in 

(Rusk), 264 
Calendar of meetings, 33, 102, 206, 302, 378, 439, 552, 

649, 710, 799, 870, 971 
Copyright convention (1952), universal, application 

to. Bahamas, Virgin Islands, 172 
Purpose and development of: Cleveland, 12, 13; 

Frank, 175 
Soviet position (Tyler), 97 

U.S. support for international cooperation in (Rusk), 
196. 993 



International Telecommunication Union : 

Outer space, technical problems re (Gardner), 36S 
Kadio conference on space communications, results 
of : McConnell, 835 ; Stevenson, 1009 
Investment Guaranty Program : 

Agreements with: Chile, 9S4; Colombia, 1022; Cy- 
prus, 34 ; Ecuador, 606 ; Jordan, 172 ; Malagasy 
Kepublie, 310 ; Morocco, 762 ; Nepal, 74 ; Senegal, 
110; Sierra Leone, 1022; Tanganyika, 950; 
United Arab Republic, 172 ; Viet-Nam, 381 
Investment of private capital abroad : 

Balance of payments, effect on (Kennedy), 251, 254 
Latin America, 943 

Less developed countries, need for (Bell), 831 
Mexico (Martin), 963 

Promotion of foreign investment in U.S. companies 
abroad urged (Kennedy), 257 
Task force proposed study of (Kennedy), 752 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 886 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 741, 838 
Real proijerty, foreign ownership, legal requirements, 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 380, 450, 524, 905 
Ireland : 

Cork, U.S. consulate closed, 829 
Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 737 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 761, 762, 838 
Visit of President Kennedy, 128 
Israel : 

Arab conflict ( Eusk ) , 24 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 886 
Haifa, U.S. consulate closed, 329 
Syrian incidents (Stevenson), 520 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 345, 689, 722, 762, 
Italy : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 887 

Foreign Minister, visit to U.S., 636 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 273, 345, 485, 688, 761, 

U.S.-Italian relations (Kennedy, Segm),136 
Venice, U.S. consulate closed, 329 
Visit of President Kennedy, 134 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union 
Ivory Coast : 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 887 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 484, 524, 761, 905 

Jackson, Elmore, 513 
Jacobson, Jerome, 272, 274 
Jacobsson, Per, 610, 613 
Jamaica : 

Immigration from, recommendation for nonquota 
status (Kennedy), 300 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 229, 380, 565, 689, 721, 
761, 762, 838, 905 
Japan : 

Bilateral aid increased, 27 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 891 

Japan — Continued 

Cotton textile, long-term arrangement with U.S. and 

texts of notes and correspondence, 440, 441 
Cultural and educational interchange conference with 

U.S., 2d meeting, 582, 659 
Economic progress : Hilsman, 390 ; Rusk, 600 
North Pacific Fishery Conference, 2d meeting, dis- 
cussions with U.S. and Canada, 519, 709 
Role among free nations (U. Johnson), 80 
Trade : 

Joint U.S.-Japan Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs, 2d meeting, 833 
With U.S. (Kennedy), 597 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 150, 310, 345, 380, 418, 

449, 450, 485, 647, 688, 689, 762 
U.S. scientific attach^, appointment, 186 
Jefferson, Thomas : 
Cited, 993 

Memorial orations series inaugurated by Australian 
Prime Minister, 51 
Jodrell Bank Observatory, 404 
Johnson Act (18 U.S.C. 955) 661 
Johnson, G. Griffith, 440, 449, 508, 543 
Johnson, Lyndon B. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Alliance for Progress, objectives, 401 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., greetings, 996 
Food and Agriculture Exposition-Symposium, U.S., 

for Western Europe at Amsterdam, 594 
Foreign aid, request for restoration of appropria- 
tions, 999 
Foreign relations, importance (cited). 990 
International Atomic Energy Agency, U.S. support, 

Kennedy's goals, pledge to Congress continuation 

of, 910 
Outer space : 
Danish-U.S. cooperation, 590 
International cooperation in peaceful uses, need 
for (cited), 1007, 1009 
Racial equality, need for in U.S. (cited), 994 
U.S. relations with : Denmark, 589 ; Finland, 585 ; 

Norway, 588 ; Sweden, 583 
United Nations policy (cited), 895 
Visits to: 

Benelux countries, 630, 850 
Northern Europe. 479, 583 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 78 
Johnson, Walter, 169 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and Economic 

Affairs, 297, 548, 689 
Joint U.S.-Japan Committee on Trade and Economic 

Affairs, 3d meeting of, 833 
Jordan, treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 380 
Jupiter missile, 84 

Karve, D. D., 100 

Kashmir, hostilities in 1948 (Plimpton), 980 

Keita, Modibo, 787 

Kekkonen, Urho K., 587 

Kendall, W. Raymond, 57 



Koiinetly, John F. : 

Addrrssex, remarks, and Htatementa : 
Alliance for Progress, objectives, 401 
Cbuiuizal boundary dispute, recommendations ap- 
proved for solution to, li>i) 
Communication satellites, U.S. support of interna- 
tional program re, 004 
Ea.1t Germany, U.S. policy re, 354 
EuroiM?, common goals, report to Nation, 137 
Export expansion, nece.sslty for U.S., 595 
"Family of Man" citation conferred, 806 
German-U.S. relations, 114 
Hunger, proposals for elimination of, 58 
Indonesia and foreign oil companies agreement, 17 
Irish-U.S. relations, 128 
Italian-U.S. relations, 134 

Ijitiii America, economic and social progress, 900 
Monetary system, international, strengthening and 

purpose of, CIO 
Mutual security program, restoration of funds 

urged, 470 
Nuclear test ban treaty : 

Negotiations at Moscow (U.K., U.S., U.S.S.R.), 

Report to the Nation, 234 

Senate approval, 498, 631 

Science Advisory Committee endorsement and 
opinions on, 430 
Pan American Congress of Architects, welcome, 801 
Passaniaquoddy-Saint John report, receipt of, 248 
Peace : 

Progress toward, 2, 631, 694 

World quest for, .'530 
Science, need for international cooperation in, 778 
Uranium 235, availability increased for peaceful 107 
Viet-Nam, need for U.S. support, 498 
Wheat sale to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 

Cited, 904, 907, 068, 1000, 1004, 1010 
Correspondence and messages : 

Adenauer, Chancellor, on retirement, 097 

Afghanistan, U.S. cooperation witli, .".35 

Atomic energy, need for International cooperation 

In peaceful uses of, 1019 
Aviotlon. U.S. |>ollcy, 100 
Education, imi)ortance and expansion of, 412 
Soviet Union, exchange of messages on July 4, 159 
Turkey, congratulations on 40th anniversary of 

repul)llc, 7S8 
World conference of lawyers, greetings, 102 
Death of : 
Condolences, 881-891 

Apprctiation of ( L. Johnson), 090 
Enlogles : Johnxon, Oil ; Uusk. 900 ; Stevenson, 894 ; 

Sosa-Itodrlguez, 892; U Thant, 803 
Funeral, foreign represcnlatives at, 805 
Executive orders. Sec Executive orders. 

Kennedy, John F. — Continued 
Meetings with : 
Heads of State and officials of, remarks and joint 
communiques : Afghanistan, 92 ; Australia, 51 ; 
China, Republic of, 403 ; Ethiopia, 674 ; Ireland, 
737; Italy, 030; Panama, 240; Tanganyika, 144, 
198 ; U.K., 132 ; Yugoslavia, 738 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress : 
Balance of payments, proposed amendment and 

status of, 204, 250 
Conventions on labor, slavery, political rights of 

women, 322 
Foreign aid. request for appropriations, 399 
Immigration laws, recommendation for revision of, 

Nuclear test ban treaty, transmittal of certified 

copy, and Senate approval urged, 316, 490 
Peace Corps, request for expansion of, 170 
Proclamations. See Proclamations. 
Visits to: 

Germany, 114, 117 
Ireland, 128 
Italy, 134, 136 
United Kingdom, 132 
Kennedy, Robert F., 601 

"Kennedy round" (see also Tariffs and trade, general 
agreement on : International negotiations, 1964) : 
Progress and future developments (Gossett), 291 
Proposed negotiations at Geneva, 72, 291 
Kenya : 

Land reform program, success (Pearcy), 1018 
Progress of women, 707 
Khan, Ayub, 891 
Khrushchev, Nikita, 79, 160, 889 
Kim, Chung Yul, 11 
Klutznick, Philip M., 30 
Korea : 

Communist incidents in U.S. demilitarized zone, 2S3 
Military armistice agreement, 10th anniversary of, 
Korea, Republic of : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 11 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 887 
Grain provided under P.L. 480, 101 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 172, 418, 450, 762, 878, 
Kubitschek, Juscelino, 938 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 736 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 273, 310, 418, 689 

Labor : 

Declaration of Cundinamarca, program for collabora- 
tion of labor unions (Harrinian), 941 

Forced labor, convention for abolition of U.S. views 
and text of (Gardner), 321, 326 

International Labor Organization, role of (Cleve- 
land), 840 

Organized labor. Importance of (Cleveland), 845 

Women, role of (Tillett) , 147 



Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization 
Land reform in Africa, success of (Pearcy), 1018 
Laos : 
Aircraft, Soviet charge U.S. illegally supplying, 500 
Communist China position (Stevenson), 758 
Condolences on Pre.sident Kennedy's death, 887 
Independence and neutrality of : violation of Geneva agreement (HUs- 

man), 45 
U.S. -U.K. position, joint communique, 133 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 380, 877 
U.S.-U.K.-Soviet talks (Harriman), 242 
Latin America (see also Alliance for Progress, Orga- 
nization of American States, and individual 
countries) : 
Agricultural production, problems of (Harriman), 

Communism in and efforts against : Kennedy, 903 ; 

Martin, 577 
Cuban subversive activities in (Rusk), 817 
Economic and social development, progress and 
problems: Kennedy, 900; Rostow, 424, 428; 
Rusk, 814 
Education, expansion of: Anderson, 87; Battle, 411; 

Kennedy, 412 
Foreign aid program, importance of (Clay), 476 
Inter-American foreign ministers meeting proposed, 

U.S. support for ( Rusk ) , 813 
Investment of foreign capital in, importance of 

(Harriman), 943 
Military governments in, U.S. policy re (Martin), 

Peace Corps in ( Kennedy ) , 171 
Soviet-Cuban relations, effect of (Martin), 574 
Trade problems and policy (Harriman), 944 
U.N. Economic Commission for, 30, 174 
U.S. policy (Martin), 581 
Latin American Free Trade Association, 962 
Latin American Institute for Economic and Social 

Planning, 270 
Latvia, National Day greetings (Rusk), 932 
Lauterpacht, Hersch, 976 

Law, international. See International law and Inter- 
national Court of Justice 
Law of the sea (see also Geneva conventions and 
Safety of life at sea), conventions on, 150, 229, 
Lebanon, treaties, agreements, etc., 380, 418, 762 
Lemass, Sean F., 737 

Less developed countries (see also Newly independent 
nations) : 
Agricultural and industrial development, need for: 

Frank, 176 ; Rostow, 428 
Balance-of-payments problems (Ball), 620 
Debt structure of (Ball), 621 

Economic and social development, U.S. position and 
views: Bell, 831; Goldstein, 472; Rostow, 424, 
6C8 ; Rusk, 191, 494, 656 

Less developed countries — Continued 

Foreign aid, importance and sources of: Ball, 620; 
Bell, 833; Rostow, 926; Rusk, 992; Stevenson' 
GATT discussions re reduction of barriers on ex- 
ports from (Herter),602 
IMF role in economic development (Goldstein), 472 
National markets, need for (Rostow), 669 
Scientific and technological development, progress In 

(Bingham), 713 
Security of, U.S. commitment to (Rostow), 925 
Sino-Soviet bloc economic aid to (Williams), 930 
Trade : 
Canadian-U.S. trade policies re, 550 
International responsibility re problems (G. John- 
son ) , 543, 547 
Trade expansion, efforts toward: Herter, 601; 

Rusk, 600 
U.S. position and views: Bingham, 715; Prank, 
U.S. aid (Rusk), 1002 
Women, advancement of (Tillett), 148 
Liberia : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 887 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 150, 345, 381, 484, 088 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Williams to, 18 
Library of Congress, presentation of Yung Lo Encyclo- 
pedia to, 740 
Libya, treaties, agreements, etc., 380, 505 
Liechtenstein, international telecommunication conven- 
tion (1959), 381 
Linowitz, Sol M., 97 

Living standards in Cuba (Martin), 576 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 310, 624 
Loeb, James I., 310 
Lomax, Louis E., cited, 642 
Louchheim, Mrs. Katie, 98, 681, 704, 838 
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., 372 
Luxembourg : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 484, 950 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, 630, 850 

Macapagal, Diosdado, 888 

Machrowicz, Thaddeus M., 673 

Maemillan, Harold, 132, 604 (cited) 

Madagascar, treaties, agreements, etc., 721, 873 

Mailliard, William S., 871 

Majid, Abdul, 410 

Malagasy Republic, treaties, agreements, etc., 310, 450, 

605, 647, 648, 689 
Malaya (see also Malaysia) : 

Communist aggression, dangers of: Hilsman, 48; 
Kennedy, 499 

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 345 

Penang, U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Malaysia : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 891 

Formation, problem of (U. Johnson), 82 

Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak desire for In- 
clusion in, 542 

U.N. Secretary -General's findings, U.S. views on, 542 



Miili. trcntlcs. iiitrwmi'iits, etc., 418, 005, 680 
Maniu's, I<»>o|K>ld Damrosch, 57 
Muniilng. Robert J., 454, 030 
Mao Tse-tuiig (cited), 70 

"Mnphllliulo" confederation: Hllsman, 392; U. John- 
son, 82 
MappliiB. In Africa, Importance (Pearcy), 1014 
Mnrltliiie Consultative Organization, Intergovemmen- 
tnl, convention (1048) on: Algeria, 084; Czecho- 
slovakia, 701 ; Tunisia, 110 
Marriage, convention (1902) on : Ceylon, China, Greece, 

rhllippines, Poland, 73 
Marrow, Alfred J., 073 
Marshall. Cicorge Catlctt, 720, 735 
Marshall Plan, importance and achievements of: Mc- 

Ghee. 9,"5 ; Rusk, 1002 
Martin. Edwin M.. 574, 098, 959 
Martin. Grnhara A., 525 
Martin, Nan, 439 
Martin, William n.. 648 
Mateos, Adolfo LofK'Z, 199, 887 
Matthews, 11. Freeman, .566 

Mauritania, treaties, agreements, etc., 524, 605, 689 
McConnell. Joseph. 835 
McDougal. Myres S.. 32 
McGhee. (Jeorge C, 819, 9.54 
McGlnty, Thomas F., 418 
McXamara, Robert S., .399, 024, 914 
Meat.s ami C«'reals, Committees on (GATT), 72 
Me<llterranean, nuclear-free zone in, U.S. views re 

.Soviet proposal, S3 
Menzies, Robert Gordon, 51 
Meteorological satellites : 

Accomplishments of (Stevenson), 1009 

Agreement with U.S.S.R. re exchange of data, 405 

Space radio communication conference, decisions 

by. K.35 
Weather forecasting through use of (Gardner), 368 
Mexico : 
Chamlzal boundary negotiations with U.S. and text 

of convention, 109, 201, 4,50, 480 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 887 
E^noniic development, status and problems of : 

Martin, O.'.O; Rostow, 423 
Pledras Negras, U.S. consulate closed, 329 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34.5, 371, 418, 450, 647, 702 
I'.S. relations (Martin), 903 
Micronesia. Council of. consideration of political prob- 
lems in the Trust Territory (Ooding), 210, 223 
Middle flast. Src Near and >Iiddlc Fast 
Military airlift, U.S., to Germany (Rusk), 729 
Military assistance («cc a/do Mutnnl defense) : 
Algeria, Soviet arms from Cuba and Egypt (Rusk), 

SI 7 
Appropriation requests : Clay, 470, 477 ; Coffin, 517 ; 

Rnsk, 1001 
Somali Republic: 
Aid iiropose<l by U.S., Italy, and Germany 

(Williams), 930 
Soviet arms ahlpment to (Williams) , 020 

Military assistance — Continued 
Spain, agreement with, 687 
Viet-Nam, aid to special forces, revised, 736 
Military cemeteries, U.S., agreement with Belgium 

correcting discrepancies re, 838 
Military governments in Latin America, U.S. policy 

re (Martin), 698 
Military space programs, need for (Gardner), 370 
Missiles : 

Defense and deterrence, problems of : Foster, 825 ; 

McNaniara, 915, 916 
Europe, need for MRBM's in (Rusk) , 194 
NATO multilateral nuclear force. See under North 

Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Soviet Union, status in ( McXamara ) , 916 
Monetary Fund, International : 
Articles of agreement : Algeria, 605 ; Burundi, 647 ; 
Cameroon, Central African Republic, 172 ; Chad, 
Congo (B), 172; Congo (L), 605; Dahomey, 
172; Gabon, 524; Guinea, 605; Malagasy Re- 
public, 647 ; Mali, 605 : Mauritania, 524 ; Rwanda, 
047 ; Trinidad and Tobago, 505 ; Uganda, 605 
Board of Governors meeting, 610 
Purpose, objectives, and operations of: Ball, 620; 

Goldstein, 465 
Study of international monetary system proposed 

(Dillon), 615 
U.S. interest in (Goldstein). 470 
Withdrawals by U.S. authorized, 258, 465 
Monetary system, international : 
Developments of (Kennedy), 259 
IMF study proposed (Dillon), 615 
Purpose and need for strengthening of: Ball, 619; 
Dillon, 613 ; Kennedy, 610 
Mongolia, treaties, agreements, etc., 565, 950 
Moon, manned flight to, U.S. program (Stevenson), 

Moore, John Bassett, 205 
Morocco : 
Border dispute, cease-fire agreement with Algeria, 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 888 
Role in settlement of Temen-Saudi Arabia dispute 

(Stevenson), 71 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 450, 762, 877 
Most, Harry, 933 

Most-favored-nation treatment to Poland and Yugo- 
slavia, question of : Anderson, 90 ; Rusk, 359 
MRBM (medium-range ballistic missiles). See Mis- 
Mutual defense assistance agreements : 

Appropriation request for FY 1964 (Kennedy), 399 
Japan's financial contribution for U.S. administra- 
tive and related expenses, 310 
Norway, agreement amending agreement of 1950, 

annex C, 802 
Spain-U.S. joint declaration re renewal of, 618 
United Kingdom, disposition of equipment and ma- 
terials, including machine tools, 485 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951 (22 
U.S.C. 1611), 666 



Mutual security program {see also Foreign aid pro- 
grams), restoration of aid funds urged : Clay, 476; 
Kennedy, 399, 476 

NAO. Sec North Atlantic Council 
Narcotics. See Drugs, narcotic 

NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
al-Nasser, Gamal Abd, 890 
National Academy of Sciences, 778 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration : 
"Food in space" exhibit, 594 

Soviet Union, implementation of cooperative space 
program witli, 404 
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the 

U.S., 570 
National Day of Jlourning, proclamation, 882 
National market, elements for creating (Rostow), 667, 

National origins system, proposed elimination re im- 
migration to U.S., 298 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Natural resources, need for conservation of (Kennedy), 

Navigation, friendship and establishment treaty 

(1875) : Belgium, 485, 648 
Navigational satellites, decisions by Space Radio Com- 
munication Conference on, 835 
Near and Middle East (see also individual countries) : 
U.N. peacekeeping role and financing problems: 

Chayes, 162 ; Sisco, 776 
U.S. position (RusIj),24 
Negotiations Under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, 

published, 745 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 891 

Nepal, treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 450, 762 
Netherlands : 

Compensation to victims of Nazi persecution, agree- 
ment with Germany, 142, 437 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 73, 345, 689, 762, 905 
U.S. Food and Agriculture Exposition-Symposium 

opened at Amsterdam, 594 
Visit of Vice President Johnson to, 630, 850 
Neutrality and nonalined nations: 
Africa (Fredericks), 284 
U.S. policy (Kennedy), 5 
^'New Diplomacy" (Manning), 640 
New Zealand : 

Economic comparison with Communist China (Hils- 

man), 391 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 345, 418, 689, 762 
Newly independent nations : 

Economic and social development, need for (Rusk), 

191, 196 
Emergence since World "War II (, 154 
Self-determination, problems of: Gardner, 504; 

Manning, 644; Rusk, 656; Williams, 434 
U.S. views (Cleveland), 847 
Nicaragua, treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 380, 762 

Niger, treaties, agreements, etc., 605, 761 
Nigeria : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110. 172, 381, 450, 484, 762 
Vi.sit of Assistant Secretary Williams, 18 
Nkrumah, Kwame, 886 
Nogueira, Dr. Alberto Franco, 305 
Non-self governing territories : 

Portuguese territories. See under Portugal 
Southern Rhodesia, problems considered by U.N. 

Security Council, 559 
South- West Africa, U.S. position (Yates), 946 
Trust Territory of Pacific Islands: Goding, 2(W; 
Santos, 219 
North America, open continent (Tyler), 93 
North Atlantic Alliance. See North Atlantic Treaty 

North Atlantic Council : 
Purpose and importance of: (Rusk), 195, 729 
U.S. delegation at special consultations (Paris), 513 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Armed forces, growth of (McNamara), 915, 918 
Atlantic parliamentary assembly proposed (Schaet- 

zel), 734 
Cooperation within : Johnson, 593 ; Manning, 457 
Council of. See North Atlantic Council 
Defense College, civil deputy (Wallner), nominated, 

Deputy for nuclear affairs proposed (Rusk), 193 
German role : Kennedy, 118 ; Rostow, 539 
Need for strengthening: Rusk, 192, 193; Schaetzel, 

Nonaggression pact with Warsaw Pact countries, 

question of (Harriman), 241, 243 
Norway, role of (Johnson), 589 

Nuclear force, multilateral, proposed : German-U.S. 
■discussions, 117 
Missile fleet, question of (Rusk), 730, 816 
Need for nuclear deterrent: Kennedy, Macmillan, 

133 ; McGhee, 957 ; Rusk, 192, 358 
'Soviet views, 83 
U.K.-U.S. discussions, 133 

U.S. position and views : Kennedy, 136 ; McGhee, 
957 ; McNamara, 916 ; Rusk, 193, 194 ; Schaetzel, 
Research fellowships offered by (1964-65), an- 
nouncement, 998 
Soviet Union, question of credit policies toward 

(Rusk), 817 
Status and objectives: Kennedy, 134; McGhee, 955; 

Rusk, 190 
Trade expansion negotiations proposed for NATO 

countries (Manning), 458 
U.S. support (Rusk) , 192, 243 
North Borneo (Sabah), desire for inclusion in Malay- 
sia, 542 
North Pacific Fishery. See under Fish and fisheries 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries. See under Fish and 



Norway : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 777 

Treaties. aKrecments. etc., 34. 273, 345, 647, 7C1, 802, 

00.1. t)84 
Visit of Vice President Johnson. 470, 588 
NS Sai on»io/i. nKnenieiit concerning visits to : Belgium, 

SIM: Nclherlimds, 34 
Nubian Monuments, Committee for (UNESCO), U.S. 

su|ii>ort for preservation of temples, 18 
Nuclear energy {see also Atomic energy. NS Savannah, 
and Nuclear hcadlngt), IAEA safeguards system 
(Smyth). 1010 
Nuclear-free zones: 

Mediterranean. Soviet proposal re, 83 
U.S. support (Stelle»,707 
Nuclear Test Ran Treaty, limited : 
Communique and text of treaty, 239 
Current actions: Afghnnl.-^tan, 34."i; Algeria, 380; 
Argentina. .345 ; Australia. 34.'i. S77 : Austria, .'524 ; 
Helglum, Rolivia, Brazil. 345 : Bulgaria, 345, 877 ; 
Burma. 380. 877; Burundi. 047 ; Cameroon, 4.'i0; 
Canada. 345 : Ceylon. 418 ; Chad. 4.'0 ; Chile, 345 ; 
China, 418; Colombia, 380: Congo (L), 345; 
Costa Ricn. 380; Cyi)rus. 345; Czechoslovakia, 
345, 721 ; Dahomey. 4.'iO: Penninrlx. 345; Domin- 
ican Republic, 505; Ecuador, (i05 ; El Salvador, 
418; Ethiopia. Finland. ,345; Gabon, 524; Ger- 
many, 418 : Ghana, Greece, 345 ; Guatemala. C05 ; 
Honduras. 345 : Hungary. 34.5, 761 : Iceland, 3S0 ; 
India, 31.5. 721; Indonesia, 418; Iran, 345; 
Ira<!, 380; Ireland, 345; Israel, Ital.v, 345; 
Ivory Coast, 4H4 : Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, 3S0; 
Korea. 4.50; Kuwait, Laos. Lebanon, 380; 
Liberia, 345; Libya, 380; Luxembourg, 484; 
Malagasy Republic, (i05; Malaya, 345; Mall, 418; 
Mauritania, ,524; .Mexico, .345; Nepal, 4.50; Neth- 
erlands, 345; New Zealand, 345, 089; Nicaragua, 
380 : Niger, 005 ; Nigeria, 484 ; Norway, 345, 905 ; 
Pakistan, 380; Panama, 505; Paraguay, 380; 
Peru, 418; Philippines, 345; Poland, 345, 721; 
Rumania, 345, 1021 ; Rwanda, 505; Samoa. West- 
ern. 4S4 ; San Marino, Senegal, 5G5 ; Sierra 
Leone, ,524; South Africa, 089; Somali Republic. 
418; Soviet Union. 310: Spain. .380; Sudan. 345; 
Sweden, 380, 1021; Switzerland. 450; Syrian 
Arab Republic. 3.S0 ; Tanganyika. 505; Thailand, 
34.5, 084; Togo. .505; Trinidad and Tobago, ,380; 
Tunisia, Turkey, I'nited Arab Republic, ,345; 
United Kingdom, 310; Upper Voita. 4.50; Uru- 
guay, .'1.^0; Venezuela, .380; Viet-Nam, 647; 
Yemen Arab Republic, 484 ; Yugoslavia, 345 
Internal security, effect on (Rusk), 491, 492 

llarrinian mission to London and Moscow and 

US. delegation. 109 
Statements on : Ilarrlman, 281 ; Stelle. 703 
I'.K.U.H. talks, text of couimunl(|ue (Kennedy- 
.Macmlllnn). 133 
U.S.. U K . USSR, talks at Moscow: 
Ri-jKirt on proLTi'ss (Kennedy). 198 
Text of communique. 315 

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty — Continued 

Nonparticipation by: 

Communist China : Hilsman, 392 ; Rusk, 360 ; Ste- 
venson, 756 
Cuba (Martin), 578 

Ratifications and entry into force, 658, 689 

Report to the Nation (Kennedy). 234 

Science Advisory Committee, endorsement and opin- 
ions of, 430 

Senate : 
Approval requested : Kennedy, 406 ; Rusk, 362 
Con.sent given to ratification by, 631 
Transmittal of treaty to, 314 

Significance and objectives : Bundy, 625 ; Foster, 829; 
Kennedy, 530, 531; Manninpr, 4.56; Rusk, 350; 
Stevenson, 770 ; Tyler, 03 ; Williams, 433 

Signing ceremony at Washington ( Ball ) . 315 

Soviet position and objectives : Harriman, 241 ; Rusk, 
3,58 ; Williams, 433 

U.S. views : Rusk, 240, 3.54, 363 ; Kennedy, 5, 6 
Nuclear weapons: 

Accidental war, measures to reduce dangers of : Fos- 
ter, 826 ; Rusk. 3.52. 3G0. 363, 491 

Allied nuclear navy, U.S. position (Rusk), 816 

China. Communist, capability (Hilsman), 389 

Communist aggression, deterrence to (McNamara), 

Dangers of and need to halt : Cleveland, 966 ; Ken- 
nedy, 2, 237 

Defense in a thermonuclear world, problems of (Fos- 
ter), 825 

Indla-U.S. nuclear power station agreement, 143 

International controls, U.S. efforts for (Rusk), 350 

Mediterranean nuclear-free zone, U.S. rejection of 
Soviet proposal re, 83 

Military circumstances, use in (Rusk), 193 

NATO nuclear force. See under North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization 

Nuclear deterrent, question of: Manning. 458; Mc- 
Ghee. 957 ; Rostow, 530 ; Rusk, 103 

Sino-Soviet dispute re thermonuclear war (Rusk), 

Soviet Union, capability against Western Europe and 
U.S. (Rusk), 101 

Tests. See Nuclear weapons tests 

U.S. superiority (McNamara), 917 
Nuclear weapons tests: 

Dangers (Kennedy), 7S1 

Detection of : 
Control posts proposed to prevent surprise attacks 

(Rusk), 257, 3G2 
Problems of (Rusk), 492 

High altitude tests (Stevenson), 104 

Limited underground testa permitted under treaty 
(Rusk), 242 

Treaty, Sec Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 

Violations, U.S. position re: Bundy, 626; Kennedy, 



Nyasaland and Rhodesia, Federation of, provisional 

accession of Argentina to GATT, 689 
Nyerere, Julius K., 144, 198, SS9 

OAS. See Organization of American States 
OAU. See Organization of African Unity 
Observation Mission, U.N., in Yemen, U.S. support 

(Stevenson), 71 
OECD. jSre Organization for Economic Cooperation 

and Development 
Ceylon, U.S. position re proposed legislation on dis- 
tribution of petroleum products in, 245 
Indonesia and foreign oil companies reach agree- 
ment, 19 
Pollution of sea by, convention (1954) for prevention 
of: Dominican Republic, 74; Liberia, 484; Pan- 
ama, 721 ; Philippines, 9S4 ; United Arab Repub- 
lic, 761 ; United Kingdom, 524 
ONUC. See Congo, Republic of the : U.N. operations in 
"Open Society" (Battle), 865 
Opium. See under Drugs, narcotic 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
Food and agriculture information officer, appointed, 

Functions of (Rusli), 196 

Ministerial Council, meeting at Paris, test of com- 
munique, 948 
Need for strengthening (Schaetzel), 734 
Purpose of ( Rusk ) , 21 

Soviet Union, question of credit policies toward 
(RusIO, 817 
Organization of African Unity : 
Objectives of ( Fredericl£s ) , 786 
U.S. support (Fredericks), 285, 287 
Organization of American States : 
Communist subversion, recommendations to counter, 

160, 579 
Task force, report of ( Battle) , 416 
Otepka, Otto F., 816 
Outer Mongolia. See Mongolia 
Outer space (see also Satellites, earth) : 
Activities of amateurs, research, aeronautical serv- 
ices, problems of, 836 
Arms race, dangers of and efforts to halt: Foster, 

828; Gardner, 371 
Danish-U.S. cooperation in programs for (L. John- 
son), 590 
Icelandic contributions in exploration of (L. 

Johnson), 594 
International cooperation in peaceful uses : 
Problems of: Gardner, 367, 368; Stevenson, 1005 
U.N. resolutions, 1012, 1013 
U.S. position : Gardner, 506 ; Stevenson, 1007 
Nuclear weapons test ban. See Nuclear Test Ban 

Project West Ford, 104, 105 

Radio conference on space communications, decisions 
of (McConnell),S35 

Outer space — Continued 
U.N. efforts to prevent weapons from orbiting in, 

(Stevenson), 753 
U.S. views : L. Johnson, 592 ; Stevenson, 754 

International law, position on (Gardner) , 369 
Soviet views on weapons in orbit (Stevenson), 754 
U.S. activities in, views on (Stevenson), 104 
U.S.-Soviet cooperation : 

Statements: Bundy, 627; Cleveland, 678; Ken- 
nedy, 532; NASA, 404; Stevenson, 770, 1005 
Text of agreement, 405 
Vehicle tracking stations agreements (1961) re 
establishment and operation of on Canton Is- 
land and in Bermuda : United Kingdom, 648 
Outer Space, U.N. Committee on Peaceful Uses of: 
Contributions (Stevenson), 1009 
Legal Subcommittee, views of (Stevenson), 104 

P.L. 480. See Agricultural surpluses 
Pacem in Terris, 38 
Pacific, U.S. policy in (Hilsman), 386 
Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the, U.S. adminis- 
tration, report on (Coding), 207 
Pact of Paris (1928), 975 
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, 886 
Pakistan : 

All-Pakistan Women's Association, 707 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 377 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 891 

Cyclone, New Orleans aid (Rusk), 17 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 273, 380 

U.K.-U.S. policy toward, 133 

U.S. aid to (Rusk), 22 
Palestine, hostilities in 1948 (Plimpton), 980 
Pan American Congress of Architects, welcome to 

Washington (Kennedy), 801 
Panama : 

Canal Zone talks with U.S., results of, 246 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 888 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 150, 565, 688, 721, 
761, 762, 802, 984 
Panama Canal, 246 
Paraguay, treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 229, 380, 381, 

485, 606, 762 
Park, Chung Hee, 887 

Passamaquoddy-Saint John project, report on, 248 
Passports, validation for travel to Cuba, announce- 
ment re, 92 
Patents, inventions relating to defense for which pa- 
tent applications have been filed, agreement for 
safeguarding : Greece, 381 
Paulus VI, 890 
Paz Estenssoro, Victor, 787 
Peace : 

Europe's role In (Rostow) , 540 

General Assembly resolution estabUshing peace fund, 

Goal of human rights (Cleveland) , 33 



Peace — Tontlnuwl 
Peacekefplng under International law, question of 

(Foster). 829 
Pioneers, U.S. ( Kennedy ). 631 

Problems of and effort.s toxviinl: Bundy, C25; Cleve- 
land. 070; Foster, 7; Kt-iiniKly. L', .'VJO, 094; Man- 
ning. 644; Rostow. 0'_'7 ; Rusk, 728; Stevenson, 
288; Williams, 434 
Soviet position (Uarriman), 280 
UJJ. role and costs of peacekeeping operations: 
Cleveland, 555; Plimpton, 170; Stevenson, 182, 
U.S. policy toward International peace (Cleveland), 

World objective (Kennedy), 6 
Pence Corps : 

Expan.slon of, need and purpose (Kennedy), 170 
Programs : 

Africa : Fredericks. 289 ; Williams, 436 
Agreements concerning: Panama, 984; Tangan- 
yika, 198 ; Uruguay. 722, 762 
Role of (Kennedy), 115 
Volunteers needtnJ, 993 
Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, U.N. Committee on: 
Contributions (Stevenson), 1009 
I^'gal Sul)oomniittee, views of (Stevenson), 104 
Penrcy, G. F-tzel. 1014 
P6Tez Jimenez. Marcos, 364 
Permanent Court of Arbitration, purpose of and U.S. 

delegation, 32 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense, U.S.-Canada, 

Chairman of U.S. section, appointment, 566 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 888 
Military Junta in (Martin), 700 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 418, 524, 565, 606. 689, 
762, 878 
Petroleum. See Oil 
Pettenssen. Svere, 648 

Philippine War Damage Act, amendment to (Depart- 
ment statement and remarks by Hilsman), 301 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 888 
MalayNia. problem re formation of (U. Johnson), 82 
".Maphllindo" confederation: Hilsman, 392; U. John- 

Hon. K2 
Military defense exercises 1963-64 by SEATO forces 

In. 8«3 
Trent li'.M. ngre<>mentB, etc., 73, 229, 345, 688, 762, 838, 

878. 984, 1022 
War damage bill, amendment proriding settlement of 
clalniH. .tOl 
PhlllliM. Uichnrd I., 74 
Phouma, Souvnnna, .500 
Plccloni, Attlllo. 036 

"PlaHtlcs-USA" exhibit, opened In Bulgaria, 1 12 
Plimpton, Frunrls T. P.. 17H, 7.''.S. 973 
Plutonium, U.S. support for International control re 
use of (Smyth), 1019 

Poland : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 888 
Most-favored-nation tariff treatment, question ofr 

Anderson, 90 ; Rusk, 25, 359 
Travel restrictions for citizens in U.S., 861 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 73, 172, 273, 345, 450, 721 
U.S. policy and aid (Rusk), 25 
Polaris submarines, in Mediterranean, Soviet denunci- 
ation, 84 
Political rights of women : 
Convention (1953) on, 722 

Inter-American convention (1948) on Paraguay, 381 
Progress (Tillett), 146 

U.S. views (Gardner) and text of convention, 321, 
Pollution of sea by oil, international convention (19o4> 
for prevention of: Dominican Republic, 74; Li- 
beria, 4S4 ; Panama, 721 ; Philippines, 984 ; United 
Arab Republic, 761 ; United Kingdom, 524 
Pope John XXIII, 42, 59 
Popov, Ivan, 138 
Population : 

Census, intensification of studies re (Bingham), 28 
Communist China, problems of (Hilsman), 387 
Problems of growth (Freeman) , 66 
Population Commission, U.N., 28, 30 
Porter, Dwight J., 648 
Portugal : 

African territories: 

Self-determination, problems of: Gardner, 505; 

Williams, 434 
U.N. Security Council resolution, 309 
U.S. position : Fredericks, 784 ; Rusk, 360 ; Steven- 
son, 303, 308 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 74, 230, 310, 722, 761, 

762, 877 
U.S. Ambassador, appointment, 310 
Postal convention (1959), universal, with final protocol, 
annex, regulations of execution and provisions re 
airmail: Colombia, 345; Jamaica, Mongolia, 565; 
Trinidad and Tobago, 273 
Poultry dispute with EEC : 

Remarks : Gossett, 293 ; Herter, 603, 605 
U.S.-EEC negotiations, 72 
Powell, Herbert B., 525 
Prebisch, Raul, 944, 945 
Press : 

Foreign correspondents, value (Harriman), 278 
Limitations (Cleveland), 14 
Prisoners of war, Geneva conventions (1949) relative 
to treatment of : Cameroon, 950 ; Malagasy Repub- 
lic, 648; Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 273; Somali Re- 
public, 648; Tanganyika, 273; Trinidad and 
Tobago, 9.")0 
Private enterijrise : 
Growth In Africa (Fredericks), 785 
Role In economic development process (Rostow), 425 



Proclamations by the President : 
Blue mold cheese, import regulations amended 

(3562), 970 
Butter substitutes, quota established (3558), 685 
Captive Nations Week, 1963 (3543) , 161 
EEC, duty raised on imports from (3564), 969 
General Pulaski's Memorial Day, 1963 (3550), 460 
National Day of Mourning for President Kennedy, 

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, ratified by the President, 

Spain's accession to GATT, protocol for (3553), 550 
U.S. tariff schedules made effective (3548), 478 
Project West Ford, and importance (Steven- 
son), 104 
Propaganda {see also Communism: Aggression and 
subversive activities) : Soviet use and advantage 
(Tyler), 96 
Property : 
Industrial, convention (1883, as revised) for protec- 
tion of : Central African Republic, Chad, 877 ; 
Congo (B), 4.50; Guam, 230; Ivory Coast, 761; 
Laos, 877 ; Nigeria, 450 ; Puerto Rico, 230 ; Ru- 
mania, 877; Samoa, 230; Upper Volta, 877; 
Virgin Islands, 230 
Iraq, law restricting foreign ownership of real prop- 
erty in, 100 
Surplus, agreement with Iran re use of funds from 
sale of, 838 
Protocol and the conduct of foreign affairs (Duke) , 700 
Public Law 480. See Agricultural surpluses 
Public service, hazards of (Galbraith), 53 
Publications : 
Committee to Strengthen the Security of the Free 
World, The Scope and Distribution of United 
States Military and Economic Assistance Pro- 
grams: Report to the President of the United 
States, published, 477 
Department of Agriculture, The World Food Budget, 

Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists, 57, 101, 144, 205, 264, 437, 551, 752, 792, 1004 
Economic Commission for Latin America, Towards a 
Dynamic Development Policy for Latin America, 
Food and Agriculture Organization : 
Development Through Food, 62 
Third World Food Survey, 62 
Obscene publications, agreement (1910) for repres- 
sion of circulation of: Cyprus, 110 
OflBce of the Special Representative for Trade Nego- 
tiations, Negotiations Under the Trade Expan- 
sion Act of 1962, published, 745 
State Department: 
A Beacon of Hope: The Exchange-of-Persons Pro- 
gram, published, 743 
Department of State Bulletin, new cover, 6 
Digest of International Law, Volume I, released, 

Publications — Continued 

State Department — Continued 
Foreign Relations of the United States, series: 
1942, Volume IV, The Near East and Africa, 

released, 34 
194s, Volume I, General, published, 690 
J943, Volume III, The British Commonwealth, 
Eastern Europe, the Far East, published, 985 
Lists of recent releases, 74, 230, 274, 346, 381, 418, 
485, 526, 650, 690, 722, 878, 986, 1022 
United Nations : 
Lists of current documents, 73, 229, 309, 380, 479, 

523, 565, 837, 876, 983 
The Technical Cooperation Programs of the United 
Nations System, Advisory Committee on Inter- 
national Organizations, released, 97 
U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educa- 
tional and Cultural Affairs, American Studies 
Abroad: Progress and Difficulties in Selected 
Countries, 169 
Tung Lo Encyclopedia, presented to Library of Con- 
gress, 740 
Puerto Rico, industrial property, convention (1883, as 

revised) for protection of, 230 
Pulaski Memorial Day (proclamation), 460 
Punta del Este, charter of ( Harriman ) , 939 

Queen Elizabeth, 886 

Racial discrimination : 

Apartheid. See Apartheid 

Effect on diplomatic relations in U.S. (Duke), 702 
Equal rights, question of (Rusk), 994 
Foreign relations, effect on : Louchheim, 683 ; Man- 
ning, 641 ; Williams, 436 
Problems and developments : Anderson, 91 ; Cleve- 
land, 41 ; Fredericks, 286 ; L. Johnson, 586 ; Ken- 
nedy, 534 ; Plimpton, 758 ; Rusk, 154 ; Sisco, 775 ; 
Stevenson, 771 
South Africa, U.S. views: Fredericks, 784; Gardner, 

505 ; Stevenson, 335, 769 ; Yost, 337 
United Nations responsibility and action : 
Cleveland, 555 ; Gardner, 320 

Developments of (Cleveland), 15 
Regulations (1959), annexed to 1959 international 
telecommunication convention. See under Tele- 
communication convention (19.59) 
Space radio communications conference, U.S. dele- 
gate report on, 835, 904 
Timetable schedules and links, provisional, proposed 

at Antarctic meeting, 107 
U.S. agreements with: 

Colombia, communications between amateur sta- 
tions on behalf of 3d parties, 1022 
Israel, radio facilities, agreement re reciprocal 
establishment and operation, 110 
Radioactive fallout, dangers of (Kennedy), 236 
Rahman, Tunku Abdul, 891 
Read, Benjamin H., 274 



Red Sea. Internntionnl adroemcnt re mnlnfennnce of 

certain llRhts In: United Arab Rcimbllc, 838 
Research fellowships (10G4-O5) offered by NATO, an- 

Dounrenient. 1)08 
Renter, Richard \V., 40,3 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, provisional 

accession of Art'entina to GATT, 089 
Rhodesia, Southern, question of independence, U.S. 

views (Stevenson), 559 
Rio Muni, visit of Assistant Secretary Williams to, 18 
Road traffic, convention (1049) on, with annexes: 

Algeria. 34 : .laniaica, 721 ; Lebanon, 418 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (10.'J4) on 
temporary importation of: Cyprus, Cool£ Islands, 
Road.s. Guatemala. aRreement with U.S. for construc- 
tion of the Inter-Auierlcan Highway in, 722; ter- 
mination of. 0.H4 
Rogers. Rutherford D.. 740 

Rome Treaty. See Kuropean Economic Community 
Roosevelt, Eleanor, cited. 43 
Roo.sevelt. Franklin D., 937 
Ross, Claude G., 310 
Rostow. Walt W., 422, 536, C67, 021 
Roth, William Matson, 519 
Rowan. Carl T., 580 

Royal Lao Air Force, U.S. replaces old aircraft, 500 
Rumania : 
Travel restrictions for citizens in U.S., 861 
Treaties, asreemcnts. etc., 345. 877, 1021 
Rush-Bagot treaty, importance of (Tyler), 93 
Rusk. Dean : 
Addresses, remarks, and statements : 
Africa. Portuguese territories in, 361 
Ai>l, restrictions proposed for Egj'pt, Indonesia, 

I'uKo.slavia, 811 
Algeria supplied with Soviet arms from Cuba and 

Egypt, 817 
Alliance for Progress, need for strengthening, 814 
Allied nuclear navy, U.S. position on, 816 
Armed forces, U.S., question of reduction in Ger- 
many, 3."7 
Atlantic partnership, review of, 720 
Australia, transmission from U.S. via Common- 
wealth r'acilie Cable opened, 969 
Berlin, Soviet Interference with convoys to, 812, 

China, Communist: 

Nuclear test ban treaty, nonpartlclpatlon in, 300 
Worldwide dl.sarmament conference proposed by, 
Civil rights bill, support of, 041 
Congressional inquiry of Department officials, 

question of, 815 
Cuba : 

Kidnaping Incident in waters by Castro 

forces, 302 
Situation In, 817 
Digest of International Late, acceptance of flrst 
volume, 205 

Rusk, Dean — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Dismissal of .Mr. Otepka. question of, 816 
Dominican Republic and Honduras, U.S. economic 

and military aid stopped to, 624 
Eastern Europe, U.S. policy re trade expansion, 

ECOSOC ministerial meeting attended by Gov. 

Harriman, 814 
Educational and cultural exchange program, in- 
ternational, review of, 742 
Eulogy to President Kennedy, 881, 883 
Export expansion, importance of. 599 
Ford Foundation grant to Howard University for 

foreign affairs program, 684 
Foreign aid : 

Appropriation requests, dangers of reductions, 
400. 812, 816, 999 

Foreign policy, effect on, 19, 356 
Foreign policy, U.S., citizen's role in, 990 
France, question of U.S. sharing nuclear infor- 
mation with, 357, 359, 363 
German-Berlin question. Western position on, 813 
Gettysburg Address Anniversary, 842 
Inter-American foreign ministers meeting pro- 
posed, U.S. support for, 813 
Internal defense and security, U.S. position, 490 
Latin American, economic and social development 

problems in, 814 

Role in prevention of nuclear surprise attacks, 

Status of, 190 

U.S. support for, 243 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty : 

Control posts, stationary or mobile, proposed, 
357, 360, 363 

Senate approval, 362, 631 

Significance of, 350 

Signing at Moscow, 314 

U.S. views, 240, 363 
Pakistan cyclone. New Orleans aid commended, 17 
Poland, U.S. most-favored-nation tariff treatment, 

Racial equality, problems and scope, 154 
Rights of man. 654 
SEATO, 9th anniversary of, 464 
Sino-Soviet dispute, effect on U.S.-Soviet relations, 

Soviet Union : 

Communist China, relations with, 357 

Military forces in Cul)a, 260, 361 

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Soviet's motive re, 

U.S. credit policy toward, 817 

Wheat export proposed, 810, 815 
State Dei)artment 1964 appropriation request, 

Justification to Congress, 200 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 
Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
U.N. Church Center, dedication, 570 
Viet-Nam : 
Neutralization aspect in, 811, 812, 815 
New regime in, 813, 814 
Situation in, 359, 810 
Yugoslavia, U.S. most-favored-nation tariff treat- 
ment, 359 
Correspondence and messages : 
Adenauer, Chancellor, on retirement, 697 
Export expansion program, Chiefs of Mission role 

in, 290 
Foreign Assistance Act 1963, request for restora- 
tion of funds, 399 
Greetiug.s to new British cabinet officers, 736 
Latvia's National Day, greetings on, 932 
Venezuela, agreement with U.S. to extradite Mar- 
cos P^rez-Jim^nez and texts of notes, 364, 365 
Vice President Johnson's visit to Benelux coun- 
tries, 8.54 
News conferences, transcripts of, 356, 810 
Responsibility assigned in international aviation pol- 
icy (Kennedy), 100 
TV interview, transcript of, 240 
Visits to : 

Germany, Federal Republic of, 117 
United Kingdom, 133 
Rwanda, treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 565, 647, 689 

Sabah and Sarawak, question of inclusion in Malay- 
sia, 542 
Safety of life at sea, conventions on : 
1948 convention : Cyprus, 877 ; Nigeria, 381 ; Tunisia, 

1960 convention : Cuba, 484 ; Paraguay, 606 ; Tunisia, 
St. John River hydroelectric power development proj- 
ect (Passamaquoddy), 248 
St. Lawrence River, agreement with Canada re pilotage 

services on, 606 
Samoa, indu.strial property, convention (1883, as re- 
vised) for protection of, 230 
San Marino, Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 565 
Santos, Vincente N., 219 
Sarawak and Sabah, question of inclusion in Malaysia, 

Satellites, earth {see also Outer space) : 
Communication satellites. See Communications: 

Meteorological satellites. See Meteorological satel- 
Navigational satellites, 835 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Spain, tracking stations and communication facil- 
ities on Grand Canary Island, 172 
United Kingdom, vehicle tracking station, estat>- 
lishment on Canton Island and in Bermuda, 648 

Saudi Arabia : 
Prisoners of war, Geneva conventions (1949) rela- 
tive to treatment of, 273 
Temen, U.N. Observation Mission in (text of Security 
Council resolution), 71 
Schaetzel, J. Robert, 731 
Scheyven, Louis, 484 
Schweitzer, Pierre-Paul, 610, 613 

Science (see also Atomic energy. Nuclear weapons, 
Outer space, and Satellites) : 
International cooperation in, need and accomplish- 
ments : Kennedy, 778 ; Stevenson, 1008 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

U.S. attaches, appointments to : Bonn, 150, 906 ; Can- 
berra, 150 ; Tokyo, 186 ; London, 150 ; NATO and 
ERO, 381 ; Stockholm, 648 
Science Advi-sory Committee, 430 

Science and Technology for the Benefit of the Less De- 
veloped Areas, U.N. Conference on the Application 
of, appointment of experts (Bingham), 712 
Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization. See 

Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
Seoville, Herbert, Jr., 906 
Sea, use of resources of (Kennedy), 780 
Seaborg, Glenn T., 168, 564, 1019 
SEATO. See Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 
Secretary of State (see also Busk, Dean), role in inter- 
national aviation policy (G. Johnson), 509 
Security Council, U.N. : 
Documents, lists of, 73, 309, 380, 479, 523, 565, 876 
Double veto (Plimpton), 981 
Limitations on peacekeeping powers of (Plimpton), 

Resolutions : 

Israel and Syrian incidents and text of proposed 

resolution, 523 
Observation mission to Yemen, 71 
Portuguese territories in Africa, 309 
South Africa, racial policy problems in and pro- 
posed ban on sale of arms to, 338 
Role and scope (Cleveland), 42 

South Africa, proposed ban on sale of arms to (Ste- 
venson), 333 
Southern Rhodesia, question of independence (Ste- 
venson), 559 
"See America Now" program, 1964 (Kennedy), 253 
Segni, Antonio, 136, 887 
Self-determination : 
Africa : 

Problems in (Williams), 434 
U.N. role (Cleveland), 463 
U.S. support (Fredericks), 286, 287 
East Germany, U.S. support, 537, 540 
Newly independent nations, problems of (Manning), 

Portuguese territories In Africa : 

Security Council, U.N., resolution, 309 
U.S. position : Gardner, 505; Stevenson, 304 



Self-determination — Continued 

South-West Africa ( Yates), »4C, 948 
U.S. |H)8itioti and .supijort : Kennedy, 5, 532; Rusk, 
(ir>:> ; Stevenson, 303 
Senegal, treaties, aKrecments, etc., 110, 273, 565, 689 
Settlement of disputes, compul.sory, optional protocol of 

sli;nature tu : Australia, 229 
Sevastyanov, Gennadly G., 137 
SevillaSnfTisa. GullliTmo, 997 
Shah of Iran, R><6 
Shazar, Zaluian, 886 
Shen Changhuan, 780 
Ships and shipping: 

Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

IMCO, convention (1948) on : Algeria, 984 ; Czecho- 
slovakia. 761 ; Tunisia, 110 
Naval vessels, termination of agreement with Can- 
ada re furnishing supplies and services to, 648 
NS .S'orofinaft, agreement re: Belgium, 984; Neth- 
erlands, 34 
Pilotage services on Great Lakes and St Lawrence 
Klver, amending agreement (1961) with Canada, 
Red Sea, international agreement re maintenance 
of certain lights in : I'nited Arab Republic, 838 
Transportation, Inter-American convention on fa- 
i-ilitution of: .Vrgentina. Rolivia, Chile, Colom- 
bia, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, 229 
U.S. submarine, agreement with Pakistan re loan 
of, 273 
Shriver, Sargent, 199 
Sierra Ix>one: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials. 904 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 524, 1022 
SIno-Sovlet bloc {sec alio Communism and individual 
countricn) : 
Aid to foreign countries (CofBn), 516 
Eastern Europe, Soviet domination (Anderson), 88 
Indonesia, relations with (, 24 
Less developed countrle.s, economic aid to (Wil- 
liams ), O.'iO 
Slno-Soviet dispute, U.S. views : Anderson, 90 ; Harri- 
man, 244, 2.S0: Ullsman. 388; U. Johnson, 82; Mar- 
tin. 577 : Rostow, 924 ; Rusk, 191, 244, 493 
Siple, Paul A., 1.50 
SIsco, Joseph J., 773, 802 

Skopje earthquake disaster, proposed U.N. aid to, 7.59 
Slave trafflr, white, apn^ement (1904) for repression: 

Algeria, 9.S4 ; Cyprus, 273 ; Madagascar, 878 
Slavery, convention (1I»20) on abolition of : 
Current action, Kuwait, 273 
Text of agreement, .323 
U.S. views (Gardner), .320 
Smith, Renjamln A. II, 519, 709 
Smyth, Henry D., 1019 
Smythe, Mabel .M., 25»7 

Social Security System, agrM-niont with Philippines re 
coverage for Filipino employees of U.S. armed 
forces, 838 

Soekamo, Acbmed, 17, 891 
Solomon, Anthony M., 1022 
Somali Republic: 
Arms shipment from Soviet Union (Williams), 929, 

Historical and geographic background (Williams), 

MilitxTry aid proposed by U.S., Italy, and Germany 

(Williams), 930 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 418, (548 
Sosa-Rodriguez, Carlos, 892 
South Africa, Republic of : 
Apartheid : 

Communist opposition to (Williams), 931 
Policies of: Gardner, 505; Stevenson, 333; Wil- 

Uams, 435 ; Yost, 337 
U.S. position (Fredericks), 784 
Consulate at Durban raised to Consulate General, 

Military etiuipment, U.S. termination of sale of (Wil- 
liams), 435 
Sanctions, question of (Stevenson), 336 
Treaties, agreements, etc., (589, 761, 762 
South America {see also Latin America), purpose of 

Gov. Harriman's visit to (Rusk), 814 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : 
Military defense exercises 1963-64, 863 
Ninth anniversary (Rusk), 464 
U.S. role (U. Johnson), 81 
Southern Rhodesia. See Rhodesia, Southern 
South-West Africa, U.S. position (Yates), 946 
Soviet bloc countries : 
Cuban economy, subsidization of deficits in (Martin), 

575, 577 
Exchange of information and persons with U.S. pro- 
posed (Rusk), 493 
Soviet Union {see also (Communism and Sino-Sovlet 
bloc) : 
Agricultural production, problem of (Rostow), 924 
Armed forces, size of (McNamara), 915. 918 
Attach^, U.S. requests departure of, 137 
Berlin, interference with U.S. convoys to, 818 
Communication, direct link with U.S., purpose and 

text of agreement, 50 
Communist China, withdrawal of technical assist- 
ance to (Rusk), 357 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 889 
Cuba, military forces in (Rusk), 360, 361 
Detente policy ( Rostow ), 925, 928 
East Berlin, U.S. protest Soviet restrictions in, 138 
Exchange of persons and information with U.S., pro- 
posed (Rusk), 493 
Eastern Europe, relations with (Anderson), 88 
Foreign policy, failures of (Cleveland) , 849 
Free world, subversive activities in (McNamara), 

920, 924, 925 
Ideologies, comparison with U.S. (Kennedy), 531 
Israel and Syrian incidents, U.S.-U.K. resolution in 
Security Council vetoed by, 520 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Mediterranean nuclear-free zone, exchange of notes 

re Soviet proposal, S3 
Missiles, status of (McNamara), 916 
Nationalism, growth of (Rostow), 928 
North Pacific fur seals, protocol amending conven- 
tion (1957) on conservation of, 688 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (see also Nuclear Test Ban 
Treaty: Negotiations): 
Talks at Moscow with U.S. and U.K., progress on 

(Kennedy), 198 
Views and objectives of (Harriman), 241 
Nuclear weapon capability (Rusk) , 191 
Outer space. Sec under Outer space : U.S.S.R. 
Peace, views on, 160 

Racial relations in U.S., views on (Rusk), 155 
Sino-Soviet dispute. See Sino-Soviet dispute 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 273, 310, 524, 689, 762 
Travel restrictions for U.S. citizens in, 855 
U.N. peacekeeping operations, payment of assess- 
ments for (Plimpton), 179 
U.S. relations with: Bundy, 629; Harriman, 279; 
Kennedy, 3, 696 ; Manning, 457 ; Rusk, 244, 994 ; 
Sisco, 774 
Visits, State and oflicial, conduct of (Duke), 701 
Voice of America broadcasts to (Rusk), 493 
Wheat sale from U.S.: Ball, 935; Kennedy, 660; 

Rusk, 810, 815 
World domination, goal of : Manning, 457 ; Rostow, 
921 : Rusk, 728 
Space. See Outer space and Satellites 
Space Communications, Extraordinary Administrative 

Radio Conference on, results of (Kennedy), 904 
Space Research, International Committee on, accom- 
plishments and objectives (Stevenson), 1008 
Spain : 

Defense agreement renewed with U.S. (texts), 686 
Export-Import Bank loans to, 686, 688 
GATT, protocol for accession to, proclamation, 550 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 273, 310, 380, 381, 485, 
524, 606, 648, 689, 905, 906 
Special Fund, U.N., U.S. views (Bingham), 68, 716 
Special Representative for Trade Negotiations : 
Confirmations : Blumenthal. 297 ; Roth, 519 
Functions of (Herter), 601, 602 

GATT advisory opinion requested on U.S.-EEC poul- 
try dispute, 751 
Negotiations Under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, 

published, 745 
Notice of public hearings for 1964 GATT trade nego- 
tiations, 745 
Tariff schedules in effect, 329 
Trade Information Committee, regulations of, 330 
' Specialized agencies, U.N., role of (Cleveland), 15 
State Department (see also Agency for International 
Development, Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency, Foreign Service, and Peace Corps) : 
Appointments and designations, 74, 186, 230, 274, 310, 
381, 566, 648, 685, 802, 906, 1022 

State Department — Continued 

Appropriation request, justification to Congresa 

(Rusk), 260 
Assistant Secretary of State, confirmation (Porter), 

Aviation, international policy, role in (Johnson), 509 
Civil rights bill, support of (Manning), 641 
Congressional inquiry of Department officials, ques- 
tion of (Rusk), 815 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, Bureau of, con- 
sultants appointed, 673 
Foreign policy briefing conferences. See under 

Foreign policy 
News releases, volume of (Louchheim) , 682 
Office for Special Representational Services, estab- 
lishment, 525 
Office of Community Advisory Services established, 

Otepka, Otto F., question of dismissal of (Rusk), 816 
Publications. See under Publications 
Special assistant to the Secretary of State, designa- 
tion (Read), 274 
Trade Negotiations, Ambassadors and Special Rep- 
resentatives for, confirmations : Blumenthal, 
297 ; Roth, 519 
Visits, State and official, policy on (Duke), 701 
State visits, customs and problems of (Duke), 701 
Statistical Commission, U.N., purpose and aims (Bing- 
ham), 28 
Stelle, Charles C, 793 
Stevenson, Adlai E. : 
Addresses, letters, and statements: 
Apartheid, problems of (cited) , 435 
Economic and social development, 265 
Israel and Syrian incidents, 520 
Memorial tribute to President Kennedy, 883, 894 
Outer space : 

International cooperation, importance of, 1005 
U.N. efforts to prevent weapons from orbiting In, 

U.S. reply to Soviet charges, 104 
Portuguese territories in Africa, U.S. position, 

South Africa, racial problems of and proposed ban 

on sale of arms to, 333-335 
Southern Rhodesia, question of independence, U.S. 

views, 559 
United Nations : 

Growth and accomplishments of, 766 
Responsibilities of, 181 
U.N. Church Center, dedication, 573 
Yemen, U.N. Observation Mission to, 71 
Strategic-hamlet program in Viet-Nam : Heavner, 396 ; 

Hilsman, 48, 391 
Stutts, Captain Ben W., 246 
Subversive activities. See under Communism 
Sudan, treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 762 
Suffrage, women's progress in (Louchheim), 705 



Sugar : 
Joternatlonol sugar agreement (1958) : 

Ciirrcut actions: ArKi-iitina, 722; Jamaica, 689; 

Swaziland, r.24 ; Trinidad and Tobago, 689 
Protocol for the prolongation of the: Argentina, 
Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, 
Denmark, Dominican Kepublic, Ecuador, El Sal- 
vador, France, Federal Kepublic of Germany, 
Ghana, Guatemala, lialti, Hungary, India, In- 
donesia. Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Leb- 
anon, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, 
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, South 
Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, U.S.S.R., 
U.K., I'.S.. 761 
Sukarno, Achmed, 17, 891 
Supporting assistance, appropriation request (Rusk), 

Surveying. See Cartography 

Swaziland, International sugar agreement (1958), 624 
Sweden : 
Educational exchange agreement with U.S., 101 
Tax convention with U.S. for avoidance of double 

taxation, 760 
Treaties, agreements, etc., .34. 172, 230, 380, 485, 647, 

088, 689. 761, 762, 802, 1021. 1022 
U.S. science attach^, appointment, 048 
Visit of Vice President Johnson, 479, 583 
Switzerland : 
Basel. U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 418, 450, 485, 524, 506, 

080, 905 
U.S. AmbaH.sador. conflrmation, 048 
Visit of Assistant Secretary Cleveland, 92 
Syncom II, 1010 
Syrian Arab Republic: 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 889 
Israeli Incidents (Stevenson), 520 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 3S0, 084 
Szymczak, Matt S., 073 

TakeuchI, RyuJI, 441, 449 

Tanganyika : 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 889 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 54, 108, 273, 484, 505, 689, 

701, n.-.o 

Visit of President Nyerere to U.S., 144, 198 
Tarai)iir Atomic Power Station, .340 
TarItT riassUlcallon Act of 11)02. purpose of, 329 
Tariff CommLsslon, U.S. : 

E.scape-<-lause restrictions on clinical thermometers, 

report on, Presidential decision, 046 
Function of (Ooa.sett), 2W 

Tariff reductions, announcement of public hearings 
on, 00-1, 745 
Tariff Disparities Subcommittee of GATT Trade Nego- 
tiations Committee, 72 
Tariff policy, U.S. (tec oho Customs, Tariffs and trade, 
general agreement on. and Trade) : 
Blue mold cheese. Import regulations amended, 970 

Tariff policy, U.S. — Continued 

Butter substitutes, establishment of import quotas 
for (proclamation), 085 

Clinical thermometers. Presidential decision re duty 
on imports of, (>40 

Disparities of (Gossett), 292 

EEC ( see also European Economic Community ) , duty 
raised on potato starch, brandy, dextrine and 
trucks imported from, 909 

Most-favored-nation tariff treatment, Poland and 
Yugoslavia, question of : Anderson, 90 ; Rusk, 359 

1904 tariff negotiations. See Tariffs and trade, gen- 
eral agreement on : International tariff negotia- 
tions, 1964 

Revised tariff schedules, effective date and text of 
proclamation, 329, 478 

Trade Expansion Act of 1902. iSec Trade Expansion 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Agreements, declarations, procfes-verbal, and 
protocols : 
Accessions to, current actions on : 
Argentina, provisional : Australia, 74 ; Brazil, 

484 ; Cyprus, 689 ; Czechoslovakia, 74 ; Israel, 
Japan, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia and 
Nyasaland, Tanganyika, 089; Turkey, 74; 
Uganda, 801 ; Yugoslavia, 484, 524 

Cambodia : Austria, 722 

Dahomey, provisional, 500 

Israel : Austria, 722 ; Spain, 648 

Japan : Spain, 648 

Portugal : Austria, 722 ; Spain, 648 

Spain: Austria, 485; Belgium, 689; Canada, 
Denmark, 485; France, 689; Germany, 485; 
India, 689; Italy, 485; Netherlands?, South 
Africa, 689 ; Spain, 381 ; Sweden, Switzerland, 

485 ; Uruguay, 089 ; U.S., 310 
Switzerland, provisional : Brazil. 566 : Cyprus, 

Kuwait, 689 ; Portugal, 74 ; Spain, 689 ; Ugan- 
da. 801 
Tunisia, provisional : Chile, Cyprus. Tangan- 
yika. 689; Uganda, 801; Yugoslavia, 560 
United Arab Republic, provisional : Ceylon, 506 ; 
Chile, 689; Cuba, 560; Cyprus, Greece, Haiti, 
Kuwait, Sweden, Tanganyika, 689 ; Yugo- 
slavia, 566 
Yugoslavia, provisional : Austria. Brazil, Tan- 
ganyika. United Arab Republic. 524 
Annecy protocol of terms of accession to: Uganda, 

Article XIV, special protocol modifying: Uganda, 

Article XVI : 4, declarations re provisions of, entry 

Into force : Uganda, 801 
Article XXIV, special protocol relating to: Ugan- 
da, 877 
Australia, protocol replacing schedule I : Uganda, 

Brazil, new schedule III, protocol on establish- 
ment: Spain, 047 ; Uganda, 801 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on — Continued 
Agreements, declarations, etc. — Continued 
Ceylon, protocol replacing schedule VI : Uganda, 

French text, protocol of rectlflcation to: Spain, 

648 ; Uganda, 722 
Geneva tariff conference (1960-61) : 

European Economic Community negotiations 
(McGhee), 957 
Protocol re : Spain, 648 ; Tanganyika, 484 
Organization for Trade Cooperation: Uganda, 722 
Organizational amendments to, protocol of: 

Uganda, 722 
Part I and articles XXIX and XXX, protocol and 
proc&s-verbal of rectification : Spain, 647 ; Ugan- 
da, 722 
Parts I and II and articles XXVI and XXIX, pro- 
tocol modifying : Uganda, 877 
Poland, declaration and relations between con- 
tracting parties and Poland : Uganda, 801 
Preamble and parts II and III : Spain, 648 ; Ugan- 
da, 722 
Protocol modifying certain provisions of : Uganda, 

Provisional application of, with annexes and sched- 
ules and protocol of: Cameroon, Central Afri- 
can Republic, 34; Chad, 230; Congo (B), 34; 
Cyprus, 273; Dahomey, 565; Gabon, 34; 
Jamaica, 905; Kuwait, 34; Malagasy RepubUc, 
Mauritania, Senegal, 689; Upper Volta, 34 
Kectiflcation, protocol of: Uganda, 877 
Rectifications and modifications to, lst-3d proto- 
cols: Uganda, 877 
Rectifications and modifications to texts of 
schedules : 

lst-3d protocols : Uganda, 878 
4th-9th protocols : Spain, 606 ; Uganda, 722, 878 
Spain's accession, protocol (proclamation), 550 
Supplementary concessions to : 
3d-8th protocols : Spain, 606 
6th protocol : Uganda, 801 

10th protocol : Japan, New Zealand, 418 ; Spain, 
Torquay protocol : Uganda, 878 
International tariff negotiations, 1964 : 

Ministerial meeting at Geneva, 72, 292, 602 
Less developed countries, proposal to aid 

(Prank), 176 
Purpose and objectives : Bingham, 714 ; Harri- 
man, 944 ; Herter, 603 ; Kennedy, 597 ; Schaet- 
zel, 733 
Negotiations Under the Trade Expansion Act of 

1962, 745 
Notices of public hearings on 1964 trade negotiations 

and articles for consideration, 745, 746, 749 
Poultry dispute, advisory opinion requested on U.S.- 

ECC problem, 751 
Tariff schedules, revised, approved, 329 
Task force, OAS, report of (Battle) , 416 

Taxation : 

Double taxation, conventions for avoidance of. See 

Double taxation 
Income tax, agreement with Panama for ^^^thhold- 
ing compensation from Panamanians employed 
in Canal Zone, 802 
Interest equalization tax proposed : DiUon, 618 ; Ken- 
nedy, 255 
Taylor, Maxwell D., 47, 624 
Teachers, shortage of (Battle), 415 
Technical assistance and cooperation. See Economic 

and technical aid to foreign countries 
Tejera-Paris, Enrique, 365 

Telecommunication (see also Communications and 
Radio) : 
Antarctic Treaty countries, meeting and text of final 

communique re, 107 
Telecommunication convention (1959), international 
Current actions : Albania, 762 ; Cameroon, 150 
Colombia, 34 ; Guatemala, 801 ; Indonesia, 762 
Liberia, 150 ; Liechtenstein, 3S1 ; Peru, 565 
Philippines, 1022 ; Poland, 450 ; Portuguese Over- 
seas Territories, 34 
Radio regulations (1959), with appendixes, an- 
nexed to international telecommunication con- 
vention (1959): Gabon, 34; Ireland, 838; 
Liberia, 381 ; Luxembourg, 950 ; Nepal, 762 ; 
Nigeria, 110 ; Sudan, 762 
Telegraph regulations (Geneva revision 1958) an- 
nexed to international telecommunication con- 
vention (1952) with appendixes and final pro- 
tocol : Liberia, 381 ; Nepal, 762 
Telecommunication Union, International. See Inter- 
national Telecommunication Union 
Telstar satellites, 1010 
Tennessee Valley Authority, success and value of 

(Galbraith), 54 
Territorial sea and contiguous zone, convention (1958) 

on, Australia, 229 
Terry, Fernando Belaunde, 888 
Textiles. See Cotton textiles 
Thailand : 

Communist aggression (U. Johnson), 79 

Military defense exercises 1963-64 by SEATO forces 

in, 863 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 761, 984 
Tillett, Mrs. Gladys A., 145 
Timberlake, Clare H., 436 
Timmons, Benson E. L. Ill, 906 
Tin, U.S. interim modification and long-term disposal 

program, 56, 945 
Tin Council, International, 56, 945 
Tiros satellites, 1009 
Tito, Josip Broz, 738, 890 

"Toasted breadcrumbs of the future" (Cleveland), 12 
Tobacco, U.S. negotiations with EEC at Geneva, 72 
Togo, treaties, agreements, etc., 565, 721 
Tolman, Carl, 186 
Tour6, Ahmed S^kou, cited, 638 



TracklnK stations agreements with U.S. . space vehicle 
tracking and communication facilities, estabUsh- 
ment anil oixTation of : Australia, 802 ; Spain, 172 ; 
United Kingdom, C48 
Trade (»<e alto Agricultural surpluses, Customs, Eco- 
nomic |>olicy, Exi)orts, Imi)ortii, and Tariff policy) : 
Balance-of-paymentfl problems. Bee Balance of pay- 
Barriers, reduction of : 

Negotiations proposed (Herter), GOl 
U.S. position: Lowenfeld, 37G; Schaetzel, 733 
Commodities. Sec Commodity and individual com- 
Cuba, free- world boycott (Martin), 575 
Ex|>ansion of, efforts for : 
Addre.s-ses and statements: Bell, 831; Bingham, 
714; Frank, 173; Kennedy, 121, 595, 598; Rusk, 
5St9, 600 
Eastern Europe, U.S. policy toward : Anderson, 90 ; 

Rusk, 364 
German-U.S. support (Adenauer, Kennedy), 117 
International trade Increased (Lowenfeld), 377 
Special Representative for Trade Negotiations of 
the U.S. See Special Representative for Trade 
Negotiations of the U.S. 
U.K. nonmembership in EEC, effect of (Manning), 

U.S. firms assisted to expand export markets 
(Rusk), 600 
Jaf>an. Src Japan 
Most-fnvored-nation basis for world trade (Herter), 

Trade agreements. See Trade agreements 
Trade Expansion Act. See Trade Expansion Act of 
U.S. trade relations with : 
Bulgaria (Anderson), 141 
Canada (G. Johnson), 543 

EEC, technical problems of negotiations with (Cos- 
sett), 294 
Trade agreements: 

Public htarings, notice, 330, 331 

Argentina, effectiveness of U.S. schedules, 450 
Belgium, termination of commerce and navigation 

agreement, (J48 
China, arrangement re trade in cotton textiles, 789, 

Iceland, trade agreement replacing Schedule II of 

ini."?, 0.89 
Jamaica, arrangement re trade In cotton textiles, 

ftl.'i, 689 
Japan : 

Arrangement re trade In cotton textiles, 450 
ZIpiHT chain export tn U.S., 449 
Parngnay, reciprocal trade agreement (194C) 

amended, 172 
Sr>alM. tcTiiilnntion of 1927 agreements and 1946 

understanding, 000 
Switzerland, effectiveness of U.S. schedules, 418 

Trade Agreements Program, administration of ( Execu- 
tive order), 167 
Trade and Development, U.N'., conference on : 
Objectives (Bingham), 714 

Preparatory Committee, meeting of (Frank), 173 
Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Canadian Com- 
mittee on, 8th meeting, 297, 548, 689 
Trade Expansion Act of 1962 : 

Authority granted to President under (Herter), 291, 

Export expansion program (Kennedy), 596, 597 
Most-favored-nation clause : Anderson, 90 ; Rusk, 25- 
Negotiations Under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, 

published, 745 
Review of (Gossett), 291 

Significance and goals : Herter, (K)2 ; Kennedy, 252 ; 
Stevenson, 270 
Trade Information Committee: 
Text of regulations, 330 

Tariff reductions, proposed public hearings on, 294, 
G04, 745 
Trade Negotiations Committee, GATT, meeting, pur- 
pose of and U.S. delegation to, 72, 603 
Trade union movement (Kennedy), 123 
Trademarks, convention (1884) on, termination of 

agreement with Belgium, 648 
Training and Research Institute, U.N., establishment 

(Bingham), 714 
Travel : 

Areas restricted in U.S. for foreign nationals : 

Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, 860 ; Po- 
land, Rumania, 861 ; U.S.S.R., 855 
Cuba, validated passports required for travel to. 92 
Pacific trust territory, free entry to and from U.S. 

(Coding), 211, 213 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Road, traffic, convention (1949) on, with annexes: 

Algeria, 34 ; Lebanon, 418 
Road vehicles, private, customs convention (1954) 
on temporary importation : Cook Island, 109 ; 
Costa Rica, 761 ; Cyprus, 109 
Touring, convention (19.^4) re customs facilities 
for : Cook Islands, Cyprus, 109 
U.S. efforts to attract tourists (Kennedy), 253 
Travel Control Law and Regulations, 92 
Treasury, Department of the : 

Cuban assets, controls blocked on, 160 
Interest equalization tax proposal, 256 
Treaties, agreements, etc.. international (for indiridual 
treaty, see subject), 34, 73, 109, li50, 172, 229, 273, 
310, 345, 380, 418, 450, 484, 524, 565, 605, 647, 721, 
762, 801, 837, 877, 905, 950, 984, 1021 
Trinidad and Tobago : 

Iminigration. recommendation for nonquota status 

(Kennedy), 300 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 229. 273. 380, 565, 605, 689, 
7G2, 9.50 
Truce Supervision Organization, U.N., 521 
Trust territories. U.N. (sec also Non-self-governing 
territories). Pacific Islands: Coding, 207; Santos, 



tubman, William V. S., 638 (cited), 887 

^inisia : 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 889 
National Union of Tunisian Women, 707 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 110, 345, 566, 606, 689, 
762, 905, 950 

Mnkin, Grigory, 164 

Mrkey : 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 889 
40th anniversary of Republic, U.S. congratulations 

on, 788 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 74, 310, 345, 418 

?VA. See Tennessee Valley Authority 

^ler, WilUam R., 93 

I.A.R. See United Arab Republic 
J Nu, cited, 461 
I.S.S.R. See Soviet Union 
J Thant, 178, 542, 563, 893 
Idall, Stewart, 883 
Iganda : 
Council of Women, 706 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 450, 605, 689, 722, 877 
Inder water nuclear weapon test ban. See Nuclear 

Test Ban Treaty 
Inderdeveloped countries. See Less developed coun- 
FNEF. See United Nations Emergency Force 
JNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization, U.N. 
Inion of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union 
Inited Arab Republic : 
Abu Simbel Temples, U.S. support for preservation 

of, 18 
Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 890 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 345, 418, 524, 689, 722, 

761, 838 
U.N. sends Observation Mission to Yemen, text of 

Security Council resolution (Stevenson), 71 
U.S. aid to (Rusk), 24, 811 
Inited Kingdom : 
Bilateral aid, 27 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 886 
EEC, problem of nonmembership in (Manning), 458 
Greetings to new cabinet officers (Rusk), 736 
Kidnaping incident by Cuban troops in British 

waters (Rusk), 362 
Manchester, U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. See Nuclear Test Ban 

Treaty : Negotiations 
Southern Rhodesia, relations with (Stevenson), 560 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 245, 273, 310, 485, 648, 688, 

689, 722, 761, 762 
U.S. deputy scientific attach^, appointment, 150 
Visit of U.S. officials to : 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland, 92 
President Kennedy, 132 
'nited Nations : 
Accomplishments, problems, and role of : 

Cleveland, 38, 848; Gardner, 502; Kennedy, 5; 

United Nations — Continued 

PUmpton, 978 ; Sisco, 773 ; SteUe, 796 ; Stevenson, 
267, 766 

Administrative and budgetary procedures of, contin- 
uation of the working group on the examination 
of (GA resolution), 185 

African participation in, 287, 289 

Capital Development Fund, 561 

Charter. See United Nations Charter 

Church Center, dedication (Rusk, Stevenson), 570, 

Citadel of diversity (Cleveland), 462 

Communist China : 

Attitude of (Stevenson), 757 

Veto of membership ( Stevenson) , 755 

Consolidation, need for (Mailliard), 872 

Decade of Development. See Decade of Development 

Documents, lists of, 73, 108, 229, 309, 380, 479, 523, 
565, 837, 876, 983 

Economic and Social Council. See Economic and 
Social Council, U.N. 

Economic commissions. See Economic Commissions 

Financing of : 
Bonds, terms and conditions governing issuance of 

(General Assembly resolution), 185 
Budget estimates 1964 discussed by Committee V 

(Mailliard), 871 
Delinquent members and responsibility for: Mail- 
liard, 872 ; Plimpton, 178 
Peacekeeping operations : 
General Assembly resolution, 185 
International Court of Justice opinion (Chayes), 

U.S. concern and position : Cleveland, 463, 555, 
847, 967 ; Gardner, 503 ; Kennedy, 534 ; Steven- 
son, 182, 768 

Finland, role of (Johnson), 587 

General Assembly. See General Assembly 

Hungarian credentials at, U.S. reserves position on 
(Yost), 32 

Inadequate staff for oi)eration (Cleveland), 463 

Ireland's role in (Kennedy), 132 

Labor, role of (Cleveland), 846 

Membership responsibilities (Stevenson), 269 

Memorial tribute to President Kennedy (Sosa- 
Rodriguez, U Thant, Stevenson), 892 

NATO, Assistant Secretary Cleveland attends ses- 
sion to discuss U.N. affairs, 513 

Outer space, U.N. registration required for vehicles 
launched into space (Stevenson), 104 

Security Council. See Security Council 

Specialized agencies, 15 

Technical assistance programs : 

South- West Africa rejects aid (Yates), W7 
Special Fund. See Special Fund 
The Technical Cooperation Programs of the 
United Nations System, Advisory Committee 
on International Organizations, released, 97 

Truce Supervision Organization, report of (Steven- 
son), 521 



United Nations — Continued 
U.K.-L'.S. prelliulunry talks re forthcoming U.N. 

meetings, 02 
U.S. views and support: Cleveland. 55C; Mailliard, 
873 ; Rusk, 1001 ; Stevenson, 181 
United Nations Charter: 
Human richts provision (Rusk), 655 
International law, principles of concerning relations 

among states (Plimpton), 973 
Principles of: Rusk, 197; Stevenson, 757 
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 

17th session of, report (Tillett), 145 
United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space. Sec Outer Space, U.N. Committee on 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop- 
ment. See Trade and Development, U.N., confer- 
ence on 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See 

Economic and Social Council 
United Nations Economic Commissions. See Economic 


United Nations Educational, Scientlfle and Cultural 

Organization, U.S. support for preservation of 

temples proposed by, 18 

United Nations Emergency Force in the Middle East: 

Activities and financing of: Cleveland, 40; Chayes, 

103; Plimpton, 179 
General Assembly resolutions, 183, 185 
United Nations Poimlntion Commission, purpose and 

objectives (UlnBhnm).28 
United States Arms Control and Disarmament. See 

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, U.S. 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Bolivia, efforts to release U.S. officials seized in, 998 
Claims. See Claims 

Cuba, validated passports required for travel to, 92 
Foreign policy, role in : Anderson, 91 ; Louchheim, 

681 ; Rusk, 990 
Peace, Importance of Individual Interest In (Ken- 
Universal copyright convention (1952). See Copy- 
right convention 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, objectives of 

(Gardner), 321 
Upper Voltn, treaties, agreements, etc., 34, 229, 450, 

688, 701, 877 
Uranium 2.35: 
Avallnbillty Increa.sod for peaceful uses: Kennedy, 

107 ; Scaborg, 108 
U.S. proposals (Stelle), 795 
Urlbe Botcro, Eduardo, 249 
Uruguay : 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 844 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 229, 380, 089, 722, 762 

Valencia, Gulllermo Leon, 885 
Vanler, Georges P., 890 
Vatthana, Sri Savang, 887 
Venezuela : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 890 

Cuban anna cache discovery in, 013 

Venezuela — Continued 
Defense of Western Hemisphere, U.S. supports pro- 
posed OAS foreign ministers meeting for con- 
sideration of, 813 
Extradition, agreement with U.S. re Marcos P6rez 

Jimenez and texts of notes, 304, 365 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of high 
seas, convention (1958) on. 380 
Veterans Memorial Hospital, amending agreement with 

Philippines re use of, 229 
Vienna conventions on consular and diplomatic rela- 
tions. See under Consular relations and Diplo- 
matic relations 
Vlet-Nam : 

Buddhists, U.S. position, 398, 499 
Communist aggression and subversion, efforts 
against: Hilsman, 45, 389; Kennedy, 499; U. 
Johnson, 79, 81 
Military coup in and neutralization of (Rusk), 811, 

813, 814 
Recommendations to the President (McNamara, Tay- 
lor, Lodge), 624 
Situation in: Heavner, 393; Kennedy, 498; Manning, 

4.-)S ; Rusk, 359 
Special forces, U.S. aid revised, 736 
Strategic-hamlet program in: Heavner, 396; Hils- 
man, 48, 391 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 346, 381, 647, 906 
U.S. Ambassador, confirmation, 310 
U.S. position: Bundy, 628; Heavner, 303; Manning, 

4.'59 ; Rusk, 810 
U.S. recognition, 818 
Viet-Nam, North, aggression and subversion in Viet- 

Nam. See Viet-Nam : Communist aggression 
Virgin Islands, treaties, agreements, etc., 172, 230 
Visas : 

Nonimmigrant visa fees : 

Abolition of, agreement with United Arab Reptib- 

lie, 418 
Reciprocal waiver of, agreement with Spain, 485 
Pacific trust territory, free entry to and from U.S. 
(Coding), 211 
Visits, State and official, policy on (Duke), 701 
Voice of America, broadcasts to Soviet Union (, 

Voltz, Captain Carleton, 246 
Vote, world progress for women (Louchheim), 705 

Wales, Cardiff, U.S. consulate closed at, 329 
Wallner, Woodruff, 798 
Walske, M. Carl, 381 
Inadvertent, measures to reduce: Foster, 826; Rusk, 

493 ; Tyler, 94 
U.S. and Soviet positions: Kennedy, 4; McNamara, 
916 ; Rostow, 925 ; Rusk, 493 
War damage claims, legislation amending the Philip- 
pine War Damage Act. 301 
Warsaw Pact, question of nonaggression treaty wiBi 
NATO (Harriman) , 241, 243 



Water desalinization, IAEA General Conference on, 
7th session, and U.S. delegates announced, 563, 564 
Weather : 
Forecasting and research, international coopera- 
tion ( Stevenson) , 1009 
Meteorological program with Soviet Union, 405 
Satellites. See Meteorological satellites 
Westerfield, Samuel Z., Jr., 310 
Western alliance: 
Policy agreement within (Manning) , 457 
U.S.-U.K. talks re problems of (Kennedy, Macmil- 

lan), 133 
Unity, basic ideals (Johnson), 593 
Western Europe. See Europe : Western Europe 
Western Samoa, treaties, agreements, etc., 484, 950 
West Ford project, 104, 105, 369 
Wharton, Francis, 205 

Wheat agreement (1962), international, current ac- 
tions: Argentina, 2.50; Brazil, 524; Costa Rica, 
905; El Salvador, 2.30; Germany, 172; Guatemala, 
524; Iceland, 524; Peru, 878; Philippines, 878; 
Tunisia, 905 
Wheat sale to U.S.S.R. : Ball, 935; Kennedy, 660; 

Rusk, 810, 815 
Whiteman, Marjorie, 201 
WHO. Sec World Health Organization 
Williams, G. Mennen, 18, 432, 636, 929 
Williams, William W., 1.50 
Willis, Frances E., 245 
Wilson, W. Wyatt, 17 
Wirtz, Willard, 883 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 
Women : 
Equal opportunities and individual challenges 

(Louehheim), 98, 704 
Political rights : 
Convention (1953) on: 

Brazil, ratification deposited, 838 
Entered into force effective date, 722 
Inter-American convention (1948) on, Paraguay, 
U.N. progress report on status of (Tillett), 145 
World Affairs Conference, 436 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Conference of Lawyers, greetings to (Kennedy), 

World Court. See International Court of Justice 
World Food Congress : 

U.S. views (Stevenson), 270 

Washington meeting, remarks: Kennedy, 58; Free- 
man, 60 
World Food Program, background and status of 

(Cleveland), 12, 679 
World Health Organization : 

Regulations No. 1 (1948) re diseases and causes of 
death: Burundi, Congo (Leopoldville), Mon- 
golia, Tanganyika, Western Samoa, 950 
Sanitary regulations, amendments pertaining to Reg- 
ulations No. 2 (19.51) , 110 
World Health Organization : 

World health, role in (Cleveland), 680 
World Magnetic Survey, 404 

World Meteorological Organization, world weather sys- 
tem, U.S. support (Stevenson), 1010 
Wyatt, Wilson, 17 

Yang, Chia-lo, 740 

Yates, Sidney R., 946 

Yemen ; 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 249 
Nuclear test ban treaty, 484 
Status of women in, 706 

U.N. Observation Mission in, U.S. support (Steven- 
son), and text of Security Council resolution, 71 

Yost, Charles W., 32, 337, 522, 759 

Yriart, Juan Felipe, 844 

Yuan Tung-li, 740 

Yugoslavia : 

Condolences on President Kennedy's death, 890 
Most-favored-nation tariff treatment, question of : 

Anderson, 90 ; Rusk, 25, 359 
President Tito visit to U.S., 738 
Sarajevo, U.S. consulate clo.sed at, 329 
Skopje earthquake disaster, U.S. aid (Yost), 760 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 345, 484, 524, 566, 688 
U.S. aid, proposed restriction of (Rusk), 811 

Yung Lo Encyclopedia, 740 

Zahir, Mohammed, 92, 535 
Zawadzki, Aleksander, 888 
Zemenld Observatory, 404 



I / 








Vol ZLIZ, No. 1253 

Jvh/ 1, 1963 


Address by President Kennedy 2 


by William C. Foster 7 


by Assistant Secretary Cleveland 12 

Statement by Secretary Rusk 19 


For i/ndea see inside book cover 

The Economics of Arms Control and Disarmament 

by William C. Foster 

Director^ U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency * 

It is indeed encouraging to observe that a 
group of distinguished citizens and community 
leaders of the north Middle West have taken 2 
days from their busy schedules to study and dis- 
cuss the problems of arms control and disarma- 
ment. We are grateful to the University of 
Wisconsin and the Joluison Foundation for 
sponsoring this conference. In doing so, they 
are contributing to public understanding of a 
fundamental problem that confronts us. Peace 
is the great luifinished business of our genera- 
tion, as it has been for all preceding genera- 
tions, and a just and lasting peace will eventu- 
ally be achieved only if our policy proposals 
have the benefit of the consideration and coun- 
sel of thoughtful men and women in all sectors 
of our national life. 

Some of my ablest associates have come here 
to discuss with you what we are doing in Wash- 
ington, at the United Nations, in Geneva, and 
at research centers throughout the country. 
They will delve into some of our current prob- 
lems and in doing so will, I am sure, gain the 
freshness of insight and clarity of perspec- 
tive that often result from a trip outside 

They have come to learn, as well as to inform, 
and they will give eager attention to the ideas, 
suggestions, and critiques which are expressed 
in the course of these deliberations. For this 

' Address made before a briefing and colloquium on 
arms control and disarmament sponsored by the 
Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin, 
in cooperation with the U.S. Arms Control and Dis- 
armament Agency, at Racine, Wis., on June 6. 

is a developing field and the challenge is vast. 
We need the assistance of American business- 
men and scholars, scientists and professionals. 
Our door is always open ; we welcome new ideas. 
Last year we spent about $4 million on con- 
tract studies. Over and above these, we re- 
ceived first-rate assistance from publislied and 
unpublished material produced under other 
auspices. We regard these 2 days of discussion 
at Wingspread as a two-way street ; we expect to 
take home as much as we brought with us. 

In discussing some of our problems, you will 
not« that they cannot be isolated compartments 
but must be faced in relation to many other as- 
pects of our foreign relations and of our de- 
fense program. Indeed, one of the reasons an 
independent agency was created to deal with 
arms control and disarmament was the fact that 
the subject matter with which we deal cuts 
across the concerns of many different Govern- 
ment agencies, each of which has a special re- 
sponsibility and a special form of expertise. 
It is our job to coordinate these efforts and to 
develop for the President's consideration poli- 
cies and programs which harmonize our long- 
range national desires with the steps we must 
take to meet immediate necessities. 

I ask you to remember, however, that arms 
control and disarmament are not only distant 
and remote goals. They are also subjects of 
ongoing international conferences which are in 
the center of the diplomatic stage. These nego- 
tiations have an immediate impact upon our 
relations with our allies, with the nations on the 
other side of the bargaining table, and with 
nonalined countries. Positions taken at these 

JXTLT 1, 1963 

conferences affect these relations and sometimes 
affect them dramatically. 

Our studies in arms control have current 
values to us also because they impart new in- 
sights into the management of our military 

I ask you to remember, too, that the arms 
race grows more intense every year and that, 
at each new stage of technology, control and dis- 
armament become more difficult. The need for 
action, therefore, is urgent. 

So that there will be no misunderstanding 
among us, I should like to make clear that I do 
not advocate arms control and disarmament at 
any price. My Agency is as much concerned 
with maintaining the national security of our 
nation as any other department or agency in 
Grovemment. Indeed, the enabling act which 
established the U.S. Arms Control and Dis- 
armament Agency states that arms control and 
disarmament policy, and I quote, "must be con- 
sistent with national security policy as a whole." 

Obviously any agreement on measures of arms 
control and disarmament must be accompanied 
by those measures of verification that would 
pro\ide us the assurance that such agreements 
are being adhered to. 

I shall address myself today to the subject of 
the economics of arms control and disarmament 
within the framework of that understanding. 

Mitconcaptlont on Role of Defense Spending 

Regrettably the subject has not often been dis- 
cussed since our Agency was established. It is 
one which I believe has a very direct interest 
to all of us, including individuals and communi- 
ties in this part of the country. It is my hope 
that increased discussion will lead to the re- 
moval of any doubt that arms reduction and 
disarmament are strongly to our economic ad- 
vantage. We should be able as informed citi- 
zenry to recognize that adjustment, even though 
temporarily dislocating, is not to be shunned if 
it clearly enhances our general welfare. 

You will not be deprive-d of hearing from my 
•aeociates developments in all other aspects of 
arms control and disarmament in which the 
Agency is involved. However, I would urge 
you in the question-and-response periotl to feel 
free to question me at will on any aspects of 

the activities of the Arms Control and Dis- 
armament Agency. I will be pleased to try to 
answer all questions raised in the period allotted 

One might ask if this is the time to talk about 
the economics of arms control and disarmament. 
It has, as you know, very pertinent implications 
for maintaining demand, production, income, 
and jobs in the economy. 

I think it is the time. When could it be bet- 
ter to consider the role of defense expenditures 
in the economy than when there is a sort of na- 
tional searching of the economic soul ? It pro- 
vides a unique occasion to overcome any 
misconceptions which may be developing as to 
that role and its meaning for the economic ad- 
justments to disarmament. 

I am referring to inclinations to rationalize, 
in one way or another, our huge defense ex- 
penditures as necessary or desirable for the 
maintenance of production, employment, and 
incomes in the economy. To those who already 
may have succumbed to these inclinations, the 
present debate on taxes and on general economic 
policy offers the temptation to pose this ques- 
tion : If we cannot fully utilize our resources 
expending some $55 billion for defense, how 
shall we avoid substantial additions to the 
unemployment of men and machines under 

This, of course, is a provocative question al- 
though it is not yet a matter of public debate 
or discussion. The economic consequences of 
disarmament as a question still lie mostly on 
the surface of men's thoughts and feelings. 
But to the extent that the issue is raised, reac- 
tions often indicate deep concern and skepticism, 
not relief and optimism. Does this reaction re- 
flect simply fear of painful dislocations of ad- 
justment? Or does it in any way reflect a more 
deep-rooted fear of longer range economic dif- 
ficulties? Are we, in other words, in danger of 
developing a sense of pennanent economic de- 
pendence upon large defense expenditures? 

I believe we could be vulnerable to such 
danger. There are many reasons for this, in- 
cluding recent economic history. The greatest 
depression of our country ended only with our 
entrance into World War II. In the postwar 
period we have seen — coincidentally with huge 



expenditures for defense — levels of production, 
employment, and income greatly exceeding 
those of the prewar period. Thus one might 
conclude that the economy is better off with a 
large measure of defense spending than with- 
out it. 

Moreover we have been able to finance our 
own defense expenditures in such a way that 
their burden on the individual has not been too 
apparent. I am not suggesting that we have 
paid for the defense program primarily by defi- 
cit financing. We have been paying for it very 
largely out of current income. Our taxes are 
high. But we have not foimd it necessary or 
desirable for some time to increase taxes — at 
least at the Federal level — and we have managed 
to maintain stability in prices. Finally, we 
have been able to provide the individual with an 
increasing real disposable or aft«r-tax income. 
This has been accomplished even with a less 
than satisfactory rate of economic growth. In 
these circumstances it is difficult for our society 
to sense any profound tangible denial as the 
result of the defense program. It is not in the 
nature of man to question too sharply his en- 
vironment as long as things continue to get even 
a little bit better. 

The magnetic attraction of defense spending 
as a supposed economic panacea is enhanced 
also by the extent to which a significant segment 
of the population has developed a fairly direct 
economic interest in it. Some 6 percent of the 
civilian labor force is employed in providing 
defense goods and services or in defense- 
related activities in the Government. In addi- 
tion, in niunerous areas of the Nation, the in- 
comes of many persons depend, for the moment, 
quite directly on the disbursements of local de- 
fense facilities. These direct and indirect 
dependencies are by no means momentary ; for 
many persons they have evolved over a consider- 
able number of years. That these people should 
find it difficult to envisage an equally satisfac- 
tory economic future in a defense- free economy 
is quite understandable. 

The relatively high wages paid in defense 
industry and the relatively greater prosperity 
of defense-oriented areas tend further to cul- 
tivate the notion that defense business is eco- 
nomically healthy. Geographic competitive in- 

terest in defense contracts is intensifying. One 
can expect that areas now heavily dependent 
upon defense facilities or installations might 
find it difficult to perceive opportunities for 
economic development in directions other than 

All this suggests our vulnerability to the 
danger of developing a sense of permanent eco- 
nomic dependence upon defense spending. 
That danger is present. Moreover, it is of pro- 
found significance for our future welfare. It 
threatens our sense of economic values. It poses 
a threat to our capacity to recognize and deal 
with the real problems of the economy in this 
new age of supertechnology. It threatens to 
weaken confidence in our free enterprise system 
and our resistance to the evils of the so-called 
"warfare state." These, in turn, threaten our 
position of prestige and leadership in the world. 

Alternatives to Defense Spending 

What action shall we take, then, to impede 
the drift toward a sense of indefinite economic 
dependence on the arms race ? Certainly much 
greater analysis and public discussion of the 
real issues are in order. Thought needs to be 
given to the role arms spending plays in the 
economy and to the alternatives to such spend- 
ing in a disarmament environment. 

Initially one might inquire whether there 
is any reason to change the view long accepted 
by reasonable men — and traditionally accepted 
in American thinking — that arms and armies 
do not make good economic investments. It 
need take no second thought to recognize that 
weapons and military services do not, by and 
large, serve our material needs and wants. Ad- 
mittedly there are surface economic benefits. I 
certainly do not wish to minimize the contribu- 
tion to the so-called "state of the arts" that de- 
rives from research and development on weap- 
ons. On the other hand, current studies suggest 
that caution is in order in evaluating the ac- 
tual contribution which military research and 
development make to the evolution of new prod- 
ucts and processes in the civilian sector. In 
any case, few would argue that the money 
spent for such research and development plus 
that spent for procuring and maintaining the 
weapons— a total amount equal to about one- 

JTJLY 1, 1963 


third of the entire Federal budget — is at all 
commensurate with that contribution. 

There should be little difficulty in concluding 
that, if the economic returns on defense spend- 
ing are marginal, such spending represents a 
dissipation of resourees. Manpower and ma- 
chines employed on defense could be employed 
for purposes which would provide economic 
returns of substance. It clearly is not true, as 
some of the discussion on defense spending ap- 
pears to assume, that military programs absorb 
only manpower which otherwise would be idle. 
Thus military spending cannot be justified sim- 
ply as a means of maintaining high levels of 
production, income, and employment. 

For production, income, and employment are 
a function of demand for goods and services. 
Such demand arises from a capacity to spend — 
either by individuals, businesses, or public en- 
tities. Our capacity to spend today for non- 
defense goods and services clearly is limited 
by what we spend for defense goods and serv- 
ices. As I have noted, we have been financing 
the defense eflFort primarily out of current in- 
come rather than by the creation of additional 
debt. In the absence of defense spending we 
would be disposing that portion of income 
which goes for defense for some pattern of per- 
sonal consumption and private and public in- 
vestment which would create demand for the 
services of men and machinery. Not only 
would we create thereby output, income, and 
employment, but we would also create goods 
and ser^■ices which would add to our general 

Some may be disposed to say that the signifi- 
cance of defense demand is that it is certain. 
The past decade would seem to bear them out, 
although many defense producers and employ- 
ees would be inclined to note that that certainty 
relates only to the total pie and not to its indi- 
vidual parta As for myself, I see greater pos- 
sibility for certainty in nondefense patterns of 
spending than in defense spending. There is 
no reason why, for example, we could not use- 
fully devote on a continuing basis a higher 
proportion of our resources to such needs as 
education, public health and welfare, transpor- 
tation and communications, natural resources, 
and uri)an development I find a certainty of 

continuous improvement in our education, 
health, and welfare infinitely more significant 
from the economic and social long-range view- 
point than an improvement in our weapons. 
Moreover, I see the same certainty in regard 
to personal consumption. The proportion of 
personal disposable income going for consump- 
tion has been quite consistently in the range of 
92 or 93 percent in the years since the Korean 
war. In the years prior to that war the pro- 
portion tended to be slightly higher. 

Some may wish to argue that defense spend- 
ing generates greater employment than other 
forms of spending. I shall not endeavor to 
prove otherwise, but I should be interested to 
listen to any convincing evidence that shows 
that a billion dollars spent for defense produces 
greater employment than a billion dollars' 
worth of the production of nondefense goods. 

Limitations of Defense Spending 

It would appear, in fact, that defense spend- 
ing of the type we now have has no intrinsic 
merit in terms of its ability to create production 
and income as compared to other forms of de- 
mand. For one thing, there is an inherent limi- 
tation on the widening of investment in the 
weapons industry in response to new procure- 
ment demands. A substantial portion of the 
plant and capital equipment used in the indus- 
try is already owned by the Government. It 
can be shifted around in accordance with the 
dictates of the procurement program. The un- 
certainty of the defense business mitigates 
strongly against the willingness of the weapons 
producer to risk large amounts of his own 

Defense demand also absorbs, relative to its 
contribution to national income, a far too high 
proportion of skills and talent in the economy. 
This is particularly true in the case of scientists 
and engineers, who are drawn to defense work 
by the higher salaries which are offered. It is 
unquestionably true that inability to compete 
for the services of these persons has affected 
substantially the application of research and 
development in the industrial sector. 

There would also appear to be unavoidable 
economic waste in the defense effort. This re- 
sults from the factors of uncertainty and in- 



stability in weapons procurement. It is difficult 
for a weapons producer to gear his labor force 
to the point of optimum cost. Therefore over- 
manning tends to be frequent. Large amounts 
of money also are dissipated in competing for 
defense contracts. Sums over $100 million can 
be spent by the "losing" firms collectively in 
bidding for a particularly lucrative contract. 
Sudden changes in military programs result 
in severe local economic dislocations which may 
take years to overcome. The geographic dis- 
tribution of defense contracts itself tends to 
create imbalance in the economy in regard to 
the dispersion of employment and income and 
in regard to economic development. 

The discussion thus far might tend to pro- 
voke the response, "All that is well and good. 
Yet how could we manage to replace the defense 
effort in the economy without serious economic 
repercussions ?" I would reply, first, that if we 
can apply to the resolution of that problem only 
a modicum of the talent which we have applied 
to defense and space problems, we should man- 
age the replacement with only minor and tem- 
porary discomforts. Defense spending either 
is a good thing economically or it is not. If it 
is not, the sooner our national security interests 
permit us to reduce or eliminate it the sooner 
shall we be able to enjoy the benefits of allocat- 
ing our resources to more productive use. 

Our national security interests do not now 
permit us to rid ourselves of defense spending. 
Then, how is our attitude toward it pertinent, 
you may ask. I am not suggesting, of course, 
that we bear the financial burden of defense 
ungraciously. Rather, I am suggesting that we 
should guard ourselves against developing a 
permanent taste for such spending. There al- 
ways will be enormous difficulties in surveying 
our own interests objectively in disarmament. 
Any self-delusion on the economic aspects 
could only add significantly to the responsibili- 
ties of the Government to insure properly the 
country's interests. 

I should also like to add that the sooner we 
fully appreciate the long-term economic bene- 
fits to be derived from disarmament, the sooner 
shall we be able to plan intelligently for an 

adjustment process. Such a process will 
involve not only the conscientious efforts of the 
Government but the imagination, initiative, and 
foresight of the private sector as well. Much 
of the success of our post- World War II con- 
version was due, I believe, to the fact that it 
was carefully and long planned and it was 
carried out in an atmosphere of hope and ex- 
pectation. A buoyant psychology on the part 
of business and consumers could, in itself, do 
much to facilitate the transition away from 
a defense-oriented economy. It is not too 
early for the private sector to begin serious 
consideration of how to use effectively the 
resources released by disarmament. This 
would be particularly appropriate in those cases 
where resources are now devoted exclusively to 
military research and development. Such con- 
sideration would facilitate greatly the rapid 
application of new technology in civilian 
industry. This, I am sure, would result in 
substantial improvements in products and 

President Kennedy has stated our willing- 
ness to engage with the Soviet Union in a 
"peace race." ^ Thus far there is little evidence 
that the Soviets are ready to meet this 
challenge. But if or when they do, it would 
behoove us to be adequately prepared on the 
all-important economic front — prepared psy- 
chologically as well as physically to make the 
economic adjustments such a transition would 
require and which are within our means to 
carry out successfully. 

' For text of an address by President Kennedy before 
the U.N. General Assembly on Sept. 25, 1961, see 
Bulletin of Oct. 16, 1961, p. 619. 

JULT 1, 1963 








Vol. XLIX, No. 1254- 

July 8, 1963 


hyA ssis tant Secre tary Cleve land 38 


hy Assistant Secretary Hilsman ^3 

iy Ambassador John Kenneth Galbraith 52 


Remarks hy President Kennedy and Address hy Secretary of Agriculture Orville L. Freeman 58 

For index see inside hack cover 

Peace and Human Rights 

hy Harlan Cleveland 

Assistant Secretary for International Organization Affairs ^ 

For the past 2 days you have been discussing 
that remarkable document— Pacem in Terris — 
which has produced such interest, praise, and 
even excitement around the world. 

Tlie reactions were global and various. But 
to someone operationally concerned with the 
problems of peace, the most interesting thing 
about Pacem in Terris was its linkage of a phi- 
losophy about the nature of man under God 
and a philosopliy about man's operational ef- 
forts to keep peace in the world under the 
United Nations. 

It is not for me, either as a Government offi- 
cial or as a Protestant, to add another interpre- 
tation to the growing literature on Pope Jolin's 
last and most intriguing state paper. But a 
reading of that paper does .stimulate a political 
scientist to some secular and personal thoughts 

' .\ililre.s.s made on June 15 (press release .317 d.ate(l 
June 14) nt a dinner concluding the Midwest Confer- 
ence on Peace and World Order, si)onsored by the Chi- 
cago World Teace Center and held at St. Xavier's 
College, Chicago, 111. 

about the nexus of peace and human rights. 

Before we ask what it means to make human 
rights operational in a world of 100 sovereign- 
ties and several hundred thousand political 
jurisdictions, it is worth just a moment to recall 
some things which you and I first learned as 
long ago as we can remember — about events 
which you know so well they are deep in your 
bones — words which most Americans can al- 
most recite by heart. 

"We run the risk of losing our way if we do 
not keep reminding ourselves of what is per- 
manent. Mr. Justice Holmes once said: "We 
need education in the obvious more than inves- 
tigation of the obscure." I doubt if there has 
ever been a time when that observation was 
more blazingly relevant than right now. So, 
in service to the obvious, I recite the hallowed 
words of the Declaration of Independence of 
the 13 States: 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men 
are created equal, that they are endowed by their 
Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among 
these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. 


Tbp Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication liiHued by the OlUce 
of Media SorvlceH. Bureau of Public Af- 
falrn. provldeH tbe public and Interested 
aRenclcH of tbe Qorernment witb Informa* 
tlon on developments In the Held of for- 
eign relations and on tbe work of the 
Department of .Stale and the Foreign 
Service. Tbe Bulletin Includes selected 
press releases on foreljrn policy. Issued 
by tbe White ITouse and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other offlcera of tbe Depart- 

ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of International affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation Is included concerning treaties 
and International agreements to which 
the United States la or may become a 
party and treaties of general Inter- 
national Interest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial In the field of International relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin Is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 

ment Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D.C. Peicb : 52 issues, domestic $8.50, 
foreign $12.25, single copy, 25 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 

NOTE : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained 
herein may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department of State Bulletin as the 
source will be appreciated. The Bulletin 
Is Indexed In the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature. 



And the immediately following sentence 

That to secure these rights, Governments are insti- 
tuted among Men, deriving their just powers from the 
consent of the governed. 

Governments, then, in the view of the Found- 
ing Fathers, are constituted for the explicit 
purpose of securing the unalienable rights of 
men — men who are born equal. That is to say, 
our political system is built on a truth that has 
to do with the nature of man. A revolution 
was promptly fought to make that moral pre- 
cept operational. 

A short while later it became evident to many 
that the Constitution adopted by the new na- 
tion emerging from that revolution was not 
explicit enough about the rights of member- 
ship in the human race. 

The framers of the first 10 amendments to 
the Constitution — the Bill of Rights — were 
saying that the right of all men to "Life, Lib- 
erty and the pursuit of Happiness" had to be 
protected from explicit forms of infringement 
by government — and hy explicit guarantees of 
freedom of worship, of speech, of press, and of 

Much later, our grandfathers got around to 
the idea that human slavery is rather inconsist- 
ent with human rights, and the practice was 
abolished. We even got around to the idea 
that if men had inherent rights, maybe women 
had them, too. 

Still later, the idea gained ground that free- 
dom to starve — or freedom to sleep on a park 
bench — or freedom to die of a curable disease — 
were not among the "rights" of man. And so 
we have seen in recent decades more and more 
"social legislation," that is, political action to 
expand human opportunity. 

These were the major breakthroughs as the 
occupants of our family tree converted into 
political action the moral precept rendered in 
the Pacem in Terns with these simple but still 
revolutionary words: "All men are equal by 
reason of their natural dignity." 
• Other nations, of course, have taken com- 
parable steps to make this moral precept opera- 
tional in their own societies. Indeed, the com- 
bined influence of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Bill of Eights is still perhaps 

the most revolutionary influence in our own 
postwar world. The cry for human freedom 
was briefly outshouted by the shriller battle cry 
for national freedom. But around the world — 
through Asia and Africa and Latin America 
and back home to Birmingham and Chicago 
and Washington — mankind is calling for the 
previous question, the question of individual 
human rights. 

The Four Freedoms 

The doctrines of Jefferson — and of the less 
elegant French revolutionists who were his con- 
temporaries — were proclaimed for "all men." 
But they were pursued within national socie- 
ties. Only in our own time have these uni- 
versals been pursued universally. 

In his message on the state of the Union in 
1941 — 11 months before Pearl Harbor — Presi- 
dent Roosevelt looked ahead to a world "found- 
ed upon four essential human freedoms." 

As you recall, the first two — "freedom of 
speech and expression" and "freedom of every 
person to worship God in his own way" — were 
restatements of the first amendment. 

The third was "freedom from want" — which, 
said President Roosevelt, "translated into 
world terms, means economic understandings 
which will secure to e^■ery nation a healthy 
peacetime life for its inhabitants — everywhere 
in the world." 

And the fourth, of course, was "freedom 
from fear" — "which, translated into world 
terms, means a world-wide reduction of arma- 
ments to such a point and in such a thorough 
fashion that no nation will be in a position to 
commit an act of physical aggression against 
any neighbor — anywhere in the world." 

The moral precept of an innate human equal- 
ity was left implicit in the Four Freedoms. But 
when it came to drafting the United Nations 
Charter a few years later, it was made very ex- 
plicit indeed. 

"We tlie peoples of the United Nations," says 
the preamble to the charter, "determined ... to 
reaffirm faith in the fundamental human rights, 
in the dignity and worth of the human person, 
in the equal rights of men and women ... do 
hereby establish an international organization 
to be known as the United Nations." 

JULY 8, 1963 


Now what of tlio linkage on the mtemational 
level between precept and practice — that nexus 
between the plane of morality and the plane of 
political action? 

Linkage Between Precept and Practice 

In VM'.i the Hot Sprinjrs Conference laid the 
groundwork for the Food and Apiculture Or- 
ganization, the first international organization 
designed to promote freedom from want. 
Others followed rapidly. Some of them .started 
out mainly to provide for the exchange of in- 
formation, to conduct studies, and to arrange 
meetings and conferences. But gradually they 
all have taken on an executive function as op- 
erators of action programs — to survey resources, 
to lielp finance and staff training institutions, to 
wipe out malaria, to fight trachoma, to improve 
the diets of children, to reduce urban slums, to 
make pure water run in village wells, to train 
teachers and to teach literacy, and to do many 
other practical things in the world of the here 
and now. Millions of dollars, advanced tech- 
niques, tens of thousands of people, and several 
dozen new international institutions are now 
at work doing something about freedom from 

Not many people stood up and took notice 
back in 1960 when Dag Hammarskjold, in his 
typical manner of understatement, observed : 
". . . born as an instrument for multilateral di- 
plomacy, the United Nations has grown into an 
operational agency of significant dimensions 
. . ." witli a "list of responsibilities ... in the 
economic and social field." ^ But he was point- 
ing to a phenomenon of first-rate importance in 
world affairs. I prefer to put it this way : The 
United Nations has acquired a capacity to act 
in the interest of freedom from want. 

A similar development has taken place of 
course, in the peacekeeping field. Peacekeep- 
ing — by police action — became operational at 
the time of Korea. It has been intensely opera- 
tional for the past 7 years in the Middle East, 
where members of the U.N. Emergency Force 
patrol the Gaza Strip and the Israeli-Egyptian 
border 24 hours a day by foot, jeep, and heli- 
copter. It was so operational for 2i/^ years in 

• U.N. doc. B/3394. 

the Congo that 127 officers and men of tlie U.N. 
Force died to defend the territorial integrity t 
of the Congo, to prevent civil war, to resist mob 
violence, and to bring near-order out of near- 

Approximately 48 hours ago a United States 
Air Force C-130 put down at El Arvish in the 
Gaza Strip to pick up a contingent of soldiers 
serving with the Emergency Force in the Mid- 
dle East and airlift them to tiny Yemen — to see 
that an agreement reached by mediation would i 
be carried out on the spot.^ Thus in one more 
case has peacekeeping passed from rhetoric to 

The machinery for keeping the peace is still 
far from extensive — and far from adequate. 
But it is a start in the direction of making op- 
erational the bold words of the charter about 
freedom from fear of war. 

Freedom From Want, a Human Rights Issue 

If you stand back and look at the United 
Nations system, you see that it includes noble 
words on three subjects. One category is 
peacekeeping and peaceful change, including 
the movement of colonies toward self-determi- 
nation and independence. Another group of 
words focuses on economic and social develop- 
ment in,5ide each countrj'. And a third theme 
is the achievement and guarantee of liuman 

On the first of these, United Nations peace- 
keeping machinery and the decolonization of 
a tliird of the world in 17 years bear witness to 
much effort to match the words with action. 
In economic and social development, too, an 
impressive variety of operations marries actions 
to aspirations: Out of every 20 persons em- 
ployed by the United Nations system, 17 are 
engaged trying to raise the standards of life 
in the world's less developed areas. While the 
United Nations has since developed a rudimen- 
tary capacity to act in support of freedom from 
fear and freedom from want, it has not so far 
developed such machinery to match with inter- 
national action the words about individual 

Given the fact that human riglits are sup- 
pressed in principle by the authorities control- 

• See p. 71. 



ling nearly one-third of humanity and that most 
others, not the least our own, have preferred to 
pursue human rights through national action, 
the absence of international action is not exactly 

But perhaps the reason the development of 
the charter looks thus unbalanced is that we are 
used to thinking of human rights as something 
separable from peace and bread, something 
that has to do with courts and lawyers and 
voting rights. Now we know that when we 
speak of human rights henceforth we should 
mean not just the riglit to be free from racial 
discrimination, not just the riglit to be inde- 
pendent and choose one's own form of govern- 
ment, not just the rights to register and vote 
and speak and pray and openly meet; we are 
speaking also of freedom from want and free- 
dom from fear. We cannot yet know exactly 
what to do about this insight. But some of 
the implications are surely clear. 

The first implication is this: If we fail to 
grasp the central position of human rights in 
human aifairs, we risk a dangerous confusion 
here at home. 

This is the year when patience ran out for 
tlie Negro American. The barriers against 
exercise of his constitutional rights are now to 
be dismantled and carted into oblivion. The 
remaining "Wliite Only" signs on public ac- 
commodations and schools in the South are to 
be tossed on the rubbish heaps — where they 
long ago belonged. And out of this ordeal we 
can emerge a stronger and more united nation 
than ever before. The fact that the national 
conscience is being cleansed beneath the glare 
of klieg lights makes the exercise excruciatinglj^ 
painful; but it also will help insure that the 
cleansing is thorough and final. 

But is this the last lap, this effort to remove 
some obvious public forms of discrimination? 
Is it the final time around for the Bill of 
Rights? Is access to a good education and to 
good housing and to good jobs — especially in 
the great urban centers across the Nation — just 
•a matter of striking out the restrictive cove- 
nants and striking down the covert agreements? 
Wliat happens when tliey have all been 
stricken ? 

"Wliat happens will be a new form of tragedy 

if there are not enough schools and enough 
jobs and enough housing to go around. We 
will have, in short, the old case of the "haves" 
and the "have nots" — a question of economic 
elbowroom for a growing population with 
rising expectations. And what a misadventure 
it would be if, having struck down the outward 
signs of racial discrimination, we were to find 
tliat the new economic problem looks suspi- 
ciously like the old race problem, because so 
many of the "haves" are white and so many of 
the "have nots" are not. 

The precondition to domestic tranquillity is 
that we grasp the fact that freedom from want 
here at home — freedom from want of adequate 
schools, adequate housing, adequate job oppor- 
timities, adequate medical care — is also a human 
rights issue, one which requires not another 
round of civil rights cases but an upward spiral 
of economic growth. 

"Wliat I have said about our internal aifairs 
applies as well to our international affairs. 
Wliat carries the label "human rights" is but a 
small piece of our foreign policy : the drafting 
of human rights conventions; U.N. seminars on 
human rights; the granting of fellowsliips for 
the study of civil rights law and procedure ; con- 
ferences on criminal law, women in political 
life, labor standards, and the like. 

In this whole area we are abandoning a 10- 
year-old tradition of aloofness. Americans are 
participating actively in the drafting of inter- 
national recommendations and conventions in 
the field of human rights. 

Beyond these useful, often symbolic, activ- 
ities, the label "human rights" fades away, but 
its relevance pervades many other international 

We have the technical capacity to cancel out 
the intolerable indignity that half of mankind 
is still hungry ; "the conviction that all men are 
equal by reason of their natural dignity" surely 
requires the elimination of hunger from this 

The nation-building work of international 
agencies — the building of institutions inside the 
developing countries to heal the sick, grow more 
food, teach the illiterate, promote free trade 
unions, and resettle refugees — is a work of enor- 
mous import in any but the narrowest concep- 
tion of human rights. 

JULY 8, 1063 


To reform ancient and burdensome taxes, to 
change oppressive land-tenure arrangements, 
are surely exercises in the politics of human 
rights, not merely in the science of productivity. 

And who can miss the relevance to human 
rights of population pressure whicli has caused 
many developing countries to start debating the 
proper role of public policy in personal deci- 
sions about family size? 

Klieg-Light Diplomacy 

Beyond the work of the specialized agencies, 
we might well search out and identify the 
human rights aspects of a number of issues that 
come before tlie United Xations in the guise of 
political problems. Of course they are political 
problems, but only because human rights are the 
stuff of politics. 

This summer the Security Council, wliich is 
charged with keeping the peace between nations, 
will be called to consider as a peace-and-security 
issue the question of apartheid in South Africa 
and the equally burning question of Portuguese 
territories in Africa. But in their essence these 
are problems of human rights — the rights to 
participate in one's own government and the 
right to determine with others the destiny of 
the group — rights which in papal logic flow 
quite naturally from the "natural dignity" of 

Equally the repression of captive societies, 
still so permanent and so repugnant a feature 
of Soviet policy and practice, is no less an issue 
of hmnan rights for lack of a court in which 
the oppressed can complain of their oppression. 

The United Xations Charter proclaims "the 
dignity and worth of the human person" and 
"the equal rights of men and women and of na- 
tions large and .small." Can the United Nations 
as an organization do something about the vali- 
dation of these values ? Of coui-se it can. It can 
switch on a floodlight and expose the area in 
question to the conscience of the world. 

I^et no one believe that this is a pointless exer- 
cise, unrelated to political reality. Under the 
klieg light of world opinion, a nation's prestige 
is engaged; and since national power is not 
unrelated to national prestige, governments are 
influenced by world opinion — even though it is 
hard to prove because they seldom admit it. 

The blended conscience of men of good will may 
wink at injustice in the dark; but when the 
lights are on, a good conscience must speak or 
desert its possessor. No government anywliere 
is quite immune to the moral indignation of 
those — including its own citizens — who watch 
it at work. 

Surely the further development of this still 
primitive organization, to which we have given 
the presimiptuous name "United Nations," will 
feature a wider and more effective use of klieg- 
light diplomacy. 

No nation can wholly escape a roving inter- 
national eye. But the maturing reaction of 
world opinion to Little Eock and Oxford and 
Birmingham and Tuscaloosa demonstrates 
something very important: that even the most 
emotional drumbeaters for civil rights, thou- 
sands of miles fi'om the scene, are quick to per- 
ceive the difference between a countrj' which is 
having racial trouble because it is unwilling to 
make progress and a country which is having 
racial trouble precisely because it is making 
progress — because its courts and its National 
Government and most of its people in most of its 
communities have decided that 100 years of pa- 
tience is long enough. 

Peace the Ultimate Goal of Human Rights 

Much of this Pope John XXIII saw clearly 
and expressed "fervently" — or was it "vehe- 
mently"? — in Pacem in Terris. When the rest 
of us, who survive him, perceive that what is 
going on all over the world is a struggle for 
peace and human rights — and that these two 
imiversal drives are intimately related to each 
other because tliey derive directly from the in- 
ner nature of man — then the artificial mental 
barriers which divide domestic affairs from 
foreign affairs come tumbling down and we see 
at last, \\\ all its simplicity, the universality of 
our dilemma. 

We see that peace and human rights are not 
onl}' the related goals of mankind: we see that 
peace is the ultimate goal of human rights. 
We see that peace can be the natural condition 
of the world only when human rights are rea- 
sonably secure for all. And we see that prog- 
ress in human rights, broadly conceived, is the 
longest yet surest road to peace on earth. 



This philosophy is — it must be — the starting 
point of American foreign policy. 

Just last Monday [June 10] at the commence- 
ment exercises at American University, Presi- 
dent Kennedy put it as succinctly as it can be 
put: "Is not peace," he asked, "basically a mat- 
ter of hiunan rights ? " * 

Any nation which struggles and negotiates 
and relates itself to others under the banner 
of peace and human rights will prevail, for its 
goals have gone beyond nations to the nature 
of man himself. It will, of course, be our steady 
purpose to escalate the battle for peace and hu- 
man rights. 

I was asked to speak to you this evening about 
what you in your own commmiities can, as a 
practical, day-to-day matter, do about world 
affairs and the formulation of foreign policy. 
Without saying so until now, tliis is exactly 
what I have been trying to do. For when you 
move hiunan rights ahead by an inch in your 

' Bulletin of July 1, 1963, p. 3. 

State, in your city, in your community, you have 
helped to formulate our foreign policy and you 
are up to your ears in world politics. 

That was what Eleanor Roosevelt was trying 
to say when she was asked to help celebrate the 
10th anniversary of the U.N. Declaration of 
Human Rights. She was no professor of phil- 
osophy. But to this woman of the greatest 
practical wisdom, it was all very clear. 

"It is not just a question of getting the 
[human rights] covenants written and ac- 
cepted," she said. "It is the question of actual- 
ly living and working in our countries for free- 
dom and justice for each human being. And I 
hope that is what we will dedicate ourselves to 
in the next ten years and that each of us will 
have the feeling that they must do something 
as individuals . . . each of us must do something 
because this is one of the basic foundation stones 
if we are ever to achieve what the United Na- 
tions was established to achieve — an atmosphere 
in which peace can grow in the world." 

The Challenge to Freedom in Asia 

6y Roger TF. Hilsman 

Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs ^ 

I am vei-y pleased to have a part in the 1963 
Conference on Cold War Education, organized 
in this growing and progressive State of 
Florida. Governor [Farris] Bryant and all 
who have worked on this conference deserve our 
lasting appreciation. The kind of future we 
shall have in this country, and in the world, 
depends in large measure on how well we under- 
stand our problems and how wisely we deploy 
our strength and our resources to meet them. 
But understanding — the goal of this confer- 
ence — comes first. 

' Address made at the 1963 Conference on Cold War 
Education at Tampa, Fla., on June 14 (press release 
318, revised). 

What is it that we must understand ? First, 
obviously, we must understand the nature of 
the Communist threat, for it is not a simple 
threat, but a subtle and complicated one. And, 
second, we must understand what we Americans 
can do to meet this threat and the qualities of 
mind and heart we need to meet it. 

Wliat I propose to do today is to talk, first, 
about the nature of the threat and the way the 
Communists operate; second, what we can do 
to cope with it, including the qualities we 
Americans need to be successful in this; and, 
finally, to illustrate all of these points by two 
specific trouble areas on the front lines — Laos 
and Viet-Nam. 


JULY 8, no 6 3 


Nature of the Danger 

As to the nature of the danger, the ideology 
of communism is a threat to the United States 
today mainly because it is joined with the popu- 
lation, resources, and militarj' strength of the 
countries of the Soviet Union and Communist 
China, because it is joined witli two bases of 

But the fact that ideology has been joined to 
these two bases of power should not be misin- 
terpreted : the threat is not just military ; it is 
also political. And of the two, the political 
threat is probably the more pervasive. This is 
true because this nation and its allies have made 
sure that their military defenses are adequate 
and up to date. 

The political threat is also serious because of 
the Communists' skill in manipulating all the 
elements of power — political, economic, and 
psychological as well as military. They use 
these instruments with considerable sophistica- 
tion, playing first one then another according 
to the opportimities open to them in any given 
situation. Mao Tse-tung has described this 
alternation of tactics and instruments as "talk/ 
fight; talk/fight," and it describes the technique 
ver}' well. This sudden alternation between 
talking and fighting is designed also to induce 
a maximum amount of confusion, instability, 
and trouble in the free world. One of the latest 
examples of their use of this tactic occurred 
last October in the Cliinese Communist attack 
along tlie Indian border, followed by their with- 
drawal beginning a month later. 

The immediate goal of the Communists is, of 
course, to capture the in-between nations, those 
smaller and weaker nations which today are 
struggling again-st odds to remain independent. 
If the Communists can capture such free na- 
tions, turning them against the United States 
and making them feel that it is the U.S. which 
poses the danger or forms an obstacle to their 
goals, then the Communists could win without 
using militarj- power. Moreover, the Commu- 
nists have waged an unremitting attack on the 
foundations of our way of life, just as they are 
a threat to freedom elsewhere in the world. 
Although they argue over differences in em- 
phasis as to how the Communist world should 
carry out its attacks on free men, their common 

goal is plain enough : to further the destruction 
of the values all free men cherish. 

In Asia the greatest danger to independent 
nations comes from Communist China, with its 
700 million people forced into the service of 
an aggressive Comm'jnist Party. We can't ig- 
nore that problem, and we don't ignore it. 
Communist China lies in direct contact with, or 
very close to, a whole series of free nations 
ranged in an arc from Afghanistan, India, 
Pakistan, and Nepal in South Asia; through 
Burma, Malaya, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, 
and Viet-Nam in Southeast Asia; and on up 
through the Republic of China, on its island 
base of Taiwan, to Japan and Korea. Indo- 
nesia, the Philippines, Australia, and New 
Zealand are also alive to the threat posed by 
the Communist Chinese. 

All these free nations must deal with the 
facts of Communist China and its ambitions. 
No matter what response each has made, be it 
nonalinement or alliance with friendly nations, 
they all are aware that the aim of the Chinese 
Communists is to gain predominant control in 
Asia and eventually to secure the establishment 
of Communist regimes throughout the world. 
The reaction of each nation is determined by its 
own material circumstances and, sometimes 
more importantly, by its own national 

The United States is determined that com- 
munism shall not take over Asia. 

For this reason we do not recognize Commu- 
nist China and seek in all possible ways to limit 
the ability of Communist China to implement 
its threat to obtain hegemony in the Far East 
We recognize the Republic of China as the legal 
government of China and support its position 
in the United Nations. We are aware that the 
economic and social progress on Taiwan, 
carried out by free Chinese, stands in stark 
contrast to the failures of the mainland Com- 
munist government. Also the existence on Tai- 
wan of a well-trained and -equipped force of 
600,000 men. dedicated to the fight against com- 
munism, must have a restraining effect on any 
expansionist ambitions of the Communist 
Chinese. Furthermore the spirit of the people 
of the Republic of China, and of their leader, 
President Chiang Kai-shek, who have conducted 



a 40-year struggle against Communist imperi- 
alism, is an inspiration to free peoples eveiy- 

We stand ready to help peoples who want to 
help themselves to maintain their independence. 
Sometimes this involves outright alliance, as 
with the Republic of China, Japan, South 
Korea, and, through the Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization, with the Philippines, Thailand, 
and Pakistan. If any of these nations is at- 
tacked the United States is committed to help 
defend it. Our contribution to security in the 
Far East also takes other forms, forms designed 
to meet threats of varying nature. 

These threats are never simple ones ; some are 
extremely subtle and sophisticated. If we are 
to meet these threats successfully, certain 
qualities of mind must be stressed and certain 
dangers avoided. Governor Bryant, in a re- 
cent address, referred to the danger that the 
"timid American" poses for our democracy. I 
think he is quite right. I have often had a 
similar thought, which I would like to empha- 
size in what I have to say today. 

What has often occurred to me is that, if the 
United States is not only going to meet the 
Communist threat but carry off the difficult task 
of helping to create a new and stable world in 
the process, then Americans are going to need 
very steady nerves. 

By this phrase "steady nerves," I mean not 
only not being timid but two additional quali- 
ties: first, the capacity for cold, deliberate 
analysis in order to know when to act and when 
to bide one's time ; second, the imemotional self- 
discipline and self-control that enables one to 
act effectively as a result of that analysis. I 
mean the kind of self-control that enabled 
President Kennedy to use United States power 
with such coolness and skill as he did during the 
Cuban crisis. In negotiations, also, extraordi- 
nary qualities of mind and will are demanded, 
among which the element of cold calm in deal- 
ing with complex situations is increasingly im- 
portant. President Kennedy was speaking of 
,this in his inaugural address^ when he said: 
"Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us 
never fear to negotiate." 

The quality of "steady nerves" is needed in 

" Bulletin of Feb. 6, 1961, p. 175. 

both of the fundamental tasks before us. For 
there are two separate tasks. 

One is the meeting of crises ; the other is the 
slower, but more positive, task of nation build- 
ing, of helping to build a system of stable, 
strong, and independent states which have 
solved the problem of both political and eco- 
nomic development. 

Viet-Nam and Laos 

The cases of Viet-Nam and Laos, both in the 
area for which I have some responsibility, pro- 
vide illustrations of problems both of crisis 
handling and of nation building. 

Laos is a small country of perhaps 2 million 
people. Many of its people live in remote val- 
leys, are loyal primarily to their clans, and 
know little of the world. They and their coun- 
try are important because they stand between 
the Chinese and North Vietnamese Communists 
on the north and the independent, free countries 
to the south, which ardently desire to remain 
free. The Communists would like to gain 
power in this landlocked country in order to 
be able to apply increasingly greater pressure 
on the countries to the south. The tool of the 
Communists is an organization known as the 
Pathet Lao, trained, supplied, inspired, and 
reinforced by the North Vietnamese Commu- 
nists, the Viet Cong. The problem of contact 
between the Pathet Lao and the Viet Cong is 
extremely simple; one merely walks or drives 
a truck across the border. There are roughly 
250 miles of border between Communist China 
and Laos and 600 miles of border between Com- 
munist North Viet-Nam and Laos. 

Up to 1961 the non-Communist Lao had been 
reasonably successful in holding off the Com- 
munists. But, by 1961, strong military pres- 
sure from the Pathet Lao, backed up by the 
North Vietnamese Communists, threatened to 
upset the balance and to bring the flames of 
war to Southeast Asia. The U.S. had three 
choices: (1) to leave Laos to its fate, (2) to 
commit American troops to the defense of Laos, 
or (.3) to seek a political settlement tliat would 
preserve Laos as an independent nation, one 
that could not be used by the Communists for 
further penetration of Southeast Asia. 

In June of 1961 President Kennedy met with 

JULY S, 1963 


Premier Klinislicliev in Vienna.' Tlie only 
point on whicli agreement was reached at tliis 
meeting: was tliat tliere should be a neutral and 
independent Laos. This agreement was tanta- 
mount to changing tlie struggle for Laos from 
a primarily military matter to a political and 
psychological stniggle. Xo one believed that 
the Communists would be satisfied with true 
neutrality for Laos or that they would stop 
seeking to establish Communist control, liut an 
attempt was to be made to establish a viable 
government under a neutral leader, Prince Sou- 
vanna Phouma, and gradually to concentrate 
predominant military and civil power in his 
government. A conference in Geneva of 14 na- 
tions laid down tlie general outline of how this 
neutral and independent Laos was to be pre- 
served.* Thus Communist China and Commu- 
nist North Viet-Nam, as well as the Soviet Un- 
ion, committed themselves to the concept of a 
neutral and independent Laos. A sincere etfort 
by all nations concerned to cooperate with the 
Lao to maintain a truly neutral country would 
contribute significantly to peace in Asia. 
However, the Commimist side has consistently 
blocked the implementation of the Geneva 
Agreements. If the Patliet Lao persist in their 
attempts to wreck the Geneva Agreements and 
to destroy the neutral base of the Souvanna 
government, a new situation of extreme danger 
will present itself. 

The Communists are well organized and they 
know well the techniques of subversion. But 
the free world, despite the difficulties of the Lao 
situation, has considerable experience also in 
political, economic, and psychological warfare. 
Moreover, we have the great advantage that it 
is the overwhelming desire of the Lao people 
to be neutral and independent. The Pathet 
Lao can advance only by violence that is clearly 
in violation of the Geneva Agreements. They 
have betrayed this fact by their recent open at- 
tacks on the neutralist forces of General Kong 
Le in the Plain of Jars. Tlie outcome of the 
struggle may well depend upon whether or not 

' For tpxt of a Joint communique, see ibid., June 2C, 
11)61. p. »09. 

* For texts of n tlerlnrallon on the neutrality of Laos 
and an accompnnyinc jirotoool, see ihiit.. Auk. 1.3, 19C2 
p. 259. 

the International Control Commission, set up 
by the Geneva Accords ° to supervise the im- 
plementation of the agreements, will be able 
to perform its function. Even the limited suc- 
cess of the ICC to date has made it a primary 
target of Pathet Lao attack. 

For those who demand clean, quick victories, 
Laos will pose a particularly frustrating prob- 
lem. It is not a neat, tidy situation. If the 
goal of a neutral, independent Laos is ever to 
be achieved, it will only be through the un- 
wavering endurance of all parties who genu- 
inely support the Geneva Agreements. In this 
connection it is a source of satisfaction that 
Premier Souvanna Phouma in a recent state- 
ment denounced the Pathet Lao for the illegal 
introduction of Viet Cong troops and weapons 
into Laos. The United States will continue to 
do its part in respecting the Geneva Agree- 
ments, in supporting those forces which seek 
to promote a genuinely neutral Laos, and in 
trying to persuade all parties that the success 
of the Souvanna Phouma government is in the 
best interests of all the neighbors of Laos. 

In South Viet-Nam the origin of the threat 
to a free nation's integrity is the same as in 
Laos : Communist North Viet-Nam, or the Viet 
Cong. As one condition for the Geneva settle- 
ment of the Indochina war in 1954, which set 
up a divided Viet-Nam, the Viet Cong, then 
known as the Viet Minh, was to witlidraw from 
South Viet-Nam and cease its attempts to take 
over the south. Thousands of Communist 
troops were sent back to North Viet-Nam. But 
others remained in the south to continue or- 
ganizing secretly for what the Communists, and 
many others, thought would be the early col- 
lapse of the new free Vietnamese Government 
under President Diem. President Diem showed 
considerable skill in dealing with an internal 
situation that was extremely complex and un- 
tidy. Various religious sects, with their own 
private anuies, had to be pacified. A gangster- 
like organization, the Binh Xuyen, which had 
enjoyed control of the police, had to be subdued 
by force. President Diem had to develop a uni- 
fied army, a loyal corps of civil servants, a pro- 

° For texts, see American Forcir/n Policii. Ht.'iO- 
1955: Basic Documents, vol. I, Department of State 
publication 6446, p. 775. 




gram of social and economic refonn with wliich 
to reacli the people, and to develop a sense of 
national cohesion. Working for him, Diem had 
the renowned intelligence and energy of the 
Vietnamese people, their pride in their tradi- 
tion and historic accomplishments. He had 
also a small though talented corps of officials, 
many of whom had left North Viet-Nam when 
the Communists took over. The people of 
South Viet-Nam wanted only to be allowed to 
live in peace under a progressive government. 
Facing the impressive political and military 
machine which the Viet Cong had developed, 
the infant Republic of Viet-Nam had need of 
strong external support, both moral and mate- 
rial. At a time when the odds seemed high 
against the survival of this new government, 
the United States stepped in to express with 
practical aid its confidence in the free Viet- 

Those who predicted doom were confounded. 
A unified army was developed. Steps were 
taken to develop a civil bureaucracy adequate 
for the needs of the new Viet-Nam. Social and 
economic programs began to be implemented. 
Agriculture revived. The educational system 
expanded. The concept of a free Eepublic of 
Viet-Nam began to be understood. 

By 1958 there seemed reason to believe that 
the Republic of Viet-Nam before long would be 
able to eradicate what was left of the Commu- 
nist organization in the countryside. At this 
juncture, a decision was made in Hanoi, the 
capital of Communist North Viet-Nam, that 
such progress of a non-Communist Viet-Nam 
could not be tolerated. The infiltration of ter- 
rorists who had been in training in the north 
was accelerated. A program of violence was 
begun which steadily increased in savagery. 
Keeping in mind ]\Iao Tse-tung's dictum that 
"Political power grows out of the barrel of a 
gun," these Viet Cong began a campaigii of 
extraordinarily inhuman terrorism. The first 
target was the people themselves. The patient, 
poor farmers of Viet-Nam were given the 
choice either of supporting the Viet Cong by 
providing supplies and recruits or of suffering 
violence against their person or members of the 
family. By starting in areas where the govern- 
ment could not yet provide adequate protection. 

the Viet Cong met with considerable success in 
its campaign to control the population. Along 
with the terrorists came the political organizers 
to persuade, to indoctrinate, and always to re- 
mind the people of the ugly consequences of a 
failure to cooperate. The inspiration for all of 
this came from the experiences of the Viet 
Minh against the French and ultimately, of 
course, from the example of the Chinese Com- 
munist movement of Mao Tse-tung. Another 
important target of Viet Cong terror was the 
civil servants of the republic, the teachers, 
health workers, malaria control teams, the vil- 
lage and district chiefs who were bringing the 
government's program for the people to the 
people. Hundreds of these civil servants, often 
working alone and virtually unprotected in the 
countryside, have been murdered by this Viet 
Cong terror. Their sacrifice must not be for- 
gotten for it was made for all free men. 

The small detachments of army troops or of 
self-defense corps, stationed in isolated sections, 
also were favorite targets of the Viet Cong ter- 
rorists. True to Mao's subversive warfare 
tactics, the Viet Cong invariably attacked these 
small outposts with superior numbei-s. Lack of 
adequate communications often prevented the 
lonely outpost from calling for help. If a call 
for help was received, lack of swift transport 
often precluded rescuing units from arriving 
before the destruction had been completed. 

By 1960 the situation had so deteriorated that 
it seemed possible the Viet Cong would be able 
to establish a territorial base in South Viet- 
Nam, the next step in the Mao formula for a 
successful "national liberation movement." At 
this point President Kennedy sent General 
Maxwell Taylor to South Viet-Nam to confer 
with the Vietnamese Government and to ob- 
serve the situation for himself. General Taylor 
reported that the Vietnamese people retained 
the will to fight communism and that, given 
more extensive support, had a chance to defeat 
the Viet Cong. 

Wliile this support has come predominantly 
from the United States, a number of otlier coun- 
tries have provided significant support, moral 
and material. 

The first requirement of the struggle today 
is to pull the teeth of the Viet Cong terrorist 

JULY 8,1963 


campaipn. This can best be done not so much 
by killinjx terrorists but by depriving them of 
the opportunity to coerce tiie farmers into pro- 
viding supplies and recruits. This can only be 
done by providing practical protection to the 
farming population. The technique which has 
been adopted to achieve this protection is the 
construction of fortified villages, called stra- 
tegic hamlets. This technique was used suc- 
cessfully in Malaya against the Communist 
movement there. The same concept had been 
applied successfully in the late 1790"s by the 
Manchu dynasty of China against the A^Hiite 
Lotus sect, a fanatical group whose use of terror 
resembled closely the methods of the present- 
day Viet Cong. 

The fimdamcntal purpose of a strategic 
hamlet is to give the farmers the means to 
defend themselves against terrorist attack. In- 
stead of living in isolated houses, or groups of 
houses, the farmers gather together in a larger 
village. Strong defense works are built with 
the aid of the army. A village self-defense 
militia is organized, given training, and armed 
with simple weapons. Basic defense plans are 
worked out. Where possible, radios are in- 
stalled so that a village can send out an immedi- 
ate call for aid in the event of attack. The 
widespread use of helicopters to send out rescue 
missions has meant that aid has most often come 
in time to beleaguered villages. 

Once a strategic village has been established, 
the government can then move in with programs 
of aid for the villagers, confident that a far 
higher degree of security can now be given the 
teachers, nurses, and administrative personnel 
sent out by the government. The villagers loam 
that successful resistance to the Viet Cong is 
possible. They see also the practical efforts of 
the government to improve their lot, and thus 
become more enthusiastic in their support of the 
fight against 1 lie Viet Cong. 

Simultaneously, the Vietnamese Army is 
seeking out the terrorists, destroying their 
jungle training camps and crude munitions fac- 
tories, going into remote swamp and forest areas 
where for years the terrorists have been all but 
immune from attack. The important role of 
the helicopter in all this has be^n publicized ex- 
tensively. But an officer of an allied nation. 

knowledgeable in the problems of terrorist war- 
fare, once told me that for all the new develop- 
ments in weaponry and transport this anti- 
guerrilla war is still primarily a war of tlic 
brains and the feet. By this he meant that as 
wily as the Communist terrorist is, and as hard 
and as inured to privation, his opponent must bo 
able to outthink him and outlast him. 

"Wliile army operations against the terrori.-t 
organization are part of the answer, the hoari 
of the struggle is in the strategic village. 
Thorough and intelligent implementation of 
this program will lea^^e the terrorist as a fish 
out of water. Rejected by the people, he will 
be exposed to relentless pursuit by the arnitMJ 
forces. All but the hard-core Communists 
among the terrorists will be more and more 
attracted to the side of the government. An 
amnesty program has already been instituted 
by the Vietnamese Government to encourage 

These programs are making good progress, 
and thei'e is every reason to believe that the Viet 
Cong will be defeated. One barometer of grow- 
ing GVN strength against the Communists is 
the increase in voluntary intelligence from the 
population. In one province, long a Viet Cong 
stronghold, government forces were actually 
tipped off in advance to three-quarters of the 
Viet Cong attacks last month. Last week the 
number of Viet Cong defectors reached an all- 
time high of l7l. Vietnamese rice exports, 
halted completely in the fall of 1961, are now 
normal. We expect a long struggle, but we are 
confident of the outcome. 

The struggle in Viet-Nam gains the headlines 
in today's newspapers. But throughout Asia, 
new nations, in varying degrees, are facing the 
challenge of creating progressive, yet stable, 
societies in a world of uncertainty. American 
policy aims to provide our experience, our en- 
thusiasm, and, insofar as our resources permit, 
our material aid to this great enterprise of na- 
tion building. 

Given the broader framework of your discus- 
sions here on the subject of cold war educa- 
tion, I think it might be useful to draw certain 
implications from what I have been saying, im- 
plications valid over the whole range of our 
world problems. I have set these down in the 



form of five points wliich I want to leave with 
you as a conclusion and a summing up. 

Education for the Cold War 

First, we must remain strong. Strong mili- 
tarily and economically, and strong morally. 
Our will to sacrifice when necessary must be 
steadfast. We know that the Commimists are 
led by their dogma to underestimate the 
strength and will of democratic peoples. As we 
remain strong and determined, we shall make 
clear to the Communists that their challenges 
to free men can never succeed in the long run. 
Equally important is the fact that the confi- 
dence of all free peoples that communism can be 
resisted and defeated depends to a large extent 
on their knowledge that our strength and will 
and our helping hand are equal to the task. As 
I stressed at the outset, steady nerves are more 
than ever before a vital component of this 

Secondly, free-world power and diplomacy 
must be matched together and used in just the 
proper proportions and quantities, with careful 
thought, skill, and precision. In the prenuclear 
age some errors, some bumbling, could perhaps 
be tolerated without disastrous consequences. 
But ever since man has learned the secret of 
nuclear fire, learned this long before there is any 
assurance that he can control it, a major error 
or misstep, a serious accident, could result in 
the almost instantaneous incineration of the 
population centers of the world and the mutila- 
tion and poisoning of large areas of the earth. 

Just as our power must be applied in exceed- 
ingly precise amounts, and in full knowledge of 
the ability and will of the opponent to bring to 
bear his power, so must our policy objectives be 
defined with the greatest care and accuracy. If 
these objectives are defined imwisely, unrealisti- 
cally, or unclearly, we may expose ourselves to 
unnecessary setbacks, even to disaster. 

Precision, wisdom, realism : these require the 
utmost in cool and unemotional judgment and 
what I called earlier cool, deliberate analysis. 
Tough minds, analytical minds, are required to 
carry this nation through the dangerous era in 
which we live. Our minds must be keen enough 
to recognize that no situation is simple; that 
untidiness is characteristic of most problems; 

that there are no shortcuts to success, no neat, 
swift solutions anywhere. Today the critical 
issues we face demand of all of us the capacity 
to live in a complex world of untidy situations 
and yet do what is required of us with steady 
nerves and unflinchuag will. 

Thirdly, while we are combating Communist 
imperialism in all its forms, we must remember 
that it is not enough to be against sometliing 
and that in the last analysis success depends 
upon our ability to build, to construct, to con- 
tribute to man's spiritual and material welfare. 
We are cooperating with many free peoples in 
great efforts at nation building, while the Com- 
munists try to tear down, in order to impose 
their hold and their system on the world. 

Fourthly, there is a larger need for tolerance 
in international life. Happily there is a grow- 
ing understanding among us of the diverse ways 
by which different peoples seek to obtain happi- 
ness and security in a troubled world. In pass- 
ing I also wish to observe that, remembering 
our own unfinished business in fulfilling the 
ideals of the American Constitution, we must 
be tolerant of the shortcomings we may see in 
other societies. While we are justifiably proud 
of our institutions and our freedoms and stand 
as leaders in the democratic world, our prestige 
and influence in the world suffer whenever we 
fall short of our own ideals. 

Finally, we must have knowledge, deeper and 
wider knowledge than we have ever had before, 
of oui-selves and of other peoples, their motives 
and their hopes. With knowledge we can gain 
the understanding and the insight on which wise 
policy must be based. President Kennedy ex- 
pressed this idea in a speech at San Diego State 
College in California last week : No country can 
possibly move ahead, no free society can pos- 
sibly be sustamed, unless it has an educated 
citizenry whose qualities of mind and heart per- 
mit it to take part in the complicated and in- 
creasingly sophisticated decisions which are de- 
manded not only of the President and the Con- 
gress but of all the citizens, who exercise the 
ultimate power. 

This thought of the President is a fitting 
close to my observations. If American freedom 
is to survive and to grow in peace, it is because 
people like you here at this conference boldly 

JULY 8, 1963 


take the responsibility of laiowing and learning 
and persuading others to pursue this quest. I 
congratulate you for the important contribution 
which your activities here are making to the 
security of our nation and to the peace of 

U.S. and U.S.S.R. Sign Agreement 
for Direct Communications Link 


WhUe House press release dated June 20 

Today (in Geneva) the representatives of the 
Governments of the United States and the 
U.S.S.R. at the 18-Nation Disarmament Con- 
ference signed an agreement which will estab- 
lish a direct communications link between their 
respective capitals. This age of fast-moving 
events requires quick, dependable communica- 
tions for use in time of emergency. By their 
signatures today, therefore, both Governments 
have taken a first step to help reduce the risk 
of war occurring by accident or miscalculation. 

Tliis agreement on a communications link is a 
limited but practical step forward in arms con- 
trol and disarmament. We hope agreement 
on other more encompassing measures will fol- 
low. "We shall bend every effort to go on from 
this first step. 


Memorandum of Understanding 

Memorandum of Understanding Between the United 
States of America and the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics Regarding tue Establishment of a 
Direct Communications Link Signed on June 20, 
10C3 AT Geneva, Switzerland 

For use In time of omerRency, the Government of the 
United States of America nnd the Government of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have agreed to 
establish as soon as technically feasible a direct com- 
munications link between the two Kovernments. 

Kiich Koverniiieiit shall bo responsible for the ar- 
rannfMieiits fur the link on Ha own territory. Each 
KoverniiK'iit shall lake the necessary steps to ensure 
<-ontinuous functloninR of the link and prompt delivery 

to its head of government of any communications re- 
ceived by means of the link from the head of govern- 
ment of the other party. 

Arrangements for establishing and operating the link 
are set forth in the Annex which is attached hereto and 
forms an integral part hereof. 

Done in duplicate in the English and Russian lan- 
guages at Geneva, Switzerland, this 20th day of June, 


For the Government of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics : 

For the Government of the 
United States of America : 

Charles C. Stelle 

Semyon K. Tsabapkin 

Acting Representative of Acting Representative 0/ 

the Union of Soviet So- the United States of 

cialist Republics to the America to the Eighteen 

Eighteen Nation Commit- Nation Committee on Dia- 

tee on Disarmament armament 

Annex to Memorandum 

Annex to the Memorandum of Understanding Be- 
tween THE United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Reoabdinq the 
Establishment of a Direct Communications Link 

The direct communications link between Washington 
and Moscow established in accordance with the memo- 
randum, and the operation of such link, shall be gov- 
erned by the following provisions : 

1. The direct communications link shall consist of: 

A. Two terminal points with telegraph-teleprinter 
equipment between which communications shall be 
directly exchanged ; 

B. One full-time duplex wire telegraph cir- 
cuit, routed Washington-London-Copenhagen-Stock- 
holm-Helsinki-Moscow, which shall be used for the 
transmission of messages ; 

C. One full-time duplex radio telegraph circuit, 
routed Washington-Tangier-Moscow, which .shall be 
used for service communications and for coordination 
of operations between the two terminal points. 

If experience in operating the direct communications 
link should demonstrate that the establishment of an 
additional wire telegraph circuit is advisable, such 
circuit may be established by mutual agreement be- 
tween authorized representatives of both governments. 

2. In case of interruption of the wire circuit, trans- 
mission of messages shall be effected via the radio 
circuit, and for this purpose provision shall be made at 
the terminal points for the capability of prompt switch- 
ing of all necessary equipment from one circuit to 

3. The terminal points of the link sh;ill be so 
equipped as to provide for the transmission and recep- 
tion of messages from Moscow to Washington in the 
Russian language and from Washington to Moscow in 
the English language. In this connection, the USSR 
shall furnish the United States four sets of telegraph 



terminal equipment, including page printers, trans- 
mitters, and reperforators, with one year's supply of 
spare parts and all necessary special tools, test equip- 
ment, operating instructions and other technical litera- 
ture, to provide for transmission and reception of 
messages in the Russian language. The United States 
shall furnish the Soviet Union four sets of telegraph 
terminal equipment, including page printers, trans- 
mitters, and reperforators, with one year's supply of 
spare parts and all necessary special tools, test equip- 
ment, operating instructions and other technical 
literature, to provide for transmission and reception 
of messages in the English language. The equip- 
ment described in this paragraph shall be exchanged 
directly between the parties without any payment 
being required therefor. 

4. Tlie terminal points of the direct communications 
link shall be provided with encoding equipment. For 
the terminal point in the USSR, four sets of such 
equipment (each capable of simplex operation), with 
one year's supply of spare parts, with all necessary 
special tools, test equipment, operating instructions 
and other technical literature, and with all necessary 
blank tape, shall be furnished by the United States to 
the USSR against payment of the cost thereof by the 

The USSR shall provide for preparation and delivery 
of keying tapes to the terminal point of the link in the 
United States for reception of messages from the 
USSR. The United States shall provide for prepara- 
tion and delivery of keying tapes to the terminal point 
of the link in the USSR for reception of messages from 
the United States. Delivery of prepared keying tapes; 
to the terminal points of the link shall be effected 
through the Embassy of the USSR in Washington (for 
the terminal of the link in the USSR) and through the 
Embassy of the United States in Moscow (for the ter- 
minal of the link in the United States). 

5. The United States and the USSR shall designate 
the agencies responsible for the arrangements regard- 
ing the direct communications link, for its technical 
maintenance, continuity and reliability, and for the 
timely transmission of messages. 

Such agencies may, by mutual agreement, decide 
matters and develop instructions relating to the techni- 
cal maintenance and operation of the direct communi- 
cations link and effect arrangements to imiirove the 
operation of the link. 

6. The technical parameters of the telegraph circuits 
of the link and of the terminal equipment, as well as 
the maintenance of such circuits and equipment, shall 
be in accordance with CCITT [Comity consultatif in- 
ternational tflegraphique et tel^phonique] and CCIR 
[Comity consultatif international des radio communi- 

ications] recommendations. 

Transmission and reception of messages over the di- 
rect communications link shall be effected in accord- 
ance with applicable recommendations of interna- 

tional telegraph and radio communications regulations, 
as well as with mutually agreed instructions. 

7. The costs of the direct communications link shall 
be borne as follows : 

A. The USSR shall pay the full cost of leasing the 
portion of the telegraph circuit from Moscow to Hel- 
sinki and 50 percent of the cost of leasing the por- 
tion of the telegraph circuit from Helsinki to London. 
The United States shall pay the full cost of leasing 
the portion of the telegraph circuit from Washington 
to London and 50 percent of tlie cost of leasing the por- 
tion of the telegraph circuit from London to Helsinki. 

B. Payment of the cost of leasing the radio tele- 
graph circuit between Moscow and Washington shall 
be effected without any transfer of payments between 
the parties. The USSR shall bear the expenses relat- 
ing to the transmission of messages from Moscow to 
Washington. The United States shall bear the ex- 
penses relating to the transmission of messages from 
Washington to Moscow. 

Prime Minister of Australia 
Visits Washington 

White House press release dated June 21 

The White House announced on June 21 that 
the Right Honorable Sir Robert Gordon Men- 
zies, Prime Minister of Australia, will pay an 
informal visit to Washington July 8-10. 

The Prime Minister will call on President 
Kennedy and will be guest at a Presidential 
luncheon in the Wliite House on July 8. The 
following day he will confer with officials at 
the State Department, where Secretary Rusk 
will host a luncheon in honor of Sir Robert and 
his wife, Dame Pattie Menzies. The Prime 
Minister last visited Washington and conferred 
with President Kennedy in June 1962.^ 

Sir Robert arrives in the United States on 
July 2. On July 4 he will inaugurate a new 
series of Tliomas Jefferson ]\Iemorial Orations 
on the grounds of Monticello. This will be the 
first occasion on which an oration has been given 
at Monticello on Independence Day. Pre^nous 
orations have been delivered by foi-mer Presi- 
dents Roosevelt and Truman. 

' For text of a joint communique released on June 20, 
1902, see Bulletin of July 16, 1962, p. 116. 

JULY. 8, 1963 


On Our Quarrel With Success 

hy John Kenneth Galbraith 
Ambassador to India^ 

A commencement address such as I am giving 
today could, at first glance, seem a rather formi- 
dable responsibility. It comes at a rather criti- 
cal moment in the life of the audience. It is 
delivered and heard under conditions of consid- 
erable solemnity. To be at all acceptable the 
speech must contain advice on some fairly por- 
tentous subject — the prospect for mankind, the 
proper choice of a career, or, at the very mini- 
mum, the importance of repaying to a hopefully 
receptive society some of the investment that, 
however unwittingly, it has made in the listen- 
ers. This could seem a task of some unction. 
That it is not so regarded is doubtless because 
no one in the whole of modern history seems 
ever to have been guided by what he heard in a 
commencement speech. Indeed it is not on 
record that anyone ever admitted to having re- 
membered what was said in a commencement 
speech. Nor is it absolutely certain that anyone 
has, in fact, ever listened. 

So it has come about that, although during 
this week and next these orations are being 
ground out on what amounts to an assembly 
line basis — here and there a stripped model or 
a compact, many more rich with chrome, quad- 
ruple headlights, soft upholstery, ingenious ac- 
ces.sorics, and double bumpers — it all signifies 
very little. For this we may be devoutly thank- 
ful. Of all the nightmares cui-rently available 
to Americans, there is none so hideous as the 
possibility that they might one day begin to 
heed all the advice that their orators offer them. 

Yet I am here as your commencement 

' Address made nt commencement exercises at the 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., on June 
9 (press release 308 dated Juno 7). 


speaker. I cannot escape my task even thoug] 
it is so largely liturgical. So in a great com^ 
mencement day tradition, I am going to say a \| 
word or two about government and the public 1(1 
service. This will lead me on to what I judge tt i 
be one of the more important trends in the de- 
bate on public policy in our day. My intentior 
is analytical, not hortatory. I do not expect tc 
influence your life or that of anyone else. 

Indeed I will omit the usual plea that yoK. 
consider the public service as a career. That is 
entirely up to you. If you are primarily inter- 
ested in making money, you should go into busi- 
ness and make money. No one need beg fon 
talent on behalf of the public service. At leasW 
beyond a certain minimum, money is a poor sub- 
stitute for work that is interesting and engross- 
ing, and in these respects the public service is — 
or can be — far superior to any private business^ 
As compared with the public service — or, fon 
similar reasons, colleges, universities, and re- 
search organizations — private enterprise must? 
have a substantial income differential in its 

In this connection, and speaking wholly as ani 
individual, I am dubious of recent proposals to 
raise salaries of top executive, judicial, andi 
legislative officers of the Federal Government to 
tycoon levels. People in the lesser ranks of ai 
private corporation think of the top company 
brass as separated from themselves by unimagi- 
nably high incomes. So do people at large. In 
the past there has been no such sense of aliena- 
tion in the Federal Government, and it would 
be unfortunate were it to exist in the future. '' 
The upper levels of the permanent civil service 
and the lesser political posts are presently sub- 
ject to a considerable financial pinch. This 



should certainly be relieved and generously. 
Elsewliere we should be more gradual. Even at 
present rates there is no visible shortage of can- 
didates for the Supreme Court or Congress or, 
one suspects, for the Cabinet or our embassies. 
Nor is there evidence that higher talent would 
be improved proportionately with pay or at all. 
In senior govermnent posts we want the kind of 
man who thinks that public service is worth 
modest standards of pay. 

Some Hazards of Public Service 

There are some changes in the public service, 
or in attitudes toward public policy, which, 
from the limited perspective of these last 214 
years, do seem to me important. As I have 
just suggested, the great case for the public 
;ervice is the interest of the work — the sense of 
iccomplishment that it offers. This sense of ac- 
complishment and the resulting public recogni- 
ion are in danger. This does merit attention. 

One danger comes from the overorganization 
)f government and the excessive subdivision of 
asks so that the individual no longer has any 
'eal sense of his relation to results. Increas- 
Jigly, public policy is made, or anyhow con- 
sidered, in vast oleaginous meetings where each 
larticipant speaks for his own bureau, office, or 
special area of knowledge and many serve only 
)y being present. This is not calculated to en- 
lance interest. Papers, telegrams, press releases 
ire all the product of a highly organized proc- 
'ss of group thought. The individual has, as a 
•esult, the same relation to results as a tobacco 
eaf to one of the new homogenized cigars. The 
speeches of the modem public official are a par- 
icular case in point. Their production com- 
bines the literary and other talents of a small 
irmy and they invariably sound as though they 
lad been written by one. The homogenizing 
process in the public service tends to exclude the 
ough, controversial, and uncompromising par- 
icipant for, naturally enough, he is a great 

As compared with 25 years ago, the Federal 
'jovernment now lays a much stronger restrain- 
ng hand on the individual who has a clear view 
)f what he would like to accomplish and a 
itrong desire to do it. The abrasive contro- 
'^ersy which characterized the Roosevelt bu- 

reaucracy has all but gone. So has the art of 
broken field running by the man who knew pre- 
cisely where he wanted to go and who was 
skilled at finding the holes in the formidable 
phalanx composed of those whose mission in life 
is to resist action and, where possible, also 
thought. Instead we have much greater empha- 
sis on order, discipline, and conformity. In any 
great organization these are not wholly to be 
deplored. They are admirable on questions of 
nuclear politics. But the Federal Government 
has urgent need to recognize and foster indi- 
vidual responsibility and achievement on mat- 
ters of public policy. Tliis is the claim of the 
public career. 

The further hazard which anyone entering 
the public service must face in our time is the 
modern compulsion to quarrel with success. 
This is a serious matter and one that is not well 
imderstood. Those who are associated with suc- 
cessful public policy need to be aware of the 
danger they run. Those who are not so associ- 
ated will also be rewarded by understanding. 
They can expect that political and public opin- 
ion will now be rallied rather effectively against 
whatever works, and they can count themselves 
well out of it. Or they may wish to join the 
hue and cry. 

The Risk of Accomplishment 

All students of this modern compulsion to 
quarrel with success must begin, I believe, with 
the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was the 
first major accomplishment of the architects of 
this curious form of controversy. It remains 
in many ways the classical example of the phe- 
nomenon I am here isolating. 

The TVA was launched 30 years ago this 
spring. From the beginning it seemed clear 
that this was an innovation of prime importance. 
And so it turned out. Industry came to the 
valley. Agriculture improved. Power con- 
sumption increased. Commerce flowed on the 
clear waters of the once muddy and unpredict- 
able stream. Living standards rose. And the 
word spread. In time a visit to Knoxville or 
Muscle Shoals went automatically on the 
agenda of every visitor to the United States. 
The letters "TVA" were known in Bolivi^i, 
Ethiopia, and the Ukraine. Halfway around 

rtTLT 8, 1963 

691-«52— 63- 


the world the Governments of Bihar and Ben- 
pal set up the Damodar Valley Corporation in 
frank imitation. Nothing undertaken by the 
United States in this century was quite such an 
unqualified success. 

Tlie reaction was highly adverse. The TVA 
became our most alarming phenomenon. There 
were formidable efforts to curb the experi- 
ment — even to sell it off, as (according to Mr. 
Emmet Hughes) President Eisenhower 
yearned to do. Of course the TVA survived 
these efforts. But it was firmly agreed that 
nothing of the .sort would ever be attempted 
again. One such experiment, if really success- 
ful, is enough. 

T^'^A is no isolated example of a successful 
quarrel with success. In the years following 
World War II the GI bill of rights was hailed 
as an inspired instance of what the Government 
could do to enlarge educational opportunity. 
Tens of thousands seized the chance; the Nation 
is still profiting from the investment. It 
worked so well and was so much praised that 
we strongly resolved against any permanent 
effort of equivalent magnitude in the field of 

Tliere is also the case of the farmers. In 
recent decades they have responded to assured 
prices and income with unparalleled improve- 
ments in capital plant, technology, and efficiency 
and output. This great agrarian success has 
been celebrated by men of all opinions and all 
parties, including quite a few who have never 
seen a farm. The Communists have conceded 
that this performance improves dramatically 
on their own agricultural accomplishment. The 
consequence has been a large-.scale demand for 
the elimination of the price supports and con- 
trols which were the fulcrum of this achieve- 
ment. This attack has been conducted with real 
vigor. At the moment it seems to be making 
.some headway. 

The reaction to the success of the farm econ- 
omy has had a more general counterpart. Since 
World War II economic perfonnance in the 
United States, as also in Western Europe, has 
been favorable. Employment has been high; 
the business cycle has .shown little of its old 
violence; there has been no indication that 
.Marx's promise of increasingly adverse per- 


formance by maturing capitalism would soon i 
be redeemed. All of tliis has been in marked 
contrast with the rather dismal economic show- 
ing in much of the period between the two wars. 

There can be no serious question as to what 
made the difference. Capitalism did not reform 
itself. That reform was needed was never a 
major contention of the average capitalist. 
There was a determined public effort to correct 
the shortcomings of the economic system. If it 
did not provide needed income and employment, 
compensatory action was taken by the state. 
Individuals were assured of substitute employ- 
ment or income when private opportunities 
were deficient. The economy was assured pari of a substitute flow of purcliasing power. 
At the same time taxes were used to arrest pre- 
vious tendencies to an excessive concentration 
of income, and larger state expenditures added 
a further stabilizing influence. Special steps 
were taken to bolster the position of weaker 
groups. Private enterprise became the bene- 
ficiary of a vast amount of state-sponsored 

The results once again have been predictable. 
The success of the economy has been much ap- 
plauded. The attack on the measures responsi- 
ble for the success has been unrelenting. The 
tax, fiscal, welfare, and other public policies 
promoting improved performance have been 
received with profound alarm. There is a wide- 
spread feeling that we cannot risk any more 
such accomplishment. As a result, steps to im- 
prove medical care, strengthen and extend 
unemployment compensation, improve fiscal I 
management by the Government or to enlarge 
Government responsibility in such fields as, say, 
urban transport are being stoutly resisted. A J 
friend of mine thinks that, in the great struggle i 
of our time, we are cautious about discouraging 
the Russians. I doubt if this is the explanation. 

The Cases of Cuba and India 

However, it is in foreign policy that our 
modem quarrel with success becomes most in- | 
tense, and I venture to think that over the next I 
50 years most of the Ph. D. theses on the phe- 
nomenon will deal witli external events. 

More than momentary attention may well be 
given to the recent case of Cuba. Here in the 


past year the Soviets made a major step across 
the informal boundary which they and we (al- 
though not the Chinese) have respected since 
World War II. By a firm and considered pol- 
icy they were persuaded to withdraw. There 
was no bloodshed— a matter of some signifi- 
cance to those who would have provided the 
blood. Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, "Washington, 
New York, and Chicago were not destroyed in 
the process. This must have been a source of 
satisfaction to permanent residents as well as 
larger taxpayers. 

This success provoked an attack of unparal- 
leled proportions. The reaction of some mem- 
bers of the administration of which I am a 
member has, I confess, struck me as a trifle 
untutored. They have asked the critics if they 
really wanted a policy which, by its sanguinary 
violence, would have alienated all of Latin 
A.merica and most of the other smaller nations 
Df the world. And they have wondered if nu- 
clear conflict, which in a matter of a few hours 
night have reduced the United States from a 
Treat power to a distraught group of survivors 
Jependent very possibly even for their nutrition 
m the bounty of other and less damaged coun- 
ries, was really such a good idea. I fear my 
iolleagues have not fully grasped the compul- 
iion to quarrel with accomplishment. Had they 
lone so, they would not have been so surprised. 
In the last few months I have been interested 
n a lesser quarrel with success concerning India. 
For many years the policies of India have been 
he subject of considerable concern. We felt, 
particularly vis-a-vis China, that India adopted 
\n unnecessarily easygoing attitude. Last au- 
umn the Chinese invaded India. Indian atti- 
udes on China and Chinese communism were 
Iramatically revised. No other country in Asia, 
)erhaps no other coimtry in the world, is so 
lassionately concerned about Chinese ambi- 
ions. We went promptly to the support of the 
ndians in their moment of need and earned 
heir warm gratitude and respect. I think it 
air to say that no one a year ago could have 
orecast such a dramatic improvement in our 
•elations with India. Such has been the success 
hat I am told our problems on economic and 
lilitary aid to India this year will be particu- 
irly difficult. Once again success is causing us 
jrious problems. 

The Foreign Aid Program 

Our most durable quarrel with success, and 
one that may merit more minute examination 
even than the case of Cuba, is foreign aid. This 
has been the unique American contribution to 
diplomacy which, it may be added, is a fre- 
quently backward craft and one that takes fre- 
quent pride in being traditional and unprogres- 
sive. It is a contribution vitally related to 
circumstance. In a world where the few 
wealthy countries have been getting wealthy 
and, as a broad generalization, the many poor 
countries have been remaining very poor, an aid 
program was an indispensable solvent of ten- 

One need reflect for only the briefest moment 
on the nature of an international society in 
which the people of Latin America, Asia, and 
Africa saw their own living standards static or 
deteriorating while incomes and output in the 
United States (for which they supplied mate- 
rials and some markets) went on each year to 
higher and higher levels. In such a world our 
influence would be negligible, nonexistent, or re- 
placed by open antagonism, and one is tempted 
to say deservedly so. Our influence is, in fact, 
very great. Instead of envy and anger, the 
image aroused by the word "America" through- 
out the world is one of generosity and compas- 
sion. We are thought to be marked, in contrast 
with other countries, by our capacity to grasp 
the problems of less fortunate people. 

Our administration of foreign aid has been 
far from perfect. We have underemphasized 
education. We have thought it possible to base 
effective development on reactionary social 
structures. (Men will not produce very effi- 
ciently if they know that the product will go in 
any case to landlords, tax farmers, and money- 
lenders.) Money has on occasion been wasted. 
(Without making a case for waste, we may 
remind ourselves that it has been a regular 
companion piece of development. Tens of mil- 
lions were borrowed by American State gov- 
ernments and put into canals just before the 
railroads made them obsolete. Hundreds of 
millions of dollars worth of public subsidy to 
the railroads found its way into private 

On occasion we have misjudged the larger 
purposes of our aid policy and assumed it to 

ULT 8, 1963 


be the servant of narrow ideological pref- 
erences. (If wc offer a wide range of choice in 
economic structure as the alternative to com- 
munism, we can hardly lose. If we insist on 
our new of capitalism as the only alternative, 
our chances are far less favorable.) And, on 
occasion, wo have assumed that questions on 
foreign aid could best be answered by men of 
inspired general wisdom who were not exces- 
sively hampered by experience in the problems 
of economic development or of the countries 
for which they prescribed. 

But the test of a policy is not whether all 
problems are solved but whether it performs 
its task. The aid program has forestalled what 
would have been certain calamity in our re- 
lations with the poor countries. It is perhaps 
the principal reason why countries such as India 
and Pakistan have been spared the painful 
travail of the Chinese people. It is one of the 
important reasons why they remain committed 
to personal liberty and Western institutions. 
Had there been no aid programs in this last 
decade, the world would have been very dif- 
ferent indeed and from our point of view much 
less satisfactory. 

Once again we have the predictable result. 
In the case of the aid programs the quarrel with 
accomplishment is especially severe. The 
shortcomings are picked out like the trees. The 
accomplishments have disappeared like the 
forest. The man of sound and secure reputa- 
tion, at least of a sort, is the one who tells you 
where you can cut a half billion, or a billion, 
or two billion. Even the semantics are reveal- 
ing. Those who quarrel with success here do 
not deny the fact. They tell you where the 
cuts can bo made with the least damage. 

The notion that we should, as needed, invest 
more and do better is gradually receding under 
this onslaught. Once again the quarrel with 
accomplishment is going very well. However, 
it is not serving the United States at all well. 

Were it the problem of modern government 
that there are few things to criticize, this tend- 
ency to quarrel with accomplislunent would be 
forgivable. It is evident that modern man 
must quarrel about something . But as govern- 
ment is currently conducted in the United States 
and despite the enlightened influence of many 

people from this State, there is still suflBcient 
that is wrong and even foolish. 

I would be sorry today if I seemed to be 
against criticism. Nothing would be further 
from my thoughts. I consider it vital for the 
effective operation of a democracy and a highly 
congenial personal avocation. But I find it hard 
to applaud this continuing discontent with ac- 
complishment. Radicals of an earlier genera- 
tion seemed often to be taking a rather lofty 
and even critical view of sales, production, 
profits, and the other symbols of business suc- 
cass. Businessmen fresh from some considerable 
industrial achievement reacted adversely to this 
criticism. They thought there might be more 
attention to results. But government is also a 
serious affair. The resolution of international 
disputes without resort to nuclear destruction, 
the winning of the confidence and esteem of 
other nations, and improvements in the welfare 
and well-being of our own people are also 
worthy of our effort and energy. I doubt that 
the assault on such public achievement has any 
more to commend it than the earlier attack on 
private accomplislmient. 

U.S. Makes Interim Modification 
of Tin Disposal Program 

Department Statement \ 

Press release 327 dated June 21 

Tlae General Services Administration an- < 
nounced today [June 21] an interim modifica- 
tion of its program for the disposal of surplus | 
tin from the national stockpile in the form of a , 
supplementary offering which will be effective I 
during the period June 26-September 30, 1963. j 
The maximum quantity of tin which the Gen- 
eral Services Administration may sell in any ' 
week has been increased from 200 long tons to 
400 long tons, and the limit on these sales for 
til is period has been raised from 2,700 long tons 
under the current disposal plan to 4,700 long . 
tons. This increase of approximately 200 tons , 
I)er week in the limit on weekly sales will allow 
the General Services Administration more flexi- 
bility for meeting changing market conditions. 
Xo other cliange in the existing terms of the 



current disposal plan, which was made effec- 
tive April 1, 1963, for 1 year, is contemplated 
at this time. 

In accordance with past practices this move 
by the United States Government followed con- 
sultations between representatives of the U.S. 
Government and the International Tin Council 
and the governments of the principal tin- 
producing counti'ies in advance of the decision 
to adopt the supplementary program. It is 
also our intention to consult with the Inter- 
national Tin Council and interested govern- 
ments before the end of the supplemental dis- 
posal period. 

It continues to be United States policy to take 
no action in tlie disposal of United States stock- 
piles which would unduly disrupt commodity 
markets. The General Services Administration 
will continue to operate its disposal plan in the 
best interest of the United States Government, 
taking into account prevailing market prices, 
and in such a way as to avoid serious disruption 
of the usual markets of producers, processors, 
and consumers. 

Music Advisers Appointed 
for Cultural Presentations 

The Department of State announced on June 
14 (press release 320) that Assistant Secretary 
Battle has appointed Leopold Damrosch 
Mannes, president of the Mannes College of 
Music of New York, as chairman of the music 
panel which aids the selection of American per- 
forming musical artists and groups for over- 
seas tours under the recently reconstituted Cul- 
tural Presentations Program of the Department 
of State, and W. Kaymond Kendall, dean of the 
School of Music of the University of Southern 
California, as chairman of the academic music 

Following recommendations by the U.S. Ad- 
visory Commission on International Educa- 
tional and Cultural Affairs, the Advisory Com- 
, mittee on the Arts has been reconstituted to give 
general policy guidance to the program and to 
the panels of experts which have the responsi- 
bility of recommending the musical, dramatic, 
dance, and other presentations to be sent abroad. 

Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

88th Congress, 1st Session 

Africa Briefing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 
Africa of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. 
February 27, 1963. 20 pp. 

Developmenta in Technical Capabilities for Detecting 
and Identifying Nuclear Weapons Tests. Hearings 
before the Joint Atomic Energy Committee. March 
5-12, 19G3. 518 pp. 

Mexican Farm Labor Program. Hearings before the 
Subcommittee on Equipment, Supplies, and Man- 
power of the House Agriculture Committee on H.E. 
1836 and H.R. 2009. March 27-29, 1963. 349 pp. 

To Amend the Arms Control and Disarmament Act. 
Hearing before the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee on S. 777, a bill to amend the Arms Control 
and Disarmament Act in order to increase the au- 
thorization for appropriations and to modify the per- 
sonnel security procedures for contractor employees. 
April 10, 1903. 221 pp. 

Foreign Assistance Act of 1963. Hearings before the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee on H.R. 5490, to 
amend further the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, 
as amended, and for other purposes. Part I, April 5- 
10, 1963, 184 pp. ; Part II, April 23-29, 1963, 207 pp. ; 
Part III, April 30-May 7, 1963, 241 pp. 

Winning the Cold War : The U.S. Ideological Offensive. 
Hearings before the Subcommittee on International 
Organizations and Movements of the House Foreign 
Affairs Committee. Part II. April 30-May 8, 1963. 
109 pp. 

Continuation of Mexican Farm Labor Program. Re- 
port, together with minority views, to accompany 
H.R. 5497. H. Rept. 274. May 6, 1963. 18 pp. 

The Foreign Service Buildings Act Amendments of 
1963. Hearing before the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee on H.R. 5207, an act to amend the For- 
eign Service Buildings Act, 1926, to authorize addi- 
tional appropriations, and for other purposes. May 
7. 1963. 21 pp. 

Documents on International Aspects of the Exploration 
and Use of Outer Space, 1954-1962. Staff report 
prepared for the Senate Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences Committee. S. Doc. 18. May 9, 1963. 407 

Eighth NATO Parliamentarians' Conference. Report 
of the U.S. House delegation to the eighth conference 
of members of parliament from the NATO countries, 
held in Paris, November 12-16, 1962. H. Rept 300. 
May 15, 1963. 40 pp. 

Amendments to the Foreign Service Building Act of 
1926. Report to accompany H.R. 5207. S. Rept. 178. 
May 15, 1963. 15 pp. 

Amendment to the Constitution of the International 
Labor Organization. Report, together with individ- 
ual views, to accompany S.J. Res. 60. S. Rept 179. 
May 16, 1963. 28 pp. 

Amending Legislation Relating to International Or- 
ganizations. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 
International Organizations and Movements of the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee on H.R. 6283, a 
bill to amend the United Nations Participation Act, 
as amended, and H.J. Res. 405, joint resolution to 
amend the joint resolution providing for U.S. partici- 
pation in the International Bureau for the Protection 
of Industrial Property. May 17, 1963. 48 pp. 

Authorizing the Secretary of the Interior To Market 
Power Generated at Amistad Dam on the Rio Grande. 
Report to accompany H.R. 4062. H. Rept. 319. May 
23, 1963. 5 pp. 

JULY 8, 1963 



World Food Congress Meets at Washington 

The World Food Congress, sponsored by the 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations, was held at Washington, D.C., 
Jvme If-18} Following are texts of welcoming 
remarks TrwAe on June 4 hy President Kennedy 
and an address made on June 6 by Secretary of 
Agriculture Orville L. Freeman, who was chair- 
man of the Congress. 


White House press release dated June 4 ; as-delivered text 

Dr. Sen, President Radhakrislinan,^ Secre- 
tary Freeman, members of the World Food 
Congress : I welcome you on behalf of the people 
of the United States to this country and to its 

Twenty years ago, in May 1943, the first 
world food congress was held. Today we have 
gathered to rededicate ourselves to the objec- 
tives of that congress, the objective that all 
nations, all people, all inhabitants of this planet 
have all the food that they need, all the food 
that they deserve as human beings. We are 
here to renew a worldwide comniitment to ban- 
ish hunger and outlaw it. 

At the launching of the first world food con- 
gress. President Franklin Roosevelt declared 
that freedom from want and freedom from fear 
go hand in hand,' and that is true today. 

During the past 20 years there have been revo- 
lutionary changes affect ing those matters in 
farm technology, in trade patterns, in economic 
development, in world trade. Today the aver- 
age farmer in the United States can produce 
three times as much as he did in 1945. New 
trading blocs have been formed, blocs which can 
be used to strengthen the world or to divide it. 

This nation and others have provided economic 
and teclmical assistance to less wealthy nations 
struggling to develop viable economies. 

And population increases have become a 
matter of serious concern, not because world 
food production will be insufficient to keep pace 
with the 2-percent rate of increase but because, 
as you know, the population rate is too often the 
highest where hunger is the most prevalent. 

The same central problem that troubled Pi-esi- 
dent Roosevelt when he called together the first 
world congi"ess in '43 is unfortunately still with 
us today. Half of humanity is still undernour- 
ished or hungry. In 70 developing nations, 
with over 2 billion people, malnutrition is wide- 
spread and persistent. 

So long as freedom from hunger is only half 
achieved, so long as two-thirds of the nations 
have food deficits, no citizen, no nation, can 
afford to be satisfied. We have the ability, as 
members of the human rac«, we have the means, 
we have the capacity, to eliminate hunger from 
the face of the earth in our lifetime. AVe need 
only the will. 

In the Food and Agriculture Organization, 
which is sponsoring this meeting, we have the 
machinery. Under the able leadership of Dr. 
Sen, the FAO has embarked on a vigorous and 

' For background, see Bulletin of Nov. 12, 1962, p. 
752, and Apr. 15, 1963, p. 583. 

'B. R. Sen, Director General of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization; Pre.sident Sarvepalli Radha- 
krishnan of India. 

' For text of President Roosevelt's letter to the open- 
ing session of the Uniteil Nations Conference on Food 
and Agriculture, held at Hot Springs, Va., May 18- 
June 3, 1943. see Bulijetin of May 22, 1943, p. 455; for 
his address to the delegates to the Conference, see i})id., 
June 12, 1943, p. 518. 



imaginative program wliicli is now at a lialfway 
mark. Through thousands of projects initiated 
during the 21/^ years that we have just passed 
through, the Freedom-From-Hunger Cam- 
paign * has already helped to conquer livestock 
diseases, increase crop yields, and multiply 
fishery catches. 

U.S. Pledges Full Support 

The United States pledges its full support for 
this campaign through Food for Peace 
shipments, Alliance for Progress operations, 
the Peace Corps, and the international efforts 
directed by the United Nations and the Organi- 
zation of American States. 

Through our food-for-peace program the 
people of the United States have contributed 
more than $12 billion of food and fiber to others 
during the past 9 years. These donations now 
bring food to 100 million people in 100 coun- 
tries, including 40 million schoolchildren. We 
are grateful for the opportunity that nature has 
made possible for us to share our agricultural 
abundance with tliose who need it, but the dis- 
tribution of the food to the needy is only part of 
the job. It can take care of the emergency needs 
from floods and famines. It can be used to feed 
refugees and needy children. It is a useful sup- 
plement to perennially short diets in many parts 
of the world, but it is not a permanent solution. 
All of our stored abundance, even if distrib- 
uted evenly throughout the globe to all of the 
undernourished, would provide a balanced diet 
for less than a month, and many nations lack 
he storage and the transportation and the dis- 
ribution facilities. Many people are inhibited 
>y traditional eating habits from using food 
hat provides rich nourishment. And, perhaps 
nost importantly, modem, efficient agricultural 
raining and education is too often unavailable 
o the very nations that are most dependent 
ipon it. 

The real goal, therefore, must be to produce 
aore food in the nations that need it. Know- 
low is not the problem. For the first time in 
'he history of the world we do know how to 
)roduce enough food now to feed every man, 

* For background, see Hid., Jan. 18, 1960, p. 94 ; July 
8, 1960, p. 117; Dec. 18, 1961, p. 1020; Jan. 22, 1962, p. 
50 ; Oct. 8, 1962, p. 534 ; and Feb. 18, 1963, p. 254. 

woman, and child in the world, enough to elim- 
inate all hunger completely. Farm production 
has undergone a scientific revolution which is 
dwarfing the industrial revolution of 150 years 
ago, but this means that agricultural depart- 
ments and ministries and governments and citi- 
zens must make a greater and more systematic 
effort to share this knowledge. For the first 
time to know how to conquer the problem and 
not conquer it would be a disgrace for this gener- 
ation. We need to help transmit all that we 
know of farm technology to the ends of the 
earth, to overcome the barriers of ignorance and 
suspicion. The key to a permanent solution to 
world hunger is the transfer of technology 
which we now have to food-deficit nations, and 
that task, second to none in importance, is the 
reason for this Congress. 

It would be easy to say that this task is too 
great for any congress. Most of man has been 
undernourished since the beginning of man. 
Even today, as the death rate drops, it merely 
means that people live longer in hunger and 
misery; but a balanced, adequate diet is now 
possible today for the entire human race, and 
we are gathered to devise the macliinery to 
mobilize the talents, the will, the interest, and 
the requirements to finish this job. 

We realize, of course, that the problem in its 
great dimensions neither begins nor ends on the 
farm. It involves the whole economic and 
social structure of a nation. It involves the 
building of new institutions, of training young 
people. Above all, it involves and requires the 
priority attention of us all in this decade. 

Five Basic Guidelines 

In the course of your deliberations over the 
next 2 weeks I would hope that we would agree 
on at least five basic guidelines to be kept con- 
stantly in mind. 

First : The persistence of hunger during this 
decade is unacceptable either morally or socially. 
The late Pope John in his recent encyclical 
spoke of the conviction that all men are equal 
by reason of their natural dignity. That same 
dignity in the 20th century certainly requires 
the elimination of large-scale hunger and star- 

Second: We must recognize the fact that 

UliT 8, 1963 


fooJ-delicit nations, witli assistance from other 
countries, can solve their prol)iem. The Free- 
dom-From-Hungrcr Campai^i is based on this 
solid premise. 

Third: International cooperation, interna- 
tional organization, and international action are 
indispensal)le. A contracting world grows 
more interdei)pndent. This interdependence re- 
quires multinational solutions to its problems. 
This is not a problem for a single nation. It 
is a problem for the entire human race, be- 
cause we cannot possibly be satisfied with some 
nations producing too much, as the President 
of India said, while others produce little, even 
though they are both nieml)ers of the great 
human race. 

Fourth: No single technique of politics, fi- 
nance, or education can, by itself, eliminate 
hunger. It will require the coordinated efforts 
of us all, all of us, to level the wall that sepa- 
rates the hungi'y from the well-fed. 

Fifth, and finally: World opinion must be 
concentrated upon the international effort to 
eliminate hunger as a primaiy task of this gen- 
eration. Over 1,900 years ago the Roman 
philosopher Seneca said, "A hungry people lis- 
tens not to rea.son, nor cares for justice, nor is 
bent by any prayers." Human nature has not 
changed in 1,900 years, and world peace and 
progress cannot be maintained in a world half 
fed and half hungry. 

There are many struggles, many battles, that 
the human race now faces. There is no battle 
on earth or in space which is more important 
than the battle which you have undertaken, nor 
is there any st niggle, large as this may be, that 
offers such an immediate promise of success. 
No congress that Washington has seen in recent 
years is, I believe, more important than this. 

I know that this conference will not consist 
merely of oration but will represent in 2 weeks 
a solid determination to develop the means in 
this decade to make a dent in this problem which 
will give us promise in our lifetime of making 
sure that all people in the world have an op- 
portunity to eat. 

Another problem will come in the next gen- 
eration, and that is the problem of how to deal 
on a worldwide basis, as well as in this, with 
the problem of surpluses; but the first problem 

is to produce enougli for all in a way that makes 
all available to people around the globe. To 
that task I can assure you the United States of 
America is committed. 
Thank you. 


The United States, its people and its Govern- 
ment, extend a most cordial welcome to the 
World Food Congress and to each participant 
in these meetings. 

We welcome this Congress as a fitting oppor- 
tunity to pay tribute to those pioneers who 
launched this effort to combat hunger at the 
conference in Hot Springs just 20 years ago. 

We welcome it as an opportunity to give an 
additional thrust to the 5-year Freedom-From- 
Hunger Campaign, the objectives of which the 
United States supports by a wide variety of 
economic assistance operations, including Food 
for Peace shipments, Alliance for Progress 
operations, Peace Corps activities, and support 
for the joint efforts of the FAO, the U.N., the 
OAS, the Colombo Plan, and other interna- 
tional approaches. 

We welcome it particularly because of our 
high hopes that out of these 2 weeks of delibera- 
tions may come definite gains, among them a 
renewed inspiration to mobilize every appro- 
priate available resource and dedicate it to the 
achievement of our common goals, a greater of the problems involved, and a bet- 
ter understanding of effective means for solving 
those problems. 

As chairman of the World Food Congress, I 
wish to pay high tribute to the many dedicated 
people who have done so much to prepare for 
this Congress and pave the way to its success. 

We deeply appreciate the leadership of Dr. 
R. E. Sen, the Director General of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization, the effective work 
of the FAO officials and staff, the support 
given by the President and the Congress of 
the United States and the many executive de- 
partments involved. We especially want to 
acknowledge the contributions made by indus- 
try and by agricultural organizations, and the 
work of citizens, through their religious, serv- 
ice, and other vohmtary organizations — includ- 



iiig tlie American Food for Peace Council and 
the American Freedom from Hunger Founda- 
tion — that have meant so much in helping to 
make this a real people-to-people endeavor. 

Finally, may I pay tribute to the thousand 
individuals who are participating in the Con- 
gress. Each of you is here because of your 
deep concern about one of this world's major 
problems. Each of you is in a position to make 
a substantial contribution to its solution. The 
success of this World Food Congress depends 
on each one of you. 

Heterogeneous Nature of the Congress 

As we begin our working sessions, I should 
like to point out the nature of this gathering, 
to emphasize the urgency of its purpose, and 
to suggest some approaches to the achievement 
of its goals. 

Throughout my presentation I should like 
to urge that we commit ourselves to a deter- 
mined effort to win the campaign for freedom 
from hunger — to win that campaign so deci- 
sively that we can proceed to enlarge and 
broaden our goal so that it will encompass the 
positive approach that is the logical corollaiy 
to the elimination of any evil or hazard. Free- 
dom from the evil of hunger then becomes 
freedom for positive good — freedom to enjoy 
the better things of life that are possible only 
when hunger is conquered, freedom to develop 
all those human qualities that characterize man 
and distinguish him from the other animals 
of this earth that can also suffer from hunger, 
freedom to progress toward higher levels of 
living, freedom for the kind of life that can 
be within the reach of all the people of tlip 
world in an age of abundance. 

Throughout this discussion I would ask you 
io keep in mind the fact that science and tech- 
lology have now — in this generation — opened 
h.Q door to a potential for abundance for all. 
In some nations this abundance has already 
Jeen achieved, particularly with regard to food, 
;o such an extent that we have not as yet learned 
•low to use effectively all that we produce. Let 
IS accept this challenge of abundance with a 
letermined effort to use all abundance to create 
ibundance for aD. 

The nature and makeup of this Congress is. 

in my judgment, particularly suited to a con- 
sideration of this challenge. It is sponsored by 
the Food and Agriculture Organization, an in- 
ternational agency through which member na- 
tions seek to work together toward common 
goals. Yet it is truly a people-to-people meet- 
ing in the sense that participants have been in- 
vited as individuals. Scientists in many fields ; 
representatives of governments, universities, 
and international organizations; leaders in 
farmers' organizations, industry, women's 
groups, and other citizen bodies; men and 
women from developed and developing coun- 
tries — all are here encouraged to discuss com- 
mon problems fully and frankly. 

The heterogeneous nature of the participa- 
tion in tliis Congress is perhaps matched by the 
varied nature of the kinds of effort that will be 
required to achieve the goal of freedom from 
hunger and to progress toward the use of all 
abundance to create abundance for all. The 
achievement of that goal will require more than 
action by governments, more than action by in- 
ternational organizations. It will require a 
high degree of public understanding and a 
mobilization of public opinion. It will require 
action by agriculture and by industry, by citi- 
zens' groups, by individual leaders. 

It will require planning and coordination at 
many levels. It will include action by the gov- 
ernments of developing nations and of devel- 
oped nations. It will include bilateral action 
as well as multilateral agreements. It vrill re- 
quire experimentation and pilot programs. It 
will require flexibility. It will require the kind 
of exchange of information and experience that 
vsdll enable us to develop, expand, extend, and 
adapt those methods, techniques, and programs 
that work the best. It will require a prag- 
matic and pluralistic approach. 

The Measure of Success 

There will be no formal, binding document 
voted upon, signed, and sealed at this Congress. 
The real success of these meetings will not be 
measured by any piece of paper, or even by a 
volume of published proceedings. The measure 
of the success of this Congress will be deter- 
mined — in part, but only in part — by the 
quality of the addresses and papers presented 

TILT 8, 1963 


hero and tlio maturity, vision, and realism that 
will characterize the discussions that take place. 
Its success will be measured, most sinrnificantly, 
by the extent to which the individual partici- 
pants — inspired and informed by their experi- 
ence here — are encouraged and stimulated to 
take positive action after the Congress is over, 
each in his own nation and within his own 
sphere of influence, toward plans and programs 
that will advance the goals we seek. 

These goals are among the most important 
and the most urgent of the many goals shared 
by all men everywhere, lien have sought 
freedom from hunger since before the dawn 
of human history. Long before men formu- 
lated slogans — indeed, before they had devel- 
oped much use for words — they struggled in 
response to the primarj* human drive for food. 

But if the desire and drive to achieve freedom 
from hunger is as old as life itself, there exist 
today two new elements of utmost importance. 

International Efforts To Combat Hunger 

One of these elements is symbolized by tlie 
fact that we are meeting here today in a "World 
Food Congress to express our common concern 
about a universal goal. This represents one of 
the brightest liopes of this critical age in which 
wo live — the hope that arises because we now 
seek, in a conscious and articulate manner, free- 
dom from hunger for all men all over the world, 
and we seek to find ways in which we can work 
toward these goals in cooperation with each 

This is something new in historj'. Primitive 
man sought food for himself or, at most, for 
his family. Later a tribe, still later a nation, 
became the unit within which members acted to 
acliievo freedom from hunger for the group. 

During much of recorded history men and 
nations have been forced by the prevailing fact 
of scarcity to seek freedom from hunger for 
themselves at the expense of their neighbors. 
They have struggled against each other for the 
fertile valleys and tlie flood plains. They mi- 
grated into new, forbidden, si)ai-sely occupied 
areas of the world when population pushed too 
liard against the supply of food. Countless 
wars have been fnuglit (o gain enough territory 
to secure enough food to survive. 

It was left to our period of history for men 
to develop a concern to combat hunger for all ' 
people throughout the world, to recognize that 
survival depends more on cooperation than on 
conflict, and thus to launch international efforts 
to combat hunger. This fact is one new element 
of utmost importance. 

The Potential for Abundance 

The second new element is likewise a product 
of our age. For the first time in history science 
and technology have progressed so far tliat we 
can envision the day when no one on earth need 
suffer for want of material necessities of life. 
We can see the possibility of the conquest of 
hunger and cold and other physical and natural 
liazards for all men everywhere. The fact of 
scarcity that has dominated the past can now 
be replaced by the potential for abundance that 
is the promise of the future. 

This dawn of the age of abundance was recog- 
nized by those pioneers who met at Hot Springs 
20 years ago. They declared that "the goal of 
freedom from want of food, suitable and ade- 
quate for health and strength of all peoples, can 
be achieved." ' 

Two j'ears ago, when the FAO put out its 
basic study on Development Through Food^ 
this recognition was tinged with even greater 
optimism. That publication states: "If action 
whicli is well within our means is taken, free- 
dom from poverty can be achieved for most of 
the world in one generation's time." 

And in FAO's publication Third World Food 
Stirvey,'^ in a discussion as to whether its targets 
for freedom from himger can be reached, I 
find this statement : "There should be little room 
for doubt on one score: the world could grow 
enough food to meet all these needs, if we made 
rational use of nature's bounty." 

Witliin those nations tliat have come to be 
called the "developed" nations of the world this 
new potential for abundance has in many re- 
spects become a reality — most conspicuously 

'For text of the final act of the United Nations Con- 
ference on Food and Agriculture, see ibid., June 19, 
IfM.-?, p. .T46. 

'Development Through Food (1962) and Third 
World Food Surrey (1903) ; for sale by the Inter- 
national Documents Section, Columbia University 
Press, 29C0 Broadway, New York 27, X.Y. (.$l..")Oeach). 



in the production of food. Here in the 
United States, for example, agriculture has 
dramatically demonstrated its productive suc- 
cess. Millions of our farmers, spurred by the 
incentive and pride of ownership inherent in the 
American family-farm economy, have applied 
new discoveries and new methods to their own 
operations to produce a striking increase in pro- 
ductivity that overshadows increases in other 
major sectors of our economy. We have pro- 
duced food to spare and to share. And our 
economists point out that crop production in 
the United States could easily be increased by 
25 percent by 1967 ! 

Other developed nations in the world are do- 
ing likewise. Economists in the United States 
Department of Agriculture have produced a 
jtudy entitled The World Food Budget^'' evalu- 
iting world food needs, balancing them with 
.vorld food supplies, and projecting them into 
, he future under certain possible and probable 
■ircumstances. They have come up with the 
"orecast that, assuming a likely rate of gi'owth 
n population and income and a continued 
growth of agricultural productivity at the rate 
hat prevailed between 1953 and 1960, the de- 
'eloped countries of the world, by the year 2000, 
vould have a potential for food production at 
,lmost double the expected demand ! This pro- 
ection dramatically illustrates the potential for 
bundance that scientific and teclinological 
)rogress offers to the people of the world. 
As we examine the rapidly accelerating rate 
f progress in these fields we can foresee the 
nd of the physical barriers to an age of plenty. 
^%t for most of the people that inhabit this 
arth abundance is only a dream. But it is a 
ream that becomes more insistent and more 
npelling every day. 

We are meeting here today because we believe 
lat, in a world in which abimdance is possible, 
11 people have the right to aspire to make that 
ream a reality. 

We know that in today's world the contrast 
•etween those who have enough and those who 

'rfte World Food Budget, 196S and 1966 (Foreign 
gricultural Economic Report No. 4) ; for sale by the 
aperlntendent of Documents, U.S. Government Print- 
g Office, Washington 25, D.C. (35 cents). 

have too little is too sharp and too disturbing to 
be tolerated. A little more than a hundred years 
ago Abraham Lincoln told the people of the 
United States that this nation could not long 
exist half slave and half free. Today, when we 
can circumnavigate the globe in far less time 
than it would have taken Lincoln to travel from 
the east to the west coast of this nation, it is 
doubtful whether the community of nations in- 
habiting this earth can long exist half hungry 
and half well-fed. 

The security of the world demands that this 
imbalance be corrected. The security of the 
world demands that measurable progress be 
made without delay. The half of the world that 
is hungry is increasing in numbers faster than 
the other half. Unless steps are taken to accel- 
erate the rate at which growing numbers of 
people in developing nations can reach satis- 
factory levels of living, the world must face 
what the Roman philosopher Seneca referred to 
1,900 years ago when he said : "A hungry people 
listens not to reason, nor cares for justice, nor 
is bent by any prayers." 

This is a measure of the urgency of the goals 
we seek here. 

We meet in this World Food Congress be- 
cause we recognize this urgency. Wliether we 
live in the "developed" nations, in which abun- 
dance is sometimes called surplus, or in the 
"developing" nations, in which food deficits 
handicap both personal welfare and national 
economic development, we are meeting here be- 
cause we believe it is in our own interest, as well 
as in the common interest of us all, to cooperate 
in a campaign against hunger throughout the 
world. We meet in order to leani from each 
other how the abundance that exists in parts of 
the world can be used to mutual advantage to 
create abundance for all. 

We meet not only to consider a vision of 
progress that may be possible but also to study 
realistically and practically the problems that 
must be solved if that possibility is to become 
a reality. Each of the quotations about poten- 
tial abundance that I presented earlier is a 
qualified one. One of them says that our goal 
can be achieved, not that it will be. One says 
that poverty can be conquered in this genera- 
tion if we take the necessary action. One says 

ULY 8, 1963 


we can reach our targets if we make rational 
use of nature's bounty. 

Tlio goals we seek are not easily reached. 
There are roadblocks in the way of our prog- 
ress toward abundance. Many of them are 
serious. Some seem almost insuperable. Every 
one of the efforts made — by the FAO, by gov- 
ernments, singly and in cooperation with each 
other, by citizens' groups and voluntary orga- 
izations — every one of these efforts has helped 
to make us aware of the nature and magnitude 
of the obstacles that lie in our way. I there- 
fore ask you to consider with me some of the 
most serious roadblocks, with a view to finding 
practical means by which they can be overcome. 

The Role of Agriculture 

One obstacle to progress has been an inade- 
quate recognition of the importance of the role 
of agriculture in economic growth. A new steel 
mill seems much more dramatic than an im- 
proved rice paddy! Many of the developing 
nations have allocated their limited resources to 
industrial growth at the expense of agriculture 
to a degree that has intensified hunger and 
hardship and even threatened all economic 

An examination of our own economic history 
here in the United States shows how massive 
has been the contribution of agriculture to eco- 
nomic growth, particularly when our nation was 
in the developing state. It released workers to 
industry as it became more productive. It 
lowered food costs in relation to income. It 
provided an expanding market for industrial 
goods. It produced large earnings from the 
export of farm products, sustained output dur- 
ing economic depressions, and met wartime 
needs for food and fiber. It now contributes to 
world economic growth by assisting in the eco- 
nomic development of other countries. 

Agriculture can make comparable contribu- 
tions to growth in all of the developing nations. 
In fact, it must make such contributions if de- 
velopment is to succeed. 

Experience has shown how serious are the 
consequences when food and agriculture are ne- 
glected by a deve]o])ing nation that is pushing 
rapidly for indu.strialization. As workers are 

drawn from the farms without any accompany- 
ing increase in efficiency, an already scarce sup- 
ply of food becomes scarcer. As incomes in in- 
dustry rise a little, the demand for food in- 
creases, and either rationing or inflation are 
likely to result imless food can be provided from 
an outside source. 

Adequate recognition of this roadblock is the 
first step toward overcoming it. "VMien it is 
fully understood that a major factor limiting 
economic development is a low level of agri- 
cultural productivity, progi-ams can be planned 
to increase that productivity at a proportionate 

The program at this Congress offers much 
opportunity for study and discussion of the es- 
sential role of agriculture in economic develop- 
ment. If, out of this Congress, could come an 
increased awareness of its significance, a greater 
familiarity with successful agricultural devel- 
opment programs and projects, and a determi- 
nation to act to make sure that agriculture is 
accorded its proper place in planning and pro- 
graming for economic growth, this roadblock 
could be eliminated. 

The Building of Institutions 

This leads to a consideration of other road- 
blocks in the way of progress in agriculture 
and rural development. Too often, here, the 
major roadblock is the failure to build the kind 
of institutions under which agriculture can 
make its major contribution. It seems much 
easier to see the need for better seed, fertilizer, 
machinery, and irrigation systems than it is to 
develop institutions for education, effective mar- 
keting, adequate farm credit, and a sound sys- 
tem of land tenure and ownership. 

Permit me to note, verj' brieflj*, some of the 
institutions that have contributed so much to 
agricultural progress in the United States. I 
do this not because I mean to insist that institu- 
tions that work best in my country are neces- 
sarily the best for all, nor because I would ig- 
nore the vast differences in conditions that pre- 
vail, but rather because I believe that some of 
these institutions are based on principles that 
are valid everywhere, that can be adapted to 
meet many diverse conditions. 



I think I would rate, at the very top, general 
Bducation for all of the people. Unless farmers 
ire literate and informed they face almost in- 
mrmomitable liandicaps in achieving greater 
efficiency and higher levels of living. The one 
single "input" that has contributed the most 
,0 progress and economic growth in all fields, 
lere in the United States, is popular education. 

Higher education and research, so well il- 
ustrated by our land-grant colleges, have made 
iontributions of immeasurable value to our ag- 
•icultural development. Our extension system 
las brought new knowledge to farmers in their 
(wn homes and their own communities. Our 
and-grant colleges have already made a good 
tart in helping the developing nations, and 
extension systems are being developed in many 
)arts of tlie world. 

Educational institutions from both develop- 
ng and developed nations are represented here 
. t this Congress. If our deliberations here can 
iromote greater exchanges of ideas and knowl- 
dge, increased cooperation and assistance, great 
trides forward can result. 

Further research and new knowledge about 
he requirements for adequate nutrition and the 
fficient production of various foods to meet 
liose requirements will always be needed to 
leet our constantly expanding needs and goals. 
}ut, in the allocation of scarce resources for ed- 
cation, it is important to remember that the 
oundation must rest on broad, general edu- 
xtional opportunity for all of the people, 
larly in our history Thomas Jefferson cau- 
ioned the people of this nation that if you ex- 
ect to be both ignorant and free, you expect 
'hat never has been and never can be. Popular 
ducation is a basic requirement on which all 
ther institutional development depends. 

Economic institutions are also essential ; and, 
■ agricultural advance is to maximize its con- 
■ibution to higher levels of living, institutions 
5r the handling, transportation, storage, proc- 
5sing, marketing, and distribution of food must 
'so progress as agricultural productivity in- 
'•eases. As the cultivators of the land seek to 
lise their efficiency and productivity, they need 
istitutions that will assure adequate credit on 
ivorable terms. 

Among the institutions that can help to meet 

many development needs are cooperatives, one 
form of private enterprise through which mem- 
bers can pool their resources to help them- 
selves. It is possible that cooperatives can con- 
tribute even more in the developing countries 
than they have in the United States. Laws 
enacted in this country since the 1020's have 
encouraged the development of fai'm coopera- 
tives, and our foreign assistance legislation 
specifically provides for aid in developing co- 
operatives abroad. 

One institution that has proved its worth by 
its results is the system of land tenure that is 
based on ownership and control by those who 
till the soil and which tlierefore provides the 
farmer with a most powerful incentive to im- 
proved operations. No other incentive stimu- 
lates capital improvements on the land as well 
as the farmer's assurance that he owns those 
improvements. No other system has been able 
to produce the abundance of food that this one 
has demonstrated so effectively and dramati- 
cally. I commend it as emphatically as I know 

In emphasizing the building of appropriate 
social and economic institutions as an indispen- 
sable part of programs of development, I do 
not intend to minimize the importance of the 
physical and material things. These are essen- 
tial. But they are also easier to come by. 
Without the right institutional framework, they 
can be, and have been, used to exploit rather 
than develop the people themselves. In other 
words, physical progress and material resources 
do not necessarily, in and of themselves, bring 
about abundance for all. 

On the other hand, institutional development 
can bring abundance to areas where material 
resources are scarce. Some of the best fed peo- 
ple in the world live in Norway, where the pro- 
portion of arable farmland is very low. Some 
of the people with the highest standards of liv- 
ing in the world live in Switzerland, a country 
rich in resources of beauty and people but lack- 
ing in resources such as coal, iron, and 

If, out of this Congress, there can come a re- 
newed awareness of the importance of institu- 
tions, a constructive sharing of experience in 
institutional development, and a determination 

JLT 8, 1963 


to build the kind of institutions that will most 
surely and efFectively build for abundance for 
all, then indeed this Congress will have been a 

Use of Abundance 

A third roadblock alonp (he road of progress 
toward plenty is the failure to make the most 
effective possible use of existing abundance — 
abundance available and at hand — to help to 
acliieve greater abundance where scarcity still 
dominates. I refer to the abundance of tecli- 
nical knowledge as well as to the abundance of 

"We in the TVorld Food Congress are chal- 
lenged to a major effort to develop methods and 
consider plans and programs whereby the abun- 
dance of food that exists in part of the world 
can be used most effectively to promote the eco- 
nomic development that will create abundance 
for those where scarcity still dominates. In is- 
suing this challenge I want to emphasize a clear 
recognition that the contribution of food as part 
of an assistance program is never a goal in itself. 
The goal of every developing nation is to be 
able to stand on its own feet. But food assist- 
ance can be a most powerful tool, a most effec- 
tive instnmient, in progress toward that goal. 
It is a tool that we have at hand if we will only 
use it to best advantage. 

Many of the developed nations, including the 
United States, can and do produce more food 
than can possibly be consumed by their own 
people. This productivity is increasing. As I 
stated earlier, projections indicate that, if 
trends in 30 developed nations continue, by the 
year 2000 they will bo able to produce nearly 
twice the food that their populations can con- 
sume. I^t us contrast this with projections for 
the developing nations. 

Such projections cannot, of course, be made 
very specific, because of the tremendously wide 
variations in the developing countries and be- 
cause of the many differing and unpredictable 
factors that will influence rates of growth. 
However, it is possible to make certain gener- 
alizations on which most will agree. 

The most optimistic picture for accelerated 
economic growth in the developing nations, in 
the aggregate, indicates that they can and will 


increase their own domestic food production. 
But the most optimistic predictions fail to give 
any assurance that, in the generation immedi- 
ately ahead, they will be able to increase it fast 
enough to meet the increasing demand. This 
demand will be exceptionally high for several 

First, the rate of population increase in most 
of these nations is very high and will perhaps 
go higher before it can be expected to tend to 
stabilize. Production will have to increase sub- 
stantially in order to just keep up with popula- 
tion; it will have to increase still faster if it is 
to meet real nutritional needs. 

Second, as economic growth proceeds, real in- 
comes will increase, and with each increase in 
income comes an increased demand for food. 
Unless enough food is available to meet the de- 
mands created by both increased numbers and 
higher incomes, the lack of food will become a 
significant factor limiting economic progress. 

It is perhaps one of the most fortunate coin- 
cidences of history that at a time when the de- 
veloping nations of the world are in a takeoff 
stage in which more food is desperately needed 
if they are to take off successfully — at that same 
period the developed nations are producing and 
can produce an abundance so great that it is 
sometimes embarrassing. It is up to us, from 
developed and developing countries alike, 
to take full advantage of this fortunate 

It will not be easy. We in the United States 
are eager to share with others in this conference 
the experience we have gained in the distribu- 
tion of more than $12 billion worth of food in 
our food-for-peacc program during the past 9 
years. We have learned that it is not easy to 
give away food. We have learned that careful 
planning and close cooperation with i-eceiving 
nations is essential in order to insure that the 
food is used to best advantage both to allay 
hunger and to promote local development. We 
have learned of the fcai-s of other food-exporting 
nations and of our own commercial exporters, 
who are concerned lest food that is donated 
might diminish commercial demand. AVe have 
learned that, however rigorously we avoid any 
such result, it is still difficult to allay the fear. 
We have also learned how much depends on the 



capacity and ability of the receiving country to 
transport, store, distribute, and use the food it 
receives to best advantage. 

We are only beginning to learn how effec- 
tively food aid can be used to promote economic 
growth directly. It has long been used, and 
should continue to be used, to relieve hunger in 
emergencies and to prevent inflation in countries 
going through a stage of develoiiment I de- 
scribed earlier. Its use in school-lunch and 
child-feeding programs is an investment in the 
health and vigor of the rising generation and 
is in a very real sense a capital investment in 
human resources. But it is only recently that 
we have begun to develop ways that food can be 
used as a direct input for economic growth. 

Food is being used with dramatic success as 
part payment for work on labor intensive pro- 
grams — irrigation, roadbuilding, the building 
of schools and other i:)ublic facilities. It is be- 
ing transformed into an investment that helps 
to build cooperatives and other forms of pri- 
vate enterprise. It is being used to help reset- 
tlement of farmers on new lands. It can be used 
to provide a high proportion of the capital in- 
vestment required for the development of many 
programs essential for economic growth. Dis- 
cussion, consultation, and further experience can 
result in the improvement and extension of 
these methods of using available food as capi- 
tal in improving agriculture and hastening 
economic development. 

Let us, here at this Congress, determine to 
find new and better ways to use to greatest ad- 
vantage this instrument of abundance that we 
have at hand. Let us determine to overcome 
the difficulties that lie in the way of its maxi- 
mum use. This is a challenge to both the de- 
veloping and the developed nations. 

The highly productive nations are challenged 
:o find better ways and develop better 
methods — by national, multinational and inter- 
lational means — by which agricultural abun- 
lance can make its most constructive contribu- 
ion to the goal of abundance for all. 
' The developing nations are challenged to 
earn how to handle and use food that they 
•eceive, as well as to produce more domestically. 
They are challenged to study and evaluate the 
echniques, methods, and institutions that have 

proved effective in contributing to abundance, 
productivity, and economic growth and to 
adapt all of these to the needs of their own 

Both are challenged to work together and co- 
ordinate their efforts toward that end. 

Technical Assistance and Trade 

There are other tools available to us which 
we must perfect and use moi-e effectively. It 
is hardly necessary to emphasize to this Con- 
gress the importance of the sharing of knowl- 
edge and experience under teclinical assistance 
programs. People ranging from world- 
renowned scientists to young Peace Corps vol- 
unteers have done yeoman service in the cam- 
paign for freedom from hunger, through 
programs carried out by the United States and 
many other nations and through international 
activities carried out by the FAO and other 
international bodies. 

And although it is not directly within the 
province of this World Food Congress, I be- 
lieve it is in order for us all to bear in mind the 
importance to the overall achievement of our 
goal of the expansion of world commercial 
trade. Many of the food-deficit nations depend 
on the export of a single exportable food com- 
modity, such as coffee, and to them interna- 
tional arrangements that would regularize and 
stabilize trade in that commodity are crucially 
important. To all nations, developed and de- 
veloping alike, expanding world trade brings 
abundance closer to reality. 

Closing the Gap of Ignorance 

I would like to conclude by repeating the 
challenge faced by this World Food Congress, a 
challenge to each one of us who participates in 
these deliberations, a challenge to win so com- 
plete a victoi-y in our Freedom-From-Hunger 
Campaign that we can fix our goal on freedom 
for the higher levels of living that can charac- 
terize an age of abundance — a challenge to use 
all abundance to create abundance for all. 

I have suggested that we consider here sev- 
eral major roadblocks that stand in the way 
of advance toward our goal. I have urged 
that we give full recognition to the indispensa- 

ri.T 8, lf)G3 


ble role of food and agriculture in economic 
development. I have tried to point out the im- 
portiince of learning how to build social, politi- 
cal, and economic institutions under which 
greatest progress can be made. And I have 
urged that we here and now determine to make 
full use of the abundance we have — abun- 
dance of food and abundance of scientific and 
technical knowledge — as effective instruments 
to create abundance for all. 

The challenges are not easy ones, but they 
are supremely important. To meet them we 
face not only scientific and technological prob- 
lems but also the more formidable barriers that 
are social, political, and economic in their 

There are barriers of nationalism — and other 
isms — barriers of prejudice, of outworn cus- 
toms, of misunderstanding and lack of under- 
standing. Most important, and intertwined 
with all of these, is the barrier of ignorance. 

I should like to emphasize that the barrier of 
ignorance applies not only to the illiterate, not 
only to those who have not yet learned how to 
make two blades of grass grow where one grew 
before, although this is serious enough. But 
the barrier of ignorance applies as well to the 
learned and the powerful — to the statesmen 
of the world who have not yet learned how to 
put into effect elements of social engineering 
that will make it easier to extend the potential 
for plenty to all people. 

The gap of ignorance that cries most urgentl}' 
to be filled today is the gap between man's abil- 
ity to create power, on the one hand, and, on 
the other, his lack of knowledge of how to con- 
trol that power and direct it to the well-being 
of all men. For the same power that can de- 
stroy a city can light a million homes. 

It is our challenge and our responsibility to 
close that gap. 

I^et us accept that challenge. 

Let it never be said of this generation that we 
were able to orbit the earth with satellites but 
that we were unable to put bread and rice into 
the hands of hungry children. I^et it never be 
said that a generation that could literally reach 
for the stars was unable to reach for — and 
gra.sp — the potential for plenty and progress 
and peace that is at hand. 


U.S. Comments on Activities 
of U.N. Special Fund 

Statemmit by Jonathan B. Bingham ^ 

We ai-e gratified to not« the completion or 
near completion of a considerable number of 
Special Fund projects, as well as the fact that 
financing has actually been forthcoming for 
part or all of the development activities recom- 
mended in several completed projects. We will 
of course continue to watch very carefully the 
extent to which the Special Fund's preinvest- 
ment activity results in the necessary followup 
investment, since that will be the measure of 
ultimate achievement. 

The Managing Director [Paul Hoffman] and 
his staff, as well as the executing agencies, are 
also to be congratulated on the continued im- 
provement in the rate of implementation of 
projects after approval by the Governing Coun- 
cil. Of the 209 plans of operation concluded as 
of March 31, 1963, 72 percent have been signed 
within 1 year of approval and 29 percent have 
been signed within 6 months. The average is 
currently slightly under 9 months, and we are 
pleased to note ^ that the ^Managing Director be- 
lieves further substantial improvements can be 
made. In passing, I might note that the W^orld 
Bank and the United Nations itself have the 
best records in terms of translating approvals 
into agreed plans of operations. 

We hope that all agencies concerned will make 
special efforts to improve their effectiveness in 
this regard, particularly those wluch have up to 
now failed to meet the 1-year target in a sub- 
stantial number of instances. 

As we have done previously, we should again 
like to urge the Managing Director to consider 
the possibility of retaining outside organiza- 
tions, not members of the United Nations fam- 
ily, as the executing agents for certain projects, 
particularly in those fields where there has been 

' Made before the Governing Council of the U.N. Spe- 
cial Fund on June 3 (U.S./U.N. press release 4216 
dated .Tune .5) . Mr. Bingham is U.S. Representative on 
the Governing Council. 

'U.N. doc. SF/L. 82, par. 68. 


a substantial lag and where the specialized 
agency concerned may be overburdened. 

In connection with the timelag involved in 
putting projects into operation, it is worth 
noting that the documentation before us deals 
only with the lag between Governing Coimcil 
approval and the signing of a plan of op- 
erations. From the point of view of a recipient 
country which is eager to get on with the job 
of promoting its own development, the time that 
passes from the moment a project is submitted 
for approval until it is actually approved by 
the Governing Council is just as important. 

Three factors are, or may be, involved here: 
the degree to which modifications in the project 
proposal may have to be made by the recipient 
country in order to meet Special Fund criteria, 
the speed with which the Special Fund staff can 
process the proposal and prepare it for submis- 
sion to the Governing Council, and the avail- 
■ ability of resources in the Special Fimd to fi- 
nance the project, assuming it meets all the 
usual criteria. Thus the speed with which proj- 
ects may be implemented depends on the efforts 
of the recipient countries themselves, the Spe- 
cial Fund and executing agencies, and the con- 
tributing nations. Since available resources re- 
strict the Managing Director in the submission 
af projects to the Governing Council, both in 
toto and for any given country or group of 
countries, it is all the more important that the 
General Assembly's approved target of $100 
million in contributions be met as quickly as 

We have already complimented the Special 
Fund upon the successful completion of a num- 
)er of projects. We believe that the Managing 
Director and his staff are also to be compli- 
nented for taking the hard decisions necessary 
n certain cases to discontinue certain projects 
vhere it is apparent that they will not lead to 
uccessful development endeavors. Such can- 
ellation may be necessary because of unfore- 
een substantive difficulties, or it may be neces- 
ary because the essential commitments for the 
'arrying out of the project on the part of the 
ecipient government have, over a period of 
, ime, not been met. We are fully in accord 
rith the last sentence in Document SF/L.82, 
n which the Special Fund comments that in the 

few such cases in which these difficulties cannot 
be overcome the Managing Director "will have 
no alternative, in the best interests of the partic- 
ipating governments as a whole, but to rec- 
ommend to the Governing Council that the 
projects m question be cancelled." 

Finally, in connection with operations, it is 
also noteworthy, and should be a source of satis- 
faction to all concerned, that as of March 31, 
1963, 848 internationally recruited experts and 
consultants were serving in 172 Special Fund 
assisted projects in 81 countries and territories, 
an increase of over 50 percent in 6 months. 

I should like to turn now to the new program 
submitted for Governing Council consideration. 
My delegation is highly gratified that the proj- 
ects show a marked mcrease in the industrial 
area. Whereas our analysis of the progi-am 
submitted to the ninth session indicated a de- 
cline in emphasis on industrialization as com- 
pared to the previous session (a decline from 30 
percent of the total to under 20 percent), our 
analysis of the current program shows an in- 
crease to 31 percent of the total. This is the 
first time industry has exceeded agriculture in 
fund earmarkings for the current approvals. 

However, the industrial earmarkings are 
largely for education and training, while the 
agricultui-al projects are mainly for surveys and 
other preinvestment activities. We hope the 
Fund's work in industry will in due course 
reach a comparable stage, with more projects 
leading to the creation of specific opportmiities 
for investment. The proposed project calling 
for feasibility studies for the establishment of 
an industrial estate in Iran ^ is noteworthy in 
this connection. 

In this connection, I should like to call at- 
tention to a suggestion made by the distin- 
guished representative of the Philippines at the 
recent session of the Committee for Indus- 
trial Development. He pointed out that the 
execution of any program of action for the ac- 
celeration of economic development through 
industrialization requires preliminary surveys 
analyzing the market potential, plant location, 
availability of raw materials, and supply of 
trained labor. He noted that the Managing 
Director of the Special Fund had earlier as- 

' U.iV. doc. SF/R. 7/Add. 19. 

ULT 8, 19G3 


sured the Committee for Industrial Develop- 
ment that the Special Fund would encourage 
industry feasibility studies but had added that 
sufficient requests of that type from the develop- 
ing countries have not been forthcoming. The 
few feasibility surveys requested of the Special 
Fund have been based entirely on projects 
whose local cost component or counterpart 
would be financed by governments, since private 
entrepreneurs were not eligible for assistance 
from the Fund. He therefore suggested that it 
might be useful to adopt a procedure whereby 
a member govermnent could request a feasibil- 
ity survey on the understanding that half of 
the expense incurred would be paid by a private 
entrepreneur through the government con- 
cerned, the other half to be paid by either the 
Special Fund or the Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance. Such a procedure would 
relieve pressure on government resources and 
would stimulate additional activnty in the field 
of industrial development. He therefore pro- 
posed tliat the Committee should request the 
Commissioner for Industrial Development to 
consult both the Managing Director of the Spe- 
cial Fund and the Executive Chairman of the 
Technical Assistance Board to determine the 
ways and means by which investment feasibility 
surveys of particular aspects or projects in 
economic plans and programs could be made 
and to recommend what steps should be taken 
to bring the availability of that particular form 
of assistance to tlio notice of the developing 

This suggestion was warmly received by many 
members of the Committee for Industrial De- 
velopment, and we believe there is a great deal 
of merit in it. We hope tliat the Managing Di- 
rector will actively pursue the matter. If it 
should prove a practical and desirable activity 
for the Special Fund, but not for the Expanded 
Program, the minimum figure for Special Fund 
projects might have to be furtiier reduced. 

In addition, and as a possible further stimu- 
lus for Special Fund activity in the industrial 
development field, we should like to suggest that 
the Managing Director consider more active use 
of preparatory allocations so as to provide 
needed assistance to governments in preparing 
proposals in the industrial field. 

A series of financial matters figure very im- 
portantly on the agenda of this session, and I 
should like now to make some preliminary com- 
ments on these subjects. During our last ses- 
sion the question of the cash balances of the 
Special Fund received considerable attention. 
As a result of the extended discussion, to which 
many delegations contributed ideas and sugges- 
tions, it was generally agreed that a study of 
this question was desirable. This has now been 
done, and we have studied with great interest 
the note of the Managing Director * prepared 
for this session. We are impressed with the care 
with which all aspects of the problem were con- 
sidered. We concur with the conclusions that 
he has reached and believe that the combination 
of principles suggested meets the foreseeable 
needs of the Special Fund while preserving the 
financial integrity of the Fund, on which such 
stress was placed by most delegations last 

We should like especially to underscore the 
Managing Director's repetition of the impor- 
tance of paying pledges promptly as an impor- 
tant element in permitting the activities of the 
Special Fund to proceed vigorously. 

As a corollary we once again wish to urge all 
governments, particularly net donor govern- 
ments, to make their contributions on a convert- 
ible currency basis. Only if they do so can 
the program be made fully responsive to the 
needs and desires of recipient governments. 

There is one specific aspect of tlie matter of 
currency convertibility which has up to now not 
received sufficient attention. I refer to the ad- 
ministrative costs of the program, necessarily 
incurred by the Special Fund itself and by the 
executing agencies. For 1963 the approved ad- 
ministrative budget of the Special Fund is $2,- 
927,000, and the overhead cost allocation for the 
projects approved in January was in excess of 
$3,200,000. Presumably a comparable amount 
will have to be set aside for the projects to be 
approved at this session. These are costs which 
should be shared by all net donors. Yet they 

* U.N. doc. SF/L. 85. 

° For a statement made by Mr. Bingham before the 
Governing Council on Jan. 14, 1963, see Bulletin of 
Feb. 18, 1063, p. 258. 



are not so shared today, because these costs must 
be met in convertible or readily usable curren- 
cies. As a result those governments whose con- 
tributions are made in readily usable currencies 
are carrying an undue share of the burden of 
administrative and overhead costs. 

These considerations would seem to compel 
the conclusion that all governments, or at least 
all net donor governments, should as a minimum 
make a sufficient proportion of their contribu- 
tions in convertible or readily usable currencies 
so as to cover their equitable share of adminis- 
trative and overhead costs. 

U.N. Sends Observation Mission 
to Yemen 

Following is a statement made hy U.S. Rep- 
resentative Adlai E. Stevenson in the U.N. 
Security Council on June 11, together with the 
text of a resolution adopted iy the Council on 
that day. 


U.S./U.N. press release 4222 

I should like to explain very briefly the 
imderstanding of the United States in regard 
to the resolution we have just adopted, particu- 
larly in light of other statements tliat have been 
made to the Council. 

Frankly, it was our hope that the Secretai"y- 
General might have proceeded promptly and 
without objection on the basis of his reports to 
the Council to the dispatch of the United Na- 
:ions Observation Mission in compliance with 
he request of the parties. Although the re- 
5ultant delay was unfortunate, it is apparent 
:hat the resolution we have just adopted is gen- 
n-ally satisfactory. 

I feel that I sliould emphasize, however, that 
he disengagement agreement between the 
,:)arties involved in the Yemen situation placed 
10 limitation upon the duration of the United 
S'ations operation to 2 months or any other 
inie. The reference to 2 months arose solely 
because the Governments of Saudi Arabia and 
he United Arab Republic agreed to finance the 

operation for 2 months but without prejudice 
to the manner of financing thereafter if a 
longer operation should prove to be necessary. 

As to the question of the duration of the 
operation, we consider that the Secretary- 
General's report deals with this matter suf- 
ficiently and satisfactorily and that the 
resolution which we have adopted asks him to 
proceed in accordance with the plan set forth in 
these reports. 

As to the financing of the observer operation, 
it is proper, in our opinion, that the Security 
Council resolution makes no provision therefor 
and merely notes that the parties have agi-eed 
between themselves to pay the costs for a lim- 
ited time. Accordingly the United States 
delegation voted for the resolution and will 
welcome the prompt dispatch of observers to 
the area as proposed by the Secretary-General. 
We wish to express our thanks to him for his 
prompt and effective initiative to avoid interna- 
tional conflict in this area. 

Finally, we wish to thank you, Mr. President, 
and the distinguished representative of Mo- 
rocco for finding a satisfactory solution which 
permits the Secretary-General to commence 
immediately the disengagement to which the 
parties have agreed and which is of such great 


The Security Council, 

Noting mill satisfaction the initiative of the Secre- 
tary-General as mentioned in his report S/529S "about 
certain aspects of the situation In Yemen of external 
origin", and aimed at achievement of a peaceful settle- 
ment and "ensuring against any developments in that 
situation which might threaten the peace of the area", 

Noting further the statement by the Secretary- 
General before the Security Council on 10 June 1963, 

Noting further with satisfaction that the parties 
directly concerned with the situation affecting Yemen 
have confirmed their acceptance of identical terms of 
disengagement in Yemen, and that the Governments 
of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic have 
agreed to defray the expenses over a period of two 
months of the United Nations observation function 
called for in the terms of disengagement, 

1. Requests the Secretary-General to establish the 
observation operation as defined by him ; 

'■ U.N. doc. S/.0.331 ; adopted by the Security Council 
on June 11 by a vote of 10 to 0, with 1 abstention 

tlLY 8. 19C3 




2. Urges the parties concerned to observe fully the 
terms of disengagement reported in document S/i"298 
and to refrain from any action which would increase 
tension in the area ; 

3. Itequests the Secretary-General to report to the 
Security Council on the implementation of this 

Trade Talks Begin in Geneva 

The Office of the Presidenfs Special Repre- 
sentative for Trade Negotiations announced on 
June 18 the names of the U.S. delegates to the 
following series of negotiations to he held in 
Geneva in preparation for the sixth round of 
trade negotiations under the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade. 

Trade Negotiations Committee 

Tlie May 16-21 ministerial conference of the 
GATT ^ set ]May C, 1964, as the opening date of 
the negotiations, popularly knoM-n as the "Ken- 
nedy round." The ministers established a 
Trade Negotiations Committee to conduct the 
negotiations and to settle outstanding issues. 
Among these problems is the effect of tariff dis- 
parities on the procedures for across-the-board 
tariff cuts. 

The Trade Negotiations Committee will meet 
on June 27. The members of the U.S. delega- 
tion will be: 

W. Jlicliael P.lumenthal, Deputy Special Representa- 
tive for Trade Negotiations 

Vice Chairmen 

.lohn Evans, Economic Minister, U.S. Mission, Geneva 
Robert L. McNeill, Deputy Assistant Secretary of 


James H. Lewis, Department of State 

Howard Worthington, Department of Commerce 

Charles Wootton, U.S. Mission, Geneva 

Shortly tliereafter, a Tariff Disparities Sub- 
committee will begin meetings. At these ses- 
sions, the U.S. delegation will be joined by 
Joseph Greenwald and Courtenay P. AVorth- 
ington, Jr., Department of State. 

' For background, see T$uli.etijj of June 24. 1903. p. 

Committees on Cereals and Meats 

The ministers also authorized GATT com |, 
mittees on cereals and meats to begin the ne- ¥ 
gotiating of international commodity arrange- ' 
ments for these products. 

The Committee on Cereals will meet oe 
June 24 with the following U.S. delegation : 
W. Michael Blumenthal, Deputy Special Representa 

tive for Trade Negotiations 


John A. Schnittker, Department of Agriculture 

Robert Lewis, Department of Agriculture 

Anthony R. DeFelice, Department of Agriculture 

Fred H. Sanderson, Department of State 

Courtenay P. Worthington, Jr., Department of State 

Oscar Zaglits, U.S. Mission, Brussels 

John Kross, U.S. Mission, Geneva 

The Committee on Meats will open discus- 
sions on July 1. The United States will be rep- 
resented by: 

Fred H. Sanderson, Department of State 
John Kross, U.S. Mission, Geneva 

Negotiations on Poultry and Tobacco 

Geneva will also be the scene of negotiations 
between the United States and the European 
Economic Community on the Community's ac- 
tions affecting imports of poultry from the 
United States. Another negotiation will deal 
with EEC actions affecting imports of tobacco. 

The poultry negotiations are scheduled to 
start on June 25. The U.S. delegates will be: 
Irwin R. Hedges, Oflice of the Special Representative 

for Trade Negotiations 

Vice Chairman 

Raymond A. loanes, Department of Agriculture 


John B. Rehm, Office of the Special Representative for 

Trade Negotiations 
Oscar Zaglits, U.S. Mission, Brussels 

The negotiations on tobacco are scheduled to 
begin on June 24. The U.S. delegates will be: 

John Evans, Economic Minister, U.S. Mission, Geneva 

James W. Birkhead, Department of Agriculture 
Douglas W. Coster, Department of State 
Richard Mattheisen, Department of Commerce 
Charles Wootton, U.S. Mission, Brussels 



Current U.N. Documents: 
\ Selected Bibliography 

\limeographed or processed documents {such as those 
isted beloiv) may he consulted at depository libraries 
n the United States. V.N. printed publications may 
le purchased from the Sales Section of the United 
Nations, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 

ecurity Council 

leports by the Secretary-General to the Security Coun- 
cil concerning certain developments relating to 
Yemen. S/5298, April 29, 1963, 3 pp. ; S/5321, May 
27, 1963, 3 pp. 

ietter dated May 1 from the permanent representative 
of Cuba addressed to the President of the Security 
Council concerning charges against the United States. 
S/5299. May 1, 1963. 2 pp. 

ietter dated May 1 from the permanent representa- 
tives of Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic, and the United 
Arab Republic addressed to the President of the 
Securltv Council regarding charges made by Israel 
(S/.5297). S/5300. May 1, 1963. 2 pp. 

setter dated May 3 from the Secretary-General of the 
Organization of American States addressed to the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations transmitting 
• OAS documents on the Haiti-Dominican Republic 
dispute. S/5307. May 7, 1963. 21 pp. 

Qterim Report of the Special Committee on the Poli- 
cies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic 
of South Africa. S/5310. May 9, 1963. 30 pp. 

.etter dated May 17 from the permanent representative 
of the Dominican Republic addressed to the Presi- 
dent of the Security Council concerning a telegram 
from the Haitian Foreign Minister (S/5314). 
S/5315. May 17, 1963. 2 pp. 

teport by the Secretary-General on the implementa- 
tion of the Security Council resolutions of July 14, 
1960. and February 21 and November 24, 1961, con- 
cerning the Congo. S/5240/Add. 2. May 21, 1963. 
19 pp. 

tetter dated May 14 from the Secretary-General ad- 
dressed to the President of the Security Council 
transmitting the text of a resolution on the question 
of South West Africa adopted by the Special Com- 
mittee on May 10. S/5322. May 29, 1963. 3 pp. 

teport of the Secretary-General to the Security Coun- 
cil on the financial implications of the United Nations 
Observation Mission in Yemen. S/5323. June 3, 
1963. 4 pp. 

■eneral Assembly 

Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Pro- 
gramme. Progress report on UNHCR regular pro- 
grams for the years 19.59 to 1962 and on the former 
UNREF programs as of December 31, 1962. A/AC. 
96/193. March 21, 1963. 106 pp. 

nternational Law Commission. Second report on the 
law of treaties by Sir Humphrey Waldocis, special 
rapporteur. A/CN.4/1.56, March 20, 1963, 74 pp.; 
Add. 1, April 10, 1963, 73 pp. 

^leport of the Conference of the Eighteen-Natlon Com- 
mittee on Disarmament. A/5408. April 12, 1963. 
82 pp. 

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: 

Manual prepared by the Indian National Committee 

for Space Research on the Thumba equatorial 

sounding rocl^et launching site. A/AC.105/10. 

April 15. 1963. 50 pp. 

Report of the Legal Subcommittee on the work of its 

second session (April 16-May 3, 1963). A/AC. 
105/12. May 6, 1963. 25 pp. 

Letter dated May 24 from the permanent representa- 
tive of the Soviet Union addressed to the Secre- 
tary-General transmitting a statement entitled 
"Dangerous United States activities in outer 
space." A/AC.105/13. May 28, 1963. 5 pp. 

Explanatory paper prepared by the Secretary-General 
on measures of implementing the Draft International 
Covenants on Human Rights. A/5411. April 29, 
1963. 34 pp. 

Letter dated April 30 from the representatives of 
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico concern- 
ing the spread of nuclear weapons. A/5415. May 
2, 1963. 2 pp. 

Report of the Secretary-General on cost estimates for 
1963 for the U.N. operations in the Congo. A/5416. 
May 8, 1963. 27 pp. 

U.N. financial position and prospects. A/C.5/974. 
May 14, 1963. 23 pp. 

Letter dated May 13 addressed to the Secretar.v-Gen- 
eral from the permanent representative of Albania 
concerning the U.N. financial situation. A/C.5/975. 
May 15, 1963. 3 pp. 

Note verbale dated May 24 from the Charge d'Afifaires 
of Ghana addressed to the Secretary-General con- 
cerning the apartheid policies of the Government of 
South Africa. A/5422. May 28, 1963. 2 pp. 

Report of the Ad line Committee on the Improvement 
of the Methods of Work of the General Assembly. 
A/.5423. May 28, 1963. 48 pp. 

U.N. Conference on Consular Relations. Vienna con- 
vention on consular relations. A/CONF.25/12. April 
23, 1963. 40 pp. 

Current Actions 



International coffee agreement, 1962, with annexes. 
Signed at New York September 28, 1962. Open for 
signature at United Nations Headquarters, New 
York, September 28 through November 30, 1962.' 
Notifications received of undertaking to seek ratifi- 

eation or acceptance: Argentina, May 15, 1963 ; 

Denmark, May 21, 1963; Japan, May 10, 10G3; 

Netherlands, May 17, 1963. 


Convention on consent to marriage, minimum age for 
marriage, and registration of marriages. Opened for 
signature at the United Nations December 10, 1962.' 
Signatures: Ceylon, December 12, 1962; China, April 
4, 1963 ; Greece, January 3, 1963 ; Philippines, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1963 ; Poland, December 12, 1962. 

Narcotic Drugs 

Convention relating to the suppression of the abuse 

' Not in force. 

ULY 8, 1963 



of opium and other drugs. Signed at The Ilafrue 
January 23, 1!>12. Entered into force December 31, 
1914; for the United States February 11, 1915. 38 
Stat. 1912. 

Notification received that it considers itself bound: 
Cyprus, May 16, 19C3. 

Oil Pollution 

International convention for the prevention of pollu- 
tion of the sea by oil, with annexes. Done at London 
Slay 12, 1954. Entered into force July 26, 10.58; for 
the United States December 8, 1961. TIAS 4900. 
Acceptance deposited: Dominican Republic, May 29, 

Safety at Sea 

Convention on safety of life at sea. Signed at London 
June 10, 1948. Entered into force November 19, 1952. 
TIAS 2495. 
Acceptance deposited: Tunisia, May 20, 1963. 

Intemntional convention for the safety of life at sea, 
19<i0. Done at London June 17, I960.' 
Acceptance deposited: Tunisia, May 20, 1963. 


Declaration on the provisional accession of the Swiss 
Confederation to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade. Done at Grt^ueva November 22, 1958. 
Entered into force Januarv 1, 1960; for the United 
States, April 29. 1960. TIAS 4461. 
Signature: Portugal, May 15, 1963. 

Proc^s-verbal extending and amending declaration on 
provisional accession of Swiss Confederation to the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, supra. 
Done at Geneva December 8, 1961. Entered into 
force December 31, 1961 ; for the United States Jan- 
uary 9, 1962. TIAS 49.57. 
Signature: Portugal, May 15, 1963. 

Proc-is-verbal extending the period of validity of the 
declaration on provisional accession of Argentina 
to the General Agreement on TarifTs and Trade of 
November 18, 1960. Done at Geneva November 7. 
1962. Entered into force January 1, 1963. TIAS 

Signatures: Australia, March 13, 1963; Czechoslo- 
vakia, April 18, 1963; Turkey, April 24, 1963. 



Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of 
the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act of 19.54, a.s amendc^l (68 Stat. 4.55; 7 II.S.C. 
1701-1709), with exchange of notes. Signed at Addis 
Ababa June 11, 1903. Entered into force June 11, 


Agreement amending the agreement of May 17, 1960 
(TIAS 4477), to provide for additional investment 
guaranties authorized by new United States legisla- 
tion. Effected by exchange of notes at Katmandu 
June 4, lOO."?. Entered into force June 4, 1963. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

Memorandum of understanding regarding the estab- 
lishment of a dirfvt coiiimunicali<ins link, with 
annex. Signed at Geneva June 20, 1963. Entered 
into force June 20, 1963. 



Richard I. Phillips as Director of the Office of News. 
(For biographic details, see Department of State press 
release 313 dated June 10.) 


' Not in force. 

Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Oovernmeni Printing Office, Washington So, D.C. 
Address requests direct to the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, except in the case of free publications, which 
may be obtained from the Department of State. 

Trade — Exports of Cotton Velveteen Fabrics from 
Italy to the United States. Agreement with Italy. 
Exchange of notes — Dated at Washington July 6, 
1962. Entered into force July 6, 1962. TIAS 5186. 
2 pp. 50. 

Investment Guaranties. Agreement with Niger. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Niamey February 28 and 
April 26, 1962. Entered into force April 26, 1962. 
TIAS 5187. 6 pp. 50. 

Postal Matters — Parcel Post. Agreement and Detailed 
Regulations with Thailand. Signetl at Bangkok May 
31, 1962 and at Washington June 7. 1962. Entered 
into force October 1, 1962. TIAS 5188. 24 pp. 150. 

Peace Corps Program. Agreement with Gabon. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Libreville October 4, 1962. 
Entered into force October 4, 1962. TIAS 5189. 5 
pp. St*. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Tunisia. 
Signed at Tunis September 14, 1902. Entered into 
force September 14, 1962. With exchange of notes. 
TIAS 5190. 13 pp. 100. 

Peace Corps Program. Agreement with Togo. Ex- 
change of notes — Dated at Lom§ August 1 and Sep- 
tember 5, 1962. Entered into force September 5, 
1962. TIAS .5191. 6 pp. .50. 

Mutual Defense Assistance — Cash Contribution by 
Japan. Arrangement with Japan, relating to the 
agreement of March 8, 19.54. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Tokyo October 19, 1962. Entered into 
force October 19, 1962. TIAS 5192. 6 pp. 5f. 

Peace Corps Program. Agreement with Turkey. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Ankara August 27, 1962. 
Entered into force August 27, 1962. TIAS 5193. 3 
pp. 50. 

Trade. Agreement with Paraguay, postiwning the 
termination of the agreement of September 12, 1946, 
as brought up to date. Exchange of notes — Signed 
at Asuncion September 30 and October 1, 1962. En- 
tered into force October 1, 1962. TIAS 5194. 3 pp. 



INDEX July 8, 1963 Vol. XLIX,No. 125^ 

Agriculture. World Food Congress Meets at 
Washington (Freeman, Kennedy) .... 58 

American Principles. Peace and Human Rights 

(Cleveland) 38 

Asia. The Challenge to Freedom in Asia (Hils- 
man) 43 

Australia. Prime Minister of Australia Visits 
Washington 51 

Commanism. The Challenge to Freedom in Asia 

(Hilsman) 43 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating to 
Foreign Policy 57 

Cuba. On Our Quarrel With Success (Gal- 
braith) 52 

Department and Foreign Service. Designations 

(Phillips) 74 

Disarmament. U.S. and U.S.S.R. Sign Agree- 
ment for Direct Communications Link (text 
of agreement) 50 

Economic Affairs 

Trade Talks Begin in Geneva 72 

U.S. Comments on Activities of U.N. Special 
Fund (Bingham) 68 

U.S. Makes Interim Modification of Tin Disposal 
Program 56 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. Music Ad- 
visers Appointed for Cultural Presentations . 57 

Europe. Trade Talks Begin in Geneva ... 72 

Foreign Aid 

On Our Quarrel With Success (Galbraith) . . 52 

World Food Congress Meets at Washington 

(Freeman, Kennedy) 58 

Human Rights. Peace and Human Rights 

(Cleveland) 38 

India. On Our Quarrel With Success (Gal- 
braith) 52 

International Organizations and Conferences. 
Trade Talks Begin in Geneva 72 

Laos. The Challenge to Freedom in Asia (Hils- 
man) 43 

Presidential Documents. World Food Congress 

Meets at Washington 58 

Public Affairs. Phillips designated director of 

Office of News 74 

Publications. Recent Releases 74 

Treaty Information. Current Actions .... 73 
U.S.S.R. U.S. and U.S.S.R. Sign Agreement for 
Direct Communications Link (text of agree- 
ment) 50 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 73 

Peace and Human Rights (Cleveland) ... 38 

U.N. Sends Observation Mission to Yemen 

(Stevenson, text of resolution) 71 

U.S. Comments on Activities of U.N. Special 

Fund (Bingham) (58 

World Food Congress Meets at Washington 

(Freeman, Kennedy) 58 

Viet-Nam. The Challenge to Freedom in Asia 

(Hilsman) 43 

Yemen. U.N. Sends Observation Mission to 

Yemen (Stevenson, text of resolution) ... 71 

Name Index 

Bingham, Jonathan B 68 

Cleveland, Harlan 38 

Freeman, Orville L 60 

Galbraith, John Kenneth 52 

Hilsman, Roger 43 

Kennedy, President 58 

Menzies, Robert Gordon 51 

Phillips, Richard I 74 

Stevenson, Adlai E 71 

Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 17-23 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington 2."), 

Releases issued prior to June 17 which appear 
in this issue of the Bulletin are Nos. 308 of 
June 7 and 317, 318, and 320 of June 14. 


Strong sworn in as Ambassador to 
Iraq (biographic details). 

U.S. jjarticipation in international 

Noto appointed consultant, Bureau 
of Educational and Cultural Af- 
fairs (biographic details). 

Johnson : "U.S. Foreign Policy in 
the Far East." 

Cultural exchange (Central Amer- 

One-millionth passport issued. 

Interim modification of tin disposal 

Visit of Indian parliamentary 

•Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 

















jUC ial 5C ilm:ls dept 
public library 
copley square 
boston 17. mass 


United States 
government printing office 






Foreign Relations of tlie United States 

1942, Volume IV, the Near East and Africa 

The Department of State recently released "Foreign Eelations of the United States, 1942, Yolmnt 
IV, The Near East and Africa." 

In this volume there is documentation on the relations of the United States with Afghanistan, Egypt 
Ethiopia, IraJi, Iraq, Liberia, Morocco, Muscat and Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanoa. 
and Turkey. Nearly two-thirds of the volume is concerned with affairs in the Near East, and the rest 
deals with Afi'ican matters. Most of the content relates to wartime problems, particularly the strength- ^^ 
ening of the area against Axis inroads tlirough the extension of lend-lease aid, food supplies, and tech-f ~ 
nical assistance. 

Copies of "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1942, Volume IV, The Near East and Africa" 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D.C, for $3.25 each. 

PUBLICATION 7534 18.26 




Enclosed find $ 

(cash, check, or money order pay- 

PDBLICATION 7534 $3.25 

Please send me copies of "Foreign Relations of the United States, 

ltM2, Volume IV, The Near East and Africa." 








Yol. XLIX, No. 1255 

Jvly 15, 1963 


hy Deputy Under Secretary Johnson 78 


hy Minister Eugenie Anderson 87 


hy Assistant Secretary Tyler 93 

For index see inside back cover 

U.S. Foreign Policy in tlie Far East 

hy V. Alexis Johnson 

Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs ^ 

Much esoteric nonsense is often written and 
spoken about foreign policy. Perhaps even we 
in the Department of State are on occasion 
offenders. It is true that the issues are often 
complex — it is rare that there are just two sides 
to a problem or that the issues are black and 
white in good "Western movie fashion — and the 
business of carrying out foreign policy can be 
complex indeed in this complex world. How- 
ever, the fundamentals are really very simple. 
These fundamentals are not developed in the 
secret recesses of the Department of State or the 
National Security Council but rather here in 
Lincoln, and in Phoenix and Jacksonville, as 
well as in Washington, New York, and San 
Francisco. In other words, they are derived 
from what we are as a people and how we regard 
the other 94 percent of the people of the world. 

^ Address made at a conference on foreign affairs at 
the University of Nebraslia, Lincoln, Nebr., on Juno 
20 (press release 324 dated June 19) . 

Our first goal in foreign affairs and the fii 
responsibility of any administration in "Wash- 
ington is to our own security as a nation and 
a people. 

However, we as a people recognize that year i 
by year, and almost day by day, we can less and 
less divorce our security and well-being from 
that of the rest of the world. Thus it is not 
only from the humanitarian impulses which lie 
so deep in our character but also from a hard- 
headed look at our own direct interests that we 
derive the fundamentals of our foreign policy. 
I would list first among these fimdamentals a 
community of free and truly independent na- 
tions in which every man can live in equality 
and dignity, free from hunger, at peace with his 
neighbor, and having open opportunity to strive 
to attain his aspirations. 

We seek these goals in Asia as elsewhere. 
This is not just empty rhetoric but the principles 
which guide our actions and progi'ams. 


The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication Issued by the Office 
of Media Services. Bureau of Public Af- 
faire, provides the public and Interested 
agencies of the Government with Informa- 
tion on developments In the field of for- 
eign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin Includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy. Issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the Preisldent and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 

ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and International agreements to which 
the United States Is or may become a 
party and treaties of general Inter- 
national Interest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial In the field of International relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin Is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 

ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. Pkicb : 52 issues, domestic $8.50, 
foreign $12.25 ; single copy, 25 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 

NOTE : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and Items contained 
herein may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department of State Bulletin as the 
source will be appreciated. The Bulletin 
is Indexed In the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature. 



Upon superficial analysis these goals would 
appear to be easily attained because they are the 
same goals Asians seek. They are the same 
human goals which have sparked the wave of 
nationalism and the revolution of rising expec- 
tations still sweeping Asia in these postwar 
decades. There is no denying that Asians want 
national security, fuller prosperity, equality, 
dignity, jieace, friendly relations based on free- 
dom and justice, and opportunity for themselves 
and their posterity. In this they are no different 
from you and me. 

Since there is such close identity between our 
goals and those of Asians, what then obstructs 
the easy attainment of these aspirations ? First, 
as far as the Communist aspect is concerned, 
Premier Khnishchev has put one answer as 
plainly as I could when he said recently, "Marx- 
ist-Leninists make no secret of the fact that they 
want to win all the people on earth for social- 
ism. This we regard as our most important 
aim on the world arena." Since, as Mao Tse- 
timg put it, "political power grows out of the 
barrel of a gun," the use of force to obtain Com- 
mimist political control has not been ruled out. 
In fact, what the Communists call "wars of na- 
tional liberation" are actively instigated toward 
this end. 

Tliis use of force is not new in Asia. In 1948 
five Communist wars of terrorism to seize con- 
trol were under way in Asia in addition to the 
civil war in China itself. They were in Indo- 
nesia, Burma, Malaya, the Philippines, and 
what was then called French Indochina. They 
were defeated in the first four countries, but in 
Indochina Communists were left in control 
of North Viet-Nam and two of the northern 
provinces of Laos. The aggression against the 
Republic of Korea in 1950 was a more naked 
use of force, as was the Taiwan Straits crisis of 
1958. Of present concern are Laos and South 
Viet-Nam and the Chinese Commiuiist pressure 
along the Indian frontier. 

, Although aggressions and "wars of national 
liberation" can be, and have been, deterred or 
defeated in Asia, the Commvmist aim of "win- 
ning all the people to socialism," by force if 
necessary, has not been abandoned. On the con- 
trary the Conmiunists are actively infiltrating 

their vanguards and operatives wherever they 
believe they have opportunity to seize power. 
However, we also need to note that even if 
communism had never existed many of these 
comitries would be wracked by the stresses and 
strains of building modern states and societies — 
the problems with which our own experience, 
past and present, has made us very familiar. 
Their relations with each other would also be 
beset by their long histoi-y of national rivalries 
and in some cases deep-seated hostility. In this, 
of course, the countries of Asia are by no means 

Combating "Aggression by Seepage" 

I trust that you will not mind my using my 
last foreign assignment, Thailand, a marvelous 
land of kindly people, as an example of what 
has been called "aggression by seepage" by a 
prominent correspondent. In the northeast 
provinces of Thailand live about 9 million 
people, nearly a third of the total population of 
the country. The majority of these peoples and 
those of Laos are very similar in culture, cus- 
toms, and even language. There is also a sub- 
stantial Vietnamese minority, for the most part 
loyal to Hanoi, living in this sparsely settled, 
relatively isolated area of Thailand. For the 
past several years Commimist Pathet Lao 
agents, supporters of North Viet-Nam's Com- 
munist leader, Ho Chi Minh, and even a few 
Communist Chinese "agitprop" men have been 
working in this area seeking to set up cells and 
encadrements. Clearly this was in preparation 
for further advance when Laos and the Eepub- 
lic of Viet-Nam were to have fallen. 

The Thai Government recognized the incipi- 
ent danger and attempted to counter it as best 
it could with the very small and ill-equipped 
police units it had. We, for our part, co- 
operated with the Thai Government in its efforts 
to open up the area so that the peojile could be- 
gin to identify themselves with the nation and 
could begin to realize the benefits of progress. 
Through our joint programs roads were built 
opening up access not only to the hinterlands 
but to markets. Thousands of wells were dug, 
not only for potable water but also for irriga- 
tion. Training programs were enlarged. To- 

JULT 15, 1963 


day the situation in the northeast looks much 
more promising. The Thai border police are 
well officered and trained, and the routes of 
infiltration are no longer so open. Special mo- 
bile t^ams of Thai teclinicians and officials are 
energetically moving into the more remote 
and troubled areas. Better education is being 
brought to the area. Information teams are 
active. Communications are being extended, 
not just for security but also for the economic 
well-being of the inhabitants. Security too 
has been improved both by joint Thai-U.S. 
effort and through multinational preparedness 
through SEATO exercises. 

The real significance of what is going on in 
Thailand is, I am convinced, that the free world 
is moving ahead with foresight, forged from 
bitter lessons learned elsewhere in Asia. Fore- 
sightedly, the Thais, with our cooperation, are 
moving toward preventing another Viet-Nam 
or Laos situation. They are doing so on the 
political, economic, and psychological plane, 
which calls for much more sophistication, 
patience, and understanding on the part of all 
of us than when the struggle reaches the mili- 
tary plane. It is always very late when the 
military plane is reached. 

Our policies are based on the premise that 
nationalism is healthy and incompatible with 
the aims of communism. An independent na- 
tional state is not always going to agree with \is, 
but neither is it consciously going to serve the 
fundamental purposes of communism. We be- 
lieve that government rests upon the consent of 
those governed, not upon the coercion of those 
ruled. We welcome a world of diversity and 
abhor enforced conformity. We seek to con- 
struct, not destroy. We seek to free men's 
minds so that open and honest examinations 
and decisions can be made, not to capture men's 
minds for exploitation by a single system. In 
short, we seek international cooperation, not 
world domination. 

These are a few of the principles that are be- 
ing rediscovered in Asia. They may sound 
trite to you and to me — and indeed too often we 
have not paid full heed to them. But as the 
peoples of the Far East strive to protect the 
independence they won and as they move ahead 
in exercising their responsibilities, they are dis- 


covering that communism is not the wave of 
the future. They are recognizing the political,, 
economic, and psychological appeals for what 
they really are. 

All too often slow, steady, undramatic prog- 
ress is buried in the screaming headlines of 
battles, scandals, defeats, and threats. 

In Korea we see a strong urge to return to 
civilian government, and the people of Korea 
want to participate in tlie business of governing 
themselves. I am satisfied that they will find a 
way of doing so. 

What of Japan? Not only has it found its 
rightful place in the community of free nations, 
but also it is helping others to do so through its 
development programs in Southeast Asia, 
through its expansion of trade with the lesser 
developed nations, through its responsiblei 
activities in the United Nations, and through 
its foreign student exchange programs. Japan 
is a vital example to Asia of the success of a 
free-enterprise system in a country with a 
paucity of natural resources. Japan's indus- 
trial capacity, skilled manpower, functioning 
democracy, and willingness to assume a role in 
free-world leadership will, I am sure, become 
even more important in the immense task of 
nation building all through Asia. 

Programs of Cooperation 

In these days when we are again having our 
"great debate" on foreign aid it is perliaps use- 
ful to call Japan to mind as just one example of 
the returns of what I think properly should be 
called our investment in foreign assistance. It 
is not possible to measure in monetary terms the 
political and military value of free Japan as it 
exists today. However, measured in just pure 
dollar terms, from 1946 to 1956 we invested 
around $2 billion in Japan. Most of this was 
just plain food to keep people from starving, 
but a lesser part was for economic rehabilita- 
tion. As against this, there has been approxi- 
mately $18 billion of trade between Japan and 
the United States in the last decade, and during 
the past 5 years the trade balance in our favor 
has been over $1 billion. I perhaps need not 
tell this audience that during the past 10 years 
we have exported $4.4 billion of agricultural 
products to Japan. In addition Japan is di- 



rectly repaying $600 million of that postwar 

As another example of our policy of economic 
cooperation with those countries of Asia seek- 
ing to move ahead, we might cite India. Dur- 
ing the past decade approximately $1.9 billion 
of United States economic assistance has been 
invested in India's first and second 5-year plans. 
During this same period other countries have 
invested around $1.5 billion. India provided 
from its own resources around 90 percent of the 
financing required for the first 5-year plan and 
76 percent of that required for the second 5-year 
plan, for a total of the equivalent of about 
$11,100 million. 

In this decade, while the population of India 
has increased by 21.5 percent, the national in- 
come has increased by 43 percent and per capita 
income by 17 percent. Agricultural production 
has increased by over 41 percent, and industrial 
production has nearly doubled. (We might 
note that during this same period per capita 
income, and particularly food production, has 
actually decreased in Communist China.) Our 
trade with India has increased by over 57 per- 
cent, but, above all, we and the rest of the free 
world are more secure and more prosperous be- 
cause India has been able to move forward in 
freedom and prosperity. 

Our policy also embraces military cooperation 
with countries desiring to join with us in such a 
relationship. We take an active role in the 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, embrac- 
ing Pakistan, Thailand, the Pliilippines, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand, as well as France and 
the United Kingdom. We value our ANZUS 
treaty relationship with Australia and New 
Zealand as well as bilateral relationships with 
Japan, the Republic of China on Taiwan, and 
the Philippines. However, this leaves room for 
us to assist any other free country that wants 
to defend itself against aggressive Communist 
power. As you know we have responded to the 
requests of India and, in cooperation with the 
U.K. and some other members of the Common- 
wealth, are assisting that country in better pre- 
paring itself to resist Chinese Communist 

At this point a word is perhaps due with 
respect to Viet-Nam. Our policy there is based 

on several premises. First is the premise that 
the South Vietnamese want to defend them- 
selves. This has been amply demonstrated by 
the more than 5,000 men killed in action during 
the past year. Next is the premise that the 
fight must be one primarily of the Vietnamese 
themselves. It cannot be a war of Americans 
against Vietnamese. Thus, important though 
our role of advice, transport, communications, 
and supply is, it is primarily the role of an out- 
sider assisting the Vietnamese themselves. An- 
other important premise is that the political, 
social, and economic aspects of the struggle are 
of equal if not greater importance than the mili- 
tary struggle, but in any event all aspects of the 
struggle must be orchestrated in a imified whole. 
During this process both we and the Vietnam- 
ese are learning much. None of us expected or 
now expect that victory would be easy or quick. 
However, I am satisfied that solid progress is 
being made. 

The real heart of the program in Viet-Nam 
in which all these various elements are brought 
together is in the strategic hamlet program. In 
these, many Vietnamese not only have the means 
for the first time of defending themselves but 
are experiencing their first taste of self-govern- 
ment, of participation in elections and in civic 
affairs. They are receiving benefits in health 
and education heretofore not available. They 
are working together. They are learning that 
a better life does exist and is attainable. And 
they are willing to work for it and have shown 
their willingness to protect it. 

Increasing numbers of Vietnamese are now 
willing to furnish intelligence about Viet Cong 
operations and individuals; more Vietnamese 
are abandoning the Viet Cong cause by taking 
advantage of the Government's "Opeji Arms" 
campaign. The Viet Cong weapon losses are 
increasing, and losses of weapons to the Viet 
Cong are decreasing. Viet Cong strongholds 
are being penetrated, and less territory is under 
exclusive Viet Cong control. 

Another aspect of our policy is the encourage- 
ment of regional cooperation among the free 
countries of the area. As I pointed out at the 
outset, this is beset with many obstacles. In any 
event, what we can do in this regard is fairly 
limited as the impulse must come from within 

JULY 15, 1963 


the area itself. However, we stand ready to 
help whenever we can. 

In spite of the difficvilties there are encounig- 
ing signs of progress. One of the most notable 
as well as most recent was the replacement of 
the frictions that have existed between Mala^ya, 
the Philippines, and Indonesia over the forma- 
tion of Malaysia, with the announcement last 
week from Manila by the foreign ministers that 
the three countries are looking toward a confed- 
eration. The Indonesian Foreign Minister has 
coined the name "Maphilindo" for this future 
grouping, and it may well become a familiar 
term to us all. In addition there is the older 
Association of Southeast Asian States (ASA) 
presently consisting of Thailand, Malaya, and 
the Philippines. This is in addition to the 
growing cooperation through such U.N. orga- 
nizations as ECAFE [Economic Commission 
for Asia and the Far East], which is, among 
many activities, sponsoring the Mekong River 
Project among Thailand, Viet-Nam, Laos, and 

Shadow of Communist China 

Back of all of this hovers the shadow of Com- 
munist China. None can deny it is a formidable 
and dark shadow. However, at the risk of over- 
simplilication, let me say that it no longer ap- 
pears as formidable or even as black as it did a 
few years ago. 

When I first returned to Southeast Asia in 
1958, Communist China had just announced its 
"great leap forward." An almost literal shiver 
of fear went through the area that Communist 
China would accomplish the miracles of eco- 
nomic construction that it set as its goals and 
thus by example and influence alone overwhehn 
those seeking to pursue the free way. Connnu- 
nist China did not accomplish those mii-acles. 
Far from it. Per capita food production has 
been falling in mainland Cliina as compared 
generally with its rise in the free countries of 
Asia. Industrial production lagged rather than 
"leaping forward," and the rates compare very 
unfavorably with the larger free countries, such 
as Japan and India, and even with some of the 
smaller countries. Students and othere who 
went to Communist China wrote home very mi- 
favorable accounts. The glowing image faded. 


In the meanwliile the picture of the two stal- 
wart giants — the Soviet Union and Communist 
China — marching shoulder to shoulder to con- 
quer all that lay before them also has been fad-^ 
ing fast. Not that both of them are not sti 
Conmiimist, but they no longer present that pic- 
ture of shoulder-to-shoulder unity in carryingil 
out their objectives. Their quarrels have broken 
into the open and are indeed deep. (However, 
we should remember that, as a Soviet is reputedi 
to have said, the quarrel is in many ways over' 
how best to bury us.) 

All Soviet economic, and apparently most if 
not all military, assistance to China has been 
stopped. Soviet teclmicians were withdrawn, 
and even Soviet consulates have been closed. 
Peiping has been using public vituperation to- 
ward Moscow and the Kremlin that was for- 
merly reserved for the United States. (I might 
mention that its vituperation toward India and 
its leaders is now in much the same vein.) 
Peiping and Moscow are eagerly cajoling or 
demanding, depending on the circumstances, 
the support of other Communist parties and 
regimes throughout the world. Something 
new and divisive has undeniably been added 
to the world Conununist movement. This holds 
dangers as well as opportunities for us. As 
far as Asia is concerned I would not want to 
minimize the dangers. "Wliile cautious in its 
action, the public stance of Conununist China 
is more belligei'ently aggressive than that of 
the Soviet Union. The Chinese are a people of 
enormous native capacity in no basic way in- 
ferior to any other people, including ourselves. 
The leaders in Peiping have throughout their 
rule showTi an ability to profit bj' and correct 
their mistakes and now in fact seem to be tak- 
ing some steps toward doing so. 

However, I remain optimistic over the future. 
This is not a careless optimism but one based 
rather on fundamental human values that 
transcend geography, race, culture, and religion. 
I believe that the basic human values embodied 
in our policies toward Asia are more compat- 
ible with the aspirations of the great peoples 
of the area than are those of our enemies. I 
also believe that this is increasingly being recog- 
nized and imderstood by those peoi^les. If we 
remain true to those values we have a right to 
be confident of the outcome. 



Soviet Proposal of Nuclear-Free 
Zone in Mediterranean Rejected 

Following is an exchange of notes ietween 
tlie United States and the Soviet Union. 


Tlie Embassy of the United States of Amer- 
ica presents its compliments to the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R. and, with ref- 
erence to the note of May 20, 1963, of the 
Embassy of the U.S.S.E. in "Washington, has 
the honor to transmit to the Ministry the views 
of the Government of the United States of 
America on the proposal that the area of the 
Mediterranean Sea be declared a nuclear-free 

The Soviet Government's note appears to be 
devoted primarily to a propagandistic attack 
against the presence of United States missile- 
laimching submarines in the Mediterranean and 
contains a large number of gross misrepresenta- 
tions of both the position of the Government of 
the United States and the recent histoi-y of the 
Mediterranean area. In its note of May 18, 
19G3, the Government of the United States 
replied to a similar set of groundless charges 
contained in the Soviet Government's note of 
April 8, 1963,^ and drew the attention of the 
Soviet Government to the defensive nature of 
the Xorth Atlantic Treaty Organization and to 
the reasons for its development. The remarks 
made in the note of May 18 apply to the Aledi- 
terranean area, as well as to all other areas cov- 
ered by the North Atlantic Treaty. 

In this connection the Government of the 
United States wishes to emphasize that it was 
compelled to strengthen the security of its 
Allies in the Mediterranean only after their 
security had been directly threatened by the 
Soviet Union's deployment of an extensive 
array of missiles aimed at comitries in the area. 

' Delivered to the Ministr.v of Foreign Affairs of the 
U.S.S.R. on June 24 b.y the U.S. at Moscow 
(press release 331 dated June 24) . 

' For text of a Department statement of May 21, see 
Bulletin of June 10, 1963, p. 896. 

'For texts of the U.S. and Soviet notes, see ibid., 
June 3, 1963, p. 860. 

Consequently the United States and the 
threatened Mediterranean countries were forced 
in their own defense to counteract the striking 
power of these Soviet nuclear missiles and 
Soviet nuclear-equipped aircraft which were 
poised for attack on the region. If it had done 
otherwise, the United States would have failed 
in its duty to help its Allies to defend them- 
selves against a form of nuclear blackmail under 
which the Soviet Union could have attempted 
to force the Mediterranean countries to suc- 
cumb to Soviet dictation or Soviet domination. 

This is not an imaginary danger, as may be 
seen from a number of provocative statements 
by senior members of the Soviet Government 
threatening devastating attacks on countries of 
the Mediterranean region, including threats to 
attack the Acropolis and the orange groves of 
Italy. If, as stated in its note, the Govern- 
ment of the Soviet Union is in fact "engaged in 
peaceful labor and wishes only peace and pros- 
perity to other peoples," it has nothing to fear 
from the presence of Polaris submarines in the 
Mediterranean, which are stationed there solely 
to defend the integrity of the coimtries in that 

With respect to the proposal in the Soviet 
Government's note to declare the Mediterranean 
area a nuclear-free zone, the Government of the 
United States wishes to recall that, being 
thoroughly aware of the catastrophically de- 
structive nature of thermonuclear weapons, it 
has continuously sought and advanced pro- 
posals designed to eliminate or if this were not 
possible at least to reduce the danger that such 
weapons might be used. Despite a discouraging 
lack of progress it continues to pursue this path 
unflaggingly and with increased effort. In 
doing so, it welcomes the proposals of others. 
At tlae risk of stating the obvious, however, it 
must be noted that for a measure in the field of 
disarmament and arms control to have a bene- 
ficial rather than an unsettling and tlierefore 
dangerous effect, it must be balanced so that no 
state or group of states gain military advantage. 
To disrupt this balance can only create a condi- 
tion of insecurity that would increase tension 
and lead to the danger the measure was designed 
to obviate. This principle of balance was in 
fact recognized in the Joint Statement of 

JtTLT 15, 1963 


Agreed Principles of September 20, 1961.* 
The Note of May 20 of tJie Soviet Govern- 
ment seems to be designed precisely and solely 
to change the existing military balance at the 
expense of the United States and its Allies. 
The fact that the Government of the United 
States is constantly seeking ways of decelerat- 
ing and halting the arms race does not mean 
that it is prepared to strip itself of its means of 
defense, or to withhold the protection of those 
means from its Allies, when the comitries from 
which it and its Allies may be threatened main- 
tain their armaments at full scale. 


Dnofflclal translation 
No. 22 

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics considers it necessary to declare to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America as follows : 

Quite recently the Soviet Government was compelled 
to warn against NATO plans to create nuclear forces 
which would give the West German Bundeswehr access 
to atomic weapons and would unleash a nuclear weap- 
ons race which would linow no state or geographic 
bounds. Today, the nations of the world are wit- 
nesses of the fact that the Government of the U.S.A. 
and that of some other NATO members are tailing new 
steps in the same direction. 

The question concerns the implementation of plans 
to place in the Mediterranean American atomic sub- 
marines equipped with the "Polaris" nuclear missile 
Spanish ports and British military strongholds on 
Cyprus and Malta have been designated as possible 
bases for these submarines. There have been reports 
that the "Polaris" submarines will also use Turkish 
Greek, and Italian ports. Two such atomic submarines 
have already entered the Mediterranean and are get- 
ting "the feel" of the coastal waters of Greece and 

The U.S.A. and some of its allies are thus demon- 
strating once again that the concern to prevent ther- 
monuclear war or even reduce the danger of its oc- 
currence Is alien to their policy. Instead of joining 
in the efforts of states which, anticipating the realiza- 
tion of the program of universal and complete disarma- 
ment, are already striving to narrow the sphere of prep- 
arations for nuclear war, the predominant powers 
In NATO are drawing into the orbit of these prepara- 
tions another vast area with a popuIaUon of nearly 
300 million people. 

* For text, see ibid., Oct. 9, 1961, p. 589. 
" Delivered to the Department of State on May 20 by 
the Soviet Embassy at Washington. 

What does the transformation of the Mediterranean 
into a gigantic reservoir, filled with dozens of missiles 
with megatons of nuclear power, involve? What will 
be the effect of converting the Mediterranean basin 
Into a sort of "missiledrome" where each mile of the 
sea's mirror-like surface may be used by an aggressor 
as a launching pad for nuclear missiles? 

First of aU, this wiU immeasurably increase the 
threat that the Mediterranean and the adjoining conn- 
tries may become the theater of devastaUng military 
action. Even the states which have not and do not 
want to have anything to do with the aggressive prep- 
arations of NATO— and this means the overwhelming 
majority of the states in the Mediterranean area— 
actually find themselves in a situation where the right 
to control their future is appropriated by those who 
command the atomic submarines that ply near their 
shores. Their security and sovereignty is being under- 
mined by the same dangerous policy in which are 
caught up the countries that made their territory 
available for NATO military bases. The uneasiness 
of the Arabs or Yugoslavs, of the Albanians or Cypri- 
ots cannot be allayed by assertions that the sending 
to the Mediterranean of American missile-bearing sub- 
marines is only a "technical" operation to replace the 
"Jupiter" missiles stationed In Turkey and Italy with 
other improved ones. No, the present replacement of 
the stationary American missile bases with floating 
ones involves far-reaching poUUcal and miUtary con- 
sequences: the specter of a nuclear war, which ap- 
peared at first in those countries which actively pa> 
ticipate in the military measures of NATO, ia now 
being registered on the shores of the whole Mediter- 
ranean. The submarines equipped with "Polaris" mis- 
siles, navigating along the shores of the Mediterranean 
countries, would broaden the area from which a nu- 
clear attack could be launched and consequenUy would 
also extend the geographic sphere of application of 
thus unavoidable retaliatory measures aimed at ren- 
dering harmless the bases of the aggressor. 

Of course, the countries In which such submarines 
would be based, either permanently or from time to 
time, would expose themselves to the greatest danger. 
But there is not and cannot be any guarantee against 
the possibility that the atomic submarine would send 
its deadly missile from international waters, and then 
would try to hide near the shores of a state which Is 
not in the NATO bloc, or that it would send its salvo 
directly from the territorial waters of such a state. It 
is impossible to exclude the possibiUty of such a course 
of events, all the more so since many states of the 
Mediterranean basin do not possess any real means to 
prevent atomic submarines from entering their waters, 
and only a few minutes are needed for something Ir- 
reparable to take place. 

Bringing into the Mediterranean war vessels of 
NATO with nuclear weapons on board forces the states 
whose security is threatened by the NATO bloc to Im- 
plement effective defensive countermeasures in order 
to be able to avert any attempt on the peaceful life 




of their peoples, and not to leave to the NATO powers 
a free hand to exploit the Mediterranean as a spring- 
board for possible aggression. The peace-loving states 
will have no choice but to be ready to launch their 
means of paralyzing the travel routes of atomic sub- 
marines and also the shores of NATO members, as 
well as of countries which permit this bloc to use their 
territories for permanent or periodic bases for nuclear 

It should be clear to everybody that the NATO 
stafEs are operating in such a manner that the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, the shortest commercial sea route con- 
necting the West with the East and a traditional area 
of recreation and international tourism, has become 
one more area of dangerous rivalry and conflict, a lair 
for the bearers of nuclear death. 

What will happen to the countries of the Balkan pe- 
Qinsula, of North Africa, the Near and the Middle 
East — all countries situated along the perimeter of the 
Mediterranean Sea or even deep in the hinterland, if 
atomic missile-bearing submarines roam along the 
shores? Do you think this will increase their security 
md improve life for them? Is it possible to believe 
that the Greeks, Turks, Italians, French, Spaniards, 
as well as other Mediterranean people, will feel more 
secure if foreign missiles and atomic bombs, over 
which they have no power or control, are stationed on 
the very threshold of their homes? Even by an aeci- 
lental concatenation of events the peoples of this area 
night become the victims of a deadly catastrophe, 
igainst their will and desire. 

The Mediterranean peoples have had vast experience 
luring their history. From the countless conflicts 
.vhich shook ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Gar- 
bage down to the two World Wars of the present cen- 
airy, this area has suffered all the vicissitudes of the 
irmed rivalry of states. But even during the Second 
World War, which quickly shifted to the African Con- 
Jnent and rolled on to the Near and Middle East, there 
vas no weapon which in its destructive power could 
)e even remotely compared with the one which is now 
liding in the waves of the Mediterranean, or which 
.vould be used in a retaliatory blow against the aggres- 
sor if this sea should be used as a center of operations 
ind shelter for an aggressor. If it came to the worst 
n our time, the Mediterranean Sea would become the 
T)ead Sea in the full sense of the term. Many centers 
)f civilization and culture would be threatened with a 
'ate similar to that of Pompeii. Even people not bound 
)y religious tenets can understand the feelings of mil- 
ions of Christians and Moslems concerning the fact 
hat, in implementing the designs of the NATO leaders, 
itomic weapons lie almost under the walls of the Vati- 
can and Jerusalem, Mecca and Medina. 
' The governments of the Western Powers are trying 
justify plans for stationing submarines with Polaris 
aissiles in the Mediterranean Sea, by references to the 
act that this is an open sea and that providing or not 
)roviding harbors for missile carriers is the domestic 
oncern of individual states. But by what right are 

four or flve states engaged in NATO's policy, obUvloas 
to the interests of the other Mediterranean countries, 
prepared to open the Straits of Gibraltar to the pas- 
sage of atomic weapons? For example, if the govern- 
ments of Turkey, Greece, Italy, or Spain permit sub- 
marines or surface vessels with atomic weapons on 
board to hide in their waters, then this would be tri- 
fling with the fate of not only their own country but 
would also threaten the security of neighboring 

The U.S.A. and other countries of NATO are not 
stinting in assurances that the American Polaris sub- 
marines are being sent to the Mediterranean for "de- 
fensive purposes" allegedly, and almost for the "de- 
fense" of the countries of this region. However, it 
will not be an exaggeration to say that out of all the 
means created for warfare the American weapon now 
being stationed in the Mediterranean is the least of all 
suited to serve defensive purposes, but instead is most 
suitable for any kind of provocation. The distinctive 
feature of the use of atomic submarines as mobile mis- 
sile bases consists in the fact that they are counted on 
to conceal preparations and a surprise nuclear strike. 

Moreover, in the Soviet Union, and also in other 
countries probably, people remember the recent state- 
ments of high-ranking persons in the U.S.A. with ref- 
erence to the fact that under certain clrcimistances the 
United States of America may take the Initiative in a 
nuclear conflict with the U.S.S.R. The Soviet Govern- 
ment likewise could not fail to give attention to the 
statements of the leading military figures of the U.S.A. 
to the effect that the American submarines now being 
sent to the Mediterranean have been "allocated" to 
definite targets in the Soviet Union. 

It would not be irrelevant to note with regard to the 
United States Sixth Fleet, sailing from place to place 
m the Mediterranean year after year, that it has been 
alleged more than once that its purpose is to help the 
Mediterranean powers defend their independence and 
security. In the log of the commander of this fleet, 
however, there is not a single notation about any opera- 
tions in defense of the sovereign rights and independ- 
ence of the countries of North Africa or the Near East 
On the contrary, the ships of the Sixth Fleet partici- 
pated in the preparation for an attack on Syria in 1957, 
which was blocked by the decisive action taken, par- 
ticularly by the Soviet Union. With the forces of this 
fleet the United States occupied the Lebanese coast in 
the summer of 195S. American naval vessels covered 
foreign intervention m Jordan. Within sight of the 
Sixth Fleet the NATO allies of the United States- 
England and France, together with Israel — committed 
aggression against Egypt and bombed Cairo and Port 

Such are the facts. They throw a sufficiently clear 
light on the actual situation. 

What, actually, are the American naval vessels seek- 
ing in the Mediterranean Sea, thousands of kilometers 
from the borders of the United States? What are the 
real aims being pursued when, in addition to the sur- 

niLT 15, 1963 


face vessels, atomic submarines are now being sent 
there armed with nuclear weapons? The NATO meas- 
ures for spreading nuclear weapons to new areas speak 
for themselves. The intentions of the United States 
are made sufficiently clear, however, by the statement 
of American military leaders, who recently argued that 
It was essential to station American nuclear weapons 
in Canada on the grounds that this would permit diver- 
sion of part of the nuclear counterblows from the 
United States to Canada in the event of a war. This. 
to be sure, was said with reference to Canada, not with 
reference to the Mediterranean Sea. But just as there, 
so here too, there is now talk about preparations for 
an atomic war, carried out under one policy and one 

Perhaps someone thinks it is almost the height of 
military acumen to conceal one's own nuclear missile 
bases as far as possible from one's own population cen- 
ters and as near as possible to the borders of other na- 
tions. But can millions of people living along the 
Mediterranean reconcile tiiemselves to the position of 
being hostages, into which the leading NATO powers 
are trying to place them? It is obvious that there en- 
ters into the military plans of these powers — now more 
than ever — the calculation that in the event of a con- 
flict part of the nuclear counterblows that .should 
rightly fall on the aggressor would be diverted to coun- 
tries innocently involved in the conflict. 

It is impossible to pass over yet another circum- 
stance. As is well-known, the General Assembly of 
the U.N. adopted a resolution " declaring Africa a nu- 
clear-free zone. The purpose of this resolution is to 
save the African Continent from the dangers inherent 
in a further spread of nuclear weapons. 

Of course, no simple coincidence can explain the fact 
that the plans of sending American submarines with 
"Polaris missiles" to the Slediterranean Sea appeared 
simultaneously with projects of creating the so-called 
"multinational" and "multilateral" nuclear forces of 
NATO, in which a considerable role is played by West 
German revanchists and militarists. These are links 
of the same policy, of the policy of the absolutely un- 
bridled arms race and of the proliferation of nuclear 

The Soviet iwople are occupied wiUi peaceful labor 
and wish only peace and prosiwrity to other nations. 
The Soviet Government firmly believes in the principles 
of the peaceful coexistence of states. It is prepared 
on the basis of these [i)rinciplesl to solve all questions 
of its relations with any nation, regardless of social 
(lilTorences and witliout any interference in the inter- 
nal affairs of other states. 

•U.N. doc. A/RES/1652 (XVI). 

True to the policy of peace and peaceful coexistence, 
the Soviet Union has more than once proposed taking 
measures for the prevention of the spread of nuclear 
weapons, supporting plans to create nonatomic zones in 
various parts of the world, liquidating foreign military 
bases in the territories of other states, reducing even 
now the armaments and the armed forces of states in 
areas where the possibility of a conflict is particularly 
great. The Soviet Government is in favor of denying 
the use of foreign territories and ports for stationing 
any kind of strategic weapons, including sulimarines 
with nuclear missiles. 

The Soviet Union has presented concrete proposals 
on all these questions for discussion at the IS-countty 
committee on disarmament at Geneva. Putting these 
proposals into practice would have strengthened mutual 
trust among countries and would have made possible 
the solution of the major problem of our time: univer- 
sal and complete disarmament. 

But the United States and its allies are now doing 
the following : creating a concentrated nuclear force 
under NATO and engaging in spreading nuclear mis- 
siles over new continents and new oceans ; this raises 
new barriers on the road to disarmament. 

For the sake of insuring international security, the 
Soviet Government proposes that the entire area of the 
Mediterranean Sea be declared free of nuclear missiles. 
It is ready to undertake the obligation not to deploy 
in those waters any nuclear weapons or means for 
their delivery, bearing in mind the fact that similar 
obligations will be assumed by other powers. If this 
area is declared to be a zone free of nuclear missiles, 
then, acting jointly with the United States and the 
other countries of the West, the Soviet Union is pre- 
pared to give reliable guarantees to the effect that in 
case of military complications, the area of the Jlediter- 
ranean Sea will be considered to lie outside the perim- 
eter of utilization of nuclear weapons. 

The implementation of these proposals would pro- 
mote mutual understanding and friendship in the rela- 
tions between countries of the Mediterranean, it would 
enable the countries of the Mediterranean basin to de- 
vote more strength and resources to the solution of 
their economic and social problems. At the same time, 
it would represent a very substantial contribution to 
the lessening of overall international tension and to 
guaranteeing peace in Europe. Africa, and throughout 
the world. 

The Soviet Government expresses the hope that the 
Government of the United States will place the con- 
siderations contained in this note under careful study. 
Washington, J/oy 20. 196S. 



rhe United States and Eastern Europe 

hy Eugenie Anderson 
Minister to Bulgaria^ 

Lot me ask you a question : Have you any idea 
what privileged men and women you are? I, 
too, have been unusually fortunate. I have 
had the honor to serve our country first in Den- 
mark, one of our stanch Scandinavian allies, 
and now in Bulgaria, a rugged and beautiful 
Balkan country in a part of Europe known to 
few Americans. I have also lived and traveled 
unofficially but widely in India and Asia. Per- 
haps because I have lived abroad in these three 
sharply differing areas of our conflicted world, 
it seems to me that most of us are unaware of 
our incredibly good fortune. 

You are graduating from college, and this it- 
self is a privilege. Today most young people 
everywhere passionately desire an education. 
For most Americans this goal is attainable, 
while in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, 
liigher education is but an insistent dream which 
:omes true for only a tiny minority. 

But there are other, even more basic reasons 
why we, as Americans, are privileged. 

First, xoe liave inherited the treasure of 

The independence of our country and the 
■ights of the individual were won for us by other 
Americans nearly 200 years ago. Yet these 
5ame liberties are those for which many peoples 
n the world today still strive desperately and 
ivhich fewer still have achieved. 

We take for granted these infinitely precious 
American rights: the freedom to think what 
rou will, to say what you think, to believe, or 
tot to believe, as you wish ; the freedom to wor- 

* Address made at commencement exercises at Carle- 
:on College, Nortbfield, Minn., on June 1-1 (press release 
514 dated June 11). 

ship as you choose, to pursue the truth — wherc- 
ever it may lead — in science, history, and all 
fields of knowledge; the freedom to create new 
art forms, to seek new kinds of beauty ; the free- 
dom to associate with whomever you like, to 
join together with others for any peaceful pur- 
pose, to petition your Government for redress 
of wrongs; the right to criticize, oppose, and 
change your Government; the right to choose 
your own political leaders, to vote them in and 
to vote them out; the right to equal justice 
under the rule of law ; the right to a fair trial 
by jury ; the right to own property and to pur- 
sue whatever occupation you may choose; the 
right to change your status in life; the right to 
an education in public or private schools; the 
right to travel, to move freely about in our own 
majestic and spacious land, and to see the world 
beyond if you will. 

Less than half the people in the world today 
possess these rights which we hold basic and 
should hold sacred. For as Americans the 
majority of us inherited these freedoms. We 
live by them almost unconsciously. We accept 
them casually, often unmindful of their worth. 

Secondly, America has achieved a pinnacle of 
affluence., never before known in history. 

We are deeply privileged in our unprece- 
dented material wealth. No other nation on 
earth enjoys such ease, such opulence, such 
riches. Even more important, our unparalleled 
standard of living is available to the majority of 
Americans and not just to those on top. True, 
Americans have labored with ceaseless energy, 
ingenuity, skill, and drive. Out of a wilder- 
ness we have created this wealth. Our own 
people have built this awesome power, founded 

TULT 15. 1963 


on God-given natural and human resources. 

Recently a Bulgarian said admiringly to me, 
"If tliere is any paradise on this earth, it is in 
the United States of America." I fervently 
agree. Yet today we are embarrassed — and we 
should be — by our overflowing abundance in a 
world where most people do not even have 
enough to eat. I cannot forget the deprived 
faces of men, women, and children in Asia, 
■where hunger, homelessness, sickness, and hope- 
lessness are the lifelong fate of millions. 

"We Americans are living in a paradise, yes, 
but an uneasy one, surrounded as we are by an 
ocean of human suffering, with rising seas of 
discontent, rebellion, and revolt. 

American aflluence is today one of our great 
good fortunes, but we will surely lose it unless 
we share it, and quickly. I would add that no 
other powerful nation in history has given so 
generously of its wealth to those in need. Amer- 
ica has done much, but we must do more. 

Third, the American Revolution remains the 
hope of mankind. 

The founders of our country came here to 
create a new kind of society. These men and 
women dreamed of a system based on equality, 
reason, freedom, and opportunity. Their 
dreams are still the driving force of our democ- 
racy. The American Revolution still goes on. 

We continue to be committed to American 
ideals. We hold an optimistic belief in our own 
ability to change our environment. We believe 
that change can be peaceful and that it must 
advance the general welfare of all mankind. 

Fortunately for us, both as individuals and 
as a nation, the dj'namism of American life is 
still a reality, not only an article of faith. 
Where else on this globe than in iVmerica can 
one find such diversity, such a pluralistic cul- 
ture, and such exuberant growth? Almost as 
immense as nature itself — yes, and sometimes 
just as wild. But the point is that there must 
be continuing evolutionary change, experimen- 
tation, discovery, the extension of freedom to 
all groups, new possibilities for everyone, al- 
ways new hope. 

Despite our own sometimes tarnishing fail- 
ures, despite years of proi)aganda and depths of 
ignorance, the vision of a dynamic, free America 
still prevails &round the world. Rarely have I 

traveled in any country and told my nation- 
ality that the stranger's face did not light up 
with an exclamation of wonder, "America!" 
Or, as a Himgarian refugee once said to me — 
unforgettably, "Ah, America — the country of 
infinite possibilities!" 

Eastern Europe in Transition 

Now I want to talk for a few minutes about 
that part of Europe where I am serving. It 
seems fitting to discuss developments in Eastern 
Europe within the context of our rapidly chang- 
ing times, because that area today is in transi- 
tion. Most Americans have tended to tliink of 
the Iron Curtain countries in static terms. Such 
assumptions do not apply today to Eastern 
Europe. Significant changes have occurred 
and will continue. United States policy, too, 
has become more flexible and active vis-a-vis 
the Soviet bloc. 

Until recently the United States avoided a 
close involvement in European political affairs. 
We tried to remain only as interested observers 
in the gradual process by which European 
states fought for, and gained, their freedom and 
independence. Yet our heritage inevitably led 
the United States to give its encouragement to 
Eastern European peoples striving for freedom 
from foreign rule. Wliether in freedom or in 
subjugation to a foreign power, they have re- 
tained their national memories and pride in 
their traditions; they have created, defended, 
and developed a rich cultural background; 
they have cherished their past successes and 
suffered from their failures ; and they still main- 
tain their faith in individual freedom and na- 
tional independence. 

Contrary to popular belief. Eastern Europe 
today is characterized not by homogeneity but 
by disparity, not by identity of policy but by 
contrasts. In fact, reality today in Eastern 
Europe underscores Moscow's loss of its former 
claims to monolithic unity. 

Of course, the countries of the Eastern Euro- 
pean bloc are still, in the last resort, subject to 
the ultimate control of Soviet military power. 
The bloc leaders adhere to Soviet foreign policy 
and ideology. They are working out with vary- 
ing degrees of divergence their internal and 
economic development. 



For example, Poland permitted in 1956-57 a 
reversal of the collectivization process in agri- 
culture. Today only about 10 percent of Polish 
agricultural land is collectivized, while in Bul- 
garia the figure is 90 percent. So also in Po- 
land, and to some extent in Himgary, consumers 
have fared better as a result of the events of 
1956 and of conscious government policy. 
Throughout the bloc, including Bulgaria, some 
liberalization of internal rule has occurred. 
Poland, more than other countries in the area, 
shows the benefits of increased freedom. But 
there is moimting dissension in Czechoslovakia 
these days. Rumania seems to be reluctant to 
subordinate its economy to the planning deci- 
sions of the Soviet bloc. By way of contrast, 
look at Stalinist Albania's anomalous position. 
It supports Communist China in its conflict 
with Moscow. It defies the Soviet Union and 
has no diplomatic relations with it, yet it main- 
tains relations with the Eastern European 

Great economic progress has been claimed by 
all the Eastern European regimes during the 
past years. The governments proclaim that 
they have overfulfilled their gross industrial 
production plans. Clearly the successful ful- 
fillment of economic plans is an attractive sub- 
ject to Communist propagandists. Yet, at the 
same time, severe, persistent, and chronic food 
shortages haunt most of these countries. 

United States policy has been and remains 
consistent in its desire to see governments in 
Eastern European countries — as elsewhere — 
which will promote the full independence of 
their nations. We wish to see governments 
which will guarantee and promote all the es- 
sential internal freedoms and which will work 
peacefully for normal and constructive relations 
with all coimtries. 

At the end of the last war, when Stalin 
brought down the Iron Curtain, he tried to re- 
duce or eliminate all contacts between East and 
West. He hoped thus to simplify lus assimila- 
tion of the nations of Eastern Europe into the 
Communist system. United States policy has 
always encouraged the drawing aside of this 
barrier. We want Eastern European countries 
to associate with us on equal terms. 

We should seek new ways to remind the peo- 

ples of Eastern Europe, Communists or not, 
tliat they are a part of the West and that we look 
forward to a day of even closer association. We 
want them to know how well the West has pros- 
pered with free systems. We want them to be 
able to see for themselves that the West is 
strong, dynamic, and united. We want them 
to know that we are completely dedicated to 
world peace but to understand, too, that the 
West is also capable of defending itself. 

We want them to see how our agriculture is 
flourisliing. We want them to compare our 
farm system with that of collectivization. 

We want them. Communists and non-Com- 
munists, to see for themselves that our people 
work hard because our incentive under a dem- 
ocratic system is always before us: the oppor- 
tunity for a higher standard of living, a better 
education for their children, more leisure, and 
a richer life. 

It is heartening that today increasing num- 
bers of Americans are visiting Eastern Euro- 
pean countries. Some go as tourists out of 
curiosity; others to see their families and 
friends; still others go to exchange knowledge 
in professional fields under private or official 
arrangements. We support these contacts. 
They help people to understand the problems 
of bridging our differences. These scientific, 
cultural, and educational exchanges also help to 
keep the Eastern European intelligentsia in 
touch with important developments in the 
United States. I have found in Bulgaria a 
profound hunger for communication with 

We, too, welcome the chance to visit with peo- 
ple everywhere in the world. The more Ameri- 
cans the world meets, the greater will be the 
understanding of American principles. The 
more we know of others, the richer we will be. 

Economic Relations 

And what about our economic relations? 

The United States permits trade in nonstra- 
tegic goods with Eastern European countries. 
At present it is limited, but we look forward to 
the day when our relations with these countries 
will allow such trade to be more significant. 
We want these people to share the benefits of 
our industrial and agricultural wealth and 


kiiow-how. Cultural influences invariably ac- 
company and follow trade between nations. 

Our policy toward Eastern Europe lias drawn 
a distinction between tliose countries which are 
independent and are striving for independence 
and those which subordinate their interests to 
Moscow. Yugoslavia, while a Conununist coun- 
try, is not alined with the Soviet bloc despite 
Khrushchev's wooing, and the policies it fol- 
lows are those which it believes best meet its 
national interests. I have already mentioned 
some ways in which Poland has liberalized its 
internal rule. As a result of the distinctive de- 
velopments in these two countries, both have 
most-favored-nation tariff treatment for the 
goods they export to the United States — that is 
to say, the tariff duties levied on their goods are 
as low as those on goods coming from any other 

I'nder a provision of the Trade Expansion 
Act of 1962, Congi-ess required the President to 
withdraw "as soon as practicable" most-f avored- 
nation treatment from all Communist countries, 
in effect, from Yugoslavia and Poland since 
they were the only ones enjoying this status. 
This requirement goes completely against the 
policy toward Eastern Europe followed by 
President Kennedy and his predecessoi'S. It 
would slam the door in the face of those two 
countries which have most emphatically re- 
jected Stalinist-type rule and have tried to 
evolve policies according to their national inter- 
ests. It would mean lumping them together 
with all the other Communist countries as if 
there were no differences among them. It would 
mean discouraging all Eastern European coun- 
tries from developing meaningful associations 
with the United States. It would ignore our 
vital interests in the area, since it would prevent 
us from pursuing a constructive policy. In- 
stead it would have the effect of reducing our 
relations to purely formal diplomatic contacts 
of the least effective kind. Instead of demon- 
strating our interest in the welfare of the 
peoples of Eastern Europe, we would appear to 
be writing them off. 

The President has already indicated his wish 
to see this provision of the Trade P^xpansion 
Act amended so that he might have flexible au- 
thority to continue most-favored-nation treat- 

ment for Yugoslavia and Poland.^ Our vital 
interests in Eastern Europe require this author- 
ity for the President. 

Few of us at the time of Stalin's death could 
have predicted that 10 years later the Soviet 
Union itself would be involved in a raging ideo- 
logical dispute over freedom for the writer and 
artist, that Poland would have all but aban- 
doned agricultural collectivization, that a Hun- 
garian Premier could declare that "whoever is 
not against us is with us," and that Albania 
M'ould side with Communist China against the 
Kremlin. Of greatest moment, however, is the 
impact which the Sino-Soviet conflict will have 
on the loyalties of Eastern European parties. 

The peoples of Eastern Europe are aware of 
the disarray in the Communist world. And 
whether they know it or not, they have contrib- 
uted to their own welfare by the pressure they 
have brought against their governments. 
"Wliether by passive resistance or occasional 
overt action, the people themselves have forced 
changes and concessions from their govern- 

We believe that Eastern Europe is today in a 
state of flux. No one can predict what will 
evolve. Meanwliile we intend to maintain an 
active policy which will expand our contacts 
with Eastern Europeans. "We persistently wish 
to demonstrate that we are concerned with the 
welfare of these peoples. We are interested in 
their national aspirations for independence. 
We want to keep them informed about Western 
tliouglit in all areas of science and culture. 

The process of change in Eastern Europe is 
bound to continue. The ideological rift between 
the Soviet Union and Communist China must 
necessarily have a strong impact on the Commu- 
nist world. The Common Market factor in 
European and world trade will add some hard- 
ship to the Eastern European countries. Al- 
ready they are trying to avoid the anticipated 
disequilibrium by integrating their own econo- 
mies. At the same time they continue to be 
fascinated by the possibilities of trade contacts 
witli t he West. In the light of all these shifting 

' For text of a statement by Assistant Secretary 
William R. Tyler before the House Committee on For- 
eig:n Affairs on May 27, see Bulletin of June 17. 1003, 
p. 947. 



forces, the United States must pursue a complex 
policy which can take account of the area's new 

We wish to respond to the aspirations of the 
Eastern European peoples, which are basically 
akin to our own revolutionary ideals. They, 
too, dream of being able to enrich their lives, to 
enjoy the responsibility of liberty, and to pursue 
the goal of happiness. They, too, believe in the 
dignity of man. 

Let us maintain our confidence in these peo- 
ples, who through the centuries have endured 
so much. The tides of change which now en- 
compass the globe are at work in Eastern Eu- 
rope too. Meanwhile the present phase of 
ferment throughout the Communist world re- 
quires imaginative, active United States poli- 
cies. These can be effective only if miderstood 
and supported by the American people. 

The Responsibility of the Individual 

And what of your own personal role in these 
years of unremitting change? For ultimately 
the carrying forward of American ideals de- 
pends on individual Americans : what kind of 
ideas move us ; what values we cherish ; whether 
a humane morality guides us; with what cour- 
age we act; what kind of children we raise; 
what sort of schools and communities we sus- 
tain; what quality of arts, literature, theater, 
and music we create; how we nourish the sci- 
ences ; what standards of excellence inspire us ; 
whether we relate ourselves as friends and 
brothers, regardless of color, religion, or na- 
tionality; how we resolve our personal and 
national crises; and finally, whether we as in- 
dividuals accept America's responsibility to the 

There are, of course, many ways in which you 
can work for the triumph of American ideals. 
But imderlying any life course you may choose 
must be an enduring commitment to the cause of 

I would hope that many of you will discover 
that politics is the central means we Ameri- 
cans have for preserving freedom, for continu- 
ing our unfinished revolution. We can sur- 
mount our enormous difficulties at home and 
abroad, but only if enough educated men and 
women engage themselves in the struggle of 

politics. It does not matter which party you 
choose. It is imperative to infuse a new re- 
sponsibility in both parties. Eecently a na- 
tional survey showed that only 4 percent of 
Americans belong to any political organization. 
How can we hope to improve our democracy if 
our political parties are run by such a few! 

There are many explosive and compelling 
needs and conflicts in America. Indeed the 
present confrontation in race relations is of epic 
proportions — certainly sharper, deeper, and 
broader than any since the Civil War. Now 
we must achieve full racial equality not only in 
civil rights but in all areas including educa- 
tion, housing, and employment. Progress must 
be accelerated in all sections of our country — 
North and South, East, West, and Middle West, 
too. Eesolving this major crisis without fur- 
ther violence now — not tomorrow, today — is an 
imperative for us all. Our consciences as indi- 
vidual Americans cannot continue to carry the 
burden of indifference, brutality, and wrong 
against our fellow man. Our nation, as the 
leader of the free world, cannot afford more 
tragedies like Birmingham and Little Rock. I 
should add that many Americans are now work- 
ing hard to eliminate segregation in those areas, 
as elsewhere. 

Finally, I submit that American foreign pol- 
icy also depends on American politics. It is 
important that some of you will enter the Amer- 
ican Foreign Service, the Peace Corps, AID. 
Indeed I would urge you to consider giving sev- 
eral years of your lives to serving your country 
abroad. But fully as urgent is the need for in- 
spired, courageous men and women at home to 
help shape American politics, which in turn 
molds our foreign policy. 

American politics needs more young leaders 
who know the times into which you have been 
born. Our country needs more young men and 
women who imderstand the infinite worth of 
tlie individual and his freedom. We need more 
yomig Americans who want to share our liber- 
ties, our abundance, our dreams with others. 
For it is the unfinished American Revolution 
which is still the hope of mankind. 

As Lincoln said so well, when pondering the 
meaning of our revolution: 

"It was not the mere matter of separation of 
the colonies from the motherland, but that sen- 

JTJLY 15, 1963 


timent in the Declaration of Independence 
which gave liberty not alone to the people of 
this country, but hope to the world, for all 
future time." 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland Visits 
Europe To Discuss U.N. Affairs 

The Department of State announced on June 
27 (press release 338) that Harlan Cleveland, 
Assistant Secretary for International Orga- 
nization AflFairs, would leave Washington on 
June 28 for 10 days of meetings and consulta- 
tions on U.N. affairs at London, Paris, and 

In Paris, July 1-4, Mr. Cleveland will attend 
special meetings of the Organization for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and Development and of its 
Development Assistance Committee. In Ge- 
neva, July 5-7, he will chair a conference of 
U.S. representatives to various U.N. specialized 
agencies and speak at a dinner meeting of the 
Society for International Development. While 
in London, June 29-30 and July 7-8, he will 
meet with British officials and take part in talks 
covering a wide range of topics expected to be 
discussed at the forthcoming meetings of the 
U.N. General Assembly and other U.N. bodies. 
Mr. Cleveland will return to Wasliington on 
July 9. 

King and Queen of Afghanistan 
To Visit U.S. in September 

White House Announcement 

White House press release dated Jane 17 

As announced earlier [February 21] Their 
Majesties the King and Queen of Afghanistan 
will make a state visit to the United States in 
Scpteml)cr of this year. It is expected that the 
royal visitors will reach Washington, D.C., on 
Sopteml)er 5. On arrival, they will be greeted 
by President Kennedy and high officials of the 
United States Government. Following several 

days of discussion on matters of mutual inter- 
est in Washington between King Mohammed : 
Zahir and the President, Their Majesties will 
proceed on a tour of the United States. Though , 
their program is still under preparation, it iS' 
expected Their Majesties will travel widely in ^ 
the United States and visit a number of dif- 
ferent areas. 

The people and the Government of the United i 
States are looking forward to extending a warm , 
and cordial welcome to Their Majesties. It is 
expected that the visit will serve to strengthen 
existing friendly ties between the two countries. 

U.S. Warns Validated Passport 
Is Required for Travel to Cuba 

Press release 334 dated Jnne 26 

The Department of State annoimced on June 
26 that it has recently received information that 
American students have been offered subsidized 
travel grants from an agency of the Cuban gov- 
ernment — the Federation of University Stu- 
dents in Habana — for travel to Cuba during 
June and July 1963. Since their travel does 
not meet the established criteria, their passports 
have not been validated for such travel. 

On January 16, 1961, the Department an- 
nounced that U.S. citizens desiring to go to 
Cuba must obtain passports specifically en- 
dorsed by the Department of State for such 
travel.^ This requirement is still in effect. 

Passports of U.S. citizens may be validated 
for travel to Cuba only when their travel may 
be regarded as being in the best interests of the 
United States, as in the case of newsmen. 

The Department warns all concerned that 
travel to Cuba by a U.S. citizen without a pass- 
port specifically validated by the Department 
of State for that purpose constitutes a violation 
of the Travel Control Law and Regulations 
(title 8, U.S. Code, sec. 1185; title 22, Code 
of Federal Regulations, sec. 53.3). A willful 
violation of the law is punishable by fine and/or 

' For text of announcement, see Bm-tETiN of Feb. 6, 
lOGl, p. 178. 



North America, the Open Continent 

hy William R. Tyler 

Assistant Secretary for European Affairs ^ 

This is one of the happiest events on our cal- 
endar. It is not a national holiday, nor a com- 
memoration of a great and victorious exploit, 
aor is it a memorial to self-sacrifice or valor. 
We celebrate today a simple act of common 
5ense — a moment of rationality in the liistory 
3f nations, a moment to remember, for it con- 
tains a spark of hope for the future. 

We cannot count tlie gain that our nations 
aave derived from the Eush-Bagot treaty, and 
it is useless to speculate on the losses which 
night have occurred if the treaty had not been 
observed. We know that the gains have been 
?reat and that the agreement set the pattern 
for an open continent, a continent which has 
?rown and prospered, morally and materially, 
Decause it has been an open continent. 

To us who live in the shadow of modern ar- 
Tiaments, this commemoration of common sense 
eaches an obvious lesson. It urges us to con- 
inue our efforts to achieve disarmament on a 
tvorldwide scale. It reminds us that a success- 
ful treaty can continue to spread its blessings 
wer generations long after the doubts and 
'oadblocks are forgotten. 

Just 17 years ago, Mr. Bernard Baruch 
ippeared before the opening session of the 
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission 
md made one of the most generous offers ever 
-nade by a nation. But, even then, it was appar- 
■nt that an atomic victory would be a shallow 
-ictory. As Mr. Baruch said at that time: 
'Let us not deceive ourselves: We must elect 
iVorld Peace or World Destruction." ^ 

The Baruch plan was approved by every 

nation in the world except the members of the 
Communist bloc. But, without them, the plan 
could never go into effect. 

The choice before mankind has grown more 
stark in the years that have passed. The 
primitive atomic weapons had a destructive 
force measured in kdlotons — the equivalent of 
thousands of tons of TNT. The nuclear 
weapons of 1963 consist of a whole range of 
sophisticated weapons, the largest of which has 
a destructive power that is measured in mega- 
tons — millions of tons of TNT. The power to 
destroy has increased a thousandfold. 

Even more disturbing is the increased speed 
of delivery vehicles. The bombers at the end 
of World War II had a speed of approximately 
300 miles per hour. Today's supersonic 
bombers can travel half way around the world 
in less than half a day, and today's missiles can 
do it in about a half hour. 

Requirements for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 

Without adequate verification procedures, 
any attempt to limit or control modern weapons 
is useless, for violations would be easy and the 
party which conforms to the treaty could 
quickly find itself at the mercy of the violator. 

However, we have not abandoned tlie possi- 
bility of finding mutually acceptable grounds 
for agreement. In this connection, it would 
seem to be obvious that there is one area in 
which the United States and the Soviet Union 

'Address made at Old Fort Niagara, Youngstown, 
N.Y., on June Ki. 
' For text, see Bulletin of June 23, 1946, p. 1057. 

rULY 15, 1963 


have sometliing in common. I refer to the 
desire to avoid a workl war. This is not to 
say that there appears to he any prospect of the 
Soviet bloc ahandoninp its objective of bring- 
ing the workl nnder Communist domination. 
Likewise, it is also clear that the Western 
democracies will never allow the Communists 
to do this. But the i-esolution of this problem 
is not to be found in all-out war, and the Soviet 
Union appeai-s to undei-stand this critical fact. 
There would therefore api)ear to be an interest 
in both camps in the necessity of preventing 
mutual annihilation. 

"We have rex-ently created a special agency of 
our Government to coordinate work on the dis- 
armament problem. Tliis agency, the United 
States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 
was allotted over $6 million during the fiscal 
year now ending. In the budget which the 
President has submitted to Congress for the 
coming yeivr, $1.5 million hius been requested by 
the administration. Disarmament is of inter- 
est to many departments of government — the 
military, the State Department, and the atomic 
energy establishments, to name just a few. The 
President has final responsibility for policy in 
this field, and it is the purpose of the new 
agency to see that he is supplied with the advice 
that can enable him to pursue a vigorous and 
realistic course. 

One of the primary challenges which moti- 
vates the new agency is the improvement 
in methods of verification which can assure us 
of treaty compliance. We have wherever jxxs- 
sible formulated the neces.sary verification so 
as to minimize Soviet fears that verification will 
be usexi for purjwses of espionage. For exam- 
ple, the Congre,ss over the last sevenvl years 
appropriated $00 million to finance improve- 
ments in nuclear test detection and identifica- 
tion. This research, conducted by our 
Department of Defense, has i-e.sulted in scientific 
advances which have enabled us to reduce our 
inspection requirements for a test ban treaty. 

We are now in a position to offer the Soviet 
Union two alternative treaties : '' alternative one, 
a treaty, with no on-site inspection whatsoever, 
banning nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, 

* For texts of draft treaties, see ibiil., Sept. 17, 1!)»>2, 
p. 111. 

imder water, and in outer space — this treaty 
would involve no intrusion in the Soviet Union 
by outside inspectors (the parties would rely 
entirely on their own national capabilities to 
detect explosions) ; and alternative two, a com- 
prehensive, across-the-board treaty prohibiting 
tests in all environments, underground tests as 
well as those in the atmosphere, in outer space, 
or under water. Such a comprehensive treaty 
would be monitored by our national detection 
system, plus seven automatic seismic recording 
stations on Soviet territory. Because of the 
need for determining the true nature of under- 
ground disturbances which cannot be positively 
identified either as nuclear tests or natural earth 
shocks, the United States would require that 
the United States, the United Kingdom, and 
the Soviet Union accept seven on-site inspec- 
tions per year on their territory. The Soviet 
Union insists upon limiting such on-site visits 
to three a j'ear and refuses even to consider 
what the inspections should consist of and how 
they should be conducted. It is obvious that 
the modalities of inspections are as important 
as the number of inspections. 

In discussions with Soviet representatives 
we have asked tliem to address themselves to 
methods of providing verification and at the 
same time preventing espionage. We have in- 
dicated a willingness to have inspectors blind- 
folded while in transit to the site of the inspec- 
tion, to have them transported in planes in 
which the windows are blacked out and piloted 
by Soviet pilots. To these suggestions we have 
received no response. 

The object of the forthcoming mission of 
Under Secretaiy [W. Averell] Harriman and 
Lord Hailsham [British Minister for Science] 
to Moscow is to convince the Kremlin leaders 
of the need for action now, for the hour is grow- 
ing late. 

I can assure you that the U.S. Government 
has not for one instant lost sight of the over- 
riding need for the maintenance of security. 
The revisions we have made in our position are 
revisions which reflect new scientific knowledge. 
We do not seek inspection for inspection's sake. 
But we do demand that verification be such as 
to give us assurance that all parties to the treaty 
are observing tiiat treaty. Anything less would 



involve a dangerous risk to the security of the 
free world. 

U.S. and Soviet Disarmament Proposals 

The test ban treaty is only one of the objec- 
tives we pursue in the field of amis control and 
disarmament. We have also submitted a pro- 
posal for general and complete disarmament in 
a peaceful world. 

Both the United States and the Soviet Union 
have submitted at Geneva draft outlines of a 
treaty for general and complete disarmament.^ 
Each proposal calls for disarmament in three 
stages and for the establishment of an Interna- 
tional Disarmament Organization to supervise 
enforcement. However, this is where the simi- 
larity between the two proposals ends. 

I shall point out a few of the major differ- 

In the first place, the Soviet Union has tended 
too much, in our view, to stress full agreement 
on all aspects of disarmament before a single 
stage or measure of disarmament may be im- 
plemented. We believe that agreement on a 
few isolated measures first might allow us rea- 
sonably to evaluate how quickly or slowly we 
can prudently progress along the road to the 
ultimate goal, while at the same time assuring 
our security. 

The first few steps in a disarmament pro- 
gram, if achieved with no mishap, should lead 
to confidence in taking the next. Experience 
remains the best guide; we learn to walk be- 
fore we learn to run. If we gain assurance 
from experience that the other side is really 
fulfilling its obligations in the primary phases, 
we might tentati\-ely experiment further. If 
such assurance is not forthcoming, there is no 
possibility of further progress. Since assur- 
ance cannot be based luerely on promises, the 
United States holds that verification through 
inspection must be guaranteed. The Soviet 
Union has resolutely refused to accept this kind 
of verification and has insisted that, in no small 
part, the United States must accept the Soviet 
Union's word. 

Secondly, the first stage of the Soviet Union's 
proposal calls for the almost complete elimina- 

tion of all means of delivering nuclear weapons, 
of all foreign bases, and of the deployment of 
all troops abroad. In addition there would be 
reductions in conventional armaments, and, 
what is more important, such reduction would 
be effected within 15 months. Obviously such 
a proposal is a very thinly veiled assault on the 
entire U.S. and NATO defense system. In 
contrast, the U.S. plan calls for across-the- 
board 30 percent reduction in all major arma- 
ments over a period of 3 years, or 10 percent 
per year. In other words, reductions should be 
proportional, thereby leaving the present bal- 
ance of i^ower undisturbed. 

Thirdly, the U.S. proposals call for more ef- 
fective measures of control than do those of the 
Soviet Union. The nature of the Soviet society, 
one of secrecy, makes it imperative that ade- 
quate inspection machinery be guaranteed. 
Secrecy, we believe, breeds suspicion, and to al- 
lay it we must have direct access to evidence of 
what is occurring in the Soviet Union. 

In our search for the long-range solution I 
have been describing we pursue a flexible course 
of action : 

First of all, we desire to negotiate and agree on 
a total plan going all the way to general and 
complete disarmament in a peaceful world. 

Second, if tliis is not possible, we are willing 
to attain the widest area of agreement short of 
this that is possible at the earliest possible date. 

And third, we are also willing to seek agree- 
ment on any single measure or group of meas- 
ures that would contribute to the conunon se- 
curity of nations and to implement such an 
agreement at the earliest possible date. 

In this third category we include several 
limited measures looking toward the elimina- 
tion of the danger of war by accident or mis- 
calculation. Only one of these proposals, a pro- 
posal to i^rovide direct and speedy communi- 
cation between the United States and the Soviet 
Union, has found a favorable reaction. Nego- 
tiations for the so-called "hot line" have been 
proceeding smoothly, and an agreement may 
be effected shortly.^ 

The President of the United States, on June 

* For text of a U.S. outline of a treaty on general and 
complete disarmament, see Hid., May 7, 1962, p. 747. 

= For background and text of a U.S.-U.S.S.R. agree- 
ment signed at Geneva on June 20, see ibid., .July 8. 
1963, p. .50. 

JULY l.'j, 1963 


10, announced that the United States woukl 
refi"ain from conducting any nuclear tests in 
the atmosphere so long as other countries would 
do likewise." 

As tlie United States has made clear, througli 
its spokesmen at the United Nations and else- 
where, we have no intention of placing weapons 
of mass destruction in orbit; we will not pre- 
cipitate a race for such weapons. 

Soviet Advantage in "Propaganda Game" 

Negotiation for disarnianicnt has been a long 
and difficult process. During the last 17 years 
we have tried to find the key or keys that would 
unlock the door. While we believe that the 
Soviet Union will eventually come to realize 
that its long-range interest lies in disarmament, 
it is not clear that this point is yet fully ap- 
preciated in the Kremlin. 

They are in an advantageous position to play 
the propaganda game on this subject. For the 
governments of tlie free world are imder con- 
stant pressure from citizens, press, and organiza- 
tions. All of these are concerned about peace, 
and all are alert to spur tlieir governments on 
to greater efTorts. Some of the more extreme 
groups even advocate unilateral disarmament. 

On the Russian side, tliere is no parallel 
activity. There is no freedom to demonstrate, 
to speak, or to publish in the Communist world. 
The few peace organizations which exist are 
puppets of the state and are imanimous and 
vociferous in their approval of every move made 
by tlie Kremlin. 

The result is that the Kremlin can get a great 
deal of mileage on vague and superficial pro- 
posals. It can avoid candid replies to questions 
at the negotiating table. Wiiy should it bother, 
when the reactions of some of the more naive 
segments of the peace movement show that they 
are already ahead of the game so far as public 
opinion is concerned? 

This is, of course, quite the opposite of what 
the peace movement desires to accomplish. The 
lesson which the peace movement must learn 
is that it takes two to make a bargain on dis- 
armament and that it is just as important to 
place pressure on the Kremlin as on Western 

•/fcir/.. July 1. 10(5.3. p. 2. 

governments — more important, in fact, because 
there are no peace movements to do the job in 
Russia. And acceptance, at face value, of 
sweeping generalities merely proves to the 
Kremlin that they don't have to bother to get 

Open Society of the West 

Another unbalanced factor arises from the 
fact that the NATO alliance is composed of 
governments which are truly independent and 
sovereign and that, in the open society of the 
West, they conduct much public business 
openly. Across the Iron Curtain we have a 
quite different situation — a situation in which 
the Russians command, the satellites obey — a 
situation in which the newspapers print only 
the final decisions which are handed to them by 
state officials. 

As a result, little or nothing is published 
about defense and military discussions in the 
Communist world. Even in the midst of a 
heavy arms program, all can be silent but the 
voice of the don. Here in the West, on the 
other hand, every new idea is reported at length 
in the j^ress and debated in parliament. As a 
result, it is quite easy for a casual onlooker to 
get the impression that the free world is im- 
duly concerned with arms questions. 

We will have to live with this unbalanced 
situation for a long time. I. for one. would 
not want to see it changed. Freedom to think, 
to publish, and to criticize the government is 
a great heritage of the people, both in the 
United States and in Canada. 

But governments must take note of this situ- 
ation and must not permit the Communists to 
exploit it to drive a wedge between our people 
and our governments, or between the nations 
within our alliance. We must remain united 
in tactics as well as policy. Only thus will we 
be able to teach the Soviet Union that cheap 
propaganda victories are beyond their reach, 
that they must turn their efforts toward an 
lionest pursuit of disarmament through serious 

A deeper understanding of the role of modem 
weapons in international relations and an under- 
standing of initiatives we can take in their 
management are byproducts of our efforts to 



reach an international disarmament agreement. 
Ajiother byproduct is the fact that we liave a 
forum in which communication lines between 
East and West are kept open. 

We intend to persist in our efforts at negotia- 
tion, regardless of frustrations and discourage- 
ments. One obstacle to this agreement is the 
fact that the Soviets insist on maintaining a 
tightly closed society, distrustful of interna- 
tional organizations and opaque to international 
inspection. Without moves in the direction of 
^eater openness, it will be difficult to achieve 
the verification which is essential if all sides are 
to have confidence in a disarmament treaty. 

It is in this direction, the direction of open- 
ness, that the world can find great guidance 
from the history of our Canadian-American 
experience. The example of an open continent 
may eventually lead to the creation of an open 

U.S.-Canadian Interdependence 

Let me conclude by saying a few words about 
our relations with Canada. Few people realize 
the extent of the involvement of the two coim- 
tries with each other. The situation results 
from geography, the magnitude of the trade 
between us, tlie size of the investments citizens 
of each country own in the other, the complexity 
of our defense arrangements, our joint water 
resource problems, and many other factors of 
interdependence. Fortunately, as neighbors, we 
can speak frankly to each other ; and to be able 
to do so honestly and responsibly is priceless 
when the variety and complexity of our points 
af contact are steadily and inevitably 

A proper view of United States-Canadian 
relations, however, must encompass not just 
bilateral problems wliich we consider together 
Dut also the problems which we face in other 
oarts of the world. Happily, these problems 
io not separate us. We can take deep satisfac- 
ion that our interests and objectives and our 
policies are strikingly parallel. Both of our 
countries want a world in which trade may 
levelop without discrimination and in accord- 
mce with soimd economics. We are both dis- 
urbed over the threat to the economy and 
)eoples of the free world represented by the 

Communist system. Finally, we both need each 
other in terms of mutual security and defense. 
We have come a long way since the Eush- 
Bagot treaty, and in the interim United States- 
Canadian relations have been, basically, an 
example to the world. We can be lifted in 
spirit by earnestly believing that our future is 
bright with even greater promise. 

Technical Cooperation Programs 
of U.N. System 

The Advisory Committee on International 
Organizations announced on June 28 the release 
of a report entitled "The Technical Coopera- 
tion Programs of the United Nations System." ' 

This report is the second in a series to be 
made by the Advisory Committee on Interna- 
tional Organizations, which was appointed in 
July 1962 to assist the Department of State in 
a systematic review of U.S. participation in 
international organizations and in efforts to as- 
sure that these organizations carry on their 
w^ork as effectively as possible. The first re- 
port, issued on April 26, 1963, was entitled 
"Staffing International Organizations." ^ Sol 
M. Linowitz, chairman of the board, Xerox 
Corp., Rochester, N.Y., and partner in the firm 
of Harris, Beach, Keating, Wilcox, Dale and 
Linowitz, is chairman of the advisory commit- 
tee. ' 

The report on U.N. teclmical cooperation 
programs was submitted to Assistant Secretary 
for International Organization Affairs Harlan 
Cleveland by Mr. Linowitz on June 28. It in- 
cludes seven recommendations to help strength- 
en U.S. relations with international organiza- 
tions and to assure more effective use of funds 
contributed by the United States for teclmical 
cooperation purposes. 

^ A limited number of copies of the report are avail- 
able upon request from the Office of Media Services, 
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520. 

• For an announcement, see Buixetin of May 20, 
1963, p. 809. 

• For names of the other members of the committee, 
see Department of State press release 228 dated Apr. 

TJLT 15, 1963 


Role of Individual Women 
in the World Community 

by Mrs. Katie Louchheim 

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs ^ 

Tonight I want to say just a few words to 
you wlio liave heard ahiiost too many words in 
the past 10 days. I want to speak to you about 
our role as individuals. But first of all I want 
to pay tribute to those who, as individuals, 
especially gifted individuals, have made this 
75th conference of the International Council of 
Women the great success it has been. JNIrs. 
Jacobs, the president of the National Council of 
Women, is what we call a "doer"; and to the 
doers, especially those who combine intelligence 
with charm, go all the plaudits we can tender 
them. Your outgoing international president, 
Mme. Tvefaucheux, leaves a record of achieve- 
ments that all can be proud of. We salute her 
for her wisdom and devotion. And we gi-eet 
your newly elected international president, 
Craig McGeachy Schidler, with cheei-s and all 
good wishes. Mrs. SchuUer and I were co- 
workers in the first international war relief 
effort of World War II, UNKRA [United Na- 
tions Relief and Reliabilitation Administra- 
tion]. It was my good fortune to observe at 
first hand her capabilities in those critical years. 
Your future as an International Council is in 
good hands. 

We in the State Department are concerned 
with the progress and problems of women of 
other countries. We are anxious to see the 
bonds of friendship strengthened between the 
women of the United States and the women of 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. We 
all need to know eacli other better and to draw 
from each other new strength and fresh ideas 
as you have been doing at this meeting. 

In order to encourage more contacts between 
American women and the women of your coun- 
tries, we have enlarged the participation of 
women in Stat* Department exchange programs. 
In the past 3 years more women leaders of 
other countries have visited the United States 

' Address made at a dinner moetinp: of the .Toint Con- 
ference of the National Women of the United States 
and the International Council of Women at Washing- 
ton, D.C., on June 29 (press release 3-1.") dated June 2S). 

as guests of the State Department and other 
Government agencies than ever before. More 
American women than ever before have been 
traveling to your coimtries, to meet your leaders 
and to work with them — not only in great inter- 
national conferences like this one but in small 
groups or just woman to woman. 

President Kennedy, speaking of a better life 
for ourselves and for our children in Frank- 
furt, Germany, said : "To realize this vision, we 
must seek, above all, a world of peace — a world 
in wliich peoples dwell together in mutual re- 
spect . . . not a mere interlude between wars 
but an incentive to the creative energies of 
humanity." Surely women possess the creative 
human resources of which President Kennedy 
spoke. We are the teachers, the hearth-tenders, 
and the heart-healers ; we are the guardians of 
our heritage. 

Today, in an interdependent world, all of us 
recognize that our roles as individuals assume 
an even greater importance. We have a folk 
saying in Ajnerica which goes, "If you want to 
send a message that will be heard, you can tele- 
graph, telephone, televise, or tell a woman." 
Folk sayings are based on fact; increasingly 
women are being recognized as a crucial factor 
in education, as opinion makers, and indeed as 
a major political force. 

The power of women who cooperate is limit- 
less. The voluntary contributions of women 
have changed the faces of their communities, 
urged reforms that could never have waited for 
the passage of law, and fought long and hard 
for the laws that made such reforms permanent. 

But it is also as individuals that women can 
create a climate in which progress can take 
place. It is as neighbors and homemakere, as 
well as educators and political leaders, that we 
have become part of the revolution of rising 
expectations. It is as idealists and standard 
bearers in the highways and byways, in the 
marketplace and in the home, that we have our 
greatest opportunity to become the spokesman 
for tlie rights of all mankind. 

A contemporary philosopher, Scott Buchan- 
an, has eloquently stated our case: "The human 
individual is responsible for injustice anywhere 
in the universe." If we need proof of this 
thesis we have but to read the headlines. Crisis 



is served with the morning coffee; concern is 
our shadow; change and cliallenge our birth- 

Mr. Buchanan's remarks should not be taken 
to mean that each of us is responsible for in- 
justice anywhere, but that every one of us has 
the responsibility for dealing with these in- 
justices. To set the universe as the limits of 
our responsibility may seem to be exaggerating 
the case. But if we were to ask that each in- 
dividual assume responsibility for dealing with 
injustice in his own community, there would un- 
doubtedly be acceptance of our proposition. 

We cannot alter, perhaps, what is going on 
at the other limits of the globe. But the world 
is now the kind of place where events in our 
own community affect not only all of us but 
all of humanity, even those at the other ends 
of the earth. And so, for the informed, in- 
volved, participating citizen, the responsible 
woman leader, the community expands; it is 
not only her village or city, it is also her 

I know that each one of you, on your return 
home, will consider your community in its re- 
lation to your countiy and to the free world. 
On our side we hope tliat this great meeting 
here in Washington will be but the beginning 
of an enduring friendship and that we will be 
hearing from all of you. 

Grant Awarded to American Institute 
of Indian Studies 

Press release 341 dated June 28 

The Department of State is awarding a grant 
totaling $1,959,000 in U.S.-owned Indian cur- 
rency (rupees) to the American Institute of In- 
dian Studies at Poona, near Bombay, to provide 
a 3-year extension of a program of research 
studies now completing its first year of opera- 
tion. The institute, which was incorporated in 
1961, provides educational facilities and oppor- 
tunities to qualified U.S. scholars and students 
for research and training in Indian studies and 
for the publication of the results of such studies. 

Through the grant some 150 U.S. faculty 
members and graduate students will receive 
transportation and maintenance expenses to 

pursue research mterests in India during the 
next 3 years. The individual grants provide 
transportation and full maintenance for faculty 
fellows and junior fellows except in the case of 
holders of National Defense Education Act fel- 
lowships, who receive international transporta- 
tion only. 

The institute is supported both financially 
and in planning aspects by a consortium of 33 
American colleges and universities wliich have 
joined forces for the advancement in this coun- 
tiy of knowledge and miderstanding of India. 
The institutions are : American, Arizona, Cali- 
fornia, Chicago, Claremont (University Col- 
lege), Colgate, Columbia, Cornell, Duke, Ha- 
waii, Massachusetts Institute of Teclmology, 
Michigan, Minnesota, State University of New 
York, Pennsylvania, Eochester, Rutgers, Sweet 
Briar, Syracuse, Texas, Wisconsin, and mem- 
bers of the Great Lakes Colleges Association 
(Albion, Antioch, Denison, DePauw, Earlham, 
Hope, Kalamazoo, Kenyon, Oberlin, Ohio Wes- 
leyan, Wabash, and Wooster). 

In 1962 the institute received a grant of 
$500,000 from the Ford Foundation which, with 
the annual dues ($500 to $2,500 for member in- 
stitutions), is expected to cover costs in the 
United States for the institute's first 5 years 
of operation. Also in 1962 the Department 
made a grant of $500,000, in rupees, for operat- 
ing expenses in India for the first year. The 
Department's support, through its Bureau of 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, is in fimds 
generated tlirough the sale of surplus agricid- 
tural commodities and autliorized for use by 
the Department of State mider Public Law 480. 

W. Norman Brown, chairman of South 
Asian regional studies at the University of 
Pennsylvania, is president of the institute. 
]\Iilton Singer, chairman of the South Asian 
Language and Area Center of the University of 
Chicago, is vice president; Henry C. Hart, 
chairman of the South Asian Language and 
Area Center of the University of Wisconsin, is 
secretary; and F. Haydn Morgan, director of 
project research and grants of the University 
of Pennsylvania, is treasurer. McCrea Hazlett, 
formerly provost of the University of Rocli- 
ester, has recently been appointed director of 
the institute and will administer the program 

JULY 15, 1963 

in India. D. D. Karve of India is executive 
officer of the institute. Its Indian headquarters 
are at Deccan College in Poona. 

Fellows of the institute are either at the post- 
doctoral level or the immediately predoctoral 
level and are selected under criteria established 
by the Board of Trustees. Eligibility is not 
limited to candidates from institutions holding 
memberships in the institute. Citizens of other 
countries who are members of teaching staffs or 
candidates for higher degrees at American in- 
stitutions are also eligible to apply. 

The broad aim of the program is to encourage 
the growth of foreign language and area compe- 
tence in the United States as a means of pro- 
moting better international understanding. 
Activities made possible by the institute are 
intended to contribute to this goal through 
scholarly research, through the training of 
American specialists in the field, and by in- 
corporating knowledge of India into the general 
education of larger numbers of Americans. 

Owners of Real Property in Iraq 
Notified of Legal Requirements 

Press release 339 dated Jnne 27 

Tlie American Embassy at Baghdad has been 
informed of an official notification recently is- 
sued by the Government of Iraq, addressed to 
persons not of Iraqi nationality wlio own or ad- 
minister real property in Iraq. The notifica- 
tion refers to Iraqi Laws No. 38 of 1961 and No. 
46 of 1962, which, in general, restrict owner- 
ship of real property by foreigners to a house 
for residence and an office for the practice of a 
profession. These laws also require foreigners 
to transfer to an Iraqi citizen, within a stated 
period ending August 15, 190.3, real property in 
excess of what they are legally entitled to own. 
Property not so transferred is to be sold at pub- 
lic sale. 

The recent notification requests foreign 
owners or administrators of real property, re- 
gardless of place of residence, in order to "safe- 
guard their rights in the cost of their estates," 
either to transfer the legal excess of their Iraqi 
estate or to submit a statement describing their 
estate to an Iraqi embassy or consulate. 


Jointly Financed Exchange Programs I 
Established With Austria and Sweden 


Press release 333 dated June 25 

U.S. Ambassador James W. Riddleberger and 
Austrian Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky 
signed at Vienna on June 25 an agreement which 
will extend the Austro-American Fulbright 
program at present levels for at least another 

Under earlier agreements,' which have been 
in effect since 1950, all costs of the program 
were paid for by the United States. The new 
arrangement, authorized by the Fulbright-Hays 
Act of 1961, calls for bilateral financing, with 
the Austrian Government committing 60 mil- 
lion Austrian schillings (approximately $2.4 
million) for the continued exchange of pro- 
fessors, teachers, students, and resenrchers and 
also for the establishment of chairs of American 
studies at the Universities of Vienna, Graz, and 
Innsbruck. Other cultural activities are pro- 
vided for. 

The new Austro-American agreement is the 
second to be concluded wliich provides for bi- 
lateral financing and the first actually to become 
operative. A German-American agreement 
signed in November 1962 ^ will take effect upon 
completion of ratification procedures within the 
Federal Republic. Similar agreements with 
other countries are expected shortly. 

Through the current academic year, a total 
of 878 Austrian teachers, lecturers, and stu- 
dents have traveled to the United States, and 
628 Americans have gone to Austria. Thus, 
with the inclusion of 58 renewal grants, a total 
of 1,504 have been made so far. 

The new bilateral agreement was foreseen 2 
years ago, when United States and Austrian 
officials signed an agreement transferring to the 
Austrian Government full responsibility for the 
future use of European Recovery Program 

'Treaties and Other International Acts Series 2072, 
3279, and 4959. 

" For background, see Bitlletin of Dec. 17, 1962, p. 



(Marshall Plan) counterpart funds and, in 
connection with that agreement, exchanged 
notes providing that a portion of the coimter- 
part funds would be earmarked for future 
Austro-American educational and cultural ex- 
cliange activities. 


Press release 342 dated June 28 

Representatives of the Governments of the 
United States and of Sweden on June 28 signed 
an agreement extending the Fulbright program 
of educational exchanges between the two coun- 
tries. Foreign IVIinister Torsten Nilsson of 
Sweden and U.S. Charge d'Affaires Alfred 
leSesne Jenkins signed for their respective 
countries at Stockholm. 

The revised agreement provides for the first 
time for joint financing of the program with 
Sweden. Such joint financing is authorized by 
the Fulbright-Hays Act of 1961. Similar 
agreements for binational financing have been 
concluded between the United States and the 
Federal Republic of Germany and Austria. 

The original agreement^ with Sweden was 
signed in 1952 by the late Dag Hammarskjold, 
as Acting Swedish Foreign Minister, and by the 
then American Ambassador to Sweden, W. 
Walton Butterworth. 

Since the initiation of the program in 1952, 
the U.S. Educational Commission in Sweden 
has administered grants to 216 Swedish citizens 
who have traveled to the United States or to 
American schools abroad ; and to 62 Americans 
who have gone from the United States to 
Sweden, as well as 163 Americans who have 
gone to Sweden from other European comitries. 

The level of program funds will be increased 
to at least $100,000 a year, with Swedish finan- 
cial participation. In addition to grants for 
graduate study and research, the program has 
introduced American lecturers at all four 
Swedish universities and teacher exchanges be- 
tween Swedish and American secondary 

' TIAS 2653 ; for an announcement, see Bulletin of 
Dec. 8, 1952, p. 909. 

United States Provides Grain 
to Korea Under P.L. 480 

Press release 340 dated June 27 

The U.S. Government on June 27 announced 
that the United States will make available a 
total of 200,000 metric tons of gi-ain to the Re- 
public of Korea under the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act (Public Law 
480). The commodities to be provided will 
satisfy the immediate needs of the Korean peo- 
ple arising from extraordinarily inclement 
weather in the 1962-63 growing period and 
most recently aggravated by Typhoon Sliirley. 
One hundred and twenty-five thousand metric 
tons will be provided under title I (sales for lo- 
cal currency) of the act, the remaining 75,000 
tons under title II (grant) . 

The United States will continue to consult 
with the Korean Govermnent concerning fur- 
ther emergency food requirements. 

Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

88th Congress, 1st Session 

Study of Population and Immigration Problems by 
Subcommittee No. 1 of the House Committee on the 
Judiciary. Western Hemisphere (I) : 1. Trends in 
Canadian Population, presentation by Dr. Nathan 
Key&tz and Mr. Jacques Henripin ; 2. Population 
Trends in Mexico, presentation by Dr. Nathan L. 
Whetten. Special Series No. 5; March 11, 1963; 79 
pp. Western Hemisphere (II) : 1. The Demographic 
Position of the Caribbean, presentation by Dr. George 
Woodrow Roberts; 2. The Growth of Population in 
Central and South America, presentation by Dr. T. 
Lynn Smith. Special Series No. 6; March 27- 
April 3, 1963 ; 106 pp. 

Study of International Housing. Hearing before a 
subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Banking 
and Currency on a compendium of papers prepared 
for the study of international housing. April 22-25, 
1963. 232 pp. 

Staffing Procedures and Problems in Communist 
China. A study submitted by the Subcommittee on 
National Security Staffing and Operations to the Sen- 
ate Committee on Government Operations. May 15, 
1963. 50 pp. [Committee print] 

Report on Audit of the Export-Import Bank of Wash- 
ington, Fiscal Tear 1962. H. Doe. 113. May 15, 
1963. 53 pp. 

Amending the Arms Control and Disarmament Act 
Report to accompany S. 777. S. Rept. 215. June 6, 
1963. 13 pp. 

Authorizing the President To Proclaim Regulations for 
Preventing Collisions at Sea. Report to accompany 
H.R. 6012. H. Rept. 365. June 6, 1963. 3S pp. 

Exemption From Duty for Returning Residents. Re- 

JULT 15, 1963 


ports to accompany H.R. 6791. H. Rept. 371, June 7, 
liMiS, 7 pp. ; S. Rept. 305, June 25, 1963, 5 pp. ; H. 
Rept. 472. June 2('., 1903, 3 pp. 

Message from the President transmitting the annual 
reimrt of the St. Lawrence Seaway Development 
Corporation, covering its activities for the calendar 
year ending December 31, 19C2. H. Doc. 122. June 
13. 19C3. 27 pp. 

Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, the 
Judiciary, and Related Agencies Api)roprl:ition Bill, 
Fiscal Year 1964. Report to accompany II. II. 70C3. 
H. Rept. tiSH. June 14, 1963. 45 pp. 

Continued Susi>ensiou and Reduction of Duty on Chie- 
orv. Reports to accompany H.R. 2827. H. Rept. 
389, June 17, 1963, 2 pp. ; S. Rept. 308, June 25, 1963, 
2 pp. 

Problems and Trends in Atlantic Partnership — II. 
Staff Study prepared for the use of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations. S. Doc. 21. June 17, 
1962. 70 pp. 

Excluding Cargo Which Is Lumber From Certain Tariff 
Filing Requirements. Report to accompany S. 1032. 
S. Rept. 261. June 19, 1963. 6 pp. 

Export-Import Bank Act Extension. Report to accom- 
pany H.R. 3872. S. Rept. 262. June 19, 1963. 23 pp. 

Continued Exemption From Duty for Certain Tanning 
Extracts. Report to accompany H.R. 267.5. U. Rept 
424. June 19, 1963. 3 pp. 

Continued Suspension of Duty on Heptanoic Acid. 
Report to accompany H.R. 5712. H. Rept. 426. 
June 19, 1963. 1 p. 

r.S. Participation in International Bureau for the 
Protection of Industrial Property. Report to accom- 
pany H.J. Res. 405. H. Rept. 431. June 20, 1963. 
3 pp. 

Amendment to the Constitution of the International 
Labor Organization. Report to accompany S..I. 
Res. 60. H. Rept. 433. June 20, 1963. 4 pp. 

Duty on Polished Sheets and Plates of Iron or Steel. 
Report to accompany H.R. 3674. H. Rept. 44(i. 
June 21. 1963. 3 pp. 

Dutv on Panama Hats. Report to accompany H.R. 
3781. H. Rept. 441. June 21, 1963. 4 pp. 

Extending an Invitation To Hold the 1968 Winter 
Olympic Games in the United States. Report to 
accompany H.J. Res. 324. H. Rept. 444. June 24, 

i!:»6;{. 2 pp. 

Continued Susijension of Duties on Metal Scrap. 
Report to accompany H.R. 4174. S. Rept. 309. 
June 25, 1963. 3 pp. 


Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings' 

Adjourned During June 1963 

ICAO Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services: Meeting of Opera- 
tions Division. 

U.N. General Assembly: 4th Special Session 

ECOSOC Preparatory Committee for the Conference on Trade and 
Development: 2d Session. 

ECAFE Conference of Asian Statisticians: 5th Session 

International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: 
13th Meeting. 

2d Inter-American Port and Harbor Conference 

U.N. Special Fund: 10th Session of the Governing Council .... 
3d ECAFE Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Highway Safety 

World Food Congress 

ANZUS Council: 9th Meeting 

International Labor Conference: 47tli Session 

U.N. ECE Rapporteurs Group on Housing for the Elderly .... 


Mav 14-June 12 

New York Mav 14-June 27 

Geneva May 21-June 28 

Bangkok Mav 27- June 7 

Halifax May 27-June 8 

Mar del Plata, May 29-June 8 

New York June 3-10 

Bangkok June 4-10 

Washington June 4-18 

Wellington June 5-6 

Geneva June 5-27 

Geneva June 6-7 

' Prepared in the Office of International Conferences, June 25, 1963. Following is a list of abbreviations: 
ANZUS, Avistralia, New Zealand, and United States Security Treaty; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia 
and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; EEC, European 
Economic Community; FAG, Food and .Agriculture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; 
IAEA, International Atomic Energy .Agency; IC.\0, International Civil .\vialion Organization; ILO, International 
Labor Organization; NATO, Nortli .Atlantic Treatv Organization; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization. 



Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings — Continued 

Adjourned During June 1963 — Continued 

NATO Planning Board for European Inland Surface Transport . Paris June 6-8 

Meeting of the Parties to the Conveniion for the High Seas Fisheries Washington June 6-27 

of the North Pacific Ocean. 

OECD Preparatory Group for Meeting of Ministers of Science . . Paris June 10-11 

UNESCO Executive Committee on the Preservation of the Nubian Paris June 10-12 

Monuments: 4th Session. 

ECE Housing Committee Geneva June 10-13 

OECD Industry Committee: Special Committee for Pulp and Paris June 11 (1 day) 


ECAFE Ad Hoc Committee on the Asian Institute for Economic Bangkok Juno 11-12 

Development and Planning. 

OECD Trade Committee Paris June 11-12 

U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on Tungsten New York June 11-12 

OECD Agricultural Policy Working Party Paris June 11-14 

IAEA Board of Governors Vienna June 11-21 

OECD Committee for Scientific Research Paris June 12-13 

GATT Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions Geneva June 12-21 

UNICEF Committee on Administrative Budget New York June 13-14 

OECD Development Assistance Committee on Aid to Somalia . . Paris June 14-15 

OECD Oil Committee: Ad Hoc Drafting Group London June 17-18 

ECE Conference of European Statisticians Geneva June 17-21 

UNICEF Program Committee and Executive Board New York June 17-21 

FAO Group on Citrus Fruits: 3d Session Rome June 17-22 

FAO Committee of Government Experts on the Uses of Designa- Rome June 17-22 

tions, Definitions, and Standards for Milk and Milk Products: 

6th Session. 

FAO North American Forestry Commission: 2d Session Ottawa June 17-22 

ECOSOC Technical Assistance Committee Copenhagen June 17-30 

OECD Committee of Experts on Restrictive Business Practices: Paris June 18 (1 day) 

Working Party I. 

International Wheat Council: 37th Session London June 18-21 

OECD Economic Pohcy Committee: Working Party III (Balance Paris June 19-20 

of Payments). 

UNESCO Preparatory Meeting for an Interdisciplinary Conference Paris June 20 (1 day) 

on Scientific Land Research. 

NATO Food and Agriculture Planning Committee Paris June 20-21 

OECD Turkish Consortium Paris June 21-22 

2d FAO/WHO Conference on Food Additives Rome June 24-25 

GATT/EEC Negotiations on Manufactured Tobacco Geneva June 24-26 

Antarctic Treaty Meeting on Telecommunications Washington June 24-28 

Caribbean Organization: 3d Meeting of the Standing Advisory San Juan June 24-29 

Committee of the Caribbean Plan. 

GATT Cereals Group Geneva June 24-29 

NATO Civil Communications Planning Committee Paris June 25-27 

NATO Petroleum Planning Committee Paris June 25-27 

OECD Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel .... Paris June 26-28 

GATT Trade Negotiations Committee Geneva June 27-29 

NATO Science Committee Paris June 28-29 

In Session as of June 30, 1963 

ECAFE Training Center Seminar on Customs Administration. . . Bangkok May 28- 

U.N. Trusteeship Council: 30th Session New York May 29- 

13th International Film Festival Berlin June 21- 

2d ILO Preparatory Meeting for Inter-American Vocational Train- Rio de Janeiro .... June 24- 
ing Research and Documentation Center. 

FAO Council: 40th Session Rome June 24- 

FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission Rome June 25- 

ILO Governing Body: 156th Session Geneva June 28- 

In Recess as of June 30, 1963 

Conference of the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament (re- Geneva Mar. 14, 1962- 

cessed .lune 21, 1963, until Julv 30). „ „, , 

GATT Negotiations on U.S. Tariff Reclassification (recessed Dec. 15, Geneva Sept. 24, 1962- 

1962, until September 1963). 

JULY 15, 1963 


U.S. Replies to Soviet Charges 
Against Certain Space Activities 

Following is the text of a letter from Adlai E. 
Stevensoru, U.S. Representative to the United 
Nations, to U.N. Secretary-General U Thant, to- 
gether with an enclosed statement on Project 
West Ford. 

n.S./U.N. press release 4219 

June 6, 1963 
Dear Mr. Secretary General: I have the 
honor to refer to UN Document A/AC.105/13 
dated May 28, 19G3, a note by which the Perma- 
nent Representative to the United Nations of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics trans- 
mitted to Your Excellency a statement entitled 
"Dangerous United States Activities in Outer 
Space." My Government feels that the attach- 
ment to Ambassador [Nikolai] Fedorenko's not« 
contains so many distortions and is so at vari- 
ance witli the facts as to require correction. 

Tlie Soviet statement deals in the main with 
Project West Ford, an experiment in space com- 
munications recently carried out by the United 
States. It implies that this experiment was un- 
dertaken without consultation with the world 
scientific community and over tlie protests of in- 
ternational scientific bodies. Nothing could be 
further from the truth. I am enclosing with 
this note a paper which outlines the histoiy of 
Project West Ford, the thorougligoing advance 
analysis of the experiment which took account 
of views of scientists both in the United States 
and abroad, and the wealth of scientific infor- 
mation made available to the international sci- 
entific community prior to the conduct of the 
experiment. My Government believes that 
Project West Ford clearly demonstrates the 
open manner in which United States space pro- 
grams are conducted. As has already been an- 
nounced, the scientific results of this project 
will be made public. 

The attachment to the Soviet note alludes 
also to a United States high altitude test con- 
ducted in the summer of 19G2. The results of 

that test have similarly been made public with 
comprehensive scientific information dissemi- 
nated to international scientific bodies. In 
sharp contrast, the Soviet Union has never an- 
nounced the high altitude tests which it con- 
ducted in the fall of 1961 ^ following the uni- 
lateral rupture by the Soviet Union of the vol- 
untary moratorium on nuclear testing which 
had been in effect since 1958, nor has the Soviet 
Union announced, or admitted, the three nu- 
clear tests it conducted at liigh altitude in the 
fall of 1962.2 

Finally the statement transmitted with Am- 
bassador Fedorenko's note attempts to portray 
the recent meeting of the Legal Subcommittee 
of the United Nations Committee on the Peace- 
ful Uses of Outer Space = as one in which Soviet 
positions were widely supported. In fact, as 
the records of the Legal Subcommittee show, the 
Soviet Union found no support for its positions 
outside the Communist bloc. Twenty of the 
twenty-eight members of the Legal Subcom- 
mittee were anxious to record progi-ess in fram- 
ing appropriate instruments to reflect the 
developing law of outer spac«. This was ob- 
structed only by Soviet intransigence. The 
Soviet Union went so far as to try to conceal its 
role of frustrating progress by emasculating the 
Subcommittee's report. The records of the 
Subcommittee meeting, however, tell the story 
of what took place. 

On a related subject, I would like to call at- 
tention to the failure of the Soviet Union on a 
nimiber of occasions to comply with existing 
arrangements to register with the United Na- 
tions, under General Assembly Resolution 1721 
(XVI),'' the launching of all objects into orbit 
or beyond. In reviewing registration data sub- 
mitted by the USSR, the United States has ob- 
served that a number of space vehicles launched 
into earth orbit by the USSR have been omitted. 

' For background, see Bulletin of Xov. 20, lOGl, p. 

' For background, see ibid., Nov. 26, 19C2, p. 806. 

' For text of a statement made in the subcommittee 
on May 3 by Leonard C. Meeker, see ibid., June 10, 
19C3. p. 923. 

* For text, see ibid., ,Inn. 29, 1962, p. ISo. 


department of state bulletin 

These omissions occurred in the Soviet submis- 
sions of December 21, 1962 and of April 19, 
1963. Now, in its latest registration on May 11, 
1963, the USSR has failed to correct these 
earlier omissions. The proper international 
designations for these six space vehicles in ques- 
tion are as follows : 

1962 — Alpha Pi, launched on August 25 
1962 — Alpha Tau, launched on September 1 
1962 — Alpha Phi, launched on September 12 
1962— Beta Iota, launched on October 24 
1962 — Beta Xi, launched on November 4 
1963 — 1, launched on January 4 

All six space vehicles listed above achieved 
earth orbit and clearly fall within the provisions 
of General Assembly Resolution 1721 (XVI), 
which calls upon states laimching objects into 
orbit or beyond to file infonnation promptly 
through the United Nations for the registration 
of launchings. 

In the Soviet Union's first submission of in- 
formation to the United Nations on March 24, 
1962, it was pointed out that "... in the opin- 
ion of the Soviet Union, the information fur- 
nished to the United Nations for registration 
will be of real value if the comitries concerned 
will register now and will continue to register 
all the artificial satellites of the earth placed in 
orbit and other objects launched into outer 
space." Moreover, the USSR also stated at 
that time its understanding that laimching data 
would be registered "... in the chronological 
order of launcliings." 

The United States in its submissions for the 
United Nations registry therefore left gaps in 
the sequential numbering of international desig- 
nations on the assumption that the Soviet Union 
would report the six space vehicles in question. 
To date the USSR has not done so, although 
all six were, in fact, launched into earth orbit by 
the Soviet Union. 

There has been speculation in the press and in 
scientific publications that certain of the above 
objects were launched by the United States. 
Such is not the case. As has been stated several 
times by the United States representatives at 
^the United Nations, the United States submits 
information to the United Nations registry on 
all objects it launches into earth orbit or beyond. 

I should appreciate your having this note. 

with the accompanying statement on Project 
West Ford, circulated as an official document of 
the United Nations.^ 
Sincerely yours, 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Enclosure : Statement on Project West Ford. 


United States Space Communications Experiment 
(Project West Ford) 

Project West Ford is a United States space communi- 
cations experiment involving the placing of hair-like 
metallic filaments (dipoles) into a relatively short- 
lived orbital belt around the earth. The purpose of 
the experiment is to investigate, under very carefully 
controlled conditions, the technical feasibility of using 
such dipoles as passive reflectors for relaying com- 
munications and to provide an opportunity for objective 
assessment of possible side effects of further experi- 
mentation with this technique on space activities or any 
other branch of science. 

The first launch of a Project West Ford package 
took place on October 21, 1961 when a United States 
Air Force Atlas-Agena B carried into orbit a dispenser 
package containing 75 pounds of dipoles embedded in 
naphthalene. The package was expected to release the 
dipoles in such a way that they would gradually dis- 
perse to form a thin, narrow, circular orbital ring 
about 40,000 miles long at an altitude of about 2,000 
miles only a few tenths of a degree in width. Investi- 
gation has revealed that the dipoles did not form a belt 
but rather remained in five or six small clumps. 

A second launch of a West Ford package took place 
on May 9, 1963. The long narrow cloud of dipoles was 
first identified on May 12, 1963. The cloud is in an 
orbit which is at an altitude of about 2,300 statute 
miles and is currently increasing in length at the rate 
of about 1,000 miles per day. It is only a few tenths 
of a degree wide. Extensive computations ba.=ed on 
the exact initial orbital elements indicate that under 
presently anticipated physical conditions the life of the 
belt will be less than three years. To date there have 
been no reports of interference by any scientists, with 
either optical or radio astronomy, although informa- 
tion on the orbital elements was immediately circulated 
to scientists around the world, including the Soviet 
Union. All of the major experimental equipment pre- 
pared in advance for Project West Ford has been tested 
and successful results have been achieved In each case 
for limited periods of time. 

The experiment was carefully planned to avoid in- 
terference with other space activities and other sci- 
entific pursuits. In 1961 it was reviewed by a special 

■ U.N. doc. A/AC. 105/15. 

JTILT 15, 1963 


panel of the President's Science Advisory Committee, 
headed by Dr. Jerome Wiesner, which concluded that 
the United States could proceed with the exi)eriment 
without harm to science. The Space Science Board of 
the National Academy of Sciences, in an independent 
analysi.s, reached a similar conclusion. 

On August 8, 1961 President Kennedy i.s.suGd a policy 
statement' that no additional launches of orbiting 
dipoles would be undertaken until the results of the 
first successful experiment could be analyzed and that, 
in this analysis, the findings of foreign, as well as 
United States scientists, would be taken into con- 

Facts regarding Project West Ford have been made 
widely known. In September 1960, a paper on the 
orbiting dipoles technique was presented to the Inter- 
national Scientific Radio Union. In April 1961 a series 
of technical articles on Project West Ford were pub- 
lished in the Astronomical Journal. Reprints were 
provided to some 800 foreign astronomers. Additional 
data on the expected lifetime of the belt were pub- 
lished in the magazine Science, October 6, 1961. 

A memorandum by the Space Science Board on 
the results of the first launch and the modifications 
planniHl for the second, accompanied by a detailed re- 
port by the Lincoln Laboratory, was sent on March 
8, 1962, to members of the West Ford Committee of 
the International Astronomical Union ; to officers of 
COSPAR [Committee on Space Research] and the 
International Scientific Radio Union ; and to individual 
scientists and scientific institutions in the United States 
and abroad. A further letter was sent to the same 
addressees by the Space Science Board on January IS, 
1963, outlining plans for a launch in 196.3. Still an- 
other memorandum stating that a launch was imminent 
was sent on May 3, 1963. Information about the ex- 
periment has also been given to the international sci- 
entific community in various scieutilic meetings and 
through articles in a number of scientific journals. 

For the second launch several additional precautions 
were taken to assure that the experiment would not 
Interfere with other space activities. Tlie quantity 
of the dipoles was reduced to about 50 pounds ; a mech- 
anism was included to permit the dipoles to be ejected 
from the disi)enser package only if an orbit were at- 
tained in which the life of the dii)ole belt would be of 
relatively short duration; and telemetry was included 
In the dispen.ser package to indicate the temperature, 
spin, and tumble rate of the package and the rate at 
which di.spensing was taking jilace, enabling scientists 
to learn more about the behavior of the belt in its ini- 
tial development. 

In the initial phase of discu.ssions on Project West 
Ford concern was expressed by some scientists that 
other scientific activities might be adversely affected 
by side effects of the project. This concern, which 
was notably present in 1961, was largely relieved by in- 
forniati(m exchanges, independent analysis, consul- 

' Not printed here. 

tatiou and the incorporation into the experiment of 
suggested scientific safeguards. While some scientists 
have continued to indicate concern about the experi- 
ment, there has been no scientifically documented pro- 
test against the experiment since the end of 1961. 

The first and most widely known statement of a 
scientific organization about Project West Ford was 
the resolution of the International Astronomical Union 
adopted in Berkeley in late August 1961. The resolu- 
tion expressed appreciation that the plans for Project 
West Ford had been publicly announced well ahead of 
launching and that further launchings would be guided 
by tie President's Policy Statement of August 8, 1961. 
In the resolution, the lAU expressed opiMJsition to the 
carrying out of the experiment until the question of 
permanence of the belt could be clearly settled in pub- 
lished scientific papers. Several articles were pub- 
lished on this subject. The general weight of the 
articles supported the prediction that the belt would 
be of short duration if a proper orbit was obtained. 
Among these articles was "Lifetimes of Orbiting Di- 
poles" by I. I. Schapiro in Science October 6, 1961, 
copies of which were sent to some 800 foreign scientists. 
The lAU resolution also called for the fullest observa- 
tion of the belt of dipoles. The United States made 
every effort to assist and encourage observation by 
foreign and American scientists. 

As a result of information furnished by the United 
States, D. H. Sadler, General Secretary of the lAU, 
stated in a letter to all members of the lAU West 
Ford Committee on May 9, 1962 : 

"I am writing to you in connection of my letter 
H4939 of 13 March 1962 (on Project West Ford). In 
that letter I suggested that the Union could take one 
of two, rather extreme, courses and I asked for your 
views as to which course it should take. I have now 
received 9 opinions in favour of the second course 
(essentially to take no action) and one strongly ex- 
pressed opinion in favour of the first course ... I have 
had a long discussion with J. A. Ratcliffe, Chairman 
of the British West Ford Working Party, as a result 
of which we agreed that there was no substantial 
case based on the likely actual interference with 
radio and optical astronomy for protesting against 
the proposed second attempt to launch the experi- 
mental test belt of Project West Ford. In view of 
these opinions I am proposing to the Executive Com- 
mittee that the Union should follow the second course 
and essentially take no immediate action." 

COSPAR has established a Consultative Group on 
Potentially Harmful Space Experiments which held 
its first meeting in Paris in March 1963. It is under- 
stood that the question of Project West Ford was 
raised at that meeting. The United States will wel- 
come the comments of the Consultative Group on 
Project West Ford as it has welcomed the views ot 
other scientific groups and individual scientists. 

The United States recognizes that concern still 
exists among some scientists that there may be poten- 



tially harmful side effects from possible future United 
States experiments of this type. The statement of 
President Kennedy on Project West Ford should make 
it clear that the United States will not consider the 
placing of any further belts in orbit until the results 
of the current experiment have been analyzed. The 
United States intends to continue to consult on experi- 
ments of this type and to avoid any harmful side 
effects in carrying out all space activities. 

In sum, Project West Ford was undertaken only 
after the most thorough consideration — it has been dis- 
cussed more thoroughly in advance than any other 
space experiment — and was undertaken only after the 
United States was fully confident that it would not 
have an adverse effect on any other activity. The 
United States will welcome the study and analysis of 
the effects of the belt by all interested scientists. 

Antarctic Treaty Countries Hold 
Meeting on Telecommunications 

Final Communique 

The Antarctic Treaty Meeting on Telecom- 
mmiications which began [at Washington] 
on June 24, 1963, came to a close on June 28.^ 
Representatives of the Governments of Argen- 
tina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, 
New Zealand, Norway, the Eepublic of South 
Africa, the Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics, 
the United Kingdom and the United States of 
America, as well as observers from the Scien- 
tific Committee on Antarctic Eesearch 
(SCAR) of the International Council of Sci- 
entific Unions, the International Telecommuni- 
cation Union (ITU), and the World Meteoro- 
logical Organization (WMO) met in accord- 
ance with recommendations of the First and 
Second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings 
to discuss radio conmiunication facilities in the 
Treaty area (area south of 60°S latitude). 
After five days of discussion the representatives 
have unanimously agreed to submit eleven rec- 
ommendations as a part of the final report to 
be sent to the governments who have partici- 

' For background and text of treaty, see Bulletin of 
Dec. 21, 1959, p. 911 ; for a statement by President 
Kennedy at the time the treaty entered into force, see 
t6i(f., July 10, 1961, p. 91. 

Acting on the basis of resolutions submitted 
by the Govermnent of Australia, the Meeting 
has agreed to recommend to the Consultative 
Meeting a provisional timetable of radio sched- 
ules designed to facilitate a more rapid trans- 
mission of meteorological data. It has also 
agreed to reconunend that methods for provid- 
ing reliable communications to transmit data 
obtained in the Antarctic Peninsula area to the 
United States Antarctic station at McMurdo 
be investigated as soon as practicable by Argen- 
tina, Chile, the United Kingdom and the United 
States. In addition, it was agreed that a tenta- 
tive routing schedule for the transmission of 
meteorological data from the observing areas 
to the terminal stations of the Antarctic radio 
network would be recommended. 

At that time the Meeting was notified by the 
United Kingdom that it is closing its station at 
Hope Bay this year. Belgium later told the 
Meeting that it intends to reopen its Antarctic 
station this year. Japan said it is considering 
doing so in the near future, while Norway men- 
tioned that it presently has no such plans. 

The Meeting has also agreed to recommend 
that international radio links in Antarctica be 
limited as far as possible to those presently 
agreed on. It also agreed to recommend that 
nations which may accede to the Antarctic 
Treaty and are entitled to participate in con- 
sultative meetings be invited to co-ordinate 
their communications with those already estab- 
lished in Antarctica. It was further agreed 
that the Meeting would recommend that two 
emergency routes should be maintained. These 
routes would be available for use if the route 
selected for a main link became inoperative for 
any reason. 

Turning to the question of aerials the Meet- 
ing agreed to recommend that directive aerials 
should be provided as practicable for each in- 
ternational Antarctic link and that transmit- 
ting and receiving aerials provided on each 
such route should be made complementary in 
polarization and angle of fire by agreement be- 
tween the parties concerned. Tlie question of 
the co-ordination of the techniques employed at 
both ends of each international radio link was 
discussed and it was agreed to make certain 
specific recommendations. 


The Meeting considered the question of 
search and rescue procedures and agreed to rec- 
ommend that distress traffic would have an ab- 
solute priority over all other radio offerings at 
that time. It also specified the recommended 
radio operating procedures and recommended 
that stations providing the assistance shall 
maintain continuous communication during the 
search and rescue operation with the station 
requesting assistance imtil the station request- 
ing assistance is satisfied that the operation is 
completed. Radio aids to air navigation were 
discussed and it was agreed to recommend that 
certain types of navigational aids be provided 
as soon as practicable at certain stations which 
provide landing facilities. It was further 
agreed to recommend that details concerning 
navigational aids installed be listed each year 
in the information exchanged between the Gov- 

In response to a resolution submitted by the 
French representative the Meeting agreed that 
in view of radio interference to some ionospheric 
observations caused by radio transmissions at 
some stations the Meeting would recommend 
that the beginning of some types of radio trans- 
mission schedules be delayed five minutes past 
the hour to permit scientists to complete certain 
ionospheric observations under comparative 
noise- free conditions. 

In response to a resolution offered by the 
United Kingdom and to indications given by 
the SCAR Observer that the Communications 
Working Group of SCAR may wish to limit its 
activities in the field of communications co-ordi- 
nation, the Meeting agreed to recommend that, 
if it was deemed necessary at the time of the 
Third Consultative Meeting, the question of 
continued co-ordination in the field of telecom- 
munications be discussed. 

The Meeting, which was conducted under the 
Chairmanship of Mr. John M. Jones and which 
had as its Secretary Mr. Henry E. Allen, was 
conducted in accordance with the si)irit of full 
cooperation and frank discussion which have 
come to characterize the meetings held under 
the terms of the Antarctic Treaty. 

Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Mimeographed or processed doeuments (such as those 
listed below) may be consulted at depository librariei 
in the United States. U.N. printed publications may be 
purchased from the Sales Section of the United Xa- 
turns, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 

Economic and Social Council 

Economic Commission for Latin America, 10th session, 
JIar del Plata, Argentina, May 19G3 : 
Report of the third special session of the Central 
American Economic Cooperation Committee, San 
Jos^, Costa Rica, July 23-31, 1962. E/CN.12/657. 
August 15, 1902. 83 pp. 
Report of the fourth special session of the Central 
American Economic Cooperation Committee, Tegu- 
cigalpa, Honduras, November 15-16, 1962. E/CN. 
12/65S. November 21, 1962. 21 pp. 
Provisional report of the Latin American seminar 
on housing statistics and programs. E/CN. 12/647. 
February 1903. 233 pp. 
Report of the eighth session of the Central American 
Economic Cooiieration Committee, San Salvador, 
El Salvador, January 21-29, 1963. E/CN.12/672. 
March 1963. 91 pp. 
Urbanization in Latin America. E/CN.12/662. 

March 13, 1963. 36 pp. 
Provisional annotated agenda. E/CN.12/655/Add. 1. 

March 15, 1963. 13 pp. 
Some aspects of the Latin American economic situa- 
tion in 1962. E/CN.12/679. March 29, 19C3. 53 
The economic development of Latin America in the 
postwar world, volume I. E/CN.12/659. April 7 
1963. 172 pp. 
Towards a dynamic development policy for Latin 
America. E/CN.12/6S0. April 14, 1963. 1.55 pp. 
Note by the Secretariat on the report of the Commit- 
tee on Housing, Building, and Planning of the 
Economic and Social Council. E/CN.12/681. May 
25, 1963. 5 pp. 
Social Commission. Report on the world social situa- 
tion. E/CN..5/375, March 29, 1963, 13 pp. ; Add 1, 
March 11, 1963,319 pp. 
International Co-operation In Cartography. Interna- 
tional Co-operation on the Standardization of 
Geographical Names. Report by the Secretary- 
General transmitting to the Council extracts from 
communications received from Hungary and Nor- 
way. E/371S/Add.7, March 20, 1963, 13 pp. : E/3718/ 
Add.8, March 26, 1963. 3 pp. 
Committee for Industrial Development, third session: 
Financing of industrial development. E/C.5/26. 

Alarch 28, 1963. S3 pp. 
Report of the Center for Industrial Development on 
activities in the field of industrial development 
E/C.5/33. April 22. 1963. 66 pp. 
Report submitted by the International Labor Organi- 
zation on activities in industrial development 
E/C.5/34. April 22, 1963. .34 pp. 
Report submitted by the Food and Agriculture Or' 
ganization on activities in the field of industrial 
development. E/C.5/34/Add. 1. April 22, 1963. 
33 pp. 




U.S. Indicates Intention To Ratify 
International Coffee Agreement 

Press release 329 dated June 24 

The United States on June 24 informed the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations that 
it intends to ratify the International Coffee 
Agreement.^ It is expected this notification 
will lead to the provisional coming into force 
of the new International Coffee Agreement at 
an early date. 

For the agreement to enter into force, it 
requires ratification by 20 coffee exporting 
countries having at least 80 percent of exports 
and by 10 importing countries having at least 
80 percent of imports. However, the agreement 
may enter into force provisionally when notifi- 
cations by signatory governments stating their 
intention to ratify are received by the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations. 

To date, 24 exporting countries representing 
88.7 percent of coffee exports and 10 importing 
countries representing 26.8 percent of coffee im- 
ports have ratified the agreement or formally 
declared their intention to do so. As the United 
States imports 51.7 percent of the world's coffee, 
today's action raises the total of importing 
countries to 11 representing 78.5 percent of 
world imports. It is miderstoood that a number 
of other importing countries are in a position 
to quickly ratify the agreement. The prospect 
is, therefore, that the new International Coffee 
Agreement will come into force provisionally 
in the next few weeks and that the first meeting 
of the Coffee Council, administrative body of 
the agreement, will be held in July. This will 
permit quota arrangements to be made well 
in advance of the new coffee year beginning 
October 1, 1963. 

' For background, see Btjlletin of Oct. 29, 1962, p. 
667, and Apr. 1, 1963, p. 493. 

The Senate of the United States gave its 
advice and consent to ratification of the Inter- 
national Coffee Agreement on May 21, 1963. 
Implementing legislation is now before both 
Houses of Congress, and consideration is ex- 
pected shortly. 

Current Actions 


Automotive Traffic 

Convention concerning customs facilities for touring. 
Done at New York June 4, 1954. Entered into force 
September 11, 1957. TIAS 3879. 
Application to: Cook Islands, including Niue, May 21, 

Notification received that it considers itself bound: 

Cyprus, May 16, 1963. 
Customs convention on temporary importation of pri- 
vate road vehicles. Done at New York June 4, 
1954. Entered into force December 15, 1957. TIAS 
Application to: Cook Islands, including Niue, May 21, 

Notification received that it considers itself bound: 

Cyprus, May 16, 1963. 


International coffee agreement, 1962, with annexes. 
Signed at New York September 28, 1962. Opened 
for signature at United Nations Headquarters, New 
York, September 28 through November 30, 1962.' 
Ratifications deposited: Cameroon, May 24, 1963; 
Colombia, May 24, 1963 ; El Salvador, May 17, 1963. 

Cultural Relations 

Agreement on the importation of educational, scientific, 
and cultural materials, and protocol. Done at Lake 
Success November 22, 1950. Entered Into force May 
21, 1952.' 

Notification received that it considers itself iound: 
Cyprus, May 16, 1963. 


International convention to facilitate the importation 
of commercial samples and advertising materiaL 
Done at Geneva November 7, 1952. Entered into 
force November 20, 1955; for the United States 
October 17, 1957. TIAS 3920. 

' Not in force. 

' Not In force for the United States. 

JULY 15, 1963 


Notification received that it considers itself hound: 
Cyprus, May 16, li>C3. 

Diplomatic Relations 

Vienna convention on diplomatic relations. Done at 
Vienna April 18, 19C1.' 
Accession deposited: Jamaica, June 5, 1963. 


Additional regulations amending the international san- 
itary regulations (World Health Organization Regu- 
lations No. 2) of May 25, 1951, as amended (TIAS 
3625, 4420, 4823, 4896, 5156), with respect to notifica- 
tions. Adopted at Geneva May 23, 1963. Enters 
into force October 1, 1963. 


Agreement relating to the repression of the circula- 
tion of obscene publications, signed at Paris May 4, 
1910, as amended by the protocol signed at Lake 
Success May 4, 194!). Entered Into force Septem- 
ber 11, 1911, and May 4, 1949. 37 Stat, loll ; TIAS 

Notification received that it considers itself iound: 
Cyprus, May IG, 1963. 


Convention on the Intergovernmental Maritime Con- 
sultative Organization. Signed at Geneva March 6, 
1948. Entered into force March 17, 1958. TIAS 
Acceptance deposited: Tunisia, May 23, 1963. 


Radio regulations, with appendixes, annexed to the 
international telecommunication convention, 1959. 
Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. Entered into 
force May 1, 1961 ; for the United States October 23, 
1961. TIAS 4893. 
Notification of approval: Nigeria, May 6, 1963. 



Agreement amending the agreement of November 17, 
19.52 (TIAS 26.52), for financing certain educational 
exchange programs, as amended (TIAS 4376). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Colombo Jvme 17, 
1963. Entered into force June 17, 1963. 


Agreement under title III of the Agricultural Trade 
Development and Assistance Act of 19.54, as amended 
(68 Stat. 4,58; 7 U.S.C. 1701-1709). Signed at Wash- 
ington Jime 27, 1963. Entered into force June 27, 


Agreement relating to the reciprocal establishment 
and operation of radio facilities. E)ffecte(l by ex- 
<'hange of notes at Tel Aviv and Jerusalem Mav 10 
and 21, 1963. Entered into force May 21, 1963. 


Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs. Signed at Seoul June 18, 1963. Entered 
into force June 18. ]9(!.3. 

Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs, as amended. Signed at Seoul April 28, 
1950. Entered Into force April 28, 1950. TIAS 2059, 

' Not in force. 

Terminated: June 18, 1963 (superseded by agree- 
ment of June 18, 1903, supra ) . 
Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of November 7, 1962 (TIAS 5208). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Seoul June 17, 1963. 
Entered into force June 17, 1903. 


Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington June 24, 1959. 
Entered into force: June 27, 1963. 


Agreement relating to investment guaranties. Signed 
at Dakar June 12, 1963. Entered into force pro- 
visionally June 12, 1963. Enters into force defini- 
tively on the date of notification from the 
Government of Senegal that the agreement has been 
approved in accordance with its constitutional 

Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: June 24-30 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Releases issued prior to June 24 which appear 
in this issue of the BtTLLETiN are Nos. 314 of 
June 11 and 324 of June 19. 

No. Date Subject 

329 6/24 U.S. indicates intention to ratify 

International Coffee Agreement. 

*330 6/24 U.S. participation in international 

331 6/24 Reply to Soviet proposal of nuclear- 
free zone in Mediterranean. 
*332 6/24 Ferguson appointed Coordinator for 
International Aviation (biograph- 
ic details). 

333 6/25 Extension of Fulbright agreement 

with Austria. 

334 6/26 Travel to Cuba. 

•335 6/26 Harriman: Minnesota State Bar 
Associa tion ( excerpts ) . 

*336 6/26 Washington Action for Youth 

♦337 6/26 Junior FSO July 4 celebration. 

338 0/27 Cleveland visit to London, Paris, 

Geneva for U.N. talks (rewrite). 

339 6/27 Notification to owners of real prop- 

erty in Iraq. 

340 6/27 Emergency food aid to Korea. 

341 6/28 Grant to American Institute of 

Indian Studies. 

342 6/28 Extension of Fulbright agreement 

with Sweden. 

*343 6/28 Cultural exchange (South Amer- 

t344 6/29 Negotiations with India for cooj)- 
eration on nuclear power station. 
345 6/2,8 Mrs. Louchheim : International 
Council of Women. 

*Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 



INDEX July 15, 1963 Vol'. XLIX, No. 1255 

Afghanistan. King and Queen of Afghanistan 
To Visit U.S. in September 92 

Agriculture. United States Provides Grain to 

Korea Under P.L. 4S0 101 

Antarctica. Antarctic Treaty Countries Hold 
Meeting on Telecommunications 107 

Asia. U.S. Foreign Policy in the Far East 

(Johnson) "J^S 

Atomic Energy. North America, the Open Con- 
tinent (Tyler) 93 

Austria. Jointly Financed Exchange Programs 

Established With Austria and Sweden .... 100 

Canada. North America, the Open Continent 

(Tyler) 93 

Communism. The United States and Eastern 
Europe (Anderson) 87 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating to 

Foreign Policy 101 

Cuba. U.S. Warns Validated Passport Is Re- 
quired for Travel to Cuba 92 

Disarmament. North America, the Open Conti- 
nent (Tyler) 93 

Economic Afifairs 

The United States and Eastern Europe (Ander- 
son) 87 

U.S. Indicates Intention To Ratify International 
Coffee Agreement 109 

Educational and Cultural Affairs 

Grant Awarded to American Institute of Indian 
Studies 99 

Jointly Financed Exchange Programs Estab- 
lished With Austria and Sweden 100 

Role of Individual Women in the World Com- 
munity (Louchheim) 98 


Assistant Secretary Cleveland Visits Europe To 

Discuss U.N. Affairs 92 

The United States and Eastern Europe (Ander- 
son) 87 

Foreign Aid. United States Provides Grain to 

Korea Under P.L. 480 101 

India. Grant Awarded to American Institute of 

Indian Studies 99 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Antarctic Treaty Countries Hold Meeting on 
Telecommunications 107 

Calendar of International Conferences and 
Meetings 102 

Iraq. Owners of Real Property in Iraq Notified 
of Legal Requirements 100 

Korea. United States Provides Grain to Korea 

Under P.L. 480 101 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Soviet 
Proposal of Nuclear-Free Zone in Mediter- 
ranean Rejected (texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes) 83 

Passports. U.S. Warns Validated Passport Is 

Required for Travel to Cuba 92 


Antarctic Treaty Countries Hold Meeting on 
Telecommunications 107 

U.S. Replies to Soviet Charges Against Certain 

Space Activities (Stevenson) 104 

Sweden. Jointly Financed Exchange Programs 

Established With Austria and Sweden . . . 100 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 109 

Jointly Financed Exchange Programs Estab- 
lished With Austria and Sweden 100 

U.S. Indicates Intention To Ratify International 
Coffee Agreement 109 


North America, the Open Continent (Tyler) . 93 

Soviet Proposal of Nuclear-Free Zone in Medi- 
terranean Rejected (texts of U.S. and Soviet 
notes) 83 

U.S. Replies to Soviet Charges Against Certain 

Space Activities (Stevenson) 104 

United Nations 

Assistant Secretary Cleveland Visits Europe To 

Discuss U.N. Affairs 92 

Current U.N. Documents 108 

Technical Cooperation Programs of U.N. Sys- 
tem 97 

U.S. Replies to Soviet Charges Against Certain 

Space Activities (Stevenson) 104 

Name Index 

Anderson, Mrs. Eugenie 87 

Cleveland, Harlan 92 

Johnson, U. Alexis 78 

Louchheim, Mrs. Katie 98 

Stevenson, Adlai E 10^ 

Tyler, William R 93 

Superintendent of Documents 
u.s. government printing office 





Department of State 1963 

The Department of State recently released a 152-page illustrated report, Department of State 198S, 
which describes its activities at home and abroad during the past year. 

The report opens with a brief discussion of the objectives of U.S. foreign policy and then relates 
in some detail the different means by which the Department of State has been working for the achievB- 
ment of those objectives. 

In a foreword, President Kennedy expresses the view that "the men and women to whom we entnut i 
this critical task" of promoting our foreign relations, "and the work they accomplish are too little knovn 
by the American people whose interests they serve." The President adds, "If it [this publication] helps 
to convey to you something of the same sense of admiration for these dedicated men and women which i 
I share with many of my predecessors, it will truly serve our national purpose." 

The book deals with the activities not only of the geographic and functional bureaus of the Depart- 
ment of State but also Department offices less well-known to the general public, such as the ExecutiTB 
Secretariat, the Policy Planning Coimcil, the Offices of Security and Protocol, and the Foreign Service 
Institute. It also includes sections on the Agency for International Development, the Peace Corps, and 
the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 





Enclosed And $ 

(cash, check, or money order pay- 
able to Sapt of Doctunento) 

PUBLICATION 7530 $1.50 

Please send me copies of Department of State 1963 








Yol. XLIX, No. 1256 

July 22, 1963 


Joint Communiques and Major Addresses and Remarks iy the President in the Federal Republic 
of Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Italy lilt 




Article hy Gladys A. Tillett IJiS 

Roston Public Li bra 1 

Superintendent of !)ui-ui 

For index see inside back cover 


President Kennedy Visits Europe 

President Kennedy returned to Washington on July 3 folloiving a 10-da% 
trip to Europe during which he visited the Federal Republic of Germany, 
the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Italy. Following, in 
chronological order, are texts of joint communiques released at Bonn, BircTS 
Grove House {Sussex, England), and Rome, together with major addresses 
a.nd remarks made by the President on various occasions during the trip 
and a brief report broadcast to the Nation on July 5. 


President's Remarks at the Rathaus, Cologne, 
June 23 

White House press release (Bonn) dated June 23 

Chancellor Adenauer, Lord Mayor [Theodor 
Burauen], citizens of Cologne: It is a pleasure 
and an honor to sign the Golden Book of this 
ancient city. I bring you greetings from the 
citizens of America, including the citizens of 
Cologne, Minnesota, Cologne, New Jersey, and 
even Cologne, Texas. 

It is most appropriate that I come to this city 
which is so closely identified with the life and 
the work of your great Chancellor. It was here, 
for manj' years, that he first practiced the art 
of statecraft which has served the West so well. 
I am told tliat the Adenauer name continues on 

active duty here in this city. In my own coun- 
try it is sometimes said that there are too many 
Kennedys in American public life. But I am 
certain that no one has made that complaint 
about the Adenauers in the city of Cologne. 

It is also appropriate that I come to a city 
which has long be«n a window to the outside 
world. As a citizen of Boston, which takes 
pride in being one of the oldest cities in the 
United States, I find it sobering to come to 
Cologne, where the Romans marched when tlie 
Bostonians were in skins. Many of my educa- 
tional roots were planted in Boston, but 4 yeare 
before Han'ard Univei-sitj' was founded tliis 
was the city of Albert Maginis, who taught St. 
Thomas Aquinas. For Cologne is not only an 
ancient Gei'man city ; it is also an ancient Euro- 
pean city, a city which, since Roman times, has 


The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication Issued by the Office 
of Media Services, Bureau of I'ubllc Af- 
fairs, provides the public and Interested 
asencles of the Government with Informa- 
tion on developments In the field of for- 
eign relations and on the work of the 
Department of Stale and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin Includes selected 
press releases on foreUn policy, Issued 
hy the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addressLii made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 

ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous pliases of International affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is Included concernlnR treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States Is or may become a 
party and treaties of general Inter- 
national Interest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the Held of International relations 
are listed currently. 

Thi' Bulletin Is for s^Ie by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 

ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. Price : 52 Issues, domestic $8.50, 
foreign $12.25 : single copy, 25 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19. 

NOTE : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted anU Items contained 
hereia may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department of State Bulletin as the 
source will be api>reclate<i. The Bulletin 
is indexed In the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature. 



played a special role in preserving Western 
culture and Western religion and Western 

The problems of the Western World are in 
many ways different than they were 2,000 years 
ago, but our obligations as citizens remain the 
same — to defend our common heritage from 
those who would divide and destroy it; to de- 
velop and enrich that heritage so that it is passed 
on to tliose who come after us. Your fellow cit- 
izen. Chancellor Adenauer, has fulfilled these 
obligations as a citizen of the AVest in full meas- 
ure, and in keeping with the symbolic mosaic 
inside this building, he has worked for peace 
and freedom in this country, in all of Europe, 
and in all of the world. In this respect he is 
true to the saying that the young student in 
Cologne would go to Paris to learn about life, 
to Holland to learn to count, and to Great Brit- 
ain to become a tradesman. 

It is in this spirit that I come to Cologne to 
see the best of the past and the most promising 
of the future. May I greet you with the old 
Rhenish saying, ^'■KoeUe A7aaf." 

President's Remarks at Inauguration of German 
Peace Corps, Bonn, June 24 

White House press release (Bonn) dated June 24 

Mr. President, Chancellor, Mr. Ministers: I 
want to express our warm congratulations to 
the Federal Eepublic, to the people of the Fed- 
eral Republic, for tlie effort that they are now 

The United States Peace Corps commenced in 
1961, and I believe that it has given us an op- 
portunity to harness the idealism which is, I 
think, in all free people — has given us an oppor- 
tunity to be of assistance, not merely in the cold 
field of economic help but in the human rela- 
tions which must exist for a happy understand- 
ing between people. 

Western Europe and the United States really 
are islands of prosperity in a sea of poverty. 
South of us live hundreds of millions of people 
on the edge of starvation, and I think it essen- 
• tial that we demonstrate — we in the United 
States, we in the Atlantic community — that we 
demonstrate our concern for their welfare. 
However repugnant the Communist system is 
to all of us, it nevertheless has been able to 

enlist the devotion of a good many people all 
around the globe. I hope it is possible for us to 
demonstrate an even greater devotion in the 
free society. 

Nine thousand Americans will be serving 
overseas by the end of this year. In some coun- 
tries of Africa, nearly half of the high school 
students are being taught by Peace Corpsmen. 
I cannot think of any people that can serve this 
cause with greater success and more devotion 
than the German people. Highly skilled and 
understanding of the great issues which tear 
the world ajDart, I believe that you are greatly 
needed and that you will, as the President said, 
find your greatest reward in a service in these 
very difficult times. Dante once said that the 
hottest places in hell are reserved for those who 
in a period of moral crisis maintain their 
neutrality. This is a moral crisis. This is an 
opportunity, and I am confident that the Ger- 
man youth and. I hope, the older citizens of this 
country will find their greatest reward not here, 
pursuing merely their private pursuit, but in 
some far-off coimtry. In some small village 
they will lay a seed which will bring a rich 
harvest for us all in later days. 

I hope that these Peace Corpsmen of America 
and the members of the German Development 
Service will be joined by representatives of 
dozens of other free countries in a great inter- 
national effort in the 1960's for peace. I 
congratulate the people of Germany on their 
commitment to this cause. 

Exchange of Toasts, American Embassy Club, 
Bad Godesberg, June 24 

White House press release (Bonn) dated June 24 

I know that all of us who have come from the 
United States have been very much warmed, 
heartened, encouraged, strengtliened by the 
generosity of the reception we have received 
from all of you and from the people of the 
Federal Republic. I don't think that there is 
any substitute, however reliable, and however 
much we admire the press, for an opportunity 
to visit firsthand and see the American people 
as the Chancellor has done, and for us to see the 
German people. Everything else falls away 
against this opportunity to come face to face, 

JULY 22, 1963 



so that wliile tlie Chancellor and many of us 
will be meeting on "Wednesday in Berlin, I do 
want to take this opportunity to express our 
warm appreciation to all of you, the strong 
feeling of confidence it has given us. 

I think it renewed the life — although it didn't 
really need that — of our relationship, and in 
every way we have been made extremely happy 
by our visit. We are very much indebted to 
you all, and we are most indebted to the people 
whom you serve. 

I want to express my special appreciation to 
the Chancellor. As I said yesterday, he made, 
as did my predecessors in the United States, 
the crucial and correct judgment. I think that 
he has been generous enough to say that perhaps 
the United States was the only one that made 
the long, right judgment in the late forties and 
in the fifties, and he on his part and all of you 
as colleagues also made the right judgment, and 
that entitled my predecessors and will entitle 
the Chancellor and those who have worked with 
him, it seems to me, to a very important page in 
the history of our times, which is going to be 
recorded, I think, as the most significant times 
of the last years, in fact, the last centuries. 
These are the critical days because whether the 
world survives or not is a matter that comes be- 
fore us for judgment, at least once every year, 
and I suppose it is going to go on that rather 
doleful path, but the Chancellor in his time, 
meeting his responsibility, made the right judg- 
ment, and therefore he is an historic figure and 
one to whom all of us who believe so strongly in 
the cause of freedom feel privileged to come and 
pay him our high esteem. I hope that all of 
you will join in toasting with me to a distin- 
guished leader of your country and also a dis- 
tinguished leader of the AVest, the Chancellor. 


Mr. President, gentlemen: I am deeply 
touched by what President Kennedy has just 
said. I am deeply moved because in my opinion 
it was the United States, at firet Mr. Acheson 
and Mr. Truman, then Mr. Dulles and President 
Eisenhower, who have helped us Germans, a 
conquered people, wlio were completely down 
at the time. 

I don't particularly like to make such ac- 
knowledgments, but let us face it: Historic 

honesty requires that we say that the war which 
destroyed Germany was provoked by Germany, 
that the United States has shown the great 
vision to help the defeated enemy, which was 
really a deed which is only very rai-ely found 
in history. 

You, Mr. President, have been here since yes- 
terday. All of us, since your arrival at the air- 
port, have had so many impressions, so many 
deeply moving experiences — this is certainly 
true for me — that we can say that a real epoch 
has been characterized by this visit. You saw 
yesterday, as we all did, and you have heard 
the masses in the squares and you have seen in 
their eyes the real gratitude -which they wanted 
to express. Now gi'atitude is a very rare virtue, 
and certainly it is particularly rare in politics, 
but you have seen it directly with your own 
eyes, that these masses of people who lined the 
streets in Cologne, in the cathedral, in Bonn, in 
the Market Square, were filled with a real desire 
to demonstrate to you, as the representative of 
the United States, how grateful they are for 
everything that the United States has done, par- 
ticularly to us Germans. I feel that these im- 
pressions may, in the difficult moments wliich 
you will face in the future, at a time when you 
will have to make more decisions, help you a 
little, and if these impressions at the time you 
have to make such decisions will be revived in 
front of you, then they maj' help you make the 
decisions with that clarity and that f orcef ulness 
which statesmen require. 

If we can make a little contribution in this 
sense, I think that would be the best result of 
your visit here. I want to thank you in the 
name of all of us Gemians for coming here, and 
I want to emphasize between the United States 
and us, after all that is behind us, no split or 
separation or whatever you want to call it will 
ever happen again. We realize that the leader- 
ship is yours, not only because of your great 
nuclear strength but because of the great polit- 
ical acumen and the moral strengtli which you 
and your country have shown. It is, let me say 
it again, you, as the victors, gave your hand to 
us as the vanquished, that this is something 
which I tliink is the finest that any people can 

May the memories of these days of your visit 



to Germany remain alive, and may the thanks 
oi the thousands contribute a little to help you 
make decisions in the same spirit which the 
United States has shown in the past and which 
forever has insured for the United States a 
golden page in history. I propose a toast in 
lienor of the President of the United States. 


Thank you very much. 

Communique Between President Kennedy 
ind Chancellor Adenauer, Bonn, June 24 

White House press release (Bonn) dated June 24 

The President of the United States of Amer- 
ica, John F. Kennedy, visited Bonn on June 23 
and 24 and held talks with leaders of the Fed- 
eral Kepublic of Germany. He had a private 
visit with Federal President [Heinrich] Liibke, 
and on June 24 met privately with Chancellor 
Adenauer for detailed discussions on the gen- 
eral international situation. The President and 
the Chancellor were later joined by Secretary 
of State Rusk, Vice-Chancellor [Ludwig] 
Erliard and the Federal Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, [Gerhard] Schroder, as well as other 
officials and advisers of the two Governments. 

President Kennedy and Chancellor Adenauer 
discussed European integration, relations be- 
tween the European Commimity and other na- 
tions of Europe, progress toward the achieve- 
ment of the Atlantic partnership, and the 
problems of Berlin and German reunification. 
In this connection, they had an exchange of 
views on Western policy toward the Soviet 
Union and the countries of Eastern Europe. 

The President and the Chancellor were in 
agreement that the two Governments would 
continue their close collaboration in the task of 
developing genuine unity among the nations of 
Europe and fostering an integrated European 
Community in close partnership with the 
United States. On questions of economics and 
trade, both in their multilateral and bilateral 
aspects, the President and the Chancellor reaf- 
firmed their agi-eement on basic aims; among 
these matters they stressed in particular the need 
for stronger participation in world trade by the 
developing countries. They agreed that the 
strength of the Free World rests in common 
policies and common aims pursued jointly by 

all the nations dedicated to establishing peace 
in freedom. 

The Federal Government shares the view of 
the United States and other allied powers that 
controlled disaiTaament and agreement on the 
cessation of atomic weapons tests would consti- 
tute an important step toward the avoidance of 
a dangerous armaments race. 

The exchange of views confirmed full agree- 
ment of the principle that the North Atlantic 
Alliance continues to be a major instrument for 
the maintenance of freedom, and the President 
and the Chancellor agreed that every effort will 
be made to strengthen common defense plan- 
ning and joint operation of NATO defense 

The President and the Chancellor discussed 
the proposed multilateral seaborne MRBM 
[medium-range ballistic missile] force. The 
multilateral organisation is considered a good 
instmunent for cerving all members of the Alli- 
ance in combining their defense efforts. They 
reaffirmed their agreement to use their best 
efforts to bring such a force into being. They 
also agreed that discussions about the principal 
questions involved in the establishment of such 
a force should be pursued with other interested 

They reaffirmed the commitment of their two 
Governments to the right of self-determination, 
as embodied in the United Nations Charter, 
and to the achievement of German reunifica- 
tion in peace and freedom. They agreed that 
the freedom of Berlin will be preserved by 
every necessai-y means, and that the two Gov- 
ernments would seek every opportunity to 
counter tlie inhuman effects of the Wall. They 
also agreed that the two Governments would 
continue to seek to reduce tension through inter- 
national understanding. 

Peace and freedom are prerequisites for over- 
coming the obstacles that still prevent the 
greater part of mankind from enjoying full 
participation in social and economic develop- 
ment. The President and the Chancellor af- 
firmed that the Governments of the United 
States and the Federal Republic of Germany 
are determined to assume their part in these 
tasks in the context of the free world's strategy 
of peace. 

JULY 22, 1963 


Tlie discussions took place in a spirit of frank- 
ness and cordiality. These meetings have 
shown full agreement between the two Govern- 
ments in assessing the international situation, 
and have once again demonstrated the close and 
friendly relations which exist between the two 

President's Remarks at the Roemerberg Square, 
Frankfurt, June 25 

White House press release (Frankfurt) June 25 

Mr. Mayor, Minister-President, Minister Er- 
hard, ladies and gentlemen: Coming as I do 
from the oldest major city in the United States, 
I am proud to come to this city. I drove from 
Hanau to Frankfurt. All along the way the 
Minister-President pointed out those people 
along the street who belong to the SPD [Ger- 
man Socialist Party], while Minister Erliard 
pointed out all those who belonged to the CDU 
[Christian Democi-atic Union]. Even though 
I have been here for almost 3 days, I am yet un- 
able to make the distinction or see the difference. 
In any case, I see friends. 

I was in this city in 1948. I therefore have 
some idea wliat the people of this city have done 
to rebuild Frankfurt so it is now a vital place 
in a free Germany. There is an old saying that 
only in winter can you tell which trees are ever- 
green. I think the people of this city have 
proved not only their character and their cour- 
age but also their commitment to freedom and 
opportunity to live together with their fellow 
Germans in a free and peaceful society. 

People from Europe came to my country for 
three reasons: eitlier because of famine and a 
denial of opportunity, or because of their de- 
sire for religious freedom, or because of tlieir 
desire for political freedom. It was mostly the 
citizens of Germany and of Frankfurt who came 
to our country because of their desire in the 
mid-lOtli century for political freedom, and 
therefore they have been among the most inde- 
pendent, the most responsible, and the most pro- 
gressive of our citizens. Today in our far-off 
country of the United States, in 20 States of the 
Union, there are cities with the name of Frank- 
furt which were founded by citizens of tliis city 
who carriexl with tlieni to the New World the 
strong coinniitnu'nt to fivedoin of this city and 
the Old. 


Political leaders come and go. "N^Hiat I hope 
remains between the United States and Ger- 
many is not only a strong feeling of sympathy 
and friendship but also a recognition in this 
great struggle in which we now exist, this great 
struggle to which we have devoted our lives, the 
struggle to maintain freedom and expand it 
throughout the world. It is my hope that this , 
country and my own will work in partnership j. 
and harmony in the years ahead. That is the I 
best insurance for not only our survival, not m. 
only the peace of the world, but also for the 1 
maintenance of that commitment to freedom l 
which I think gives hope of having it spread 
throughout the globe. Abraham Lincoln in the 
dark days before the Civil "War in my own coun- 
try said, "I know there is a God. I see a storm 
coming. If He has a part and a place for me, 
then I am ready." No one can tell in the future 
whether there is a storm coming for all of us, 
but what we can be sure of is that no matter 
what happens, we believe in God and we are 

Thank you very much. Danke schon. 

President's Address at the Paulskirche, 
Frankfurt, June 25 

White House press release (Frankfurt) dated June 25 ; ai- 
deUvered text 

Dr. Gerstenmaier, Mr. President Giesinger, 
Chancellor Erhard, Minister-President Zinn, 
Mayor Bockelmann, ladies and gentlemen : I am 
most honored, Mr. President, to be able to speak 
in this city before this audience, for in this hall 
I am able to address myself to those who lead ^ 
and serve all segments of a democratic system, 
Mayors, Governors, Members of Cabinets, civil 
servants, and concerned citizens. As one who | 
has known the satisfaction of the legislators i 
life, I am particularly pleased that so many ' 
Members of j'our Bundestag and Buiidesrat are | 
present today, for the vitality of your legislature 
has been a major factor in your demonstration 
of a working democracy, a democracy world- 
wide in its influence. In your company also 
are several of the authors of the Federal Con- 
-stitution who have been able through their own 
political service to give a new and lasting va- 
lidity to the aims of the Frankfurt Assembly. 

One hundred and fifteen years ago a most 
learned parliament was convened in this his- 



toric hall. Its o;oal was a united German 
federation. Its members were poets and profes- 
sors, lawyers and philosophers, doctors and cler- 
gymen, freely elected in all parts of the land. 
No nation applauded its endeavors as warmly 
as my own. No assembly ever strove more ar- 
dently to put perfection into practice. And 
though in the end it failed, no other building 
in Germany deserves more the title of "cradle 
of German democracy." 

But can there be such a title? In my own 
home city of Boston, Faneuil Hall — once the 
meeting place of the authors of the American 
Revolution — has long been known as the 
"cradle of American liberty." But when, in 
18.52, the Hungarian patriot Kossuth addressed 
an audience there, he criticized its name. "It 
is," he said, "a great name — but there is some- 
thing in it which saddens my heart. You should 
not say 'American liberty.' You should say 
'liberty in America.' Liberty should not be 
either American or European — it should just 
be 'liberty.' " 

Kossuth was right. For unless liberty flour- 
ishes in all lands, it cannot flourish in one. 
Conceived in one hall, it must be cariied out in 
many. Thus the seeds of the American Revolu- 
tion had been brought earlier from Europe, 
and they later took root around the world. 
And the German Revolution of 1848 transmitted 
ideas and idealists to America and to other 
lands. Today, in 1963, democracy and liberty 
are more international than ever before. And 
the spirit of the Frankfurt Assembly, like the 
spirit of Faneuil Hall, must live in many hearts 
and nations if it is to live at all. 

For we live in an age of interdependence as 
well as independence — an age of international- 
ism as well as nationalism. In 1848 many coun- 
tries were indifferent to the goals of the Frank- 
furt Assembly. It was, they said, a German 
problem. Today there are no exclusively Ger- 
man problems, or American problems, or even 
European problems. There are world prob- 
lems — and our two countries and continents are 
inextricably bound together in the tasks of peace 
as well as war. 

We are partners for peace — not in a narrow 
bilateral context but in a framework of Atlantic 
partnership. The ocean divides us less than 
the Mediterranean divided the ancient world 

of Greece and Rome. Our Constitution is old 
and yours is young, and our culture is young 
and yours is old, but in our commitment we can 
and must speak and act with but one voice. 
Our roles are distinct but complementary— and 
our goals are the same : peace and freedom for 
all men, for all time, in a world of abundance, 
in a world of justice. 

That is why our nations are working together 
to strengthen NATO, to expand trade, to assist 
the developing countries, to aline our monetary 
policies, and to build the Atlantic community. 
I would not diminish the miracle of West Ger- 
many's economic achievements. But the true 
German miracle has been your rejection of the 
past for the future — your reconciliation with 
France, your participation in tlie building of 
Europe, your leading role in NATO, and your 
growing support for constructive undertakings 
throughout the world. 

Your economic institutions, your constitu- 
tional guarantees, your confidence in civilian 
authority, are all harmonious to the ideals of 
older democracies. And they form a firm pillar 
of the democratic European community. 

But Goethe tells us in his greatest poem that 
Faust lost the liberty of his soul when he said 
to the passing moment : "Stay, thou art so fair." 
And our liberty, too, is endangered if we pause 
for the passing moment, if we rest on our 
achievements, if we resist the pace of progress. 
For time and the world do not stand still. 
Change is the law of life. And those who look 
only to the past or the present are certain to 
miss the future. 

The future of the West lies in Atlantic part- 
nership — a system of cooperation, interdepend- 
ence, and harmony whose peoples can jointly 
meet their burdens and opportunities through- 
out the world. Some say this is only a dream, 
but I do not agree. A generation of achieve- 
ment—the IVIarshall Plan, NATO, the Schu- 
man Plan, and the Common Market — urges us 
up the path to greater unity. 

There will be difficulties and delays. There 
will be doubts and discouragement. There will 
be differences of approach and opinion. But 
we have the will and the means to serve three 
related goals — the heritage of our countries, 
the unity of our continents, and the interde- 
pendence of the Western alliance. 

JULY 22, 1963 


Some saj' that the United States will neither 
hold to these purposes nor abide by its pledges — 
that we will revert to a narrow nationalism. 
But such doubts fly in the face of history. For 
18 years the United States has stood its watch 
for freedom all ai-ound the globe. The firm- 
ness of American will and the effectiveness of 
American strength have been shown, in sup- 
port of free men and free government, in Asia, 
in Africa, in the Americas, and, above all, here 
in Europe. We have undertaken, and sustained 
in honor, relations of mutual trust and obliga- 
tion with more than 40 allies. We are proud of 
this record, ■wliich more than answers doubts. 
But in addition these proven commitments to 
tlie common freedom and safety are assured, in 
the future as in the past, by one great funda- 
mental fact — that they are deeply rooted in 
America's own self-interest. Our conunitment 
to Europe is indispensable — in our interest as 
well as yours. 

It is not in our interest to try to dominate 
the European councils of decision. If that were 
our objective, we would prefer to see Europe 
divided and weak, enabling the United States 
to deal with each fragment individually. In- 
stead we have and now look forwai'd to a Europe 
united and strong — speaking with a common 
voice, acting with a common will — a world 
power capable of meeting world problems as a 
full and equal partner. 

This is in the interest of us all. For war in 
Europe, as we learned twice in 40 years, de- 
stroys peace in America. A threat to the free- 
dom of Europe is a thi-eat to the freedom of 
America. That is why no administration — no 
administration — in Washington can fail to re- 
spond to such a threat^ — not merely from good 
will but from necessity. And that is why we 
look forward to a united Eurojie in an Atlantic 
partnership — an entity of interdependent parts, 
sharing equally both burdens and decisions 
and linked together in the tasks of defense as 
well as the arts of i)eace. 

This is no fantasy. It will be achieved by 
concrete steps to solve the problems that face us 
all : military, economic, and political. Partner- 
ship is not a posture but a process, a continuous 
process that grows stronger each year as we de- 
vote ourselves to common tasks. 

The first task of the Atlantic community was 
to assure its common defense. That defense was 
and still is indivisible. The United States will 
risk its cities to defend yours because we need 
your freedom to protect ours. Hundreds of 
thousands of our soldiers serve with yours on 
this continent, as tangible evidence of that 
pledge. Those who would doubt our pledge or 
deny this indivisibility — those who would sep- 
arate Europe from America or split one ally 
from another^ — would only give aid and com- 
fort to the men who make themselves our adver- 
saries and welcome any Western disarray. 

The purpose of our common military effort is 
not war but peace, not the destruction of nations 
but the protection of freedom. The forces that 
West Germany contributes to this effort are sec- 
ond to none among the Western European na- 
tions. Your nation is in the frontline of de- 
fense, and your divisions, side by side with our 
own, are a source of strength to us all. 

These conventional forces are essential, and 
they are backed by the sanction of thousands 
of the most modern weapons here on European 
soil and thousands more, only minutes away, in 
posts around the world. Together our nations 
have developed for the forward defense of free 
Europe a deterrent far surpassing the present 
or prospective force of any hostile power. 

Nevertheless it is natural that America's nu- 
clear position has raised questions within the 
alliance. I believe we must confront these ques- 
tions, not b}' turning the clock backward to sep- 
arate nuclear deterrents but by developing a 
more closely unified Atlantic deterrent, with 
genuine European participation. 

How this can best be done, and it is not easy — 
in some ways more difficult than to split the 
atom physically — how this can best be done is 
now under discussion with those who may wish 
to join in this effort. The proposal before us is 
for a new Atlantic force. Such a force would 
bring strength instead of weakness, cohesion in- 
stead of division. It would belong to all mem- 
bers, not one, with all participating on a basis 
of full equality. And as Europe moves toward 
unity, its role and responsibility, liere as else- 
where, would and must increase accordingly. 

Meanwhile there is much to do. We must 
work more closely together on strategy, train- 




ing, and planning. European officers from 
NATO are being assigned to Strategic Air Com- 
mand headquarters in Omaha, Nebraska. 
Modern weapons are being deployed here in 
Western Europe. And America's strategic de- 
terrent, the most powerful in history, will con- 
tinue to be at the service of the whole alliance. 

Second: Our partnership is not military 
alone. Economic unity is also imperative, not 
only among the nations of Europe but across 
the wide Atlantic. Indeed, economic coopera- 
tion is needed throughout the entire free world. 
By opening our markets to the developing coun- 
tries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, by 
contributing our capital and our skills, by 
stabilizing basic prices, we can help assure them 
of a favorable climate for freedom and growth. 
This is an Atlantic responsibility. For the At- 
lantic nations themselves helped to awaken 
these peoples. Our merchants and traders 
• ploughed up their soils — and their societies as 
well — in search of minerals and oil and rubber 
and coffee. Now we must help them gain full 
membership in the 20th century, closing the gap 
between rich and poor. 

Another great economic challenge is the com- 
ing round of trade negotiations. Those delib- 
erations are much more important than a tech- 
nical discussion of trade and commerce. They 
are an opportunity to build common industrial 
and agricultural policies across the Atlantic. 
They are an opportunity to open up new sources 
of demand, to give new impetus to gi-owth, and 
make more jobs and prosperity, for our expand- 
ing populations. They are an opportmiity to 
recognize the trading needs and aspirations of 
other free-world countries, including Japan. 

In short, these negotiations are a test of our 
unity. Wliile each nation must naturally look 
out for its own interests, each nation must also 
look out for the common interest — the need for 
greater markets on both sides of the Atlantic, 
the need to reduce the imbalance between de- 
veloped and underdeveloped nations, and the 
need to stimulate the Atlantic economy to high- 
er levels of production rather than to stifle it 
by higlier levels of protection. 

We must not return to the 1930"s, when we 
exported to each other our own stagnation. We 
must not return to the discredited view that 

trade favors some nations at the expense of 
others. Let no one think that the United States, 
with only a fraction of its economy dependent 
on trade and only a small part of that with 
Western Europe, is seeking trade expansion in 
order to dump our goods on this continent. 
Trade expansion will help us all. The expe- 
rience of the Common Market, like the expe- 
rience of the German Zollverein, shows an in- 
creased rise in business activity and general 
prosperity resulting for all participants in such 
trade agreements, with no member profiting at 
the expense of another. As they say on my own 
Cape Cod, a rising tide lifts all the boats. And 
a partnership, by definition, serves both part- 
ners, without domination or unfair advantage. 
Together we have been partners in adversity; 
let us also be partners in prosperity. 

Beyond development and trade is monetary 
policy. Here again our interests run together. 
Indeed there is no field in which the wider in- 
terest of all more clearly outweighs the narrow 
interest of one. We have lived by that prin- 
ciple, as bankers to freedom, for a generation. 
Now that other nations, including West Ger- 
many, have found new economic strength, it 
is time for common efforts here, too. The great 
free nations of the world must take control of 
our monetary problems if those problems are 
not to take control of us. 

Third and finally, our partnership depends 
on common political purpose. Against the haz- 
ards of division and lassitude, no lesser force 
will serve. History tells us that dismaity and 
relaxation are the great internal dangers of an 
alliance. Thucydides reported that the Pelo- 
ponnesians and their allies were mighty in bat- 
tle but handicapped by their policymaking 
body — in which, he related "each presses its 
own ends . . . which generally results in no 
action at all . . . they devote more time to the 
prosecution of their own purposes than to 
the consideration of the general welfare — 
each supposes that no harm will come of his 
own neglect, that it is the business of another 
to do this or that — and so, as each separately 
entertains the same illusion, the common cause 
imperceptibly decays." 

Is that also to be the story of the Grand Alli- 
ance ? AVelded in a moment of imminent dan- 

JXTLY 22, 1963 


ger, will it disintegrate in complacency, with 
each member pressing its own ends to the neg- 
lect of the common cause? This must not be 
the case. Our old dangers are not gone beyond 
return, and any division among us would bring 
them back in doubled strength. 

Our defenses are now strong, but they must 
be made stronger. Our economic goals are now 
clear, but we must get on with their perform- 
ance. And the greatest of our necessities, the 
most notable of our omissions, is progress to- 
ward unity of political purpose. 

For we live in a world in which our own 
united strength and will must be our first re- 
liance. As I have said before, and will say 
again, we work toward the day when there may 
be real peace between us and the Communists. 
We will not be second in that effort. But that 
day is not yet here. 

We in the United States and Canada are 
200 million, and liere on the European side of 
the Atlantic alliance are nearly 300 million 
more. The strength and unity of this half bil- 
lion human beings are and will continue to be 
the anchor of all freedom, for all nations. Let 
us from time to time pledge ourselves again to 
the common purposes. But let us go on, from 
words to actions, to intensify our efforts for 
still greater unity among us, to build new asso- 
ciations and institutions on those already estab- 
lished. Loft}' words cannot construct an alli- 
ance or maintain it; only concrete deeds can do 

The great present task of construction is here 
on this continent, where the effort for a unified 
free Europe is under way. It is not for Amer- 
icans to prescribe to Europeans how this effort 
should be carried forward. Nor do I believe 
that there is any one right course or any single 
final pattern. It is Europeans who are building 

Yet the reunion of Europe, as Europeans 
shape it — bringing a permanent end to the civil 
wars that have repeatedly wracked the world — 
will continue to have the determined support 
of the United States. For that reunion is a 
necessary step in strengthening the community 
of freedom. It would strengthen our alliance 
for its defense. And it would be in our national 
interest as well as yours. 

It is only a fully cohesive Europe that can 
protect us all against fragmentation of the al- 
liance. Only such a Europe will permit full 
reciprocity of treatment across the ocean, in 
facing the Atlantic agenda. With only such 
a Europe can we have a full give-and-take be- 
tween equals, an equal sharing of responsibil- 
ities, and an equal level of sacrifice. I repeat 
again — so that there may be no misunderstand- 
ing — the choice of paths to the unity of Europe 
is a choice which Europe must make. But as 
you continue this great effort, undeterred by 
either difficulty or delay, you should know that 
this new European greatness will be not an 
object of fear but a source of strength for 
the United States of America. 

There are other political tasks before us. We 
must all learn to practice more completely the 
art of consultation on matters stretching well 
beyond immediate military and economic ques- 
tions. Together, for example, we must explore 
the possibilities of leashing the tensions of the 
cold war and reducing the dangers of the arms 
race. Together we must work to strengthen 
the spirit of those Europeans who are now not 
free, to reestablish their old ties to freedom and 
the West, so tliat their desire for libert,v, and 
their sense of nationhood, and their sense of 
belonging to the Western community will sur- 
vive for future expression. We ask those who 
would be our adversaries to understand that 
in our relations with them we will not bar- 
gain one nation's interest against another's and 
that the commitment to the cause of freedom is 
common to us all. 

All of us in the West must be faithful to 
our conviction that peace in Europe can never 
be complete until everywhere in Europe — and 
that includes Germany — men can choose, in 
peace and freedom, how their coimtries shall be 
governed and choose, without threat to any 
neighbor, reunification with their countrymen. 

I preach no easy liberation and I make no 
empty promises, but my countrj'men, since our 
country was founded, believe strongly in the 
proposition that all men shall be free and all 
free men shall have this right of choice. 

As we look steadily eastward in the hope and 
purpose of new freedom, we must also look — 
and ever more closely — to our transatlantic ties. 




The Atlantic community will not soon become 
a single overarching superstate. But practical 
steps toward stronger common purpose are well 
within our means. As we widen our common 
effort in defense and our threefold cooperation 
in economics, we shall inevitably strengthen 
our political ties as well. Just as your current 
efforts for unity in Europe will produce a 
stronger voice in the dialog between us, so in 
America our cun-ent battle for the liberty and 
prosperity of all citizens can only deepen the 
meaning of our common historic purposes. In 
the far future there may be a new great union 
for us all. But for the present there is plenty 
for all to do in building new and enduring 

In short, the words of Thucydides are a warn- 
ing, not a prediction. We have it in us, as 18 
years have shown, to build our defenses, to 
strengthen our economies, and to tighten our 
political bonds, both in good weather and in 
bad. We can move forward with the confidence 
tliat is born of success and the skill that is born 
of experience. And as we move, let us take 
heart from the certainty that we are not only 
united by danger and necessity but by hope and 
purpose as well. 

For we know now that freedom is more than 
the rejection of tyranny, that prosperity is more 
than an escape from want, that partnership is 
more than a sharing of power. These are all, 
above all, great human adventures. They must 
have meaning and conviction and purpose — and 
because they do, in your country now and in 
mine, in all the nations of the alliance, we are 
called to a great new mission. 

It is not a mission of self-defense alone, 
for that is a means, not an end. It is not a mis- 
sion of arbitrary power, for we reject the idea 
that one nation should dominate another. The 
mission is to create a new social order, founded 
on liberty and justice, in wliich men are the 
masters of their fate, in which states are the 
servants of their citizens, and in which all men 
and women can share a better life for themselves 
and their children. That is the object of our 
conmion policy. 

To realize this vision, we must seek, above all, 
a world of peace — a world in which peoples 
dwell together in mutual respect and work to- 
gether in mutual regard, a world where peace 

is not a mere interlude between wars but an 
incentive to the creative energies of humanity. 
We will not find such & peace today, or even 
tomorrow. The obstacles to hope are large and 
menacing. Yet the goal of a peaceful world 
must — today and tomorrow — shape our deci- 
sions and inspire our purposes. 

So we are all idealists. We are all visionaries. 
Let it not be said of this Atlantic generation 
that we left ideals and visions to the past, nor 
purpose and determination to our adversaries. 
We have come too far, we have sacrificed too 
much, to disdain the future now. And we shall 
ever remember what Goethe told us, that the 
"highest wisdom, the best that mankind ever 
knew'' was the realization that "he only earns 
his freedom and existence who daily conquers 
them anew." 

Thank you. 

President's Remarks Before Industrial Trade 
Union of Construction Workers, Berlin, June 26 

White House press release (Berlin) dated June 26 

I am not a stranger to trade imion meetings, 
and therefore I feel most at home here today. 
I appreciated the invitation which was extended 
to me through George Meany to join you, Mr. 
Rosenberg, Mr. Leber, your distinguished 
Mayor [Willy Brandt], your distinguished 
Chancellor, and have an oportunity to talk to 
those of you whose work is essential in these 
very difficult and dangerous days. 

Below is written a quotation in this building 
from Benjamin Franklin, which says, ". . . God 
grant that not only the love of liberty, but a 
thorough knowledge of the rights of men, may 
pervade all the nations of the earth, so that a 
philosopher may set his foot anywhere on its 
surface, and say, 'This is my country.' " West 
Berlin is my coimtry. 

Benjamin Franklin once said to Thomas 
Paine, the gi-eat American revolutionary, 
"Wliere freedom is, there is where I live." And 
Paine replied, "Wliere freedom is not, there is 
where I live, because no man or counti-y can be 
really free unless all men and all countries are 

It is no accident that during the last 40 years 
the prime target of the Communist movement 
has been the destruction of the free trade union 

JULY 22, 1963 


movement. Once the free trade union move- 
ment is destroyed, once it is harnessed to the 
cliariot of the state, once trade imion leaders 
are nominated by the head of the state, once 
meetin<TS such as this become formalities, 
endorsing the purposes of the state, the 
trade union movement is destroyed and so is 

Therefore, what you do in this country to 
maintain freedom, the contributions that you 
make to improve the welfare of your people, 
the great sense of responsibility you feel not 
only toward your members, not only toward 
your country, not only toward other trade un- 
ions, in other countries, but your sense of re- 
sponsibility for the whole movement of free- 
dom — so long as that exists the world can look 
to the future with hope. 

So I am glad and proud to come here today. 
In the United States, in the last 30 years, all 
of the great efTorts that were made at home and 
abroad — Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, Pres- 
ident Truman's effort through Marshall Plan, 
NATO, Point 4, and all the rest, and tlie effort 
that President Eisenhower made — all of these 
great international efforts, as well as great pro- 
gressive national movements, had the strong 
endorsement and support of the AFIj-CIO, led 
by Mr. George Meany, who has stood for free- 
dom in the United States and around the globe. 
Therefore I urge you, gentlemcTi, in meeting 
your responsibilities to those who belong to your 
unions, to also realize tliat your unions will not 
survive except in a world of freedom. I urge 
you to hold out, as we are trying to do in the 
United States in the AFL-CIO, a lielping hand 
to those who seek to organize trade unions in 
Latin America, Africa, and Asia. This is how 
a free society remains free, and, in addition, 
while freedom is an end in itself, it is also a 

I think tliat nothing has been more destruc- 
tive to the mj-tli that once existed that, while 
communism meant a loss of personal liberty, 
it was a means of economic advancement. If 
there is any myth that has been destroyed 
in the last 10 years, it has been the concept that 
comnumism and economic welfare go hand in 
hand. I believe our times have shown that free- 
dom is the handmaiden of economic advance- 
ment, that through a system of freedom. 

through a system of progress, through a sys- 
tem of responsibilities within a free society, that 
is the best way that people can live, not only 
peacefully at night and in the daytime, but 
also can enjoy an increasingly high standard 
of living. That is what we want freedom for, 
not only so we can exist ourselves and develop 
our own personalities but so that our people 
can move ahead : the people in my country who 
are entitled to an equal opportunity which we 
are now fighting to give them, the people in this 
country who desire not only to be free but to 
make it possible for their children to live better 
than they lived. And here in Western Europe 
and in the United States, where the trade union 
movement has played such an important role, 
I hope it will be an example to those who live 
to the south of us, who stand on the razor edge 
of moving into some kind of totalitarianism or 
developing a free, progressive society, where, 
through the trade imion movements, the fruits 
of progress, the fruits of production, can be dis- 
tributed fairly to the population — not by a 
leader but by the people themselves. 

So I regard this movement as important, this 
meeting as essential, and I regard it as a privi- 
lege to come here. This is a great city. It has 
meant a lot in the history of the last 18 years. 
I am proud to be here with General [Lucius D.] 
Clay. Americans may be far away, but in ac- 
cordance with what Benjamin Franlvlin said, 
this is where we want to be today. "\^nien I 
leave tonight, I leave and the United States 

Thank you. 

President's Remarks Upon Signing the Golden 
Book, Berlin, June 26 

White House press release (Berlin) dated June 2G 

I am proud to come to this city as the guest of 
your distinguished Mayor, who has symbolized 
throughout the world the fighting spirit of West 
Berlin, and I am pi-oud to visit the Federal 
Republic with your distinguished Chancellor 
who, for so many years, has committed Germany 
to democracy and freedom and progress, and to 
come here in the company of my fellow Ameri- 
can, General Clay, who has been in this city 
during its great moments of crisis and will come 
again if ever needed. 



Two thousand years ago the proudest boast 
was '■^Civitas Romaniis sum.'''' Today, in the 
world of freedom, the proudest boast is "/cA 
bin ein Berliner?^ (I appreciate my inter- 
preter translating my German.) 

There are many people in the world who real- 
ly don't understand, or say they don't, what is 
the great issue between the free world and the 
Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. 
There are some who say that commimism is the 
wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. 
And there are some who say in Europe and else- 
where we can work witli the Communists. Let 
them come to Berlin. And there are even a few 
who say that it is true that communism is an 
evil system but it permits us to make economic 
progress. Lasst sie nach Berlin komrnen. 

Freedom has many difficulties and democracy 
is not perfect, but we have never had to put a 
wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them 
from leaving us. I want to say, on behalf of 
my countrymen, who live many miles away on 
the other side of the Atlantic, who are far dis- 
tant from you, that they take the greatest pride 
that they have been able to share with you, even 
from a distance, the story of the last 18 years. 
I know of no town, no city, that has been be- 
sieged for 18 years that still lives with the 
vitality and the force and the hope and the de- 
tennination of the city of West Berlin. While 
the wall is the most obvious and vivid demon- 
stration of the failures of the Communist sys- 
tem, for all the world to see, we take no satisfac- 
tion in it for it is, as your Mayor has said, an 
offense not only against history but an offense 
against humanity, separating families, divid- 
ing husbands and wives and brothers and sisters, 
and dividing a people who wish to be joined 

^Vliat is true of this city is true of Germany — 
real, lasting peace in Europe can never be as- 
sured as long as one German out of four is 
denied the elementary right of free men, and 
that is to make a free choice. In 18 years of 
peace and good faith, this generation of Ger- 
mans has earned the right to be free, including 
the riglit to unite their families and their nation 
in lasting peace, with good will to all people. 
You live in a defended island of freedom, but 
your life is part of the main. 

So let me ask you, as I close, to lift your eyes 
beyond the dangers of today to the hopes of to- 
morrow, beyond the freedom merely of this city 
of Berlin, or your country of Gei-many, to the 
advance of fi-eedom everywhere, beyond the 
wall to the day of peace with justice, beyond 
yourselves and ourselves to all mankind. Free- 
dom is indivisible, and when one man is en- 
slaved all are not free. When all are free, then 
we can look forward to that day when this city 
will be joined as one and this comiti-y and this 
great continent of Europe in a peaceful and 
hopeful glow. "UHien that day finally comes, 
as it will, the people of West Berlin can take 
sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in 
the f rontlmes for almost two decades. 

All free men, wherever they may live, are citi- 
zens of Bei'lin, and, therefore, as a free man, I 
take pride in the words "/cA h'm ein Berliner." 

President's Address at Free University, Berlin, 
June 26 

White Hixise press release (Berlin) dated June 26; as- 
delivered text 

Sir, Mr. Mayor, Chancellor, distinguished 
Ministers, members of the faculty, and Fellows 
of this imiversity, fellow students: I am hon- 
ored to become an instant graduate of this dis- 
tinguished university. The fact of the matter 
is, of course, that any miiversity, if it is a uni- 
versity, is free. So one might think that the 
words "Free University" are redimdant. But 
not in West Berlin. So I am proud to be here 
today, and I am proud to have this association, 
on behalf of my fellow comitrymen, with this 
great center of learning. 

Prince Bismarck once said that one-third of 
the students of Gennan universities broke down 
from overwork, another third broke down from 
dissipation, and the other third ruled Germany. 
I do not know which third of the student body 
is here today, but I am confident that I am 
talking to the future rulers of this comitry, and 
also of other free countries, stretching around 
the world, who have sent their sons and daugh- 
ters to this center of freedom in order to under- 
stand what the world struggle is all about. I 
know that when you leave this school you will 
not imagine that this institution was founded 
by citizens of the world, including my own 

OTJLT 22, 1963 


country, and was developed by citizens of West 
Berlin — that you will not imagine that these 
men who teach you have dedicated their life to 
your knowledge— in order to give this school's 
graduates an economic advantage in the life 
struggle. This school is not interested in turn- 
ing out merely corporation lawyers or skilled 
accountants. What it is interested in — and this 
must be true of every uni\ ersity — is it must be 
interested in turning out citizens of the world, 
men who comprehend the difficult, sensitive 
tasks that lie before us as free men and women, 
and men who are willing to commit their ener- 
gies to the advancement of a free society. That 
is why you are here, and that is why this school 
was founded, and all of us benefit from it. 

It is a fact that in my own country in the 
American Revolution that revolution and the 
society developed thereafter was built by some 
of the most distinguished tcholais in the histoi-y 
of the United States, who were, at the same 
time, among our foremost politicians. They 
did not believe that knowledge was merely for 
the study, but they thought it was for the mar- 
ketplace as well, and Madison and Jefferson and 
Franklin and all the others who built the United 
States, who built our Constitution, who built it 
on a sound framework, I believe set an example 
for us all, and what was true of my country has 
been true of your country and the countries of 
Western Europe. As an American said 100 
years ago, it was John Milton who conjugated 
verbs in his library when tlie freedom of Eng- 
lishmen was periled. The duty of the scholar, 
of the etlucated man, of the man or woman 
whom society has developed — the duty of that 
man or woman is to help build the society which 
has made their own advancement possible. 
You understand it and I understand it, and I 
am proud to be with you. 

Goetiie, wliose home city I visited yesterday, 
believed tliat education and culture were the 
answer to international strife. "With sufficient 
learning," he wrote, "a scliolar forgets national 
hatreds, stands above nations, and feels the well- 
being or troubles of a neighboring people as if 
they happened to his own." That is the kind 
of scholar that this university is training. In 
the 15 turbulent years since this institution was 
fomided, dedicated to the motto "Truth, Justice, 

and Liberty," much has changed. The univer- 
sity enrollment has increased sevenfold, and re- 
lated colleges have been founded. West Berlin 
has been blockaded, threatened, harassed, but 
it continues to grow in industrj' and culture and 
size, and in the hearts of free men. Germany 
has changed. Western Europe and, indeed, the 
entire world has changed, but this university 
has maintained its fidelity to these three 
ideals — trutli, justice, and liberty. I choose, 
therefore, to discuss the future of this city 
briefly in the context of these three obligations. 

Speaking a shoi-t time ago in the center of 
the city, I reaffiimed my country's commitment 
to West Berlin's freedom and restated our con- 
fidence in its people and their courage. The 
shield of the military commitment with which 
we, in association with two other great powers, 
guard the freedom of West Berlin will not be 
lowered or put aside so long as its presence is 
needed, but behind that shield it is not enough 
to mark time, to adhere to a status quo, while 
awaiting a change for the better in a situation 
fraught with challenge, and the last 4 years in 
the world have seen the most extraordinary 
challenges, the significance of which we cannot 
even grasp today, and only when histoiy and 
time have passed can we realize the significant 
events that happened at the end of the fifties 
and the beginning of the sixties. In a situation 
fraught with change and challenge, in an era of 
tliis kind, every resident of West Berlin has a 
duty to consider where he is, where his city is 
going, and how best it can get there. The 
scholar, the teacher, the intellectual, have a 
higher duty than any of the others, for society 
lias trained you to think as well as do. This 
community has committed itself to that objec- 
tive, and you have a special obligation to think 
and to help forge the future of this city in terms 
of truth and justice and liberty. 

First, what does tiiitli require? It requires 
us to face the facts as they are, not to involve 
ourselves in self-deception — to refuse to think 
merely in slogans. If we are to work for the 
future of the city, let us deal with the realities 
as they actually are, not as they might have 
been and not as we wish thej' were. Eeunifica- 
tion, I believe, will someday be a reality. The 
lessons of history support that belief, especially 



tlie liistory in the world of the last 18 years. 
The strongest force in the world today has been 
the strength of the state, of tlie idea of nation- 
alism of a people; and in Afi'ica and in Latin 
America and in Asia, all around tlie globe, new 
countries have sprung into existence deter- 
mined to maintain tlieir freedom. This has 
been one of the strongest forces on tlie side of 
freedom. And it is a source of satisfaction to 
me tliat so many countries of Western Europe 
recognized this and cliose to move with this 
i^reat tide, and, therefore, that tide has served 
us and not our adversaries. 

But we all know that a police state regime 
has been imposed on the Eastern sector of this 
city and countiy. The jieaceful remiification 
of Berlin and Germany will, therefore, not be 
either quick or easy. We must first bring 
others to see their own true interests better than 
they do today. What will count in the long run 
are the realities of Western strength, the reali- 
ties of Western commitment, the realities of 
Germany as a nation and a people, without re- 
gard to artificial boundaries of barbed wire. 
Those are the realities upon which we rely and 
on which history will move, and others too 
would do well to recognize them. 

Secondly, what does justice require? In the 
end, it requires liberty. And I will come to 
tliat. But in the meantime justice requires us 
to do what we can do in this transition period 
to improve the lot and maintain the hopes of 
those on the other side. It is important that the 
people on the quiet streets in the East be kept 
in touch with Western society. Through all 
the contacts and communication that can be 
established, through all the trade that West- 
ern security permits, above all whether they see 
much or little of the West, what they see must 
be so bright as to contradict the daily drumbeat 
of distortion from the East. You have no 
higher opportunity, therefore, than to stay here 
in "West Berlin, to contribute your talents and 
skills to its life, to show your neighbors democ- 
racy at work, a gi-owing and productive city 
offering freedom and a better life for all. You 
are helping now by your studies and by your 
devotion to freedom, and you, therefore, earn 
the admiration of your fellow students from 
wlierever they come. 

Today I have had a chance to see all of this 
myself. I have seen housing and factories and 
office buildings and commerce and a vigorous 
academic and scientific life here in this com- 
munity. I have seen the people of this city, and 
I think that all of us who have come here know 
that the morale of this city is high, that the 
standard of living is high, the faith in tlie future 
is high, and that this is not merely an isolated 
outpost cut off from the world, cut off from the 
West. Students come here from many coun- 
tries, and I hope more will come, especially from 
Africa and Asia. Those of you who may return 
from study here to other parts of Western Eu- 
rope will still be helping to forge a society 
whicli most of those across the wall yearn to 
join. The Federal Republic of Germany, as all 
of us know from our visit better than ever, has 
created a free and dynamic economy from the 
disasters of defeat and a bulwark of freedom 
from the ruins of tyramiy. 

West Berlin and West Germany have dedi- 
cated and demonstrated their commitment to 
the liberty of the human mind, the welfare of 
the community, and to peace among nations. 
They offer social and economic security and 
progress for their citizens, and all this has been 
accomplished — and this is the important 
point — not only because of their economic plant 
and capacity but because of their conunitment to 
democracy, because economic well-being and 
democracy must go hand in hand. 

And finally, what does liberty require? The 
answer is clear. A united Berlin in a united 
Germany, united by self-determination and liv- 
ing in peace. This right of free choice is no 
special privilege claimed by the Germans alone. 
It is an elemental requirement of human jus- 
tice. So tliis is our goal, and it is a goal which 
may be attainable most readily in the context 
of the reconstitution of the larger Europe on 
both sides of the harsh line which now divides 
it. This idea is not new in the postwar West. 
Secretary Marshall, soon after he delivered his 
famous speech at Harvard University urging 
aid to the reconstruction of Europe, was asked 
what areas his proposal might cover, and he 
replied that he was "taking the commonly ac- 
cepted geography of Europe — west of Asia." 
His offer of help and friendship was rejected, 
but it is not too early to think once again in 

JXTLT 22, 1963 


terms of all of Europe, for the winds of change 
are blowing across (lie Curtain as well as the 
rest of tlie world. 

The cause of human rights and dignity, some 
two centuries after its birth in Europe and the 
United States, is still moving men and nations 
with ever-increasing momentum. The Negro 
citizens of my own country have strengthened 
their demand for equality and opportunity. 
And the American people and the American 
Government are going to respond. The pace 
of decolonization has quickened in Africa. The 
people of the developing nations have intensi- 
fied their pursuit of eeonomic and social justice. 
The people of Eastern Europe, even after 18 
yeare of oppression, are not immune to change. 
The truth doesn't die. The desire for liberty 
cannot be fully suppressed. The people of the 
Soviet Union, even after 45 years of jDarty dic- 
tatorsliip, feel the forces of liistorical evolution. 
The harsh precepts of Stalinism are officially 
recognized as bankrupt. Economic and po- 
litical variation and dissent are appearing, for 
example, in Poland, Rumania, and the Soviet 
Union itself. The growing emphasis on scien- 
tific and industrial achievement has been ac- 
companied by increased education and by intel- 
lectual ferment. Indeed, the veiy nature of the 
modern technological society requires human 
initiative and the diversity of free minds. So 
history itself runs against the Marxist dogma, 
not toward it. 

Nor are such systems equipped to deal with 
the organization of modern agriculture and the 
diverse energy of the modern consumer in a de- 
veloped society. In short, these dogmatic police 
states are an anachronism. Like the division 
of Germany and of Europe, it is against the 
tide of history. The new Europe of the West, 
dynamic, diverse, and democratic, must exert 
an ever-increasing attraction to the people of 
the East, and wlien the possibilities of recon- 
ciliation appear we in the West will make it 
clear that we are not hostile to any people or 
system providing they choose their own destiny 
without interfering with the free choice of 

There will be wounds to heal and suspicions 
to be eased on both sides. The difference in 
living standards will have to be reduced by 

leveling up, not down. Fair and effective 
agreements to end the arms race must be 
reached. These changes will not come today or 
tomorrow. But our efforts for a real settlement 
must continue imdiminished. 

As I said this morning, I am not impressed 
by the opportunities open to popular fronts 
throughout the world. I do not believe that 
any democrat can successfully ride that tiger. 
But I do believe in the necessity of great powers 
working together to preserve the human race, 
or otherwise we can be destroyed. This process 
can only be helped by the growing unity of the 
West, and we must all work toward that unity, 
for in unity there is strength, and that is why I 
travel to this continent — the unity of this conti- 
nent — and anj' division or weakness only makes 
our task more difficult. Nor can the West ever 
negotiate a peaceful reunification of Germany 
from a divided and uncertain and competitive 
base. In short, only if they see over a period of 
time that we are strong and united, that we are 
vigilant and determined, are others likely to 
abandon their course of armed aggression or 
subversion. Only then will genuine, mutually 
acceptable proposals to reduce hostility have a 
chance to succeed. 

This is not an easy course. There is no easy 
course to the reunification of Germany, the re- 
constitution of Europe. But life is never easy. 
There is work to be done, and obligations to be 
met, obligations to truth, to justice, and to 

Thank you. 


President's Address Before a Joint Session of 
the Dail and Seanad, Dublin, June 28 

White House press release (Dublin) dated June 28; as- 
delivered text 

Mr. Speaker, Prime Minister, Members of the 
Parliament: I am grateful for your welcome 
and for that of your countrymen. 

The 13th day of December 18G2 will be a day 
long remembered in American history. At 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, thousands of men 
fought and died on one of the bloodiest battle- 
fields of the American Civil War. One of the 
most brilliant stories of that day was written by 



a band of 1,200 men who went into battle wear- 
ing a green sprig in their hats. They bore a 
proud heritage and a special courage, given to 
those who had long fought for the cause of free- 
dom. I am refeiTing, of course, to the Irish 
Brigade. As General Robert E. Lee, the gi-eat 
military leader of the Southern Confederate 
forces, is reported to liaA^e said of this group of 
men after the battle, "The gallant stand which 
this bold brigade made on the heights of Fred- 
ericksburg is well known. Never were men so 
brave. They ennobled their race by their splen- 
did gall antry on that desperate occasion. Their 
brilliant though hopeless assaults on our lines 
excited the hearty applause of our officers and 

Of the 1,200 men who took part in that as- 
sault, 280 survived the battle. The Irish Bri- 
gade was led into battle on that occasion by 
Brigadier General Thomas F. Meagher, who 
had participated in the unsuccessful Irish up- 
rising of 1848, was captured by the British and 
sent in a prison ship to Australia, from whence 
he finally came to America. In the fall of 1862, 
after serving with distinction and gallantry in 
some of the toughest fighting of this most 
bloody struggle, the Irish Brigade was pre- 
sented with a new set of flags. In the city cere- 
mony, the city chamberlain gave them the motto 
"The Union, Our Countiy, and Ireland For- 
ever." Their old ones having been torn to 
shreds by bullets in previous battles, Captain 
Richard McGee took possession of these flags 
on December 2d in New York City and arrived 
with them at the Battle of Fredericksburg and 
carried them in the battle. Today, in recogni- 
tion of what these gallant Irislmien and what 
millions of other Irish have done for my coun- 
try, and through the generosity of the Fighting 
69th, I would like to present one of these flags 
to the people of Ireland. 

As you can see, gentlemen, the battle honors 
of the Brigade include Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Gaines's Mill, 
Allen's Farm, Savage's Station, Wliite Oak 
Bridge, Glendale, IMalvern Hill, Antietam, 
Gettysburg, and Bristoe Station. 

I am deeply honored to be your guest in the 
free Parliament of a free Ireland. If this 
nation had achieved its present political and 

economic stature a century or so ago, my great 
grandfather might never have left New Ross, 
and I might, if fortunate, be sitting down there 
with you. Of course, if your own President 
had never left Brooklyn, he might be standing 
up here instead of me. 

This elegant building, as you know, was once 
the property of the Fitzgerald family, but I 
have not come here to claim it. Of all the new 
relations I have discovered on this trip, I regret 
to say that no one has yet found any link be- 
tween me and a great Irish patriot, Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald. Lord Edward, however, 
did not like to stay here in his family home be- 
cause, as he wrote his mother, "Leinster House 
does not inspire the brightest ideas." That was 
a long time ago, however. It has also been said 
by some that a few of the features of this stately 
mansion served to inspire similar features in 
the Wliite House in Washington. Wliether this 
is true or not, I know that the Wliite House 
was designed by James Hoban, a noted Irish- 
American architect, and I have no doubt that 
he believed by incorporating several features of 
the Dublin style he would make it more home- 
like for any President of Irish descent. It was 
a long wait, but I appreciate his efforts. 

There is also an unconfirmed rumor that 
Hoban was never fully paid for his work on the 
Waite House. If this proves to be true, I will 
speak to our Secretary of the Treasury about it, 
although I hear this body is not particularly 
interested in the subject of revenues. 

I am proud to be the first American Presi- 
dent to visit Ireland during his term of office, 
proud to be addressing this distinguished as- 
sembly, and proud of the welcome you have 
given me. My presence and your welcome, how- 
ever, only symbolize the many and the endur- 
ing links which have bound the Irish and the 
Americans since the earliest days. 

Benjamin Franklin, the envoy of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, who was also born in Boston, 
was received by the Irish Parliament in 1772. 
It was neither independent nor free from dis- 
crimination at the time, but Franklin repoited 
its members "disposed to be friends of Amer- 
ica." "By joining our interest with theirs," he 
said, "a more equitable treatment . . . might be 
obtained for both nations." 

JULY 22, 1963 


Our iiitorests liave been joined ever since. 
Franklin sent leaflets to Irish Freedom Fight- 
ers. O'Coimell was influenced by Washington, 
and Eniniet influenced Lincoln. Irish volun- 
teers played so predominant a role in the 
American Army that Lord Mountjoy lamented 
in the British Parliament, '"AVe have lost 
America through the Irish." Jolui Barry, 
whose statue was honored yesterday, and whose 
sword is in my office, was only one who fought 
for liberty in America to set an example for 
liberty in Ireland. Yesterday was the 1 I7th an- 
niversary of the birth of Charles Stewart 
Parnell, whose grandfather fought under Barry 
and whose mother was bom in America, and 
who, at the age of 34, was invited to address 
the American Congress on the cause of Irisli 
freedom. "I have seen since I have been in this 
country," he said, "so many tokens of the good 
M'islies of the American people toward Ire- 
land. . . ." And today, 83 years latei-, I can 
say to you that I have seen in this country so 
many tokens of good wishes of the Irish people 
toward America. 

And so it is that our two nations, divided by 
distance, have been united by history. No peo- 
ple ever believed more deeply in the cause of 
Irish freedom than the people of the United 
States. And no country contributed more to 
building my own than your sons and daughters. 
They came to our shores in a mixture of hope 
and agony, and I would not underrate the diffi- 
culties of their course once they arrived in the 
United States. They left behind hearts, fields, 
and a nation yearning to be free. It is no won- 
der that James Joyce described the Atlantic as 
a bowl of bitter tears, and an earlier poet wrote, 
"They are going, going, going, and we cannot 
bid them stay." 

But today this is no longer the country of 
hunger and famine that those emigrants left 
behind. It is not rich and its progress is not 
yet complete, but it is, according to statistics, 
one of the best fed countries in the world. Nor 
is it any longer a country of persecution, politi- 
cal or religious. It is a free country, and that 
is why any American feels at home. 

There are those who regard this history of 
past strife and exile as l)etter forgotten, but 
to use the phrase of Yeats, "I^et us not casually 

reduce that great past to a trouble of fools, for 
we need not feel the bitterness of the past to dis- 
cover its meaning for the present and the fu- 

And it is the present and the future of Ire- 
land that today holds so much promise to my 
nation as well as to yours, and indeed to all man- 
kind, for the Ireland of 1963, one of the young- 
est of nations and the oldest of civilizations, has 
discovered that the achievement of nationhood 
is not an end but a beginning. In the years 
since independence, you have undergone a new 
and peaceful revolution, an economic and in- 
dustrial revolution, transforming the face of this 
land while still holding to the old spiritual and 
cultural values. You have modernized your 
economy, harnessed your rivers, diversified your 
industry, liberalized your trade, electrified your 
farms, accelerated your rate of growth, and im- 
proved the living standard of your people. 

Other nations of the world in whom Ireland 
has long invested her people and her children 
are now investing their capital as well as their 
vacations here in Ireland. This revolution is 
not yet over, nor will it be, I am sure, until a 
fully modem Irish economy fully shares in 
world prosperity. But prosperity is not enough. 

Eighty-three years ago, Henry Grattan, de- 
manding the more independent Irish Parlia- 
ment that would always bear his name, de- 
nounced those who were satisfied merely by new 
grants of economic opportmiity. "A country," 
he said, "enlightened as Ireland, chartered as 
Ireland, armed as Ireland, and injured as Ire- 
land, will be satisfied with nothing less than lib- 
erty." And today, I am certain, free Ireland, a 
full-fledged member of the world community, 
where some are not yet free and where some 
counsel an acceptance of tyranny — free Ireland 
will not be satisfied with anything less than 

I am glad, therefore, that Ireland is moving 
in the mainstream of current world events. For 
I sincerely believe that your future is as prom- 
ising as your past is proud and that your des- 
tiny lies not as a peaceful island in a sea of 
troubles but as a maker and shaper of world 
peace. For self-determination can no longer 
mean isolation ; and the achievement of national 
independence today means witlulrawal from the 



old status only to return to the world scene with 
a new one. New nations can build with their 
fonner governing powers the same kind of 
fruitful relationship that Ireland has estab- 
lished with Great Britain — a relationship 
founded on equality and mutual interests. And 
no nation, large or small, can be indifferent to 
the fate of others, near or far. Modern eco- 
nomics, weaponry, and communications have 
made us realize more than ever that we are 
one human family and this one planet is our 

"The world is large," wrote John Boyle 
O'Reilly — "The world is large when its weary 
leagues two loving hearts divide ; but the world 
is small when your enemy is loose on tlie other 
side." The world is even smaller today, though 
the enemy of John Boyle O'Reilly is no longer 
a hostile power. Indeed, across the gulfs and 
barriers that now divide us, we must remember 
that there are no permanent enemies. Hostility 
today is a fact, but it is not a ruling law. The 
supreme reality of our time is our indivisibility 
as children of God and our common vulnera- 
bility on this planet. 

Some may say that all this means little to 
Ireland. In an age when "history moves with 
the tramp of earthquake feet" — in an age when 
a handful of men and nations have the power to 
devastate mankind, in an age when the needs 
of the developing nations are so staggering that 
even the richest lands often groan with the 
burden of assistance — in such an age, it may 
be asked, how can a nation as small as Ireland 
play much of a role on the world stage ? 

I would remind those who ask that question, 
including those in other small countries, of 
these words of one of the great orators of the 
English language: 

All the world owes much to the little "five feet high" 
nations. The greatest art of the world was the work of 
little nations. The most enduring literature of the 
world came from little nations. The heroic deeds that 
thrill humanity through generations were the deeds of 
little nations fighting for their freedom. And, oh, yes, 
the salvation of mankind came through a little nation. 

Ireland has already set an example and a 
standard for other small nations to follow. This 
has never been a rich or powerful country, and 
yet, since earliest times, its influence on the 
world has been rich and powerful. No large 

nation did more to keep Christianity and West- 
ern culture alive in their darkest centuries. No 
larger nation did more to spark the cause of 
independence in America, indeed, around the 
world. And no larger nation has ever provided 
the world with more literary and artistic 

This is an extraordinary country. (Jeorge 
Bernard Shaw, speaking as an Irislmian, 
summed up an approach to life: "Other peo- 
ples," he said, "see things and say : 'Why?' . . . 
But I dream things that never were — and I say : 
'Why not?'" 

It is that quality of the Irish, the remarkable 
combination of hope, confidence, and imagina- 
tion, that is needed more than ever today. The 
problems of the world cannot possibly be solved 
by skeptics or cynics whose horizons are limited 
by the obvious realities. We need men who 
can dream of things that never were, and ask 
why not. It matters not how small a nation is 
that seeks world peace and freedom, for, to par- 
aphrase a citizen of my country, "The humblest 
nation of all the world, when clad in the armor 
of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the 
hosts of Error." 

Ireland is clad in the cause of national and 
human liberty with peace. To the extent that 
the peace is disturbed by conflict between the 
former colonial powers and the new and devel- 
oping nations, Ireland's role is unique. For 
every new nation knows that Ireland was the 
first of the small nations in the 20th century to 
win its struggle for independence and that the have traditionally sent their doctors and 
technicians and soldiers and priests to help 
other lands to keep their liberty alive. At the 
same time, Ireland is part of Europe, associated 
with the Council of Europe, progressing in the 
context of Europe, and a prospective member of 
an expanded European Common Market. Thus 
Ireland has excellent relations with both the 
new and the old, the confidence of both sides, 
and an opportimity to act where the actions of 
greater powers might be looked upon with 

The central issue of freedom, however, is be- 
tween those who believe in self-determination 
and those in the East who would impose on 
others the harsh and oppressive Communist 

JtTLT 22, 1963 


system ; and here your nation wisely rejects the 
role of a go-between or a mediator. Ireland 
pursues an independent course in foreign policy, 
but it is not neutral between liberty and tyranny 
and never will be. 

For knowing the meaning of foreign domina- 
tion, Ireland is the example and inspiration to 
those enduring endless years of oppression. It 
was fitting and appropriate that this nation 
played a leading role in censuring the suppres- 
sion of the Hungarian revolution, for how 
many times was Ireland's quest for freedom 
suppressed only to have that quest renewed by 
the succeeding generation? Those who suffer 
beyond that wall I saw on Wednesday in Berlin 
must not despair of their future. Let them re- 
member the constancy, the faith, the endurance, 
and the final success of the Irish. And let them 
remember, as I heard sung by your sons and 
daughters yesterday in Wexford, the words, 
"The boys of Wexford, who fought with heart 
and hand, to burst in twain the galling chain 
and free our native land." 

The major forum for your nation's greater 
role in world affairs is that of protector of the 
weak and voice of the small, the United Na- 
tions. From Cork to the Congo, from Gal way 
to the Gaza Strip, from this legislative assem- 
bly to the United Nations, Ireland is sending its 
most talented men to do the world's most im- 
portant work — the work of peace. 

In a sense this export of talent is in keeping 
with an historic Irish role. But you no longer 
go as exiles and emigrants but for the service 
of your country and, indeed, of all men. Like 
the Irish missionaries of medieval days, like the 
wild geese after the Battle of the Boyne, you 
are not content to sit by your fireside while 
others are in need of your help. Nor are you 
content with the recollections of the past when 
you face the responsibilities of the present. 

Twenty-six sons of Ireland have died in the 
Congo ; many others have been wounded. I pay 
tribute to fhem and to all of you for your com- 
mitment and dedication to world order. And 
their sacrifice reminds us all that we must not 
falter now. 

The United Nations must be fully and fairly 
financed. Its peacekeeping machinery must be 
strengthened. Its institutions must be devel- 

oped until some day, and perhaps some distant 
day, a world of law is achieved. 

Ireland's influence in the United Nations is 
far greater than your relative size. You have 
not hesitated to take the lead on such sensitive 
issues as the Kashmir dispute, and you spon- 
sored that most vital resolution, adopted by the 
General Assembly, which opposed the spread of 
nuclear arms to any nation not now possessing 
them, urging an international agreement with 
inspection and control, and I pledge to you that 
the United States of America will do all in its 
power to achieve such an agreement and fulfill 
your resolution. 

I speak of these matters today not because Ire- 
land is unaware of its role, but I think it impor- 
tant that you know that we know what you have 
done, and I speak to remind the other small 
nations that they, too, can and must help build 
a world peace. They, too, as we all are, are 
dependent on the LTnited Nations for security, 
for an equal chance to be heard, for progress 
toward a world made safe for diversity. The 
peacekeeping machinery of the United Nations 
cannot work without the help of the smaller na- 
tions, nations whose forces threaten no one and 
whose forces can thus help create a world in 
which no nation is threatened. 

Great powers have their responsibilities and 
their burdens, but the smaller nations of the 
world must fulfill their obligations as well. A 
great Irish poet once wrote, "I believe pro- 
foundly in the future of Ireland, that this is an 
isle of destiny, that that destiny will be glorious, 
and that when our hour has come we will have 
something to give to the world." 

My friends, Ireland's hour has come. You 
have something to give to the world, and that is 
a future of peace with freedom. Thank you. 


Communique Between President Kennedy 
and Prime Minister Macmillan, 
Birch Grove House, Sussex, June 30 

Wliili' Honso prrss release (Sussex) dated June 30 

During the past two days President Ken- 
nedy and Prime Minister Macmillan have held 
their seventh meeting to discuss current prob- 
lems. Their talks have taken place at Prime 
Minister Macmillan's home in Sussex and fol- 



lowed on President Kennedy's visit to Germany 
and Eire. 

The United States Secretary of State, Mr. 
Rusk, Lord Home, British Foreign Secret aiy, 
Mr. Duncan Sandys, Secretary of State for 
Commonwealth Relations and Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, Lord Hailsham, Lord 
President of the Council, Mr. Thorneycroft, 
Minister of Defence, and Mr. Heath, Lord Privy 
Seal, took part in the talks at various times. 

During some twelve hours of discussion the 
President and the Prime Minister began by 
hearing reports from Lord Home and Mr. Rusk 
about conversations which the two Ministers 
had held in London during the previous two 
days. The topics covered included Laos and the 
Far Eastern situation, the position in the Mid- 
dle East, the problems of NATO and the 
Western Alliance and the effort for a test ban 
treaty. President Kennedy and the Prime 
Minister took note in particular of the situation 
in Laos and expressed their concern at the fre- 
quent breaches of the Geneva Agreement of 
1962 and at the failure of certain parties to the 
Agreement to carry out their obligations under 
it. They agreed to continue to work closely to- 
gether for the preservation of peace in Laos 
and the independence and neutrality of that 
country. They also agreed to continue close 
general cooperation in the Far East, par- 
ticularly in regard to the problems of Viet Nam. 
As regards the Middle East, the President 
and the Prime Minister agreed on the impor- 
tance of the efforts made by the United Nations 
in working towards conciliation in the Yemen 
and pledged their support to the Secretary- 

The President and the Prime Minister were 
agreed on their policy of continuing to help 
India by providing further military aid to 
strengthen her defences against the threat of 
renewed Chinese Communist attack. They 
were impressed by the importance to the 
economic progress and defence of both India 
and Pakistan of whose anxieties they wei'e 
fully aware, of an honourable and equitable set- 
tlement of the outstanding differences between 
the two countries; they stood ready to help in 

' For background, see Bulletin of July 8, 1963, p. 71. 

any way which might be desired by both coun- 

President Kennedy and the Prime Minister 
then reviewed the problems of the Western 
Alliance, especially in regard to NATO. 
They noted with satisfaction the decisions 
reached at the recent NATO meeting in Otta- 
wa = which implemented the concept which they 
had themselves set out at their meeting at Nas- 
sau in December 1962,' by wliich a number of 
powers assigned some or all of tlieir present and 
future forces to NATO Command. 

With regard to the future they took note of 
the studies now under way in NATO for review 
of the strategic and tactical concepts which 
should underlie NATO's military plans. 

The President reported on his discussions 
with Dr. Adenauer in which they reaffirmed 
their agreement to use their best efforts to bring 
into being a multilateral sea-borne MRBM force 
and to pursue with other interested govern- 
ments the principal questions involved in the 
establishment of such a force. 

The President and the Prime Minister agreed 
that a basic problem facing the NATO Alliance 
was the closer association of its members with 
the nuclear deterrent of the Alliance. They 
also agreed tliat various possible ways of meet- 
ing this problem should be further discussed 
with their allies. Such discussions would in- 
clude the proposals for a multilateral sea-borne 
force, without prejudice to the question of 
British participation in such a force. 

The President and the Prime Minister also 
reviewed the state of East- West relations and 
considered in particular the possibility of con- 
cluding in the near future a treaty to ban nu- 
clear tests. They agieed that the achievement 
of such a treaty would be a major advance in 
East-West relations and might lead on to 
progress in other directions. They agreed 
the general line which their representatives. 
Ml". Averell Harriman and Lord Hailsham, 
should take during tlieir visit to Moscow in July. 
The President and the Prime Minister reaf- 
firmed their belief that the conclusion of a test 
ban treaty at tliis time is most urgent and 
pledged themselves to do all they could to bring 
this about. 

' Ibid., June 10, 1963, p. 895. 
' Ibid., Jan. 14, 1963, p. 43. 

JULY 22, 1963 



President's Address at NATO Headquarters, 
Naples, July 2 

White Hoine prpsH release (Naples) dated July :; ; ne delivered 

Mr. President [Antonio Segni], Prime Min- 
ister Leone, Foreijjn Minister Piccione, Defense 
Arinister Andreotti, members of the NATO 
Command, ladies and gentlemen: It is fitting 
that my travels away from home should end in 
this coimtry and in this city. Italy, wrote 
Shelley, is the "Paradise of exiles"; and in my 
exile away from Washington, I have enjoyed 
this paradise as the last stop in Europe. I 
.shall leave this country with regret. 

It is also fitting that the final event of this 
European tour should take place at this NATO 
headquartei-s. NATO is one of the best and the 
earliest examples of cooperation between West- 
ern Europe and North America. The NATO 
defense treaty pledges us all to the common de- 
fense, to regard an attack upon one as an attack 
upon all, and to respond with all the forc« at 
our command. And that pledge is as strong and 
unshakable today as it was when it was made. 

Finally, it is fitting to take this opportunity 
to review our findings and feelings after 10 days 
in Western Europe. Specifically, I return to 
Washington newly confirmed in my convictions 
regarding eight principal propositions: 

First, it is increasingly clear that our Western 
European allies are committed to the path of 
progi-essive democracy, to social justice, and to 
economic reform, attained through the free 
processes of debate and consent. I sit here 
again to stress the fact that this is not a matter 
of domestic policies or politics but a key to 
Western freedom and Western solidarity. Na- 
tions which agre^ in applying the principles at 
home of freedom and jiustice are better able to 
work with each other abroad. 

Second, it is increasingly clear that our West - 
eni European allies are determined to maintain 
and coordinate their military strength in co- 
operation with my own nation. In a series of 
briefings and reviews I have been impressed 
less by NATO weaknesses, which are so often 
discussed, and more by the quality of the men, 
the officers, their steadily more modem weap- 
ons, their command structure, and their dedica- 

tion to freedom and peace. "WHiile we can take 
heart from these accomplishments, we still have 
much to do. Important improvements and addi- 
tions are still needed, and tins is not the time 
to slacken our efforts. But if -we continue to 
build up our strength at all levels, we can be 
increasingly certain that no attack will take 
place at any level against the territoiy of any 
NATO comitry. 

Third, it is increasingly clear that our West- 
ern European allies are committed to peace. 
The purpose of our military strength is peace. 
The purpose of our partnership is peace. So our 
negotiations for an end to nuclear tests and our 
opposition to nuclear dispersal are fully con- 
sistent with our attention to defense. These are 
all complementary parts of a single strategy for 
peace. We do not believe that war is unavoid- 
able or that negotiations are inherently undesir- 
able. We do believe that an end to the arms 
race is in the interest of all and that we can 
move toward that end with injury to none. In 
negotiations to achieve peace, as well as prepara- 
tions to prevent war, the West is united and no 
ally will abandon the interests of another to 
achieve a spurious detente. But as we arm to 
parley, we will not reject any path or refuse any 
proposal without examining its possibilities for 

Fourth, it is increasingly clear that our West- 
em European allies are willing to look outward 
on the world, not merely inward on their own 
needs and demands. The economic institutions 
and support of Western European unity are 
founded on the principles of cooperation, not 
isolation; on expansion, not restriction. The 
Common Market was not designed by its found- 
ers or supported by the United States to build 
walls against otlier European and Western 
countries, or to build walls against the ferment 
of the developing nations. These nations need 
assistance in their struggle for political and 
economic independence. They need markets for 
their products and capital for their economies. 
Our allies in Europe, I am confident, will in- 
crease their role in this important effort, not 
only in lands with which they were previously 
associated but in Latin America and every area 
of need. 

Fifth, it is increasingly clear that nations 



united ill freedom are better able to build their 
economies than those that are repressed by 
tyranny. In the last 10 years, the gross na- 
tional product of the NATO countries has risen 
by some 75 percent. We can do better tlian we 
are doing, but we are doing much better than 
the party dictatorships of the East. There was 
a time when some would say that this system 
of admitted dictatorship, for all its political and 
social faults, nevertheless seemed to offer a suc- 
cessful economic system, a swift and certain 
path to modernization and prosperity. But it 
is now apparent that this system is incapable 
in today's world of achieving the organization 
of agriculture, of satisfying consumer demands, 
and the attainment of lasting prosperity. You 
need only compare West Berlin with East Ber- 
lin, West Germany with East Germany, West- 
ern Europe with Eastern Europe. Communism 
has sometimes succeeded as a scavenger, but 
never as a leader. It has never come to power 
in any country that was not disrupted by war 
or internal repression, or both. Rejecting 
reform and diversity in freedom, the Com- 
munists cannot reconcile their ambitions for 
domination with other men's ambition for free- 
dom. It is clear that this system is outmoded 
and doomed to failure. 

Sixth, it is increasingly clear that the jieople 
of Western Europe are moved by a strong and 
irresistible desire for luiity. Wliatever path is 
chosen, wliatever delays or obstacles are en- 
countered, that movement will go forward, and 
the United States welcomes this movement and 
the greater strength it insures. We did not as- 
sist in the revival of Europe to maintain its 
dependence upon the United States, nor do we 
seek to bargain selectively with many and sepa- 
rate voices. We welcome a stronger partner, for 
today no nation can build its destiny alone. The 
age of self-sufficient nationalism is over. The 
age of interdependence is here. The cause of 
Western European unity is based on logic and 
common sense. It is based on moral and politi- 
cal truth. It is based on sound military and 
economic principles, and it moves with the tide 
of history. 

Seventh, it is increasingly clear that the 
United States and Western Europe are tightly 
bound by shared goals and mutual respect. On 
both sides of the Atlantic, trade barriers ai-e 

being reduced, military cooperation is increas- 
ing, and the cause of Atlantic unity is bemg 
promoted. There will always be differences 
among friends, and they should be freely and 
frankly discussed. But these are differences of 
means, not ends. They are differences of ap- 
proach, not spirit. Recognizing these and otiier 
problems, monetaiy payments, foreign a.ssist- 
ance, agriculture, and the rest, I return to the 
United States more firmly convinced than ever 
that common ideals have given us a common 
destiny and that the Atlantic partnership is a 
gi'owing reality. 

Eighth, and finally, it is increasingly clear 
and increasingly understood that the central 
moving f oi-ce of our great adventure is enduring 
mutual trust. I came to Europe to reassert as 
clearly and persuasively as I could that the 
American commitment to the freedom of Eu- 
rope is reliable, not merely because of good will, 
although that is strong, not merely because of a 
shared heritage, althougli that is deep and wide, 
and not at all because we seek to dominate, be- 
cause we do not. I came to make it clear that 
this commitment rests upon the inescapable re- 
quirements of intelligent self-interest. It is a 
commitment whose wisdom is confirmed by its 
absence when two world wars began and by its 
pi'esence in 18 years of well-defended peace. 
The response which this message has evoked 
from European citizens and the press, and 
leaders of the Continent, make it increasingly 
clear that our commitment and its durability 
are understood. And at the same time, all that 
I have seen and heard in these 10 crowded days 
confirms me in the conviction which I am proud 
to proclaim to my own countrymen that the 
free men and free governments of free Europe 
are also firm in their commitments to our com- 
mon cause. 

We have been able to trust each other for 20 
years, and we are right to go on. One hundred 
and fifteen years ago this month, Mazzini ad- 
dressed a mass meeting in Milan with these 
words: "We are here ... to build up the unity 
of the human family so the day may come when 
it shall represent a single sheepfold with a 
single shepherd . . . the spirit of God .... Be- 
yond the Alps, beyond the sea, are other peoples 
now," Mazzini said, "striving by different routes 
to reach tlie same goals . . . improvement, as- 

JtJLT 2 2. 1963 


soc'iation, and tlie I'oundations of an autliority 
that shall put an end to world anarchy .... 
Unite with them — they will unite witli you." 

Today, Italy, the United Stat<>s, and other 
free countries are committed to this great end, 
of the development of the human family. In 
time, the unity of the West can lead to the unity 
of East and AVest, until the human family is 
truly a single sheepfold under God. 

Thank you. 

Communique Between President Kennedy 
and President Segni, Rome, July 2 

White House press release (Rome) dated July 2 

On Jul}' 1st and 2d there took place the 
scheduled working visit to Italy of President 
Kennedy during which, in Rome, he was re- 
ceived by the President of the Republic Segni, 
and, accompanied by Secretary of State Rusk, 
met with the President of the Council of Min- 
isters Leone and the Vice President of the 
Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Pic- 
cioni ; and in Naples, he visited, together with 
President Segni, the headquarters of Allied 
Forces, Southern Europe. 

In the Rome talks, which were caiTied out in 
that climate of cordial friendship and very 
close cooperation which characterizes Italo/ 
American relations, there were examined the 
principal current international problems. In 
particular, the meetings provided the occasion 
for a useful and thorough exchange of views on 
the situation of East-West relations. 

In this regard, both sides confirmed their 
firm intention of persevering in the search for 
appropriate means to alleviate international 
tensions. Furthermore, they expressed the con- 
\'iction that in an atmosphere free from pressure 
and from threats, existing problems can be di- 
rected toward solutions, however partial, with- 
out at the same time altering that balance of 
forces which is guaranteed by the Atlantic Alli- 
ance, indispensable instrument for the consoli- 
dation of peace in freedom and security. 

In this context, President Kennedy explained 
the position of the United States with respect 
to the possible development of a NATO multi- 
lateral nuclear force. On the Italian side, as 
a consequence of the agreement in ])rinciple 

formerly expressed by the Italian Government 
which was reported to the Chamber of Deputies 
immediately afterwards, there was expressed a 
favorable attitude toward participating in 
studies on this subject to be carried out subse- 
quently among all the governments concerned. 

In examining the developments of the Alli- 
ance, against the backgi-omid of the current 
international situation, both parties again un- 
derlined the necessity of persevering in efforts 
to advance current negotiations for a controlled, 
gradual and balanced disarmament, of making 
every effort in order to reach an agreement in 
the field of nuclear test ban, and of preventing 
the proliferation of atomic arms. 

As for the process of European imification, 
there was agreement as to its significant value, 
and on the Italian side, there was reaffirmed 
the will to encourage its development, increas- 
ing the efforts directed toward creation of an 
integrated Europe. In this connection, there 
was recalled the known attitude of the Italian 
Government favorable to European integration 
not only in the economic field but also in the 
political. Italian representatives found them- 
selves in agreement with President Kennedy 
on the necessity that European unity be 
achieved within the framework of the hoped- 
for interdependence between the United States 
and Europe. 

Both sides agreed on the desirability of work- 
ing toward cooperation among the various eco- 
nomic areas in order to promote a greater vol- 
ume of trade between the areas themselves and 
to draw them increasingly closer together. In 
this context, there were examined tlie results 
achieved in the ministerial meeting held last 
May in Geneva ^ in ^preparation for the GATT 
multilateral tariff negotiations which are sched- 
uled to begin next year. Taking into account 
the complexity of the problems discussed in 
that meeting, the results achieved so far were 
considered encouraging. Particular emphasis 
was laid on the significance of the resolution 
approved at that time for expanding the com- 
merce of the developing countries, inasmuch as 
such resolution provides the basis for a better 
coordination of the efforts of the democratic 

' Ihid.. .Iiine 24, 1963, p. 990. 



countries aimed at fostering the economic and 
social progress of the developing countries. 
This is in conformity with the policies of both 
the United States and Italy, designed to pro- 
mote the strengthening of the free world 
through a common program in wliich all na- 
tions which are really free can participate. 

Both reaffirmed the staunch adherence of both 
countries to the principles of the United Na- 
tions organization ; and the finn purpose to con- 
tinue to carry out within the Organization con- 
structive work particularly with regard to the 
problems of disannament, the developing comi- 
tries, and the maintenance of peace. They 
placed special stress on the role which, in this 
connection, the U.N. might play at such time in 
the hoped-for agreement on disarmament. 

In such a spirit, on the American side as on 
the Italian side, there was underlined the desire 
to continue the work which the respective gov- 
ernments are carrying on for the strengthening 
of peace in the world and for the carrying out 
of their obligations to tliis end. 


White House press release dated July 5 

I tliink every American has reason to be 
proud of tlais nation's reputation and standing 
in Europe. Most of us are descended from that 
continent. Some of us still have relatives there. 
Some of us still have sons or brothers buried on 
that continent. We have close cultural and in- 
tellectual ties. We have long been linked by 
travel and commerce. 

Today I can report an even deeper tie be- 
tween the people of Europe and the people of 
the United States. Our steadfast role in the 
defense of freedom for 18 years, for peace and 
justice, I think has earned us the abiding trust 
and respect of the people of Europe. Our will- 
ingness to undertake the hard tasks of leader- 
ship, to station our soldiers and sailors and 
' airmen far away from home — and I saw some of 
them in Europe — to assume the burdens of pre- 
venting another war, all this wliich we in Amer- 
ica sometimes take for granted and which we 
think other people take for granted has earned 

the American people a high reputation and 
brought us steadfast good will. 

This trip was for me a moving experience. 
I saw tlie expressions of hope and confidence on 
the faces of West Berliners 100 miles behind 
the Iron Curtain. I heard expressions of con- 
fidence in the United States from the leadei-s of 
Germany and England, Italy and Ireland. 
And I felt the admiration and affection tliat 
their people had for the people of the United 
States. Above all, I found in every coimtry a 
deep conviction in our common goals, the unity 
of the West, the freedom of man, the necessity 
for peace. 

Western Europe is fast becoming a dynamic 
miited power in world affairs. It is not the 
same Europe that brought our troops twice to 
war in 40 years. It is not the same Europe that 
was so dependent on us 18 years ago. There is 
still much progress to be made. There will still 
be disappointments. But today we can be more 
confident than ever that the Old World and the 
New are partners for progi-ess and partners for 
peace. And so I am haj^py to be home. 

Soviet Attache Accused of Improper 
Activities; U.S. Asks Departure 

Press release 350 dated July 1 

Following is the text of a note handed on 
July 1 to the Charge d'' Affaires of the Soviet 
Embassy hy Acting Assistant Secretary 
Richard H. Davis. 

July 1, 1963 

The Department of State wishes to inform 
the Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics that Attache Gennadiy G. Sevastya- 
nov has engaged in higlily improper activities 
incompatible with his diplomatic status. Be- 
ginning on April 28 of tliis year, Sevastyanov 
attempted to recruit for espionage purposes an 
alien resident who is an employee of the United 
States Government. Sevastyanov in this effort 
tried to coerce the United States Government 
employee by threatening reprisal to members 
of his family resident in the Soviet Union if he 
did not cooperate. 

JULY 22, 1963 


The United States Government cannot pemiit 
siicli unacceptable behavior on the part of an 
official of tlic Soviet Embassy and therefore 
Mr. Sevastyanov's continued presence in the 
United States is no longer acceptable. The 
Embassy is requested to arrange for his immedi- 
ate departure. 

Department of State, 
Washington, D.C. 

U.S. Protests Soviet Restrictions 
in East Berlin 

FoUow-ing is the text of a U.S. note of protest 
against ''''security strips'''' established iy the 
Soviet Zone regime In East Berlin and East Ger- 
many which was delivered to the Soviet Minis- 
try of Foreign Affairs by the U.S. Emhassy at 
Moscow on July 5. Identical notes were de- 
livered by France and Great Britain on the same 

Press release 357 dated July 5 

July 5, 1963 
On June 21, lOGB, the East German author- 
ities proclaimed new security measures which 
imposed draconian restrictions on circulation in 
that ]5art of the Soviet sector in Berlin situated 
along the boundaries of the Western sectors. 

The East German authorities have no com- 
petence for Berlin and these measures are com- 
pletely illegal. They aggravate the arbitrary 
actions taken since August 13, 1961, by these 
authorities in connection with the Soviet Gov- 
ernment which have cut the city in two by con- 
struction of the "wair'. These latest illegal 
measures constitute a serious infringement of the 
quadripartite status of Berlin as established in 
the agreements of 1944 and 1945. Tliey not only 
purport to limit the right of the Allies to cir- 
culate freely in Greater Berlin, but also, to- 
gether with similar measures taken outside Ber- 
lin, constitute in their effects another brutal 
violation of the most elementarj' rights of the 
German population. 

I am instructed to inform you that the United 
States Government protests strongly against 

these measures. The United States Govern- 
ment will hold the Soviet Government respon- 
sible for the consequences which may result in 
Berlin or elsewhere. 

U.S. and Bulgaria Sign Agreement 
Relating to Financial Questions 

Follomng is a Department announcement of 
the signing of a financial agreement betxc'cen the 
United States and Bulgaria., together lolth texts 
of the agreement and accompanying letters. 

Press release 354 dated July 2 

An agreement relating to outstanding finan- 
cial questions between the United States of 
America and the People's Republic of Bulgaria 
was signed at Sofia on July 2. Mrs. Eugenie 
Anderson, American Minister in Sofia, signed on 
behalf of the United States, and Ivan Popov, 
Bulgarian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
signed on behalf of Bulgaria. The negotiations 
which led to the signing of the agreement began 
on January 12, 1961. 

The agreement provides for the settlement on 
a lump-sum basis of claims of U.S. nationals 
arising out of war damage, nationalization of 
property, and financial debts as described in 
article I. 

The lump-sum settlement of $3,543,398 in- 
cludes $3,143,398 in assets of the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment and Bulgarian corporations which were 
blocked in the United States during the Second 
"World War and $400,000 which is to be paid by 
the Bulgarian Government to the U.S. Govern- 
ment in two installments, on July 1, 1964, and on 
July 1, 1965. 

The adjudication of certain American claims 
against Bulgaria, as provided in Public Law 
285, 84th Congress, was completed by the For- 
eign Claims Settlement Commission of the 
United States on August 9, 1955. In accordance 
with Public Law 285, awards of the Commission 
have been certified to the United States Treasury 
for paj'inent and certain paj^ments have already 




been made out of the assets referred to above. 

Tlie agreement also provides for the unblock- 
ing by the U.S. Government of assets of natural 
persons residing in Bulgaria. 

By an exchange of letters between the two 
Governments it was agreed that the transmission 
to payees in Bulgaria of United States Treasury 
checks will be resumed. 


Agreement Between the Government of the United 
States of America and the Government of the 
People's Republic of Bulgaria Regarding Claims 
of United States Nationals and Related Financial 

The Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria 
having reached an understanding on the financial mat- 
ters specified herein have agreed as follows : 

Article I 
( 1 ) The Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the People's Republic of Bul- 
garia agree that the himp sum of $3,.543,398, as specified 
in Article II of this Agreement, will constitute full 
and final settlement and discharge of the claims of na- 
tionals of the United States of America, whether nat- 
ural or juridical persons, against the Government of 
the People's Republic of Bulgaria which are described 
below : 

(a) Claims of nationals of the United States of 
America for the restoration of, or payment of com- 
pensation for, property, rights and interests (direct 
and indirect), as specified in Article 23 of the Treaty 
of Peace with Bulgaria which entered into force on 
September 15, 1947 ; 

(b) Claims of nationals of the United States of 
America for the nationalization, compulsory liquida- 
tion or other taking of property and of rights and in- 
terests (direct and indirect) in and with respect to 
property prior to the effective date of this agreement ; 

(c) Claims of nationals of the United States of 
America predicated (directly or indirectly) upon obli- 
gations expressed in currency of the United States 
of America arising out of contractual or other rights 
acquired by nationals of the United States of Amer- 
ica prior to April 24, 1941, and which became payable 
prior to September 15, 1947. 

(2) The term "claims of nationals of the United 
States of America" as used in subparagraphs (a), (b) 
and (c) in paragraph (1) of this Article refers to 
claims which were owned by nationals of the United 
States of America 

(a) for the purpose of subparagraph (a) on Oc- 
tober 28, 1944 and continuously thereafter until filed 

with the Government of the United States of America ; 

(b) for the purpose of subparagraph (b) on the 
effective date of nationalization, compulsory liquida- 
tion, or other taking and continuously thereafter un- 
til filed with the Government of the United States of 
America ; and 

(e) for the purpose of subparagraph (e) on April 
24, 1941 and continuously thereafter until filed with 
the Government of the United States of America. 

Article II 

The sum of $3,543,398, referred to in Article I of 
this Agreement, shall be made up as follows : 

(a) The proceeds resulting from the liquidation of 
assets in the United States of America which were 
subject to wartime blocking controls and which be- 
longed to the Government of the Peoples Republic 
of Bulgaria and its nationals, other than natural per- 
sons, amounting in value to $3,143,398. 

(b) The sum of $400,000 which shall t)e paid by 
the Government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria 
to the Government of the United States of America 
in two equal payments of $200,000 each. The first 
payment shall be made on July 1, 1964 and the second 
payment shall be made on July 1, 1965. 

Article III 

(1) The distribution of the lump sum referred to 
in Article I of this Agreement falls within (he exclusive 
competence of the Government of the United States 
of America in accordance with its legislation, without 
any responsibility arising therefrom for the Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. 

(2) From the date of this Agreement, the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America considers as 
settled and discharged as between the Governments 
of the United States of America and the People's 
Republic of Bulgaria and will not pursue or present 
to the Government of the People's Republic of 
Bulgaria : 

(a) Claims falling within Article 23 of the Treaty 
of Peace with Bulgaria, without regard to whether all 
of such claims are included in subparagraph (a) of 
paragraph (1) of Article I of this Agreement; and 

(b) Claims falling within the categories set forth 
in Article I of this Agreement, without regard to 
whether the owners of such claims are compensated 
pursuant to legislation of the United States of America. 

Article IV 
The Government of the United States of America 
will release within thirty days of the date of this 
Agreement its blocking controls over all Bulgarian 
property in the United States of America. 

Article V 

The present Agreement shall come into force upon 
the date of signature. 


Done at Sofia on July 2, 1903, in duplicate, in the 
EnRlish and Bulgarian languages, both texts being 
equally authentic. 

For the Government of the United States of America : 

Eugenie Andebson 

For the Government of the People's Republic of 
Bulgaria : 

Ivan Popov 



Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
People's Repubuo of Bulgabia 

Sofia, Ju^y 2, 19GS 
Excellency : I have the honor to refer to the recent 
discussions between representatives of the Govern- 
ment of the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the 
Government of the United States of America regarding 
the restriction contained in the regulation of the 
Government of the United States of America known 
as Treasury Department Circular C55 concerning the 
transfer of money from United States public funds 
to payees in Bulgaria. 

In this connection I wish to inform you that : 

(a) The Government of the People's Republic of 
Bulgaria places no obstacles or limitation preventing 
recipients of allowances, social security payments, mili- 
tary pension or other payments by the United States 
authorities from holding checks for such payments and 
from converting them at the most favorable prevailing 
rate for remittance to private persons, at present 1.17 
leva to the dollar. 

(b) The Government of the People's Republic of 
Bulgaria places no obstacles in the way of beneficiaries 
in Bulgaria who may have various claims against 
United States remitting agencies (such as the Social 
Security Administration, the Veterans Admini.stratiou 
and any other agencies concerned) furnishing such 
agencies such information and documentation as may 
be required by United States law in connection with 
these claims and communicating directly or indirectly 
with respect to these matters with the American agen- 
cies and authorities concerned. 

In accordance with the understanding we have 
reached, I will appreciate receiving your confirmation 
that the Government of the United States of America, 
taking into account the above assurances, agrees to 
remove the restrictions contained in Treasury Depart- 
ment Circular 655. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 

Ivan Popov 
Deputy Minister 

Her Excellency Eugenie Anderson, 
American Minister, Sofia. 

United States 

Legation of the 
U.viTED States of America 

Sofia, July 2, 19GS 
Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge re- 
ceipt of your letter of this date which reads as follows : 
[See supra.] 
I hereby confirm that, in view of the assurances 
contained in your letter, the Government of the United 
States of America will amend Circular No. CoG issued 
by the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States 
of America, so as to remove the restriction on the 
transfer of money from United States public funds to 
payees in Bulgaria. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 

Eugenie Anderson 


His Excellency Ivan Popov, 

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs 

of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Sofia. 

United States 

Legation of the 
United States of America 

Sofia, July 2, 196S 

Excellency : I have the honor to refer to the Agree- 
ment signed today between the Governments of the 
United States of America and the People's Republic ot 
Bulgaria relating to financial questions between our 

The Government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria 
put forward the proposal to include within this Agree- 
ment the dollar bond obligations issued by the Bul- 
garian State, owned by American nationals and payable 
in the United States of America. 

The Government of the United States of America has 
not been in a position to agree to this proposal since it 
follows the practice of leaving such matters for nego- 
tiation between the debtor government and the 
bondholders or their representatives. 

It is the understanding of the Government of the 
United States of America that the Government of the 
People's Republic of Bulgaria, by putting forward the 
proposal mentioned above, has taken note of outstand- 
ing Bulgarian dollar bond obligations and expresses its 
intention to settle these obligations with the bond- 
holders or their representatives. 

I shall appreciate receiving Your Excellency's con- 
firmation of the above understanding. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 

Eugenie Anderson 


His Excellency Ivan Popov, 

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs 

of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, Sofia. 




Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
People's Republic of Bulgaria 

Sofia, July 2, 196S 
Excellency: I have the honor to acknowledge re- 
ceipt of your letter of this date which reads as follows : 
[See supra.] 

I have the honor to confirm that I fully agree with 
the understanding expressed above. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 

Ivan Popov 
Deputy Minister 

Her Excellency Eugenie Anderson, 
American Minister, Sofia. 

Department States Views on Trade 
Relations Between U.S. and Bulgaria 

Depart?nent State7nent 

Press release 355 dated July 2 

The conclusion of an agreement on financial 
claims and related issues between the United 
States of America and the People's Eepublic of 
Bulgaria ^ removes a significant obstacle to the 
establishment of more normal relations between 
the two countries. Conditions for the expan- 
sion of peaceful trade have therefore been im- 
proved by the signing of this agreement. 

In 1959 after a 9-year hiatus the United States 
and Bulgaria agreed to resiune diplomatic rela- 
tions.^ The resumption of diplomatic relations 
facilitated the conduct of trade between 
the two countries. It is the view of both Gov- 
ernments that the expansion of peaceful trade 
would be mutually beneficial and would serve 
to develop increasing ties between the people of 
the United States and the Bulgarian people. 

The United States is prepared to authorize 
the Legation of the People's Republic of Bul- 
garia to establish in New York a commercial 
office which would have the purpose of promot- 
ing trade between our two countries. Both 
Governments will be prepared to facilitate the 
travel of commercial representatives and offi- 

' See p. 138. 

^ For background, see Bulletin of Dec. 14, 1959, p. 

cials interested in increasing trade. As condi- 
tions permit, both Governments will consider 
further measures which will contribute to the 
development of expanded trade relations. 

Through such efforts, the Governments of the 
United States of America and the People's 
Republic of Bulgaria welcome the possibility of 
increasing favorable conditions for the expan- 
sion of peaceful trade, and the development of 
more normal trade relations should also serve 
as a means of increasing fruitful contacts be- 
tween the peoples of the two countries. 

Minister Eugenie Anderson Speaks 
on Bulgarian Television and Radio 

Press release 352 dated July 3, for release July 4 

Mrs. Eugenie Anderson, American Minister 
to the People''s Republic of Bulgaria., became 
the first American diplomntic representative to 
speak on Bulgarian television and radio in Sofia 
when she made a brief speech on the occasion 
of the celebration of July J^, the 187th anni- 
versary of American independence. 

Minister Anderson, who was delivering her 
first speech in the Bulgarian language, appeared 
in person on Bulgarian television on the evening 
of July 3. The Bulgarian radio also carried 
her remarks on July 1^. 

Following is a translation of Minister Ander- 
son^s speech. 

Good evening. It is a pleasure to speak to 
you, the Bulgarian people, on the occasion of 
American Independence Day. I bring you 
peaceful and friendly greetings from the xVmer- 
ican people. 

First, I wish to thank you for the kindness 
and hospitality so many Bulgarians have ex- 
tended to me during my stay here. I have been 
living in your beautiful country as the Amer- 
ican Minister, and as your guest, for nearly a 
year. I am learning your language and some- 
thing about Bulgarian life, culture, and history. 

I believe that, because Bulgaria also strug- 
gled for its independence— only in the last cen- 
tury — you can understand well why wo Amer- 
icans prize our national independence as well 
as our individual freedom. 

JtTLY 22, 1963 


On tliis day — July 4th — we Americans cele- 
brate freedom, peace, equality, democracy, and 
justice, and these are tlie great ideals on which 
America was foimded and by which we still 
live. These are the blessings which all man- 
kind longs to enjoy. 

President Kennedy has asked me to give you 
his friendly greetings and to assure you that 
he and the American Government and the 
American people are dedicated to peace, free- 
dom, and friendship with all nations. 

Thank you, and best wishes until we meet 

Minister to Bulgaria Opens 
Plastics-USA Exhibit in Sofia 

Remarks hy Eugenie Anderson 
Minister to Bulgaria ^ 

It gives me gi-eat pleasure to present to the 
people of Bulgaria our exhibit "Plastics-USA." 
With this exhibit the American people send you 
their friendly greetings. 

The people of my country take great interest 
in the swift development of the plastics indus- 
try. Less than 50 years ago almost the only 
plastic in daily use was celluloid, which was 
used chiefly for children's toys. Today, as you 
will see in this exhibit, there is a bewildering 
variety and range of use of plastics. They are 
used in such diverse fields as exploration of 
space, medicine, industry, clothing, household 
utensils, and, yes, children's toys. The Ameri- 
can plastics industry is still growing, with new 
discoveries all the time. 

I hope that this sample of American plastics 
development will help to promote friendship 
and communication between the peoples of our 
two countries. I believe that this exhibit will 
be like a little window througli whicli the Bul- 
garian people can glimpse some of the practical 
aspects of contemporary American life. 

I hope you will enjoy this exhibit. Please 

'Made at Sofia on July 6 (press release 358 dated 
July 5). The Bulffarian state television covered the 
ceremony. Radio .Sofia carried a report on the cere- 
mony and included excerpts of Minister .Anderson's 
remarks. The American Minister spoke in Bulgarian. 

feel free to ask questions about plastics in the 
United States. The guides will do their best to 
answer you. 

I wish to thank all of those Bulgarians and 
Americans who have helped to make arrange- 
ments for this exhibition. 

And now I declare "Plastics-USA" open— 
and welcome to all. 

Netherlands Compensation Program 
for Nazi Victims 

Press release 349 dated July 1 

The Department of State has been informed 
that a financial treaty between the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of 
Germany, signed on April 8, 1960, and provid- 
ing, infer alia, for payment of compensation to 
Netherlands victims of Xazi persecution, is ex- 
pected to come into force about August 1, 1963. 
Approximate^ $31 million will be available for 
this purpose. 

Persons who were Netherlands nationals or 
Netherlands-protected subjects at the time the 
persecution commenced, irrespective of whether 
the persecution took place in the Netherlands or 
elsewhere, are entitled to compensation if they 
were persecuted because of their race, faith, or 
ideology, including activity in the Resistance 
Movement. Regardless of the persecutee's na- 
tionality at the present time, compensation is to 
be paid to persecutees who: (1) were impris- 
oned for 3 months or longer; (2) suffered dis- 
ability of 70 percent or more for not less than 
5 consecutive years as a result of persecutory 
measures; (3) were under an obligation to wear 
the Star of David at least 6 montlis ; or (4) were 
subje<?ted to sterilization. 

Heirs of persecutees who died during or as a 
result of Nazi persecution may also apply for 
compensation. The right is limited to the non- 
remarried surviving spouse of a persecutee; or, 
in the absence of a surviving spouse, jointly to 
the persecutee's children who had not yet 
reached 21 years on May 7, 1945 ; or to parents 
of a persecutee who was not married and who 
left no children. 

Heirs must meet the same nationalit}- require- 
ments as persecutees. Claims of victims of 




heirs who obtained Netherlands nationality 
after persecution commenced may also be sub- 
mitted, since additional categories may possibly 
be established to cover such claimants. 

Persons who have reason to believe that they 
may qualify for compensation under this pro- 
gram are urged to inquire inunediately at the 
nearest Netherlands consulate or at the Em- 
bassy of the Netherlands at "Washington, D.C. 
A time limit has been established for applicants 
filing from outside the Netherlands of 4 months 
from the date on which the treaty shall go into 
force. A^Hiile the Department of State expects 
to issue an additional press release at that time, 
interested applicants would be well advised to 
request without delay, through the Netherlands 
diplomatic and consular authorities herein men- 
tioned as intermediaries, claim application 
forms from the Claims Office for German Com- 
pensation Payment, P.O. Box D, Amsterdam, 
■ as this office is already accepting completed 
applications for processing. 

Consulates of the Netherlands are located at 
Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, 
Denver, Detroit, Galveston, Grand Eapids, 
Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Kansas City 
(Mo.), Los Angeles, St. Louis, Miami, Mobile, 
New Orleans, New York, Norfolk, Orange City 
(Iowa), Paterson (N.J.), St. Paul, Philadel- 
phia, Pittsburgh, Portland (Oreg.), Salt Lake 
City, San Diego, San Francisco, Savannah, 
Seattle, Tampa, Charlotte Amalie (St. Thomas, 
V.I.), and Mayagiiez, Ponce, and San Juan 

U.S. and India Complete Negotiations 
on Nuclear Power Station Agreement 

J obit Statement 

Press release 344 dated June 29 

In the last few days representatives of the 
Government of India and the Government of 
the United States have substantially completed 
negotiations on the text of a proposed agreement 
for cooperation which would provide a legal 
basis for the installation and operation of a 
380-megawatt nuclear power station of L'nited 
States design at Tarapur, India. The avail- 
ability of United States financing for the proj- 

ect is now being considered by the United States 
Agency for International Development.' 

The agreement for cooperation which has been 
negotiated but not signed is specifically tailored 
for the Tarapur project. Under the terms of 
the proposed arrangement, which woidd hist for 
30 years, the United States would undertake to 
supply India with its estimated long-term fuel 
requirements for the plant and information 
woidd be exchanged on matters perluining to 
the design, construction, and operation of the 
plant as well as problems of health and safety. 
Unclassified information in related fields of re- 
search and development, including develop- 
ments in boiling-water technology and the use 
of plutonium as a fuel, would also be exchanged 
between the parties during the period of the 

In the course of the negotiations, India and 
the United States gave serious consideration to 
the nature of tlie safeguard arrangements that 
should pertain to the Tarapur statioii to assure 
its peaceful use. The agi'eement will contain 
bilateral safeguard provisions designed to as- 
sure the peaceful use of the Tarapur station. 
India and the United States have always agreed 
in principle that safeguards should be applied 
to enriched uranium fuel, but there has been a 
difference of opinion between the Governments 
with regard to the attachment of safeguards to 
equipment. In the case of the Tarapur project, 
it has been possible to achieve a mutually satis- 
factory arrangement without either Govern- 
ment's giving up its basic position regarding the 
attachment of safeguards to equipment, since 
the Tarapur station will be operated only on 
enriched uranium supplied by the United States 
or on plutonium produced therefrom; the 
United States would guarantee the supply of 
enriched uranimn for the period of the agree- 

Another major subject that has been under 
careful review is the role that the International 
Atomic Energy Agency should play in the co- 
operative program. The United States and 
India have recognized that it would be desirable 

•On July 1 the Agency for International Develop- 
ment announced that AID Administrator David E. 
Bell had authorized a U.S. loan of up to $80 million to 
finance the dollar costs of the nuclear plant construc- 
tion and fabrication of the initial fuel charge. 


for both parties to avail themselves of the serv- 
ices of the International Atomic Energy 
Agency. The International Atomic Energy 
Agency is not yet in a position to apply safe- 
guards to large-scale reactors of the size to be 
installed at Tarapur although the Agency is 
developing a system to cover such large reac- 
tors. Accordingly, the United States-Indian 
arrangement would include an agreement in 
principle that, at a suitable time, the Agency 
will be requested to enter into a trilateral agree- 
ment for the implementation of the safeguard 
provisions in the proposed bilateral agreement, 
subject to the following conditions : 

After the Agency has adopted a system of 
safeguards for large reactors, and at a reason- 
able time to be mutually agreed, the United 
States and India will consult with each other to 
determine whether the system so adopted is 
generally consistent with the provisions in the 
bilateral agreement. If the system is generally 
consistent, the parties will request the Agency 
to enter into a trilateral arrangement covering 
the implementation of safeguard responsibili- 
ties. The agreement would permit deferring 
implementation of the arrangement with the 
Agency until after the Tarapur nuclear station 
has achieved reliable full power operation. 

It is expected that the proposed Tarapur sta- 
tion will make an important contribution to the 
development of the peaceful uses of atomic 

U.S. Suspends Action on Airport 
Construction Agreement With Haiti 

Press release 353 cliited July 3 

Tlie United States informed the Government 
of Haiti on July 3 that the Agency for Inter- 
national Development has suspended all activi- 
ties to implement the loan agreement for con- 
struction of a new jet airport for Port-au- 
Prince, Haiti. The agreement for a $2.8 million 
loan was signed with Haiti last November, but 
no disbursements had been made. 

The United States decision to suspend action 
on the agreement followed Haiti's default on 
the last quarterly payments due on loans by the 
Export-Import Bank and the Development 
Loan Fund (AID) and notification by the 

Haitian Government that it was discontinuing 
payments during the current fiscal year on these 
loans. The airport loan agreement provides 
that defaults under any other agreements be- 
tween the borrower and the United States is a 
default under the airport loan agreement. 

President of Tanganyika 
Visits Washington 

White House press release (Dublin, Ireland) dated June 27, 
for release June 2S 

The Wliite House announced on June 28 that 
Julius K. Nyerere, President of the Kepublic of 
Tangan3nka, will be a guest of the President of 
the United States July 15-16. 

President Nyerere will be the guest of Secre- 
tary Rusk at dinner on July 15. He will call at 
the White House and, together with his party, 
will be a guest at a White House luncheon on 
July 16. 

President Nyerere last visited President Ken- 
nedy on July 17, 1961,^ about 6 months before 
Tanganyika gained independence. 

Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

88th Congress, 1st Session ' | 

U.S. Communist Party Assistance to Foreign Com- 
munist Governments (Testimony of Maud Russell). 
Hearing before the House Un-American Activities 
Committee. March 6, 10G;i. 51 pp. 

Activities of Nondiplomatie Representatives of For- 
eign Principals in the United States. Hearing be- 
fore the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Part 
3. March 28, 1963. 103 pp. 

Castro's Network in the United States (Fair Play for 
Cuba Oonmnttee). Hearing before the Subcom- 
mittee To Investigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Security 
Laws of the Senate Judiciary Committee. Part 3 
April 10, 1963, 68 pp. ; Part 4, April 3, 1!>63, 40 pp. 

Steel Prices, Unit Costs, Profits, and Foreign Competi- 
tion. Hearings before the Joint Economic Com- 
mittee. April 2;i-May 2, 1963. 7C2 pp. 

Restrictions on Locating Chanceries in Residential 
Areas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Busi- 
ness and Commerce of the Senate District of Colum- 
bia Conmiittee on S. 646, a bill to prohibit the loca- ■ 
tion of chanceries or other business offices of foreign 
goveriuuents in cert.iin residential areas in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. May 3, 1963. 104 pp. 

Emi)Ioying Aliens in a Scientific or Technical Capacity. 
Report to accompany S. 1291. S. Ropt. 335. June 2T, 
1903. pji. 

' For text of a joint communique, see Bdxletin of 
Aug. 14, 1961, p. 297. 



\ Progress Report on the Status of Women 

NEW YORK, MARCH 11-29, 1963 

by Gladys A. Tillett 

Two outstanding accomplishments of the I7th 
session of the United Nations Commission on 
the Status of Women, which met at New York 
March 11-29, 1963, were a proposal for a new 
series of regional U.N. seminars on the advance- 
ment of women in the developing countries and 
the completion of a draft reconunendation on 
marriage incorporating the principles approved 
by the General Assembly in the marriage con- 
vention adopted m November 1962.^ 

The new series of seminars on the advance- 
ment of women in developing countries will 
be stai'ted 2 years hence on completion of the 
current series on the status of women in family 
law. They will promote the objectives of the 
U.N. Development Decade, in wliich increased 
production is a major aim, and give special 
attention to women's educational needs, voca- 
tional and professional training, and employ- 
ment opportunities. In an informal message 
to the Commission, the Director General of 
the International Labor Organization, David 
A. Morse, said women should be regarded as 
"the number one potential for the Decade of 
Deve3opment." The Commission's choice of 
seminar topic reflected the increasing impor- 
tance of women in the work force of all coun- 
tries and particularly in nations seeking to lift 
production levels. 

The marriage recommendation is designed to 
supplement the marriage convention adopted 

'U.N. doc. A/RES/1763 (XVII). 

by the I7th session of the General Assembly. 
It provides for regular reports on law and 
practice regarding marriage from all member 
states, whether or not they become parties to 
the convention. Adoption of the recommenda- 
tion by the next session of the General Assem- 
bly will encourage recognition of stable family 
life as the foundation for national progress. 

The U.N. Development Decade 

Other agenda items, on political rights, ac- 
cess to education, employment opportunities, 
nationality, and similar matters, were likewise 
considered in relation to the objectives of the 
U.N. Development Decade. The Commission 
could offer practical experience on many aspects 
because a majority of the members this year 
came from developing countries — in Africa, 
from Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the United Arab 
Republic ; in Asia, from China, Indonesia, Ja- 
pan, and the Philippines; in Latin America, 
from Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. 

• Mrs. Tillett is the United States Ref- 
resentative on the United Nations Com- 
mission on the Status of Women. Eer 
advisers at the 17th session were Alice A. 
Morrison of the Women's Bureau, Depart- 
ment of Labor, and Rachel C. Nason, De- 
partment of State. 

JULY 22, 1963 


Guinea, Senegal, the Dominican Republic, and 
Iran sent observers. Other members, such as 
Australia. France, the Netherlands, and the 
United Kingdom, were sensitive to needs be- 
cause of underdeveloped areas within tlieir own 

Tliis interest was reflected also in the choice of 
officers. The chairman this year was Maria La- 
valle Urbina of Mexico, a former high court 
judge, presently in the Ministry of Justice in 
charge of work for the prevention of juvenile 
delinquency. Helena Benitez of the Philip- 
pines was elected first vice chairman and Helvi 
Sipila of Finland second vice chairman. Aziza 
Hussein of the United Arab Republic served 
as rapporteur. 

Political Rights 

The session opened with the announcement 
of equal suffrage in Iran. In his welcome to 
the Commission on behalf of the Secretary- 
General, C. V. Narasimhan, Under Secretary- 
General of the United Nations for General As- 
sembly Affairs and chef de cabinet^ referred to 
the achievement in Iran as further evidence of 
the mounting influence and responsibility of 
women in public life. 

Homa Vakil, the wife of the Ambassador of 
Iran, informed the Commission of the Shah's 
decree granting women full and equal political 
rights, thus clarifying the effect of their partici- 
pation in recent elections. Women in Iran had 
voted in municipal elections since 1949 but had 
not previously been allowed to participate in na- 
tional elections. I intervened immediately to 
present the congratulations of the United States 
to Iran, pointing out its good fortune in now 
having the benefit of the experience and the 
concern for human welfare which are the par- 
ticular gifts of women. 

My opening statement referred to tlie work 
of the President's Commission on the Status of 
Women in the United States. This aroused 
great interest; other delegates asked for mate- 
rial they could use in their home countries, and 
nongovernmental organization representatives 
requested copies of flyers and other publications. 
I pointed out that the United States Commis- 
sion had brought together leaders from all 
aspects of national life — men and women — to re- 

view the current progress of women, to deter- 
mine if discriminations still exist, and make 
constructive recommendations for eliminating 
them. The fact that some of our States are now 
appointing similar commissions encouraged fur- 
ther planning in the Commission. 


The discussion of education as well as of em- 
ployment opportunities centered on the partici- 
pation of women in the economic life of their 
countries. The UNESCO report^ this year 
dealt with the educational situation in rural 
areas, and the ILO supplemented this with an 
analysis of employment and conditions of work 
for women in agriculture.' 

Tlie documents showed that, except for the 
United States, Canada, and northern Europe, 
the country girl is general^ at a disadvantage, 
first because schools are "few and far between" 
with many providing elementary instruction 
only, and second because agricultural work 
tends to be hard and heavy and few other 
choices of employment are available for women. 
In many countries there is a preponderance of 
girls and women in rural areas, and illiteracy is 
greater among them than among men or among 
women in other areas. The Commission recom- 
mended that improvement of both general edu- 
cation and vocational training for country girls 
be given due priority and that provision for 
needed expansion be included in national de- 
velopment plans. The Commission also drew 
attention to resources available in the U.N. tech- 
nical assistance programs and invited nongov- 
ernmental organizations to cooperate actively 
in formulating and carrj-ing out programs to 
strengthen education for rural women and to 
overcome illiteracy. 

In the United States there are rural schools 
within reach of girls and boys alike. My state- 
ment called attention to our record and also to 
our Federal labor laws forbidding the employ- 
ment of children under 16 in agi-iculture while 
school is in session. I also mentioned some of 
the additional resources available in country 
areas, such as bookmobiles, radio progi-anis, and 

' U.X. doc. E/CX.6/40S. 
' U.N. doc. E/CN.6/422. 



the leadership of the Federal Extension Service 
of our Department of Agriculture. The state- 
ment continued : 

Let us be quite clear on why women need education, 
and why every country needs women who are educated. 
Without an education, a mother can offer her family 
far less than she desires in companionship and care; 
without training, a girl can expect to earn her way 
only by the hardest of labor at the poorest pay. Paul 
Hoffman, Managing Director of the Special Fund here 
in the United Nations, says this on the importance for 
education of women and its bearing on the economic 
development of the country : 

"Denial of equal rights to women is also an obstacle 
to economic development. It is surprising, perhaps, 
but true that there is a close relationship between the 
way women are treated in a country and the progress 
that country has made toward a good life. Where 
women are virtual slaves, forbidden so much as to go 
out of the house without their husbands, given no 
rights whatever in society, the country is invariably 
primitive. Where women have been largely emanci- 
pated, as in Japan, tremendous strides are being made 
toward modernization. 

"The reasons are clear. When a country keeps its 
women in bondage, half its available brain power is 

UNESCO also presented an account of its 
program activities,^ as it does regularly on a 
biennial basis. Keports on various regional 
conferences on education showed how special 
problems of girls had been studied by local lead- 
ers in Asia and in Africa, in each case within 
the full context of educational development as 
a normal and essential part of the whole. The 
great difficulty continues to be in finding enough 
women teacliers to staff schools for girls and 
to share in teaching where schools are coeduca- 
tional. UNESCO has established some region- 
al centers to help with training and production 
of materials and also with surveys of accom- 
plishment and analysis of exchange programs 
and other activities. It is greatly to the ad- 
vantage of women that UNESCO review all its 
educational programs regularly to be certain 
they take full account of the needs of both girls 
and boys. 

Economic Opportunities 

In presenting her report, the ILO represent- 
ative pointed out that women workers are be- 
coming a more permanent and more generally 
recognized part of the labor force in both in- 

'U.N. doc. E/CN. 6/407. 

dustrially developed and newly developing 
countries. To focus attention on this develop- 
ment, the major agenda item for the ILO con- 
ference in June 1964 will be the question of 
"Women Workers in a Changing World." The 
conference will be an opportunity to study 
women's needs and problems in all their broad 
aspects, including vocational guidance and 
preparation of girls and women for work life; 
measures to meet the needs of working women 
with family responsibilities; the development 
of administrative machinery to deal with wom- 
en's problems; and other important subjects. 
The Commission asked the ILO for full reports 
and background materials from this conference. 
The ILO representative also reported the 
decision of the ILO Governing Body to place 
the question of employment and conditions of 
work for African women on the agenda of the 
next African regional labor conference. The 
Commission welcomed this further evidence of 
the increasing attention to needs of women in 
developing countries. 

In commenting on the reports. I referred 
to the increasing importance of education and 
training for women workers. ILO observa- 
tions indicated that employment opportunities 
in the future will depend increasingly on edu- 
cation and training. U.S. experience confirms 
this trend. Our 1960 census shows that women 
clerical workers increased 46 percent and pro- 
fessional workers 41 percent in the past decade, 
while the proportion of women operatives in 
manufacturing declined. In the United States 
today the more education a woman has the more 
likely she is to be working in paid employment. 
In 1959 more than half of all women with a col- 
lege degree were working, in contrast to only 
two-fifths of high school graduates and a still 
smaller percentage of those who did not go be- 
yond elementary school. 

Another trend noted by the ILO and con- 
firmed by U.S. experience is the increasing em- 
ployment of older women. In our 1960 census 
almost two out of every five women workers 
are 45 years or over— double the proportion in 
1940. Today more than half the women in our 
population between 45 and 54 years of age are 
in the labor force. I described briefly the pro- 
gram of our new manpower training and de- 
velopment act which is designed primarily to 

JULY 22, 1063 


retrain workers whose skills are outmoded by 
automation and technological developments. I 
also discussed the growth of community colleges 
as a relatively new development through which 
workers can obtain advance education in their 
home locality with little or no tuition or cost. 
The ILO report on retirement age provided 
current information on laws in the various 
countries. In the several years the Commission 
has considered this subject, the major question 
has been whether the age should be the same 
for men and women. Today approximately a 
third of the countries have established a lower 
retirement age for women. Soviet delegates 
have consistently urged that the work done by 
women entitles them to retirement at an earlier 
age than men. I pointed out that in the United 
States the age for voluntary retirement with 
full benefits had always been 65 for both men 
and women. At the present time workers of 
both sexes can elect to retire at 62 with reduced 
benefits. Noting that the right to claim such 
benefits at the earlier age had originally been 
given only to women, I observed that this was 
a further instance in which U.S. laws which 
originally provided certain advantages for 
women only have later been extended to men 
as well. 

Nationality of Married Women 

In a brief review of nationality law, the 
Netherlands and the Philippines described pro- 
posals pending in their parliaments which will 
bring their legislation in line with the conven- 
tion on the nationality of married women 
adopted by the United Nations in 1955. Their 
comments pointed up the vahie of international 
conventions in setting simple, definitive stand- 
ards which can stabilize concepts and prov-ide 
a universal basis for comparison and evaluation 
of progress. The convention on the nationality 
of married women provides that marriage to 
an alien shall not automatically affect the na- 
tionality of the wife, and 27 countries are al- 
ready parties to it. 

Marriage Recommendation 

One of the great achievements by the Com- 
mission on the Status of Women has been the 
development of international standards to safe- 

guard the entrance of women into marriage. 
The major part of this work was completed in 
November 1962 when the General Assembly for- 
mally adopted a convention as requested by the 
Commission, calling on governments to estab- 
lish guarantees for free consent of both parties, 
a minimum age of marriage, and compulsory 
registration of marriages. At this year's meet- 
ing the Commission adopted a draft recommen- 
dation designed to supplement and give broader 
effectiveness to the principles est<ablished in the 

The U.S. statement congratulated members of 
the Commission on the adoption of the marriage 
convention. I reported that during my service 
with the U.S. delegation to the last General 
Assembly I had the great personal honor of 
signing the convention on behalf of the United 
States and that various nongovernmental orga- 
nizations who had worked hard for the conven- 
tion had been present at the ceremony. I also 
expressed my appreciation to the church groups 
and other organizations in the United States 
whose support and encouragement had con- 
tributed to the strength of U.S. leadership. 

With regard to the draft recommendation, I 
emphasized that marriage and the home are the 
foundations of our free society and described 
some of the procedures established in our State 
laws to safeguard the rights of women on en- 
trance into marriage: for example, minimum 
age must be proved by a birth certificate or other 
satisfactory evidence; free consent of both 
spouses must be expressed in person in the ap- 
plication for a marriage license and during the 
wedding ceremony; and compulsory registra- 
tion of marriage requires deposit of a certificate 
or other document. 

Advancement of Women in Developing Countries 

As noted above, the Commission recommended 
that the next series of regional seminars con- 
sider the advancement of women in developing 
countries. The United States initiated tlus 
proposal, and it carried unanimously. This de- 
cision reflected wide recognition of the value of 
the women's seminars which to date have dealt 
with two major aspects of women's status — par- 
ticipation in public life and family law. In 
line with the objectives of the Development 




Decade, this third series will stimulate practical 
programs to improve the economic status of 
(vomen as well. 

The Commission heard reports on the seminar 
in Tokyo last May on the status of Asian women 
in family law, with participation by all coim- 
tries in the Far East. I attended this seminar 
as the observer for the United States. The par- 
ticipants in Tokyo included both men and 
women of high position in their countries. 
Among them were a senior judge of a supreme 
court, an attorney general, members of minis- 
tries, solicitors, judges, lawyers, educators, so- 
cial workers, civic leaders, and experts in gov- 
ernment service. They were representative also 
of four of the great religions of the world — 
Hindu, Buddhist, Moslem, and Christian — and 
the discussions brought out areas of agreement 
on social and religious factors affecting women 
and their position in the family. Many of our 
conversations centered on the marriage conven- 
tion, wliich at that time had not yet been ap- 
proved by the General Assembly. In the meet- 
ing of the Commission I joined with others in 
discussing the impact of this seminar. 

The Conunission considered how goverimients 
can stimulate the advancement of women in 
their countries througli seminars, fellowships, 
and other aspects of tlie advisory services pro- 
gram. Recent sessions of the General Assembly 
have adopted resolutions, on the initiative of 
Afghanistan, aimed at speeding up the progress 
of women in underdeveloped areas. The reso- 
lution last fall urged a unified, long-term pro- 
gram with advanced countries and nongovern- 
mental organizations providing new resources 
for this purpose. The Commission decided that 
a first step would be a statement listing U.N. 
and nongovernmental resources now available. 
As a further step the Conunission invited the 
Secretary-General to explore possibilities for 
wider use of nongovernmental projects through 
participation by U.N. fellows or other appro- 
priate cooperation. 

In response, 10 of the women's nongovern- 
mental organizations presented a joint state- 
ment assuring the Commission they would 
inform the United Nations at the earliest pos- 
sible moment of any projects which might be 
useful for women in developing countries. This 
statement was a high point in the session, illus- 

trating the warm and constructive partnei-ship 
which exists between the Commission and the 
some 30 international organizations represented 
in its meetings. 

The U.S. statement emphasized that the ad- 
vancement of women requires the cooperation 
and support of men as well as women and that 
both men and women should join in the plan- 
ning. In its resolution the Commission recom- 
mended appointment of national commissions 
along the lines of our President's Conunission 
on the Status of Women in the United States, 
which I had described at the outset of the 

Work Ahead 

Tlie next women's seminar organized by the 
United Nations will be in Bogota, Colombia, in 
September. This will be a regional meeting 
for the Western Hemisphere on the status of 
women in family law, and the United States 
will be among the participants. Since nongov- 
ernmental organizations in consultative status 
can send observers, this seminar will be an op- 
portunity for wide and productive exchange 
among women of the Americas. 

At the next session of the Conmiission the 
ILO will present a biennial progress report on 
equal pay for equal work. The principle of 
equal jiay without distinction as to sex has now 
been accepted in a great number of countries 
throughout the world, and I look forward to 
reporting new legislative action in the United 

Tlie Commission will also review discrimina- 
tions agamst women in certain aspects of family 
law, particularly with regard to guardianship 
of children and rights in dissolution of mar- 
riage, divorce, or annulment. The Commis- 
sion's consideration of the latter will take ac- 
count of information from member countries, 
including a report on U.S. law and practice 
prepared by the Women's Bureau in the De- 
partment of Labor. 

The increasing emphasis in the United Na- 
tions on operational programs will be apparent 
in discussion of teclmical assistance, seminars, 
fellowships, and other training and exchange 
activities. My statements this year drew re- 
peatedly on experience gained by women's and 
other U.S. organizations in preparation for 

JtJLY 22, 1963 


citizenship, community service, development of 
new job opportunities for women, and other 
fields. Our contribution to the Commission's 
work will bo more valuable as we can provide 
suggestions for practical implementation. The 
United Xations already recognizes equality of 
opportunity and responsibility as the riglit of 
every woman tiie world over. The challenge 
today is to give eil'ect to these standards in their 
daily lives. 



Warren B. Cheston as deputy scientific attach^ at 
London, Paul A. Siple as scientific attacli^ at Canberra, 
and William W. Williams as deputy scientific attach^ 
at Bonn, effective July 3. (For biographic details, see 
Department of State press release 351 dated July 3.) 

Current Actions 



Amendment of annex III of the 1956 agreements on 
joint linuncing of certain air navigation services in 
Greenland and the Faroe Islands (TIAS 4049) and 
in Iceland (.TIAS 4048) by deletion of part C, para- 
graph 4 (insurance). Adopted by Council of the 
International Civil Aviation Organization at Mon- 
trealJune4, 1963. 
Entered into force: June 4, 19C3. 


International coffee agreement, 19G2, with annexes. 
Signed at New York September 28, 19o2.' 
lUiti/icationx deposited: Guatemala, June 5, 1903; 
Panama, June 4, 1903. 

' Not in force. 

Law of the Sea 

Convention on the continental shelf. Done at Geneva 
April 29, 1958." 
Ratification deposited: Denmark, June 12, 1903. 


International telecommunication convention with six 
annexes. Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. En- 
tered into force January 1, 1961 ; for the United 
States October 23, 1961. TIAS 4892. 
Accessions deposited: Cameroon, June 18, 19G3; 
Liberia, June 18, 1963. 


Agreement relating to the establishment of a United 
States naval communication station in Australia. 
Signed at Canberra May 9, 1963. 
Entered into force: June 28, 1963. 


Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs. Signed at Vienna June 25, 1963. Entered 
into force June 25, 1963. 

Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs, as amended. Signed at Washington 
June 6, 1950. Entered into force June 6, 1950. 
TIAS 2072, 3279, 4959. 

Terminated: June 25, 1963 (superseded by agreement 
of June 25, 1963, supra). 


Agreement regarding claims of United States nationals 
and related financial matters. Signed at Sofia 
July 2, 1963. Entered into force July 2, 1963. 


Agricultural commodities agreement under title I of 
the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance 
Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 455 ; 7 U.S.C. 1701- 
1709), with exchange of notes. Signed at Nicosia 
June 18. 1963. Entered into force June 18, 1963. 


Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs. Signed at New Delhi June 19, 1963. En- 
tered into force June 19. 1963. 

Agreement for financing certain educational exchange 
programs, as amended. Signed at New Delhi Febru- 
ary 2, 19.50. Entered into force February 2, 1950. 
TIAS 20.54, 2881, 4318, 4553. 

Terminated: June 19, 1963 (superseded by agreement 
of June 19, 1963, supra). 


Agreements amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 19, 1962, as amended (TIAS 
4952, 5054. 5118. 5254). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Djakarta June 21, 196". Entered into force 
June 21. Iit6.3. 


Agreement providing for utilization of certain Japa- 
nese yen accruing to the United States under the 
agricultural commodities agreements of May 31, 
19ST,. as amended (TIAS 32.S4. 4495), and Febru- 
ary 10. 19.56 (TIAS 3580). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Tokyo June 14, 1963. Entered into force 
June 14, 1963. 



^DEX July 22, 1963 Vol. XLIX, No. 1256 

tomic Energy. U.S. aud ludia Complete Nego- 
tiations on Nuclear Power Station Agreement 

(text of joint statement) 1-1.3 

ustralia, Siple appointed scientific attach^ at 
Canberra 150 


H'liartment States Vie\YS on Trade Relations 

lUtween U.S. and Bulgaria 141 

liiiister Eugenie Anderson Speaks on Bulgarian 

Television and Radio 141 

[inister to Bulgaria Opens Plastics-USA Ex- 

liibit iu Sofia (Anderson) 142 

'.S. and Bulgaria Sign Agreement Relating to 

Financial Questions (texts of agreement and 

letters) 138 

Claims and Property 

Netherlands Compensation Program for Nazi 

Victims 142 

'S. and Bulgaria Sign Agreement Relating to 

l''inaucial Questions (texts of agreement and 

letters) 138 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating 
to Foreign Policy 144 

department and Foreign Service. Appoint- 
ments (Chestou, Siple, Williams) 150 

economic Affairs 

department States Views on Trade Relations 
I'.etween U.S. and Bulgaria 141 

Minister to Bulgaria Opens Plastics-USA Ex- 
hibit in Sofia (Anderson) 142 

Foreign Aid 

US. and India Complete Negotiations on Nuclear 
Power Station Agreement (text of joint state- 
ment) 143 

IS. Suspends Action on Airport Construction 
Agreement With Haiti 144 

Germany, Federal Republic of 

Xitherlands Compensation Program for Nazi 

\'ietims 142 

I'usident Kennedy Visits Europe 114 

r.S. I'rotests Soviet Restrictions in East Berlin . 138 

Williams appointed deputy scientific attache 

at Bonn 150 

Haiti. U.S. Suspends Action on Airport Con- 

.-itruction Agreement With Haiti 144 

Health, Education, and Welfare. A Progress 

Report on the Status of Women (Tillett) . . 145 

India. U.S. aud India Complete Negotiations 
on Nuclear Power Station Agreement (text of 
joint statement) 143 

Ireland. President Kennedy Visits Europe . . 128 

Italy. President Kennedy Visits Europe . . . 134 

Netherlands. Netherlands Compensation Pro- 

;;ram for Nazi Victims 142 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. President 

Kennedy Visits Europe 114 

Presidential Documents. President Kennedy 

Visits Europe 114 

Science. Cheston, Siple, and Williams ap- 
pointed scientific attaches 150 

Tanganyika. President of Tanganyika Visits 

Washington 144 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 150 

U.S. and Bulgaria Sign Agreement Relating to 
Financial Questions (texts of agreement and 
letters) 138 


Soviet Attache Accused of Improper Activities ; 

U.S. Asks Departure 137 

U.S. Protests Soviet Restrictions in East Berlin . 138 

United Kingdom 

Cheston appointed deputy scientific attach^ at 

London 150 

President Kennedy Visits Europe 132 

United Nations. A Progress Report on the 

Status of Women (Tillett) 145 

Name Index 

Adenauer, Konrad 116 

Anderson, Mrs. Eugenie 141, 142 

Cheston, Warren B 150 

Kennedy, President 114 

Maemillan, Harold 132 

Nyerere, Julius K 144 

Segni, Antonio 136 

Siple, Paul A 150 

Tillett, Gladys A 145 

Williams, William W 150 

Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 1-7 

Press releases may be obtained from the Office 
of News, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Release issued prior to July 1 which appears in 
this issue of the Bulletin is No. 344 dated 
June 29. 


U.S. participation in international 

Concert to commemorate anniver- 
sary of U.N. 

Statue of George Washington pre- 
sented to Uruguay. 

Netherlands compensation pro- 
gram for Nazi victims. 

Note requesting Soviet official to 
leave U.S. 

Cheston, Siple, Williams appointed 
.scientific attaches (biographic 

Mrs. Anderson : July 4 remarks on 
Bulgarian TV and radio. 

Airport loan to Haiti suspended. 

Agreement with Bulgaria on finan- 
cial questions. 

Trade relations with Bulgaria. 

Chayes : "The Rule of Law — Now." 

Protest against "security strips" 
in East Berlin and East Ger- 

Mrs. Anderson : Plastics-USA ex- 




















3.58 7/5 

♦Not printed. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 

Superintendent of Documents 

u.s. government printing office 

washington. d.c. 20402 



Department of State 1963 

The Department of State recently released a 152-pag6 illustrated report, Department of State 196i 
which describes its activities at home and abroad during the past year. 

The report opens with a brief discussion of the objectives of U.S. foreign policy and then relate 
in some detaU the different means by which the Department of State has been working for the achieve 
ment of those objectives. 

In a foreword, President Kennedy expresses the view that "the men and women to whom we entrus 
this critical task" of promoting our foreign relations, "and the work they accomplish are too little knowi 
by the American people whose interests they serve." The President adds, "If it [this publication] helpc 
to convey to you something of the same sense of admiration for these dedicated men and women whicl 
I share with many of my predecessors, it will truly serve our national purpose." 

The book deals with the activities not only of the geographic and fimctional bureaus of the Depart 
ment of State but also Department offices less well-known to the general public, such as the Executive 
Secretariat, the Policy Planning Council, the Offices of Security and Protocol, and the Foreign Servia 
Institute. It also includes sections on the Agency for International Development, the Peace Corps, anc 
the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 

PUBLICATION 7530 $1.5( 




Enclosed find $ 

(casta, check, or money order pay- 
able to Supt of Docnmenta) 

PUBLICATION 7530 $1.50 

Please send me copies of Department of State 1963 








Vol XLIX, No. 1257 

July 29, 1963 


Statement by Secretary Rusk 15^ 


hy Ahram Chayes, Legal Adviser 162 


Statements iy Francis T. P. Plimpton and Adlai E. Stevenson and Texts of Resolutions 178 


Statement hy Isaiah Frank 173 

Boston Kublic Library; 
Sujieijntendwit of DocumiM 

For index see inside hack cover 


Fulfilling Our Basic Commitments as a Nation 

Statement 'by Secretary BvsJe ^ 



I appreciate this opportunity to appear before 
your committee to offer to you my advice about 
the foreign policy implications of Senate bill 
1732. Let me say, at tlie very beginning, that 
I consider these foreign policy aspects to be 
secondary in importance. The primary reason 
why we must attack the problems of discrimi- 
nation is rooted in our basic commitments as 
a nation and a people. We must try to elimi- 
nate discrimination due to race, color, religion, 
not to make others think better of us but because 
it is incompatible with the great ideals to which 
our democratic society is dedicated. If the 
realities at home are all they should be, we 
shan't have to worry about our image abroad. 

As matters stand, however, racial discrimi- 
nation here at home has important effects on 
our foreign relations. This is not because such 
discrimination is imique to the United States. 


• Made before the Senate Committee on Commerce 
on July 10 (press release 366) during hearings on 
S. 1732, a bill to eliminate discrimination in public 
accommodations affecting Interstate commerce. 

Discrimination on account of race, color, re 
ligion, national or tribal origin may be fount 
in many countries. But the United States i 
widely regarded as the home of democracy an< 
the leader of the struggle for freedom, fo 
human rights, for human dignity. We are ex 
pected to be the model — no higher complimen 
could be paid to us. So our failures to live u] 
to our proclaimed ideals are noted — and mag 
nified and distorted. 

One of the epochal developments of our timw " 
has been the conversion of the old colonial em 
pires into a host of new independent nations- 
some 50 since the Second World War. The vas ' 
majority of these newly independent people 
are nonwhite, and they are determined to eradi 
cate every vestige of the notion that the wliitt 
race is superior or entitled to special privilegeji 
because of race. Were we as a nation in theii 
shoes, we would do the same. 

This tremendous transformation in the world 
has come about imder the impulse of the funda- 
mental beliefs set forth in tlie second and third 


The Department of State Bullettn, a 
■weekly publication Issued by the OfBce 
of Media Services, Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and Interested 
agencies of the Government with Informa- 
tion on developments in the field of for- 
elcn relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on forelsn policy. Issued 
by the White Uouse and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 

ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
.and International agreements to which 
the United States Is or may become a 
party and treaties of general Inter- 
national Interest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the field of International relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin Is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 

ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. Price : 52 Issues, domestic $8.50, 
foreign $12.25 ; single copy, 25 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pul>- 
llcatlon approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 

NOTE : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained 
herein may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department of State Bulletin as the 
source will be appreciated. The Bulletin 
is Indexed in the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature. 



iimtences of our Declaration of Independence, 
'hese universal ideas wliich we have done so 
Luch to nurture have spread over the earth, 
he spiritual sons of the American Revolution 
"e of every race. For let us remind ourselves 
lat the great Declaration said "all men are 
•eated equal and are endowed by their Creator 
i'ith certain unalienable Rights" — not "all men 
scept those who are not white." 

Freedom, in the broadest and truest sense, is 
le central issue in the world struggle in which 
'e are engaged. We stand for government by 
le consent of the governed, for government by 
iw, for equal opportunity, for the rights and 
orth of the individual human being. These 
re aspirations shared, I believe, by the great 
lajority of mankind. They give us allies, de- 
lared and undeclared, on all the continents— 
icluding many people behind the Iron and 
Samboo Curtains. 

I believe that the forces of freedom are mak- 
ig progress. I am confident that if we perse- 
ere in the efforts we are now making, we shall 
vcntually achieve the sort of world we seek— 
world in which all men will be safe in freedom 
nd peace. 

But in waging this world struggle we are 
eriously handicapped by racial or religious 
liscrimination in the United States. Our fail- 
ire to live up to the pledges of our Declaration 
)f Independence and our Constitution em- 
)arrasses our friends and heartens our enemies. 

In their efforts to enhance their influence 
imong the nonwhite peoples and to alienate 
horn from us, the Communists clearly regard 
■acial discrimination in the United States as 
Dne of their most valuable assets. 

Soviet commentary on racial tension in the 
Qnited States has stressed four themes: 

1. Racism is inevitable in the American capi- 
talist system. 

2. Inaction by the U.S. Government is tanta- 
mount to support of the racists. 

3. Recent events have exposed the hypocrisy 
of U.S. claims to ideological leadership of the 
"so-called free world." 

4. The U.S. policy toward Negroes is clearly 
indicative of its attitude toward peoples of 
color throughout the world. 

Racial discrimination and its exploitation by 

JtTLY 29, 1963 

the Communists would have damaged our in-' 
ternational position more than they have in 
fact done but for four circumstances. The first 
is that nonwhite students have encountered race 
prejudice in Soviet bloc countries. The second 
is the loyalty of nonwhite Americans to the 
United States and its institutions. Despite the 
disabilities they have suffered they have, with 
rare exceptions, preserved their faith in our 
democracy. They have fought to defend it, 
and they stand guard on the ramparts of free- 
dom today — in Berlin, in West Germany, in 
Southeast Asia, on all the continents and seas, 
and in the skies. 

The third reason why racial discrimination 
and its exploitation by our adversaries have 
not caused us greater damage is that we have 
made progress m removing discriminatory laws 
and practices, have advanced toward full 

And the fourth reason is that the power of 
the Federal Government — especially its execu- 
tive and judicial branches — has been exerted to 
secure the rights of racial minorities. The re- 
cent meeting of African heads of state, at Addis 
Ababa, condemned racial discrimination "espe- 
cially in the United States," then approved the 
role of U.S. Federal authorities in attempting 
to combat it. 

If progress should stop, if Congress should 
not approve legislation designed to remove re- 
maining discriminatory practices, questions 
would inevitably arise in many parts of the 
world as to the real convictions of the Ameri- 
can people. In that event hostile projiaganda 
might be expected to hurt us more than it has 
hurt us until now. 

Treatment of Nonwhite Diplomats 

I now turn to a special concern of the De- 
partment of State : the treatment of nonwhite 
diplomats and visitors to the United States. 
We camiot expect the friendship and respect 
of nonwhite nations if we humiliate their rep- 
resentatives by denying them, say, service in 
a highway restaurant or city cafe. 

Under international law and through the 
practice of nations, a host country owes cer- 
tain duties to the diplomatic representatives 
which are accredited to it, in order to facilitate 


the discharge by those representatives of their 
functions. P"or example, tlie Vienna Conven- 
tion on Diplomatic Relations, which is widely 
recognized as codifying much of the interna- 
tional law on the subject of diplomatic relations, 
provides that a diplomat shall be treated by 
the receiving state with due respect and that 
state shall take all appropriate steps to prevent 
any attack on his person, freedom, or dignity. 
These obligations are not properly discharged 
unless diplomatic representatives have access, 
without discrimination or hindrance, to the 
public accommodations required by travelers in 
going about their business. 

The United States Government expects that 
American diplomats abroad will be received in 
a manner appropriate to their capacity as rep- 
resentatives of the United States. We expect 
that they will be treated with courtesy and that 
they will be afforded the facilities necessary for 
the performance of their functions. Comity 
among the nations of the world requires that all 
countries act to receive foreign diplomatic rep- 
resentatives with courtesy and treat them with 
helpful consideration. We in the United States 
want to make sure that our conduct as a host 
country does not merely live up to commonly 
accepted requirements but indeed sets a stand- 
ard for all the world. 

Putting aside law, custom, and usage regard- 
ing the reception of foreign diplomats in this 
country, the United States has a tradition of 
warm and friendly reception for those who 
come to visit these shores from abroad. This 
tradition is one of the important values in the 
American heritage. It has been known through- 
out the world. We want to continue to uphold 
it and give it living reality in all of our ac- 
tions and dealings. 

One hundred and eleven nations send their 
diplomatic representatives to Washington and 
to New York City — in New York to an organi- 
zation created to represent humanity. And 
every year thousands of other foreign na- 
tionals come to this countiy on official business 
or as visitors — professors, mayors, provincial 
governors, technicians, students, as well as 
chiefs of state and heads of government and 
cabinet ministers. They come with avid interest 
in learning more about us. We value good will. 

Indeed, we enjoy much good will. And we 
would enjoy much more if we did not permit 
good will to be impaired by such senseless 
acts as refusing to serve a cup of coffee to a cus- 
tomer because his skin is dark. 

Yet, within the last 2 years, scores of inci- 
dents of racial discrimination involving for- 
eign diplomats accredited to this country have 
come to the attention of the Department of 
State. These incidents have occurred in all 
sections of the United States. Let me cite a few 

Denial of admittance to hotels. In one case 
the ambassador of one of the larger African 
countries was taking a trip involving a reserva- 
tion at a large hotel. ^Vlien the manager of 
the hotel realized that the ambassador was not 
white, he decided to cancel the reservation. It 
took several top-level officials the better part of 
a day to persuade the management of that 
hotel to accept the ambassador in order to avoid 
an international incident. 

Refusal of service in restaurants. There 
have been many complaints on this score. One 
of the most publicized involved the representa- 
tive of a West African country about to obtain 
its independence. He was refused service 
while en route from Washington to Pittsburgh. 
As a result of a casual remark made by him 
some time later, this incident was reported in 
our newspapers and throughout Africa. The 
Department worked hard to make amends for 
this unfortunate episode. The restaurant 
opened its doors to all customers regardless of 
color. Local authorities asked the representa- 
tive to pay a return visit. But, even in this case, 
the damage was probably not completely vm- 
done. And in many cases there have been no 

One African ambassador was en route here 
from New York. His first experience, even be- 
fore he had a chance to present his credentials 
to the President, was that of being ejected from 
a roadside restaurant. 

A Caribbean country which recently became 
independent assigned consular responsibilities 
in the immediate area to its first secretary in 
Washington. In traveling through his area of 
responsibility he was recently ejected from a 



restaurant which he had previously been in- 
formed was integrated. 

An African ambassador who had experienced 
several times refusals of service in restaurants 
inally complained to the Department of State 
ivhen his wife and 8-year-old child were denied 
I glass of water. The ambassador wrote to me 
;hat he had been an officer in the French Army 
during World War II and had led his men in 
Dattle. He said that even under battle condi- 
tions he had treated the children of the enemy 
with enough kindness and consideration to 
spare them a drink of water from his canteen. 

Denial of admittance to puiUc beaches. An 
Asian cabinet member and some of his diplo- 
matic colleagues stationed in Washington were 
refused admittance to a beach nearby. An 
African ambassador was not only refused ad- 
mittance to a public beach in this area but 
threatened and insulted. He now represents 
' his country in a European country. The act of 
hostility he experienced here remains for him 
a vivid recollection. 

These unpleasant experiences indicate the 
conditions under which foreign diplomats of 
color work in the Capital of the United States. 
I have heard it suggested that some of these 
representatives may be looking for trouble, that 
they are trying to test facilities in order to 
embarrass the United States for political pur- 
poses. But it has been our experience in the 
Department of State that these diplomats are 
trying to avoid incidents. 

The nonwhite diplomat often prefers to keep 
within the confines of the District of Columbia, 
knowing that restaurants, swimming pools, 
beaches, theaters, and other establishments in 
a large part of the United States are potential 
places of trouble. If he wants to make a trip, 
he frequently seeks the assistance of the Depart- 
ment of State in order to avoid embarrassment. 

Most governments expect their diplomats to 
travel in the host country. Most foreign coun- 
tries, and particularly those in Africa, are well 
aware of the problems of racial discrimination 
in the United States. Wlien diplomats from 
these countries return home they may have 
learned to understand the difficulties with which 
our Government has to cope in giving full effect 

to the civil rights to which all Americans are 

Incidents Involving Other Visitors 

Humiliating incidents are not confined to 
foreign diplomats stationed in this country. 
They sometimes involve other visitors from 
abroad such as recipients of leader grants, AID 
[Agency for International Development] spe- 
cialists who may be teachers and graduate 
students, and even high-level state visitors. 

The head of the Civil Aeronautics Board of 
a West African country, brouglit here under 
the sponsorship of the United States Govern- 
ment, was denied service in a restaurant. He 
terminated his trip right then and there. The 
mayor of the capital city of a British posses- 
sion in Africa, which is just about to obtain 
independence, was humiliated in a restaurant. 
The assistant secretary of state of another West 
African country was refused service at a hotel 
and a restaurant. 

We are also aware of incidents involving 
foreign students who come to the United States, 
some under government sponsorship and others 
on their own. These students come here to 
learn not only skills which will be useful to 
them when they return home but about our 
way of life. Some of them return home disap- 
pointed and even embittered. 

Sometimes these incidents involve not Afri- 
cans or Asians, but Europeans. Not too long 
ago a German student was jailed for having 
eaten a meal in the colored side of a bus ter- 
minal lunch counter. The student had chosen 
to sit there because the white side was com- 
pletely filled. 

I have cited typical incidents. Now I should 
like to quote just a few of the comments made 
by nonwhite diplomats in Washington to mem- 
bers of the staff of the Department of State. 

An African ambassador: "I am a friend of 
the United States and I want relations between 
our two countries to be as good as possible. I 
am particularly aware of the efforts this ad- 
ministration is making to improve the status 
of civil rights and, tlierefore, I shall instruct 
my staff to be careful not to embarrass our Gov- 
ernment by being involved in any unpleasant 

JULT 29, 1963 


situations. Yet I have to find some sort of ac- 
commodations for my staff, and I am really at a 
loss as to how to avoid getting into trouble." 

Another African ambassador said: "In spite 
of the good work this country is doing, personal 
relations spoil a good deal of the work done in 
other fields. People feel very hurt when they 
are treated in this way." 

These comments are illustrative. Others are 
contained in a supplemental paper which I shall 
be glad to leave with you. 

"With respect to the presence of diplomats and 
other foreign visitors in the United States, the 
provisions barring discrimination in places of 
public accommodation would go a long way 
toward removing some of the most acute prob- 
lems we have experienced in this area. These 
provisions would end some of the most obvious 
and embarrassing; forms of discrimination. 
They would enable foreign visitors in our coun- 
try to travel with much less fear of hindrance 
and insult. They would create a more normal 
and friendlier environment for our relations 
with other countries. 

I have dwelt on the experiences and reactions 
of diplomats and other visitors to this country 
because they are of special concern to the De- 
partment of State. But I would state as em- 
phatically as I can that I do not ask for them 
rights and decencies which are in practice de- 
nied to colored American citizens. One should 
not need a diplomatic passport in order to enjoy 
ordinary civil and human rights. Nor would 
these diplomats and other visitors be favorably 
impressed by efforts on our part to treat them 
differently from non white Americans. They 
realize full well that they are being discrimi- 
nated against, not as diplomats or as foreigners 
.but on account of their race. 

The counselor of an African embassy said: 
"TVe do not want any special privileges. We 
should decline them if they were offered. This 
is not the answer. We want what American 
diplomats in our country would get." 

The head of government of a large West Afri- 
can country complained when he found that the 
hotel in which he had been lodged was segre- 
gated. He said he would not have stayed there 
if he had known it was not open to Negro 

So, let me stress again, the interest of the 
Department of State in this bill reaches far be- 
yond obtaining decent treatment for nonwhite 
diplomats and visitors. We are directly and 
comprehensively concerned with obtaining de- 
cent treatment of all human beings, including 
American citizens. 

This is a problem which merits the concern 
and effort of all Americans without regard to 
any particular region of the country, race, or 
political party. The present racial crisis di- 
vides and weakens, and challenges, the Nation 
both at home and in the world struggle in which 
we are engaged. I deeply hope that the issues 
involved can be approached on the basis of 
genuine bipartisanship, just as are the broad 
objectives of this country's foreign policy. 

Finally, I note that specific legislative lan- 
guage is being considered by the committee with 
the Justice Department; the Department of 
State is not concerned with detailed questions 
of legislation and enforcement. We in State 
are concerned with the underlying purpose of 
the proposed measure and the adverse effects 
of the present situation. Wliat we would hope 
is that the Congress would join the executive 
and the judiciary in declaring it to be our na- 
tional policy to accord every citizen — and every 
person — the respect due to him as an individual. 

I want to reiterate most emphatically that in 
the fateful struggle in which we are engaged 
to make the world safe for freedom, the United 
States cannot fulfill its historic role unless it 
fulfills its commitments to its own people. 


Other comments made by nonwhite diplomats to 
representatives of the Office of Protocol : 

A counselor of an African embassy — "The result Is 
that a black diplomat is rather cut off, he withdraws 
to himself and sees only his own people. This creates 
constant resentment throughout our staff. Some ot 
us are rather bitter. There is so much about America 
which is good. What America has done for the under- 
developed countries is wonderful. But here, in this 
matter, we are dealing on a personal level. When 
people come to our country, we try to make them feel 
more at home than they are in their country. Our 
general feeling here is that 'I am forever a stranger.' 
There is something about American policy which can- 
not be explained. It cuts through all your policy — 



. is the contradiction between what you say and what 
ou do. Tou accuse the new countries of a double 
tandard, but there are certain things in this country 
'hich seem false. On the one hand, ideals are pitched 
ery high ; while on the other, behavior is pitched 
ery low. With never-ending talk of equality there 
i flagrant racial discrimination — we don't trust this 
ountry. If you give me what I know you think is 
econd rate, I resent It, and I do not respect you." 
An African ambassador — "I definitely feel that life 
n Washington is like living on an island, and that if 
ever travel, it should be only en route to New York. 
Jut even in Washington, things have not been easy." 

A staff member of an African embassy — "Even the 
)est friend of this country cannot be happy. One feels 
)ad. One begins to feel all this talk of good relations, 
he free world ... is farcical when in daily life this 
3 the situation. It imposes an undue burden which 
jrdinarily one wouldn't have. We feel humiliated." 
A staff member of an African embassy — "Ever since 
[ ran into discrimination, I am conscious that we 
must avert any type of incident. We go about our 
work with a great load on our minds. We are con- 
scious of it all the time. One is not in the country 
to provoke incidents. One does not wish to embarrass 
the host government." 

An Asian ambassador — "I realize that discrimination 
exists and that it cannot be completely abolished over- 
night. However, I cannot understand or tolerate this 
discrimination. Although I am not directly affected 
by it, it hurts me deeply because it affects some of my 
best friends. When my friends are insulted, I am 
insulted as well. The people who wrote the Constitu- 
tion and the Bill of Rights meant well and I sincerely 
hope that one day soon the Constitution will be justi- 
fied. The Government of the United States has shown 
its willingness to uphold America's boast of equality 
of all men. But it must act more strongly or this 
equality will be ridiculed in foreign countries by those 
who would use it as propaganda. We know that we 
are limited in our choice of accommodations and this 
creates in us an inferiority complex. We are here to 
do a job, but because of this inferiority we cannot 
do it well. It also leads to dangerous statements made 
by the diplomats on their return to their countries." 

An African ambassador — "I have been told that I 
ought to wear my robes when I go out, but no, that's 
ridiculous. At home I dress the way Americans do, 
and I am not going to dress specially. After all, it's 
the man who counts, the person inside the suit. I 
will not wear special clothes in order to be respected 
as a person. I will be respected regardless of what 
I wear. When I feel like wearing robes, I will, but 
If you ask me to do it so everyone will know I am an 
African, no, I won't." 

Another African ambassador — "If I have to an- 
nounce that I am an Ambassador before I enter any 
establishment or apartment building in order not to 
be subjected to insults and humiliation, I will request 
that my Government recall me." 

Under Secretary Harriman Departs 
for Test Ban Talks in Moscow 

The Department of State announced on July 9 
(press release 363) that Under Secretary W. 
Averell Harriman, the President's Special Rep- 
resentative, would depart for London and Mos- 
cow on July 11. 

Accompanying him to London and Moscow 
were: Adrian S. Fisher, Deputy Director, U.S. 
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency ; Carl 
Kaysen, Wliite House staff; William R. Tyler, 
Assistant Secretary of State for European Af- 
fairs; John T. McNaughton, General Counsel, 
Department of Defense; Frank E. Cash, De- 
partment of State; and Alexander Akalovsky, 
Franklin A. Long, Nedville E. Nordness, and 
Frank Press, consultant, all of the U.S. Anna 
Control and Disarmament Agency. 

President Kennedy and Soviet Leaders 
Exchange Fourtli of July Messages 

Following is an exchange of messages be- 
tween President Kennedy and Nikita Khrush- 
chev^ Chairman of the Council of Ministers of 
the U.S.S.R., and Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman 
of the Swpreme Soviet Presidium, of the 

President Kennedy to Soviet Leaders 

July 4, 1963 
The American people are grateful for your 
message of good will on the anniversary of our 
Independence Day. The American Revolution 
was based on the desire of our people to build 
a free nation in a world of peace. Today that 
desire for peace is more urgent than ever. The 
world has long passed that time when armed 
conflict can be the solution to international 
problems. That is why I share your desire ex- 
pressed in your message of today that we move 
forward with miderstanding towards tlie solu- 
tion of those key problems which divide us. 
I am hopeful that world peace, just and lasting, 
can be achieved. 

JULY 29, 1963 


Soviet Leaders to President Kennedy 

July 4, 1963 
On the occasion of the national day of the United 
States of America, Independence Day, we convey to you 
and to the American people warm greetings and wishes 
for peace and well-being. 

In our century, the century of conquering atomic 
energy and of penetrating in the depths of the uni- 
verse, the preservation of peace has become a truly 
vital necessity for all mankind. We are convinced 
that if the governments of our countries, along with 
the governments of other countries, having displayed 
a realistic attitude, firmly set out on the path of re- 
moving the hotbeds of international tension and ex- 
panding businesslike cooperation, people everywhere 
will acclaim this as a great contribution toward con- 
solidating universal peace. 

(3) prohibit all other unlicensed transaction; 
with Cuba or Cuba nationals or transactions in 
volving property in which there is a Cubai 
interest. Thus Cuba will be denied the use o: 
American financial facilities for transfers oi 
funds to Latin America for subversive 

Cuban refugees in the United States or else- 
where in the free world will be regarded as un- 
blocked nationals unless they are acting on 
behalf of the Cuban regime. "Wliere serious 
hardship can be proven, remittances by per- 
sons residing in the United States to members 
of their immediate family residing in Cuba will 
be authorized by special license. 

United States Blocks Cuban Assets 
To Counter Communist Subversion 

Press release 360 dated July 8 

At the request of the Secretary of State, the 
Treasury Department instituted blocking con- 
trols with respect to Cuba effective 12 : 01 a.m. 
July 8. This action was taken to restrict the 
movement of funds from Cuba in accordance 
with the resolution adopted on July 3, 1963 ^ 
by the Council of the Organization of Ameri- 
can States urging member governments to im- 
plement a series of recommendations to counter 
Castro-Communist subversion in the hemi- 
sphere. The measure is also in accord with the 
resolutions to counter subversive activities 
adopted on April 4, 1963, at Managua, Nica- 
ragua, by the Governments of the Central 
American Republics, Panama, and the United 
States.^ This blocking action will also con- 
tribute further to the economic isolation of 

The controls instituted on July 8 are modeled 
generally on those which are in effect with re- 
spect to Communist China and North Korea. 
They will (1) block all assets in the United 
States of Cuba or of persons in Cuba, (2) pro- 
hibit persons subject to the jurisdiction of the 
United States from engaging in unlicensed 
transfer of U.S. dollars to or from Cuba, and 

' Not printed here. 

' For texts, see Bulletin of May 6, 19(53, p. 719. 

Letters of Credence 


The newly appointed Ambassador of Guate- 
mala, Carlos Garcia-Bauer, presented his cre- 
dentials to President Kennedy on July 10. For 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 365 dated July 10. 

Secretary Assigned Leadership 
in International Aviation Policy 

Following is the text of a letter from Presi- 
dent Kennedy to Secretary Rusk.'^ 

The White House, 
Washington, June 22, 1963. 
Dear Mr. Secretary: The recommendations 
of the Interagency Steering Committee on In- 
ternational Aviation Policy, which I approved 
a few weeks ago,=^ underscored the need for a 
focus of leadership within the executive branch 
for (1) identifying emerging problems and ad- 
vising me on their solution; (2) giving con- 
tinuing attention to international aviation 
policies; and (3) assuring necessary follow-up 
actions. Since international aviation policies 
necessarily affect our over-all relations with 
other nations, I shall look to the Secretary of 

' 28 Fed. Reg. 6489. 

' Bulletin of May 20, 1963, p. 784. 




state, as a part of his assigned responsibilities, 
;o provide such a focus of leadersliip for this 
rital area of foreign policy. 

In making tliis assignment to you, I am mind- 
hil of the statutory responsibilities vested in 
;he Department of Defense, the Department of 
Uommerce, the Federal Aviation Agency, the 
Divil Aeronautics Board and the Agency for 
[nteniational Development, which bear im- 
oortantly on the field of international aviation 
policy and of the contributions which these 
igencies are able to make. It is my desire, 
therefore, that you take such measures as may 
38 necessary to assure that these agencies are 
appropriately consulted on all matters affecting 
their interests or falling within their special 
ireas of competence. The effective accomplish- 
ment of this undertaking requires the coopera- 
tion and full utilization of the resources and 
skills of each of the agencies which participate 
in international aviation activities. 

In this regard, I endorse the recommenda- 
tions contained in the May 29, 1963, summary 
of the Bureau of the Budget study that there 
be established a high-level interagency Commit- 
tee on International Aviation Policy, to be 
chaired by the Secretary of State or his repre- 
sentative. The other members will be the Sec- 
retaries of Defense and Commerce, or their 
representatives, the Administrator of the Fed- 
eral Aviation Agency, the Chairman of the 
Civil Aeronautics Board, and the Administra- 
tor of the Agency for International Develop- 
ment. The Administrator of the Federal 
Aviation Agency will serve as vice chairman. 

This committee will concern itself with policy 
matters affecting international aviation, as dis- 
tinct from the technical matters which will, in 
the first instance, continue to be handled 
through the mechanism of the Interagency 
Group on International Aviation. The Chair- 
man should convene the Committee on Inter- 
national Aviation Policy as soon as possible. 

I know that you will take the necessary steps 
within the Department of State to assure that 
there are clear assignments of responsibility 
and adequate allocations of staff resources for 
meeting the important responsibilities which 

leadership in international aviation policy mat- 
ters entails. Please report to me from time to 
time upon the significant developments under 
this program, including such revisions in pres- 
ent policy as may be indicated by changing 


John F. Kennedy 

Captive Nations Week, 1963 


Whereas by a joint resolution approved July 17, 
1959 (73 Stat. 212) the Congress has authorized and 
requested the President of the United States of Amer- 
ica to issue a proclamation, designating the third week 
in July 1959 as "Captive Nations Week", and to issue 
a similar proclamation each year until such time as 
freedom and independence shall have been achieved 
for all the captive nations of the world ; and 

Whereas the cause of human rights and dignity re- 
mains a universal aspiration and 

Whereas justice requires the elemental right of 
free choice and 

Whereas this nation has an abiding commitment to 
the principles of national self-determination and hu- 
man freedom. 

Now, THEREFORE, I, JoHN P. KENNEDY, President of 
the United States of America, do hereby designate the 
week beginning July 14, 1963, as Captive Nations 

I invite the people of the United States of America 
to observe this week with appropriate ceremonies and 
activities, and I urge them to give renewed devotion 
to the just aspirations of all people for national inde- 
pendence and human liberty. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America to 
be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this fifth day of 

July in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

[SEAi,] and sixty-three, and of the Independence of 

the United States of America the one hundred 

and eighty-eighth. 


By the President: 
Dean Rusk, 
Secretary of State. 

' No. 3543 ; 28 Fed. Reg. 70C5. 

JTJLT 29, 1963 


The Rule of Law — Now 


hy Abram Chayes 
Legal Adviser^ 

Since the beginning of the 16th General 
Assembly in the fall of 1961 we have heard 
about the financial crisis at the United Nations. 
Of course there is a financial crisis in the U.N. 
The bills that the organization is incurring — 
largely on account of its operations to keep 
the peace in the Congo and in the Middle East — • 
have been outrunning by a very large amoimt 
the funds it has been able to collect from its 
members. Wlien Secretary-General U Thant 
first brought this problem to the attention of 
the organization he predicted a deficit of $170 
million by June 30, 1962. In fact, despite the 
bond issue and vigorous efforts to collect ar- 
rears, the U.N. deficit, largely attributable to 
these two peacekeeping enterprises, still 
amounted to $72,400,000 at the end of this fiscal 
year. Although the recent successes of the 
Congo operations will bring a significant cut- 
back in current outlays there and permit us to 
hope that tliis item may be entirely eliminated 
in the not too distant future, the problem of 
financing the rest of the operation and of pay- 
ing old debts remains. 

Thus the financial crisis at the U.N. is a real 
one. But, as is often the case with contro- 
versies over the power of the purse, financial 
questions cover more deep-seated issues of con- 
stitutional dimensions. And in this case I be- 
lieve the resolution of the financial questions 

'Address made before the World Conference of 
Lawyers on World Peace Through the Rule of Law at 
Athens, Greece, on July 3 (press release 356 dated 
July 2). 

' See p. 178. 

now being debated in the United Nations ^ wil 
tell us a great deal about the rule of law in oui 
world and about our ability to make it prevail 

We are met here not as national or govern- 
mental representatives but as lawyers, members Jj 
of a common profession that in many ways^ 
transcends national boundaries. Our purpose 
is to consider how this profession, as a profes- 
sion, can contribute to the maintenance of world 
peace. The agenda of the conference covers a 
familiar range of topics: strengthening the 
U.N., third-party settlement of international 
disputes, fuller use of the World Court, respect 
for agreed procedures in resolving international 
issues. All of these go to make up the ideal 
of the rule of law in international affairs. 

Through its discussions, this conference will 
seek to develop ways of approaching this ideal 
more nearly in the future. Yet, in the ques- 
tion of U.N. finances, all of the elements I have 
listed are implicated. And if the nations of 
the world cannot bring themselves in this mat- I 
ter to act in accordance with the dictates of 
the rule of law, it is hard to have any very great 
hope for our capacity to improve and extend 
it in the future. For this is not a situation 
where international law, on either its substan- 
tive or procedural side, was rudimentary or ill 
adapted to the situation. The legal issues did 
not turn on the opinions of publicists or hypo- 
thetical reasoning. The question of U.N. fi- 
nances brought into play a developed corpus of 
law and legal materials that were dealt with 
by the most advanced of international legal 



/orld Court Opinion on U.N. Assessments 

The United Nations undertook the burdens 
f keeping the peace in the Middle East in 1956 
nd in the Congo in 1960. In each case the ac- 
ion represented a broad consensus of the states 
lembers as to the duties and responsibilities of 
he organization in the circumstances. The 
■riginal resolution establishing the U.N. Emer- 
:ency Force in the Middle East passed the 
leneral Assembly without a dissenting vote.^ 
^he Congo operation, authorized in the first 
nstance by unanimous vote of the Security 
Council, was later confirmed and expanded by 
he General Assembly, also without a dissenting 

The financing resolutions in each case, too, 
vere the product of extensive consideration of 
he issues, legal as well as political, and regis- 
ered broad consensus. Nevertheless, when the 
.Secretary-General first called to the attention 
)f the General Assembly that many members 
vere increasingly in arrears in paying their 
issessments for these operations, some members 
juestioned the legal liability to pay these assess- 
nents. A number of grounds were advanced: 
that the operations themselves were riltra vires 
or had not been properly authorized by the or- 
ganization; that the Assembly was without 
power to compel money contributions in sup- 
port of such operations or, in any case, had not 
intended to do so in its assessment resolutions. 

International legal institutions provide a for- 
mal method for resolving such controversies. 
The U.N. Charter provides in article 96 : "The 
General Assembly or the Security Council may 
request the International Court of Justice to 
give an advisory opinion on any legal question." 
The Court's competence to render such an opin- 
ion is not affected by the adherence or nonadher- 
ence of any member of the United Nations to 
the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court. 
Article 96 is a part of the charter agreed to by 
all signatory nations. And, by force of article 
93 of the charter, '"All Members of the United 
Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of 

President Sends Greetings 
to Lawyers' Conference 

Following is the text of a message from 
President Kennedy to the World Conference of 
Lawyers on World Peace Through the Rule of 
Laic held at Athens, Greece, June SO-July 6. 

It gives me great pleasure to send greetings 
to the distinguished group of lawyers participat- 
ing in the First World Conference on World 
Peace Through The Rule of Law. This Confer- 
ence represents five years of effort and brings 
together lawyers and judges from over a hundred 
countries in the attempt to develop and 
strengthen the legal machinery that must form 
the basis for peaceful relations among all na- 
tions. The habits of respect for the law and 
confidence in its effectiveness are at the root of 
freedom within nations. And these same habits 
and confidence must find their place in the rela- 
tions between nations if we are to build a just 
and stable peace. 

' For text of resolution, see Bulletin of Nov. 19, 
1956, p. 79.3. 

' For background and texts of resolutions, see iMd.. 
Aug. 1, 1960, p. 159, and Oct. 10, 1960, p. 5S3. 

the International Court of Justice." Pursuant 
to article 96, the General Assembly, by a vote 
of 52 to 11, with 32 abstentions, after full and 
careful debate, adopted Resolution 1731 (X^T) 
requesting the advice of the Court. The ques- 
tion as put m the resolution was whether the 
expenses authorized in the assessment resolur 
tions covering the U.N. operations in the Congo 
and Middle East were "expenses of the Orga- 
nization" within the meaning of article 17 of the 
charter so that, by virtue of article 17, they 
"shall be borne by the Members as apportioned 
by the General Assembly." 

As is required in such cases, the International 
Court of Justice gave notice of the proceedings 
to all states members and gave each the oppor- 
tmiity to submit views on the issues in writing 
or in oral pleadings. It was not an empty offer. 
In no other proceeding before the Court have 
so many states participated. Tliey represented 
many parts of the globe and all legal systems. 
The official volume of the Court reporting the 
case includes written submissions in various 
forms from 20 different countries : Upper Volta, 
Italy, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, 
Czechoslovakia, the United States, Canada, 
Japan, Portugal, Australia, the United King- 

JT7LT 29, 1963 


doin, Spain, Ireland, South Africa, the 
U.S.S.R., Byelorussia, Bulgaria, the Ukraine, 
and Rumania. 

In the oral arguments which began on the 
14th of May 19G2 and proceeded through the 
21st, 9 of the nations pleaded orally before the 
Court: Canada, the Netherlands, Italy, the 
United Kingdom, Norway, Australia, Ireland, 
the U.S.S.R., and the United States. The 
United Kingdom and Ireland were represented 
by their Attorneys General; Australia by its 
Solicitor General; Canada, the Netherlands, 
Italy, Norway, and the United States sent the 
Legal Advisers of their respective Foreign Offi- 
ces.* The U.S.S.R. argued orally before the 
Court for the first time in history and was rep- 
resented by the distinguished lawyer, Mr. 
Grigory Tunkin, former Chairman of the In- 
ternational Law Commission and Director of 
the Juridical-Treaty Branch of the Soviet 
Ministry of Foi-eign Affairs. 

Two months after the oral arguments, the 
Court, acting with commendable dispatch in 
view of the importance of the case and the diffi- 
culty of the issues, rendered its opinion. By a 
vote of 9 to 5 it gave an affirmative answer to 
the question presented. It held that the ex- 
penditures authorized in the financing resolu- 
tions were indeed "expenses of the Organiza- 
tion" within the meaning of article 17, with the 
consequence that assessment of those expenses 
by the General Assembly was binding on the 

The World Court, as all of you know, is a 
most distinguished panel of jurists. The Stat- 
ute of the Court prescribes that it "shall be 
composed of a body of independent judges, 
elected regardless of their nationality from 
among persons of high moral character, who 
possess the qualifications required in their re- 
spective countries for appointment to the high- 
est judicial offices, or are juris-consults of 
recognized competence in international law." 
Members of the United Nations are enjoined, in 
electing judges to the Court, to "bear in mind 
not only that the persons to be elected should 

• For a statement made before the Court by Mr. 
Chayes, see ibid., ,Tuly 2, 1962, p. 30. 

" For a Department statement on the Court's opinion, 
see ibid., Aug. 13, 1962, p. 246. 

individually possess the qualifications required, 
but also that in the body as a whole the repre- 
sentation of the main forms of civilization and 
of the principal legal systems of the world 
should be assured." It goes without saying 
that members of the Court sit as independent 
judges and not as governmental representatives. 
Indeed, the votes of the judges in the U.N. As- 
sessments case itself did not uniformly reflect 
the national positions their governments had 
taken on the issues. 

I have said that the decision of this Court, so 
constituted and so composed, was rendered by a 
vote of 9 to 5. Some have said that this ab- 
sence of unanimity somehow derogates from 
the force of the decision. Of course that cannot 
be so. The very existence of a court with more 
than one judge implies the possibility of differ- 
ences of view among the judges. In my own 
country we are accustomed to seeing questions 
of grave public and political importance de- 
cided by narrow majorities — often a majority 
of one — in our highest court. The Interna- 
tional Court itself, in the recent South-"\Vest 
Africa decision, decided in favor of its own 
jurisdiction by a single vote. In that case 
judges of United States and Soviet nationality 
found themselves together in the majority, 
while the President of the Court, a Polish na- 
tional, and the British, French, and Australian 
judges were in the minority. Although the 
division was thus as narrow as it could possibly 
be, we, as lawyers, would expect that South 
Africa would abide by the decision and appear 
on the merits of the case. And she has done so. 

The opinion of the Court in a case such as the 
U.N. Assessments case is characterized as "ad- 
visory." It cannot be "binding" in a juridical 
sense because there are no parties before the 
Court upon whom a judgment could operate. 
But for all other purposes, I would myself 
suppose that the opinion of the Court, in an 
advisory case properly before it where the issue 
is justiciable, is an authoritative statement of 
the law. In the U.N. Assessments case all the 
conditions were met. The case was before the 
Court at the request of the General Assembly 
under article 96 of the charter. The issue was 
a narrowly defined question of legal liability, 
fully matured and ripe for adjudication on 



concrete facts comprehensively developed be- 
:ore the tribunal. 

But whether or not the opinion by its own 
'orce establishes the law we need not debate here. 
The General Assembly itself has removed any 
)0ssible question about the status of the Court's 
idvisory opinion. The opinion was trans- 
nitted to the Secretary-General and by him to 
he General Assembly at its 17th session. And 
ifter consideration and debate, both in the ap- 
propriate committee and on the floor, the 
Assembly, by a vote of 76 to 17, with 8 absten- 
;ions, declared that it "accepts the opinion of the 
[nternational Court of Justice on the question 
submitted to it." ' Thus this phase of the case 
3ame to a close. 

Seneral Assembly Action on Court's Decision 

The experience in the United Nations since 
the decision of the Court has not been altogether 
disheartening. I am informed that approxi- 
mately $16 million in arrearages has been paid 
by 46 countries. Although these countries are, 
for the most part, small and the amounts owing 
were correspondingly small, their action to com- 
ply with the decision of the Court represents a 
commendable example of the rule of law in ac- 
tion in international affairs. 

Another development is worth noting. As 
you know, article 19 of the charter provides 

A member of the United Nations which is in arrears 
in the payment of its financial contributions to the 
Organization shall have no vote in the General Assem- 
bly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the 
amount of the contributions due from it for the pre- 
ceding tv^o full years. 

Just prior to the beginning of the I7th ses- 
sion of the General Assembly 6 countries were 
in such a situation, and again just prior to the 
special session that began this spring, 10 coim- 
tries were in arrears more than 2 full years, 
taking into account the Congo and Middle East 
assessments. In all of these cases but one, the 
states concerned, by appropriate payment in ad- 
vance of the convening of the General Assembly, 
removed themselves from the scope of article 

19. And it should be remarked that these 
comitries were not confined to any single quarter 
of the globe or any single political system. 

The one exception was Haiti, which, as you 
may know, was in arrears for more than the 
total of 2 years' contributions when the recent 
special session opened. Haiti made no pay- 
ments against its arrears until May 24, 10 days 
after the special session began. The Secretary- 
General, in a letter dated May 14, the day the 
Assembly convened, informed the Assembly 
President, Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan of 
Pakistan, that Haiti was in arrears in an amoimt 
exceeding that specified in article 19. At the 
opening of the General Assembly, the Haitian 
delegate absented himself from the hall. Sir 
Zafrulla, a former judge of the International 
Court of Justice, replied to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral's letter the following day. He said : 

I have received your letter of 14 May 1963, informing 
me that, at the opening of the Fourth Special Session 
of the General Assembly, Haiti was in arrears in the 
payment of its financial contribution to the United Na- 
tions within terms of Article 19 of the Charter. I 
would have made an announcement drawing the atten- 
tion of the Assembly to the loss of voting rights in the 
Assembly of the Member State just mentioned, under 
the first sentence of Article 19, had a formal count of 
vote taken place in the presence of a representative of 
that State at the opening plenary meeting. As no 
such vote took place, and as the representative 
of Haiti was not present, this announcement became 

The Secretary-General's letter and the Presi- 
dent's reply were circulated as formal U.N. 

Finally, the General Assembly, just a few 
days ago, in bringing to a close an intensive 7- 
week special review of the financing of peace- 
keeping operations, reemphasized the obliga- 
tion of members to pay their arrearages. A 
resolution adopted by the overwhelming vote of 
the Assembly requests the member states in ar- 
rears for the Congo and Middle East operations 
to make arrangements with the Secretary-Gen- 
eral "within the letter and spirit of the Charter 
of the United Nations, including the possibility 
of payment by instalment, for bringing the pay- 
ments of these accoimts up to date as soon as 

'For text of a resolution adopted on Dec. 19, 1962, 
see ihid., Jan. 7, 1963, p. 37. 

' For texts, see Note No. 2768 issued to correspond- 
ents by the U.N. Office of Public Information on May 21. 

JULY 29, 1963 


possible. . . ."• The deadline for making 
such arrangements is set at October 31, 1963. 

Acceptance of Prescribed Sanctions 

I said oarliur tlial tho experience in the U.N. 
since the Court's decision is not wholly dis- 
heartening. There is a record of payment of 
arrearages by certain smaller nations, and in 
particular the record reflects a healthy respect 
on tho part of the states members for the sanc- 
tion of article 19. But, if the experience is not 
wholly disheartening, it cannot be said to be 
altogether cheering either. For a number of 
states remain — and, among them, the most sub- 
stantial delinquents — that have as yet made no 
payments against their arrearages. Again I 
should say that this group of states is con- 
fined to no single geographical region and no 
single political or social system. 

It must be said then that the implications 
of the present financial controversy in the 
United Nations for the rule of law remain in 
doubt. I hope, and we must all hope — as 
lawyers interested in the vindication of the 
processes and procedures of a system of law — 
that the states remaining in arrears will find 
some way to meet their obligations and pay 
the assessments which the Court has found are 
binding upon them. If so, the rule of law 
to which we all stand dedicated will have won 
a notable victory. 

But if they persist in their refusal to pay, 
whatever may be the positions of our govern- 
ments, I hope we as lawyers will not blink what 
is at stake. After the course of events that I 
have outlined here today, there can be no ques- 
tion that the obligations are lawfully' owing. 
That issue was proper!}- presented to a tribunal 
that all of us, whatever system of law we are 
familiar with, would recognize as a fully com- 
petent court. It was decided by that court after 
ft hearing comporting with tho highest stand- 
ards of ju.stico, a hearing in which there was 
full opportunity for all interested parties to 
participate and be heard. The decision of that 
court was overwhelmingly accepted by the 
General Assembly, to which it was re[)orted. 
States may, of course, continue to persist in 

• For toit, Hoe p. 18.'>. 

their refusal to pay. But they cannot ask us 
to accept that their refusal is based on legal 
grounds. 'V\nien they argue for a result dif- 
ferent from that pronounced by the Court, they 
assert the right to be judges in their own case. 
And that, as we all know, is fimdamentally at 
odds with the rule of law. 

We must all hope that it does not come to 
this. But if it does, the processes of the law 
have not yet been exhausted. In this situa- 
tion, unlike most, the international legal sys- 
tem provides its own sanction for breach of 
duty. As we have seen, article 19 provides 
that, when delinquency reaches a certain point, 
the delinquent "shall have no vote" in the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The terms of that article are 
clear. It represents the considered judgment 
of the states that framed the charter or have 
since adhered to it as to the sanction appropriate 
to continued financial irresponsibility on the 
part of a member. Each member state has 
bound itself to the charter containing this sanc- 
tion — knowingly, solemnly, and with full ap- 
preciation of its meaning. The President of the 
General Assembly by his official act has affirmed 
the import of article 19 : When the arrearages 
of a member state exceed 2 years' contributions, 
that state, automatically and by operation of 
the charter, has no vote in the General Assem- 
bly. Specialized agencies of the U.N. have in- 
terpreted similar provisions in their own char- 
ters in the same way. The 16 member states 
that have paid amounts sufficient to remove 
themselves from the ambit of this sanction have 
shown their understanding of it by their acts. 

If some of the states now in arrears persist in 
their refusal to pay, their arrearages will ex- 
ceed 2 years' contributions at the beginning of 
1064 and we will face the question of the appli- 
cation of the sanction prescribed by the charter. 
The issue of fidelity of law is, I submit, as 
much involved in this question as in the ques- 
tion of payment itself. 

In one of the early constitutional crises in 
tho history of the United States the Supreme 
Court handed down a judgment vastly displeas- 
ing to President Jackson. We are told that 
Jackson's response was, "Jolin IVfarshall has 
made his decision — now let liim enforce it!" 
The story has many lessons, but one of them 



is surely that, even in the most developed legal 
system, the courts cannot enforce the law by 
their unaided efforts. For this they must de- 
pend on the more active arms of government. 
And if these more active branches fail or refuse 
in their duty to see that the laws are faithfully 
executed, this too is an assertion of will in place 
of law. 

Like John Marshall's Supreme Court, the In- 
ternational Court cannot enforce its judgment. 
Only the Assembly can insure that the sanction 
for nonpayment of assessments is applied ac- 
cording to its terms. This being the case, to 
vote against enforcement according to the terms 
of article 19 is to betray the rule of law as surely 
as to fail to pay. 

'V\niere states have agreed to instruments gov- 
erning their relations and have established ra- 
tional and orderly procedures for interpreting 
those insti-uments in case of doubt, where those 
procedures have been duly resorted to and have 
produced a result, we are entitled to ask that 
they accept and give effect to that result. And 
where sanctions are duly prescribed for failure 
to comply, we are entitled to see that they are 
applied according to their tenns. Unless the 
nations are prepared to grant this measure of 
assent to the institutions of law, imless we as 
lawyers, whatever our nation, are prepared to 
demand it, the work of this conference will be 
empty. Far more important, the rule of law, 
one of the handful of saving ideals that man 
pursues, will have suffered a grievous blow. 

President Amends Order on Trade 
Agreements Program Administration 


Amendment op Executive Order No. 11075, as 
Amended, Relating to the Administration op the 
Trade Agreements Program 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Trade 
Expansion Act of 1962 (76 Stat. 872), and as President 
of the United States, it is ordered that Executive Order 
No. 11075" of January 15, 1963 (28 F.R. 473), as 
amended by Executive Order No. 11106 " of April 18, 

1963 (28 F.R. 3911) be, and it is hereby, further 
amended by substituting for subsection (c) of Section 
2 thereof (48 CFR § 1.2(c) ) the following: 

"(e) Tliere shall be in the said Office two officers, 
each of whom shall have the title 'Deputy Special 
Representative for Trade Negotiations', with the rank 
of Ambassador. The principal functions of each shall 
be to conduct negotiations under title II of the Act, 
and each shall perform such additional duties as the 
Special Representative may direct." 

/(LJ L^ 

The White House, 
June IS, 196S. 

' No. 11113 ; 28 Fed. Reg. 6183. 

' For text, see Bulletin of Feb. 4, 1963, p. 180. 

' For text, see iUd., May 27, 1963, p. 839. 

U.S. Makes Additional Quantities 
of Uranium 235 Available 

Following are two statements released hy the 
U.S. At07nic Energy Commission on July 3. 


On September 26, 1961, I announced an in- 
crease in the quantities of enriched uranium to 
be made available for peaceful uses at home 
and abroad.^ Since that time, plans for the in- 
creased utilization of enriched uranium in nu- 
clear power plants have become more definite 
and widespread. In order to give assurances 
that enriched uranium can be supplied to meet 
these needs, I am annoimcing today a f ui-ther 
increase in the quantities of material to be made 

I have determined, pursuant to section 41 b 
of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, 
that the quantities of uranium 235 in enriched 
uranium to be made available are raised from 
100,000 to 200,000 kilograms for domestic dis- 
tribution imder section 53 and from 65,000 to 
150,000 kilograms for foreign distribution 
under section 54. These amounts have been rec- 
ommended by the Atomic Energy Commission 
with the concurrence of the Departments of 
State and Defense. The new total of 350,000 

' Bulletin of Oct. 16, 1961, p. 648. 

JUIiT 29, 1063 


kilograms is more timn double the previous 

The material will be distributed, by lease or 
sale, as required over a period of years and will 
be subject to prudent safeguards against un- 
authorized use. As nuclear programs develop 
in the future, it will undoubtedly be necessary 
to make further determinations increasing the 
amounts of material to bo available. The ca- 
pacity of the United States for producing en- 
riched uranium is sufficient to meet all fore- 
seeable needs for peaceful uses in addition to 
our defense needs. 

A discussion of the new determination is con- 
tained in the attached statement by the Chair- 
man of the Atomic Energy Commission. 


The President's announcement today that the 
quantities of enriched uranium to be made 
available for peaceful uses at home and abroad 
have been increased to a total of 350,000 kilo- 
grams of contained U-235 is another important 
step forward in the civilian applications of 
atomic energy. Of this total, 200,000 kilograms 
is for distribution to licensed users within the 
United States and 150,000 kilograms is for dis- 
tribution to foreign countries under civil agree- 
ments for cooperation. 

Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, en- 
riched uranium within the United States re- 
mains the property of the U.S. Government and 
is leased to licensed users. Legislation to per- 
mit private ownership and sale to domestic 
users is presently under consideration by Con- 
gress. Enriched uranium distributed to foreign 
nations has been leased for use in research reac- 
tors and has been sold for use in power reac- 
tors. The charges for both lease and sale of 
enriched uranium at home and abroad are de- 
termined by the actual cost, with appropriate 
allowances for depreciation and other indirect 
expenses. Tlie current .schedule of charges was 
announced by the AEC on May 29, 19G2. 

The enriched uranium distributed will bo 
u.sod in re.cearch and development and as fuel 
in nuclear reactors, with the bulk of it being 
utilizc<l in generating electricity. The new de- 

termination by the President is expected to 
cover allocations of material under present do- 
mestic licenses and foreign agreements for co- 
operation and those anticipated in the near 
future. Material for use in the AEC's own fa- 
cilities is not included in this determination. 
With the growth of nuclear power at home and 
abroad, further increases in the quantities of 
material to be made available will need to be 
considered from time to time. The large ca- 
pacity of U.S. diffusion plants for the produc- 
tion of enriched uranium permits them to meet 
both civilian and military requirements. 

Allocation of enriched uranium to a reactor 
project includes material for the fuel loading, 
for fuel consumption over the period of the 
domestic license or foreign agreement for co- 
operation, and for the inventory outside of the 
reactor associated with the manufacture and 
storage of fuel elements, cooling and shipment 
of irradiated fuel, and chemical processing of 
irradiated fuel to recover the remaining ura- 
nium and plutonium. The amount of U-235 
contained in enriched uranium returned to the 
AEC is deducted from the amount supplied by 
the AEC in computing how much is available 
for further distribution. The material allo- 
cated to a reactor project may not be com- 
pletely distributed for several decades. 

As of April 30, 1963, there were in effect in 
the United States construction permits or op- 
erating licenses for 12 power reactors, 4 test 
reactors, 79 research reactors, and 16 critical- 
experiment facilities, and 471 licenses for other 
uses of special nuclear material, not including 
the AEC's own reactors, facilities, and uses. 
Agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of 
atomic energy are in effect between the United 
States and a large part of the free world, in- 
cluding 33 countries and West Berlin; 14 of 
these agreements provide for cooperation on 
power reactors. In addition, agreements are in 
effect with the International Atomic Energy 
Agency and the European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity (EUR ATOM). 

Enriched uranium for peaceful uses is dis- 
tributed abroad only under civil agreements 
for cooperation. All such agreements contain 
a guarantee by the cooperating country that the 
material supplied will be used exclusively for 



peaceful purposes. Safeguard provisions al- 
lowing inspection of material, facilities, and 
records by U.S. or international insj^ectors are 
also included, as appropriate. 

Commission Urges Expansion 
of American Studies Overseas 

The Department of State announced on July 
12 (press release 369) that the U.S. Advisoi-y 
Commission on International Educational and 
Cultural Aifairs had that day forwarded a re- 
port to Congress recommending the expansion 
of the use of binational commissions in other 
countries to assist the development of American 
studies overseas as well as the general academic 
exchange program of the United States. 

The report entitled American Studies 
Abroad: Progress and Difficulties in Selected 
Countries ^ was prepared by Walter Johnson, 
professor of American liistory at the Univei"sity 
of Chicago and a member of the Commission. 
It proposes that binational commissions, now 
operating in 44 coiuitries, be established in as 
many as feasible of the some 70 other countries 
with which the Department of State conducts 
exchange programs. Dr. Johnson points out 
that binational commissions enhance acceptance 
of American studies and other exchange activi- 
ties by serving a "mutuality of national in- 

Such commissions have been set up in other 
countries under authority of the Fulbright Act 
of 1946. The broader provisions of the Ful- 
bright-Hays Act of 1961 authorize establish- 
ment of commissions in all of the countries with 
which the United States has exchange pro- 
gi'ams. Binational commissions are usually 
made up equally of Americans living in a for- 
eign country and of nationals of that country. 

The report praises the effort by both private 

agencies and government to "nourish and stimu- 
late an increased understanding of the United 
States abroad, not by furnishing information 
but by imparting knowledge in depth — 
knowledge of our history, government, culture 
and aspirations." Private activities cited by 
the report, include the Salzburg Seminar in 
American Studies, the Bologna Center of The 
Johns Hopkins University, and the programs 
of the American Council of Learned Societies 
and the Conference Board of Associated Re- 
search Councils. 

Dr. Johnson urges greater care in the choice 
of foreign institutions for the placement of 
American scholars and the establishment of 
chairs of American studies. He recommends 
giving preference to universities that would in- 
corporate American studies into their required 
curriculum, draw visiting schohws into the full 
professional life of the institution, and provide 
instruction in American studies by their own 
faculty membere aft«r an initial period. 

In the two years since foreign currency funds 
generated under Public Law 480 (the Agricul- 
tural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954) became available to the Department of 
State for chairs and workshops in American 
studies, the program has reached many parts of 
the world. 

Several of Dr. Johnson's recommendations 
relate to secondary school teachers, including 
an increase in the number of special seminars 
on American civilization available to them and 
the creation of a new category of grantee to 
enable such teachers of American literature, 
history, or related subjects to undertake ad- 
vanced study at appropriate American univer- 
sities or at selected universities abroad. 

Dr. Johnson's is the second report to Congress 
by the Commission. The first, a study of the 
effectiveness of exchange programs, was sub- 
mitted in April ^ and is now available in booklet 
form under the title "Beacon of Hope." 

' A limited mimber of copies are available upon re- 
quest from the Office of Media Services, Department 
of State, Washinffton, D.C. 20520. 

- For a Department announcement, see Bulletin of 
Apr. 22, 1963, p. 617. 

JULY 29, 1963 



President Recommends Expansion 
of Peace Corps 

Following in the text of a letter from Presi- 
dent Kennedy to Lyndon B. Johnaon, President 
of the Senaie. An identical letter ions sent on 
the same day to John W. McCormack, Speaker 
of the House of Representatives. 

White House press release dated July 4 

JtTLT 4, 1963 

Dkar Mr. PRi>!inKNT: I am pleased to trans- 
mit lepislation which will authorize the appro- 
priation of $108 million for the Peace Corps in 
Fiscal Year 1964. If is fittinjj that tiiis request 
is made on the ISTth anniversary of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. For the Peace Corps 
exemplifies the .spirit of that revolution whose 
hejrinninps we celebrate today. 

Tliat revolution was not only a revolution for 
American independenc*i and freedom. It was, 
as Jefferson perceived and Lincoln proclaimed, 
a revolution unlx)unded by jjeojjraphy, race or 
culture. It was a movement for the political 
and spiritual frex>dom of man. 

Today, two centurie^s later and thousands of 
miles from its oripfin, the men and women of the 
Peace Corps are apain affirming the universality 
of that revolution. Wliether expressed by the 
community development projects of Latin 
America, or the panchayati raj program of 
India, the determination of people to be free, to 
povem them.selves, and to share in the fniits of 
both the industrial and democratic revolutions, 
is one of the most profound forces at work in 
the world. To this revolution Peace Corps 
Volunteers are pivinp the same qualities of 
enerpj- and spirit which the 21 ye«r old Lafay- 
ette and his equally youthful contemporaries 
jja\-e as volunteer participants in our own 

In less than two years their accomplishments 
have already l>een impressive. Thev constitute 

more than one-third of all the qualified second- 
aiy teachers in Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, and 
Nyasaland; they have saved a three-quarter 
million dollar rice crop in Pakistan; they have 
vaccinated over 25,000 Bolivians; they are 
teaching in 400 Philippines schools; they have 
created a thriving poultry industi-y in the State 
of Punjab in India; they are teaching in every 
rural secondary school in Costa Rica and vir- 
tually every secondary school in British Hon- 
duras ; they have contributed to the creation of a 
system of fann-to-market roads in Tanganyika. 
But these are only isolated examples; all over 
the world Volunteers have surveyed roads, 
taught students and teachers, built schools, 
planted forests, drilled wells, and started local 
industries. In their off-hours they have con- 
ducted adult education classes, organized ath- 
letic teams, and launched programs ranging 
from music clubs to debating teams. 

As important as these achievements are, they 
are far less important than the contribution 
Peace Corps Volunteers are making in building 
those human relations which must exist for a 
happy and peaceful imderstanding between 
people. The United States and a few other 
fortunate nations are part of an island of pros- 
perity in a world-wide sea of poverty. Our 
affluence has at times severed us from the great 
poverty stricken majority of the world's peo- 
ple. It is essential that we demonstrate that 
we continue to be aw^are of the responsibility 
we fortunate few have to assist the efforts of 
others at development and progress. 

With Americans, Ijord Tweedsmuir wrote, 
"the of common humanity is a warm and 
constant instinct and not a doctrine of the 
schools or a slogan of the hustings." By the 
careful selection and training of men and 
women in whom that instinct is a reality, the 
Peace Corps has already erased some stereo- 
typed images of America and brought hundreds 
of thousands of people into contact with the 



first Americans they have ever known person- 
ally. "Wlien the Peace Corps came to my 
comitry," wrote the Minister of Development 
of Jamaica, "they brought a breath of fresh air. 
They came and mixed with the people. They 
worked closely with tlie people. They closed 
the gap and crashed the barrier. And because 
they did this, they have paved tlie way for our 
own people to understand. . . ." 

It is no accident that Peace Corps Volunteers 
have won this kind of acceptance. Nor is it a 
coincidence that they have been greeted — as the 
Ethiopian Herald stated — "witli open arms." 
Tliey have been warmly received because they 
represent the best traditions of a free and 
democratic society — the kind of society which 
the people of Africa, Asia, and Latin America 
long for as the ultimate end of tlieir own 

The Communist system can never offer men 
optimum freedom as human beings. The peo- 
ple of the world's emerging nations know this. 
Their aspirations for a free society are being 
stimulated by the presence of Peace Corps 
Volunteers who have come not to usurp but to 
encourage the responsibility of local people and 
not to repress but to respect tlie individual 
cliaracteristics and traditions of the local cul- 
ture. "Wliat is most remarkable about Amer- 
ica," wrote German scholar, Philip Schaff, "is 
tliat over its confused diversity tliere broods a 
higher unity." Because Volunteers of different 
races and different religions nonetheless come 
from the same country, they represent the hope 
of building a comnnmity of free nations where- 
in each one, conscious of its rights and duties, 
will have regard for the welfare of all. 

Already the Peace Corps idea has spread to 
other nations. Last week I attended the official 
inauguration of TVest Germany's own Peace 
Corps program.^ The first group of 250 young 
men and women will be ready for service next 
year and will eventually include more than a 
tliousand young Germans working around the 
world. Three other European countries — the 
Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway — have 
started similar programs. Argentina and New 
Zealand have already established volunteer or- 

ganizations. These effoits have been stimu- 
lated and assisted by the International Peace 
Corps Secretariat, established by the Interna- 
tional Conference on Middle Level Manpower 
last fall in Puerto Rico.- The bill I am trans- 
mitting would enable the United States to con- 
tinue to encourage this movement. 

The firet American Volmiteers are already 
returning to the United States after two years 
of Peace Corps service. They are bringing 
home important skills and experience which 
will greatly enliance our knowledge of the 
world and strengthen our role in international 
affairs. More than one-third of the 700 Volun- 
teers returning this year have indicated a desire 
to work in international programs. Their 
ability and usefulness is attested to by the ac- 
tion of thirty-five universities in the United 
States wliich have establislied two liundred 
scholarships for returning Volunteers. One of 
these scholarships was created by the donations 
of the foreign students studying in California. 
I am also recommending a provision which 
would authorize the Peace Coq:)s to assist these 
returning Volunteers to make the most of their 
opportunities for further usefulness to the 

The fmids I am requesting will enable the 
Peace Corps to place some 13,000 Volimteers 
in training or abroad by September 1964, a sig- 
nificant increase over the 9,000 who are expected 
to be enrolled before the end of this year. 

Three thousand Volunteers of next year's in- 
crease are destined for service in Latin Amer- 
ica and one thousand in Africa. In both of 
these areas an historic opportunity is at hand 
for the United States. In Latin America, the 
Peace Corps can, within the span of a relatively 
few years, write an important chapter in the 
history of Inter-American partnership and 
kindle faith in the possibilities of democratic 
action on the community level. In Africa the 
Peace Corps will concentrate its efforts on meet- 
ing a critical teacher shortage. The oppor- 
timity to teach hundreds of thousands of Afri- 
can students is unparalleled in our history. 

It is my hope, therefore, that the Congress 
will enact this legislation making it possible 

' For text of President Kennedy's remarks, see Bul- 
letin of July 22, 1963, p. 115. 

° For a report on the conference, see xbiA., Dec. 3, 
1962. p. 853. 

JULY 29, 1963 


for tlie Pcaw Corps to cont inue to sliarc with the 
new nations of the world tlie experience of a 
democratic revolution committed to human 


John F. Kennedy 

Current Actions 


Atomic Energy 

Anicndinpnt, of arliile V1.A.3 of the Statute of the 
luterimtioiial Atomic Energy Agency (TIAS 3873). 
Done at Vienna October 4. llKil. Entered into force 
January 31, 1D«3. TIAS 52,s4. 
Acccplaiur deposited: Italy, July 9, 1SK>3. 


International cofree agreement, 1962, with annexes. 

Oi)en for siKnaiure at United Nations Headquarters, 

New York. Sepn-niber 28 through November 30, 1962. 

Jlatifirnlions deposited: Nigeria, June 21, 1963; 
Swislpn. July 1, 19*53. 

yotifieatiiin given of undertaking to seek ratifica- 
tion: United States (with a declaration), June 
24, 1963. 

Entered into force provisionallu : July 1, 1963. 


Universal coiiyright ronveution. Done at Geneva Sei)- 
tember ti, 19.">2. Entered into force September 16, 
19.W. TIAS 3324. 
Appliralion to: Bahamas, Virgin Islands, April 26, 


Articles of agreement of the International Monetary 
f^ind. Opened for signature at Washington De- 
cember 27, 194.''>. Entered into force December 27, 
194.'). TIAS IMl. 

,Si(inatures and acceptances: Cameroon, Central 
African Republic, Chad. Congo (Brazzaville), Da- 
homey. July 10, 1963. 
Articles of agreement of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development. Opened for sig- 
nature ut Washington Diiember 27. 1!M.".. Entered 
into force December 27, l'.>4.">. TIAS 1502. 
Signatures and acceptances: Cameroon, Central 
African Republic. Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Da- 
homey, July 10, 19<«. 


Declaration of understanding ri'garding the Inter- 
national Convention for the Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries of February .s. l!>4!t (TIAS 2089). Done 
at Washington April 24, I'.Mil. 

Acceptance deposited: Poland, June 5, 19(53. 
Entered into force: June 5, 1963. 
Proclaimed by the President: June 20, 1963. 


International wheat agreement, 1962. Open for sig- 
nature at Washington April 19 through May l.'>, 1962. 
Entered into force July 16, 1962, for part I and parts 
III to VII, and August 1, 1962, for part II. TIAS 

Acceptance deposited: Federal Republic of Germany 
(including Land Berlin), July 12, 1963. 



Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of December 17, 1962 (TIAS 52,59). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at La Paz June 24, 1963. 
Entered into force June 24, 1963. 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 4, 1963, as amended (TIAS 
.5292, 5323). Effected by exchange of notes at la. 
Paz June 24, 1963. Entered into force June 24, 1963. 


Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of February 19, 1962, as amended (TIAS 
4952, 5054, 5118. .5254). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Djakarta June 28, 1963. Entered into force 
June 28, 1963. 


Agreement supplementing the agreement of July 10 and 
September 24, 19.56, as amended (TIAS SOCkJ, 4012), 
so as to provide for additional investment guaran- 
ties authorized by new U.S. legislation. EflVcted by 
exchange of notes at Amman June 25, 1963. Entered 
into force June 25, 19(53. 


Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of November 7, 1962, as amended (TIAS 
5208). Effected by exchange of notes at Seoul July 
5, 1963. Entered into force July 5, 1963. 

New Zealand 

Agreement extending the supplementary air transport 
services agreement of December 30. 1960, as extended 
(TIAS 4645 4789. .5085). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Washington June 28, 1963. Entered into 
force June 28, 1963. 


Agreement amending the reciprocal trade agreement 
of 1946 as amended (TIAS 1601. .5000) and with- 
drawing agreement to terminate (TIAS .5.322). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Asunci6n June 26, 
iota. Entered into force June 26, 1963. 


Agreement amending and extending the agreement of 
March 11 and IS. 1960 (TIAS 4463). for the estab- 
lishment and operation of a tracking and communi- 
cations facility on the Island of Gran Canaria. Ef- 
fected l>y exchange of notes at Madrid, .huie 27 and 
28, 19(5;>. Entered into force July 1, 1963. 

United Arab Republic 

Agreement relating to investment guaranties. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Cairo June 29, 1963. En- 
tered into force June 29, 1963. 




International Trade and Economic Development 

A United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the first in the 
history of the U.N., is scheduled to ie held in the spring of lOGlt.. Its pur- 
pose is to examine ways in tuhich international trade can he made a more 
effective instrument in promoting the development of the less developed 
countries. All members of the United Nations and its specialized agencies 
are expected to attend. 

To prepare the groundwork for the Conference, a Preparatory Committee 
has ieen established consisting of 32 countries, including most of the major 
trading nations of the world. At the second of the three scheduled sessions 
of the Preparatory Committee, which was held at Geneva, Switzerland, 
May 21-June 29, a preliminary exploration was conducted of the various 
subjects included on the agenda for the Conference. 

Following is the text of a statement made on May 27 by Isaiah Frank, 
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs and chairman of the U.S. 

We had intended to avoid any general tour 
d'horizon. The United States has not, how- 
ever, submitted a written statement, and some 
preliminary expression of our views on this 
meeting of the Preparatory Committee and on 
the Conference itself would be in order. 

We come here with a closed mind in one im- 
portant respect; we do not want these meetings 
to be an empty propaganda show. It is no 
secret that the United States was reluctant ini- 
tially to hold the Conference. We consented 
only after we felt that the propaganda aspects 
had been downgraded in favor of the practical 
aspects. I am happy to say that our second 
session is off to a businesslike start. 

In all other respects we come with an open 
mind. We are ready to examine all proposals 
that aim to promote the trade and development 
of the developing countries. We hope to make 
some suggestions ourselves. We have read with 

interest and appreciation the written submis- 
sions already made and are prepared to discuss 
seriously the proposals that are serious. We 
are willing to reexamine all assumptions on 
which the present international trade rules and 
the existing organizations are based. We shall 
not reject any serious proposal out of hand. 

For the first time we are considering in a re- 
lated whole all aspects of trade as a means to 
development of developing countries. Our 
draft agenda for the Conference might be im- 
proved stylistically at points, but it has the 
great virtue of being comprehensive, because it 
does include all the major trade problems of the 
developing covmtries. It is not my intention to 
reopen the wording of the agenda, nor would 
I favor rediscussing points resolved at our first 

I do not mean to imply that all-inclusiveness 
is necessarily good. It may well be that talk- 

JTJLY 29, 1963 


inp about everj-thing means dealing seriously 
with nothing. Tliis is a danger, and I think we 
all recognize it. We must at some stage be 
selective if we are to be constructive. 

"We are deliglited to see the focus on trade. 
Tliore is a financing item on our agenda, and I 
realize it is an important subject. But external 
finance is a residual item, tlie gap filler, as the 
written presentation of the United Arab Repub- 
lic put it. The normal, the desirable, way to 
finance imports is through exports, through 
trade. Wo are dealing with interrelated prob- 
lems, but I think we all agree that trade is the 
key element. 

Internal and External Aspects of Development 

iVvelopnicnt is not a simple process. Of all 
human plienomena with which we must deal, 
the problems of development are perhaps the 
most complex. They affect every phase of the 
economic, political, social, and psychological 
life of countries. The problems are neither en- 
tirely external to a developing country's own 
actions, nor are they entirely internal. 

I think this point is important. Jlost of us 
find it easier to look outside ourselves for the 
root of problems. We of the developed coun- 
tries are inclined at times to argue that the 
reason the developing countries are not pro- 
gressing more rapidly is that their own domes- 
tic houses are not in order. By contrast, 
developing countries sometimes stress the ex- 
ternal barriers which exist in tlie developed 

I think all of us realize that there is truth on 
both sides. The distinguished representative 
from Pakistan noted here last week that in the 
final analysis the growth of the developing 
countries depends on their own efforts. We 
all recognize the vital role plaj-ed in this process 
by .stable governments, honest and efficient ad- 
ministration, enlightened fiscal and monetary 
policies which among other things discourage 
capital flight, and the direction of resources to 
export industries with buoyant rather than 
sluggish ninrket.s. I noted at the first session of 
the Trejiaratory Committee that the removal of 
the church gat© will not bring people into 
church. The removal of trade impediments 
may or may not bring trade to the developing 

countries. Attention must be paid to internal 
policies, for these policies are fundamental 
determinants of growth. 

But having said this, I also agree that we must 
give close attention to the impediments to 
growth which are beyond the control of the de- 
veloping countries. The falling price of a key 
commodity, an import restriction against a de- 
veloping country's product, an internal tax 
which impedes consumption of a tropical com- 
modity (whether in free-market or centrally 
planned economies) , a lack of foreign exchange 
to finance necessary imports — all these things 
can negate the most perfect of internal policies. 

The two elements — the internal and the ex- 
ternal measures supporting growth — are linked. 
It would be meaningless to assign priorities as 
between them. Let's not deal with the internal 
and external problems as adversaries. Instead, 
let us examine both together. A change in the 
structure of international trade, which is what 
we seek to achieve, requires changes in internal 
production patterns of developed and develop- 
ing countries. The external changes are inex- 
tricably linked with the internal policies. 

I am not stating anything original. The Eco- 
nomic Commission for Latin America, which 
imtil recently was headed by our distinguished 
Secretary General [Eaiil Prebisch], has done 
brilliant work in relating these two aspects of 
development. In the recent paper of the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Latin America entitled 
"Towards a Dynamic Development Policy for 
Latin America," ' there is a profound discussion 
of the necessary domestic actions required for 
development, the internal bottlenecks which 
must be removed, and the cooperation required 
internally and externally. It is the necessity 
for this combination of actions whicli I also 
want to stress. 

The Practical Approach 

Finally, before dealing with the more im- 
portant agenda items, I would like to endorse 
a comment made by our distinguished Yugo- 
slavian colleague, namely, that we are here to 
be pragmatic. Our aim is to make progress. 

' U.N. doc. E/CN.12/680. 



This practical approach is important. Indeed, 
it is crucial. 

I do not see much merit in passing additional 
resolutions which cannot be followed up by con- 
crete actions. As one of my distinguished 
Latin American colleagues said to me, we have 
enough resolution-passing organizations al- 
ready. ^Ye do not need any more. I see little 
sense in seeking to reach agreement on a set of 
principles which will be universally acceptable 
only when so watered down as to be meaning- 
less in terms of operational guidance. 

If my purpose were to sabotage this Con- 
ference, I would propose the immediate estab- 
lishment of a body to reach an agreed set of 
principles as the first order of business before 
proceeding further with the concrete work of 
our Conference. This could then consume some 
5 to 10 years of meaningless haggling. "We al- 
ready have an illustration of this fact with 
which all of us are familiar in the prolonged 
and still-continuing attempt in the United Na- 
tions to agree on words with respect to a dec- 
laration on international economic cooperation. 

However, there may be a time at the end of 
our deliberations when we shall be able to give 
expression to action-directed principles that 
are more than mere words. 

In the same way that new resolutions or new 
sets of universally agreed principles do not of 
themselves solve real world problems, neither 
do new organizations. Organizations are not 
independent, living entities. They are govern- 
ments acting in concert. Wlien a government 
says no in one organization, it will not say yes 
elsewhere only because the label of the orga- 
nization is changed. 

Once again, however, this is not to say that 
the present organizational structure is perfect 
and unalterable. The United States is much 
too young, much too dynamic, a society to place 
much stock in the status quo only because it is 
what we have. Let us examine our organiza- 
tional structure pragmatically, and let us then 
suggest useful changes in a practical and pur- 
poseful way. 

Wlien I say that purposeful changes should 
be suggested, I have in mind that much of what 
we now have is in fact good. Many of the ac- 
tions in process elsewhere are, indeed, soundly 

conceived and need to be supported and 
strengthened. We are not starting de novo to 
look at all the problems of trade and develop- 
ment. We do not want to preserve the past 
for its own sake, but we do want to use it as 
prolog. We see no sense in repeating what we 
are already doing in other organizations. 

I should like now to express some preliminary 
views on the problems we must deal with. 

Commodity Trade 

A major aim of the majority of developing 
countries attending the Conference will be to 
have something done to assure growing mar- 
kets and improved and stable prices for their 
exports of primary products. My Government 
fully supports this objective. 

Commodity problems and the possible ways 
of dealing with them have been extensively ex- 
plored in recent years within the U.N. frame- 
work and elsewhere. Tlie ground is well pre- 
pared for our work. We can start from an ad- 
vanced position. We know a lot about the prob- 
lems and a lot about how to deal with them. 
We have taken a number of valuable initiatives 
in the recent past. 

Up-to-date reviews of trends in commodity 
trade make it clear that longer term difficulties 
are superimposed on the problem of short-term 
instability in commodity markets. The longer 
term problem is the secular decline in many 
commodity prices reflecting in many cases a 
sluggish rate of growth in world demand. We 
are not as far along in knowing how to deal 
with the longer term problem as we are with 
short-term market instability. 

It is now generally agreed that there can be 
no single device for dealing with this range of 
problems. We must utilize a number of tools 
in a concerted attack upon them. 

First among these tools are various forms of 
joint action on the problems of particular com- 
modities, ranging from formal commodity 
agreements to study gi'oups and other consulta- 
tive arrangements. Commodity agreements 
may be not only valuable but essential for cer- 
tain commodities, coiJee being the prime ex- 
ample of the current period. They may be im- 
practical or imdesirable in other cases. More- 
over, the signing of a commodity agreement in 

JULY 29, 1963 


itself does not solve the problem. This fact is 
well illustrated by some of our current problem 
situations, with colfoe again a case in point. 
Unless steps are taken to correct the underlying 
imbalance of supply and demand, tlirough ef- 
forts to expand consumption and shift produc- 
tive resources into other fields, the commodity 
agreement will break down. It is only a means 
of buying time while the necessary balance is 
restored between production and stocks, on the 
one hand, and effective demand on the other. 
Among the problems involved in working out 
agreements for commodities in longrun over- 
supply, or in making such agreements work, 

First, the initiation by exporting countries 
of the internal measures needed to discourage 
excess production and to enforce the production 
controls or export quotas required by the agree- 
ment ; 

Second, the provision of adequate returns to 
producing countries but not through price poli- 
cies that cause eventual loss of markets and rev- 
enues to substitute products; 

Third, the provision of fair opportunities for 
nations that are low-cost producers to increase 
their export quotas, or for efficient new produc- 
ers to enter the field ; 

Fourth, the segregation by an export tax or 
by other appropriate means of such revenues 
as are needed to help shift resources away from 
production of tlie surplus commodity into other, 
more promising lines. 

Other basic tools can supplement joint action 
in individual commodity situations. They in- 
clude the general drive to expand demand for 
commodities through research and promotion, 
efforts to reduce tariff and nontariff barriers to 
primary commodity exports, diversification 
in developing countries, and compensatory 

We shall be able to consider this last device 
in the light of the extensive studies of possible 
new comiM>n.satory financing facilities which 
the nCT fCommis-sion on International Com- 
mmlify Trade] has just concluded, and taking 
into account the recent establishment by the 
IMF [International MonetaPk- Fund] of a new 
facility to offset short-term fluctuations in ex- 
port earnings. Tlie United States is one of 

those governments which have seen a need for 
enlarging the existing resources available for 
this purpose. We welcome the Fund's action 
and share the view expressed by the CICT re- 
port that it represents a substantial step for- 
ward. The fact that the new facility could be 
created without delay and without the need for 
a new organization or new financial contribu- 
tions is of particular importance. We will be 
prepared to reexamine the situation, if it is 
found that the Fund cannot satisfactorily han- 
dle the problem. We, for our part, believe that 
the IMF facility will in fact prove valuable. 
And, as a member of the Fund, we sliall do our 
part in insuring that it will be liberally and 
sympathetically administered. 

Manufactures and Semimanufactures 

Some gliosis must be laid to rest. 

First, there is the ghost that we, the de- 
veloped countries, want our developing-coimtry 
colleagues to remain hewers of wood and draw- 
ers of water, that we want to prevent them 
from increasing their production and export of 
manufactured goods. 

"\\niat we really want, of course, is the reverse. 
Our interest is to see more prosperous countries, 
not only for their sake but because we also want 
good customers and growing markets. We 
know that trade grows fastest among coimtries 
with diversified and growing economies. 

Indeed, the United States recognizes that for 
most, if not all, developing countries a major 
expansion of export earnings must take place in 
tlie semimanufactures and manufactures sec- 
tors if economic development is to take place. 
The second ghost is that of reciprocity be- 
tween less and more developed countries in trade 
negotiations. This one was laid to rest in prac- 
tice more than a decade ago. It was explicitly 
put to its final rest, or so we thought, at the 
time of the ministerial meeting of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1961. when 
it was formally agreed in the Declaration on 
Promotion of the Trade of Less-Developed 
Countries = that full reciprocity would not be 
sought from developing countries. For some 
reason, this ghost keeps coming alive. 
The GATT ministers put it to rest again just 

' For text, see BuiiEriN of Jan. 1, 1962, p. 9. 



last week. Their report ^ states : ". . . tluit in 
the trade negotiations every effort shall be made 
to reduce barriers to exports of the less- 
developed countries, but that the developed 
countries cannot expect to receive reciprocity 
from the less-developed countries." 

A third ghost is the idea that, whenever de- 
veloping countries build an export capacity in 
manufactured goods, the developed countries 
deny them markets. Cotton textiles are cited as 
evidence. In fact, this is the only case typically 
cited. In this unique case, a cooperative effort 
is being made to bi-ing about an orderly expan- 
sion of markets in the developed countries — in 
some cases to build markets where there were 
only negligible sales before. It is being done in 
a pragmatic fashion, taking into account the 
complex social, economic, and domestic polit- 
ical problems involved. The aim of the cotton 
textile agreement is not curtailment of markets 
but their expansion. 

The real problem of expanding exports in the 
general field of manufactures and semimanufac- 
tures is not the restriction of markets but the 
fact that for many coimtries markets have not 
as yet even been built. This is where we should 
put our focus. 

Having spoken of ghosts, let's move to the 
real-life heart of the matter. As I stated, this 
is the establishment and expansion of markets. 
It requires such positive steps by developing 
countries as market research and export pro- 
motion. It involves appropriate financial poli- 
cies in the developing countries such as the 
avoidance of overvalued exchange rates, and 
it requires the reduction and removal of bar- 
riers in the developed countries. 

Activity in this field is intense. Committee 
III of the GATT has not solved all the prob- 
lems, but it certainly has made substantial prog- 
ress. The ministers of GATT countries last 
week agreed to reexamine the provisions of the 
General Agreement to see what modifications 
are desirable in the interest of promoting the 
export earnings of developing countries. In 
fact, the decisions taken by the ministers at the 
GATT meeting last week represent substantial 
benefits to the developing countries without any 
suggestion of new obligations on their part. 

' For text, see ibid.. June 24, 1963, p. 995. 

Regional Groupings 

The United States is not a member of any 
regional economic grouping and can therefore 
speak objectively. It is well known that we 
support the European Economic Community. 
We also favor the gradual elimination of pref- 
erences given by the EEC to its associated over- 
seas states. However, we recognize that the 
preferences cannot be removed suddenly and 
without some compensatory benefits lest the as- 
sociated countries suffer severe damage. 

We support the formation of regional group- 
ings among less developed countries. 

In our view, all regional groupings should be 
subject to international examination to assess 
their trade effects on nonmember countries. 

The Economic Commission for Latin Ameri- 
ca, under Dr. Prebisch's guidance, helped to 
launch the Central American Common Market 
and the Latin American Free Trade Associa- 
tion. The United States supported the former 
from its earliest days and is a contributor to its 
regional development bank. Through the Al- 
liance for Progress we have tried to assist in 
the development of the Latin American Free 
Trade Association. 

We believe the Preparatory Committee and 
the Conference should devote study to ways and 
means of promoting greater regional integra- 
tion among developing countries in order to 
foster industries capable of taking advantage 
of economies of scale and therefore better able 
to compete effectively in export markets. 

Financing of Trade 

All foreign currency loans and grants help 
to finance trade. We agree, therefore, that it 
is not possible to separate trade and finance. As 
in other fields, however, we are not starting 
anew to examine problems. 

I shall not at this stage attempt to cite all 
the relevant aspects of this agenda item. How- 
ever, I do wish to note very briefly what the 
United States policy and actions are with re- 
spect to this subject. 

Many government submissions made to the 
committee refer to the need for loans on soft 
terms. The key development lending body of 
the United States is the Agency for Interna- 
tional Development. Its loans are for as much 

JUI^T 29, 1963 


as 40 years witli a 10-year prace period heiore 
starling repayment, with only a three-quarters 
of 1 percent per annum rredit charge. From 
1940 to the end of 100-2. United States economic 
aid to developing countries has been about $32 
billion, of which some $20 billion has been in 
grants. Since 1958 economic aid to the develop- 
ing countries has been $10 billion, half of which 
has l>een in grants and half in loans. 

So far as technical assistance is concerned, 
all of us i-emeniber the famous Point 4 state- 
ment of President Tniman which launched the 
modem era of technical as.'^istance. In more 
recent years our Peace Corps has been the 
epitome of technical assistance on the part of 
stanch volunteers dedicated to the cause of the 
advancement of the developing countries. 

There is general recognition today interna- 
tionally of tiie need for soft terms for develop- 
ment loans. In addition to bilateral assistance, 
the United States is the major contributor to 
the multilateral aid organizations and has 
played an important role in the progressive 
softening of aid terms granted by international 

I am citing the record in brief in order simply 
to indicate our recognition of some of the points 
ahont financing made by other delegations. 

Trade With Centrally Planned Economies 

All of tlie industrialized countries, whether 
they have free or centrally controlled econo- 
mies, have useful roles to play in advancing 
growth in the devclo])ing countries. Because 
of the far superior strength of the free econo- 
mies, they will continue to be far more promi- 
nent than the centrally controlled economies in 
trade with the developing countries. 

I shall e.\plain in greater detail later in our 
session what we think are the problems inherent 
in the bilateral arrangements with the state- 
trading organizations of the Communist coun- 
tries. For the present I want only to suggest 
that we must examine in detail the reasons for 
the extremely .small role which trade with the 
centrally planned economies plays in the eco- 
nomic development of the developing countries. 
Wo must deal with the barriers to expanding 
the trade of the developing countries with the 
cont rally planned economies with the same de- 

gree of realism we propose to employ in dis- 
cussing other trade problems. 

Mr. Chairman, my conclusion is brief. We 
liave come here to work toward the accomplish- 
ment of concrete results in fostering the trade 
and development of the developing countries. 
We look forward to examining all issues rele- 
vant to this problem. 

U.N. General Assembly Adopts 
Seven Resolutions on Financing 

The fourth special session of the U.N. General 
Asserribly met at New York May U-June 27 to 
consider the financial situation of the organiza- 
tion. Following are statements made in Com- 
mittee V {Administrative and Budgetary) by 
UJS. Representatives Francis T. P. Plimpton 
and Adlai E. Stevenson, together with texts of 
seven resolutions adopted in plenary session on 
Jwne 27. 


U.S. delegation press release 4210 

Mr. Chairman, in commencing tliis reply to 
the statement made by the Soviet representative 
this morning, I should like, first, to quote what 
Secretar3'-General U Thant said to this com- 
mittee last December 3 : 

I believe that the financial problem of the organi- 
zation, which in substance is the question now before 
this committee, is a vital one. A financially bankrupt 
United Nations would be an ineffective United Nations 
if, indeed, it could survive on such a basis. The finan- 
cial issue is thus one which, if I may say so, transcends 
political controversy. In their various ways I believe 
nil states represented in the United Nations have 
found that the organization is useful and. indeed, In- 
dispensable in the modern world. It is on this basis 
that I trust that the committee will deal with this 

I am sorry to say, Mr. Chairman, that the 
Soviet representative has chosen not to deal 
with the item on that basis, on the basis hoped 
for by the Secretary-General, but, instead, has 
chosen to indulge in the very political contro- 
versy, the very cold-war aggression which the 
Secretary-General hoped could be transcended. 



Mr. Chairman, the words "threats" and 
"blackmail" -were mentioned. I leave to this 
committee the determination as to who has made 

I regret, Mr. Chairman, that the Soviet rep- 
resentative made the choice that he made in 
dealing with this item. I will not imitate him. 

In defense of the Soviet bloc's refusal to pay 
its just assessments for the United Nations 
peacekeeping operations, a refusal which is 
pushing the United Nations toward bankruptcy, 
the representative of the Soviet Union repeated 
exactly the same arguments as to the United 
Nations Charter that the Soviet Union unsuc- 
cessfully made before the International Court, 
of Justice last summer,^ and made again before 
this committee and the General Assembly last 
fall,^ and made again before the Working 
Group last winter.^ Mr. Chairman, they are 
arguments that were completely disposed of by 
the Court's Advisory Opinion of July 20, 1962, 
completely disposed of by the General Assem- 
bly's acceptance of that opinion by the over- 
whelming vote of 76 to 17, with 8 abstentions. 

Mr. Chairman, that opinion and that accept- 
ance by the General Assembly conclusively es- 
tablished that the costs of the United Nations 
Emergency Force (UNEF) in the Gaza Strip 
and of the United Nations Operation in the 
Congo (ONUC) assessed by the General Assem- 
bly against member states are "expenses of the 
Organization" within the meaning of article 17 
of the charter and thus are legally binding ob- 
ligations of the members and are, of course, 
covered by article 19. 

Mr. Chairman, no repetition of thrice-re- 
jected, shopworn arginnents can conceal the fact 
that the Soviet bloc is repudiating its clearly 
established charter obligations and by so doing 
is doing its worst to drive the United Nations 
toward bankruptcy. 

Mr. Chairman, although I have no intention 
of discussing Soviet arguments that have long 
since been disposed of by the Court opinion and 
its acceptance by the General Assembly, I can- 

' For background, see Bulletin of July 2, 1962, p. 30, 
and Aug. 13, 1962, p. 246. 

' For background, see ibid., Jan. 7, 1963, p. 30. 

' For background, see ihid., Mar. 25, 1963, p. 443 ; for 
the report of the Working Group (or Committee of 21), 
see U.N. doc. A/5407 and Corr. 1. 

not help but point out one thing to the 106 
members of the United Nations who are not per- 
manent members of the Security Council. De- 
spite the fact that article 17, paragraph 2, of the 
charter provides "the expenses of the Organiza- 
tion shall be borne by the Members as appor- 
tioned by the General Assembly," in spite of 
that clear language the Soviet Union would 
have peacekeeping expenses apportioned, if you 
please, by the Security Council. Wliat a result, 
Mr. Chairman ! The 11 members of the Secu- 
rity Council determining how the other 100 
members of the United Nations shall pay for a 
peacekeeping operation as to which, according 
to the Soviet Union, they have no say whatso- 
ever. Fortunately, Mr. Chairman, for those 100 
members, such a result is not only on its face 
contrary to the express wording of the charter ; 
it has been authoritatively and conclusively re- 
jected by the Court and the General Assembly. 

Mr. Chairman, I see no need to comment in 
detail on the stale accusations of the Soviet 
representative concerning the United Nations 
operations in the Congo. It was the Security 
Council itself, with the Soviets voting yes, and 
the General Assembly itself that authorized and 
repeatedly reaffirmed the principles and proce- 
dures in accordance with which the ONUC 
operation has been carried out.'' The two Secre- 
tai-y-Generals of the United Nations who were 
charged with the direction of their operation by 
the Security Council were careful and have been 
careful to consult the Congo Advisory Commit- 
tee on the major issues arising in the Congo. 
The Government of the Congo itself has re- 
peatedly expressed its strong desire to have the 
U.N. operations continue. And in a recent let- 
ter to the Secretary-General it refuted the So- 
v\et contentions about the operation and spe- 
cifically rejected the Soviet demand that the 
United Nations forever get out of the Congo. 

Thus, Mr. Chairman, while the Soviet repre- 
sentative pretends to be attacking so-called co- 
lonialists and so-called foreign monopolies, in 
actual fact he has been attacking the Security 
Council and the General Assembly, wliich au- 
thorized the United Nations actions in the 

' For background, see Bulletin of Aug. 1, 1960, p. 
159 ; Aug. 8, 1960, p. 221 ; Sept 5, 1960, p. 384 ; Oct. 10, 
1960. p. 583. 

JULY 29, 1963 


Congo, imd is attacking the Congo Advisory 
Committee, which sleadily has reviewed and 
guided tiie United Nations action in the Congo, 
and is attacking the Congo Government itself, 
whose urgent and repeated requests have led to 
the United Nations Operation in the Congo. 

Mr. Chairman, it is hardly necessary to re- 
mind this committee that the Soviet Union has 
never made the slightest contribution to the 
United Nations peacekeeping operation and re- 
lated economic and technical assistance aid proj- 
ects for the beneht of the Congolese people. On 
the contrary, the Soviet Union has limited its 
efforts to trying to sabotage the United Nations 
Operation in the Congo simply because it could 
not control the operation for its own imperial- 
istic purposes. 

Mr. Chairman, no Soviet smokescreen of 
slanted and slanderous misrepresentation as to 
the effort of the United Nations to achieve 
peace and stability in the Congo can conceal 
the fact that that operation is succeeding, or the 
fart that the Soviet Union has consistently op- 
posed it, or that the United States has whole- 
heartedly supported that operation from the 
very beginning. 

Mr. Chairman, I hope that you will let me 
remind the committee that the United States 
has contributed by way of assessments and vol- 
untary payments $114 million to the ONUC 
operation and that the Soviet Union has not 
only contributed nothing but that it is $32 mil- 
lion in arrears in the assessments that have been 
lawfully imposed on it. 

Mr. Chairman, in the Congo, apart from 
these military operations, the United States has 
contributed or pledged $31 million to the Congo 
Fund. The Soviet Union has contributed not 
one kopek. 

Through the United Nations, Mr. Chairman, 
the Ignited States has contributed another $70 
million for the Congo import-export program. 
The Soviet Union has contributed not one 

Mr. Chairman, the United States has contrib- 
uted in food under the Food-for- Peace Program 
in arrangement with the United Nations $40 
million for the Congo. The Soviet Union has 
contributed not one kopek. 

Mr. Chairman, the Soviet Union says — as do 

all other members and they mean it — that it is 
a peace-loving country. Does it desire peace 
in the Middle East ? The United Nations Emer- 
gency Force established by the members of the 
General Assembly has helped to keep that peace, 
but the Soviet Union continues to say that that 
peacekeeping operation is illegal and should be 
withdrawn. And they have said that they will 
not pay for any part of it. This makes one ask 
this question, Mr. Chairman : What does the 
Soviet Union really want in the Middle East? 
And why does it oppose a United Nations op- 
eration which has succeeded in keeping the 
peace in the Middle East? 

Mr. Chairman, the United States is proud of 
the fact that its policies and the policies of 
the United Nations coincide. The United 
States wants a world of independent, sovereign 
states free to work out their destinies in their 
own ways, free from domination by outside 
powers or outside totalitarian parties. The 
United States wants developing states to be 
given all possible assistance in their task of 
developing their own resources, their own skills, 
and their own talents. So does the United 
Nations. I heard with astonishment our 
Soviet colleague say that the Soviet Union was 
going to refuse to share in the technical assist- 
ance projects of the United Nations which aim 
for exactly those aims and which the United 
States fully supports. 

Mr. Chairman, I repeat our pride that the 
aims of the United States and the aims of the 
United Nations are the same, and our determina- 
tion that despite obstructionisms our joint aims 
shall be realized, and despite Soviet attempts to 
bankrupt this organization. Mr. Chairman, 
the United States delegation is confident that 
all members of this organization who share 
those aims will stand fast in their determination 
that this organization shall not be bankrupt 
and shall survive. 

[In a further intervention, Ambassador Plimpton 

Mr. Chairman, I simply want to say that my 
Soviet colleague is unduly complimentary as to 
the difficulty of preparing in advance, at least, 
some replies to Soviet contentions. "Wlien one 
has heard the somewhat cracked phonograph 
record played so many times, despite the fact 



that the International Court of Justice and the 
General Assembly have rejected the tune, one 
has no difficulty in remembering the same old 

I might just add, Mr. Chairman, that I cer- 
tainly hope that the remainder of our discus- 
sions in this room and the remainder of the in- 
formal conferences, which, I hope, will lead to 
some solution of tlie financial difficulties of this 
organization, will be held on the basis suggested 
by the Secretary-General. Surely all of us are 
interested in this organization, in its survival. 
And the United States delegation earnestly 
hopes that from now on we sliall conduct our- 
selves in a way that will lead to solutions and 
not against solutions. 


U.S. delegation press release 4224 

Wliat I shall have to say this morning will not 
take very long. 

The time for contention and debate — for nego- 
tiation and maneuver — on the subject at hand 
is now behind us. Heaven knows that time was 
long enough ! 

But we meet today in an atmosphere of gen- 
eral relief, in a mood of sober confidence. We 
meet in an environment of renewed faith in the 
capacity of men of good will to resolve their 
common problems — faith in the responsibility 
of the vast majority of the membership of this 
body and thus in the future of this organiza- 
tion. More specifically, we can see ahead of us 
a way back toward financial health for the 
United Nations — a trip that may not be entirely 
smooth but one for which we at least now have 
a road map. 

Let me contrast this atmosphere briefly with 
the almost desperate outlook of 1 year ago, when 
financial disorder threatened to give way to 
financial chaos. 

Let me contrast this with the general feeling 
of pessimism which prevailed — without war- 
rant, I always believed — when the Committee of 
21 concluded its work a few months ago. 

And let me contrast the mood of today with 
that of the early meetings of this committee, 
when bitter and unfounded charges were made 

against my country, charges which I will 

For more than a month now you have been 
going through the most exacting and most re- 
warding task of civilized man — the task of rec- 
onciling different points of view, of accommo- 
dating national positions, of producing a con- 
sensus. In the process we have all endured 
disappointment and frustration. There were 
times when the last drop of patience seemed to 
have drained away and the last drop of energy 
seemed to be expended. 

But the members have been aware that much 
more was at stake than a fundraising formula. 
They have been conscious that political and 
constitutional issues underlay and outweighed 
the financial issue. They have been mindfuJ of 
the integrity of the organization itself, and of 
the responsibility of the members for defend- 
ing and preserving that integrity. 

The result is that we have before us a group 
of resolutions which are not in the exact form 
in which they would have been written by any 
delegation here today. But the impressive list 
of sponsors is evidence enough of the broad 
consensus that has emerged from this long 
process. And it also is evidence of the large 
number of delegations which have worked so 
hard to find the key to a statesmanlike solution. 
For this they deserve the gratitude of us all. 

Mr. Chairman, my delegation does not look 
upon the package of resolutions before us as 
ideal in all respects. For one thing, the refer- 
ence to "special responsibilities of the perma- 
nent members of the Security Council for the 
maintenance of peace and security," which ap- 
pears as the fourth principle in the draft reso- 
lution on general principles, strikes us as a 
misreading of the charter. The special respon- 
sibility for decisions about peace and security 
on behalf of the whole organization was allo- 
cated, under the charter, not to the 5 permanent 
members but to all 11 members of the Security 
Council. Moreover, the charter does not assign 
responsibility for financing peace and security 
decisions, or for financing any other kind of 
decision, to the members of the Security Coimcil 
but to the General Assembly as a whole. 

Also, while any of the permanent members 
can block Security Council action, they do not 

JULY 29, 1963 


themselves, without the votes of nonpermanent 
members, liave tlie power to initiate action. 
Furtliermorc, any such principle would hardl}' 
bo applicable to a peacekeeping operation such 
as I'XEF, initiated by a recommendation of 
the General Assembly. 

It is tJie General Assembly — and not the Se- 
curity Council — to which the charter gives the 
responsibility for financing the U.N.'s activi- 
ties. I cannot believe that any delegation, 
witli a few obvious exceptions, believes that the 
trend toward tlie assumption of useful respon- 
sibilities by the Assembly should now be termi- 
nated and the right to finance peacekeeping 
operations resented for settlement in some small 
room by a few great powers. 

We also feel that the next principle, in para- 
graph (e), which refers to the possibility of 
special consideration for the nctims of or those 
otherwise involved in events or actions leading 
to a peacekeeping operation, may raise serious 
practical problems when we come to deal with 
the unpredictable events of the future. Never- 
theless, the collective responsibility of all mem- 
l)ers is rcaflirmed with pristine clarity as the 
first principle; and the ix)ssibility of special 
consideration for members covered by (e) is 
ajipropriately related to the special circum- 
stances of each case, so that we will be free to 
deal realistically with each issue, as it arises, 
in the larger interest of peace itself. 

At the same time we are well aware that the 
resolutions before us are not just the way any 
of the delegations would have preferred to see 
them; that accommodations to other views have 
been made by many of the members; that some 
have agreed to bear a greater share of the fi- 
nancial cost than they intended to a few weeks 
ago; and that the net result is a true consensus 
of the overwhelming majority reached by the 
democratic process of give and take. 

The facts are that these draft resolutions 
among them establisli a useful set of agi-eed gen- 
eral principles to guide us in the future; they 
provide an equital)le basis for financing the 
T"'nited Nations peacekeeping operations in tlie 
Midfile F^ast and the Congo for the rest of this 
year; they establish a deadline for working out 
schedules for the payment of arrearages; and 
they extend to tlie end of the year the authority 

of the Secretary-General to sell the remaining 
part of the authorized bond issue. 

In brief, they accomplish somewhat more 
than the minimum task we set ourselves: to 
resolve the immediate problem of financial 
support for keeping the peace in tlie Middle 
East and the Congo. 

As evidence of our support, Mr. Chairman, 
the United States is prepared, subject to its 
governmental processes, to join other developed 
countries in making a voluntary contribution, 
in addition to its assessment, to help provide 
the funds required under the financing resolu- 
tions. It is gratifying to us that this year a 
number of other developed countries have also 
indicated their willingness to make such volun- 
tary contributions. This is additional evidence 
of the general will to restore this organization 
to financial health. 

Mr. Chairman, these resolutions testify to 
the luiderlying agreement of the great majority 
of the membersliip that the major and smaller 
powers share a common interest in the peace 
and security of the world — and share a common 
interest in strengthening the United Nations 
for collective pursuit of that interest. 

It may well be, Mr. Chairman, that greater 
tests still lie ahead. But we can all take legiti- 
mate satisfaction from the fact that the world 
has once again met a severe test of its confidence 
in this great experiment in collective security — 
and the United Nations has emerged stronger 
than before. 

With that sense of satisfaction, with renewed 
faith and pride in the organization, the delega- 
tion of the United States will vote in favor of 
the five resolutions before us.' 


Resolution i ' 


The General Assembly, 

Koting with appreciation the report of the Working 


•U.N. docs. A/C. 5/L. 782-786; A/C. 5/L. 787 and 
L. 788 were introduced on June 24. 

•U.N. doc. A/RES/1874(S-IV) (A/C.5/L. 782); 
adopted by a vote of 92-11, with 3 abstentions. 


Group on the Examination of the Administrative and 
Budgetary Procedures of the United Nations, submitted 
pursuant to General Assembly resolution 1854 B 
(XVII) of 19 December 1962, 

Recognizing the necessity of sharing equitably the 
financial burden of peace-keeping operations to the 
extent not otherwise covered by agreed arrangements, 

1. Affirms that the following principles, inter alia, 
shall serve as guidelines for the equitable sharing, by 
assessed or voluntary contributions or a combination 
thereof, of the costs of peace-keeping operations 
involving heavy expenditures that may be initiated in 
the future : 

( a ) That the financing of such operations is the col- 
lective responsibility of all Member States of the 
United Nations ; 

(b) That, whereas the economically more developed 
countries are in a position to make relatively larger 
contributions, the economically less developed countries 
have a relatively limited capacity to contribute toward 
peace-keeping operations involving heavy expenditures ; 

(c) That, without prejudice to the principle of col- 
lective responsibility, every effort should be made to 
encourage voluntary contributions from Member 
States ; 

(d) That the special responsibilities of the perma- 
nent members of the Security Council for the main- 
tenance of peace and security should be borne in mind 
in connexion with their contributions to the financing 
of peace and security operations ; 

(e) That, where circumstances warrant, the Gen- 
eral Assembly should give special consideration to the 
situation of any Member States which are victims of, 
and those which are otherwise involved in, the events 
or actions leading to a peace-keeping operation ; 

2. Considers that suitable administrative procedures 
should be established to ensure that provision for the 
financing of a peace-keeping operation is made by the 
General Assembly at the time the operation is au- 
thorized ; 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to review in con- 
sultation with the Advisory Committee on Administra- 
tive and Budgetary Questions, as appropriate, suitable 
administrative procedures designed to improve the fi- 
nancial procedures to be followed by the General As- 
sembly at the time peace-keeping operations are au- 
thorized, and to report to the General Assembly at its 
eighteenth session on the results of this review and 
any recommendations he may wish to make regarding 
procedures to be followed in the future. 

Resolution II ' 

United Nations Emergency Force : Cost estimates 

BER 1963 

The General Assembly, 

Recalling its resolutions 1089 (XI) of 21 December 

1956, 1090 (XI) of 27 February 1957, 1151 (XII) of 
22 November 1957, 1337 (XIII) of 13 December 1958, 
1441 (XIV) of 5 December 1959, 1575 (XV) of 20 
December 1960 and 1733 (XVI) of 20 December 1961, 
Having considered the report of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral on the cost estimates of the United Nations Emer- 
gency Force (UNEF)* for the period 1 January 1963 
to 31 December 1963, and the report of the Advisory 
Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Ques- 
tions ° thereon, 

1. Decides to continue the Special Account for the 
expenses of the United Nations Emergency Force; 

2. Authorises the Secretary-General to expend up to 
31 December 1963 at an average monthly rate not to 
exceed $1,580,000 for the continuing cost of the United 
Nations Emergency Force ; 

3. Decides to appropriate an amount of $9,500,000 
for the operations of the United Nations Emergency 
Force for the period 1 July 1963 to 31 December 1963 ; 

4. Decides to apportion: 

(a) the amount of $2,500,000 among aU Member 
States in accordance with the regular scale of assess- 
ments for 1963 ; 

(b) the $7,000,000 balance of the amount appropri- 
ated in paragraph 3 of this resolution, among all Mem- 
ber States in accordance with the regular scale of 
assessments for 1963, except that each "economically 
less developed country" shall be assessed an amount 
calculated at 45 per cent of its rate under the regular 
scale of assessments for 1963 ; 

provided that this apportionment shall constitute an 
ad hoc arrangement for the present phase of this peace- 
keeping operation, and shall not constitute a precedent 
for the future ; 

5. Decides that, for the purpose of this resolution, 
"economically less developed countries" shall mean all 
Member States except Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Byelorussian SSR, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, 
Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nor- 
way, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, 
Ukrainian SSR, USSR, United Kingdom and the 
United States of America ; 

6. Recommends that the Member States named in 
paragraph 5 of this resolution make voluntary con- 
tributions in addition to their assessments under this 
resolution in order to finance authorized expenditures 
in excess of the total amount assessed under this 
resolution, such voluntary contributions to be credited 
to a special account by the Secretary-General and 
transferred to the United Nations Emergency Force 
Special Account as and when an "economically less 
developed country" has once paid to the credit of that 
account its assessment under paragraph 4(b) of this 
resolution or an equal amount, the transfer to be of 
an amount which bears the same proportion to the total 

'U.N. doc. A/RES/1875 (S-IV) (A/C.5/1,.783) ; 
adopted by a vote of 80 to 11, with 16 abstentions. 

' U.N. doc. A/5187. 
' U.N. doc. A/5274. 

JULY 29, 1963 


of such voluntary contributions as the amount of such 
payment bears to the total of the assessments on 
"economically lesa developed countries" under para- 
p-aph 4(b) ; any amount left In such special account 
on 31 December 19f.5 shall revert to the Member States 
that made such voluntary contributions In proportion 
to their resi)ecLlve voluntary contributions ; 

7. Aiipcals to all other Member States who are In a 
position to assist to make similar voluntary contribu- 
tions or nlteruiitively to forgo haviriK their assessment 
calculated at the rate mentioned In the exception con- 
tained In paragraph -Kb) of this resolution; 

8. l)i ciilcs tliiit voluntary contributions referred to in 
paragraphs and 7 of this resolution may be made by 
a Member State, at Its option, in the form of services 
and supplies, acceptable to the Secretary-General, 
furnished for use in connexion with the United Nations 
Emergency Force during the period 1 July 19G3 to 31 
December 1903 for which the Member State does not 
require reimbursement, the Member State to be credited 
with the fair value thereof as agreed upon by the 
Member State and the Secretary-General. 

Resolution III 'c 

United Nations Operation in the Congo: Cost 
estimates and financinq fob the period 1 july to 
31 DECEMnEB 1963 

The Oencral Anscmbly, 

Recalling the Security Council resolutions of 14 
July 1900, 22 July 1960, 9 August 1960, 21 February 
lOCl and 24 November 1961, and General Assembly 
resolutions 1474 (ES-IV) of 20 September 1960, 1583 
(XV) of 20 December 1960, 1595 (XV) of 3 April 
1961. l.'->99 (XV), 1000 (XV) and 1001 (XV) of 15 
April 1961, 1619 (XV) of 21 April 1961, 1633 (XVI) 
of 30 October 1961 and 1732 (XVI) of 20 December 

Having contidcred the report of the Secretary-Gen- 
eral on the cost estimates of the United Nations Opera- 
tion in the Congo (ONUC) " for the period 1 July 
19a3 to 31 December 1963, and the report of the 
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary 
Questions " thereon, 

1. Dccidct to continue the Congo ad hoc Account 
for the I'xpenses of the United Nations Operation in 
the Congo ; 

2. Authorizes the Secretary-General to expend up to 
SI December \wa at an average monthly rate not to 
exco<'d J.">.'''00,000 for the continuing cost of the United 
Nations Oiierntion in the Congo; 

3. Dcridct to appropriate an amount of $33,000,000 
for the United .Nations Operation In the Congo for the 
period 1 July 1963 to 31 December 19C3 ; 

4. Dcridct to ai)portlon : 

T.N. doc. A/nKS/lS7fl(S-IV)(A/C..'')/T..7.S4) ; 
adopted by a vote of 80 to 12, with 15 abstentions. 
" U.N. doc. AA-VllC. 
■ U.N. doc. A/5421. 

(a) the amount of $3,000,000 among all Member 
States in accordance with the regular scale of assess- 
ments for 1963 ; 

(b) the $30,000,000 balance of the amount appropri- 
ated in paragraph 3 of this resolution, among all Mem- 
ber States in accordance with the regular scale of 
assessments for 1903, except that each "economically 
less developed country" shall be an amount 
calculated at 45 per cent of its rate under the regular 
scale of assessments for 1963 ; 

provided that this apportionment shall constitute 
an ad hoc arrangement for the present phase of this 
peace-keeping operation, and shall not constitute a 
precedent for the future ; 

5. Decides that, for the purpose of this resolution, 
"economically less developed countries" shall mean all 
Member States except Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Nether- 
lands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, South 
Africa, Sweden, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom 
and the United States of America ; 

6. Recommends that the Member States named In 
paragraph 5 of this resolution make voluntary con- 
tributions in addition to their assessments under this 
resolution in order to finance authorized expenditures 
in excess of the total amount assessed under this resolu- 
tion, such voluntary contributions to be credited to a 
special account by the Secretary-General and trans- 
ferred to the Congo ad hoc Account as and when an 
"economically less developed country" has once paid 
to the credit of that account its assessment under para- 
graph 4(b) of this resolution or an equal amount, the 
transfer to be of an amount which bears the same 
proportion to the total of such voluntary contributions 
as the amount of such payment bears to tlie total of 
the assessments on "economically less developed coim- 
tries" under paragraph 4(b) ; any amount left in such 
special account on 31 December 196.j shall revert to the 
Member States that made such voluntary contributions 
in proportion to their respective voluntary contribu- 
tions ; 

7. Appeals to all other Member States which are In 
a position to assist to make similar voluntary contribu- 
tions or alternatively to forego having their assess- 
ments calculated at the rate mentioned in the excep- 
tion contained in paragraph 4(b) of this resolution; 

8. Decides that voluntary contributions referred to 
In paragraphs 6 and 7 of this resolution may be made 
by a Member State, at its option, in the form of serv- 
ices and supplies, acceptable to the Secretary-General, 
furnished for use In connexion with the United Nations 
Operation in the Congo during the period 1 July 1963 
to 31 December 1963 for which the Member State does 
not require reimbursement, the Member State to be 
credited with the fair value thereof as agreed upon 
by the Member State and the Secretary-General. 



Resolution IV " 

Payment of arrears in respect of assessed con- 
tributions TO THE Special Account for the United 
Nations Emergency Force and the Ad Hoc Account 
FOB the United Nations Operation in the Congo 

The General Assembly, 

Having considered the report of the Working Group 
on the Examination of the Administrative and 
Budgetary Procedures of the United Nations, 

Noting with concern the present financial situation 
of the Organization resulting from the non-payment of 
a substantial portion of past assessments for the UNEF 
Special Account and the Congo ad hoc Account, 

Believing that it is essential that all assessments for 
these Accounts be paid as soon as possible, 

1. Appeals to Member States which continue to be 
in arrears in respect of their assessed contributions for 
payment to the UNEF Special Account and the Congo 
ad hoc Account to pay their arrears, disregarding other 
factors, as soon as their respective constitutional and 
financial arrangements can be processed, and, pending 
these arriingements, to make an announcement of their 
intention to do so ; 

2. Expresses its conviction that Member States who 
are in arrears and object on political or juridical 
grounds to paying their assessments on these accounts 
nevertheless will, without prejudice to their respective 
positions, make a special effort towards solving the 
financial difficulties of the United Nations by making 
these payments ; 

3. Requests the Secretary-General to consult with 
those Member States which are in arrears on the 
UNEF Special Account and on the Congo ad hoc Ac- 
count and to work out with them arrangements as to 
the most appropriate modalities within the letter and 
spirit of the Charter of the United Nations, including 
the possibility of payment by instalment, for bringing 
the payments of these accounts up to date as soon as 
possible ; 

4. Requests Member States who are in arrears on 
these accounts to make the arrangements with the 
Secretary-General set out in paragraph 3 of this resolu- 
tion before 31 October 1963 ; 

5. Requests the Secretary-General to report, as ap- 
propriate, to the General Assembly on the consulta- 
tions and arrangements mentioned in paragraphs 3 and 
4 of this resolution. 

Resolution V >< 

Terms and conditions ooverninq the issue op United 
Nations bonds 

The Oeneral Assembly, 

Recalling its decision in operative paragraph 1 of 

General Assembly resolution 1739 (XVI) of 20 Decem- 
ber 1901 to authorize the Secretary-General to issue 
United Nations bonds in accordance with the terms 
and conditions set forth in the annex to that resolution, 

Decides to amend paragraph 8 of the annex to Gen- 
eral Assembly resolution 1739 (XVI) to read as 
follows : 

"The bonds may be sold in whole or in part from 
time to time until 31 December 1963." 

Resolution VI '^ 

Establishment of a Peace Fund 

The General Assembly, 

Bearing in mind the purposes of the United Nations 
as set out in Article 1 of the Charter, 

Realizing the need for prompt and effective action to 
prevent any threats to or breaches of international 
peace and security, 

Believing that inadequate financial resources can 
seriously delay or jeopardize the success of such action, 

Desiring to make sulBcient funds readily available 
to the Secretary-General, thus enabling him to dis- 
charge his responsibilities under the Charter in cases 
of breaches of the peace without undue delay, 

Convinced that the establishment of a Peace Fund 
through voluntary contributions from Member States 
as well as organizations and individuals is worthy of 
study as a means of furthering this objective, 

1. Requests the Secretary-General to consult all 
Member States and other interested organizations on 
the desirability and feasibility of establishing such a 
Peace Fund ; 

2. Requests further the Secretary-General to report 
to the General Assembly at its eighteenth session. 

Resolution VII <« 

Continuation of the Working Group on the Exami- 
nation OP the Administrative and Budgetary 
Procedures of the United Nations established 
under General Assembly resolution 1854/B 

The Oeneral Assembly, 

Recalling General Assembly resolution 1854 B 

Bearing in mind the principles enunciated in resolu- 
tion 1874 (S-IV) of 27 June 1963, that shall serve as 
guidelines for the equitable sharing of the costs of 
peace-keeping operations involving heavy expenditures 
that may be initiated in the future, to the extent that 
these expenditures will not be otherwise covered by 
agreed arrangements, 

Bearing in mind further that the maintenance of 

"U.N. doc. A/RES/1S77(S-IV)(A/C.5/L.7S5) ; 
adopted by a vote of 79 to 12, with 17 abstentions. 

"U.N. doc. A/RES/1878(S-IV) (A/C.5/L.7S6) ; 
adopted by a vote of 93 to 12, with 4 abstensions. 

""U.N. doc. A/RBS/1879(S-IV)(A/C..5/L.787) ; 
adopted by a vote of 91 to 12, with 2 abstentions. 

'°U.N. doc. A/RES/1SS0(S-IV) (A/C..5/L.7S8) ; 
adopted by a vote of 95 to 12, with 2 abstentions. 

" For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1963, p. 37. 

JULY 29, 1963 


peace and siturity Is n primary purpose of the United 

Dcnirous Uint ways and means should be found to 
arrive at worlting arranKcments so that all Member 
States may feel able to share In such costs, 

Soting that the Usks with which the Worliing Group 
on the Examination of the Administrative and Budget- 
ary Procedures of the United Nations was charged 
have not been completed, 

1. Decides to continue in being the Working Group 
on the Examination of the Administrative and Budget- 
ary Procedures of the United Nations; 

2. Requentf the Working Group to : 

(a) Recommend a special method for the equitable 
sharing of the costs of future peace-keeping operations 
Involving heavy expenditures to the extent not other- 
wise covered by agreed arrangements ; 

(b) Consider suggestions regarding other sources of 
financing future peace-keeping operations ; 

(c) Explore ways and means for bringing about the 
widest possible measure of agreement among all Mem- 
ber States on the <iupStion of the financing of future 
peace-keeping operations ; 

3. Invites the Working Group to consult as appro- 
priate with the Committee on Contributions; 

4. Requests the Secretary-General to make available 
to the Working Group the necessary facilities and 
assistance for the accomplishment of its tasks ; 

6. Asks the Working Group to report on these mat- 
ters to the General Assembly as soon as possible, but 
not later than at its nineteenth regular session. 


Foreign Service Examination 
To Be Held September 7 

Vmn rolonw 3fiS dnto-I July 12 

Applications for the Foreign Service officer exami- 
nation, to be given September 7 in major cities through- 
out the country, must be liled no later than July 22. 
Applications may be obtained by writing to the Direc- 
tor, Board of lOxaminerg, Dci)artment of State, Wash- 
ington, I).f". L'o.-.iitt. 

Eligible candidates are those who were at least 21 
yearn of age or under 31 years of age as of July 1 
and who have been citizens of the United States for 
at least 9 years as of that date. Those who have 
bachelors' degrees or who have successfully completed 
their Junior year of college may take the examination 
at age 20. 

Candidates taking the examination will be tested 
in English expression, general ability, and general 
background. In addition three options will be offered 
to test specific knowledge in (1) history, government, 
and social sciences, (2) management and business 
administration, and (3) economics. 

The work of the Foreign Service requires a diver- 
sity of skills. Applicants with training in budget and 
fiscal work, management, personnel, law, labor re- 
lations, banking and finance, foreign trade, and all 
other aspects of economics and administration are 
sought, as well as those with training in political 
science, history, government, and the liberal arts. 

The following are the 72 cities where the examina- 
tion will be held : 

Agana, Guam ; Albuquerque, N. Mex. ; Anchorage, 
Alaska ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Augusta, Maine ; Austin, Tex. ; 
Balboa Heights, C.Z. ; Baltimore, Md. ; Bismarck, N. 
Dak. ; Boise, Idaho ; Boston, Mass. ; Buffalo, N.T. ; 
Charleston, W. Va. ; Charlotte Amalie, V.I. ; Cheyenne, 
Wyo. ; Chicago, 111. ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; Cleveland. Ohio; 
Columbia, S.C. ; Columbus, Ohio ; Dallas, Tex. ; Denver, 
Colo. ; Des Moines, Iowa ; Detroit, Mich. ; El Paso, 
Tex. ; Fairbanks, Alaska ; Grand Forks, N. Dak. ; Hart- 
ford, Conn. ; Helena, Mont. ; Honolulu, Hawaii ; In- 
dianapolis, Ind. ; Jackson, Miss. ; Jacksonville, Fla. ; 
Juneau, Alaska; Kansas City, Kans. ; Little Rock, 
Ark. ; Los Angeles, Calif. ; Louisville, Ky. ; Madison, 
Wis. ; Manchester, N.H. ; Miami, Fla. ; Montgomery, 
Ala. ; Montpelier, Vt. ; Nashville, Tenn. ; New Orleans, 
La. ; New York, N.Y. ; Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Omaha, 
Nebr. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Phoenix, Ariz. ; Pierre, 
S. Dak. ; Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Portland, Oreg. ; Providence, 
R.I. ; Raleigh, N.C. ; Reno, Nev. ; Richmond, Va. ; Sacra- 
mento, Calif.; St. Louis, Mo.; St. Paul, Minn.; Salt 
Lake City, Utah ; San Francisco, Calif. ; San Juan, 
P.R. ; Seattle, Wash.; Spokane, Wash.; Springfield, 
111.; Syracuse, N.T. ; Tampa, Fla.; Trenton, N.J. ; 
Washington, D.C. ; Wilmington, Del.; and Worcester, 

The examination will also be held at any American 
diplomatic or consular post abroad at which a candi- 
date may ask to take it 


Chester C. Carter as Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
Congressional Relations, eflEective July 7. (For bio- 
graphic details, see Department of State press release 
361 dated July 9.) 

Allen R. Ferguson as Coordinator for International 
Aviation, Bureau of Economic Affairs, effective June 
25. (For biographic details, see Department of State 
press release 332 dated June 24.) 

Carl Tolman as scientific attach^ at Tokyo, Japan, 
effective July 7. (For biographic details, see Depart- 
ment of State press release 364 dated July 10.) 



INDEX July 29, 1963 Vol. XLIX, No. 1257 

Atomic Energy 

Under Secretary Harrlman Departs for Test Ban 

Talks in Moscow 159 

U.S. Malies Additional Quantities of Uranium 
235 Available (Kennedy, Seaborg) .... 167 

Aviation. Secretary Assigned Leadership in 

International Aviation Policy (Kennedy) . . 160 

Congo. U.N. General Assembly Adopts Seven 
Resolutions on Financing (Plimpton, Steven- 
son, texts of resolutions) 178 


Fulfilling Our Basic Commitments as a Nation 

(Rusk) ,!h 154 

President Recommends Expansion of Peace 

Corps 170 

Cuba. United States Blocks Cuban Assets To 

Counter Communist Subversion 160 

Department and Foreign Service 

Appointments (Carter, Ferguson, Tolman) . . 18G 
Foreign Service Examination To Be Held Sep- 
tember 7 186 

Secretary Assigned Leadership in International 
Aviation Policy (Kennedy) 160 

Economic Affairs 

International Trade and Economic Development 

(Frank) 173 

President Amends Order on Trade Agreements 

Program Administration 167 

United States Blocks Cuban Assets To Counter 

Communist Subversion 160 

Educational and Cultural Affairs. Commission 
Urges Expansion of American Studies Over- 
seas 169 

Europe. Captive Nations "Week, 1963 (text of 

proclamation) 161 

Foreign Aid. President Recommends Expansion 

of Peace Corps 170 

Guatemala. Letters of Credence (Garda- 
Bauer) 160 

Human Rights. Fulfilling Our Basic Commit- 
ments as a Nation (Rusk) 154 

International Law 

President Sends Greetings to Lawyers' Confer- 
ence 163 

The Ruleof Law— Now (Chayes) 162 

International Organizations and Conferences. 

International Trade and Economic Develop- 
ment (Frank) 173 

Japan. Tolman appointed scientific attach^ . . 186 

Middle East. U.N. General Assembly Adopts 
Seven Resolutions on Financing (Plimpton, 
Stevenson, texts of resolutions) 178 

Presidential Documents 

Captive Nations Week, 1963 161 

President Amends Order on Trade Agreements 

Program Administration 167 

President Kennedy and Soviet Leaders Ex- 
. change Fourth of July Messages 159 

President Recommends Expansion of Peace 

Corps 170 

President Sends Greetings to Lawyers' Confer- 
ence 163 

Secretary Assigned Leadership in International 
Aviation Policy 160 

U.S. Makes Additional Quantities of Uranium 
235 Available 167 

Treaty Information. Current Actions .... 172 


President Kennedy and Soviet Leaders Exchange 

Fourth of July Messages (texts of messages) . 159 

Under Secretary Harriman Departs for Test Ban 

Talks in Moscow 159 

United Nations 

The Rule of Law — Now (Chayes) 162 

U.N. General Assembly Adopts Seven Resolu- 
tions on Financing (Plimpton, Stevenson, 

texts of resolutions) 178 

Name Index 

Brezhnev, Leonid 160 

Carter, Chester C 186 

Chayes, Abram ^ . . . 162 

Ferguson, Allen R 186 

Frank, Isaiah 173 

Garcla-Bauer, Carlos 160 

Harriman, W. Averell 159 

Kennedy, President .... 159, 160, 161, 163, 167, 170 

Khrushchev, Nikita 160 

Plimpton, Francis T. P 178 

Rusk, Secretary 154 

Seaborg, Glenn T . . . . 168 

Stevenson, Adlai E 181 

Tolman, Carl 186 

Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: July 8-14 

Press releases may be obtained from the OfiBce 
of News, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 

Release issued prior to July 8 which appears 
in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 356 of July 2. 


U.S. participation in international 

Blocking controls against Cuba. 

Carter appointed Deputy Assistant 
Secretary for Congressional Rela- 
tions (biographic details). 

Morris sworn in as Ambassador to 
Chad (biographic details). 

Harriman departs for Moscow test 
ban talks. 

Tolman appointed scientific attach^ 
at Tokyo (biographic details). 

Guatemala credentials (rewrite). 

Rusk: Senate Committee on Com- 

Rusk : "State of the North Atlantic 
Alliance" (as-delivered text). 

Foreign Service officer examination. 

Commission reports on U.S. aca- 
demic exchange program (re- 

Itinerary for visit of President 
Nyerere of Tanganyika. 

Amendments to Nyerere itinerary. 

♦Not printed here. 

tHeld for a later issue of the Bulletin. 























Superintendent OF Documents 
U.S. government printing office 





Digest of International Law 

Volume I 

Tlie Department of State has released the first volume of a new Digest of International Law, by 
Dr. Marjorie M. Whiteman, Assistant Legal Adviser. The Digest is a successor to the Hackwortib 
Digest, published in 1940. 

The new Digest is in the nature of a reference book, containing materials, official and unofficial, 
intended to inform the user as to the status of developments regarding particular aspects of inter- 
national law. 

Chapter I of volume I treats of theories of international law, its subjects and sources, its relation- 
ship to local law, and efforts toward its codification. 

Chapter II deals with the legal status of present-day states, territories, and governments andl 
their classification. Included are listings and groupings of states and governments, with informationi 
as to origin, changes, official names, etc. Recent evolutions in tlie structure of the British Common- 
wealth and of the French Community are among the topics discussed. 

Volume I of the Digest of International Law may be purchased from the Superintendent ofl 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, for $4.25. 

PUBLICATION 7403 $4.25i 



PUBLICATION 7403 $4.25 


WA8UIN0TON. D.C. 20402 send me copies of Digest of International Law, Volume I 


EncloiHHl flml $ 


(raxb, rhwk, or money order pay- 
able to 8upL of Documcnta) 









Yol. XLIX, No. 1258 

August 5, 1963 


Address iy Secretary Rush 190 


Statements hy M. Wilfred Goding and Vincente N. Santos W7 


Statement hy President Kennedy and Text of Memorandum 199 

For index see inside tack cover 

The State of the North Atlantic Alliance 

Addrets by Secretary Rvsk * 

I notice some young people in the audience; 
let me just say three sentences to you. You 
may want to ask me : What is foreign policy all 
about? It's about you— your ability to walk 
the world in decency and confidence and peace, 
you and your children. Foreign policy is about 
building that decent world order that gives you 
a chance. That's what the thousand cables a 
day coming into the Department of State mean ; 
that's what the 15 international meetings going 
on somewhere in the world every working day 
throughout the year mean to you young people. 

We are under no illusion in the Department 
of State that, when we talk about international 
law or states or the United Nations, we are talk- 
ing alxjut abstractions. We are talking about 
people and what they mean to people, because 
we understand that foreign policy reaches into 
every home in tlie country. We have a million 
men in uniform outside the United States today, 

• Made Itetore the Vlrgliila State Bar Association at 
White Salphnr SprinKB, W. Va., on July 12 (press re- 
1mm 307 ; as-deUvered text). 

and that means that we reach into every home. 
We imderstand this very deeply, and I want you 
young people to know that I think we know 
what your relation to foreign policy is. 

We are in a period of great change ; we are in 
a period where it is not easy for a Secretary 
of State to declare great simple policies on par- 
ticular points because there is so much flux. It 
is a period when we must go back to the very 
simple ideas on which our nation was founded — 
the things to which we are deeply committed. 

I suggest to you that in President Eisenhow- 
er's second term and in President Kennedy's 
present term the responsibilities of the Presi- 
dent of the United States have changed in kind, 
and not just in mass, and that these two men 
have faced questions of a new order of magni- 
tude — a new order of faithfulness — never be- 
fore faced by any President. 

This is due to several things. One has been 
the explosion of states — the multiplication of 
states. Before World War II, 8 governments 
disposed of the continent of Africa. Now it's 


Th« r>fpirtiD«nt of State Bulletin, a 
wevklr pDbllcatlon luurd bj tbe Ofllcc 
of M<^U 8<-rTlcMi, Burvau of Public Af- 
fatra. prnrldrs tb* public and IntrrMtpd 
arrnrlra of tbv OoTFrtiDipnt witta Inforran- 
tloo on drTPlopmeDtii In tbp field of for- 
eign reUllnnB and on tbe work of the 
Dvparlmrnt of State and tbe Foreign 
BrrrlCT. The nulletln Inrludm »e|pctpd 
pre» relertiieii on fornlrn policy, Iniiued 
by the Whilr llntme and tho Drpartnirnt. 
and BtatemcntN and addmtneii tnnde bj 
the rrenldrnt and br tbe Secrftarr of 
State and otber offlceni of the Depart- 

ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation Is included concerning treaties 
and International agreements to which 
the United States Is or may become a 
party and treaties of general Inter- 
nattonal Interest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and leglalntlve mate- 
rial In the field of International relations 
are listed currently. 

The UuUetlD Is for sole by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Qovem- 

ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. Price : 52 Issues, domestic $8.60, 
foreign $12.25 ; single copy, 25 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 

NOTB : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and Items contained 
herein may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department of State Bulletin as the 
source wlU be appreciated. The Bulletin 
Is Indexed In the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature. 



about 35, and the number is growing. We do 
business with 112 states. Did you happen to 
know that in this calendar year 33 of those states 
have scheduled elections and changes in govern- 
ment in 1963 and that we have already had 6 
unscheduled changes of government in this cal- 
endar year ? For as far as we can see into the 
future, there will be 25 changes of government 
a year somewhere in the world and half of those 
will be crises because so many of these states 
do not have built-in constitutional means for 
passing power from one hand to the other. 

And as these countries have become mdepend- 
ent, they have been seized with an insistent de- 
mand for economic and social development, 
partly because their nationalist leaders have 
promised them that if you got rid of colonial 
rule, your daily life would be better — a connec- 
tion which was not necessarily so. But there 
they are, with the hounds of development snap- 
ping at their heels, needing to move forward. 
And so this revolution of rising expectations 
about which you have heard is something very 
pressing and very urgent in our business. 

And then, since about 1955-56, something 
else has come into the world : The Soviet Union 
has acquired a massive nuclear delivery capa- 
bility against Western Europe and the United 
States— something new. The decision which 
President Truman made in 1950 to go into 
Korea and the decision which President Ken- 
nedy made last October to challenge the full 
power of the Soviet Union with regard to those 
missiles in Cuba were two utterly different de- 
cisions — decisions in kind — because E = MC^ 
has posed for men genuinely a new question, 
and that is the survival of the human race. 
And President Eisenhower and President Ken- 
nedy have had to think about and live with 
that problem as other human beings have not 
in our experience. 

Now these are great elements which put this 
world in motion. There are other factors, such 
as the talks now going on between Moscow and 
Peiping, with the greatest consequences for aU 
the rest of us, and yet talks wliich we have only 
a limited capability of influencing one way or 
the other ; changes going on within the bloc in 
Eastern Europe; changes between East and 
West — in relationships between the Soviet bloc. 

say, and Western Europe. This is a pregnant 
moment, a moment where many things could 
happen, where there could be important changes 
for good or for bad. That is why it is nec- 
essary for us to keep our compass bearings 
clear and, to use the expression of General Omar 
Bradley, to take our course from the distant 
stars and not from the light of each passing 

European Growth and Unity 

In a period of this sort it is very important 
for us to know where our allies are, who our 
friends are, and what those commitments mean. 
And therefore I should like to talk to you a 
few minutes tonight about the state of the 
NATO alliance, which joins the great continents 
of Europe and North America in a common 
effort to preserve the peace and security of the 
Atlantic area. I am moved to do this in part 
by the impressions which I formed in accom- 
panying the President on his recent trip to 

We found Europe — and those of you who 
have visited Europe have found Europe — 
prosperous, vital, and resurgent. Its economic 
growth is going forward at a rapid rate ; living 
standards are rising; the contrast with lagging 
Communist progress in Eastern Europe is be- 
coming more and more marked. And this 
growing wealth is being more equitably dis- 
tributed as a result of widespread economic and 
social reforms. 

Side by side with this material progress we 
found widespread confidence that Europe's 
movement toward greater imity would continue. 
European imity has its roots too deep among 
the peoples of this great continent — too deep 
especially among the young people — not to re- 
sume its growth. There are too many Euro- 
peans who fully understand the historic im- 
portance of the Franco-German reconciliation 
that after several centuries a war is not going 
to arise in Western Europe— too many people 
understand that to let some of our temporary 
differences stand in the way of that great move- 
ment toward European imity. 

' For background, see Buixetin of July 22, 1903, p. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


Much hiis already been done. Progress has 
been made toward developing a community 
ba5e<l on genuine equality, on common rules and 
institutions, and on subordination of parochial 
interests in the wider common needs of Europe 
as a whole. But much remains to be done. 
And one of tlie reasons for the President's trip 
was to make clear our own view about these 
great unfinished tasks of European unity and 
Atlantic solidarity. There will be delays and 
obstacles. We must judge the pace toward 
unify not by what happens in any single week, 
or month, or even year, but in terms of the 
timespan that is fitting to the historic impor- 
tance of the development itself. 

Certainly the United States welcomes this 
progress toward European unity. "We recog- 
nize that only a united Europe is likely to be a 
strong Eurojie. And only a strong Europe 
can bo an effective and fully equal partner of 
the Unite<l States in carrying forward the con- 
structive and defensive tasks on which the 
growth and sur%'ival of the free world depend. 

In this age no nation by itself can assure the 
defense and the welfare and the freedom of its 
people. But the United States and a strong 
united Europe, working together as equal part- 
ners, can achieve these great aims. 

But goals involve great adjustments on 
both sides, and difficulties are inevitable with 
any of these great creative enterprises. But 
if we have a clear view of where we are going, 
and if we can devote to this enterprise the ded- 
icated effort it deserves, we can be optimistic 
about the outcome. 

Unity for Defense 

For the lii-st purpose of this partnership is to 
strengthen the common defense. 

Both in the May meeting of the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization at Ottawa' and 
during the President's recent trip, I found the 
memlxTs of XATO fully united in support of 
this purpose. 

There are, of course, occasional interallied 
differences on moans and approach. But such 
differences are lx)und to arise when an alliance 

' For fpxt of n mtnniiinlqno ndopted on May 24, 1003, 
ee ibid.. Juno 10. 1003. p. 805. 

of free nations confronts such complex and 
difficult issues as evolving conditions now pose 
for the NATO alliance. 

But the Soviet Union would make no greater 
mistake tlian to interpret interallied differences 
as major cracks within the alliance — cracks to 
be exploited by aggressive action. For the al- 
liance is agreed on essentials. This has been 
proved by the successful deterrence of aggres- 
sion against the NATO area for 14 yeai-s. The 
Cuban crisis of October 1962 proved this again, 
when it produced a show of unquestioned soli- 
darity among all of the NATO partners. 

Now this unity in times of crisis is 
not enough, for unity is also needed to avert 
crisis. And what Moscow thinks about these 
matters is of very great importance to the rest^ 
of us. This precrisis unity is sought through 
arrangements which provide in advance that 
forces shall come instantly under NATO com- 
mand in the event of war. And it is important 
to maintain this integrated military structure 
of NATO, for looser forms of cooperation 
without solid commitment would not meet the 

U.S. Commitment 

Our success in maintaining NATO unity 
since 1949 is an achievement without precedent 
among peacetime multilateral alliances. 

This unity reflects the full commitment of 
the United States, no less than that of its part- 
ners, to the defense of the entire NATO area. 
From our point of view — and it is important 
that not only the Europeans but the Ameri- 
cans understand this — from our point of view, 
this commitment does not rest in sentiment, 
although sentiment exists; it does not rest in 
amiability or in philanthropy. It is based 
upon the most fundamental realities of our 
own national interests and our own interna- 
tional policy. For the defense of Europe is 
vital to the defense of the United States. 

That is why we have 400,000 military per- 
sonnel in Europe: to defend the United States. 
With the exception of one country, this com- 
prises the largest single national military com- 
mission to NATO in Europe. It is thus a 
simple fact — and this is something which Euro- 
peans must understand better — it is thus a sim- 



pie fact that the United States is a principal 
Europeaii military power. 

This American ijresence m Europe gives 
flesh and bone to the language of the NATO 
treaty: that an armed attack against any one 
countiy in Eui'ope or North America shall be 
considered an attack against us all. In 1949 
that was a political commitment, but in 1963 
it is a statement of plain, simple fact. 

Conventional Forces 

Now NATO will not remain strong and 
united in deterring attacks, however, merely by 
reaffirming faith in its purposes. We need con- 
tinually to reexamine NATO's situation and to 
review its problems. 

The militai-y situation today differs markedly 
from that that was confronted by NATO in 
1949. In the face of these changing conditions, 
the alliance needs to maintain a force which will 
give its members confidence in their military 
security to stand fimi in the face of hostile 
threats and pressures. 

In our view such a posture should include 
powerful conventional forces as part of a bal- 
anced conventional-nuclear force structure. 
Such forces are needed both to enhance the de- 
terrent and to enable NATO to confront dan- 
gers with confidence. 

Such a balanced force structure is also likely 
to hold the alliance together in periods of pro- 
longed tension and crisis. For it will assure 
members of the alliance that they need not con- 
front, in the event of enemy aggression, an in- 
stant choice between simple surrender or not so 
simple thermonuclear devastation. It will pro- 
vide a range of alternative responses from 
which they can choose the one best suited to 
their military and political purposes at the time. 

The NATO military authorities have pro- 
posed, and the alliance has approved, certain 
force goals whose attainment would represent 
a first step toward such a balanced military 
posture. As an American, I am proud that the 
United States is leading the way to meeting 
these approved force goals. The American 
soldiers whom the President inspected on his 
recent trip to Europe are among the best armed 
and trained in the world. 

But as a citizen of the Atlantic world, I am 

anxious that the alliance as a whole also meet 
its combined commitments. For m a genuine 
partnership burdens must be equitably borne; 
all countries must contribute their fair share to 
the total strength of the alliance. And I am 
confident that this in fact is what is going to be 

Nuclear Forces 

A truly balanced force cannot be attained 
without effective nuclear power and the will to 
use it if required. The nuclear power of the 
alliance must be organized so as to meet this 
military need. The nuclear power of the alli- 
ance is massive indeed and has risen rapidly in 
these more recent years. The organization of 
this power involves, however, vital political con- 
siderations. It goes to the heart of relations 
among the nations of Europe and between Eu- 
rope and the United States. For this is a power 
of the life and death of nations and decisions 
to be made on a moment's notice. 

But because the political framework of Eu- 
rope is still evolvuig and because we here are 
grappling with highly complex military prob- 
lems, we cannot pretend to offer neat and final 
answers simply from the United States to this 
nuclear question. Both this and the previous 
United States administration have believed that 
the general direction should eventually offer 
Europe an opportunity to make a genuine con- 
tribution to a unified Atlantic nuclear deterrent. 
This is the direction most consistent with the 
concepts of Atlantic partnership and European 

We have, in the last 2 years, taken some im- 
portant interim steps to tliis end. 

We have agreed with our partners on guide- 
lines for the employment of nuclear weapons 
in specific military circumstances. 

We are making available to our allies much 
more information regarding the capabilities and 
characteristics of nuclear weapons than ever 

We also agreed with our allies, at the last 
NATO ministerial meeting in Ottawa, that a 
new Deputy for Nuclear Affairs should be es- 
tablished at Supreme Allied Headquarters in 
Europe; that he should have a staff consist- 
ing of officers drawn from a number of NATO 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


countries; and that an international liaison 
(froup representing the NATO Command in 
Eurojw should be attached to our Strategic Air 
Command lieadquarters at Omaha. These Ot- 
tawa decisions, taken in conjunction with the 
assignment of British V-Bombers and Ameri- 
can Polaris submarines to NATO, will increase 
not only the strength and reach of XATO forces 
but also the knowletlge and professional com- 
petence of XATO staffs in the nuclear area. 

Wo are quite aware, however, that these are 
only initial steps and that they alone are not 
enough. They do not fully meet the desire of 
a revived Europe — living under the gun of So- 
viet nuclear power — to carry a greater share of 
the responsibility for its ovm nuclear defense. 

This desire has come to focus, in large part, 
on medium-range ballistic missiles, since these 
are the only effective weapons of strategic range 
which can usefully be deployed in the European 
area against similar weapons aimed at Europe. 

European desires for MRBM's first made 
themselves manifest in 1960. There were then, 
and there are now, broadly three alternative 
ways of responding. 

Om, we could refuse to provide MEBM's to 
allied forces. This could well signal to our 
allie-s, facing the threat of hundreds of Soviet 
MRBM's, American indifference to their nu- 
clear concerns and thus to the concept of gen- 
uine partnership in the nuclear field. 

Two, we could deploy such missiles to nation- 
ally manned and owned forces. Whatever 
technical safeguards might be built in against 
premafiire use, the political effect of thus estab- 
lishing new nationally owned and manned stra- 
tegic mi.ssile forces would i)e divisive within 
the alliance and deeply unsettling in terms of 
East -West relations. 

Tlie third alternative would be to provide 
MRBM's to forces jointly organized by us and 
our allies but not to nationally manned and 
owned forces. And if such forces must come 
into being, it can only be under multilateral 
manning and ownership. 

After considering these three alteniatives, 
General Eisenhower directed my predecessor, 
Secretary of State [Christian A.] Ilerter, to 
present the concept of a multilateral sea-based 
force to the NATO meeting in December I960.* 

After thorough review of the matter, the pres- 
ent administration also concluded that the ratd- 
tilateral force would be more consistent with 
our long-term goals of European unity and 
Atlantic partnership than either of the alter- 
native responses to the missile problem that I 
have described. 

Such a multilateral force would be open to 
all NATO countries on a basis of equality. It 
would be based on both United States and Eu- 
ropean productive resources. It could not 
break down into national components over time 
or under the pressure of sudden crises. And 
as Europe moved toward unity we could, as the 
President indicated at Frankfurt,' contemplate 
an increase in the collective European role and 
responsibility in such a force. Most important, 
tary authorities, including the Supreme Corn- 
tribute to national nuclear proliferation. 

The Joint Chiefs of Staff have concluded 
that, from a military standpoint, a mixed 
manned force in surface warships would be an 
effective part of the nuclear deterrent. The 
same conclusion has been reached by allied mili- 
tary authorities, including the Supreme Com- 
mander, General [Lyman L.] Lemnitzer. 

Discussions with our allies about this concept 
have been proceeding since the summer of 1962. 
We were able to get considerable "feel" of allied 
reactions during our recent trip. 

In Germany President Kennedy and Chan- 
cellor Adenauer agreed that they would use 
their best efforts to bring this force into being 
and that the matter should be further pursued 
with other interested countries. 

In the United Kingdom we found agreement 
that the force was teclinically feasible, but no 
decision had been made as to Britisli participa- 
tion pending their further study of the overall 
problem of nuclear deterrents wluch they wish 
to make. 

In Italy we foxmd a favorable response to the 
concept, wliich had been given its support by 
the previous Italian government, and a desire 
to proceed with discussion among the countries 

*/6id., Jan. 9, 1961,p. 39. 
• Ibid., July 22, 1963, p. 118. 



The current level of strength and confidence 
in the nuclear power of the alliance will allow 
some time for this discussion in order to address 
the questions involved with the care that they 
deserve. If our allies then wish to proceed, 
the United States will be prepared to join them 
in creating this multilateral force. For we be- 
lieve that such a force would notably enhance 
the strength and the cohesion of the alliance. 

Political Consultation 

The object of such a force — as of all NATO 
forces — would be to preserve peace. But more 
than military strength is needed to preserve 
peace. We also need a concerted Atlantic po- 
litical and economic strategy. 

All of us realize that our security is affected 
not only by what happens in the NATO treaty 
area but also by what may happen elsewhere in 
the world. 

How should NATO cope with this inescapa- 
ble interdependence between events inside and 
outside the NATO treaty area? By making 
NATO worldwide? I think not; that would 
certainly be impracticable. By consultation? 
To the maximum extent feasible and, may I 
add, to the extent that each of the members is 
willing to accept the responsibilities involved 
in genuine consultation. 

We are continually seeking ways to perfect 
these processes of alliance consultation. Few 
people realize how much progress has been 
made since about 1957. It was decided then 
that NATO machinery should be adapted to 
the new post- Stalin Soviet emphasis on po- 
litical, psychological, and economic initiatives 
and that new procedures were to be put into 
effect to this end. 

Wlien the 15 NATO ambassadors now sit 
around the NATO Council table in Paris each 
Wednesday, they cover a wide range of po- 
litical and economic subjects. The primary 
instrument for Atlantic economic cooperation 
is the OECD [Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development] ; but NATO also 
provides a fonun in which these issues can be 
weighed against political background which 
lends them the necessary urgency. I believe 
that the processes of consultation will continue 

to gather strength as Europe itself moves 
toward unity and a more dynamic role on the 
world scene. 

But consultation is not a substitute for 
action. Those members who have responsibili- 
ties elsewhere may at times be forced to act 
without the prior approval of all NATO allies 
and indeed, at times, without as extensive con- 
sultation as would be desirable. We had a spe- 
cial and difficult case in the immediate crisis 
over Cuba last October, although Cuba itself 
had been fully discussed in NATO throughout 
the preceding year. But the understanding 
and support of our allies for what had to be 
done in that crisis was not only gratifying but 
made a major contribution to a peaceful solu- 
tion of that missile crisis. 


This process of consultation is as important 
in concerting actions toward the Communist 
nations as in the free world. For peace can 
only be made more secure if the West is as 
united in its efforts to reduce sources of inter- 
national tension as in enhancing its defenses. 

To reject negotiation with the Communists 
could be to forgo a chance of strengthening 
peace. But to undertake negotiation without 
full and intimate transatlantic consultation, on 
the other hand, could endanger the miity on 
which peace depends. 

So we recognize both these needs: the need 
for negotiation, the need for consultation. 

To meet the need for negotiation, we have 
been discussing the possibility of arms control 
with the Soviet Union for some 16 months at 
Geneva, where three other NATO allies partici- 
pate with us. To meet the need for full consul- 
tation, we have kept the North Atlantic Council 
fully and currently informed about the state of 
these negotiations. 

The United States and the Soviet Union have 
agreed to set up a direct commmiication link, 
which they could use in time of crisis to reduce 
the risk of war by miscalculation.^ We hope 
that agreement on other safeguards against 
miscalculation can follow, enhancing the effec- 

' For text of agreement, see ibid., July 8, 1963, p. 50. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


tiveiicss of this initial step, because last Oc- 
tober, something new happened in history : Nu- 
clear jKJwers seriously and specifically had to 
consider nuclear war as an active element in 
policy and not simply as a theoretical exercise. 
And it be«.-amo quite clear during that period 
that those who are responsible for this weapon 
niiLst indeed keep in touch with each other — not 
just dej5i)ite dilferences but because of differ- 
ences — if these weapons would be kept within 
human control. 

Some progress has been made also toward 
narrowing dilferences on a test ban, which could 
help to inhibit the development of new national 
nuclear capabilities. Agreement has, however, 
eluded us thus far. Under Secretary [W. 
Averell] IlaiTiman and I^ord Hailsham will 
discuss the matter further in Moscow with the 
Soviet leaders beginning early next week.' 

We should like to achieve a test ban if we 
can, to begin to turn down an arms race which, 
if not turned down, will become increasingly 
burden.some in terms of billions upon billions 
of additional resources, increasingly unpredict- 
able and chancy in terms of results, increas- 
ingly dangerous in the process. We are keep- 
ing in tlie most intimate touch with our allies 
during these di.scussions. We have reaffirmed 
to them the commitment which the President 
made in his American University speech," that 
"The United States will make no deal with the 
Soviet Union at the expense of other nations 
and other peoples, not merely because they are 
our |)artners but also because their interests and 
ours converge." 

The OECD and Aid Coordination 

Two years ago a soooiul great Atlantic insti- 
tution was created to increase the effectiveness 
of the partnership on the economic side. That 
is the OECI), whirh evohwl from the higldy 
successful Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Cooperation of the ^^arshall Plan. It 
now ha-s in it 20 nations of the Atlantic area. 

Tlie OECD has the power to make binding 
decisions by unanimous actions and to make 
rccommendat ions to governments. Its greatest 
effwtiveness, however, is as an active agency 

' Sw p. itw. 

'BiijjETi:! of July 1, lom. p. 2. 

for consultation — a place where policies still 
in the making in many countries can be devel- 
oped in mutually reinforcing concert. The 
range of affairs already examined there, with 
fair to excellent success, includes economic pol- 
icy, monetary and balance-of-payments policies, 
agriculture, trade, science, manpower, social 
affairs, and development assistance for under- 
developed countries. 

This last matter — development assistance — is 
the special responsibility of the Development 
Assistance Committee. And it is liere that we 
and the industrially developed nations of the 
Atlantic area, plus Japan, coordinate our ef- 
forts to assist in the development of these newly 
independent nations of the rest of the world. 

Tlio foreign aid provided by the European 
members of this Committee is really very sub- 
stantial — about $2.5 billions in 1961, of which 
approximately two-thirds was in grants. We 
expect this participation to increase. But this 
would not in the immediate future lessen the 
need for development assistance from the 
United States. For the total requirements are 
very large, if these less developed countries 
are to maintain their independence and move 
toward the goal of self-support at tolerable 
levels of living. 

It would be difficult to overstate the impor- 
tance of our foreign aid programs to our own 
national security. Despite difficulties and dis- 
appointments here and there, they have indeed 
produced formidable results. 

Popular Support for International Cooperation 

The American people have made, in the last 
two decades, a far-reaching choice between in- 
ternational cooperation and isolation — and this 
in the military, the political, and the economic 
fields. During this period a whole series of im- 
portant international commitments have had 
the support of national leaders of both our ma- 
jor political parties and of large bipartisan ma- 
jorities in Congress. 

The U.S. Senate, for example, approved our 
membership in the United Nations by a vote of 
89 to 2. The legislation carrying out that mem- 
bership passed the Senate 67 to 7, and the House 
344 to 15. 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, under the Truman 



Doctrine, 1947 : approved 67 to 23 in the Senate, 
287 to 108 in the House. The Marshall Plan : 
69 to 17; 329 to 75. The ratification of the 
North Atlantic Treaty: 82 to 13. Six years 
later the ratification of SEATO [Southeast 
Asia Treaty Organization] , the Manila Treaty : 
82 to 1. And last year the Trade Expansion 
Act was approved by votes of 78 to 8 in tlie 
Senate and 292 to 125 in the House. 

In a recent Gallup poll, 82 percent of those 
questioned answered that they would rather the 
United States worked closely with other nations 
than pursue an independent course in world 
affairs. That emphatic result indicates how 
truly the American people have taken to heart 
the experiences of two world wars in this cen- 
tury and of a third and still greater threat to 
our freedom for the future. 

For in this world struggle in which we are 
engaged, the forces of freedom have indeed been 
gaining in strength. The Communist system is 
torn by internal schisms and plagued by low 
food production, economic shortcomings, ideo- 
logical disputes. But this world remains a very 
dangerous place. And the forces of coercion 
are still powerful and determined. If we 
should curtail our efforts, the present generally 
favorable trend could quickly be reversed. 

As Secretary of State I am therefore con- 
cerned by the voices here and there who would 
have us give up our efforts — that is, who would 
quit this struggle and abandon the field to those 
who would destroy freedom. And, oddly, some 
of the most strident of these voices profess to be 
strongly anti-Communist, although what they 
would seem to want lis to do is exactly what the 
Commimists hoped that we would do. And that 
is to go home. Because if we come home, the 
Communists begin to take over. 

There are many ways of withdrawing and of 
quitting in this great struggle for freedom. One 
way is to cut back our military establislunent in 
the absence of sound and adequately inspected 
international agreements to reduce armaments. 
Another way of quitting is to cut back our for- 
eign aid programs. Another way is to quit our 
alliances. Still another is to pull out of the 
United Nations. 

We can't win this world struggle by retreat- 
ing. Indeed, retreat is the sure road to defeat. 

I don't believe the American people intend to 
take that road. 

The Ideas That Unite Us 

I would urge you, when you go home, if 
you have not done so recently, to read the pre- 
amble and articles 1 and 2 of the United Na- 
tions Charter. You will find some familiar 
language there. And you should, because that 
language had a very substantial American in- 
fluence in its drafting at the end of World War 

II at a time when we were thinking long and 
deeply about our relations with the rest of the 
world, at a time when we had been chastened 
in the fires of a great war. We shall not have 
another chance to draw lessons from a world 
war to build a decent world order. For this 
time we must build that decent world order 
before that world war is upon us. But you will 
fuid in those simple words not only a succinct 
summary of the long-term foreign policy of 
the American people; you will also find there 
a reflection of the words and the ideas which 
are our greatest strength in this present 

The simple notion that governments derive 
their just powers from the consent of the gov- 
erned is the most explosive political idea in the 
world today. You feel its force in every con- 
tinent, and you feel its force as a cohesive rela- 
tionship between us and other nations wherever 
we turn. You find in that simple notion a scar- 
let thread of American policy throughout the 

This helps to explain why we find it more 
easy to get along with democracies than with 
dictatorships, why we react instinctively as we 
do when great colonial issues arise, why we are 
so deeply disturbed about what is going on in 
Eastern Europe, and why we are concerned 
when we here at home fail to live up to the 
greatest aspirations and commitments of our 
own political system. 

These simple notions unite us with other peo- 
ples because they are deeply rooted in human 
nature, a human nature that has expressed itself 
in almost every major tradition of wliich we 
know, and certainly in every continent. And 
these are the notions which give us allies, com- 
mitted or not, at times of crisis and help to ex- 

ATJGUST 5, 3 963 


plain why it is that, when we find ourselves in 
crisis there are far fewer neutrals than you 
niipht suppose. So there is great reason to 
move forward here in confidence, calmness, care, 
sobriety, but with the determination to do those 
things tliat are necessary to get on with the 
great unfinished business both here and abroad 
which will surely strengthen and stabilize the 
great story of freedom, which is the course of 
history in the story of man. 

President Reports on Progress 
of Test Ban Talks at Moscow 

Staicjrunt by PrcsidoU Kennedy ' 

I have a brief statement to make on the prog- 
ress of the negotiations in Moscow.* After 3 
days of talks we are still hopeful that the par- 
ticipating countries may reach an agreement to 
end nuclear testing, at least in the environ- 
ments in which it is agreed that on-the-ground 
inspection is not required for reasonable se- 
curity. Negotiations so far are going forward 
in a businesslike way. It is understood, of 
course, that under our constitutional procedures 
any agreement will be submitted to the Senate 
for advice and consent. It is also understood 
by our allies that the British and American 
repre^ntatives are not negotiating on other 
matters affecting their rights and interests. 
Any matter of this sort which may come under 
discussion will be kept open for full allied 

Finally, it is clear that these negotiations, if 
successful, should lead on to wider discussions 
among other nations. The three negotiatin<T 
powers constitute the nuclear test ban commit'^ 
toe of the Geneva conference, and if the present 
negotiations should be successful, it will be im- 
portant to reach the widest possible agreement 
on nuclear testing throughout the world. But 
all of these quest ions are still ahead of us, and 

' Rma by tho Pr«.ldent nt Uie opening of his news 
ponfpn>nc«« on .Inly 1". 

• Knr tho nnmw of members of tho D.S. delegratlon to 
thp talkie RFC Bouxnif of July 20, 1063. p. 159. 

today, while the negotiators are at work, I 
think we should not complicate their task by 
further speculation, and for that reason I do 
not expect to respond to further questions on 
this subject. 

President Nyerere of Tanganyika 
Visits Washington 

MwaUmu Julius K. Nyerere^ President of the 
Republic of Tanganyika, visited the United 
States from July J4- to 20. He was in Wash- 
ington July 15-17. Following is the text of a 
communique released jointly on July 16 by the 
Office of the White House Press Secretary and 
the Office of the Press Secretary of the Presi- 
dent of Tanganyika, together with a White 
House announcement of a new Peace Corps 
agreement between the two countries. 


Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, President of the 
Eepublic of Tanganyika, met yesterday and to- 
day with the President. They discussed politi- 
cal developments in Africa as related to world 
developments and those developments affecting 
the relations of the United States and Tangan- 

President Nyerere reviewed for the President 
the decisions taken by the recent African heads 
of state meeting in Addis Ababa and stressed 
the importance of the establishment at that 
meeting of an Organization of African Unity. 
President Nyerere also outlined the steps being 
taken to form an East African federation at an 
early date. 

The President reviewed the United States po- 
sition on world issues of interest to Tanganyika, 
stressing particularly the importance of pro- 
moting peac« and economic progress within a 
framework of freedom. The President con- 
firmed the continuing support of the United 
States for the principle of self-determination 
and expressed confidence in even greater co- 
operation and imderstanding between the 
United States and Tanganyika. 

President Nyerere thanked the President for 



the warm welcome which he and his party had 
received on his first visit to tlie United States 
since Tanganyika's independence. 


The Wliite House announced on July 16 that 
there would be a short ceremony at the AVliite 
House that afternoon during which President 
Nyerere of Tanganyika and Peace Corps Di- 
rector Sargent Shriver would make a joint 
announcement of an agreement under which 80 
new volunteer teachers will be sent to Tangan- 
yika in November. The third group of volun- 
teers requested by the East African republic, 
they will teach English and other subjects in 
upper primary grades. 

In 1961, when the Peace Corps began, Tan- 
ganyika was the first country to make a formal 
request for volunteers. That first group con- 
sisted of 29 surveyor-engineers and 5 geologists. 
They have just completed their 2-year tour of 
duty in Tanganyika and are returning to the 
United States this siunmer. During their stay, 
they mapped 7,500 square miles of Tanganyika 
hinterlands, worked on 525 miles of road con- 
struction, surveyed approximately 4,000 miles 
of road, and taught courses in forestry, road- 
building, and engineering. 

The new contingent of teachers will join a 
group of 20 nurses and 2 laboratory technicians 
who are just starting their second year of work 
in the hospitals of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga, and 

United States and IVIexico Agree To Conclude Convention 
for Settlement of Chamizal Boundary Dispute 

JULY 18 

White House press release dated July 18 

I have approved the reconmiendations for a 
complete solution to the Chamizal border prob- 
lem contained in a Memorandimi of the Depart- 
ment of State and of the Ministry of Foreign 
Relations of Mexico dated July 17, 1963. I am 
pleased to note that President Lopez Mateos has 
also approved the Memorandmn. The Memo- 
randum proposes the resolution of this long- 
standing dispute by giving effect in today's cir- 
cumstances to the 1911 international arbitra- 
tion award. 

It is gratifying to be able to approve a pro- 
posed settlement of the Chamizal dispute and 
thus bring closer to a successful conclusion the 
constructive efforts of President Taft and all 
the other American Presidents since him who 
have sought to resolve this complex problem 
on a mutually satisfactory basis. I believe the 
solution which has been recommended to me 
will make a significant contribution to relations 

between the United States and Mexico and will 
contribute to the welfare and orderly develop- 
ment of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, 

The Department of State will now imder- 
take negotiations with the Government of 
Mexico looking to the early conclusion of a 
convention to cany out the recommendations in 
the Memorandum. 


Press release 375 dated July 18 

Department Statement, July 18 

The Presidents of the United States and 
Mexico announced today their agreement to 
conclude a convention for the settlement of the 
Chamizal boimdary dispute. The recom- 
mended tei-ms of settlement which the Presi- 
dents have approved were submitted to them 
in identical memoranda by the Department of 
State and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign 

ATJGTJST 5, 1963 


Relations. According to the terms of the rec- 
ommended settlement, the United States would 
transfer to Mexico 4.'}7 acres in the vicinity of 
Kl Paso, Texas. Conclusion of tiie convention 
will 1hi a final step in tlie resolution of this con- 
troversy, which has been earnestly sought by 
every United States administration since 1910. 

An international arbitral commission 
awarded to Mexico in 1911 an undeterminable 
part of the Cliamizal zone in El Paso, Texas. 
The area of the zone then totaled approxi- 
mately 598 acres. Tlie Mexican claim was 
ba.sed on a shift in the channel of the Rio 
Grande. The United States Government, 
which had disputed the claim, rejected the 
award on several grounds, but in the under- 
standing that ihe Governments of the two 
countries could proceed at once to settle their 
dilTei-oiices through diplomatic channels. Since 
1911 the controversy has been a major prob- 
lem in relations between the two countries. 
Every United States administration beginning 
■with that of President Taft has attempted to 
resolve it in a mutually satisfactory manner. 
Proposals for a settlement have varied, and 
every practical means of settling the matter is 
believed to have been explored by the Govern- 
ments at one time or another. In June 1962 
President I>jpez Mateos urged that a further 
attempt be made, and President Kennedy 
agreed.' The two Presidents instructed their 
respective executive agencies to recommend a 
complete solution which, without prejudice to 
the juridical positions of the two Governments, 
would take into account the entire history of 
the tract. Tiiey recognized that any mutually 
acceptable settlement would ulfcct many people 
in the city of El Paso and agreed that respect 
for the rights and interests of the people af- 
fecte<l on both sides of tiie border should be a 
princi|)al consideration in reaching a solution. 
The recommended settlement follows generally 
the .solution set forth in the international arbi- 
tral award of 1911. 

An important consideration in a settlement 
ia the firm intention of the two Governments, in 
accordance with the treaties of 1848 ' and 1853," 

' Knr text of n joint cniiiiiiuDiqiio of June 30, 1902, 
»«<«• noi.ijm^ of July 23, 11HJ2, p. 135. 
•0 Stnt. O-Jl'. 
"10 sue. 1031. 

to maintain the Rio Grande as the boundary 
between the two covmtries. Maintenance of 
the Rio Grande as the boundary was an objec- 
tive of the so-called Banco Treaty of 1905,* 
under which thousands of acres, formerly on 
the United States side of the river, have been 
transferred to Mexican sovereignty as shifts in 
the channel placed them on the Mexican side 
of the river, and other thousands of acres, for- 
merly on the Mexican side, have been trans- 
ferred to United States sovereignty as they 
were shifted by river movements to the United 
States side. Under a 1933 treaty ° the river 
just below El Paso was straightened and stabi- 
lized. In that process the two countries ex- 
changed over 10,000 acres in order that the river 
might remain the boundary. 

In the recommended Chamizal settlement, 
similar transfers of territory are involved and 
the same problem of maintaining the river as 
the boundary arises. Since 1899 an enclave of 
386 acres, known as Cordova Island and under 
the jurisdiction of Mexico, has jutted north of 
the river into El Paso. The transfer to Mex- 
ico of additional acres in a Chamizal settle- 
ment would have augmented the amount of 
territory under Mexican jurisdiction north of 
the river. The two Governments agreed there- 
fore that in any settlement the Rio Grande 
should be relocated, completing the 1933 stabi- 
lization and restoring the river as the interna- 
tional boimdary for its entire reach in the vicin- 
ity of El Paso. 

The recommended terms of settlement to be 
incorporated in a convention would accord- 
ingly provide : There would be a net transfer to 
Mexico of 437 acres of territory now under the 
jurisdiction of the United States. Of this 
area, 366 acres would be from the disputed 
Chamizal zone and 71 acres would be from 
United States territory to the east adjacent to 
Cordova Island. Cordova Island itself, lying 
between these two areas, would be divided 
equally between the United States and Mexico 
in the process of the relocation of the river. 
The United States would transfer to Mexico for 
the 193 acres it would receive out of Cordova 
Island an equal acreage from the United States 

• 35 Stat 1863. 

• 48 Stat 1621. 



territory just east of Cordova Island. The Rio 
Grande would be relocated by channelization 
and reconstituted as the boundary between the 
United States and Mexico, thus eliminating the 
Cordova Island enclave. 

Both Governments would acquire title to all 
the land and improvements in the areas which 
would be transferred, and each Government 
would receive the areas transferred without en- 
cumbrances of any kind, including any private 
titles. No payments would be made between 
the two Governments for the lands passing 
from one country to the other. The United 
States would, however, be paid by a private 
Mexican bank for the value to Mexico of the 
structures that would pass intact to Mexico. 
The two Governments would share equally the 
costs of actual construction of the relocated 
river channel, each Government bearing the 
costs of compensation for the value of the im- 
provements destroyed m the construction proc- 
ess in the territory under its jurisdiction prior 
to the relocation of the boundary. The costs 
of constructing the bridges which would replace 
the existing bridges would be borne in equal 
parts by the two Governments. The citizen- 
ship status of persons who are or were residents 
of the areas being transferred would not be af- 
fected, nor would jurisdiction over or the appli- 
cability of laws to acts in or with respect to 
the area, including criminal or civil proceedings 
decided or pending at the time of transfer, be 
affected. Once the convention has been ap- 
proved and comes into force and the necessary 
enabling legislation enacted, the International 
Boimdary and Water Commission would agree 
upon a period in which to effect the acquisition 
of the properties. The relocation of the bound- 
ary line and the transfer of sovereignty would 
take place when the United States Commis- 
sioner on the Commission has certified that the 
acquisition of the properties and evacuation of 
the occupants have been completed and pay- 
ment for the structures passing intact to Mexico 
has been received, and when the Commission has 
certified with the approval of the two Govern- 
ments that the new bomidary line has been 

The Department believes that settlement of 
this longstanding controversy would be a nota- 

ble achievement in inter- American relations and 
in the history of peaceful settlement of inter- 
national disputes. The Department is con- 
vinced, despite the serious temporary incon- 
veniences that it would cause for many people 
in El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, that the settle- 
ment would greatly benefit both commimities in 
the solution of current municipal problems and 
in the planning and realization of their future 

Text of Memorandum 

Recommendations to the Presidents op the United 
States and of Mexico by the Department of State 
AND the Ministry of Foreign Rei.ations for a Com- 
plete Solution of the Chamizal Problem 

A. The Chamizal tract is an area on the north bank 
of the Rio Grande, within the city limits of El Paso, 
Texas. When, at the end of the past century, the con- 
troversy between the Governments of the United States 
and of Mexico over the Chamizal began, the total area 
of this tract was approximately 598 acres. 

B. The principal factors relating to the controversy 
under reference are summarized as follows : 

1) Each one of the two Governments claimed inter- 
national title over the entire area of the Chamizal. 

2) On June 15, 1911, the International Boundary 
Commission, United States-Mexico, increased by the 
appointment of a third member, the presiding Commis- 
sioner Eugene Lafleur of Canada, ruled, by a majority 
vote, that the United States had international title to 
that part of the Chamizal which, in 1864 before the 
floods of that year, was to the north of the center of 
the channel of the Rio Grande; and that Mexico had 
international title to that part of the Chamizal which 
was to the south of said center of the channel in 1864. 

3) The United States Commissioner on the Interna- 
tional Boundary Commission challenged the validity of 
the majority ruling, on the ground, among others, that 
in the opinion of the United States, in 1911 it was im- 
possible to determine the channel of the river in 1864. 

4) In the award under reference, the Presiding Com- 
missioner and the Commissioner of Mexico included 
the following statement : "They also conceive that it 
is not within their province to relocate that line, inas- 
much as the parties have offered no evidence to enable 
the Commission'ers to do so." 

5) From the date of the award to the present the two 
Governments on various occasions attempted without 
success to settle the Chamizal controversy. On June 
30, 1962, President Kennedy and President Lopez Ma- 
teos announced their agreement to instruct their exec- 
utive agencies to recommend a complete solution to 
the Chamizal problem which, without prejudice to 
their juridical positions, took into account the entire 
history of this tract. 

0. A portion of land under Mexican jurisdiction. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


known aa Conlova Inland, with an area of 3.SC acres, Is 
■U<i to thi' north of the present channel of the Rio 
Grande. Tbo location of this land north of the river 
re«ulle<l from an artificial cut ninde in the year 1899 
by common UKreeiiient iK-tween the two Governments bo 
■M to n><lu<v the duMKiTs of (Io<hLs. Oirdova Island 
In contlKUous to the Chamlzal tract. Its precise loca- 
tion and iHi-ullar formation are .shown on the attache<l 

I). For either country. It Is undesirable to have a por- 
tion of ltJ4 territory on the opixislte bank of the Rio 
Grande. In fact, these Instances of physical isola- 
tion hinder border-<^)utrol measures and the best utill- 
cation of the detached ureas. These problems are par- 
ticularly serious in the of Cordova I.sland, because 
It i.t an area the urbanization of which under present 
n>ndltlon.s would i)c unsatisfactory and of doubtful 
l)eneflt since it is practically isolated from Mexican 
territory and as an enclave in FA Paso constitutes an 
obstAcle to the logical development of that city. 

E. AccordlnK to the calculations made by both Gov- 
ernments, the part of the Chamizal claimed by Mexico 
has an area of apjiro^lmately 437 acres. The transfer 
to Mexico of the portion of the Chamizal which it 
claims, without relocation of the channel of the Rio 
Grande, could not by ILself be considered as the com- 
plete solution called for by the Joint Communique of 
June .TO, 1062. because a iwrtlon of territory under 
Mexican Jurisdiction would yet remain to the north of 
the present channel of the Rio Grande. This area of 
K£i acres Is composed of •l.'JT acres in the Chamizal and 
380 acres in Cordova Island. 

F. Both Governments have always demonstrated 
their firm intention to restore the Rio Grande as the 
tioundary betwin-n them as provided In the Treaties of 
184S and 18.Vt, throuch efforts to And adequate solu- 
tions to all Instances where iwrtions of tlieir resiKK'tive 
t»rrltorles are situated on the opposite bank of the 

G. From the foregoing, it Is clear that the complete 
solution of the Chanilziil problem calls for incorporat- 
Ing Into Mexico 823 acres presently north of the Rio 
Grande, by means of the excavation of a new channel 
whli-h would restore the river as the boundary between 
Kl I'aso and Ciudad Juarez. 

H. The excavation of the new river channel would 
complete the project eiei-uted by both Governments in 
the Kl Taso-Cludad Juarez Valley. Under the terms 
of the Convention of February 1, 1933. the channel of 
the Rio Grande has Ijeen rectified in the sector of the 
river from Cordova Island to Cajoncitos Canyon, a dis- 
tance of SM miles. That rectification, which has af- 
ford«-d an extensive border region with adequate pro- 
twllon uKolnst OiKxls and, addlUonally, with the many 
iK-neflUi derlvi-<l from the existence of a precise and 
•Ubic natural border, could not have been carried out 

•Not printed here; for a copy of the map, see De- 
partment of State press release 375. 

had there not existed then, as now, mutual understand- 
ing and good will between the United States and Mex- 
ico, as its completion required the cutting of 86 tracts, 
under the Jurisdiction of Mexico, with a total area o( 
5,120 acres in exchange for 89 tracts, cut from the 
United States, with the same total acreage. The ease 
and rapidity which characterized the exchanges of ter- 
ritory under reference — this taslc was begun in the year 
1934 and terminated in 1938 — indicate the advisability 
of following the same procedure by concluding a con- 
vention applicable to the sector of the river separating 
EI Paso from Ciudad Juarez. 


In view of the foregoing, the Department of State and 
the Ministry of Foreign Relations make the following 
Joint recommendation for the complete solution of the 
Chamizal problem : 

In the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez sector, the Rio Grande 
should be relocated into a new channel in order that 
south of the center of the new channel an area of 823 
acres, In a single tract, be incorporated into Mexico. 
The center of the new channel would be the mtema- 
tional boimdary. 

1. The new channel would have the following char- 
acteristics : 

(a) It would commence at the point where the di- 
vergence between the present day and the 1SG4 channel 
begins (marked "A" on the attached map). 

(b) The course of the new channel would be such 
that the areas transferred and the compensations there- 
for would be reduced to a minimum, with no further 
limitations than those imposed by the objective of con- 
tributing, in a positive manner, to the future develop- 
ment of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez and by technical 

(c) The new channel would be concrete lined, In or- 
der that its width be as narrow as may be compatible 
with the technical requirements for protection against 
floods ; that the number of persons and properties af- 
fected be minimized ; that health conditions along the 
river be improved; that border control be facilitated; 
and that the project contribute to the beautification of 
El Paso and Ciudad Juarez. 

2. The recommended new channel for the river, 
which would comply with the criteria set forth in 
the Recommendation and numbered paragraph 1 above, 
has been delineated on the attached map of the Bl 
Paso-Ciudad Juarez region by the International 
Boundary and Water Commission, United States and 
Mexico. The results of this relocation of the channel 
of the river follow : 

(a) Of the 437 acres in the Chamizal tract to which 
Mexico claims international title, approximately 366 
acres would lie incorporated into Mexico in that same 
tract. The 71 acres in the Chamizal tract which would 
not be incorporated into Mexico in the Chamizal tract 
would be compensated for by cutting to Mexico an 
equal acreage from the territory under the Jurisdiction 



of the United States immediately to the east of Cordova 

(b) Also, 193 acres of territory under the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States in the area immediately to 
the east of Cordova Island vpould be cut to Mexico 
and would be compensated for by an equal acreage 
which would be cut to the United States from territory 
under the jurisdiction of Mexico in the northern por- 
tion of Cordova Island. 

3. Finally, the Department of State and the Min- 
istry of Foreign Relations have reached the following 
supplementary agreements : 

(a) The lands in the Chamizal tract and in the zone 
immediately to the east of Cordova Island which would 
pass to Mexico would be free of any limitation on 
ownership or encumbrance of any kind including any 
private titles. The land in Cordova Island which 
would remain north of the new river channel and 
would pass to the United States would also be free of 
any limitation on ownership or encumbrance of any 
kind including any private titles. No payments would 
be made, as between the two Governments, for the 
value of the lands which would pass from one country 
to the other as a result of the incorporation into 
Mexico of Chamizal territory and of the relocation 
of the river channel. 

(b) The transfer of lands in Cordova Island referred 
to in the penultimate sentence of the preceding para- 
graph would not require the adoption of any special 
measures by the Government of Mexico as these lands 
are not privately owned and are uninhabited. 

(c) In the lands which would pass from the United 
States to Mexico in the Chamizal zone as well as in 
the area immediately to the east of Cordova Island 
there are some 382 structures which would pass intact 
to Mexico. All these structures are owned by private 
individuals with the exception of the Navarro School 
and the offices of the United States Border Patrol 
which are in the zone to the east of Cordova Island. 
Approximately 3,750 persons reside on the lands which 
would be directly affected by the relocation of the 

(d) Once the required Convention is approved in 
accordance with the respective constitutional processes 
of the two countries, and the necessary legislation is 
enacted for carrying out the provisions of the Con- 
vention, the Government of the United States in con- 
formity with its laws would acquire the properties 
which would be transferred to Mexico and effect the 
orderly evacuation of the occupants of the areas in- 
volved within a period of time which would be agreed 
upon by the two Commissioners on the International 
Boundary and Water Commission. 

(e) The Government of Mexico would communicate 
to the Government of the United States the names of 
the private individuals or corporations, of Mexican 
nationality, to whom the Government of Mexico may 
decide to convey the titles to the properties com- 
prised of those structures which would pass intact 
to Mexico and the lands on which they stand. These 

persons or corporations would pay the Government of 
Mexico for the value of said lands and they would 
pay the Government of the United States for the esti- 
mated value to Mexico of these structures. 

(f) The Commissioner of the United States on the 
International Boundary and Water Commission would 
certify as to the completion of the acquisitions and ar- 
rangements cited in 3(d) as weU as of the action pro- 
vided for in the last part of 3(e) and would so inform 
the Commissioner of Mexico. Both Commissioners 
would then proceed to demarcate the new boundary 
line, recording this in a Minute. The relocation of 
the boundary line and the transfer of lands provided 
for in the Convention would take place upon approval 
of this Minute by both Governments in accordance 
with established procedure. 

(g) The costs of constructing the new river channel 
would be borne, in equal parts, by the two Govern- 
ments. However, each Government would bear the 
costs of compensation for the value of the improve- 
ments or structures destroyed in the process of con- 
structing the new channel of the Rio Grande in the 
territory under its jurisdiction at the time the Con- 
vention enters into force. 

(h) The costs of constructing the bridges which 
would replace the six that are presently in use would 
be borne in equal parts by the two Governments. The 
legal status of the four bridges that presently are in- 
ternational bridges would not be altered by the pro- 
visions of the convention and, therefore, the agreements 
now in force which relate to them would apply with- 
out change to the new bridges which replace them. 
The bridges which would replace the international 
bridges on Stanton-Lerdo and Santa Fe-Juarez Streets 
would be located on the same streets. The interna- 
tional bridge or bridges which would replace the two 
to Cordova Island would be toU free unless the two 
Governments should agree to the contrary. The loca- 
tion of the free bridge or bridges would be subject to 
agreement between the Commissioners of the United 
States and Mexico on the International Boundary and 
Water Commission to be reached and recorded in ac- 
cord with established procedure. 

(i) The International Boundary and Water Com- 
mission would be charged with the relocation, im- 
provement, and maintenance of the river channel, as 
well as the construction of the new bridges. 

(j) The relocation of the boundary and the transfer 
of lands resulting therefrom would not affect in any 
way : the legal status, with respect to citizenship laws, 
of those persons who are present or former residents 
of the lands transferred ; the jurisdiction over legal 
proceedings of either a civil or criminal character 
which are pending at the time of, or which were de- 
cided prior to, such relocation ; or the jurisdiction over 
or the law or laws applicable to acts or conduct i)er- 
formed within or with respect to the lands transferred 
prior to their transfer. The Convention would con- 
tain provisions to give effect to these principles. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


The DojKirUnent of SUte and Uie Ministry of For- 
elKn Uelntlons are i-ertaln that the final solution of 
the Cliamiial problem will be of great value to the 
future hiinucinloua development of the cities of El Paso 
•nd Ciudad Juarez. But even more, the solution of 
thin »-outrover8jr will serve as a notable example to 
the world at large and will contribute to world peace 
by again demonwtrating that all differences among na- 
UonH, regardlew) of how complicated they may be, can 
be resolved through friendly negotiations. 

Julv n. J9G3 

WABumoTox, D.C. and Mexico, D.F. 

rencies to meet current needs, U.S. dollar 
payments abroad would be reduced by an 
equivalent amount and the U.S. balance of 
payments would be benefited accordingly. Ap- 
proximately $75 million of administratively re- 
served currencies could be made available, with 
$35-40 million to be used in the first year fol- 
lowing enactment of the amendment. As cur- 
rencies are needed for the three programs later, 
the Treasury would supply them from sub- 
sequent receipts or buy them if necessary. 

President Moves To Facilitate 
Use off Foreign Currencies 

While HouM press release dated Jaly 8 

The President transmitted to Congress on 
July S iin ainendnient to the general provisions 
of tlie lOCl budget which would ease the United 
States balance-of-payments situation by permit- 
ting foreign currencies to be used more flexibly. 

The amendment will facilitate the use of 
foreign currencies through a change in Treas- 
ury banking and accounting arrangements. It 
will help to improve the United States balance- 
of-payments position without making any 
change in the system of congressional control 
of foreign currencies or in the availability of 
foreign currencies for programs for which they 
are reserved under existing law. The proposed 
language would accomplish these purposes by 
enabling currencies on hand to be used for cur- 
rent needs and to be replaced as required later. 

The new provision would free for immediate 
U.S. Government use foreign currencies re- 
stricted under three programs — the market de- 
velopment and research programs of the 
Department of Agriculture and the educational 
exchange program of the Department of State. 
Wien currencies are reserved under these pro- 
grams, they are set aside, even though they may 
not l)e u.sed for several years. Therefore, when 
the United States requires currencies for other 
programs in a given country, as it does in many 
countries, the rurrencies must be purchased 
commercially with dollars, even though at 
the same time identical currencies may be idle 
in Treasury accounts. By using these idle cur- 

Department Releases First Volume 
of Digest of International Law 


The Department of State announced on July 
15 (press release 373) that a new Digest of In- 
ternational Laio, the first since the beginning of 
World War II, is now being published by the 
Department. On that day the first volume was 
formally presented to Secretary Rusk by As- 
sistant Legal Adviser Marjorie "Wliiteman. 
The Digest is being prepared by and under the 
direction of Miss"V\niiteraan. 

A successor to Hackworth's Digest of Inter- 
national Law, published in 1940, the new Digest 
will contain the first official and comprehensive 
treatments of the new areas of international 
law that have developed in the past two decades, 
such as the law of outer space, disarmament, 
Antarctica, and the continental shelf. Other 
areas of international law, such as aviation and 
international organizations, which were in their 
infancy when Hackworth's Digest was pub- 
lished, will be dealt with at length in the new 
Digest. An entire volume will be devoted to 
the United Nations, the specialized agencies, 
the international banking ventures, and other 
international organizations wliich have grown 
up since the war. 

Eventually the Digest is expected to run to 
15 or 16 volumes, roughly twice the size of its 
predecessor. Present printing schedules call 
for at least three more volumes during the com- 



ing winter, with the rest following as quickly 
as possible. 

Volume I, which runs to practically 1,000 
pages, contains two chapters — "International 
Law" and "States, Territories, and Govern- 
ments." Hackworth's Digest covered the same 
material in 160 pages. The birth of moi-e than 
50 states, the postwar evolution of the British 
Commonwealth and the postwar historj' of the 
French Commimity, the development of the 
United Nations trust territories, and the recent 
history of the League of Nations mandates are 
all recorded in this volume. 

The Digest is the fifth digest of international 
law to be published by the Department. The 
first was published in 1877. Prepared by Jolin 
L. Cadwalader, Assistant Secretary of State, it 
was titled Digest of the Published Opinions of 
the Attorneys-General and of the Leading Deci- 
sions of the Federal Courts, with Reference to 
International Law, Treaties, and Kindred Sub- 
jects. This Digest was a single volume of less 
than 300 pages, with the subjects arranged in 
alphabetical order rather than under chapter 

The second Digest of International Law was 
prepared by Dr. Francis Wliarton, Chief Exam- 
iner of Claims for the Department of State, and 
published in 1886. Wharton's Digest was a 
three-volume work, which set the pattern for 
succeeding digests insofar as the general format 
and table of contents were concerned. John 
Bassett Moore prepared the third Digest, which 
ran to eight volumes. It was published in 1906 
and incorporated much of Wharton's Digest. 
The Digest by Green Haywood Hackworth, 
Legal Adviser to the Department of State, pub- 
lished in 1940, was the fourth. 

Work on the present Digest began formally 
in 1957, when Legal Adviser Herman Phleger 
asked Miss Whiteman to midertake the task. 
Material for the Digest, however, has been col- 
lected by Miss Wliiteman during the preceding 
two decades. 

Copies of volume I are for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, at 
$4.25 each. 


I am delighted to receive the first volume of 
the new Digest of International Law. This is 
our first comprehensive treatment of public in- 
ternational law by the Department since Hack- 
worth's Digest, wliich was published at the be- 
ginning of World War 11. 

The 23 years which have passed since the pub- 
lication of Hackworth's Digest have been years 
of unprecedented growth and development for 
international law, both in its procedural and 
substantive aspects. This growth and de- 
velopment are no more than a reflection, and 
a consequence, of the increased collaboration and 
cooperation among nations on a rapidly shrink- 
ing planet. In this sense these volumes will be 
a documentary record of the complexity and 
compactness of our world and of the interrela- 
tionship of its nations and people. 

This volume, and the ones to come, will fill 
an important gap in the legal materials avail- 
able to the United States Government, to the 
bar and to the public in this country, and to 
governments and scholars throughout the world. 
We are grateful to you, Miss Wliiteman, for 
undertaking the preparation of the Digest of 
International Law and for the intensive work 
you have done and have directed over several 
years, to see the task through to completion. 
We look forward to the other volumes in this 
important project. 

Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

88th Congress, 1st Session 

Antitrust Developments in the European Common Mar- 
ket. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust 
and Monopoly of the Senate Judiciary Committee. 
Part I. March 8-14, 1963. 262 pp. 

Activities of Nondiplomatic Representatives of Foreign 
Principals in the United States. Hearing before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Part 5. 
March 29, 1963. 67 pp. 

Training of Foreign Affairs Personnel. Hearings be- 
fore the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on S. 
15 and S. 865, bills to establish a National Academy 
of Foreign Affairs, S. 32 and S. 99, bills to establish 
a U.S. Foreign Service Academy, and S. 414, a bill 
to establish a Freedom Commission and a Freedom 
Academy. April 4-May 1, 1963. 492 pp. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


Calendar of International Conferences and Meetings' 

Scheduled August Through October 1963 

Int. r-AiiLTican Ministers of Efiufation: 3cl Mooting Bogota Aug. 4- 

UNESCO/BIItPI African Study Meeting on Copyright Brazzaville Aug. 5- 

U.N. ECAFE Seminar on Geochemical Prospecting Methods and Bangkok Aug. 5- 

Eciuipment. _^ . 

U N. Seminar on the Rights of the Child Warsaw Aug. 6- 

BIRPI African Seminar on Industrial Property Brazzaville Aug. 12- 

17th International Film Festival Edinburgh Aug. 18- 

ICAO International Conference on Air Law Tokyo Aug. 20- 

International Criminal Police Organization Helsinki Aug. 21- 

U.N. International Conference on Travel and Tourism Rome Aug. 21- 

ILO Iron and Steel Committee: 7th Session Cardiff, Wales .... Aug. 26- 

Ccntcnarv Congress of the International Red Cross Geneva Aug. 27- 

U.N. ECOSOCf Preparatory Committee for the Conference on Trade New York August 

and Development. 

ECE Steel Committee Geneva Sept. 9- 

IMCU Maritime Safety Committee: Extraordinary Session London Sept. 10- 

U.N. Human Rights Seminar on the Status of Women in Family Law . Bogotd, Sept. 10- 

52d Conference of the Interparliamentary Union Belgrade Sept. 12- 

CiATT Conmiittee on Budget, Finance, and Administration Geneva Sept. 16- 

U.N. ECAFE Working Party on Economic Development and Planning: Bangkok Sept. 16- 

8th Session. 

5th FAO Conference on Wood Technology Madison, Wis Sept. 16- 

U.N. General Assembly: 18th Session New York Sept. 17- 

ICAO Limited Southeast Asia Regional Air Navigation Meeting . . . Bangkok Sept. 17- 

12th Pan American Child Congress Buenos Aires Sept. 22- 

U.N. ECE Coal Committee Geneva Sept. 23- 

lAEA General Conference: 7th Regular Session Vienna Sept. 24- 

ITU CCITT Working Parties of Study Group IV Geneva Sept. 24- 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: Symposium on the Madrid Sept. 25- 

Mea,surement of Abundance of Fish Stocks. 

Executive Committee of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees: 10th Geneva Sept. 30- 


U.N. ECAFE Subcommittee on Electric Power: 9th Session Bangkok Sept. 30- 

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: 51st Statutory Madrid Sept. 30- 


ILO Technical Conference on Employment Policy Geneva Sept. 30- 

Intomational Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Washington September 

Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation, International 

Development Association: Annual Meetings of Boards of Governors. 

Caribbean Organization Council: 4th Meeting San Juan September 

PAliO Executive Committee: 49th Meeting Washington September 

NV HO Regional Committee for the Western Pacific: 14th Session . . . Port Moresby, Papua. . September 

C;ATT Negotiations on U.S. Tariff Reclassification Geneva September 

0th Round of G ATT Tariff Negotiations Geneva September 

I ^, • J^'onf'-rence on Cocoa Geneva September 

i-v-i- •r"'"'"'"''^ °" ^''^ ^*'*'^^^"' ^^*"^ °^ ^"*^'" ^P*'^*' New York September 

I M„'<f'() Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission: 3d Session . . Paris September 

„,„_f"'P?'Td in the Office of International Conferences, July 18, 1963. Following is a list of abbreviations: 
MlKl I, Lnitcd International Bureaus for the Protection of Industrial and Intellectual Property; CCITT, 
romit<^ conBultatif international t^l6graphique et tdl^phonioue; ECAFE, Economic Commission for Asia and the 
l-ar J-jwt; lA K. Economic Commission for Europe; ECOS6C, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and 
Agnrulture Organization; GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IAEA, International Atomic Energy 
A(tenc> . I*. AO International Civil Aviation Organization; ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee for European 
rtilKrntmn; ll.o, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
11 i\ intemational Telecommunication Union; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel- 
opment- I Alio, Ian American Health Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNESCO, United Nations Educa- 
w\!.; vv"''li ^f"." Cultural Organization: UPU, Universal Postal Union; WHO, World Health Organization; 
WMO, Worid McU-orological Organization. e > 


UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission: Communica- 
tions Panel. 

OECD Ministers of Science 

U.N. ECE Timber Committee: 21st Session 

ICEM Executive Committee: 22d Session 

GATT Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions 

ITU E.xtraordinarv Administrative Radio Conference 

ICEM Council: 26th Session 

IMCO Assembly: 3d Session 

11th Pan American Railway Congress 

U.N. ECE Committee on "Trade 

BIRPI: Committee of Experts on Problems of Less Developed Countries 
in Field of Industrial Property. 

U.N. ECA Conference on African Electric Power Problems 

GATT Committee III on E.xpansion of International Trade 

UPU Consultative Committee on Postal Studies: Management Council. 

ICAO Air Traffic Control Automation Panel: 3d Meeting 

ICAO Visual Aids Panel: 3d Meeting 

IMCO Council: 9th Session 

International Lead and Zinc Study Group: 7th Session 

South Pacific Commission: 25th Session 

WMO Regional Association VI (Europe): 4th Session 

lA-ECOSOC: 2d Annual Meeting at Ministerial Level 

lA-ECOSOC: 2d Annual Meeting at Expert Level 

Paris September 

Paris Oct. 2- 

Geneva Oct. 7- 

Geneva Oct. 7- 

Geneva Oct. 7- 

Geneva Oct. 7- 

Geneva Oct. 14- 

London Oct. 16- 

M6xico, D.F Oct. 18- 

Geneva Oct. 21- 

Geneva Oct. 21- 

Addis Ababa Oct. 21- 

Geneva Oct. 21- 

Washington Oct. 28- 

Montreal Oct. 28- 

Montreal Oct. 28- 

London Oct. 29- 

Geneva October 

Noumfe October 

Vienna October 

Sao Paulo October 

Sao Paulo October 

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 

Following are statements made in the United 
Nations Trusteeship Council iy M. Wilfred 
Goding, High Com^missioner of the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands and U.S. Special 
Representative in the Trusteeship Council, and 
Vincente N. Santos, President, Marianas Dis- 
trict Legislature, Saipan, and adviser to the 
U.S. Special Representative. 


D.S./U.N. press release 4212 

It is a privilege to be here again this year as 
Special Representative for the Administering 
Authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands.^ I am especially grateful for the op- 
portunity to report to members of the Council at 
this particular time. The past year has been a 
veiy eventful year — the most eventful year, I 
am convinced, since the territory became a 

trusteeship area. It has been a year of unusual 
progress as well as one of major trial. 

A full record of our activities of fiscal year 
1962 is given in the written report - which al- 
ready has been placed in your hands. In this 
oral report, therefore, I shall summarize only 
briefly the major advances and setbacks that 
have occurred within the past year, especially 
as they relate to the programs and plans that 
have been discussed at these sessions during the 
past 2 years. I shall then be glad to attempt to 
answer any questions you may wish to ask. As 
always, the Administering Authority looks for- 
ward to receiving comments and suggestions of 
the members of the Council. 

Before I begin a resume of the past year's ac- 
tivities, I would like to take this opportunity 
to pay tribute to the Micronesian people. I 
am constantly and increasingly reminded of 
their innate abilities, of their kindness and gen- 
erosity, of their loyalty and devotion to demo- 

' For a statement made by Mr. Coding in the Trustee- 
ship Council on May 31, 1962, see Buixetin of Aug. 13, 
1962, p. 264. 

" Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, 1962 (Depart- 
ment of State publication 7521) ; for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 (75 cents). 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


crntic principles, of the rising generation's ca- 
pacity to accept the repponsibiiities of their 
cliosen professions and to provide the leader- 
sliip that should enable them to decide tlieir 
own destiny in the world of nations in the 
reasonably near future, and perhaps sooner — 
more rapidly than would have been thought 
possible a few decades ago. 

It is these qualities of the Micronesian people 
which are mainly responsible for the splendid 
human relations existing in the Trust Territory, 
whicli was so well expressed by a recent visitor 
from Fiji who, after traveling through the is- 
lands, remarked that although good race rela- 
tions prevailed elsewhere in the Pacific, tliey 
could not be compared with the easy relations 
and complete acceptance of all races by each 
other which is so ajiparent in the Trust Terri- 
tory of the Pacific Islands. 

At this point I would also like to say that 
one of the most gratifying experiences of the 
past year has been the vastly increased and 
growing interest and effort in Micronesia that 
has taken place among all segments of the U.S. 
Government, as well as among many private 
agencies and individuals, not only in the United 
States but, indeed, in many areas of the world. 

Not only the interest but the active support 
and direct aid of those agencies in a position 
to help was forthcoming when needed. This 
willingness, or indeed this eagerness, to help was 
demonstrated time and again during the past 
year. It was demonstrated when the Adminis- 
tering Authority sought, and was successful in 
acquiring, new legislation and greatly increa.sed 
ftmds with which to intensify its efforts in all 
fields of endeavor. It was demonstrated when 
an outbreak of poliomyelitis occurred in the 
Marshall Islands, with the result that the disease 
was checked before it could spread to other areas 
of t he territory'. Again, it was demonstrated re- 
cent ly when Tj-phoon Olive swept over the 
Marianas District, leaving in its wake a great 
deal of damage and destruction. 

The interest of the U.S. Government in the 
islands of the Trust Territorj' has made itself 
apparent in many other ways. An Interdepart - 
mental Task Force compri.sed of members of 
various Federal agencies, which had been set 
up the year before, was active during this period 

in working for needed legislation and provid- 
ing other assistance. The 87th U.S. Congress 
passed a bill which included the Trust Territory 
in those areas which could receive Federal as- 
sistance in case of disaster, and this became law 
last June when President Kennedy approved it. 

Had it not been for this last-named action, 
the Trust Territory administration would have 
been sorely pressed to pro\nde emergency needs 
and permanent repairs resulting from the re- 
cent typhoon. My colleagues and I have just 
come from the island of Saipan, to which we 
moved our headquarters a year ago and over 
which the eye of the typhoon passed. This was 
the first major storm to strike Saipan in 4& 
years and one of the most severe in the island's 
recorded history. Miraculously, no lives were 
lost. But the stoiTn damaged or destroyed 
homes, farms, schools, hospitals, churches, com- 
mercial garden crops, and Goveriunent installa- 
tions of all types in Rota and Tinian as well as 
in Saipan. 

Because of the Congress' and the President's 
action last June, assistance was available imme- 
diately. The President declared the stricken 
Marianas a major disaster area, and within 24 
hours needs had been surveyed and plans made 
for assistance. The American Red Cross, to- 
gether with the Department of Agriculture, will 
dispense food as long as the need exists. With 
the aid of nurses from the U.S. Navy hospital 
in Guam, typhoid inoculations were given to all 
residents in the stricken areas. A representa- 
tive from the President's Office of Emergency 
Planning surveyed damage to public facilities 
such as schools, power plants, water plants, 
dock facilities, and other Government buildings 
and estimated the damage at over $2 million. 
Rehabilitation work already has begun. Assist- 
ance also has been given to help replace houses 
and local businesses. 


AVhen I appeared before this body a year ago, 
I presented a reassessment of our needs in the 
fields of education, economic development, pub- 
lic health, and major construction. This analy- 
sis highlighted the fact that we need to set a 
much more rapid pace in the development of 



the Trust Territory. To do so meant vastly 
increased appropriations. 

Accordingly, a budget of $15 million was re- 
quested for the current fiscal year. It is with 
a great deal of gratification that I am able to 
report that the full amount of the request was 
approved by the Congress. This is an increase 
of over 100 percent over the prior year's appro- 
priation and compares with annual appropria- 
tions which had approximated $7 million for 
all functions of government for the previous 
several years. 

Active support for the increased appropria- 
tion came from all levels of government — from 
the Office of the President, the Department of 
the Interior, the Department of State, the Bu- 
reau of the Budget, the congressional commit- 
tees concerned, and the U.S. Congress itself. 
All agreed wholeheartedly that the Administer- 
ing Authority could meet the challenge it faced 
only by laimching a vastly accelerated program. 

Enactment of a new law was necessary before 
the increased appropriation could be approved, 
since a statutory limitation of $7.5 million for 
Trust Territory administration had earlier been 
set by Congress. Our first step thus was to have 
the appropriation ceiling lifted. This was ac- 
complished with the passage by Congress of a 
new authorization law in July 1962,^ which en- 
abled us to request $15 million for our 1963 

Because the new law did not become effective 
in time for the increased appropriation to be 
included in the general appropriations bills for 
fiscal year 1963, it was necessary to submit a 
supplemental request for consideration of the 
newly authorized appropriation. Accordingly 
we submitted a supplemental budget to bring 
our 1963 appropriation up to the total of $15 
million authorized. Enactment was carried 
over to the 88th session of the U.S. Con- 
gress, and on May 17 of this year we received 
the second half of our increased appropriation. 

Although this delay temporarily held up 
some aspects of our acceiforated construction 
program, the intervening period was used to 
good advantage in the perfecting of our plan- 

' For a statement by President Kennedy, see Bulue- 
TIN of Aug. 13, 1962, p. 272. 

ning. AVhen the money became available we 
were able to move more expeditiously into our 
construction program. 

Other administrative events of major and 
far-reaching import took place during the year 
under review. The first was the unification of 
all the territory under civilian administration. 
By Executive order of the President,* the 
former Saipan District was placed under the 
jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior on 
July 1, 1962. 

The turnover of the former Saipan District 
to us by the Department of the Navy was ac- 
complished in a smooth and exemplary manner 
and the naval administration is to be com- 
mended for the cooperation we received during 
this complex operation. The integration of 
Saipan District also enabled us to bring about 
another long-sought amalgamation — that of 
unifying all the Mariana Islands into one dis- 
trict. On July 1, 1962, the Marianas District 
was created from the former Rota and Saipan 
Districts. Two events, long sought by the peo- 
ple of the Mariana Islands as well as by recent 
visiting missions and the Trusteeship Council, 
thus were brought to successful culmination at 
the beginning of the year under review. 

Along with the unification of Saipan Island 
and the Northern Mariana Islands with the rest 
of the territoi-y went another historic event, that 
of the transfer of the headquarters of the Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands to Saipan Is- 
land, thus establishing a provisional capital of 
the territory for the first time within its own 
boimdaries. These two historic events have 
brought about increased cooperation amongst 
the people of the territory and liave stimulated 
greater political cohesion. The establishment 
of headquarters on Saipan has also enabled us 
to utilize to the maximum the services of quali- 
fied Micronesians on the headquarters staff as 
well as to make easier our program of inservice 
training. In every headquarters department 
there are now Micronesian staff members, with 
all districts being represented. 

Last year I set forth in detail the range of 
headquarters staff positions occupied by AOcro- 
nesians, and I will not repeat here except to say 

* For text, see ihid., May 28, 1962, p. 887. 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


that in most areas tho number has appreciably 
increased. Additionally, more than 50 clerical 
and other positions formerly held by U.S. citi- 
zens when we were locjited on Guam now are 
filled e.xclusively by local citizens. 

'riio replacement program continued also at 
tho district level. In Palau, Mr. Takeo Yano 
l)ecame tho first Micronesian to be appointed as- 
sistant district administrator in administration 
affairs on a permanent basis. Altogether, dur- 
ing the year, some 65 Micronesians were 
placed in professional and senior executive posi- 
tions in the Trust Territory, an increase of 150 
percent over the previous year. There are 100 
Micronesians holding senior positions, making 
up approximately half of all the professional 
and top-level positions in the administration. 

We are also continuing the analysis of wage 
scales in the territory. Because of budgetary 
limitations we have been unable to make a com- 
plete wage-scale readjustment, although a st^irt 
was made last October, when a substantial sal- 
arj- adju.stment was made covering most of the 
lower and middle pay rates. An additional 
salary adjustment is scheduled for July, soon 
after the beginning of the new fiscal year. This 
wage increase will be instituted at all levels, 
with special attention being given to the elimi- 
nation of any inequities that still exist. 

A wage adjustment was also put into effect 
during the year for the Kwajalein area, and 
in January 100.3 the differential paid to Micro- 
nesians when they are employed in districts 
other than their own was raised from 15 percent 
to 25 percent. 

Political Advancement 

riidi-r the guidance of the new headquarters 
Political Affairs Office, the political develop- 
ment program was speeded up considerably. 
This section is composed of a political affairs 
officer, who is both a political scientist and law- 
yer, and two Micronesian assistant political 
affairs officers, both holding degrees in political 
science. As each district congress met, it re- 
ceived technical advice from the Political 
Affairs Office, thus aiding immeasurably in 
Ipffislative drafting and in the improvement of 
legislative procedures. 

The political highlight of the year was the 

Council of Micronesia session held in late Sep- 
tember and early October in Koror, Palau. 
This was the first time that the Council of 
Micronesia had met within the territory's 
boundaries, and its deliberations resulted in rec- 
ommendations and resolutions which will pro- 
foundly affect the future political development 
of the territory. The Council resolved that a 
true legislative body be created as soon as pos- 
sible and, to achieve this end, established a 
Legislative Drafting Committee to begin pre- 
liminary work on the drafting of a constitution. 

At a meeting last fall the Council adopted an 
oflScial Trust Territory flag in order that the 
territory might have a symbol of unity and 
identity. This flag, a miniature set of which 
I am pleased to present to members of this body 
with the compliments of the Council of Micro- 
nesia, consists of a circle of six white stars on 
a field of blue. Representing the six districts 
of the territory, the white stars also stand for 
peace, with the blue background symbolizing 
freedom and loyalty. 

The Council also voted to hold a special ses- 
sion in March 1963 at the provisional capital 
in Saipan to consider the preliminary report 
of the Legislative Drafting Committee. This 
special session resulted in preliminary rec- 
ommendations on the part of the Council as 
to the makeup of a legislative body. These 
recommendations are currently under study. 
Wliile there are many steps still to be taken 
before a true territorial legislative organ can 
come into existence, I am more than ever con- 
fident that well before 1965 we shall have an 
effective territorial legislative organization op- 
erating in the territory. 

Political progress continued also on the 
mimicipal and district level. The most impor- 
tant political event of the year on the district 
level was the formation and chartering of the 
Marianas District Legislature. Chartered on 
January 7, 1963, the new body convened its first 
session on ^larch 4, 1963. With the creation 
and chartering of the Marianas District Legis- 
lature, the people of the district for the first 
time through their chosen representatives have 
a forum for tlie solution of problems facing the 
entire district, since only municipal legislative 
b(xlies existed previously in Saipan, Rota, and 



Two significant events of general social and 
political import occurred this past year. On 
August 2, 1962, the U.S. Immigration and 
Naturalization Service annoimced that visas for 
entry to the United States on the part of Trust 
Territory citizens no longer would be required 
when a citizen was proceeding in direct and 
continuous transit from the Trust Territory to 
the United States. All that a Trust Territory 
citizen now needs to enter the United States 
as a nonimmigrant is sufficient official identifica- 
tion. Certain minor regulations, such as secur- 
ance of official acceptance by a school, however, 
still are in effect for Trust Territoi-y residents 
who are applying for entrance as students. 

A very significant event was the Executive 
order signed by President Kennedy on August 
21, 1962, which, among other things, directed 
that regulations relating to the Trust Territory 
of the Pacific Islands be revised to facilitate free 
entry of United States citizens, United States 
investment, and United States-flag vessels into 
the area with the exception of Eniwetok, Bikini, 
and Kwajalein, which will continue to be under 
the control of the Department of Defense. In 
ending his message, the President stated: "I 
intend that these actions I have taken will foster 
responsible political development, stimulate 
new economic activity, and enable the people 
of the islands to participate fully in the world 
of today." ° This step, I believe, will do much 
to aid us in accomplishing the President's stated 

Economic Development 

Without question the economic highlight of 
the year was the signing of a basic agreement 
with a major United States seafood company 
luider wliich the company will establish a com- 
mercial fishery industry in the Palau District. 
Several other commercial fishery concerns also 
conducted surveys in the territory during the 
year, exploring possibilities for similar or re- 
lated commercial fishery projects. The open- 
ing of the territory to outside private invest- 
ment has drawn much attention from industrial 

' For texts of a White House announcement and a 
statement by President Kennedy, see ihid., Sept. 10, 
1%2, p. 384. 

concerns. Surveys have been conducted by 
representatives of the pineapple and sugar in- 
dustries, as well as by other industries. 

An Economic Development Loan Fund es- 
tablished by the Administering Authority, in 
which was placed an initial increment of $100,- 
000 this past year, has stimulated the develop- 
ment of small business and small-scale business 
enterprises. This loan fund is an addition to 
the present chartered trading company loan 
fund, out of which loans were also made during 
the year. The rules governing this latter fund, 
however, restrict loans to chartered trading 
companies. We are now seeking the removal 
of the present restrictions and plan to merge 
this fund with the general Economic Develop- 
ment Loan Fund. 

Additional funds for the Economic Develop- 
ment Loan Fund have been requested for this 
forthcoming year. To date, the fund has grant- 
ed outright loans as well as served as guarantor 
for commercial bank loans. By this latter 
method, the use of the loan fund has been ex- 
panded considerably. Loans made or achieved 
during the year ranged through a variety of 
small-scale business enterprises. It is hoped 
that the fund can be rapidly expanded to make 
or underwrite large-scale development loans. 

The year witnessed continued rapid expan- 
sion in credit unions and cooperatives, the num- 
ber more than doubling that of the previous 
year. Others have submitted charters and by- 
laws for consideration or are in the preliminary 
stages of organization. Training in cooperative 
principles and procedures also was carried out 
through district conferences, and a major train- 
ing session was held last fall in Saipan for dele- 
gates from all districts. 

Five districts now have branch banks, the 
latest branch having just this month been 
opened in the Ponape District Center. Only 
Yap District now lacks a branch bank. The 
growth of the local banks, as well as the flour- 
ishing of credit imions, is eloquent witness to 
increased economic development. A few of the 
Council members present today may recall that 
the Special Representative 6 years ago reported 
on the results of a territory banking survey con- 
ducted for us by a banking concern. That sur- 
vey was very pessimistic and reported that there 
appeared to be little opportunity for establish- 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


mcnt of branch banks in the foreseeable 
future. Wo now have five branches and 
indications of more to come. 

Although our outlook for commercial fishery 
development iit long last appears promising, 
wo are not neglecting our own fisliery develop- 
ment projects. A small sciiool of fislieries com- 
pleted the first year of operation in Palau, and 
some '25 young men are undergoing training in 
tuna fishing methods at the present time on tuna 
boats in Hawaii. Our pilot fishery project at 
Palau moves forward steadily. A boatbuilding 
expert was hired this past year to serve as a 
consultant to the Palau Boatbuilders Associa- 
tion, and a loan was made to this group as well 
as technical assistance and aid given to enable 
the group to erect a boatyard. 

Our production of copra now is reaching the 
level found before the disastrous typhoons of 
1057-58 which so drastically cut production in 
the Marshalls, Ponape, Truk, and Yap. Well 
over 13,000 tons of copra were produced during 
the last fiscal year, even though only some 11,700 
short tons had been sold at the close of last year. 
There was a sizable overall increase in copra 
revenue to producers, compared with the pre- 
ceding year, as a result of increased production. 
The Copra Stabilization Fund shrank consid- 
erably, since the fund maintained a constant 
price throughout the year in spite of falling 
market prices. The copra picture has bright- 
ened somewhat recently. Prices are slightly 
higher, and decreased shipping costs enabled 
the fund a few months ago to realize the first 
profit on sales in over 2 years. If this trend 
continue.s, we hope to be able to bring the fund 
balance up to a more normal level and to raise 
prices paid to the copra producer. 

Revenue from fish exports and vegetable 
produce again showed appreciable increase. 
Fish exjwrt revenue for the year was $85,000, 
a small figure but one that is annually increas- 
ing as seen by comparison with last year's figure 

of $65,000. When local and interdistrict sales 
are added, revenue from this source is close to 
$200,000. Vogctai)le produce revenue, almost 
e.xcluaively going to the islands of Rota, Tinian, 
and Saipan, increased to $05,000 in fiscal 1962 
as compared to $68,000 for the previous year. 
Local farmers markets have expanded. Events 

such as the opening of the Majuro road in the 
Marshalls have made possible the local sale of 
large quantities of fresh produce to the District 
Center in Majuro. In other districts, also, as 
road improvement has occurred, farmers have 
been able to get their produce to the central 
markets, where there is a constant demand. 

Increasing reliance on local fresh produce, 
local meat, fish, and other local supplies is seen 
by comparing the volume of commodities im- 
ported in the territory. In 1961, with a popula- 
tion of some 77,913 people, t^tal food imports 
came to $2,329,181. In fiscal year 1962, al- 
though the population had increased to 80,980 
people, food imports were reduced to $1,883,190. 
Food imports still are high, but it is encourag- 
ing to note a downward trend. Canned fish is 
still imported in quantity, and it is our hope 
that this import can be cut considerably when 
the commercial fishing operation gets under way 
in Palau, since indirectly that operation will 
spur local production and consumption. 

Coconut rehabilitation and replanting con- 
tinues as do other developmental programs in 
subsistence and cash crops. Details of the agri- 
culture program are given in full in our annual 
report. The cacao program is proceeding be- 
yond expectations. Trees are beginning to bear, 
and barring any unforeseen calamity, commer- 
cial production of cacao as a major crop will 
become a reality within the next few years. 
The cacao subsidy program described in our 
report has been an unusual success. Through 
this program, as well as private plantings, there 
are now estimated to be close to 2 million cacao 
seedlings and trees growing in the territory, 
most in the Districts of Ponape, Truk, Palau, 
and Yap. 

Ramie production also is showing unusual 
promise, and it is anticipated that the pilot 
project in Palau need be continued only for 
another year before local commercial develop- 
ment can take over. To enable the copra pro- 
ducer to make use of coconut-husk byproducts, 
coir fiber processing is being developed through 
a pilot project in Truk. The Farm Institute 
in Ponape concluded its first year of operation, 
and plans for expansion of this agricultural 
extension training are under way. 

Continued emphasis is being placed on pro- 



fessional agricultural training at the university 
level abroad. This past year, 2 young gradu- 
ates returned to the territory with degrees in 
tropical agriculture. Additionally, some 8 stu- 
dents have returned with advanced training 
ranging from 2 to 5 years in the field of agricul- 
ture. Six additional scholarship students are 
leaving this month for university training to 
join a group of some 12 other agricultural stu- 
dents already in school. Of this group, 4 are 
working toward advanced degrees while the 
rest are still on the lower level of undergraduate 
work. Special training in forestry methods and 
rice growing tecliniques also were offered Micro- 
nesian agricultural extension agents during the 

The operation of the Micronesian Products 
Center resulted in an approximate doubling 
of handicraft income during the past year, 
mainly for the woodcarvers of Palau. The 
Center also indirectly sparked the formation of 
the Woodworkers Guild in that district. In 
the other districts the promise of an immediate 
and steady market stimulated women's organi- 
zations as well as individuals to develop better 
handicraft. Handicraft selection boards have 
been established in all districts; all handicraft 
is screened and evaluated prior to being sold to 
the Center. The result has been a marked in- 
crease in quality of product. An interesting 
side development has been the remaking of 
traditional artifacts and ancient objects by 
older craftsmen. Many of these traditional ob- 
jects have never been seen before by the yoimger 
Micronesians. These copies have sold exceed- 
ingly well, and some are of a quality that ex- 
ceeds even the original counterparts now to be 
foimd only in the museums of Europe. 

Tlie past year saw the beginning of tourism 
for the territory. While only a handful of true 
tourists managed to get to the Eastern Carolines 
or to Palau due to limited passenger capacity 
on our ampliibious airplanes, which still must 
be used on these flights, a few nonetheless did 
manage. The Marianas, however, has a small 
but flourishing tourist business. Our DC-l 
plane, which is depicted on page 82 of the an- 
nual report, has a seating capacity of 57 and 
makes three flights a week from Guam to 
Saipan and, I might say, in the past few months 

almost always has been filled to capacity or 
near capacity. Additionally, two small private 
charter airlines located in Guam also fly be- 
tween Guam and Rota-Tinian-Saipan carrying 
tourists as well as businessmen. A number of 
subsidiary business establishments already have 
resulted, and plans are under way for greatly 
increasing hotel accommodations. 

Conditions have changed from those which 
prompted the distinguished former delegate 
from Bolivia in 1961 at the 27th session to ex- 
press rather serious doubts about the future of 
tourism, when he rather ruefully complained 
that it seemed to him the only people who had 
access to the territory were members of the 
U.S. Navy, the administration, Spanish nuns, 
anthropologists, and United Nations representa- 
tives! The reverse is now true. His list, I 
assure liim, is now a small minority. Tourists 
of various nationalities are now a frequent 
sight on Saipan. With the completion of land 
airfields in all districts and the use of larger 
land-based planes, we expect tourism to become 
an important aspect of the local economy. 


Several major advances can be recorded in 
the transportation area. The year saw the com- 
pletion of the Truk dock and final dredging of 
the Truk harbor. A 3,500-ton motor vessel, the 
North Star, was acquired from the Department 
of the Interior and is now in service, renamed 
the MV Pacific Islander, thus providing a sec- 
ond major logistic vessel. We will be able to 
provide 35-day service between the district cen- 
ters, Guam-Saipan, and Japan. This will 
more than double the frequency of passenger 
and logistic services to all districts. We plan 
also to retire the remaining uneconomical AKL- 
class vessels now operated in our field-trip serv- 
ice from service as soon as feasible and replace 
them with smaller, more economical, and prac- 
tical-type vessels. Two such new vessels already 
have been built to our specifications, the MV 
MilitoU and the MV Kaselehlia, and are in 
service. Fimding for an additional smaller 
field-trip vessel has been requested in our 
budget for the coming year. 

As I previously indicated, on July 1, 1962, a 
DC-4 aircraft was placed in regular service be- 

AUGTJST 5, 1963 


twecn Guiun and Snipiin. Cunyinp 57 pas- 
senpcrs unci appreciable carpo, tl>is plane also is 
used to fly to Angaur in Palau and to Tnik on 
a monthly basis or as need demands. Flights 
can now be made to Yap, with the opening of 
the new airfield there. W]\cn necessary, the 
DC-4 can also fly from Truk to Kwajalein- 
Majuro and back to Guam-Saipan by overflying 

Airfield construction is being accelerated, 
since movement of additional staff and es.sential 
supplies is going to be essential in support of our 
accelerated programs. Full utilization of 
DC-4 airplanes cannot be made until there are 
adequate land airfields at Koror and Ponape. 
A major accomplishment of the year was the 
completion of a 4,800- foot airstrip at Yap. 
Ilaziinlous water landings now can be dis- 
pensed with there, and, equally important, more 
es.sential air cargo and greatly increased num- 
bers of pas-sengers can be carried. Work also 
has been started on the Palau airfield. We hope 
to put this field in operation before the end of 
the next fiscal year, which will permit conver- 
sion of service to the Western Carolines by 
DC-4 and other land-based planes. Improve- 
ments were made to the Truk and Majuro air- 
fields as well as to airfields in Saipan. Ponape 
District, thus, is the last missing link in the 
needed chain of land airfields in the territory. 
Tlie unusual ruggedness of Ponape Island poses 
.special diflicultie-s for airfield construction, but 
engineering surA-eys made last year have indi- 
cated that an airfield project is feasible. Addi- 
tional engineering studies now are being con- 
ducted for the purpose of making a final site 

Considerable road improvement occurred 
during the year, some brought about completely 
through community-directefl efforts while oth- 
ers were started as offshoots of major construc- 
tion programs. Tlie Marshall Islands District 
again demonstrated that roadbuilding on a 
coral atoll could be accomplished by determina- 
tion, willingness to work on the part of the 
people, and minimum a.ssi.stance from the ad- 
ministration. With the example of a 35-mile 
road built the previous year by the people of 
Majuro before them, the people of Arno Atoll 

requested similar assistance from the adminis- 
tration in the form of a loan of a bulldozer and 
other equipment and constructed an 18i/^-mile 
road. Dedication took place a week ago, and 
Arno Atoll now, like its sister atoll of Majuro, 
has all the tiny islands of its atoll linked by a 
road. The Marshalls District now has some 44 
miles of road that did not exist a little over a 
year ago. 

On Yap Island, the Yapese people, through 
community effort, have achieved magnificent 
results in rehabilitating roads and bridges. 
This came about through assistance from the 
Yap airfield project. Using equipment on a 
loan basis whenever this could be made avail- 
able, the people of Yap have rebuilt many miles 
of roads on their own initiative during the year. 
This is in addition to the road to the new air- 
field constructed by the administration. 
Bridges have been repaired, and within a very 
short time it will be possible to traverse the en- 
tire length of Yap Island by road. 

Living as we do in a tropical climate, our 
physical facilities are subject to more rapid de- 
terioration than is elsewhere normal. Our area 
also suffered gi'eatly from the ravages of war. 
A limited budget in the past also kept our rate 
of new construction at a slow pace. The result 
was that, although a few new facilities were al- 
ways being constructed, the majority of the ter- 
ritory's physical facilities such as roads, utili- 
ties, schools, hospitals, and public buildings 
were aged and often worn beyond the point of 
repair. To support our accelerated education 
effort and to provide the needed assistance to 
raise the territory's economic level, it is neces- 
sary that we accelerate almost everj' phase of 
our operating and maintenance activities. 

For the year that is just drawing to a close, 
we requested and were granted $71/^ million for 
construction purposes. Four million dollars of 
this will be used in the ac<?elerated elementary 
school construction program and $3,300,000 in 
other construction activities. We have had 
well over a fivefold increase in our con-struction 
funds for this type of support activities. 

For this coming fiscal year, due to start 
July 1, we have requested another $6 million for 
accelerated construction ; $4 million to carry on 



aspects of the accelerated school construction 
program ; and an additional $2 million to con- 
tinue our construction program in such vital 
areas as public health, economic development, 
and the construction or improvement of air- 
fields, roads, utilities, and transportation facili- 
ties. With this increase in our overall construc- 
tion programs, we feel we shall be able to make 
a very great advance in all aspects of our work. 


Elementary Education 

As I have already indicated, we are placing 
major emphasis on greatly expanded support of 
public elementary education in the territory. 
Of the present year's budget of $15 million, over 
$4 million is being used to construct some 240 
classrooms and some 100 housing units for an 
approximate 140 American elementary school 
teachers. The bulk of the elementary school 
classroom construction and teacher housing 
must of necessity in most districts for the first 
year be in or near the district center, but our 
plans call for extension of the program until all 
public elementary schools are included. For 
the coming fiscal year, starting July 1, we have 
requested an additional $4 million to continue 
the elementary school construction program. 
Thus, this coming year we hope to construct 248 
additional new classrooms, making a grand 
total of 488 new elementary school classrooms. 
Some 128 additional teacher housing units will 
be erected to make a total of 228 teacher houses. 

For education program operations for the 
coming year we have requested $2,280,000, which 
is an increase of $1,200,000 over the present level 
of education funding. Most of this program 
increase will be utilized in employment of ap- 
proximately 140 elementary school teachers to 
staff the elementary schools which we are build- 
ing in our accelerated education development 
program. The following year funds will be 
requested for an additional 100 American 
teachers to reach a total of 240. Within the 
next 2 years there will be at least one American 
teacher teaching in English in every public 
elementary school in the territory. Concur- 
rently, a program of upgrading present Mi- 
cronesian elementary teachers will be carried 

out. This program will include inservice train- 
ing on the job, special summer training sessions 
in tlie districts, attendance at our teacher insti- 
tute in Ponape, and a vastly increased program 
of college training for present and prospective 
teachers in Guam, Hawaii, and mainland 
United States. 

The scope and magnitude of the accelerated 
elementary education program is such that it is 
not possible in this brief exposition to convey 
details. For those members of the Council who 
may be interested in specific details as to im- 
plementation, as to degree and rate of speed of 
penetration into the outlying areas, I shall be 
pleased to furnish such details during the ques- 
tion period. 

This tremendous increase of support of ele- 
mentary school education will, of course, have 
great impact on all our other educational 

Many recommendations made by this Council 
over the past several years are incorporated in 
our accelerated education program and are 
either in the process of implementation or soon 
will be. One of these to wliich a great deal 
of attention has been given is that of the teach- 
ing of English and of using English as the 
medium of instruction in the elementary schools. 
Tliis program already is being implemented at 
selected elementary schools in the various dis- 
tricts, and it will become a reality for all of 
our public elementary schools as American 
teachers arrive and start teaching. We intend 
to have as many as we can of the 140 American 
schoolteachers slated for the first year of opera- 
tion on the job in the elementary schools with 
the opening of the school year this September. 
A crash program of classroom construction, 
teacher housing, and teacher recruitment cur- 
rently is in full swing. 

The vastness of our area, the differences in- 
herent between the tiny low coral atolls and 
the sizable, mountainous, high islands, the diffi- 
culties of transportation, will mean a faster 
pace of development in some areas than in 
others. I assure the members of the Council, 
though, that no area will be overlooked and 
that the children in the remote coral atolls far 
from the district centers will as promptly as 


possible have the same elementarj' school op- 
portunities as will their cousins in the more ur- 
ban district centers. 

Concern was expressed at last year's meeting 
by some members that tiie entrance age of ele- 
mentary school cliildren, which we had lowered 
to 7 years, still was high and that the entrance 
age should be set at 6 years. It is intended to 
lower the compulsory age of entrance to 6 years 
as our facilities permit. To set the compulsory 
school age at 6 years before we have sufficient 
teachers or classrooms would gain little. I am 
confident, however, that we will be able to place 
the entrance age at 6 years during this coming 
year. Currently there are hundreds of children 
of C years of age in our public schools. I might 
further add that our t liinking on the elementary 
school level is going beyond this. Under study 
is the feasibility of eventually establishing a 
preprimary year of school which would con- 
centrate on teaciiing children oral English be- 
fore they enter first grade. 

Junior and Senior Tligh Schools 

Implementation moved steadily forward on 
the establishment of consolidated junior-senior 
high schools. In all districts, other than Yap, 
the 10th grade was started in September 1962 
and the 11th grade will be opened this coming 
September. Yap will start the 10th grade this 
fall. Tliis past year some of the lOth-grade 
Yap students enrolled in the Pacific Islands 
Central School in Ponape, while a number went 
to Palau to take the special vocational arts 
course in the Palau high school. By the fall of 
1964 all districts should have full 4-year high 
schools in operation. 

Replanning of junior-senior high school 
building needs indicated the need for additional 
classroom buildings and dormitories for all dis- 
tricts. Some of these additional high school 
buildings had been completed or were nearing 
completion at the close of the fiscal year. Anew 
classroom building was completed at Truk, and 
a vocational .shop building was under construc- 
tion ; in the Marshalls two new classroom build- 
ings and a scliool administration building were 
added to the high school unit; a new classroom 
building and a v(wational arts building were 
completed at the Palau District high school. 

The Pacific Islands Central School continued 
in Ponape but with a somewhat changed 
makeup, since most of the entering freshmen, 
other than Yapese students, were lOth-grade 
students from Ponape. Within another 2 years, 
the main student body at PICS will be predomi- 
nantly Ponapean, and the original Pacific Is- 
lands School will have become the Ponape Dis- 
trict high school. A new post-high-school unit, 
however, was added during the year. This was 
the interdistrict teacher training institute, 
which combines high school and postgraduate 
high school work with specialized training in 
teacher education. The teacher training insti- 
tute was established at PICS due to this high 
school's somewhat central location and the es- 
tablished facilities already there. Additionally, 
a boys' dormitory and classroom building were 
constructed on the PICS campus for the insti- 
tute. The aim of the institute is to upgrade 
schoolteachers. Teachers who do not have a 
full high school degree can work toward high 
school accreditation as well as earn credits in 
the teacher training institute. 

Increased emphasis was given during the year 
to students in the field of higher education who 
were studying outside the territory. Some 239 
students were in high school outside the terri- 
tory, with all but 13 of these being in Guam 
schools. Most were on sponsorship arrange- 
ments whereby a student lived with a private 
family. The Trust Territory administration 
provided a full-time student counselor to look 
after their welfare, set up a system of reduced 
fares on the territory's planes and ships, and, 
additionally, in January 1963 the administra- 
tion agreed to provide free transportation to 
Guam for all bona fide sponsored students. 

Some 126 students also were studying in in- 
stitutions of college level on Guam or abroad 
during the year. Of these, 65 were on full 
scholarship from the administration. During 
the 3'ear work began on a college dormitory 
at the College of Guam. Although primarily 
for scholarship students, the dormitory will be 
open to other Trust Territory students as well. 
A major increase in scholarships for the forth- 
coming school year 1963-64 will come about, 
since the number of district scholars has been 
increased from three per district to five per dis- 



trict starting with tlie college term wMcli opens 
this month. Thus there will be a 60-percent 
increase in the nmnber of govermuent scholar- 
ships tliis coming school year. 

Public Health 

Two new, modem hospitals were put into op- 
eration in the Trust Territory during the past 
year, one in Majuro in the Marshall Islands and 
the other in Saipan in the Mariana Islands. 
These, together with the new hospital that was 
opened in Palau 18 months ago, provide modern 
hospital facilities in three of our six districts. 

New hospitals in the other three districts will 
be constructed within the next 2 or 3 years. 
Planning for hospital units in Truk and Ponape 
is now under way, and construction of the new 
Truk District hospital should be initiated dur- 
ing the next few months. Also, site studies for 
a new hospital in Yap have started, although 
actual construction will not be undertaken for 
another 2 years. 

Some additional facilities are required on the 
three new hospitals already in use. The $900,- 
000 hospital complex that was opened in Saipan 
last September received considerable damage 
during the recent typhoon. Repair of the build- 
ings was started immediately after the storm 
under the rehabilitation program of the Office 
of Emergency Planning and is expected to be 
completed within the next month. The hospital 
in the Marshalls is completed except for the con- 
struction of a few minor subsidiary buildings; 
and a new kitchen and dining hall wing is near- 
ing completion in the hospital in Palau. 

In addition to district hospitals our public- 
health expansion program calls for field hospi- 
tals to be located in key spots of population 
concentration away from the district centers. 
Three such subhospitals are now in operation 
at Eota, Kusaie, and Ebeye in the Kwajalein 
Atoll. The latter facility was completely ren- 
ovated and modernized during the past year. 
These, together with nearly 100 outlying island 
dispensaries and the increased personnel needs 
of the new district hospitals, require the train- 
ing of additional medical personnel — doctors, 
teclmicians, and nurses. In fact the shortage 
of trained personnel, especially nurses, is af- 

fecting not only our hospital needs but our 
plans for improved outisland health services. 

Various steps are being taken to meet those 
growing demands. Our medical scholarship 
program is being increased. Presently 10 medi- 
cal scholars are attending schools in the Philip- 
pines, Hawaii, and the United States working 
toward medical degrees. Also in process are 
progi'ams for inservice and outside postgrad- 
uate training for our present medical officers. 
The recruiting of six doctors from the States is 
now under way, each to be a specialist in a dif- 
ferent field of medicine. These will provide 
further and continuing inservice training in 
their special fields to our Micronesian doctors, 
one to be stationed in each of the six districts 
and to be rotated at intervals. 

The Trust Territory continues to be faced 
with an acute shortage of graduate nurses. Not 
only do we not have enough graduate nurses, 
but there is a constant attrition in the ranks, 
for evidently the yoimg men of the territory 
have foimd that nurses make excellent wives 
and mothers. We need at least 20 new graduate 
nurses a year for the next 5 years merely to meet 
the minimum expansion needs in all districts. 

To meet this demand, the Trust Territory 
School of Nursing, presently located in Palau, 
will be moved next month to the island of 
Saipan, where temporary buildings will be oc- 
cupied until permanent buildings can be con- 
structed. Work already has started on the first 
of the new permanent School of Nursing build- 
ings, which are to be an adjimct to the new 
Saipan hospital. The immediate move to tem- 
porary buildings will make it possible to double 
the present enrollment from 15 to 30, and fur- 
ther expansion to 50 or 60 students will be pos- 
sible as soon as new buildings are finished. 

In the field of dental services one of the most 
important events of the year was the graduation 
of 10 students from the School of Dental Nurs- 
ing in December 1962. This was the school's 
first graduation. A new class of 10 students en- 
rolled for the 2-year course in January of 1963. 
Preventive dental treatment was expanded not 
only at district centers but in all outlying areas 
during the year. 

During March and April 1963 a public-health 
task force team under interdepartmental spon- 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


sorsllip visited the territory to study and ob- 
serve our puhiic-healtli program. This visit 
was the result of one of tiie recommendations 
of the President's Task Force on tlie Trust Ter- 
ritory of the Pacific Ishmds. The team, consist- 
inp of a U.S. public-liealth expert, a sanitary 
engineer, and a nurse consultant, was accom- 
panied by the program ofEcer of the Office of 
Territories and is now engaged in preparing a 
re|)ort on their findings. We are looking for- 
ward witli much interest to the team's report 
and recommendations, since we are seeking at 
all times to improve the health service in the 

It is with regret that I must report on two 
events in public health that were severe blows 
to the Trust Territory. Tlie first of these tragic 
events was an outbreak, in early January 1963, 
of type I virus polio at Ebeye, Kwajalein Atoll, 
in the Marshall Islands District. More than 
200 cases of poliomyelitis, with 11 deaths, re- 
sulted in the district; 88 percent of the cases 
were children under the age of 7 years. Some 
."iO patients, nearly all below the age of 7, were 
left with significant residual paralysis. 

An immediate mass vaccination program 
using Sabin oral vaccine and application of 
strict quarantine regulations confined the epi- 
demic to the Marshall Islands. A mass oral 
vaccination program also was at once launched 
throughout the rest of the territory for type I 
polio, and in all districts the final stage of the inoculation program for tj'pe II and III 
polio currently is under way. Wlien this is 
finisho<l sometime next month, the Ti-ust Terri- 
tor}- of the Pacific Islands will l)e one of the 
verj- few areas in the world where a hundred 
percent polio vaccination coverage has been 

Again, when our need was urgent, we received 
prompt and generous support and assistance 
from the Department of the Interior, the U.S. 
Xavy, the Transport Company of Texas in 
Kwajalein, the Communicable Disease Center 
of the U.S. Public Health Service, from other 
agencies, and from many generous individuals. 

Equally important is the aid that has been 
pledged for the long-range rehabilitation pro- 
gram fliat will bo needed for the afflicted chil- 

dren. Special polio clinic facilities will be 
constructed at the new Majuro hospital, special 
equipment is being procured, and staff are re- 
ceiving specialized training. 

To help us meet the costs of long-range re- 
habilitation, we are receiving the unstinting 
support of the American Red Cross, which is 
providing a physical therapist, and the National 
Foundation, which is providing services of spe- 
cialized polio treatment teams, as well as trans- 
portation funds and funds to provide braces for 
children who will need special care and treat- 
ment in Honolulu. The Shriners Crippled 
Childrens Hospital in Honolulu, for its part, 
has offered to provide hospitalization for those 
children who must be sent to Honolulu for spe- 
cialized treatment. The bulk of the affected 
children, however, will be cared for and treated 
at the polio clinic we are adding to the new hos- 
pital in Majuro. 

The otlier tragic event was the loss a month 
ago of our Director of Public Health, the late 
Dr. Harrie E. Macdonald. More than any 
other person, he was responsible for the solid 
foundation of our present public-health sys- 
tem. He had confidence and pride in the com- 
petence of our Micronesian doctors and in their 
ability to conduct public-health programs in 
the districts. Having brought tlae territory's 
Public Health Sei-vice to this point, he was 
working at the time of liis death on the first 
phase of an expanded program of training for 
our Micronesian doctors. 

Land and Claims Settlement 

With the appointment of a Land and Claims 
Administrator on the headquarters staff, land 
matters of all types have been expedited during 
the past year. 

Tlie land dispute invohnng the entire island 
of Angaur in the PaJau District and datmg 
from 1908 through the administrations of the 
Germans and Japanese as well as ours was 
brought on June 8, 1962, to a successful con- 
clusion. Some 1,980 acres of land formerly 
held in public domain were deeded to private 
owners. A similar dispute of 20 years' dura- 
tion involving all of Arakabesan Island in 
Palau was settled in August 1962. Over 90 



percent of Arakabesan Island was returned to 
private ownership, and private claims to the 
remainder of the island were released. Home- 
steading in Palau also was expedited, with over 
1,700 acres being homesteaded, and an addi- 
tional 4,000 acres were opened for homesteading 
on Babelthuap and Koror Islands. 

In the Marshalls, eminent domain cases were 
heard by the High Court concerning govern- 
ment use of land on three small islets in the 
Kwajalein Atoll. Judgment was entered in two 
cases and compensation allowed in the amount 
of $40,359.46 for use rights to 71.1 acres. 

As the U.S. representative has already in- 
formed you,* legislation which would provide a 
means for judicial settlement of the land claims 
on Kwajalein Island and Dalap Island of 
Majuro Atoll presently is under consideration 
by the U.S. Congress. The bill, in brief, would 
permit the claimants to file a petition with the 
United States Court of Claims for just com- 
pensation. It provides also for administrative 
settlement by the High Commissioner if the 
claimants desire to seek this procedure within 
limits of payment which are set by funds al- 
ready appropriated. The bill was passed by the 
U.S. House of Representatives and is scheduled 
for hearing by the Senate Committee on Inte- 
rior and Insular Affairs next week. 

In Ponape District the active land release and 
homestead program continued at a rapid pace 
during the past year. Of special interest is 
the program whereby former holders of Japa- 
nese leases, who still occupy the land they leased 
imder the Japanese administration, are eligible 
to receive quitclaim deeds for their land. Over 
200 such quitclaim deeds have been issued, and 
many hundreds more are being processed. 
Himdreds of Ponapeans who have held land of 
this nature on tenuous leases for several decades 
at long last are receiving title to this land. 

In the new ISIarianas District vast areas of 
land formerly held as in vise by the Administer- 
ing Authority are being released. Since July 
1962, over 7,600 acres have been released from 
this category and placed in the public domain 

° For a statement by Sydney R. Yates, U.S. Repre- 
sentative on the Trusteeship Council, on June 5, see 
U.S./U.N. press release 4217. 

and are available for homesteading purposes. 
Additional releases currently are being sought. 

Status of Displaced Rongelapese 

The annual Eongelap survey was conducted 
in March 1963 by a joint AEC [Atomic Energy 
Commission] -Trust Territoiy medical team and 
reported the general health of the Eongelapese 
to be satisfactory, with no further discernible 
aftermaths of the fallout found. A bill to com- 
pensate the people of Rongelap was passed by 
the United States House of Representatives on 
April 1 and is now under consideration in the 
Senate Committee on Interior and Insular 


Acceleration of education and construction 
activities is under way, and we intend to press 
forward with programs of acceleration in pub- 
lic health and in political, social, and economic 
development fields. "VVe have the wholehearted 
support of the people of the territory. With 
this, and the continued aid of the Administer- 
ing Authority, I have confidence that our pro- 
grams will move forward with ever-increasing 
speed on all fronts. 

I am grateful to have the opportunity to pre- 
sent this brief report, and I will endeavor to 
provide, as far as I am able, any additional 
information members of this Coimcil may 


U.S./U.N. press release 4218 dated June 6 

It is an honor for me to attend this meeting 
of the Tnisteeship Comicil. I consider this an 
unusual honor due to the fact that this is the 
first time I have traveled outside of the Pacific 
Trust Territory area. I would like to extend 
to the Council warm greetings from the people 
of the Trust Territory. At the same time I feel 
certain that I will gain a very profitable ex- 
perience during my stay and participation at 
this meeting. 

I am very grateful to the Government of the 
Trust Territory and the United States for this 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


opportunity to scn-e as an adviser to the United 
States delegation. For the past 10 years I liave 
been engaged closely in teaching on the pur- 
pose and functions of the United Nations and its 
various organs. My students have spent many 
hours studying the activities of this body, and 
they recognize that the United Nations and tliis 
particular Council is an important instrument 
for lielping the progress of humanity every- 
where on the face of the world. 

I am pleased to inform the Council that the 
people of the Trust Territorj- are very conscious 
of the functions of the Trusteeship Council and 
the activities which this Council has under- 
taken in the past to assist the territories to 
meet their needs. Our people look toward the 
United Nations as a great organization to bring 
about good relations among nations, to help 
bring freedom to all peoples, and to keep the 
peace and security for the enjoyment of all 
mankind. Perhaps we are more conscious of 
the need for peace, since our island was one of 
the major battlefield areas of World War II. 
We have seen what war does ; we have had our 
homes destroyed and lost our loved ones. We 
do not want this to happen again in any place 
in the world. 

I am from Saipan. having been bom in Gara- 
pan, Saipan, in IDS."?. I started my schooling 
during Japanese administration but had only 
1 year of schooling before the end of the war. 
After the war I entered an American school 
and in lO.")! graduated from the Pacific Islands 
Teacher Training School, which was then at 

I started teaching immediately after gradu- 
ation, first in one of our elementary schools. In 
19.''>'2 I became a teacher in the district junior 
high school and have been teaching in the junior 
high school since that time. By profession I 
am a social science and history teacher and have 
been concerned mainly with civics, a field which 
is verj' important in our new and developing 
political life. Currently, in addition to han- 
dling social science classes, I serve as assistant 
principal for the new public high school of the 
^^nrianas District. 

I am a Member of the Council of Micronesia 
and a Congressman in the new Marianas 
District IjCgislature. Prior to this, I had the 

privilege of serving as a Congressman in the 
Saipan Municipal Congress, as Legislative 
Secretary from 19G0 to 1961 and as Vice Speaker 
in 1962. 

I am fortunate to have traveled and visited 
all of the district centers except that of Yap. 
These trips have given me firsthand informa- 
tion on the political movements and aspirations 
of each district. The trips were made under 
the auspices of the Council of Micronesia, 
which formed three subcommittees — political, 
economic, and social — to study conditions in the 
territory. I was elected to serve as a member 
of the political subcommittee for 1961-62. Our 
committee visited each district, meeting with the 
district congresses' officials and other important 

I had the privilege to sit with the Ponape, 
Palau, and Marshall Congresses while they 
were in session. I was astonished at the per- 
formance and the ability of the men who were 
striving to better the living conditions of their 
people. It was through education that these 
men acquired the necessary knowledge to help 
them proceed and move forward toward a cer- 
tain goal in which they believe men ought to 
live. These men, of course, are the leaders in 
their own commimities. Many have left their 
homes in order to obtain the required knowledge 
to assist their people. We believe that educa- 
tion makes the dream of these men come true. 
It is education that makes everything possible 
in our modem civilization. 

People in the Trust Territory feel that edu- 
cation is a vital necessity to procure better liv- 
ing. More and more young men and women 
all over the Trust Territory are interested in 
getting higher education; they are forever in 
search of ways to acquire higher levels of edu- 
cation. The Government of the Trust Terri- 
tory is aware of this particular matter and has 
increased scholarships this year to meet the 
need. District congresses also are appropri- 
ating funds for additional scliolarsliips and spe- 
cial training. 

Parents in the Trust Territory today under- 
stand the importance of education. They have 
come to a point where they have to modify the 
old traditional beliefs that sons and daughters 
should always stay at home with the family. 



Today many of our children are away from 
their parents — either attending school on 
Guam, PICS on Ponape, in the United States, 
and elsewhere. Because of this change on the 
part of the parents also, many Micronesians are 
now holding many important positions both in 
the district centers and at headquarters in 
Saipan. These positions fall in all categories — 
political, economic, social, education, judiciary, 
et cetera. This is quite evident, especially in 
the Public Health Department, where all the 
hospitals in the districts are headed by Micro- 

It is perhaps worth mentioning the person 
responsible for the progressive movement which 
has been achieved in the field of health, for he 
is a man who will always be remembered in 
the hearts of the Micronesians. He is the late 
Dr. Macdonald. "We owe him our respect and 
honor for his untiring efforts and devotion to- 
ward the improvement of health in the Trust 

In the Department of Education two districts 
are headed by Micronesians. There are two 
yovmg men working now in the Political Af- 
fairs Office at headquarters, and each district 
has political affairs officers. I believe the Coun- 
cil is aware of the gradual improvement of 
Micronesian employment conditions in the 
Trust Territoi-y. Many important jobs are held 
by Jlicronesians today. This is possible because 
of advanced training and schooling offered by 
our Government. 

One of the most significant events which took 
place on July 1, 1962, was the unification of the 
administration of the Trust Territory under 
civil government. I know that the Council is 
pleased with this result. With the new change 
in administration, Rota District was incorpo- 
rated with Saipan District and a new district 
formed: the Marianas District. Immediately, 
the leaders in the Marianas, with the assistance 
of the political affairs personnel from head- 
quarters, initiated the creation of a District 
Legislature. After several weeks of prepara- 
tion and planning, the members of the Charter 
Convention adopted the District Legislature 
Charter for the Mariana Islands. 

In March of this year the Marianas District 
Legislature convened its first session in the his- 

tory of the Marianas. This is a manifestation 
of the political progress which is taking place 
in the Trust Territory. I was honored to be 
elected its first President. 

An important event was the transfer of Trust 
Territory headquarters onto the soil of the ter- 
ritory. This transfer will bring the people of 
the territory closer together. It will bring more 
understanding and cooperation among the peo- 
ple of the Trust Territory and at the same time 
strengthen the feeling of political unity. This 
unity was manifested during the special session 
of the Council of Micronesia, which was held at 
headquarters, Saipan, this past I\Iarch, when the 
major issue of formation of a Territorial Con- 
gress was discussed. The primary objective of 
the session was to decide whether the body 
should be a bicameral one or unicameral. After 
a lengthy discussion on this matter the Council 
finally decided, by a majority vote, to recom- 
mend for consideration the bicameral system. 
Personally, I favor the unicameral system. At 
this stage of our development, such a body 
would, I feel, be less complicated. 

Another item worthy of mention is the in- 
terest of people in their government. This is 
manifested through the many elections held in 
the past. More and more people are partici- 
pating during the elections. It used to be that 
a candidate needed only a handful of voters to 
be elected; very few people were interested in 
the affairs of their government. But today, at 
least in my district, a candidate must work day 
and night for his election. People are aware of 
the importance of good government, and they 
judge a candidate's ability and performance 

In the Marianas, where we have political par- 
ties, especially on the island of Saipan, people 
are very conscious of their government. The 
political leaders who hold seats in the Munici- 
pal Congress and the District Legislature must 
accomplish results or else they will not be re- 
elected at the next election. Personally, I would 
like to see other districts adopt political parties. 
I know that political parties are new in our 
territory, but they are not new in the world. 
Political parties, I feel, help insure that quali- 
fied candidates run for office and provide better 
public officials. 

AUGUST 5, 196 3 


Social coiulitions in the Trust Territon* are 
processing rapidly. People are <^:iining better 
understanilin<^ and appreciation of the 20th- 
century civilization, and health conditions are 
improving under the supenision of public- 
health personnel. Trust Territory students are 
studying for medical degrees. Nurses are also 
playing a ver}' inijK)rtant part in the improve- 
ment of health. Witliout their assistance, the 
doctors would find it dilficult to accomplish their 
tasks. A few montlis ago a polio protection pro- 
gram for the whole Trust Territory was 

Perhaps this is an api)ro])riate time to men- 
tion the typhoon which hit the Marianas. Ty- 
phoon Olive, with winds of llo miles and gusts 
up to l'j;5 knots, smashed into Saipan on April 30 
of this year. Saijjan was severely damaged. 
Among the major damages was the destruction 
of part of the new district hospital. The sup- 
ply warehouses and public works buildings suf- 
fered great damages. Power lines were down. 
About 95 percent of all houses on Saipan had 
suffered some damage, with about 30 percent 
total destruction of local buildings. Three vil- 
lages suffered damages, the worst being Tana- 
pag, then Chalan Kanoa and San Koque. No 
lives were lost, however, and only one minor 
injury resulted during the typhoon. 

The people are very grateful for the generous 
assistance from different gi'oups and organiza- 
tions. The U.S. Navy in Guam provided trans- 
portation for inspection teams, shipment of 
medical supplies, and naval hospital personnel 
to help in administering typhoid inoculations. 
The American Red Cross and other agencies 
gave immediate a.ssistance. As a resident of 
Saipan, and on behalf of my people, I wish to 
extend to all the people, groups, agencies, and 
organizations who have extended their assist- 
ance to us in one way or another our apprecia- 
tion, which also goes to the Government of the 
Trust Territory for its quick and generous as- 
sistance during the t ime of disaster. 

In the field of economic development, the 
territory is progressing also. Many business 
enterprise.s, both largo and small, are helping to 
IxKJSt the economy of the territoiy. At the same 
time, the Government is providing experts in 
the field of economics, both in the districts and 
at headquarters level. 

We are trying our best to share in the de- 
velopment of these problems of our islands. We 
look toward the Council for advice and 

Before I withdraw, I wish to extend my ap- 
preciation for this opportunity to appear in 
the presence of this Council. And, lastly, for 
this great organization, the United Nations, I 
pray that the many hours of meetings and de- 
bates will bring success in the maintenance of 
happiness, peace, and security for all mankind. 

JUNE 17 

U.S./U.N. press release 4223 

May I first express my appreciation and that 
of my colleague, Mr. Santos, for the many cour- 
tesies shown to us by members of the Council 
during this meeting. Mr. Santos, who cannot 
be with us today, will take back to Micronesia 
a deeper understanding of the role of this body 
and a new appreciation of the interest and con- 
cern of the Council in the affairs of our islands. 

For my part, this year's review has been a 
most stimulating one. As High Commissioner 
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, 
I am deluged, if I may use this term, during 
the year with the minutia of our many-sided ac- 
tivities. I find it refreshing and rewarding to 
have the opportunity to receive the analytic 
comments and views of the members of the 
Council, many of whom have devoted j'ears to 
working on problems of administration not dis- 
similar in broad outline to those we face in the 
Pacific Trust Territory. Seen through your 
eyes, certain of our problems take on new as- 
pects, new dimensions, and different meaning. 
I can assure you that my staff and I give careful 
and serious consideration to the recommenda- 
tions that emanate from this body. 

I am particularly appreciative of the many 
encouraging comments made during the clos- 
ing statements on the progress achieved during 
the past year and on our new accelerated pro- 
gram of development. I say "appreciative," 
not in a personal sense, but in terms of my staff, 
Micronesian and American, who have worked 
together as a team under trying conditions to 



put this accelerated program into action. The 
distinguished representative of the United 
Kingdom commented on how the "bounding 
energy of the New Frontier" had been applied 
to the Pacific area. I might add that we have 
met an equal response on the part of our Micro- 
nesian people. If our programs succeed, it is 
in large measure due to the cooperation, the 
patience, the willingness, and the energy of the 
Micronesians themselves. 

Tlie distinguished representative of Australia 
has noted that in our political development pro- 
gram we have been guided by the concept that 
political advancement should be an evolutionary 
process which evolves through the will, the 
needs, and desires of the people of the territory. 
That this is the pattern desired by our people 
is shown over and over in the debates of the 
district legislatures, in the deliberations of the 
Council of Micronesia, and in the discussions 
of local municipal councils. One of our young- 
er and highly respected political leaders 
expressed this concept with the words: "We 
must learn to walk before we can run." 

I have participated for the past 2 years in 
the Council of Micronesia deliberations and 
have had the privilege of sitting as an observer 
at several of our district congress sessions. I 
have been deeply impressed by the political 
growth that has taken place, at the maturity of 
judgment that is being demonstrated by elected 
officials, and by the willingness of our Micro- 
nesian leaders not only to accept the privileges 
but also to assume the responsibilities of demo- 
cratic self-government. I cannot at this point 
predict exactly when in the near future the 
present Council of Micronesia will become a 
functioning territorial legislative organ. I can 
assure the Council though that a sound and rep- 
resentative legislative body is in the making and 
that I regard it as a great honor and privilege 
to participate in its formation. 

At a previous session the distinguished rep- 
resentative of the United Kingdom conmiented 
that in any area the touchstone of political ad- 
vance must be the will of the people. Here in 
the Pacific Trust Territoiy I feel that there is 
a legislative body which is evolving through the 
will of the people and at the pace desired by 
them. There is no question that political ad- 

vancement on a territorial level is entering the 
final stage; we have learned to walk, and soon 
we will be rmining. Thus, at the risk of repe- 
tition, I repeat again that I have every confi- 
dence that well before 1965 a truly representa- 
tive territorial legislative body will be operating 
in our territoiy. 

It was pointed out by the distinguished rep- 
resentative of New Zealand that the shape of 
the new legislature has been discussed and de- 
fined at some length by the Council of Micro- 
nesia. The Council's recommendations are now 
under study. We have been able to obtain the 
complete text of the Council of Micronesia rec- 
ommendation on the framework of a proposed 
teiTitorial legislature, and this has been dis- 
tributed to all members of the [Trusteeship] 
Council. The other resolutions and recom- 
mendations of the October 1962 and of the 
March 1963 sessions of the Council of Micro- 
nesia will be made available to the 1964 visiting 
mission. These recommendations also will be 
treated in detail in our next amiual report, 
which will be examined at next spring's session 
of the Trusteeship Council. The distinguished 
representative of New Zealand is con-ect when 
he noted that the steps that remain are largely 
technical ones. 

Local Participation in Government 

The past year witnessed major strides of the 
Council of Micronesia toward its eventual 
destiny and has also seen other major political 
advances. The adoption of a Ti-ust Territory 
flag as a political symbol has done much to 
strengthen the unity of the people of our sev- 
eral districts. For the first time in the long 
history of the islands, the people have a flag 
which is theirs — a flag designed by one of them 
and chosen by their elected representatives. 
This may seem a relatively small thing, but it 
is nonetheless of tremendous significance in 
welding a widely separated group of island peo- 
ple together and creating a sense of "national 

The deliberations of the Council of Micro- 
nesia during its two sessions this past year 
reveal a significant trend from political paro- 
chialism of a district level to a broader "na- 
tional" feeling. Whereas in earlier meetings 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


specific district problems tended to dominate 
the sessions, the sessions of the past year stressed 
common problems and joint ways of solving 
them. One district congress president in writ- 
ing to his counterpart in another district stated 
this feeling of "oneness" in these words: 
"Divided we cannot proceed, united we cannot 
fail." There is no question that a "Micronesian 
self," in the terms described by the distin- 
guished representative of New Zealand, is 
emerging in the territory. 

Through charter change and technical assist- 
ance we have strengthened district legislatures 
to enable them to function more efficiently in a 
more representative and democratic fashion and 
to take over larger lawmaking responsibilities 
at the district level. Technical assistance also 
has been given to local governments and local 
officials. At all levels election supervision has 
been provided, and our political affairs section 
has given advice and aid in the formation of 
political parties. 

I would like to assure the distinguished rep- 
resentative of China that we are giving careful 
attention to political development on the mimi- 
cipal level. Our program of chartering is 
progre.ssing satisfactorily, and, through our ex- 
panded political affairs staff at botli the district 
and headquarters level, we are now able to pro- 
vide training sessions for local officials. The 
formal chartering of a local municipality is im- 
portant, but equally important is the need for 
trained local officials who understand how to 
conduct the functions of municipal government 
within the framework of its charter. The peo- 
ple themselves not only be willing to ac- 
cept the privileges of self-government, but they 
must l)e prepared to shoulder the responsibili- 
ties that go along with these privileges. 

I am most appreciative of the penetrating 
comments made by the distinguished represent- 
ative of New Zealand in his closing remarks. 
lie rightly pointed out that though a territorial 
legislature must be the focus of political con- 
sciousness, the "Micronization" of the executive 
side is no less important. lie noted that prep- 
aration of schedules for replacement of ex- 
patriates is one way of achieving the goals of a 
replacement program. Tliis in essence is what 
wp arc doing. A manpower review committee 
was establLshed this past year to screen all new 

hires as well as renewal of contracts of all 
present non-Micronesian employees to insure 
that Micronesians are being placed in posts for 
which they qualify. 

I can assure the distinguished representative 
of Liberia that with the imification of all the 
territory under civilian control on July 1, 1962, 
most of the disparities noted by the 1961 visit- 
ing mission as between the former District of 
Saipan and the rest of the territorj' have been 
removed. With the second increment of our 
wage-scale adjustment scheduled for next 
month, wages for administration employees will 
be uniform throughout the territory. Our ac- 
celerated elementary education program will 
provide equal elementary schools and equally 
qualified teachers in all districts. The former 
Saipan Copra Stabilization Fund has been 
merged with the larger Trust Territory Copra 
Stabilization Fund. 

Economic Potential of the Territory 

A very important as well as provocative 
question was posed by the distinguished rep- 
resentative of Australia when he asked what 
is the proper point of balance between social 
development, economic development, and polit- 
ical development in an area such as ours. That 
political advancement is not necessarily depend- 
ent upon economic self-sufficiency has been 
dramatically illustrated over and over by the 
birth of new nations during the past 10 years. 
Nonetheless, neither political advancement nor 
social development will mean much if the eco- 
nomic growth lags too far behind. The distin- 
guished representative of Australia has also 
noted that our territory, in common with other 
island areas of the Pacific, possesses certain 
unique characteristics — the small land area, the 
tremendous ocean distances that must be tra- 
versed, and the relatively small populations 
which provide only limited sources of man- 
power. Often it is hard to see, given these limit- 
ing factors, how economic self-sufficiency can 
ever be attained in an island area such as ours. 
Perhaps the islands of the Pacific Trust Terri- 
tory may never reach self-sufficiency, but as the 
distinguished representative of New Zealand 
commented, who can say what possibilities exist 
until all have been explored? 



That our great economic potential lies in the 
sea is unquestionable. Here lies the hidden 
wealth of Alicronesia; here lies the great hope 
of its future. Farming the sea must be achieved 
if the islands of the Pacific are to achieve a 
sound economic base. The opening of the area 
to commercial fishing concerns is only the be- 
ginning step in the development of an intensive 
local fishing industry which in time should pro- 
vide livelihood for thousands of our people. I 
assure the distinguished representative of 
Liberia and the distmguished delegate from 
China that we fully share the feeling that this 
major resource must be protected for the Micro- 
nesians. This is a paramount featiire in all our 
considerations, and, I might add, this aspect is 
fully accepted by every American industry 
which has demonstrated interest in our area. 
Provisions for training of Micronesians, for 
them to hold stock, and provisions for eventual 
purchase of equipment and plants by local in- 
vestors are an essential feature of any negotia- 
tions we undertake. 

The taming of the sea in other respects will 
be equally important to our islands. Para- 
mount here are the worldwide experiments of 
desalination of sea water. Many areas of the 
world will have vast new horizons open to them 
once this barrier has been breached and low-cost 
and simple methods of desalination have been 
achieved. To us it will mean that hundreds of 
tiny islands now not habitable can be put to 
use. It will mean vastly increased production 
of aU types of crops in our world of island 

Another area in which we have keen interest 
is that of the use of solar energy. We are in- 
vestigating all possibilities of how solar energy 
experiments can be put to use in our region. 
Pilot projects using simple solar devices for 
cooking purposes, for small-scale refrigeration 
units, and for solar batteries for power uses 
are under consideration for certain of our 

Agricultural Diversification 

Hope has been expressed here that more ef- 
fort will be made to diversify our present 
agricultural export crops, i.e. copra and 
cacao, in order that the local agricultural 

economy will not be completely dependent upon 
the fluctuating world market of these two prod- 
ucts. Through experimental pilot projects and 
through subsidy programs we are encouraging 
the development of other crops which have 
commercial value. The production of ramie 
fiber, coir fiber and its byproducts, limited 
lumber production, papain, tapioca starch ex- 
port, export of bananas, and many other 
items, all have real economic potential, '\^^lile 
I do not envisage any of these becoming a 
major source of income, combined with a 
major cash crop such as copra or cacao they 
can provide an important secondary source 
of income. Thus I hasten to assure the dis- 
tinguished representative of France that we are 
in agi'eement with his viewpoint that we must 
strive for economic diversification. 

Many other aspects in the economic field are 
receiving careful attention. Serious attention, 
for example, is being given to the possibility of 
ricegrowing in our area. Three of our disti-icts, 
Ponape, Palau, and the Marianas, have good po- 
tential for ricegrowing, and next month we are 
starting a pilot project to demonstrate that 
ricegrowing, both by the wet as well as dry 
method, is economically feasible for these three 
districts. Wliile we cannot look forward to 
completely supplying all of our local rice de- 
mands, I feel confident that in time we can 
greatly cut down rice imports, wliich now aver- 
age close to a half million dollars a year. 

The potential of meat producing is great. 
Our high islands should be able to supply almost 
all of our fresh meat requirements. Saipan, 
Eota, and Tinian Islands of the Marianas Dis- 
trict, Ponape Island, and Kusaie Island have 
the most potential for development of a live- 
stock industry, and already many thousand 
head of cattle are foimd in these islands. With 
faster and better means of transportation, ade- 
quate freezing and storage facilities, a local 
meat industry meeting our own consumption, 
as well as exporting considerable quantities of 
beef to Guam, should become an important seg- 
ment of the economic life of the above three 

Potentials exist for many small-scale indus- 
tries which could pro^-ide products and com- 
modities now imported from outside. Much of 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


our clothinp could be manufactured locally ; our 
soap production could be vastly increased. 

I am indebtetl to tho distinguished represent- 
ative of Liberia for her very helpful comments 
on economic development and am particularly 
grateful that she pointed out that we had made 
no mejition of Micronesian participation in 
economic planning. This was an omission on 
my part, since we do have considerable Micro- 
nesian participation in present economic plan- 
ning. It is my strong conviction that the 
territory's economic development will not be 
meaningful unless Micronesians participate to 
the fullest extent on all levels of economic ac- 
tivity and planning. Each district now has 
active economic development boards. The Sub- 
committee on Economic Development of the 
Council of Micronesia plays an important role 
in assessing economic needs, and its recommen- 
dations have been carefully considered by us. 

The assistant economic development officer in 
the headquarters economic section is a Micro- 
nesian. Two Micronesians serve on the Copra 
Stabilization Board, and this coming year sev- 
eral Micronesian members will be appointed to 
the board of directors which will be formed to 
control the economic development fimd. Thus 
I cAn assure the Council that Micronesians are 
closely associated with economic planning in 
the territory. We look forward to the recom- 
mendations which will be forthcoming after 
the new economic, social, and political survey is 
completed. From the recommendations of this 
group, plus our present economic plans, I feel 
we will l>e able to draw up, as suggested by the 
distinguished representative of New Zealand, a 
long-range, comprehensive economic develop- 
ment guide for the territory. 

Programs In Educational and Social Fields 

^Tlie rcproscntativo of UNESCO [United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization] drew attention to one of the ma- 
jor problems in tho field of elementary educa- 
tion—that of the inability of many of the 
municipalities to bear the local costs of educa- 
tion. We are devoting major attention to this 
a«pect in our accelerated education program, 
and I have already described our proposals in 

detail in my opening statement as well as during 
the questioning period. However, I would like 
to add that in addition to building new schools, 
the recruitment of American teachers, the train- 
ing of Micronesian teachers, there are several 
other equally important aspects to which we 
are devoting attention. Tlie first of these is a 
program of equipping elementary schools with 
suitable school furniture and teaching aids and 
the furnishing of free books and supplies for 
all public school students. Formerly only mini- 
mum aid was extended in this field, and here a 
major change is being made. This coming year, 
for example, the expenditure for elementary 
school equipment and supplies wUl run into sev- 
eral hundred thousand dollars. 

In cooperation with the district legislatures 
we have instituted a system of subsidizing ele- 
mentary school teachers salaries. While the 
basic salary is still being paid out of district 
revenues, the central government now provides 
a considerable subsidy which is added to the sal- 
ary of all elementary school teachers who meet 
minimum certification standards. Further, 
during this coming year it is our intention to 
review present elementary school teacher salary 
levels and to bring them in line with salaries 
which are paid in our ilicronesian Title and 
Pay Plan. Since the district legislatures desire 
to continue their support of elementary schools, 
the raising of teachers salaries at all levels will 
mean an increased subsidy on the part of the 
central government. 

I am also pleased to assure the distinguished 
representative of Liberia that we are providing 
additional opportunities for study in the metro- 
politan country. This year, for example, some 
10 to 12 additional students will be going to 
the University of Hawaii ; others will be going 
to universities in the mainland United States, 
while others will be attending the College of 

The College of Guam, a month or so ago, 
received accreditation as a 4-year college, and 
greatly expanded programs in all academic 
fields are now under way. The College of Guam 
has many potentials for our use. It is strategi- 
cally located with respect to the Western Caro- 
lines, the Marianas, and the Eastern Carolines 
region. It has an imposing campus and a physi- 



cal plant whose eventual cost will run into sev- 
eral million dollars. Its staff is well qualified, 
and many are specialists on the Pacific area. 
The College of Guam can well become a center 
for Pacific studies. It has the added attraction 
of being close enough to all our districts to en- 
able our students to return home at regular in- 
tervals to visit their families. This is an aspect 
which means a great deal to our students, par- 
ticularly those who are married. Thus, al- 
though in general I would agree with the dis- 
tinguished delegate from Liberia on the value 
of an institution of higher education within the 
territory, it is my feeling that it would be some- 
what premature and uneconomical for us to at- 
tempt to build a college when we have such 
ready access to the College of Guam. 

This does not mean, however, that we will 
not continue to expand higher education facili- 
ties in certain selected fields of study within the 
territory. I have already indicated our expan- 
sion plans for our nursing school, as well as our 
teacher training institute. These will be further 
expanded. Similarly, our School of Dental 
Nursing will be strengthened, as will our farm 
institute, which provides extension training on 
a post-high-school level for local agricultural 

There appears to be some misunderstanding 
with respect to the Trust Territory of the Pa- 
cific Islands' not using the United Nations 
scholarship programs. Over the past 10 years 
there has been an average of two United Na- 
tions fellowships received annually by Trust 
Territory citizens. These have covered a 
variety of fields ranging from study of radio 
broadcasting in New Zealand and Western Sa- 
moa to public-health activities in Japan and the 
Philippines, to community development study 
in the Philippines, Burma, and Jamaica, and 
social development grants in Hawaii and else- 

Most of the Council members have remarked 
favorably on our greatly increased appropria- 
tions, particularly in the field of elementary 
education. I am indebted though to the dis- 
tinguished representative of New Zealand for 
pointing out that provision of additional money 
does not remove all the stumbling blocks. He 
has rightly noted that all educational progress 

in a sense consists in the replacement of one set 
of problems for another. This, indeed, Mr. 
President, can be said to be an aspect of all 
progress and growth — problems are never com- 
pletely solved, for new and different ones con- 
stantly arise. 

Wliat we are attempting in all our education 
programs is to equip our Micronesian young 
people to better solve the problems which in- 
evitably will face them in their changing world. 
It is our contention that the most immediate 
problem lies in expanding and improving edu- 
cation at the elementary school level. Tliis be- 
lief has brought about the launching of a vast, 
accelerated program in this field. 

Our next stage will be acceleration in secon- 
dary school education and in the vital field of 
adult education. Here also is a great challenge 
to be met, for, unless we can bring the older 
generation within the orbit of the changing 
world, our accelerated education program on 
the elementary and secondary level could serve 
to create a gulf between the young and old. 
There is great eagerness among our adult popu- 
lation for education — education for their chil- 
dren and education for themselves. For our 
part we intend to provide facilities to meet the 
educational needs and desires of this vital por- 
tion of our population. 

We share the concern expressed by the dis- 
tinguished representative of Liberia on the 
needs of the tuberculosis control program. We 
are endeavoring to strengthen the program of 
tuberculosis control in all districts. BCG vac- 
cination continues, new and more potent drugs 
are constantly being introduced, and we are 
stressing preventive aspects as well as treat- 
ment of this disease. TB control teams have 
been established in each district and will be 
greatly strengthened imder our accelerated 
public-health program. Tlie special assistant 
to the Director of Public Health devoted full 
time tliis past year to organizing tuberculosis 
control work in the Marshalls District. Our 
expanded medical program calls for a tuber- 
culosis specialist to be added to our staff. We 
are determined that this dreaded scourge will 
be brought under control in the Pacific Islands. 
Fvmds for public-health activities for the year 
we are about to enter on July 1, that is fiscal 

AUGUST 5, 1963 


year 1964, have been appreciably increased over 
funds of the past year. For the next fiscal 
year, an even gn-atcr acceleration is planned 
and expansion of all aspects of our public- 
health program will be carried out. 

Problems Connected With the Outer Islands 

We still iiiive uiii(|ue i)rob]ems connected with 
the provision of education, health services, so- 
cial ser\'ices for the inhabitants of those small 
islands we have come to term the "outer islands." 
I would 1)0 among the first to admit that these 
problems have not been adequately met in the 
past, maiidy because of insufficient transporta- 
tion services. These outlying islands with their 
small populations, however, represent only a 
small fraction of our total land area and only 
a small minority of our population. We must, 
of course, meet the demands of the outislanders 
and fully intend to do so, but there is a point 
at which economic practicability must enter in- 
to the picture. The distinguished representa- 
tive of China touched on this point when he 
suggested that it might be worth while for the 
administration to consider ways and means of 
encouraging small isolated groups to move to 
more populated areas and join larger communi- 
ties. In certain of our small islands, the total 
population consists of only 10 to 30 individuals, 
and the islands on which they live often are a 
hundred miles or more from the district center 
or other populated areas. In the main, these 
i.slands have little to offer economically, and the 
young adults increasingly move to the district 
center or other populated regions. Thus we are 
left with small, isolated groups made up of 
elderly people and young children. There is 
no question but that eventual amalgamation of 
tiny groups of this nature will come about. 

The question as to how to achieve a proper 
balance l)etween the programs at headquarters, 
the district centers, and the outlying areas is 
one to which we have given a great deal of 
thought. I agree with the distinguished repre- 
sentative of China that more attention needs to 
bo given to decentralization, not only to insure 
that our programs reach into the isolated out- 
island areas but also into the hinterland region 
surroimding the district center area in which 
the great bulk of our population reside. Much 

of tlie problem of attracting and keeping our 
educated young people in the village level will 
disappear as we open these hinterlands to the 
conveniences of modem life possible under local 
resources. It is not enough simply to station 
a well-trained teacher, a doctor, a nurse, or an 
agriculturist in an outlying area. They must be 
able to put into practice what they have learned, 
and they, as well as the people of the outlying 
region, should be able to participate in im- 
proved standards of living. 

It is this goal that we are striving for in our 
axicelerated education program by providing 
the means whereby an elementary school far 
from the district center will have equal facil- 
ities and as well trained teachers as do the 
schools in the urban centers. Our public-health 
program calls for expansion of hospital service 
to the population centers outside the district 
centers through the building of field hospitals. 
The building of roads, the extension of public 
utilities insofar as this is feasible, into the 
hinterland area must be an important phase of 
any progi-am of development. These items have 
high priority in our present program, and even 
greater emphasis will be placed on them in our 
expanding program, which calls for accelera- 
tion in all fields of endeavor. 

I am pleased to be able to report at this time 
that the typhoon rehabilitation program for 
the Mariana Islands is progressing most satis- 
factorily. On June 11 President Kennedy al- 
located $1,-300,000 for the special rehabilitation 
program I described in detail in my opening 
statement, and this will enable us to move for- 
ward rapidly in the reconstruction of damaged 
facilities in Saipan, Rota, and Tinian. The 
Administering Authority shares the hope ex- 
pressed by members of the Council that a speedy 
solution to the longstanding problem of the 
Kwajalein land claims, as well as compensation 
for the people of Eongelap, will soon come 
about. My administration earnestly hopes that 
these two areas of doubt and uncertainty can 
be cleared up well before this Council convenes 
next spring. 

It has been our practice, Mr. President, eacli 
year to circulate immediately upon the return 
of the Special Representative to the territory 
the summary records of the Trusteeship Coim- 



cil, in order that the people of the territory may 
read for themselves the complete transcripts of 
the meetings here. Not only are these smnmai-y 
records distributed in considerable quantity, 
but our local radio stations use them in special 
broadcast programs. I can assure the Council 
that the deliberations of this body are followed 
with keen interest by the people of the Trust 
Territory. Before the 1st of July records of 
this meeting will be distributed throughout our 

In closing, Mr. President, may I express 
again my appreciation for the many helpful 
comments brought forth at this me-eting and 
thank you and the members of the Coimcil for 
the interest expressed in the affairs of the Trust 

Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Mimeographed or processed documents (,such as those 
listed below) may be consulted at depository libraries 
in the United States. V.N. printed publications may he 
purchased from the Sales Section of the United Na- 
tions, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 

Economic and Social Council 

Fifteenth Anniversary of the Universal Declaration ot 
Human Rights. Note by the Secretary-General 
transmitting to the Council an extract from the re- 
port of the 19th session of the Commission on Human 
Rights. E/3737. April 1, 1963. 19 pp. 

Report of the ad hoc committee established under Coun- 
cil resolution 851 (XXXII) on coordination of tech- 
nical assistance activities. E/3750. April 18, 1963. 
24 pp. 

Economic and social consequences of disarmament. 
E/3736, May 13, 1963, 12 pp. ; Add. 1, May 10, 1963, 
21 pp. ; Add. 2, May 13, 1963, 12 pp. ; Add. 3, May 13, 
1963, 14 pp. 

Technical assistance activities of the United Nations. 
E/37.57. May 13, 1963. 77 pp. 

Provisional agenda for the 36th session of ECOSOC. 
E/37.55. May 14, 1963. 17 pp. 

World campaign for universal literacy. E/3771. May 
1.5, 1963. 84 pp. 

U.N. conference on the application of science and tech- 
nology for the benefit of the less developed areas. 
E/3772, May 21, 1963, 91 pp. : Corr. 1, June 10, 1963, 
1 p. : and Add. 1, June 3, 1963, 173 pp. 

General review of the development, coordination, and 
concentration of the economic, social, and human 
rights programs and activities of the United Nations, 
the specialized agencies, and the International Atomic 
Energy Agency as a whole : report of the Special 
Comm'ittee on Coordination. E/3778. May 27, 1963. 
13 pp. 


Current Actions 



International coffee agreement, 1962, with annexes. 
Signed at New York September 28, 1962. Entered 
into force provisionally July 1, 1963. 
Notification received of undertaking to seek ratifica- 
tion: Nicaragua, June 26, 1963. 


Articles of agreement of the International Development 
Association. Done at Washington January 26, 1960. 
Entered into force September 24, 1960. TIAS 4607. 
Signature: Upper Volta. May 2, 1963. 
Acceptance deposited: Upper Volta, May 13, 1963. 


Instrument for the amendment of the constitution of 
the International Labor Organization. Dated at 
Montreal October 9, 1946 ; entered into force April 20, 
1948. TIAS 1868. 

Admission to membership : Algeria, October 19, 1962; 
Burundi, March 12, 1963 ; Jamaica, December 28, 
1962 ; Rwanda, September 18, 1962 ; Trinidad and 
Tobago, May 27, 1963; Uganda, March 28, 1963. 

Law of the Sea 

Convention on fishing and conservation of living re- 
sources of the high seas ; * 

Convention on the continental shelf ; ' 
Done at Geneva April 29, 1958. 
Ratification deposited: Australia, May 14, 1963. 

Convention on the territorial sea and contiguous zone. 
Done at Geneva April 29, 1958.^ 

Ratification deposited: Australia (with reserva- 
tions) , May 14, 1963. 

Convention on the high seas. Done at Geneva April 29, 
1958. Entered into force September 30, 1962. TIAS 

Ratification deposited: Australia (with reserva- 
tions). May 14, 1963. 

Optional protocol of signature concerning the compul- 
sory settlement of disputes. Done at Geneva 
April 29, 1958. Entered into force September 30, 
Signature: Australia, May 14, 1963. 

Maritime Matters 

Inter-American convention on facilitation of interna- 
tional waterborne transportation (Convention of 
Mar del Plata). Signed at Mar del Plata June 7, 
1963. Enters into force on the 30th day following 
the date of deposit of the 11th ratification or 

Signatures: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile (with reserva- 
tion), Colombia, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, 
United States, and Uruguay, June 7, 1963. 

^ Not in force. 

' Not in force for the United States. 

AUGUST 5, 196 3 



Coiiv.ntloii of I'nrlH for the protection of Industrial 
IiroiHTty of Mardi :iO, 1883, revised at Washington 
Jiiiif 2. linl, at The Hague N'oveiiil>er 6, 1920, at 
Ixmdoii June 2. l',";!». and at Msbon October 31, 1958. 
Done at Lisbon tKtot)er 31, 11)58. Entered into force 
January 4, Uk;2. TIAS 4SKJ1. 

Api>lictttion to: Gumui. Puerto Ulco, Samoa, and Vir- 
Kin I.tlands, July 7, 1903. 


General Ain-eement on Tariffs and Trade, with annexes 
and schedules, and protocol of provisional applica- 
tion. Concluded at Geneva October 30, lf»47. TIAS 

Admitted o* contractltuj party (with rights and obli- 
pdtioru dating from independence) : Chad, July 4, 



Inteniatlonal wheat agreement, 19C2. Open for sig- 
nature at Washington April 19 through May 15, 19C2. 
Entere<l Into force July 10, 19C2, for imrt I and 
parts III to VII, and August 1, 1902, for part II. 
TIAS 511.5. 
Aeeeplanees drponited: Argentina, July 16, 1963; 

Dominican Republic, July 12, 196.3. 
Aocei»ion deposited: El Salvador, July 17, 1963. 



Agri-.ineiit amending the agreement of June 30, 1958 
(TI.VS 4W.7), relating to the use of the Veterans 
Memorial Hospital and granting aid for medical care 
and treatment of veterans. Effected by exchange of 
notes nt Manila June 28, 1903. Entered into force 
June 28, 1903. 


Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of November 2.8, 1961 (TIAS 4904). 
Effected by exchange of notes at Lisbon June 5 and 
2r,. HKJ3. Entered Into force June 26, 1963. 


Agreement amending the agreement of November 20, 
1952, as amended (TIAS 20,53, 4359), for financing 
certain educational exchange programs. Effected 
by exchange of notes at Stcx'kholm June 28, 1963. 
Entered Into force June 28, 1063. 



Howard U. Haugerud as Deputy Inspector General 
for Foreign Assistance, effective July 14. (For