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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"



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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



O 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. L1V, Nos. 138A-U09 




January ■•-.June 27, 1966 



INDEX 



Number Date of Issue 



Pages 



1384 


Jan. 


3, 


1966 


1- 44 


1385 


Jan. 


10, 


1966 


45- 76 


1386 


Jan. 


17, 


1966 


77-112 


1387 


Jan. 


24, 


1966 


113-148 


1388 


Jan. 


31, 


1936 


149-184 


1389 


Feb. 


7, 


1966 


185-220 


1390 


Feb. 


14, 


1966 


221-260 


1391 


Feb. 


21, 


1936 


261-300 


1392 


Feb. 


28, 


1966 


301-344 


1393 


Mar. 


7, 


1966 


345-388 


1394 


Mar. 


14, 


1966 


389-428 


1395 


Mar. 


21, 


1966 


429-172 


1396 


Mar. 


28, 


1966 


473-512 



Number Date of Issue 



Pages 



1397 


Apr. 4, 


1966 


513- 


552 


1398 


Apr. 11, 


1966 


553- 


596 


1399 


Apr. 18, 


1966 


£97- 


644 


1400 


Apr. 25, 


1966 


645- 


684 


1401 


May 2, 


1966 


685- 


724 


1402 


May 9, 


1936 


725- 


760 


1403 


May 16, 


1966 


761- 


792 


1404 


May 23, 


1966 


793- 


828 


1405 


May 30, 


1966 


829- 


872 


1406 


June 6, 


1966 


873- 


912 


1407 


June 13, 


1966 


913- 


960 


1408 


June 20, 


1966 


961- 


996 


1409 


June 27, 


1966 


997-1036 






Correction for Volume LIV 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call 
attention to the following error in Volume LIV: 

January 3, page 4: In the third paragraph in 
the first column the Foreign Secretary of 
Pakistan was incorrectly identified. Aziz Ahmed 
was Foreign Secretary; Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 
Foreign Minister of Pakistan. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE 
Publication 8130 
Released December 1966 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, O.C. 20402 - Price cents 



INDEX 



Volume LIV: Numbers 1384-1409, January 3 -June 27, 1966 



AAPSO (Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organiza- 
tion), 710 
Abid Ali (quoted), 638 
Abram, Morris, 636, 973, 1029, 1031 
Abu Dhabi, 24, 26 
ACDA. See Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 

U.S. 
Ackley, Gardner, 319, 466 
Adams, Brock, 253 
Adebo, S. O., 236 
Adjudication: 

Agreement with Sierra Leone re conduct of liti- 
gation with international aspects in either 
country, 958 
Jury selection (Johnson), 151 
Advisory Committee on International Business Prob- 
lems, 403 
Advisory Committee on Private Enterprise in For- 
eign Aid, 324, 630 
Advisory Committee on Science and Technology, 

U.N.: Roosevelt, 424; Seaborg, 287 
Afghanistan: 

Peace Corps, accomplishments (Johnson), 635 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 682, 720, 789 
Africa (see also individual countries and Organiza- 
tion of African Unity) : 
Communicable diseases, U.S. programs for eradi- 
cation of (Johnson), 334 
Communist objectives: Bundy, 311; Goldberg, 126; 
Rusk, 690; Williams, 431 
Rejection of and countermeasures to: Bundy, 
867; Goldberg, 542; Palmer, 898; Rusk, 567, 
687, 774; Williams, 270 
Denuclearization: 412, 416, 416w; Foster, 103; 

Rusk, 409 
Economic and social development : 

Food-for-work projects, North Africa (Rusk), 

498 
Modernization and urbanization, problems 

(Rostow), 806 
Regional and subregional programs, U.S. sup- 
port: Johnson, 323, 915; Rusk, 633, 933 
EEC trade, 590 
Newly independent states: 

Political and other problems and U.S. position : 

Palmer, 898; Rusk, 193; Williams, 432 
U.N. membership (Sisco), 648 
Refugees, AID assistance to (Crockett), 706 



Africa — Continued 

South Africa, relations with: Palmer, 899; Wil- 
liams, 431 
Southern Rhodesia, effect of situation on other 
African problems: Goldberg, 716, 753, 800, 
988; Williams, 13, 15, 265 
U.K. territories: 592; Williams, 438 
UNICEF programs (Bernstein), 278 
U.S. interests: Goldberg, 801; Johnson, 963 
Africa — What Lies Ahead, 806 
African Development Bank: Johnson, 256, 323, 916; 

Rusk, 633 
Afro- Asian Peoples Solidarity Organization (Sayre), 

710 
Agency for International Development: 

Africa, programs for eradication of communicable 

disease (Johnson), 334 
Agricultural education agreement with Colombia, 

announcement, 494 
Appropriations: 

Request for FY 1967: Gordon, 981; Johnson, 

248,250,322; Rusk, 630 
Supplementary request FY 1966; Johnson, 255; 
Rusk, 346 
Educational programs, proposed increase (John- 
son), 322, 330 
Family planning programs: Gordon, 982; Mann, 

784 ; Roosevelt, 177 
Foreign Assistance Program FY 1965, annual re- 
port: 208; Johnson, 208 
Foreign Service Board, duties, Executive order, 

144 
International health services, proposed increases 

(Johnson), 323, 332 
Latin America, loan progi'am (Gordon), 981, 983 
Procurement policies (Johnson), 326 
Refugee programs (Crockett), 706 
Senior Interdepartmental Group, membership in, 

507 
Zambia, airlift of petroleum supplies to, agree- 
ment with Pan American World Airways con- 
cluded, 157, 783 
Aggression (see also China, Communist; Com- 
munism; Soviet Union; and Viet-Nam) : 
Free- world responsibility to meet: Allen, 384; 
Goldberg. 198; Hasluck (quoted), 518; John- 
son, 650; Rusk, 516, 690, 698, 927 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1039 



Aggression — Continued 

Measures against: 305; Braderman, 1018; Bundy, 
965; Humphrey, 490; Johnson, 555, 962; Rusk, 
830,927,930; Unger, 457 

Right of states for protection from : Goldberg, 127, 
543, 609; Meeker, 474; Rusk, 194; Unger, 451; 
U.N. resolution, 128, 175w 

Subversion and infiltration as acts of: Goldberg, 
126, 942; Johnson, 963; U. A. Johnson, 535; 
Meeker, 474 

Unchecked, results of: Humphrey, 523; Johnson, 
51, 190 (quoted); Rusk, 693; Thanat Khoman 
(quoted), 518 

"Unprovoked aggression" (Rusk), 560 

U.S. responsibility to meet: 846; Ball, 244, 763; 
Bundy, 316; Humphrey, 770; Johnson, 151, 
153, 187, 247, 249, 303, 320, 391, 835; Kennedy 
(quoted), 358; McGhee, 658; Rusk, 88, 348, 
352, 518, 520, 631, 693, 780, 841, 928; Spaak 
(quoted), 519; Taylor, 357 
Aggrey, James, 917 
Agricultural Act of 1949, 253 

Agricultural surpluses, U.S., use in overseas pro- 
grams : 

Agreements with: Algeria, 642; Bolivia, 826 
Ceylon, 592; Chile, 550; China, 426; Colombia 
642; Congo (Leopoldville), 826; EACSO, 789 
Ethiopia, 110; Ghana, 721; Greece, 144, 217 
Guinea, 74, 469; Iceland, 298; India, 110, 386 
1033; Indonesia, 826; Israel, 1033, 1034 
Jordan, 721; Kenya, 510, 789; Korea, 550 
Liberia; 217; Mali, 144; Morocco, 826; Paki- 
stan, 910, 1034; Paraguay, 826; Ryukyu Is- 
lands, 144; Sierra Leone, 550; Sudan, 721, 
789; Tanzania, 789; Tunisia, 826; Turkey, 
721; U.A.R., 218; Uganda, 789; Viet-Nam, 
182, 258, 642, 721, 758; Yugoslavia, 42, 258, 
342, 789 

Currency balances, sale to U.S. citizens author- 
ized in Ceylon, Guinea, and Tunisia, 975 

Foreign currency credits, proposed use in local de- 
velopment projects (Johnson), 253, 331 

Principles for: Johnson, 336; Rusk, 499 

Private welfare agency shipments (Johnson), 253 

U.A.R. sales continued: Johnson, 123; Rusk, 196 
Agriculture (see also Agricultural surpluses, Food 
and Agriculture Organization, and Food for 
Peace) : 

AID programs FY 1965 (Johnson), 209 

Colombia, agricultural education agreement, an- 
nouncement, 494 

Food for Freedom, Act of 1966: Johnson, 322, 336, 
337; Rusk, 496, 500 

German-U.S. trade in agricultural goods 
(McGhee), 661 

Increased food production and modernization of 
farm practices, need for : 944 ; Freeman 
(quoted), 500; Mann, 737; Roosevelt, 176; 
Rusk, 497; Solomon, 822 
CENTO (Rusk), 777 



Agriculture — Continued 

Increased food production — Continued 

India: Gandhi, 602; Hare, 669; Johnson, 599, 605 
Latin America : Gordon, 622, 741, 979; McGhee, 56 
U.N. aid: Bernstein, 274; Roosevelt, 130, 424; 

Seaborg, 287 
U.S. aid: 305; Gordon, 982; Johnson, 152, 187, 
208, 248, 253, 291, 308, 322, 334, 340; Rusk, 
501, 629 
Korea (Berger), 863 
Mexico, Supervised Agricultural Credit Program 

(Diaz Ordaz-Johnson), 732 
Pakistan, salinity and waterlogging problems 

(Ayub Khan), 6 
Poland (McGhee), 1023 

Southern Rhodesia, problems (Williams), 268 
Soviet Union, agreement for exchanges in agri- 
culture and other fields, joint communique, 
543 
U.S. farm program FY 1966, appropriation re- 
quest (Johnson), 338 
U.S. food and fiber reserves (Johnson), 340 
Agriculture, Department of, 378, 507 
Agriculture, Secretary of, 339 
Agronsky, Martin, 565 

AID. See Agency for International Development 
Aiken, George D., 733 

Air navigation and transport. See under Aviation 
Air pollution, 47 
Aircraft. See Aviation 

Albania, U.S. travel controls eased for scholars, 491 
Algeria : 

Food-for-work projects, objectives and value, 

(Rusk), 498 
National Liberation Front of Algeria, contrasted 

with Viet-Nam (Ball), 243 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 642, 720, 870, 909 
Alianza para el Progreso. See Alliance for Progress 
Alien Property, Office of, 945 
Allen, George V., 509 
Allen, Ward P., 383 
Alliance for Progress: 

Appropriations request FY 1967: Gordon, 981; 
Johnson, 250, 325 
Five-year authorization: Gordon, 986; Johnson, 
324; Rusk, 923 
Background (Mann), 735 

Fifth anniversary, statement (Johnson), 537 
Mexico, progress under: Gordon, 977; Johnson, 

729; Rusk, 366 
Role and U.S. support: Gordon, 621, 738, 977; 
Johnson, 152, 205, 248, 251, 323, 633 (quoted), 
746; McGhee, 57; Rostow, 806; Rusk, 561, 633, 
931 ; Sayre, 713 
Supervised Agricultural Credit Program, accom- 
plishments (Diaz Ordaz-Johnson), 732 
Third Extraordinary Inter-American Conference, 

proposed: Gordon, 739; Johnson, 729 
U.S. Coordinator (Gordon), 620 



1040 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Alouctte satellites, 164 

American ideals (see also Great Society) : Goldberg, 
198, 543, 944, 971; Harris, 18; Johnson, 4, 188, 
292, 327, 328, 391, 538, 601 (quoted), 727, 914; 
McNamara, 881 ; Rusk, 931 
American Institute of Free Labor Development, 985 
American Jewish Committee, 973 
American Relief for Poland, 796 

American Republics. See Latin America and Organi- 
zation of American States 
Amity and economic relations, treaties with : Thai- 
land, 991 ; Togo, 367, 386, 469 
Anderson, Rudolf, 962 
Andreotti, Giulio, 368, 519 (quoted) 
Angola (Williams), 270 
Antarctica, scientific research programs (McGhee), 

372 
Anti-Dumping Act, 858 
ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, U.S.); Bundy, 

314; Rusk, 348, 516, 559, 566 
Apartheid (see also Racial discrimination) : Abram, 

638, 639; Goldberg, 237; Williams, 430, 438 
Apedo-Amah, Georges, 367 
Apollo project, 164, 787 
APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) systems, 

163, 377 
Arab states. See individual countries 
Arab-Israel dispute (Hare), 670 
Arbitration (see also Investment disputes conven- 
tion) : 
U.S. citizens claims for damages re Gut Dam, 

Canada, 207 
U.S. labor laws (Goldberg), 938 
Areopagitica, 543 
Argentina: 

Cooperative sounding-rocket studies (Goldberg), 

164 
Economic progress (Gordon), 980 
Joint Argentine-U.S. Trade and Economic Com- 
mittee, 1st meeting, 944 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 509, 510, 550, 682, 720, 
789, 909, 957 
Armaments (see also Disarmament, Missiles, and 
Nuclear weapons) : 
Control and reduction of: Erhard, Johnson, 50; 

Johnson, 152, 249; Rusk, 559 
Economic disadvantages of competition in: Bar- 
nett, 667; Johnson, 264, 411, 579; McGhee, 
378; Rusk, 194,407, 698 
Egypt, arms purchases by, effect on U.S. aid 

policy (Rusk), 196 
U.S. capabilities (McNamara), 875 
U.S. policy on supply to: 
Near East, 663 
South Africa (Williams), 435 
Southern Rhodesia: Goldberg, 715, 988; Wil- 
liams, 266 
Viet-Nam, U.S. supplemental appropriations re- 
quest FY 1966 (Johnson) , 254 



Armed forces: 

CENTO training programs (Rusk), 777 
Civic action programs, objectives: Gordon, 985; 
Johnson, 326; McNamara, 878; Rusk, 629, 631 
French NATO forces in U.S., question of (Rusk), 

697 
Germany : 

Military observers of maneuvers, proposed ex- 
change with East Europe, 657 
NATO forces (McGhee), 659 

Changes resulting from French withdrawal: 
617, 700, 702; Ball, 615; NAC, 1002; Rusk, 
998 
Nuclear nonproliferation by, proposed treaty pro- 
visions (Johnson), 263 
Philippine veterans, U.S. administration of bene- 
fits (Bundy), 447 
Thai forces, improvement and modernization, U.S. 

assistance (Humphrey), 396 
Treatment in time of war, Geneva conventions 

(1949) relative to, Honduras, 957 
U.N. service, selection of special units for (Gold- 
berg), 98 
U.S. training programs, objectives: Johnson, 326; 
Rusk, 630 
Armed forces, U.S.: 

China, agreement re status of U.S. forces, 721 

Formosa (Rusk), 195 

Germany: McGhee, 58; Rusk, 921 

President, authority over U.S. forces abroad: Ful- 

bright (quoted), 487; Meeker, 484, 488 
Purpose: Johnson, 321; Rusk, 689 
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, U.S.: 
Annual report (1965) to Congress, fifth, excerpts, 

411 
Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 250 
ASA (Association of Southeast Asia), 397, 933 
Asher, Robert, 273 

Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (see also 
ANZUS council, Southeast Asia Treaty Or- 
ganization, and individual countries) : 
Association of Southeast Asia: 397; Rusk, 933 
Communist activities (see also Viet-Nam) : 

Danger to peace of Asia: 604; Ball, 240, 244; 
Goldberg, 542, 750; Hare, 669; Humphrey, 
527; McGhee, 1025; Rusk, 88, 561, 693 
Goals: Humphrey, 490; McGhee, 56; Rusk, 689; 

Sayre, 710 
Rejection of: Bundy, 867; Rusk, 567, 687, 772 
U.S. responsibility to meet: Andreotti (quoted), 
519; Bundy, 318; Humphrey, 527; Rusk, 518, 
693; Spaak (quoted), 519 
Communist China, objectives contrasted with U.S.: 

Bundy, 310; Goldberg, 541; Rusk, 566 
Economic and social development: 
Food-for-work projects (Rusk), 498 
Multilateral aid, U.S. support and encourage- 
ment: Goldberg, 125; Harriman, 381; 
Humphrey, 116; McGhee, 55; Rusk, 632 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1041 



Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia — Continued 

Economic and social development — Continued 
Regional development programs: 
Thai support, 396 

U.S. support: 493; Bundy, 315, 450; Erhard, 
Johnson, 51; Harriman, 379; Humphrey, 
396, 770; Johnson, 209, 256, 323, 521; Rusk, 
632, 933 
U.S. aid: 

1965 AID report, 208 

Principles and objectives: Hare, 668; Johnson, 
963 

Far East, problems of and U.S. policies: 492, 
Bundy, 965; Unger, 451 

Far East Refugee Program, U.S. aid (Crockett), 
705 

India, importance to: Gandhi, 603; Johnson, 598 

Nationalism and regional integration: Barnett, 
665; Humphrey, 114, 490, 528; Unger, 452 

NATO, question of role in (Rusk), 570 

Philippines, expanding role of (Bundy), 450 

Security and defense, U.S. role in (see also Collec- 
tive security; and Southeast Asia Treaty Or- 
ganization) : 869; Brosio (quoted), 519; 
Bundy, 314; Goldberg, 610; McNamara, 879; 
Rusk, 561, 698, 830, 928 

UNICEF programs (Bernstein), 278 

U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 

U.S. Chiefs of Mission to the Far East, 5th ambas- 
sadorial conference, joint statement, 492 

U.S. information programs, expanded activities 
(Johnson), 253 

U.S. immigration law changes, effect (Hines), 122 

U.S. position and objectives: 830; Bundy, 444, 867; 
Goldberg, 124, 168, 800; Harriman, 381; 
Humphrey, 115, 528, 770; Johnson, 3, 4, 7, 
256; Rusk, 86, 517, 561, 694, 774 

Visit of Vice President Humphrey: 302, 396; 
Humphrey, 114, 309, 489; Johnson, 308, 393 
Asian Development Bank: 

Agreement establishing with annexes: Afghani- 
stan, Australia, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon, 
China, Federal Republic of Germany, India, 
Iran, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philip- 
pines, Thailand, U.K., U.S., Western Samoa, 
258 

Multilateral financial support: Barnett, 665; Ber- 
ger, 864; Harriman, 382; Johnson, 51, 256; 
McGhee, 56 ; Rusk, 632 

Thai support, 397 

U.S. officials named, 718 

U.S. participation and pledge, request for Con- 
gressional action: 379m; Johnson, 248, 252, 
255, 443 

U.S. support: Bundy, 315, 450; Harriman, 379: 
Johnson, 209, 323, 521 
Asian Development Bank Act of 1966, 521n 
Association of Southeast Asia: 397; Rusk, 933 



Astor, David, 638 
Astronauts: 

Assistance and return, proposed agreement on: 

Goldberg, 166; Johnson, 900 
Good-will tour of Far East, U.S. astronauts, 364 
Atkinson Field, 935 

Atlantic Community. See Atlantic partnership 
Atlantic partnership (see also North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization): 50; Ball, 616, 766; Johnson, 47, 
152; Leddy, 672; Solomon, 821 
Atomic energy, peaceful uses of: 

Agreements re application of safeguards. See 
under Atomic Energy Agency, International 
Agreements re civil uses of: Costa Rica, 426; Indo- 
nesia, 182; Korea, 258; Spain, 789; Switzer- 
land, 110; U.K., 994 
Development and potential value: 733; McGhee, 

375,460; Seaborg, 284 
Fissionable material, proposed transfer from 
weapons use, and international safeguards 
for: 417; Foster, 901; Johnson, 264; Rusk, 
408 
International controls, German support, 657 
Spent fuel, danger of conversion into weapons 
(Smyth), 28 
Atomic Energy Agency, International: 

Desalination studies with: Israel, 494; Mexico, 

733 
Freedom From Hunger Campaign, cooperation 

with (Seaborg), 287 
Government personnel exchange program: 470; 

Pollack, 948 
Safeguards : 

Agreements re application of safeguards to ex- 
isting bilateral agreements: Argentina, 909; 
Austria, 143; Greece, 257; Portugal, 143 
Application of, U.S. and other support for: 412; 
657; Foster, 104, 904; Johnson, 263; McGhee, 
375; Rusk, 409; Seaborg, 288; Smyth, 30 
Statute: 

Amendment of article VI.A.3, Luxembourg, 993 
Current actions: Jamaica, 109; Jordan, 758; 
Panama, 468 
Atomic Energy Commission: McGhee, 375; Seaborg, 

284 
Atoms for Peace, 375 
Auburn, Norman, 492 

Australia (see also ANZUS and Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization) : 
Asian regional projects, support for: Harriman, 

380; Johnson, 256, 522; Rusk, 632 
Free trade area with New Zealand, 590 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 258, 342, 550, 

720, 758, 826 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
Viet-Nam, military and other support for: Ball, 
613; Goldberg, 539; Johnson, 302, 308; Rusk, 
515, 518,929; Unger, 457 



1042 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Australia — Continued 

Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 
489 
Austria : 

Air transport services agreement with U.S., 68 
Trade: 624; Solomon, 822 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 143, 342, 720, 789, 910, 
957, 1033 
Automatic Picture Transmission: Goldberg, 163; 

McGhee, 377 
Automotive products agreement, U.S.-Canada ; 465; 

Roth, 858 
Automotive traffic. See Road traffic 
Aviation: 
Aircraft: 

Communist China, alleged U.S. overflights 

(Rusk), 884,885,925 
Pan American and TWA airlift to Zambia: 27, 

157, 783; Goldberg, 716, 988; Williams, 269 
Procurement time from contractors (Johnson), 

254 
Spain, accident over, U.S. position, 397 
Atkinson Field, U.S. airbase lease relinquished, 

935 
Civil aviation: 

Accident liability, U.S. position: 956; Lowenfeld, 

581 
Southern Rhodesia, discontinuation of major 

service (Williams), 268 
U.K. air transport consultations with U.S., an- 
nouncements and delegations, 468 
Cuban refugees, airlift of (Sayre), 708 
Military airbases: Ball, 615; Rusk, 697, 698 
Military aircraft, France, landing and transit 

rights (Rusk) , 697 
Military aircraft, U.S.: 

Jet aircraft, sale to Jordan, 663 
Use in Viet-Nam. See Viet-Nam, U.S. military 
entries 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport agreements with: Canada, 140, 
207, 721; Denmark, 1033; Greece, 386; Japan, 
141, 469; Norway, 1034; Sweden, 1034 
Air transport services agreements with: Aus- 
tria, 68; Peru, 467, 469; U.K.-U.S. Bermuda 
Agreement amended, 954, 958 
Aircraft, convention (1948) on international 

recognition of rights in : Tunisia, 957 
Aircraft, convention (1963) on offenses and cer- 
tain other acts committed on board : Norway, 
909 
Carriage by air, convention (1929) for unifica- 
tion of certain rules re: Cuba, 109; U.S. (de- 
nunciation withdrawn), 956, 1033 
Protocol to amend: Liechtenstein, 681; Spain, 
681; U.S. (denunciation withdrawn), 956, 
1033 
U.S. position on convention and Hague proto- 
col : 955 ; Lowenfeld, 580 



Aviation — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Civil aviation, international convention (1944) 
on : Singapore, 957 

Protocol amending article 50(a) re ICAO 
council membership: Algeria, Luxembourg, 
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, 870 
Protocol amending articles 48(a), 49(e), and 
61 on sessions of ICAO Assembly: Algeria, 
Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, 870 
Civil aviation, international convention (1962), 
extraordinary meetings, protocol re amend- 
ment to increase number of parties to request: 
Algeria, China, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, 909 
Helicopters, agreement with Spain re loan of 
carrier, 826 
Ayub Khan, Mohammed, 3, 5 
Aziz Ahmed, 118c 

Baghdad Pact, 349 
Bahrain, 24, 26 
Baker v. Carr, 972 
Balance of payments: 
Canada, 24, 464 
India (Johnson), 606 
Latin America (Gordon), 985 
U.S.: 

Asian Development Bank, probable effect of U.S. 

pledge (Johnson), 257 
Federal overseas transactions, cooperation of 

U.S. agencies urged (Johnson) , 495 
Foreign aid programs, effect of: 24; Gordon, 
743, 984; Johnson, 23, 209, 251, 320, 322, 326, 
335; Mann, 736; Rusk, 630 
Foreign currency sales authorized in Ceylon, 

Guinea, and Tunisia, 975 
Germany, reciprocal military expenditures (Er- 

hard-Johnson), 51 
International liquidity (Johnson), 291 
Ocean freight rates, effect on potential exports 

(Geren), 81 
South Africa (Williams), 437 
Status of and efforts to improve: Connor, 400; 
Fowler, 398; Johnson, 290; Mac Arthur, 812; 
Robertson, 402 
Balance of Payments Advisory Committee, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, 27 
Ball, George W.: 
Addresses, 239, 762 

Foreign policy briefing conferences, 579, 703 
Newspaper interview, French, transcript of, 613 
Bamboo Curtain (Ball), 244 
Barnett, Robert W., 117, 664 
Barr, Joseph W., 1027 
Barringer, Henry C, 158 
Basutoland: 592; Williams, 438 
Battle Act, 319, 842, 844 

BCIU (Business Council for International Under- 
standing), 246 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1043 



Beam, Jacob D., 991 
Bechuanaland (Williams), 438 

U.S. consulate established, 592 
Beirut agreement, 332 
Belgium : 

Asian Development Bank, support for (McGhee), 
56 

NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Eu- 
rope, relocation: NAC, 1002; Rusk, 998 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 42, 143, 258, 469, 550, 
682, 720, 789, 826, 993 
Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union, 550 
Bell, David E., 579, 629, 786 
Ben Ezzedine (quoted), 638 
Benelux, 998 

Bennett, W. Tapley, Jr., 909 
Berger, Samuel D., 860 
Berlin: Erhard-Johnson, 50; McGhee, 55; NAC, 8, 

1002; Rusk, 517, 570, 698, 931 
Berman, Edgar F., 786 
Bermuda Agreement, 954, 958 
Bernardes, Carlos Alfredo, 210, 719 
Berne Union (McGhee), 1026 
Bernstein, Blanche, 271 
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, 780 
Big-power responsibility : 

Communist China, ambitions (Rusk), 688 

U.S.: Ball, 239, 763; Goldberg, 944, 974; Hasluck 
(quoted), 518; Humphrey, 769; Johnson, 835; 
Rusk, 930; Spaak (quoted), 519 
Bild der Wissenschaft, 369 
Bill of Rights (Goldberg), 215 
Bing, Peter S., 246 
Bingham, Jonathan B., 273 

BIRPI (United International Bureaus for the Pro- 
tection of Industrial and Intellectual Property), 
1007 
Black, Eugene, 255, 397, 521, 845, 852n 
Blackie, William, 845 
Boafo, K.Y., 440 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, 289, 627 
Boehm, Richard W., 10, 1004 
Boerma, A. H., 130, 133 
Bogota, Pact of, 74 
Bolivia: 

AID special development fund, use of (Gordon), 
984 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 682, 720, 826 
Bond Bulletin, 28 
Borman, Frank, 364 
Borton, Hugh, 405 
Boundary waters: 

Canada. See Canada headings 

Rio Grande salinity problem, recommendations, 
118 
Boundary Waters Treaty, 1909, 36 
Braderman, Eugene M„ 404, 1013 
Brandeis, Justice Louis (quoted), 214, 608, 972 



Brazil : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 270 

Cooperative sounding-rocket studies (Goldberg), 
164 

Economic progress and U.S. aid: 208, 983; Gordon, 
980; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 633 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 110, 386, 469, 509, 
550, 682, 720, 789, 957, 1033 

U.S. Ambassador (Tuthill), confirmation, 991 

U.S. relations (Gordon), 620 
Brenner, Edward J., 1010 
Brice, Donat B., 494 
British Guiana. See Guyana 
British Hondui'as: 

Economic survey sponsored by U.S., U.K., and 
Canada, 162 

Investment guarantee agreement, 721 
Brodie, Henry P., 589 
Bronk, Detlev, 20 
Brookings Institution, 273 
Brosio, Manlio, 368, 519 

Brown v. the Board of Education (Goldberg), 972 
Buchanan, Thompson R., 158 

Buenos Aires convention on Inventions, Patents, De- 
signs and Industrial Models of 1910, 1008 
Bukharin, Nikolai (quoted), 539 
Bulgaria, treaties, agreements, etc., 549, 720 
Bundy, McGeorge, 199, 302, 308 
Bundy, William P.: 

Addresses, 310, 444, 866, 965 

Conferences and meetings, 492, 579, 897 
Burma : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 397 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 642, 720, 1033 

U.S. relations (Bundy), 315 
Burns, Findley, Jr., 909 
Burns, Robert, 468, 954 
Burundi: 

Human rights, alleged violations (Abrams), 638 

U.S. requests recall of Burundi Ambassador, 158 

World Bank, agreement amending article III, ac- 
ceptance of, 181 
Business Council for International Understanding, 

meeting with U.S. officials, 246 
Butterworth, W. Walton, 67, 319, 466 
Byelorussian S.S.R., treaties, agreements, etc., 682, 
720 

Cabinet Committee on Balance of Payments, recom- 
mendations, 23 
Cadogan, Sir Alexander (quoted), 543 
Cambodia: 

Asian Development Bank, agreement on, 258 
Communist China, influence: Bundy, 315; Rusk, 

689 
Conference on, proposed (Rusk), 86 
Neutrality of, U.S. support (Rusk), 920, 925 
Viet-Nam, border dispute: Goldberg, 167; Johnson, 
504 



1044 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Cameroon : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 52 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 682, 720 
Canada: 

Air transport agreement with U.S., 140, 207 

Airlift of petroleum to Zambia ended, 783 

Asian development, support for: Harriman, 382; 

Johnson, 256, 522; McGhee, 56; Rusk, 632 
British Honduras, economic survey, joint U.K.- 

Canada-U.S. sponsorship, 162 
Gut Dam, U.S. agency established to prepare 

claims for damages, 207 
India, food aid increased, 465; Johnson, 606, 747 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada: 
Report and recommendations, 36, 293, 466 
U.S. chairman, 118 
Libby Dam, U.S. exercise of option, exchange of 

notes, 297 
Office for Relations with Canada, announcement 

and director, 908 
St. John River development, U.S.-Canada ex- 
change of notes, 67 
Secretary Rusk, transcript of Canadian TV inter- 
view, 86 
Trade : 

Trade and Economic Affairs, Joint U.S.-Cana- 
dian Committee, 10th meeting and delegation, 
319; joint communique, 464 
U.S.-Canada net flows of capital funds, arrange- 
ments: 24, Connor, 26 
U.S. tariff concessions revised, 106 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 74, 110, 181, 257, 

258, 342, 550, 681, 720, 721, 789, 910, 993 
UNICEF, support for (Bernstein), 272 
U.N. peacekeeping operations, support of (Pear- 
son, quoted), 880 
U.S. relations (McNamara), 874 
Universal and International Exhibition, U.S. Com- 
missioner General, confirmation, 627 
Cape Kennedy, 165 
CARE, 796 
Cargo, William I., 5 
Carillo Flores, 727 
Carpenter, Francis W., 493 
Carver, John A., Jr., 466 
Castro, Fidel (see also Cuba), 710 
Cater, S. Douglass, Jr., 492, 897 
CCC (Commodity Credit Corporation), 339 
Center for Educational Cooperation (Johnson) , 329 
CENTO. See Central Treaty Organization 
Central African Republic, treaties, agreements, etc., 

509, 510, 682, 720 
Central America: 

Economic integration, U.S. support; Johnson, 323; 

Rusk, 634 
Education, AID assistance (Gordon), 982 
Central American Bank, Mexican support (Gordon), 
980 



Central American Common Market: Diaz Ordaz- 

Johnson, 732; Gordon, 979; Johnson, 325, 1004 
Central Intelligence Agency, 507 
Central Treaty Organization : 
11th anniversary (Rusk), 440 
Microwave telecommunications system, dedication: 

778; Johnson, 779; Rusk, 779 
Ministerial Council, 14th meeting: 
Statements (Rusk), 775 
Text of final communique, 778 
U.S. observer delegation, 781 
U.S. position (Rusk), 349, 775, 780 
CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research), 

286 
Ceylon : 

P.L. 480 currency balances, sales authorized to 

U.S. citizens, 975 
U.S. Ambassador (Lyon), credentials, 289 
Chad, treaties, agreements, etc., 720, 909 
Chamizal tract, 732 
Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations 

Charter 
Chase, Milton A., 494 
Chelf, Frank, 733 
Chile: 

Economic progress and U.S. aid: 208; Gordon, 

982; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 682, 720, 758 
U.S. trade, 624 
China, Communist (see also Aggression; Commu- 
nism; and Sino-Soviet relations) : 
Aggression and intervention, policy of: Goldberg, 
127,752; McGhee, 56, 1025 
Containment: Hare, 669; McNamara, 879; Rusk, 

561, 693, 694 
Countermeasures: Ball, 240; Rusk, 519, 559, 
568; Unger, 459 
Disarmament proposals, U.S. views (Rusk), 884 
Economic and political problems: Barnett, 664; 

Rusk, 692 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," participation 
in and OAS denunciation of: 385m; Allen, 
383; Sayre, 711 
Influence rejected: Bundy, 867; Goldberg, 542, 
612; Johnson, 153; Palmer, 898; Rusk, 567, 
568, 687, 692, 772, 773 
Japan, relations with (Barnett), 667 
Nuclear tests, and nuclear potential : 869 ; Gold- 
berg, 541; Rusk, 688,925 
Nuclear weapons proliferation, position on (Rusk), 

559, 695 
Policies and goals contrasted with U.S.: Bundy, 

310; Goldberg, 541; Rusk, 566 
Policy and objectives toward U.S.: Bundy, 867; 

Goldberg, 200, 542; Rusk, 195, 565, 687, 773 
Steel mill, sale by Germany: McGhee, 1025; Rusk, 

561, 564, 567 
Trade, U.S. position: Braderman, 1013; Bundy, 
317; McGhee, 1020, 1025; Rusk, 561, 567 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1045 



China, Communist — Continued 

"Two-China" solution, rejection (Rusk), 567 
U.S. membership: See under U.N. 
U.S. overflights, alleged (Rusk), 884, 885, 925 
U.S. prisoners, call for release of (Bundy), 866 
U.S. relations and efforts to improve: Bundy, 244, 
315, 868; Goldberg, 611, 752; Humphrey, 528; 
McNamara, 880; Rusk, 194, 557, 561, 566, 687, 
699, 772 
U.S. specialists on (Rusk) , 567, 686, 921, 922 
U.S. travel control eased: 90, 491; Bundy, 317; 

Rusk, 557, 694 
U.S. war, question of: Bundy, 867; Johnson, 393; 

Rusk, 196, 691, 694, 773, 774 
Viet-Nam (see also Viet-Nam) : 

Military aid: Braderman, 1018; Bundy, 867; 

Goldberg, 232 
Policy and objectives: Bundy, 313, 970; Gold- 
berg, 200, 230, 541; Humphrey, 491, 525; Mc- 
Ghee, 56; Rusk, 88, 195, 224, 226, 355, 558, 
687 
World disarmament conference, question of par- 
ticipation in: 412, 418 
U.S. position: 418; Bundy, 316; Goldberg, 541 
China, Republic of (see also Taiwan) : 
AID programs terminated, 208 

Cotton textile agreement with U.S. amended, 817 
Ministerial meeting on Southeast Asian economic 

development (Rusk), 933 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 426, 550, 641, 

720, 721, 789, 909 
"Two-China" solution, rejection of (Rusk), 567 
U.N. membership, U.S. and Communist China 
views contrasted: 418; Bundy, 316; Goldberg, 
612, 752; Rusk, 557, 566, 694; Sisco, 575, 647 
U.S. armed forces, agreement re status of, 721 
U.S. immigration, elimination of Chinese persons 

quota as such (Hines), 122 
U.S. military and other commitments: Bundy, 314, 

868; Rusk, 194, 349, 559, 694, 773, 774 
Viet-Nam, support for (Rusk), 518 
Chisiza, D. K., 806 
Church World Services, 796 
Churchill, Sir Winston, .394, 652; quoted, 245, 613, 

647, 802 
CIA (Central Intelligency Agency), 507 
CIES (Inter- American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil), 741 
Civil emergency planning (NAC), 9 
Civil rights (see also Great Society and Human 
rights) : Johnson, 915; Rostow, 806 
Educational equality (Frankel), 203 
ILC Convention 122 and U.S. labor policy (John- 
son), 1026 
Political rights of women, convention (1953) on: 

Ghana, 342 
Southern Rhodesia: Goldberg, 989; Johnson, 915; 

Williams, 14, 266 
U.S.: Goldberg, 214, 972, 989; Hines, 18; Johnson, 
151, 292, 806 (quoted) 



Civilian persons in time of war, Geneva convention 
(1949) relative to treatment of : 
Current actions: Honduras, 957 
U.S.-Vietnam support, 305 
Claims: 

Aviation accident claims, Warsaw convention, U.S. 

position on: 955; Lowenfeld, 580 
Blocked or frozen foreign assets, transfer of juris- 
diction, 945 
Canada, Gut Dam, U.S. agency established to pre- 
pare claims for damages, 207 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, appro- 
priations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 250 
Italy, remaining treaty claim funds, agreement 
for transfer to educational exchange program 
and the International Institute for the Uni- 
fication of Private Law, 342 
Reentry experiments agreement with Australia, 

understanding re claims from, 758 
Santo Domingo property losses, date for claims, 
783, 1028 
Cleveland, Harlan, 9, 1004 
Clinical thermometers, termination of increased 

duty: 159; Roth, 857 
Clubb, Oliver Edmund, 311 

COCOM (Consultative Group Coordinating Commit- 
tee) . See under Strategic trade controls 
Coffee, international coffee agreement, 1962, with 
annexes: 
Current actions: Czechoslovakia, 109; Hong Kong, 

591 ; Italy, 469 
U.S. support: Johnson, 538; Roth, 858 
Cohn, Norman, 638 

Collective security (see also Mutual defense) : 
Asia. See Asia 
French commitments with NATO: 700; Ball, 616; 

Rusk, 696, 698, 999 
Importance: Johnson, 263, 410; McNamara, 879; 

Rusk, 407, 926 
Legal aspects: Meeker, 474; Rusk, 833 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Responsibilities of states: Goldberg, 939; Johnson, 

963 
Soviet nuclear forces a threat to free world, 397 
U.S. alliances and commitments (see also Viet- 
Nam) : Ball, 241; U. A. Johnson, 529; Mac- 
Arthur, 812; McGhee, 56, 658; Rusk, 348, 516, 
561, 566, 696, 774, 780, 830, 832, 928 
U.S. supporting assistance: Johnson, 251, 325; Mc- 
Ghee, 378; Rusk, 628, 629, 933 
Collisions at sea, agreement (1960) on international 
regulations for prevention of: Argentina, 957; 
Ivory Coast, 74; Korea, 74; Nigeria, 110; South 
Africa, 298 
Colombia: 

Agricultural education agreement with U.S., an- 
nouncement, 494 
Communist goals (Sayre), 710 



1046 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Colombia — Continued 

Economic progress and U.S. aid: Gordon, 981; 

Rusk, 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 642, 720 
World Bank consultative group (Rusk), 634 
Colonialism and decolonialism : 

Africa: Palmer, 898; Williams, 432 

Communist threat to emerging countries (Rusk), 

348 
Southern Rhodesia, (Williams), 265 
U.N. position and U.S. support: 129; Goldberg, 

941; Rogers, 172; Sisco, 573 
U.S. views: Abram, 638, 639; Goldberg, 801, 989; 
Johnson, 152 
Columbia River Basin development, 297 
Commerce, Department of, 27, 145, 470, 814, 948 
Committee on Population of the United States Na- 
tional Citizens Commission on International 
Cooperation, 175 
Committee on Scientific Antarctic Research, 372 
Commodity Credit Corporation (Johnson), 339 
Commodity trade problems. See Trade 
Communications (see also Radio and Telecommuni- 
cations) : 
Africa, U.S. aid for development of (Johnson), 

916 
CENTO microwave telecommunications system : 

778; Johnson, Rusk, 779 
English language as an international medium 

(Johnson), 331 
Ground-to-air communications facilities in north- 
ern Canada, agreement re establishment, op- 
eration and maintenance of, 110 
International affairs, effect on (Frankel), 893 
Satellites : 

Africa, need for new ground stations (John- 
son), 916 
Early Bird (U. A. Johnson), 950 
Earth-station technology, U.S. seminar: 951; 
Humphrey, 951 (quoted) ; U. A. Johnson, 949 
Global commercial communications satellite sys- 
tem: Goldberg, 164; Johnson, 503; U. A. 
Johnson, 950; McGhee, 377 
Interim arrangements: Brazil, 957; Malaysia, 
957; Singapore, 994; Thailand, 870; Vene- 
zuela, 110 
Special agreements: Malaysia, 957; Singa- 
pore, 994; Thailand, 870; Venezuela, 110 
Supplementary agreements on arbitration: 
Brazil, 789; Chile, 758; Monaco, 682; Singa- 
pore, 994 ; U.A.R., 550 
Space vehicle tracking and communications sta- 
tions, establishment and operation of: Mada- 
gascar, 1034; Spain, Gran Canaria, 787 
Scientific advances (Seaborg), 282 
Communications Satellite Act of 1962, activities and 

accomplishments, report (Johnson), 503 
Communications Satellite Corporation: Johnson, 
503; U. A.Johnson, 950 



Communism (see also Aggression; China, Commu- 
nist; Sino-Soviet relations; and Soviet Union): 
"Balanced strategy for peace," U.S. policy: 

Braderman, 1014, 1018; Rusk, 838, 1014 

(quoted) 
Cuba, increased totalitarianism (Sayre), 709 
Development since World War II: Ball, 240, 763; 

Rusk, 516 
Doctrines of, effect on Communist policies (Rusk), 

686 
Economic and political weakness, exploitation of: 

Humphrey, 490; Johnson, 391; McNamara, 

877; Sayre, 713 
U.S. aid as a countermeasure: Hare, 671; John- 
son, 251, 327, 728; McGhee, 662; Rusk, 498, 

631 
Free- world role against: Allen, 385; Johnson, 302; 

McGhee, 54, 662; Rusk, 348, 776, 780 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," provisions 

of and OAS denunciation: 385n; Allen, 383; 

Gordon, 979; Sayre, 710 
Nationalism, effect on Communist ties: Johnson, 

153; Rusk, 838 
Peaceful coexistence: 846; Braderman, 1018; Gold- 
berg, 127, 542, 974; Rogers, 171; Rusk, 687, 

690, 841, 930 
Thailand, position on (Humphrey-Kittikachorn), 

396 
U.S. role in countering: Berger, 861; Humphrey, 

524; U. A. Johnson, 529; Rusk, 520, 831, 930 
Wars of national liberation: Ball, 241; Bundy, 

867; Giap (quoted), 357; Goldberg, 126, 540, 

611; Johnson, 364; Khrushchev (quoted), 357; 

Kosygin (quoted), 357; Rusk, 194, 347, 350, 

690, 928; Sayre, 711; Taylor, 357; Unger, 457 
World goals: Bundy, 311; Goldberg, 541; Johnson, 

442; Rusk, 347, 688, 927 
COMSAT. See Communications Satellite Corporation 
Concepcion, Y. Alfredo, 944 

Conferences and organizations, international (see 
also International organizations and subject) : 
Calendar of meetings, 37, 544 

Guests of international conferences, visa proce- 
dures eased, 869 
Ocean freight rate conferences (cartels), review 

(Geren), 78 
Scientific, value of and U.S. support: Johnson, 

331; McGhee, 371; Seaborg, 285 
U.N. conference program, reduction recommended 

(Frelinghuysen), 70 
Congo, Democratic Republic of (Leopoldville) : 

Airlift stop for petroleum supplies to Zambia: 157, 

783 ; Williams, 269 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 720, 826 
U.S. airborne troops: Ball, 615; Rusk, 698 
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville), treaties, agree- 
ments, etc., 143, 720 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1047 



Congress, U.S.: 

Basic research, proposed increases (McGhee), 374 
Civil rights, legislative support (Goldberg), 972 
Constitutional amendment: Congressmen, exten- 
sion of term of office (Johnson), 151 
Documents relating to foreign policy, lists, 36, 68, 

162, 341, 382, 635, 674, 787, 825, 945, 1028 
Economic and military aid programs, responsi- 
bility for review: Johnson, 324; Rusk, 629 
Education, legislation relating to (Frankel), 203 
Hague protocol of Warsaw convention, position on 

(Lowenfeld), 581 
International organizations, policy on appropria- 
tions commitments (Frelinghuysen), 296 
Johnson trade policy, legislation supporting 

(Roth), 857 
Legislation : 

Asian Development Bank, U.S. membership: 
379k; Harriman, 379; Johnson, 252, 255, 443, 
521 
Saint John River development project, authoriza- 
tion, 67 
Legislation, proposed: 

Agency for International Development: 
Appropriations: 

Request for FY 1967: Gordon, 981; John- 
son, 248, 250, 322; Rusk, 630 
Supplementary request FY 1966: Johnson, 
255 ; Rusk, 346 
Civil rights bill (Goldberg), 972 
Cruise vessel safety standards (Harriman), 954 
East- West Trade Relations Act of 1966: Brader- 
man, 1016; Johnson, 151, 796; Roth, 858; 
Rusk, 838, 919, 930 
Florence agreement, legislation urged to imple- 
ment reduced import duties on educational, 
scientific, and cultural materials: Johnson, 
331; Roth, 858 
Food and fibers, authorization for maintenance 
of reserve stocks: Gordon, 982; Johnson, 340 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966: Gordon, 982; 

Johnson, 322, 336, 337; Rusk, 496, 500 
Food for Peace: 

Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 

250 
Authorization for revision of: Johnson, 248, 
252, 339, 340; Rusk, 499, 502, 503 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1966 : Johnson, 320, 

321 ; Rusk, 628 
Foreign Tax Investors Act: Fowler, 398; John- 
son, 291 
Incentive grants to U.S. universities (Johnson), 

330 
India, increase in U.S. aid (Johnson), 604, 605 
Indo-U.S. Foundation (Johnson), 601, 604, 607 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 
1948, amendments urged (Johnson), 332 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 

Legislation, proposed — Continued 

International Development Association, supple- 
mentary appropriations request (Johnson), 
252 

International Education Act of 1966: Frankel, 
754; Gordon, 981; Johnson, 322, 328, 329 

International Health Act of 1966; Gordon, 981; 
Johnson, 322, 328, 329, 333 

Military appropriations, supplementary, FY 
1966: 578n; Johnson, 254, 578 

Military Assistance and Sales Act of 1966: 
Johnson, 326; Rusk, 628 

National Science Foundation, functions clarified 
and broadened (Pollack), 946 

Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs, appro- 
priations request FY 1967 (Crockett), 705 

Rio Grande saline drainage canal, 118 

Transporation, cabinet-level department recom- 
mended (Johnson), 151 

Unified Foreign Service for State Department, 
AID, and USIA (Johnson), 250 

Visual and auditory materials, agreement 
(1949) re facilitating international circulation 
of (Johnson), 332 
-Members of Congress, Intergovernmental Commit- 
tee for European Refugees, U.S. delegation, 
40 
Resolutions: 

Atlantic Union (S. Res. 128 and S. Con. Res. 
64), Department position on (Leddy), 672 

India, food and other aid (H. J. Res. 997) : 
Johnson, 747, text, 748 

Nuclear nonproliferation (S. Res. 179): 406w; 
Johnson, 263, 410 (quoted) ; Rusk, 406 
Responsibilities: Meeker, 488; Morse (quoted), 

487n; Rusk, 406, 562 
SEATO, position on: Cooper, Fulbright (quoted), 
487; U. A. Johnson, 529; Meeker, 481; Rusk, 
349, 516 
Secretary of State, consultations with: 651; Rusk, 

653 
Senate advice and consent: 

Consular convention with Soviet Union (Rusk), 
918 

International Labor Organization Convention 
122 (Johnson), 1026 

Investment disputes between states and na- 
tionals of other states, convention on the set- 
tlement of, 419, 1033 

Netherlands, supplementary income tax conven- 
tion, 92 

Radio broadcasting agreement with Mexico, pro- 
tocol extending, 720 

Treaties of amity and economic development: 
Thailand, 992; Togo, 368 

U.N. human rights convention (Goldberg), 943, 
973 



1048 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Congress, U.S. — Continued 

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: 
Results of hearings (Rusk), 773 
Statements by: Rusk, 346, 830; Taylor, 356 
The Vietnam Conflict: The Substance and tlte 
Shadow, 359n 
Viet-Nam, support for U.S. objectives: Humphrey, 
115; Johnson, 255, 578; Meeker, 481, 485; 
Rusk, 227, 517, 832 
Connor, John T. : 

Correspondence and statements, 24, 400 
Meetings, 246, 319, 466, 619, 1027 
Conrad, Charles, 364 

Conservation: Johnson, 292, 339; Sisco, 572 
Conservation of living resources of the high seas, 
convention (1958)': Malawi, 41; Netherlands, 
592; U.S., 681; Yugoslavia, 549 
Consular relations: 

Burundi, treatment of U.S. officials protested, 158 
Vienna convention (1963) on, and optional proto- 
col re compulsory settlement of disputes: 
Philippines," 41 
Continental shelf, convention (1958) on: Malawi, 41; 

Netherlands, 681 ; Yugoslavia, 549 
Cook, Jesse, 924 
Cooper, Gordon, 364 
Cooper, John Sherman (quoted), 487 
Cooperative Leagues of the U.S.A., 985 
Cooperative Study of the Kuroshio Current, 373 
Corregidor Island, agreement re World War II me- 
morial site, 144 
Costa Rica: 

AID special development fund, use of (Gordon), 

984 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 426, 550, 720, 721, 
789 
Cotton textiles : 

Bilateral agreements with: China, 789, 817; 
Greece, 958, 992; Japan, 180, 217; Poland, 
1034; Yugoslavia, 182 
Export prices, effect of 1965 legislation (Johnson) , 

253 
International Cotton Institute (Diaz Ordaz-John- 
son), 732 
Articles of agreement: India, 257; Mexico, 
Spain, 257, 342; Sudan, 468, 469; U.A.R., 
257,469; U.S., 257, 496 
Long-term cotton textile arrangement (GATT), 
U.S. 3rd year participation, review of (Ja- 
cobs), 134 
Council of Europe's Convention on the Unification of 
Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents 
for Inventions (Winter), 1011 
Council on International Education (Johnson), 329 
Craig, William G., 289, 627 
Credit Union National Association, 985 
Crisis management: McGhee, 54; Rusk, 927 



Cuba: 

Banco Territorial de Cuba, liquidation notice, text, 

757 
Castro Communist subversive efforts, effect of: 

Goldberg, 127 ; McGhee, 56 
Castro program, failures and rejection of: 934; 

Goldberg, 128; Gordon, 978; Sayre, 709 
Guantanamo Base, U.S. protest against incursions 
of Cuban military personnel: 934; Rusk, 924 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," participation 
in and OAS denunciation of: 385w; Allen, 
383; Sayre, 710 
OAS and U.S. policy (Sayre), 712 
Refugees : 

Third country refugees, procedures, 1005 
U.S. assistance: Crockett, 706; Sayre, 707 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 109, 509, 510, 550, 592, 

720 
U.S. position in (Rusk), 933 

U.S. trade policy: Braderman, 1013; McGhee, 1020 
Cuban missile crisis (Rusk), 514, 517, 697, 931 
Cultural Action Committee (Frankel), 204 
Cultural property, convention (1954) for the pro- 
tection of in the event of armed conflict, and 
protocol : Turkey, 257 
Cultural relations and programs (see also Educa- 
tional exchange program, international) ; Fran- 
kel, 889 ; Seaborg, 286 
Africa (Johnson), 917 

Exchange Peace Corps program, objectives, (John- 
son), 330 
India (Johnson), 599 

Intercultural understanding in the Western Hemi- 
sphere: Frankel, 205; Johnson, 205 
Korean-U.S. relations (Berger), 861 
Mexico, contributions of (Rusk), 366 
Poland (Johnson), 796 

South African racial policies, effect on U.S. cul- 
tural exchange programs (Williams), 435, 438 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Romania, 1966 program, 788 

Soviet Union, agreement on exchanges in cul- 
tural and other fields, joint communique, 543 
UNESCO constitution, Singapore, 298 
U.N. Charter provisions (Rogers), 171 
U.S.-Japan 3rd conference on cultural and educa- 
tional interchange, 405 
Customs, road traffic, convention (1954) on customs 

facilities for touring: Malta, 681, 681w 
Cybernetics (Seaborg), 283 
Cyprus: 

CENTO position, 778 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 144, 181, 549, 720 

U.N. peacekeeping force, resolutions extending: 

December, 211k; March, 719n 
U.N. role, U.S. and other support: Goldberg, 95; 
Johnson, 504; Nabrit, 210; NAC, 9, 1003; 
Roosevelt, 718 
U.S. position: Hare, 670; Rusk, 780 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1049 



Czechoslovakia: 

Economic development (McGhee), 1023 
Germany, relations with, 655 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 42, 109, 550, 682, 720 
U.S. Ambassador (Beam), confirmation, 991 

Dahomey, treaties, agreements, etc., 469, 509, 720 

Decade of Development, U.N., 279 

Declaration of Honolulu (see also under Viet-Nam), 

text, 303 
Defense (see also Collective security, Mutual defense 
and National defense) : 
Nonnuclear states. See Nonnuclear weapons states 
Reentry experiments, Australia-U.K.-U.S. agree- 
ment, 720 
Self-defense, justification under international law: 
Meeker, 474; Rusk, 832; Unger, 457 
Defense, Department of, 507, 578 

Military assistance costs, FY 1965, 208 

Research and development programs (McGhee), 

378 
Supplemental appropriations FY 1966 for Viet- 
Nam (Johnson), 254 
DeGaulle, Charles (Rusk), 570, 695, 920 
De la Garza, Eligio, 733 
Delli Quadri, Dean Frederick, 274 
De Madariaga, Salvador, 717, 754 
Democracy and democratic processes: 
Africa (Johnson), 917 
Asia (Bundy), 965 

Principles of: Abram, 1032; Frankel, 895; Gandhi, 
602; Goldberg, 539, 972, 974, 990; Gordon, 
978; Johnson, 727, 835; Rostow, 807 
Denmark : 

Asian economic development, support for: John- 
son, 522 ; Rusk, 632 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 592, 720, 910, 

957, 1033 
U.S. imports, restrictions eased, 624, 625 
Desalination: McGhee, 375; Seaborg, 288 
Rio Grande, saline drainage, 118, 733 
U.S.-Israel Joint Board feasibility study, final re- 
port and recommendations, 494 
De Segonzac, Adalbert, 565 
De Seynes, Philippe, 130 
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 371 
De Weldon, Felix, 733 

Diaz Ordaz, Gustavo, 365, 366 (quoted), 727, 731 
Dickey, Maine, 67 
Dillon, Douglas, 394 
Diplomatic relations and recognition: 

Bechuanaland, U.S. consulate established: 592; 

Williams, 439 
Burundi, request for recall of U.S. Ambassador 

and staff, U.S. protest, 158 
Recognition: 

Communist China, question of: Goldberg, 612; 
Rusk, 773 



Diplomatic relations and recognition — Continued 
Recognition — Continued 

Ghana, National Liberation Committee, 440 
Southern Rhodesia, U.S. position: 318; Goldberg, 

715, 987; Mann, 589 
Vienna convention (1961) : El Salvador, 217; 
Philippines, 74; Venezuela, 109 
Optional protocol for compulsory settlement of 
disputes: Philippines, 74 
Diplomatic representatives abroad. See Foreign 

Service 
Diplomatic representatives in the U.S.: 

Burundi, U.S. requests recall of Ambassador, 158 

Presentation of credentials: Brazil, 270; Burma, 

397; Cameroon, 52; France, 10; Laos, 663; 

Niger, 270; Switzerland, 495; Tanzania, 10; 

Viet-Nam, 52 

Dirksen, Everett M., 733 

Disarmament (see also Armaments and Nuclear 
entries) : 
Communist China, position on and proposals for: 

Goldberg, 751 ; Rusk, 695, 884 
General and complete: 

Effective international control essential (Fos- 
ter), 104 
Need and efforts for: 417, 654, 655; Foster, 262, 
901; NAC, 8, 1003; Rusk, 920; Smyth, 30 
U.S. position and efforts: 406w; Johnson, 152, 253; 

1965 review, 411; Rusk, 194, 559, 930 
World conference: 

Communist China, question of participation: 
412, 418; Bundy, 316; Goldberg, 541; Rusk, 
885 
Germany, 657; Sisco, 573; U Thant (quoted), 
418 
Disaster relief: 

Pakistan cyclone victims, U.S. aid, 5 
UNICEF (Bernstein), 276 
U.N. World Food Program (Roosevelt), 131 
U.S. reserve supplies for (Johnson), 336 
Disputes, peaceful settlement of: Goldberg, 609, 933; 
Rusk, 194, 657 
Convention (1907) : Uganda, 720 
Convention (1958) on law of the sea, compulsory 
settlement of disputes, optional protocol : 
Netherlands, 681 ; Yugoslavia, 549 
Investment Disputes, International Center for the 

Settlement of (Johnson), 419 
U.N. role in and resolutions on: 175n; Rogers, 
170; Rusk, 520 
Dominican Republic: 

Communist goals (Sayre), 710 
Dominican crisis, U.S. role (McGhee), 56 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 

(Abram), 640 
Presidential elections: Gordon, 979; Johnson, 1005 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 298, 342, 550, 789 
U.S. aid: 208; Gordon, 984; Rusk, 632 
U.S. property losses, date for claims, 783, 1028 



1050 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Donnelly, Dixon. 557, 592 
Donohue, Harold D., 40 

Double taxation, income, conventions and agreements 
for avoidance of: 

Germany, protocol, 42, 74, 90, 144 

Honduras, 91 

Israel, correction, 386 

Netherlands, supplementary convention, 91, 110 

U.K., supplementary protocol, 549 
Douglas, Paul H., 733 
Downey, John Thomas, 866« 
Driver, W. J., 289, 627 
Dulles, John Foster, 394, 485, 568, 929 
Dumont, Donald A., 158 

EACSO (East African Common Services Organiza- 
tion), 789 
Early Bird satellite: Johnson, 950; McGhee, 377, 462 
East African Common Market, 323 
East African Common Services Organization, 789 
East- West relations: Ball, 766; Johnson, 795, 963; 
McGhee, 54, 660; NAC, 8; Rusk, 570, 886 
Germany, position on and U.S. support: 654, 655; 

Erhard-Johnson, 50 
NATO objectives: Ball, 766; Johnson, 556; NAC, 
7, 1002; Rusk, 563, 698, 918, 999 
East-West Trade Relations Act of 1966: Braderman, 
1016; McGhee, 1025; Roth, 858; Rusk, 838, 919, 
930; text of act, 843 
ECAFE (Economic Commission for Asia and the 

Far East), 380 
Economic and Social Act of Rio de Janeiro (Rusk), 

633 
Economic and Social Council, U.N.: 
Documents, lists of, 41, 179, 217, 591 
1966 programs (Seaborg), 287 
Population control, U.S. support for resolution on 

(Roosevelt), 178 
Role and accomplishments: Rogers, 171; Seaborg, 

280 
UNICEF program (Bernstein), 273 
World Food Program, background (Roosevelt), 
132 
Economic and social development (see also Economic 
and technical aid, and Less developed coun- 
tries) : 
Africa. See Africa 

Agricultural modernization. See under Agriculture 
Armaments, economic burden : Barnett, 667 ; John- 
son, 264, 579; McGhee, 378; Rusk, 194, 407 
Asia and Southeast Asia. See under Asia 
Civic action programs for military personnel, ob- 
tives: Gordon, 985; Johnson, 326; McNamara, 
878; Rusk, 629, 631 
Education, importance of (see also Education) : 
Frankel, 203, 755, 894 ; Gordon, 741 ; Johnson, 
209; Roosevelt, 424; Rostow, 805; Rusk, 629, 
777,923; Seaborg, 287 



Economic and social development — Continued 

Free world economic system, advantages for: 

Johnson, 292, 795; Mann, 736; Solomon, 822 
Indonesia (Rusk), 923 

Korea: Berger, 860; Johnson, 326; Rusk, 498, 633 
Latin America and Inter-American. See Alliance 

for Progress 
Mexico: Diaz Ordaz, 732; Gordon, 977; Johnson, 

728; Rusk, 366 
Modern society, development and factors of: 

Gordon, 621 ; Rostow, 803 
Multilateral aid, U.S. support: Goldberg, 799, 974; 
Johnson, 152, 323, 335, 336, 341, 796; 
McNamara, 879 
Philippines (Bundy),445 

Political stability, relation to: Allen, 385; Bundy, 
963; Gordon, 746, 978; Humphrey, 490, 525; 
Johnson, 327, 391, 442, 728; McGhee, 662; 
McNamara, 874; Rostow, 809; Rusk, 500, 628, 
631; Say re, 713 
Private enterprise, role of: Goldberg, 798; John- 
son, 324, 419; Mann, 630 
Scientific and technological developments, impor- 
tance: Frankel, 893; Pollack, 947; Winter, 
1008, 1011 
Self-help principle: Gordon, 740, 978; Harriman, 
380; Johnson, 325, 336, 599; Mann, 737; 
Rostow, 806; Rusk, 498, 629, 632 
Thailand, U.S. support and aid (Humphrey-Kitti- 

kachorn), 396 
U.N. specialized agencies and programs: Bern- 
stein, 272; Rogers, 171; Roosevelt, 130, 424; 
Sisco, 574 
U.S. aid, principles and objectives: Hare, 671; 
Humphrey, 309; Johnson, 187, 248, 335, 393, 
963; MacArthur, 813; Roosevelt, 132; Rusk, 
628, 922, 931 
U.S. Foreign Assistance Program, FY 1965, an- 
nual report: 208; Johnson, 208, 320 
Viet-Nam. See under Viet- Nam 
Yugoslavia (Braderman), 1014 
Economic and technical aid to foreign countries (see 
also Agency for International Development, 
Agricultural surpluses, Alliance for Progress, 
Economic and social development, Foreign aid 
programs, Inter-American Development Bank, 
International Bank, International Development 
Association, Organization for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development, and United Nations: 
Technical Assistance programs) : 
Bilateral and multilateral aid, importance of and 
need for increase in: Erhard-Johnson, 51; 
McGhee, 372, 662 
Korea, results of U.S. aid (Berger), 862 
Latin America, aid from European countries and 

U.S. support (McGhee), 57 
U.S. programs, appropriations and authorization 
requests for FY 1967: Johnson, 247, 322, 
326; Rusk, 922 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1051 



Economic Commission for Africa (Johnson), 916 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 

Bundy, 450; Harriman, 380 
Economic Community of Eastern Africa, 633, 916 
Economic Cooperation and Development, Organiza- 
tion for. See Organization for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development 
Economic policy and relations, U.S. (see also Inter- 
national Monetary system) : 
Domestic economy: 

Budget request FY 1967 (Johnson), 247 
Domestic apparel industry, effect of in import 

patterns (Jacobs), 136 
Farm program FY 1966 (Johnson), 338 
Food and fiber reserves (Johnson), 340 
Free-enterprise economy, accomplishments: 
Goldberg, 798; Humphrey, 771; Johnson, 391, 
835; Rusk, 629 
Government, labor, and business responsibili- 
ties: Johnson, 292; Mac Arthur, 813 
Population growth, effect of (Roosevelt), 176 
State of the Union message (Johnson), 152 
U.S. agencies urged to examine Federal over- 
seas transactions (Johnson), 495 
Viet-Nam, effect on: Crockett, 706; Johnson, 
292 
Foreign economic policy: 

Amity and economic relations, treaties with: 

Thailand, 991 ; Togo, 367, 386, 469 
Antitrust issues, developments in international 
trade and foreign trade policy (Solomon), 820 
Balance-of-payments problem. See Balance of 

payments 
Credit extension to Communist countries, 852 
Economic Report of the President FY 1966, ob- 
jectives, excerpts (Johnson), 290 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
International Monetary and Financial Policies, 
National Advisory Council established, Execu- 
tive order, 404 
International organizations, U.S. agency budget 
review, statement and memoranda (Johnson), 
576 
Johnson trade policy (Roth), 854 
Tariff policy. See Tariff policy, U.S. 
Trade. See Trade 

U.S. commercial bank loans (Robertson), 402 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council, U.N. 
Ecuador: 

Development aid, coordination of (Gordon), 981 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 5E0, 720, 758, 957 
Edner, Seldon R., 962 

Education (see also Cultural relations and programs, 
Education exchange program, international, and 
Great Society) : 
Abraham Lincoln Fund (Mexico) and Benito 
Juarez Fund (U.S.), proposed: Diaz Ordaz- 
Johnson, 732 
Africa: Johnson, 916; Rostow, 806 



Education — Continued 

Agricultural education agreement with Colombia, 
announcement, 494 

American Education Placement Service, proposed 
(Johnson), 330 

Council on International Education (Johnson), 329 

Foreign policy conference, U.S. student and 
faculty participation, 493, 897 

Human rights, education in: Abram, 637; Bran- 
deis (quoted), 214 

Importance in modern world : Frankel, 202, 755, 
894; Gordon, 741; Johnson, 205; Rostow, 805; 
Rusk, 629, 777, 923; Seaborg, 287; Sisco, 571 

Indo-American Foundation: 604; Gandhi, 603; 
Johnson, 601, 607 

International Education Act of 1966: Frankel, 754, 
889; Gordon, 623, 981; Johnson, 152, 187, 248, 
292, 322, 328, 329' 

Japan: 405; Barnett, 666 

Latin America (Gordon), 622, 982 

Literacy programs and needs: Gandhi, 602; Roose- 
velt, 424; Rusk, 776; Seaborg, 287; Sisco, 574 

Palestine refugee education, importance (Freling- 
huysen), 212 

Philippines, Special Fund for Education, agree- 
ment re uses of: 910; Bundy, 447 

Scientific, need for (Pollack), 947 

Space research, international participation at U.S. 
training facilities (Goldberg), 165 

U.N. programs and role: Bernstein, 272; Rogers, 
171; Sisco, 574 

U.S. objectives and legislation supporting: 
Frankel, 203; Johnson, 150, 209 

U.S. schools and colleges abroad, need to improve 
quality (Johnson), 326, 332 

U.S. travel controls for scholars eased for Com- 
munist China and Albania: 491; Rusk, 694 

Viet-Nam, need for and increased U.S. support: 
305; Johnson, 308, 363, 492; U. A. Johnson, 
535 

World Teacher Exchange (Johnson), 330 
Educational exchange program, international (see 
also Cultural relations, Education, Foreign stu- 
dents in the U.S., and International Education 
Act of 1966) : 

Agreements with: Italy, 342; Korea, 510; Ro- 
mania, 788; Soviet Union, 543 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, membership: 289; 
Rusk, 627 

Poland (Johnson), 796 

South African racial policies, effect of (Williams), 
438 

Value (Frankel), 757, 894 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials: 

Agreement (1949) for importation of visual and 
auditory materials, implementation urged 
(Johnson), 3.32 

Agreement (1950) and protocol on importation of: 
Current actions, Iran, 468 



1052 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Educational, scientific, and cultural materials — Cont. 
Agreement (1950) — Continued 

Implementation recommended: Johnson, 331; 
Roth, 858 
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 
U.N: 
Constitution of, current actions, Singapore, 298 
Literacy programs: Roosevelt, 424; Sisco, 574 
Scientific and technological programs (McGhee), 

373 
UNICEF, cooperation with (Bernstein), 272 
EEC. See European Economic Community 
EFTA (European Free Trade Association), 821, 822 
Egypt. See United Arab Republic 
Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee: 
Communist China, position of, 418 
Conference : 

France, nonparticipation (Rusk), 698 
Reconvention, 414 
Establishment and membership, 411n 
Exchange of scientific and other information, 

memorandum proposed: lOln; Foster, 101 
Role in disarmament and arms control measures, 
U.S. and other support for: 412; Foster, 262; 
Sisco, 573 
U.N. resolution urging comprehensive nuclear test 

ban, 103n 
U.S. seven-point program, conference goal (John- 
son), 263,411 
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 395 (quoted), 481, 517, 537, 

614, 729, 771 
El-Farra, Muhammad, 713 
El Salvador, treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 217, 

789 
ELDO (European Launcher Development Organiza- 
tion), 374 
ENDC. See Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Commit- 
tee 
English History; 191U-15, 539 
Environmental Pollution Panel of the President's 

Science Advisory Committee (Seaborg), 287 
Environmental Science Services Administration, 619 
Equal rights. See Human rights and Sovereignty 
Erhard, Ludwig, 46, 48 

ESRO. See European Space Research Organization 
ESRO I and II, 461 
Ethiopia: 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 217, 720 
U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son), 334 
EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Com- 
munity 
Europe (see also Atlantic partnership, individual 
countries, and North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion) : 
Aid to other countries: Humphrey, 771; McGhee, 

57 
Asian Development Bank, pledges: Harriman, 
382; Johnson, 256 



Europe — Continued 

Atlantic Union, proposal and U.S. position 

(Leddy), 672 
Central Europe: 

Denuclearization, U.S. position, 416 
Need for self-determination (Johnson), 651 
Communist China, objectives in and resistance to 

(Goldberg), 542 
Corporate mergers, increase in (Solomon), 823 
Eastern Europe (see also East-West relations) : 
Inventors' certificates (Winter), 1007 
Nationalism: Bundy, 312; McGhee, 54; Trow- 
bridge, 59 
Political and economic liberalization: 846; Ball, 
246; Braderman, 1014; McGhee, 1022; Rusk, 
838, 930 
Trade. See Trade 
U.S. policy and relations: Johnson, 152; Rusk, 

840, 886, 930 
Viet-Nam peace efforts: Humphrey, 116; John- 
son, 222; Rusk, 226 
Fire safety in passenger ships, U.S. consultations, 

782 
Free- world responsibilities of (McGhee), 58 
Patent conventions (Winter), 1009, 1011 
Refugee programs, U.S. participation: Crockett, 

705 ; Schwartz, 39 
Science and technology, cooperation and informa- 
tion exchange: 1003; McGhee, 374 
Space research projects and U.S. cooperation 

(McGhee), 460 
UNICEF programs (Bernstein), 278 
Unification: Ball, 616, 765; Erhard-Johnson, 50 
Johnson, 47-48, 152, 650, 795; Leddy, 672 
McGhee, 659; NAC, 1003; Rusk, 696, 1001 
Solomon, 821 
U.S. economic aid, results (Johnson), 321 
U.S. public image, factors affecting (Harris), 16 
Viet-Nam, position on: Ball, 613; Rusk, 519; 

Spaak (quoted), 520 
Western Europe, U.S. relations: Ball, 762; 
Frankel, 893 
European Atomic Energy Community: McGhee, 374; 

Leddy, 672; Rusk, 409; Smyth, 34 
European Center for Nuclear Research: McGhee, 

374; Seaborg, 286 
European Coal and Steel Community: Ball, 765; 

Solomon, 823 
European Common Market. See European Economic 

Community 
European Economic Community: 
Africa, 590 

France; Ball, 765; McGhee, 661 
GATT: Erhard-Johnson, 51; Roth, 857 
Unification of Europe, role in: Leddy, 672; 
Solomon, 821 
European Free Trade Association (Solomon), 821, 
822 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1053 



European Launcher Development Organization 

(McGhee), 374,461 
European Space Research Organization (McGhee), 

374, 461 
Exceptional man concept (Abram), 1030, 1032 
Executive orders: 

Foreign Service Board and Board of Examiners, 

establishment (11264), 144 
National Advisory Council on International Mone- 
tary and Financial Policies, establishment 
(11269), 404 
Ryukyu Islands, administration of, amendment 

(11263), 66 
USIA, information functions abroad for foreign 
aid (11261), 68 
Executive Service Corps, International, 324, 630 
Experimental World Literacy Program, U.N. (Sea- 

borg),287 
Export Control Act of 1949: 319, 844, 851; Rusk, 

842; Williams, 267 
Export-Import Bank, appropriations request FY 

1967 (Johnson), 250, 252 
Exports (see also Imports and Trade) : 
Argentina, 944 
Cotton and wheat legislation, effect on prices 

(Johnson), 253 
Freight rates, possible effect on potential exports 

(Geren), 81 
Germany, Eastern (McGhee), 1020 
Germany, Federal Republic of, increases in 

(McGhee), 661 
Italy, agreement re export of velveteen fabrics, 42 
Korea (Berger), 863 
Latin America: Gordon, 742, 979; Johnson, 538, 

729 
Less developed countries (Johnson), 338 
Southern Rhodesia, U.K. and U.S. economic sanc- 
tions against. See under Southern Rhodesia 
Soviet Union and East European countries: 848; 
Braderman, 1016; McGhee, 1021; Rusk, 840; 
Trowbridge, 60 
Licensing policy, recommendations of Special 
Committee on U.S. Trade with East Euro- 
pean Countries and the Soviet Union: 850, 
Goldfinger, 855n 
Technical data, foreign policy aspects of sales: 
851; Goldfinger, 855w; Trowbridge, 63; Win- 
ter, 1012 
U.S. exports: 

Aid programs, stimulating effect of: Johnson, 

251,322; Rusk, 499, 630 
Need for expansion of: 24, 624; Connor, 25; 
Johnson, 252, 291; MacArthur, 812; Rusk 
(quoted), 814 

Fabrics, velveteen, exportation from Italy, agree- 
ment amending, 42 
Fairbank, John K. (quoted), 313, 314, 316 



Famagusta episode (Nabrit), 210 

Family planning. See Population growth 

Fanfani, Amintore, 11, 12, 414 

FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N. 

Far East. See Asia 

Fecteau, Richard, 866n 

Federal Maritime Commission, 79 

Federal Reserve ceiling on bank loans to foreigners, 

24 
Fiji, convention (1949) on road traffic, with annexes 

and protocol, 509 
Finland: 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 143, 181, 258, 469, 682, 

720, 758, 870, 957 
U.S. imports, restrictions eased, 624, 625 
First International Congress on Desalting, 375 
First International Symposium on Water Desalina- 
tion. See Desalination 
Fish and fisheries: 

Atlantic tunas, convention (1966), international, 

for conservation of, U.S., 957 
Fishing and conservation of living resources of 
the high seas, convention (1958) on: Malawi, 
41; Netherlands, 592; U.S., 681; Yugoslavia, 
549 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries, convention (1949), 
international : 
Protocol re harp and hood seals: Italy, 789; 

Poland, 143; U.S. proclamation, 957 
Protocols re entry into force and measures of 
control: Canada, 41, 681; France, Italy, Nor- 
way, Poland, Portugal, 41 
Fisher, Adrian S., 675 
Florence agreement, 331, 858 
Fontaine, Andre, 613 

Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N.: Bern- 
stein, 272; Johnson, 333, 505; Sisco, 574 
Freedom From Hunger Campaign (Seaborg), 287 
International Rice Year, 1966: Johnson, 341; Sea- 
borg, 287 
UN/FAO appeal for food aid to India, U.S. sup- 
port: Goldberg, 385; Johnson (quoted), 386; 
Rusk, 497 
U.N. World Food Program (Roosevelt), 131 
Food and fiber reserves: Gordon, 982; Johnson, 340 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966: Gordon, 98; Johnson, 

322, 336, 337; Rusk, 496, 500 
Food for Peace (see also Public Law 480) : 

Appropriations request FY 1967: Johnson, 250; 

Rusk, 503 
Expansion and coordination with other aid, recom- 
mendations: (Johnson), 248, 251, 252, 333 
Foreign currency balances, special authorizations 
for use of, proposed: 975; Johnson, 253, 331 
India and Pakistan (Rusk), 497 
Objectives and accomplishments: Roosevelt, 132; 
Rusk, 499 



1054 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Food for Peace — Continued 

Sales under long-term dollar-repayable credits, 
new program proposed: Johnson, 253, 339; 
Rusk, 502 
Food-for-work programs: Johnson, 323; Rusk, 498 
Force, nonuse of (see also U.N. Charter, principles), 
U.N. resolutions and U.S. support: Goldberg, 
611; Rogers, 170 
Foreign Agents Registration Act, 318 
Foreign Aid, Advisory Committee on Private Enter- 
prise in: Johnson, 324; Rusk, 630 
Foreign aid programs, U.S. (see also Agency for 
International Development, Alliance for Prog- 
ress, Economic and technical aid, and Peace 
Corps) : 
Appropriations and authorizations request FY 
1967: Hare, 668; Johnson, 150, 247, 250, 320, 
335; Rusk, 496, 500, 628, 922 
Balance of payments, effect on. See Balance of 

payments 
Bilateral programs: Johnson, 323; McGhee, 622; 

Rusk, 499; 503,634 
Development loans: Gordon, 743, 983; Johnson, 

251, 325; Rusk, 632 
Family planning programs, principles governing: 

Johnson, 335; Mann, 784; Roosevelt, 177 
Patented and unpatented technology, transfer of 

(Winter), 1012 
Principles and objectives: Goldberg, 799; Hum- 
phrey, 770; Johnson, 186, 208, 249, 291, 320, 
321, 963; MacArthur, 813; Mann, 736; 
McGhee, 662; McNamara, 878; Rusk, 407, 
631, 931 
Private and non-Federal aid and role of (Gordon), 

984 
Ratio principle of U.S. contributions: Bernstein, 

279; Johnson, 324; Roosevelt, 133 
Self-help principle: Hare, 668; Johnson, 51, 152, 
187, 248, 249, 290, 320, 321, 326, 336, 537, 
599, 633 (quoted); Mann, 737; McNamara, 
875; Pope John XXIII (quoted), 807; Rostow, 
807; Rusk, 498, 501, 562, 629, 632; Sisco, 648 
Senate amendments, comments on (Rusk), 922 
USIA to perform all information functions abroad, 
Executive order, 68 
Foreign aid programs of other governments: 
Asian development projects. See under Asia 
Coordination with U.S. aid (Rusk), 634 
Germany: Erhard-Johnson, 51; McGhee, 662 
Japan (Barnett), 667 
Foreign assets, blocked or frozen, transfer of juris- 
diction, 945 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1966 : Johnson, 320, 321 ; 

Rusk, 628 
Foreign Assistance Program, annual report, FY 

1965: 208; Johnson, 208 
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, appropria- 
tions request FY 1967 (Johnson), 250 



Foreign currency: 

Banco Territorial de Cuba, liquidation notice, text, 

757 
British pound sterling (Fowler), 399 
Indo-American Foundation, endowment with U.S.- 
owned Indian currency (Johnson), 601, 607 
Kyats, agreement with Burma re use of, 1033 
P.L. 480 currency balances: 

Sales authorized in Ceylon, Guinea, and Tunsia, 

975 
Special projects, application of surpluses to, 
proposed: Johnson, 253, 331; Rusk, 502 
Program loans, use in economic development 

(Gordon), 983 
Southern Rhodesia, U.S. measures for control of 
reserves: Goldberg, 715; Williams, 266 
Rhodesian pound, value (Williams), 268 
Foreign personnel in U.S., support of, agreement 

with Germany, 144 
Foreign policy, U.S. (see also under Communism, 
Viet-Nam, and World peace) : 
Advisory, other groups, and "blue ribbon" panels 

(Rusk), 921 
Briefing conferences: 

Editors and broadcasters, 579 
Educators, 897 

Nongovernmental organizations, 466 
Regional: Atlanta, 493; Salt Lake City, 116; 
Little Rock, 703 
Purpose (Sisco), 646 
Science briefings inaugurated (Pollack), 948 
Congressional documents relating to foreign policy, 
lists, 36, 68, 162, 341, 382, 635, 674, 787, 825, 
945, 1028 
Educational and cultural relations, role of 

(Frankel), 204,756, 889 
Export sales of surplus agricultural commodities, 
national interest considerations (Johnson) , 
123 
Foreign aid, role of: Hare, 668; Johnson, 257, 320, 

335; Rusk, 496, 499, 502, 628 
International scientific activities, NSF role (Pol- 
lack), 946 
Nuclear weapons control, foreign policy aspects: 

Foster, 262; Johnson, 263; Rusk, 406 
Principles, objectives, and problems: Ball, 616, 
762; Bundy, 310, 314; Goldberg, 197, 542, 
612, 974, 989; Gordon, 621; Johnson, 66, 
151, 187, 190 (quoted), 247, 328, 728, 915; 
Mann, 785; Miller Committee, 846; Rusk, 521, 
562, 814 (quoted), 830 
Public understanding and interpretation of: 
Frankel, 895; Goldberg, 608, 971; Rusk, 930; 
Sisco, 571 
Responsibilities as a world power: Ball, 239; 
Goldberg, 944; Humphrey, 528, 769; Johnson, 
327, 650, 835; U. A. Johnson, 529; McGhee, 
53, 658, 662; Rusk, 352, 930; Unger, 452; 
Williams, 433, 439 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1055 



Foreign policy, U.S. — Continued 
Responsibilities for: Rusk, 347, 406 
President: Johnson, 521; Meeker, 484 
Secretary of State and State Department: 506, 
651; Johnson, 249; Rusk, 508, 653 
Technical data, basis for permission for sales: 
851; Goldfinger, 855n; Trowbridge, 63; Win- 
ter, 1012 
Trade as an instrument of: 846, 849; Braderman, 

1014; Rusk, 841 
U.N., effectiveness in extending U.S. policy: Gold- 
berg, 802; Rusk, 927; Sisco, 646, 649 
Foreign Policy and American Government, 651n 
Foreign Scholarships, Board of, members announced, 

289, 627 
Foreign Service (see also State Department) : 

Ambassadors, appointments and confirmations, 

289, 909, 991 
Bechuanaland, U.S. consulate established, 592 
Board of Foreign Service and Board of Examiners 

established, Executive order, 144 
Burundi, treatment of U.S. officials protested, 

158 
Career employees, tribute to: 198; Johnson, 554 
Career employees with scientific training, need 

for: McGhee, 374; Pollack, 948 
Country directors and country teams: 507; Rusk, 

508 
Education Officers, proposed corps of, purpose 

(Johnson), 329 
Quota control duties under 1965 immigration act 

(Hines),120 
Schools and colleges abroad, quality improvement 

needed (Johnson), 332 
State Department responsibilities: 506, 651; John- 
son, 249; Rusk, 508,653 
Unified Foreign Service for State Department, 
AID, and USIA, recommendations (Johnson), 
250 
U.S. businessmen overseas, program for improve- 
ment of relationships, 246 
U.S. Chiefs of Mission to Far East, 5th ambas- 
sadorial conference, joint statement, 492 
Foreign Service Institute: 

Adequate space for (Johnson), 250 
Director (Allen), 509 
Foreign students in the U.S. (see also Cultural re- 
lations, Education, and Educational exchange 
program, international) : 
Mexican students (Rusk), 366 
Space education (Goldberg), 165 
Special programs, proposed (Johnson), 332 
Foreign Tax Investors Act (Fowler), 398 
Foreign trade. See Trade 
Formed society (Formierte Gesellschaft) : 51; Er- 

hard, 49 ; Johnson, 47 
Formosa (see also China, Republic of), Communist 
China, position on (Rusk), 194, 557, 566, 688, 
699, 773 



Foster, William C, 99, 102, 103, 262, 412, 414 

(quoted), 493, 901 
Fowler, Henry H., 9, 319, 398, 466, 718 
Foy, Fred C, 246 
FR-1, French satellite, 164 
France: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 10 
Asia, position on (Rusk), 698 
Disarmament and nuclear arms control: 

Absention on U.N. resolutions, 412, 414n, 418 
Position on (Rusk), 559, 698 
East Germany, question of U.N. membership, 640, 

641 
Germany, relations with: McGhee, 660; Rusk, 698, 

999 
Military aircraft, U.S. landing and transit rights, 

basis for (Rusk), 697 
NATO. See under North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation 
North Atlantic Treaty. See under North Atlantic 

Treaty 
Satellite research projects (Goldberg), 164 
Trade: 624; Ball, 765; McGhee, 661 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 143, 181, 550, 592, 

642, 720, 789, 958 
U.S. military facilities in: 617, 618, 701, 703; 

Rusk, 696, 882, 918, 998 
U.S. relations (Rusk), 695 
Frankel, Charles, 754, 889, 897 

Franklin Award for Distinguished Service: 197n; 
Goldberg, 197; Johnson, 199; Rusk, 197; text, 
198 
Franklin, Benjamin (Goldberg) , 197 
Franklin, John Hope, 289, 627 

Freedom: Brandeis (quoted), 792; Goldberg, 539; 
Johnson, 794, 806 
Four freedoms of mankind: Abram, 636; Johnson, 

390; Williams, 431 
National Freedom Award : 390w ; Johnson, 390 
U.N. principles: 129; Rogers, 171 
U.S. role in defense: Eisenhower (quoted), 395; 
Johnson, 47, 364, 835; Kennedy (quoted), 
358, 395; McGhee, 54, 377; Roosevelt, F. D. 
(quoted), 390, 394; Rusk, 927, 931; Truman 
(quoted), 394; Wilkie (quoted), 390 
Freedom From Hunger Campaign : 272 ; Seaborg, 

287 
Freedom of association : Goldberg, 214 ; Willis, 216 
Freedom of speech: Brandeis (quoted), 214, 608; 
Gandhi, 603; Goldberg, 214, 542, 608; Holmes 
(quoted), 215; Humphrey, 490, 527; Johnson, 
390; Willis, 216 
South Africa, denial of (Williams), 432 
Freeman, Fulton, 493, 730 
Freeman, Orville L.: 

Meetings and conferences, 302, 319, 466, 492, 1027 
Quoted, 500 

Visit to Viet-Nam (Johnson), 305, 308, 393 
Frelinghuysen, Peter H. B., 69, 212, 295 



1056 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Fulbright, J. W. (quoted), 486, 487 
Fulbright^Hays Act, 289 

Gabbert, Thomas, 470 

Gabon, treaties, agreements, etc., 720, 721 

Gandhi, Indira, 599, 601 

Visit to U.S. and joint communique, 598 
Gandhi, Mahatma, 601 
Garcia Godoy, Hector, 1005 
Gardner, John W.: 

U.S. delegate to Honolulu, 302 

Visit to Viet-Nam: 492; Johnson, 305, 308, 393 
GATT. See Tariffs and trade, general agreement on 
Gemini astronauts, 364 
Gemini program, 164, 463, 787 
General Assembly, U.N.: 

Apartheid, U.S. support for U.N. resolutions 

against (Williams), 435 
Convention, international, on the elimination of 

all forms of racial discrimination, 216k 
Denuclearization of Africa, U.S. support for reso- 
lution on, 412, 416, 416n 
Disarmament, U.S. support for resolutions on, 412, 

417 
Documents, lists of, 41, 105, 179, 297, 591 
Friendly relations and cooperation among states, 
U.S. support for U.N. resolutions (Rogers), 
168 
Military bases, U.S. position re resolution on 

(Goldberg), 942 
Nonintervention, U.S. support for U.N. position 

(Goldberg), 124, 942 
Nuclear proliferation, U.S. support for resolution 

on: 412, 415; Foster, 262; Johnson, 263 
Nuclear weapon test ban treaty, position on and 

U.S. support: 412, 416; Foster, 102 
Peacekeeping operations: Goldberg, 93, 749, 941; 

Johnson, 504; Rogers, 169; Sisco, 648 
Resolutions : 

Denuclearization of Africa, Declaration of, 416« 
Factfinding, study on, 175« 
Friendly relations and cooperation among states, 
175w 
High Commissioner for Human Rights, post of, 

179w 
Multilateral food aid, program of studies on, 

133n 
Non-intervention, principles of (text) 128 
Nuclear weapon test ban treaty urged, 103m 
Outer space, international cooperation in, 166, 

167n 
Peacekeeping operations, 99n 
Population growth and economic development, 

consideration of, postponed, 178m 
U.N. Agency for Palestine Refugees, extended, 

212n 
U.N./FAO World Food Program extended, 133n 
UNEF, appropriations and apportionment FY 
1965, 1966, 296k 



General Assembly, U.N. — Continued 

South African racial policies, U.N. efforts to 

change (Williams), 431 
Technical needs of developing countries, report on 

(Winter), 1011 
UNICEF, operations of (Bernstein), 272 
"Uniting for Peace" resolution (Goldberg), 941 
Geneva Accords: 

Communist violations: 231; Goldberg, 125, 232; 
Meeker, 474, 482; Rusk, 192, 833, 885; Unger, 
454 
Soviet Union, responsibilities as cochairman: Gold- 
berg, 237; Rusk, 193 
U.S. position: Meeker, 477; Rusk, 349, 831; U. A. 

Johnson, 530; Unger, 454 
Viet-Nam, basis for peace in. See under Viet-Nam 
Geneva conventions (1949) re treatment of prisoners 
of war, wounded and sick, armed forces, and 
civilians in time of war: 
Current actions: Honduras, 957 
U.S.-Vietnam application of convention principles: 
305 ; McCloskey, 888 
Geneva Disarmament Conference. See Eighteen- 

Nation Disarmament Committee 
Geren, Paul F., 78 

German Development Aid Service, 51, 663 
German Peace Corps (German Development Aid 

Service), 51, 663 
Germany, reunification: 50, 655; Ball, 767; John- 
son, 47, 796; McGhee, 55, 660; NAC, 8, 1002; 
Rusk, 698, 919, 1000; Tripartite letter, 641 
Germany, East: 

U.N. membership, question of, 640, 641 
U.S. trade controls policy (McGhee), 1020 
Germany, Federal Republic of: 

Armed forces. See under Armed forces 

Asian development projects, support for: Johnson, 

51; McGhee, 56; Rusk, 634 
Disarmament proposals (Rusk), 559 
Franco-German relations: McGhee, 660; Rusk, 

999 
Income tax protocol provisions, 90 
NATO. See under NATO 

NATO nuclear weapons, question of use: 50, 656; 
Rusk, 768 
Soviet position: 413; Rusk, 407 
Official spokesman for German people in interna- 
tional affairs: France-U.K.-U.S., 640, 641; 
NAC, 8 
Sale of steel mill to Communist China, U.S. views: 

McGhee, 1025; Rusk, 561, 564, 567 
Soviet threat to: 656; McGhee, 58; Rusk, 407 
Space research and other scientific programs, co- 
operation in: 50; Johnson, 46; McGhee, 369, 
376, 460 
Trade: 624; McGhee, 661, 1019 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 42, 74, 143, 144, 181, 

258, 550, 641, 682, 721, 758, 957, 1033 
U.S. military expenditures, balance-of-payments 
effect offset by German purchases, 51 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1057 



Germany, Federal Republic of — Continued 

U.S. mission to study natural resource manage- 
ment, 463 
U.S. relations: 654; Erhard, 48; Johnson, 47; 

McGhee, 53, 657 
Viet-Nam, support for U.S. objectives in: Erhard, 
49, 51; Johnson, 47, 51; McGhee, 58, 662; 
Rusk, 519 
Visit of Chancellor Erhard to U.S., 46 
Visit of Secretary Udall: 463; McGhee, 663 
Ghana : 

Communism, rejection of (Palmer), 898 

National Liberation Committee government, U.S. 

recognition, 440 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 342, 426, 642, 721, 
789, 909, 910 
Giap, Vo Nguyen (quoted), 242, 357 
Gibbs, Sir Humphrey, 268 
Glenn, John, 364 
Gold sales (Fowler), 400 
Goldberg, Arthur J.: 

Addresses, remarks, and statements: 
Adlai Stevenson memorial lecture, 936 
Civil rights, U.S. domestic progress in, 972 
Communist China, question of U.N. membership, 

751 
Foreign policy, U.S. principles and objectives, 

197, 542, 612, 971 
Freedom of speech, 214, 542 
Human rights, 973 

India, UN/FAO appeal for food aid, 385 
India-Pakistan dispute, significance, 799 
International cooperation, 164 
International law, applications of and U.S. sup- 
port for, 166, 543, 612, 754, 936 
Intervention, U.S. position, 125, 609 
Nuclear weapon materials, proposed transfer to 

peaceful uses, 417 
Outer space : 

Proposed treaty on exploration of the moon 

and other celestial bodies, 900 
U.N. role, 163 
Private enterprise, role in international devel- 
opment, 798 
Racial discrimination, U.N. convention, 212 
Southern Rhodesia, U.S. position and support 

for U.N. resolutions, 713, 752, 800, 940, 986 
U.N.: 

"Important questions," 648 (quoted) 
Peacekeeping machinery, need for improve- 
ment, 93, 750, 939 
Principles for operation, 717, 749, 799, 942 
Responsibilities under international law, 936, 
989 
Viet-Nam : 

Elections, U.S. support for U.N. observers, 

1028 
U.N. responsibilities and role, 231, 236, 610, 
750, 801 



Goldberg, Arthur J. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Viet-Nam — Continued 

U.S. position and objectives, 124, 197, 232, 309, 
359, 750 
World peace, U.S. goal, 197, 609 
Correspondence and messages: 
Cambodia, U.S. policy, 167 
Security Council procedures, U.S. views, 906 
Southern Rhodesian agent, Security Council 

notification of U.S. actions, 588 
Viet-Nam, U.N. role, 117, 229 

Draft resolution, transmittal, 231 
Responsibilities: Goldberg, 798; Johnson, 577; 

Sisco, 648 
U.N., request for Security Council resolution on 

Viet-Nam (Johnson), 223 
Visit to Rome, purpose: 200; Johnson, 394 
Goldfinger, Nathaniel, 855n 
Gonzalez, Henry B., 733 
Goodman, Carl F., 207 
Goodwin, William, 962 

Gordon, Lincoln, 470, 579, 620, 733, 738, 944, 977 
Great Society: Frankel, 203; Gandhi, 601; Gordon, 
623; Humphrey, 771; Johnson, 150, 247, 292, 
363, 392; McGhee, 378; Roosevelt, 176; Rusk, 
366 
Global: Frankel, 205; Goldberg, 944, 974; Gordon, 
745; Johnson, 52, 249, 321, 522, 538, 600, 963; 
McGhee, 378, 662 
Greece : 

AID programs terminated in 1965, 208 

Cotton textile agreement amended, announcement 

and text of U.S. note, 992 
Economic progress and role of U.S. aid : Hare, 

670; Johnson, 338 
NATO defense assistance: NAC, 9, 1004; Rusk, 

1000 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 144, 181, 217, 257, 386, 

469, 641, 721, 826, 958 
U.S. support for independence of: Bundy, 967; 

Rusk, 928, 931 
Viet-Nam, compared to: Ball, 241; Bundy, 967; 
Humphrey, 524; Unger, 458 
Greenwald, Joseph A., 944 
Grissom, Virgil, 365 
Gronouski, John, 795 

Guantanamo Naval Base: 934; Rusk, 924 
Guatemala : 

Communist goals (Sayre), 710 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721, 758, 789 
Guevara, Che, 622 
Guinea : 

P. L. 480 currency balances, sale of to U.S. citizens 

authorized, 975 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 386, 469, 721 
Gulf of Tonkin incident: Johnson, 504; Meeker, 485 
Gursel, Cemal, 557, 558, 778 
Gut Dam, Canada, 207 



1058 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Guyana (British Guiana), 935 

Hahn, Otto, 370 

Haiti, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 721 

Halperin, Morton H., 568 

Hand, Lloyd, 489 

Handlin, Oscar, 289, 627 

Harding, Revier, 962 

Hare, Raymond A., 668, 781 

Harp and hood seals. See under Fisheries 

Harriman, Averell W.: 

Meetings and conferences, 302, 782 
Statements, 379, 952 

Viet-Nam peace mission: Goldberg, 199, 200; 

Humphrey, 489; Johnson, 188, 308; Rusk, 189 

Viet-Nam war prisoners, responsibilities (McClos- 

key), 188 

Harris, Patricia Roberts, 16 

Harry S. Truman Center for the Advancement of 

Peace, announcement (Johnson), 186 
Hart, Parker T., 781 
Hasluck, Paul (quoted), 518 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference": Allen, 383; 

Gordon, 979; Sayre, 710 
Haworth, Leland, 470 
Hays, Brooks, 289, 627 

Head Start nutritional program (Johnson), 333 
Healey, Dennis, 368 
Health: 
AID programs FY 1965 (Johnson), 209 
CENTO: 778; Rusk, 777 

Chemistry of the brain and central nervous sys- 
tem, advances (Seaborg), 282 
Communicable diseases, U.S. programs, proposed 

(Johnson), 334 
International Health Act of 1966: 
Appropriations request (Johnson), 248, 291, 

328, 329 
Need and objectives: Gordon, 981; Johnson, 152, 
187,322,332; Rusk, 629 
Korea, hookworm control (Berger), 864 
Latin America (Gordon), 741 

Malnutrition, problem of, U.S. and U.N. aid: 748; 
Bernstein, 274; Johnson, 209, 321, 323, 333, 
336, 338, 748; Roosevelt, 133; Rusk, 502 
Medicine (Johnson), 292 
Pakistan, U.S. medical training program: 246; 

Johnson, 4 
Scientific advances and techniques (Seaborg), 282 
Soviet Union, agreement on exchanges in public 
health, medical science, and other fields, joint 
communique, 543 
U.N. role (Rogers), 171 

UNICEF programs, objectives and accomplish- 
ments (Bernstein), 271 
U.S. doctors and medical students, travel controls 

lifted, 90; (Bundy),317 
U.S. national health programs, implementation 
(Johnson) , 150 



Health — Continued 

Viet-Nam, U.S. programs and need for multi- 
lateral aid: Humphrey, 491; Johnson, 305, 
308, 492 
Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of, 328, 

334, 335, 492 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Or- 
ganization 
Herrera, Felipe, 744 
Herter, Christian A., 319, 466 
Heymann, Philip B., 593 
High seas: 

Convention (1958) on: 

Current actions: Malawi, 41; Netherlands, 592, 

681 ; Yugoslavia, 549 
U.S. air accident over Spain not a violation of, 
397 
Interception of vessels, international law on (Gold- 
berg,), 714 
Hines, James J., 119 
Historical summary: 

Alliance for Progress, background (Mann), 735 
Communist aggression and U.S. counter-measures 

(Rusk), 348 
Communist China, policy and goals: Bundy, 311; 

Rusk, 687, 693 
Cotton textile trade (Jacobs) , 134 
Educational and cultural relations, developments 

(Frankel), 889 
Foreign policy changes since World War II (Ball), 

240, 763 
Inter-American economic and social development 

(Mann), 734 
International Atomic Energy Agency (Smyth), 31 
International shipping regulations (Geren), 78 
Korea (Berger), 860 
Modern society, development of and factors in 

(Rostow), 803 
Nuclear power production (Smyth), 28 
Science, evolution of (Seaborg), 281 
Southeast Asia, U.S. policy (Rusk), 830 
United Nations Children's Fund (Bernstein), 274 
Viet-Nam : 

Background: Ball, 240; Bundy, 967; U. A. 
Johnson, 530; Meeker, 474, 482; Rusk, 350; 
Unger, 452 
"National Liberation Front": U. A. Johnson, 
531 ; Rusk, 355 
World Food Program (Roosevelt), 131 
Hoagland, Donald W., 404 
Hobby, Oveta Culp, 492 
Hoffman, Paul G., 421 
Holifield, Chet, 406 
Holloman, Herbert, 470 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell (quoted) , 215 
Holt, Harold, 518 
Honduras : 

Tax convention for avoidance of double taxation 
continues in force, 91 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1059 



Honduras — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 910, 957 
Hong Kong, international coffee agreement, 1962, 

with annexes, 591 
Honolulu, Declaration of. See under Viet-Nam 
Honolulu Conference: 302, 396; Humphrey, 309, 489; 
Johnson, 302; Thieu, 303 
Second conference, proposed (Humphrey), 491 
Hooper, Henry J. C, 318, 588 
Hornig, Donald, 4, 20, 246, 470, 619 
Hubbard, Charlotte M., 117, 703 
Hull, Cordell, 561 

Human rights (see also Civil rights and Great So- 
ciety) : 
Africa (Palmer), 899 
Cultural expression (Franke.1), 205 
Southern Rhodesia: 85; Goldberg, 800; Williams, 

13 
U.N. Charter: Goldberg, 989; Rogers, 171 
U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, U.S. 
support for proposal of post: Abram, 1029, 
1031; Willis, 178 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Abram, 
636; Goldberg, 127; Willis, 216 
17th anniversary (Goldberg), 213, 941, 973 
U.S. views: Brandeis (quoted), 214; Johnson, 392, 

727, 915; Rusk, 366; Sisco, 572 
Viet-Nam position (Honolulu Declaration), 306 
Humphrey, Hubert: 
Addresses, messages, remarks, and statements: 
Asia, threat of Communism, 527 
Far East mission, report on, 114, 309, 489, 523 
Great Society, 771 

Satellite communication, importance, 951 
Viet-Nam, outline of U.S. position, 115, 523 
World leadership, U.S. responsibilities, 769 
Foreign policy briefing conferences, 579 
Philippine inaugural ceremonies for President 

Marcos, attendance, 114 
Viet-Nam, peace mission: 302; Humphrey, 114, 

309, 489; Johnson, 308, 393 
Visit to Thailand and text of joint communique, 
396 
Hungary, treaties, agreements, etc., 550, 682, 721 
Hydrological Decade, International: McGhee, 373; 
Seaborg, 288 

IACC (Inter- American Cultural Council, OAS), 202 
IAEA. See Atomic Energy Agency, International 
IBRD. See International Bank for Reconstruction 

and Development 
ICAO. See Civil Aviation Organization, Interna- 
tional 
ICC. See International Control Commission 
Iceland, treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 181, 298, 469, 

510, 682, 721, 789, 909, 1033 
ICEM (Intergovernmental Committee for European 
Migration), 39 



ICIREPAT (International Committee on Informa- 
tion Retrieval Among Examining Patent Of- 
fices) , 1009 
ICJ. See International Court of Justice 
ICSAB (International Civil Service Advisory 

Board), 70 
ICSU (International Council of Scientific Unions), 

371 
IDA. See International Development Association 
IFC. See International Finance Corporation 
IGY (International Geophysical Year), 371 
Ihara, Teruo, 289, 627 
IJC. See International Joint Commission, United 

States and Canada 
Illiteracy. See Education 
ILO. See Labor Organization, International 
IMCO. See Maritime Consultative Organization, In- 
tergovernmental 
IMF. See Monetary Fund, International 
Immigration : 

Immigration Act of 1965, implementation and in- 
terpretation: Hines, 119; E. Kennedy 
(quoted), 121 
Immigration and Nationality Act, budget request 

for administration expenses (Johnson), 250 
Refugees, provisions of U.S. immigration law 
(Schwartz), 40 
Cuban, 1005 
U.S. policy and role of volunteer agencies: 

Crockett, 704; Johnson, 705, 706 (quoted) 
Western Hemisphere Immigration Commission, 
recommendations (Hines), 123 
Imports (see also Exports; Tariff policy, U.S.; 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on; and 
Trade) 
Clinical thermometers, termination of increased 

duty, 159 
Cotton textiles. See Cotton textiles 
Cuba, decline in (Sayre), 710 

East European and Soviet goods, U.S. policy re- 
view (see also East-West Trade Relations Act 
of 1966): Braderman, 1016; McGhee, 1020; 
Miller Committee, 845; Trowbridge, 60 
Educational, scientific, and cultural materials: 
Agreement (1950) and protocol, Iran, 468 
Legislation to eliminate duties on: Johnson, 331, 
332 ; Roth, 858 
Germany, increases in (McGhee), 661, 1019 
Safety pins, termination of increased rate of duty, 

proclamation, 288 
Southern Rhodesian goods, prohibition of: 27, 157, 

267; Goldberg, 715, 987; Williams, 266 
Stainless-steel flatware, reduction of increased 

duties, proclamation, 160 
Tariff changes, effect on U.S. economy (Roth), 859 
Textured yarns (Johnson), 293 
Income: 

Conventions for relief of double taxation. See 
Double taxation 



1060 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Income — Continued 

Income tax convention (1948), protocol modifying 

and supplementing, Belgium, 42 
Reentry experiments agreement, understanding re 

income tax, Australia, 758 
India: 

Agricultural production increase, need for and role 

of U.S. aid: 604; Hare, 669; Humphrey, 490; 

Johnson, 599, 605, 748; Rusk, 498 
AID development loans, percent of total U.S. 

program, 208 
Asian Development Bank, pledge (Johnson), 256 
Communist China, threat of: 604; Bundy, 312; 

Goldberg, 750 ; Rusk, 774 
Equatorial sounding-rocket facility, Thumba, eligi- 
bility for U.N. assistance (Goldberg), 167 
Food emergency, U.S. and other aid: 465, 604; 

Goldberg, 385; Johnson, 386 (quoted), 605, 

747; Roosevelt, 132; Rusk, 497; U.S. joint 

Congressional resolution, text, 748 
Indo-American Foundation: 604, Gandhi, 603; 

Johnson, 601, 607 
Kashmir. See India-Pakistan border dispute 
Malaria, U.S. program for eradication of (John- 
son), 334 
Pakistan. See India-Pakistan border dispute 
Political stability (Rostow), 809 
Prime Minister Shastri, death of: Johnson, 156, 

598; Rusk, 156 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 257, 258, 386, 

550, 642, 721, 789, 993, 1033 
U.S. relations (Rusk), 497 
Viet-Nam, peace efforts (Goldberg), 233 
Visit of Prime Minister Gandhi to U.S., 598 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 

489 
World Bank coordination of multilateral aid 

(Rusk), 634 
India-Pakistan border dispute: 
CENTO, 778 
Communist China, policy: Bundy, 317; Goldberg, 

750; Rusk, 567, 568,687 
Pakistan position (Ayub Khan), 3, 6 
Tashkent agreement, prospects from : Goldberg, 

238, 750, 799; Hare, 669; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 

196, 560, 632 
U.N. resolutions, U.S. support: 7; Goldberg, 238, 

799; Johnson, 504 
U.S. position: Humphrey, 490; Johnson, 598 
Indo-American Foundation: 604; Gandhi, 603; John- 
son, 601, 607 
Indochina, 698, 831 
Indonesia: 

Communist China, threat of: Bundy, 313; Rusk, 

567, 687, 774 
Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Problems of and question of U.S. aid (Rusk), 923 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 182, 510, 550, 721, 826 
U.N. peacekeeping role (Johnson), 504 



Industrial development: Johnson, 209; Roosevelt, 

130, 424 
Industrial exceptions. See Kennedy Round 
Industrial property, protection of: 

Conventions (1883, as revised): Bulgaria, 543; 

Cyprus, 144 
International protection of rights in (Winter), 
1006 
Inflation: 

Korea (Berger), 863 

U.S.: Johnson, 292, 339; MacArthur, 815 
Viet-Nam. See under Viet-Nam 
Information activities and programs (see also Inter- 
national cooperation, Publications, and United 
States Information Agency) : 
Agreements with: 

Philippines, exchange of official publications, 

110 
Soviet Union, exchanges in publications, exhibi- 
tions and related fields, joint communique, 543 
Viet-Nam, TV broadcasting, 218 
Communist China, U.S. efforts to exchange infor- 
mation: 491; Bundy, 317, 868; Rusk, 557, 694 
Cultural interchanges in the Western Hemisphere : 

Frankel, 205 ; Johnson, 205 
Informed public, need for: Frankel, 755; Johnson, 

329; Rusk, 514; Sisco, 571, 646 
Patent information exchange systems (Winter), 

1009 
Poland (Johnson), 796 

Scientific information, exchanges of: 788; Gold- 
berg, 165, 167; Hornig, 21; Johnson (quoted), 
415; McGhee, 369, 462; Seaborg, 285 
U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act 

of 1948, amendments urged (Johnson), 332 
U.S. newsmen barred from Havana "Triconti- 
nental Conference" (Allen), 384 
Interagency Committee for International Meteoro- 
logical Programs, 619 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 640 
Inter-American Committee for the Alliance for Prog- 
ress. See Alliance for Progress: CIAP 
Inter- American Cultural Council, OAS, 4th meeting: 

Frankel, 202 ; Johnson, 205 
Inter-American Development Bank: 732; Johnson, 
256,324,538; Rusk, 634 
Feasibility studies of multinational projects 

(Gordon), 744, 980 
Fund for Special Operations, U.S. financial sup- 
port (Johnson), 248, 252 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council 

(Gordon), 741,979 
I nter- American Export Promotion Agency, 742 
Interest Equalization Tax: 
Canadian securities, 464 

Recommended extension to Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia 
Neutral Zone, Libya, Qatar, and Saudi 
Arabia, 24, 26 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1061 



Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion, 39 
Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organiza- 
tion. See Maritime Consultative Organization, 
Intergovernmental 
International Agricultural Development Service 

(Johnson), 340 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment: 
Accomplishments and role: Rusk, 632; Sisco, 574 
Articles of agreement, agreement amending article 
III: Afghanistan, Australia, Bolivia, Burundi, 
Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salva- 
dor, Finland, France, Federal Republic of 
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, 
Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, 
Italy, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, 
Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, 
Malaysia, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, 
Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, 
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, 
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, 
Syrian Arab Republic, Tanzania, Thailand, 
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, 
Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, 
Upper Volta, Venezuela, 181 
Coordination of multilateral aid programs: 
Gandhi, 604; Gordon, 744, 981; Johnson, 256, 
538, 605; Roosevelt, 421; Rusk, 634, 923 
U.S. support: Bundy, 315; Johnson, 324, 505 
International Biological Program, 372 
International Boundary and Water Commission, 118 
International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 373 
International Business Problems, Advisory Com- 
mittee on, 403 
International Center for the Settlement of Invest- 
ment Disputes (Johnson), 419 
International Civil Service Advisory Board, 70 
International Committee on Information Retrieval 

Among Examining Patent Offices, 1009 
International Congress on Desalting, First, 375 
International Control Commission (Canada, India, 
Poland): Goldberg, 168; Meeker, 474, 482; 
Rusk, 920, 925 
International Convention on the Elimination of All 
Forms of Racial Discrimination: 216n; Gold- 
berg, 212, 973; Willis, 216 
International cooperation (see also International Co- 
operation Year and United Nations) : 
Aviation, 956; Lowenfeld, 587 
Development as a concept (Abram), 1029 
Educational and cultural programs, importance: 

Frankel, 205, 756, 894; Johnson, 205, 328 
Exploration of the moon and other celestial bodies, 
provisions of proposed treaty: Goldberg, 901; 
Johnson, 900 



International cooperation — Continued 

Friendly relations and cooperation among states, 

U.S. position (Rogers) , 168 
Importance of: Germany, 655; Johnson, 47, 52, 

152, 521, 618; Rusk, 933; Sisco, 572 
Multilateral aid programs: Crockett, 706; Gold- 
berg, 385, 799; Gordon, 743, 978; Johnson, 
187, 256, 324, 335, 341, 386 (quoted), 605; 
McGhee, 662; Roosevelt, 132; Rusk, 634 
Patent problems (Winter), 1009 
Safety of life at sea (Geren), 85 
Scientific and technological programs, cooperation 
and information exchange: Frankel, 892; 
Hornig, 20; Johnson, 415 (quoted), 505, 619; 
McGhee, 369; NAC, 1003; Seaborg, 285 
Space research, U.S. cooperative programs: Gold- 
berg, 164 ; Johnson, 796 ; McGhee, 376, 461 
U.N. Charter position: Goldberg, 799; Rogers, 171 
U.S. policy based on: Johnson, 187, 322; Rusk, 931 
International Cooperation, National Citizens Com- 
mission: Johnson, 20; Roosevelt, 175 
International Cooperation Year: 

U.S. space programs, international participation 

(Goldberg), 167 
U.S. support (Johnson), 505 
International Cooperative Investigations of the 

Tropical Atlantic, 373 
International Cotton Institute, articles of agreement. 

See under Cotton textiles 
International Council of Scientific Unions, 371 
International Court of Justice: Goldberg, 94, 942; 
Rogers, 174 
South African administration of South-West 
Africa mandate: Goldberg, 943; Williams, 438 
International Development Association : Johnson, 
505; Sisco, 574 
Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 248, 
252, 324 
International Education Act of 1966. See under Edu- 
cation 
International Executive Service Corps, 324, 631 
International Finance Corporation, 505 
International Geophysical Year, 371 
International Health Act of 1966. See under Health 
International Hydrological Decade: McGhee, 373; 

Seaborg, 288 
International Indian Ocean Expedition, 372 
International Institute for the Unification of Private 

Law, 342 
International Intellectual Property Organization, 

1007 
International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 36, 

118, 293, 466 
International Labor Organization. See Labor Orga- 
nization, International 
International law: 

Enforcement, U.N. responsibility: Goldberg, 543, 
610, 754, 936, 942; Williams, 438 



1062 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International law — Continued 

Friendly relations and cooperation among states: 
Special Committee on, 168n 

U.S. support for U.N. resolutions on (Rogers), 
168 
International center for the settlement of invest- 
ment disputes between states and nationals 
of other states (Johnson), 419 
Outer space, development Qf law in: Goldberg, 

166, 900; Johnson, 166 (quoted) 
Self-defense, justification for retaliation: Meeker, 

475; Rusk, 832; Unger, 457 
U.N. resolutions as a rule of law (Goldberg), 715, 

753, 800, 941 
U.S. support: Goldberg, 539; Johnson, 188; Rusk, 
190, 697 
International Law Commission, 941 
International Monetary and Financial Policies on 
National Advisory Council established, Execu- 
tive order, 404 
International Monetary Fund. See Monetary Fund, 

International 
International monetary system (see also Monetary 
Fund, International): 465; Gordon, 742; John- 
son, 290 
International organizations (see also name of orga- 
nization) : 
Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson) , 326 
Budget review, statement and memoranda (John- 
son), 576 
Calendar of meetings, 37, 544 

Peacekeeping organizations, need to improve: 
Abram, 640; Goldberg, 939; Johnson, 263, 
McNamara, 879; Rusk, 408 
Universal copyright convention (1952), protocol 2 

re application to: Yugoslavia, 592 
Value of and U.S. support: Barnett, 665; Johnson, 
152, 249, 323, 341; McGhee, 375; Rusk, 927; 
Sisco, 649 
International Patent Classification, 1009 
International Polar Year, 1882, 371 
International relations: Frankel, 896; Goldberg, 

936, 971 
International Rice Year, 1966: Johnson, 341; Sea- 

borg, 287 
International Scientific and Technological Affairs, 

374 
International Telecommunication Union : 951 ; U. A. 

Johnson, 949 
International Tsunami Warning System, 378 
International Understanding, Business Council for, 

246 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 372 
International Upper Mantle Project, 372 
International Year of the Quiet Sun, 372 
Intervention (see also Aggression, Self-determina- 
tion, and Viet-Nam entries) : 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," OAS denun- 
ciation: 385n; Allen, 383 



Intervention — Continued 

U.N. Charter principles: Goldberg, 126; Rusk, 347 
U.N. resolution, 175n 
Text, 128 

U.S. support; Goldberg, 942; Rogers, 170 
Investment disputes betwen states and nationals of 
other states, convention (1965) on settlement 
of: Austria, 957; Belgium, 143; Central Afri- 
can Republic, 509; Chad, 909; China, 641; 
Congo (Brazzaville), 143; Cyprus, 549; France, 
143; Gabon, 720; Germany, Greece, 641; Ivory 
Coast, 426; Kenya, 993; Korea, 789; Malagasy 
Republic, 1033; Mauritania, 641; Netherlands, 
993; Togo, 641; U.S., 1033 
U.S. ratification recommended (Johnson), 419 
Investment Guaranty Program: 

Agreements with: British Honduras, 721, 910; 

Ceylon, 510; India, 994; Nicaragua, 958; 

Rwanda, 510; Singapore, 721; Thailand, 110 

Appropriations request FY 1967; Johnson, 251, 

324; Rusk, 631 
Patented and unpatented technology, application of 

Program to (Winter), 1012 
Southern Rhodesia, U.S. suspension of guarantees 
(Goldberg), 715,987 
Investment of foreign capital in U.S.: Fowler, 398; 

Johnson, 291 
Investment of private capital abroad (see also In- 
vestment Guaranty Program) : 
Advisory Committee on International Business 

Problems, meeting, 403 
Africa (Johnson), 917 
Argentina, prospects for, 944 
Canada, possible effect of U.S. voluntary program 

on direct investment, 464 
Europe, rise in (Solomon), 824 
Germany, interest on U.S. dividends changed, 90 
Latin America: Gordon, 984; Johnson, 538; Mann, 

735 
Multilateral investment guarantee agreements, 

proposed (Gordon), 744 
Netherlands, interest on U.S. dividends changed, 

91 
Philippines, Laurel-Langley parity article, need 

for replacement (Bundy), 448 
Recommendations: Goldberg, 799; Johnson, 290, 

324 ; Rusk, 630 
Settlement of investment disputes between states 
and nationals of other states, convention 
(1965) on, purpose (Johnson), 419 
South Africa (Williams), 434, 436 
Southern Rhodesia (Williams), 14 
Thailand, treaty of amity and economic relations, 

991 
Togo, treaty of amity and economic relations, 367 
Voluntary program, effect on U.S. balance of pay- 
ments, and extension of: Cabinet Committee 
recommendations, 23; Connor, 24, 400; Fow- 
ler,. 398; Johnson, 22; Robertson, 402 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1063 



IQSY (International Year of the Quiet Sun), 372 
Iran: 

Economic and social development: Hare, 670; 

Rusk, 776 
Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 258, 468, 721, 909 
U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son) , 334 
U.S. relations (Rusk), 780, 930 
Iraq: 

AID programs terminated in 1965, 208 
Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721 
Ireland : 

Free trade area with U.K., 590 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 721, 789, 957 
U.N. peacekeeping operations, proposal on (Gold- 
berg) , 96 
Iron curtain (Ball), 240, 245 

Isolationalism (see .also World order: Interdepen- 
dence of modern world): Ball, 239; Johnson, 
320, 650; McGhee, 658 
Communist China: (Rusk), 561, 566, 691, 772 
U.S. position on: Goldberg, 198; Johnson, 521, 555 
Israel : 

Harry S. Truman Center for the Advancement 
of Peace, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, an- 
nouncement (Johnson), 186 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 143, 181, 217, 386, 469, 

721, 758, 1033 
U.S.-Israel Joint Board on desalination feasibility 
study, final report and recommendations, 494 
Italy: 

Asian Development Bank, support for (McGhee), 

56 
NATO Defense College, relocation in: NAC, 1002; 

Rusk, 998 
Technical cooperation agreement between U.S. and 

Italy, succession of Somalia to, 218 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 42, 110, 144, 181, 
342, 468, 550, 682, 721, 789 
ITU. See International Telecommunication Union 
Ivory Coast, treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 181, 342, 
426, 510, 721 

Jacobs, George R., 134 

Jamaica, treaties, agreements, etc., 109, 550, 721 

James, William, 329 

Japan : 

Asian development, support for: Barnett, 665; 
Harriman, 380, 382; Johnson, 256, 522; Rusk, 
632, 933 
Civil air transport agreement amendment, and 

exchange of notes, 141 
Communist China; threat of: Barnett, 667; 

Bundy, 312 ; Rusk, 687 
Economic and social progress: Barnett, 666; 
Humphrey, 114 



Japan — Continued 

Educational and cultural interchange, 3rd U.S.- 
Japan conference, 405 
Korea, Basic Relations Treaty with, ratification: 

Barnett, 665; Berger, 864; Johnson, 66 
Kuroshio current, cooperative study of (McGhee), 

373 
Trade: 

Cotton textile arrangement with U.S. extended, 

exchange of notes, 180 
Cotton textile exports, increase (Jacobs), 137 
Joint U.S.-Japan Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs, 5th meeting, announcement, 
757; delegations and agenda, 1027 
U.S. trade, 624 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 217, 258, 469, 550, 721, 

789, 910, 957 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
U.S. cooperative health programs, expansion 

(Johnson), 334 
U.S. mutual security commitments: Bundy, 314; 

Rusk, 516, 559, 566, 774 
U.S. relations: Barnett, 664; Rusk, 634 
Viet-Nam, position on: Barnett, 666; Rusk, 519 
Javits, Jacob K., 565 
Jay, John (quoted), 578 
Joanna V, tanker, 718 
Johnson, Lyndon B. : 

Addresses, remarks, and statements: 
Africa, U.S. policy and relations, 914 
Agency for International Development, 1967 
program, objectives of and appropriation 
request, 250, 322, 330 
Alliance for Progress: 

Accomplishments, role, and U.S. support, 323, 

633 (quoted), 729 
Appropriations request FY 1967, 251, 325 
Fifth anniversary, 537 
American ideals, 292, 327, 328, 391, 538, 727, 

915 
Asian Development Bank, U.S. and other sup- 
port and pledges, 252, 256, 443, 521 
Central American Common Market, 5th anni- 
versary, 1004 
Christmas tree lighting ceremony, 51 
Civil rights, 151, 806 (quoted) 
Europe, unification of, 47, 650, 795 
Federal programs and expenditures, budget re- 
quest FY 1967, 248 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966, 336, 337 
Food for Peace, 250, 252, 333 
Foreign aid, principles and objectives, FY 1967, 

186, 247, 320, 321, 328, 336 
Foreign policy, principles, 151, 187, 190 (quoted), 

320, 521, 728, 805, 915 
Freedom, 364, 390, 431 (quoted), 806 (quoted) 
Germany, U.S. relations, 46 
Great Society, 150, 247, 292, 363 

World-wide, 249, 392, 522, 538, 600, 963 



1064 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Johnson, Lyndon B. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks and statements — Continued 
Harry S. Truman Center for the Advancement 

of Peace, announcement, 186 
Immigration, U.S. policy, 706 (quoted) 
India: 

Death of Prime Minister Shastri, 156 

U.S. emergency food aid, 385n, 386 (quoted), 
747 

U.S. relations, 598, 600 
Indo-American Foundation, 601, 607 
International Education Act of 1966, 152, 187, 

248, 322, 329 
International Health Act of 1966, 152, 187, 248, 

322, 329 
International Labor Organization Convention 

122, 1026 
International organizations, review of U.S. 

budgets, 576 
Japan-Korea, normal relations established, 66 
LASA installation, scientific data exchange, 415 

(quoted) 
Lincoln, Abraham, dedication address for statue 

at Mexico City, 727 
Memorial Day, 1966, 962 
Mexico, U.S. relations, 726, 731 
Military assistance, principles and objectives, 

326 
NATO, U.S. views, 50, 554, 650, 795 
Nuclear control and disarmament, 102 (quoted), 

263,408 (quoted), 410 
Organization of African Unity, 3rd anniversary, 

914 
Outer space, exploration of, 47, 166 (quoted), 

900 
Peace Corps: 

Expansion of program, 250, 252, 329, 330, 339 

Fifth anniversary, 411 
Poland, U.S. relations, 794 
President Gursel of Turkey, U.S. visit, 558 
Ryukyu Islands, administration of, 66 
State Department and Secretary Rusk, tribute 

to, 730 
State of the Union, 150 
U.N., U.S. support, 324, 326 
U.S. responsibilities as a world power, 327, 328, 

391, 650, 835 
Vice President Humphrey, visit to Asia, 308, 393 
Viet-Nam : 

Appropriation requests, 251, 325 

Supplemental military authorization bill 
signed, 578 

Communist representation at peace talks, 
question of (quoted), 116, 244 

Honolulu conference: 

Accomplishments and objectives, 307, 393 
Welcome to Viet-Nam leaders, 302 

National Security Council review, 834 

Peace, U.S. efforts toward, 188, 199 (quoted), 
232 (quoted), 235 (quoted), 393, 964 



Johnson, Lyndon B. — Continued 

Addresses, remarks and statements — Continued 

Viet-Nam — Continued 

Political developments, 888, 963 
U.S. bombing resumed, 222 
U.S. commitment, 249, 390, 392, 964 
U.S. position and objectives, 47, 51, 151, 222, 
253, 363, 441, 492 (quoted), 578, 963 

War on hunger, 500 (quoted) 

War on poverty, 322, 599 (quoted) 

World Meteorological Day, 618 

World peace, 51, 153, 188, 303, 393, 579, 726 
Board of Foreign Scholarships, appointment of 

members, 289 
Correspondence, memoranda, messages, and tele- 
grams: 

Balance of payments, 22, 495 

CENTO microwave telecommunications system, 
dedication, 779 

Dominican Provisional President, congratula- 
tions, 1005 

Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee con- 
ference, U.S. 7-point program for nuclear 
control, 263 

Franklin Award for Distinguished Service, 
tribute to Secretary Rusk, 199 

Intercultural understanding among the Ameri- 
cas, 205 

International agency budget review, 577, 578 

International Cooperation, National Citizens' 
Committee, objectives, 20 

Migration and refugee problems, work of U.S. 
volunteer agencies, 705 

Philippines, elections, President Macapagal and 
President-elect Marcos, 65 

Soviet Union, congratulations on Luna 9 land- 
ing, 270 

U.A.R., U.S. surplus food sales continued, 123 

United Nations Day, U.S. National Chairman 
(Kaiser) named, 976 
Discretionary authority to negotiate commercial 
agreements, proposed under East-West Trade 
Relations Act: 843, 850; Braderman, 1017; 
Rusk, 839 
Executive orders. See Executive orders 
Immigration policies (Crockett), 704 
Meetings with : 

Heads of State and officials of, remarks and 
joint communiques: Germany, 46; India, 
598; Mexico, 726, 731; Pakistan, 2, 118c; 
Viet-Nam, 302 

SEATO Secretary General, 748 

Vice President Humphrey, 302, 307 
Messages, letters, and reports to Congress: 

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 5th 
report, transmittal, 410 

Asian Development Bank, authorization of U.S. 
membership requested, 255 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1065 



Johnson, Lyndon B. — Continued 

Messages, letters, and reports to Congress — Con- 
tinued 
Budget, FY 1967, excerpts, 247 
Communications Satellite Act of 1962, activities 

and accomplishments, report, 503 
Defense budget FY 1966, 152 

Economic Report of the President, excerpts, 290 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966, 336 
Foreign Assistance Program, annual report, FY 

1965, 208; recommendations, 320 
India, emergency food aid program, 605 
International Education Act of 1966, 328 
International Health Act of 1966, 328, 332 
Investment disputes, between states and nation- 
als of other states, convention on the set- 
tlement of, ratification recommended, 419 
Peace Corps, 4th annual report, transmission, 

634 
State of the Union, 150 

Textured yarn tariffs, recommendations on and 
transmission of Tariff Commission report, 293 
U.S. participation in the U.N., 19th annual re- 
port, transmittal, 504 
Viet-Nam : 

Supplemental appropriation request FY 1966, 

254 
U.S. position, 253 
National Freedom Award, 390n 
Polish Black Madonna, presentation of replica to, 

794 
Presidential advisors and advisory committees: 
507, 651 ; Johnson, 222, 320, 803 (quoted) ; 
Rusk, 653, 921 
Senate Resolution 179 commending efforts to limit 

nuclear proliferation; 406«; Rusk, 406 
Trade policy (Roth), 856 
Visit to Mexico City, 726 
Johnson, U. Alexis, 302, 493, 529, 949 
Joint Argentine-U.S. Trade and Economic Com- 
mittee, 1st meeting, 944 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chairman, 507 
Joint U.S.-Japan Committee on Trade and Eco- 
nomic Affairs, 5th meeting scheduled, 757, 1027 
Jones, Marshall P., 289 
Jones, William G., 1004 
Jordan : 

AID support, percent of U.S. total program, 208 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721, 758 
U.S. Ambassador (Burns), 909 

U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son) , 334 
U.S. sales of aircraft, and policy, 663 
Judicial and extrajudicial documents, in civil or 
commercial matters, convention (1965) on serv- 
ice abroad: Belgium, 469; Finland, Germany, 
Israel, Netherlands, 143; U.A.R., 642; U.K., 
U.S., 143 



Jury selection, enforcement of nondiscrimination 

(Johnson), 151 
Justice, Department of, 869, 945 

Kaiser, Edgar F., 976 
Kalb, Marvin, 565 
Kamanga, Reuben (quoted), 783 
Kapwepwe, Simon, 85 
Kariba Dam, 269 

Kashmir. See India-Pakistan border dispute 
Kaunda, Kenneth, 269, 915 
Kearney, Richard D., 404 
Kelly, Edna F., 998 
Kennedy, Edward, 40, 121 (quoted) 
Kennedy, John F.: (quoted), 358, 395, 964; Gordon, 
738; Johnson, 537, 729; Meeker, 482; Rusk, 517, 
567, 929 
Kennedy Round. See under Tariffs and trade, gen- 
eral agreement on 
Kenya : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 510, 721, 789, 909, 

993 
Zambia airlift (Williams), 269 
Keppel, Francis, 289, 492, 627 
Kerley, Ernest L., 207 
Khoman, Thanat (quoted), 518 

Khrushchev, Nikita: (quoted), 357; Rusk, 517, 570 
Klutznick, Philip (quoted), 425 
Komer, Robert 834 
Korea and Korean War: Berger, 860 

Viet-Nam, compared with: Ball, 240, 613; Bundy, 
966; Goldberg, 751, 802; Meeker, 477, 488; 
Rusk, 348 
Korea, North: 

Communist China, support for subversion of 

(Bundy), 313 
U.S. policy of total embargo: Braderman, 1013; 
McGhee, 1020 
Korea, Republic of: 

AID support, percent of U.S. total program, 208 
Asian economic development, support for: Berger, 

864 ; Rusk, 933 
Communist infiltration (Rusk), 193 
Economic progress and role of U.S. aid: Berger, 

860; Johnson, 325, 326; Rusk, 498, 633 
Japan, Basic Relations Treaty, ratification: Bar- 
nett, 665 ; Berger, 864 ; Johnson, 66 
Communist China, position (Rusk), 687 
Political development compared to Viet-Nam 

(Bundy), 966 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 181, 258, 510, 550, 

721, 789 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
U.S. military commitments and alliances: Bundy, 

314; Rusk, 349, 559, 566, 774, 931 
Viet-Nam, military support: Ball, 613; Berger, 
864; Goldberg, 539; Johnson, 302, 308, 326; 
U. A. Johnson, 533; Rusk, 518, 887, 929; 
Unger, 457 



1066 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Korea, Republic of — Continued 

Visit of Ambassador Lodge (Rusk), 887 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 
114, 489 

Korry, Edward M., 917 

Kosygin, Aleksai (quoted), 357 
U.S. talks (Rusk), 193 

Kotschnig, Walter, 273 

Kuroshio Current, Cooperative Study of the, 373 

Kuwait : 

Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721, 957, 993 

Kuwait^Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, 24, 26 

Ky, Nguyen Cao: 155, 188, 302, 528 (quoted); 
Bundy, 968; U. A. Johnson, 533, 535; Rusk, 564, 
569, 883, 921 

Labor (see also Labor Organization, International) : 
American Institute for Free Labor Development 

(Gordon), 985 
Immigration Act of 1965, provisions and responsi- 
bilities for immigrant labor: Hines, 120; E. 
Kennedy, 121 (quoted) 
Cuban refugee provisions, 1005 
U.S. international trade, responsibilities in (Mac- 
Arthur) , 814 
U.S. labor-management relations, development of 
labor law (Goldberg), 938 
Labor, Department of, 145 

Labor Organization, International (Bernstein), 272 
Burundi, alleged violations of human rights 

(Abram), 638 
Convention, 122, ratification urged (Johnson), 1026 
Freedom from Hunger Campaign, cooperation 
with (Seaborg),287 
Labouisse, Henry R., 272 
Ladas, Stephen P., 1006 

LAFTA. See Latin American Free Trade Associa- 
tion 
Lagos conference (Williams), 269 
Laitin, Joseph, 123 
Lake Erie, 293, 466 

Lake of the Woods, pollution control, 36 
Lake Ontario, 293, 466 
Lake Ontario Claims Tribunal United States and 

Canada, U.S. agency established, 207 
Lakonia disaster, 952 

Land-locked states, convention (1965) on transit 
trade: 143; Afghanistan, Argentina, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist 
Republic, Cameroon, Central African Republic, 
Chile, Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic of Ger- 
many, Holy See, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, 
Nepal, Netherlands, Paraguay, Rwanda, San 
Marina, Sudan, Switzerland, Uganda, Ukrainian 
Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics, United States, Yugoslavia, Zam- 
bia, 682 



Langer, William. 349 

Laos (see also Geneva accords) : 

AID support, percent of U.S. total program, 208 
Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 663 
Communist intervention and role of U.S. aid: 
Goldberg, 126; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 192, 690, 
885, 929 ; Unger, 454 
Conference on, proposed, U.S. support for (Rusk), 

86 
Nam Ngum Dam: Johnson, 323, 522; Rusk. 632 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 258, 721 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 
489 
Large Aperture Seismic Array, 415 
Larsen, Stanley R., 920, 925 
LASA (Large Aperture Seismic Array), 415 
LASO (Latin American Solidarity Organization), 

711 
Latin America (see also Alliance for Progress, Cen- 
tral America, Organization of American States, 
and individual countries) : 
Communist activities and goals: Bundy, 311; Gold- 
berg, 127, 542; Gordon, 977; Johnson, 728; 
McGhee, 56 ; Rusk, 690 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," provisions 
of, and OAS denunciation: 385w; Allen, 383; 
Gordon, 979; Sayre, 710 
Denuclearization, U.S. position: 416; Rusk, 367, 

409, 417 (quoted) 
Economic and social development: Gordon, 743, 

977; Johnson, 963; Mann, 734; Rostow, 806 

Economic integration, U.S. support: Diaz Ordaz- 

Johnson, 732; Gordon, 623, 980; Johnson, 537, 

729, 746, 1005; Mann, 737, 744; Rusk, 367, 562 

Food-for-work project (Rusk), 498 

Political stability: Gordon, 978; Johnson, 728; 

McGhee, 56 
Population control, AID assistance (Gordon), 982 
Semiskilled workers in, ICEM program for Euro- 
pean refugees (Schwartz), 40 
Trade (Gordon), 742 
Latin American Center for Economic and Social De- 
velopment (Gordon), 982 
Latin American Free Trade Association: Gordon, 

979; Johnson, 732; Rusk, 367 
Latin American Solidarity Organization, 711 
Laurel-Langley agreement (Bundy) , 448 
Law enforcement system, recommendations (John- 
son), 151 
Law of the sea (see also Safety of life at sea), con- 
ventions on: Malawi, 41; Netherlands, 592, 681; 
U.S., 681 ; Yugoslavia, 549 
Lead and zinc, termination of import duties (Roth), 

857 
Lebanon, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721, 957 
Leddy, John M., 672 
Leitao da Cunha, Vasco T., 270 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1067 



Less developed countries (see also Newly indepen- 
dent nations) : 
Agricultural production and modernization, need 

for increase. See under Agriculture 
Arms race, prohibitive cost: Johnson, 579; Rusk, 

407 
Communism, threat of: Bundy, 311; Rusk, 689 
Communist exploitation of political and economic 
problems: Humphrey, 490; Johnson, 391; 
McNamara, 877; Sayre, 713 
U.S. aid as countermeasure : Hare, 671; Johnson, 
251, 327, 728; McGhee, 662; Rusk, 498, 631 
Economic and social development: 

Developed countries, role of: Barnett, 667; 

Erhard-Johnson, 51; Goldberg, 798, 974; 

Humphrey, 770; McGhee, 55, 372; NAC, 8, 

1004; Rusk, 923 

Factors in modernization: Gordon, 621; Rostow, 

805 
Science and technology, role of and need for: 
Goldberg, 163; Hornig, 22; McGhee, 372; 
Roosevelt, 424; Winter, 1011 
Education, importance: Gordon, 741; Johnson, 
329; Rostow, 805; Rusk, 923 
U.S. aid. See Education: International Educa- 
tion Act of 1966 
Free-world economic system, advantages: Johnson, 

292; Mann, 736 
Health. See Health 
Population growth and control. See Population 

growth 
Private enterprise, role of, and guarantees for in- 
vestments : Connor, 25 ; Goldberg, 798 ; Gordon, 
744, 984; Johnson, 251, 324, 419; Mann, 735; 
Rusk, 630 
Problems: Johnson, 209, 391; McNamara, 875; 

Palmer, 899 ; Solomon, 822 
Regional organizations, role: Johnson, 152, 323; 

Solomon, 822 
Trade : 

Cotton textiles, increase (Jacobs), 134 
Problems: 465; Johnson, 291, 338; Rusk, 499; 

500 
UNCTAD, results (Johnson), 505 
U.N. aid: Bernstein, 272; Roosevelt, 421; Seaborg, 

287; Sisco, 572 
U.S. aid: 

Food for Peace program: Roosevelt, 132; Rusk, 

499 
Principles and objectives: Bundy, 445, 965; 

Johnson, 152, 320, 321, 336; Rusk, 629, 931 
Self-help principle. See under Foreign aid pro- 
grams, U.S. 
Libby Dam, 293 

Liberia, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 217, 721 
Libya : 

Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 957 



Liechtenstein, treaties, agreements, etc., 681, 721 

Lin Piao, 311, 541 

Lincoln, Abraham, dedication of statue in Mexico 

City (Johnson), 726, 727 
Lincoln, Robert, 780 
Lincoln School, Maine, 67 
Lipscomb, Glenard P., 733 
Literacy. See Education 
Locke, Eugene M., 991 
Lockwood, William W., 666 
Lodge, George, 806 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 302, 393, 834, 887, 888 
Lord Caradon, 641, 753, 989 
Lord Halifax (quoted), 648 
Lord Keynes, 771 
Lost Revolution, The, 966 
Louchheim, Katie S., 493 
Lovell, James A., Jr., 365 
Lowenfeld, Andreas F., 580 
Loy, Frank E., 469, 954 
Lucet, Charles, 10 
Lukumbuzya, Michael, 10 
Luna 9, 270 
Luxembourg : 

Aid to refugees (Schwartz), 40 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 218, 682, 721, 826, 870, 
993 

U.S. relations (Harris), 17 
Lynn, Frank, 962 
Lyon, Cecil B., 289 

Macapagal, Diosdado, 65 

MacArthur, Douglas, II, 812 

MacGregor, Clark, 40 

MacLeish, Archibald, 836 

Mailliard, William S., 633 

Malagasy Republic, treaties, agreements, etc., 342, 
550, 592, 721, 1033, 1034 

Malawi : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 181, 721, 910 
U.S. Ambassador (Jones), credentials, 289 

Malaysia: Bundy, 315; Rusk, 923 

Association of Southeast Asia (Rusk), 933 
Communist intervention: Goldberg, 126; Rusk, 690 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 721, 957 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
Viet-Nam, position on (Rusk), 518 

Maldive Islands: 

U.S. Ambassador (Lyon), credentials, 289 
World Health Organization, constitution of, 41 

Mali, treaties, agreements, etc., 144, 721, 870 

Malta, treaties, agreements, etc., 342, 469, 509, 592, 
681, 681w, 721 

Mangone, Gerald J., 651n 

Mann, Thomas C: 

Addresses, correspondence, and statements, 589, 

734, 784, 859 
Conferences and meetings, 117, 246, 319, 466 
U.S. delegation to Mexico, 733 



1068 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Mansfield, Michael J., 190, 733, 359 
Manuela, tanker, 753 
Mao Tse-tung, 541 
Marcos, Ferdinand: 65; Rusk, 518 
Marder, Murrey, 921 
Margain, Hugo B., 726 
Margulies, Harold, 246 

Maritime Consultative Organization, Intergovern- 
mental: 
Convention (1948), Singapore, 509 
Convention (1948), amendments: China, 426 
Greece, New Zealand, 217; Singapore, 642 
Soviet Union, 217; Tunisia, 826; U.A.R., 789 
Yugoslavia, 681 
Fire safety in passenger ships, meeting and U.S. 

delegations ; 782 ; Harriman, 952 
Role (Geren),'78 
Maritime traffic convention (1965), international: 
Belgium, 258; Japan, 258; Netherlands, Nor- 
way, Senegal, Spain, Switzerland, 258 
Marshall, John (quoted), 543 
Martin, Paul, 67, 319, 466 
Mater et Mdgistra, 770 
Matsui, Akira, 231, 548 
Mauritania, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 641, 681, 

721 
Mayaki, Adamou, 270 
McClintock, Robert, 117 

McCloskey, Robert J., 10, 157, 557, 593, 888 
McCloy, John J., 931 
McCulloch, William, 40 
McDivitt, James, 364 

McGhee, George C, 53, 369, 460, 657, 1019 
McGrath, Bishop (quoted), 806 
McNamara, Robert S.: 

Addresses, 874; 676 (quoted) 
Conferences and meetings, 9, 302, 368 
McNaughton, John T., 302 
Medendorp, Alfred, 962 
Medicare (Johnson), 189 
Meeker, Leonard C, 474 
Mekong River basin development: Bundy, 315; 

Humphrey, 397; Johnson, 209, 256, 323, 522 
Memorial Day, 1966 (Johnson), 962 
Meteorological Organization, World. See World 

Meteorological Organization 
Meteorological research : 

Cooperative meteorological observation program, 
agreement with Mexico for continuation of, 
386, 550 
High altitude wind and temperature measure- 
ments, agreement with Spain, 721, 787 
Interagency Committee for International Meteor- 
ological Programs, 619 
Satellite and sounding-rocket programs, objectives 
and value of cooperation in: Goldberg, 163; 
McGhee, 376 



Mexico : 

Cuban refugees in, procedures for admission to 

U.S., 1005 
Economic and social development: Gordon, 977; 

Rostow, 809 
Radio broadcasting agreement with U.S., ex- 
tended, 720 
Rio Grande salinity problem, proposed agree- 
ment, 118 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 257, 342, 386, 

550, 721, 758, 789, 910 
U.S. relations: Diaz Ordaz-Johnson, 731; Johnson, 

726; Rusk, 365 
Visit of President Johnson, 726 
U.S. official delegation, 733 
Middle and Near East. See Near and Middle East 
Military alliances. See Collective security and 

Mutual defense 
Military assistance (see also Mutual defense) : 
Authorization and appropriation request FY 1967: 

Johnson, 327 ; Rusk, 628 
Conditional on self-help: Johnson, 326; Mc- 
Namara, 875 
Five-year authorization, proposed legislation: 

Johnson, 324, 326; Rusk, 629 
Foreign Assistance Program, FY 1965, annual 

report, 208 
India and Pakistan, question of resumption of 

aid to: Hare, 669; Rusk, 560 
Korea, results of U.S. aid (Berger), 861 
Latin America, 1967 program (Gordon), 985 
NATO assistance to Greece and Turkey; 9, 1004; 

Rusk, 1000 
U.S. balance—of-payments position: 24; Johnson, 

23, 327 
Viet-Nam. See under Viet-Nam 
Military Assistance and Sales Act of 1966, provi- 
sions: Johnson, 326; Rusk, 628 
Military bases, U.S.: 

Command arrangements (Rusk), 697 
Guantanamo: 934; Rusk, 924 
Philippines: 

Agreements re, 144, 182 
U.S. policy (Bundy), 446 
Reduction foreseen : Bundy, 965 ; McNamara, 877 
U.N. resolution re, U.S. position on (Goldberg), 

942 
U.S. facilities in France. See under France 
Military missions, agreement with Costa Rica 

amending and extending prior agreement, 721 
Military obligations in certain cases of double na- 
tionality, protocol re: Mauritania, 681 
Military service, 2-year universal military or other 

service, proposed (McNamara), 881 
Mill, John Stuart, 527, 611 
Miller, J. Irwin, 839, 845 
Miller, Robert H., 703 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1069 



Miller Committee. See Special Committee on U.S. 
Trade with East European Countries and the 
Soviet Union 
Milroy, Nicholas R., 158 
Milton, John (quoted), 543 
Minifie, James, 86 
Mobutu, President, 270 
Model Law for Developing Countries on Inventions, 

1012 
Monaco, treaties, agreements, etc., 682, 721 
Monetary Fund, International, 466 
Mongolia, international telecommunication conven- 
tion with annexes and final protocol, 721 
Montoya, Joseph M., 733 
Moore, Arch A., Jr., 40 
Morgan, Edwin V., 621 
Morito, Tatsuo, 405 
Morocco, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 426, 550, 

721, 826 
Morse, Wayne (quoted), 487n 
Moyers, Bill D., 66, 156, 270 
Mozambique (Williams), 270 
Mulford, Stewart, 494 
Murphy, Charles P., 782 
Muskie, Edmund S., 794w 

Mutual defense (see also Collective security and 

names of treaty organizations) : 

Agreements with: China (Rusk), 195, 349; Japan, 

910; Korea (Rusk), 349; Luxembourg, 218; 

Philippines: Bundy, 446; Rusk, 516; Viet- 

Nam (Rusk), 350 

U.S. food and food-generated local currencies, 

role of (Rusk), 498 
U.S. programs FY 1965, cost, 208 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951: 
844; Rusk, 842 
18th report, released, 319 
Mutual Security Act, 1954, 267 

Nabrit, James M., Jr., 210 
NAC. See North Atlantic Council 
NADGE (NATO Air Defense Ground Environ- 
ment), 999, 1002 
Nam Ngum Dam, 323, 522. 632 

NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration 
Nash, Knowlton, 86 

National Academy of Sciences (McGhee), 371, 378 
National Advisory Council on International Mone- 
tary and Financial Policies, establishment, Ex- 
ecutive order, 404 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration : 
Government personnel exchange program: 470; 

Pollack, 948 
Satellite and space research projects, foreign par- 
ticipation: 50; Goldberg, 164; Johnson, 47; 
U.A. Johnson, 951; McGhee, 37G, 461 



National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 
Continued 
Space cooperation agreements with Spain, 721, 
787 
National Citizens' Commission for International Co- 
operation: Johnson, 20; Roosevelt, 175 
National Council of Churches, 87, 88 
National defense and security: 

Principles: McNamara, 874; Rostow, 807; Rusk, 

926 
Technology, sales to Soviet Union, question of 

(Braderman), 1018 
Underground nuclear tests continued (Foster), 

103 
U.S. research and development projects: Johnson, 
410; McGhee, 378 
National Freedom Award, 390n 
National Institutes of Health, 371 
National League for Insured Savings Associations, 

985 
National Maritime Day, 1966, proclamation, 619 
National Rural Electric Cooperative ' Association, 

985 
National Science Foundation: 

Personnel training exchanges, 470 
Role in international activities (Pollack), 946 
Travel grants (McGhee), 371 
National Security Affairs, Special Assistant to the 

President, 507 
National Security Council (Johnson), 834 
Nationalism: 

Asia: Bundy, 964; Humphrey, 490; Unger, 452 
Communism, effect on (Johnson), 153 
Eastern Europe: Braderman, 1014; Bundy, 312; 
McGhee, 54, 1022; Miller report, 846; Rusk, 
838, 930, Trowbridge, 59 
Europe, effect on NATO (Ball), 762, 766 
France: Ball, 615; Leddy, 673 
Germany (McGhee), 658 
Near East (Hare), 670 

Obstacle to world peace: Goldberg, 609; Rusk, 927 
Nationality, double nationality, protocol re military 
obligations in certain cases: Mauritania, 681 
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
Naval ships. See Ships and shipping 
Ndenzako, Leon, 158 

Near and Middle East (see also individual coun- 
tries) : 
Armaments, U.S. and Soviet policies on supply, 

contrasted, 663 
Palestine refugees, U.S. aid: Crockett, 706; Fre- 

linghuysen, 212 
U.N. peacekeeping role (Johnson), 505 
UNEF, financing, problems of, and U.S. views on 

support (Frelinghuysen), 295 
U.S. aid, objectives (Hare), 668, 670 



1070 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nehru, Jawaharlal: quoted, 600; Johnson, 598 
Nelson, Gaylord (quoted), 486 
Nepal : 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 682, 721 
U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son), 334 
Netherlands: 

Asian development projects, support for: Johnson, 

522; McGhee, 56; Rusk, 632 
European refugees, fund raising (Schwartz), 40 
Supplementary Income tax convention signed, 91 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 143, 258, 469, 550, 
592, 681, 682, 721, 789, 910, 957, 993 
Neutrality and nonalinement: 

African states: Palmer, 899; Williams, 270 
Cambodia, U.S. support for (Rusk), 920, 925 
Nonproliferation agreements, position on, 414 
Viet-Nam, U.S. position on: (see also Viet-Nam: 
U.S. 14 points) 225; Ball, 245, 613; Hum- 
phrey, 116; Rusk, 88, 354 
"New Economics," 771 
New Yorker, 271 

New Zealand (see also ANZUS and Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization) : 
Asian development projects, support for: Harri- 

man, 380; Johnson, 522; Rusk, 632 
Free trade area with Australia, 590 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 217, 258, 469, 550, 

721, 789, 910 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
U.S. trade, 624 

Viet-Nam, military and other support: Ball, 613; 
Goldberg, 539; Johnson, 302, 308; Rusk, 515, 
518,929; Unger, 457 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 
489 
Newly independent nations (see also Less developed 
countries) : 
Africa: Goldberg, 801; Johnson, 914; Palmer, 

898; Rusk, 193; Williams, 432 
Communist intervention, vulnerability to: Gold- 
berg, 126; McNamara, 877; Rusk, 348 
Economic growth, need for technological progress 

(Winter), 1008 
Excessive nationalism, problems arising from 

(Rusk), 927 
U.N. membership: Goldberg, 943; Sisco, 648 
U.N. principles (Rogers), 172 
Nicaragua : 

AID special development fund, use (Gordon), 984 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 721, 958 
Nickerson, Albert L., 27 
Niger: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 270 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 721, 909, 910, 993 



Nigeria : 

AID development loans, percent of total U.S. pro- 
gram, 208 
Commercial communications satellite agreement, 

participation (Goldberg), 164 
Problems of, and U.S. aid (Johnson), 325, 326 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 550, 721, 826 
NIMBUS program, 376, 462 
Nkomo, Joshua, 15 

Nobel Peace Prize, 1965, UNICEF citation, ex- 
cerpts, 271 
Nonalined countries. See Neutrality and nonaline- 
ment 
Nonnuclear- weapon states : 

Nuclear blackmail, protection from: 50, 413, 869; 

Ball, 615; Johnson, 263; Rusk, 408 
Obligations under U.S. draft treaty: Fisher, 676; 
Fowler, 901, 905 
Nordic Patent System, 1009 
North Atlantic Council : 
Ministerial meetings : 

Brussels (1966): Rusk, 918, 998, 1001; text of 

communique, 1001; U.S. delegation, 1004 
Paris (1965): text of communique, 7; U.S. 

delegation, 9 
Purpose (Ball), 613 
Transfer from France. See under North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization 
North Atlantic Treaty (see also NATO), military 
headquarters, international, protocol on the 
status of: France (denunciation), 642 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization : 
Armed Forces: 

Integrated command, question of French par- 
ticipation: 618, 701, 702; Ball, 614, 615; 
NAC, 1002; Rusk, 697, 999 
Strategy force requirements and resources, in- 
terrelations (NAC), 8 
Command headquarters, transfer from French 
territory: 618, 700, 702; NAC, 1001, 1002; 
Rusk, 882, 884, 918, 921, 998, 1001 
France: 

Position on: 617, 702; Ball, 615; Rusk, 560, 570, 

695 
Treaty obligations: 700; Ball, 616; Rusk, 696, 

698, 999 
Withdrawal from and resulting problems: 702; 
Ball, 615, 765; Leddy, 674; NAC, 1002; Rusk, 
697, 882, 918, 998 
Nuclear Planning Working Group, NATO Special 
Committee of Defense Ministers, 1st meeting, 
368 
Nuclear weapons (Ball), 614 

Arrangements consistent with nonproliferation: 
50, 413; Foster, 676, 679; McNamara, 676 
(quoted), 880; Rusk, 407, 768 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1071 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization — Continued 
Nuclear weapons — Continued 

Germany, participation, question of: 50, 656; 
Rusk, 768 

Soviet position: 413; Rusk, 407 
Objectives and U.S. support: 8, 536, 1003; Ball, 
240, 763; Johnson, 555, 650, 795; Leddy, 673; 
McGhee, 658; Meeker, 478; Rusk, 515, 563, 
886, 918; Solomon, 821 
Organization and structure, question of changes 

in: 700; Ball, 616; Rusk, 564, 570, 695 
Parliamentarians Conference, importance (Rusk), 

1000 
Portugal, views of (Rusk), 564 
Science programs: 1004; McGhee, 373 
Soviet Union: 

Deterrent effect on: Ball, 766; McGhee, 58; 

NAC, 1002; Rusk, 570, 696 
Position on: Ball, 615; Rusk, 407 
Standing Group: 

Abolition of: NATO, 1002; Rusk, 999 
Germany, question of admission to (Ball), 614 
Turkey, support of (Hare), 670 
Visits of George Thompson (Rusk), 882, 884 
Norway: 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 181, 258, 469, 721, 

758, 789, 909, 957, 1034 
U.S. trade, 624 
NS Savannah, agreement with Italy re U.S. lia- 
bility during private company operation, 110 
Nuclear energy. See Atomic energy and Nuclear 

headings 
Nuclear-free zones : 

Africa: 416; Foster, 103; Rusk, 409 
Latin America: 416; Rusk, 367, 409, 417 (quoted) 
Nuclear proliferation: 

Communist China, position on (Rusk), 695, 884 
Dangers of and need to prevent: NAC, 8, 1003; 

Smyth, 29 
Germany, proposals on, 656 
NATO nuclear defense. See under NATO 
Soviet position. See under Soviet Union 
U.S. draft treaty: 411, 414; Foster, 902; Johnson 
(quoted), 408 
Proposed amendments: Fisher, 675; text, 680 
U.S. position: Foster, 103, 262, 901; Goldberg, 
943; Johnson, 152, 263, 410; McGhee, 375; 
McNamara, 880; Rusk, 406, 884; Sisco, 572 
Nuclear test ban treaty, comprehensive: 

Importance of and U.S. support for: Fisher, 678; 
Foster, 99, 102; Goldberg, 943; Johnson 
(quoted), 102; McGhee, 378; Rusk, 697 
Verification processes: 411, 415; Foster, 100; 
Johnson, 264 



Nuclear test ban treaty, 1963: 

Communist China, position (Rusk), 695, 885 
Current actions: Belgium, 469; Morocco, Panama, 

426; Sudan, 469 
Extension to underground tests, U.S. support for: 

411; Johnson, 264; Rusk, 408 
Permissible tests continued in U.S. security in- 
terests (Foster), 103 
U.N. position, 103n 
U.S. air accident over Spain not a violation of, 

397 
Nuclear tests: 

Communist China: 869; Rusk, 925 

Moratorium, proposed: 414, 416; Foster, 102, 103 

Outer space, proposed treaty on exploration of 

moon and other celestial bodies (Johnson), 

900 
Nuclear war: 655;. Goldberg, 608; Humphrey, 528; 
Johnson, 263; McNamara, 880; Rusk, 407, 520, 
927; Sisco, 572, 650 
Nuclear weapons (see also NATO) : 

Accidental or unauthorized use, prevention 

(Rusk), 407 
Air accident over Spain, U.S. position, 397 
Communist China, prospects for (Rusk), 925 
Definition, question of (Fisher), 680 
International control and inspection, need for: 

656 ; Foster, 902 
NATO nuclear force. See under NATO 
Nonuse, pledges of, U.S. position (Foster), 104 
Outer space, proposed treaty on exploration of 

moon and other celestial bodies (Johnson), 

900 
Pastore resolution, 406n 
Reduction on stocks of and material for, U.S. 

proposals and support: 411, 417; Foster, 901; 

Johnson, 263, 264 ; Rusk, 408 
Soviet forces, threat of: 397, 656; Rusk, 407 
Soviet-U.S. nuclear balance, French views, 617 
Spent fuel from reactors, danger of conversion 

(Smyth), 28 
Strategic delivery vehicles, U.S. proposal for re- 
duction of: 411; Johnson, 264; Rusk, 409 

OAS. See Organization of American States 

OAU. See Organization of African Unity 

O'Connor, Edward R., 470 

Oder-Neisse-Line, 655 

OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation 

and Development 
Office for Relations with Canada, 908 
Office of Alien Property, 945 
Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs (Crockett), 

704 
Oil. See Petroleum 
Oil pollution. See under Pollution 
Okinawa, 66 
Okun, Arthur W., 1027 



1072 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ONUC (United Nations Operations in the Congo), 

69 
Orderly Marketing Act of 1965 (Roth), 858 
Organization for Economic Cooperation and De- 
velopment: 
Committee of Experts on Restrictive Business 

Practices (Solomon), 825 
Japan (Barnett), 667 

Maritime Transport Committee (Geren), 78 
Scientific review program, objectives and value 

(McGhee),373 
Shipping rate information, voluntary exchange of 

(Geren), 83 
Turkey, coordination of aid to (Rusk), 634 
U.S. support (Leddy), 673 
Organization of African Unity: 

Denuclearization of Africa, role in, 416n 
Third anniversary (Johnson), 914 
U.S. support (Rusk), 933 
Organization of American States : 

Charter revision, proposed (Gordon), 980 
Communism, position against: Goldberg, 127; 
McGhee, 56 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference," denuncia- 
tion: 385n; Allen, 383; Sayre, 711 
Dominican Republic presidential election, OAS 

observers for (Gordon), 979 
Inter- American Cultural Council, 4th meeting: 

Frankel, 202 ; Johnson, 205 
Objectives: Johnson, 538; McNamara, 880; Rusk, 

833 
Regional agency within U.N. (Meeker), 478 
Outer Mongolia, U.S. recognition, question of 

(Rusk), 560, 564 
Outer space (see also Communications: satellites): 
Exploration of: 

Advances in (Seaborg), 281, 283 

Treaties, proposed: Goldberg, 166, 900, 941; 

Johnson, 900 
U.S. bilateral and multilateral space research 
programs: 50; Goldberg, 164; Johnson, 47; 
McGhee, 376, 460 
Gemini astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
Luna 9 landing, congratulations to Soviet Union 

(Johnson), 270 
South Africa, U.S. space-tracking facilities (Wil- 
liams), 434 
Spacecraft propulsion (McGhee), 460 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cooperative space research and meteorological 

projects, agreement with Spain, 721, 787 
Reentry experiments, Australia-U.K.-U.S. 

agreements and understandings, 720, 758 
Space vehicle tracking and communications sta- 
tions : 

Madagascar, amendment of agreement for 
establishment and operation of, 1034 



Outer space — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Space vehicle tracking and communications 
stations — Continued 

Spain, agreement re continued operation and 
expansion of Gran Canaria station, 721 
Owen, David, 421 
Owono, Joseph, 52 

Pacific settlement of disputes. See Disputes, pacific 

settlement of 
Pakistan (see also India-Pakistan border dispute) : 
AID development loans, percent of total U.S. pro- 
gram, 208 
Cyclone victims, U.S. relief funds contributed, 5 
Economic development and prospects for U.S. aid: 
Goldberg, 800; Hare, 669; Humphrey, 490; 
Johnson, 325; Rusk, 196, 497, 498, 632, 776, 
780 
Minister Bhutto, talks with (Rusk), 780 
SEATO Cholera Research Center (Johnson), 334 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 592, 642, 721, 

910, 1034 
U.S. Ambassador (Locke), confirmation, 991 
U.S. health programs: 246; Johnson, 4, 334 
Viet-Nam, position on (Rusk), 515, 781 
Visit of President Ayub Khan to U.S., 2, 118c 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey (Humphrey), 

489 
World Bank coordination of multilateral aid 
(Rusk), 634 
Palmer, Joseph, II, 681, 898 
Pan American Airways: 157; Williams, 269 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1966, 

proclamation, 746 
Pan American Health Organization: Gordon, 982; 

Johnson, 334 
Pan American Highway (Johnson), 729 
Pan American Union (Frankel), 204 
Panama : 

Canal Zone treaty, new, provisions of (McGhee) , 

57 
Economic and social development (McGrath), 

quoted, 806 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 426, 468, 721, 789 
Paraguay, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 682, 721, 

826 
Paris-Match, transcript of Rusk interview, 695 
Park, Chung Hee: Berger, 865; Rusk, 518 
Partners of the Alliance (Gordon), 984 
Pastore resolution : 406» ; Rusk, 406 
Pate, Maurice, 271, 272 
Patents, U.S. international patent policy and the 

world patent crisis (Winter), 1006 
Peace. See World peace 
Peace Corps: 
Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 250, 
335 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1073 



Peace Corps — Continued 
Director (Vaughn), 443n, 470 
Educational exchange program (Johnson), 187, 

329, 330 
Fifth anniversary (Johnson), 441 
Fourth annual report, transmission to Congress 

(Johnson), 634 
Objectives and role: Gandhi, 603; Johnson, 635; 

Rusk, 931; Vaughn (quoted), 442 
Program expansion: Johnson, 249, 252, 333; Mc- 
Namara, 881 
Pearson, Lester, 880 
People's Daily, Peking, 418n 
Peru: 

Air transport services agreement with U.S., 
amendment, announcement and text of U.S. 
note, 467 
Communist goals (Sayre), 710 
Economic progress and role of U.S. aid: Gordon, 

982 ; Rusk, 633 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 74, 110, 181, 469, 721, 
789, 909, 1033 
Petroleum : 

Southern Rhodesia, U.K. economic sanctions and 
U.S. support: 27, 85, 157, 466, 783; Goldberg, 
716, 752, 800, 988, 990; Mann, 859; Williams, 
267 
U.N. resolution on use of force, text, 718 
Soviet oil, trade in, 848 
Philippines: 

Expanding role in Asian affairs: Bundy, 450; 

Rusk, 933 
President Marcos: 

Election congratulations (Johnson) , 65 
Inauguration ceremonies, attendance of Vice 
President Humphrey, 114 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 74, 110, 144, 181, 

182, 258, 550, 721, 789, 910 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
U.S. Chiefs of Mission in the Far East, 5th am- 
bassadorial conference, joint statement, 492 
U.S. interests and relations (Bundy), 444 
U.S. military commitments: Bundy, 314; Rusk, 

516, 559, 566, 774 
U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son), 334 
Viet-Nam, support for: Ball, 613; Bundy, 450; 

Rusk, 515, 518 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey, 114, 489 
Pike, Frederick B., 289, 627 
Pitts, Henry L., Jr., 404 
Plaza, Galo, 211 
Pletcher, Charles H., 592 
"Plowshare" program (Seaborg), 284 
Poland : 

German-Polish relations and problems, 655 



Poland — Continued 

National and Christian Millennium, commemora- 
tion, proclamation, 797 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 143, 550, 721, 909, 

1034 
U.S. relations: Braderman, 1015; Johnson, 794; 

McGhee, 1023 
U.S. trade expansion mission, results (Trow- 
bridge), 61 
Polish Constitution, 175th anniversary (Johnson), 

794, 797 
Pollack, Herman, 946 
Pollution: 

Environmental Pollution Panel of the President's 

Science Advisory Committee (Seaborg), 287 

International Joint Commission, U.S.-Canada, 

recommendations, 36, 293, 466 
Natural resource management, U.S. mission to 

Germany: 463; Johnson, 47 
Oil, pollution of the sea by, international conven- 
tion (1954) for the prevention of: Belgium, 
469; Israel, 217; Switzerland, 642 
Outer space, need for studies on (Johnson), 900 
Water pollution: Johnson, 151, 334; Sisco, 572 
Pope John XXIII (quoted), 770, 807 
Pope Paul VI : 

India, aid to (Rusk), 497 

Viet-Nam, peace efforts: 235; Goldberg, 117, 230; 

Johnson, 223; Rusk, 86, 229 
Visit of Ambassador Goldberg (Goldberg), 200, 
233 
Popper, David H., 703 
Population growth : 
Africa (Johnson), 917 
Control of: 

India (Johnson), 605 

Japan, legalized family planning (Barnett) , 666 
Korea (Berger), 863 
Pakistan (Ayub Khan), 6 
Philippines (Bundy), 448 
UNICEF (Bernstein), 278 

U.S. role: Gordon, 982; Johnson, 152, 187, 208, 
323, 334; Mann, 785; Roosevelt, 177 
Problem of: Freeman (quoted), 500; Johnson, 321, 
323, 333, 337, 391; Mann, 784; McNamara, 
876; Roosevelt, 175; Rusk, 496, 500; Sisco, 
572 
U.S., (Roosevelt), 176 
Portugal : 

NATO, position on (Rusk), 564 
Southern Rhodesia, use of Portuguese ports to 
evade oil embargo: Goldberg, 717; U.N., 718 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 41, 143, 144, 181, 550, 

721, 826 
U.S. Ambassador (Bennett), 909 
Postal services, U.S.-Japan civil air transport 
agreement provisions, 142 



1074 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Postal Union, Universal, constitution, final protocol, 
and convention (1964): Australia, Austria, 342; 
Belgium, 258; Denmark, 592; France, 592; Fin- 
land, 870; Ireland, 957; Mali, 870; Norway, 
Singapore, 258; Switzerland, 957; U.S., 258 
Poverty. See War on Poverty 
Preparatory Commission for the Denuclearization 

of Latin America, 417 
President's Commission on the Patent System, 1010 
Price, Charles C, 283 
Price, Don K., 948 
Prisoners: 

Geneva conventions (1949) re treatment of pris- 
oners of war : 
Current actions: Honduras, 957 
U.S.-Vietnam support, 305 
U.S. prisoners in Communist China, call for re- 
lease of (Bundy), 866 
Viet-Nam, U.S. supervision of (McCloskey), 888 
Private Enterprise in Foreign Aid, Advisory Com- 
mittee on, 324, 630 
Private Law, International Institute for the Unifica- 
tion of, 342 
Problems of War and Strategy, 541 
Proclamations by the President: 

Clinical thermometers, termination of increased 

duty (3696), 159 
National Maritime Day, 1966 (3708), 619 
Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 1966 

(3713), 746 
Poland's National and Christian Millennium, Com- 
memoration of (3720), 797 
Safety pins, termination of increased duty (3703), 

288 
Stainless-steel flatware, reduction of increased 

duty (3697), 160 
Tariff Schedules of the United States, U.K. con- 
cessions, agreements (3712), 720w 
United Nations Day, 1966 (3725), 976 
World Trade Week, 1966 (3719), 837 
Public Health Service, international health pro- 
grams, proposed (Johnson), 332 
Public Law 480 (see also Agricultural surpluses and 
Food for Peace) : 
Currency balances authorized for sale to U.S. citi- 
zens in Ceylon, Guinea, and Tunisia, 975 
India: Johnson, 605; Roosevelt, 132 
Objectives and accomplishments: Gordon, 742; 

Johnson, 252, 339; Rusk, 499, 500 
Pakistan, extension of agreement with, question 

(Rusk), 497 
Program, responsibility for, 507 
Refugee programs (Crockett), 706 
Publications : 

Congressional documents relating to foreign pol- 
icy, lists, 36, 68, 162, 341, 382, 635, 674, 787, 
825, 945, 1028 



Publications — Continued 

Official publications, exchange agreement with 

Philippines, 110 
State Department: 

Lists of recent releases, 42, 74, 146, 182, 218, 

593, 721, 790, 958, 994, 1034 
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, 18th 

report, released, 319 
Report to the Inter-American Economic and 
Social Council Presented by the Government 
of the United States of America, 1966, 739« 
Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other 
International Agreements of the United 
States in Force on January 1, 1966, 593 
United Nations, list of current documents, 41, 105, 
179, 217, 297, 590, 908 

Qatar, 24, 26 

"Queen Juliana Fund," 40 

Racial discrimination (see also Civil Rights) : 
South Africa: Goldberg, 237; Williams, 430, 438 
Southern Rhodesia: Goldberg, 801, 989; Johnson, 

915; Williams, 13,266 
U.N. International Convention on the Elimina- 
tion of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: 
216n; Goldberjf, 212, 973; Willis, 216 
U.N. position and role: 129; Abram, 638; Sisco, 

573 
U.S. immigration policy, removal from (Hines), 

122 
U.S. racial problems: Goldberg, 938, 971; Harris, 
18 
Radio: 

Ground-to-air communications facilities in north- 
ern Canada, agreement re establishment, 
operation and maintenance, 110 
Licensed amateur radio operators, reciprocal 
granting of authorizations to operate in either 
country, agreements with: France, 958; 
Paraguay, 682 
Radio broadcasting agreement, with Mexico, proto- 
col extending, 720, 758 
Rainy River, pollution control, 36 
Randall, Clarence B., 403 
Rashidov, Sharif, 710 

RCD (Regional Cooperation for Development), 776 
Redmond, H. F., 866m 
Refugees : 

Communism, rejection of, as a reason for leaving 

(see also under Viet-Nam) : Goldberg, 127 
Cuban: 1005; Crockett, 706; Sayre, 707 
ICEM council meeting (Schwartz), 39 
Immigration Act of 1965, preference position 

(Hines), 120 
Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs, appro- 
priations request FY 1967 (Crockett), 705 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1075 



Refugees — Conti nued 
Palestine refugees, U.S. financial pledge to U.N. 
and need for additional support (Frelinghuy- 
sen), 212 
Stateless persons and refugees, application (pro- 
tocol 1) of the universal copyright convention, 
Yugoslavia, 591 
U.S. volunteer agencies, work of: Crockett, 704; 

Johnson, 705 
Viet-Nam. See under Viet-Nam 
Regional Cooperation for Development (CENTO), 

Rusk, 440, 776 
Regional organizations (see also name of organisa- 
tion) : 
Asia. See Asia 

Human rights, protection of (Abram), 640 
Peacekeeping, U.S. position and support: McNa- 

mara, 879; Meeker, 478; Rusk, 520 
Trade: Johnson, 152, 291; Mann, 737; Solomon, 

821 
U.N. cooperation: Goldberg, 941; Roosevelt, 131, 

425 
U.S. support: Johnson, 256, 323, 341; McGhee, 
375; Rusk, 927, 933 
Reischauer, Edwin O., 142, 1027 

Report to the Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council Presented by the Government of the 
United States of America, 1966, 739n 
Research and development (Frankel), 892 
Restoring the Quality of Our Environment, 287 
Reuter, Richard W., 117, 703 
Rhee, Syngman, 862 
Rhodesia. See Southern Rhodesia 
Ribeiro, Miguel Augustus, 440 
Rice: 

International Rice Year; 1966: Johnson, 341; 

Seaborg, 287 
U.S. acreage allotment increase (Johnson), 339 
Rifant (quoted), 638 

Rio Conference (see also Alliance for Progress) : 
Gordon, 621, 739, 980; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 633 
Rio Grande salinity problem, 118 
Rio Pact, (Rusk), 516 
Roach, James R., 289,. 627 
Road traffic: 

Convention (1949) with annexes: Canada, 257, 

342; Fiji, Malta, 509 
Convention (1954) on customs facilities for tour- 
ing: Malta, 681 
Roberts, Chalmers, 563 
Roberts, Jack O., 494 
Robertson, J. L., 402 
Rodino, Peter W., 40 
Rogers, Byron, 40 
Rogers, William P., 168 
Roland, Edwin J., 783, 952 
Romania: 

Educational and cultural exchanges, 1966 pro- 
gram, 788 



Romania — Continued 
International telecommunication convention (1965), 

with annexes and final protocol, 720 
U.S. relations and increased trade: Braderman, 
1015; McGhee, 1023; Trowbridge, 61 
Romulo, Carlos, 444 
Roosevelt, Eleanor (quoted), 216 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; (quoted), 390, 394, 540, 

647; Johnson, 537, 603, 729 
Roosevelt, James, 130, 175, 420, 641, 718 
Rostow, W. W., 803 
Roth, William M., 856 

Royalties, know-how payments treated as, 90 
Roybal, Edward R., 733 
Rusk, Dean: 

Addresses, remarks, and statements: 
Africa, changes in government, 193 
Alliance for Progress, U.S. support, 562, 633, 

923, 931 
Asia: 

Regional solidarity, 632, 933 
U.S. policy (see also Viet-Nam), 830, 928 
"Blue ribbon" panels, 921 

Board of Foreign Scholarships, objectives, 627 
(quoted) 
Cambodia, U.S. position on neutrality of, 920, 

925 
CENTO, 775, 779, 780 
China, Republic of, U.S. relations and support, 

19.5, 566, 694 
Communism, threat of and U.S. role against, 

194, 515, 927 
Communist China: 

Disarmament proposals, 884 

Nuclear tests and nuclear weapons potential, 

688, 925 
U.S. overflights, allegations of, 884, 885, 925 
U.S. policy and relations, 194, 557, 559, 561, 

565, 686, 772, 921 
War, question of, 196, 691, 694, 773 
Disarmament, need for, 559 
East- West relations, 886, 918 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966, 496, 500 
Food for Peace, role and accomplishments, 498, 

503 
Foreign aid, principles and objectives, 632 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1966, 628 

Senate Foreign Relations Committee proposed 
amendments, 922 
Foreign policy, objectives, 194, 496, 501, 514, 

566, 628, 926 
Free-world shipping to Communist Viet-Nam, 

question of, 192 
Geneva accords (see also Viet-Nam entries), 
192, 193, 831 



1076 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Germany: 

Disarmament proposals, 559 

Reunification, 698, 919, 1000 

Sale of steel to Communist China, 561, 564, 
567 

U.S. NATO forces, 921 
Guantanamo Naval Base, incursions of Cuban 

military personnel, 924 
Health and medical research (quoted), 90 
India: 

Death of Prime Minister Shastri, 156, 195 

Food shortages and U.S. aid, 196, 497, 632 
•Indonesia, problems of and question of U.S. aid, 

923 
Korea : 

Economic and social progress, 633, 933 

Viet-Nam, military support for, 518, 887 
Latin America, economic progress, 367, 561, 633 
Mexico, U.S. relations, 365 

Military Assistance and Sales Act of 1966, 628 
NATO: 

France, position on and resulting problems, 
560, 570, 695, 882, 918, 998 

Ministerial meeting, Brussels, 918, 921, 998, 
1001 

Nuclear sharing, 407, 768 

Organization, objectives, and U.S. support, 
563, 696, 886 
Nuclear-free zones, 367, 409, 417 (quoted) 
Nuclear weapons proliferation, U.S. position, 

406, 559 
Official secrets, 514 
Outer Mongolia, question of recognition of, 560, 

564 
Pakistan, U.S. aid, prospects for, 196, 632, 780 
Population growth and food production prob- 
lems, 496, 500 
Responsibilities and workload, 652 
SEATO, U.S. obligations and duties under, 349, 

515, 833, 928 
Soviet Union, U.S. relations, 193, 570, 686, 838, 

886, 919 
Tashkent agreement, 196, 560, 632 
Third term, question of, 653 
Travel of U.S. citizens abroad, procedures for 

protection of, 562 
U.A.R.-U.S. relations, 196, 884 
U.N., Communist China, question of member- 
ship, 557, 566, 694 
Viet-Nam (for details, see Viet-Nam) : 

Communist infiltration (quoted), 234 

Free-world support for U.S. objectives, 518, 
929 

Legal basis for U.S. policy, 832 

Peace, U.S. willingness for negotiations for, 
86, 189, 223, 352, 569, 699, 781, 886, 930, 934 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 

Addresses, remarks, and statements — Continued 
Viet-Nam — Continued 
Political developments and problems, 564, 569, 

882, 885, 920, 924, 932 
Situation reports, 189, 223, 346, 887, 922, 924, 

925, 932 
U.S. civilians evacuated from Hue, 921 
U.S. commitment, background and importance, 

88, 349, 515, 698, 929, 934 
U.S. position and objectives, 155, 346, 773, 

830, 887 
Visit to, and results, 195 
Visit of George Thomson, 882, 884 
World order, 509, 514, 634 
World peace, 190, 194, 516, 926 
Years in office, 193 
Correspondence and messages: 
CENTO, 11th anniversary, 440 
East-West Trade Relations Act of 1966, 838 
Food for Freedom Act of 1966, 496, 500 
Foreign affairs, responsibility for conduct of, 

508 
Franklin Award for Distingiushed Service, ac- 
ceptance, 197 
State Department, work of, 508 
U.S. business and government relationships, 814 

(quoted) 
Viet-Nam, negotiations for peaceful settlement, 
11 
Exchange program for department personnel, in- 
auguration ceremonies, 470 
Foreign policy briefing conferences, 579, 897 
Magazine interview, Paris-Match transcript, 695 
Meetings with: 

Chancellor Erhard, 46 

Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee on Trade and 

Economic Affairs, 464 
Zambia, ministerial mission, and joint commu- 
nique, 85 
News conferences, transcripts of, 189, 223, 557, 

779, 882, 918 
Radio and TV interviews, transcripts of, 86, 346, 

565, 652 
Senate Foreign Relations transcript of question- 

and-answer period, 931 
U.S. delegate to : 

Honolulu conference, 302 
Mexico City, 733 
North Atlantic Council, 9, 1004 
SEATO council meeting, 749 

Trade and Economic Affairs, U.S. Joint Com- 
mittee on: Canada, 319, 466; Japan, 1027 
U.S. official observer to CENTO, 781 
Visits to: 

NATO countries, 918 

Viet-Nam: 55; Goldberg, 199; Johnson, 188, 
394; Rusk, 189 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1077 



Rusk, Dean — Continued 
Work of: 

Background and experience, 198 
Duties and responsibilities: 651; Johnson, 199, 
730 ; Rusk, 508, 652 
Rwanda, treaties, agreements, etc., 469, 510, 682, 

721, 870, 909 
Ryukyu Islands: 

Administration of, Executive order, 66 
Agricultural commodities agreement, 144 

Safety of life at sea: 

Conventions on, development (Geren), 85 
International convention (1948) for: Belgium, 
789; New Zealand, 469; Spain, 469; Switzer- 
land, 720 
Denunciations: Denmark, Finland, Germany, 
Japan, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, 957; 
Pakistan, 642; U.K., U.S., Viet-Nam, Yugo- 
slavia, 957 
International convention (1960) for: Argentina, 
957; Belgium, 469; India, 642; Ivory Coast, 
Korea, 74; Lebanon, 957; New Zealand, 469; 
Nigeria, 110; Pakistan, 592; Poland, 909; 
South Africa, 298; Switzerland, 469 
Proposed amendments, U.S.: 782; Harriman, 
953 
Passenger-ship fire safety: 782; Harriman, 952 
Safety pins, increased rate of duty terminated: 288; 

Roth, 857 
Saint John River development, 67 
Saint Lawrence River, 293, 466 
Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira, 564 
San Marco satellite, 164 

San Marino, convention on transit trade of land- 
locked states, 682 
Santa Cruz, Hernan, 741 
Satellites, earth: 

Communications. See under Communications 
Meteorological. See Meteorological research 
Tracking station agreement with Australia re ad- 
ditional facility at Cooby Creek, Darling 
Downs, 110 
U.S. bilateral and multilateral research projects: 
50; Goldberg, 164; Johnson, 47; McGhee, 376, 
461 
Saudi Arabia : 

Interest equalization tax, application to, 24, 26 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721, 758, 870, 909 
Sayre, Robert M., 707, 734 
Scali, John, 514, 772 
SCAR (Committee on Scientific Antarctic Research) , 

372 
Schaetzel, J. Robert, 9, 703, 1004 
Schirra, Walter, 364 
Schnyder, Felix, 495 
Schultze, Charles, 619 
Schwartz, Abba P., 39 



Schwartz, Harry H., 509 
Science and technology: 

Importance: Frankel, 892; Hornig, 20; Johnson, 
505, 619; NAC, 1003; Pollack, 946; Seaborg, 
280; Winter, 1008 
Technology, policy consideration of sales: 851; 

Goldfinger, 855n 
U.N. Advisory Committee on: Roosevelt, 424; 

Seaborg, 287 
U.S. research and development (McGhee), 370 
Scientific, technical, educational, cultural and other 
fields, agreement with Soviet Union on ex- 
changes in: 592; joint communique, 543 
Scientific Unions, International Council of, 371 
Scoville, Herbert, Jr., 415 
Seaborg, Glenn T., 280, 470 
Secretary of State. See Rusk, Dean; and State, 

Secretary of 
Security. See Collective security 
Security Council, U.N.: 

Abstention not a veto (Goldberg) , 941 
Cyprus, peacekeeping force, extension of, problems 
of financing and U.S. support: Nabrit, 210; 
Yost (quoted), 210 
Documents, lists of, 41, 105, 217, 297, 590^ 908 
Enlargement, question of: Goldberg, 94; Sisco, 

648 
India-Pakistan border dispute : 
Communist China, position on (Rusk), 568 
U.N. role; 7; Goldberg, 238, 750, 799 
Peacekeeping operations : 
Financing (Nabrit), 211 

Primary responsibility: Goldberg, 94, 231, 236, 
547, 753, 906, 940; Meeker, 475; Rogers, 
171; Rusk, 226; Sisco, 649 
Review of 1964 accomplishments (Johnson), 504 
Resolutions : 

Cyprus peacekeeping force extended: December, 

211n; March, 719n 
Southern Rhodesia, oil embargo, use of force, 

718 
Viet-Nam, consideration of: 239w; text, 231 
Responsibility to call meetings promptly on re- 
quest: 715; Goldberg, 717, 906 
South Africa, resolutions on (Williams), 435 
Southern Rhodesia, resolutions on, U.S. and other 
support: 27, 85, 157, 466; Goldberg, 714, 716, 
752, 800, 987, 991; Johnson, 915; Mann, 859 
Viet-Nam : 

Debate on, question of Communist participation 

(Goldberg), 232, 237 
Role in, U.S. position on: Goldberg, 229, 231, 
236, 309, 547, 750, 801; Johnson, 233, 504; 
Matsui, 548; Meeker, 479; Nelson (quoted), 
486; Rusk, 89, 225, 226, 228, 229, 833; Sisco, 
575; Unger, 457 
Seismic research: 411, 415; Foster, 100; Johnson, 

264 ; McGhee, 378 
Selden, Armistead L, 633 



1078 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Select Commission on Western Hemisphere Immi- 
gration (Hines), 123 
Self-determination : 

Africa: Johnson, 914; Palmer, 899 

Asia: Bundy, 318, 867, 965; Humphrey, 490, 528; 

Unger, 452 
Central Europe (Johnson), 651 
Germany. See Germany, reunification 
Ryukyu Islands (Johnson), 66 
South Africa (Williams), 432 
Southern Rhodesia: Goldberg, 714, 801, 940, 986 

Williams, 265 
U.N. position: Goldberg, 235, 801; Rogers, 171 

Rusk, 927 
U.S. position: Ball, 245; Goldberg, 128, 610, 989 
Johnson, 152, 431 (quoted), 728, 836; U. A. 
Johnson, 529; Truman (quoted), 830 
Viet-Nam. See under Viet-Nam 
Senegal, treaties, agreements, etc., 258, 721 
Senior Interdepartmental Group: 507; Rusk, 509 
Seydoux, Roger, 236 
Shaplen, Robert, 966 

Shastri, Lai Bahadur: Gandhi, 600; Johnson, 156, 
598; Rusk, 156 
Funeral, attendance, Communist China's use as 
propaganda (Rusk), 195 
"Shell-out", UNICEF, 272 
Sherer, Albert W., Jr., 955 
Shiina, Etsusaburo, 141, 143, 1027 
Shipman, John R., 1009 
Ships and shipping: 

Free-world shipping to North Viet-Nam, question 

of (Rusk), 192 
Interception of vessels on high seas (Goldberg) , 

714, 753, 800 
International shipping cartels, U.S. position re- 
viewed (Geren), 78 
National Maritime Day, 1966, proclamation, 619 
Passenger ship fire safety: Harriman, 952; IMCO 

meeting and U.S. delegation, 782 
Rate information, voluntary exchange of (Geren), 

82 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Assistance and salvage at sea, convention (1910) 
for the unification of certain rules on: Iran, 
909 
Carriage of goods by sea, convention (1924), in- 
ternational, for the unification of certain rules 
re bills of lading: Iran, 909 
Maritime traffic, international convention (1965) 
on facilitation of: Belgium, 258; Ghana, 642; 
Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Senegal, Spain, 
Switzerland, 258; U.K., 642 
NS Savannah, agreement with Italy re U.S. lia- 
bility during private company operation, 110 
U.S. vessels, agreements re loan of: Canada, 
910; Italy, 144; Malta, 342, 592; Spain, 826; 
Turkey, 789 



Ships and shipping — Continued 
U.S. Navy, use of South African ports (Williams), 

434 
U.S. shipments to Southern Rhodesia. See South- 
ern Rhodesia 
Shoaib, Mohammed, 780 
Shriver, Sargent: 443n; Johnson, 443 
Sierra Leone, treaties, agreements, etc., 42, 181, 550, 

681, 721, 789, 958 
Sieverts, Frank A., 509 
SIG. (Senior Interdepartmental Group); 507; Rusk, 

509 
Sihanouk, Norodom, 168 
Singapore (Bundy), 315 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 258, 298, 509, 641, 642, 
721, 957, 993 
Sino-Soviet relations: Gordon, 978; Rusk, 195, 352, 
568, 691, 772, 773, 886, 927 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference" : Allen 383; 

Sayre, 711 
U.S. involvement, question of (Rusk), 558 
War, opposing views on: Braderman, 1018; Gold- 
berg, 541; Johnson, 558; Rusk, 927 
Sisco, Joseph J., 117, 493, 571, 646 
Sithole, Ndabaningi, 15 
Skinner, Elliott P., 991 
Slater, Bernard W., 198 
Slavery and slave trade : 

Convention (1926) to suppress, as amended: 

Brazil, 386; Malta, 469 
Convention (1956), supplemental: Brazil, 469; Ice- 
land, 74; Malta, 509 
Smith, George B., 962 
Smith, Philip, 866n 
Smith, Rufus Z., 908 
Smith, Walter Bedell (quoted) , 349 
Smithsonian Institution (Frankel), 204 
Smyth, Henry D., 28 
SOLAS. See Safety of life at sea 
Solomon, Anthony M., 404, 782, 820 
Somali Republic, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 218, 

550, 721 
South Africa, Republic of: 

Southern Rhodesia, attitude toward (Williams), 

270 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 298, 550, 758, 1033 
U.N. role: Goldberg, 237; Johnson, 504 
U.S. interests and policies: Palmer, 899; Williams, 
430 
South and Southeast Asia. See Asia 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization: 
Cholera Research Center (Johnson), 334 
Congressional support: Cooper, Fulbright (quoted), 
487; U. A. Johnson, 529; Meeker, 481; Rusk, 
349, 516 
Council meeting, proposed, and head of U.S. dele- 
gation (Rusk), 749 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1079 



Southeast Asia Treaty Organization — Continued 
U.S. commitments under (see also under Viet- 
Nam) : Ball, 241; Bundy, 314; Johnson, 748; 
McGhee, 56; Meeker, 478; Rusk, 833, 928 
Viet-Nam, support for U.S. position: Johnson, 
393; U. A. Johnson, 532; Rusk, 515 
Southern Rhodesia: 

AID programs terminated in 1965, 208 
Communism, prospects for (Williams), 15, 270 
Economic sanctions against: 

U.K. sanctions and U.S. support: 27, 85, 157, 
783; Goldberg, 714, 800, 988; Johnson, 915; 
Williams, 15, 265 
U.N. resolution on enforcement: Goldberg, 714, 

753,800, 990; text, 718 
U.S. sanctions: 267, 466; Goldberg, 716, 987; 
Mann, 859 
Legal status, British colony: Goldberg, 753, 987, 

990; Mann, 589; Williams, 15, 266 
Rhodesian agent in U.S.: 318; Goldberg, 588; 

Mann, 589 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 721, 826 
U.K. exploratory talks: Goldberg, 801, 990; 

Palmer, 899 
U.N. role: (see also under Security Council) Sisco, 

573 
Zambia-U.S. joint communique, 85 
South- West Africa, administration: Goldberg, 943; 

Williams, 438 
Souvanlasy, Khamking, 663 
Sovereignty: 175«; Meeker, 477; Rogers, 170; Sisco, 

648 
Soviet Union (see also Aggression, Communism, and 
Sino-Soviet relations) : 
Consular convention with U.S. (Rusk), 919 
Germany : 

Nuclear threat to, 656 

Reunification, Soviet position: McGhee, 55, 660; 
NAC, 8; Rusk, 698 
Havana "Tricontinental Conference", participation 
in and OAS denunciation of: 385n; Allen, 
383; Sayre, 710 
IAEA safeguards, support for (Seaborg), 288 
Industrial property convention, adherence to 

(Winter), 1007 
Luna 9, congratulations (Johnson), 270 
NATO, position on: 413, 414; Ball, 615; Rusk, 407 
Nuclear proliferation : 

Position on: 412; Fisher, 680; Rusk, 408, 559 
Soviet draft treaty: 414; Leddy, 675, 678 
Nuclear test ban, comprehensive, position on; 415; 

Foster, 101 
Nuclear tests, underground, continued (Foster), 

103 
Nuclear weapons, U.S. proposal for joint reduc- 
tion of: 411, 417; Foster, 902; Johnson, 264; 
Rusk, 408 



Soviet Union — Continued 

Policies: Ball, 240; Braderman, 1015; Bukharin 
(quoted), 539; Bundy, 311; Goldberg, 127, 
942; McGhee, 1021; Rusk, 352, 516, 686 
Sales of arms to Near East, 663 
Scientific cooperation and information exchanges: 

543; McGhee, 372; Seaborg, 286 
Tashkent agreement: Goldberg, 238, 750, 799; 

Hare, 669; Rusk, 196 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 217, 550, 592, 682, 721, 

758 
U.N. position on: Abram, 1031, 1032; Goldberg, 

942, 988 ; Sisco, 649 
U.S. air accident over Spain, reply to Soviet alle- 
gations, 397 
U.S. policy and relations: Bundy, 314; McNamara, 

880; Rusk, 886 
U.S.-Soviet nuclear balance, French views, 617 
U.S. technology, security aspects of sales to: 851; 

Braderman, 1018 
U.S. trade policies: 845; Johnson, 151; McGhee, 
1021; Roth, 858; Rusk, 919; Trowbridge, 59 
East-West Trade Relations Act of 1966: Brader- 
man, 1016; Rusk, 838; text of act, 843 
Viet-Nam, position on: 239rc; Goldberg, 124, 802; 
Rusk, 193 
Visit of General De Gaulle (Rusk), 696, 920 
Spaak, Paul-Henri (quoted), 519 
Space. See Outer space 
Spain : 

Cuban refugees in, new procedures for admission 

to U.S., 1005 
Space cooperation agreements with U.S., 787 
Treaties, agreements etc., 181, 257, 258, 342, 426, 

469, 681, 721, 789, 826 
U.S. air accident, 397 

U.S. imports, restrictions eased, 624, 625 
Special Assistant to the President for National Se- 
curity Affairs, 507 
Special Committee on Principles of International 
Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co- 
operation among States: 168n, 175n; Rogers, 168 
Special Committee on U.S. Trade Relations with 
East European Countries and the Soviet Union 
(Miller Committee): Braderman, 1016; McGhee, 
1025; Rusk, 839; text, 845; Trowbridge, 61 
Spender, Stephen, 571 
Stadelhofer, Emil, 708 
Stafford, Thomas P., 365 
Stainless-steel flatware, reduction of increased 

duties: 160; Roth, 857 
Stalnaker, John M., 289, 627 
State, Secretary of: 

Budget review of international organizations 

(Johnson), 576 
Foreign policy aspects of foreign aid: Johnson, 
340; Rusk, 629 



1080 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



State, Secretary of — Continued 

Foreign service board of examiners, Executive 

order, 144 
Responsibilities and workload: 506, 651; Rusk, 

508, 653 
Science briefings, 948 
State Department (see also Foreign Service) : 
Appointments and designations, 470, 509, 592, 681 
Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 250, 

335 
Assistant Secretaries of State: Donnelly, 592; 

Gordon, 470, 620w ; Palmer, 681 
Career employees, tribute to, 198 
Chief of Protocol (Symington), appointment, 592 
China, specialists on (Rusk), 567, 686, 921, 922 
Economy of operation (Crockett), 705 
Fulbright program (McGhee),371 
Military assistance programs, supervision and 
general direction of: Johnson, 326; Rusk, 629 
Official secrets (Rusk), 514 
Population Matters, Special Assistant on (Mann), 

786 
Publications. See under Publications 
Seminar on communication satellite earth-station 

technology: 951; U. A. Johnson, 949 
Senior Interdepartmental Group, establishment 

and purpose: 507; Rusk, 509 
Surveillance by, question of (Rusk), 562 
U.S. business, relations with (Rusk), 814 (quoted) 
Visa Office, duties re implementation of 1965 Im- 
migration Act (Hines), 119 
Work of: Frankel, 757; Johnson, 249; McGhee, 
374; Pollack, 946; Rusk, 508, 514, 562, 927 
Stevenson, Adlai (quoted): 99, 167; Goldberg, 124, 
749; Mann, 785; Sisco, 575 
Adlai Stevenson memorial lecture, 936 
Stewart, Michael, 125 
Stewart, William H., 492 
Strategic trade controls, 849 
COCOM: Braderman, 1013; McGhee, 1021, 1026; 

Trowbridge, 60 
Communist China,. U.S. policy: Bundy, 317; Rusk, 
561 
Strelsin, Alfred, 733 
Studies in Prejudice, 637 
Sudan : 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 468, 469, 682, 721, 

789 
Valid period of passports extended, 870 
Sugar: 

Cuba (Sayre), 710 

International agreement (1958), protocol for pro- 
longation of: 
Current actions: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Canada, China, 550; Colombia, 110; Costa 
Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Do- 
minican Republic, Ecuador, 550; El Salva- 
dor, 110; France, Federal Republic of Ger- 



Sugar — Continued 

International agreement (1958), protocol for pro- 
longation of — Continued 

many, 550; Ghana, Guatemala, 789; Haiti, 
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Moroc- 
co, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, 
Nigeria, 550; Panama, 789; Peru, 110; Philip- 
pines, Poland, Portugal, Sierra Leone, South 
Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, United King- 
dom, 550; United States, 110; Upper Volta, 
550 
Entered into force, 258 
Southern Rhodesia, quotas suspended: Goldberg, 

716,988; Williams, 267 
Sugar Act Amendments, 1965: Johnson, 538; Wil- 
liams, 267 
Supreme Court (Goldberg), 214 
Susskind, David, 652 
Swaziland : 592 ; Williams, 438 
Sweden, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 469, 682, 721, 

789, 1034 
Switzerland : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 495 

Cuban refugees, role in movement of to U.S. 

(Sayre), 707 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 258, 469, 510, 592, 
642, 682, 720, 721, 909, 957, 1033 
Symington, James Wadsworth, 592 
Syrian Arab Republic: 

AID programs terminated in 1965, 208 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 721 
System of Communications Agreement of December 
8, 1958, 701 

Taiwan (see also China, Republic of; and Formosa) : 
Communist China, position on: Bundy, 315; Rusk, 

688 
Economic progress: Humphrey, 114; Johnson, 338; 

Rusk, 498 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 
Takeuchi, Ryuji, 1027 
Tanzania: 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 10 

Petroleum airlift to Zambia, cooperation with 

(Williams), 269 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 469, 721, 789 
Tariff Commission, U.S., FY 1967 appropriations 

request (Johnson), 250 
Tariff policy, U.S. (See also Economic policy and re- 
lations; Tariffs and trade, general agreement 
on ; and Trade) : 
Canada, U.S. schedules revised, 106 
Johnson trade policy (Roth), 857 
MFN policy considerations: 843, 853; Braderman, 
1017; Goldfinger, 855n; McGhee, 1025; Rusk, 
842 ; Trowbridge, 60 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1081 



Tariff policy, U.S. — Continued 

Reductions and termination of increased duties 

(Johnson), 159, 160, 288, 293 
U.K. agreement updating U.S. tariff concessions, 
719 
Tariffs and trade, general agreement on : 

Agreements, declarations, proces-verbal, and pro- 
tocols : 
Accessions to, current actions on: 

Argentina, provisional: Central African Re- 
public, 509 

2d proces verbal: Central African Republic, 
510; Ghana, 909; Kenya, 510; Niger, 909; 
Uruguay, 909 
Iceland, provisional: Ghana, 909; Kenya, 510 
Proces-verbal: Austria, 910; Brazil, 1033; 
Canada, Denmark, 910; Finland, 469; 
Germany, 1033; Greece, Iceland, Israel, 
Japan, 469; Malawi, 910; Netherlands, 
469, 910; New Zealand, Niger, 910; Nor- 
way, 469; South Africa, 1033; Sweden, 
Switzerland, 469; Turkey, 1033; U.K., 
469; Uruguay, 910, U.S., 469 
Switzerland, provisional, proces-verbal: Cen- 
tral African Republic, 510 
2d proces-verbal: Central African Republic, 
Ceylon, 510; Dahomey, 469; Ghana, 909; 
Indonesia, Ivory Coast, 510; Kenya, 909; 
Tanzania, 469; Uruguay, 909 
Protocol for accession of: Austria, Peru, 
Switzerland, U.S., 1033 
Tunisia, provisional: Uruguay, 909 

2d proces-verbal: Central African Republic, 

Turkey, 510 
3d proces-verbal: Austria, 910; Belgium, 
469; Brazil, 1033; Canada, Denmark, 910; 
Finland, 469; Ghana, 910; Germany, 
1033; Greece, Japan, 469; Malawi, 910; 
Netherlands, 469, 910; New Zealand, 
Niger, 910; Norway, 469; Pakistan, 910; 
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, 469; Tur- 
key, 1033; U.K. 469; Upper Volta, Uru- 
guay, 910; U.S., 469 
United Arab Republic, provisional: Uruguay, 
909 
Proces-verbal: Central African Republic, 
Cuba, 510; Ghana, 909; Kenya, 510; 
Niger, 909; Switzerland, 510; Uruguay, 
909 
Yugoslavia, provisional, proces-verbal : Aus- 
tria, 910; Belgium, 469; Brazil, 1033; 
Canada, 910; Central African Republic, 
510; Denmark, 910; Finland, 469; Ghana, 
910; Greece, Israel, Japan, 469; Malawi, 
910; Netherlands, 469, 910; New Zealand, 
Niger, 910; Norway, 469; Pakistan, 910; 



Tariffs and trade, general agreement on — Continued 
Agreements, etc. — Continued 
Accessions, etc. — Continued 

Sweden, 469; Turkey, 1033; U.K., U.S., 
Yugoslavia, 469 
Bilateral interim agreement (U.S.-Canada) re 

renegotiation of schedule XX, 74, 106, 682 
Part IV, protocol introducing and annex I 
amending: Chad, 909; Cuba, 592; Czechoslo- 
vakia, 41; Finland, Iceland, 682; Ivory Coast, 
74; Madagascar, 592; Niger, 909; Norway, 
758; Peru, 74; Rwanda, 909; Sierra Leone, 
74; Sweden, 682; Switzerland, 592, Uruguay, 
758 
Protocol embodying results of 1960-61 tariff 

conference: Peru, 909 
Protocol re negotiations for establishment of 

new schedule III, Brazil: Cuba, 509 
U.K., trade agreement concessions re tariff 
schedules of the U.S., 719 
Committee on Trade and Development, establish- 
ment, 589 
Contrasting parties, 23d session, 589 
Germany (McGhee), 661 
Japan (Barnett), 667 

Kennedy Round, importance of and U.S. support: 
50, 465, 589; Johnson, 291; MacArthur, 813; 
McGhee, 661; Roth, 856; Solomon, 820 
Regional economic groupings, position on (Solo- 
mon), 821 
U.S. exports, liberalization of restrictions on, 624 
Tashkent agreement: 

Communist China, position (Rusk), 687, 774 
Results of and U.S. position: 604; Goldberg, 238, 
750, 799; Hare, 669; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 196, 
560, 632 
Taxation : 

Double taxation, conventions for avoidance of. 

See Double taxation 
Income tax, protocol modifying convention (1948) 

with Belgium, 42 
Latin America, tax reforms (Gordon), 741 
1966 prospects (Johnson), 292 
Taylor, A. J. P. (quoted), 539 
Taylor, George E., 289, 444 (quoted), 627 
Taylor, Maxwell D., 302, 356 
Technical cooperation, agreements with: 
Afghanistan, agreement extending, 789 
Somali Republic, succession to existing U.S.-Italy 
agreement, 218, 550 
Telecommunications (see also Communications and 
Radio) : 
CENTO Microwave Telecommunications System, 

dedication: 778; Johnson, 779; Rusk, 779 
Convention (1959), international: 
Current actions, Bolivia, 110 

Radio regulations (1959), annexed to, partial 
revision with annexes and additional protocol : 
Australia, Germany, and Land Berlin, 258 



1082 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Telecommunications — Continued 

Convention (1965), international, with annexes 
and final protocol : Afghanistan, Algeria, Ar- 
gentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorussian Soviet 
Socialist Republic, Cameroon, Canada, Cen- 
tral African Republic, Ceylon, Chad, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo 
(Leopoldville), Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, 
Czechoslovakia, Dahomey, Denmark, Ecuador, 
Ethiopia, Finland, France, 720; Group of ter- 
ritories represented by French Overseas Post 
and Telecommunications Agency, 720-721 ; 
Gabon, Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, 
Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, 
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Iceland, Ireland, 
Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, 
Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, 
Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malagasy, 
Malaysia, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, 
Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, 
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Para- 
guay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, 
Portuguese Overseas Provinces, Rhodesia, 
Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, 
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somali Republic, 
Spain, Spanish Provinces in Africa, Sudan, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukrainian 
Soviet Socialist Republic, U.S.S.R., U.A.R., 
U.K., Overseas Territories for international 
relations of which United Kingdom are re- 
sponsible, U.S., Territories of U.S., Upper 
Volta, Vatican City, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, 
Zambia, 721 

Educational TV, increase in U.S. enrollment 
(Frankel),204 

Television broadcasting, agreement with Viet-Nam, 
218 
Territorial sea and the contiguous zone, convention 
(1958): Malawi, 41; Netherlands, 681; Yugo- 
slavia, 549 
Textured yarn tariffs, report (Johnson), 293 
Thai, Vu Van, 52 
Thailand: 

Communist intervention and threat of: Bundy, 
313; Goldberg, 126; Humphrey-Thanon Kit- 
tikachorn, 396; Rusk, 518, 690 

Economic development programs, participation: 
Johnson, 522; Rusk, 634, 933 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 110, 181, 258, 721, 870 

Treaty of amity and economic relations, announce- 
ment, 991 

U.S. aid: Bundy, 315; Humphrey-Thanon Kittika- 
chorn, 396; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 631 

U.S. astronauts, good-will tour, 364 



Thailand — Continued 

U.S. military alliances (Rusk), 559, 566, 774 
U.S. program for eradication of malaria (John- 
son), 334 
Viet-Nam, position on (Rusk), 515, 518, 929 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey and text of 
joint communique: 396; Humphrey, 489 
Thanat Khoman (quoted), 518 
Thanon Kittikachorn, 396 
Thermometers, clinical, termination of increased 

duty, 159 
Thieu, Nguyen Van, 302, 303 
Thimayya, K. S., 210, 719 
Thomson, George, 882, 884 

Tibet, Communist China, policies (Bundy), 312 
Tine, Jacques, 641 
TIROS program, 163, 377, 462 
Togo, treaties, agreements, etc., 367, 386, 469, 641, 

721 
Tonkin, Gulf of: Johnson, 504; Meeker, 485 
Topaloglu, Ahmet, 368 
Touring and tourists: 

Convention (1954) re customs facilities for tour- 
ing: Malta, 681, 681n 
Cruise ship safety: 955; Harriman, 953; Lowen- 

feld, 580 
Foreign and domestic travel in U.S. encouraged: 

24 ; Johnson, 250, 291 
Mexico-U.S. tourists (Rusk), 366 
Sale of foreign currency balances authorized in 

Ceylon, Guinea, and Tunisia, 975 
Southern Rhodesia, LT.S. travel discouraged (Gold- 
berg), 716 
Trade (see also Agricultural surpluses; Economic 
policy; Exports; Imports; Tariff policy, U.S.; 
and Tariffs and trade, general agreement on) : 
Communist China: Bundy, 317; Rusk, 561, 567 
Communist countries, COCOM policy. See under 

Strategic trade controls 
Cotton. See Cotton 

Dual rate shipping contracts, effect of (Geren), 82 
East- West European trade in peaceful goods: 

Braderman, 1015; Trowbridge, 60 
Expansion of: 
Central America (Johnson) , 1005 
Germany (McGhee), 661, 1019 
Latin America: Gordon, 742; Johnson, 538 
Joint Argentine-U.S. Trade and Economic Com- 
mittee, 1st meeting, 944 
Land-locked states, convention (1965) on transit 
trade: 143; Afghanistan, Argentina, Belgium, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist 
Republic, Cameroon, Central African Repub- 
lic, Chile, Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic 
of Germany, Holy See, Hungary, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, Paraguay, 
Rwanda, San Marino, Switzerland, Sudan, 
Uganda, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 
U.S.S.R., U.S., Yugoslavia, Zambia, 682 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1083 



Trade — Continued 

Less developed countries: 465; Jacobs, 134; John- 
son, 291, 338, 505; Rusk, 499, 500 
Southern Rhodesia. See Southern Rhodesia: Eco- 
nomic sanctions 
U.N. Trade and Development Conference, ac- 
complishments (Johnson), 505 
U.S. trade: 

Agreements with: China, 789, 817; Greece, 958, 

992; Italy, 42; Japan, 180, 217; Poland, 1034; 

Thailand, 991; Togo, 367, 396; Yugoslavia, 

182 

Communist China: Braderman, 1013; Bundy, 

317; McGhee, 1020, 1025 
Eastern Europe and Soviet Union: Johnson, 
151, 796; MacArthur, 816; McGhee, 1019; 
Trowbridge, 59 

East-West trade, Advisory Committee on In- 
ternational Business Problems, meeting, 403 
East-West Trade Relations Act of 1966; 
Braderman, 1016; McGhee, 1025; Roth, 858; 
Rusk, 838, 919, 930; text of act, 843 
Special Committee on U.S. Trade with, text 
of report, 845 
Economic intimidation (Braderman), 1018 
Europe (Solomon), 823 
Foreign aid programs, effect on trade patterns: 

Johnson, 251; Rusk, 499, 502, 630 
Germany (McGhee), 661 

Government, labor, and industry, respective re- 
sponsibilities (MacArthur), 813 
Johnson trade policy (Roth), 856 
Latin America (Gordon), 741 
Long-term cotton textile arrangement, 3d year 

review of U.S. participation (Jacobs), 134 
Mexico: Diaz Ordaz-Johnson, 731; Rusk, 365 
Philippines (Bundy), 448 
Poland (Braderman), 1015 
Principles of: 24; Connor, 25; Johnson, 152, 249, 

290 ; Solomon, 820 
South Africa (Williams), 434 
Southern Rhodesia. See Southern Rhodesia: 

Economic sanctions 
World Trade Week, 1966, U.S. proclamation, 
837 
Trade and Economic Affairs: 
Joint U.S.-Canadian Committee, 10th meeting: 

delegations, 319; joint communique, 464 
Joint U.S.-Japan Committee, 5th meeting, 757, 
1027 
Trade Expansion Act of 1962: Roth, 858; Solomon, 

820 
Trans World Airlines, 157, 269, 783 
Transit trade of land-locked states, convention 

(1965), 143, 682 
Transport, land-locked states, convention (1965) on 

transit trade with, 143, 682 
Transportation Department, establishment recom- 
mended (Johnson), 151 



Travel (see also Touring and tourists) : 

Communist China, U.S. controls eased: 90, 491; 

Bundy, 317, 868; Rusk, 566, 694, 773 
Passport validity extended for Sudan and Viet- 

Nam, 870 
Polish visitors encouraged (Johnson), 796 
Scientific meetings and conference, travel costs 

(McGhee), 371 
U.N. travel standards, proposed revision (Freling- 

huysen), 70 
U.S. citizens, procedures for protection of rights 

and privileges (Rusk), 562 
U.S. doctors and medical students, travel controls 
relaxed for public health service purposes: 
90; Bundy, 317 
Treasury Department, 945 

Treaties, agreements, etc. (for individxial treaty, see 
Subject), 41, 74, 109, 143, 181, 218, 257, 298, 
342, 386, 426, 468, 509, 549, 591, 641, 681, 720, 
758, 789, 826, 870, 909, 957, 993, 1033 
Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other 
International Agreements of the United States 
in Force on January 1, 1966, released, 593 
Tri Quang: Bundy, 968; Rusk, 882 
Trinidad and Tobago, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 

342, 550, 721 
Trivedi, V. C, 677 
Trowbridge, Alexander B., 59, 404 
Truman, Harry S., quoted: 394, 830, 940; Johnson, 

186,729; Rusk, 923, 928 
Tunisia: 

AID development loans, percent of total U.S. pro- 
grams, 208 
P. L. 480 currency balances, sale authorized to 

U.S. citizens, 975 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 469, 510, 550, 642, 

721, 826, 909, 910, 957, 1033 
World Bank consultative group (Rusk), 634 
Tuomioja, Sakari, 211 
Tupper, Stanley R., 627 
Turkey (see also Cyprus) : 

Economic and political development and problems: 

Hare, 670; Rusk, 776 
Family planning program (Roosevelt), 177 
NATO defense assistance: NAC, 9, 1004; Rusk, 

1000 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 258, 510, 721, 789, 

1033 
U.S. and other aid: 208; Johnson, 325; Rusk, 634, 

781, 928, 931 
Visit of President Gursel: Johnson, 558; Rusk, 557 
Tuthill, John W., 991 
Twentieth Century China, 311 

U Nyun, 380 

U Thant: 418 (quoted) ; Rusk, 934 



1084 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



U.A.R. See United Arab Republic 

Udall, Stewart L., 47, 319, 463, 663, 1027 

Uganda, treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 682, 720, 

721, 789 
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, treaties, agree- 
ments, etc., 682, 721 
UNCTAD. See United Nations Conference on Trade 

and Development 
UNEF. See United Nations Emergency Force 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural 

Organization, U.N. 
UNFICYP. (United Nations Force in Cyprus), 210 
UNHCR. See United Nations High Commissioner 

for Refugees 
Unger, Leonard, 451 

UNICEF. See United Nations Children's Fund 
Unification of Private Law, International Institute 

for, 342 
United Arab Republic : 

Moratorium on nuclear tests, proposed, 416 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 218, 257, 426, 469, 510, 

550, 642, 721, 758, 789, 909 
U.S. food shipments: Johnson, 123; Rusk, 196, 884 
United International Bureaus for the Protection of 

Industrial and Intellectual Property, 1007 
United Kingdom (see also names of self-governing 
colonies) : 
Air services agreement (Bermuda Agreement) 

amended, 954, 958 
Asian Development Bank, support for (McGhee), 56 
Atlantic nuclear force (Ball), 614 
Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland: 592; 

Williams, 438 
British Honduras, economic survey, Joint U.K.- 

Canada-U.S. sponsorship, 162 
Civil air transport consultations with U.S., an- 
nouncement and delegations, 468 
Double taxation agreement, supplementary proto- 
col signed, 549 
East Germany, question of U.N. membership, 640, 

641 
Nuclear proliferation and tests, position on: 415; 

Rusk, 559 
Southern Rhodesia. See Southern Rhodesia entries 
Trade: 

European Common Market, question of entry 

(Solomon), 822 
Free trade area with Ireland, 590 
U.S. Tariff Schedules, agreement updating, 719 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 143, 181, 258, 469, 550, 

642, 682, 720, 721, 826, 957, 958, 993 
UNICEF, support for (Bernstein), 272 
U.S. relations (Goldberg), 539, 990 
U.S. securities and long-term assets, shift to short- 
term liquid assets (Fowler), 400 
Viet-Nam : 

Peaceful settlement, efforts toward: Goldberg, 
232,237; Humphrey, 116 



United Kingdom — Continued 
Viet-Nam — Continued 

Position on: Goldberg, 125; Rusk, 515, 519 
Strategic materials, question of shipment to 
Communists (Rusk), 192 
United Nations: 

Charter. See United Nations Charter 

Documents, lists of, 41, 105, 179, 217, 297, 590, 908 

Expanded Program of Technical Assistance. See 

United Nations Development Program 
Headquarters of, supplemental agreement re, 342 
Human rights: 

High Commissioner for, post of: Abram, 1029, 

1031 ; Goldberg, 972 
Role, U.S. support: Abram, 636; Goldberg, 213; 
Willis, 178 
Membership : 

Communist China, question of : 

Communist position: 418; Goldberg, 612, 752; 

Rusk, 557, 566, 694; Sisco, 575, 647 
U.S. position: Bundy, 316, 868; Goldberg, 751; 
Rusk, 694 ; Sisco, 575 
East Germany, question of (tripartite com- 
munique), 640 
Significance: Goldberg, 943; Sisco, 573 
Non-members, participation by and application of 
principles to: Goldberg, 237, 751; Meeker, 476 
Objectives, role, and U.S. support: 129; Freling- 
huysen, 69; Goldberg, 543, 936, 991; Johnson, 
152, 249, 504, 538; Rogers, 170; Roosevelt, 
421; Rusk, 516, 927, 930; Sisco, 646 
Outer space, role in and U.S. support: Goldberg, 
163, 900, 941; Johnson, 166 (quoted), 900; 
Sisco, 573 
Peacekeeping operations (see also Security Coun- 
cil) : 
Cyprus: 210; NAC, 9, 1003; Rusk, 781 
Financing: 210; Frelinghuysen, 295; Goldberg, 
95, 97, 750; Johnson, 326; McNamara, 879; 
NAC, 9; Sisco, 649 
Need to improve: Goldberg, 93, 238, 750; John- 
son, 263 ; Rusk, 408 
Role of, U.S. and other support: 604; Abram, 
639; Goldberg, 547, 610, 799, 940; Lord Hali- 
fax (quoted), 648; Pearson (quoted), 880; 
Rusk, 520 ; Sisco, 573 
Population problems, role in: Mann, 784; Roose- 
velt, 178 
Racial discrimination, international convention: 

Goldberg, 212; Willis, 216 
Science and technology, role of U.N. in interna- 
tional cooperation (Hornig), 20 
Southern Rhodesia. See under Security Council 
Special Fund. See United Nations Development 

Program 
Specialized agencies (see also name of agency) : 
Financing (Johnson), 250, 576 
UNICEF, cooperation and relations with (Bern- 
stein), 271 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1085 



United Nations — Continued 

Specialized agencies — Continued 

Work of, and U.S. support: Johnson, 326, 328; 
Rusk, 927; Seaborg, 287; Sisco, 574 
Staff and salary increases, proposed (Frelinghuy- 

sen), 70 
UN/FAO appeal for food aid to India: Goldberg, 

385; Johnson, 386 (quoted); Rusk, 495 
U.S. responsibilities as representative of American 

people (Goldberg), 798 
Viet-Nam (see also Security Council and Viet- 
Nam) : 
Election observers, U.S. support for Viet-Nam 

request for (Goldberg), 1028 
Participation in U.N. (Meeker), 478 
World Food Program extended (Roosevelt), 130 
United Nations and Promotion of the General Wel- 
fare, The, 273 
United Nations Bureau of Social Affairs (Bern- 
stein) , 272 
United Nations Charter : 

Development and amendment: Goldberg, 941; 

Rusk, 690; Truman (quoted), 940 
Duties of states under: Goldberg, 799, 937, 942; 

Meeker, 475 ; Rogers, 174 
New international law (see also International 

law), Goldberg, 753 
Non-intervention, U.N. resolution on, 129 
Principles of and U.S. support: Abram, 1029, 
1031; Ball, 245; Bundy, 310; Goldberg, 95, 
128, 166, 198, 230, 231, 237, 753, 800, 937, 
987; Johnson, 504; Meeker, 475; Rogers, 168; 
Rusk, 226, 347, 516, 833, 927, 933; Sisco, 576, 
650; Williams, 435 
Rules of procedure, adherence to: 715; Goldberg, 
717, 906, 942 
United Nations Children's Fund: 

Cooperation with other U.N. programs: Roosevelt, 

421 ; Seaborg, 287 
Policies and programs, development of and U.S. 

support (Bernstein), 271 
U.S. financial support ( Johnson), 326, 333 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop- 
ment: Frelinghuysen, 71; Johnson, 505; Winter, 
1011 
United Nations Day, 1966, Proclamation and U.S. 

National Chairman (Kaiser), 976 
United Nations Decade of Development, UNICEF 
contributions to objectives of (Bernstein), 279 
United Nations Development Program: 

Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 252, 

324, 326, 341 
Objectives, problems of coordination, and role of 
governing council (Roosevelt) , 420 
United Nations Disarmament Commission: 
Membership, 412-rc 
Reconvention and work of, 412 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. See 
Economic and Social Council 



United Nations Emergency Force; 941; Fre- 
linghuysen, 69, 295; Goldberg, 941 
United Nations Expanded Program of Technical 
Assistance. See United Nations: Technical as- 
sistance programs 
United Nations Force in Cyprus: 211w, 719n; 

Nabrit, 210; Yost (quoted), 210 
United Nations High Commissioner for Human 

Rights. See under United Nations 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 

(Crockett) , 705 
United Nations Mekong Committee, 56 
United Nations Organization for Industrial Devel- 
opment (Roosevelt), 424 
United Nations Participation Act, 504 
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for 

Palestine Refugees (Frelinghuysen), 212 
United Nations Space Committee, U.S. support for 

draft resolutions (Goldberg), 166 
United Nations Trusteeship Council, documents, 

list of, 591 
United Nations World Population Conference, 2nd, 

176n 
United States and Japan, The, 666 
United States Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency. See Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency, U.S. 
United States citizens and nationals : 
Claims. See Claims 
Negro citizens, role in civil rights progress 

(Goldberg), 972 
Prisoners of Communist China, call for release of 

(Bundy), 866 
Responsibilities and role of: Frankel, 755; Gold- 
berg, 608; Johnson, 292, 329; Rusk, 931; 
Sisco, 571, 646 
Tourists. See Touring and tourists 
Two-year compulsory public service, proposed 

(McNamara), 881 
Viet-Nam, evacuation of civilians from Hue 
(Rusk), 921 
United States Civil Service Commission: 145; 

Johnson, 151 
United States Coast Guard, 708 
United States Information Agency: 

Appropriations request FY 1967 (Johnson), 249, 

250 
Attache Milroy, recall from Burundi, 158 
Responsibilities and objectives: 68, 145, 507; John- 
son, 253 
U.S. astronauts, good-will tours, 364 
United States Information Service, Africa, 918 
United States/Japan 3rd conference on cultural and 

educational interchange, 405 
United States National Citizens Commission on 
International Cooperation: Johnson, 20, Roose- 
velt, 175 
United States Participation in the UN: Report by 
the President to the Congress for the Year 
196U, 504n 



1086 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States Public Health Service, 187 

United States Summer Teaching Corps, 331 

United States Supreme Court, 941, 972 

Universal copyright convention (1952), and proto- 
cols: Yugoslavia, 591, 592 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Abram, 
636; Goldberg, 127, 213, 941; Willis, 216 

Universal Postal Union, constitution, final protocol, 
and convention (1964): Belgium, 258; Demark, 
592; Finland, 870; France, 592; Ireland, 957; 
Mali, 870; Norway, 258; Singapore, 258; 
Switzerland, 957; U.S., 258 

UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency 
for Palestine Refugees), 212 

Upper Volta : 

AID measles immunization program (Johnson) 

334 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 181, 550, 721, 910, 993 
U.S. Ambassador (Skinner), confirmation, 991 

Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1965 (Roth), 
858 

Urbanization and urban renewal: Bernstein, 278; 
Frankel, 202; Johnson, 151, 292; Rostow, 806 

Uruguay, treaties, agreements, etc., 758, 909, 910 

USIA. See United States Information Agency 

Valenti, Jack, 489 
Vargas, Jesus, 450, 748 
Vatican City: 

Treaties, agreements, etc., 682, 721, 789 
Viet-Nam, peace efforts: 235; Goldberg, 117, 230; 
Johnson, 222; Rusk, 86, 229 
Vaughn, Jack, 442 (quoted), 443, 443n, 470 
Venezuela: 

Technical assistance to other countries (Gordon), 

980 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 109, 110, 181, 721, 789 
Vessels. See Ships and shipping 

Vienna conventions on consular and diplomatic 
relations. See under Consular relations and Dip- 
lomatic relations 
Viet-Nam : 

Ambassador to U.S., credentials, 52 
Background. See under Historical summary 
Cambodian border: Goldberg, 167; Johnson, 504; 

Rusk, 920, 925 
Communism, Vietnamese rejection of: Ball, 245; 
Humphrey, 524; Johnson, 303; U. A. Johnson, 
531; Goldberg, 609; Rusk, 191, 350, 569, 832, 
885,924,932; Thieu, 304 
Communist aggression and subversion: Goldberg, 
124, 232, 609; Humphrey, 115; Johnson, 47, 
363, 963; U. A. Johnson, 532; Rusk, 89, 350; 
Taylor, 357 
Communist China, position and support: 
Braderman, 1018; Bundy, 56; Goldberg, 200; 
McGhee, 56; Rusk, 773 



Viet-Nam — Continued 

Communist aggression and subversion — Continued 
Compared to: (Cuba) Rusk, 933; (Europe) 

Humphrey, 527; (Greece) Ball, 241; Bundy, 

967; Humphrey, 524; Unger, 458; (Korea) 

Ball, 241, 613; Bundy, 966; Goldberg, 751, 

802 ; Meeker, 477, 488 
Local truces, question of (Rusk), 924 
Military activity: 52; Goldberg, 234, 751; 

Johnson, 254; Rusk, 194, 224, 227, 234 

(quoted), 517, 885, 922, 924, 925; Unger, 

455 
National Liberation Front, objectives: Ball, 

242; Humphrey 523; U. A. Johnson, 531 

Rusk, 351, 569, 885 
Soviet position and support: 239n; Braderman, 

1018; Goldberg, 124, 237, 802; Rusk, 193, 228 
Economic and social development (see also 

Honolulu conference and U.S. 14 points) : 

Barnett, 668; Goldberg, 125; Humphrey, 307, 

523; Johnson, 188, 255, 303, 304, 308, 325, 

363, 441, 492, 579; McGhee, 55; Rusk, 156, 

498, 631, 924; Taylor, 361; Unger, 458 
Asian Development Bank, proposed role: 

Harriman, 382 ; Johnson, 443 
Inflation, measures against: 304; Humphrey, 

491, 526; Johnson, 308 
North Viet-Nam participation (see also U.S. 

14 points): Harriman, 381; Johnson, 443; 

Rusk, 353, 354 
Elections (Johnson), 394: 

Constituent assembly: 306; Bundy, 969; Rusk, 

883, 921, 932* 

U.N. observers for (Goldberg), 1028 
Reunification: 307; Ball, 245; Goldberg, 1028; 

Johnson, 154, 188, 394; U. A. Johnson, 530; 

Meeker, 482; Rusk, 88, 190, 354, 833; Unger, 

454 
U.S. will accept results of: Ball, 245; Barnett, 

668; Bundy, 969; Goldberg, 548, 610, 1028; 

Humphrey, 527 ; Rusk, 932 
ENDC conference, importance of situation to 

(Johnson), 263 
Expansion of war, question of: Barnett, 666; 

Goldberg, 540; Johnson, 392; Rusk, 190, 773, 

932 
Geneva accords, basis for negotiations and peace: 

231; Fanfani, 11; Goldberg, 117, 229, 230, 

237, 309, 542, 547, 802; Humphrey, 116; 

Johnson, 154; Rusk, 12, 86, 193, 352, 354, 

934; Sisco, 574; Unger, 454, 456 
Geneva conference, question of reconvening (Gold- 
berg), 237 
Honolulu conference: 302, 396; Goldberg, 309; 

Humphrey, 489; Johnson, 302, 307, 363, 393, 

834 ; Rusk, 352 ; Thieu, 303 
Declaration of Honolulu: 304; Barnett, 667; 

Humphrey, 490, 525 ; Johnson, 393, 834 ; Rusk, 

352, 887; text, 305 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1087 



Viet-Nam — Continued 

International Commission for Supervision and 
Control, purpose: U. A. Johnson, 531; Meeker, 
474,482; Rusk, 351 

International law aspects: Goldberg 1 , 543; Meeker, 
474; Rusk, 517,832 

Japan, position on (Barnett) , 666 

Military and other aid from foreign governments 
(see also names of countries) : 51; Ball, 613 
Barnett, 667; Berger, 864; Bundy, 450 
Erhard, 49; Goldberg, 539; Humphrey, 491 
Johnson, 47, 254, 302, 308, 326, 393; U. A 
Johnson, 532; McGhee, 58; McNamara, 880 
Rusk, 191, 518, 887, 929; Unger, 457 

Morale: Bundy, 967; Humphrey, 490, 524; John- 
son, 325, 395; U. A. Johnson, 533; Taylor, 
360; Unger, 458 

NATO, question of involvement: Ball, 613; Rusk, 
570 

Negotiations for peaceful settlement (see also 
U.S. 14 points) : 
Communist delegation, question of : Ball, 242 ; 
Goldberg, 200, 234; Johnson (quoted), 116; 
Rusk, 88, 191 ; Unger, 456 
Communist position: Fanfani, 11; Goldberg, 
234; Humphrey, 115; Johnson, 253; Rusk, 
12, 87, 228, 353, 354; Unger, 456 
Communist rejection and unwillingness: 303, 
307; Goldberg, 125, 230, 233, 238, 547, 751; 
Humphrey, 490, 526; Johnson, 222, 253; Rusk, 
87, 156, 189, 192, 195, 223, 227, 229, 354, 520, 
565, 781, 922, 934; Taylor, 361; Unger, 456 
Neutral countries, role in (see also U.S. peace 
mission): 604; Goldberg, 229, 232, 238; 
Humphrey, 116, 491 ; Rusk, 223, 226, 229, 353, 
560, 781 
Private contacts: Goldberg, 199; Johnson, 222; 

Rusk, 226 
U.S. position: 307; Bundy, 316; Goldberg, 117, 
125, 201, 229, 232, 237, 309, 541, 547, 750, 
801; Humphrey, 115, 491; Johnson, 47, 52, 
154, 188, 199 (quoted), 253, 254, 394, 964; 
U. A. Johnson, 535; McCloskey, 10; McGhee, 
55; Rusk, 12, 89, 189, 192, 569, 886, 930, 
934; Taylor, 361; Unger, 454 
U.S. willingness: Rusk, 520, 565, 781; Spaak 

(quoted), 520 
Without preconditions: 231; Ball, 242; Gold- 
berg, 229, 233, 238, 309, 750; Johnson, 47, 235 
(quoted), 964; Rusk, 12, 86, 354, 565 

Neutrality or nonalinement (see also U.S. 14 
points) : Ball, 613; Rusk, 88 

Open Arms Program: 306, 307; U. A. Johnson, 
533 

Political development and problems: 305, 306; 
Bundy, 968; Humphrey, 490, 525-526; John- 
son, 308, 394, 888, 963; Rusk, 564, 569, 882, 
885, 887, 920, 932; Taylor, 361; Unger, 452, 
458 



Viet-Nam — Continued 
Political development and problems — Continued 
Coalition government, question of: Bundy, 969; 

Goldberg, 610; U. A. Johnson, 532 
Constitution: 306; Bundy, 968; Rusk, 564, 569, 

932 
National Political Congress (Bundy), 969 
Political suicides (Johnson) , 963 
Prisoners of war, support for Geneva conventions, 

305, 888 
Public opinion and support: Ball, 614; Goldberg, 
199, 547; Humphrey, 115, 527; Johnson, 154, 
222, 395; Rusk, 89, 225, 226, 515, 887, 929 
SEATO views (Rusk), 515, 929 
Self-determination (see also Elections and U.S. 
14 points): 231, 307; Ball, 613; Goldberg, 
125, 235, 541, 610, 801, 1028; Johnson, 394; 
Rusk, 191,520; Sisco, 575 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 182, 218, 258, 642, 721, 

758, 957 
U.N.: 

Debate, effect: Matsui, 548; Rusk, 89, 226 
Participation of: Communist China (Bundy), 
316; Communist Viet-Nam (Goldberg), 232, 
237 
Election observers, request for (Goldberg), 1028 
Resolution on, U.S. request: Goldberg, 229, 231, 
236, 309; Johnson, 223; Rusk, 226; text of 
draft resolution, 231 
Role of: 304; Goldberg, 117, 200, 235, 547, 610, 
750, 801; Johnson, 253, 504, 964; Matsui, 548; 
Meeker, 479; Nelson (quoted), 486; Pope Paul 
VI (quoted), 235; Rusk, 89, 225, 228, 229, 
353, 833; Sisco, 575; Unger, 457 
Communist position: Johnson, 504; Rusk, 89, 
934 
U.S. civilian personnel, evacuation from Hue 

(Rusk), 921 
U.S. commitment: 307; Braderman, 1018; Gold- 
berg, 542, 609; Humphrey, 309, 527; Johnson, 
247, 249, 308, 392; Kennedy (quoted), 358; 
Rusk, 225, 352, 698 
Asia, importance to: 493; Bundy, 867, 970; 

Humphrey, 770; Rusk, 520 
SEATO and other military alliances: Ball, 
241; Bundy, 314; Humphrey, 115; Johnson, 
393; Meeker, 480; Rusk, 226, 349, 517, 566, 
833, 929, 934 
World peace, importance to: Andreotti 
(quoted), 519; Brosio (quoted), 518; Erhard, 
49; Goldberg, 127, 197, 611; Hasluck 
(quoted), 518; Humphrey, 115, 490, 523; 
Johnson, 47, 153, 302, 364, 393, 963; U. A. 
Johnson, 530, 535; Rusk, 87, 194, 348, 356, 
518, 698; Sisco, 574; Spaak (quoted), 518; 
Taylor, 358, 362; Thanat Khoman (quoted), 
518 



1088 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Viet-Nam — Continued 

U.S. 14 points: 225; Ball, 245; Goldberg, 117, 
200, 230, 237, 542, 548, 802; Humphrey, 116; 
Johnson, 154; U. A. Johnson, 535; Rusk, 
86, 189, 195, 224, 353; Sisco, 574; Unger, 456 
U.S. military and other aid, costs of and appro- 
priations requests: 208; Johnson, 152, 247, 
249, 251, 290, 325, 327 
Supplementary requests: Johnson, 254, 576; 

Rusk, 346, 631 
U.S. economy, effect on: 24; Connor, 400; 
Crockett, 706; Fowler, 398; Gordon, 743; 
Johnson, 151, 290, 292, 495 
U.S. military bases. See under U.S. 14 points 
U.S. military forces, withdrawal, conditions for 
(see also U.S. 14 points) : Goldberg, 125, 
611; Humphrey, 115; Rusk, 12, 87 
U.S. military operations, deescalation, question of 

(Rusk), 932, 934 
U.S. military targets: Humphrey, 524; Johnson, 
153, 223; U. A. Johnson, 533; Rusk, 227, 925; 
Taylor, 360; Unger, 454, 457 
U.S. peace missions: 304; Goldberg, 199, 230, 233, 
309; Humphrey, 489; Johnson, 188, 222, 394, 
964; Rusk, 189, 195, 224, 226; Unger, 455 
U.S. policy and objectives (see also U.S. com- 
mitment and U.S. 14 points) : 155, 307; Ball, 
245, 613; Barnett, 667; Braderman, 1017; 
Bundy, 967; Fulbright (quoted), 486; Gold- 
berg, 124, 125, 201, 232, 309, 540, 610; 
Humphrey, 523; Johnson, 51, 151, 153, 154, 
232 (quoted), 263, 303, 307, 390 (quoted), 
441, 492 (quoted), 578, 834, 888; Kennedy 
(quoted), 964; McGhee, 55; Nelson (quoted), 
486; Rusk, 86, 190, 346, 352, 355, 520, 773, 
885, 930, 932; Taylor, 357; Unger, 454 
Cease-fire : 

Communist position: Fanfani, 11; Goldberg, 

234; Rusk, 12 
U.S. position: 52, 231; Goldberg, 117, 125, 
200, 229, 233, 309, 542, 548, 751; Johnson, 
154, 222, 253, 964; U. A. Johnson, 534; 
Rusk, 86, 189, 223, 227, 353, 699, 886, 933; 
Unger, 455 
U.S. resumption of bombings: Goldberg, 234, 
751; Johnson, 222; Rusk, 223, 226, 228; 
Unger, 456 
Congressional support: Fulbright (quoted), 
486; Johnson, 253, 254, 255, 578; Meeker, 
481, 485; Nelson (quoted), 486; Rusk, 227, 
228,517,832; Taylor, 362 
Europe and Eastern Europe, effect on relations 

with (Rusk), 886, 919, 930 
"Holding strategy": Rusk, 932; Taylor, 362 
Responsibility for: Johnson, 222; Meeker, 483, 
484; Rusk, 225, 833, 929; Taylor, 358 
U.S. public, position of: Goldberg, 542; U. A. 
Johnson, 536; Rusk, 887 



Viet-Nam — Continued 

Validity of passports extended, 870 

Vietnamese military forces and activities: 305; 

Johnson, 308; Rusk, 519, 924 
Vietnamese position: Ball, 613; Bundy, 969; John- 
son, 302, 363; U. A. Johnson, 532; Ky, 156, 
526; Rusk, 195; Thieu, 303, 305; Unger, 458 
Visit of Vice President Humphrey: Humphrey, 
309, 489; Johnson, 308, 393 
Viet-Nam, North: 

Refugees from: 305, 307; Bundy, 968; Crockett, 
706; Goldberg, 128; Humphrey, 491, 526; 
U. A. Johnson, 533; Rusk, 350; Unger, 459 
U.K. and free world, shipments of strategic ma- 
terials, question (Rusk), 192 
U.S. bombing (Rusk), 699 

U.S. policy of total trade embargo: Braderman, 
1013; McGhee, 1020 
Vietnam Conflict: The Substance and the Shadow, 

359n 
Viking Princess disaster (Harriman), 952 
Visa Office, duties re 1965 Immigration Act (Hines), 

119 
Visas (see also Immigration) : 

Passports, validity extended for Sudan and 

Viet-Nam, 870 
Procedures eased for : 

Communist China: 90, 491; Bundy, 317 
International conferences: 869; Johnson, 331 
Quota controls under 1965 Immigration Act 

(Hines), 119 
Southern Rhodesia, U.K. visas required, (Gold- 
berg), 716 
Southern Rhodesian agent, U.S. position: Gold- 
berg, 588 ; Mann, 589 
Third-country Cuban refugees, procedures, 1005 
VISTA (Volunteers In Service To America), John- 
son, 330 
von Hassel, Kai-Uwe, 368 
VOYAGER mission, 164 

Walsh, Bishop James E., (Bundy), 866 
War (see also Aggression and Nuclear war) : 
Cultural diffusion, instrument of (Frankel), 890 
Declaration of war: McNamara, 876; Meeker, 

480, 488; Morse (quoted), 487n; Rusk, 833 
Prevention of (see also World order and World 
peace) : 
American treaty (1949) on pacific settlement, 

Brazil, 74 
Importance: Johnson, 155, 556; Rusk, 194, 926 
Lessons from: Ball, 763; Goldberg, 199; John- 
son, 578; Rusk, 696 
Protection of cultural property, convention 
(1954) and protocol: Turkey, 257 
War Labor Board, 938 
War on Hunger. See Food for Freedom 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1089 



War on Poverty (see also Great Society) : Gandhi, 
599; Johnson, 150, 292, 320, 322, 599 (quoted), 
796; Rusk, 366 
Office of Economic Opportunity, Director 
(Shriver), 443n 
"Wars of national liberation." See under Commu- 
nism 
Warsaw convention (Lowenfeld), 580 

Withdrawal of U.S. denunciation, 955, 1033 
Washington, D. C. (Frankel), 202 
Water. See Conservation, Desalination, and Pollu- 
tion 
Watson, Arthur K., 630 
Weather. See Meteorological headings 
Webb, James, 47, 462, 470 
Weems v. United States, 941 
Wells, Oris V., 130 
Welsh, Matthew E., 118 

Western Hemisphere (see also Alliance for Prog- 
ress) : 
Communicable diseases, U.S. proposed program 

for eradication (Johnson), 334 
Intercultural understanding, importance: Frankel, 
205; Johnson, 205 
Western Hemisphere Immigration, Select Commis- 
sion on (Hines), 123 
Western Samoa, treaties, agreements, etc., 258, 789 
Westmoreland, William C, 302, 392, 888 
Whaling convention (1946), international and sched- 
ule of regulations: Brazil (withdrawal), 110 
Wheat agreement, international (1962): Argentina 
789; Australia, 826; Austria, 789; Belgium 
826, 994; Brazil, 386, 789; Canada, 789, 994 
Costa Rica, 789; Dominican Republic, 298 
Ecuador, 758, 957; El Salvador, 789; Finland 
258, 758; France, 789; Germany, 758; Greece 
826; Guatemala, 758; Iceland, India, Ireland 
789; Israel, 758; Italy, Japan, 789; Libya, 110 
957; Luxembourg, 826; Mexico, 110, 789, 910 
Netherlands, New Zealand, 789; Nigeria, 826 
Norway, Peru, Philippines, 789; Portugal, 144 
826; Saudi Arabia, 758; Sierra Leone, 789 
South Africa, 758; Southern Rhodesia, 826 
Soviet Union, 758; Spain, 426, 789; Sweden, 789 
Switzerland, 758; U.A.R., 426, 758; U.K., 826 
Vatican City State, Venezuela, Western Samoa, 
789 
Agricultural commodities agreement with Kenya, 
Tanzania, Uganda, and the East African 
Common Services Organization, 789 
Export prices, effect of 1965 legislations (John- 
son), 253 
U.S. voluntary diversion program suspended for 
1966 additional spring wheat plantings 
(Johnson), 339 
Wheeler, General Earle G., 10, 302, 579 
White, Ed, 364 
White, Paul Dudley, 90 
Williams, Franklin H., 440 
Williams, G. Mennen, 13, 199, 265, 430 



Williams, Leland, 962 

Willis, Frances E., 178, 216 

Willkie, Wendell (quoted), 390 

Wilson, Woodrow, 836 

Win, U Tun, 397 

Winter, Harvey J., 1006 

Wirtz, W. W.llard, 1027 

Witman, William, II, 367 

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization 

Women, political rights of, convention (1953) on, 

Ghana, 342 
World Bank. See International Bank 
World Food Program, U.N. (Roosevelt), 130, 421 
World Health Organization: 

Accomplishments, programs, and U.S. support: 
Bernstein, 272; Johnson, 333, 334, 505; Mann, 
785; Seaborg, 287; Sisco, 574 
Constitution of: Maldive Islands, 41 
Amendment to Article 7: Burma, 642; Dahomey, 
509; Dominican Republic, 342; Ghana, 426; 
Guinea, 386; India, 993; Ivory Coast, Mada- 
gascar, 342; Kuwait, Niger, 993; Rwanda, 
469; Sierra Leone, 681; Trinidad and Tobago, 
342; Tunisia, 642; Upper Volta, 993; Yugo- 
slavia, 789; Zambia, 342 
World Meteorological Day (Johnson), 618 
World Meteorological Organization (Seaborg), 287 
World Weather Watch: Goldberg, 163; Johnson, 
505, 619 
World Order (see also World peace) : 

Conditions for: Barnett, 668; Bundy, 310, 444, 
868; Goldberg, 971; Johnson, 152, 726; Rusk, 
933; Sisco, 576, 648 
Interdependence of modern world: Ball, 763; 
Erhard, 48; Goldberg, 540, 608, 611, 943; 
Gordon, 623; Humphrey, 527, 770; Johnson, 
341, 521, 556, 748, 963; McGhee, 658, 662; 
McNamara, 877; Rogers, 170; Roosevelt 
(quoted), 540; Rusk, 509, 520, 634, 696, 926; 
Sisco, 572 
Moral force (Abram), 1029, 1031 
Post-war boundary arrangements: Ball, 240; 

U. A. Johnson, 529; Rusk, 352 
U.S. responsibilities and support: Goldberg, 944; 
Hare, 671; Johnson, 187, 364, 835; McGhee, 
53, 377; Rusk, 190, 514, 930 
World Patent Index, 1010 
World peace: 

Communist China, threat to (see also Aggression 

and Communism) : Bundy, 316; Rusk, 567 
Cultural interchanges, value (Johnson), 205 
Free world responsibilities: Ball, 766; Johnson, 
963; McGhee, 58, 658; Roosevelt (quoted), 
647 
Germany, support for, 654 
Harry S. Truman Center for the Advancement of 

Peace, announcement (Johnson), 186 
International law: Goldberg, 543, 936; Meeker, 
475; Rusk, 190 



1090 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



World Peace — Continued 

Regional solidarity (Rusk), 933 
Southern Rhodesia, threat to : 718 ; Goldberg, 800 
U.N. role. See under U.N. and U.N. Charter 
U.S. commitment and objectives (see also under 
Viet-Nam): 412, 846; Ball, 245; Goldberg, 
197, 201, 540, 798, 971; Johnson, 3, 4, 7, 51, 
188, 190 (quoted), 257, 263, 320, 411, 506, 
579, 598, 731, 835; McGhee, 54; Rusk, 499, 
502, 516, 838, 926; Truman (quoted), 830 
World Population Conference, U.N., 176n 
World Teacher Exchange, 330 
World Trade Week, 1966, proclamation, 837 
World Weather Watch: Goldberg, 163; Johnson, 

505, 619 
Wyndham White, Eric (quoted), 139 

Yarmouth Castle disaster: 782; Harriman, 952 
Yemen (Hare), 670 
Yost, Charles W., 143, 210 



Yugoslavia: 

Economic and political liberalization (Bi-ader- 

man), 1014 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 42, 182, 258, 342, 469, 
510, 549, 591, 592, 681, 682, 721, 789, 910, 
957, 1033 

Zagorin, Bernard, 718 
Zambia: 

Economy of, effect of sanctions against Southern 

Rhodesia: Johnson, 915; Williams, 14, 269 
Petroleum, U.S. airlift: 27, 85, 157, 783; Goldberg, 

716, 988; Williams, 269 
Treaties, agreements, etc., 342, 642, 682, 721 
Visit of ministerial mission to U.S. and joint com- 
munique, 85 
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union, 15 
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 4, 118c 
Zulu, A. G., 85 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1966 



1091 



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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. LIV, No. 1S8U 




January 8, 1966 












U.S. AND PAKISTAN AGREE ON NEED FOR PEACEFUL 
SETTLEMENT OF ASIAN CONFLICTS 2 

THE VIEW FROM THE OTHER SIDE 
by Ambassador Patricia Roberts Harris 16 

NUCLEAR POWER AND PROLIFERATION 
by Henry D. Smyth 28 

BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS PROGRAM TO BE INTENSIFIED IN 1966 22 



For index see inside back cover 



U.S. and Pakistan Agree on Need for Peaceful 
Settlement of Asian Conflicts 



President Mohammed Ayub Khan of the 
Islamic Republic of Pakistan made a state 
visit to the United States December 12-16. 
He met with President Johnson at Washing- 
ton December 1U and 15. Following are an 
exchange of greetings between the two Presi- 
dents on December lb, an exchange of toasts 
at a state dinner at the White House that 
evening, and the text of a joint communique 
released on December 15. 



EXCHANGE OF GREETINGS 

White House press release dated December 14 ; as-delivered text 

President Johnson 

Mr. President, I am happy, on behalf of 
the people of the United States, to welcome 
you once more to our shores. 

We Americans have admired Pakistan's 
rapid progress as a nation, and we have 
had particular respect for you as the leader 
chiefly responsible for this progress over the 
past 7 years. 

It is also a great satisfaction for me, 



personally, to have you here with us at this 
time. I have not forgotten the hospitality 
which my wife and I received during our 
visit to Pakistan 4 years ago. It seemed to 
me then, as it does now, that Pakistan and 
the United States have very much in com- 
mon. For one thing, each of our countries 
began as what most people called "an im- 
practical experiment." No one expected us 
to survive. Yet here we are. 

I remember, most gratefully, how much 
at home I was made to feel on my visit to 
your country. I also recall my feelings when 
you addressed the legislature of my home 
State back in 1961. Mr. President, I don't 
know whether you felt equally at home on 
that occasion, but I remember thinking at 
the time that you could have had a very 
great future in American politics. 

So we do have, I think, much in common. 
We have also had our differences. Yet I 
hope that the bonds which unite us are far 
stronger than any temporary disagree- 
ments. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1384 PUBLICATION 8012 JANUARY 3, 1966 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services, Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agrenciea of the Government with infor- 
mation on developments in the field of 
foreign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statementa and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of International affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department. United 
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rial in the field of International relations 
are liBted currently. 

The Bulletin la for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 



ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. 
20402. Pbice: 62 issues, domestic $10, 
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Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 1901). 

NOTE : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin as the source will 
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed 
in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Liter- 
ature. 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



Both of our nations are dedicated to 
government by, and for, the people. 

Both you and we, each in our own way, 
are trying — trying so hard — to provide a 
fuller life for all of our people. We, in 
America, admire Pakistan's efforts to this 
end, and we have sought to work with them. 

We also agree, I know, that the ultimate 
success of all of our efforts really depends 
upon the restoration of peace and stability, 
not only in Asia but throughout the entire 
world. 

I am quite confident that, working to- 
gether with the millions of others who 
share these ideals, we will ultimately reach 
our goal. I am confident, too, that the discus- 
sions which we are about to have will bring 
us — and the world — one step closer to 
that common objective. 

Mr. President, we are delighted to have 
you here this morning. We hope you will 
enjoy your stay in our country, and we 
certainly want you to know that we warmly 
welcome you as our friend. 

President Ayub Khan 

Mr. President, I am deeply touched by the 
warm welcome you have given me and my 
party, and also for the gracious words you 
used for the progress that Pakistan has 
made during the last few years. 

May I say that we got our independence 
after 150 years of British rule 18 years ago, 
and when I became responsible for running 
the country, my main concern was to do 
such things which would improve the liv- 
ing standards of the people and give them 
hope for a better future. 

Now for a country like yours, which 
started much earlier, perhaps such things 
are simpler — also simpler perhaps because 
of your vast resources. But for us, we had 
to establish the infrastructure of all de- 
scriptions to be able to embark on the road 
to progress. 

And I am very happy to be able to tell you 
that we made considerable progress. And I 
also would like to take this opportunity of 



thanking your Government and you, sir, 
and your people, for the very generous as- 
sistance you gave us in these endeavors. 

I am very happy to be here again in 
Washington. It reminds me, first of all, of 
my last visit when the President, as Vice 
President, under no obligation on him to 
waste his time on me, he very kindly, and 
his lady, took me to the ranch, and the 
amount of affection and the amount of hos- 
pitality they showed, I can never forget in 
my life and I keep on repeating it to my 
people in Pakistan. I come here again ; I am 
looking forward to meeting you, sir, and 
discussing with you our mutual problems, 
and also to have the opportunity of meeting 
several other good friends of Pakistan here 
in Washington and in the United States. 

There are several places in the world 
which are troubled, which are under stress; 
so is our part of the world. Unfortunately 
there has been a war, a short war, but a 
sharp war and bloody war. The peace there 
hangs on a very thin thread of cease-fire. 

I know you are far away, but you, as the 
greatest country today, have an obligation 
to the rest of the world, and I have no 
doubt, sir, that your Government, under 
your dynamic and powerful leadership, will 
lend its full support toward the resolution 
of the problems which are besetting us. 

We can't afford wars. We can't afford 
tensions. Our task is difficult. Our task is 
to do something for humanity. Our task is 
to search for peace. And we, in Pakistan, 
certainly make every endeavor to be able to 
make our contribution toward peace on 
honorable and reasonable terms. 

Sir, again I thank you for a warm wel- 
come, and I am happy to see after your very 
serious operation you are looking so well and 
you are regaining your health, and I do hope 
that you will completely recover soon, be- 
cause the responsibility you hold — not only 
on behalf of your own people but on behalf 
of the largest part of the world — is so great 
that your health is of tremendous impor- 
tance to us all. 

Thank you, sir. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



EXCHANGE OF TOASTS 

White House press release dated December 14 ; as-delivered text 

President Johnson 

Mr. President, distinguished guests, 
ladies and gentlemen : 

There is no need to say how very pleased 
we are, Mr. President, to welcome you to 
this house this evening. The President of 
Pakistan comes on a new visit, but he is a 
very old friend. This is his third journey 
here as head of a young state already grown 
to world importance. 

Mrs. Johnson and I want to thank you, 
Mr. President, for honoring us with your 
distinguished Ambassador [Ghulam] Ah- 
med and his charming wife, whom we enjoy 
very much. We are also particularly pleased 
that we could renew acquaintances with 
your former Ambassador, your present For- 
eign Secretary [Zulfikar Ali Bhutto]. I ob- 
served that perhaps when he was Ambas- 
sador and I was Vice President we were 
doing a little better job with our relations 
than we are in our new positions. But it 
just shows you what happens to people 
when they get promoted. 

President Ayub and I have a great deal 
in common, just as our peoples share many 
values and many dreams. 

President Ayub is a rancher, as I am. His 
home district is country much like Johnson 
City, Blanco County, where I live. He also 
has a special bond with Mrs. Johnson and, 
for that matter, all lovers of beauty in this 
land. President Ayub is building a new cap- 
ital for his country, just as we are trying 
to rebuild and beautify ours. 

With so much to share it is not surprising 
that President Ayub and I found our talks 
today fruitful. They will continue in the 
evening, and we hope for more extended ses- 
sions tomorrow. 

We share the basic values and beliefs: 
man's fundamental dignity and worth, a 
love of liberty, a pride of excellence, pursuit 
of beauty and truth, a vision of a better and 
a fuller life for all human beings. 

I have recalled a courageous and a com- 



passionate appeal made by President Ayub 
in a broadcast back in 1963. He said then 
— and I quote : 

Hatred and anger fan the fires of hell in human 
minds. Why not put them out? It is nobler and 
better for one's own happiness to live on terms of 
friendliness with others. 

And so tonight we share the greatest 
hunger and the most burning thirst of all. 
We want so much to find peace in the 
world. We want so much to bring peace to 
Asia and peace to all the other countries 
that are troubled. We want peace not only 
in our time but peace for all time. We want 
peace. And we shall work every minute, day 
and night, for peace. 

President Ayub visits us as the architect 
of his country's inspiring struggle for eco- 
nomic emancipation. And nowhere have we 
observed a better administrative effort. To- 
day Pakistan surges forward in a very great 
adventure — and Dave Bell [AID Adminis- 
trator David E. Bell] will talk to you about 
it for hours if you will listen to him, be- 
cause we are very thrilled to observe the 
economic advances and the other results that 
the leadership of President Ayub and his 
associates provide and inspire. We all must 
rededicate our very best efforts to conquer- 
ing the curses of poverty, hunger, disease, 
illiteracy, the human and physical problems 
that, as President Ayub has said, and I 
quote him again, "cannot be resolved by the 
magic wand of just freedom alone." 

So Mr. President, with your permission I 
am sending a very high-level team of medi- 
cal teachers and scientists shortly to your 
country of Pakistan. This team will be led 
by the President's Science Adviser, my own 
trusted counselor, Dr. Donald Hornig. Its 
mission will be to work with your own med- 
ical authorities in instituting a very broad 
improvement in medical training and 
working with all of your fine people in the 
attempt to improve rural health and public 
health among your fellow countrymen. 

This will be a beginning. If our purposes 
are as one, we can continue and expand the 
dynamic partnership that we have had 
in the past. Together we can press the battle 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



against waterlogging and salinity, against 
devastating cyclones, cholera, heart and eye 
disease. Together, as friends working 
shoulder to shoulder, we can improve weath- 
er forecasting, and improve flood warnings, 
and multiply housing programs such as the 
Korangi project that I visited in 1961 when 
I met my good friend the cameldriver. He 
came to this country, and he spread good 
will from one end of it to the other, and he 
is remembered most affectionately by all 
who met him. We can speed in many ways 
the transition from a subsistence economy 
to a life of plenty and a life of purpose for 
every Pakistani. 

This has been a stimulating and inspir- 
ing day for me. It is always so when I am 
in your presence. 

So tonight, here in this, the first house 
of our land, I would like to ask those friends 
of mine whom I have asked to come here 
from various parts of this country — Cali- 
fornia to New York — to raise our glasses to 
salute the spirit and the success of the Pak- 
istan nation and the dedicated leadership of 
the great President of Pakistan, Mohammed 
Ayub Khan. 

President Ayub Khan 

Mr. President, Mrs. Johnson, Your Ex- 
cellencies, ladies and gentlemen : 

I am deeply touched by the warm recep- 
tion given to me and my party and by 
your great hospitality tonight. You are a 
generous man. I am only talking to a friend 
now. May I have the liberty of doing so 
with a great heart. 

I am so very happy that this great coun- 
try has a man like you, sir, at its head, and 
that is how it should be. It is only people 
with large hearts, broad understanding, for- 
giveness, and so on, that can tackle the 
sort of responsibilities that devolve on you 
— not only responsibilities on behalf of your 
country, but, in fact, on behalf of the world 
even, because you are the head of the 
mightiest country in the world. 

As far as Pakistan is concerned — the 
people in Pakistan are concerned — there 



Cyclone Victims in Pakistan 
To Receive U.S. Relief Funds 

Department Statement i 

The Charge of the American Embassy in 
Pakistan, William I. Cargo, today informed 
the Acting Foreign Minister, Agha Shahi, 
that he was making available to the Govern- 
ment of Pakistan the equivalent of $25,000 of 
U.S. Government funds as an immediate con- 
tribution to the relief of the sufferers from 
the cyclone which struck Chittagong, Cox's 
Bazaar, and the offshore islands December 15. 
Mr. Cargo was acting in response to reports 
of extensive loss of life and material damage 
caused by cyclonic winds and high waters. 

The money is being given for immediate re- 
lief purposes. Mr. Cargo further expressed 
the regret and deep sympathy of the Ameri- 
can people with respect to the loss of life, suf- 
fering, and damage resulting from this cyclone. 
He further stated that the American Govern- 
ment stood ready to consider additional 
emergency assistance if needed. 



1 Read to news correspondents on Dec. 16 
by Robert J. McCloskey, Director of the Office 
of News. 






have been very friendly and warm relations 
between our people. Lately — and I would be 
less than honest if I did not admit it, since 
I was largely responsible for this friendship 
and understanding between our two coun- 
tries — it hurts me to say that our relations 
have, to a certain extent, been soiled, and I 
think that has happened because of a lack 
of understanding of each other's difficulties 
and problems. 

You have certain obligations and certain 
problems which you are facing, of which 
we are aware. We have certain difficulties 
in the location and the situation in which 
we live. You have been very generous and 
kind to invite me to come to your country to 
see you and talk to you in heart-to-heart 
fashion. And I have with all sincerity and 
honesty put to you our problems, and you 
have been good enough to tell me your 
problems. 

I think that in countries like yours and 
mine, situated so far away, with different 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



sorts of obligations, locations, and so on 
and so forth, friendships can be maintained 
— and they must be maintained. And the 
way to maintain them is to bear friendship 
with friendship and understand each other's 
difficulties, and don't do anything which is 
against the interests of a friendly country. 

I have no doubt in my mind if that prin- 
ciple is observed — we certainly will observe 
it, sir — there is no reason why our friend- 
ship should not continue. 

Your country and your people have in 
many ways been assisting us, and I am 
the first one to admit it. Not only do I do 
so in my heart but I do so in front of my 
people. And it has been a very stimulating 
experience for our mutual relationship. 

We regained our independence after a 
long time. In a period when the world has 
shrunk, peoples' expectations have risen. 
They want the good things of life quickly. 
Demands on government, therefore, have 
increased enormously. After all, it takes 
time with the best will in the world and the 
best effort in the world to produce results. 

The people are not prepared to wait. They 
are impatient. Therefore there is great pres- 
sure, tremendous pressure, in our country 
to produce results to the satisfaction of the 
people. We have been, in our humble way, 
trying to improve the conditions of our 
people and remove sufferings and wants, 
and so on. 

I think we made a considerable success in 
that. One lesson I learned from that was 
that the people really try to improve their 
lot once they are given the right direction 
and the opportunity. 

Lately, unfortunately, we have been be- 
deviled with a major conflict. My own hope 
and prayer is that we shall be able to over- 
come. My endeavor always has been to live 
in peace with our neighbors, especially with 
our big neighbor India. They have tremen- 
dous problems, and we have tremendous 
problems. 

We need peace. We need peace not only 
for the sake of peace but also for the sake 
of doing a very noble task of improving the 
lot of our people. 



In that connection, I am very grateful to 
you, sir, for sending this mission out. I am 
sure that it will be appreciated, and I am 
sure that they will get the fullest coopera- 
tion from our people and they will benefit 
by their experience. 

The last time I was here President Ken- 
nedy and I had long discussions. I mentioned 
to him about this problem of waterlogging 
and salinity in West Pakistan. Those of you 
who are familiar know the circumstances 
there. Our agriculture is totally artificial in 
West Pakistan. It is dependent on artificial 
irrigation. I think — I don't know whether 
I am right in saying — but it is probably the 
biggest, shall we say, artificially irrigated 
area in the world in one block — some 32 
million acres of land. And through this 
process of irrigation the water table has 
gone out, the salts have come up, and we 
were facing tremendous problems. And he 
was good enough to send a team of scientists 
out, and they have done, in conjunction with 
our people, a tremendous job. I am sure if 
your set of people come they will have a 
second look at these things. We made a start 
in this project, and we made a great success. 

So I am very grateful to you for this offer. 
Our effort really is to do the very best we 
can for our people. 

We also find that our population is grow- 
ing at a rate which is not acceptable and 
which can create serious problems. That is 
another thing that we are putting our major 
efforts on. 

Similarly with our agriculture, and so on, 
results have been very heartening. And so 
any advice and assistance of that nature 
will be most welcome, in keeping with the 
wishes and the desires and endeavors of the 
people. 

I am glad to see that after your major 
operation — apparently it has been a very 
serious one — you are looking so well and 
regaining your health. I hope you will re- 
gain your full vigor. 

May I say that the talk we had together 
has been very exhilarating for me. You have 
been patient enough to listen to me, and I 
do hope that you will be convinced of my 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sincerity. I may be wrong in my approach, 
but you can be assured of my sincerity of 
approach. 

I have no doubt that if we understand 
each other's difficulties there is no reason 
why our friendship can't last forever. 

So I thank you for all the understanding 
you have given me and us all, and this warm 
welcome and great hospitality, and also 
given me the opportunity of meeting you 
again. It has done my soul a lot of good. 

So, in return for that, may I ask you ladies 
and gentlemen to join me in drinking to the 
health and happiness of the President of the 
United States of America and to the well- 
being and happiness of the people of the 
United States of America. 

Mr. President, sir. 



TEXT OF JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

White House press release dated December 15 

President Johnson and President Ayub 
have had frank, wide-ranging, and produc- 
tive talks for the past 2 days. President 
Ayub's visit has given the two Presidents 
the opportunity to renew their warm per- 
sonal acquaintance and to recall with pleas- 
ure their respective visits to Pakistan and 
the United States in 1961. 

The two Presidents discussed at length 
recent events in South Asia, including the 
tragic conflict between India and Pakistan. 
In this context, they reaffirmed their Gov- 
ernments' support for the U.N. Security 
Council resolution of September 20, 1965, 1 
in all its parts, as well as the resolutions 
adopted on September 27 2 and November 5, 
1965. 3 

President Johnson reaffirmed that the 
United States regards as vital to world 
peace the preservation of the independence 
and integrity of Pakistan and expressed the 
continuing interest of the United States in 
Pakistan's economic and social development. 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 11, 1965, p. 608. 

3 U.N. doc. S/RES/214 (1965). 

3 Bulletin of Dec. 13, 1965, p. 957. 



President Ayub reaffirmed the importance 
that Pakistan attaches to a close and coop- 
erative relationship with the United States 
and expressed the continuing desire of hi3 
Government to contribute to this objective. 

The two Presidents agreed on the need 
for a peaceful resolution of all outstanding 
differences between India and Pakistan, so 
that the energies and resources of the peo- 
ples of the subcontinent would not be waste- 
fully diverted from their efforts to meet 
their vitally important social and economic 
problems. 

Within the context of a review of world- 
wide developments, the two Presidents dis- 
cussed in depth the problem of achieving 
peace and stability in Southeast Asia. They 
expressed the hope that the conflicts in that 
area would be peacefully resolved. They 
agreed that their diplomatic representatives 
would remain in close touch on these wider 
and critical Asian problems. 



North Atlantic Council 
Meets at Paris 

The North Atlantic Council held its regu- 
lar ministerial meeting at Paris December 
14-16. Following is the text of a com- 
munique issued at Paris on December 16, to- 
gether with a list of the members of the 
U.S. delegation. 



TEXT OF COMMUNIQUE 

Press release 293 dated December 17 

1. The North Atlantic Council met in Min- 
isterial session in Paris on the 14th, 15th and 
16th December, 1965. 

2. In a comprehensive survey of inter- 
national affairs, the Ministers reviewed the 
whole field of East- West relations. 

3. In pursuit of their common objective of 
ensuring peace and security, the members 
of NATO have promoted and extended their 
contacts and exchanges with the Soviet Un- 
ion and the countries of Eastern Europe. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



They will continue to seek an improvement in 
their relations with these countries. The 
Ministers noted with satisfaction that these 
efforts had met with some degree of re- 
sponse, mainly in the sphere of bilateral re- 
lations. 

4. Although no major crises had arisen 
in Europe, the Soviet Union continues to 
oppose a settlement of the cardinal issues 
between East and West. Such a settlement, 
which must safeguard the legitimate inter- 
ests of all concerned, remains one of the 
essential objectives of the Alliance. At the 
same time, the Ministers also noted that the 
Soviet Union continues to devote an increas- 
ing share of its economic and technical re- 
sources to military purposes. 

5. In this situation the Ministers em- 
phasized their determination to maintain 
the unity of the Alliance and to ensure its 
collective defense. 

6. The Council noted with regret that no 
progress had been made towards overcom- 
ing the division of Germany. The accusations 
leveled against the Federal Republic of 
Germany do not make a solution any easier. 
Rejecting these accusations, the Council re- 
affirmed that a just and peaceful solution 
to the problem of Germany can be reached 
only on the basis of the right of self-deter- 
mination. They also reaffirmed that the 
Government of the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many is the only German Government freely 
and legitimately constituted and therefore 
entitled to speak for Germany as the rep- 
resentative of the German people in interna- 
tional affairs. With regard to Berlin, the 
Alliance stands by the terms of its Declara- 
tion of 16th December, 1958. 1 

7. Turning to problems outside the At- 
lantic area, the Ministers noted that tension 
had diminished in some parts of the world. 
But in Southeast Asia conflicts continued. 
With regard to Viet-Nam, the United States 
Secretary of State reaffirmed that the 
United States, while determined to fulfill 
its commitments, remained ready to enter 
without preconditions into negotiations to 



end the war. He recapitulated the views of 
his government as to the bases for a peace- 
ful settlement. The United Kingdom Secre- 
tary of State for Defense outlined British 
policy on the subject of Rhodesia and ex- 
pressed appreciation for the support re- 
ceived from the Allied Governments. He 
stressed the need for further concerted ac- 
tion by members of the Alliance. Consul- 
tations will continue not only on these prob- 
lems but also on those to which several 
Ministers drew attention, arising out of the 
policies pursued by the People's Republic of 
China. 

8. The Ministers reaffirmed the concern 
of their governments for the social and eco- 
nomic welfare and continuing progress of 
the developing countries. 

9. The Ministers reaffirmed that the 
achievement of general and complete dis- 
armament under effective international con- 
trol remained one of the principal objec- 
tives of their governments. They expressed 
their regret that so little progress had been 
made towards this end. They viewed with 
concern the potential danger of the spread 
of nuclear weapons in various parts of the 
world. They agreed that this problem should 
be kept under constant review and that the 
search should be continued for ways of avert- 
ing the danger. The Ministers welcomed the 
recent decision to convene periodical meet- 
ings in NATO in order to intensify the ex- 
amination of detailed technical aspects of 
arms control and for the exploration of new 
possibilities for progress in disarmament. 

10. The Ministers noted with satisfaction 
the progress made in studies of the inter- 
related questions of strategy, force require- 
ments and resources, which had been ini- 
tiated by the Ministers at their session in 
Ottawa in May 1963. 2 Force goals for the 
period 1965 through 1970 are being worked 
out, as the first of a series of steps de- 
signed to secure a closer alignment between 
NATO military requirements and national 
force plans within the agreed strategic 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 5, 1959, p. 4. 



s For text of communique, see ibid., June 10, 1963, 
p. 895. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



concept of a forward defense posture. 
They accepted in principle the introduction 
of new procedures designed to improve the 
annual process of reviewing the defense ef- 
forts of member countries and agreeing 
upon their force contributions. These pro- 
cedures, by projecting Alliance force goals 
and country plans five years ahead each 
year, are designed to enhance the capacity 
of the Alliance to adapt its defense plans 
to changes both in military technology and 
in the international situation. 

11. The Ministers instructed the Council 
in permanent session to review the organi- 
zational and financial basis of the Allied 
Command Europe Mobile Force. 

12. The Secretary General, as chairman of 
a Special Committee of Defense Ministers, 
made a progress report to the Council. The 
Ministers had a discussion on this report. 

13. The Ministers approved a resolution 
inviting the Council in permanent session 
to set up a program for defense assistance 
to Greece and Turkey for 1965 with the 
participation of the greatest possible num- 
ber of member countries, and to ensure 
that the commitments taken in this respect 
are implemented with the least possible de- 
lay. At the Ministerial meeting in the Spring 
of 1966, the Council in permanent session 
will report on the implementation of this 
program, and submit proposals for a pro- 
gram for 1966 in the light of relevant de- 
fense planning studies. 

14. The Ministers heard a report from the 
Secretary General on his activities under the 
"watching brief" in regard to Greek-Turkish 
relations entrusted to his predecessor by the 
Council at their meeting in The Hague in 
May 1964. 3 They confirmed their support 
for the activities of the Secretary General 
under his "watching brief" mission and 
agreed that they should continue. They also 
reiterated their support for the efforts of 
the United Nations to reduce tension in 
Cyprus and reaffirmed their determination 
to contribute to bringing about a peaceful, 
agreed and equitable solution of the problem 



"Ibid., June 1, 1964, p. 850. 



in accordance with the principles of the 
United Nations Charter. The Council en- 
dorsed the Secretary General's plea for an 
early resumption of constructive discussions 
between Greece and Turkey. The Ministers 
expressed their confidence that the parties 
concerned would refrain from any action 
prejudicial to such a solution. Against this 
background, the Council stressed the impor- 
tance of a speedy solution to the financial and 
other problems involved in the continuation 
of the United Nations peace-keeping oper- 
ation. 

15. The Ministers approved a report on 
civil emergency planning. They noted that a 
reappraisal of civil emergency planning is 
being conducted and reaffirmed the impor- 
tance of such planning for the protection of 
the civil population. 

16. The next meeting of the North At- 
lantic Council at the Ministerial level will be 
held, on the invitation of the Belgian Gov- 
ernment, in Brussels at the end of May or 
beginning of June, 1966. 



U.S. DELEGATION 

Press release 284 dated December 8 

Representatives 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, chairman 
Henry Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 
Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense 

U.S. Representative on the North Atlantic 

Council, 
Harlan Cleveland 

Members of the Delegation 
Department of State 

Charles E. Bohlen, U.S. Ambassador to France 

Llewellyn Thompson, Ambassador at Large 

James L. Greenfield, Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs 

John M. Leddy, Assistant Secretary for European 
Affairs 

Ernest K. Lindley, Special Assistant to the Sec- 
retary of State 

J. Robert Schaetzel, Deputy Assistant Secretary for 
European Affairs 

Ronald I. Spiers, Director, Office of Atlantic Polit- 
ical and Military Affairs 

Samuel T. Parelman, secretary of delegation, Dep- 
uty Director, Office of International Conferences 

George S. Vest, Deputy Director, Office of Atlan- 
tic Political and Military Affairs 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



C. Arthur Borg, Special Assistant to the Secretary 

of State 
Robbins P. Gilman, Office of Atlantic Political and 

Military Affairs 
Richard W. Boehm, Office of Atlantic Political and 

Military Affairs 

Department of the Treasury 

Dixon Donnelley, Assistant to the Secretary of the 

Treasury 
Charles A. Sullivan, Assistant to the Secretary of 

the Treasury 
Douglass Hunt, Special Assistant to the Secretary 

of the Treasury 

Department of Defense 

Gen. Earle Wheeler, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of 
Staff 

Arthur Sylvester, Assistant Secretary for Public 
Affairs 

John T. McNaughton, Assistant Secretary for In- 
ternational Security Affairs 

Adm. Alfred G. Ward, U.S. Representative to 
NATO Military Committee and Standing Group 

Lawrence Finkelstein, Deputy Assistant Secretary 
for International Security Affairs 

Brig. Gen. Russell Dougherty, Director, European 
Region, Office of Assistant Secretary for Inter- 
national Security Affairs 

U.S. Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Orga- 
nization and European Regional Organizations 

Philip J. Farley, Deputy U.S. Representative on the 
North Atlantic Council 

John A. Hooper, Defense Adviser and Defense 
Representative 

John I. Getz, Office of Political Affairs 



Letters of Credence 

France 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the 
French Republic, Charles Lucet, presented 
his credentials to President Johnson on De- 
cember 15. For texts of the Ambassador's 
remarks and the President's reply, see De- 
partment of State press release dated De- 
cember 15. 

Tanzania 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the 
United Republic of Tanzania, Michael Luk- 
umbuzya, presented his credentials to Presi- 
dent Johnson on December 15. For texts of 
the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press 
release dated December 15. 



U.S. -Italian Exchange on North 
Viet-Nam Contacts Released 

Follotving is a statement read to news 
correspondents on December 17 by Robert 
J. McCloskey, Director of the Office of 
News, together with the texts of a letter to 
President Johnson from Italian Foreign 
Minister Amintore Fanfani, President of 
the U.N. General Assembly; a reply to Mr. 
Fanfani from Secretary Rusk; and a re- 
sponse to Secretary Rusk from Mr. Fanfani. 



STATEMENT BY MR. McCLOSKEY 

You will have seen the texts of three let- 
ters: One is from Foreign Minister Fanfani 
to the President; one is from the Secretary 
of State to the Foreign Minister in ac- 
knowledgment; and the third is from the 
Foreign Minister back to the Secretary of 
State. 

Over those letters, and by way of explana- 
tion, the facts are as follows : 

On November 20, 1965, the President of 
the U.N. General Assembly, who is also 
Italian Foreign Minister, Amintore Fan- 
fani, transmitted to President Johnson, 
through Ambassador Goldberg [Arthur J. 
Goldberg, U.S. Representative to the United 
Nations], that letter in your hands. This 
letter was given urgent and careful study. 

A few days later, Ambassador Goldberg 
was requested to inform Mr. Fanfani that 
the letter was being studied carefully and that 
a prompt reply would be forthcoming. In the 
same conversation Mr. Fanfani informed 
Ambassador Goldberg that one of the two 
persons who had reported talking in Hanoi 
was Professor [Giorgio] La Pira, a former 
mayor of Florence. 

On December 4, the United States, in a 
letter from Secretary Rusk to Mr. Fanfani, 
responded. 

Now, the United States has rejected no 
proposal. As will be seen from the attached 
letter, the United States, consistent with the 
President's desire to engage promptly in un- 
conditional talks, asked Foreign Minister 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Fanfani to pursue this matter further. And 

1 will cite quickly for you the pertinent 
paragraphs in that letter. 

[Here Mr. McCloskey read numbered paragraphs 

2 and 3 of Secretary Rusk's letter.] 

On December 13 Foreign Minister Fan- 
fani informed Ambassador Goldberg that 
the substance of the United States reply 
had been delivered into the hands of quali- 
fied representatives in order to be for- 
warded to Hanoi. 

On this same date Foreign Minister Fan- 
fani also informed Ambassador Goldberg 
of his belief that our reply had already 
reached Hanoi. 

It is now up to Hanoi to determine 
whether it wishes to move this question 
from the battlefield to the conference table. 
We would welcome a straightforward ex- 
pression of Hanoi's view. We await Hanoi's 
reaction. 

TEXTS OF LETTERS 

Mr. Fanfani to President Johnson 

NEW YORK, November 20, 1965 
Mr. President: In the interview which 
you graciously accorded me at the end of 
May you repeated anew your firm intention 
to seek assiduously a negotiated solution for 
the conflict in Vietnam. 

In the hope of being able to assist in the 
realization of this noble purpose, I bring to 
your attention the following : 

On Thursday, November 11, in Hanoi, Ho 
Chi Minh and the President of the Council, 
[Pham] Van Dong, expressed to two per- 
sons (known to me) the strong desire to 
find a peaceful solution to the conflict in 
Vietnam and, in summary, stated — accord- 
ing to what they wrote me — that "in order 
for the peace negotiations to come about, 
there will be necessary (a) a cease-fire (by 
air, by sea, by land) in the entire territory 
of Vietnam (north and south) ; the cessa- 
tion, that is, of all belligerent operations 
(including therefore also the cessation of 
debarkation of further American troops) ; 
(b) a declaration according to which the 
Geneva Agreements of 1954 will be taken as 



the basis for the negotiations — a declaration 
made up of the four points formulated by 
Hanoi, points that are in reality the ex- 
planation of the Geneva text and which, 
therefore, can be reduced to a single point: 
application, in other words, of the Geneva 
Accords." 

The text of the communication which I 
have received adds that "the Government in 
Hanoi is prepared to initiate negotiations 
without first requiring actual withdrawal of 
the American troops." 

To the same interlocutors Ho Chi Minh 
said: "I am prepared to go anywhere; to 
meet anyone." 

These are the essential points that one of 
the two interlocutors of Ho Chi Minh and 
Van Dong sent me in writing last night and 
which, in this letter of mine — confided to 
Mr. A. Goldberg, the U.S. representative to 
the UN, so that he can deliver it promptly 
and confidentially — I bring word for word 
to your attention. 

You surely have other elements by which 
to judge the importance of the above. As 
President of the 20th Assembly, as a high 
official of Italy, as a sincere friend of the 
United States and of yourself, I hope that 
this contribution to the sought-for peaceful 
solution, always more necessary and more 
urgent, may be a useful one. And I am at 
your disposition for any step that you con- 
sider opportune in the matter. 

With sincere pleasure at your recovery 
and with best wishes for your high mission, 
I send my respectful greetings. 
Yours, 

Amintore Fanfani 



Secretary Rusk to Mr. Fanfani 

December 4, 1965 
Dear Mr. Fanfani: My government is 
most grateful to you for your help and co- 
operation in transmitting views attributed 
to the North Vietnamese Government on 
negotiations to deal with the problem of 
Viet-Nam. We have carefully examined the 
suggestions you have conveyed, and I wish 
to make the following comments : 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



11 



1. As it has repeatedly stated, the United 
States is prepared to enter into discussions 
or negotiations with any government at 
any time without any preconditions what- 
soever. We reaffirm this willingness. 

2. Although there is some ambiguity in 
the statement of Hanoi's position, your 
source seems to indicate that Hanoi would 
agree that negotiations might be under- 
taken on the basis of the Geneva Agree- 
ments of 1954 without any qualifications or 
conditions. We for our part would be will- 
ing to engage in negotiations on this basis 
without any qualifications or conditions. 

3. The United States does not, however, 
agree with the contention that the "four 
points" advanced by Hanoi constitute an 
authentic interpretation of the Geneva 
Agreements of 1954. Elements in the four 
points, notably the political program of the 
so-called National Liberation Front, have 
no basis in the Geneva Agreements, and 
Hanoi's apparent insistence on a prior 
declaration accepting the four points thus 
appears both to be inconsistent with the 
Agreements and to require a substantive 
condition to negotiations. Nevertheless, we 
are prepared to include these four points 
for consideration in any peace talks along 
with any proposals which the United States, 
South Viet-Nam and other governments may 
wish to advance. 

4. Your sources also mention another ap- 
parent Hanoi condition calling for a cease- 
fire and other measures prior to ne- 
gotiations. The United States would be 
prepared for negotiations without the im- 
position of any conditions of this nature. 
However, if a reduction or cessation of 
hostilities were to be arranged prior to ne- 
gotiations, it seems self-evident that it 
would have to be on an equitable and re- 
ciprocal basis. If there were a cessation of 
certain military activities on the one side, 
there would have to be an equivalent cessa- 
tion of military activities on the other. The 
formulation proposed by Hanoi's leaders 
does not appear to meet this test, for ex- 
ample, in that it imposes no restraint on the 
continued infiltration of forces and equip- 



ment from North to South Viet-Nam. 

5. The United States Government notes 
the message conveyed that North Viet-Nam 
would not insist on the actual withdrawal 
of American forces prior to the initiation of 
negotiations. However, the clarification of 
this point, though not without significance 
in the light of conflicting public statements 
by Hanoi on the subject, still leaves the 
questions discussed in 2 and 3 above. 

We are thus far from persuaded that 
statements by Ho Chi Minh and Pham Van 
Dong quoted by your Italian sources indicate 
a real willingness for unconditional nego- 
tiations. We would be pleased, for our 
part, however, on the basis of the consid- 
erations set forth above and perhaps in 
light of any further soundings your sources 
may make with Hanoi to discuss this mat- 
ter further with you. I have asked Ambas- 
sador Goldberg, who bears this letter, to 
make himself available to you at any time 
for this purpose. 

Further, if it develops following such 
discussions, or further contact by you with 
your sources, that a direct discussion with 
your Italian sources is deemed fruitful, a 
representative of the United States would 
be authorized to meet with them privately. 

Finally, let me make it clear that you are 
free to draw on the contents of this letter, 
in any way you may desire, in communicat- 
ing with your sources. We would welcome 
your continuing assistance on this impor- 
tant matter. 

With the assurance of my highest con- 
sideration, 

Sincerely yours, 

Dean Rusk 

Mr. Fanfani to Secretary Rusk 

December 13, 1965 

Dear Mr. Secretary: I received on 6th 

December your letter which Ambassador 

Goldberg had previously announced to me 

on November 29. 

The same day I summarized in a docu- 
ment of mine essential observations made 
by you on various points and I have just 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



received word that on Wednesday last — 8th 
December — said document has been confi- 
dentially delivered into the hands of a quali- 
fied representative in order to be forwarded 
to Hanoi. I think, as of today, said docu- 
ment has already reached its final destina- 
tion. 

I would like to add I desire, Mr. Secre- 
tary, to thank you very much for the confi- 
dence and trust in my person you and the 



American Government have confirmed in 
your letter. I can assure you that, as soon 
as I receive any reaction on the points con- 
tained in the letter, I will inform you im- 
mediately. 

Anticipating the pleasure of meeting you 
next week in Washington, I remain, Mr. 
Secretary, 

Amintore Fanfani 



U.S. Outlines Interests in Southern Rhodesia 



by G. Mennen Williams 

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs 1 



In recent days I have encountered some 
misunderstanding about what is happening 
in Southern Rhodesia. Today, therefore, I 
would like to give you some facts about the 
illegal seizure of power in Southern Rhodesia 
by a white minority regime. 

There has been some feeling in this coun- 
try that the Southern Rhodesian rebellion, 
important as it is in its own right, is not of 
direct interest to the United States in view 
of our many other important world involve- 
ments. 

Let me say flatly that nothing could be 
farther from the truth. 

We naturally have a stake in what is hap- 
pening in Southern Rhodesia because of our 
traditional beliefs that government should 
be based on the consent of the governed and 
that all men are created equal. These prin- 
ciples are of great importance to us, but 
they are not the only matters of concern to 
the United States. 



1 Address made before Department of State Post 
No. 68 of the American Legion at Washington, 
D.C., on Dec. 16 (press release 291). 



In addition to those historic beliefs, we 
have other vital U.S. interests at stake in 
Africa. We have, therefore, taken a hard- 
headed, realistic position against continu- 
ance of the illegal Southern Rhodesian re- 
gime because we have an important self-in- 
terest in the likely consequences that may 
flow from the rash action of a white minor- 
ity in Southern Rhodesia. 

If the rebel regime in Southern Rhodesia 
successfully maintains control of 4 million 
black Africans by 220,000 whites without 
being brought down, a whole chain of criti- 
cal consequences could be set in motion — all 
of which would affect the United States di- 
rectly and indirectly. 

These are some of those probable conse- 
quences : 

This act of illegal rule by a selfish minor- 
ity of 220,000 whites could jeopardize the 
rights, prestige, and good relations built up 
and enjoyed by some 1V& million other 
whites of European origin — a term that in- 
cludes Americans — who live in areas of 
Africa other than southern Africa. It would 
put the white man in Africa in the same po- 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



13 



sition, in effect, that we would be in in this 
country if we had given Governors Barnett 
and Wallace complete freedom of action in 
Mississippi and Alabama to suppress Negro 
Americans and to flout the law of the land — 
except that in Southern Rhodesia it would be 
a small minority imposing its control over a 
large majority. 

Unchecked, the Southern Rhodesian situa- 
tion could well lead to the downfall of re- 
sponsible, friendly African governments — 
whose leaders recognize the desirability of 
continuing black-white cooperation — and 
their replacement by radical elements whose 
hands would be strengthened by white South- 
ern Rhodesian actions. 

The failure to halt illegal minority rule in 
Southern Rhodesia could lead to our closest 
ally, Britain, losing its influence in Africa 
and to a waning of British power through- 
out the world. It almost certainly would 
cause the loss of African and other nonwhite 
members of the Commonwealth. 

A further significant consequence of a 
runaway Southern Rhodesia lies in the fact 
that Southern Rhodesia now controls the 
electric power, the coal, and the exit route 
for the 700,000 tons of copper which Zam- 
bia exports to the world annually. Britain 
imports about one-third of Zambia's copper. 
Zambia and the Congo's neighboring Ka- 
tanga region account for 25 percent of the 
free world's copper supply and consequently 
have an important effect on the world 
market. 

Successful maintenance of illegal minority 
rule in Southern Rhodesia would have addi- 
tional adverse effects on our own numerous 
and specific interests in Africa. The simple 
fact is that our entire posture in Africa rests 
squarely on the strong moral and material 
support we give African nations on issues of 
vital importance to them — and, obviously, 
the question of independence and majority 
rule in Southern Rhodesia is such an issue. 
You can readily see, therefore, that it 
would be a poor political risk to pander to 
Southern Rhodesia's white minority regime 
for any reason — and certainly not for in- 
vestment reasons, as has been suggested in 



some quarters, when only $56 million of our 
$44.34 billion worldwide investment total is 
involved — and $56 million is only about one- 
twentieth of our investment in black and 
Arab Africa. 

And, finally, the situation in Southern 
Rhodesia could trigger a bitter war along 
racial lines in southern Africa — a struggle 
that could spread swiftly to other conti- 
nents. This could be the gravest conse- 
quence of all. 

The tragedy of the current situation in 
Southern Rhodesia is that it didn't have to 
happen. Under British rule, black Southern 
Rhodesians had confidence that their po- 
litical rights would flow normally, as such 
rights have done in other former British 
colonies. 

While the British did not plan to initiate 
"one man, one vote" overnight, they did 
propose to bring majority rule — with ap- 
propriate safeguards for the rights of minor- 
ities — to Southern Rhodesia in what they 
considered a reasonable time. And in the 
months and years before the illegal seizure 
of power last November 11, the British de- 
voted strenuous efforts and much time to 
attempts to direct white and black Southern 
Rhodesians toward a path of reasonableness. 

White Southern Rhodesians also had seen 
the successful transition from white minor- 
ity rule to nonracial societies that had been 
accomplished in other parts of Africa. In 
fact, groups of prominent white citizens of 
Kenya and Tanzania sent telegrams to the 
Southern Rhodesian regime to try to dis- 
suade Southern Rhodesians from their col- 
lision course. 

But to no avail. The white minority was 
convinced it could hold back the tide of Af- 
rican nationalism by a selfish and ill-con- 
sidered seizure of power. 

But at best the Southern Rhodesian whites 
have bought only a few fleeting hours in 
which they can continue to deny black Afri- 
cans their rights. They cannot long escape 
the inevitability of majority rule any more 
than they can halt the passage of time. 

The measures the Southern Rhodesian re- 
gime is taking to keep in power and control 



14 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



its people are reminiscent of those adopted 
by the totalitarian regimes of the 1930's, 
against whom we fought in World War II. 

Heavy press censorship has been put into 
effect, and Rhodesian papers have appeared 
with large blank white spaces. Public group 
listening to so-called "subversive" broad- 
casts — the BBC and the Voice of America, 
for example — is illegal. And the Rhodesia 
Herald no longer can print BBC schedules. 

Parliamentary supporters of the regime 
have shouted down and suspended opposi- 
tion. A state of emergency was proclaimed 
that permits police to arrest people without 
warrants. 

The principal African nationalist leaders, 
Joshua Nkomo and Ndabaningi Sithole — 
along with some 1,800 of their supporters — 
are under detention, mostly without trial. 

A former white Prime Minister, Garfield 
Todd, is under house arrest for opposing 
the regime. 

Leo Baron, the white legal adviser to one 
of the two principal African political parties, 
the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union, has 
been put into prison. 

All of these actions are the trappings of a 
police state. 

Today, the misguided white Southern 
Rhodesians have all but cut themselves off 
from the rest of the world. British Prime 
Minister Wilson has said of them : "We can- 
not negotiate with these men nor can they 
be trusted, after the return of constitu- 
tional rule, with the task of leading Rho- 
desia in paths of freedom and racial har- 
mony." 

Looking to the future, we believe that 
Britain, as the sovereign power in Southern 
Rhodesia, has the primary responsibility for 
halting the rebellion in its colony. Britain 
has, in fact, applied a broad range of sanc- 
tions — political, fiscal, economic — against 
Southern Rhodesia to see if the situation 
can be rectified by such drastic expedients. 

Speed is a critical factor in the situation, 
however. African nations already are impa- 



tient with Britain's choice of measures. 
Many of them are pressing for direct mili- 
tary action. And a few would consider turn- 
ing to the Communists for help, on the 
grounds that the West is not moving fast 
enough. Obviously, the Communists would 
be happy to rush into this situation if they 
get a chance. 

Under normal circumstances, it would 
seem that the extensive British sanctions 
would be strong enough to bring down the 
Southern Rhodesian regime. But three in- 
tangibles remain. Whether these sanctions 
will have the opportunity of exerting their 
full impact on Southern Rhodesia may de- 
pend upon the amount of cooperation re- 
ceived from South Africa, upon the preda- 
tory tendencies of modern-day private buc- 
caneers looking for quick profit, and upon 
the amount of patience and restraint ex- 
hibited by African nations. 

Because of our own important interests in 
this matter, the United States fully backs 
the British Government in its actions. We 
believe Britain will continue to apply meas- 
ures that will be adequate to resolve the 
situation, and we will support those 
measures. 

In conclusion, then, the continued exist- 
ence of the illegal Southern Rhodesian re- 
gime is not a phenomenon isolated to a re- 
mote section of southern Africa. Important 
as it is, it is not solely a question of whether 
220,000 whites can maintain a "Governor 
Wallace type" of racial supremacy over 4 
million black Africans. Rather, it is a situa- 
tion that can have serious repercussions for 
the future of freedom in Africa, for other 
whites in Africa, for independent African 
governments, for Britain, for the United 
States, and for the whole world. 

Clearly, the United States has only one 
course to follow — and that is to help halt the 
maintenance of an illegal regime in South- 
ern Rhodesia and to assist the British in 
their efforts to achieve an orderly transition 
to majority rule. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



15 



". . . the United States seems to come through to 
Europe as a great big supermarket in the sky . . . ." 



The View From the Other Side 



by Patricia Roberts Harris 
Ambassador to Luxembourg l 



During a luncheon at the White House 
last summer, the guests were invited to go 
out on the terrace. Looking south, across 
the Mall, an area which I have known for 
16 years, I was struck by the beauty of 
the scene. What I saw as I stood there 
was the panorama stretching from the Jef- 
ferson Memorial to the White House, a view 
which one can never see unless one stands 
at that spot. I turned to the person stand- 
ing beside me and said, "I have stood at that 
iron fence on many occasions, and I know 
very well this area, but I did not know that 
the view from the other side was so spec- 
tacular." 

I understood then what Lawrence Durrell 
sought to convey in his Alexandria Quartet: 
that the character of men and things and 
places is a matter not only of the men and 
the things and the places but also of the per- 
spective from which they are seen. Thus 
one knows a scene only in terms of one's 
vantage point. 

It is quite possible that I will alter my 
judgments about the places I have seen in 
the last 2 months as I change the perspec- 
tive from which I view them. Therefore, I 
wish to make it very clear that the com- 
ments I make today are the comments from 
a very new and very brief view and that I 



1 Address made before the Women's National 
Democratic Club at Washington, D.C., on Nov. 23. 



reserve the right to change my opinion 
when the perspective changes. 

What, then, is the view from the other 
side? 

One entering Europe as a diplomat is con- 
scious from the moment of that entry that 
one enters both countries and an idea. For 
while we speak of Luxembourg or of France 
or of Germany, we also speak of Europe. We 
speak of Western culture, and when we do 
so, we speak of European culture. 

Today, perhaps as never before, the con- 
cept of Europe, apart from the individual 
countries, stirs men's hearts and minds and 
is, in fact, the basis for the present concern 
and soul-searching which agitates the West- 
ern part of the European Continent and 
which also causes us, the heirs of that con- 
tinent, great concern. For we Americans, 
though we are Americans, feel both an in- 
tellectual and an emotional attachment to 
this continent from which came so many of 
our forebears and so many of the seminal 
ideas which have shaped us as a nation and 
as a people. Ours is the heritage of Rous- 
seau and Verdi and Beethoven and Rem- 
brandt and others too numerous to name. 

What does Europe look like to this Amer- 
ican after 2 months? First of all, as I have 
suggested, it is very much an extension of 
the world from which one came. There are, 
of course, some significant differences and 
some major cultural shocks. When one 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



passes an Esso station, one reads, Mettez un 
tigre dans voire moteur. And when rock 
and roll singers seem to be singing in a for- 
eign language, it may be a foreign language. 
But other than that, and the existence of 
several languages which everyone else seems 
to speak and understand, life is very much 
the same. 

But as an American, one realizes how well 
Hamilton and Madison wrought when they 
insisted upon an interstate commerce clause 
in the United States Constitution, and how 
important is the provision for a uniform 
system of currency. Because Europe is still 
a series of nations; unity is but a concept. 
One understands, even as one sees the simi- 
larities, the tremendous problems of moving 
from a concept of Europe to the reality of 
Europe. And in the simple things — the lan- 
guage differences, the borders (even with 
their easier access of today), and the mul- 
tiple currencies — one understands the 
tedium of detail and the problems of habit 
that must be overcome before the concept 
of unity and union can become reality. 

And what of Luxembourg? Luxembourg 
is clearly an ideal place to sit and contem- 
plate Europe. 999 square miles, a half hour 
from any of three bordering countries, and a 
matter of a few hours to all the others, it is 
a nation 1,002 years old, set among its 
neighbors with an ease and an integrity of 
personality which respects the rights of 
others and demands no more than the same 
for itself. 

It is a country which remembers with 
quiet gratitude and enduring affection the 
role of the United States in liberating it 
after two great wars. As a consequence, 
the people of Luxembourg love and respect 
the United States and see in each American 
a representative of a country to which Lux- 
embourg owes a great deal, a debt which, I 
suspect, they will never forget. 

In many ways Luxembourg is an asset 
for the United States deep in the heart of 
Europe. Luxembourgers respect what we 
are and love us for it, without any wish to 
imitate us and without any hostility or 



jealousy. Luxembourg has been blessed 
with leaders who are extraordinarily able 
persons who exert an influence on Euro- 
pean affairs far beyond what one would ex- 
pect from the size of the country. Luxem- 
bourg and its people are kindly, pragmatic, 
and democratic. In many ways Luxem- 
bourgers are very much like Americans, 
which may explain why there are between 
200,000 and 400,000 Luxembourgers in the 
United States. 



The Reality Is Not Believable 

And what of the United States from the 
other side? How do we look from abroad? 

The thing that has surprised me most has 
been the paucity of news about the full 
range of American life in European com- 
munication media ; in short, the lack of a full 
view of the United States in Europe. It ap- 
pears to me that it is the unusual, the 
bizarre, and the dramatic which tend to be 
reported in European newspapers and on 
European television. I have seen very little 
of day-to-day American activity in politics, 
in the arts, in the sciences, or in education. 

We readers of the Washing-ton Post and 
of the Washington Star and of the New 
York Times are, in my judgment, infinitely 
better informed about European politics and 
politicians, and of European arts and science, 
than is the average European citizen about 
the United States. As a result, the United 
States seems to come through to Europe as 
a great big supermarket in the sky with 
some outstanding unresolved problems and 
with inexplicable conflicting points of view. 

Those things which call the attention of 
Europe to the United States are those which 
seem to demonstrate our inability to solve 
our own problems. I suspect that one of the 
reasons for this is that the reality of the 
United States seems to be too good to be 
true. Most Americans — four-fifths by our 
own figures — live extraordinarily well, with 
an automobile or two, a television set or two, 
a bathroom or two, clothes beyond number, 
and enough money to travel to Europe, not 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



17 



by the hundreds but by the thousands. The 
reality apparent to Europe on the affluence 
of Americans is not believable. Therefore, 
there must be a joker in the deck, and 
understandably, with the usual human skep- 
ticism, Europe looks for the joker. Europe 
looks for that which proves that the United 
States is, in fact, too good to be true. 

In a sense, although the Europeans them- 
selves do not understand this, our racial 
problems, our continuing poverty, yes, even 
our very discussion of what our role should 
be in international affairs, show that we 
are not quite what we say we are, that we 
do have problems which make us human and 
which prove our system fallible. I have dis- 
covered this to be true particularly on the 
racial question, which is one which stirs 
Europe, not because Europe does not under- 
stand the problem but because, under the 
theory of our system, we should not have it. 
Its continued existence seems to prove that 
our system does not work, that it is too good 
to be true. 

I am beginning to believe that it is not 
American problems which confuse Euro- 
peans, because our problems are similar. It 
is the inability to solve them which they 
cannot understand. 

The answer, in my judgment, to the racial 
question and to similar questions is to pre- 
sent the view that cannot be ignored, that 
of the solution of our problems. Appoint- 
ments such as my own help. So successful 
has it been, in my case, that some news- 
paper reporters are a little embarrassed 
about raising the question of United States 
racial problems with me. The presence in 
Europe of integrated American troops is an- 
other answer. The continued good health of 
our economy, the improvement of objective 
conditions of life of our people, are the 
proof that our system works for everybody. 

I may be wrong, but I have the sense that, 
at this moment, there is understanding and 
approval of our foreign policy. Viet-Nam 
troubles those to whom I have talked, but 
as it troubles those of us, the majority of 
us who are committed to it: They are con- 
cerned that those with whom we are locked 



in battle understand our determination to 
meet our commitments. 

And I think, too, that today there is basic 
understanding and approval of the way we 
are handling our troublesome domestic prob- 
lems. 

After 2 months I am convinced that the 
appropriate posture for the United States in 
convincing Europe and the rest of the world 
that we are believable, and that the reality 
of America is a reality and not a promise, 
is to continue, with as much vigor as we can 
marshal, to work to solve our problems at 
home. For underneath all of the concern and 
the criticism, I suspect, is a deep wish that 
we in the United States in fact be able to 
solve our problems, because if we do there is 
hope that the rest of the world can solve its 
problems too. 

For we Americans have had a unique ex- 
perience as a nation. As I said at a meeting 
of youth groups at the Embassy a few weeks 
ago, there is in American experience an 
empathy for the experience of all other na- 
tions, for, wherever they are, we have been 
there too within the last 300 years. 

We started as colonies, dependent upon 
and under the command of a great metro- 
politan nation. Therefore we can sympa- 
thize with all colonies and all people wish- 
ing to be free. 

We went through a period as an under- 
developed nation seeking its industrial rev- 
olution, its place in the sun. We had our own 
dissent as a new nation — what I might call 
our Katanga — in the Civil War. We thus 
understand the growing pains of new na- 
tions. 

We have had also our relationship to de- 
pendent territories, and we have understood 
the need to divest ourselves of the terrible 
responsibility of a colonial power, as, for in- 
stance, with the Philippines. 

We are now a great and mighty industrial 
power, a world political leader. We have had, 
in fact, all the experiences of nationhood 
which history has provided. 

And yet with it all we have kept as the 
transcendent value our belief in freedom, 
freedom as a general concept and as it spe- 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cifically relates to the right of individuals to 
realize the best that is within themselves. 
This is the promise of the United States, a 
promise which has been kept for many of us. 
This is the promise sought today by most of 
the world. 

As I have lived for 2 months away from 
the United States and yet representing it, I 
have realized more and more that it is the 
quality of the decisions made in this country 
that will determine the quality of life for the 
whole world, not because we wish to impose 
these decisions upon others but rather be- 
cause of the exemplary value of a nation 
"so conceived and so dedicated," with its di- 
verse peoples, races, and religions demon- 
strating their ability together to solve their 
problems, both as a nation and as an ag- 
gregate of human beings. 

A Diplomat's Wish 

As a diplomat, after 2 months, I would 
wish for the following : 

First, for more ways, as a person, to stay 
deeply related to this experience, even as I 
am, for the moment, outside it. I am con- 
vinced that the greatest representational 
job to be done for the United States is that 
of explaining our American experience, both 
yesterday and today. 

Second, I would wish that we would apply 
all the vigor we possess as a people to the 
solution of our deeper problems. I am con- 
vinced that any hesitation that the world 
has about the validity of our way of life is 
due almost entirely to the gap between our 
promise and our reality. While I believe that 
this gap is, in terms of the behavior of 
other peoples of other places, a small one, it 
is important that we close it as rapidly as 
possible. 

And third, I wish that we would lose our 
self-consciousness about telling the story of 
the reality of the United States. This reality 
is indeed unbelievable, but it is true. The 
open society in which the poor man of talent 
and the descendant of the disadvantaged 



may in fact move forward to full service of 
his nation and to the rewards that go with 
it, is the story of achievement which is 
greater than any promise of any manifesto 
and is more useful to the achievement of 
world peace than any military deterrent 
force. 

From the other side, we in the United 
States indeed present for those who know 
us a picture of which to be proud and an 
example in fact for emulation. My husband 
and I have said many times in the last 2 
months that it has been good to get away 
because in many ways we have felt very 
proud to be Americans — proud as we visited 
our military bases of the fact that our com- 
manders in fact understood that they are 
there to preserve the peace, proud of the ex- 
ample of diversity of race and of religions 
represented by these armed forces, proud of 
the sacrifice that we make at the moment 
in order to protect the peace of the world, 
but proudest of the fact that what we are 
protecting is the reality of a belief in the 
right of individual human beings to life and 
to personal fulfillment, and an understand- 
ing that we in America really believe in 
this as a goal. This is also the goal of the 
Vietnamese soldier in the rice paddies of 
Viet-Nam and, I suspect, of the Chinese 
commune worker, and of the Russian peas- 
ant, and of the French garcon. 

Our job is to convince them that the way 
of democracy which we have demonstrated 
is the best way to achieve it. From the 
other side of that wide ocean, which daily 
grows smaller, it seems to me that we can 
do so if we continue to make our democracy 
work and deny the claims of those who say 
we have done enough or that we can do no 
more. 

The one thing that is crystal clear on the 
other side, and on this side, is that we can 
make our system work fully when we want 
to. The question which arises, from what- 
ever the point of view, is, will we? At this 
moment, the answer seems to be that we will. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



19 



Science and International Cooperation 



by Donald F. Hornig 

Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology » 



It is a very great pleasure to be with you 
today. All of us can take pride in the mag- 
nificent effort displayed at this White House 
Conference on the part of national organiza- 
tions and private individuals, who have 
sought out improved methods of promoting 
peace and international understanding 
through international cooperation. 

It is particularly appropriate that the 
subject we are discussing today — interna- 
tional cooperation in science and technology 
— be taken up under the auspices of the 
United Nations. One of the areas in which 
the United Nations has been making steady 
but unspectacular progress has been that of 
strengthening science and technology in 
many countries around the globe. This con- 
ference itself is a tribute to the constructive 
role the United Nations is playing in this 
field. 

As you know, the President has been fol- 
lowing the work of the National Citizens' 
Commission for International Cooperation 
with a lively interest. I have a special mes- 
sage which he has asked me to deliver to 
the members of the Citizens' Committee on 
Science and Technology, who have served 
under the distinguished leadership of Dr. 
Detlev Bronk and Dr. Harrison Brown. The 
President says : 



1 Remarks made before the Panel on Science and 
Technology at the White House Conference on In- 
ternational Cooperation on Nov. 30. For texts of 
the major addresses made at the conference, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 20, 1965, p. 966. 



I commend the members of the Citizens' Com- 
mittee on Science and Technology for devoting 
their talents to the cause of international under- 
standing. The broad net of personal contacts among 
scientists of many nations, contacts brought about 
by shared efforts to solve common problems, has 
brought men closer together. These contacts — and 
the cooperation achieved by international scientific 
organizations — have led to understanding among 
scientists which has often preceded and paved the 
way for political understanding. 

The language of science — and the deeds of 
science — continue to offer fruitful and still unex- 
plored opportunities for constructive cooperation 
with other countries in the cause of peace. We 
must not rest in our efforts to develop coopera- 
tive programs which unite the talents of our 
scientific community with those of other nations 
in advancing knowledge and promoting the welfare 
of all mankind. 

Now I should like to say a few words on 
my own behalf. It is difficult not to be trite 
on the subject of international cooperation 
in science. All of the generalities have 
been spoken many times, but yet I doubt 
whether the depth and degree of this coop- 
eration is understood. 

The World Scientific Brotherhood 

I can think of no creative scientist, no 
matter what his area of inquiry, who is not 
acquainted with a net of scholars through- 
out the world, principally through their pub- 
lications. This net consists of some people 
who are working on the same problem in 
friendly competition, of others who con- 
tribute relevant ideas and experiments from 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



related fields. Most of them he knows and 
respects from what they have written — and 
to carry on his own work he reads the sci- 
entific journals of many countries. He keeps 
closely acquainted with the experiments 
carried on throughout the world. 

Soviet scientific journals were read in the 
United States throughout the 1930's and 
1940's, as were American journals in the So- 
viet Union. Scientists in both countries 
knew of the progress — and the problems — 
of many individuals on opposite sides of the 
Iron Curtain long before there was a formal 
exchange program. This has been much 
more true of our friends in Western Europe 
and Japan, and in recent years the contacts 
have become closer and closer with sci- 
entists in India, Pakistan, and many other 
nations. 

The world scientific brotherhood has been 
formally joined through the scientific litera- 
ture. But most scientists not only read the 
literature of foreign countries but engage in 
active correspondence with their coworkers. 
This permits them to share more subtle de- 
tails of evolving ideas, and experiments in 
progress, than can be recorded formally in 
scientific journals. Scientific pen pals are 
common. 

But even the letter does not suffice, for 
the subtleties of creative work are not 
always written down easily — the interplay of 
active minds and the comparison of related 
experiences are not so easily achieved in 
writing. So scientists are a well-traveled lot. 
Through attendance at international meet- 
ings — of which there are large numbers — 
and at each other's national meetings or 
specialized symposia, through visits to each 
other's laboratories, they have met each 
other face to face and formed innumerable 
personal friendships. 

In the chemistry department at Prince- 
ton, for example, I cannot think of a single 
faculty member who has not been abroad at 
least once in the last 2 or 3 years, and many 
have crossed the oceans several times. 

Outstanding scientists have roots in many 
countries. Let us consider, for example, the 



career of your distinguished chairman, Dr. 
Bronk. As a member of scientific and 
learned societies of many nations — of the 
Royal Society of London, of the French 
Academy of Sciences, of the Academy of 
Sciences of the Soviet Union, of the Royal 
Danish Society of Sciences and Letters, of 
the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, 
and of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences — 
he is an honored and welcome guest in coun- 
tries of both hemispheres. 

The internationality of science is not, 
therefore, a statistic of international sci- 
entific organizations, of fellowships, of 
multilateral and bilateral intergovernmental 
arrangements ; it is a brotherhood of people, 
whose bonds in science cross political and 
ideological frontiers. This is more than a 
personal matter. The rate of advance of sci- 
ence depends heavily upon the strength of 
these relationships. 

Government and Science 

The role of governments in promoting in- 
ternational cooperation in science is compara- 
tively recent and, as President Johnson ob- 
served, largely unexplored. 

Indeed the acts of governments have more 
often been to impede rather than to facili- 
tate the free movement of scientists and of 
scientific knowledge. Surely one of our goals 
must be to break down these barriers to 
progress and try to form contacts which will 
benefit us all and expand both the intellec- 
tual horizons and the practical possibilities 
for men everywhere. It is the personal and 
private relationships which lend real mean- 
ing and substance to international coopera- 
tion in science. 

Of course, much remains to be done. There 
are large areas of the world today where 
gifted men of science are still cut off from 
contacts with scientists in other countries. 
There are many places where scientific jour- 
nals and books are not available because 
they cost too much. There are many uni- 
versities and laboratories which have not 
had the stimulus of foreign visitors. Our 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



21 



contacts with some countries such as Com- 
munist China are still limited, even in areas 
such as the health sciences, where coopera- 
tion would be mutually beneficial. 

More and more problems are the common 
concern of all nations. Disease knows no 
national boundaries. The problems of an 
overpopulated globe with deficient food sup- 
plies will afflict us all. We all need more 
fresh water supplies, and we all need to deal 
with the progressive pollution of our envi- 
ronment. 

In the past, cooperation in the personal 
sense I have mentioned has been largely be- 
tween the scientifically advanced nations. 
But now it has become imperative that co- 
operation be extended to the less advanced 
countries as well. One of our major goals 
must be to find new ways to bring the bene- 
fits of modern science and modern technol- 
ogy based on science to the less developed 
countries. We must learn to assist them not 
only with financial capital but with the in- 
tellectual capital which will enable them to 
become working partners in a 20th-century 
world. We have only made the barest start 
in the direction of offering American talent 
as well as American dollars. 

Finally, as science has grown we now face 
questions which are not only universal in the 
sense that the basic laws of physics, chem- 
istry, and biology are universal but which 
literally encompass the globe and require 
the joined efforts of many nations for their 
solution. I have in mind the large-scale 
study of the atmosphere, the oceans, and the 
structure and dynamics of the earth itself. 
I am pleased to see that the committee has 
given careful thought to these matters and 
produced recommendations which I hope can 
be taken up. And other committees have 
produced recommendations with respect to 
cooperative efforts in the exploration of 
space and the peaceful utilization of atomic 
energy. 

This and the other committees have made 
an important beginning. We must all work 
to make international cooperation progres- 
sively more fruitful, and in this no area 
holds more promise than that of science. 



Balance-of-Payments Program 
To Be Intensified in 1966 

Following are three documents relating 
to the 1966 balance-of -payments program 
which were released by the White House on 
December 5. They were part of a packet 
which also included a statement by Secre- 
tary of the Treasury Henry H. Fowler de- 
scribing the new program; a Department of 
Commerce press release summarizing Secre- 
tary Connor's letter to businessmen; a 
Commerce Department "Progress Report on 
the Voluntary Program With the Business 
Community To Improve the Balance of Pay- 
ments"; a Federal Reserve Board release on 
the Federal Reserve share of the new pro- 
gram; statements by David E. Bell, Admin- 
istrator of the Agency for International 
Development, and Secretary of Defense Rob- 
ert S. McNamara; and other related mate- 
rials. 



letter from president johnson 
to secretary fowler 

December 2, 1965 

Dear Mr. Secretary : I have reviewed the 
report of the Cabinet Committee on the 
Balance of Payments and approve its recom- 
mendations for action. I would like you, 
Secretary Connor, and Chairman Martin 
[William McC. Martin, Jr., Chairman of the 
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System] to announce, explain, and put into 
effect the proposed changes in Government 
policy, and specifically the improvements in 
the Voluntary Program of February 10, 
1965. 1 

In explaining the changes in the Volun- 
tary Program, I would like you, and all 
other responsible officials of the Govern- 
ment, to make it clear that: 

1. The February 10 program has worked. 
During the first three quarters of this year, 
the overall deficit ran at an annual rate of 



1 For background, see Bulletin of Mar. 1, 1965, 
p. 282, and Mar. 8, 1965, p. 335. 



22 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



$1.3 billion — less than half the deficit in 
1964. 

2. A large measure of the credit must go 
to the bankers and businessmen of America 
who have taken part in the program. At the 
White House last February, I asked them 
"to join hands with me in a voluntary 
partnership ... to show the world that an 
aroused and responsible business commu- 
nity in America can close ranks and make 
a voluntary program work." 2 They have 
answered that call. 

3. We have done well, but we must do 
even better. The deficit has been much 
smaller since February 10 than for several 
years past. At its peak, in 1960, it reached 
$3.9 billion, three times the rate so far this 
year. But the present deficit is still too 
large. To assure that the dollar will remain 
as good as gold, we have to show the world 
that we can bring our accounts into sus- 
tainable balance, and keep them in balance. 

4. To do the job, we propose not a new 
program, but an improved and strengthened 
version of the Voluntary Program that we 
tested in 1965. The improvements reflect 
the experience since February 10, and have 
been worked out in close consultation with 
Secretary Connor's senior business advisors 
and with the banker advisors of Chairman 
Martin and Governor [J. L.] Robertson of 
the Federal Reserve. 

5. The Government will continue to do its 
part. Since 1960, Secretary McNamara has 
reduced the balance of payments cost of 
military spending abroad by about 40% — 
despite the increase in spending on Viet 
Nam. Administrator Bell has reduced the 
balance of payments impact of foreign as- 
sistance by 50%. I have instructed both of 
them, and all other senior officials of the 
Government, to spare no effort in reducing 
the dollar drain of their spending still fur- 
ther. But I reject the counsel of those who 
would have the Government do the entire 
job, at whatever cost to American security 
and leadership. It is private outflow that 
has grown so sharply since 1960. Some fur- 



' Ibid., Mar. 8, 1965, p. 335. 



ther reduction in that outflow is essential 
if we are to solve this problem without 
crippling our economy at home, or compro- 
mising our leadership abroad. 

6. I know that this will involve some pain 
and sacrifice. But the stakes are great. 
What is at issue is whether we can meet our 
critical responsibilities abroad, and main- 
tain the expanding prosperity of the past 
four years at home — the decline in unem- 
ployment, the rising profits, the improving 
standard of life for all our people — by rely- 
ing on the voluntary cooperation of busi- 
ness, labor, and government. This is a test 
which America has met with dramatic suc- 
cess during the past few years. I am confi- 
dent that we will continue to meet it in the 
future. 

You and the other members of the Cabi- 
net Committee are to be congratulated for 
your work in the preparation of the revised 
program for 1966. 
Sincerely, 

Lyndon B. Johnson 



REPORT OF CABINET COMMITTEE 
ON BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 

Summary of Recommendations by the 
Cabinet Committee on Balance of Payments 

December 3, 1965 

At the request of the President, his Cabinet 
Committee on Balance of Payments has made an 
intensive examination of the United States balance- 
of-payments situation and progress during 1965 in 
order to determine where changes could be made to 
improve the President's program announced on 
February 10, 1965. 

The Committee recommended that the program 
of voluntary cooperation announced by the Pres- 
ident at that time be continued in 1966. 

The Committee noted that the results achieved 
during 1965 clearly indicate that the program 
is working. However, the Committee also conclud- 
ed that there is need for the program to work with 
increased effectiveness if the United States is to 
achieve its goal of equilibrium in 1966. 

Therefore, the Committee recommended that: 

1. The present voluntary Commerce program 
to reduce the outflow of business capital be rein- 
forced by the establishment both of an over- 
all target, similar to that of 1965, and a new 
target specifically applicable to direct investment 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



23 



calling upon corporations to limit direct invest- 
ments during the two-year period 1965-1966 to 90 
per cent of the amount invested during the three- 
year period 1962-1964. For this purpose, direct 
investment is defined to include net outflows from 
the United States plus the undistributed profits 
of subsidiaries abroad. The new target will permit 
an average annual level of direct investment dur- 
ing 1965 and 1966 combined equal to 135 per 
cent of the annual average during the 1962-1964 
period. The targets will apply to direct invest- 
ment in countries now subject to the Interest 
Equalization Tax, including Canada, and Abu 
Dhabi, Bahrain, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait- 
Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Libya, Qatar, and 
Saudi Arabia. 

In addition to its expanded geographical cover- 
age, the Commerce program will utilize more de- 
tailed reporting and forecasting procedures than 
in 1965, and the reports and forecasts in ques- 
tion will be requested of 900 corporations, about 
400 more than at present. All corporations, of 
course, are expected to participate in the efforts 
called for under the program. 

The new direct investment measures are expected 
to result in balance of payments savings of more 
than $1 billion in 1966. In addition, corporations 
will be asked to make every effort to repatriate 
excess cash balances abroad — a measure which is 
expected to result in some further savings. 

2. The Interest Equalization Tax on purchases 
of foreign securities and acquisitions of other 
long-term claims on foreigners by Americans be 
made applicable to Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Indonesia, 
Iran, Iraq, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, 
Libya, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. 

3. The present ceiling for bank lending to for- 
eigners under the Federal Reserve program be 
raised from 105 per cent of the December SI, 
1964 base, in stages of 1 percentage point per 
quarter to a new ceiling of 109 per cent in the 
final quarter of 1966. In addition, certain smaller 
banks which have been effectively precluded from 
foreign lending under the Federal Reserve program 
because they had little or no such lending on 
their books as of December 31, 1964, will each, 
in appropriate circumstances, be permitted to 
make foreign loans up to a total of $450,000 — 
provided the excess of such lending over the 109 
per cent ceiling covers U.S. exports financed for 
its regular customers or extends credit to de- 
veloping countries. These revisions will assure an 
adequate margin for the financing of increased ex- 
port trade in 1966. 

4. The ceiling for lending by nonbank financial 
institutions to foreigners under the Federal Re- 
serve program be increased, in the case of credits 
with maturities of 10 years or less, from 105 per 
cent of the December SI, 1964 base in stages of 
1 percentage point per quarter to a new ceiling of 
109 per cent in the final quarter of 1966. In the 



24 



case of acquisitions by such institutions of foreign 
securities with maturities of more than 10 years, a 
ceiling of 105 per cent of the September SO, 1965 
amount would be set for securities of developed 
countries other than Canada and Japan. 

5. The basic arrangement ivith Canada re- 
garding Canadian access to the United States cap- 
ital market and exemption from, the Interest 
Equalization Tax for an unlimited amount of new 
Canadian security issues both be continued. In 
accordance with an understanding between our 
two governments, the Canadian Government will 
take action to insure that the net flows of capital 
funds to Canada will be combined with an ap- 
propriate use of Canada's foreign exchange re- 
serves to meet the total requirement of its bal- 
ance-of-payments deficit on current account — 
arising from trade, tourism and other non-capital 
transactions. This arrangement will enable U.S. 
investors to buy new issues of long-term Canadian 
securities on the basis of market considerations, 
while at the same time the U.S. balance of pay- 
ments is appropriately safeguarded. 

6. The current efforts by all government agencies 
to reduce to a minimum the balance-of -pay- 
ments impact of their operations be intensified. 
The importance of vigorous effort in this area 
is all the more important in the light of unavoid- 
able increases in the balance-of-payments costs 
of economic aid and military operations in 
Vietnam. 

7. Legislation to encourage foreign investment 
in the United States now \before the Congress 
be enacted as soon as possible. 

8. Present efforts to encourage both foreign and 
domestic tourism in the U. S. be stepped up, 
and efforts by the Government to encourage and 
expand the activities of the private sector in this 
area be increased. These efforts should include 
additional appropriations for the Commerce De- 
partment's U.S. Travel Service, which is currently 
operating at a marked competitive disadvantage 
in relation to its foreign counterparts. All-in- 
clusive chartered tours of the U.S. should be 
encouraged, and this program should be coordinat- 
ed with other private efforts to promote foreign 
tourism in the U.S. 

9. Present efforts both by government and by 
private enterprise to expand U.S. export trade 
should ibe sharply stepped up. 

LETTER FROM SECRETARY CONNOR 
TO BUSINESSMEN 

December 6, 1965 
The President has again called upon American 
industry to make an extra effort during 1966 to 
help reduce further the deficit in our balance of 
payments. At his direction, I am again writing to 
you personally to ask your assistance. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The voluntary program in which you and other 
corporate executives have cooperated has been a 
major factor behind the substantial improvement 
in our balance of payments during 1965. The evi- 
dence clearly indicates that the program is working 
well. However, because it is necessary to continue 
our efforts to bring our balance of payments into 
equilibrium, the voluntary program must be 
strengthened. 

In making our program more effective, it will 
remain voluntary. The President is convinced that 
the voluntary approach adopted this year was the 
correct way to proceed, and it will continue during 
1966. 

In the year ahead, we will also continue the 
basic strategy followed in 1965 under which each 
chief executive is asked to maximize his company's 
contribution to the balance of payments through a 
variety of means — including export expansion, re- 
patriation of income from abroad, repatriation of 
short-term foreign financial assets, and the maxi- 
mum use of funds obtained abroad for investment 
purposes. The result of these efforts should be a 
considerable overall improvement by American 
industry as a whole compared with 1965. 

In addition, we must ask each company to make 
a special effort to restrain the outflow of funds 
from the United States for direct investment 
abroad. To help achieve this objective, we are 
recommending a separate target for direct invest- 
ment for business corporations as a group. The 
basic aim is not to restrain expenditures by U.S. 
companies on plant facilities abroad. Rather it is to 
minimize the impact of the outflow of funds on the 
United States balance of payments. 

We are also suggesting to individual companies 
a separate formula for direct investment which will 
enable them to fix their own direct investment 
targets in a meaningful way and yet permit com- 
panies to continue their business abroad in an 
orderly fashion. 

We are modifying the geographic coverage of 
the program, but it will still apply primarily to 
developed countries. We still wish to encourage 
American private enterprise to help raise standards 
of living in the developing countries of the free 
world. 

To assist us in the administration and appraisal 
of the program through the year ahead, we are 
making some improvements in the voluntary re- 
porting system adopted for 1965. 

The revised worksheet and some instructions to 
aid your technical people in its preparation will be 
sent to you in the very near future. In the mean- 
time, I can describe the principal features of the 
general program for 1966. 

It is estimated that the business community may 
improve its net contribution to the balance of pay- 
ments by $1.3 billion in 1965 compared with 1964. 
During 1966, we are hopeful that this overall im- 
provement can be raised to $3.4 billion — if the 



business community is successful in restraining 
direct investment, maximizing export shipments, 
repatriating income and foreign financial assets — 
along with other measures. I am asking you and 
other corporate executives to review the situation 
of your company and determine your own best 
estimate of the overall improvement which you 
think is possible during 1966 compared with 1965. 

I am recommending the following target to 
American industry in planning its direct investment 
for 1966: Direct investment during the two-year 
period 1965-66 combined should be limited to 90 
per cent of the amount during the three-year period 
1962-64. For this purpose, direct investment is de- 
fined to include the net outflow of funds from the 
United States plus the undistributed profits of 
subsidiaries abroad. For industry as a whole, this 
target would permit a rate of direct investment dur- 
ing the two years 1965 and 1966 combined approxi- 
mately 35 per cent above the annual average 
during the 1962-64 base period. This rate of in- 
crease should result in a level of direct investment 
outflow of about $2.4 billion in 1966 — roughly the 
same as in 1964, following an expected substantial 
rise in 1965 compared with the previous year. The 
expected result can also be expressed as a projected 
increase of more than $1.0 billion in the surplus of 
total direct investment income over direct invest- 
ment outflow in 1966 compared with the level 
anticipated in 1965. 

I am also recommending that each company head 
use the above formula in estimating his own target 
for direct investment during 1966. In calculating 
the target, companies should use the same base 
period of 1962-64. In defining direct investment, 
they should add together the net outflow from the 
United States and the undistributed profits of their 
subsidiaries. (This is the same definition used in 
Line "D" of the 1965 worksheet.) They should make 
the same calculations for 1965-66. For the latter 
two years combined, direct investment as defined 
should not exceed 90 per cent of such outflow dur- 
ing the three-year base period. In suggesting this 
formula, I realize fully that it will catch individual 
companies in different circumstances. For some it 
would undoubtedly place a severe strain on their 
ability to carry out projects abroad already in the 
advanced stages of planning or actual construc- 
tion. For others, it may result in a target con- 
siderably in excess of what the companies would 
actually need to fulfill their plans, and we hope 
they would use only the minimum amount neces- 
sary. But in all of these cases, we are fully pre- 
pared — and would want — to discuss particular situ- 
ations with individual companies. 

The overall industry improvement target of $3.4 
billion in 1966 would include the balance of pay- 
ments savings expected through the restraint on 
direct investment. For the individual company, the 
estimated improvement for the next year should 
also include the savings on direct investment out- 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



25 



flow which corporate executives think they can 
make during 1966. 

The target as formulated for direct investment 
has several advantages. In the first place, the three- 
year base period allows companies to account for 
direct investment activities in a way which reduces 
the influence of numerous aberrations which might 
occur in a single year, and it puts individual com- 
panies on a more equal footing. Secondly, by 
combining direct investment flows for 1965 and 
1966, there is greater flexibility allowed companies 
who have been the most cooperative under the 1965 
voluntary program. Those companies which have 
repatriated a substantial share of their earnings 
and have restrained capital outflow this year will 
have considerable headroom in 1966. Those com- 
panies whose situations did not permit them to 
make a similar contribution in 1965 would be called 
upon to make a correspondingly greater effort 
next year. Thus, the two-year planning period 
seems to be desirable from the point of view of 
equity. Moreover, the target essentially permits 
companies on the average to invest in two years 
up to 90 per cent of the amount they invested 
during the previous three years. Thus, it allows an 
average annual rate of investment during the two 
years 35 per cent higher than the average for the 
three years 1962-64. 

The geographical coverage of the program in 
1966 will again apply principally to developed 
countries. However, the list of developed countries 
will be expanded. The new list will be the same as 
that prepared for the application of the Interest 
Equalization Tax. The targets will apply to direct 
investment in countries defined as developed for 
the 1965 program together with Canada, Abu- 
Dhabi, Bahrain, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Qatar, 
Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, and Saudi- 
Arabia. 

We are asking for moderation on direct invest- 
ment in Canada during 1966. This was not the case 
in 1965. However, this year we did ask companies 
to expand exports to Canada and to repatriate 
income and short-term financial assets held with 
Canadian institutions. We are repeating this re- 
quest for 1966. In view of the large prospective 
increase in direct investment in Canada by Ameri- 
can firms next year, we think it is desirable to ask 
for moderation on the outflow of direct investment 
funds to that country along with other developed 
areas. At the same time, we realize that U.S. 
companies, partly because we did not ask for 
restraint in 1965, have underway firm investment 
commitments in Canada (for example those in- 
curred under the U.S.-Canadian automotive parts 
agreement) which they will find it necessary to 
carry out. But it is our impression that companies 
will have ample opportunity within the direct in- 
vestment target to fulfill these commitments, and 
we are certain they would want to give them the 
highest priority. 



The other countries included in the expanded 
geographic coverage of the program possess large 
reserves of internationally traded natural resources 
in which U.S. direct investment is substantial. We 
think it is reasonable and equitable to include the 
substantial flows of investment funds to these 
countries in the base and target for balance of 
payments improvement during 1966. 

This year between 500 and 600 companies co- 
operating in the program are submitting quarterly 
reports on their progress. In 1966 we are asking 
an additional 400-odd companies to do the same. 
We are particularly interested in expanding the list 
of companies to include more firms with direct 
investments abroad although the individual amounts 
involved may not be large. Initially, I am asking 
each company to report if it had direct investments 
abroad of $2 million or more at the end of 1964 
(and if it is not currently reporting under the 
voluntary program). 

During this year we have found the statistical 
information submitted by companies each quarter 
to be helpful in administering the program. How- 
ever, we have also found that the lack of some- 
what more detailed information has made it diffi- 
cult for us to appraise the progress of the program 
and to chart the contributions which the cooperat- 
ing companies are making compared with develop- 
ments in the balance of payments as a whole. For 
this reason, we have adopted several improvements 
in the reporting system. The specific types of 
information requested will be detailed in the revised 
worksheet and the instructions which will accom- 
pany it. 

We will repeat this year's request for a quarterly 
report on the amount of short-term financial assets 
held abroad by the parent company and by its 
foreign affiliates. This year we requested that par- 
ent companies reduce these assets at least to the 
level outstanding at the end of 1963. Many compa- 
nies have responded, and a large number have 
cut their holdings even below the 1963 level. We 
are hopeful that other companies will make the 
reduction as soon as possible, consistent with the 
maintenance of orderly conditions in money markets 
abroad, and that others will not rebuild previously 
reduced holdings. I also asked companies in 1965 
to economize on holdings of short-term assets by 
their foreign affiliates. I hope they will continue 
this effort in 1966. 

During the year ahead, we will want to work 
closely with individual companies in the manage- 
ment of the voluntary program. During 1965, I 
have communicated periodically on an informal 
basis with the chief executives of the cooperating 
companies. I plan to continue this procedure in 
1966. However, experience this year has also dem- 
onstrated that the management of the program 
would have been facilitated by an additional level 
of communication. I am now recommending that 
such a level of contact be established and main- 



26 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



tained during 1966. Consequently, I am asking you 
and other principal officers of each company to 
name an alternate who is familiar with company 
policy and yet who may be somewhat more avail- 
able for periodic discussions of the company's 
progress. Commerce Department officials who are 
assisting me in the management of the program 
would maintain liaison with your designee in those 
matters not requiring your personal attention. 

I am requesting that the chief executive of each 
company continue to review the worksheets re- 
ported each quarter to the Department of Commerce. 
It would be helpful if you could give me each 
quarter your personal appraisal of the extent to 
which your company is making progress toward 
achieving its overall target forecast for 1966. I 
am also requesting company officials to enclose 
with their quarterly statistical report a commen- 
tary on their company's experience during the 
quarter from the point of view of the main 
items reported in the worksheet. 

In making the revisions in the voluntary pro- 
gram for 1966, I have worked closely with the 
leaders of American business — particularly with the 
Balance of Payments Advisory Committee of the 
Department of Commerce. In administering the 
program in 1966 — as in 1965 — I will continue to 
benefit from the advice and counsel of this dis- 
tinguished group of American businessmen. As you 
will recall, this Committee is chaired by Mr. Albert 
L. Nickerson, Chairman of the Board, Socony 
Mobil Oil Company. The other members are: Carter 
L. Burgess, Chairman of the Board, American 
Machine and Foundry Company; George S. Moore, 
President, First National City Bank; Elisha Gray, 
II, Chairman, Whirlpool Corporation; Sidney J. 
Weinberg, General Partner, Goldman, Sachs and 
Company; Carl J. Gilbert, Chairman, The Gillette 
Company; Stuart T. Saunders, Chairman, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company; J. Ward Keener, Presi- 
dent, B. F. Goodrich Company; and Fred J. Borch, 
President, General Electric Company. 

These members of our Advisory Committee have 
approved the revisions in the voluntary program 
for 1966. They join me in asking the continued 
support of the business community in our efforts 
to improve the balance of payments. 

This year I have also benefited from the advice 
and counsel of many other leaders of American 
industry; I am certain they will continue to volun- 
teer such guidance in the year ahead and it will 
be welcomed. 



Finally, I am personally confident that the lead- 
ers of American business fully understand the 
seriousness of the foreign situation which we face. 
Furthermore, the increased military effort in Viet 
Nam will put further pressure on our balance of 
payments. To help compensate for the added drain, 
we have found it necessary to strengthen the volun- 
tary program for 1966. 

But I am confident that the business community 
appreciates the urgency of the task to reduce fur- 
ther the deficit in our balance of payments. I also 
have no doubt whatsoever that they will cooperate 
on a voluntary basis in our extraordinary effort 
to achieve this vital national goal. 
Sincerely yours, 

John T. Connor 



U.S. Supports British Decision 
To Halt Oil Imports to Rhodesia 

Department Statement 

Press release 296 dated December 17 

The United States Government welcomes 
and supports the British decision to prohibit 
oil imports into Rhodesia. The United States 
fully recognizes the authority of Her Maj- 
esty's Government in this matter and there- 
fore is advising all U.S. citizens and enter- 
prises to comply with the terms of the 
British order. 

The United States Government will assist 
the British Government with all appropriate 
support to make the airlift of oil to Zambia 
effective. 

We hope these economic measures, to- 
gether with those already taken by the 
United Kingdom, the United States, and 
other members of the United Nations, will 
bring a prompt end to the rebellion in 
Rhodesia, in accordance with the objective of 
the Security Council resolution of Novem- 
ber 20. 1 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 6, 1965, p. 916. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



27 



Nuclear Power and Proliferation 



by Henry D. Smyth 

U.S. Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency x 



Twenty years ago last summer the use of 
atomic bombs marked the closing phase of 
World War II. Those explosions were the 
first public demonstration of the immense 
power of nuclear energy. Since that time the 
world has concerned itself constantly with 
both the sinister and the beneficent impli- 
cations of that event. We have discussed 
how to limit the use of nuclear weapons and 
how to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear 
energy. It is not possible to separate these 
questions entirely. Today I shall discuss 
some measures aimed at promoting nuclear 
power without at the same time proliferat- 
ing nuclear weapons. 

Let me begin a brief historical review by 
quoting a printed document [Bond Bulletin, 
a house organ published by Horner and 
Co., Inc.] dated April 15, 1940, a document 
which has recently been brought to my at- 
tention and which, I suspect, has never 
been seen by any member of this audience. 
The quotation runs as follows : 

Our Department of Scientific Research has, dur- 
ing recent years, been following with interest various 
scientific experiments tending towards the release of 
atomic energy. From time to time during the past 
few months certain important advances in this pro- 
cedure have been announced in the newspapers. We 
are now informed that during recent weeks certain 
American research workers have made unreported 
but important new findings in this field and it is 
suggested that these discoveries may soon make the 
systematic and controlled release of atomic energy 
from available raw materials a practical proposition. 



'Address made before the American Nuclear So- 
ciety at Washington, D. C, on Nov. 17. 



The next paragraph which I will quote will 
give you a key to the nature of the docu- 
ment in which these statements occur. 

As humdrum bond men, we have always kept our 
noses in yield books and know little about these vast 
fields of scientific conjecture, and would prefer not 
to have to think about them. However, it is obvious 
that, if this information which our Department 
brings us is correct, we may be on the threshold of 
new and tremendous sources of very cheap energy 
for our machines. Judging by precedent, such dis- 
coveries will not become practicable for many years, 
but the possibility is suggested that such a long 
span of time may not, in this instance, be involved. 

The question of economic practicability 
which the last sentence I have quoted fore- 
shadows is one that has concerned us since 
1940, and still concerns us. 

May I give you another quotation 5 years 
later than the first, which touches on this 
question. It is from the official report of 
the Manhattan District activities which are 
possibly more familiar to many of you. 
Speaking of the deliberations of a commit- 
tee appointed in 1944 to look into the possi- 
bilities of peaceful uses of atomic energy, 
the following statement is made : 

While there was general agreement that a great 
industry might eventually arise, comparable, perhaps, 
with the electronics industry, there was disagreement 
as to how rapidly such an industry would grow; the 
consensus was that the growth would be slow over a 
period of many years. At least there is no immedi- 
ate prospect of running cars with nuclear power or 
lighting houses with radioactive lamps although 
there is a good probability that nuclear power for 
special purposes could be developed within ten 
years .... 



28 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



In fact, significant amounts of nuclear 
power were generated within 10 years. Spe- 
cifically, that power was generated in the 
prototype of the reactor for the first nuclear 
submarine, and that submarine, the U.S.S. 
Nautilus, commenced its sea trials in 1955. 
We can say, therefore, that the technical 
feasibility of nuclear power was clearly 
demonstrated in 1955. But we all know 
that the U.S. Navy can afford to pay far 
more for power in a submarine than a public 
utility company can afford to pay in a cen- 
tral power station that has to compete with 
hydroelectric power or fossil fuel steam- 
plants. 

In 1959 the Soviet Union put the nuclear- 
powered icebreaker Lenin into service. Here 
again normal economic considerations were 
not relevant. 

In the 10 years since 1955 great efforts 
have been made to reduce the cost of nu- 
clear power to the point where it was com- 
petitive with conventional power. In this 
country, in Canada, in Britain, in France, in 
the Soviet Union, and to a lesser extent else- 
where, a large amount of research has been 
directed toward this goal. Many of you have 
participated in this work and are more fa- 
miliar with it than I am. 

In the first great Geneva conference in 
1955 a spirit of optimism prevailed. The 
second conference, 3 years later, came dur- 
ing a period of disillusionment. The techni- 
cal problems were tougher than we had 
thought. At the third conference, a year 
ago, the mood was of cautious confidence. 
Such a mood seemed justified at the time 
by the solid achievements of the previous 
years. Several big power reactors existed in 
North America and in Europe. True, none 
of them were clearly as cheap as conventional 
plants, but they had operated safely and re- 
liably and had pointed the way to possible 
economies. 

In the past year the confidence of 1964 has 
been further bolstered by the reduction of 
cost estimates and the multiplication of 
plans for building nuclear powerplants in 
many parts of the world. The choice of 



nuclear reactors as heat sources for these 
new plants has been based for the most 
part on hardheaded judgments of compara- 
tive costs. In short, nuclear energy is al- 
ready important in meeting the energy needs 
of the world and in the next 10 or 20 years 
will become a major factor in meeting these 
needs. 

I could review the basis for the statement 
I have just made. I could cite the operating 
experience with nuclear powerplants cur- 
rently in existence, the cost estimates for 
specific proposals such as Oyster Creek, the 
plans for building other new plants in this 
country and in other countries. I shall not 
do so because there are other speakers here 
this week better qualified than I to discuss 
such matters. Furthermore, most of this 
material has been adequately discussed in 
the technical journals. 

Efforts To Control Nuclear Weapon Production 

So, 26 years after the discovery of nuclear 
fission, we find the world ready to use it on 
a large scale for peaceful purposes. This 
should bring satisfaction to all of us who 
have been involved in this great enterprise. 
It does. We are happy. On second thought, 
we are also frightened. We are frightened 
because it is impossible to produce nuclear 
power without producing material usable in 
nuclear weapons. 

I need hardly remind this audience that 
the fission of U-235 in normal uranium 
produces plutonium in U-238, the most 
abundant isotope in natural uranium. After 
all, the first big reactors in this country, in 
Britain, in France, and in the Soviet Union 
were built solely for this purpose. Most big 
power reactors use natural or slightly en- 
riched uranium as fuel. Consequently oper- 
ation of such a reactor will produce plu- 
tonium in the fuel. This plutonium can be 
extracted from the spent fuel and converted 
into weapons. 

Nor are the amounts of material involved 
trivial. A big power reactor running for a 
year will produce enough plutonium for a 
significant number of nuclear bombs. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



29 



The dilemma is clear. The world needs 
new sources of energy. Nuclear fission can 
supply that energy. Nuclear powerplants 
produce plutonium. As we build and operate 
more and more nuclear powerplants, we are 
automatically and inescapably producing 
material that can be made into nuclear 
weapons. The world emphatically does not 
need more nuclear weapons. In fact, we have 
been trying for years to control and even- 
tually eliminate those that already exist. 

Let me review briefly these efforts at 
control. 

At the close of the Second World War in 
1945 the U.S. Government recognized that 
nuclear weapons added a new dimension to 
war. The explosive power of these weapons 
was so vast as to dwarf even the largest 
scale bombings by conventional aircraft 
carrying conventional explosives. The exist- 
ence of nuclear weapons added strength to 
the notion of an international organization 
that might be powerful enough to prevent 
future wars. 

As a corollary to this idea, it was evident 
that international control, at least of nuclear 
weapons, would be a great step forward. To 
this end a committee of distinguished men 
with a panel of advisers were appointed. 
The report of this committee, commonly 
known as the Acheson-Lilienthal report, 
proposed a bold scheme for placing the de- 
velopment of the peaceful uses of nuclear 
energy, as well as military uses, under 
international control. 

These proposals in modified form then 
became the basis for the Baruch plan sub- 
mitted to the United Nations in 1946. 2 As 
most of you will remember, this plan was 
debated at length in the U.N. for several 
years but was moribund by the end of 1948. 

Although the Baruch plan had been 
shelved, many people in the U.S. Govern- 
ment continued to hope something might be 
done. Such hopes were dampened by the ex- 
plosion of the first Russian nuclear device 
in the fall of 1949. 



In the years following 1950 there was 
little discussion and no progress on the ques- 
tion of control of nuclear weapons. Both the 
United States and the U.S.S.R. built up their 
stockpiles of nuclear weapons energetically. 
Both developed H-bombs. The British and 
French also embarked on nuclear weapons 
programs. 

Toward the end of that decade talks on 
general disarmament were resumed. It is 
difficult to assess the degree to which these 
negotiations were sincerely aimed at dis- 
armament and to what extent they were 
used for propaganda advantage. It did be- 
come clear that even with the best will in 
the world on all sides the question of general 
disarmament was extraordinarily complex 
technically and politically. 

Toward the end of that decade tensions 
between the United States and the U.S.S.R. 
began to lessen. The possibility that a new 
approach to disarmament might be fruitful 
led to the establishment of the 18-nation 
group at Geneva in 1962. Miraculously, one 
great step forward was made in the test ban 
treaty of 1963. 3 But the nuclear powers are 
still making more and more nuclear weap- 
ons, and the problems of general disarma- 
ment still seem to be nearly insuperable. 

Granted that the ideal of general and 
complete disarmament is a Utopian dream 
for the future, can we search for steps that 
may be useful, however small? Can we re- 
duce the dangers which the world faces? 
Clearly we would like 

(1) To make sure that no additional na- 
tions make nuclear weapons, that is, to 
prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons, 

(2) To have the nuclear test ban accepted 
by all countries, 

(3) To extend the ban to underground 
tests, 

(4) To stop the manufacture of nuclear 
weapons by the countries already having 
them, 

(5) To reduce the stockpiles of nuclear 
weapons already in existence. 



2 Bulletin of June 23, 1946, p. 1057. 



s For text, see ibid., Aug. 12, 1963, p. 239. 



30 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The International Atomic Energy Agency 

The first item in this list, proliferation, 
brings me back to the dilemma posed by the 
impending spread of nuclear powerplants. 
Can we enjoy the benefits of nuclear power 
without running the risk of the prolifera- 
tion of nuclear weapons? I do not believe we 
can, but I do believe we can minimize that 
risk. To do so we must inspect and control 
the materials used in such plants and pro- 
duced by them. We must make sure that no 
materials ostensibly used for peaceful pur- 
poses are diverted to military purposes. I 
believe we have the means available to do 
this in the safeguards system of the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency. 

The IAEA owes its origin to a speech 
made to the U.N. by President Eisenhower 
in December 1953. 4 This speech, commonly 
known as the Atoms for Peace speech, in- 
augurated a major effort by the U.S. Gov- 
ernment to develop the peaceful uses of 
atomic energy and to spread the benefits of 
such uses around the world. It appealed to 
other nations to do likewise. It suggested an 
international organization to further such 
purposes. 

As seems inevitable in international af- 
fairs, it took several years of planning and 
negotiation to set up such an organization. 
Finally the IAEA came into being in 1957. 
Vienna was chosen as its headquarters. It 
was to have a Director General and an ap- 
propriate secretariat. It was to be guided 
and controlled by a Board of Governors, 23 
in number. Certain countries were perma- 
nent members of the Board, others were to 
be chosen in terms of regions, stage of tech- 
nical development, capacity to supply raw 
materials, and other considerations. No 
member had the power of veto. The Board 
of Governors would meet as necessary. Once 
a year there was to be a general conference, 
where every member could have delegates 
and which would review the Agency's pro- 
gram and make whatever suggestions might 
be appropriate. 



The basic statute of the Agency 5 states 
clearly that it has two principal functions: 
to promote the peaceful uses of atomic 
energy and to prevent their diversion to 
military use. In the words of article II of the 
statute : 

The Agency shall seek to accelerate and enlarge 
the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health 
and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, 
so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or 
at its request or under its supervision or control is 
not used in such a way as to further any military 
purpose. 

I have often said that the Agency was 
founded on two assumptions, both of which 
proved to be wrong. The first assumption 
was that uranium was scarce and therefore 
its supply could be easily controlled. The 
second assumption was that nuclear power 
was going to be immediately competitive 
and would spread rapidly. 

In any case, for the first several years of 
the Agency's existence the demand for nu- 
clear material was trivial since so few of its 
members other than the nuclear powers 
wanted to build reactors. Probably this was 
just as well, for the problem of setting up a 
system of safeguards and inspection to pre- 
vent diversion proved difficult both politi- 
cally and technically. I shall return to this 
question presently. 

In spite of the deferment of its two prin- 
cipal objectives — the spread of nuclear 
power and the control of nuclear materials 
— the Agency found many useful things to 
do. I need do little more than mention some 
of them. 

The Agency has worked on standard 
codes for safety and health, regulations for 
shipment of radioactive materials, for dis- 
posal of radioactive wastes. It has set up a 
small laboratory to establish standards of 
measurement and calibration. In that labo- 
ratory and through contracts it conducts a 
small but vigorous research program. It has 
arranged many international scientific con- 
ferences and symposia, as well as dissemi- 
nating information in other ways. It has a 



'Ibid., Dec. 21, 1953, p. 847. 



6 For text, see ibid., Nov. 19, 1956, p. 820. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



31 



fellowship program, arranges for visiting 
experts to developing countries, and pro- 
motes technical assistance to such countries 
in other ways. 

Finally, in the fourth year of its existence 
— 1960 — the Board of Governors came to 
grips with the question of control of ma- 
terials and equipment. In spite of the oppo- 
sition of several important countries, a safe- 
guards system was devised, approved by the 
Board of Governors, and accepted by the 
General Conference. 

It is easy to poke fun at that document. 
It had most of the bad features of a com- 
mittee production. I am not sure that I ever 
really understood it, and I presume others 
felt the same way. It was limited in applica- 
tion to reactors of less than 100 megawatts 
thermal, which made it irrelevant to power 
reactors of significant size. And so on. 

Yet I doff my hat to those who framed it 
and carried it through to acceptance. They 
understood the technical problems. Faced 
with opposition, with ignorance, and with 
the need of compromise, they set up a sys- 
tem that was workable and effective. They 
established guidelines in an uncharted and 
turbulent sea. 

By the time I became U.S. Representative 
to the Agency in May 1961, the Director 
General had begun to organize a small corps 
of inspectors and to prepare to send them 
out to the few countries that automatically 
fell under the system. The first inspection 
occurred in February 1962. In the summer 
of 1961 the United States offered to put 
four of its small reactors under the system, 
both as a gesture of approval and to test the 
system. At the time I thought this an empty 
gesture; so did many others. We were 
wrong. Both reasons for it proved impor- 
tant. 

Before bringing you up to date on the 
present status of the IAEA safeguards sys- 
tem, I think I should remind you of what 
the technical problems are and how they 
might be solved so that you will understand 
more clearly what I am talking about. To do 
so I shall describe an ideal system which 



would give the maximum possible protec- 
tion. 

As you all know, the series of steps in- 
volved in producing nuclear power starts at 
the mines. Then comes the processing of ore 
into some form of uranium concentrate. 
Then the concentrate is purified and con- 
verted to uranium metal, or a suitable 
compound. If no change in the proportions 
of the isotopes is contemplated, the next 
step is fabrication of fuel elements. If en- 
riched fuel is desired, the purified uranium 
compound, probably uranium hexafluoride, 
is run through an isotope separation plant, 
then converted to the appropriate chemical 
form, metal, oxide, or whatever, and then 
fabricated into fuel elements. 

Once the fuel elements have been fabri- 
cated, they go to the reactor to be stock- 
piled ready for loading. Once they are in the 
reactor, the chain reaction and consequent 
production of plutonium begins. After the 
reactor has operated for the optimum time, 
as determined by its design and purpose, 
the fuel elements are removed and stored. 
The period of storage depends on many 
factors, but eventually the fuel elements will 
be reprocessed, i.e., the plutonium and fis- 
sion products will be separated from the 
remaining uranium. The question then is 
what happens to the plutonium and the 
remaining uranium. More specifically, how 
do we make sure that they are not used for 
military purposes? 

Ideally the greatest assurance of control 
would be by inspection and recordkeeping 
at every stage of this series of processes. 
The control agency would follow the ma- 
terial from its origin in the ground to its 
ultimate consumption for the production of 
power. I am assuming that the plutonium 
itself will eventually be used as fuel for 
powerplants. 

Conceivably such a control agency might 
have been set up in 1946 if all the countries 
of the world had agreed then to stop any 
production of uranium for military pur- 
poses and to turn over ownership of ura- 
nium mines, processing plants, et cetera, to 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



an international agency. Of course, such an 
agency would also have had to carry the 
responsibility for research and development 
leading to economical nuclear powerplants. 

Granted the existence, now, of many na- 
tional atomic energy programs, might it 
still be possible to set up and administer a 
control program covering every step of every 
process from the ground to the end product 
of valueless radioactive waste? My own feel- 
ing is that so extensive a system would not 
presently be possible. Nor do I believe it 
necessary. 

Even if we had an ideal system, would it 
be 100 percent effective? Of course it would 
not. You all know that even the most elab- 
orate safety system in factories, in labora- 
tories, in transportation, or wherever, is not 
100 percent effective. We still have acci- 
dents even though it's to everyone's interest 
to obey all the rules and in fact everyone 
does so. Also we still have power failures. 

If even the ideal system is not completely 
effective, is there a less complete system 
that might be acceptably effective? After 
all, the only point of inspecting every step 
of the process is to make assurance doubly 
sure. Complete control at a late stage should 
be effective. Natural uranium is not weap- 
ons material; neither is the slightly en- 
riched uranium used in the big power re- 
actors in the United States and elsewhere. 
Separating the isotopes of uranium is an 
expensive process. Separation of plutonium 
from spent fuel is much cheaper and is cer- 
tainly the most obvious place to look for 
diversion. 

It appears that the reactors are the most 
feasible and effective place at which to 
establish control. Here the incoming fuel 
elements can be counted and sampled; here 
the power level of the plant can be checked 
and the consequent production of plutonium 
estimated. Here the spent fuel elements can 
again be counted and sampled and their 
subsequent destination followed. 

There is a further practical point that 
favors reactors as a sensible point to begin 
control. The fuel going into a reactor is 



expensive, and the spent fuel coming out is 
both valuable and hazardous to health. Fur- 
thermore the safe and efficient operation of 
a reactor requires complete and continuous 
knowledge of the number of fuel elements 
in the reactor, their original composition, 
and the amount of uranium and plutonium 
in them at any given time. Therefore prudent 
operation of a reactor requires extensive 
and accurate recordkeeping and instru- 
mentation. The kinds of material inven- 
tories and operating records necessary for 
prudent management have in them all or 
most of the information required for ma- 
terials control from the point of view of 
safeguards. In a well-run plant visiting in- 
spectors have little more to do than to verify 
the accuracy of existing records and make 
spot checks of samples of material. 

These remarks about reactors could be 
applied equally to plants for processing 
spent fuel. However, such plants do not yet 
exist, except one in the United States just 
going into operation, two of small capacity 
abroad, and those which are involved in 
military programs. 

Under the circumstances it seemed best 
to aim the IAEA system of safeguards at 
reactors at least as a first step. The system 
first set up in the IAEA in 1961 and the 
revised system now in effect both are based 
on this view. Obviously I believe the system 
is effective. Otherwise I would not be talking 
about it here today. I would not claim that 
it could never be evaded, but the risks of 
detection would deter any attempt at eva- 
sion. 

Advantages of International Safeguards 

If some say that the present IAEA sys- 
tem of safeguards is a compromise between 
effectiveness and acceptability, you may ask 
whether too high a price has to be paid for 
international safeguards. As many of you 
know, every bilateral arrangement which 
the United States has made with another 
country to supply reactors or reactor fuel 
has contained provisions for inspection to 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



33 






assure there is no diversion to military pur- 
poses. The United States has been making 
inspections under such arrangements since 
1957. EURATOM also has a similar system 
for the reactors built in member countries 
with EURATOM help. Could not we per- 
suade other supplier countries to insist on 
bilateral safeguards like ours? Wouldn't 
that be simpler than trying to use an inter- 
national agency? 

The advantages of an international sys- 
tem of safeguards have been discussed so 
often that I think I need only summarize 
them here. They are credibility, uniformity, 
economy, and acceptability. 

For the reasons I have sketched, the U.S. 
Government in January 1963 adopted a 
policy of transferring the administration of 
safeguards to the IAEA as various bilateral 
arrangements came up for renewal. As a 
corollary, new agreements also provided for 
IAEA safeguards. 

At the same time our representatives to 
the IAEA began to press for removal of the 
100-MW thermal limit on the then existing 
IAEA safeguards system. In June of 1963 
the Board of Governors provisionally ap- 
proved such an action, which was accepted 
by the General Conference in September 
1963 and put into effect at the next Board 
meeting. 

The June Board meeting just cited was 
marked by a striking change of attitude 
toward safeguards. The Governor from the 
Soviet Union and several other Board mem- 
bers voted for the proposed action instead 
of opposing it. This vote was conditional on 
a review of the whole system. Such a review 
was certainly appropriate and was approved. 

It was decided that this review should be 
undertaken by the Board functioning as a 
working group under the chairmanship of 
Dr. [Gunnar] Randers of Norway. Between 
February 1964 and January 1965 the group 
convened several times for a total of 32 
sessions. The revised safeguards system 
which they recommended was approved by 
the Board in February 1965 by a vote of 21 
in favor, including the Soviet Union, none 
against, and 2 abstentions. It then came to 



the General Conference of the IAEA in 
September 1965. There it was approved, first 
in committee by a formal vote of 54 in 
favor, 1 against, and 2 abstentions, then in 
plenary session by consensus. 

I am reporting these votes to you, not 
because I expect you to be interested in pro- 
cedural details of IAEA meetings, but be- 
cause I know you will realize that a system 
of control like the safeguards system is not 
likely to be successful unless it receives 
nearly unanimous support. 

As further background, I would like to 
make some remarks about the objections to 
the safeguards system in general, or to 
specific provisions of the previous system. 
Such matters were discussed at length in 
the working group. That they were resolved 
to the satisfaction of nearly all members of 
that group seems to me remarkable. It 
shows that representatives of some 20 coun- 
tries from all over the globe can have fruit- 
ful discussions when their goal is obviously 
of interest to all concerned. 

Curiously enough, one of the issues often 
raised before, the question of "invasion of 
sovereignty," did not come up in that gen- 
eral form. The fact that Japan had already 
accepted IAEA safeguards and the United 
States had put the Yankee powerplant un- 
der IAEA safeguards helped. Principal 
points that were raised were: 

(1) Danger of compromising trade secrets, 

(2) Danger of interfering with efficient 
and economical operation, 

(3) Reluctance to accept inspectors who 
might be unwelcome because of their na- 
tionality, 

(4) Objection to resident inspectors, 

(5) Objection to payment of costs of in- 
spection by the IAEA, 

(6) Objection to using the supply of hard- 
ware as a reason for invoking safeguards. 

I shall not take the time to explain how 
(1), (2), and (3) were handled. They were 
not too difficult. The question of resident 
inspectors was met by agreeing that the 
IAEA had the right of access at all times 
to reactors above a certain power level. This 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



was the essential point. The question of 
payment — (5) — was not part of the docu- 
ment and was therefore deferred. It is a 
serious question, which I will discuss later. 
The "hardware" question greatly concerned 
some of the developing countries. Since it 
has to do with the justification for invoking 
safeguards rather than the system itself, I 
won't try to explain it. 

How IAEA Safeguards Are Applied 

So now the IAEA has a system of safe- 
guards and inspection whose principles are 
spelled out in a fairly detailed document 
that has been approved almost unanimously 
by the members of the Agency. This does 
not mean that any reactors are automati- 
cally under IAEA safeguards. The IAEA 
safeguards system is a statement of prin- 
ciples and proposed practices that serves as 
a basis for formal agreements between the 
Agency and member states for the admin- 
istration of safeguards. Only after such 
agreements have been negotiated and signed 
do safeguards actually go into effect. 

There are three ways in which this sys- 
tem can be applied : 

(1) If the Agency itself substantially as- 
sists a country to build a reactor, that re- 
actor must by statute be under Agency safe- 
guards ; 

(2) If one country helps another to build 
a reactor, the two can ask the Agency to ad- 
minister safeguards ; 

(3) A country can unilaterally request 
the Agency to safeguard one or several of 
its reactors. 

At present the Agency is safeguarding 
several small research reactors under (1) . 

Under (2) it has agreed to administer 
safeguards transferred by the United States 
and its bilateral partners in some 13 cases, 
all involving moderately small reactors. Sim- 
ilarly, the Agency is taking over safeguard- 
ing of the U.K.-built small reactor in Den- 
mark and the power reactor at Tokai-Mura 
in Japan, also the Canadian-Japanese power 
reactor. Other such arrangements are being 
negotiated. 



Under (3) certain small reactors in the 
United States have been under IAEA safe- 
guards for several years and the Yankee 
power reactor for about a year. Also the 
United Kingdom last June asked the IAEA 
to safeguard a big power reactor at Brad- 
well. 

There is nothing to prevent members of 
the Agency supporting the safeguards sys- 
tem in principle but not using it. The ques- 
tion of who pays the cost of inspections is 
dangling. The cost is small, probably less 
than 1 percent of the cost of the power pro- 
duced. In principle it should be paid by the 
Agency, but there is strong opposition to 
this in practice and the Agency's budget is 
small — $10 million to $12 million a year. 

Yet I am reminded of the development of 
nuclear power. In the 20 or 25 years we 
have been working to reduce the costs of 
nuclear power, there have been no "break- 
throughs," no spectacular inventions. We 
have reached our present favorable cost 
situation by a series of small steps which 
have added up to a significant advance. 

I believe we are making similar steps in 
our effort to prevent the proliferation of 
nuclear weapons that might accompany the 
proliferation of nuclear powerplants. The 
principle of international control has been 
accepted by most of the countries of the 
world. We have had inspectors from the 
IAEA carrying out their tasks in a consid- 
erable number of countries, large and 
small, scattered around the globe. Nor 
should we underestimate the intangible de- 
terrent effects of the existence of the whole 
system and its general acceptance in prin- 
ciple. Nor should we underestimate the ef- 
fect of any report from the Agency to its 
members and to the United Nations citing 
an attempt to divert materials to military 
use. 

What we have accomplished is pioneering 
and preliminary. It is solidly based. Every 
big powerplant that comes under IAEA 
safeguards in the next few years will 
strengthen the structure of international co- 
operation and control. Every one that stays 
out of the system will weaken it. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



35 



We can block this most obvious path to 
proliferation of nuclear weapons. By doing 
so, we may help to solve the more difficult 
problems of nuclear and general disarma- 
ment. Success will require the help of wise 
men everywhere, particularly of men who 
are both technically and politically sophisti- 
cated and idealistic. 



IJC Recommendations Approved 
for Rainy River Pollution Control 

Press release 288 dated December 13 

The Department of State announced on 
December 13 that the United States Gov- 
ernment has considered the report of the 
International Joint Commission, United 
States and Canada (IJC), on pollution of 
the Rainy River and Lake of the Woods, 
dated February 24, 1965, and has approved 
the recommendations contained in the re- 
port. A similar approval of the Commis- 
sion's report was announced by the Govern- 
ment of Canada. Pursuant to article IX of 
the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909, the 
Governments of the United States and Can- 
ada on May 30, 1959, had requested the 
IJC to investigate and report on pollution 
and possible remedial measures for those 
waters. 

The Commission recommended the adop- 
tion of specified water quality objectives as 
the criteria to be met in satisfactorily 
maintaining the waters of Rainy River in 
accordance with the Boundary Waters 
Treaty of 1909, which provides that boundary 
waters and waters flowing across the 
boundary shall not be polluted on either 
side to the injury of health or property on 



the other. The Commission further recom- 
mended that the appropriate authorities re- 
quire the industries and municipalities con- 
cerned to initiate, at the earliest possible 
date and pursuant to a definite time sched- 
ule, construction of the pollution abatement 
facilities necessary to achieve and main- 
tain the objectives. The Lake of the Woods 
was found by the IJC to be in satisfactory 
condition. 

In approving the recommendations, the 
two Governments authorized the Commis- 
sion to establish continuing supervision over 
water quality in Rainy River. In its letter of 
approval, the Department stated that the 
Commission's report was a significant con- 
tribution to the knowledge in the field of 
water pollution control. The Commission was 
assured that action would be taken by the 
authorities concerned to implement the rec- 
ommendations. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

89th Congress, 1st Session 

Review of Market Promotion Activity of Foreign 
Agricultural Service. Twentieth report by the 
Government Operations Committee. H. Rept. 1165. 
October 14, 1965. 98 pp. 

Tariff Filing Requirements for Hardwood Lumber. 
Report to accompany H.R. 10198. S. Rept. 873. 
October 14, 1965. 5 pp. 

Sugar Act Amendments of 1965. Report, together 
with minority views, to accompany H.R. 11135. 
S. Rept. 909. October 18, 1965. 43 pp. 

Expansion of Beef Exports. Interim report of the 
Senate Select Committee on Small Business on 
ocean freight rates and other barriers to expand- 
ing exports of U.S. beef and beef products. S. 
Rept. 939. October 22, 1965. 22 pp. 

Authorizing the Loan of Naval Vessels to Friendly 
Foreign Countries. Conference report to accom- 
pany H.R. 7812. H. Rept. 1208. October 22, 
1965. 3 pp. 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of International Conferences 1 

In Recess as of January 1, 1966 

Conference of the 18-Nation Committee on Disarmament (recessed Geneva Mar. 14, 1962- 

Sept. 16, 1965; to be resumed Jan. 27, 1966). 

Scheduled January Through March 1966 

ECAFE Conference on Commercial Arbitration: Committee on Bangkok Jan. 5-8 

Trade. 

UNCTAD Working Group of Government Experts on Manufac- Geneva Jan. 5-13 

tures. 

UNCTAD Committee on Invisibles and Financing Related to Geneva Jan. 8 (1 day) 

Trade. 

ECA Industrial Symposium Cairo Jan. 8-11 

OECD Committee for Invisible Transactions: Study Group II . Paris Jan. 10-12 

OECD Energy Committee: Special Committee Paris Jan. 10-12 

OECD Committee for Scientific Research: Wear of Engineering Paris Jan. 10-14 

Materials. 

U.N. Development Program: Governing Council New York Jan. 10-21 

ECE Rapporteurs on Gas Pipelines Geneva Jan. 11-12 

ECE Rapporteurs on Safety Belts Geneva Jan. 11-13 

U.N. ECOSOC Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination New York Jan. 11-31 

and Protection of Minorities. 

OECD Ministers of Science: 2d Meeting Paris Jan. 12-13 

ECAFE Committee for the Coordination of Investigations of the Phnom Penh .... Jan. 12-17 

Lower Mekong Basin. 

ECE Inland Transport Committee: Plenary Meeting Geneva Jan. 17-20 

U.N. Working Group on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space . . . New York Jan. 18-21 

Inter- American Cultural Council: 4th Meeting Washington .... Jan. 18-22 

WHO Executive Board: 37th Session Geneva Jan. 18-Feb. 1 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Denmark Paris Jan. 20 (1 day) 

Review. 

ECAFE Committee on Trade: 9th Session Bangkok Jan. 24-Feb. 2 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Portugal Paris Jan. 25(1 day) 

Review. 

ILO Preparatory Technical Conference on Maximum Weight To Geneva Jan. 25-Feb. 5 

Be Carried by One Worker. 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Greece Paris Jan. 27(1 day) 

Review. 

OECD Working Party III Paris Jan. 28-29 



1 This schedule, which was prepared in the Office of International Conferences on Dec. 10, 1965, 
lists international conferences in which the U.S. Government expects to participate officially in the 
period January-March 1966. The list does not include numerous nongovernmental conferences and meet- 
ings. Persons interested in these are referred to the World List of Future International Meetings, 
compiled by the Library of Congress and available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402. 

Following is a key to the abbreviations: BIRPI, United International Bureaus for the Protection 
of Industrial and Intellectual Property; CENTO, Central Treaty Organization; CID, Committee on 
Industrial Development; ECA, Economic Commission for Africa; ECAFE, Economic Commission for 
Asia and the Far East; ECE, Economic Commission for Europe; ECLA, Economic Commission for 
Latin America; ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization; 
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; IA-ECOSOC, Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council; IBE, International Bureau of Education; ICAO, International Civil Aviation Organization; 
ILO, International Labor Organization; IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; 
ITU, International Telecommunication Union; OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and De- 
velopment; SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; U.N., United Nations; UNCTAD, United 
Nations Conference on Trade and Development; UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization; 
WMO, World Meteorological Organization. 

JANUARY 3, 1966 37 



Calendar of International Conferences — Continued 

Scheduled January Through March i.966^Continued 

ECE Gas Committee and Working Group: 12th Session .... Geneva Jan. 31-Feb. 2 

IMCO Maritime Safety Committee: 12th Session London Jan. 31-Feb. 4 

U.N. Committee of 24 on Granting of Independence to Colonial New York January 

Countries and Peoples. 

OECD Working Party on the Adjustment Process Paris January 

ECA Subregional Meeting on Economic Cooperation in Central Leopoldville .... January 

Africa. 

Special Meeting on Inter-American Ports and Harbors . . . Washington .... January 

GATT Committee on Trade and Development: Committee III . . Geneva January 

Consultative Committee on Cooperative Economic Development in Karachi January 

South and Southeast Asia (Colombo Plan): 17th Ministerial 

Meeting. 

FAO Study Group on Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibers: 2d Session undetermined .... January 

of the Consultative Subcommittee. 

OECD Working Party II Paris Feb. 1-2 

CENTO Economic Experts Ankara Feb. 1-4 

ICAO Special Meeting on Limits of Liabilities for Passengers Montreal Feb. 1-18 

Under the Warsaw Convention and the Hague Protocol. 

5th ICAO Meeting on European Regional Air Navigation . . Geneva Feb. 1-26 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Italy Paris Feb. 3 (1 day) 

Review. 

ECAFE Committee on Industry and Natural Resources .... Bangkok Feb. 4-14 

ECE Rapporteurs on Handling Operations in River Ports . . Geneva Feb. 7-8 

OECD Manpower and Social Affairs Committee Paris Feb. 7-9 

WMO Regional Association V: 4th Session (Southwest Pacific) . Wellington Feb. 7-18 

OECD Export Credits Group Paris Feb. 9-11 

ECE Symposium on New Techniques in Inland Navigation . . . Geneva Feb. 9-11 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Switzer- Paris Feb. 10 (1 day) 

land Review. 

ECE Subcommittee on Road Transport: Special Session .... Geneva Feb. 14-25 

ILO Governing Body: 164th Session Geneva Feb. 14-Mar. 5 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Ireland Re- Paris Feb. 17(1 day) 

view. 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 9th Annual Meeting . . Ottawa Feb. 21-25 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Status of Women Geneva Feb.21-Mar.ll 

U.N. Economic and Social Council: 40th Session New York Feb. 23-Mar. 4 

ECLA Subcommittee on Building and Urban Planning .... San Jose February 

IBE Executive Committee: 43d Meeting Geneva February 

5th Inter-American Statistical Conference Venezuela February 

SEATO Intelligence Assessment Committee Bangkok February 

ECA Conference on Central African Industrial Harmonization . Leopoldville .... February 

OECD Working Party on the Adjustment Process Paris February 

Contributors to International Organizations (Geneva Group) . Geneva February 

FAO Codex Alimentarius Committee on Meat and Meat Products: Kulmbach, Germany . February 

2d Meeting. 

FAO Study Group on Bananas: 1st Session Rome February 

FAO Meeting of Tea Statisticians Rome February 

ECE Rapporteurs on Benchmark Statistics Relating to Transport Geneva Mar. 1-4 

GATT Contracting Parties: 23d Session Geneva Mar. 1-25 

OECD Committee for Scientific Research Paris Mar. 2-3 

OECD Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel . . . Paris Mar. 2-4 

OECD Trade Committee Paris Mar. 3^1 

IMCO International Conference on Load Lines London Mar. 3-Apr. 5 

Inter- American Energy Commission: 6th Session Washington .... Mar. 7-12 

UNICEF/ECAFE Asian Conference on Children and Youth in Bangkok Mar. 8-15 

National Development. 

WMO Commission for Synoptic Meteorology: 4th Session . . . Wiesbaden Mar. 8-Apr. 3 

U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights Geneva Mar. 8-Apr. 4 

FAO Group on Grains: 10th Session Rome Mar. 10-17 

BIRPI Advisory Group: International Committee on Novelty Ex- Geneva Mar. 11-12 

amining Patent Offices. 

CENTO Economic Committee: 14th Session London Mar. 14-18 

ECE Working Party on the Construction of Vehicles Geneva Mar. 14-18 

ECLA/CID Latin American Symposium on Industrialization . . Santiago Mar. 14-25 

ITU Extraordinary Administrative Aeronautical Radio Conference Geneva Mar. 14-May 7 

OECD Economic Policy Committee Paris Mar. 15-16 

OECD Economic Development and Review Committee: Sweden Paris Mar. 17 (1 day) 

Review. , «»«»«« 

OECD Working Party III Paris Mar. 17-18 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 10th Meeting 

of Technical Advisory Council. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences: 5th Meeting 

of Board of Directors. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East: 22d Plenary 

Meeting. 
U.N. ECOSOC Advisory Committee on Application of Science and 

Technology to Development. 
ECAFE Committee for the Coordination of Investigations of the 

Lower Mekong Basin. 
ICAO Legal Subcommittee on Possible Revision of the Rome 

Convention. 
ECE Working Party on the Transport of Dangerous Goods . . 
U.N. Committee on the Question of Defining Aggression . . . 
U.N. Committee of 24 on Granting of Independence to Colonial 

Countries and Peoples. 

ECLA Committee of the Whole: 11th Meeting 

ECLA/UNESCO Latin American Seminar on Investment in Edu- 
cation. 
GATT Committee on Trade and Development: Committee III . . 
5th IA-ECOSOC Meeting at the Expert and Ministerial Level . . 
OECD Working Party on the Adjustment Process 



Bogota Mar. 21-27 

Bogota Mar. 21-27 

New Delhi Mar. 22-Apr. 4 

New York Mar. 22-Apr. 4 

New Delhi Mar. 22-Apr. 5 

Oxford Mar. 24-Apr. 5 

Geneva Mar. 28-Apr. 6 

New York March 

New York March 

Santiago March 

Santiago March 

Geneva March 

Buenos Aires .... March 

Paris March 



U.S. Participates in Meeting 
of Migration Committee 

i Statement by Abba P. Schwartz 1 

It is a pleasure to be present at this 24th 
session of the Council of the Intergovern- 
j mental Committee for European Migration. 

As we all know, the Migration Committee 
is approaching its 15th year. It had a mem- 
bership of 16 governments when it was 
formed; today there are 30. Since it was 
founded in 1951, the Committee has trans- 
ported over 1,400,000 persons to overseas 
countries of resettlement, including more 
than 600,000 refugees. This record of ac- 
complishment speaks for itself. It is one of 
which this Council should be proud. 

We all recognize that economic develop- 
; ments in Europe since 1951 have necessi- 
tated certain adjustments in the program 
of the Committee. However, ICEM's tradi- 
tional role of providing assistance to refu- 
gees continues, in our opinion, to be the 
fundamental and certainly one of the most 

1 Made before the Council of the Intergovern- 
mental Committee for European Migration at Ge- 
neva, Switzerland, on Dec. 1. Mr. Schwartz is Ad- 
ministrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular 
Affairs; he was chairman of the U.S. delegation 
to the ICEM meeting. 



important elements in its operations. And, in 
this connection, I would like to emphasize 
my country's concern in the importance of 
maintaining liberal asylum policies for refu- 
gees, and for ICEM's essential role in facili- 
tating the resettlement of refugees out of 
asylum areas. 

For some time the United States Govern- 
ment, which historically has followed a lib- 
eral policy of asylum to refugees, has been 
deeply concerned about the deterioration of 
asylum policies in certain areas. We found 
it particularly significant that the Consult- 
ative Assembly of the Council of Europe at 
a recent meeting passed a resolution urging 
governments to adopt a more liberal asylum 
policy. It is equally significant that the In- 
ternational Council of Voluntary Agencies 
at a recent conference here in Geneva deem- 
ed it necessary to pass a similar resolution. 

I would emphasize that if the doors of 
asylum are tightened or closed there will 
be no need for ICEM to seek resettlement 
opportunities for refugees, nor will there 
be any need to seek material assistance for 
such refugees because, without a place of 
asylum, the future of the refugee is not in 
the country of asylum but in the country 
to which he is thrown back. 

As Dr. Haveman [ICEM Director Baas- 
tien W. Haveman] pointed out in his open- 



| JANUARY 3, 1966 



39 



ing statement to the Council, ICEM is the 
only international organization which has 
the responsibility for moving European ref- 
ugees. It is vital that this mechanism be 
firmly maintained. 

In connection with ICEM's traditional pro- 
gram on behalf of refugees, I know that this 
Council will be interested to learn that the 
new United States immigration law which 
becomes effective today [December 1] 
makes permanent provision for the admis- 
sion of 10,200 refugees annually under a 
broad definition of "refugee." This refu- 
gee provision in our basic law is over and 
above the action which my Government is 
now taking in granting asylum to many 
thousands of Cuban refugees. 

I was very interested in the discussion 
which took place in this Council on No- 
vember 29 on refugee problems, and partic- 
ularly gratified to hear the statement of 
the representative of the Holy See and his 
announcement of a special contribution to 
ICEM for the benefit of refugees and family 
reunion cases. 

The statement of the representative of 
Luxembourg regarding fund-raising efforts 
in his country for the benefit of refugees is 
a further source of encouragement. 

My delegation would also like to pay spec- 
ial tribute to the program which is being 
initiated by Her Majesty the Queen of the 
Netherlands to raise funds to finance the 
transportation of refugees by ICEM through 
the issuance of a special stamp bearing 
the Queen's signature. As Mr. Warren 
[George L. Warren, Adviser for Refugees 
and Migration to the Administrator, Bu- 
reau of Security and Consular Affairs] 
informed the Executive Committee last 
week, we recognize that this action by the 
Queen of the Netherlands is in the finest 
tradition of the Netherlands Government 
and is just another expression of the con- 
cern of the people of the Netherlands for the 
fate of refugees. My delegation feels that it 
would be most appropriate if the money re- 
ceived from various fund-raising efforts in 
the private sector were to be established in 
a special fund known as "The Queen Juliana 



Fund," provided, of course, that this sug- 
gestion meets with the approval of the 
Queen of the Netherlands. 

The extensive discussion which has taken 
place during this session dealing with the 
Director's efforts to improve and expand 
ICEM's program for providing semiskilled 
workers for Latin America is also a matter 
of vital concern to my Government. It is my 
hope that all governments will agree in 
principle to the efforts which are now un- 
derway and will also find it possible to pro- 
vide the essential financial assistance which 
is required so that this program to benefit 
Latin America will be carried forward suc- 
cessfully. 

Mr. Chairman, I know that many members 
of this Council are aware that, since the ini- 
tial meeting of ICEM in Brussels in 1951, the 
United States has always included in its del- 
egation distinguished members of the Con- 
gress of the United States. Neither Mr. War- 
ren nor I, who were both present at Brussels, 
recall that the United States delegation 
has ever included a more distinguished 
group of Members of our Congress than 
are present here today. They are Congress- 
man William McCulloch of Ohio, Congress- 
man Peter W. Rodino of New Jersey, Con- 
gressman Arch A. Moore, Jr., of West Vir- 
ginia, Congressman Clark MacGregor of 
Minnesota, Congressman Byron Rogers of 
Colorado, and Congressman Harold D. Dono- 
hue of Massachusetts, and Senator Ed- 
ward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts. The De- 
partment of State, which bears the principal 
responsibility for the United States partic- 
ipation in ICEM, attaches great signifi- 
cance to the presence of Members of Con- 
gress in our delegation, because they give 
added representation of the American people 
and by their presence express the concern 
of the American people for the basic ob- 
jectives of ICEM, which are resettlement of 
refugees, reuniting of families, assistance to 
our sister Latin American Republics in se- 
lective migration, and the movement of na- 
tional migrants to new homes overseas 
where they can enjoy a good and productive 
life. 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



It is especially gratifying to us that the 
Members of Congress in our delegation are 
with us today because this is a very im- 
portant day, affecting not only the lives of 
many American families but of many nation- 
als of other countries represented at this 
Council session. This day, December 1, 1965, 
is important because our new nondiscrimi- 
natory immigration law becomes effective to- 
day. The Members of Congress who are 
present here are in great measure responsi- 
ble for the enactment of that legislation. 



Current U.N. Documents 



Mimeographed or processed documents (such as 
those listed below) may i&e consulted at depository 
libraries in the United States. U.N. printed publi- 
cations may be purchased from the Sales Section of 
the United Nations, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 

Security Council 

Reports by the Secretary-General on the observance 
of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. 
S/6710/Add.lO, November 19, 1965, 9 pp.; 
S/6710/Add.ll, December 4, 1965, 19 pp.; 
S/6710/Add.l2, December 13, 1965, 15 pp. 

Report by the Secretary-General on compliance 
with the withdrawal provisions of Security 
Council resolutions concerning India and Paki- 
stan. S/6719/Add.4. November 25, 1965. 2 pp. 

Reports of the Secretary-General on the situation 
in the Dominican Republic. S/6975, November 25, 
1965, 2 pp.; S/6991, December 3, 1965, 1 p. 

Report by the Secretary-General on the United 
Nations Operation in Cyprus for the period June 
11 to December 8, 1965. S/7001. December 10, 
1965. 56 pp. and map. 

General Assembly 

Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade 
and Development. Note by the Secretary-General. 
A/6121. November 29, 1965. 3 pp. 

The Korean Question: Reports of the United Na- 
tions Commission for the Unification and Re- 
habilitation of Korea. Letter dated December 7, 
1965, from the representative of the U.S.S.R. 
transmitting a letter from the Minister for For- 
eign Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic 
of Korea. A/C.l/925. December 8, 1965. 9 pp. 

World Food Programme. Notes by the Secretary- 
General. A/6149, December 8, 1965, 7 pp.; 
A/6150, December 8, 1965, 2 pp. 

Economic and Social Council 

15 Years and 150,000 Skills: An Anniversary Re- 
view of the United Nations Expanded Pro- 
gramme of Technical Assistance. E/TAC/153/- 
Rev.l. October 5, 1965. 309 pp. 

Continuation of the World Food Programme. Note 
by the Secretary-General. E/4127. November 8, 
1965. 3 pp. 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Consular Relations 

Vienna convention on consular relations; 

Optional protocol to the Vienna convention on con- 
sular relations concerning the compulsory settle- 
ment of disputes. 
Done at Vienna April 24, 1963. 1 
Ratification deposited: Philippines, November 15, 
1965. 

Health 

Constitution of the World Health Organization, as 
amended. Done at New York July 22, 1946. En- 
tered into force April 7, 1948; for the United 
States June 21, 1948. TIAS 1808, 4643. 
Acceptance deposited: Maldive Islands, Novem- 
ber 5, 1965. 

Law of the Sea 

Convention on the continental shelf. Done at Geneva 
April 29, 1958. Entered into force June 10, 1964. 
TIAS 5578. 
Accession deposited: Malawi, November 3, 1965. 

Convention on the high seas. Done at Geneva April 
29, 1958. Entered into force September 30, 1962. 
TIAS 5200. 
Accession deposited: Malawi, November 3, 1965. 

Convention on fishing and conservation of the 
living resources of the high seas. Done at Geneva 
April 29, 1958. 1 
Accession deposited: Malawi, November 3, 1965. 

Convention on the territorial sea and the contigu- 
ous zone. Done at Geneva April 29, 1958. Entered 
into force September 10, 1964. TIAS 5639. 
Accession deposited: Malawi, November 3, 1965. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

Protocol to the International Convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (TIAS 2089), re- 
lating to measures of control; 
Protocol to the International Convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (TIAS 2089), re- 
lating to entry into force of proposals adopted 
by the Commission. 

Done at Washington November 29, 1965. Open 
for signature at Washington November 29 
through December 13, 1965. 1 
Signatures: Canada, France, Italy, Norway, Po- 
land, Portugal, December 13, 1965. 

Trade 

Protocol amending the General Agreement on Tar- 
iffs and Trade to introduce a part IV on trade 
and development and to amend annex I. Open for 
acceptance, by signature or otherwise, at Geneva 



1 Not in force. 



JANUARY 3, 1966 



41 



from February 8 until December 31, 1965. 1 
Signatures: Czechoslovakia, November 5, 1965; 
Sierra Leone, November 18, 1965. 



BILATERAL 

Belgium 

Protocol modifying and supplementing the income 
tax convention of October 28, 1948, as amended 
(TIAS 2833, 4280). Signed at Brussels May 21, 
1965. 1 
Ratified by the President: November 22, 1965. 

Germany, Federal Republic of 

Protocol amending convention for avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income 
of July 22, 1954 (TIAS 3133). Signed at Bonn 
September 17, 1965. 1 
Ratified by the President: November 15, 1965. 

Italy 

Agreement amending agreement concerning expor- 
tation of velveteen fabrics from Italy to the 
United States of July 6, 1962, as amended (TIAS 
5186, 5628). Effected by exchange of notes at 
Washington November 16, 1965. Entered into 
force November 16, 1965. 

Yugoslavia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title IV 
of the Agricultural Trade Development and 
Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 
454; 7 U.S.C. 1731-1736), with exchange of notes. 
Signed at Belgrade November 22, 1965. Entered 
into force November 22, 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
20402. Address requests direct to the Superintend- 
ent of Documents, except in the case of free publi- 
cations, which may be obtained from the Office of 
Media Services, Department of State. 

International Cooperation: Assignment of the Cen- 
tury. Pamphlet describing the objective of the In- 
ternational Cooperation Year, commemorating the 
20th anniversary of the founding of the United 
Nations. Included are a few of the stories of our 
government's activities which focus attention on 
the things that men do to help one another to 
solve their mutual problems and to further develop- 
ment in every field of human endeavor. Includes 
brief bibliography. Pub. 7948. General Foreign 
Policy Series 206. 20 pp., illus. 20tf. 



The Dominican Crisis . . . The Hemisphere Acts. 

Official statements of President Johnson, Secretary 
Rusk, and Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker outlining 
U.S. policy and how the crisis was met. Pub. 7971. 
Inter-American Series 92. 37 pp., illus. 30tf. 

Educational and Cultural Diplomacy — 1964. An- 
nual report on the educational and cultural ex- 
change program in its 15th year, 1963/64. Statisti- 
cal data given in appendixes. Pub. 7979. Interna- 
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illus. 45<f. 

The Unseen Search for Peace. Text of address by 
Dean Rusk at Johns Hopkins University, October 
16, 1965, in which he characterizes the unheadlined, 
manifold cooperative international activities in 
which the United States participates. Pub. 7985. 
International Organization and Conference Series 
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Statute of The Hague Conference on Private Inter- 
national Law. Statute with Other Governments — 
Formulated at the Seventh Session of the Confer- 
ence held at The Hague October 9-31, 1951. 
Entered into force with respect to the U.S. October 
15, 1964. TIAS 5710. 7 pp. 10<*. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Bolivia 
—Signed at La Paz May 12, 1965. Entered into 
force May 12, 1965. With exchange of notes. TIAS 
5866. 15 pp. lOtf. 



1 Not in force. 



Check List off Department of State 


Press Releases: December 13-19 


Press 


releases 


may be obtained from the 


Office 


>f News, 


Department of State, Wash- 


ington, 


D.C., 20520. 


Release issued 


prior to December 13 which 


appears 


in this issue of the Bulletin is No. 


284 of 


December 


8. 


No. 


Date 


Subject 


288 


12/13 


IJC report on pollution of 
Rainy River and Lake of 
the Woods. 


*287-A 


12/15 


Program for visit of Pres- 
ident of Pakistan. 


*289 


12/15 


Eilts sworn in as Ambas- 
sador to Saudi Arabia 
(biographic details). 


*290 


12/15 


Program for visit of Pres- 
ident of Pakistan. 


291 


12/16 


Williams : Department of 
State American Legion 
Post. 


*292 


12/16 


Program for visit of Chan- 
cellor of Federal Republic 
of Germany. 


293 


12/17 


NATO communique. 


*294 


12/17 


Rountree sworn in as Am- 
bassador to South Africa 
(biographic details). 


*295 


12/17 


Program for visit of U.K. 
Prime Minister. 


296 


12/17 


Embargo on oil imports to 
Rhodesia. 


*Not 


printed. 



42 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INDEX January 3, 1966 Vol. LIV, No. 1S8U 



American Principles. The View From the Other 
Side (Harris) 16 

Atomic Energy. Nuclear Power and Prolifer- 
ation (Smyth) 28 

Canada. IJC Recommendations Approved for 
Rainy River Pollution Control 36 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating to 
Foreign Policy 36 

Disarmament. Nuclear Power and Proliferation 
(Smyth) 28 

Economic Affairs 

Balance-of-Payments Program To Be Intensi- 
fied in 1966 (Connor, Johnson, recommenda- 
tions of Cabinet Committee) 22 

IJC Recommendations Approved for Rainy River 
Pollution Control 36 

U.S. Supports British Decision To Halt Oil Im- 
ports to Rhodesia 27 

Europe. The View From the Other Side (Harris) 16 

France. Letters of Credence (Lucet) .... 10 

International Cooperation. Science and Interna- 
tional Cooperation (Hornig) 20 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of International Conferences ... 37 
Nuclear Power and Proliferation (Smyth) . . 28 
U.S. Participates in Meeting of Migration Com- 
mittee (Schwartz) 39 

Italy. U.S.-Italian Exchange on North Viet-Nam 
Contacts Released (Fanfani, McCloskey, Rusk) 10 

Luxembourg. The View From the Other Side 
(Harris) 16 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North At- 
lantic Council Meets at Paris (communique) . 7 

Pakistan 

Cyclone Victims in Pakistan To Receive U.S. 
Relief Funds (Department statement) . . 5 

U.S. and Pakistan Agree on Need for Peaceful 
Settlement of Asian Conflicts (Ayub Khan, 
Johnson, joint communique) 2 



Presidential Documents. 

Balance-of-Payments Program To Be Intensi- 
fied in 1966 22 

U.S. and Pakistan Agree on Need for Peaceful 
Settlement of Asian Conficts 2 

Public Affairs. The View From the Other Side 
(Harris) 16 

Publications. Recent Releases 42 

Refugees. U.S. Participated in Meeting of Mi- 
gration Committee (Schwartz) 39 

Rhodesia 

U.S. Outlines Interests in Southern Rhodesia 
(Williams) 13 

U.S. Supports British Decision To Halt Oil Im- 
ports to Rhodesia 27 

Science. Science and International Cooperation 

(Hornig) 20 

Tanzania. Letters of Credence (Lukumbuzya) 10 

Treaty Information. Current Actions .... 41 
United Kingdom. U.S. Supports British Decision 

To Halt Oil Imports to Rhodesia .... 27 
United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 41 

U.S.-Italian Exchange on North Viet-Nam Con- 
tacts Released (Fanfani, McCloskey, Rusk) 10 
Viet-Nam. U.S.-Italian Exchange on North Viet- 
Nam Contacts Released (Fanfani, McCloskey, 

Rusk) 10 

Name Index 

Ayub Khan, Mohammed 2 

Fanfani, Amintore 10 

Connor, John T 22 

Harris, Patricia Roberts 16 

Hornig, Donald F 20 

Johnson, President 2, 22 

Lucet, Charles 10 

Lukumbuzya, Michael 10 

McCloskey, Robert J 10 

Rusk, Secretary 10 

Schwartz, Abba P 39 

Smyth, Henry D 28 

Williams, G. Mermen 13 



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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 




PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND CHANCELLOR ERHARD 
HOLD TALKS AT WASHINGTON i6 

PEACE, OUR MOST COMPELLING TASK 
Remarks by President Johnson 51 

THE ROOTS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY 
by Ambassador George C. McGhee 53 

HARMONIZING EAST-WEST TRADE WITH U.S. NATIONAL INTERESTS 
by Assistant Secretary of Commerce Alexander B. Trowbridge 59 



For index see inside back cover 



President Johnson and Chancellor Erhard 
Hold Talks at Washington 



Chancellor Ludwig Erhard of the Federal 
Republic of Germany visited the United 
States December 19-21. He met with Presi- 
dent Johnson, Secretary Rusk, and other 
Government officials December 20 and 21. 
Follotuing is an exchange of toasts between 
President Johnson and Chancellor Erhard 
at a dinner at the White House on December 
20 and the text of a joint communique re- 
leased at the conclusion of their talks on 
December 21. 



EXCHANGE OF TOASTS 

White House press release dated December 20 ; as-delivered text 

President Johnson 

Mr. Chancellor, distinguished members of 
your party, ladies and gentlemen: 

The great German writer, Goethe, once 
said that the formula for a happy life was 
each day to read a beautiful poem, listen to 
beautiful music, look at a beautiful painting, 
and, if possible, say some reasonable thing. 

Today, Mr. Chancellor, we may have 



lacked the beauty of poem, painting, and 
music. But we have, I believe, said reason- 
able things to each other. 

We are privileged tonight to have in our 
country and in the first house of our land 
one of the world's most reasonable and ver- 
satile leaders. He is a man of many talents: 
educator, author, amateur musician, econo- 
mist, politician, and statesman. 

As a politician, he can look with great 
satisfaction to the vote of confidence that 
the people of West Germany gave him in 
last September's national election. 

As a statesman, he can look with great 
pride to nearly 20 years of dedicated and 
effective service to the Federal Republic. 
The miracle of Germany's economic recovery 
following World War II stands as a tower- 
ing monument to his service. 

So, Chancellor Erhard, we welcome you 
this evening not only as a politician and as 
an economist but really, most of all, as a 
friend. You are aware, I am sure, of the 
high regard and the deep affection in which 
I personally hold you. That regard and that 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1385 PUBLICATION 8016 JANUARY 10, 1966 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services. Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with infor- 
mation on developments in the field of 
foreign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the field of international relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 



ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
20402. Price: 62 issues, domestic $10, 
foreign $15 ; single copy 30 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 19, 1961). 

xote : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin as the source will 
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed 
in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Liter- 
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46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



affection are reflected throughout America. 

There is no truth to the rumor that your 
reputation as an economist prompted us to 
invite you here to visit us at budget time. 

In other areas, however, we will not be so 
reticent in seeking your advice. 

We live in a world of change. In that 
world, nations have much to gain from an 
open exchange of information, and we have 
much to lose by ignoring the potential 
contributions of other peoples. 

We have already begun a mutual adven- 
ture in space. Only last summer our two 
Governments worked out an agreement 
whereby we would launch a German-built 
satellite to probe the inner radiation belts. 

Now we would like to discuss with you 
— and with others — an even more ambitious 
plan to permit us to do together what we 
cannot do so well alone. Examples would be 
two projects which stand high on the space 
agenda. Both are very demanding and both 
are quite complex. One would be a probe to 
the sun and another a probe to Jupiter. To 
cooperate on such a major endeavor would 
contribute vastly to our mutual knowledge 
and to our mutual skills. 

So I propose, early in the year, to send a 
commission — headed by our able Adminis- 
trator of NASA [National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration], James Webb — to 
consult with you and other governments of 
Europe wishing to participate in a joint 
exploration of space. 

In all our efforts we seek to learn as well 
as to contribute. 

We are now watching with great interest 
the pioneer work that you in Germany are 
doing to make your cities more livable. We 
are especially interested in your antipollu- 
tion programs, which are said to be among 
the most effective in all the world. So I 
propose sending a working group, headed by 
our distinguished Secretary of the Interior, 
Mr. [Stewart L.] Udall, to West Germany 
next month to discuss with your own Min- 
ister of Science and Education and to view 
some of your accomplishments firsthand. 

I am told that some of your air pollution 
experts feel that the only thing that now 



stands between them and final success is 
the daily quota of their Chancellor's cigars. 

Mr. Chancellor, in welcoming you to these 
shores during our Christmas season, we are 
aware that we have much to be thankful 
for: a stable political system and healthy 
economies in both our countries; a North 
Atlantic alliance that has met every chal- 
lenge of the past ; and an effective relation- 
ship that binds our countries together with- 
in the framework of an Atlantic partner- 
ship. We applaud the role of Germany in 
these great affairs. 

And for our part the United States is 
especially grateful for the support which 
your Government has given to the common 
cause in Viet-Nam and which you may give 
in the days ahead. 

The great effort which my country is 
making tonight in Viet-Nam is in fulfill- 
ment of the clear commitment of the Ameri- 
can people, the American Congress, and 
three American Presidents. The people of 
South Viet-Nam need our support, and they 
are getting it. The credible commitment of 
the United States is the foundation stone of 
the house of freedom all around the world. 
If it is not good in Viet-Nam, who can trust 
it in the heart of Europe? But America's 
word, I can assure you, is good in Viet-Nam, 
just as it is good in Berlin. 

Our object in Viet-Nam is not war but 
peace. There will be peace in Viet-Nam the 
very moment that others are ready to stop 
their attacks. We will push on every door 
for peace. We will go anywhere to talk. We 
set no conditions. We neglect no hopeful 
step. But, as all of you know, it takes two 
to talk and it takes two, as well, to stop the 
fighting. 

Meanwhile, we are going to keep this 
country moving in the spirit of the Great 
Society and the Formed Society. Though we 
are defending freedom abroad we must con- 
tinue to enlarge freedom at home and 
around the world. 

In Europe much remains to be done. The 
reunification of Germany in peace and free- 
dom is a major goal. We share your hopes 
for a continued development of a united 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



47 



Europe. The strength of the Atlantic part- 
nership will require the best efforts of both 
sides of the Atlantic. A just solution to the 
crisis in Viet-Nam just must be found, and 
the entire fabric of world peace must be 
strengthened. As we agreed today, there is 
work to be done by your country and by 
ours. 

There are no easy answers to any of these 
questions. They will require a new spirit of 
trust and cooperation among all the nations 
of the world. That spirit, Chancellor Er- 
hard, is embodied in the friendship of our 
two great nations. 

And so, ladies and gentlemen, in honor of 
a country whose people and whose future 
are represented here tonight by my old and 
dear friend, Chancellor Ludwig Erhard, I 
now ask you to join me by raising your 
glasses to the President of the Federal 
Republic of Germany. 

Chancellor Erhard 1 

Mr. President, Mrs. Johnson, ladies and 
gentlemen : 

It is certainly a very great honor for me 
to be your guest tonight, Mr. President, at 
such a festive occasion, and I would like to 
thank you for this reception on behalf of all 
my fellow countrymen who are here tonight. 
And we had a very valuable, very enjoyable 
day today. I consider it always to be a very 
great distinction to be here, and I am fully 
aware of what the friendship with you, Mr. 
President, means to me personally, to my 
country, and to all my fellow countrymen. 

Looking back on the past, on the time 
during which I had to accept and bear 
political responsibility — and that nearly 
covers a period of 20 years — on thinking 
back of the moment when we were com- 
pletely broken down, facing the collapse of 
our country, and there the Americans were 
the first in their generosity to extend to us 
a helping hand. And this, Mr. President, 
ladies and gentlemen, is a deed we will never 
forget. 

When we then had to start building up 
and reconstructing the economy of our 



1 As translated from the German. 



country, and I had to take over responsibility 
for that job, I was looking around for a 
model. Where was the country adhering to 
the same ideals, to the same principles, liv- 
ing by these principles and ideals which we 
now needed, which I felt we had to live by 
after the tragedy through which we had 
gone? And here again the generosity and 
the cooperation, the help of the United 
States and the Americans proved itself so 
immensely helpful. And it was quite obvious 
that this should become the basis of real 
friendship. 

In those years we have won friends, and 
I say, with the feeling of pride and with 
the feeling of satisfaction, that the friend- 
ship that exists between you and me, and 
our personal relations, is the coronation — 
it is the crowning of this friendship between 
our two countries. 

You do not know, Mr. President, how 
much that means to me, and I am not speak- 
ing from vanity. I speak sincerely and 
honestly. And because this is so, because of 
this friendship, we know how much we still 
have to do together, our two countries, how 
much is still to be done. 

We have discussed a number of problems 
today. You have mentioned some of them. 
We cannot live in a peaceful world unless 
we stand together, formally and resolutely. 
We are living in a world economically, so- 
cially, politically, where so great demands 
are made on all of us, but particularly on the 
United States of America and particularly 
on you, Mr. President. And all these prin- 
ciples and ideals by which you and the 
Americans are living are indivisible. No 
country, however great it may be, is any 
longer an end in itself. No country, however 
great it may be, is self-sufficient today. It 
is necessary today to rely on one's neighbor, 
to rely on one's friends. And that is one 
more reason why we have to get more closely 
together in order to make this world more 
peaceful. 

I think this is a particularly appropriate 
idea in this Christmas season, which should 
inspire us with glad and happy hope. 

Today and tomorrow, we will have an- 



48 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



other opportunity to continue our talks, and 
I hope we will be able to bring our talks to 
fruitful conclusion, to fruitful results. 

You, Mr. President, mentioned one par- 
ticular project which is very close to my 
heart, and that is: How can the industri- 
alized society of a highly developed country 
be given a new shape, a new form? 

It is perhaps no accident that at the same 
time when you, Mr. President, developed 
your concept of the Great Society, I put forth 
another concept, that of the Formed So- 
ciety. 

It may be difficult here tonight to explain 
in detail what we have in mind with these 
two new concepts. But I think what we have 
in common, both of us, is the feeling that 
all the isms of the 19th century, be it 
capitalism, be it socialism, are no longer 
enough to solve the problems of today. These 
won't do any more. But what we require is 
something new. 

These two concepts are perhaps not fully 
identical, but there is this common desire to 
:reate something new, which would not lead 
people astray but would make people live 
together with their neighbors, with their 
friends, would establish sound relationships 
oetween the people and their environments. 
And I would particularly welcome close co- 
operation between our two countries in this 
particular field, in developing these new 
concepts. 

You also included, Mr. President, in the 
enumeration of subjects we discussed, co- 
operation in the field of space research. Of 
course, we, the Germans, would not like to 
get too close to the sun because we wouldn't 
like to burn our wings, but I think such 
ambitious plans would serve us well because 
it has been my experience that, when you 
try to achieve only little things, you are 
very often bound to fail, but if you have a 
great objective which will fascinate the 
imagination of the people then you will very 
often succeed, because it arouses the enthu- 
siasm, the support, and the imagination of 
the people. 

Mr. President, we are also in agreement 
that we need integration, economic coopera- 



tion, a sound economy, sound currency, as a 
basis for our policies. This has become evi- 
dent again and again in our talks, in our 
meetings. And this may perhaps constitute 
the real, the inherent value of the friendship 
of the alliance to which we both belong. 

You also mentioned Viet-Nam, Mr. Presi- 
dent. We know that the United States of 
America is making great sacrifices in Viet- 
Nam in order to defend the security of the 
people there. But that is also our security, 
and if you appreciated our contribution we 
are making to that effect, I must confess, 
quite frankly, I feel ashamed, because what 
we can contribute is very modest compared 
with what you do. 

Mr. President, I am very proud of our 
friendship, and in going back to Germany, 
I'll tell the German people that the United 
States of America is a reliable ally. 

You may be convinced that we, on the 
other hand, will also be ready not to betray 
this confidence and this trust. The measures 
and criteria may be different, but the spirit 
is identical: We must stand together; we 
must unite. 

What would our future have been, what 
would our faith have been had not the 
United States and the Americans, in their 
generosity giving us hope after our collapse, 
had they not shown the way to us? 

It is perhaps not only incidental that for 
the second time we have met in this Christ- 
mas season. Two years ago we had the 
pleasure of being your guest after Christmas 
at the ranch in Texas. Today we are meeting 
here under the Christmas tree, so to speak, 
the shine of the candles — Christmas tree 
and candles, a symbol of peace, symbol of 
charity. In all we do, we should be inspired 
by these auspicious ideals. 

If we have to undertake efforts in the 
military fields, some people may incline to 
believe that this would be an end in itself 
and that we wanted to disturb the peace. 
But this is not true. The fact that we are 
getting together in this Christmastime, that 
we are aware of the Christian ideals, is evi- 
dence to the contrary. Because we want to 
serve peace, we want to maintain peace, so 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



49 



that the old message, the tidings, may come 
true — peace on earth and good will to men. 

In this spirit, Mr. President, I wish you 
and Mrs. Johnson Merry Christmas and a 
Happy New Year. 

Let me thank you once again for this 
wonderful reception, for this wonderful 
evening you have prepared for us here. 

To your health, sir. 

JOINT COMMUNIQUE 

White House press release dated December 21 

President Johnson and Chancellor Erhard have 
completed two days of intensive, cordial and can- 
did conversations in Washington. They were ac- 
companied by Secretaries Rusk, Fowler and Mc- 
Namara; Ministers Schroeder and von Hassel and 
other advisers. They discussed all major matters of 
joint concern to the United States and the Federal 
Republic of Germany and of general import for the 
Free World. 

The future of the Atlantic Alliance was a central 
topic in the conversation. The President and the 
Chancellor agreed that close political and military 
co-operation among the nations of NATO was 
necessary. They affirmed the determination of both 
Governments to maintain and to strengthen the 
Alliance and its political and military institutions. 

The President and the Chancellor gave close 
attention to the nuclear problems confronting the 
Alliance. They agreed that the Federal Republic of 
Germany and other interested partners in the 
Alliance should have an appropriate part in nuclear 
defense. 

In this connection the Chancellor emphasized that 
the Federal Republic of Germany neither intended 
nor desired to acquire national control over nuclear 
weapons, that it had in 1954 given an undertaking 
to its allies not to produce such weapons in Ger- 
many, and that, finally, it is the only State in the 
world to have subjected itself to international su- 
pervision of such an obligation. 

The President and the Chancellor noted with 
satisfaction that the Defense Ministers of a number 
of NATO countries have started discussions on the 
possibility of improving present nuclear arrange- 
ments within the Alliance. 

The President, after noting that the deterrent 
power of the Alliance had proved completely effec- 
tive and was being constantly modernized, stated 
the views of the United States that arrangements 
could be worked out to assure members of the 
Alliance not having nuclear weapons an appropriate 
share in nuclear defense. The President and the 
Chancellor agreed that discussion of such arrange- 
ments be continued between the two countries and 
with other interested allies. 

The President and the Chancellor were in agree- 



ment in upholding the principle of non-prolifera- 
tion of nuclear weapons into the national control 
of States. They were of the view that Alliance 
nuclear arrangements would not constitute prolifer- 
ation of nuclear weapons and in fact should con- 
tribute to the goal of preventing the spread of 
nuclear weapons. They stressed the importance of 
continuing efforts to reduce the threat of war and 
bring about effective arms control. 

The President and the Chancellor voiced mutual 
satisfaction at the arrangements worked out, and 
already successfully under way, between the United 
States Space Agency and the German Ministry of 
Scientific Research for a joint project to launch a 
German-built satellite to probe the inner radiation 
belts. The President suggested several other possi- 
ble cooperative projects, including a probe to the 
sun and a probe to Jupiter. He also indicated his 
intention to send a Commission to Europe early in 
1966 to consult with the German Government and 
other European Governments which wish to join in 
the cooperative exploration of space. 

The President and the Chancellor had an intensive 
exchange of views on the question of Germany's 
reunification. They reaffirm their strong determina- 
tion to pursue all opportunities for attaining as 
soon as possible the common objective of the 
peaceful reunification of Germany on the basis of 
self-determination. The President and the Chancel- 
lor reject malicious allegations designed to cast 
doubt on the peaceful intentions of the Federal 
Republic of Germany. The exchange of views between 
the two Governments on the German problem and 
related questions will be continued. 

The President and the Chancellor emphasized that 
pressures on Berlin would continue, as in the past, 
to be met with firmness and determination. They 
underlined that a lasting solution of the problems 
of Berlin can only be found in a peaceful solution 
of the German problem on the basis of self-determi- 
nation. 

The President and the Chancellor reaffirmed the 
view that a lasting relaxation of tension in Europe 
and in West-East relationships will require progress 
toward the peaceful reunification of Germany in 
freedom. Both leaders restated their intention to 
continue to seek improvement in relations with the 
nations of Eastern Europe. 

The Chancellor reaffirmed Germany's fundamental 
commitment to European unity and his confidence 
in the ability of the effective institutions already 
created to contribute to its achievement. The Presi- 
dent assured the Chancellor that the United States 
remained convinced that a united Europe is impor- 
tant to the achievement of an effective Atlantic 
Partnership. 

The President and the Chancellor agreed that the 
successful conclusion of the Kennedy Round trade 
negotiations is of major importance to the progress 
of the Free World, for developed and developing 
countries alike. They also agreed that, to attain 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



their full promise, these historic negotiations must 
move forward as rapidly as possible with the active 
participation of the EEC [European Economic 
Community]. 

Recent developments in other parts of the world, 
particularly in the Far East, were also examined. 
The President described the situation in Viet-Nam 
and the efforts of the Governments of South Viet- 
Nam and the United States, together with their 
allies, to bring about a peaceful and just settle- 
ment. He expressed his appreciation for the support 
of the Federal Republic of Germany in the struggle 
to deter Communist aggression against South Viet- 
Nam. The Chancellor stated the determination of 
his Government to continue to assist in this effort 
for the cause of freedom. 

The President and the Chancellor reviewed the 
aid programs of their governments and emphasized 
the great importance of effective aid to developing 
countries. In this connection, they noted that over 
90 percent of all external resources flowing to these 
countries is provided by the Free World. They 
agreed that there was need for increased effort on 
the part of developed countries to provide funds to 
assure that adequate levels of aid are maintained. 
At the same time, they emphasized the need for 
greater self-help by the developing countries. The 
President was pleased to hear the Chancellor's 
description of the progress of the German Develop- 
ment Aid Service (German Peace Corps). 

The President and the Chancellor welcomed the 
establishment of the Asian Development Bank, 2 to 
which their governments would make substantial 
contributions. They reemphasized the value of 
economic and social development in Southeast Asia 
as a way of promoting peace in that region. 

They also discussed the arrangements between 
the two governments whereby United States military 
expenditures in Germany entering the balance of 
payments are offset by the Federal Republic 
through its purchase of United States military 
equipment and services. It was agreed that these 
arrangements were of great value to both govern- 
ments and should be fully executed and continued. 

The President and the Chancellor discussed social 
developments in the United States and in Germany. 
They expressed the view that their concepts of 
the "Great Society" and the "Formierte Gesell- 
schaft" have much in common and that a joint 
discussion of experiences should take place as soon 
as possible. 

The President and the Chancellor agreed that the 
tradition and practice of effective consultation be- 
tween their governments— reflecting the friendship 
and trust which has grown up between the people 
of the United States and Germany— would lead to 
even closer and more fruitful relations in the 
future between the United States, the Federal 
Republic of Germany and their partners. 

1 For background, see Bulletin of Dec. 27, 1965, 
p. 1015. 



Peace, Our Most Compelling Task 

Remarks by President Johnson 1 

Mr. Prime Minister, Mr. Vice President, 
my fellow countrymen : 

Once again it is Christmas. 

Once again that time has come when the 
heart of man opens to the holiness of life. 

Once again we tell the ancient story of a 
baby, born into poverty and persecution, 
whose destiny it was to lift the iron burden 
of despair from His fellow men. 

In the 20 centuries that have transpired 
since the sacred moment of His birth, man- 
kind has never been wholly free of the 
scourge of war and the ravages of disease, 
illiteracy, and hunger. Yet the star of Beth- 
lehem burns in our hearts on this December 
evening with the warmth that is not dimin- 
ished by the years or discouraged by our 
failures. 

It reminds us that our first and our most 
compelling task is peace. 

As in other Christmas seasons in the past, 
our celebration this year is tempered by the 
absence of brave men from their homes and 
from their loved ones. 

We would not have it so. We have not 
sought the combat in which they are en= 
gaged. We have hungered for not one foot 
of another's territory, nor for the life of a 
single adversary. Our sons patrol the hills 
of Viet-Nam at this hour because we have 
learned that though men cry "Peace, peace," 
there is no peace to be gained ever by yield- 
ing to aggression. 

That lesson has been learned by a hundred 
generations. The guarantors of peace on 
earth have been those prepared to make 
sacrifices in its behalf. 

On this platform with me this evening is 
the very distinguished and very great Prime 
Minister of Great Britain. He speaks for a 
people who have made such sacrifices in be- 
half of peace. On the battlefield and at the 
conference table, his countrymen have 



1 Made at the lighting of the national Christmas 
tree on Dec. 17 (White House press release; as-de- 
livered text). 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



51 



fought and have labored to create a just 
peace among the nations. 

The distinguished Prime Minister, Harold 
Wilson, and I have spoken of this task this 
afternoon. We have spoken not only of the 
security of mankind, but we have spoken of 
the countless opportunities for cooperation 
that are the true works of peace. 

He has told me that his Government will 
renew the quest for peace as cochairman of 
the Geneva conference. I have told him 
that any new way that he can find to peace 
will have a ready response from the United 
States. 

We know, too, that peace is not merely the 
absence of war. It is that climate in which 
man may be liberated from the hopelessness 
that imprisons his spirit. 

In this strong and in this prosperous land 
there are many that are still trapped in that 
prison where hope seems but a dream. We 
shall never rest until that dream becomes a 
reality. 

But hope cannot be our province alone. 
For we shall never know peace in a world 
where a minority prospers and the vast 
majority is condemned to starvation and 
ignorance. This evening, inspired once more 
by Him who brought comfort and courage 
to the oppressed, we offer our hand to those 
who seek a new life for their people. 

Above all things, we dedicate ourselves to 
the search for a just settlement of disputes 
between nations. We declare once more our 
desire to discuss an honorable peace in 
Viet-Nam. We know that nothing is to be 
gained by a further delay in talking. Our 
poet Emerson once said that "The God of 
victory is one-handed — but peace gives vic- 
tory to both sides." 

So in the name of a people who seek peace 
for their brothers on this earth — that we 
may be the children of our Father which is 
in heaven, "for he maketh his sun to rise on 
the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain 
on the just and on the unjust" — I turn on 



the lights of this tree and pray that the 
Spirit that we revere this evening may il- 
luminate the heart of every man on earth. 



U.S. Forces Act With Restraint 
After Christmas Cease-Fire 

Department Statement 1 

United States forces in Viet-Nam have 
been under orders not to be the first to re- 
sume hostilities after Christmas. The Gov- 
ernment of South Viet-Nam has given simi- 
lar orders. 

Unfortunately there were a number of in- 
cidents of firing by Communist units dur- 
ing the 30-hour Christmas period. The 
Vietnamese and American units have replied 
effectively to this fire. No Americans are 
reported killed, but several are reported 
wounded. The evidence thus indicates that 
the Communists have not stopped their at- 
tacks, but our forces continue to act with 
great restraint. 

Letters of Credence 

Cameroon 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the 
Federal Republic of Cameroon, Joseph 
Owono, presented his credentials to Presi- 
dent Johnson on December 16. For texts of 
the Ambassador's remarks and the Presi- 
dent's reply, see Department of State press 
release dated December 16. 

Viet-Nam 

The newly appointed Ambassador of the 
Republic of Viet-Nam, Vu Van Thai, pre- 
sented his credentials to President Johnson 
on December 16. For texts of the Ambas- 
sador's remarks and the President's reply, 
see Department of State press release dated 
December 16. 



Released to the press on Dec. 25. 



52 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



The Roots of American Foreign Policy 



by George C. McGhee 

Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany 1 



My topic this evening is American foreign 
policy. Let me begin by stressing that ac- 
tivities such as those you sponsor are more 
closely related to the formulation of policy 
than many people suppose. My country re- 
lies on Germany as a partner in interna- 
tional affairs. The Federal Republic recipro- 
cally relies upon the United States. Such a 
relationship is possible only because Ger- 
mans and Americans know each other well 
enough as human beings to be certain that 
we both are, as countries, the collective 
counterparts of real friends — seeking goals 
in common. Your society, by promoting un- 
derstanding between us, helps to create 
that certainty. Hence your programs under- 
pin our international partnership. 

In these remarks I shall talk about places 
far from Germany. I do not believe, how- 
ever, that they are remote from German 
interest — any more than they are from ours. 
One of the clearest lessons of this century's 
history is that distance no longer insulates 
countries from the impact of events. We 
Americans have learned it the hard way — 
by being drawn, against our will, into two 
world wars. It has become clear to us that 
a major power cannot choose whether or not 
to be a participant in the general effort to 
assure a peaceful world order. The strength 
of such a power weighs willy-nilly in the bal- 
ance of decisive events. Trying to with- 



1 Address made before the German-American So- 
ciety of Essen, at Essen, Germany, on Nov. 9. 



hold that weight is a decision no less fateful 
than supplying it — and far less likely to lead 
to an acceptable outcome. 

This, then, is the starting point of 
American foreign policy: a conviction that 
power entails responsibility and a determi- 
nation to discharge actively the responsi- 
bilities which fall upon the United States be- 
cause of its position in the world. The end 
of American policy can also be stated in a 
few words: to contribute to the emergence 
of a stable world order in which nations, 
living at peace with one another, can deter- 
mine their futures for themselves while 
working cooperatively toward objectives that 
they share. The means by which we believe 
such an order can best be achieved — the 
strategy, if you like — is through the devel- 
opment of the strength and unity of the 
free world. 

An order such as we seek has, unfortu- 
nately, not yet come into being. However, 
here and there, and especially within the 
Atlantic community, there have been 
planted seeds from which it may in time 
grow. If we look backward, we observe that 
there has been no settled order in the world 
since the collapse of the peace made in 
Vienna in 1815; nor, I believe, can one be 
expected in the foreseeable future. We live 
in an age of turmoil — and foreign policy 
must be formulated in the light of this fact, 
even as it reaches out toward a more orderly 
future. 

Yet turmoil means change, and change re- 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



53 



fleets an environment in which foreign pol- 
icy can often work most constructively. We 
have, for example, witnessed since the war 
the liquidation of the colonial system and 
the consequent emergence of more than 50 
new nations. This change — adverse for 
some — has been a godsend to hundreds of 
millions. We have seen the formation of an 
increasingly effective world peace organiza- 
tion — the United Nations. We have experi- 
enced the development of a strong sense of 
community in the Atlantic world. We have 
seen Europe begin the long process of uni- 
fication. 

Because the tide of change sweeps us 
along with it, we are sometimes less con- 
scious of its forward movement than of 
events which move in a different direction — 
or at a different rate. On the one hand, we 
see such events in crises which emerge to 
threaten the peace of the world. On the 
other, stubborn obstacles remain seemingly 
immovable, like rocks resisting the tide. 
Foreign policy must cope with both. How- 
ever, this is not all it must do. Crises make 
headlines. Steady, quiet work to direct the 
forces of change into constructive channels 
often is overlooked. It is no less important 
than crisis management, and no less a con- 
cern of foreign policy. In crisis and in calm, 
whether German or American, foreign pol- 
icy tries to achieve progress, within the 
limits of the possible, toward a consistent 
objective. 

Contest for Possession of the Future 

What are the limits of the possible? Over 
against the free world there is set the world 
of communism, which seeks to manipulate 
change in order to destroy freedom. The 
contest between these two worlds for pos- 
session of the future overshadows our times. 
There are some who believe that the issue 
will be decided in one cataclysmic con- 
frontation, in which one or the other will 
suddenly yield. The task of the free world, 
to this way of thinking, is to exert maximum 
pressure on its opponents at all times in an 



effort to impose a solution. The trouble with 
that theory is that pressures short of mili- 
tary conquest have seldom in history led to 
an imposed settlement of major issues. You 
may read that lesson, in its reverse applica- 
tion, in the failure of Stalin's policy toward 
Western Europe. Long on risk, short on 
chances of positive results, such a policy 
does not, I believe, lie within the limits of the 
possible courses of action available to the 
members of the free- world community. 

A much wiser course lies in an unremitting 
effort to render the free world impervious to 
Communist disruption, while developing a 
pattern of order within the free world to- 
ward which the peoples who now live under 
coercion will inextricably be drawn. The 
Sino-Soviet split — and the cautious reasser- 
tion of national interest in recent years by 
the countries of Eastern Europe — provide 
evidence that the Communist world, too, 
feels the tug of change. Indeed, change can 
in time so alter the environment of interna- 
tional relations that countries within the 
Communist orbit will find it in their inter- 
est to negotiate seriously on issues whose 
resolution on acceptable terms they now 
refuse. 

In carrying out our strategy of seeking to 
increase the strength and unity of the free 
world, one necessity is to demonstrate, over 
and over again, that our commitment to de- 
fend freedom — for others as for ourselves — 
is indivisible. Those imperiled will see little 
advantage in an association which does not 
assure them security from Communist ag- 
gression and subversion. The Communists 
have tested us many times — in Greece and 
Turkey, in Berlin, in Korea, in Southeast 
Asia, and elsewhere. Constantly, the Com- 
munists probe for some weak spot — some 
situation in which it will be difficult to act 
in a measured fashion. This may well have 
been one of the motives behind Khrushchev's 
attempt to establish rocket bases in Cuba. 
Once again the United States had to prove 
that it would not tolerate a blatant chal- 
lenge to the free world. Once again the 
Communists broke off the action. We may 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



hope that the Soviet Union has drawn some 
conclusions from the outcome of that con- 
frontation, but we would not be justified in 
relaxing our vigilance. 

Berlin has, as you know, been a testing 
point over many years. Along with our Brit- 
ish and French allies, we have shown in each 
test that we will do what is necessary to pro- 
tect freedom in Berlin under all contingen- 
cies. The present situation in Berlin indi- 
cates that we have succeeded in making 
this clear. The Soviet Union has desisted 
from attempting to interfere with our rights. 
Should it resume, it will meet a firm re- 
sponse. A growing awareness of that fact 
makes a miscalculation on the part of Soviet 
policy planners less likely. This is a clear gain 
for the free world. However, the mere deter- 
rence of an adversary from reckless actions 
settles no issues. We remain far indeed 
from our objective of reestablishing Berlin 
as the capital of a Germany reunited on the 
basis of self-determination. For our part, 
we shall continue to seek that goal as we 
have always sought it — by means other than 
a forced solution. 

A second necessity is to insure that free- 
dom, in the long run, keeps the promise of 
fulfillment it makes to those who embrace it 
and are willing to endure sacrifices for its 
sake. Crusts and water in liberty are a bet- 
ter diet than rich meats at a master's table. 
However, this is acceptable only on the as- 
sumption that crusts are not all to which a 
free man may aspire. Outside Western 
Europe and North America, most of the 
people who belong to the free world have as 
yet but a small share of well-being to show 
for it. That share must increase — and we 
must all contribute to the increase — in order 
to validate the proposition that freedom is 
indivisible, not only in what it demands but 
in what it gives. 

I would like now to illustrate these two 
considerations: the need to defend and the 
need to build. Let me describe how the 
United States strives to do both in two 
widely separated parts of the world, Asia 
and Latin America. 



U.S. Objective in Southeast Asia 

At the present moment the greatest chal- 
lenge to our commitment to defend free na- 
tions is in Viet-Nam. Here we find both of 
the necessities we have previously identi- 
fied. Our policy is to help a threatened 
people maintain their independence in the 
face of external interference. At the same 
time we seek peace through negotiation. 
More than 50 times we have proclaimed our 
willingness to discuss a solution that would 
leave South Viet-Nam free to determine its 
own future. We would be glad to withdraw 
our military forces when that is achieved, 
and stand ready — as President Johnson has 
announced — to assist in a program for eco- 
nomic development of the entire area, under 
United Nations sponsorship. 2 

At the same time, we are trying to help 
the Vietnamese people meet their economic 
and social problems, problems faced by 
former colonial areas everywhere. Our eco- 
nomic aid program in Viet-Nam began in 
1954, before the Communists began their at- 
tack on South Viet-Nam. Since then we have 
spent over $2 billion in developing Vietna- 
mese agriculture, industry, education, hous- 
ing, and public health. In this period, to 
mention just a few statistics, rice produc- 
tion has doubled, pig production has doubled, 
and many animal diseases have been entirely 
eliminated. More than 12,000 medical cen- 
ters have been established. In 10 years 
school enrollment has increased from 300,000 
to 1,500,000. 

Our efforts in Viet-Nam are, however, but 
a part of a broader objective. This is to 
stabilize the situation in Southeast Asia as 
a whole — through a coordination of efforts 
being made there by the indigenous free- 
world nations and those outside who seek to 
help them. We must defend against Com- 
munist aggression. However, we must do 
more. We must strengthen the fragile econ- 
omies of the Southeast Asian nations and 
provide hope for a better life for the future 
to their inhabitants. 



Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1966, p. 606. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



55 



The United States is a member of the 
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, SEATO, 
the Far Eastern counterpart of NATO. We 
have defensive military arrangements with 
Australia and New Zealand. Our ties with 
Japan, too, commit us to aid that country in 
maintaining its independence. All these ar- 
rangements are purely defensive, threaten- 
ing no one. All are necessary to safeguard 
the right of Asian countries to develop in- 
dependently in freedom. 

Viet Cong operations in Viet-Nam are but 
one aspect of a policy of Communist aggres- 
sion proclaimed by Communist China with- 
out concealment. Communist China has 
waged war in Korea, subdued Tibet, at- 
tacked India. It has just condemned the 
United Nations for reestablishing peace in 
Kashmir. It is encouraging violence and 
subversion in almost every part of the globe. 
In particular, it openly asserts a right not 
only to influence events in Asia but to dom- 
inate its neighbors. Our weight is essential 
to keep the scales in Asia from tipping 
against the Asian defenders of freedom. 

But this is not enough. President Johnson 
last spring proposed a massive cooperation 
development effort for all of Southeast 
Asia. Since that time rapid progress has 
been made. A meeting has just been con- 
cluded at Bangkok at which the charter of a 
new Asian Development Bank was debated 
and accepted. 3 The capital subscription is to 
be $1 billion, to which not only the regional 
members of the Bank are contributing but 
also Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Italy, the U.K., Canada, and the United 
States, to name some of the nonregional 
members. In addition, the United Nations' 
Mekong Committee, established to coordi- 
nate international efforts to develop the 
vast resources of this great river valley, 
today numbers more than 20 countries. Their 
efforts will do much to improve the lives of 
millions of inhabitants in Laos, Cambodia, 
Viet-Nam, and Thailand. I am happy to note 
that Germany is also a member, as is the 
United States, of this international program. 



8 For background, see ibid., Dec. 27, 1965, p. 1015. 



Defending and Building in Latin America 

Let us now turn to another part of the 
world — Latin America. Here we are faced 
by a less threatening but nevertheless diffi- 
cult and demanding situation. Here, too, free 
nations must be helped to defend themselves 
against Communist subversion while they 
seek to better the lot of their people. 

The Castro regime in Cuba has demon- 
strated itself to be not just a nuisance to the 
United States but a hostile body within the 
Western Hemisphere. If it has no achieve- 
ments of subversion to show, it is not for 
want of trying. Today 19 of 20 members of 
the OAS no longer maintain diplomatic rela- 
tions with Cuba. The free nations of Latin 
America have taken, in cooperation with the 
United States, measures to reduce Castro's 
opportunities to disrupt civic order and eco- 
nomic progress in the region by the devices 
of infiltration and guerrilla warfare. The 
net effect has been to strengthen political 
stability in Latin America and to encourage 
still further the interest of its leaders in 
economic development. 

Precisely the same considerations guided 
the course of the United States in the Do- 
minican crisis. We did not act to impose a 
regime of our choosing. Our action pre- 
served, until the OAS was able to undertake 
the responsibility, sufficient stability to per- 
mit the reestablishment of conditions in 
which the people of the Dominican Republic 
can choose their destiny for themselves. 

But let us look on the other side of our 
dual goal of defending and building. Latin 
America has resources, both natural and 
human, potentially more than able to meet 
the region's economic needs. It has leaders 
who are determined to set their countries 
firmly on the path to self-sustaining eco- 
nomic growth. These men seek to enhance 
the weight of Latin America in hemisphere 
and world affairs. However, countries that 
must depend essentially on one crop or one 
commodity are especially vulnerable in de- 
veloping a viable economy. Poverty and il- 
literacy stunt a nation's growth. 

United States economic policy toward 
Latin America therefore is designed to en- 



56 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



courage diversification of economies, more 
equitable distribution of income, expansion 
of social welfare benefits, and improvement 
of educational opportunities. The resources 
of the Alliance for Progress help to make it 
possible for governments to take measures 
which are not always easy but which are es- 
sential for effective growth. The handicaps 
to be overcome on Latin America's road to 
economic development are huge. We are, 
however, working together with our Latin 
American neighbors through the Organiza- 
tion of American States to make the Al- 
liance for Progress a great motive force for 
progress in this decade. 

Through programs of the Alliance 25 mil- 
lion people — more than half of them chil- 
dren — are receiving food. New classrooms 
for more than a million children have been 
built and 10 million textbooks produced. 
More than 11/2 million people have new 
homes. More than 850 hospitals, health cen- 
ters, and health units have been put into op- 
eration to relieve sickness and protect 
health. Measures against malaria have pro- 
tected more than 100 million people. Roads, 
powerlines, wells, and water systems are 
other evidences of progress that the Alliance 
has brought to the Latin American scene. 

Last year Latin America as a whole 
achieved an increase of 2i/o percent per 
capita in gross national product — the rough 
target set in 1961. Chances that the target 
will have been achieved again in 1965 have 
been estimated by an inter-American com- 
mittee as fair. The task for the future re- 
mains large, however, and to accomplish it 
Latin America will need all the outside help 
that can be mobilized. 

European nations, including the Federal 
Republic, already are contributing. Ger- 
many has joined with the United States and 
the Inter-American Development Bank in 
providing financial assistance for the re- 
habilitation of the tin mines of Bolivia. The 
Federal Republic early this year extended a 
development loan of 80 million deutsche 
marks to Peru for an irrigation project 
which ultimately will bring more than 80,000 
hectares of farmland into fruitful cultiva- 



tion. These are examples of the kinds of 
projects for Latin America for which the 
United States will continue to welcome Eu- 
ropean participation to the maximum ex- 
tent possible. 

The basis of our policy toward Latin 
America is exemplified in President John- 
son's recent statement that the present 
treaty governing the operation of the Pan- 
ama Canal is to be replaced by a new, mu- 
tually satisfactory treaty. 4 Elements of the 
new treaty would be : 

— a sincere effort to recognize the legiti- 
mate aspirations and interests of the Re- 
public of Panama in the Canal ; 

— recognition of Panamanian sovereignty 
over the Canal Zone and participation by 
both Panama and the United States in its ad- 
ministration ; 

— adequate integration of the zone with 
the rest of the territory of the Republic of 
Panama ; 

— and finally, protection of the proper in- 
terests of users of the Canal. 

I emphasize this recent development be- 
cause I am convinced that it marks the 
opening of a new era in our relations with 
Latin America. The New World is discover- 
ing, as many in the Old World have learned, 
that they need make no choice between their 
national integrity and their cooperation with 
us and the other nations in our hemisphere. 
The principle of partnership makes it un- 
necessary to sacrifice either. I believe that 
the concept on which the proposed new 
treaty is based goes far to prove the good 
faith of the United States in wishing to de- 
velop with its neighbors to the south a 
hemisphere-wide community of free and 
equal members. 

These are some of the aspects under 
which the United States sees its responsi- 
bilities in other parts of the world. We pur- 
sue the double task of defending and build- 
ing the free world — by means that vary ac- 
cording to the diverse circumstances which 
must be met. It is a mistake to judge the 



'Ibid., Oct. 18, 1965, p. 624. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



57 



depth of an American commitment by the 
drama which attends its fulfillment. Europe 
is a good illustration. As it happens — in 
large measure because we have met our ob- 
ligations here — the current situation in Eu- 
rope requires us neither to fire off guns nor 
to mount an aid program. That does not 
mean that Americans are less committed. 
Rather, it confirms our commitment by 
proving that it has had a positive effect. 

Germans know well that if NATO were to 
relax, if the Western alliance were to 
weaken its defenses, if Western coopera- 
tion were to diminish, this would be an open 
invitation to the Soviet Union to renew its 
pressures against the eastern front of the 
Atlantic area. Americans know that equally 
well. That is why, despite the other calls on 
us, our forces in Germany will remain here 
while they are wanted and needed. Fortu- 
nately, a Europe more prosperous than 
ever before no longer needs any economic 
help as it continues to strengthen its econ- 
omy. 

Responsibilities of Free Nations 

There is a final point. I have talked of 
the duties of the United States. If, however, 
it is true that a nation has responsibilities in 
proportion as it has strength, then the truth 
cannot apply to the United States only. It 
must be equally true for the nations of 
Europe-^and of that Europe which is striv- 
ing to become an entity. Germany has acted 
upon this fact. Its program of economic as- 
sistance is the only one, other than that of 
the United States, which is worldwide in 
scope. Through the extension of substantial 
nonmilitary aid, it is one of 30 countries 
which are participating in the free world's 
effort in Viet-Nam. It is a stanch supporter 
of NATO. 

Yet the contribution of Europe as a whole, 
of which Germany is a member, is another 
question. This Europe, if united, is fully 
capable of matching the United States in 



strength, of becoming an equal partner in 
the unfinished task of building a free-world 
community. I submit that, by objective cri- 
teria, Europe has potentialities which are 
still unrealized. To realize them is not only 
a possibility ; it is a responsibility. 

The United States does not believe that it 
has a mission to remake the world in its own 
image. Our impulses toward reform are di- 
rected first of all upon ourselves. That is 
the meaning of President Johnson's call 
upon Americans to make their society great. 
We do believe, however, that the building of 
a free world is a task which can be likened 
to the building of a pioneer community in a 
wilderness. Each man must clear his land, 
cut the sods or hew the timbers for his 
house, provide his own livelihood for him- 
self and his family by his own toil. Each, 
however, has a right to expect his neigh- 
bors to help with the house raising and the 
harvest — heavy work that a man laboring 
alone cannot accomplish or cannot do fast 
enough to meet his urgent need. Each has 
a duty to participate in community under- 
takings — and, upon call, to come to his 
neighbor's aid. 

To strengthen and unify the free world in 
Europe is the responsibility of Europeans; 
in Asia, of Asians ; and so on in all the other 
continents. Liberty's promise is one that 
every people must fulfill primarily by their 
own efforts. Others can, however, set an ex- 
ample — indeed, they cannot erase the ex- 
ample they have created. Free nations can 
also lend one another that margin of strength 
which can make the difference between fail- 
ure and success in meeting the challenges 
that freedom confronts. 

We give of our strength to increase that 
margin for others because we believe that 
we have an obligation to do so. It is an obli- 
gation in which we welcome — and ask — the 
continued participation of the Federal Re- 
public of Germany. Our mutual efforts are 
helping to refashion a troubled world into a 
true world community of free nations. 



58 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Harmonizing East-West Trade With U.S. National Interests 



by Alexander B. Trowbridge 

Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Domestic and International Business x 



My task today is to review the recent ef- 
forts of the Government to harmonize our 
regulatory controls over East-West trade 
with developing U.S. trade policies and prac- 
tices which are aimed at encouraging and 
responding to the changes that are going on 
in the East European Communist countries 
and the U.S.S.R. 

I am limiting my review to that part of the 
so-called "East" which comprises what used 
to be called the European Soviet bloc. Our 
trade embargo toward Communist China, 
North Korea and North Viet-Nam, and Cuba 
continues, for reasons well known to us all. 

The East European Communist countries 
are a different matter. So many of them 
are showing a national interest in resuming 
and strengthening their once traditional ties 
with the Western World that it is each day 
becoming more difficult to use the words 
"bloc" and "satellite" with any agreed un- 
derstanding of their meaning. 

This area is no longer monolithic as it 
once was. Yugoslavia broke away in 1948. 
Poland since 1957 has, despite occasional 
episodes of backsliding, generally shown a 
determination to reduce the level of Soviet 
domination. More recently, Romania has 
opposed Soviet efforts to freeze it into the 
mold of a raw-material producing country 
and has sought the aid of the free world to 
enable it to develop a modern industrial 



1 Address made before the Manufacturing Chem- 
ists' Association at New York, N.Y., on Nov. 23. 



economy. Since 1964 we have been broaden- 
ing the areas of peaceful trade and other 
contacts with that country. Now Hungary, 
Czechoslovakia, and even Bulgaria appear 
to be making efforts to develop their na- 
tional identities and to improve their rela- 
tions with the West. 

It is the U.S. Government's belief that our 
national interests will be best served by en- 
couraging these countries of Eastern Eu- 
rope in their desires to build bridges to the 
West. As President Johnson has put it, we, 
in response, "wish to build new bridges to 
Eastern Europe — bridges of ideas, educa- 
tion, culture, trade, technical cooperation, 
and mutual understanding for world peace 
and prosperity." 2 

The U.S.S.R., of course, presents a more 
complex and difficult problem. The Soviets 
are a formidable antagonist. They want to 
preserve their hegemony over the East 
European Communist countries. They re- 
main committed to the encouragement of 
Communist movements everywhere. They 
still appear to be devoted largely to their 
ideal of economic self-sufficiency. At the 
present time, they are apparently torn be- 
tween the conflicting desires of increasing 
peaceful ties with our country and of de- 
creasing the size of their conflict with Com- 
munist China. 

We see nothing in the U.S.S.R.'s actions 
that would warrant relaxing our controls 
over exports of our truly strategic goods and 



'Bulletin of Dec. 21, 1964, p. 876. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



59 



technology to them. However, we do con- 
sider it in our national interest to try to 
"build bridges" of peaceful trade to the So- 
viets also. Providing them with the kinds of 
free-world goods and technology that will 
help to improve the living conditions of the 
Russian people can, in your Government's 
judgment, have the beneficial effect of in- 
creasing their leaders' incentives to channel 
their antagonisms in the directions of peace- 
ful competition. 

Commerce in Peaceful Goods 

In sum, therefore, it can be stated that 
your Government regards commerce in 
peaceful goods with the Communist coun- 
tries of Eastern Europe, including the Soviet 
Union, as completely compatible with our 
national interest. We regard such com- 
merce as embracing both exports to and im- 
ports from those countries to the fullest 
extent that the individual economic inter- 
ests of the trading participants cause it to 
take place. 

There can be no doubt that this U.S. pol- 
icy of encouraging export and import trade 
in peaceful goods with the East European 
countries will tend to increase our annual 
earnings from foreign trade. It is also very 
likely that U.S. firms having those goods 
and technology the Communist countries 
need most will stand to profit substantially. 

However, I would not want to predict that 
U.S. foreign trade will significantly increase 
because of our encouragement of East-West 
trade, or that such trade will prove a source 
of profits to a large segment of the American 
business community. There are a number of 
reasons why we will not, despite the hopes of 
some, take over a substantial portion of the 
trade which Western Europe has been carry- 
ing on with the East European countries in 
recent years. 

One has only to compare the list of the 
various kinds of goods sold each year to 
Eastern Europe by our West European 
COCOM [Coordinating Committee on Export 
Controls] friends to perceive that in theory 
there is considerable room for our exports to 
that area to grow. Of the $2 billion they 



sold to Eastern Europe in 1964, over three- 
fourths of the commodities involved would 
have been approved by the United States if 
those Communist countries had chosen to 
buy them from us. To avoid the mistake of 
comparing our exports with those of the 
combined exports of the 12 nations that 
comprise the West European element of the 
COCOM, we should note that their indi- 
vidual exports in 1964 included over $800 
million by West Germany (of which a sub- 
stantial part was interzonal trade with East 
Germany) ; nearly $300 million by the U.K. 
and Italy; about $200 million by France; 
then downward to so little an amount as $7 
million sold by Portugal. In contrast, we 
sold Eastern Europe about $170 million in 
1963 and nearly $340 million in 1964. In 
both years farm products made up the bulk 
of our commodity exports. 

To move from theory to reality, however, 
one must also look at the list of kinds of 
goods that made up the $2.4 billion which 
our West European friends bought from the 
East European Communist countries in 1964. 
They consisted almost wholly of agricultural 
products, crude materials, mineral fuels, 
chemicals, machinery, and manufactured 
goods. Many of those items our business- 
men are apparently not interested in buying 
from those countries. Considering the Com- 
munist practices of bilateralizing and bal- 
ancing their trade, it is obvious that our 
businessmen will have to purchase much 
more of such items from them before we 
can expect them to buy heavily from us. 

We can, of course, hope to sell more if we 
guarantee credits. We can also expect that 
they will buy greatly needed items with their 
gold and the $400 million surplus generated 
by their favorable trade with Western Eu- 
rope. We can look forward to increasing 
our imports from them somewhat if we are 
empowered to grant MFN [most-favored- 
nation] duty privileges to their goods. But 
until they decide to make a variety of goods 
tailored to the U.S. market, and adopt many 
new marketing techniques, we must con- 
sider MFN more as a symbol of a discrim- 
ination removed than as the foundation for 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



a large, diverse, and profitable movement of 
their goods into our market. 

Currently we buy much less from the 
East European Communist countries than 
we sell them: $80 million in 1963 and $100 
million in 1964. Most of this was in meat, 
furs, iron and steel, platinum group metals, 
glass and glassware, and chrome ore. 

Miller Committee Report 

If all we can reasonably expect from our 
policy of encouraging peaceful trade with 
the East European Communist countries is a 
modest increase in our export and import 
business, why then should we take any risks 
that may be involved in relaxation of our 
East-West trade controls? One answer is 
to be found in the recent Report to the 
President by the Special Committee on U.S. 
Trade Relations With the East European 
Countries and the Soviet Union. 3 

This group, generally known as the Miller 
Committee, was appointed by President 
Johnson last February to explore all aspects 
of expanding peaceful trade in support of 
the President's policy of widening construc- 
tive relations with the countries of Eastern 
Europe and the U.S.S.R. Headed by J. Irwin 
Miller, chairman of the board of Cummins 
Engine Company, the committee included 
among its members such leading chemical 
manufacturers as Crawford H. Greenwalt of 
DuPont and Charles W. Engelhard, Jr., of 
Engelhard Industries. Their report to the 
President, issued April 29, sets forth recom- 
mendations for the encouragement of peace- 
ful trade in nonstrategic goods which are 
being sympathetically reviewed by the ad- 
ministration. It is a report that deserves the 
careful study of all Americans. 

According to the Miller Committee, 
"peaceful trade in nonstrategic items can be 
an important instrument of national policy 
in our country's relations with individual 
Communist nations of Europe. Political, not 
commercial or economic considerations, 



3 A limited number of copies of the report, dated 
Apr. 29, 1965, are available upon request from 
the Office of Media Services, Department of State, 
Washington, D.C., 20520. 



should determine the formulation and exe- 
cution of our trade policies." 

First, the Miller Committee recommends 
that we modify our own controls selectively, 
on a country-by-country basis, in the con- 
text of bilateral trade negotiations. In ex- 
change for agreements to relax our trade re- 
strictions we should, by hard bargaining, 
secure their assurances to remove commer- 
cial obstacles arising from differences in 
our economic systems, settlements of out- 
standing financial claims, and, as appropri- 
ate, understandings on a variety of cultural, 
informational, and other matters at issue. 

Secondly, the Miller Committee rec- 
ommends that the President be given by 
Congress discretionary authority to grant 
and withdraw most-favored-nation tariff 
treatment to and from individual Commu- 
nist countries. MFN tariff privileges can 
provide a "quid" of symbolic, and to some 
extent economic, value to those countries, to 
be offered in exchange for agreements and 
understandings in our national interest, as 
part of our bargaining for trade agreements 
with them. 

Third, the Miller Committee recommends 
Government guarantees of commercial cred- 
its up to 5 years' duration, when such terms 
are normal to the trade and in our national 
interest. The committee opposes lengthy 
and unduly large credits as creating the 
conditions for a credit race which would be 
commercially detrimental and politically un- 
desirable to the interests of the West. 

Our 1965 trade expansion mission to Ro- 
mania and Poland, 4 just completed, is an ex- 
cellent demonstration of the efforts of your 
Government and of the representative Amer- 
ican businessmen who took part in that mis- 
sion to build bridges of trade and under- 
standing to Eastern Europe, and of the great 
interest that the Governments and peoples 
of Romania and Poland have shown in the 
development of friendly relations with us. 

Our mission found the representatives 
with whom they talked avid to learn about 
the U.S. industrial economy and what it can 



1 For background, see Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1965, 
p. 553. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



61 



offer to them to improve their own indus- 
trial and economic development. They found 
that both countries desire to expand their 
sales in the U.S. market, mainly in order to 
earn the foreign exchange needed to finance 
additional purchases they wish to make in 
the United States. They found opportuni- 
ties for U.S. firms in both countries to con- 
duct profitable business, provided the Amer- 
ican firms are willing to pioneer, to visit the 
areas, to obtain the proper understanding of 
the technical problems important to the 
countries, and to establish a proper founda- 
tion for continuing relationships. 

They found among Romanian and Polish 
officialdoms a realization that what can be 
obtained in the United States by expanded 
trade is so important to their countries that 
special efforts and considerable flexibility in 
the operations of their trading enterprises 
and financial institutions would be justi- 
fied. In short, our trade mission found in 
Poland and Romania fertile fields for the 
use of peaceful trade to influence and en- 
courage the leaders of those countries in a 
view that both sides can benefit from such 
exchanges and that military confrontations 
are not inevitable. 

Review of Commodity Controls 

In keeping with the recommendations of 
the Miller Committee, we are at this time 
actively reviewing with our COCOM friends 
the list of strategic goods which all have 
agreed to restrict. Our aim is to make cer- 
tain that items that no longer have a high 
strategic importance are removed and that 
this list continues to be an up-to- 
date coverage of those things that are truly 
important to the security of the free world 
and ourselves. 

In addition, we are about to undertake 
another view of that additional list of com- 
modities which we have considered stra- 
tegic, though our COCOM partners have not. 
Of course, we have no intention to release 
for indiscriminate export anything that 
would be really detrimental to our national 
security and welfare. However, as I am sure 



you recognize, there are various items that 
have peaceful uses in time of peace, though 
they could potentially be useful for military 
purposes in time of war. This so-called 
"gray area" needs reexamination periodi- 
cally, especially with respect to any items 
that have their counterparts in those manu- 
factures of our friends which they are will- 
ing to sell freely to the East European Com- 
munist countries. 

In conducting our review of the goods we 
unilaterally control, we will certainly en- 
deavor to be realistic about this question of 
foreign availability which so often seems to 
turn on a comparison between our goods 
and those of other free-world countries. It 
obviously does not contribute to the build- 
ing of bridges of peaceful trade if we limit 
our potential East European customers to 
those U.S. products which are no better 
than those they can obtain in Western Eu- 
rope. If we are to sell them anything, we 
must be able to offer things that we make 
best. The basic question ought to be whether 
either our superior product or the foreign- 
made product would materially contribute 
to the military or economic potentials of the 
Communist countries in some way that is 
detrimental to our security and welfare. 

This question of whether we should deny 
goods to Eastern Europe which would con- 
tribute to their economic growth has, of 
course, developed controversy ever since the 
concept of "economic potential" was written 
into the Export Control Act by Congress in 
1962. Of course, it does not mean that we 
should deny everything that contributes 
to the economic growth of the Communist 
countries or even everything that contributes 
"significantly" to that object. To be denied 
on this ground, an item must be further 
found to contribute significantly to the eco- 
nomic potential of the Communist world in a 
way that ivould be detrimental to our security 
and welfare. We have, since that provision 
was adopted by Congress, generally inter- 
preted it as not calling for denial of an item 
if a comparable item is available to the 
Communist countries from the free world. 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Technical Data Control 

We are not only reviewing' our commodity 
controls, as I have indicated, but we are also 
taking a fresh look at our controls over ex- 
ports of technology and know-how. Here, 
we have had for a long time two kinds of 
controls: First, we have requirements for 
licensing exports of unpublished technical 
data to the Communist countries. Secondly, 
there are our rules relating to exports of un- 
published technical data to the free-world 
countries, designed to prevent the unau- 
thorized reexport of the data itself to the 
Communist countries and also to prevent 
those kinds of goods which we would deny 
to the Communist world from the United 
States from being shipped there indirectly 
as the foreign-made products of U.S. origin 
technology. Each of these two areas of 
technical data control has its own problems 
which we are trying very hard to solve. 

There is no doubt that our advanced in- 
dustrial technology and know-how constitute 
what is likely to be for some time to come 
our most important export to the East Eu- 
ropean Communist countries and the 
U.S.S.R. 

In the first three quarters of 1965 we ap- 
proved over 200 such technical data appli- 
cations and denied about 12. We do not 
know how many of these licenses were used 
only to make what turned out to be an un- 
successful bid to supply a plant or process 
and how many ripened into full-fledged 
sales or licensing agreements. We also do 
not know the value of the technology thus 
approved, as our firms apparently find diffi- 
culty in putting value figures on these in- 
tangible assets. 

However, I believe we can safely pre- 
sume that a substantial number of our 
technical data licenses do result in prof- 
itable ventures and that their value in com- 
parison with the value of the commodities we 
sell to the Eastern European Communist 
countries is very substantial. To this ex- 
tent, of course, our published statistics of 
exports to Eastern Europe are significantly 
undervalued. 

The importance of this point cannot be 



minimized when one reflects on the poten- 
tialities for further growth of our peaceful 
trade with this area. We have found in 
many of our cases that the technical data 
our business enterprises have to sell is all 
that Eastern Europe desires to buy from 
the United States. The machinery, equip- 
ment, and other tangible items that go to 
make up the fertilizer plant or pulp and 
paper mill, for example, will be sold by 
Western Europe or designed and constructed 
by the Communist countries themselves, 
though the process and design technology 
will come from the United States. One rea- 
son for this is, of course, the matter of 
credits to pay for the machinery and equip- 
ment, but there are other reasons as well. 
They include such elements as comparative 
costs, freight, availability of parts, and 
even the availability of identical items from 
foreign licensees and subsidiaries of U.S. 
firms. 

The Miller Committee has dealt exten- 
sively with this question and takes the posi- 
tion that: 

The importation of technology involves much 
the same calculation as the decision to import any- 
thing else. Whether technology seems worth pur- 
chasing depends on the price. Whether it turns out 
to be advantageous depends on the efficiency with 
which it is injected into the system. . . .the United 
States should treat the trade in nonstrategic tech- 
nology in the same way as other trade. The Presi- 
dent should use his authority to permit the sale of 
nonstrategic technology in support of U.S. trade 
negotiations with individual Communist countries. 
The decision to permit the sale is a Government de- 
cision to be made on foreign policy grounds. The 
decision to sell and the terms of sale . . . should 
be left to the individual U.S. business firm. 

Our present controls over exports of un- 
published technical data to the free world 
have been proving more and more difficult 
to administer. We meet the same objection 
here as we do with respect to American 
equipment and component parts, whenever 
we seek to use our legal power to refuse ex- 
port of an item from the United States as 
the basis for insisting on assurances from 
the intended foreign recipient that he will 
not export products made from our technol- 
ogy, equipment, or components, to make 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



6a 



things and sell them to the Communist 
countries which we would refuse to license 
for direct sale from the United States. For- 
eign buyers of our technology raise claims 
of "invasion of national sovereignty," asser- 
tions that we are "exercising extraterri- 
torial jurisdiction," and so on, to explain 
their refusal to take U.S. technology on our 
terms. 

We have taken a number of steps to re- 
duce the competitive disadvantage which 
our technical data regulations impose on U.S. 
business. We have already adopted the pol- 
icy that we will not require "product" assur- 
ances from a free-world recipient as the 
condition for allowing U.S. technology to be 
shipped to him when there is evidence that 
like products would be available to the Com- 
munist world from other free-world sources 
without resort to U.S.-origin technology. 
Moreover, as an interim measure and sub- 
ject to certain conditions, we have deferred 
until April 30, 1966, a requirement for writ- 
ten assurances respecting the products of 
certain foreign plants produced from U.S. 
technology. This moratorium period is being 
devoted to a reexamination of our regula- 
tions and procedures in an effort to sim- 
plify them and ease the burdens that 
American businessmen face in their efforts 
to conform to our controls while trying to 
maintain the flow of technology and know- 
how that needs to go on back and forth be- 
tween the United States and Western Eu- 
rope, if industrial progress is to continue. We 
expect to be calling on members of your as- 
sociation and other businessmen for advice 
and guidance in this effort. 

Administration of Export Permits 

I'd like to briefly comment on the admin- 
istration of the application for export per- 
mits. 

A 1965 study of a group of applications 
processed for the Soviet bloc, including Po- 
land and Romania, showed that 60 percent 
of those applications were processed within 
10 working days and 95 percent within 30 
working days. 



The remaining 5 percent were difficult to 
complete expeditiously. They presented pol- 
icy or technical problems of varying com- 
plexity. To determine the appropriate li- 
censing action for such "gray area" applica- 
tions, it may be necessary to request pre- 
pensing checks from our embassies abroad. 
Intelligence reports are prepared and tech- 
nical inquiries are addressed to government, 
industrial, and academic research centers. 
When the data has been assembled, meet- 
ings with representatives of other Govern- 
ment agencies are held to discuss at length 
technical and policy considerations involved 
in the particular cases. Agency differences 
have to be reconciled. Unresolved ques- 
tions must be referred to higher Govern- 
ment levels, and on occasion these issues re- 
ceive Secretarial consideration. 

In short, it is often difficult and time 
consuming to determine whether the ship- 
ment of a commodity is likely to make a 
significant contribution to the military or 
economic potential of a bloc country which 
would prove detrimental to the national se- 
curity and welfare of the United States. 
This is not to say that excessive delays are 
to be condoned. Quite the contrary! I as- 
sure you that all of us who are charged with 
the responsibility of administering the ex- 
port control program in the national inter- 
est are fully mindful of the problems caused 
by delayed cases and that we will continue 
our efforts to reduce our processing time to 
the minimum. 

I have been talking about what our Gov- 
ernment is doing and planning to do to im- 
prove our trading relationships with the 
Communist countries of Eastern Europe. I 
would not want you to think that I, or any 
other official of the Government, regard 
these efforts as free of controversy and 
agreed to by all. On the contrary, we know 
that there are considerable differences of 
opinion, in highly responsible quarters, in- 
cluding various Members of Congress and 
members of the business community. 

There is a case against expanding peace- 
ful trade which boils down to the proposi- 
tion that those countries are hostile to us 



64 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and we should not strengthen them through 
peaceful trade. There is, on the other hand, 
a case for peaceful trade which rests on the 
premise that we can use trade to influence 
the internal evolution and external be- 
havior of Communist countries. In the words 
of the Miller Committee, 

There are persuasive elements in each of these 
cases. No one policy is wholly right or wholly 
wrong, and any course chosen has its risks. Taking 
into account both gains and risks, the Committee 
feels that the national interest clearly lies on the 
side of a more active use of trade as an instru- 
ment of foreign policy. 

In this and in other talks and writings by- 
officials of the executive branch of our 
Government, as well as by Members of Con- 
gress and by businessmen, an effort is being 
made at this time to give the American 
people and the business community a thor- 
ough understanding of the pros and cons of 
this problem, the opportunities and risks 
that such trade affords, and the U.S. na- 
tional objectives in this field. 

Your Government stands ready to help 
American businessmen who conclude to un- 
dertake the pioneering tasks of exploring 
trade with the East European Communist 
countries. As was stated last month by Sec- 
retaries Rusk, McNamara, and Connor, in a 
letter to the major American cigarette man- 
ufacturers who were faced with economic 
intimidation by certain organized pressure 
groups to discontinue their purchase of 
Yugoslav tobacco: 5 

. . . your Government regards commerce in 
peaceful goods with the countries of Eastern Eu- 
rope, including the Soviet Union, as completely 
compatible with our national interest. No Ameri- 
can business enterprise should be penalized for 
purchasing or selling such goods. In fact, any in- 
dividuals or groups that seek to intimidate, boy- 
cott, blacklist, use or threaten economic reprisals 
against such American enterprises for carrying on 
lawful trade with Eastern European countries act 
harmfully and irresponsibly. To yield to such 
groups is to encourage capricious interference with 
the vital processes of our Constitutional Govern- 
ment — interference that could at the end of the 
road make it impossible for our country to con- 
duct a coherent foreign policy. 



'Ibid., Nov. 1, 1965, p. 700. 



I hope that my review has included some 
meaningful additions to the comments of 
my colleagues on this panel. I very much ap- 
preciate this opportunity to join with you in 
a discussion of this complex and fascinating 
area of national policy. 



President Johnson Congratulates 
President-Elect of Philippines 

Following are the texts of messages from 
President Johnson to President-elect Ferdi- 
nand Marcos and President Diosdado Maca- 
pagal of the Philippines, which ivere de- 
livered at Manila on December 18. 

White House press release dated December 18 

Message to President-Elect Marcos 

Dear President Elect: I extend to you 
warmest congratulations on your election to 
the Presidency of the Republic of the Philip- 
pines. I send the good wishes of the Ameri- 
can people for your success in leading the 
Philippine people in continued progress. Our 
two nations are bound by friendship and al- 
liance, and you may be assured of our en- 
during support and good will. 

It is with genuine pleasure that I look for- 
ward to continued close partnership between 
our peoples, and cooperation between my 
administration and yours. We have much 
work to do both in our own countries and to- 
gether to further the hopes of our peoples 
for dignity, well-being and peace. 
Sincerely, 

Lyndon B. Johnson 

Message to President Macapagal 

Dear Mr. President: As you prepare to 
relinquish the duties and responsibilities of 
your high office, I send you my warm good 
wishes. I know that you must take great 
satisfaction in having served your country 
with such distinction in its highest office. 
The friendship of our two nations has grown 
even closer under your leadership. 

Mrs. Johnson and I recall with great pleas- 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



65 



ure the State Visit which you and Mrs. 
Macapagal made to our country x and send 
you now our sincere affirmation of friend- 
ship and good will. 
Sincerely, 

Lyndon B. Johnson 



Ryukyu's Legislature To Elect 
Chief Executive 

Statement by President Johnson, December 20 

White House press release dated December 20 

I have today signed an amendment to 
Executive Order 10713, 2 as previously 
amended, which provides for the adminis- 
tration of Okinawa and other Ryukyu Is- 
lands. The new amendment specifies that 
the Ryukyuan Chief Executive, heretofore 
appointed by the U. S. High Commissioner, 
shall henceforth be elected by the legis- 
lative body of the Government of the Ryu- 
kyu Islands, as the popularly chosen repre- 
sentatives of the Ryukyuan people. 

This amendment is another forward step 
in the continuing policy of the United States 
to afford the Ryukyuan people as great a 
voice in managing their own affairs as is 
compatible with the essential role of the 
Ryukyus in maintaining the security of 
Japan and the Far East. 

I am happy to announce this change at this 
time so as to insure that the Ryukyuan Chief 
Executive for the next term can be elected 
directly by the representatives of the 
Ryukyuan people. 

Executive Order 11263 * 

Further Amending Executive Order No. 10713, 
Providing for Administration of the Ryukyu 
Islands 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
Constitution, and as President of the United States 
and Commander in Chief of the armed forces of the 
United States, subsection (b) of Section 8 of Execu- 



tive Order No. 10713 of June 5, 1957, as amended 
by Executive Order No. 11010 of March 19, 1962, is 
further amended to read as follows: 

"(b) (1) The Chief Executive shall be elected by 
a majority of the entire membership of the legis- 
lative body and shall serve until the end of the 
term of the legislative body that shall have elected 
him. 

"(2) In the event the legislative body does not, 
within a reasonable time as determined by the High 
Commissioner, elect a Chief Executive to succeed 
an incumbent or to fill a vacancy, the High Com- 
missioner may appoint a Chief Executive who 
shall serve until a successor is elected by the legis- 
lative body. 

"(3) The incumbent Chief Executive at the end 
of the term of a legislative body shall continue in 
office until a successor takes office pursuant to 
either of the foregoing paragraphs." 




The White House, 
December 20, 1965. 



Instruments of Ratification 

of Japan-Korea Treaty Exchanged 

Following is the text of a statement by 
President Johnson regarding the exchange 
at Seoul on December 18 of instruments of 
ratification of the Basic Relations Treaty 
between Japan and the Republic of Korea. 1 
The President's statement was read to news 
correspondents at the White House on De- 
cember 18 by Bill D. Moyers, Press Secre- 
tary to the President. 

As a friend of Japan and the Republic of 
Korea, we welcome their exchange of instru- 
ments of ratification of the Treaty of Basic 
Relations and its associated agreements. 

We believe that this final step in the estab- 
lishment of normal relations between these 
two neighbors will bring important and last- 
ing benefit to both peoples and will 
strengthen the community of free nations. 



1 Bulletin of Nov. 2, 1964, p. 628. 

3 For text, see BULLETIN of July 8, 1957, p. 55. 

* 30 Fed. Reg. 15777. 



1 For background, see Bulletin of July 12, 1965, 
p. 76, and Sept. 13, 1965, p. 448. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



U.S. and Canada To Negotiate for 
Development of Saint John River 

Press release 297 dated December 21, for release December 22 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

By exchange of notes between the Ca- 
nadian Secretary of State for External Af- 
fairs Paul Martin and the U.S. Ambassador 
W. Walton Butterworth on December 18 at 
Ottawa, the United States and Canada 
agreed to enter into negotiations for a mu- 
tually beneficial arrangement on the coop- 
erative development of the Saint John River 
in Maine and New Brunswick. 

The agreement follows informal discus- 
sions and joint studies by officials of both 
countries concerning possible mutual ad- 
vantages in joint development of the hydro- 
electric resources of the river. These in- 
cluded proposed construction by the United 
States of a storage and associated power 
project at Dickey, as well as a reregulation 
and power project at Lincoln School, both lo- 
cated on the river in Maine. Agreement 
with Canada is necessary inasmuch as con- 
struction of the dams would result in 
flooding into Canada. Furthermore, storage 
on the United States side would result in in- 
creased power generation downstream in 
Canada, the benefits of which would be 
shared. 

As a related matter, the two Governments 
agreed to continue studies of the benefits of 
interconnected operation of the power sys- 
tems of New England and the Maritime 
Power Pool in Canada, the further strength- 
ening of which could make a significant con- 
tribution to both New England and the 
neighboring Canadian provinces. 

The hydroelectric potential of the Saint 
John River has been studied for many 
years. On July 12 of this year President 
Johnson transmitted to Congress with his 
approval a report prepared under the gen- 
eral direction of Secretary of the Interior 
Udall which recommended immediate au- 
thorization for the Saint John River proj- 
ects, contingent on the necessary arrange- 



ments with Canada. 1 On October 20 of this 
year the Congress authorized construction 
in the amount of $227 million. 

The United States negotiators will include 
representatives of the Departments of State 
and Interior and the Corps of Engineers, 
U.S. Army. The Canadian negotiators will 
include representatives of the Canadian fed- 
eral government and the Provinces of Que- 
bec and New Brunswick. The first negotiat- 
ing session is expected to be held early in 
January. 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES 

United States Note 

Embassy of the United States of America 

Ottawa, December 18, 1965 

No. 254 

Sir, I have the honor to refer to the recent in- 
formal discussions and joint studies by officials of 
the United States and Canada concerning possible 
mutual advantages in joint development of the 
hydroelectric resources of the Saint John River. 
These discussions and studies included the pro- 
posed construction by the Government of the 
United States of a storage and associated power 
project at Dickey, as well as a power develop- 
ment at Lincoln School, both located on the Saint 
John River in Maine. In the opinion of the United 
States Government the proposed construction at 
Dickey and Lincoln School would be useful to both 
countries and it, therefore, proposes that the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and Canada enter 
into negotiations for a mutually beneficial arrange- 
ment on the cooperative development of the Saint 
John River. This arrangement would necessarily 
include provision for the flooding in Canada result- 
ing from the construction under reference, as well 
as stipulations regarding the filling of the Dickey 
storage reservoir. The agreement would also have 
to include provision for the determination of down- 
stream benefits and their division between the two 
countries. 

I have the honor also to refer to recent discus- 
sions between officials of the two governments 
concerning the collection of basic data necessary 
for studies of the benefits of interconnected opera- 
tion of the power systems of New England and the 
Maritime Power Pool. The further strengthening 
of the interconnections between our two countries 
could make a significant contribution to both New 
England and neighboring Canadian provinces. The 



1 For background, see Bulletin of Aug. 2, 1965, 
p. 215. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



67 



United States, therefore, further proposes that the 
two Governments continue their studies of the 
benefits of interconnected operation of the power 
systems of New England and the Maritime Power 
Pool. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high- 
est consideration. 

W. Walton Butterworth 

United States Ambassador 

Canadian Note 

Department of External Affairs, Canada 

Ottawa, December 18, 1965 
No. 237 

Excellency, I have the honour to refer to your 
note of December 18, 1965, proposing that the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and Canada enter 
into negotiations for a mutually beneficial arrange- 
ment on the co-operative development of the Saint 
John River. I also have the honour to refer to the 
further proposal that the two Governments con- 
tinue their studies of the benefits of interconnected 
operation of the power systems of New England 
and the Maritime Power Pool. 

I wish to advise you that the Government of 
Canada concurs with these proposals and agrees to 
proceed on the basis set out in your note. 

Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

Paul Martin 
Secretary of State for External Affairs 



USIA To Perform All Information 
Functions Abroad for Foreign Aid 

AN EXECUTIVE ORDER 1 

Amending Executive Order No. 10973 of November 
3, 1961, Providing for the Administration of 
Foreign Assistance and Related Functions 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 424), and 
as President of the United States, it is ordered 
that Executive Order No. 10973 - of November 3, 
1961, be, and it is hereby, amended by substituting 
for Section 304 thereof the following: 

"Sec. 304. United States Information Agency, (a) 
The United States Information Agency shall per- 
form all public information functions abroad with 
respect to the foreign-assistance, aid, and develop- 
ment programs of the United States Government. 

"(b) There are hereby delegated to the Director 
of the United States Information Agency the func- 



tions conferred upon the President by sections 221 
and 222 of the Act to the extent that those func- 
tions relate to informational media guaranties 
authorized by section 1011 of the United States In- 
formation and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 
(68 Stat. 862), as amended." 




1 No. 11261; 30 Fed. Reg. 15397. 

2 For text, see Bulletin of Nov. 27, 1961, p. 900. 



The White House, 
December 11, 1965. 



U.S. -Austrian Civil Aviation 
Negotiations Concluded 

Department Statement 

Press release 298 dated December 22 

Delegations representing the United 
States and Austria have concluded civil 
aviation negotiations which began in Wash- 
ington on December 6. Negotiations were 
conducted in a spirit of complete harmony 
and resulted in the initialing of a text of a 
new air transport services agreement to 
govern air services between the two coun- 
tries and to provide for air routes for the 
airplanes of both countries. 

The new agreement will be submitted to 
the respective Governments for approval 
and signature at an early date. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

89th Congress, 1st Session 

Treaties and Other International Agreements Con- 
taining Provisions on Commercial Fisheries, Ma- 
rine Resources, Sport Fisheries, and Wildlife to 
which the United States Is Party. Prepared by the 
Legislative Reference Service, Library of Con- 
gress, for the Senate Commerce Committee. Jan- 
uary 1965. [Committee print] 

Why Vietnam. Document containing letters, state- 
ments, and addresses by Presidents Johnson, Ken- 
nedy, and Eisenhower, Secretary of State Rusk, 
and Secretary of Defense McNamara defining 
America's role in the Vietnam conflict. H. Doc. 
311. October 21, 1965. 32 pp. 

Report on Examination of Financial Statements, Ex- 
port-Import Bank of Washington, Fiscal Year 
1965. H. Doc. 354. November 30, 1965. 10 pp. 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



United States Expresses Views on 1966 U.N. Budget Estimates 



Statement by Congressman Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 
U.S. Representative to the General Assembly l 



Before setting forth the general com- 
ments of my delegation on the budget esti- 
mates for 1966, I should like to express to 
the Secretary-General our appreciation for 
his personal appearance before this com- 
mittee and for the thoughtful statements he 
has made to us, both here in the committee 
on October 11 - and in the foreword to his 
1966 budget estimates. 3 We are also grate- 
ful to the Controller, the Director of the 
Budget Division, and all their associates for 
the detailed manner in which the text and 
tables in the estimates have been prepared, 
particularly with respect to section 3. We 
recognize the magnitude of the effort which 
has gone into the production of the docu- 
ments now before us. 

I should also like to express the apprecia- 
tion of the United States delegation to the 
Advisory Committee on Administrative and 
Budgetary Questions for a series of impor- 
tant recommendations to this committee. 
We owe a special debt of gratitude to the 
chairman of that committee for the very 
important statement he made in this com- 
mittee on October 11. That statement re- 
flected the independence and integrity of 



1 Made in Committee V (Administrative and Budg- 
etary) on Oct. 19 (U.S. delegation press release 
4668). 

2 U.N. doc. A/C.5/1037. 

3 U.N. doc. A/6005. 



approach which have always been charac- 
teristic of the chairman of the Advisory 
Committee. 

Turning now to the substance of the 
matter before us, let me say frankly that 
the United States delegation finds it more 
difficult this year than in the past to for- 
mulate its position on the annual budget 
estimates of the United Nations. 

Our concern arises from several sources. 
First, the Secretary-General in his state- 
ment to the committee on October 11, 1965, 
stated that, for the first 9 months of 1965, 
only about one-half of the organization's 
estimated 1965 expenses under the regular 
budget and the Special Account for UNEF 
[United Nations Emergency Force] have 
been covered by the advance payments re- 
ceived pursuant to Resolution 2004 (XIX). 
Moreover, the Secretary-General further 
pointed out that of the approximately $100 
million which he estimated would be required 
to enable the organization to liquidate its past 
debts, to restore the Working Capital Fund 
to its authorized level, and to cover amounts 
due to member states as adjustments on as- 
sessed contributions for UNEF and ONUC 
[United Nations Operation in the Congo], to 
date only 15 member governments have 
made voluntary contributions totaling $20 
million to assist in meeting this $100 million 
requirement. 

These financial facts are extremely dis- 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



69 



turbing. Later in this statement, I shall com- 
ment further on this matter. 

The second cause for our concern is the 
very significant increase in the 1966 esti- 
mates over the estimated expenditures for 
1965. A large part of this increase is at- 
tributed to the fact that there is proposed 
for 1966 the largest staff increase in the 
history of the United Nations. We note that 
virtually all of the speakers to date have 
expressed concern about the magnitude of 
this increase and where it will lead. 

The size of the proposed budget increase 
—from $107,642,800 gross to about $120,- 
000,000 gross — and particularly the magni- 
tude of the proposed staff increase, require 
that the estimates be screened this year 
with special care to be certain that all pro- 
posed expenditures are absolutely essential. 
Also, in a number of areas of expenditure 
we must await further explanations from 
the Controller and his associates before we 
can take a final position concerning them. 

Items U.S. Supports 

Let me begin by dealing with those items 
on which we do not have reservations. 

First of all, there is the budget increase 
proposed for 1966 as a result of the recom- 
mendations made by the International Civil 
Service Advisory Board (ICSAB) for rais- 
ing the professional salaries of employees of 
the United Nations and the specialized 
agencies. Despite the generally reserved at- 
titude which the United States delegation 
believes must now be taken toward pro- 
posed budgetary increases for 1966, we will 
support the recommendations of ICSAB— 
which we regard as a single package — for 
the following reasons: 

First, if member states wish — as they 
surely do — this organization to continue as 
an effective international instrument, we 
believe it must have staff of the highest 
efficiency, competence, and integrity. In 
order to insure this, we must make certain 
that staff members are properly and fairly 
compensated. This we consider to be vital. 
Second, we recognize that the proposed 



salary increases have been recommended 
not only by the ICSAB — a highly competent 
independent body established to deal with 
problems of this kind — but also by the 
Secretary-General and the heads of all the 
specialized agencies. The increases also have 
the approval of the Advisory Committee on 
Administrative and Budgetary Questions. 
Finally, we consider it essential that the 
integrity of the common salary system to 
which the United Nations and the special- 
ized agencies adhere be preserved, and we 
recognize that the specialized agencies will 
undoubtedly be guided by the ICSAB rec- 
ommendations in fixing salaries for their 
staffs. 

Accordingly, we are prepared to vote for 
the budgetary increase proposed for pro- 
fessional salary adjustments. 

For many of the same reasons which 
apply to the professional salary increases, 
the United States is prepared to vote for 
the proposed adjustments, recommended by 
the Joint Staff Pension Board more than a 
year ago, of pensions being paid to former 
staff members. 

One further matter to which we give our 
full support is the proposal by the Advisory 
Committee for revised travel standards. We 
in the United States have established econ- 
omy travel standards for all governmental 
travel. We consider that it is essential in 
this organization to adopt a similar policy. 
Given the vast needs of member govern- 
ments, which we are all trying to meet 
through contributions to the United Na- 
tions and through bilateral aid, it does not 
seem sensible to provide United Nations 
funds for luxury-class travel. The several 
hundreds of thousands of dollars proposed 
in the estimates for this nonproductive ex- 
penditure can clearly be better spent. 

Another proposal which has our full ap- 
proval is the recommendation by the Secre- 
tary-General that we not increase — that 
indeed we seek to decrease — the conference 
program of this organization. The Secre- 
tary-General has pointed out that the avail- 
able conference and supporting facilities 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



are already overwhelmed by the present 
program. He has said in the introduction to 
the 1966 estimates: 

I would therefore once again appeal most 
strongly to Member States to reconsider the need 
and desirability of maintaining a conference pro- 
gram as heavy as is currently envisaged for both 
1965 and 1966. I for my part believe that some 
rationalization and curtailment is a real necessity 
not only in the interests of economy but to yield 
more qualitative and constructive results. 

We fully endorse this statement. 

New Posts and Upgrading Questioned 

As I mentioned at the outset, the major 
area of proposed expenditure which gives 
rise to serious question is that involving 
staff costs resulting from the proposed 
establishment of so many new posts. There 
are also the questionable proposals, referred 
to by the Advisory Committee in its report, 4 
for the upgrading of so many existing posts. 

On the matter of establishing new posts, 
the remarks I am about to make are ad- 
dressed only in small part to the Secretary- 
General, who has prepared the budgetary 
estimates for 1966. It is true that we find 
several areas in the 1966 budget in which it 
appears that the estimates go beyond the 
bounds of prudence and let down the bars 
to demands for expansion which are un- 
reasonable. Nevertheless, the Secretary- 
General has prepared these estimates on the 
basis of what member states have asked — 
and indeed demanded. I recognize that he 
has been forced to reflect in his budget the 
will of member states that old programs be 
expanded or new ones initiated, and I also 
recognize that in many areas he has coura- 
geously pointed out the need for retrench- 
ment. 

As we understand it, Mr. Chairman, the 
Secretary-General has requested in his 1966 
budget estimates the establishment of 455 
new posts. Of these, 368 are requested and 
described in section 3 of the budget, 14 are 
requested in section 18 (High Commissioner 
for Refugees), and 73 are requested under 



4 U.N. doc. A/6007. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



section 20 (UNCTAD) [United Nations Con- 
ference on Trade and Development]. For its 
part, the Advisory Committee has recom- 
mended the establishment of 277 new posts 
under section 3, has reserved its position on 
the new posts requested under section 18, 
and while recommending some reduction 
under chapter I (Salaries and Wages) of 
section 20 (UNCTAD), has not recom- 
mended any specific reduction in the 
UNCTAD posts. Thus, the Advisory Com- 
mittee appears to have approved for 1966 
the establishment of 350 posts of the total 
of 455 posts requested. 

This, however, is not the whole story. The 
new posts proposed for 1966 are, as we 
understand it, to be in addition to the estab- 
lished posts proposed by the Secretary- 
General and recommended by the Advisory 
Committee for 1965. The documents before 
us would seem to indicate that, of the posts 
recommended by the Advisory Committee 
for establishment in 1965, 134 posts remain 
to be established, and that it is intended to 
establish these in 1966 in addition to the 
350 posts to which I have referred in the 
preceding paragraph. If we are correct, this 
would mean the establishment in 1966 of 
484 new posts. 

It is likely that we will be told that, while 
it is true that 134 posts recommended by 
the Advisory Committee for 1965 have not 
yet been established, nevertheless there are 
already individuals "on board" who are 
destined to fill those posts and who are 
presently being financed from temporary 
assistance funds. Thus, it may be said that 
the establishment of these 134 posts in 1966 
should not be viewed as a net addition to 
the staff. We would, of course, be interested 
in knowing what the actual situation is 
with reference to the employment on tem- 
porary assistance funds of individuals re- 
cruited for these posts. Whatever that situ- 
ation may be, we note that there is in the 
1966 estimates an even larger amount of 
money (about $2.5 million) for temporary 
assistance than was contained in the origi- 
nal 1965 estimates. Thus, we believe it 
would be sound to consider the 134 posts 



71 



as a net addition to the staff if they are 
established in 1966. 

The mere mention of the number of new- 
posts intended to be established in 1966 
should make clear to most members of this 
committee why we are concerned about this 
feature of the estimates. We cannot re- 
member that ever before was a proposal 
of this magnitude made. Further, we be- 
lieve that during 1965 the organization con- 
tinued to function at a reasonably efficient 
level, despite the fact that only 66 of the 
200 professional posts recommended by the 
Advisory Committee under section 3 of the 
1965 budget were established in that year. 
It is difficult to conceive that it is really 
essential for the efficient functioning of 
this organization that all 484 new posts be 
established and filled during 1966. 

As a matter of fact, we have considerable 
doubts about the wisdom of attempting to 
establish so many new posts. First of all, 
it is difficult to imagine how the proposed 
number of new posts could possibly be 
absorbed and integrated into the existing 
Secretariat by the end of 1966. It would 
seem that such an influx of new staff would 
require so much of the attention of existing 
staff for briefing and training purposes 
that the efficiency of the operations would 
undoubtedly be adversely affected. Apart 
from that fact, there is the even more seri- 
ous question as to the possibility of recruit- 
ing within 1 year such a large number of 
qualified staff. Is it not likely that an at- 
tempt to recruit so many individuals in such 
a short period of time would either fail or 
would result in the acceptance of individuals 
without proper and adequate qualifications 
to do the job efficiently? 

We have said enough, Mr. Chairman, to 
indicate that, while we are not yet pre- 
pared to take a final position concerning 
proposed staff increases for 1966, we are 
far from convinced as to the need for even 
those posts recommended by the Advisory 
Committee. We will await further explana- 
tions from the representatives of the Secre- 
tary-General on this matter. Meanwhile, we 
will reserve our position. 



I should add, Mr. Chairman, with respect 
to section 3 of the budget, that we share 
the misgivings of the Advisory Committee, 
set forth in paragraph 181 of its report on 
the proposed reclassification of posts. We 
would be glad to hear further explanations 
from the representatives of the Secretary- 
General on this matter but at the present 
time are not prepared to go beyond the 
Advisory Committee recommendation to the 
effect that only 50 percent of the funds 
required for the proposed reclassifications 
be approved. 

U.N. Bonds Financing 

Before leaving the budget estimates for 
1966, I should like to refer briefly to a 
proposal made to this committee on October 
15 by the distinguished representative of 
Argentina. He proposed to remove from the 
expenditure section of the budget chapter 
V of section 12, which provides for the 
financing of the interest and principal of 
United Nations bonds. We assume that the 
distinguished representative of Argentina 
will elaborate more fully on his reasons for 
making this proposal at subsequent meet- 
ings of this committee, and accordingly the 
United States delegation will limit its com- 
ments at this time. We might point out, 
however, that we were pleased to note that 
this proposal is not intended to prejudice 
the financial obligations represented by the 
bonds and that it does not envisage financ- 
ing based on voluntary contributions. 

Mr. Chairman, the General Assembly au- 
thorized the sale of United Nations bonds in 
order to raise essential w r orking capital and 
permit this organization to meet its obliga- 
tions. Sixty-four governments bought bonds 
for this purpose. These bonds represent 
solemn obligations of this organization to re- 
pay those who loaned money to it at a time 
of financial crisis. As a Member of Congress, 
and a member of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, let me add that Congress 
authorized purchase of these United Na- 
tions bonds by the United States on the clear 
understanding that they would be paid off 
in a normal and regular manner. Any at- 



72 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tempt to alter their terms and the condi- 
tions of repayment would destroy the con- 
fidence of governments and peoples in the 
financial integrity of the United Nations. 
Thus, while not attempting now to evaluate 
the specific proposal of the distinguished 
representative from Argentina, let me say 
simply that we are not prepared to accept 
any proposal which would destroy confi- 
dence in the financial integrity of the United 
Nations or lessen in any way the assurance 
that the bonds will be repaid. 

Critical Financial Situation 

Mr. Chairman, the United States delega- 
tion would now like to speak about the criti- 
cal financial situation and the financial 
prospects facing this organization. 

We must all ask ourselves two questions 
about the finances of this organization: 
(1) "Where are we today?" and (2) "Where 
are we going?" In dealing with both ques- 
tions, the United States delegation will be 
completely frank. It is essential at this stage 
in the life of the United Nations that we 
face up squarely to the situation which con- 
fronts us. 

Let me start with the present financial 
situation. The Committee of 33, on August 
31, 1965, arrived at a consensus B in the spirit 
of the Afro-Asian proposal which included 
the following elements : 

(a) That the General Assembly will carry on its 
work normally in accordance with its rules of 
procedure; 

(b) That the question of the applicability of 
Article 19 of the Charter will not be raised with 
regard to the United Nations Emergency Force and 
the United Nations Operation in the Congo; 

(c) That the financial difficulties of the Orga- 
nization should be solved through voluntary con- 
tributions by Member States, with the highly de- 
veloped countries making substantial contributions. 

On September 1 the committee's report 
was adopted by the General Assembly. Ac- 
cordingly, voluntary contributions should 
have been forthcoming promptly from ap- 
propriate quarters in sufficient magnitude to 
achieve solvency. Yet the sad fact is that 



no real progress has been made toward 
solvency. 

The Secretary-General informed us on 
September 3, 1965, 6 that of the $100 million 
required to restore the solvency of this 
organization, only $18.4 million had been 
contributed. What has happened since that 
report? The Secretary-General informed us 
on October 12 that only about $1.6 million ad- 
ditional has been contributed. In other 
words, about $80 million must still be raised 
to restore United Nations solvency. 

In fact, instead of an improvement in the 
financial situation, there has been a worsen- 
ing. In statements to this committee at this 
session several member states have reiter- 
ated their past objections to making full 
contributions to the regular budget of the 
United Nations. This means that, in finan- 
cial terms, we are going even further down- 
hill. 

To the United States delegation the 
present situation is one which calls for a 
sober appraisal on the part of all members. 
Can and should our organization continue 
to go forward with new programs — no mat- 
ter how desirable — unless and until we can 
put our house in order? The United States 
delegation finds it difficult to justify an af- 
firmative answer. 

I do not believe that anyone can chal- 
lenge the propriety of this position. The 
United States has paid its share — and con- 
siderably more — of all United Nations ex- 
penses ever since this organization was 
established. We have contributed almost $21/2 
billion to the United Nations family of orga- 
nizations in the last 20 years. We are clearly 
entitled to demand — as indeed are most 
members of this organization — that the 
United Nations as a whole face up to the 
necessity of financing its existing obligations 
before it embarks on new endeavors. 

Mr. Chairman, I sincerely hope that in the 
course of this session, and indeed in the near 
future, the situation will so develop that the 
financial integrity of the organization will 
be restored. It is vitally important to all of 



6 U.N. doc. A/5916. 



U.N. doc. A/5917. 



JANUARY 10, 1966 



73 



us that the United Nations be placed once 
again in a sound position not only to fi- 
nance essential peacekeeping operations 
but also to support the desirable and im- 
portant new economic and social programs 
which we all favor. The United States has 
done its best. Now it is up to others to 
assume their share of the burden. 



BILATERAL 






TREATY INFORMATION 



Current Actions 



Canada 

Interim agreement relating to the renegotiation of 
schedule XX (United States) to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Signed at Wash- 
ington December 17, 1965. Entered into force 
December 17, 1965. 

Germany 

Protocol amending convention for avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income 
of July 22, 1954 (TIAS 3133). Signed at Bonn 
September 17, 1965. 

Ratifications exchanged: December 27, 1965. 
Entered into force: December 27, 1965; effective 
for taxable years beginning on or after 1st day 
of January in year exchange of ratifications 
takes place. 

Guinea 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of June 13, 1964, as amended (TIAS 
5668, 5701, 5712). Effected by exchange of notes 
at Conakry October 27 and 28, 1965. Entered into 
force October 28, 1965. 



MULTILATERAL 



Diplomatic Relations 

Vienna convention on diplomatic relations; 
Optional protocol to Vienna convention on diplomatic 
relations concerning compulsory settlement of dis- 
putes. 
Done at Vienna April 18, 1961. Entered into force 

April 24, 1964. 1 
Ratification deposited: Philippines, November 15, 
1965. 

Safety at Sea 

International regulations for preventing collisions at 
sea. Approved by the International Conference on 
Safety of Life at Sea, London, May 17-June 17, 
1960. Entered into force September 1, 1965. TIAS 
5813. 

Acceptances deposited: Ivory Coast, December 2, 
1965; Korea, December 8, 1965. 

Slavery 

Supplementary convention on the abolition of 
slavery, the slave trade and institutions and prac- 
tices similar to slavery. Done at Geneva September 
7, 1956. Entered into force April 30, 1957. 1 
Accession deposited: Iceland, November 17, 1965. 

Trade 

Protocol amending the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade to introduce a part IV on trade and 
development and to amend annex I. Open for 
acceptance, by signature or otherwise, at Geneva 
from February 8 to December 31, 1965." 
Ratification deposited: Peru, November 30, 1965. 
Signature: Ivory Coast, December 7, 1965. 

War, Prevention of 

American treaty on pacific settlement (Pact of 
Bogota). Signed at Bogota April 30, 1948. Entered 
into force May 6, 1949. 1 
Ratification deposited: Brazil, November 16, 1965. 

1 Not in force for the United States. 

2 Not in force. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
20U02. Address requests direct to the Superintend- 
ent of Documents, except in the case of free publi- 
cations, which may be obtained from the Office of 
Media Services, Department of State, Washington, 
D.C., 20520. 

Health — Additional Regulations Amending WHO 
Regulations No. 2 — Adopted by the Eighteenth 
World Health Assembly at Geneva May 12, 1965. 

Date of entry into force January 1, 1966. TIAS 
5863. 6 pp. 5tf. 

Tracking Stations — Facility on Ascension Island. 

Agreement with the U.K., relating to the agree- 
ment of June 25, 1956. Exchange of notes — Signed , 
at London July 7, 1965. Entered into force July 7, 
1965. TIAS 5864. 3 pp. 5<>. 

Telecommunication — Radio Broadcasting Facilities. 

Agreement with the Philippines, implementing the 
agreement of May 6, 1963. Exchange of notes — 
Signed at Manila September 10, 1965. Entered into 
force September 10, 1965. TIAS 5865. 5 pp. 5<f. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Viet- 
Nam, amending the agreement of May 26, 1965, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Saigon 
August 16, 1965. Entered into force August 16, 
1965. TIAS 5867. 2 pp. 5c\ 



74 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INDEX January 10, 1966 Vol. LIV, No. 1385 



American Principles. Peace, Our Most Compel- 
ling Task (Johnson) 51 

American Republics. The Roots of American 
Foreign Policy (McGhee) 53 

Asia. The Roots of American Foreign Policy 
(McGhee) 53 

Austria. U.S.-Austrian Civil Aviation Negotia- 
tions Concluded 68 

Aviation. U.S.-Austrian Civil Aviation Negotia- 
tions Concluded 68 

Cameroon. Letters of Credence (Owono) . . 52 

Canada. U.S. and Canada To Negotiate for De- 
velopment of Saint John River (exchange of 
notes) 67 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating to 
Foreign Policy 68 

Economic Affairs 

Harmonizing East-West Trade With U.S. Na- 
tional Interests (Trowbridge) 59 

The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Mc- 
Ghee) 53 

U.S. and Canada To Negotiate for Development 
of Saint John River (exchange of notes) . . 67 

Europe 

Harmonizing East-West Trade With U.S. Na- 
tional Interests (Trowbridge) 59 

The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Mc- 
Ghee) 53 

Foreign Aid 

The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Mc- 
Ghee) 53 

USIA To Perform All Information Functions 
Abroad for Foreign Aid (Executive order) 68 

Germany 

President Johnson and Chancellor Erhard Hold 
Talks at Washington (Erhard, Johnson, joint 
communique) 46 

The Roots of American Foreign Policy (Mc- 
Ghee) 53 

International Information. USIA To Perform 
All Information Functions Abroad for For- 
eign Aid (Executive order) 68 

Japan. Instruments of Ratification of Japan- 
Korea Treaty Exchanged (Johnson) ... 66 

Korea. Instruments of Ratification of Japan- 
Korea Treaty Exchanged (Johnson) ... 66 

Non-Self-Governing Territories. Ryukyu's Leg- 
islature To Elect Chief Executive (Johnson, 
Executive order) 66 

Philippines. President Johnson Congratulates 
President-Elect of Philippines 65 



Presidential Documents 

Instruments of Ratification of Japan-Korea 

Treaty Exchanged 66 

Peace, Our Most Compelling Task 51 

President Johnson and Chancellor Erhard Hold 

Talks at Washington 46 

President Johnson Congratulates President- 

Elect of Philippines 65 

Ryukyu's Legislature To Elect Chief Executive 66 
USIA To Perform All Information Functions 

Abroad for Foreign Aid 68 

Publications. Recent Releases 74 

Ryukyu Islands. Ryukyu's Legislature To Elect 

Chief Executive (Johnson, Executive order) 66 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 74 

U.S.-Austrian Civil Aviation Negotiations Con- 
cluded 68 

United Kingdom. Peace, Our Most Compelling 
Task (Johnson) 51 

United Nations. United States Expresses Views 
on 1966 U.N. Budget Estimates (Frelinghuy- 
sen) 69 

Viet-Nam 

Letters of Credence (Thai) 52 

Peace, Our Most Compelling Task (Johnson) 51 

The Roots of American Foreign Policy (McGhee) 53 
U.S. Forces Act With Restraint After Christmas 

Cease-Fire (Department statement) ... 52 

Name Index 

Erhard, Ludwig 46 

Frelinghuysen, Peter H. B 69 

Johnson, President 46, 51, 65, 66, 68 

McGhee, George C 53 

Owono, Joseph 52 

Thai, Vu Van 52 

Trowbridge, Alexander B 59 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: December 20-26 

Press releases may be obtained from the 
Office of News, Department of State, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 20520. 
No. Date Subject 

297 12/21 Cooperative development of 

Saint John River with Canada. 

298 12/22 Civil aviation negotiations with 

Austria. 



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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 









<*u, 



r ar y 



>*u m 



i-tB 



1 ~ 1966 



e " fs 



Vol. L1V, No. 1286 




January 17, 1966 



SECRETARY RUSK DISCUSSES VIET-NAM ON CANADIAN TV PROGRAM 86 

U.S. URGES BETTER U.N. MACHINERY FOR PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT 
Statement by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg 93 

COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY STRONGLY RECOMMENDED BY U.S. 

Statements by William C. Foster 99 



DIPLOMATIC ADJUSTMENT BY THE MARITIME NATIONS 
Special Article by Paul F. Geren 78 



For index see inside back cover 



Despite overwhelming mutual interests that bind the United States to 
the other major maritime nations, there is a root difference of psy- 
chology, history, law, and administration concerning international 
shipping cartels which on occasion places these nations on one side 
and the United States on the other. In this article, ivritten especially 
for the Bulletin, Paul F. Geren, Economic Counselor at the American 
Embassy in Libya and former Adviser on Telecommunications and 
Transportation, describes the problems resulting from this difference 
and the diplomatic efforts which have been made to solve them. 



Diplomatic Adjustment by the Maritime Nations 



by Paul F. Geren 



During the last 2 years the United States 
has been involved in almost continuous dis- 
cussion and negotiation on maritime prob- 
lems with 11 maritime nations: Belgium, 
Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Nether- 
lands, Norway, Sweden, and the United 
Kingdom. The interests which bind these na- 
tions and the United States are stronger 
than their differences. All are interested in 
the freedom, efficiency, and safety of ocean 
transportation. Each gives expression to this 
interest through membership in the Inter- 
governmental Maritime Consultative Or- 



ganization (IMCO) and the Maritime Trans- 
port Committee of the Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development 
(OECD). All favor port development, since 
as much as 60 percent of the cost of a voy- 
age may be incurred in ports. Each opposes 
discrimination against the ships which fly 
its flag. 

Nevertheless, there are differences which 
on occasion place the Eleven on one side 
and the United States on the other. These 
differences are real, and they challenge dip- 
lomats to explore the extent to which they 
may be adjusted. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1386 PUBLICATION 8018 JANUARY 17, 1966 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services, Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with infor- 
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Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
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are listed currently. 

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super- 
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note: Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
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be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed 
in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Liter- 
ature. 



78 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



The root difference is one of psychology, 
history, law, and administration concerning 
ocean freight rate conferences. There are 
economic characteristics of cargo liners op- 
erating regular common carrier service on 
a given route which incline them to form 
such conferences. Oceangoing ships usually 
involve a large capital outlay and operating 
costs which are high and in large measure 
fixed. Certain costs of a voyage are joint 
costs for all the cargo carried and, except 
for loading, unloading, and special handling, 
cannot be easily apportioned to each item of 
cargo. Certain costs must be met whether 
or not the ship sails. If it does sail, the 
shipowner is interested in filling any empty 
space at rates above the cost of loading, 
unloading, and special handling. 

The ensuing tendency toward rate wars, 
instability, and harsh competition has in- 
clined owners over the last century to form 
ocean freight rate conferences. These are 
international cartels, having the object of 
limiting competition by fixing rates and 
other conditions of service and offering sta- 
bility of rates and regularity of sailings as 
their economic and moral justification. 

The tendency toward cartelization does 
not operate with the same force on the 
tramp carriers, defined as ships which carry 
a bulk cargo, dry or liquid, from one port 
to another, typically from one shipper to one 
consignee, and typically scheduled on an 
as-needed basis. Bulk carriers are obtained 
on a ship charter market, where the thou- 
sands of ships in this category, owned by 
hundreds of operators, may all bid if they 
like. The charter market for tramp carriers 
may be described as highly but imperfectly 
competitive, while the conference of a dozen 
cargo lines operating on a specific trade 
route may be regarded as an oligopoly. In 
such an oligopoly, competition between con- 
ference members is confined to features 
other than rates; rate competition comes 
from nonconference cargo liners and, at the 
fringes, from the tramps. 

While more by volume of the United 
States foreign trade is carried in bulk car- 
riers than in cargo liners — 139.5 million to 



47.2 million tons in 1963 — the cargo liners 
carry most of the higher valued commod- 
ities, and they span the freight rate struc- 
tures for the tens of thousands of commod- 
ities which move in lots and parcels. The 
cargo liner trade is the focus of the differ- 
ences with the Eleven in the regulation of 
international shipping. 

Great Britain and the United States have 
both had their historic investigations of con- 
ferences. The reports on these investiga- 
tions agreed that conferences limit competi- 
tion but differed on what should be done 
about them. 

The Royal Commission on Shipping Rings 
in its majority report of 1909 recommended 
collective bargaining between conferences 
and shippers' associations and submission to 
the British Board of Trade of certain con- 
ference agreements. 

U.S. Position on Regulation 

In the case of the United States, the in- 
vestigation was held by the House Merchant 
Marine and Fisheries Committee. The Alex- 
ander Report, named after the committee's 
chairman, issued in 1914, unequivocally 
stated that conferences and like arrange- 
ments should be permitted only under "Gov- 
ernment supervision and control." The Ship- 
ping Act of 1916, as amended in 1936 and 
1961, predicates the necessity of Govern- 
ment regulation. The regulation has as its 
subject the oceanborne foreign commerce of 
the United States, whether imports or ex- 
ports, whether carried in United States or 
other flag vessels. As the report of the At- 
torney General's Committee To Study the 
Antitrust Laws (1955) made clear, combi- 
nations and conspiracies which substantially 
affect U.S. foreign commerce are unlawful 
whether such combinations are wholly 
among American firms, among American 
and foreign firms, or wholly among foreign 
firms. 

The Federal Maritime Commission is the 
United States Government agency charged 
with carrying out regulations. While the 
Commission has been in existence under 



JANUARY 17, 196G 



79 



various names for 50 years, it was not until 
1958 that its regulatory actions began to 
affect other nations. The Shipping Act pro- 
vides that each conference as well as each 
independent common carrier engaged in the 
foreign commerce of the United States must 
file its rates with the Federal Maritime 
Commission, that rate increases are per- 
mitted only after notice to the public, and 
that the Commission may find any rate 
either so high or so low as to be detrimental 
to the foreign commerce of the United 
States. 

With regard to the ocean freight rate con- 
ferences, the Shipping Act provides immu- 
nity from the antitrust laws provided the 
Federal Maritime Commission approves the 
conference operating agreements. In order to 
approve a conference agreement, the Com- 
mission must be satisfied that the agree- 
ment (a) is not unjustly discriminatory or 
unfair as between carriers, shippers, ex- 
porters, importers, or ports, or between ex- 
porters from the United States and their 
foreign competitors; (b) does not operate to 
the detriment of the commerce of the United 
States ; (c) is not contrary to the public in- 
terest; and (d) is not in violation of the 
Shipping Act of 1916 as amended. 

There are some 120 conferences and rate- 
making bodies operating in the United 
States foreign trade, divided approximately 
equally between inbound and outbound, each 
operating on a particular trade route, for 
example, from the U.S. North Atlantic to 
the British Isles and the reciprocal trade 
from the British Isles to the U.S. North 
Atlantic. Each inbound conference has a 
separate and autonomous existence as con- 
trasted with the outbound conference on the 
same trade route. The reciprocal confer- 
ences have separate rate tariffs, member- 
ship, lists of ports served. Typically the 
outbound conference is headquartered in the 
United States and the inbound conference 
abroad. The lines holding membership in the 
conference may run from 2 to 15, and the 
flags from 2 to 8. United States flag lines 
are usually a minority in any conference. 
Conferences based in the United States are 



required to admit qualified lines seeking 
membership but this is not true of some 
foreign conferences. The oceanborne com- 
merce of the United States thus involves 
more than 100 other countries, sails under 
many flags, and is inherently international 
in character. 

Differences Between U.S. and Eleven 

Here is a point at which the difference in 
principle between the 11 maritime countries 
and the United States comes into sharp 
focus. The Eleven hold that, inasmuch as 
the foreign trade of one country is in each 
case the foreign trade of another nation, any 
attempt to regulate automatically becomes 
unilateral regulation. The United States 
holds, on the other hand, that it has a con- 
current jurisdiction over its international 
trade which cannot be vetoed by the choice 
of a trading partner not to exercise its own 
concurrent jurisdiction. 

In the background for discussion of juris- 
diction is the law of the port. Shipowners 
universally attest that they must abide by 
the laws and regulations of the nations whose 
ports they use, and modern nations are well 
aware that reciprocity and mutuality are 
lively considerations for a maritime country 
whose ships by definition use ports other 
than its own. 

Several overtones of this jurisdictional 
difference between the United States and 
the Eleven can be discerned. The United 
States emphasizes the public interest in 
oceanborne shipping, while the Eleven are 
skeptical that there is any interest involved 
which cannot be classified under the interest 
of the shipper, consignee, and shipowner. 
The Eleven are champions of shippers' coun- 
cils, defined as permanent associations of 
importers, exporters, and manufacturers or- 
ganized to consult and negotiate with ship- 
ping conferences on problems of mutual in- 
terest. Shippers' councils, the Eleven con- 
tend, could be the means of settling 95 per- 
cent of the disputes and difficulties in this 
realm. 

The United States is not prepared to 



80 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



abandon the concept of the public as an 
interested party in oceanborne transporta- 
tion. The balance of payments is a massive 
manifestation of such interest in our view, 
and significantly the concern with ocean 
freight rates in recent years has come as a 
derivative of concern for the adverse bal- 
ance-of -payments position. A group of Amer- 
ican exporters, the consignees to whom they 
ship, and the owners of the ships which 
carry the goods may all be happy with ex- 
isting arrangements. Nevertheless, in the 
United States view, the public interest re- 
quires continuous surveillance to insure that 
the prevailing rates do not unfairly discrim- 
inate against a potential export which 
would better the balance-of-payments posi- 
tion. 

The Eleven hold further that the United 
States treats the ocean shipping industry as 
a public utility to be regulated, whereas they 
regard it as an industry which should not 
in any way be subordinated to trade and 
commerce. The United States does not regard 
its ocean shipping industry as a public util- 
ity. We do have a candid regard for our 
situation, just as the Eleven speak from an 
appraisal of where they stand. 

At mid-1964 the United States ranked 
second in the world in size of its merchant 
fleet, with 20.4 million gross registered tons 
(g.r.t.) — behind the United Kingdom with 
21.5 million g.r.t. and before Norway with 
14.5 million g.r.t. In the volume of its ocean- 
borne international trade the United States' 
paramount position is unchallenged, with 
341 million long tons in 1964 valued at more 
than $28 billion. Nevertheless, in 1963, only 
8.5 percent of our foreign trade by volume 
was carried in U.S. flag vessels, as com- 
pared with the following percentages of their 
respective foreign trade by certain other 
countries in 1962: France, 59 percent; 
United Kingdom, 52 percent; Greece, 47 
percent; Norway, 43 percent; Japan, 46 per- 
cent. By volume, 17.3 percent of U.S. foreign 
trade in 1963 moved on Norwegian flag ves- 
sels, more than twice the volume which 
moved on U.S. flag ships. Thus, while the 
United States acts several parts in maritime 



affairs, it plays the unquestioned leading role 
as a user of shipping services. 

A reinforcing factor to the predominant 
user interest is the cost status of the United 
States merchant marine as compared with 
the merchant marines of the Eleven. The 
United States has achieved its present posi- 
tion in the cargo liner trade, where its ves- 
sels carry almost 30 percent of the U.S. 
foreign trade moving in that type of vessel, 
by subsidizing both the construction and 
operation of most of the cargo liner fleet. 
However, the 30 percent represents only 12 
percent of commercial liner cargo, the re- 
mainder being Government cargo which must 
be carried in U.S. flag ships by virtue of 
cargo preference arrangements. All the mar- 
itime countries offer various encourage- 
ments to their merchant marines, and sev- 
eral of them offer building subsidies, but 
the subsidy is massive in the case of the 
United States, amounting to more than 
half of the cost of building ships and more 
than 70 percent of wages for ships' crews, 
currently totaling in all forms some $380 
million annually. 

Consequently, while the U.S. merchant ma- 
rine strengthens our balance-of-payments 
position, it is a heavy burden on the Federal 
budget. This contrasts sharply with the po- 
sition of most of the 11 maritime countries, 
whose merchant marines typically contrib- 
ute to the national budget through taxes ex- 
ceeding any subsidies granted them and 
contribute powerfully to the national income 
account in wages and profits for their na- 
tionals. Norway's merchant marine currently 
accounts for 55 percent of that country's 
gross foreign exchange earnings. The Neth- 
erlands, which carries only 16 percent of its 
own foreign trade in its own vessels, is 
nevertheless able from the net earnings of 
its merchant marine to finance most of a 
heavily adverse trade balance. 

The relationship of the United States and 
the Eleven in maritime affairs can be sum- 
marized in a very simple way: The United 
States is the world's leading user of shipping 
services. The Eleven together supply more 
than half the world's shipping services. We 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



81 



are in this field their largest customer, and 
all parties, if not self-conscious, are con- 
scious of that fact. 

So much for differences of principle be- 
tween the United States and the Eleven. Let 
us consider now two cases which demonstrate 
the practice of attempted adjustment. 

Investigation of Dual Rate Contracts 

The first concerns the dual rate contracts 
which are used by the conferences to insure 
exclusive patronage by quoting a rate up to 
15 percent lower for the shippers who agree 
to be bound to give all or a specified per- 
centage of their shipments to the conference. 
The statutory exemption for conferences 
from the antitrust laws was undermined 
wherever dual rate contracts were employed 
by the Supreme Court decision in the Is- 
brandtsen case in 1958 (Federal Maritime 
Board v. Isbrandtsen Co., 356 U.S. 481, 
1958). Congress first extended the validity 
of the existing dual rate contracts until June 
30, 1961, and then passed Public Law 87-346, 
known as the Bonner Act, which authorizes 
conferences serving the foreign commerce of 
the United States to enter into dual rate 
contracts fulfilling the requirements of the 
act and approved by the Federal Maritime 
Commission. On March 30, 1964, the Com- 
mission announced that only its approved 
contract could be used in the U.S. trade 
after April 4, 1964. 

The Eleven protested this requirement as 
an infringement of their respective juris- 
dictions, since the contracts covering the 
U.S. inbound trade would typically bind 
conferences and shippers in their countries 
without involving a party in the United 
States. The subject became a lively one for 
diplomats. The Commission granted a series 
of delays, agreed to delete all but one of 
the offending jurisdictional clauses, and 
showed the capacity to permit some varia- 
tion in the commercial clauses of the model 
contracts according to the commercial prac- 
tice obtaining in a given trade. 

In the United Kingdom the affected con- 
ference and the shippers' councils negotiated 



the dual rate contract, and, while the com- 
pleted document contained the clauses which 
were essential from a United States point 
of view, the contract could realistically be 
presented as their own work. This enabled 
the country to avoid being placed in a posi- 
tion of acknowledging the jurisdiction of the 
United States in contracts made between 
its own nationals and companies domiciled 
within its own borders. The Federal Mari- 
time Commission was likewise satisfied, 
since its intent is to secure the purpose of 
U.S. legislation and not to flaunt a jurisdic- 
tional red flag in the faces of the Eleven. 
By early 1965, practically all the confer- 
ences in the U.S. foreign trade which em- 
ploy the dual rate contract had filed con- 
tracts which met the Federal Maritime Com- 
mission's specifications. The episode could 
be described as one of partial international- 
ization of a model contract. 

Voluntary Exchange of Rate Information 

The second illustrative case concerns the 
charge made by the Joint Economic Com- 
mittee of Congress that, on the major trade 
routes, conference freight rates on exports 
moving from the United States are higher 
than conference freight rates on imports 
moving into the United States and that, un- 
less sound economic justification can be 
found, the freight rate structure should be 
pronounced discriminatory and remedial 
steps taken. Having been charged with the 
investigation of this matter, the Federal 
Maritime Commission in November 1963 is- 
sued orders under section 21 of the Ship- 
ping Act calling upon 16 conferences, 8 in- 
bound and 8 outbound, and their member 
lines, regardless of flag, to produce infor- 
mation and documents on traffic and earn- 
ings. 

The 11 maritime nations jointly presented 
a note to the Department of State asserting 
that these orders violated their respective 
jurisdictions, and reserved the right to re- 
strain their nationals from compliance. U.S. 
courts sustained the right of the Federal 
Maritime Commission to order the out- 



•82 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



bound conferences to produce information 
and documents, fines began to accrue against 
the outbound conferences, and the British 
Parliament enacted a law in August 1964 
forbidding disclosure of information by Brit- 
ish companies and nationals under certain 
conditions. 

Under the auspices of the Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development, 
representatives of the Federal Maritime 
Commission, the Department of State, and 
the governments of the Eleven met in Paris 
on this problem in February and again in 
June 19G4. At the June session Adm. John 
Harllee, Chairman of the Federal Maritime 
Commission, proposed a plan for voluntary 
exchange of the information utilizing a gov- 
ernment-to-government basis if the mari- 
time countries desired. The exchange would 
be voluntary even with the eight confer- 
ences headquartered in the United States, 
where no jurisdictional problem arose. 

Agreement was eventually reached on De- 
cember 15, 1964, and embodied in an Agreed 
Minute of the Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development. 1 Each of 14 
governments (the Eleven plus Spain, Ire- 
land, and Finland) and the Government of 
the United States agreed to use their good 
offices to facilitate an exchange of informa- 
tion on total revenue tons of cargo carried 
and total gross freight revenue earned by 
each of the 16 conferences, as well as the 
same statistics on a number of individual 
commodities in each conference. The channel 
of exchange was described as from the con- 
ference to the government of the state in 
which it was headquartered, to the OECD, 
and thence to all governments party to the 
Agreed Minute. 

The United States agreed not to proceed 
with the enforcement of the section 21 or- 
ders obtaining, not to publish the informa- 
tion for purpose of criminal prosecutions or 
assessing fines or penalties against ship- 
owners or conferences, and not to use the 
information in formal proceedings before the 
Federal Maritime Commission without hav- 



Mr. Geren's article is one of a series being 
written especially for the Bulletin by officers 
of the Department and the Foreign Service. 
Officers who may be interested in submitting 
original bylined articles are invited to call the 
editor of the Bulletin, Mrs. Madeline Patton, 
extension 5806, room 5536. 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Feb. 8, 1965, p. 188. 



ing first consulted the governments of the 
maritime nations concerning alternative 
methods of solving the problem. 

The exchange of data was completed in 
April 1965, but revisions continue. Following 
consultations begun in late May, the totals 
for all conferences and for the 20 specific 
commodities in the United States-United 
Kingdom conferences were published in the 
proceedings of the Subcommittee on Fed- 
eral Regulation and Procurement of the 
Joint Economic Committee on August 11, 
1965. The maritime nations opposed publica- 
tion on the grounds that it would transfer 
prematurely the discussion of rate dispari- 
ties into legislative bodies and newspapers. 
Some of the maritime nations also main- 
tained that publication would reveal com- 
mercial secrets, contrary to the pledge given 
in the Agreed Minute. The position of the 
United States is that the aggregation of data 
guards against revelation of commercial 
secrets, that the Agreed Minute and the ne- 
gotiations leading to it envisaged the even- 
tual publication of the data, and that the 
United States has discharged its obligation of 
consultation before publication. 

Consultation has also begun on the mean- 
ing of the data exchanged: Do they reveal 
a disparity? If so, are there economic justi- 
fications? If there are not adequate eco- 
nomic justifications, are there ways of solv- 
ing the problem alternative to formal pro- 
ceedings before the Federal Maritime Com- 
mission? 

The data exchanged gives an answer to- 
the first question. In seven of the eight sets 
of reciprocal conferences, the per ton rev- 
enue is higher by from 6 to 75 percent for 
outbound than for inbound cargo. The data 
which yield this answer have never before 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



83 



been available to one government, not to 
speak of 15. 

As is true of any breakthrough, one ques- 
tion is answered but several new ones are 
raised. Many of these questions concern the 
concept of the "revenue ton," which derives 
from conference usage and is defined as a 
unit of one ton by weight or up to 40 cubic 
feet by measure. The rate is charged on 
the basis of such a unit, which will vary 
from commodity to commodity. Weight, 
measurement, and value are involved as 
variables, but, if they combine according to 
any fixed principle, it has not been possible 
thus far to discover that principle nor to 
state it mathematically. The shipowners 
have long held that ratemaking is an art, not 
a science, but it should be possible to illumine 
the art in the direction of science. 

The second question of whether rate dis- 
parities are economically justified thus con- 
tinues to be the subject of consultation be- 
tween the United States and the other mari- 
time countries. A new chapter is being writ- 
ten. The end of the book is not in sight. 
It seems sure to be long and heavy reading. 

New Approaches to International Adjustment 

Having set out the differences in principle 
between the United States and the Eleven, 
and having noted two cases of attempted ad- 
justment by diplomacy, we may now con- 
clude with three observations. 

The first: The differences between the 
United States and the Eleven persist, but 
the effort at diplomatic adjustment likewise 
persists. It is a process which continues, a 
process in which principles encounter every 
day's necessity to keep oceanborne com- 
merce moving. The dramatic fraternity vows 
that the show must go on, the postmen are 
devoted to their appointed rounds, and the 
maritime community, though interrupted by 
strikes or hurricane Betsy, is committed 
that the ships must sail. Neither the United 
States nor the Eleven will desert their prin- 
ciples, but together they may find possibil- 
ities of adjustment in the process of moving 
oceanborne commerce efficiently, safely, and 
economically. 



The second observation is that, for better 
or worse, the subjects of freight rates and 
conference activities are moving into a more 
public view. Some of the maritime nations 
will hold this worse and the United States 
will regard it for the better, but all might 
agree that it is inevitable. Both the anti- 
competitive nature of conference agree- 
ments and their complexity have enhanced 
the conferences' early reputation for sec- 
recy. Many governments, however, now as- 
sert an inalienable right to ask questions 
concerning freight rates. The questions need 
not have a punitive edge, they need not pre- 
sume that conferences are guilty until proved 
innocent, but they are sure to increase. 

Finally, it is possible to see in the con- 
temporary discussion the intimations of new 
approaches and forms for the international 
adjustment of differences in national mari- 
time policies. This does not necessarily imply 
that new international organizations must be 
formed nor that every nation must have its 
Federal Maritime Commission. The Agreed 
Minute on the Exchange of Shipping In- 
formation is an illustration of the manner in 
which an existing organization, the OECD, 
may engage in this area. The experience 
leads one to paraphrase Voltaire: If we did 
not have the OECD, we would have had to 
invent it. 

It is in the realm of method and temper- 
ament rather than in the specific organiza- 
tional forms that we profess to see the out- 
lines of an era of international adjustment 
of maritime problems. Evidences are per- 
haps no larger at present than Elijah's 
cloud on the horizon, no larger than a man's 
hand. They include the notable cases of the 
dual rate contracts, the Agreed Minute, the 
continuing desire to maintain a posture of 
adjustment rather than to stage a quarrel in 
newspapers, the statement by the Eleven 
that laissez faire is not a tenable policy for 
governments respecting shipping confer- 
ences, and the affirmation by the United 
States that it exercises a concurrent, not an 
exclusive, jurisdiction over its foreign com- 
merce. 

The safety aspects of maritime affairs are 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



infinitely less complex and less affected with 
particular interest than are the economic 
aspects. Nevertheless, the multilateraliza- 
tion and the internationalization of stand- 
ards of safety at sea are a parable of what 
may be attempted in the economic aspects 
of maritime problems. 

Nations have long had their separate 
codes of safety for ships of their own flag 
and for ships using their respective ports. 
An International Convention for the Safety 
of Life at Sea (SOLAS) was signed in 
1948, and a new convention was drawn up 
in 1960 under the auspices of the Maritime 
Safety Committee of the Intergovernmental 
Maritime Consultative Organization. Since 
1948 there has been a continuing action 
and reaction between the international con- 
vention and the regulations of particular 
countries. National regulations usually make 
some reference to the SOLAS. There is a 
medium of international discourse on mat- 
ters of safety of life at sea by virtue of 
the convention and the international con- 
ferences which drew it up and amended it. 
Without ceasing to be a national concern of 
states, safety of life at sea is a matter for 
international cooperation. 

A parallel development in the economic 
aspects of maritime affairs will be enor- 
mously more difficult, but here also neces- 
sity may be the mother of invention. 



U.S. and Zambia Hold Talks 
on Rhodesian Situation 

Joint Communique 

Press release 301 dated December 27 

The Zambian ministerial mission to dis- 
cuss the Rhodesian situation visited Wash- 
ington from December 22 to December 27. 
The mission was composed of the Honorable 
Simon Kapwepwe, Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, and the Honorable A. G. Zulu, Min- 
ister of Mines. During this period the Min- 
isters conferred with Secretary Rusk as well 
as with other senior officials of the United 
States Government. 



The Secretary expressed the admiration 
of the United States for the success Zam- 
bia has had in achieving a democratic so- 
ciety and racial harmony in Zambia. Both 
sides agreed that the undemocratic regime 
now installed in Rhodesia was a threat to 
human rights and that all concerned 
should aid the people of Rhodesia to find 
a solution to their present problems along 
lines which respected the rights and legiti- 
mate interests of all sections of the com- 
munity. 

Actions by various nations to cooperate 
with the U.K. in implementing its economic 
measures against the rebel regime and in 
conformance with the November 12 and 20 
resolutions 1 of the United Nations Security 
Council were reviewed. The United States 
Government described the details of its re- 
cent measures to apply economic sanctions 
to Rhodesia, 2 especially the action being 
taken by American oil companies in im- 
plementing the recently announced oil em- 
bargo against Rhodesia. 

Secretary Rusk expressed the hope that 
the success achieved so far in obtaining 
broad international assistance for the U.K. 
economic measures and the United Nations 
resolutions directed against the rebellious 
Rhodesian authorities would soon achieve 
the stated U.N. objective of "bringing the 
minority regime in Southern Rhodesia to 
an immediate end" and would provide a 
constitutional basis for progress toward ma- 
jority rule in the British colony. He ex- 
pressed the willingness of the U.S. Govern- 
ment to consider additional measures in the 
event the present program should appear to 
need reinforcement. 

Secretary Rusk reviewed the investiga- 
tions made by American experts of the re- 
quirements for improving various alterna- 
tive land transportation routes into Zambia 
and promised to examine ways by which the 
United States could assist in meeting these 
requirements. He confirmed that the United 



1 For texts, see Bulletin of Dec. 6, 1965, pp. 915 
and 916. 

* Ibid., Dec. 6, 1965, p. 914, and Jan. 3, 1966, p. 27. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



85 



States during the first week in January, 
hopefully by January 2, plans to begin to 
make a significant contribution to the air- 
lift of oil supplies to Zambia in cooperation 
with the U.K. and Canada. He agreed that 
the objective of the airlift should be to 
permit Zambia to end rationing of petroleum 
products as soon as possible. 

Secretary Rusk assured the Zambian 
Ministers of the deep interest of the U.S. 
Government in minimizing the effect of the 
crisis on Zambian economic progress and in 
continuing to consult with the Zambian 
Government on the measures needed to 
achieve this goal. 



Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam 
on Canadian TV Program 

Folloiving is the transcript of an inter- 
view with Secretary Rusk by James Minifie 
and Knowlton Nash of the Canadian Broad- 
casting Corporation which was filmed De- 
cember 23 for use on a Canadian television 
program December 30. 

Press release 307 dated December 30 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Pope's Christmas 
message teamed that perhaps the world 
was on the wrong path again and urged all 
nations "to modify the direction of your 
steps, stop, think." What's your reaction to 
that, sir? 

A. Well, I think that those words of His 
Holiness must be taken with the utmost 
seriousness by everyone concerned because 
the world is in a turbulent and indeed a 
very dangerous situation. Viet-Nam, of 
course, is the overriding problem in estab- 
lishing the peace. Our objective there is 
peace. 

The elementary facts are that tens of 
thousands of armed men, including units of 
the North Vietnamese regular army, have 
been sent from North Viet-Nam into South 
Viet-Nam to impose a political solution on 
South Viet-Nam by force. Large quantities 



of arms have been sent in behind these men. 

Now we, I think, sometimes overlook 
what has been said from the United States 
point of view about peace in Southeast Asia. 
Let me remind you that we have said that 
the agreements of 1954 and 1962 are an 
adequate basis for peace in Southeast Asia. 
We have said that we would welcome a con- 
ference on Southeast Asia or any part of it 
— Cambodia, Laos, Viet-Nam. We have said 
that we would engage in negotiations with- 
out preconditions, as the 17 nonalined na- 
tions phrased it, 1 or unconditional discus- 
sions, as President Johnson phrased it. 2 We 
have said that the cessation of hostilities 
can be the first item on the agenda of a 
conference, or it could be the subject of pre- 
liminary discussions. We have said that 
Hanoi's four points could be discussed at 
such a conference, along with the points 
that others may wish to put forward. We 
have said that we want no bases in South- 
east Asia. We have said that we do not wish 
to retain U.S. forces in South Viet-Nam if 
there is peace. 

We have said that there can be elections 
in South Viet-Nam and that the question of 
reunification is something which the Viet- 
namese themselves can decide on their own 
free choice. We have said that we would 
much prefer to use our own resources in the 
economic, social reconstruction in Southeast 
Asia rather than military action, and we 
have indicated that there could be peace in 
North Viet-Nam if they would become a 
part of a regional effort to which we are 
prepared to contribute a billion dollars. We 
said that the bombing could be stopped. As 
a step toward peace, we have asked the other 
side, both publicly and privately, to give us 
some indication what they would do if the 
bombing stopped. 

Now, that doesn't leave very much. The 
thing that it does leave is the third of 



1 For text of the 17-nation appeal of Apr. 1, 1965, 
see Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1965, p. 611. 
3 Ibid., p. 606. 



86 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 






Hanoi's four points, namely, the imposition 
of the program of the Liberation Front 
upon the people of South Viet-Nam, whether 
the people of South Viet-Nam want it or 
not. In other words, that leaves the simple 
question of appetite and of aggression and 
what do we do about it? We feel that, since 
we have a commitment to South Viet-Nam 
and our commitment in similar situations 
all over the world is a major pillar of peace 
in this world situation, we must meet our 
commitment. But there could be peace very 
promptly if this appetite were withdrawn. 

Q. Do you think, Mr. Secretary, that the 
Christmas truce could be developed or 
picked up again and made into a longer 
truce ? 

A. Well, we'll see. We have said on many 
occasions that as far as the bombing is con- 
cerned, the fact that it could be stopped is 
a step toward peace, but we do not have 
from the other side any indication they are 
prepared to abandon their attempt to take 
South Viet-Nam over by force. Now, this is 
the heart of the matter.\One has sometimes 
heard of "peace feelers." Actually these 
have arisen on the initiative of someone 
else. I don't know of any initiatives taken 
by Hanoi to seek peace. Others — third par- 
ties, other governments,! perhaps private 
citizens — have had conversations with Ha- 
noi, and when some of these are made 
public, these are translated into something 
called peace feelers by Hanoi. Hanoi has 
denied that they have made any peace feel- 
ers. I am not aware of any peace feelers 
initiated by Hanoi. 

Q. On the question of bombing or a pause, 
would the United States be prepared to 
initiate another unilateral pause as you did 
last spring? 

A. Well, I think that we need to find out 
from the other side more about that. We 
have not excluded any possibilities here as 
a step toward peace, but we have had no 
indication from the other side that they 
would respond in any way. 



Q. You want that indication before — ? 

A. Well, why don't we just wait and let 
the future take care of itself. 

Q. The National Council of Churches, or 
its General Board in all events, has sug- 
gested that a declaration in favor of a com- 
mitment to withdraw U.S. troops when and 
if an international force could replace them 
would be extremely helpful. What is your 
reaction to that? 

A. Well, there is no problem with us on 
that. We have said many times that our 
troops could come home when this aggres- 
sion stops, and I don't believe an interna- 
tional force is likely to be moved into South 
Viet-Nam until the aggression does stop. 
This causes us no problem. 

Q. Would the United States favor a truce 
now beyond the 30-hour truce at Christmas, 
with both sides staying as they are and 
peace talks beginning? 

A. Well, these are matters we have indi- 
cated can be discussed with the other side. 
If there are problems about how cessation 
of hostilities can be arranged, all right, let's 
talk about it. We've indicated that we will 
be at Geneva within hours if anybody else 
is there from other governments to talk 
about peace in Southeast Asia. These are 
things that can be discussed — that can't be 
just organized on a unilateral basis. 

Q. There ivas a rather disturbing sugges- 
tion the other day in Evans and Novak's 
column that the United States ivasn't really 
interested in negotiations until an adequate 
political structure in Viet-Nam could be 
created. 

A. That is not true, and if anyone wants 
to test us on that, let them turn up at 
Geneva tomorrow. I'll be there. Just let 
them be there — I'll be there. If anyone doubts 
the bona fides of the American interest in 
negotiation, let them come to the table and 
find out. We tried on many occasions to see 
that a conference is convened in the situa- 
tion. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



87 



Q. If there were representatives of the 
National Liberation Front that came to 
Geneva, would you also be there, sir? 

A. Well, there are 14 million people in 
South Viet-Nam. There are the Buddhists, 
and the Catholics, and the sects, and the 
montagnards, and the million Cambodians, 
and there are the Viet Cong. The Viet Cong 
do not represent the people of South Viet- 
Nam, but we have indicated that ways can 
be found to let their views be known in a 
conference. But that is not the problem. The 
problem is whether Hanoi wants to impose 
the program of the Liberation Front upon 
the South Vietnamese, whether the South 
Vietnamese want it or not. 

Q. How long do you think that the war, 
as we have to call it, is going to last, then, 
before they come to the conference table? 

A. Well, I am not a prophet — I'm not a 
prophet. 

Q. Broadening the question of Viet-Nam 
a bit, Mr. Secretary, what's your judgment 
on the future course that China might take, 
especially if there were no intention or 
pickup of the truce, the Christmas truce, 
and the American commitment increases 
more than it is at present? 

A. Well again, I don't want to predict 
what someone else might do. This depends 
upon what maybe 6 or 8 or 10 people in 
Peiping are saying to themselves. We don't 
know what that is. What they must under- 
stand is that we have a commitment in 
South Viet-Nam. We shall make good on 
that commitment, and we would hope that 
they would change their policy and throw 
themselves in support of peace instead of 
preaching a doctrine of militancy — it is so 
harsh that it has caused great problems 
even inside the Communist world, quite 
apart from the problems that it causes us, 
all of us, in the free world. 

Q. What's your attitude toward those 
w ho — and some in this country — who advo- 
cate and who were at least not opposed to 



a fight with China now, growing out of 
Viet-Nam — before China develops their nu- 
clear capacity? 

A. We haven't wanted a single man in 
uniform shooting a rifle in Southeast Asia. 
We don't want a war. The purpose there is 
peace, and if small countries can have a 
right to live their own lives without being 
molested by small or great powers that are 
nearby, then we can have peace in this 
world. But there are a hundred small coun- 
tries around the world who have a funda- 
mental stake in the ability of a small coun- 
try to live at peace and pursue its own 
policy. 

Q. Referring back again, Mr. Secretary, 
to that resolution of the National Council 
of Churches, they suggested that it be made 
explicit, that in the event of South Vietnam- 
ese independence being established, they 
should, in fact, be free to opt either to go 
into SEATO or North Viet-Nam to admit 
the National Federation people into a coali- 
tion or not, to become a neutral state or to 
become part of a buffer region. Is that a 
possibility? 

A. We have said repeatedly that what 
happens in South Viet-Nam is for the South 
Vietnamese people themselves to determine. 
It isn't easy to organize free elections with 
so much terror and so much assassination 
throughout the countryside, but if the Viet 
Cong would lay down their arms, accept 
amnesty, engage in free elections, these 
questions can be answered. Let the South 
Vietnamese decide what their attitude is 
toward such questions as reunification or 
nonalinement. We're not out looking for 
more allies. We have quite enough, thank 
you, for the moment. We have over 40. They 
can be nonalined. The problem is, can they 
be safe, can they be safe from aggression? 
And that's something that all of us have a 
stake in. We neglected that problem when 
Japanese militarists went into Manchuria in 
1931, when Mussolini went into Ethiopia, 
when Hitler started on his course of action. 



88 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Now we dare not neglect that problem, be- 
cause if aggression builds up momentum 
and if appetite grows through success, then 
we are just headed for a catastrophe that 
the human race cannot yet comprehend. 

Q. You're taking, it seems to me, sir, a 
unilateral stand, however, in South Viet- 
Nam. Why hasn't the matter been formally 
submitted to the United Nations? 

A. It has been discussed in the United 
Nations and has been brought there for- 
mally from time to time. On the last occa- 
sion in which it was formally presented to 
the Security Council, in August 1964, the 
Soviet representative moved that Hanoi be 
invited to the Security Council table. We 
voted for that resolution and supported it. 
Hanoi refused to come. Now the general 
feeling in New York is — and I think the 
Secretary-General shares this view — that a 
harsh, divisive debate in the Security Coun- 
cil, which could lead only to no effective 
results, would not be useful but that at- 
tempts ought to be made privately, and 
quietly, to see whether or not there is a 
basis for peace. In other words, the charter 
itself anticipates that debate is a rather 
drastic remedy, that all of the other possi- 
bilities ought to be exhausted before ques- 
tions are brought there for deeply divisive 
and cutting debate. Now, those who are 
interested in peace in Southeast Asia should 
understand, I think, that it's easy to take 
it to the Security Council, debate it bitterly 
for 2 or 3 days, and then have no result. 
But that doesn't move us toward a solution 
of the problem. 

Q. You feel that all avenues of exploration 
have not yet been taken up? 

A. No, I think that all of them have been 
taken up, but those channels and those ave- 
nues ought to continue alive and alert and 
active, and it is not necessarily true that 
debate is a constructive contribution toward 
that total effort. 

Q. Public opinion around the world, and 



in Canada too, Mr. Secretary, has not en- 
tirely backed the United States in Viet-Nam, 
as you know. Do you feel that public opin- 
ion, this particular public opinion element 
— that people are simply wrong or that the 
United States hasn't sufficiently, effec- 
tively, explained what it's doing in Viet- 
Nam? 

A. I think that there're a lot of people 
around the world who have not faced the 
fact that a harsh aggression is in process 
in Southeast Asia. Had formal, organized 
divisions moved across the demarcation 
lines, say in 1961, the issue would have been 
much clearer. This has been by process of 
infiltration. It is not impossible, therefore, 
for many people just to hope somehow that 
this problem would go away or that, what- 
ever the problem is, the United States would 
take care of it. I think that this is inatten- 
tion due to distance, and perhaps also to 
failure to reflect upon the experience of the 
last 40 years and the question of how you 
deal with aggression. Do you let it grow 
until it is unmanageable and leads to a 
general war, or do you try to stop it at its 
very beginning? We've had a lot of experi- 
ence in this since 1945. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, just one last question. 
With the holiday season upon us, or in the 
midst of it, are you more hopeful or less 
hopeful than you were, say a month ago, 
in relation to Viet-Nam? 

A. Well, I think that one must always 
work on the basis of optimism. Certainly 
that is the professional commitment of 
diplomacy, and our problem here is not lack 
of contact with the other side. Those are 
clear, easy, and frequent. The problem is 
that with contact we have not yet found a 
basis for peace. We shall continue to explore 
that possibility through every channel that 
is open, and we would hope that somehow 
the New Year can open up possibilities that 
we have not seen during 1965. 

Q. Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



89 



Travel Controls Relaxed for 
Doctors and Medical Scientists 

Department Statement 

Press release 304 dated December 29 

The President in his speech at the Smith- 
sonian Institution September 16, 1965, 1 re- 
ferred to the desire of the United States to 
increase the free flow of ideas and of works 
of science and imagination. Secretary Rusk 
on November 4 this year told a White House 
Conference on Medicine and Public Health 
that the field of health and of medicine is 
close to the consciousness of every man and 
every family in every country and that 
problems in these fields were "not problems 
which ought to be governed by political 
process but ought to be governed by the 
elementary interest of man in his health." 

There are diseases and infections, of 
plants and animals as well as humans, which 
are of great concern to all countries. These 
diseases and infections are no respecters of 
frontiers, as many examples have shown. It 
is of utmost importance that every country 
be informed, both of the dangers of epi- 
demics of all kinds and of improvements in 
the ways of dealing with them. 

For these reasons, many prominent 
American doctors have expressed strong in- 
terest in sharing their knowledge and in 
gaining experience from their colleagues in 
other countries. The eminent American 
doctor and heart specialist Dr. Paul Dudley 
White has written a personal letter to the 
Secretary of State asking that unrestricted 
passports be issued for individuals devoted 
to the care of the health of all the peoples 
of the world. 

In the light of these considerations of 
policy and humanity, the Department of 
State announced today [December 29] that 
it is expanding the categories of citizens 
who may receive passports validated for 
travel to countries for which travel controls 
now exist to include doctors and scientists 



in the fields of public health and medicine 
who desire to travel to such countries for 
purposes directly related to their profes- 
sional responsibilities. Heretofore, passport 
validations have been given to persons in 
these fields of activity only when unusual 
circumstances existed. 



Income Tax Protocol With Germany 
Enters Into Force 

Press release 302 dated December 28 

On December 27, 1965, the United States 
and German Federal Republic instruments 
of ratification were exchanged at Bonn, 
bringing into force the protocol of Septem- 
ber 17, 1965, modifying the convention of 
July 22, 1954, between the United States 
and the Federal Republic of Germany, for 
the avoidance of double taxation with re- 
spect to taxes on income. 1 

The protocol gives effect to a number of 
modifications in the 1954 convention in 
order to reflect changes in the Federal 
Republic's tax system and experience in the 
application of the convention since its entry 
into force. The modifications relate prin- 
cipally to dividends, interest, and capital 
gains and would add certain German taxes 
to those mentioned in the 1954 convention 
and to which the convention would apply. 

A major feature of the revision effected 
by the protocol is a change in the taxation 
of dividends. Under the provisions as 
amended by the protocol, dividends passing 
from one country to the other will be subject 
to a reduced withholding tax of 15 percent. 
An exception to this rule is provided in 
respect of dividends paid by a Federal Re- 
public company to a United States company 
having an interest of 10 percent or more in 
the Federal Republic company paying the 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1965, p. 550. 



1 For a message of Sept. 29 from President John- 
son transmitting the protocol to the Senate for ad- 
vice and consent to ratification, see Bulletin of 
Nov. 1, 1965, p. 722. 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



dividends. The Federal Republic tax on divi- 
dends in such case will be withheld at the 
full rate of 25 percent, whenever the divi- 
dends are reinvested in the Federal Republic 
company. In this connection, reinvestment in 
any calendar year totaling less than 7.5 
percent of the dividends received will be 
disregarded. On the other hand, any rein- 
vestment made by the United States com- 
pany in the year prior to or following the 
year in which the dividends are paid will 
be taken into account for purposes of im- 
posing Federal Republic withholding tax at 
the full 25 percent rate. 

Another important change effected by 
the protocol in the convention relates to 
know-how payments. Such payments will be 
treated as royalties and as such will be 
exempt from tax in the country of source 
as from January 1, 1963. 

The definition of the term "permanent 
establishment" and the rule governing in- 
dustrial and commercial profits are brought 
into line with the definition in other recent 
income tax conventions of the United 
States. Other changes effected by the pro- 
tocol relate to the taxation of interest and 
capital gains. Double taxation of dividends 
from portfolio investments in the United 
States will be avoided by crediting United 
States tax against Federal Republic tax. 
The convention is extended to include the 
Federal Republic trade tax and capital tax. 
The protocol provides for a broadening of 
the exemption with respect to personal 
service income and the provisions dealing 
with governmental salaries, wages, and 
pensions. American nonprofit institutions 
are accorded exemption from Federal Re- 
public tax comparable with that accorded 
Federal Republic nonprofit institutions un- 
der United States law. 

Except as otherwise indicated in the 
protocol, the convention as amended is to 
apply as of January 1 of the year in which 
the exchange of instruments of ratification 
takes place. The article regarding taxation 
of dividends has effect with respect to divi- 
dends paid on or after January 1, 1965. 



Tax Convention With Honduras 
To Continue in Force for 1966 

Press release 305 dated December 29 

In accordance with the terms of the con- 
vention of June 25, 1956, between the 
United States and Honduras for the avoid- 
ance of double taxation and the prevention 
of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on 
income, 1 the Government of Honduras gave 
notice to the United States Government for 
the termination of the convention so that 
the convention would cease to be effective 
for taxable years beginning on or after 
January 1, 1966. 

The Government of Honduras has given 
formal notice to the United States Govern- 
ment of its desire to withdraw the notice 
of termination and to allow the convention 
to continue in force through the year 1966. 

The convention of 1956 will, therefore, 
remain in full force and effect during 1966. 



U.S. and Netherlands Sign 
Supplementary Tax Convention 

Press release 306 dated December 30 

Secretary of State Dean Rusk and the 
Netherlands Ambassador, His Excellency 
Carl W. A. Schurmann, on December 30 
signed a supplementary convention modify- 
ing and supplementing the convention of 
April 29, 1948, between the United States 
and the Netherlands, 2 for the avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on 
income and certain other taxes. 

The primary purposes of the supplemen- 
tary convention are to make it possible for 
the Netherlands Government to impose 
withholding tax on dividends derived from 
Netherlands sources by United States citi- 
zens, residents, and corporations; to mod- 
ernize the existing convention by bringing 



1 Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
3766. 

a Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1855, 3366, 3367, and 5665. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



91 



it more closely into line with more recent 
income tax conventions concluded by the 
United States; and to reflect certain prin- 
ciples expressed in the model income tax 
convention proposed by the Organization 
for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment. 

Article 1 amends the definitions of 
"United States" and "permanent establish- 
ment." Article 2 amends the provisions 
dealing with taxation of industrial and com- 
mercial profits derived in one of the coun- 
tries by an enterprise of the other country. 
Article 3 modifies the rule authorizing allo- 
cation of income among related enterprises. 
Article 4 modifies the provisions regarding 
income derived from real property so as to 
exclude from their application interest from 
mortgages secured by real property and to 
provide that mineral royalties may be taxed 
in the country where the mine, quarry, or 
natural resource giving rise to the royalty 
is located. 

Article 5 revises the provisions dealing 
with the taxation of dividends, including a 
provision whereby the Netherlands may im- 
pose withholding tax on dividends paid by 
a Netherlands corporation to a United 
States resident or corporation at rates cor- 
responding to those presently provided for 
in the convention with respect to dividends 
paid by United States corporations to Neth- 
erlands residents or corporations. The 
"force of attraction" rule with respect to 
dividends is abandoned; dividends received 
by a company of one of the countries from 
sources within the other country which are 
not "effectively connected" with a perma- 
nent establishment in the country from 
which the dividends originate will qualify 
for the reduced treaty rate. 

Article 6 amends the provisions regarding 
interest by providing for a reciprocal ex- 
emption of interest. Article 7 revises the 
provisions dealing with royalties by expand- 
ing the definition of what constitutes royal- 
ties for purposes of the article. Article 8 
provides for reciprocal tax exemption, ex- 
cept in limited instances, for capital gains 
other than those arising from the sale of 
real property. The "force of attraction" rule 



is abandoned also in the cases of articles 
6, 7, and 8. Article 8A modifies the "govern- 
mental salaries" provisions by limiting the 
exemption for compensation and pensions 
paid by one of the countries or its political 
subdivisions to an individual in the other 
country so as to apply only to compensation 
and pensions paid to a citizen of the paying 
country for services rendered to that coun- 
try or political subdivision in the discharge 
of governmental functions. Article 9 makes 
certain drafting changes in the provision 
dealing with personal services and expands 
the class of persons for whom the employee 
may work and be able to take advantage of 
the exemption provided. Article 10 expands 
the scope of the provisions relating to ex- 
emptions for professors or teachers. 

Article 11 expands the scope of the provi- 
sions relating to students and business ap- 
prentices. Article 12 revises the provisions 
dealing with the relief afforded by each of 
the countries against double taxation. Ar- 
ticle 13 amends the provisions under which 
a taxpayer can initiate consideration of his 
case if a problem of double taxation is in- 
volved. Article 14 broadens the nondiscrim- 
ination provision by making it applicable to 
a permanent establishment which a citizen 
or corporation of one of the countries has 
in the other country as well as to corpora- 
tions the capital of which is wholly or 
partly owned by citizens or corporations of 
the other country. Article 15 provides that 
the supplementary convention shall apply 
only to that part of the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands situated in Europe. 

Article 16 provides for ratification and 
for entry into force of the supplementary 
convention on the exchange of instruments 
of ratification, to be effective, with certain 
exceptions, for taxable years beginning on 
or after January 1 of the year following 
that in which the exchange takes place. 
Special provisions are included regarding 
the effectiveness of the revised provisions 
on dividend taxation as set forth in article 
5 of the supplementary convention. 

The supplementary convention will be 
transmitted to the Senate for advice and 
consent to ratification. 



92 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



U.S. Urges Better U.N. Machinery 
for Peaceful Settlement 

Statement by Arthur J. Goldberg 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

The item before us, the comprehensive 
review of the whole question of peacekeep- 
ing, is surely one of the key items before 
this General Assembly. 

Peacekeeping is at the heart of this or- 
ganization's work. For if the United Na- 
tions failed to fulfill its responsibilities 
under the charter for the maintenance of 
peace and security, there would be little 
hope for the other noble aims of the 
charter. Prospects for peace in the world 
and a better life for men everywhere would 
be immeasurably darkened. 

It might be well at this point to define 
exactly what the term "United Nations 
peacekeeping" means. 

The Secretary-General has provided us 
with a useful definition. Peacekeeping 
forces, he told the Harvard alumni in 1963, 
"are of a very different kind and have little 
in common with the forces foreseen in 
Chapter VII, but their existence is not in 
conflict with Chapter VII. They are essen- 
tially peace and not fighting forces and they 
operate only with the consent of the parties 
directly concerned." 

The United Nations has a long history of 
establishing such peacekeeping forces — in 
Greece, in 1947; in Kashmir, in 1948; along 
the borders of Israel, in 1949; in the Gaza 
Strip, in 1956; in Lebanon, in 1958; in the 
Congo, in 1960; in West Irian, in 1962; in 
Yemen, in 1963; in Cyprus, in 1964; and in 
India and Pakistan in 1965. 



The report of the Secretary-General and 
the President of the General Assembly to 
the Committee of 33, 2 and the discussion in 
that Committee, have helped to define the 
nature of these peacekeeping operations. 
Unlike enforcement actions, they are volun- 
tary in two fundamental respects : 

— They do not place obligations on mem- 
ber states to contribute personnel, materials, 
or services. 

— They are introduced into the territory 
of a country only with the consent of that 
country. 

Such operations have taken various forms 
— observers on a frontier; supervision of a 
cease-fire line; factfinding and observation 
to clarify a factual situation or to investi- 
gate charges of interference and infiltration 
from the outside; and assistance to a coun- 
try to maintain or restore law and order 
where requested by that country and in con- 
ditions in which international peace and se- 
curity might otherwise be threatened. 

It is remarkable — and heartening to my 
Government — that U.N. peacekeeping opera- 
tions of all these kinds have gone forward 
even in the face of deep differences over 
issues of principle. This is a tribute to the 
diplomatic and executive talents of the Sec- 
retary-General and to the generosity and 
dedication of participating countries. Above 
all, it is a tribute to the underlying good 
sense of the overwhelming majority of mem- 
ber states, which have insisted that the 
U.N. carry out its responsibilities though 
none of us may have been fully satisfied 
with all the arrangements for initiating, su- 
pervising, and financing a particular opera- 
tion. 

Mr. Chairman, this success, this partial 
success, is instructive for our deliberations 



1 Made in the Special Political Committee on Nov. 
24 (U.S. delegation press release 4719). 



■ U.N. doc. A/AC.121/4. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



93 



on the peacekeeping issue. We must avoid 
the fallacy of assuming that total agreement 
on all issues of principle is a precondition of 
cooperating in U.N. activities. Here, as 
elsewhere, the pragmatic adaptation of ar- 
rangements on a case-by-case basis may 
offer the best hope of progress. 

In any event, we must not allow our 
search for new and improved ground rules 
to impair the procedures and arrangements 
that we already have. 

Nor should we permit the considerable 
progress already made in developing peace- 
keeping procedures to be frustrated by a 
small minority. As we said to the Committee 
of 33 on August 16 : 3 

My Government ... is not prepared, to accept 
a situation in which the capacity of the United 
Nations to act for peace could be stopped by the 
negative vote of a single member. Nor should the 
effectiveness of this organization be determined by 
the level of support forthcoming from its least co- 
operative members. 

The Principal Ground Rules 

What are the ground rules for authorizing, 
supervising, and financing peacekeeping op- 
erations which have developed in the past — 
and which can guide us in the future? 

From the statements of delegations in 
this and recent General Assemblies, from 
the deliberations in the Special Committee 
on Peacekeeping Operations, from the re- 
port jointly submitted to that Committee by 
the Secretary-General and the President of 
the 19th General Assembly, and from the 
comments of governments on that report, 
there appears to be widespread support for 
the following major principles: 

First, the Security Council has the pri- 
mary responsibility for initiating and super- 
vising peacekeeping operations — and every- 
thing should be done to enable it to exer- 
cise that responsibility. 

Certainly there is widespread agreement 
— in which my Government strongly con- 
curs — that the maximum possible use should 
be made of the Security Council. 



Recent experience — in the Congo, in 
Cyprus, in Kashmir — has demonstrated that 
the Council can meet its responsibilities for 
dealing with threats to international peace 
and security. The enlargement of the Coun- 
cil to make it more representative of the 
membership as a whole should encourage the 
further strengthening of its peacekeeping 
work. 

The United States continues to favor the 
suggestion we submitted in September 1964 
to the Working Group of 21 that all proposals 
to initiate peacekeeping operations should be 
considered first in the Security Council. 4 
The Assembly would not authorize or as- 
sume control of such operations unless the 
Council had demonstrated its inability to 
act. 

Second, the General Assembly has au- 
thority to initiate and supervise peacekeep- 
ing operations where the Security Council is 
unable to act. 

Everyone apparently agrees that the Gen- 
eral Assembly can make recommendations to 
the Security Council with respect to peace- 
keeping in the event the Council is unable to 
act. But the real question is whether, in the 
face of veto by a permanent member, the 
Assembly can authorize the establishment 
of such operations. 

From the comments made by member 
states in recent months, it appears that the 
overwhelming majority of U.N. members an- 
swer this question in the affirmative. Only 
a small minority of members continue to in- 
sist that the negative vote of one permanent 
member can prevent 116 other members of 
the organization from initiating voluntary 
action to protect their common interests in 
the maintenance of peace. 

I will not repeat here all the arguments — 
fully confirmed by the International Court of 
Justice — in support of the complementary 
powers of the Assembly pursuant to various 
articles of the charter. I wish only to em- 
phasize, as so many others have already 
done, that the acceptance of the minority 



3 Bulletin of Sept. 13, 1965, p. 454. 



94 



' For texts of a U.S. statement and working paper 
of Sept. 14, 1964, see ibid., Oct. 5, 1964, p. 486. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



view on this subject would be absurd in 
theory and intolerable in practice. 

All of our countries, in accepting member- 
ship in the U.N., agreed to refrain from the 
use of force save in self-defense, in support 
of U.N. action, and pursuant to chapter VIII 
of the charter. These charter restraints 
were undertaken on the assumption that the 
United Nations could act successfully when 
peace and security — and hence our common 
interests — were seriously threatened. It 
would be unreasonable to expect members to 
entrust peacekeeping responsibility to a U.N. 
which could be rendered impotent by the in- 
transigence of a single member. Such an in- 
terpretation would do violence to the charter 
and would disappoint the legitimate hopes 
in this organization of the peoples of the 
world. 

The United States, though itself a perma- 
nent member of the Security Council, has 
never considered that any one member 
should have the power unilaterally, and with- 
out recourse, to frustrate the initiation of 
peacekeeping operations not involving en- 
forcement action. Some have argued that, on 
a narrow calculation of our interests and 
having regard to the fact that we have but 
one vote of 117 while paying 32 percent of 
the regular budget, we should be disposed to 
i do so. 

Nevertheless, we have defended the au- 
thority of the Assembly to undertake peace- 
keeping operations free from veto by our- 
selves or others because we recognize the 
long-term interest of all mankind in develop- 
ing this means of containing violence in the 
nuclear age. We have not considered that 
our interests require us to have a veto over 
recommendations to members that they con- 
tribute to U.N. operations taking place on 
the territory of a state with its consent. We 
appeal to others to take the same long view 
of their own interests. 

Third, the General Assembly has the ex- 
clusive authority under the charter to ap- 
portion the expenses of peacekeeping opera- 
tions among the members of the United 
Nations. 

This principle, like those I have mentioned 



earlier, is supported by a large majority of 
United Nations members. It is fully con- 
firmed by the language of article 17, by 20 
years of practice in the United Nations, and 
by the advisory opinion of the International 
Court of Justice accepted by the General As- 
sembly. 5 With respect to financing as well 
as authorization, the powers of the Assembly 
should be preserved. No member should 
have the right to veto a financial plan ac- 
cepted by everyone else. 

Fourth, the expenses of U.N. peacekeep- 
ing operations should be, so far as possible, 
the collective financial responsibility of the 
entire membership. 

This principle, asserted without any quali- 
fication in General Assembly Resolution 1874 
(S-IV), 6 has been supported by the United 
States and a majority of other members for 
very practical reasons : 

— It offers the best way of sharing the fi- 
nancial burden fairly among the member- 
ship. 

— It recognizes that every member has an 
interest in the preservation of peace and 
should therefore pay something — no matter 
how little — toward its preservation. 

— It takes account of the fact that mem- 
ber states will be more likely to contribute 
military contingents for an operation when 
it has broad political support as reflected in 
widely shared financial participation. 

Many, to be sure, have expressed op- 
timism that voluntary financing of peace- 
keeping can do the job. The voluntary 
method of financing certainly offers one 
possibility to be considered on a case-by- 
case basis. But experience indicates that it 
often places unfair burdens on troop-supply- 
ing countries and may even fail to produce 
sufficient funds to assure the continuance of 
the operation. 

At this very moment the Secretary-Gen- 
eral is short some §7 million for the United 
Nations operation in Cyprus. Those who be- 
lieve voluntary financing is the answer have 



5 For background, see ibid., July 2, 1962, p. 30, 
and Aug. 13, 1962, p. 246. 

" For text, see ibid., July 29, 1963, p. 182. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



95 



an obligation to demonstrate that it can work 
in specific situations. As Ambassador Ste- 
venson once said, it would be irresponsible 
for the members to sit back while the Secre- 
tary-General has to search for funds like a 
beggar on the street. 

Fifth, the cost of peacekeeping operations 
should be shared fairly among the members 
in accordance with their capacity to pay and 
with due regard for the international char- 
acter of these operations. 

General Assembly Resolution 1874 (S-IV) 
included two propositions on which there is 
broad support — that economically developed 
countries are in a position to make relatively 
larger contributions than countries that are 
economically less developed, and that the 
special responsibilities of the permanent 
members of the Security Council should be 
borne in mind in connection with their con- 
tributions to financing. There is widespread 
support for the concept of a special scale of 
assessment for peacekeeping operations 
which could give effect to these proposi- 
tions. 

The United States has already expressed 
support for a special scale. We reaffirm that 
support today. 

Sixth, General Assembly procedures for 
authorizing, supervising, and financing 
peacekeeping operations should provide an 
appropriate voice for those members which 
bear the principal responsibility for sup- 
porting them. 

With this in mind, we included in our sub- 
mission to the Committee of 21, in Septem- 
ber 1964, a proposal for a Special Finance 
Committee of the General Assembly. This 
committee would include the permanent 
members of the Security Council and a rela- 
tively high percentage of those member 
states in each geographic area that are large 
contributors. The General Assembly, in ap- 
proving financial arrangements for peace- 
keeping operations, would act only on rec- 
ommendations from this committee passed 
by a two-thirds majority of the commit- 
tee's membership. 

The United States is not irrevocably 
wedded to this particular proposal. We 



note that other proposals addressed to this 
same problem have been put forward by the 
delegations of Nigeria and France. Here, as 
in the case of other principles I have men- 
tioned, we are prepared to consider any 
reasonable procedure for implementing the 
overall objective. 

Seventh, the Secretary-General is the 
most appropriate executive agent for man- 
aging peacekeeping operations and should 
be given every support within the scope of 
his mandate. 

As the chief executive officer of the 
United Nations, the Secretary-General has 
the right and the duty to implement the di- 
rectives of the Security Council, the General 
Assembly, and other organs. At various 
times in the past two decades he has car- 
ried out this responsibility under broad 
mandates in United Nations peacekeeping 
operations in the Middle East, the Congo, 
Cyprus, and Kashmir. We are of the firm 
conviction that he should continue to exer- 
cise this responsibility in the best interest of 
effective United Nations peacekeeping. 

These, then, are the general principles 
which we believe should guide this organiza- 
tion in dealing with the peacekeeping prob- 
lem. These principles are broadly com- 
patible with the guidelines set forth in 
paragraph 52 of the report submitted by the 
Secretary-General and the President of the 
General Assembly to the Special Committee 
on Peacekeeping Operations — guidelines 
which have had the widespread support of 
the members of the United Nations. 

The tide of historical evolution of this or- 
ganization which is reflected in these prin- 
ciples cannot be reversed by a few recalci- 
trant members. The peacekeeping work of 
the United Nations must continue, and it will 
continue. 

The Irish Proposal 

I turn now to the concrete proposal put 
forward initially by the Government of 
Ireland. 7 

First, I should like to express our ap- 



' U.N. doc. A/SPC/L.117 and Add. 1 and 2. 



96 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



preciation to the Irish Government and, in 
particular, to Foreign Minister [Frank] 
Aiken, for taking the initiative in this vital 
area. Theirs is a concrete proposal, carefully 
worked out. It is designed to preserve and 
strengthen the capacity of the United Na- 
tions to undertake peacekeeping operations. 
It makes a sincere effort to do this while 
accommodating the legitimate interests of all 
members. 

This proposal is a challenge to every 
member of this Assembly to rethink its 
position on peacekeeping operations in pre- 
cise detail. How we respond to this chal- 
lenge — what we say in this debate on peace- 
keeping — what we do at the end of it all — 
will profoundly affect the future capacity of 
our organization to perform its principal re- 
sponsibility under the charter. 

As for the United States, we have a 
number of reservations about the proposal. 
We expect that other delegations may have 
reservations as well. It would be surprising 
if this were not the case, since at this point 
in the history of the United Nations no 
proposal would be fully consistent with the 
viewpoints of every member. 

Turning to specifics, we note with satis- 
faction that some of the principles I have 
outlined are reflected in the proposal put 
before us by the delegations of Ceylon, 
Ghana, Ireland, the Ivory Coast, Liberia, 
and Nepal. 

The proposal recognizes the special re- 
sponsibility of the Security Council to ini- 
tiate and supervise peacekeeping operations. 
It affirms the authority of the General 
Assembly to initiate and supervise such 
operations where the Council is unable to 
act. It maintains the right of the General 
Assembly to assess the membership for the 
expenses of peacekeeping operations. 

It also calls for collective fiscal respon- 
sibility, subject to a right of opting out to 
be accorded by the General Assembly to the 
five permanent members of the Security 
Council, which right is coupled with certain 
increased financial responsibilities by the 
permanent members. 

We believe that full collective fiscal re- 



sponsibility is the first choice. But we have 
also to recognize that it cannot be achieved 
in practice until there is a change in the 
attitudes of certain permanent members. 

For these reasons, we are prepared to 
accept such an opting-out arrangement for 
permanent members as an interim measure 
if that is the wish of the majority of the 
Assembly. If we cannot have full collective 
responsibility, let us achieve as much shared 
responsibility as we can. We certainly do 
not believe that, simply because some per- 
manent members are not prepared to be 
assessed against their will for peacekeeping 
operations, no member should be assessed 
at all. 

As we stated before the Special Peace- 
keeping Committee on August 16: 

We look forward ... to the not too distant day 
when the entire membership will resume its full 
range of collective responsibility for maintaining 
world peace. In the meantime, it is all the more 
important for the membership, though unready to 
apply article 19, to solve the United Nations finan- 
cial problems and to continue to support in practice 
the sound principle of collective financial respon- 
sibility, and to adopt practical and equitable means 
by which those willing to share the responsibility 
for peace can act in concert to maintain and 
strengthen the indispensable peacekeeping capacity 
of the United Nations. 

The proposal also embodies the concept of 
a special scale of assessment. I must make 
certain observations, however, on the way 
it seeks to implement that concept. 

The resolution seeks to apply a fixed scale 
to all operations regardless of their size and 
regardless of the special circumstances that 
may be involved. We believe, in accordance 
with the practice of the United Nations, 
that the regular scale of assessment is ap- 
propriate for relatively small peacekeeping 
operations and for a small portion of larger 
operations. 

The United States also has reservations 
about a proposal that one country might 
have to pay as much as 50 percent of the 
cost of any operation for which it cast an 
affirmative vote. Under existing legislation, 
the United States delegation is not author- 
ized to vote for an assessment in which the 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



97 



United States share is more than 33% per- 
cent. 

The proposal now before us would also 
lay down new procedures for the initiation 
of peacekeeping operations by the General 
Assembly. My delegation reserves the right 
to return to a discussion of the proposal 
after other delegations have had an oppor- 
tunity to be heard. 

At this point I shall simply express our 
reservations on that procedural change 
which would have the effect of counting 
abstentions as a negative vote. Such a 
change could result in the failure of a peace- 
keeping operation favored by a very sub- 
stantial majority of members — by a vote, 
for example, of 77 in favor, 10 against, and 
30 abstentions. 

Need for Advance Planning 

These remarks have concentrated on the 
vital issues of initiating, supervising, and 
financing of peacekeeping operations. But 
our review of peacekeeping operations 
would not be comprehensive if we stopped 
here. 

Recent experience has revealed a number 
of shortcomings in United Nations peace- 
keeping operations. Some of these short- 
comings are inherent in any international 
peacekeeping system. But others may be 
remediable by better advance planning. We 
need to consider additional steps which can 
be taken now to enable the United Nations 
to carry out future peacekeeping missions 
with greater speed and effectiveness. 

The Secretary-General has urged United 
Nations members to earmark military units 
which they might make available on request 
to the United Nations. Such earmarking 
has already been undertaken by Canada, 
Denmark, Finland, Iran, Italy, the Nether- 
lands, Norway, Sweden, and New Zealand. 

Earmarking has very practical advantages. 
It signifies a serious intention by nations to 
participate under certain circumstances; 
units or resources are identified; they pre- 
pare and train in terms of probable United 
Nations needs. The availability of units is, 



of course, subject to a national decision to 
participate in each particular case. But 
there is more than a psychological advan- 
tage to the United Nations in having identi- 
fied, trained, and committed units available 
for United Nations service. 

This flexible United Nations callup sys- 
tem could be strengthened in a number of 
different ways: 

Within the Secretariat itself, there should 
be contingency planning on how to meet 
possible future peacekeeping emergencies. 
Based on such planning, the United Nations 
could identify the personnel, equipment, and 
services which peacekeeping operations 
might require. It could also solicit the ear- 
marking of the necessary personnel, equip- 
ment, and services from various member 
states — encouraging contributions from 
countries in all geographic areas. 

The units thus earmarked could be trained 
in the specialized skills and unique problems 
involved in United Nations peacekeeping op- 
erations. The United Nations could prepare 
training manuals and encourage standard- 
ized equipment and military procedures. 

Some countries may be unable to assume 
the full burdens of training and equipping 
units for United Nations service. A program 
might be organized to train officers and 
those types of specialized personnel — for 
example, communications specialists — 
whose scarcity has hampered previous 
peacekeeping operations. Aid to earmarking 
countries could be made available through 
the United Nations or through members. 

Of course, Mr. Chairman, the crucial in- 
gredient in the United Nations' capacity to 
keep the peace does not lie in particular 
arrangements. The crucial ingredient is po- 
litical and moral. It is our determination to 
rely on the United Nations, to use the 
United Nations, to have confidence in the 
United Nations' operating capacity. The 
stakes are so high that we should be willing 
to take chances on the United Nations' 
capacity to act and to back it up even when 
some of its particular decisions go against 
our immediate national desires. For the risks 
of a United Nations without the capacity 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to act are far greater than the risks of a 
United Nations with that capacity. 

Let us put our faith in this organization's 
ability to take on increasingly difficult 
peacekeeping tasks around the globe. It will 
make mistakes. It will annoy all of us some 
time and some of us all the time. Despite 
these frustrations, we should be willing to 
risk reliance on United Nations peacekeep- 
ing, because the alternative — of immobiliz- 
ing the United Nations in one of its key 
areas of activity — is too great a risk for us 
to take. It conjures up the specter of un- 
contained disorder and violence which could 
escalate into a world holocaust. 

For this reason we share the view already 
expressed by other delegations that this 
Assembly should seek to crystallize the 
broad measure of agreement that already 
exists on the initiating, supervising, and 
financing of peacekeeping operations. We 
cannot permit the interests of the coopera- 
tive many in a workable system of peace- 
keeping to be frustrated by the demands of 
a reluctant few. 

This committee bears a special responsi- 
bility at this critical period in the life of 
our organization to preserve and strengthen 
the capacity of the United Nations to dis- 
charge its principal responsibility contained 
in the charter. As Ambassador Adlai Ste- 
venson put it less than 1 year ago in his 
address to the General Assembly: 

". . . I, for one, cannot escape the deep 
sense that the peoples of the world are look- 
ing over our shoulder — waiting to see 
whether we can overcome our present prob- 
lem and take up with fresh vigor and re- 
newed resolution the great unfinished busi- 
ness of peace. . . ." 8 



8 In plenary session on Dec. 15 the General As- 
sembly adopted two resolutions (combined in 
A/RES/2053 (XX)) on the peacekeeping item: The 
first requested the Special Committee on Peace- 
keeping Operations to continue its work and report 
to the next session of the Assembly, and called upon 
all member states "to make voluntary contributions 
so that the future may be faced with renewed hope 
and confidence"; the second took note of the Irish 
proposal and invited the Special Committee to "give 
it its careful consideration." 



Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 
Strongly Recommended by U.S. 

Folloiving are statements made in Com- 
mittee I (Political and Security) of the U.N. 
General Assembly by U.S. Representative 
William C. Foster. 



STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 25 

U.S. delegation press release 4722 

A comprehensive test ban is among the 
most important and, logically, should be 
among the more feasible of the related col- 
lateral measures to which so much attention 
was given in our earlier discussion of non- 
proliferation. 1 A ban on the underground 
testing of nuclear weapons, following the 
limited test ban treaty of 1963 banning nu- 
clear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in 
outer space, and under water, would fulfill 
an almost universal desire to ban all nu- 
clear testing, in all environments and for 
all time. In halting all testing of nuclear 
weapons, the nuclear powers would be 
taking a significant step paving the way to 
other measures for halting and turning back 
the nuclear arms race. Nuclear and non- 
nuclear states alike, in subscribing to a com- 
prehensive test ban, would be making an 
immensely valuable contribution to the ef- 
forts to prevent the spread of nuclear 
weapons. We are also not unmindful of the 
salutary effects a comprehensive test ban 
could have in contributing to further easing 
of international tension and to the better- 
ment of relations among governments. 

In view of these general considerations, it 
is not surprising that the delay in achieving 
a comprehensive test ban agreement has 
given rise to a sense of frustration and 
even of irritation in many quarters. But it 
is not enough to will an agreement. We can- 
not simply overlook the technical obstacles. 

There is certainly no other subject in the 
history of disarmament during the past dec- 
ade that has received more study and at- 



1 Bulletin of Nov. 29, 1965, p. 873. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



99 



tention than this problem of a ban on the 
testing of nuclear weapons. My Government 
has played a key role in these developments 
and discussions, beginning with President 
Eisenhower's initiative of January 1958, 2 
which resulted later that year in Soviet 
agreement to a technical conference on the 
question of cessation of nuclear testing. 
Throughout that conference on the discon- 
tinuance of testing, throughout the negotia- 
tion of the limited test ban, and to this day, 
my Government has given exhaustive study 
to this problem. It is because we attach 
great value to a comprehensive test ban that 
we have continued to devote sizable re- 
sources to seismic research in order to im- 
prove our capability of detecting and iden- 
tifying underground nuclear tests. Those of 
you who were among the representatives of 
U.N. member states invited last month to the 
inauguration of our large-aperture seismic 
array in Montana were able to see and to 
judge for yourselves one direction our re- 
search activity is taking. 

With the committee's permission, I might 
briefly outline in more detail some of the 
aspects of the question of detection of un- 
derground tests — its promise and its limi- 
tations. 

I shall avoid going into too much technical 
detail at this time. For those delegations 
interested in a fuller description of the 
technical aspects, I might refer them to my 
statement to the 18-Nation Committee on 
Disarmament on September 2, 1965, con- 
tained in document ENDC/PV 229. However, 
it will perhaps help make my subsequent 
remarks clearer if I make one or two gen- 
eral observations at the outset. 

What we are detecting by seismic means 
are simply earth tremors. It is by a complex 
process of interpretation of the data from 
seismometers recording these earth tremors 
that we seek to determine whether the 
tremor resulted from natural causes — that 
is, an earthquake — and therefore could not 



be a manmade explosion. There is consider- 
able variation in the geographic distribution 
of earthquakes, but some of the areas with 
the greatest number of earthquakes are lo- 
cated in a belt surrounding the Pacific 
Ocean, and another belt extends from the 
Kamchatka Peninsula to the Black Sea. 
Moreover, there is considerable variation 
from year to year in the number and size of 
earthquakes. This compounds the problem of 
singling out and positively identifying nu- 
clear explosions from among those earth 
tremors that we can detect. Furthermore, 
some earthquakes produce seismic signals 
which cannot be distinguished from those 
produced by nuclear explosions. The 
strength of the seismic signal generated by 
a nuclear explosion also varies with the na- 
ture of the soil in which the underground 
nuclear explosion is contained. These are 
some of the factors that complicate efforts 
at detection and identification of under- 
ground nuclear tests. 

Since the Geneva Conference of Experts 
in 1958, 3 the United States has been con- 
ducting a broad program of research in 
seismology, the primary objective of which 
has been to develop improved techniques for 
detecting seismic events, for locating them, 
and for identifying whether they are of 
natural origin. Our research program has 
led to substantial increases in our knowledge 
of these matters which are basic to the prob- 
lem of verifying a comprehensive nuclear 
test ban. 

We have found that the use of large ar- 
rays of seismometers will improve our 
capability to separate out the background 
"noise" caused by continuous vibrations of 
the earth from the true signal emitted by a 
seismic event. Such an array comprises some 
525 seismometers distributed in a certain 
pattern over a large area. This is the kind 
of array which is now in operation in Mon- 
tana. 

As I have said, seismic background noise 
tends to mask the signal emitted by a seis- 



2 For text of a letter of Jan. 12, 1958, from Pres- 
ident Eisenhower to Soviet Premier Nikolai Bul- 
ganin, see ibid., Jan. 27, 1958, p. 122. 



' For background and text of report, see ibid., 
Sept. 22, 1958, p. 452. 



100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



mic event and, in the past, has prevented 
us from detecting the smaller seismic events. 
If a system of 10 to 12 such large arrays 
were established on a worldwide basis, then 
it would be possible to detect events which 
produce signals equivalent to nuclear deto- 
nations in the range of hundreds of tons. 

Yet after an event has been detected, it is 
necessary that we attempt to identify its 
cause. Identification requires the recording 
of a larger seismic signal than is needed for 
detection purposes alone. By reducing the 
background noise and thus making the seis- 
mic signal clearer and more distinct, large 
arrays will aid in identifying seismic events. 
But unfortunately the recordings of some 
earthquakes are like those of manmade ex- 
plosions. No technique is known at present 
which will permit the identification of ex- 
plosions as such by seismic systems at re- 
mote locations, that is, at distances which 
might be involved with strictly national 
systems. However, a variety of techniques 
have been developed which allow us to iden- 
tify those earthquakes which have character- 
istics most distinguishable from those of ex- 
plosions. It appears to us that by using 
these techniques, it will be possible to iden- 
tify about 80 percent of the natural earth- 
quakes which produce seismic signals that 
correspond to yields above a few kilotons. 

In the case of the Soviet Union, for ex- 
ample, the remaining 20 percent of the nat- 
ural events which could not be distinguished 
from possible explosions would amount to 
an average of about 45 events each year. 
While some of these might be further 
identified using ocean-bottom seismometers, 
which would more accurately reveal the lo- 
cation and characteristics of the event, even 
with the use of these sophisticated tech- 
niques there would remain a substantial 
number of unidentified events in any year. 

We know of no way to identify these re- 
maining events short of some inspection at 
the site of the event. If the scientists of the 
Soviet Union, or of any other country, could 
demonstrate to us any satisfactory tech- 
niques for identifying these events without 
on-site inspection, they would be making a 



great contribution to our objective. 

I have dwelt on these points in order to 
demonstrate why it is not possible to dis- 
pense with some on-site inspections. How- 
ever, as I indicated at Geneva and reiter- 
ated earlier in this committee, we are pre- 
pared to take current scientific capabilities 
fully into account in discussing the numbers 
and modalities of on-site inspections for veri- 
fication of a comprehensive test ban. We 
warmly welcome the suggestion of eight of 
the ENDC members in their joint mem- 
orandum 4 that the nuclear powers exchange 
scientific and other information to facilitate 
agreement on a comprehensive test ban. 
The distinguished representative of the 
United Kingdom stated the case for such 
talks convincingly when he spoke on No- 
vember 24. If there is disagreement on the 
technical potentials of seismic detection and 
identification methods between the Soviet 
Union and the United States, and there ap- 
pears to be, then let our scientists sit down 
together and discuss the problem objective- 
ly. We regret that the Soviet Union has 
shown no interest whatsoever in doing so. 

The Soviet Union has argued that we must 
follow the principle of the limited test ban 
treaty, which contains no explicit provision 
for international control. We suggest, on the 
contrary, that the limited test ban indeed 
has vindicated the position that international 
obligations in the arms control and disarma- 
ment field should be accompanied by ap- 
propriate measures of verification. The na- 
ture of the measures will depend on what is 
to be controlled. Such measures may be na- 
tional or international, but the point is that 
verification is clearly necessary. 

The limited test ban applied to those en- 
vironments where means of verification could 
be developed adequately on a national basis. 
This is unfortunately not so in the case of 
underground testing, where some other form 
of verification must be devised. It need not 
be unacceptably intrusive. And, contrary to 



* A memorandum submitted by Brazil, Burma, 
Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Sweden, and the 
U.A.R. is annexed to U.N. doc. A/5986. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



101 



continued Soviet allegations, it would not 
have any purpose for espionage, notwith- 
standing the seemingly chronic sensitivity 
of the Soviet Union on this point. 

What is involved is permitting a small 
inspection team to go to a given site and to 
determine whether an unidentifiable event 
was due to a nuclear explosion or to natural 
causes, that is, an earthquake. The Soviet 
Union, which a few years ago was prepared 
to agree to a certain number of on-site in- 
spections, has since refused to agree to any 
inspections at all, claiming that national 
control measures alone were adequate. 

Yet some on-site inspections are essential 
if parties to a comprehensive test ban are 
to have adequate assurance that all parties 
are also fully complying with it. It would 
seem to be in the interest of all parties to 
insure that a comprehensive test ban is a 
lasting and viable agreement. Any agree- 
ment that could not allay — and might even 
stimulate — distrust and suspicion would be 
a tenuous and potentially short-lived agree- 
ment. 

Mr. Chairman, we believe these difficul- 
ties are surmountable and that an effective 
comprehensive test ban agreement can be 
achieved. It is always tempting to look for 
shortcuts. One such shortcut is the sug- 
gestion for an unverified moratorium on un- 
derground tests. We have already had one 
understanding regarding the suspension of 
underground testing, and the Soviet Union 
started testing again in spite of official 
statements that they would not be the first 
to do so. We are not inclined to repeat 
that unfortunate experience. 

Moreover, a moratorium might diminish 
pressure for the stable and permanent com- 
prehensive test ban we all seek. The break- 
ing of a moratorium would hardly create 
conditions conducive to subsequent negotia- 
tion of a comprehensive test ban. For these 
reasons a moratorium on underground test- 
ing is unacceptable to the United States. 

Where, then, does the path to agreement 
lie? In our view it lies in demonstration of 
flexibility on both sides — the U.S. and the 
Soviet Union. My Government, as I have 



stressed, has expressed its willingness to 
exercise flexibility regarding the position it 
took in the past and remains prepared to 
negotiate. We call on the Soviet Union to do 
likewise. 

Mr. Chairman, in a previous statement 
before this committee I noted that only last 
month President Johnson stated : 8 

The nuclear test ban treaty of 1963 represents 
real progress, and we are continuously trying to 
move forward to a comprehensive and lasting ban 
on the testing of nuclear weapons. 

My Government does not take lightly the 
commitment it subscribed to in the pre- 
amble to the limited treaty, wherein parties 
thereto vowed to seek to achieve the discon- 
tinuance of all test explosions of nuclear 
weapons for all time and expressed their 
determination to continue negotiations to 
that end. The United States delegation will 
return to Geneva with the strong determi- 
nation and hope that renewed negotiations 
will prove possible and will lead to early 
agreement on a verified, comprehensive test 
ban. 

STATEMENT OF NOVEMBER 26 

U.S. delegation press release 4723 

I shall be very brief in my remarks on 
the draft resolution before us. 6 As I stressed 
to the committee yesterday, my Government 
continues actively to seek agreement on a 
comprehensive test ban. We are, therefore, 
in complete accord with the overall aim of 
the draft resolution even though we would 
have preferred to see the language of cer- 
tain sections improved. If time were not at 
a premium, we would be tempted to suggest 
various changes in the text which is now 
before us. We have decided to refrain from 
doing so in order not to protract discussion 
and to permit this committee with its 
crowded agenda to move on promptly to the 
next agenda item. I shall, therefore, limit 
myself to a few comments in explanation 



6 In a message sent to the dedication of the large- 
aperture seismic array installation at Billings, 
Mont, on Oct. 12. 

"U.N. doc. A/C.l/L.345/Rev. 1. 



102 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of my country's vote. 

In the third preambular paragraph, it is 
noted with regret that nuclear weapon tests 
have continued to take place. We share the 
regret that it has not yet been possible to 
reach agreement on a verified comprehen- 
sive test ban that would halt all testing. 
But, in the absence of such agreement, the 
United States finds it necessary in the 
interests of its security to continue under- 
ground testing as permitted by the limited 
test ban treaty. The Soviet Union also is 
conducting such tests. 

We are pleased to note that in the final 
preambular paragraph, as well as in opera- 
tive paragraph 3, the draft resolution takes 
cognizance of the importance progress in 
seismic detection and identification tech- 
niques could have in facilitating agreement 
on a comprehensive test ban. We regard this 
as the key to reaching agreement on such a 
comprehensive treaty. 

As regards the first operative paragraph, 
let me say that we can accept the wording 
as it now appears as an expression of the 
almost universal desire which we strongly 
share to bring about a permanent cessation 
of all testing as soon as possible. We believe 
this can and must be accomplished by 
means of an adequately verified agreement. 
For the reasons that I gave yesterday, Mr. 
Chairman, an unverified moratorium would 
be wholly unacceptable to the United States. 
We strongly endorse the call on all countries 
to respect the spirit and provisions of the 
limited test ban treaty as stated in opera- 
tive paragraph 2. Universal compliance 
with this treaty would, in itself, mark a 
major advance toward disarmament and 
international stability. 

Finally, we welcome the call in the final 
operative paragraph for prompt renewal of 
negotiations on a comprehensive test ban. 
In returning to Geneva, it is in the spirit of 
that paragraph that we shall with determi- 
nation seek to achieve agreement on an ade- 
quately verified treaty. It is on this basis, 
Mr. Chairman, that the United States is 
pleased to be able to join in supporting this 
resolution. 7 



The Denuclearization of Africa 

Statement by William C. Foster 

U .S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

At the 18-Nation Disarmament Committee 
in Geneva, and during the last session of 
the Disarmament Commission, the United 
States welcomed the initiatives of the states 
of Latin America and Africa in undertaking 
studies with a view to achieving and main- 
taining a nuclear-free status for these re- 
gions. The objectives sought by these initia- 
tives are in harmony with our policy to stop 
the proliferation of nuclear weapons and 
therefore have our enthusiastic support. 
With regard to arrangements to be made to 
achieve the denuclearization of Africa we 
must, of course, reserve our position until 
we can examine the specific provisions 
which will appear in the convention yet to 
be developed in order to give legal effect to 
the declaration of the African heads of 
state or government. 

The fact that the initiative is being taken 
by the states concerned, however, fully 
satisfies one of the criteria which we believe 
should govern the establishment of nuclear- 
free zones. We shall examine the legal in- 
struments which are to be developed also in 
the light of our other criteria, namely, (a) 
that a denuclearized zone should preferably 
include all states in the area, especially any 
whose failure to participate might render 
the agreement ineffective or meaningless; 
(b) that no state or group of states should 



7 In a resolution adopted by Committee I on Nov. 
26 and in plenary session on Dec. 3 (A/RES/2032 
(xx) ), the Assembly urged that all nuclear weapon 
tests be suspended; called upon all countries to re- 
spect the spirit and provisions of the treaty on 
banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in 
outer space, and under water; and asked the 18- 
Nation Committee "to continue with a sense of 
urgency its work on a comprehensive test ban treaty 
and on arrangements to ban effectively all nuclear 
weapon tests in all environments, taking into ac- 
count the improved possibilities for international 
co-operation in the field of seismic detection . . . ." 

1 Made in Committee I (Political and Security) 
on Dec. 1, 1965 (U.S. delegation press release 4730). 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



103 



derive military advantage from the creation 
of the zone; and (c) that provision should 
be made for adequate verification, which 
would include procedures for following up 
on alleged violations in order to give rea- 
sonable assurance of compliance both to 
states included in the zone and to those 
outside the zone who have undertaken to 
respect it. In this connection, we strongly 
hope that the African states will find it 
possible to include in their convention pro- 
visions for the acceptance of IAEA [Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency] safeguards 
similar to those under consideration by the 
states of Latin America. 

With these general considerations in 
mind, I can say that the United States views 
with sympathy the draft resolution before 
us in document A/C.1/L.346 revised. We 
are in full agreement with most of its pro- 
visions and with the spirit of others, even 
though they contain some ambiguities and 
raise possible difficulties. Some of these 
difficulties may be resolved in time or by 
the convention which the African states 
have stated they intend to conclude. 

Turning now to certain provisions of the 
draft resolution, I wish to remind the com- 
mittee that the United States abstained in 
the vote on resolution 1652 (XVI), which 
is mentioned in the second preambular para- 
graph. We found part of that resolution 
premature and other provisions created 
possible difficulties because of their am- 
biguity. 

We understand the reference to "various 
other areas of the world" in the fourth pre- 
ambular paragraph to refer to those areas 
where, as in the case of Africa, the estab- 
lishment of a nuclear-free zone would not 
upset the military balance. As we have 
stated on other occasions, we believe that 
the goal mentioned in the fifth preambular 
paragraph can only be achieved with assur- 
ance and safety as the result of the imple- 
mentation of a program of general and com- 
plete disarmament under effective interna- 
tional control. 

We welcome the revised text of operative 



paragraph 1, which removes the main dif- 
ficulty we found in the draft originally 
proposed. 

Operative paragraphs 2 and 3 would have 
the Assembly endorse the declaration of the 
African heads of state or government and 
call upon all states to respect it. That 
declaration is in fact a statement of inten- 
tion. It states the readiness of the states 
concerned to undertake, through an inter- 
national agreement to be concluded under 
United Nations auspices, not to manufac- 
ture or control nuclear weapons. The United 
States is pleased to support that statement 
of intent as being fully consistent with our 
policy to prevent the spread of nuclear 
weapons. 

As for operative paragraph 4, we have on 
other occasions made clear why the United 
States cannot, outside the framework of 
general and complete disarmament, sub- 
scribe to declarations or pledges concerning 
the nonuse of nuclear weapons. I shall not 
take the time to reiterate our reasons. I 
stated them fully most recently in the Dis- 
armament Commission, on May 17 of this 
year. 2 I should like to stress, however, that 
it is the concept of pledges of nonuse which 
we find unsound, in general, and not its 
application to Africa. I am certain that our 
inability to support this concept on general 
grounds will in no way be misunderstood by 
the states concerned and that it will in no 
way hinder them in the development of a 
convention on the denuclearization of 
Africa. 

Although there seems to be some ambigu- 
ity in the drafting, and apart from the 
reference to "using" nuclear weapons, on 
which I have already commented, we find 
that operative paragraphs 5 and 6 appear 
to be generally consistent with basic United 
States policy as expressed in the United 
States draft of a treaty to prevent the 
spread of nuclear weapons. 3 We wholeheart- 
edly endorse operative paragraphs 7, 8, and 



2 Not printed here. 

3 For text, see Bulletin of Sept. 20, 1965, p. 474. 



104 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



9 and wish the African states Godspeed in 
their further efforts to achieve the denu- 
clearization of Africa. 

With this explanation of our position we 
shall be able to give our support to this 
draft resolution. Despite the problems 
raised by the provisions to which I have 
referred, we shall vote for this resolution 
in order to underscore our conviction that a 
soundly conceived and appropriately imple- 
mented nuclear-free zone in Africa would 
help to stop the spread of nuclear weapons, 
contribute to world peace and stability, and 
facilitate progress toward general and com- 
plete disarmament. 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Mimeographed or processed documents (such as 
those listed below) may be consulted at depository 
libraries in the United States. U.N. printed publi- 
cations may be purchased from the Sales Section 
of the United Nations, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 



Security Council 

Policy of various countries toward Southern Rho- 
desia: Japan, S/6990, December 3, 1965, 1 p.; 
Denmark, S/7005, December 14, 1965, 1 p.; Nor- 
way, S/7008, December 13, 1965, 1 p.; Sweden, 
S/7012, December 14, 1965, 3 pp. 

Report by the Secretary-General on his efforts to 
give effect to Security Council resolution 210 of 
September 6, 211 of September 20, and 215 of 
November 5 relating to the India-Pakistan dis- 
pute. S/6699/Add. 11. December 15, 1965. 3 pp. 

Letter dated December 14 from the permanent rep- 
resentative of India addressed to the President 
of the Security Council concerning the dispute 
with Pakistan. S/7014. December 15, 1965. 4 pp. 

Note verbale dated December 7 from the permanent 
mission of the Socialist Republic of Romania ad- 
dressed to the Secretary-General concerning the 
situation in Southern Rhodesia. S/7015. December 
15, 1965. 2 pp. 

Note verbale dated December 13 from the permanent 
mission of Italy addressed to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral concerning the situation in Southern Rho- 
desia. S/7016. December 15, 1965. 1 p. 



General Assembly 

Pattern of conferences. Report of the Secretary- 
General. A/5979. December 13, 1965. 51 pp. 

United Nations Emergency Force: revised cost 
estimates for the maintenance of the Force in 
1964, cost estimates for 1965, and revised cost 
estimates for 1966. A/6171. December 15, 1965. 
6 pp. 



Cooperation between the United Nations and the 
Organization of African Unity. Report of the 
Secretary-General. A/6174. December 16, 1965. 
9 pp. 
Letter dated December 14 from the permanent rep- 
resentative of the U.S.S.R. addressed to the Sec- 
retary-General concerning implementation of the 
declaration on the granting of independence to 
colonial countries and peoples. A/6179. December 
17, 1965. 2 pp. 
Permanent missions to the United Nations. A/6178. 

December 17, 1965. 3 pp. 
Credentials of representatives to the 19th and 20th 

sessions of the General Assembly. A/6208. 7 pp. 
Administrative budget estimates for the secretariat 
of the U.N. Development Program for the year 
1966. A/6213. December 20, 1965. 8 pp. 
Question of South West Africa. Letter dated De- 
cember 21 from the permanent representative of 
South Africa addressed to the President of the 
General Assembly. A/6219. December 21, 1965. 
3 pp. 
Reports of the First Committee (Political and Se- 
curity. 
Question of Cyprus. A/6166. December 16, 1965. 

14 pp. 
Actions on the regional level with a view to im- 
proving good neighborly relations among Eu- 
ropean states having different social and polit- 
ical systems. A/6207. December 18, 1965. 3 pp. 
International cooperation in the peaceful uses of 
outer space. A/6212. December 20, 1965. 5 pp. 
The inadmissibility of intervention in the domestic 
affairs of states and the protection of their 
independence and sovereignty. A/6220. Decem- 
ber 21, 1965. 10 pp. 
The Korean question. A/6221. December 21, 1965. 
7 pp. 
Reports of the Second Committee (Economic and 
Financial) 
Population growth and economic development. 

A/6197. December 10, 1965. 6 pp. 
Reports made by the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil. A/6188. December 18, 1965. 17 pp. 
Report of the United Nations Conference on 
Trade and Development. A/6189. December 18, 
1965. 13 pp. 
Accelerated flow of capital and technical assist- 
ance to the developing countries. A/6190. De- 
cember 18, 1965. 10 pp. 
Activities in the field of industrial development. 

A/6191. December 18, 1965. 14 pp. 
Role of the United Nations in training national 
technical personnel for the accelerated indus- 
trialization of the developing countries. A/6192. 
December 18, 1965. 4 pp. 
Role of patents in the transfer of technology to 
developing countries. A/6193. December 18, 
1965. 6 pp. 
Decentralization of the economic and social activ- 
ities of the United Nations. A/6194. December 
18, 1965. 2 pp. 
Conversion to peaceful needs of the resources 
released by disarmament. A/6195. December 18, 
1965. 4 pp. 
Permanent sovereignty over natural resources. 

A/6196. December 18, 1965. 7 pp. 
Progress and operations of the Special Fund and 
on U.N. programs of technical cooperation. 
A/6198. December 18, 1965. 7 pp. 
The world food program. A/6199. December 18, 
1965. 15 pp. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



105 



TREATY INFORMATION 



U.S. and Canada Sign Agreement 
Updating U.S. Tariff Concessions 

Following is an announcement -made by 
the Office of the Special Representative for 
Trade Negotiations on December 17 regard- 
ing the Interim Agreement Between the 
United States and Canada Relating to the 
Renegotiation of Schedule XX (United 
States) to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade which was signed at Washington 
that day, together with annex II of the agree- 
ment, which sets forth U.S. compensatory 
concessions. 



STR ANNOUNCEMENT 

The United States and Canada on Decem- 
ber 17 signed an agreement which reestab- 
lishes in the language of the revised U.S. 
tariff schedules the trade agreement con- 
cessions which the United States had 
previously granted to Canada. The agree- 
ment also grants new concessions to offset 
the impairment in those previous conces- 
sions incidental to bringing the revised 
tariff schedules into force. 

The negotiation with Canada was one of 
some 30 negotiations authorized by the 
Tariff Classification Act of 1962 to bring 
the United States tariff concessions in the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT) and in bilateral trade agreements 
into conformance with the language of the 
revised Tariff Schedules of the United 
States. The change in 1963 from a tariff 
based on the Tariff Act of 1930 to a tariff 
based on the Tariff Classification Act of 
1962 (recently amended by the Tariff 
Schedules Technical Amendments Act of 
1965) resulted in numerous incidental rate 
changes. On the whole, reductions offset 



increases, but for Canada there were more 
rate increases than decreases, and compen- 
satory U.S. tariff reductions were required. 

Canada and the United States have 
agreed that new concessions on 23 tariff 
items covering U.S. imports valued at $11.5 
million from Canada (based on trade in 
1961, the reference year of the negotiations) 
would offset the net rate increases of the 
new tariff. Total imports from Canada in 
1961 were about $3 billion. Included in the 
new concessions are aircraft parts, vegeta- 
ble fiber building boards, certain hand- 
operated taps and valves, pulleys, and game 
machines. 

The agreement will be made effective on 
January 1st through a Presidential procla- 
mation. 1 

The present agreement resolves issues 
between the two Governments arising from 
the U.S. tariff revision. Other negotiations 
on mutual tariff reductions and other trade 
restrictions are continuing between the two 
Governments at Geneva as part of the 
multilateral Kennedy Round of trade nego- 
tiations. 

ANNEX II 

United States Compensatory Concessions 
to Canada 

General Notes 

1. The provisions of this Schedule are subject to 
the pertinent notes appearing at the end of Schedule 
XX (Geneva-1947) annexed to the General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade, as authenticated at Ge- 
neva on October 30, 1947. 

2. The bracketed language in the description 
column of this Schedule has been inserted only in 
order to clarify the scope of the numbered conces- 
sion items, and such language is not itself intended 



1 For text of Proclamation 3694, dated Dec. 27, 
1965, see 30 Fed. Reg. 17147. 



106 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to describe articles on which concessions have been 
granted. 

3. For the purpose of applying the one-year in- 
tervals provided for in the rate columns in this 
Schedule : 

(a) The rate of duty specified in any rate column 
relating to an item shall be considered as being in 



effect even though there is being applied to an 
article provided for under such item either no duty 
or a lower rate of duty; and 

(b) There shall be excluded any time during which 
a rate of duty higher than that specified in a rate 
column relating to an item is being applied to an 
article provided for under such item. 



TSUS 

Item 



202.54 



245.30 



245.90 



253.20 



418.94 



419.76 



420.54 



513.34 



Description 



Lumber and wood siding, drilled or treated; and 
edge-glued or end-glued wood not over 6 feet in 
length or over 15 inches in width, whether or 
not drilled or treated: 

[Softwood lumber and siding, drilled, or pres- 
sure treated with creosote or other wood 
preservative, or both, but not otherwise 
treated] 
[Hardwood, edge-glued or end-glued, not 

drilled or treated] 
Other 

Hardboard, whether or not face finished: 

[Not face finished; and oil treated, whether 
or not regarded as tempered, but not other- 
wise face finished] 
Other 

Building boards not specially provided for, whether 
or not face finished : 

[Laminated boards bonded in whole or in part, 

or impregnated, with synthetic resins] 
Other boards of vegetable fibers (including 
wood fibers) 

Crepe paper, including paper creped or partly 
creped in any manner: 

[Creped as a secondary converting process 

after paper has been made] 
Other 



Iron compounds: 

[Sulfide (pyrites)] 

[Sulfate (ferrous) (copperas)] 

Other 



Rates of duty, effective January 1, — 



1966 



1967 » 



Nickel compounds: 
[Chloride] 
[Oxide] 
[Sulfate] 
Other 



Selenium compounds: 
[Dioxide] 
[Salts] 
Other 



Stone chips and spalls, and stone, crushed (other- 
wise than merely to facilitate shipment to the 
United States) or ground: 

Limestone 



9% 
ad val. 



28% 
ad val. 



4% 
ad val. 



1.35<J 
lb.+3% 
ad val. 



9% 
ad val. 



9% 
ad val. 



9% 
ad val. 



18tf 

short 

ton 



8% 
ad val. 



26% 
ad val. 



4% 
ad val. 



1.2<f 

lb. +3% 
ad val. 



8% 
ad val. 



8% 
ad val. 



8% 
ad val. 



16<f 

short 

ton 



1968 ] 



7% 
ad val. 



24% 
ad val. 



3% 
ad val. 



1.05(« 
lb. + 3% 
ad val. 



7% 
ad val. 



7% 
ad val. 



7% 
ad val. 



14<f 

short 

ton 



1969' 



6% 

ad val. 



22% 
ad val. 



3% 
ad val. 



0.9<f 

lb.+2% 
ad val. 



6% 
ad val. 



6% 
ad val. 



6% 
ad val. 



12<J 

short 

ton 



1970 1 



5% 
ad val. 



20% 
ad val. 



2.5% 
ad val. 



0.75<J 
lb.+2% 
ad val. 



5% 
ad val. 



5% 
ad val. 



5% 
ad val. 



10* 

short 

ton 



"Subject to General Note 3(b) to this Schedule. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



107 



607.50 



607.51 



646.92 



652.98 
660.10 



660.22 
661.20 



668.04 



680.22 



Ferroalloys: 
Ferrosilicon : 

Containing over 8 percent but not over 60 per- 
cent by weight of silicon 



Containing over 60 percent but not over 80 per- 
cent by weight of silicon 



Locks and padlocks (whether key, combination, or 
electrically operated), luggage frames incor- 
porating locks, all the foregoing, and parts 
thereof, of base metal; lock keys: 
^Padlocks] 
Cabinet locks] 
.Luggage locks, and parts thereof, and luggage 

frames incorporating locks] 
Other 

Hangars and other buildings, bridges, bridge sec- 
tions, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, 
roofing frameworks, door and window frames, 
shutters, balustrades, columns, pillars, and posts, 
and other structures and parts of structures, all 
the foregoing of base metal: 
[Of iron or steel:] 

[Door and window frames] 
[Columns, pillars, posts, beams, girders, and 
similar structural units] 
Other 

Steam and other vapor generating boilers (except 
central heating hot water boilers capable also of 
producing low pressure steam), and parts thereof 

Producer gas and water gas generators, with or 
without purifiers; acetylene gas generators 
(water process) and other gas generators, with 
or without purifiers; all the foregoing and parts 
thereof : 

[Apparatus for the generation of acetylene 

gas from calcium carbide, and parts thereof] 

Other 

Air-conditioning machines, comprising a motor- 
driven fan and elements for changing the tem- 
perature and humidity of air, and parts thereof 

Parts of the foregoing machines [i.e., machines for 

making cellulosic pulp, paper, or paperboard; 

machines for processing or finishing pulp, paper, 

or paperboard, or making them up into articles] : 

Bed plates, roll bars, and other stock-treating 

parts for pulp or paper machines 

Taps, cocks, valves, and similar devices, however 
operated, used to control the flow of liquids, 
gases, or solids, all the foregoing and parts 
thereof : 

Hand-operated and check, and parts thereof: 
[Of copper] 
Other 

Gear boxes and other speed changers with fixed, 
multiple, or variable ratios; pulleys, pillow blocks, 
and shaft couplings; torque converters; chain 
sprockets; clutches; and universal joints; all the 
foregoing (except parts of agricultural or horti- 
cultural machinery and implements provided for 
in item 666.00 and parts of motor vehicles, air- 
craft, and bicycles) and parts thereof: 



0.76(f 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 

0.92tf 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 



18% 
ad val. 



17% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



11% 
ad val. 



12% 
ad val. 



20% 
ad val. 



0.72tf 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 

0.84<K 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 



17% 
ad val. 



15% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



11% 
ad val. 



11% 
ad val. 



18% 
ad val. 



0.68<f 

lb. on 

silicon 

content 

0.76<t 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 



17% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



12% 
ad val. 



12% 
ad val. 



10% 
ad val. 



10% 
ad val. 



16% 
ad val. 



0.64(f 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 

0.68(f 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 



16% 
ad val. 



11% 
ad val. 



12% 
ad val. 



12% 
ad val. 



10% 
ad val. 



8% 
ad val. 



13% 
ad val. 



0.6* 
lb. on 
silicon 
content 



108 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



680.50 



680.54 



685.42 ' 
692.60 



694.60 
734.20 



Pulleys, pillow blocks, shaft couplings, and 
parts thereof 

Chain sprockets, clutches, universal joints, and 
parts thereof 

Radiotelegraphic and radiotelephonic transmission 
and reception apparatus; radiobroadcasting and 
television transmission and reception apparatus, 
and television cameras; record players, phono- 
graphs, tape recorders, dictation recording and 
transcribing machines, record ohangers, and tone 
arms; all of the foregoing, and any combination 
thereof, whether or not incorporating clocks or 
other timing apparatus, and parts thereof: 
[Television cameras, and parts thereof] 
[Radiotelegraphic and radiotelephonic trans- 
mission and reception apparatus; radiobroad- 
casting and television transmission and re- 
ception apparatus, and parts thereof] 
[Radio-phonograph combinations] 
[Record players, phonographs, record changers, 
turntables, and tone arms, and parts of the 
foregoing] 
[Tape recorders and dictation recording and 

transcribing machines, and parts thereof] 
Other: ' 

Radio-television-phonograph combinations 

Vehicles (including trailers), not self-propelled, 
not specially provided for, and parts thereof . . . 

Aircraft and spacecraft, and parts thereof: 
Balloons and airships] 
gliders] 

Kites, and parts thereof] 
Airplanes] 
Spacecraft] 
Other parts 



Game machines, including coin or disc operated 
game machines and including games having me- 
chanical controls for manipulating the action, 
and parts thereof 



17% 
ad val. 


15% 
ad val. 


13% 
ad val. 


17% 
ad val. 


15% 
ad val. 


13% 
ad val. 


14% 
ad val. 


13% 
ad val. 


12% 
ad val. 


14% 
ad val. 


13% 
ad val. 


11% 
ad val. 


9% 
ad val. 


9% 
ad val. 


8% 
ad val. 


11% 
ad val. 


10% 
ad val. 


10% 
ad val. 



11% 

ad val. 

11% 
ad val. 



11% 
ad val. 

10% 
ad val. 



8% 
ad val. 



9% 
ad val. 



9.5% 
ad val. 

9.5% 
ad val. 



10% 
ad val. 

8% 
ad val. 



7.5% 
ad val. 



9% 
ad val. 



'Existing TSUS item 685.50. 

8 New item carved out of existing TSUS item 685.50. 



Current Actions 






MULTILATERAL 



Atomic Energy 

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 
with annex, as amended. Done at New York Octo- 
ber 26, 1956. Entered into force July 29, 1957. 
TIAS 3873, 5284. 

Acceptance deposited: Jamaica, December 29, 
1965. 

Aviation 

Protocol to amend convention for unification of cer- 
tain rules relating to international carriage by 
air signed at Warsaw October 12, 1929 (49 Stat. 
3000). Done at The Hague September 28, 1955. 



Entered into force August 1, 1963. ' 

Adherence deposited: Cuba, August 30, 1965. 

Coffee 

International coffee agreement, 1962, with annexes. 
Open for signature at United Nations Head- 
quarters, New York, September 28 through No- 
vember 30, 1962. Entered into force December 27, 
1963. TIAS 5505. 

Accession deposited: Czechoslovakia (with a 
statement) , November 2, 1965. 

Diplomatic Relations 

Vienna convention on diplomatic relations. Done at 
Vienna April 18, 1961. Entered into force April 
24, 1964. • 

Ratification deposited: Venezuela (with reserva- 
tion), March 16, 1965. 



1 Not in force for the United States. 



JANUARY 17, 1966 



109 



Safety at Sea 

International regulations for preventing collisions 
at sea. Approved by the International Confer- 
ence on Safety of Life at Sea, London, May 17- 
June 17, 1960. Entered into force September 1, 
1965. TIAS B813. 
Acceptance deposited: Nigeria, November 30, 1965. 

Satellite Communications System 

Agreement establishing interim arrangements for a 

global commercial communications satellite system. 

Done at Washington August 20, 1964. Entered 

into force August 20, 1964. TIAS 5646. 

Accession deposited: Venezuela, December 30, 
1965. 
Special agreement. Done at Washington August 20, 

1964. Entered into force August 20, 1964. TIAS 

5646. 

Signature: Ministry of Communications of Vene- 
zuela, December 30, 1965. 

Sugar 

Protocol for the further prolongation of the inter- 
national sugar agreement of 1958 (TIAS 4389). 
Open for signature at London November 1 
through December 23, 1965. * 

Signatures: Colombia, November 22, 1965; El Sal- 
vador, November 26, 1965; Peru, November 1, 
1965; United States, December 23, 1965. 

Telecommunications 

International telecommunication convention with 
six annexes. Done at Geneva December 21, 1959. 
Entered into force January 1, 1961. TIAS 4892. 
Ratification deposited: Bolivia, November 3, 1965. 

Whaling 

International whaling convention and schedule of 
whaling regulations. Done at Washington De- 
cember 2, 1946. Entered into force November 
10, 1948. TIAS 1849. 

Notification of withdrawal: Brazil, December 29, 
1965, effective June 30, 1966. 

Wheat 

Protocol for the extension of the International 
Wheat Agreement, 1962. Open for signature at 
Washington March 22 through April 23, 1965. 
Entered into force July 16, 1965, for part I and 
parts III to VII, and August 1, 1965, for part II. 
Acceptance deposited: Mexico, December 29, 1965. 
Accession deposited: Libya, December 30, 1965. 



BILATERAL 



Australia 

Agreement amending tracking station agreement of 
February 26, 1960, as amended (TIAS 4435, 5291, 
5447, 5763), to provide for an additional facility 
at Cooby Creek, Darling Downs, near Toowoomba. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Canberra De- 



' Not in force. 



cember 7, 1965. Entered into force December 7, 
1965. 

Canada 

Agreement concerning the establishment, operation 
and maintenance of certain ground-to-air com- 
munications facilities in northern Canada, with 
annex. Effected by exchange of notes at Ottawa 
December 1, 1965. Entered into force December 
1, 1965. 

Ethiopia 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title IV 
of the Agricultural Trade Development and As- 
sistance Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454; 
7 U.S.C. 1731-1736), with exchange of notes. 
Signed at Addis Ababa December 14, 1965. En- 
tered into force December 14, 1965. 

India 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of September 30, 1964, as amended 
(TIAS 5669, 5729, 5793, 5846, 5875, 5895). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at New Delhi Decem- 
ber 10, 1965. Entered into force December 10, 
1965. 

Italy 

Agreement relating to United States Government 
liability during operation of NS Savannah by a 
private company. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Rome December 16, 1965. Entered into force 
December 16, 1965. 

Netherlands 

Convention modifying and supplementing the con- 
vention of April 29, 1948, as amended (TIAS 
1855, 3366, 3367, and 5665), for avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income 
and certain other taxes. Signed at Washington 
December 30, 1965. Enters into force upon ex- 
change of instruments of ratification. 

Philippines 

Agreement amending the agreement of April 12 
and June 7, 1948 (TIAS 1767), for the exchange 
of official publications. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Manila December 2 and 20, 1965. Entered 
into force December 20, 1965. 

Switzerland 

Agreement for cooperation concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy, with appendix. Signed at Wash- 
ington December 30, 1965. Enters into force on 
the date on which each Government shall have 
received from the other written notification that 
it has complied with all statutory and constitu- 
tional requirements for entry into force. 

Thailand 

Agreement amending the agreement of August 27 
and September 1, 1954 (TIAS 3086), relating to 
investment guaranties. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Bangkok December 22, 1965. Entered 
into force December 22, 1965. 



110 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INDEX January 17, 1966 Vol. LIV, No. 1386 



Africa. The Denuclearization of Africa 
(Foster) 103 

Atomic Energy 

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Strongly 
Recommended by U.S. (Foster) .... 99 

The Denuclearization of Africa (Foster) . . 103 

Canada 

Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam on Cana- 
dian TV Program 86 

U.S. and Canada Sign Agreement Updating 
U.S. Tariff Concessions 106 

Disarmament 

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Strongly 
Recommended by U.S. (Foster) 99 

The Denuclearization of Africa (Foster) . . 103 

Economic Affairs 

Diplomatic Adjustment by the Maritime Na- 
tions (Geren) 78 

Income Tax Protocol With Germany Enters 
Into Force 90 

Tax Convention With Honduras To Continue 
in Force for 1966 91 

U.S. and Canada Sign Agreement Updating 
U.S. Tariff Concessions 106 

U.S. and Netherlands Sign Supplementary Tax 
Convention 91 

Germany. Income Tax Protocol With Germany 
Enters Into Force 90 

Health. Travel Controls Relaxed for Doctors 
and Medical Scientists 90 

Honduras. Tax Convention With Honduras To 
Continue in Force for 1966 91 

Netherlands. U.S. and Netherlands Sign Sup- 
plementary Tax Convention 91 

Passports. Travel Controls Relaxed for Doctors 
and Medical Scientists 90 

Southern Rhodesia. U.S. and Zambia Hold 
Talks on Rhodesian Situation (joint com- 
munique) 85 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 109 

Income Tax Protocol With Germany Enters 
Into Force 90 

Tax Convention With Honduras To Continue 
in Force for 1966 91 

U.S. and Canada Sign Agreement Updating 
U.S. Tariff Concessions 106 



U.S. and Netherlands Sign Supplementary Tax 
Convention 91 

United Nations 

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Strongly 
Recommended by U.S. (Foster) 99 

Current U.N. Documents 105 

The Denuclearization of Africa (Foster) . . 103 

U.S. Urges Better U.N. Machinery for Peaceful 
Settlement (Goldberg) 93 

Viet-Nam. Secretary Rusk Discusses Viet-Nam 
on Canadian TV Program 86 

Zambia. U.S. and Zambia Hold Talks on Rho- 
desian Situation (joint communique) ... 85 

Name Index 

Foster, William C 99, 103 

Geren, Paul F 78 

Goldberg, Arthur J 93 

Rusk, Secretary 86 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: Dec. 27-Jan. 2 

Press releases may be obtained from the Of- 
fice of News, Department of State, Washing- 
ton D.C., 20520. 

No. Date Subject 



*299 
*300 

301 
302 
*303 
304 
305 
306 

307 

*308 



Date 

12/27 

12/27 

12/27 

12/28 

12/28 

12/29 

12/29 

12/30 

12/30 
12/30 



Tokyo schedule of Vice President 
Humphrey and party. 

Manila schedule of Vice Presi- 
dent Humphrey and party. 

U.S.-Zambia joint communique 
on Rhodesian situation. 

Entry into force of income tax 
protocol with Germany. 

Taipei schedule of Vice Presi- 
dent Humphrey and party. 

Travel controls relaxed for doc- 
tors and medical scientists. 

Income tax convention with Hon- 
duras continues in force. 

Supplementary income tax con- 
vention with Netherlands. 

Rusk : interview on Canadian TV. 

Seoul schedule of Vice President 
Humphrey and party. 



* Not printed. 






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The United States and Western Europe 

No two regions of the world have stronger ties of kinship, culture, and political philosoj 
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world wars have taught. We share the same basic objectives in foreign policy — a peaceful woi 
a world which is safe for diversity, a world in which no nation can impose its will upon anotl 

by force and the same hopes for a world free of poverty and unrest. The United States belie 

that the peoples of America and Western Europe can move together as an Atlantic commun 
toward these common goals. 

This 24-page, illustrated pamphlet describes the steps already taken to achieve these go 
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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol LIV, No. 1387 




January 2 It, 1966 



VICE PRESIDENT HUMPHREY RETURNS FROM FAR EAST MISSION 1U 

THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965 
by James J. Hines 119 

THE QUESTION OF INTERVENTION IN THE DOMESTIC AFFAIRS OF STATES 
Statement by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg and Text of Resolution 12A 

IRD-YEAR MAJOR REVIEW OF THE LONG-TERM COTTON TEXTILE ARRANGEMENT 

Statement by George R. Jacobs 13k 



For index see inside back cover 



Vice President Humphrey Returns From Far East Mission 



Vice President and Mrs. Humphrey re- 
turned to the United States on January 3 
from a trip to the Far East during which Mr. 
Humphrey represented President Johnson at 
the inaugural ceremonies at Manila on De- 
cember 30 for Philippine President Ferdi- 
nand Marcos. They also visited at Tokyo De- 
cember 28-29, at Taipei January 1, and at 
Seoul January 1-2. Following are remarks 
made by the Vice President at the White 
House on January 3 after he had reported to 
the President, together with the text of an 
outline of the U.S. position on Viet-Nam 
which he made available to the press. 



REMARKS BY THE VICE PRESIDENT 

I have just reported to the President on 
the mission he assigned me. We have re- 
turned from the inauguration of the sixth 
President of the Republic of the Philippines, 
Ferdinand E. Marcos. I also visited Japan, 
Taiwan, and Korea, where I had frank, con- 
structive, and encouraging talks with their 
leaders. 



I reported to the President that the future 
in Asia is full of hope. 

There are new leaders in Asia, intelligent, 
competent, and realistic. 

At the same time, we found everywhere 
a growing spirit of national independence 
and, perhaps more important, a growing 
understanding of the interdependence of the 
free nations of Asia, a new determination to 
find ways to plan and work together for 
regional economic development and for their 
mutual security. 

We found in Japan a representative gov- 
ernment that is ever stronger and an eco- 
nomic growth that is almost startling in its 
vitality. 

In the Philippines strong new leadership 
— determined to improve the lives of the 
Filipinos — is also taking a broad view of the 
world that can only bode well for all of 
Southeast Asia. 

In Taiwan the Republic of China has given 
other developing nations an extraordinary 
example of what can be accomplished by the 
wise and prudent use of technical and eco- 
nomic assistance. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1387 PUBLICATION 8028 JANUARY 24, 1966 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services. Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with infor- 
mation on developments in the field of 
foreign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department. United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the field of international relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 



ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
20402. Pkice: 62 issues, domestic $10, 
foreign $15 : single copy 30 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of th« 
Bureau of the Budget (January 11, 1966). 

note : Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin as the source will 
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed 
in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Liter- 
ature. 



114 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



And in Korea I found a new spirit of con- 
fidence and optimism, determination and 
competence. The alliance between our two 
countries has never been stronger. 

There is a unanimity among the leaders 
of these four nations that the course Presi- 
dent Johnson has been pursuing in the search 
for an honorable and just settlement in 
Southeast Asia is both wise and needed. 

I found friendship, understanding, courage 
— but most of all I found agreement with 
our objectives, the aims of peace and of 
building a new quality of human life. 

The United States is interested in Asia — 
not solely because we oppose the aggressive 
and brutal thrust of communism in that area, 
but mainly because it is impossible to talk 
about the future of man on earth without 
giving full weight to the hopes and needs of 
the overwhelming majority of the world's 
peoples. 

The essential question of our generation 
is, as President Johnson has put it, how to 
make this planet safe and fit for mankind. 

And finally, I told the President, I come 
home heartened by the warmth of affection 
in which the people in these countries hold 
the United States and the American people. 

Mrs. Humphrey and I are glad to be home. 
There is work to be done, and as I told the 
President, we are ready to be about it. 



outline of u.s. position on viet-nam 

The Heart of the Matter in Viet Nam 

I. The Fact of Aggression 

The simple fact is that tens of thousands 
of trained and armed men, including units 
of the North Vietnamese regular army, have 
been sent by Hanoi into South Viet Nam for 
the purpose of imposing Hanoi's will on 
South Viet Nam by force. It is this external 
aggression which is responsible for the pres- 
ence of U.S. combat forces. Indeed, it was 
not until the early summer of 1965 that the 
number of U.S. military personnel in South 
Viet Nam reached the number of those which 
have been infiltrated by Hanoi. If this ag- 
gression from the outside were removed, 



U.S. combat forces would not be needed. 

II. The U.S. Commitment 

The United States has a clear and direct 
commitment to the security of South Viet 
Nam against external attack. This commit- 
ment is based upon bilateral agreements be- 
tween the United States and South Viet 
Nam, upon the SEATO Treaty (whose obli- 
gations are both joint and several), upon 
annual actions by the Congress in providing 
aid to South Viet Nam, upon the policy ex- 
pressed in such Congressional action as 
the August 1964 resolution, 1 and upon the 
solemn declarations of three U.S. Presidents. 
At stake is not just South Viet Nam, nor 
even Southeast Asia: there is also at stake 
the integrity of a U.S. commitment and the 
importance of that commitment to the peace 
right around the globe. 

III. Initiatives for Peace 

A. We are not aware of any initiative 
which has been taken by Hanoi during the 
past five years to seek peace in Southeast 
Asia. Reports of "peace feelers" have to do 
with initiatives by third parties. Hanoi has 
denied that it has ever made any "peace 
feelers." We ourselves know of none. During 
1965 Hanoi has consistently insisted that its 
four points must be accepted as the sole 
basis for peace in Viet Nam. The third of 
these four points would require the imposi- 
tion of the program of the liberation front 
upon South Viet Nam, whether the South 
Vietnamese wanted it or not. 

B. The initiatives for peace undertaken 
by our side, and by many other govern- 
ments, would be hard to count. They began 
with President Kennedy's talk with Premier 
Khrushchev in Vienna in June 1961 and 
have not ceased. The publicly known initia- 
tives have been multiplied many times by 
private initiatives not yet disclosed. On the 
public record, however, are the following 
instances: 

1. Kennedy-Khrushchev talks in June 
1961; 



For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 24, 1964, p. 268. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



115 



2. Geneva Conference on Laos; 

3. U.S. reference of Gulf of Tonkin matter 
to the U.N. Security Council in August 1964 ; 

4. The Polish proposal to convene the two 
Co-Chairmen and the three members of the 
ICC (India, Canada and Poland) to take up 
the question of Laos; 

5. The call of 17 non-aligned nations for 
negotiations without preconditions; 

6. Attempts by U Thant to visit Hanoi 
and Peiping; 

7. President Johnson's call for uncondi- 
tional discussions; 

8. The British Commonwealth Committee 
on Viet Nam; 

9. Attempted or actual visits by Patrick 
Gordon Walker, Mr. Davies (MP), and 
Ghanaian Delegation. 

IV. U.S. Contributions to the Basket of 
Peace 2 

The following statements are on the public 
record about elements which the U.S. be- 
lieves can go into peace in Southeast Asia: 

1. The Geneva Agreements of 1954 and 
1962 are an adequate basis for peace in 
Southeast Asia; 

2. We would welcome a conference on 
Southeast Asia or on any part thereof; 

3. We would welcome "negotiations with- 
out preconditions" as the 17 nations put it; 

4. We would welcome unconditional dis- 
cussions as President Johnson put it; 

5. A cessation of hostilities could be the 
first order of business at a conference or 
could be the subject of preliminary discus- 
sions ; 

6. Hanoi's four points could be discussed 
along with other points which others might 
wish to propose; 

7. We want no U.S. bases in Southeast 
Asia; 

8. We do not desire to retain U.S. troops 
in South Viet Nam after peace is assured ; 

9. We support free elections in South Viet 



' The following covering statement and the 14 
numbered paragraphs were released separately by 
the Department of State on Jan. 7 (press release 
4) under the heading "United States Official Posi- 
tion on Viet-Nam." 



Nam to give the South Vietnamese a gov- 
ernment of their own choice; 

10. The question of reunification of Viet 
Nam should be determined by the Vietnam- 
ese through their own free decision ; 

11. The countries of Southeast Asia can 
be non-aligned or neutral if that be their 
option ; 

12. We would much prefer to use our re- 
sources for the economic reconstruction of 
Southeast Asia than in war. If there is peace, 
North Viet Nam could participate in a 
regional effort to which we would be pre- 
pared to contribute at least one billion 
dollars; 

13. The President has said 3 "The Viet 
Cong would not have difficulty being repre- 
sented and having their views represented 
if for a moment Hanoi decided she wanted 
to cease aggression. I don't think that would 
be an insurmountable problem." 

14. We have said publicly and privately 
that we could stop the bombing of North 
Viet Nam as a step toward peace although 
there has not been the slightest hint or 
suggestion from the other side as to what 
they would do if the bombing stopped. 

In other words, we have put everything 
into the basket of peace except the surrender 
of South Viet Nam. 

January 3, 1966 



Foreign Policy Conference 
To Be Held at Salt Lake City 

The Department of State announced on 
January 7 (press release 1) that a foreign 
policy conference will be held at Salt Lake 
City on February 9, cosponsored by the Uni- 
versity of Utah and the Utah State League 
of Women Voters. Eighteen other State and 
community organizations in the West are 
cooperating in the conference. Invitations 
will be extended to organizational leaders 
and to members of the press, radio, and 



1 At a press conference on July 28, 1965. 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



television in the States of Utah, Wyoming, 
Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado. 

The purpose of the meeting is to bring 
together citizen leaders and news media 
representatives with Government officials 
responsible for formulating and carrying 
out foreign policy. 

Officials participating in the conference 
will be Thomas C. Mann, Under Secretary of 
State for Economic Affairs; Robert W. 
Barnett, Deputy Assistant Secretary of 
State for Far Eastern Economic Affairs; 
Joseph J. Sisco, Assistant Secretary of State 
for International Organization Affairs; 
Richard W. Reuter, Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State (Food for Peace) ; Mrs. 
Charlotte M. Hubbard, Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of State for Public Affairs; and 
Ambassador Robert McClintock, State De- 
partment adviser, Naval War College, New- 
port, R.I. 



U.S. Peace Efforts Reported 
to Members of U.N. 

Following is the text of a letter from U.S. 
Representative Arthur J. Goldberg to U.N. 
Secretary-General U Thant. 

U.S./U.N. press release 4781 

January 4, 1966 
Dear Mr. Secretary General: My Gov- 
ernment has during the past two weeks 
been taking a number of steps in pursuit of 
peace which flow in part from our obliga- 
tions under the United Nations Charter, of 
which we are most mindful, and in part from 
the appeals which His Holiness the Pope and 
you addressed just before Christmas to us 
and to others. I believe it would be of interest 
to you, in addition to what we have already 
communicated to you privately, and to all 
States Members of the United Nations to 
know more precisely what we have done, 
and what we have in mind. 

You will observe that we have already 
responded in terms which go somewhat be- 
yond the appeals earlier addressed to us. 
President Johnson dispatched messages, and 



in several cases personal representatives, to 
His Holiness the Pope, to the Secretary 
General of the United Nations, and to a con- 
siderable number of Chiefs of State or Heads 
of Government, reaffirming our desire 
promptly to achieve a peaceful settlement of 
the conflict in Vietnam and to do all in our 
power to move that conflict from the battle- 
field to the conference table. In this connec- 
tion, our bombing of North Vietnam has not 
been resumed since the Christmas truce. 

Among the points made in our messages 
conveyed to a number of Governments are 
the following : That the United States is pre- 
pared for discussions or negotiations without 
any prior conditions whatsoever or on the 
basis of the Geneva Accords of 1954 and 
1962, that a reciprocal reduction of hostil- 
ities could be envisaged and that a cease-fire 
might be the first order of business in any 
discussions or negotiations, that the United 
States remains prepared to withdraw its 
forces from South Vietnam as soon as South 
Vietnam is in a position to determine its own 
future without external interference, that 
the United States desires no continuing 
military presence or bases in Vietnam, that 
the future political structure in South Viet- 
nam should be determined by the South Viet- 
namese people themselves through demo- 
cratic processes, and that the question of 
the reunification of the two Vietnams should 
be decided by the free decision of their two 
peoples. 

I should appreciate it if this letter could 
be communicated to all members of the 
United Nations as a Security Council docu- 
ment. 1 I should urge them in examining it 
to recall President Johnson's letter of 28 
July 1965 to the Secretary General 2 in 
which the President invited all members of 
the United Nations, individually and collec- 
tively, to use their influence to bring about 
unconditional discussions, and my letter of 
31 [30] July, 1965 (Document S/6575) 3 to 
the President of the Security Council in 



1 U.N. doc. S/7067. 

2 For text, see Bulletin of Aug. 16, 1965, p. 275. 
8 Ibid., p. 278. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



117 



which I said, inter alia, that the United 
States stands ready, as it has in the past, to 
collaborate unconditionally with members of 
the Security Council in the search for an 
acceptable formula to restore peace and 
security to that area of the world. I should 
hope that on the present occasion also organs 
of the United Nations and all States would 
give even more earnest thought to what 
they might do to help achieve these ends. 
Sincerely yours, 

Art h uk J. Goldberg 



U.S., Mexico Announce Proposals 
on Rio Grande Salinity Problem 

White House press release (Austin. Texas) dated December 29, 
for release December 30 

President Johnson joined with President 
[Gustavo] Diaz Ordaz of Mexico on Decem- 
ber 30 in announcing recommendations made 
by the International Boundary and Water 
Commission for a proposed agreement be- 
tween the United States and Mexico for 
solution of the salinity problem of the lower 
Rio Grande. The problem is caused by the 
discharge of the highly saline drainage of a 
Mexican irrigation project from El Morillo 
drain into the Rio Grande near the cities of 
Mission, Texas, and Reynosa, Tamaulipas. 
The drainage at times causes the waters of 
this international river to become so saline 
that their use for irrigation threatens se- 
rious damage to crops in the United States 
and in Mexico. 

To solve the problem, the International 
Commission recommends that a canal or 
drain be constructed through Mexican terri- 
tory to convey practically all El Morillo drain 
waters directly to the Gulf of Mexico so that 
they would not enter the river. The waters 
would be diverted from the drain by means 
of a gated control structure and then flow 
by canal or drain southeasterly for a total 



distance of about 23 miles to discharge into 
existing waterways, finally emptying into 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Mexico would construct, operate, and 
maintain the facilities under the supervision 
of the Commission. The United States would 
share equally with Mexico in the cost of con- 
struction, estimated at about $1,200,000, as 
well as in the costs of operation and mainte- 
nance. 

Early next year President Johnson will ask 
the Congress to authorize collaboration with 
Mexico in the proposed project. As soon as 
this legislation is enacted, the International 
Commission is expected to conclude an 
agreement for construction of the necessary 
works. They would probably be placed in 
operation during 1967. 



Matthew Welsh Chairs U.S. Section 
of International Joint Commission 

The Department of State announced on 
January 7 (press release 2) that Matthew 
E. Welsh, former Governor of the State of 
Indiana, was sworn in on that day as the 
Chairman of the United States Section of the 
International Joint Commission. 

The International Joint Commission has 
jurisdiction over cases involving use, ob- 
struction, or diversion of boundary waters 
between the United States and Canada; 
waters flowing from boundary waters; and 
waters at a level lower than the boundary in 
rivers flowing across the boundary. 



Correction 

The Editor of the Bulletin wishes to call at- 
tention to an incorrect identification in the is- 
sue of January 3, 1966, p. 4. The Foreign Sec- 
retary of Pakistan is Aziz Ahmed; Zulfikar 
Ali Bhutto is the Pakistan Foreign Minister. 



118 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Immigration Act of 1965 



by James J. Hines 

General Counsel of the Visa Office 1 



I am very grateful for the opportunity to 
be with you this morning and to discuss the 
role of the Visa Office and the U.S. Con- 
sular Service in the implementation of the 
Immigration Act of October 3, 1965. 

Long before the dramatic signing of H.R. 
2580 at the Statue of Liberty on that beau- 
tiful Sunday afternoon in October, 2 the 
Visa Office was in constant communication 
with our 200 immigrant visa issuing posts 
abroad, keeping them abreast of develop- 
ments in the Congress. The consuls in the 
field were well aware of the contents of 
H.R. 2580 by the time the President affixed 
his signature on October 3. The duty of the 
Visa Office to instruct and advise the con- 
sular service on the technical aspects of the 
new law is a continuing process, and it will 
carry on for many months to come. The 
Department in my opinion has responded to 
the challenge of Public Law 89-236 in a 
very responsible and creditable manner. 

One of our major responsibilities under 
the new law, as in the past, is that of con- 
trolling the distribution of quota numbers. 
The process has not been substantially 
changed, but the dimensions of the task are 
more expansive. Any discussion of the 
quota-control process may seem unduly in- 
volved and technical, but I think there is a 
public interest in the mechanics of quota 



_- J Address made before the American Immigration 
and Citizenship Conference at New York, N.Y., on 
Dec. 7. 

' For remarks made by President Johnson on sign- 
ing the bill, see Bulletin of Oct. 25, 1965, p. 660. 



control. There certainly are some miscon- 
ceptions about where the quota-control func- 
tion is centered. 

Actually, the determination is made by 
the quota-control unit in the Visa Office of 
the Department of State, on the basis of re- 
ports received monthly from some 200 visa 
issuing offices throughout the world. These 
reports reflect the qualified demand for visas 
within each of the preference categories as 
well as within the nonpreference category. 
It is on the basis of these reports that the 
requested numbers are allocated, subject of 
course to the availability of sufficient num- 
bers to meet the demand and subject to the 
statutory ceilings. 

Heretofore, intending immigrants have 
competed for the limited supply of quota 
numbers within their respective national 
quotas. It made no difference to the fourth- 
preference Greek or Spanish registrants 
how many fourth-preference Italians were 
on the waiting list. They were not competi- 
tors prior to December 1, but they are 
today. 

The competition for the 55,000 visa num- 
bers constituting the immigration pool for 
this fiscal year is now worldwide. These 
numbers will be allotted to qualified prefer- 
ence immigrants, without regard to country 
of birth, strictly in the order in which the 
approved petition was filed with the Attor- 
ney General and in the order in which the 
immigrants otherwise qualify for a visa, 
provided they cannot promptly obtain an 
immigrant visa under the national quota to 



Elt 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



119 



which they would normally be chargeable. 

In other words, the filing date of the 
petition is not necessarily controlling. The 
consul does not request a visa number until 
the alien has qualified in all respects, and 
this depends to a large extent on how 
promptly he assembles the supporting doc- 
uments and forwards them to the consul. 

During the remaining 7 months of this 
fiscal year, we will have sufficient numbers 
to meet all qualified demand in the first 
four preferences, and this being so, priority 
dates will not be too important. But they 
will be important so far as concerns fifth 
preference, where we anticipate a qualified 
demand in excess of the available numbers. 
Some adjustments have had to be made in 
order to make numbers available for the 
sixth preference (labor in short supply) and 
the seventh preference (refugees). Other- 
wise, the first five preferences might pre- 
empt all available numbers. 

This will not happen after July 1, 1968, 
when the maximum authorization of 170,- 
000 numbers could as a practical matter be 
fully utilized. But as for this fiscal year, we 
are limited by the 55,000 numbers in the 
pool plus the numbers which will be made 
available from the national quotas, and the 
latter allotments have normally not ex- 
ceeded 100,000 in any one year. It is esti- 
mated that we may not exceed 150,000 visa 
numbers for this year, and yet the prefer- 
ence ceilings are geared to the higher figure 
of 170,000. This explains why we have had 
to be realistic and have reserved a portion 
of the numbers for the sixth and seventh 
preferences. 

So far as concerns the United States con- 
sul abroad, his duties certainly are not 
diminished by the passage of Public Law 
89-236, although with the repeal of the 
Asia-Pacific triangle restriction, he is re- 
lieved of the task of determining the ances- 
try of intending immigrants in order to 
charge them to the proper Asian quota. The 
consul is assuming new duties in connection 
with the more restrictive labor safeguard, 
which, with the possible exception of those 
provisions phasing out the national-origins 



quotas, is the most significant aspect of the 
new law. 

How much additional workload will de- 
volve upon the consul by reason of the pub- 
lished lists of skills and occupations in short 
supply or oversupply remains to be seen, 
but it could be very substantial. If the alien's 
particular skill or occupation appears on the 
short-supply list as compiled by the Depart- 
ment of Labor, this will constitute the Secre- 
tary of Labor's certification and relieve 
the applicant of the necessity of securing an 
individual clearance. On the other hand, 
where Labor's short-supply list does not in- 
clude the applicant's profession or occupa- 
tion, or where the applicant does not clearly 
qualify in any profession or occupation on 
the short-supply list, the responsibility for 
further action will revert to the Department 
of Labor. In the circumstances, the consul 
will suggest that the applicant seek an indi- 
vidual clearance, or he may request an ad- 
visory opinion from the Department of Labor 
on the question of the alien's qualifications. 

The Department of State will, of course, 
cooperate fully to minimize the number of 
individual clearances, but the consul's pri- 
mary responsibility is not changed by 
the new law, that is, to examine visa appli- 
cants in relation to grounds of ineligibility 
such as crimes involving moral turpitude, 
moral character, public charge, fraud, draft 
evasion, and security. Responsibility for the 
enforcement of the labor safeguard is en- 
trusted solely to the Secretary of Labor. 

Meaning of Term "Labor" 

In the visa regulations which were pub- 
lished in the Federal Register of November 
30, 1965 (22 CFR 42.91 (a) (14) ), we used 
the expression "gainful employment" in 
implementing section 212(a) (14) of the 
act, whereas the statute refers to "aliens 
seeking to enter the United States for the 
purpose of performing skilled or unskilled 
labor." Obviously, the executive branch can- 
not expand the meaning of the statutory 
language. The more general words "gainful 
employment" merely serve the purpose of 
indicating a broad interpretation of the 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



term "labor." When we consider that mem- 
bers of the professions, as well as the arts 
and sciences, are made subject to the Secre- 
tary of Labor's certification under section 
212(a) (14), it seems quite apparent that 
the legislative purpose was to give the term 
"labor" a rather broad meaning. 

In an opinion rendered by the Attorney 
General on September 20, 1963, on the ques- 
tion of whether airplane pilots and flight 
engineers perform "labor" within the pur- 
view of section 212(a) (14) of the Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act, it was observed 
that not every occupation involves "labor." 
I quote from that opinion: "No one would 
suggest that the work of a college professor, 
concert pianist, doctor, consulting engineer, 
or corporate officer, for example, could 
fairly be described as labor." Nonetheless, I 
think that the labor provisions of Public 
Law 89-236 override any such limited 
meaning of the term "labor" as expressed 
in the 1963 opinion of the Attorney Gen- 
eral. Since the third-preference profession- 
als, artists, and scientists are subject to the 
labor certification, we could hardly contend 
that the same individuals are not coming 
here to perform labor when they apply for a 
visa as a Western Hemisphere "special im- 
migrant" or as a nonpreference immigrant. 

Labor Safeguard Provision 

The language of the new immigration 
law, if read literally, would subject every 
nonpreference immigrant and every West- 
ern Hemisphere "special immigrant" to the 
Secretary of Labor's certification regard- 
less of whether he or she would be employed 
in the United States. We are indebted to 
Senator [Edward] Kennedy of Massachu- 
setts for what I consider the most helpful 
legislative history of the entire debate on 
H.R. 2580. In his opening statement, he 
explained the new labor safeguard as fol- 
lows: 

Mr. President, this provision was included in this 
bill to further protect our labor force during periods 
of high unemployment. But it was included with the 
intent that it be meaningful only where it has 
some meaning. Section 212(a) (14) of the act which 
is amended here relates only to those aliens who 



come here for the purpose of performing skilled or 
unskilled labor. Hence one would not expect a non- 
preference housewife to be forced to seek a specific 
case clearance from the Secretary. 

Also the amended section 212(a) (14) ex- 
pressly subjects third- and sixth-preference 
immigrants to the Secretary of Labor's 
certification. I have difficulty understand- 
ing why this was necessary. 

The fact is that third- and sixth-prefer- 
ence petitions are approved by the Attorney 
General only after consultation with the 
Secretary of Labor. What is the purpose of 
this consultation if it is not to determine 
possible displacement of American workers 
and adverse effect on American wages and 
working conditions? Furthermore, a sixth- 
preference petition cannot be approved ex- 
cept for labor in short supply, and yet the 
regulations will require the prospective 
employer (sixth preference) first to apply 
for the certification and then, if he obtains 
it, file a petition with the Immigration 
Service. 

The only purpose thus served by the first 
step is to determine adverse effect, a fact 
which could be ascertained in the process of 
approving the petition. In third-preference 
cases, I understand that Labor's certifica- 
tion and the approval of the petition will be 
handled in a single action. In other words, 
the procedures are more involved for em- 
ployers who desire to import skilled or un- 
skilled labor in short supply, and, as a con- 
sequence, the labor safeguard is rendered 
even more restrictive by administrative ac- 
tion. 

I wish to make an observation as regards 
present thinking on the matter of prear- 
ranged employment in the cases of non- 
preference immigrants and Western Hemi- 
sphere "special immigrants." The newly 
published regulations clearly imply that a 
specific offer of employment will be a pre- 
requisite to any certification under section 
212(a) (14) with respect to these two 
classes of immigrants. It may be that the 
Labor Department officials feel that this is 
a necessary condition to any favorable cer- 
tification. I want to make it clear that the 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



121 



Department of State has never imposed any 
such requirement on immigrants with re- 
spect to the public-charge provisions of the 
law. As a matter of fact, the third-prefer- 
ence professional need no longer have pre- 
arranged employment, and this was done for 
reasons which are explained in the section- 
by-section analysis which accompanied the 
administration's bill, S. 500. I quote as fol- 
lows: 

. . . Under present law, skilled specialists may 
qualify for preferred status only when a petition 
requesting their services is filed by a U.S. em- 
ployer. This requirement unduly restricts our abil- 
ity to attract those whose services would substan- 
tially enhance our economy, cultural interests, and 
welfare. Many of these people have no way of con- 
tacting employers in the United States in order to 
obtain the required employment. Even if they knew 
whom to contact, few openings important enough 
to attract such highly-skilled people are offered 
without personal interviews, and only a few very 
large enterprises or institutions have representa- 
tives abroad with hiring authority. Thus many such 
skilled specialists cannot obtain the employment 
presently required for first preference status. 

If the alien of high education, exceptional 
ability, or specialized experience had diffi- 
culty locating an employer, you can imagine 
how much more difficult it will be for non- 
preference immigrants and Western Hemi- 
sphere "special immigrants." 

Another far-reaching change effected by 
the act of October 3, 1965, is the elimination 
of the Asia-Pacific triangle. This restrictive 
provision, designed to limit immigration 
from Asia, unquestionably created an un- 
wholesome atmosphere in our foreign rela- 
tions. Although the act retains the national 
quotas until June 30, 1968, and provides 
that the annual quota of any quota area 
shall be the same quota which existed for 
that area on June 30, 1965, I believe that the 
abolition of the Asia-Pacific triangle im- 
plicitly terminates the Chinese persons 
quota which the Congress authorized in 
1943 for the exclusive use of Chinese immi- 
grants regardless of their country of birth. 

The Chinese persons quota is part and 
parcel of the triangle philosophy, and its 
retention after December 1, 1965, would 
stand in contradiction to any assertion that 



the last vestige of racial discrimination 
had been stricken from our immigration 
laws. Fifty percent of this quota was mort- 
gaged to the year 2028, and this repre- 
sented a total of 2,664 numbers. These 
mortgaged numbers were canceled with the 
expiration of the Chinese persons quota on 
December 1, 1965. The quota of China, first 
established under the Immigration Act of 
1924, will continue in effect until June 30, 
1968. Consular officers will henceforth be 
relieved of the responsibility for determin- 
ing the ancestry of visa applicants in order 
to charge them to the proper Asian quota, 
no simple task at best. 

Problem of the "Mala Fide" Nonimmigrant 

As with all major legislation effecting 
basic reforms, the Immigration Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1965, presents a challenge to those 
charged with the responsibility for its ad- 
ministration, but at the same time it poses 
no insurmountable problems. We anticipate 
that the new labor restriction will tempt 
some intending immigrants to misrepre- 
sent their skills, or lack of them, in order to 
bypass the noncertification lists as compiled 
by the Department of Labor. If this occurs, 
a serious question of visa eligibility will 
arise. One of the basic exclusion provisions 
of existing law bars aliens who willfully 
seek to procure a visa by fraud or misrepre- 
sentation of a material fact. 

The criteria for determining materiality 
are well established, but the unresolved 
question is whether a misrepresentation 
made directly to an official of the Depart- 
ment of Labor in attempting to obtain a 
section 212(a) (14) certification will sup- 
port an adverse finding under section 212 
(a) (19) of the Immigration and National- 
ity Act. This question will inevitably arise 
and will require serious consideration. Also 
we expect that the more stringent labor 
safeguard will cause certain intending im- 
migrants to pretend to be temporary visitors 
and use the nonimmigrant visa as a means 
of entering the United States. 

At a recent visa conference held in Lon- 
don one of the consuls asked me how the 



122 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



Department could successfully pursue a 
loose nonimmigrant policy and a tight im- 
migrant policy at the same time. He had in 
mind, of course, our current policy of waiv- 
ing personal appearance and issuing non- 
immigrant visas by mail in about 70 per- 
cent of the cases and a policy of strictly 
enforcing the labor restriction in immi- 
grant cases. We recognize that this will 
present a real problem. 

In the past the mala fide nonimmigrant 
generally was one who sought to circum- 
vent quota limitations by posing as a tem- 
porary visitor or possibly a student. In the 
future, I suspect, it will be the Secretary of 
Labor's certification which he will attempt 
to evade, now that the quota situation has 
been considerably eased. This will call for 
greater vigilance on the part of the consular 
officer, and where he has reason to doubt 
the good faith of the nonimmigrant appli- 
cant, the consul's discretion to waive per- 
sonal appearance will not be exercised. In 
any event, the mala fide nonimmigrant will 
encounter the labor restriction in attempt- 
ing to regularize his status in the United 
States, but this may not deter him. 

Western Hemisphere Immigration Commission 

As to the future, we look forward to the 
recommendations of the Select Commission 
on Western Hemisphere Immigration. There 
are incongruities in the law which deserve 
attention. 

The Western Hemisphere has no prefer- 
ence system; it has no provision for refu- 
gees and will have no "foreign state" limi- 
tation if and when the 120,000 ceiling takes 
effect on July 1, 1968. Moreover, the new 
labor restriction does not apply equally to 
the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. For 
example, brothers and sisters of United 
States citizens who happened to be born in 
the Eastern Hemisphere are exempt from the 
restriction, but their counterparts in the 
Western Hemisphere are subject to it. This 
is likewise true of the adult sons and daugh- 
ters (married or unmarried) of United 
States citizens. If born in the Eastern Hem- 
isphere, they do not require a labor certifi- 



cation but do require it if born in the 
Western Hemisphere. Also, as regards im- 
migration from the Western Hemisphere, 
no distinction is made in the law between 
the skilled and the unskilled; between the 
immigrant of exceptional ability or special- 
ized experience and the immigrant who 
lacks ability and experience in any field of 
endeavor. 

If family unity and needed skills are im- 
portant in relation to immigration from 
the Eastern Hemisphere, surely they are no 
less important in relation to immigration 
from the Western Hemisphere. Perhaps the 
more stringent labor safeguard will compen- 
sate in some degree for the lack of prefer- 
ences in the Western Hemisphere because 
the immigrant who is educated, skilled, or 
talented in some particular line of work will 
have a better chance of getting the labor 
certification. It is the unskilled worker in 
the main who will be found among the non- 
certified. 

These are matters which the Commission 
will doubtless consider in formulating its 
recommendations. What is emerging, I sus- 
pect, is a single immigration system uni- 
formly applied to both hemispheres, a sys- 
tem which places all nations on equal foot- 
ing, and which distinguishes in the selection 
of our prospective citizens solely on a basis 
of individual merit and national interest. 



Sales of Surplus Foods to U.A.R. 

Following is the text of a memorandum 
from President Johnson to Secretary Rusk 
dated December 29 which was read to news 
correspondents at Austin, Tex., that day by 
Assistant Press Secretary Joseph Laitin. 

In accordance with your recommendation 
of November 17, I hereby determine, pur- 
suant to section 107 of the Agricultural 
Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954 as amended, that it is essential to the 
national interest of the United States to fi- 
nance export sales of surplus agricultural 
commodities to the United Arab Republic 
under Title I of the Act. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



123 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



The Question of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States 



Following is a statement made by U.S. 
Representative Arthur J. Goldberg on De- 
cember 10 in Committee I (Political and 
Security) of the U.N. General Assembly, to- 
gether with the text of a resolution adopted 
in plenary session on December 21. 



STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR GOLDBERG 

U.S. delegation press release 4744 

This has been a most instructive debate, 
and I congratulate the many distinguished 
representatives who have provided us with 
stimulating ideas and have given us a better 
understanding of the vital subject of non- 
intervention. 

I regret extremely that the Soviet Union 
and its ideological allies have been the ex- 
ception to this rule. Frankly, we found rea- 
son for some hope, when the Soviet Union 
took the initiative in bringing this matter 
before the Assembly, that it had a construc- 
tive purpose and looked to a constructive 
result. I must state with equal frankness 
that our hopes have given way to a disap- 
pointment as it has become obvious that the 
motive behind the Soviet initiative has been 
to provide a platform for attacking my 
Government and other members of this 
committee. 

What purpose is served by the Soviets' 
reintroducing the cold war into this chamber 
is for its representatives to say. For myself, 
I can only say I had particularly hoped that 
we could avoid stale polemics at this Gen- 
eral Assembly, which has been marked by 
constructive contributions, particularly in 



the field of disarmament under the auspices 
of this committee, and a remarkable display 
of unity of purpose and resolve in the other 
committees and throughout the other organs 
of the United Nations. 

I said when I first came to the United 
Nations I do not choose to curse anyone, and 
I will not do so now. I will confine what I 
have to say only to the record. In doing so, 
I will follow the rule once enunciated by my 
illustrious predecessor at a time when he 
was running for public office. In responding 
to a complaint by his political opponents, he 
suggested a truce in political polemics and 
agreed that if his opponents would stop tell- 
ing lies about him, he would stop telling the 
truth about them. 

Viet-Nam, a Prime Example of Subversion 

For the moment, however, I am left with 
no alternative but to continue to speak the 
truth about the Soviet Union and to set the 
record straight. And I shall start dealing 
with the subject of Viet-Nam, about which 
there have been so many distortions and 
misrepresentations by the representative of 
the Soviet Union and others ideologically 
allied with it. I take this up first because the 
conflict in Viet-Nam is a prime example of 
the use of subversion, terrorism, and now 
overt military intervention by one govern- 
ment, North Viet-Nam, to overthrow another 
government, South Viet-Nam. 

First and foremost, let me repeat that my 
Government has no national military objec- 
tive in South Viet-Nam, or anywhere else in 
Southeast Asia. My Government has no de- 



124 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sire to acquire bases or any other territory 
in that area for any reason whatsoever; nor 
does my Government have any desire to 
secure special privileges or a special sphere 
of influence — be it political, economic, or 
military. 

Second, our only desire and objective is 
the deterrence of aggression, the discour- 
agement rather than the promotion of armed 
conflict, the establishment of peaceful con- 
ditions so that the peoples of Southeast Asia, 
including South Viet-Nam, can go about their 
business in their own way under their own 
flags with whatever associates or friends 
they may freely choose for themselves — 
peaceful conditions, in short, which will en- 
able these peoples to make and carry out 
their own decisions concerning their own 
political status in accordance with the prin- 
ciple of self-determination which the charter 
and many resolutions of the General Assem- 
bly and the Security Council have enun- 
ciated. 

Third, the United States will continue to 
explore on its own and in conjunction with 
others, both within and outside the United 
Nations, all possible paths to a peaceful 
settlement which will be both durable and 
honorable. We have repeatedly reiterated 
our readiness — as 17 nonalined nations urged 
earlier this year 1 — to enter into uncondi- 
tional negotiations. Let me say categorically 
in this regard that my Government stands 
ready to accept the proposal made by the 
Foreign Minister of the United Kingdom 
[Michael Stewart] in Moscow only last week, 
a proposal that there be called a conference 
of all governments concerned, that this con- 
ference as speedily as possible arrange a 
cease-fire, that the conference then make 
arrangements so that both North and South 
Viet-Nam could be left in peace with assur- 
ances that they will not be attacked by each 
other or anyone else. 

If the Soviet Union, as one of the Geneva 
cochairmen, could see fit to respond to 



1 For text of a 17-nation appeal delivered to Secre- 
tary Rusk on Apr. 1 and a U.S. reply of Apr. 8, 
see Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1965, p. 610. 



rather than spurn this suggestion, all inter- 
ested parties, including my Government, 
would be at the conference tomorrow. 

Fourth, there would be no need for United 
States military presence in South Viet-Nam 
if North Viet-Nam had abided by the agree- 
ment on the cessation of hostilities in Viet- 
Nam signed on July 20, 1954, article 19 of 
which provides: ". . . the two parties shall 
ensure that the zones assigned to them 
. . . are not used for the resumption of 
hostilities or to further an aggressive 
policy." There would be no need for United 
States military presence in South Viet-Nam if 
North Viet-Nam had not intervened first by 
infiltration and subversion and overtly — if, 
starting as far back as 1959, it had not sent 
tens of thousands of armed personnel, which 
have come to include regular units of the 
North Vietnamese army, into the territory 
of South Viet-Nam with orders from Hanoi 
to overthrow and to destroy the Government 
of South Viet-Nam. 

However, as long as North Viet-Nam re- 
mains adamantly opposed to negotiations, so 
long as it remains determined to pursue its 
aggression, to impose its system and control 
upon South Viet-Nam by force, so long will 
the United States remain determined to do 
all that is necessary at the call of the 
people and Government of South Viet-Nam 
to assist the people of South Viet-Nam to 
turn back that aggression. 

Fifth, and finally, the United States will 
continue to assist in the economic and social 
advancement of Southeast Asia — under the 
leadership of the Asian nations themselves 
and the United Nations — and we will con- 
tinue to explore all possibilities for turning 
our energies and efforts to enriching an area 
and people too long ravaged by death and 
destruction. 

Yesterday the President of the United 
States said this, and let me repeat his 
words: 2 

All over the world, in every capital where we are 
represented, our Ambassadors are waiting for some 
word that those men, too, want peace and are willing 



"For text, see ibid., Dec. 27, 1965, p. 1014. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



125 



to talk about it. I have given the Secretary of State 
special instructions to make sure that no one is 
uncertain about our purpose. 

Our devotion to freedom is unyielding. So, too, 
is our hope for peace. Those who insist on testing 
either will find us earnest in both. 

Intervention and the U.N. Charter 

Although it has become clear to all that 
the Soviet Union's purpose in introducing 
this item was to attack the United States 
and many of its friends, an attack which we 
categorically reject as unfounded, unwar- 
ranted, unproductive, and contrary to the 
spirit of this Assembly, the fact remains 
that a profoundly important issue has been 
raised. The question of nonintervention, as 
the discussion before this committee demon- 
strates, is a very serious and important one. 

Perhaps no other question is as tightly 
intertwined with the problems of war and 
peace. 

Perhaps no other idea is as important to 
the standards of behavior imposed upon all 
of us by the charter. 

Perhaps no other problem merits closer 
deliberation by this body. With the develop- 
ment of techniques of indirect intervention, 
perhaps no other question is as complex as 
this one. 

We need have no doubt as to what our 
charter requires of us. Article 2(4) states 
that states ". . . shall refrain in their inter- 
national relations from the threat or use of 
force against the territorial integrity or 
political independence of any state, or in any 
other manner inconsistent with the Purposes 
of the United Nations." Article 2(6) com- 
mits the organization to insure that this 
principle, as well as others, is followed by 
states not members of the United Nations. 
And we term intervention under the charter 
anything that violates that standard. 

When a government sends its army across 
a frontier and attacks a neighbor whose only 
desire is to live in peace, such action is in 
violation of the charter. When a government 
promotes and organizes armed guerrilla 
bands, inspires terrorism, and even clandes- 
tinely employs its own troops, all with the 



purpose of subverting and overthrowing an- 
other government, we know that such a 
government cannot doubt that its actions 
contravene the charter and are in violation 
of all accepted standards of international 
behavior. Because this new type of inter- 
vention is often disguised and because it 
represents perhaps the greatest threat to 
peace today, it is not surprising that the 
major focus of this debate has been upon 
intervention in the form of subversion, ter- 
rorism, and indirect aggression. 

Most certainly, we should not be taken 
in by the fraud which communism has 
sought to perpetuate by pasting a label of 
"wars of national liberation" on the guer- 
rillas and terrorists, some of them sent 
against newly independent countries in many 
parts of the world — or if they do not send 
them they encourage them. I think that most 
of us see through this hoax and know that 
for "wars of liberation" one should read 
"intervention," plain and simple. There are, 
of course, real liberation wars. We once 
fought one ourselves. But most of us know 
that some in the Communist world use wars 
of liberation to describe efforts to overthrow 
real national governments in newly inde- 
pendent countries. 

We do not lack examples. We are talking 
about the military activity by North Viet- 
Nam against Laos, a neutral government in 
Laos, described for us eloquently by the 
distinguished representative of Laos. By in- 
tervention we mean the type of action taken 
against Thailand, a member state, by Com- 
munist-inspired liberators which the distin- 
guished representative of Thailand has 
brought to our attention so forcibly. The 
distinguished representative of Malaysia has 
provided us with the experience of his coun- 
try in resisting armed intervention from the 
outside. The distinguished representatives of 
Upper Volta and the Democratic Republic 
of the Congo have indicated to us that the 
continent of Africa is not free of efforts by 
states, some of them outside of Africa, de- 
signed to bring down the new countries of 
that continent. And in recent years we have 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



seen, as has been commented on by several 
speakers, a sharp increase in intervention in 
Latin America, where the Cuban government 
of Castro, aided and abetted by its Commu- 
nist masters, has attempted, but has failed, 
to subvert its neighbors. 

It was barely 2 years ago that the Cuban 
government was caught redhanded and con- 
demned by the Organization of American 
States when Cuba sought to overthrow the 
democratic Government of Venezuela by in- 
direct aggression, employing that prime 
vehicle of intervention — a so-called national 
liberation movement. Finally, Mr. Chairman, 
if we are looking for an example of inter- 
vention which has shattered the peace of an 
area and endangers the peace of the world, 
we need only look to South Viet-Nam, where 
the Government of North Viet-Nam delib- 
erately, as a conscious policy and in violation 
of an explicit provision of the Geneva agree- 
ment, began years ago to train, support, 
infiltrate, and encourage guerrilla bands and 
personnel in order to destroy the Govern- 
ment of South Viet-Nam and to impose its 
own system and ideology. 

These are the examples of intervention 
which threaten world peace. The issue we 
face in this committee and in this Assembly 
is whether the world can permit the con- 
tinuation of this modern type of interven- 
tion. Such intervention is encouraged when 
we permit it to succeed. Such intervention 
is encouraged when through our failure to 
act, through our failure to speak out, we 
give the interveners the impression that 
they can act with impunity. On our nart and 
in company with many others who have 
spoken here, we challenge this doctrine of 
indirect intervention, and we should make it 
crystal clear through our actions and our 
words that the world community cannot and 
will not tolerate such activity. 

The Soviet Union has introduced this item, 
and therefore it must take direct interest 
in the record of this type of intervention. 
And while we cannot erase the record of the 
U.S.S.R. history of intervention, we can and 
we do hope that the Soviet's espousal of 



peaceful coexistence and its current cham- 
pionship of nonintervention will be reflected 
in a new page of Soviet history. We, on our 
part, speaking for my Government, would 
welcome a proper movement forward in this 
direction by the U.S.S.R. We must, however, 
recognize as a simple fact of present life — 
a most regretful and dangerous fact of 
present life — that the Soviet doctrine of 
Soviet coexistence does not renounce and, in 
fact, permits subversion and terrorism; and, 
indeed, there is another country, Communist 
China, which not only rejects the very idea 
of peaceful coexistence but also proclaims 
its right to intervene in every and any way 
necessary through force, subversion, terror- 
ism, to promote and impose upon other sov- 
ereign states its own rigid social and eco- 
nomic system. It is such intervention, pro- 
hibited by the charter and employing force 
and indirect aggression, which is keeping the 
world most regretfully in turmoil today. My 
delegation believes we should pronounce our- 
selves firmly on the subject and against this 
type of aggression. 

How People Vote With Their Feet 

The United Nations today marks the 17th 
anniversary of the adoption of that great 
document of human liberty, the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights, and in a very 
real sense our debate is concerned with a 
very basic human right, the right of a nation 
and its people not to be subjected to aggres- 
sion, be it military or political or under the 
guise of slogans which menace its sover- 
eignty and security. 

Sometimes it is not obvious — indeed too 
often this is the case — that intervention is 
taking place. But I would suggest one cri- 
terion of how people really feel, and that 
criterion is how they vote with their feet. 
When the ballot is too often denied them, 
where political decisions are made by states, 
where systems of government are imposed, 
where military action is taken, where no 
elections in a real sense are held, how do 
the populations concerned indicate their 
preferences by their movements? In Ger- 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



127 



many, where have the refugees gone? Have 
they gone east or west? In Africa, when 
persons have been permitted to indicate 
their preferences, have refugees chosen to 
return to colonial status or have they acted 
to move toward freedom, independence, and 
self-determination? Many thousands of Cu- 
bans have seized every available means of 
transportation which will take them from 
Cuba to the United States and freedom. But 
no crowds are pounding on Cuba's gates and 
seeking admission. 

And today and for a long time past in 
Viet-Nam, in what direction are the great 
majority of refugees going? Have the hun- 
dreds and thousands of homeless peasants 
tramped the highlands of Viet-Nam and sub- 
mitted themselves to the Viet Cong, or have 
they moved by the hundreds of thousands 
by whatever means available to those areas 
controlled by the Government of South Viet- 
Nam, where these refugees at least know 
that there is a promise for the future and 
a hope for freedom and peace? 

We in this hall know the answers to these 
questions. We all know why the Germans 
prefer the West to the East, why the Afri- 
cans prefer freedom to colonialism, why 
Cubans prefer exile to dictatorship, and why 
the Vietnamese prefer peace, stability, and 
freedom to terror and subjugation to an 
alien ideology. If we are honest with our- 
selves and if we apply the tests I have sug- 
gested, those of intent, consent, and results, 
we will have made a start in providing 
standards for assessing state action in the 
area of intervention. 

There are also, of course, other forms of 
interference in each other's internal affairs 
which are heinous. And we have indeed been 
impressed with the earnest desire of many 
countries here to protect themselves, their 
sovereign identity, and their integrity from 
such forms as well. If there is anything 
fundamental in our own traditions as a coun- 
try, it is our belief that each sovereign state 
should be left free to decide its own destiny 
in its own sovereign way and on the basis of 
the self-determination of its own people. In 



so doing, they are, of course, also free to 
cooperate fully, again through their own 
choice and in their own manner, with other 
states to be good neighbors in the word3 of 
the charter. Such concepts would, we believe, 
be useful to add in whatever action we take, 
as one of the United Kingdom's amendments 
has suggested. 3 

Mr. Chairman, as from this Assembly 
room we look beyond this immediate debate 
on this particular item, we are constantly 
and acutely aware that peace, peace which 
is the goal and pledge of the charter, is an 
illusive condition. We are not now at peace 
throughout the world because there are 
some countries in the world which will em- 
ploy any device, subversion, violence, and 
naked aggression, against a neighbor. And 
this philosophy is our enemy, and this is why 
this item is relevant today. 

To combat that menace to peace, expres- 
sions of resolution and principle are needed. 
But actions are needed as well and not only 
actions to directly confront this modern 
intervention. The type of action necessary is 
the type of action that would stem from a 
basic decision by each state so to conduct 
itself as not to harm its neighbors. In other 
words, to quote a great American President, 
"for each state to adopt a good neighbor 
policy towards its fellow state and towards 
all states." Such resolve and such action 
would inevitably lead to a world community 
where peace is real, not a slogan, and where 
the principles of our charter would not be 
distant goals but in fact reflect the behavior 
of all of us. 



TEXT OF RESOLUTION 4 

The General Assembly, 

Deeply concerned at the gravity of the interna- 
tional situation and the increasing threat soaring 
over universal peace due to armed intervention and 
other direct or indirect forms of interference threat- 



* U.N. doc. A/C.1/L.351. 

'U.N. doc. A/RES/2131(xx) ; adopted in plenary 
session on Dec. 21 by a vote of 109 to 0, with 1 
abstention. 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ening the sovereign personality and the political 
independence of States, 

Considering that the United Nations, according 
to their aim to eliminate war, threats to the peace 
and acts of aggression, created an Organization, 
based on the sovereign equality of States, whose 
friendly relations would be based on respect for the 
principle of equal rights and self-determination of 
peoples and on the obligation to its Members to re- 
frain from the threat or use of force against the 
territorial integrity or political independence of 
any State, 

Recognizing that, in fulfilment of the principle of 
self-determination, the General Assembly, by the 
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to 
Colonial Countries and Peoples contained in resolu- 
tion 1514 (XV), stated its conviction that all 
peoples have an inalienable right to complete free- 
dom, the exercise of their sovereignty and the in- 
tegrity of their national territory and that, by 
virtue of that right, they freely determine their 
political status and freely pursue their economic, 
social and cultural development, 

Recalling that in the Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights the Assembly proclaimed that rec- 
ognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal 
and inalienable rights of all members of the human 
family is the foundation of freedom, justice and 
peace in the world, without distinction of any kind, 

Reaffirming the principle of non-intervention, 
proclaimed in the charters of the Organization of 
American States, the League of Arab States and 
of the Organization of African Unity and affirmed 
in the Conferences of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, 
Chapultepec and Bogota, as well as in the decisions 
of the Afro-Asian Conference in Bandung, the Con- 
ference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade, in 
the "Programme for Peace and International Co- 
operation", adopted at the end of the Cairo Confer- 
ence of Non-Aligned Countries, and in the Declara- 
tion on subversion adopted in Accra by the Heads 
of State or Government of the African States, 

Recognizing that full observance of the principle 
of the non-intervention of States in the internal and 
external affairs of other States is essential to the 
fulfilment of the purposes and principles of the 
United Nations, 

Considering that armed intervention is synony- 
mous with aggression, and as such is contrary to 
the basic principles on which peaceful international 
co-operation between States should be built, 

Considering further that direct intervention, sub- 
version, as well as all forms of indirect intervention 
are contrary to these principles and, consequently, 
a violation of the Charter of the United Nations, 

Mindful that violation of the principle of non- 
intervention poses a threat to the independence and 
freedom and normal political, economic, social and 
cultural development of countries, particularly those 



which have freed themselves from colonialism, and 
can pose a serious threat to the maintenance of 
peace, 

Fully aware of the imperative need to create ap- 
propriate conditions which would enable all States, 
and in particular the developing countries, to choose 
without duress or coercion their own political, eco- 
nomic and social institutions, 

In the light of the foregoing considerations, the 
General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly 
declares : 

1. No State has the right to intervene, directly or 
indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal 
or external affairs of any other State. Conse- 
quently armed intervention as well as all other 
forms of interference or attempted threats against 
the personality of the State or against its political, 
economic and cultural elements, are condemned; 

2. No State may use or encourage the use of 
economic, political or any other type of measures to 
coerce another State in order to obtain from it the 
subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights 
or to secure from it advantages of any kind. Also, 
no State shall organize, assist, foment, finance, 
incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed 
activities directed to the violent overthrow of the 
regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife 
in another State; 

3. The use of force to deprive peoples of their 
national identity constitutes a violation of their 
inalienable rights and of the principles of non- 
intervention ; 

4. The strict observance of these obligations is an 
essential condition to ensure that the nations live 
together in peace with one another, since the prac- 
tice of any form of intervention not only violates 
the spirit and letter of the Charter but also leads to 
the creation of situations which threaten interna- 
tional peace and security; 

5. Every State has an inalienable right to choose 
its political, economic, social and cultural systems, 
without interference in any form by another State; 

6. All States shall respect the right of self-deter- 
mination and independence of peoples and nations, 
to be freely exercised without any foreign pressure, 
and with absolute respect to human rights and 
fundamental freedoms. Consequently, all States shall 
contribute to the complete elimination of racial dis- 
crimination and colonialism in all its forms and 
manifestations ; 

7. For the purpose of this Declaration, the term 
"State" covers both individual States and groups of 
States; 

8. Nothing in this Declaration shall be construed 
as affecting in any manner the relevant provisions 
of the Charter of the United Nations relating to the 
maintenance of international peace and security, in 
particular those contained in Chapters VI, VII and 
VIII. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



129 



U.N. Extends World Food Program 

Statement by James Roosevelt 

U.S. Representative to the General Asseynbly x 

Several days ago, a number of members 
of this committee, including myself, referred 
to this session of this committee as an his- 
toric one. This was in connection, as you 
know, with the adoption by acclamation of 
the resolution on industrial development, in 
which developed and developing countries 
alike agreed upon the establishment of a 
new organization within the U.N. to carry 
out the U.N.'s important work in industrial 
development. At that time we also referred 
to the committee's action in combining the 
Expanded Program of Technical Assistance 
and the Special Fund into the new U.N. De- 
velopment Program. 

In the view of my delegation the action 
which we are about to take on extending the 
World Food Program is a third reason for 
calling this an historic session, and I 
hope that the fact that we will take this 
action without overlong negotiations, which 
were involved in the two other items I have 
just mentioned, will not obscure the impor- 
tance of our present deliberations. 

In spite of its small size thus far, the 
World Food Program is in our view one of 
the most constructive undertakings ever 
launched by the United Nations and its re- 
lated organizations. It is an imaginative and 
resourceful use of voluntary contributions of 
surplus foods, shipping services, and financ- 
ing. The resulting program has promoted 
economic and social objectives and effec- 
tively served the cause of development. 

During the 3-year experimental period in 
which this program has been in operation, 
it has proved that it is possible to carry out, 
on a multilateral basis, food assistance pro- 
grams directed not only at meeting emer- 
gency food needs and assisting in preschool 
and school feeding but also to stimulate 
economic and social development. Just over 



3 years ago, at the first pledging conference 
for the World Food Program, the United 
States Secretary of Agriculture, the Honor- 
able Orville L. Freeman, at what he called 
"a momentous occasion," described the pro- 
gram in terms which we may well recall 
today. - He said in part : 

We all know and appreciate the tremendous 
seriousness of the problem that faces us. It ean be 
stated simply. In some countries food supplies are 
abundant. In others, accounting for over half of 
the world's population, people are undernourished 
or malnourished. These contrasts cannot be per- 
mitted to continue indefinitely. Most of the food- 
deficit countries of the world are politically inde- 
pendent or are in the process of gaining their 
independence. With independence has come impa- 
tience — impatience not only with a generally un- 
satisfactory standard of living but especially with 
a lack of the fundamental needs of life, above all, 
food. 

In a very real sense there is no surplus of food 
anywhere as long as food can be sent to those who 
do not have enough to eat. To me, it is a moral 
imperative that we make maximum effective use of 
our God-given abundance. The World Food Program 
will help us do that. Today we serve notice, as we 
pledge resources and cooperation, that we stand 
together in the fight to banish hunger from the 
world. It can be done. . . . 

When we speak of hunger, we must also speak of 
its, causes. Pood deficits have many causes. Among 
them are land resources, climatic conditions, farm 
techniques, population trends, trade policies. A very 
important cause of food deficits is economic under- 
development — in other words, poverty. The World 
Food Program will help us attack hunger directly, 
and it will also enable us to buy some of the time 
needed to promote the economic growth projects 
which, in the final analysis, are the only cure for 
poverty. 

As the distinguished Deputy Director Gen- 
eral [Oris V. Wells] of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization, the competent and dis- 
tinguished Executive Director of the pro- 
gram [A. H. Boerma], and Under-Secretary 
[Philippe] de Seynes have just told us, dur- 
ing its 3-year experimental period the pro- 
gram has used the pledges by some 70 coun- 
tries amounting to just under $100 million. 
$68,700,000 was in the form of pledges of 
foodstuffs, $5,400,000 in services, principally 
shipping and handling, and $19,600,000 in 



1 Made in Committee II (Economic and Financial) 
on Dec. 10 (U.S. delegation press release 4746). 



2 For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1962, p. 534. 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the form of cash, to meet the administrative 
costs of the program. 

One important feature of the program is 
that it involves such a close degree of co- 
operation among so many parts of the U.N. 
family. Not only was it jointly created by 
the United Nations and FAO; it is being 
jointly executed by them with the help of 
the International Labor Organization, the 
World Health Organization, and the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization. Moreover, the regional eco- 
nomic commissions have been involved in its 
planning. This joint action is a feature which 
may well become an example for other U.N. 
activities. 

The pledges of food consist principally (or 
about 60 percent) of cereals and cereal 
products, followed by dairy products, pro- 
tein foods in the form of canned fish and 
meat, vegetable oils, and even some coffee 
and tea. These contributions have been used 
to assist in some 29 emergency situations in 
22 countries. In addition, over 114 projects 
in more than 50 countries have been ap- 
proved. In all of these, food is being and will 
be used to feed preschool-age children or to 
assist in development activities. 36 of the 
projects are in Africa, 43 in Asia, 20 in Latin 
America and the Caribbean, and 15 in Eu- 
rope. More than 17 different types of proj- 
ects are included in the total. Some of these 
are projects to provide better nutrition for 
expectant mothers and for school lunches. 
There is a wide variety of projects in which 
food is being used for partial wage pay- 
ments, while other projects involve land 
reform, land reclamation and development, 
aforestation, and a variety of public works 
projects and industrial projects. 

We should not overlook the value of the 
WFP efforts that include assistance to refu- 
gee settlement, community improvement, 
and support to public health programs. 

An important function of the World Food 
Program is to supply food to countries that 
have experienced disasters such as earth- 
quakes or prolonged drought. Here food can 
be used not only to feed hungry people but 
as partial wages during periods that they 



are working to rebuild their homes and re- 
planting their farms. This is indeed a mo- 
mentous record for a small, new program. 

Speaking for my delegation, Mr. Chair- 
man, I want to express our congratulations 
to the able Director of the World Food Pro- 
gram for the imaginative uses of the slender 
resources of the program for such a rich 
variety of activities that are contributing so 
directly to economic development. It is our 
hope that, when the program is extended 
and when, as we hope, its size is substan- 
tially increased by increased contributions 
in response to the new target of $275 million 
which will be established, it can go on to 
greater, more useful, and more varied activi- 
ties. 

Origin of World Food Program 

Before turning to the future of the pro- 
gram, let me touch briefly on its origins. The 
details of the beginning of the World Food 
Program are described in E/4015, the report 
by the Secretary-General of the United Na- 
tions and the Director General of the Food 
and Agriculture Organization. 

Early in 1960, the World Food Program 
resolution was adopted unanimously by the 
15th General Assembly. 3 This resolution ap- 
pealed to member governments to take ade- 
quate measures to make their food surpluses 
available in support of economic develop- 
ment, especially stressing that any action 
under this resolution should proceed in ac- 
cordance with FAO's principles of surplus 
disposal and guidelines and with, of course, 
adequate safeguards against dumping and 
against adverse effects upon the economic 
and financial position of those countries 
which depend for their foreign exchange 
earnings on the export of food commodities. 

This resolution invited the FAO to study 
the problem of the use of food surpluses in 
economic development and submit its report 
and its recommendations to the Economic 
and Social Council. The FAO Council in 
October 1960 established a 13-member Inter- 
governmental Advisory Committee to advise 



3 For text, see ibid., Nov. 21, 1960, p. 800. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



131 



the Director General on the task. When the 
Committee met in April 1961, my Govern- 
ment submitted a proposal suggesting a 
3-year experimental program with a target 
for voluntary contributions of $100 million 
in cash and commodities. 

The Director General's report on the pro- 
posed experimental program was considered 
by the FAO Council in June 1961 and by 
ECOSOC in July 1961, together with a report 
from the Secretary-General on "The Role of 
the United Nations and its related agencies 
in the use of food surpluses for Economic 
Development." ECOSOC adopted a resolu- 
tion during its 32d meeting requesting the 
Secretary-General and the Director General 
of FAO to consult with one another and 
other agencies and to formulate more de- 
tailed proposals. It was the result of these 
consultations and studies which culminated 
in General Assembly Resolution 1714 (XVI) 
adopted December 19, 1961. 

The crux of this resolution was the recog- 
nition, which I want to stress, that the ulti- 
mate solution to the problem of food 
deficiency lies in self-sustaining economic 
growth of developing countries, in order that 
they would find it possible to meet their 
food requirements from their food-producing 
industries or from the proceeds of their 
expanding export trade, and that the utiliza- 
tion of surplus foodstuffs therefore repre- 
sented an important transitional means of 
helping these countries in their economic 
development. 

I speak at length about the origins of the 
World Food Program because I am un- 
ashamedly proud of the role that my Gov- 
ernment has had in making its food sur- 
pluses available to further the goals of 
economic development, not only through its 
own Food for Peace program but by helping 
in the establishment of this international 
effort. The U.S. contribution represents $50 
million, or about half of the budget of the 
experimental 3-year period. This $50 million 
consisted of $40 million in foodstuffs and 
$10 million in cash and services. 



U.S. Food for Peace Program 

Mr. Chairman, I want to digress briefly 
to mention the U.S. bilateral Food for Peace 
program, of which our contributions of food 
to the World Food Program are a part. The 
U.S. program, under the well-known Public 
Law 480, has now completed its first decade. 
Total Food for Peace exports are now an- 
nually over $1.5 billion, and in the 10-year 
period they had a total value of $12.3 billion. 
A large part of this total was paid for in 
the currency of the receiving country. About 
one-third of the total is a gift either for 
relief in emergency situations or for use to 
assist work projects for development, irri- 
gation projects, reclamation, railroad im- 
provement, and the like. Through this pro- 
gram U.S. farm products are supplementing 
the food resources of over 100 countries 
having a combined population of over 1.3 
billion. During the first decade of our bi- 
lateral program we have learned of the 
many ways in which surplus foods can be 
used to improve the lives of people and to 
assist in the economic and social develop- 
ment of their countries. 

To help meet the immediate food crisis, 
the President yesterday morning [Dec. 9] 
authorized prompt extension of the existing 
Public Law 480 agreement with India to 
cover an additional 1% million tons of food 
grains. 4 The entire amount will be made 
available for early shipment. This allotment 
is equal to the present monthly allocation on 
a 3-month basis. 

We believe that all nations in a position 
to do so should join international efforts to 
help India meet the grave food problem it 
confronts at this time. The United States is 
fully prepared to participate in such an 
effort. 

In my statement in the general debate of 
this committee, 5 I said that the United 



1 For a statement made on Dec. 9 by Presidential 
Press Secretary Bill D. Moyers, see ibid., Dec. 27, 
1965, p. 1009, footnote 2. 

6 For text, see ibid., Nov. 15, 1965, p. 798. 



132 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



States is prepared to contribute up to 50 
percent of the required commodities and up 
to 40 percent of the needed cash and serv- 
ices. I would like now to be a little more 
specific with regard to the second part of 
that offer: Insofar as administrative costs 
are concerned, the United States is prepared 
to pledge up to $6 million over the 3-year 
period 1966-68, subject to the necessary 
congressional action. The shipping services 
additionally included in this part of the offer 
will be sufficient to cover the ocean freight 
on the commodities provided to the program 
by the United States. 

While my Government would like to see 
some experiment with the program approach 
if the studies now underway suggest its 
feasibility and if the resources are available, 
we must appeal to the sponsors of the 
amendment to the resolution to withdraw 
it. 6 This is a joint program, jointly author- 
ized, and in order to avoid any doubts as 
to the legality of its extension it should be 
approved in the same form by both parent 
organizations. It would be impractical to 
send the proposed interpretive amendment 
to the FAO for its concurrence, since the 
governing body, the FAO Conference, has 
adjourned. Passage of the proposed amend- 
ment would, in the opinion of my delegation, 
delay the extension of the program to the 
detriment of the developing countries it is 
intended to serve. 

Before closing, Mr. Chairman, I should like 
to take a few minutes to sum up. As Mr. 
Boerma, the Director of the World Food 
Program, pointed out in Geneva this sum- 
mer, the final answer to the problem of 
hunger is increasing the food production of 
the developing areas to a point where they 
can meet their own basic needs and in the 
success of all of our efforts to assist devel- 
opment so that the countries concerned can 



pay for any food imports they might require. 
No one, Mr. Boerma continued, is more 
anxious than he to see a world in which food 
aid is unnecessary, but, until that time came, 
food aid would have to be given on a much 
vaster scale than at present. 

In closing, let me repeat that hunger and 
malnutrition continue to be a major problem 
in large areas of this world. During the short 
period since the World Food Program was 
established by the General Assembly and 
FAO Conference resolutions of 1960 and 
1961, it has done truly great work in using 
available food to relieve this hunger and 
contribute to the development efforts 
throughout the world. We hope that the 
program will not only continue this good 
work but that it will give increasing empha- 
sis to using food to improve the agricultural 
production of developing countries since, as 
we all know, food aid in itself is not the 
permanent solution. It can, however, assist 
greatly in progress toward freedom from 
hunger by encouraging increased agricul- 
tural production in the hungry nations them- 
selves. 

My delegation, Mr. Chairman, supports 
wholeheartedly Resolution L.839, authorizing 
the continuation of the World Food Pro- 
gram. We will of course look forward to 
further discussion of L.841, introduced by 
the delegation of Argentina and other dele- 
gations, and we appreciate the openminded 
willingness of the distinguished representa- 
tive of Argentina to consider certain changes 
viewed as important by some delegations, 
including my own. 7 



•U.N. doc. A/C.2/L.819/Rev.l; withdrawn by the 
representative of Argentina on Dec. 13. 



' Both resolutions were adopted in Committee II 
on Dec. 13 and in plenary session on Dec. 20. A/ 
RES/2095 (xx) (A/C.2/L.839) extended the United 
Nations/FAO World Food Program "on a continu- 
ing basis for as long as multilateral food aid is 
found feasible and desirable"; A/RES/2096(xx) 
(A/C.2/L.841/Rev.l) requested the Secretary-Gen- 
eral to undertake a program of studies on multi- 
lateral food aid. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



133 



Third-Year Major Review of the Long-Term 
Cotton Textile Arrangement 



Statement by George R. Jacobs 



The United States comes to this, the third- 
year major review by the Cotton Textiles 
Committee of the operation of the Long- 
Term Arrangement, 2 with a sense of pride 
that the international community has been 
able to accomplish so much to find a practi- 
cal, livable solution to the difficult and per- 
sistent problems surrounding trade in cotton 
textiles. These have been good years for 
both the exporters of cotton textiles to the 
United States market and for the United 
States industry, which from all indications is 
adjusting to the vast changes that have oc- 
curred in production and trade in cotton tex- 
tiles over the last decade. 

These changes are evident to us from the 
GATT secretariat's study on cotton textiles. 



1 Made before the Cotton Textiles Committee of 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade at 
Geneva on Dec. 7. Mr. Jacobs is Director of the Of- 
fice of International Commodities, Bureau of Eco- 
nomic Affairs, Department of State ; he was cochair- 
man of the U.S. delegation, along with Stanley 
Nehmer, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Resources, 
Department of Commerce, at the meeting of the 
Committee. 

* For text, see Bulletin of Mar. 12, 1962, p. 431. 
The governments participating in the Long-Term 
Arrangement are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Can- 
ada, Republic of China, Colombia, Denmark, Fin- 
land, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, 
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Republic of Korea, 
Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Paki- 
stan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab 
Republic, United Kingdom (including Hong Kong), 
and United States. For statements made by the 
U.S. representative before the Committee on Dec. 
3, 1963, and Dec. 1, 1964, see ibid., Jan. 20, 1964, 
p. 96, and Jan. 11, 1965, p. 49. 



The United States would like to take this 
opportunity to offer its congratulations and 
appreciation to the secretariat for its fine 
job in preparing the study for this meeting 
of the Committee. We feel the study is a 
useful contribution to a better understand- 
ing of the forces at work in world cotton 
textile production and trade. 

Historical Review 

The accomplishments under the Arrange- 
ment — and there are many — should be 
viewed in the perspective of the situation 
that existed prior to 1962. That situation 
convinced all major textile importers and 
exporters of the need for international 
action. 

The pertinent facts are described in the 
secretariat study. It brings into focus the 
changes that have taken place in the cotton 
textile industries of the world since the 
early 1950's. It describes how the export 
trade has shifted from the industrialized 
countries to the developing countries and 
Japan. It examines in the case of various 
countries the policies and practices that have 
tended to expand or contract the flow of in- 
ternational trade in cotton products. Fi- 
nally, the study helps us grasp the nature of 
changes taking place in the industry through 
adjustments in industrialized countries and 
through the establishment of new plants in 
the developing world. 

The data show that the decade of the 
fifties witnessed an unprecedented burst of 



134 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



activity in the cotton textile industry. The 
annual increase in production was 4 percent 
as compared with an average rate of 1 per- 
cent for the preceding 40 years. 

Augmented production in the fifties was 
accounted for largely by an extremely rapid 
increase in capacity among many developing 
countries. The developing countries not only 
supplied an increasing volume of textiles 
and clothing for their own populations but 
also entered strongly into the export field. 
Exports of cotton textiles by the developing 
countries — largely to Western Europe and 
North America — almost doubled from 1953 
to 1960, whereas exports from the developed 
countries remained static or declined. 

Since per capita consumption of cotton 
textiles, particularly in the developed coun- 
tries, is fairly fixed and adjusts but slowly 
to changes in supply and price, the heavy im- 
ports of low-price apparel and other cotton 
textiles were quickly felt in the markets of 
the industrialized countries. The resulting 
problems were too massive to be handled 
through existing mechanisms. 

Results of the Long-Term Arrangement 

The LTA was devised to deal with these 
problems on a cooperative, multilateral basis. 
The LTA makes it possible to assure that 
growth of world trade in cotton textiles 
proceeds in an orderly manner. The LTA 
has permitted expansion of world trade in 
cotton textiles while providing the necessary 
safeguards for the industries of the import- 
ing countries. 

In the view of the United States, a most 
encouraging aspect of the GATT study is the 
fact that under the LTA world trade in cot- 
ton textiles has grown faster than production 
of cotton textiles. In the same period ex- 
ports from the developing countries partici- 
pating in the LTA have increased at a faster 
rate than have total exports. This larger 
participation of the emerging nations is in 
itself convincing evidence that the LTA has, 
in fact, led to expanded market opportuni- 
ties for the developing countries. 

The statistical record clearly shows that 



the LTA has sheltered the cotton textile in- 
dustries of participating countries — both im- 
porters and exporters — from unrestrained 
and destructive competition. The Arrange- 
ment has given industry the new assurance 
and confidence that encourage technological 
change and adjustment. The cotton textile 
industry has been able to respond to more 
exacting consumer requirements at prices 
the consumer is willing to pay. The growing 
health and efficiency of the world cotton 
textile industry as a whole is indicated by 
the sharp rise, in almost all countries, in the 
rate of machinery utilization and in output 
per spindle and loom. 

Imaginative marketing, especially of 
newer cotton products, in major world con- 
suming centers such as the United States 
has stimulated consumer interest and de- 
veloped sales opportunities for producers of 
all countries. 

U.S. Imports of Cotton Textiles 

The United States recognizes that, as the 
largest single importer of cotton textiles, its 
record is of particular importance. U.S. im- 
ports of cotton textiles increased sharply 
during the third LTA year to a new all-time 
high. Imports totaled 1,233 million square 
yards equivalent, valued at $354 million. 
Compared with the second LTA year, this 
was a most remarkable increase: 19 per- 
cent in quantity and 20 percent in value. It 
is also interesting to compare the quantity 
and value of imports during the third LTA 
year with the first LTA year and to note 
that the value increased by 19 percent while 
the quantity increased by 10 percent. 

I may interject here that in the first month 
of the fourth LTA year, October, U.S. im- 
ports have reached a level of 127 million 
square yards, as compared with the aver- 
age monthly level in the third LTA year of 
103 million square yards. Less developed 
countries were responsible for 66 percent of 
these imports in contrast to their average 
share of 60 percent during the third LTA 
year. 

The developments of the third LTA year 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



135 



were not unexpected. A year ago the U.S. 
representatives to this Committee indicated 
that the drop in imports of cotton textiles 
during the second year had been halted and 
reversed. The rapid increase in imports since 
then confirms that the drop was attributable 
to a lull in the U.S. textile market which af- 
fected both domestic textile activity and 
imports. 

An additional factor was a temporary un- 
certainty created by the extended legislative 
consideration of one-price cotton. Thus the 
overall drop in imports was not due to the 
operation of the LTA. Now, the one-price 
cotton program is in effect at least until 
1970 by the terms of the Agricultural Act of 
1965. This is a development that has made 
cotton available to U.S. mills at the same 
price as to foreign buyers of U.S. cotton. As 
a result the market has stabilized and 
gained new confidence. Even more, the gen- 
erally prosperous economic situation and 
high consumer income in the United States 
have contributed to an increasing demand 
for cotton textile products, both domestic 
and imported. 

Although these observations on the devel- 
opments of the past year are important, it is 
of even greater significance for this meeting 
to note the changes that have occurred in 
the textile trade and industry of the United 
States since the advent of the LTA. 

Imports in the third LTA year represent 
an increase of 420 million square yards over 
those in the year ending June 1961, the base 
period of the Short-Term Arrangement. 3 
The growth in imports, amounting to 52 
percent, has been several times the growth 
in U.S. consumption. On a value basis, the 
increase in imports has been even greater, 
56 percent. 

In reviewing the breakdown of trade by 
commodity groups, one is struck by the per- 
sistent upward trend in imports of apparel. 
In the third LTA year the volume amounted 
to 438 million square yards, valued at $177 
million, a sharp increase from 297 million 



For text, see ibid., Aug. 21, 1961, p. 337. 



square yards valued at §113 million for the 
year ending June 1961. Apparel imports 
have constituted 35 percent of all cotton 
textile imports by quantity and 50 percent 
by value. Apparel represents the most at- 
tractive export of all cotton products be- 
cause the high value added maximizes em- 
ployment opportunities and dollar earnings. 
Nevertheless, of all cotton textile products, 
the apparel categories are among the most 
susceptible to disruption. 

Importing countries like the United States 
that have well-developed domestic apparel 
industries, employing large numbers of 
workers, must necessarily be concerned by 
disruptive apparel imports. The apparel in- 
dustry of the United States consists of 
thousands of intensely competitive firms, 
generally small, often with limited working 
capital. These firms, together with those in 
the mill sector, are the innovators of new 
products and are at the forefront of sale3 
promotion, but at the same time they are 
particularly sensitive to competition from 
low-price imports. Their ability to continue 
to innovate and to promote is essential to the 
welfare of textile industries in foreign coun- 
tries that export to the U.S. market as well 
as to the health of the U.S. industry. 

Changing supply and market conditions 
have produced some fluctuations in imports 
of other cotton textile products. Yarn im- 
ports, after rising from 57 million square 
yards in the year ending June 1961 to 130 
million in the STA year, declined to 69 mil- 
lion in the third LTA year. Nevertheless, 
yarn imports have recently shown a strong 
upward trend. From March through Sep- 
tember 1965, imports increased 36 percent 
over those in the same period of the pre- 
vious year. 

Fabric imports, except for the dip in the 
second LTA year that paralleled the decline 
in the domestic industry, have been gaining 
consistently both in absolute terms and in 
relation to total imports. In the third LTA 
year fabric imports were 64 percent above 
those in the year ending June 1961. The 
made-up and miscellaneous groups also 
reached new highs in the third LTA year, 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in both cases exceeding previous records set 
in the ST A year. 

The past 4 years have also witnessed 
greater sophistication and diversity in the 
imports of specific categories within the 
groups. This trend is reflected, as an illus- 
tration, by a decline in the proportion of 
relatively inexpensive carded sheeting and 
substantial gains in imports of more expen- 
sive fabrics such as poplins, broadcloth, 
printcloth, twills, and miscellaneous yarn- 
dyed fabrics. 

The relative position of suppliers in the 
U.S. market is a subject of special interest 
to many of you in this meeting. About 92 
percent of total cotton textile imports into 
the United States during the third LTA year 
came from developing countries and Japan. 
The developing countries alone accounted 
for about 60 percent of the total. In con- 
trast, imports from the developed countries 
of Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and 
North America accounted for only 8 per- 
cent of the total. Furthermore, the quantity 
imported from these developed countries 
has held closely to the level for the year 
ending June 1961. Thus the entire import 
gain of 420 million square yards since that 
time is accounted for by increased ship- 
ments from the developing countries and 
Japan. Imports from the developing coun- 
tries increased by 60 percent during this 
period. The developing countries earned 
$174 million in foreign exchange earnings 
through their exports to the United States 
in the third LTA year. We consider it prob- 
able that their exports to the United States 
will increase further during the fourth year 
of the Arrangement. 

A number of new suppliers have shipped 
in quantity to the American market since 
1961. We are pleased that several of these 
countries are represented at this meeting as 
participants in the LTA. With most of the 
others also, the United States has entered 
into various types of arrangements to per- 
mit equitable and nondisruptive sharing of 
our market. 

Imports have increased in the U.S. market 
not only in quantity and value; imports 



have also gained a larger share of the mar- 
ket. The imports of 1,233 million square 
yards accounted for 7.4 percent of the total 
domestic market in the third LTA year, as 
compared to 6.8 percent in the second LTA 
year, and 5.2 percent in the year ending 
June 1961. The LTA itself is a factor in 
this increased share. Our bilateral agree- 
ments provide for an annual growth rate of 
5 percent, whereas domestic consumption is 
increasing at the rate of 3 percent. As the 
secretariat's report shows, U.S. production 
of cotton textiles has not increased ma- 
terially during the 3-year term of the LTA. 
The growth in the market has been taken 
up mainly by imports. 

The United States would like to caution 
that, while import/consumption ratios are 
useful and interesting, they do not tell the 
story of the disruptive impact that im- 
ports may have in the market for individual 
products or groups of products. We will not 
take the time to review import trends into 
the United States in individual categories 
but only note that about 50 percent of total 
cotton textile imports during the third LTA 
year were concentrated in nine categories. 
This concentration creates particularly heavy 
price pressures on the market for similarly 
produced domestic goods. Six of these cate- 
gories are in the apparel group. 

U.S. Policies Under Long-Term Arrangement 

U.S. actions under the Long-Term Ar- 
rangement are predicated on the general 
governmental policy that trade and competi- 
tion are healthy for industry. Cotton textile 
imports are permitted without quantitative 
limitation except for actions taken under the 
Long-Term Arrangement to avoid disruption 
to markets for particular products. The 
United States requests restraint on imports 
of cotton textiles only when circumstances 
clearly show such action is required. It does 
so sparingly and in accordance with the spe- 
cific provisions of article 3 of the Arrange- 
ment. Restraints are eliminated when no 
longer needed. 

Article 3 restraints are currently in effect 
on seven categories from three countries. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



137 



Only one of the countries is a participant 
in the Arrangement. The United States did 
not resort to the procedures of article 3 
with respect to imports from any participat- 
ing country during the third LTA year. Sev- 
en article 3 restraints were dropped during 
that period. The restraint levels now in ef- 
fect total 16 million square yards. 

Where necessary to resort to the provi- 
sions of the Long-Term Arrangement to pre- 
vent market disruption, the United States 
has found that bilateral agreements under 
article 4 offer exporting countries more fa- 
vorable conditions to develop their exports 
of cotton textiles to the United States be- 
cause of the assurances of stability and 
growth. 

The United States now has multiyear 
bilateral agreements on cotton textile trade 
with 17 exporting countries. Four of these 
were concluded during the third LTA year. 
The manner in which the United States can 
cooperate under bilateral agreements is il- 
lustrated by these four instances. The ag- 
gregate ceilings in the four new agreements 
total 97 million square yards, compared to 
actual imports from these countries during 
the first year of the Geneva arrangements, 
the STA year, of 39 million square yards. 

Even though bilateral agreements are de- 
signed to meet specific trade requirements, 
the United States, in its administration of 
the bilaterals, tries, to the extent possible, 
to accommodate particular problems that 
the exporting countries encounter thereaf- 
ter. During the third LTA year the United 
States agreed to changes in bilateral agree- 
ments with eight exporting countries. There 
were 22 separate actions involved. The 
United States observes its obligations under 
article 6(c) to insure that exports of par- 
ticipants are not restrained more severely 
than are exports of nonparticipants. 

The figures show that the United States 
has successfully complied with this equity 
commitment. Imports from participants have 
remained above 90 percent of total imports 
throughout the course of the LTA. The 
United States has attempted to encourage 
nonparticipating countries to join the Long- 



Term Arrangement in order both to receive 
its advantages and to assume a share of 
the responsibility for working out world 
cotton textile trade problems. 

Impact of LTA on U.S. Industry 

The Long-Term Arrangement has helped 
to restore confidence in the future of the 
U.S. cotton textile industry, including the 
apparel sector. While imports into the 
United States have grown, the threat of dis- 
ruption in the market has been reduced. The 
industry has responded by increasing its in- 
vestment in new plants and in more modern 
equipment. 

The output of U.S. firms has increased in 
recent months, though at a lesser rate than 
the increase in imports. As a result, the long- 
term decline in employment has been halted, 
at least temporarily, and profits of the in- 
dustry have shown improvement. 

The industry in the United States is none- 
theless confronted with several serious prob- 
lems: 

— It has always been subject to cyclical 
fluctuations. 

— Textile industry profits, although rising, 
are still among the lowest in industry. 

— Cotton textile wage rates continue to 
lag behind the average for manufacturing 
industries. 

— Unemployment rates, particularly in the 
apparel sector, continue to be well above 
the level for all manufacturing industries. 

— Per capita consumption of all fibers in 
the United States has not grown since 1953, 
and cotton's share in the total has been de- 
clining steadily for the past 15 years. 

It is natural and healthy that the U.S. 
industry and the U.S. Government should 
be concerned with those problems. 

Underlying Problems Requiring Consideration 

In reviewing the record to date under the 
LTA, and especially in considering the facts 
portrayed in the secretariat's study, we note 
several developments that are directly rele- 
vant to trends in world cotton textile trade 
and that will require careful attention. We 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



would like to mention these briefly and sug- 
gest that the Committee consider them in 
its discussions. 

1. Production of cotton textiles has been 
increasing rapidly in the developing coun- 
tries although world consumption has been 
stagnant. The growth in production has oc- 
curred both in developing countries that are 
participants in the LTA and in those that 
are not. This situation is contributing to sig- 
nificant overcapacity in production facili- 
ties. 

2. The number of cotton textile exporting 
countries, most of which are developing 
countries exporting under great pressures 
to earn foreign exchange, has increased. The 
secretariat's study refers to these efforts and 
describes export incentive schemes operat- 
ing in some countries. Overzealous stimula- 
tion of exports intensifies depressive price 
effects in the limited and highly competi- 
tive world markets. In this connection, more 
attention needs to be paid to the apparent 
disparity between export prices and higher 
domestic prices for similar goods in some of 
the highly protected markets of the export- 
ing countries. High consumer prices, espe- 
cially in low-wage countries, hold down 
internal consumption and the world demand 
for cotton textiles. 

3. The growing competition from man- 
made fiber textiles requires some new think- 
ing about how to stimulate demand for 
cotton products. The cotton-growing coun- 
tries are already at work to improve cotton's 
position in interfiber competition. Countries 
which are large exporters of cotton textiles 
might wish to join in these efforts. The 
competition is keen in this field, and those 
who wish to maintain and develop their 
export markets for cotton textiles must be 
aggressive, competent merchandisers of cot- 
ton goods. 

I should like now to present the views of 
the United States on the future of the Long- 
Term Arrangement. My remarks will be 
brief since the concept is simple : This inter- 
national instrument has been successful in 



coping with an unprecedented and difficult 
economic crisis; it has led to the orderly 
development of trade in a highly sensitive 
section of industry. 

Fortunately we have the opportunity to 
think about these and other problems in 
cotton textile trade in an atmosphere of 
optimism based on our immediate past ex- 
periences and the outlook for the coming 
year. The optimism of today is in large 
measure due to the wisdom of our arrange- 
ments for the orderly development of cotton 
textile trade. For no commerce can prosper 
or long survive in the chaos and confusion 
which characterized the markets for cotton 
textiles prior to the negotiation of the LTA. 

Differences in point of view among par- 
ticipating countries still exist and will in 
the future. This is perfectly natural. Nego- 
tiations for the Arrangement involved the 
compromising of many different points of 
view. We have no reason to believe that the 
countries now participating in the Arrange- 
ment could find a better basis for mutual 
agreement than the terms of the Arrange- 
ment as it now stands. 

In contemplating the future it is impor- 
tant that we keep in mind the need to settle 
upon policies for cotton textile trade after 
September 30, 1967. We should do so early 
enough to avoid confusion and apprehension 
in the market. If doubts on the future are 
permitted to occur, normal trade patterns 
will undoubtedly be adversely affected. 

The United States supports efforts pres- 
ently under way to extend the LTA in its 
present form. But it is necessary that policy 
decisions on this matter be reached soon if, 
as our chairman [GATT Director-General 
Eric Wyndham White] has said, we are to 
bring about "a higher degree of liberaliza- 
tion in trade in cotton textiles." The United 
States, as you have been told, is already en- 
gaged in talks with the Government of Ja- 
pan. We are ready to consult similarly with 
other exporting countries prepared to work 
within the framework of the initiative taken 
by the Director-General of GATT. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



139 



TREATY INFORMATION 



New Air Transport Agreement 
To Be Signed With Canada 

Joint Statement 

White House press release (Austin, Tex.) dated December 31 

Agreement has been reached in principle 
between the Governments of the United 
States and Canada on a new Air Transport 
Agreement to replace the Agreement dated 
June 4, 1949, as amended December 20, 1955, 
and April 9, 1959. 1 It is expected that minor 
drafting and other formalities will be com- 
pleted in the near future and that the 
Agreement will be signed at an early date. 

The Agreement is the result of lengthy 
negotiations carried out over the past 2 
years. Routes now operated under the exist- 
ing Agreement will be retained. The new 
Agreement also provides for a significant 
expansion of routes and will make possible 
a marked improvement in air services. 

It will be seen from the attached route 
lists that airlines of both countries will be 
permitted to operate direct services between 
Montreal and Toronto on the one hand and 
Tampa and Miami on the other, and also 
between Toronto and Los Angeles. Canada 
will be granted rights permitting non-stop 
service from Montreal to Chicago and a new 
direct route from Vancouver to San Fran- 
cisco. The United States will be granted a 
new route from Chicago to Toronto and a 
new route from Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco to Vancouver. Certain other route 
adjustments are also made. 

In order to be able to meet flexibly the 
needs which may emerge in the future for 
air services of a regional or local nature 



1 Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
1934, 3456, and 4213. 



which have not been provided for under the 
new Agreement, the two Governments have 
also agreed upon arrangements which will 
permit consideration of such services with- 
out the necessity for formal renegotiation 
and amendment of the Agreement. 

The two Governments have also agreed 
on the desirability of formally reviewing 
from time to time the routes established 
under the new Agreement in order to ensure 
that, consistent with an equitable overall 
exchange of economic benefits for the two 
countries, the routes meet the changing re- 
quirements of the public. It is planned that 
the first such review will take place early 
in 1969. 

The two Governments believe that the 
Agreement constitutes a constructive devel- 
opment in relations between the United 
States of America and Canada and that it 
will contribute to rapid achievement of a 
more modern and efficient air transporta- 
tion network serving the interests of the 
airline industry and the needs of the public. 

SCHEDULE I— UNITED STATES 

1. Seattle-Vancouver 

2. Los Angeles/San Francisco-Vancouver 

3. Denver/Great Falls-Calgary 

4. Chicago-Toronto 

5. Detroit-Toronto (Local service airline only) 
*6. Tampa/Miami-Toronto 

*7. Tampa/Miami-Montreal 

8. Los Angeles-Toronto 

9. New York-Montreal/Ottawa 

10. New York-Toronto 

11. Boston-Montreal 

12. Washington-Ottawa/Montreal 

13. Buffalo-Toronto 

14. Minneapolis-Winnipeg 

15. United States-Gander-Europe and beyond 

16. a) Spokane-Calgary 

b) Duluth/Superior-Fort William/Port Arthur 

c) Ketchikan-Prince Rupert 

d) Fairbanks-Whitehorse 

e) Juneau-Whitehorse 

f) Erie-Toronto 

* Mandatory stop at Tampa until November 1, 
1967. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



SCHEDULE II— CANADA 

1. Victoria-Seattle 

2. Vancouver-San Francisco 

3. Halifax-Boston/New York 

4. Montreal/Toronto-Chicago 

5. Toronto-Cleveland 

6. Toronto-Los Angeles 
*7. Toronto-Tampa/Miami 
*8. Montreal-Tampa/Miami 

9. Montreal-New York 

10. Toronto-New York 

11. Canada-Honolulu-Australasia and beyond 

12. a) Prince Rupert-Ketchikan 

b) Whitehorse-Fairbanks 

c) Whitehorse-Juneau 



Mandatory stop at Tampa until November 1, 



1967. 



United States and Japan Amend 
Civil Air Transport Agreement 

Following is an announcement released by 
the White House at Austin, Tex., on Decem- 
ber 27, together with texts of notes ex- 
changed between the United States and 
Japan at Tokyo that day (December 28, 
Tokyo time). 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

Japan and the United States on Decem- 
ber 27 announced the signing of an amend- 
ment to the civil air transport agreement 
between the two countries. The amendment 
grants to Japan the right to operate a new 
route Japan-Honolulu-San Francisco-New 
York and beyond. 

The United States was granted a new 
right to serve Osaka. In addition, agreement 
was reached upon a number of principles 
under which operations will be conducted 
by the airlines of the two countries. 

The amendment was effected by an ex- 
change of notes in Tokyo between Ambas- 
sador Edwin 0. Reischauer and Minister 
for Foreign Affairs Etsusaburo Shiina. 

EXCHANGES OF NOTES 

Japanese Note 

Tokyo, December 28, 1965 
Monsieur l'Ambassadeur, I have the honor to re- 
fer to the civil aviation consultations which re- 



cently took place in Tokyo in accordance with the 
Civil Air Transport Agreement between Japan and 
the United States of America which was signed on 
August 11, 1952, and was amended on January 14, 
1959. 1 The two delegations agreed to recommend to 
their respective Governments the deletion of the 
Schedule attached to the said Agreement and the 
insertion of a new Schedule, together with an An- 
nex thereto, both of which are enclosed with this 
note. 

I have further the honor to inform Your Excel- 
lency that the Government of Japan accepts the 
new Schedule with the Annex, and to propose that 
this note and your reply thereto, indicating the 
acceptance of the new Schedule with the Annex 
by the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica, will constitute an agreement between the two 
Governments further amending the Civil Air Trans- 
port Agreement, as amended, which will enter into 
force on the date of your reply. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
Your Excellency, Monsieur l'Ambassadeur, the as- 
surances of my highest consideration. 

Etsusaburo Shitna 
Minister for Foreign Affairs 

Enclosures : 

1. Schedule 

2. Annex to Schedule 

Schedule 

(A) An airline or airlines designated by the Gov- 
ernment of Japan shall be entitled to operate air 
services on each of the air routes specified, in both 
directions, and to make scheduled landings in the 
United States of America at the points specified in 
this paragraph: 

(1) From Japan to Honolulu, San Francisco, and: 

(a) New York and beyond New York to Europe 
(including the United Kingdom) and beyond.* 

(b) beyond to Mexico and Central America.** 

(2) From Japan to Honolulu and Los Angeles 
and beyond to South America.** 

(3) From Japan to Okinawa and beyond. * * * 

(B) An airline or airlines designated by the 
Government of the United States of America shall 
be entitled to operate air services on each of the 
routes specified, in both directions, and to make 
scheduled landings in Japan at the points specified 
in this paragraph: 

(1) From the United States via the North Pacific 
to Tokyo and Osaka and beyond. 

(2) From the United States via the Central Pa- 
cific to Tokyo and Osaka and beyond. 

(3) From Okinawa to Osaka and Tokyo.*** 



1 Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
2854 and 4158. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



141 



(C) Except as otherwise indicated, points on any 
of the specified routes may at the option of the 
designated airline be omitted on any or all flights. 



* Any flight operating eastbound from Japan 
which makes a scheduled landing at New York, 
and any flight operating westbound to Japan which 
makes a scheduled departure from New York must 
make a scheduled stop at San Francisco. [Footnote 
in original.] 

** Passengers, cargo, and mail destined for or 
originating at points beyond the United States may 
not make a stopover or be picked up or discharged 
at United States points on these routes. [Footnote in 
original.] 

*** In granting these routes, the respective Con- 
tracting Parties are cognizant of the provisions of 
Article 3 of the Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed 
at San Francisco on September 8, 1951, under 
which the United States of America exercises the 
powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdic- 
tion over Okinawa. [Footnote in original.] 



Annex to Schedule 

(A) In the event the Government of the United 
States intends to designate more than one United 
States airline to operate air services from New 
York to Japan under the United States route de- 
scribed in paragraph (B) (1) of the Schedule, the 
Government of the United States will notify the 
Government of Japan of this intention sixty days 
in advance of the designation. Without prejudice 
to the right of the Government of the United States 
to designate the airline or airlines concerned at the 
end of such sixty days, the United States will, on 
request of the Government of Japan, consult with 
Japan prior to the expiration of such sixty days 
in accordance with Article 16 of the Agreement. 

(B) If during any time that Article 13(F) of 
the Agreement is in effect, the Government of 
Japan is dissatisfied with a rate structure pro- 
posed by the airline or airlines of the United States 
which is based on the lower mileage of North Pa- 
cific as contrasted to Central Pacific air services, 
the United States will, without prejudice to the 
coming into effect of the rates as provided for in 
Article 13(F), consult with Japan at its request 
in accordance with Article 16 of the Agreement. 

(C) The purpose of the consultations referred 
to in (A) and (B) above will be to determine 
whether the eventualities mentioned therein war- 
rant modification of the Agreement in view of the 
changes which may be brought about in the com- 
petitive position of the designated airline or air- 
lines of Japan which are permitted to operate only 
on the Central Pacific route. 



U.S. Reply 

Tokyo, December 28, 1965 

Excellency: I have the honor to acknowledge re- 
ceipt of Your Excellency's Note of December 28, 
1965, in which Your Excellency has informed me 
as follows: 



[Full text of the Japanese note.] 



I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that 
the Government of the United States of America 
accepts the proposal contained in Your Excellency's 
note which, with this reply, constitutes an agree- 
ment between the two Governments further amend- 
ing the Civil Air Transport Agreement, as amended, 
which enters into force on this date. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
Your Excellency the assurances of my highest con- 
sideration. 

Edwin 0. Reischauer 



U.S. Note 



Tokyo, December 28, 1965 



Excellency : I have the honor to refer to the civil 
aviation consultations which recently took place in 
Tokyo in accordance with the Civil Air Transport 
Agreement between the United States of America 
and Japan which was signed on August 11, 1952, 
and was amended on January 14, 1959, and on 
December 28, 1965, and to confirm that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America accepts the 
following understandings relating to the above- 
mentioned Agreement which were reached between 
the two delegations during the course of these con- 
sultations : 

1. Where the word "beyond" appears in an air 
route described in the Schedule attached to the 
Agreement without specification of a subsequent 
geographical direction, air services on such beyond 
portion of the route may be operated to any point 
or points, including points in the home territory. 

2. A designation at any time of one or more air- 
lines to operate air services on any of the air 
routes specified in the Schedule attached to the 
Agreement does not prejudice the right of a Con- 
tracting Party to designate at a later date one or 
more additional airlines to operate air services on 
the same specified route. 

3. Any right granted in the Agreement is not 
prejudiced by the fact that there was a delay in the 
exercise of such right following the entry into force 
of the Agreement and its amendments. 

4. The rights granted in the Agreement include 
the right to operate air services for the carriage 
of passengers, mail, and cargo separately or in any 
combination. 

I shall be grateful if Your Excellency would be 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



good enough to confirm that the Government of 
Japan accepts the above understandings relating 
to the Civil Air Transport Agreement. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
Your Excellency the assurances of my highest con- 
sideration. 

Edwin 0. Reischauer 



Japanese Reply 

Tokyo, December 28, 1965 

Monsieur l'Ambassadeur, I have the honor to 
acknowledge receipt of Your Excellency's Note of 
December 28, 1965, which reads as follows: 

[Full text of the American note.] 

I have further the honor to confirm that the 
Government of Japan accepts the above understand- 
ings relating to the Civil Air Transport Agree- 
ment. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
Your Excellency, Monsieur l'Ambassadeur, the as- 
surances of my highest consideration. 

Etsusaburo Shtina 
Minister for Foreign Affairs 



U.S. Signs Convention on Transit 
Trade of Landlocked States 

Press release 3 dated January 7 

The United States has signed the Conven- 
tion on Transit Trade of Land-Locked States. 
The signing was performed by Ambassador 
Charles W. Yost at the United Nations Head- 
quarters in New York on December 30, 1965. 

This convention was adopted by the 
United Nations Conference on Transit Trade 
of Land-Locked Countries on July 8, 1965. 
The convention is intended to promote the 
economic and social development of the land- 
locked countries by insuring greater facili- 
ties for international trade. It grants free- 
dom of transit for traffic in transit and 
means of transport. It also deals with or 
enables contracting states to resolve such 
problems as customs duties and special 
transit dues and use of means of transport 
and application of tariffs, as well as other 
measures to promote free and uninterrupted 



transit traffic, such as storage of goods in 
transit, free zones, and other customs fa- 
cilities. 

The convention is to enter into force after 
ratification or accession of two landlocked 
states and two transit states having a sea- 
coast. In addition to the United States, the 
convention has been signed by Afghanistan, 
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussia, Cam- 
eroon, Chile, Czechoslovakia, Federal Re- 
public of Germany, Laos, Luxembourg, Ne- 
pal, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Sudan, 
Switzerland, Uganda, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 

Atomic Energy 

Agreement for the application of safeguards by the 
International Atomic Energy Agency to the bi- 
lateral agreement between the United States and 
Austria of July 29, 1959 (TIAS 4402), for co- 
operation concerning civil uses of atomic energy. 
Signed at Vienna June 15 and July 28, 1964. 
Entered into force: December 13, 1965. 

Agreement for the application of safeguards by the 
International Atomic Energy Agency to the bi- 
lateral agreement between the United States and 
Portugal of July 21, 1955, as amended (TIAS 
3317, 3899, 4519, 5111, 5679), for cooperation 
concerning civil uses of atomic energy. Signed at 
Vienna February 24, 1965. 
Entered into force: December 15, 1965. 

Finance 

Convention on settlement of investment disputes 
between states and nationals of other states. 
Done at Washington March 18, 1965. 1 
Signatures: Belgium, December 15, 1965; Congo 
(Brazzaville), December 27, 1965; France, De- 
cember 22, 1965. 

Judicial Cooperation 

Convention on the service abroad of judicial and 
extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial 
matters. Open for signature at The Hague No- 
vember 15, 1965. Enters into force on the 60th 
day after deposit of the third instrument of 
ratification. 

Signatures: Finland, Germany, Israel, Nether- 
lands, United Kingdom, United States. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

Protocol to the international convention for the 
Northwest Atlantic fisheries of February 8, 
1949 (TIAS 2089), relating to harp and hood 
seals. Done at Washington July 15, 1963. 1 
Ratification deposited: Poland, January 5, 1966. 

1 Not in force. 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



143 



Property 

Convention of Union of Paris for the protection of 
industrial property of March 20, 1883, revised at 
Brussels December 14, 1900, at Washington June 
2, 1911, at The Hague November 6, 1925, at 
London June 2, 1934, and at Lisbon October 31, 
1958. Done at Lisbon October 31, 1958. En- 
tered into force January 4, 1962. TIAS 4931. 
Notification of accession: Cyprus, December 17, 
1965. 

Wheat 

Protocol for the extension of the International 
Wheat Agreement, 1962. Open for signature at 
Washington March 22 through April 23, 1965. 
Entered into force July 16, 1965, for part I and 
parts III to VII, and August 1, 1965, for part II. 
Acceptance deposited: Portugal, December 31, 
1965. 



of the Agricultural Trade Development and As- 
sistance Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 454; 
7 U.S.C. 1731-1736), with memorandum of under- 
standing. Signed at Washington October 26, 1965, 
and at Naha December 23, 1965. Entered into 
force December 23, 1965. 



DEPARTMENT AND FOREIGN SERVICE 



BILATERAL 

Germany, Federal Republic of 

Agreement to support personnel from the Federal 
Republic stationed in the United States during 
emergencies. Signed at Bonn October 21 and at 
Washington December 18, 1965. Entered into 
force December 18, 1965. 

Protocol amending convention for avoidance of 
double taxation with respect to taxes on income 
of July 22, 1954 (TIAS 3133). Signed at Bonn 
September 17, 1965. Entered into force December 
27, 1965. 
Proclaimed by the President: December 30, 1965. 

Greece 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of October 22, 1962 (TIAS 5238). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Athens October 22 
and 23, 1965. Entered into force October 23, 1965. 

Italy 

Agreement relating to the loan of two naval vessels 
to Italy. Effected by exchange of notes at Rome 
December 23 and 27, 1965. Entered into force 
December 27, 1965. 

Mali 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of July 14, 1965 (TIAS 5852). Ef- 
fected by exchange of notes at Bamako December 
8 and 15, 1965. Entered into force December 15, 
1965. 

Philippines 

Agreement relating to cooperation in consecrating 
Corregidor Island as a World War II memorial 
site, with annex. Effected by exchange of notes 
at Manila December 22, 1965. Entered into force 
December 22, 1965. 

Agreement relating to the relinquishment by the 
United States of the right to use certain base 
lands and the granting by the Philippines to the 
United States of the right to use certain land in 
other areas, with annex. Effected by exchange of 
notes at Manila December 22, 1965. Entered into 
force December 22, 1965. 

Ryukyu Islands 

Agricultural commodities agreement under title IV 



Board of the Foreign Service 
and Board of Examiners 

AN EXECUTIVE ORDER 1 

The Board of the Foreign Service and the Board 
of Examiners for the Foreign Service 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Re- 
organization Plan No. 4 of 1965 (30 F.R. 9353), and 
as President of the United States, it is ordered as 
follows : 

Part I. Secretary of State 
Section 1. Delegation of functions. Except to the 
extent inconsistent with Sections 22(a) and 32(a) 
of this Order, all the functions which were trans 
ferred to the President by Sections 1(c) and 1(d) 
of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1965 are hereby 
delegated to the Secretary of State, hereinafter re- 
ferred to as the Secretary. 

Sec. 2. Redelegation. The Secretary may redele- 
gate the functions delegated to him by the provi- 
sions of Section 1 of this Order to officials or bodies 
of the Department of State. 

Part II. Board of the Foreign Service 
Sec. 21. Establishment of Board, (a) There is 
hereby established in the Department of State the 
Board of the Foreign Service, hereafter in this Part 
referred to as the Board. 

(b) The Board shall be composed of: 

(1) Five officials of the Department of State, 
each of whom shall be designated as a member of 
the Board by the Secretary and one of whom shall 
be so designated from among the officials of the 
Agency for International Development. 

(2) One official of each of the following who in 
each case shall be designated as a member of the 
Board by the head of the department or agency 
concerned: 



•No. 11264; 31 Fed. Reg. 67. 



144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(i) The Department of Commerce 

(ii) The Department of Labor 

(iii) The United States Information Agency 

(iv) Such other executive departments and agen- 
cies as shall be designated from time to time by 
the Secretary, each of which shall have one mem- 
ber on the Board. 

(3) The Chairman of the United States Civil 
Service Commission. 

(c) The Secretary may invite the head of any 
executive department or other agency which is not 
represented on the Board by a member of the Board 
to designate a representative to participate in 
meetings of the Board whenever matters of sub- 
stantial interest to such department or agency are 
to be considered by the Board. 

(d) Each member designated pursuant to subsec- 
tion (b)(1) or (b)(2), above, and each representa- 
tive designated pursuant to subsection (c), above, 
shall be chosen from among the officials of the de- 
partment or agency concerned who are not below the 
rank of an Assistant Secretary or who are occupy- 
ing positions of comparable responsibility, except 
that the Secretary may designate the Director Gen- 
eral of the Foreign Service as one of the members 
under subsection (b) (1), above. 

(e) The Secretary shall from time to time desig- 
nate a member of the Board as the chairman of the 
Board. 

Sec. 22. Functions of the Board, (a) There are 
hereby delegated to the Board the functions which 
prior to the taking effect of Reorganization Plan 
No. 4 of 1965 were vested in the Board of the For- 
eign Service abolished by that plan by Section 211 
(b) of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (22 U.S.C. 
826(b)), exclusive of that part thereof which fol- 
lows the last semicolon in the Section, and by Sec- 
tion 637(a) of that Act (22 U.S.C. 1007(a)). 

(b) The Board shall perform such additional 
functions as the Secretary may from time to time 
delegate or otherwise assign thereto. 

Part III. Board of Examiners for the 
Foreign Service 

Sec. 31. Establishment of Board, (a) There is 
hereby established in the Department of State the 
Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service, here- 
inafter referred to as the Board of Examiners. 

(b) The membership of the Board of Examiners 
shall be constituted in accordance with regulations 
prescribed by the Secretary. The Secretary shall 
from time to time designate a member of the Board 
of Examiners as the chairman thereof. Not more 
than one half of the membership of the Board of 
Examiners may be made up of officers of the For- 
eign Service. 

Sec. 32. Functions of the Board, (a) There are 
hereby delegated to the Board of Examiners the 
functions which prior to the taking effect of Re- 



organization Plan No. 4 of 196B were vested in the 
Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service abol- 
ished by that plan by Sections 212(a), 516(a), and 
517 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (22 U.S.C. 
827(a); 911(a); 912). 

(b) The Board of Examiners shall perform such 
additional functions as the Secretary may from 
time to time delegate or otherwise assign thereto. 

Sec. 33. Direction and supervision. All functions 
delegated or otherwise assigned by or pursuant to 
this Part shall be performed subject to the direc- 
tion and supervision of the Secretary. 

Part IV. Miscellaneous Provisions 
Sec. 41. Administrative arrangements, (a) The 
Department of State is hereby designated as the 
agency which shall provide administrative services 
and facilities for the Board of the Foreign Service 
and the Board of Examiners. 

(b) Upon request of the Secretary, the heads of 
executive departments and agencies shall, as far as 
practicable, furnish the Board of the Foreign Serv- 
ice and the Board of Examiners information and 
reports relating to matters within the cognizance 
of the respective boards. 

SEC. 42. Saving provisions, (a) Except to the 
extent that they may be inconsistent with this 
Order, all determinations, authorizations, regula- 
tions, rulings, certificates, orders, directives, con- 
tracts, agreements and other actions made, issued, 
or entered into with respect to any functions af- 
fected by this Order and not revoked, superseded, 
or otherwise made inapplicable before the effec- 
tive date of this Order shall continue in full force 
and effect until amended, modified, or terminated 
by appropriate authority. 

(b) For the purposes of any proceeding or other 
business which immediately before the effective date 
of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1965 or of this 
Order was pending or in process before the Board 
of the Foreign Service or the Board of Examiners 
for the Foreign Service as established by the provi- 
sions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 or by the 
provisions of Executive Order No. 11240 of August 
4, 1965, the bodies established by Parts II and III 
of this Order shall be deemed to represent continua- 
tions of the respective Boards. 

(c) Nothing in Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1965 
(30 F.R. 9353) or in this Order or in any Executive 
order issued before the date of this Order shall be 
deemed to terminate or impair any of the follow- 
ing: 

(1) The availability to the Director of the United 
States Information Agency of the authority which 
was made available to him by Executive Order No. 
10522 of March 26, 1954. 

(2) The availability to the Administrator of the 
Agency for International Development of the au- 
thority which was made available to him by Sec- 
tion 2(b)(3) of State Department Delegation of 



JANUARY 24, 1966 



145 



Authority No. 104 of November 3, 1961, 26 F.R. 
10608. 

(3) The availability to the Director of the Peace 
Corps of the authority which was made available 
to him by Section 2(b)(3) of State Department 
Delegation of Authority No. 85-11A of August 29, 
1962, 27 F.R. 9074. 

(4) The availability to the Secretary of State of 
the authority which was vested in him by Section 
42(3) of the Arms Control and Disarmament Act 
(22 U.S.C. 2582(3)). 

Sec. 43. Effective date. The provisions of this 
Order shall be effective as of January 1, 1966. 



The White House, 
December SI, 1965. 




PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 



Agricultural Commodities — Sales Under Title IV. I 
Agreement with Kenya, amending the agreement of 

December 7, 1964, as amended. Exchange of notes 

Signed at Nairobi September 1, 1965. Entered into 
force September 1, 1965. TIAS 5870. 2 pp. 5tf. 

Agricultural Commodities — Sales Under Title IV. 

Agreement with Bolivia. Signed at La Paz, August 
17, 1965. Entered into force August 17, 1965. With 
exchange of notes. TIAS 5871. 11 pp. 10?. 

Trade in Cotton Textiles. Arrangement with Hong 

Kong. Exchange of letters — Signed at Hong Kong 

November 7 and 16, 1964. Entered into force 
November 16, 1964. TIAS 5872. 10 pp. 10<t. 

Statute of International Agency for Research on 
Cancer. Done at the Eighteenth World Health 
Assembly at Geneva May 20, 1965. Entered into 
force September 15, 1965. With resolution. TIAS 
5873. 13 pp. lOtf. 

Desalting. Agreement with Mexico and the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency — Signed at Wash- 
ington October 7, 1965. Entered into force October 
7, 1965. TIAS 5874. 5 pp. 5tf. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Viet- 
Nam, amending the agreement of May 26, 1965, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at Saigon 
September 23, 1965. Entered into force September 
23, 1965. TIAS 5876. 3 pp. 5<f. 

Columbia River Basin — Permanent Engineering 
Board. Agreement with Canada, implementing arti- 
cle XV(4) of the treaty of January 17, 1961. Ex- 
change of notes — Signed at Washington October 4, 
1965. Entered into force October 4, 1965. TIAS 
5877. 5 pp. 5<(. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
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20402. Address requests direct to the Superintend- 
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cations, which may be obtained from the Office of 
Media Services, Department of State, Washington, 
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Aviation — Certificates of Airworthiness for Im- 
ported Civil Glider Aircraft. Agreement with Po- 
land. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington 
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Trade — Quality Wheat. Agreement with the Euro- 
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1965. TIAS 5869. 3 pp. 5<f. 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 3-9 

Press releases may be obtained from the 
Office of News, Department of State, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 20520. 

No. Date Subject 

1 1/7 Foreign policy conference, Salt 

Lake City (rewrite). 

2 1/7 Welsh sworn in as Chairman, 

U.S. Section, International 
Joint Commission (rewrite). 

3 1/7 Convention on Transit Trade of 

Land-Locked States. 

4 1/7 U.S. official position on Viet- 

Nam. 



146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INDEX January 2U, 1966 Vol. LIV, No. 1387 



Agriculture 

Sales of Surplus Foods to U.A.R. (Johnson) . 123 

U.N. Extends World Food Program (Roosevelt) 130 

Aviation 

New Air Transport Agreement To Be Signed 

With Canada (joint statement) 140 

United States and Japan Amend Civil Air 

Transport Agreement (exchanges of notes) 141 

Canada 

Matthew Welsh Chairs U.S. Section of Inter- 
national Joint Commission 118 

New Air Transport Agreement To Be Signed 
With Canada (joint statement) 140 

China. Vice President Humphrey Returns From 
Far East Mission (remarks, outline of U.S. 
position on Viet-Nam) 114 

Department and Foreign Service. Board of the 
Foreign Service and Board of Examiners 
(Executive order) 144 

Economic Affairs 

Third-Year Major Review of the Long-Term 
Cotton Textile Arrangement (Jacobs) . . 134 

U.S., Mexico Announce Proposals on Rio 
Grande Salinity Problem 118 

U.S. Signs Convention on Transit Trade of 
Landlocked States 143 

Foreign Aid. Sales of Surplus Foods to U.A.R. 
(Johnson) 123 

Immigration and Naturalization. The Immigra- 
tion Act of 1965 (Hines) 119 

International Organizations and Conferences. 
Third- Year Major Review of the Long-Term 
Cotton Textile Arrangement (Jacobs) . . 134 

Japan 

United States and Japan Amend Civil Air 
Transport Agreement (exchanges of notes) 141 

Vice President Humphrey Returns From Far 
East Mission (remarks, outline of U.S. posi- 
tion on Viet-Nam) 114 

Korea. Vice President Humphrey Returns From 
Far East Mission (remarks, outline of U.S. 
position on Viet-Nam) 114 

Mexico. U.S., Mexico Announce Proposals on 
Rio Grande Salinity Problem 118 

Philippines. Vice President Humphrey Returns 
From Far East Mission (remarks, outline 
of U.S. position on Viet-Nam) 114 



Presidential Documents 

Board of the Foreign Service and Board of 

Examiners 144 

Sales of Surplus Foods to U.A.R 123 

Public Affairs. Foreign Policy Conference To 

Be Held at Salt Lake City 116 

Publications. Recent Releases 146 

Treaty Information 

Current Actions 143 

New Air Transport Agreement To Be Signed 
With Canada (joint statement) 140 

Third- Year Major Review of the Long-Term 
Cotton Textile Arrangement (Jacobs) . . 134 

United States and Japan Amend Civil Air 
Transport Agreement (exchanges of notes) 141 

U.S. Signs Convention on Transit Trade of 
Landlocked States . 143 

United Arab Republic. Sales of Surplus Foods 
to U.A.R. (Johnson) 123 

United Nations 

The Question of Intervention in the Domestic 
Affairs of States (Goldberg, text of reso- 
lution) 124 

U.N. Extends World Food Program (Roosevelt) 130 

U.S. Peace Efforts Reported to Members of 
U.N. (Goldberg) 117 

U.S. Signs Convention on Transit Trade of 
Landlocked States 143 

Viet-Nam 

The Question of Intervention in the Domestic 
Affairs of States (Goldberg, text of reso- 
lution) 124 

U.S. Peace Efforts Reported to Members of 
U.N. (Goldberg) 117 

Vice President Humphrey Returns From Far 
East Mission (remarks, outline of U.S. posi- 
tion on Viet-Nam) 114 

Name Index 

Goldberg, Arthur J 117, 124 

Hines, James J 119 

Humphrey, Vice President 114 

Jacobs, George R 134 

Johnson, President 123, 144 

Roosevelt, James 130 

Welsh, Matthew E 118 



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Challenges and Choices in U.S. Trade Policy 

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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 



. 



BULLETIN 



18 



Vol. LIV, No. 1388 




January 81, 1966 



ECRETARY RUSK AND VIETNAMESE PREMIER RESTATE BASIC POSITIONS 

Text of Joint Communique 155 

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN OUTER SPACE 
Statement by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg 163 

INCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW CONCERNING FRIENDLY RELATIONS 
AND COOPERATION AMONG STATES 
Statement by William P. Rogers 168 

THE STATE OF THE UNION 
Address of President Johnson to the Congress (Excerpts) 150 



For index see inside back cover 



The State of the Union 






ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON TO THE CONGRESS (EXCERPTS) > 



Mr. Speaker, Mr. President, Members of 
the House and the Senate, my fellow Ameri- 
cans: 

I come before you tonight to report on the 
state of the Union for the third time. 

I come here to thank you and to add my 
tribute, once more, to the Nation's gratitude 
for this, the 89th Congress. This Congress 
has already reserved for itself an honored 
chapter in the history of America. 

Our nation tonight is engaged in a brutal 
and bitter conflict in Viet-Nam. Later on I 
want to discuss that struggle in some detail 
with you. It just must be the center of our 
concerns. 

But we will not permit those who fire 



1 Delivered on Jan. 12 (White House press re- 
lease, as-delivered text); also available as H. Doc. 
321, 89th Cong., 2d sess. 



upon us in Viet-Nam to win a victory over 
the desires and the intentions of all the i 
American people. This nation is mighty | 
enough, its society is healthy enough, its ir 
people are strong enough to pursue our ■ 
goals in the rest of the world while still | 
building a Great Society here at home. 

And that is what I have come here to || 
ask of you tonight. 

I recommend that you provide the re- 
sources to carry forward, with full vigor, - 
the great health and education programs 
that you enacted into law last year. 

I recommend that we prosecute with vigor 
and determination our war on poverty. 

I recommend that you give a new and • 
daring direction to our foreign aid pro- 
gram, designed to make a maximum attack - 
on hunger and disease and ignorance in 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1388 PUBLICATION 8030 JANUARY 31, 1966 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services, Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with infor- 
mation on developments in the field of 
foreign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of international affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the field of international relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 



ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. 
20402. Price: 62 issues, domestic 110, 
foreign $15 ; single copy 30 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget (January 11, 19661. 

note: Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
ment of State Bulletin as the source will 
be appreciated. The Bulletin is indexed 
in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Liter- 
ature. 



150 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



those countries that are determined to 
help themselves, and to help those nations 
that are trying to control population 
growth. 

I recommend that you make it possible to 
expand trade between the United States and 
Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. 

I recommend to you a program to rebuild 
completely, on a scale never before at- 
tempted, entire central and slum areas of 
several of our cities in America. 

I recommend that you attack the waste- 
ful and degrading poisoning of our rivers 
and, as the cornerstone of this effort, clean 
completely entire large river basins. 

I recommend that you meet the growing 
menace of crime in the streets by building 
up law enforcement and by revitalizing the 
entire Federal system from prevention to 
probation. 

I recommend that you take additional 
steps to insure equal justice to all of our 
people by effectively enforcing nondiscrim- 
ination in Federal and State jury selection, 
by making it a serious Federal crime to ob- 
struct public and private efforts to secure 
civil rights, and by outlawing discrimina- 
tion in the sale and rental of housing. 

I recommend that you help me modernize 
and streamline the Federal Government by 
creating a new Cabinet-level Department 
of Transportation and reorganizing several 
existing agencies. In turn, I will restructure 
our civil service in the top grades so that 
men and women can easily be assigned to 
jobs where they are most needed and abil- 
ity will be both required as well as re- 
warded. 

I will ask you to make it possible for 
Members of the House of Representatives 
to work more effectively in the service of 
the Nation through a constitutional amend- 
ment extending the term of a Congressman 
to 4 years, concurrent with that of the 
President. 

Because of Viet-Nam we cannot do all 
that we should or all that we would like to 
do. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



The Conflict in Viet-Nam 

Tonight the cup of peril is full in Viet- 
Nam. 

That conflict is not an isolated episode but 
another great event in the policy that we 
have followed with strong consistency since 
World War II. 

The touchstone of that policy is the in- 
terest of the United States — the welfare 
and the freedom of the people of the 
United States. But nations sink when they 
see that interest only through a narrow 
glass. 

In a world that has grown small and 
dangerous, pursuit of narrow aims could 
bring decay and even disaster. 

An America that is mighty beyond de- 
scription, yet living in a hostile or despair- 
ing world, would be neither safe nor free to 
build a civilization to liberate the spirit of 
man. 

In this pursuit we helped rebuild Western 
Europe. We gave our aid to Greece and 
Turkey, and we defended the freedom of 
Berlin. 

In this pursuit we have helped new na- 
tions toward independence. We have ex- 
tended the helping hand of the Peace Corps 
and carried forward the largest program of 
economic assistance in the world. 

In this pursuit we work to build a hemi- 
sphere of democracy and of social justice. 

And in this pursuit we have defended 
against Communist aggression — in Korea 
under President Truman, in the Formosa 
Straits under President Eisenhower, in Cuba 
under President Kennedy, and again in 
Viet-Nam. 

Continuing Lines of Policy 

Tonight Viet-Nam must hold the center 
of our attention, but across the world prob- 
lems and opportunities crowd in on the 
American nation. I will discuss them fully 
in the months to come, and I will follow the 
five continuing lines of policy that America 
has followed under its last four Presidents. 

The first principle is strength. 



151 



Tonight I can tell you we are strong 
enough to keep all of our commitments. We 
will need expenditures of $58.3 billion for 
the next fiscal year to maintain this neces- 
sary defense might. 

While special Viet-Nam expenditures for 
the next fiscal year are estimated to in- 
crease by $5.8 billion, I can tell you that all 
the other expenditures put together in the 
entire Federal budget will rise this coming 
year by only six-tenths of a billion dollars. 
This is true because of the stringent cost- 
conscious economy program inaugurated 
in the Defense Department and followed by 
the other departments of Government. 

A second principle of policy is the effort to 
control, and to reduce, and to ultimately 
eliminate the modern engines of destruction. 

We will vigorously pursue existing pro- 
posals — and seek new ones — to control arms 
and to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. 

A third major principle of our foreign 
policy is to help build those associations of 
nations which reflect the opportunities and 
the necessities of the modern world. 

By strengthening the common defense, by 
stimulating world commerce, by meeting 
new hopes, these associations serve the 
cause of a flourishing world. 

We will take new steps this year to help 
strengthen the Alliance for Progress, the 
unity of Europe, the community of the At- 
lantic, the regional organizations of develop- 
ing continents, and that supreme associa- 
tion — the United Nations. 

We will work to strengthen economic co- 
operation, to reduce barriers to trade, and 
to improve international finance. 

A fourth enduring strand of policy has 
been to help improve the life of man. 

From the Marshall Plan to this very mo- 
ment tonight, that policy has rested on the 
claims of compassion and the certain knowl- 
edge that only a people advancing in ex- 
pectation will build secure and peaceful 
lands. 

This year I propose major new directions 
in our program of foreign assistance to help 
those countries who will help themselves. 

We will conduct a worldwide attack on the 



problems of hunger and disease and ig. 
norance. 

We will place the matchless skill and the 
resources of our own great America, in 
farming and in fertilizers, at the service of 
those countries committed to developing a 
modern agriculture. 

We will aid those who educate the young 
in other lands, and we will give children in 
other continents the same head start that we 
are trying to give our own children. To ad- 
vance these ends I will propose the Interna- 
tional Education Act of 1966. 

I will also propose the International 
Health Act of 1966 to strike at disease by 
a new effort to bring modern skills and 
knowledge to the uncared-for, those suffer- 
ing in the world, and by trying to wipe out 
smallpox and malaria and controlling yellow 
fever over most of the world during this 
next decade ; to help countries trying to con- 
trol population growth, by increasing our re- 
search — and we will earmark funds to help 
their efforts. 

In the next year, from our foreign aid 
sources, we propose to dedicate $1 billion to 
these efforts, and we call on all who have 
the means to join us in this work in the 
world. 

The fifth and most important principle of 
our foreign policy is support of national in- 
dependence — the right of each people to 
govern themselves and to shape their own 
institutions. 

For a peaceful world order will be pos- 
sible only when each country walks the way 
that it has chosen to walk for itself. 

We follow this principle by encouraging 
the end of colonial rule. 

We follow this principle, abroad as well 
as at home, by continued hostility to the rule 
of the many by the few, or the oppression 
of one race by another. 

We follow this principle by building 
bridges to Eastern Europe. And I will ask 
the Congress for authority to remove the 
special tariff restrictions which are a bar- 
rier to increasing trade between the East 
and the West. 

The insistent urge toward national inde- 



152 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



pendence is the strongest force of today's 
world in which we live. In Africa and Asia 
and Latin America it is shattering the de- 
signs of those who would subdue others to 
their ideas or their will. It is eroding the 
unity of what was once a Stalinist empire. In 
recent months a number of nations have 
cast out those who would subject them to 
the ambitions of mainland China. 

History is on the side of freedom and is 
on the side of societies shaped from the 
genius of each people. History does not 
favor a single system or belief — unless force 
is used to make it so. 

That is why it has been necessary for us 
to defend this basic principle of our policy, 
to defend it in Berlin, in Korea, in Cuba — 
and tonight in Viet-Nam. 

For tonight, as so many nights before, 
young Americans struggle and young Amer- 
icans die in a distant land. 

Tonight, as so many nights before, the 
American nation is asked to sacrifice the 
blood of its children and the fruits of its 
labor for the love of its freedom. 

How many times, in my lifetime and in 
yours, have the American people gathered, 
as they do now, to hear their President tell 
them of conflict and tell them of danger. 
Each time they have answered. They have 
answered with all the effort that the se- 
curity and the freedom of this nation re- 
quired. 

And they do again tonight in Viet-Nam. 

The Decision To Stand Firm 

Not too many years ago Viet-Nam was a 
peaceful, if troubled, land. In the North was 
an independent Communist government. In 
the South a people struggled to build a na- 
tion, with the friendly help of the United 
States. 

There were some in South Viet-Nam who 
wished to force Communist rule on their 
own people. But their progress was slight. 
Their hope of success was dim. Then, little 
more than 6 years ago, North Viet-Nam 
decided on conquest. And from that day to 
this, soldiers and supplies have moved from 



North to South in a swelling stream that 
swallowed the remnants of revolution in ag- 
gression. 

As the assault mounted, our choice gradu- 
ally became clear. We could leave, abandon 
South Viet-Nam to its attackers and to cer- 
tain conquest, or we could stay and fight 
beside the people of South Viet-Nam. 

We stayed. 

And we will stay until aggression has 
stopped. 

We will stay because a just nation cannot 
leave to the cruelties of its enemies a people 
who have staked their lives and independ- 
ence on America's solemn pledge — a pledge 
which has grown through the commit- 
ments of three American Presidents. 

We will stay because in Asia — and around 
the world — are countries whose independ- 
ence rests, in large measure, on confidence 
in America's word and in America's protec- 
tion. To yield to force in Viet-Nam would 
weaken that confidence, would undermine 
the independence of many lands, and would 
whet the appetite of aggression. We would 
have to fight in one land, and then we 
would have to fight in another — or abandon 
much of Asia to the domination of Com- 
munists. 

And we do not intend to abandon Asia to 
conquest. 

Last year the nature of the war in Viet- 
Nam changed again. Swiftly increasing 
numbers of armed men from the North 
crossed the borders to join forces that were 
already in the South. Attack and terror in- 
creased, spurred and encouraged by the be- 
lief that the United States lacked the will 
to continue and that their victory was near. 

Despite our desire to limit conflict, 
it was necessary to act: to hold back the 
mounting aggression, to give courage to the 
people of the South, and to make our firm- 
ness clear to the North. Thus we began 
limited air action against military targets in 
North Viet-Nam. We increased our fighting 
force to its present strength tonight of 
190,000 men. 

These moves have not ended the aggres- 
sion, but they have prevented its success. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



153 



The aims of the enemy have been put out of 
reach by the skill and the bravery of Ameri- 
cans and their allies — and by the enduring 
courage of the South Vietnamese, who, I 
can tell you, have lost eight men last year 
for every one of ours. 

The enemy is no longer close to victory. 
Time is no longer on his side. There is no 
cause to doubt the American commitment. 

The Search for Peace 

Our decision to stand firm has been 
matched by our desire for peace. 

In 1965 alone we had 300 private talks 
for peace in Viet-Nam with friends and ad- 
versaries throughout the world. 

Since Christmas your Government has 
labored again, with imagination and endur- 
ance, to remove any barrier to peaceful 
settlement. For 20 days now we and our 
Vietnamese allies have dropped no bombs in 
North Viet-Nam. 

Able and experienced spokesmen have 
visited, in behalf of America, more than 40 
countries. We have talked to more than a 
hundred governments — all 113 that we have 
relations with, and some that we don't. We 
have talked to the United Nations, and we 
have called upon all of its members to make 
any contribution that they can toward help- 
ing obtain peace. 

In public statements and in private com- 
munications — to adversaries and to friends, 
in Rome and Warsaw, in Paris and Tokyo, 
in Africa and throughout this hemisphere — 
America has made her position abundantly 
clear. 

We seek neither territory nor bases, eco- 
nomic domination or military alliance in 
Viet-Nam. We fight for the principle of 
self-determination — that the people of South 
Viet-Nam should be able to choose their 
own course, choose it in free elections with- 
out violence, without terror, and without 
fear. The people of all Viet-Nam should 
make a free decision on the great question 
of reunification. 

This is all we want for South Viet-Nam. 
It is all the people of South Viet-Nam want. 
And if there is a single nation on this earth 



that desires less than this for its own peo- 
ple, then let its voice be heard. 

We have also made it clear — from Hanoi 
to New York — that there are no arbitrary 
limits to our search for peace. We stand by 
the Geneva agreements of 1954 and 1962. 
We will meet at any conference table, we 
will discuss any proposals — 4 points or 14 
or 40 — and we will consider the views of any 
group. We will work for a cease-fire now 
or once discussions have begun. We will re- 
spond if others reduce their use of force, 
and we will withdraw our soldiers once 
South Viet-Nam is securely guaranteed the 
right to shape its own future. 

We have said all this, and we have asked — 
and hoped — and we have waited for a re- 
sponse. 

So far we have received no response to 
prove either success or failure. 

We have carried our quest for peace to 
many nations and peoples because we share 
this planet with others whose future, in 
large measure, is tied to our own action and 
whose counsel is necessary to our own 
hopes. 

We have found understanding and sup- 
port. And we know they wait with us to- 
night for some response that could lead to 
peace. 

The Days Ahead 

I wish tonight that I could give you a 
blueprint for the course of this conflict over 
the coming months, but we just cannot 
know what the future may require. We may 
have to face long, hard combat or a long, 
hard conference — or even both at once. 

Until peace comes, or if it does not come, 
our course is clear. 

We will act as we must to help protect the 
independence of the valiant people of South 
Viet-Nam. 

We will strive to limit the conflict, for we 
wish neither increased destruction nor do we 
want to invite increased danger. But we will 
give our fighting men what they must have : 
every gun, every dollar, and every decision — 
whatever the cost or whatever the challenge. 

And we will continue to help the people 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of South Viet-Nam care for those that are 
ravaged by battle, create progress in the 
villages, and carry forward the healing hopes 
of peace as best they can amidst the uncer- 
tain terrors of war. 

And let me be absolutely clear: The days 
may become months, and the months may 
become years, but we will stay as long as 
aggression commands us to battle. 

There may be some who do not want 
peace, whose ambitions stretch so far that 
war in Viet-Nam is but a welcome and con- 
venient episode in an immense design to 
subdue history to their will. But for others 
it must now be clear the choice is not be- 
tween peace and victory. It lies between 
peace and the ravages of a conflict from 
which they can only lose. 

The people of Viet-Nam, North and South, 
seek the same things: the shared needs of 
man, the needs for food and shelter and edu- 
cation — the chance to build and work and 
till the soil, free from the arbitrary horrors 
of battle — the desire to walk in the dignity 
of those who master their own destiny. For 
many painful years, in war and revolution 
and infrequent peace, they have struggled to 
fulfill those needs. 

It is a crime against mankind that so 
much courage, and so much will, and so many 
dreams, must be flung on the fires of war 
and death. 

To all of those caught up in this conflict, 
we therefore say again tonight: Let us 
choose peace, and with it the wondrous 
works of peace, and, beyond that, the time 
when hope reaches toward consummation 
and life is the servant of life. 

In this work we plan to discharge our 
duty to the people whom we serve. 

This is the state of the Union. 

But over it all — wealth, and promise, and 
expectation — lies our troubling awareness of 
American men at war tonight. 

How many men who listen to me tonight 
have served their nation in other wars? 
How very many are not here to listen ? 

The war in Viet-Nam is not like these 
other wars. Yet, finally, war is always the 
same. It is young men dying in the fullness 



of their promise. It is trying to kill a man 
that you do not even know well enough to 
hate. 

Therefore, to know war is to know that 
there is still madness in this world. 

Many of you share the burden of this 
knowledge tonight with me. But there is a 
difference. For, finally, I must be the one to 
order our guns to fire, against all the most 
inward pulls of my desire. For we have 
children to teach, and we have sick to be 
cured, and we have men to be freed. There 
are poor to be lifted up, and there are cities 
to be built, and there is a world to be 
helped. 

Yet we do what we must. 

I am hopeful, and I will try as best I can, 
with everything I have got, to end this battle 
and to return our sons to their desires. 

Yet as long as others will challenge Amer- 
ica's security and test the dearness of our 
beliefs with fire and steel, then we must 
stand or see the promise of two centuries 
tremble. I believe tonight that you do not 
want me to try that risk. And from that 
belief your President summons his strength 
for the trials that lie ahead in the days to 
come. 

The work must be our work now. Scarred 
by the weaknesses of man, with whatever 
guidance God may offer us, we must never- 
theless, and alone with our mortality, strive 
to ennoble the life of man on earth. 

Thank you, and goodnight. 



Secretary Rusk and Vietnamese 
Premier Restate Basic Positions 

Press release 12 dated January 17 

Following is the text of a joint communi- 
que issued at Saigon on January 16 by Sec- 
retary Rusk and Nguyen Cao Ky, Prime 
Minister of the Republic of Viet-Nam. 

Prime Minister Ky and Secretary Rusk 
have concluded extremely useful discussions 
concerning the Vietnamese situation. Secre- 
tary Rusk reiterated the firm determina- 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



155 



tion of the United States to continue its full 
support for the Government of Viet-Nam in 
its struggle against external aggression, as 
most recently restated by President John- 
son in his state of the Union message, 1 and 
the Prime Minister reaffirmed the unflinch- 
ing resolve of the people and Government 
of the Republic of Viet-Nam to pursue that 
struggle so that aggression would be 
brought to an end. Prime Minister Ky also 
emphasized his Government's deep concern 
with measures to improve the welfare of the 
South Vietnamese people, and Secretary 
Rusk made clear that the United States 
would do all in its power to assist in these 
efforts. 

The Prime Minister stated the position of 
the Government of the Republic of Viet-Nam 
on the subject of the restoration of peace to 
Viet-Nam as it has been defined and reaf- 
firmed many times. This position remains 
unchanged. 

In sum, the Government of the Republic 
of Viet-Nam once again reaffirms that peace 
in Viet-Nam must : 

A. Accord with the pledges and desire of 
the Vietnamese people: an end to aggres- 
sion; independence and liberty; in order to 
permit eventually unification of Viet-Nam ; 

B. Be accompanied by guarantees in the 
absence of which there could be resumption 
of aggression which would endanger both 
Southeast Asia and the peace of the world. 

Secretary Rusk expressed his full ap- 
preciation of the position of the Government 
of the Republic of South Viet-Nam as 
stated above. He reviewed with Prime Min- 
ister Ky the position of the United States 
Government expressed most recently in 
President Johnson's state of the Union mes- 
sage. The Prime Minister and Secretary 
Rusk agreed that the basic positions of 
the two Governments were consistent in all 
fundamental respects. 

The Prime Minister and Secretary Rusk 
reviewed the extensive efforts made in capi- 



tals throughout the world to initiate steps 
toward peaceful settlement of the conflict in 
Viet-Nam. It was noted that there was at 
present no indication that North Viet-Nam 
was prepared to take positive steps to 
peace. The Prime Minister and Secretary 
Rusk agreed that the Vietnamese Govern- 
ment and its allies must continue to take all 
necessary military measures, while remain- 
ing alert to all proposals and initiatives 
that might lead to peace. 



Death of Prime Minister 
Shastri of India 

Statement by President Johnson 1 

Our nation mourns the death of Prime 
Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri of India. As 
the leader of the world's largest democracy, 
he had already gained a special place in 
American hearts. His tragic loss, after 
fruitful discussions at Tashkent, is a griev- 
ous blow to the hope of mankind for peace 
and progress. 

Lai Bahadur Shastri, in only 19 months in 
office, proved a fitting successor to Pandit 
Nehru by holding aloft the highest ideals of 
Indian democracy. His modesty in high of- 
fice did not conceal his strength and wisdom 
as the recognized leader of his people. The 
world is a smaller place without him, and 
our hearts go out to his family and to the 
people of India. 

Statement by Secretary Rusk 

Press release 6 dated January 10 

I have heard with profound shock and the 
deepest grief of the sudden death of Indian 
Prime Minister Shastri. His time as Prime 
Minister was relatively brief but full of 
achievement and promise. It was only this 
morning that we all learned of his great 
statemanship in reaching agreement in 



1 For text, see p. 150. 



1 Read to news correspondents on Jan. 10 by Bill 
D. Moyers, Press Secretary to the President. 



156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Tashkent; and we were looking forward to 
greeting him here in Washington in only 3 
weeks. 

I now join with millions all over the world 
in mourning the passing of this great Indian 
leader. 



U.S. Moves To Support Sanctions 
Against Southern Rhodesia 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF DECEMBER 30 

The Agency for International Develop- 
ment on December 29 concluded an agree- 
ment with Pan American World Airways to 
begin an airlift of gasoline and oil into 
Zambia as the U.S. contribution to the 
British efforts to minimize the impact upon 
Zambia of the cessation of petroleum sup- 
plies normally received from and through 
Southern Rhodesia. 

Pan American is supplying a late-model 
jet cargo aircraft which is expected to leave 
New York for Leopoldville on January 1. At 
Leopoldville arrangements have been made 
for delivery of petroleum products to the 
airport (Ndjili Airport), from where the 
cargo will be flown to Elisabethville. 

At Elisabethville, under arrangements 
made with the British and the Zambian 
Governments, the local oil companies will 
forward the cargoes by truck and railroad 
the short distance (60-100 miles) to major 
towns in the Zambian Copperbelt, where 
very strict gasoline and oil rationing has 
had to be imposed. The U.S. aircraft will 
operate between Leopoldville and Elisabeth- 
ville, since airports in those cities are 
capable of handling large jet aircraft. The 
Zambian airports are not. The Congolese 
Government has promised complete coop- 
eration in this airlift. 



1 Read to news correspondents on Dec. 30 by Robert 
J. McCloskey, Director of the Office of News. For 
a joint U.S.-Zambian communique dated Dec. 27, see 
Bulletin of Jan. 17, 1966, p. 85. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



AID is currently engaged in arrange- 
ments to augment the U.S. airlift by pro- 
curing further aircraft sufficient to lift ap- 
proximately 6,000 tons of gasoline, oil, and 
lubricants during the months of January 
and February. A further announcement will 
be made when these plans have been com- 
pleted. 

The U.S. airlift is a part of an overall ef- 
fort to move 14,000 tons of petroleum prod- 
ucts into Zambia during January and a 
higher amount during February. By March 1 
it is expected that alternative overland 
supply routes through neighboring coun- 
tries will have been sufficiently developed 
to terminate the airlift. 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF JANUARY 10 

Press release 6 dated January 10 

The Department of State announced on 
January 10 two further measures designed 
to complement the British program of eco- 
nomic sanctions against Rhodesia. 

The Agency for International Develop- 
ment has arranged to augment the Ameri- 
can contribution to the airlift now supply- 
ing Zambia with petroleum products. Trans 
World Airlines will supply an additional jet 
cargo plane, a Boeing 707-321C, which will 
operate between Leopoldville and Elisabeth- 
ville in conjunction with a similar Pan 
American Airways plane now in operation. 
It is expected that the TWA plane will be 
in operation on or about January 14. To- 
gether the two planes will be capable of de- 
livering cargo to Elisabethville at the rate 
of about 3,000 tons a month. From Elisa- 
bethville, the lifted petroleum products are 
delivered by rail and road to Zambia's Cop- 
perbelt cities. 

In further support of the United Kingdom 
and of the Security Council resolution of No- 
vember 20, 2 the Departments of State and 
Commerce have been holding talks with 
United States importers of various South- 



1 For text, see Bulletin of Dec. 6, 1965, p. 916. 



157 



era Rhodesian commodities with a view to 
replacing such imports with goods from 
other sources. These talks are continuing, 
and United States consumers of Rhodesian 
asbestos and lithium have expressed their 
willingness to cooperate in finding alterna- 
tive sources. Lithium and asbestos are two 
of the most significant United States im- 
ports from Southern Rhodesia. 



United States Asks for Recall 
of Burundi Ambassador 



Department Statement 



Press release 7 dated January 11 



The United States today [January 11] re- 
quested that the Burundi Government 
"promptly recall" Ambassador Leon Nden- 
zako from Washington in a note 1 which 
"protests strongly" the action of Burundi 
yesterday in requiring the departure from 
Burundi of the American Ambassador and 
two members of his staff. 

Ambassador Ndenzako, who has been serv- 
ing in Washington since December 1963, 
was summoned to the Department of State 
at 11 o'clock this morning and handed the 
note. 

A letter * from Burundi Foreign Minister 
Marc Manirakiza addressed to the Secretary 
of State containing the request for a recall 
of Ambassador Donald A. Dumont, Coun- 
selor of Embassy Thompson R. Buchanan, 
and USIA Cultural Attache Nicholas R. 
Milroy was sent in the open mail — rather 
than normal diplomatic channels — from Bu- 
jumbura December 29 and was received in 
the Department's Bureau of African Affairs 
on January 10. 

The United States in its note said that it 
"must reject" the reasons contained in the 
Foreign Minister's letter. The letter, it 
added, does not claim that the United States 
officials concerned had engaged in improper 
actions. It refers to suspicions, which are 



' Not printed. 



wholly without foundation, that the officials 
maintained contacts with conspirators in 
Burundi. Indeed, in the letter, by use of the 
phrase "wrongly or rightly" to characterize 
the holding of suspicions by the Government 
of the Kingdom of Burundi, the Foreign 
Minister indicates that the GKB has acted 
without reference to the merits of the 
question on which it purports to pass. 

The United States is aware that Ambassa- 
dor Dumont and officers of the Embassy in 
Bujumbura in the normal course of their 
duties have necessarily maintained contacts 
with ministers in the Burundi Government 
and with members of Parliament. Subse- 
quently, some of these individuals were de- 
tained and executed for acts against the 
Government following the attempted coup 
d'etat last October. 

Ambassador Dumont, Mr. Buchanan, and 
Mr. Milroy, although not departing on a reg- 
ularly scheduled flight until 1 :45 p.m., were 
required to be at the Bujumbura airport at 
9 o'clock this morning. The Ambassador 
and Mr. Buchanan are now en route to 
Washington. 

In its note the United States expressed its 
amazement at the arbitrary 24-hour time 
limit laid down and noted that it gives rise 
to the impression that these officials have 
been declared persona non grata. 

"The discourteous treatment by the Gov- 
ernment of the Kingdom of Burundi in re- 
fusing to allow the United States officials to 
remain in Bujumbura for an additional 24 
hours in order to take the regularly sched- 
uled Sabena flight tends to reinforce this 
impression," the note said. 

The United States note also took account 
of this peremptory and unreasonable action 
respecting the United States officials, fol- 
lowing upon violation of the Embassy's 
premises on December 2 and 3, the arrest 
and detention of a domestic employee of the 
Ambassador, and harassment of American 
citizen missionaries in Burundi. There are 
about 160 Americans in Burundi, mostly 
missionaries. Henry C. Barringer is serving 
as Charge ad interim. 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



President Ends Increased Duty 
on Clinical Thermometers 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated January 7 

The President on January 7 issued a 
proclamation terminating the increased rate 
of duty on clinical thermometers which has 
been in effect since 1958. 

As a result of this action, the rate of duty 
of 85 percent ad valorem, which was pro- 
claimed pursuant to the so-called escape 
clause of trade agreements legislation, will 
be replaced by the trade agreement rate of 
42.5 percent ad valorem. 

This action was taken following the re- 
ceipt of a report by the Tariff Commission 
on the probable effects of terminating or 
modifying the escape-clause action and is 
based on the recommendation of interested 
Federal departments and agencies, including 
the President's Special Representative for 
Trade Negotiations. 

The new rate of duty becomes effective 
immediately. 



PROCLAMATION 3696 ' 

Termination of Increased Duty on Imports 
of Clinical Thermometers 

1. Whereas, pursuant to Section 350 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, the President, on April 21, 1951, en- 
tered into, and by Proclamation No. 2929 of June 
2, 1951 (65 Stat. cl2), proclaimed the Torquay 
Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, including a concession applicable to certain 
types of clinical thermometers provided for in item 
218(a) in Part I to Schedule XX of the Torquay 
Protocol (3 U.S.T. (pt. 1) 1144) ; 

2. Whereas, pursuant to Section 7 of the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1951, and in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article XIX of the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pt. 
5) A58; 8 U.S.T. (pt. 2) 1786), the President by 
Proclamation No. 3235 of April 21, 1958 (72 Stat, 
(pt. 2) c35), proclaimed that, effective after the 
close of business on May 21, 1958, and until the 
President otherwise proclaimed, the concession with 



1 31 Fed. Reg. 421. 



respect to the types of clinical thermometers iden- 
tified in the first recital of this proclamation should 
be withdrawn, thereby increasing the rate of duty 
with respect to such articles; 

3. Whereas, after compliance with the require- 
ments of Section 102 of the Tariff Classification Act 
of 1962 (76 Stat. 73), the President by Proclamation 
No. 3548 of August 21, 1963 (77 Stat. 1017), pro- 
claimed, effective on and after August 31, 1963, the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States, which re- 
flected, with modifications, and, in effect, super- 
seded (1) the provisions of Proclamation No. 2929 
insofar as that proclamation proclaimed the con- 
cession with respect to the types of clinical ther- 
mometers identified in the first recital of this proc- 
lamation (see item 711.35 of the Tariff Schedules 
of the United States), and (2) the provisions of 
Proclamation No. 3235 (see item 930.00 of the Ap- 
pendix to the Tariff Schedules of the United States) ; 

4. Whereas, following my request under Section 
351(d) (2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 
U-S.C. 1981(d)(2)), the United States Tariff Com- 
mission conducted an investigation, including a hear- 
ing, pursuant to Section 351(d)(5) of that Act (19 
U.S.C. 1981(d)(5)), and on May 27, 1965, submitted 
to me a report (30 F.R. 7306) advising me of its 
judgment as to the probable economic effect on the 
domestic industry concerned of the reduction or 
termination of the increased rate of duty effected 
by Proclamation No. 3235 (now reflected, with 
modifications, in item 930.00 of the Appendix to the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States) ; 

5. Whereas, in relation to the possible reduction 
or termination of such increased rate of duty, I have 
received and taken into account the advice from the 
Tariff Commission, advice of the Secretary of Com- 
merce and the Secretary of Labor in accordance 
with Section 351 (c)(1)(A) of the Trade Expan- 
sion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1981(c) (1) (A)), recom- 
mendations of the Special Representative for Trade 
Negotiations in accordance with Sections 3(b), 3(j) 
and 5(c) of Executive Order No. 11075 of January 
15, 1963 (48 CFR 1.3(b), 1.3(j), and 1.5(c)), and 
advice of other interested agencies of the Govern- 
ment; and 

6. Whereas, in accordance with Section 351(c) 
(1)(A) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, I 
have determined that the termination, as herein 
proclaimed, of the increased rate of duty effected 
by Proclamation No. 3235 (now reflected, with modi- 
fications, in item 930.00 of the Appendix to the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States) is in the 
national interest: 

Now, therefore, I, Lyndon B. Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under 
the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the statutes, including Section 351(c) (1) (A) of the 
Trade Expansion Act of 1962, and in accordance 
with the provisions of Article XIX of the General 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



159 



Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, do proclaim that: 

(1) Proclamation No. 3235 is terminated. 

(2) Item 930.00 (reflecting, with modifications, 
Proclamation No. 3235 which effected the increased 
rate of duty) is deleted from the Appendix to the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States. 

(3) The concession with respect to the types of 
clinical thermometers identified in the first recital 
of this proclamation shall be applied to such of those 
articles as are entered, or withdrawn from ware- 
house, for consumption on or after the date of this 
proclamation, in accordance with the provisions of 
item 711.35 of the Tariff Schedules of the United 
States. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the Seal of the United States of America 
to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this seventh day 
of January in the year of our Lord nine- 
[seal] teen hundred and sixty-six, and of the In- 
dependence of the United States of America 
the one hundred and ninetieth. 




President Modifies Import Duty 
on Stainless-Steel Flatware 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated January 7 

The President on January 7 issued a 
proclamation modifying the tariff quota on 
imports of stainless-steel flatware, which 
has been in effect since 1959. 

Under this tariff quota as originally pro- 
claimed, trade agreement rates of duty ap- 
plied to imports coming within a quota of 69 
million single units entered in any 12-month 
period beginning November 1. All imports 
above that quota were subject to rates of 
duty substantially above the trade agree- 
ment rates. 

As a result of the President's action, the 
quota subject to trade agreement rates of 
duty is increased from 69 million to 84 mil- 
lion single units. In addition the over-quota 
rates of duty are reduced as follows : 





WlTHIN- 

Quota 

Imports 


Over-Quota 
Imports 




Trade 

agreement 

rates 


Old 
rates 


New 
rates 


Spoons 

Knives and forks 
(chrome steel) 

Knives and forks 
(nickel steel) 


17% 
ad val. 

l<t each 
+ 12.5% 
ad val. 

It each 
+ 17.5% 
ad val. 


60% 
ad val. 

3t each 
+ 67.5% 
ad val. 

3<t each 
+ 67.5% 
ad val. 


40% 
ad val. 

34 each 
+ 15% 
ad val. 

3tf each 
+ 20% 
ad val. 



This action was taken following the re- 
ceipt of a report by the Tariff Commission 
on the probable effects of eliminating or 
modifying the quota and is based on the 
recommendation of interested Federal de- 
partments and agencies, including the Pres- 
ident's Special Representative for Trade Ne- 
gotiations. 

The new tariff quota becomes effective 
immediately and applies to imports entering 
during the quota year beginning November 
1, 1965. 

PROCLAMATION 3697 » 

Reduction of Increased Duties on Imports 
of Stainless-Steel Flatware 

1. Whereas, pursuant to Section 350 of the Tariff 
Act of 1930, the President, on April 21, 1951, en- 
tered into, and by Proclamation No. 2929 of June 
2, 1951 (65 Stat. cl2), proclaimed the Torquay Pro- 
tocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 
including supplementary concessions with respect 
to certain types of stainless-steel knives and forks 
provided for in item 355 in Part I of Schedule XX 
to the Torquay Protocol (3 U.S.T. (pt. 1) 1160) ; 
and, on May 23, 1956, entered into, and by Procla- 
mation No. 3140 of June 13, 1956 (70 Stat. c33), 
proclaimed the Sixth Protocol of Supplementary 
Concessions to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, including a supplementary concession 
with respect to certain types of stainless-steel spoons 
provided for in item 339 in Part I of Schedule XX 
to the Sixth Protocol of Supplementary Concessions 
(7 U.S.T. (pt. 2) 1362) ; 

2. Whereas, pursuant to Section 7 of the Trade 
Agreements Extension Act of 1951, and in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article XIX of the Gen- 



1 31 Fed Reg. 423. 



160 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pt. 
5) A58; 8 U.S.T. (pt. 2) 1786), the President by 
Proclamation 3323 of October 20, 1959 (74 Stat. 
cl5), modified, effective on and after November 1, 
1959, and until the President otherwise proclaimed, 
the supplementary concessions with respect to the 
types of stainless-steel knives, forks, and spoons 
identified in the first recital of this proclamation by 
proclaiming increased rates of duty limited to en- 
tries after the entry of an aggregate quantity of 
fi9 million single units of such articles in any 12- 
month period beginning November 1, resulting in an 
annual tariff quota at the concession rates of duty; 

3. Whereas, after compliance with the require- 
ments of Section 102 of the Tariff Classification 
Act of 1962 (76 Stat. 73), the President by Proc- 
lamation No. 3548 of August 21, 1963 (77 Stat. 
1017), proclaimed, effective on and after August 31, 
1963, the Tariff Schedules of the United States, 
which reflected, with modifications, and, in effect, 
superseded (1) the provisions of Proclamations Nos. 
2929 and 3140 insofar as those proclamations pro- 
claimed the supplementary concessions with respect 
to the types of stainless-steel knives, forks, and 
spoons identified in the first recital of this proc- 
lamation (see Subpart E of Part 3 of Schedule 6 of 
the Tariff Schedules of the United States, including 
items 650.09, 650.11, 650.39, 650.41, and 650.55), 
and (2) the provisions of Proclamation No. 3323 
(see the Appendix to the Tariff Schedules of the 
United States, including items 927.50 through 
927.54) ; 

4. Whereas, following my request under Section 
351(d)(2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 
U.S.C. 1981(d)(2)), the United States Tariff Com- 
mission conducted an investigation, including a hear- 
ing, pursuant to Section 351(d) (5) of that Act (19 
U.S.C. 1981(d)(5)), and on April 14, 1965, sub- 
mitted to me a report (30 F.R. 5655) advising me 
of its judgment as to the probable economic effect 
on the domestic industry concerned of the reduction 
or termination of the increased rates of duty de- 
scribed in the second recital of this proclamation 
and provided for in Proclamation No. 3323 (now 
reflected, with modifications, in the Appendix to the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States, including 
items 927.50 through 927.54); 

5. Whereas, in relation to the possible reduction 



or termination of such increased rates of duty, I 
have received and taken into account the advice 
from the Tariff Commission, advice of the Secre- 
tary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor in 
accordance with Section 351(c) (1) (A) of the Trade 
Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1981(c) (1) (A)), 
recommendations of the Special Representative for 
Trade Negotiations in accordance with Sections 3 
(b), 3(j), and 5(c) of Executive Order No. 11075 of 
January 15, 1963 (48 CFR 1.3(b), 1.3 (j), and 1.5 
(c)), and advice of other interested agencies of the 
Government; and 

6. Whereas, in accordance with Section 351(c) 
(1) (A) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, I have 
determined that the reduction, as herein proclaimed, 
of the increased rates of duty described in the 
second recital of this proclamation and provided for 
in Proclamation No. 3323 (now reflected, with 
modifications, in the Appendix to the Tariff Sched- 
ules of the United States, including items 927.50 
through 927.54) is in the national interest: 

Now, therefore, I, Lyndon B. Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under 
the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
the statutes, including Section 351(c) (1) (A) of the 
Trade Expansion Act of 1962, and in accordance 
with the provisions of Article XIX of the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, do proclaim that: 

(1) Proclamation No. 3323 is terminated. 

(2) Subpart A of Part 2 of the Appendix to the 
Tariff Schedules of the United States is amended 
as follows : 

(A) The second article description preceding item 
927.50 is amended to read as follows: 

"For an aggregate quantity from countries sub- 
ject to the rates set forth in rate of duty column 
numbered 1 not to exceed (1) 84 million single units 
entered in the 12-month period beginning November 
1, 1965, and (2) 84 million single units entered in 
the period beginning November 1, 1966, and ending 
at the close of October 11, 1967, unless the President 
proclaims otherwise pursuant to section 351(c)(1) 
or (2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 
U.S.C. 1981(c)(1) or (2)):". 

(B) Items 927.53 and 927.54 are deleted, and the 
following new items 927.60, 927.61, and 927.62 are 
substituted in lieu thereof: 



"927.60 



927.61 



927.62 



Knives and forks: 
With handles not containing nickel and 
not containing over 10 percent by weight 
of manganese (item 650.09 and 650.39) 



With handles containing nickel or con- 
taining over 10 percent by weight of 
manganese (items 650.11 and 650.41) 



Spoons (item 650.55) 



3<f each + 15% ad val 



3<t each + 20% ad val 



40% ad val 



3<f each + 15% ad val. 
but not less than 2<t 
each + 45% ad val. 



3<> each + 20 ad val. but 
not less than 24 each 
+ 45% ad val. 



No change." 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



161 



(3) The actions proclaimed in paragraphs (1) 
and (2) above are effective with respect to articles 
entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consump- 
tion on or after November 1, 1965. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this seventh day 
of January in the year of our Lord nineteen 
[seal] hundred and sixty-six, and of the Independ- 
ence of the United States of America the 
one hundred and ninetieth. 




U.S., U.K., and Canada Sponsor 
Survey of British Honduras 

Press release 8 dated January 14 

Great Britain, Canada, and the United 
States will jointly sponsor an economic sur- 
vey of British Honduras. The survey will 
analyze the economy and its growth poten- 
tial and suggest guidelines for development 
over the next 5 years. The members of the 
team will be drawn from the three partici- 
pating countries. The survey is scheduled to 
begin in the spring of 1966. 



Congressional Documents 
Relating to Foreign Policy 

89th Congress, 1st Session 

Export Expansion. Hearings before the Senate Com- 
mittee on Commerce on S. 558, a bill to authorize 
the Secretary of Commerce to carry out certain 
programs to develop and expand foreign markets 
for United States products, and to provide more 
effectively for assistance in the financing of cer- 
tain foreign sales which are affected with the 
national interest. March 17-19, 1965. 275 pp. 

Refugee Problems in South Vietnam and Laos. Hear- 
ings before the Subcommittee To Investigate 
Problems Connected With Refugees and Escapees 
of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. July 
13-September 30, 1965. 408 pp. 

Utilization of Excess U.S.-Owned Foreign Curren- 
cies in Certain Countries. Hearings before the 
Subcommittee on Foreign Economic Policy of the 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs. July 20- 
October 19, 1965. 233 pp. 

The Anti-Vietnam Agitation and the Teach-in 
Movement. The Problem of Communist Infiltration 
and Exploitation. A staff study prepared for the 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Senate Committee on the 
Judiciary. S. Doc. 72. October 22, 1965. 256 pp. 

89th Congress, 2d Session 

The Vietnam Conflict: The Substance and the 
Shadow. Report of Senators Mansfield, Muskie, 
Inouye, Aiken, and Boggs to the Senate Commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations. January 6, 1966. 32 pp. 
[Committee print.] 

The Atlantic Alliance: Treaty and Related Agree- 
ments. Prepared by the Subcommittee on National 
Security and International Operations of the Sen- 
ate Committee on Government Operations. Janu- 
ary 10, 1966. 57 pp. [Committee print.] 



162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



International Cooperation 
in Outer Space 

Statement by Arthur J. Goldberg 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

If I could name one ideally appropriate 
theme for United Nations consideration, that 
theme would be peaceful cooperation in 
outer space. Our organization offers a 
unique opportunity to examine not the tech- 
nical details of space activities but the man- 
ner in which these activities are carried out. 
Are they pursued in cooperation with other 
nations? Are they conducted in accordance 
with international law, the Charter of the 
United Nations, and the resolutions of the 
General Assembly? Are they managed 
openly and generously so as to make their 
benefits available to states in varying stages 
of economic and scientific development? 
What benefits do they actually bring to 
mankind, and what is their promise for the 
future? I do not intend to review my coun- 
try's scientific and technical achievements 
but rather to address myself to these essen- 
tial questions. 

It is fitting today to emphasize programs 
of direct interest to the developing countries 
and the member states who do not have 
large space programs, for it is not only a few 
major powers who will benefit from the 
newest frontier. The potential values of 
space — and we know enough now to feel 
certain of such values — should be common 
to the world. Development of this potential 
has already produced some remarkable tech- 
nical breakthroughs, breakthroughs that 
promise to make important modern services 
quickly and cheaply available to regions and 



'Made in Committee I (Political and Security) 
on Dec. 18 (U.S. delegation press release 4766). 



states that would not otherwise have been 
able to afford them. 

The first example that inevitably springs 
to mind is the weather satellite program, 
now a practical reality. Every nation has a 
basic need for modern, efficient weather 
forecasts. The inadequacies of such services 
have been especially acute for the develop- 
ing nations in tropical regions. We thus 
urge developing countries in particular to 
avail themselves directly of the new tech- 
nique now opening. 

The first TIROS operational satellite will 
be launched in 1966, following 11 successful 
experimental TIROS and Nimbus satel- 
lites orbited since 1960. The current me- 
teorological satellites are already providing 
weather information on a global basis. From 
these data the United States prepares warn- 
ings of the existence of storms, particu- 
larly in tropical latitudes and in the South- 
ern Hemisphere, and distributes them 
through normal and special weather com- 
munications channels. 

In addition, Automatic Picture Transmis- 
sion systems will permit any nation to ac- 
quire local cloud-cover photographs directly 
from a satellite passing overhead. Auto- 
matic Picture Transmission systems use sim- 
ple ground receiving equipment, which can 
be purchased at a very reasonable cost or 
developed locally from available specifica- 
tions. I hardly need stress the savings in 
lives, money, crops, and fishing fleets that 
this technique can afford. 

We are pleased that the World Meteoro- 
logical Organization is taking steps to assure 
effective use of these satellite data under 
the World Weather Watch program. We 
sincerely hope that all member states will 
cooperate fully with the WMO in this under- 
taking. 

Also in terms of immediate practical bene- 



JANUARY 31, 19G6 



163 



fits, satellite communications, like weather 
satellites, rank at the head of outer space 
programs. In April the international com- 
mercial communications satellite system, 
which includes participants from all areas of 
the world, became an operational reality as 
the Early Bird synchronous satellite went 
into position. In June this satellite com- 
menced handling commercial communications 
traffic, including television transmissions, 
between North America and Europe. More 
satellites will soon be launched to provide 
telecommunications service on a worldwide 
basis. This is a giant step toward fulfill- 
ment of the provision in Resolution 1721 2 
that, "communication by means of satellites 
should be available to the nations of the 
world as soon as practicable on a global and 
non-discriminatory basis." 

The recent accession of Nigeria to the 
commercial communications satellite agree- 
ment brings the total number of partici- 
pants to 47 : 6 from the Western Hemisphere, 
8 from Africa, 5 from the Far East, 11 from 
the Middle East and South Asia, and 17 
from Europe. 

Opportunities for Research and Training 

Of less immediate application, but of great 
significance for man's intellectual and ma- 
terial advance, are the research programs 
assigned to explore the realm between the 
earth and the moon — and beyond. Much of 
our work in this field is carried out in co- 
operation with other countries, and we value 
the scientific and technical skill our part- 
ners bring to these ventures. 

A particularly good opportunity for coop- 
eration is the program under which foreign 
scientists are invited to propose individual 
experiments for inclusion on the larger 
NASA satellites. Those proposals, which are 
selected on their merit, are then worked out 
in detail and the actual experiments pre- 
pared for flight by the sponsoring agencies 
abroad. Sixteen have already been selected 
for flight, and many more are under con- 



• For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 29, 1962, p. 185. 



sideration. The Apollo manned spacecraft 
and the first Voyager missions to Mars have 
been opened to foreign participation of this 
kind. A number of experiments for both 
have already been proposed. 

Some 17 countries have joined in projects 
using small sounding rockets. These pro- 
grams are not simply bilateral in character. 
Ionospheric rocket studies include Pakistani, 
Indian, and Australian scientists. Agree- 
ments with Argentina and Brazil have led 
this year to the establishment of an in- 
ter-American experimental meteorological 
sounding-rocket network which we hope will 
eventually engage Western Hemisphere 
meteorologists from the Antarctic Peninsula 
to the shores of Hudson Bay. 

This has been a particularly fruitful year 
for cooperative satellite projects. The Italian 
San Marco satellite, launched in December 
1964 by an Italian crew from the NASA fa- 
cilities at Wallops Island, Virginia, supplied 
new information on local atmospheric densi- 
ties in the equatorial upper atmosphere. The 
Canadian Alouette II, launched by NASA on 
November 28, continues the work of the re- 
markably successful Alouette I. It is the 
first of four additional Canadian satellites 
by which Canadian and American scientists, 
with the active assistance of colleagues in 
the United Kingdom, Australia, France, 
Japan, and Nigeria will monitor the iono- 
sphere through the next peak of the solar 
cycle. December 6 brought the successful 
NASA launching of FR-1, a French satellite 
which is making pioneer measurements of 
very-low-frequency radio emissions. Just a 
few days previously, France itself had suc- 
cessfully launched its first earth satellite — 
an achievement of which the people of 
France may be justly proud. 

The United States does not regard its ac- 
complishments in space exploration as nar- 
row national achievements. The eight coun- 
tries that cooperate in our manned flight 
networks have played a vital part in the 
Gemini flights. The three countries that 
cooperate in our deep space tracking and 
data acquisition network can feel that they 
too have made the acquaintance of our 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



neighbor Mars. Scientists in 38 countries 
have received complete sets of Ranger pho- 
tographs of the moon suitable for profes- 
sional measurement and analysis, and a simi- 
lar dissemination of the Mariner photo- 
graphs of Mars is underway. Thus, gifted 
minds throughout the world are encouraged 
to contribute to the most important part of 
space research — determining the meaning of 
the data that spacecraft send back to earth. 
To provide a larger base for future inter- 
national cooperation, the United States 
offers many opportunities for education and 
training. These have been published in the 
Secretary-General's recent report, "Informa- 
tion on Facilities for Education and Train- 
ing in Basic Subjects Related to the Peaceful 
Uses of Outer Space." 3 Significant advan- 
tage has been taken of these opportunities. 
During the current year, 85 resident re- 
search associates from 24 countries are 
working at NASA centers. Seventy-eight in- 
ternational fellows from 17 countries are 
studying at American universities. Ninety- 
one technical trainees from 7 countries are 
in the United States for training in various 
of NASA's cooperative projects. 

A Great Human Adventure 

Mr. Chairman, it is proper that in this 
forum we should give special attention to 
the practical benefits for men everywhere 
that can result from space programs. But 
there is another kind of benefit — perhaps a 
little harder to measure — which we should 
never forget. This is the adventure of the 
spirit deriving from space exploration. In 
our lifetime only a very small fraction of 
the world's population will be able to escape 
the pull of our planet's gravity, but every 
man ought to feel a part of the adventure of 
those who do. This is not just a figure of 
speech. No great civilization has lacked 
strong motivations and a strong conscious- 
ness of common adventure. No one can now 
accept bloody competitions between peo- 
ples as satisfactory adventures. We need 



' U.N. doc. A/AC. 105/28. 



something much better, much different, 
much more universal, as our inspiration. Can 
anyone suggest a brighter beacon than the 
light of celestial bodies? If we follow this 
light, some contemporaries may brand us 
poets; if we ignore it, historians will some- 
day brand us myopes. 

But if space exploration is to remain the 
great human adventure, it must be carried 
out in an open and generous manner. Infor- 
mation must be shared in good will, allowing 
a sense of participation that has nothing to 
do with national boundaries. 

The live radio and television reporting of 
our manned flight projects allows, I hope, 
this sense of identification. But this is only 
the most obvious aspect of an open space 
program. 

Just this month, 67 members of the 
Washington diplomatic corps accepted our 
invitation to visit Cape Kennedy to witness 
the Gemini 7 launching. Never had so many 
official representatives of foreign govern- 
ments been there at one time, but the visit 
was no new departure. Some of you recall 
that all but one or two members of the 
United Nations Outer Space Committee 
visited the Cape in 1962. Since 1958 more 
than 15,000 individuals from 108 countries 
have visited NASA installations. If any of 
my distinguished colleagues would like 
to visit Cape Kennedy or other NASA cen- 
ters in the future, I invite them to get in 
touch with me. 

Role of the U.N. 

Most of my remarks have concerned bi- 
lateral and multilateral cooperative space 
programs, without touching specifically on 
the role of the United Nations. More prog- 
ress here is needed. Nevertheless, there 
have been useful accomplishments in the 
last few years, sometimes in the face of dif- 
ficult conditions, through a process as un- 
dramatic as hard, day-to-day work. I 
refer to such undertakings as the publica- 
tions on national and international coopera- 
tive activities, programs of international or- 
ganizations, and educational opportunities 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



165 



in the field of space. The United States is 
one of many countries that has devoted 
careful attention to cooperation in this proc- 
ess. I hope that all member nations will 
consider it an effort deserving of earnest 
collaboration. 

It is clear, Mr. Chairman, that one of the 
most important successes of the United Na- 
tions has been the adoption of resolutions 
designed to develop a regime of law in 
space. Resolution 1721 of December 20, 
1961, set forth the essential legal principles 
in an enlightened fashion that had no prece- 
dent in any previous age of exploration. One 
of these principles was that international 
law, including the Charter of the United 
Nations, applies to outer space. The other 
was that outer space and celestial bodies 
are free for exploration and use by all 
states in conformity with international law 
and are not subject to national appropria- 
tion. 

Building on this foundation, Resolution 
1962 — the Declaration of Legal Principles — 
which the Assembly approved on December 
13, 1963, * set forth a number of additional 
points that will surely have historic impor- 
tance centuries from now. Ambassador 
Stevenson stated that these legal principles, 
which were unanimously adopted, "reflect 
international law as it is accepted by the 
members of the United Nations." He as- 
sured the General Assembly that the United 
States intended to respect these principles 
and expressed the hope that other countries 
would do likewise. I reaffirm this United 
States position here today. 

As the advancement of the space age 
gave us clearer insight into the nature of 
legal problems, the next step was to begin 
putting some of these accepted principles 
into treaty form. 

Two draft international agreements are 
now in preparation by the legal subcommit- 
tee of the U.N. Space Committee. One con- 
cerns assistance to and return of astronauts 



and space vehicles ; the other seeks to define 
liability for damage caused by space 
launchings. These topics are of immediate 
importance. Agreement on both should be 
well within our reach. But progress has 
fallen short of expectations. 

There is no simple formula that will get 
negotiations moving, for the basic problem 
that has arisen does not seem connected to 
the substance of the draft agreements. 
Surely, however, progress is possible if all 
members of the Space Committee approach 
the problem with determination not to let ex- 
ternal political problems interfere with ne- 
gotiations. For my part, I can commit my 
delegation to good will, flexibility, and hard 
work ; and I think the record shows that this 
commitment will be met. President Johnson 
reaffirmed on August 25 6 that : "We are 
working and we will continue to work 
through the United Nations ... to extend 
the rule of law into outer space." 

In addition to the two draft agreements 
already under discussion, a third topic should 
be brought under study by the U.N. Com- 
mittee. On September 23 I suggested in the 
General Assembly that the United Nations 
begin work on a comprehensive treaty on 
the exploration of celestial bodies. 6 Within 
a few years the need for a treaty governing 
activities on the moon and other celestial 
bodies will be real. My Government plans 
to present a definite proposal as to the con- 
tents of such a treaty. 

Provisions of Draft Resolutions 

The resolution before us 7 advances the ob- 
jectives of the United Nations. It is spon- 
sored by 13 members of the Space Commit- 
tee, and I hope that all members of the 
General Assembly will support it. 

It urges the Space Committee, in develop- 
ing law for outer space, to continue work on 
the two draft agreements now before it. 

It renews the Space Committee's mandate 



' For a statement made on Dec. 2, 1963, by U.S. 
Representative Adlai E. Stevenson and text of the 
resolution, see Bulletin of Dec. 30, 1963, p. 1005. 



6 At a news conference. 

* For text of Ambassador Goldberg's statement, 
see Bulletin of Oct. 11, 1965, p. 578. 
' U.N. doc. A/C. 1/L. 363/Rev. 1. 



166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and encourages an increased exchange of in- 
formation on such matters as national space 
activities and on facilities for education and 
training. Such items are of obvious interest 
to the entire United Nations membership. 

The resolution asks member states to de- 
vote special attention to cooperation with the 
Space Committee. 

It takes note of the Space Committee's de- 
cision to convene, on January 18, the work- 
ing group which was established to examine 
the desirability, organization, and objectives 
of an international meeting on the peaceful 
uses of outer space. The United States is 
interested in a constructive study of this 
matter. When the working group meets, 
our delegation will be prepared to consider 
carefully the wishes of other members and 
to make its own suggestions. 

The resolution accords well-deserved 
United Nations sponsorship to the equa- 
torial sounding-rocket facility at Thumba, 
India, and makes it eligible for assistance 
from the U.N. and its associated agencies. 

It notes with satisfaction the growing 
measure of cooperation among many mem- 
ber states. 

Mr. Chairman, what has been accom- 
plished so far is only a beginning. The 
United States believes that international 
cooperation must expand and then expand 
further if mankind is to pursue its common 
destiny in space and derive the maximum 
earthly benefits from that endeavor. Thus, 
during this International Cooperation Year, I 
specifically invite the nations represented 
here to examine our national space program, 
and to look there for projects, interesting 
to them as well as to us, which can be car- 
ried out cooperatively on a realistic and 
manageable basis. Let me stress that I 
mean this invitation to be taken literally. I 
shall be delighted if it is accepted. Let all 
of us look to the future. A new order and 
scale of joint effort will serve the interests 
of all mankind. 8 



8 The draft resolution (A/C. 1/L. 363/Rev. 1, as 
amended) was adopted in Committee I on Dec. 20 
and in plenary session on Dec. 21 (A/RES/2130 
{xx)). 



U.S. Replies to Cambodian 
Charges on Frontier Situation 

Following is the text of a letter from U.S. 
Representative Arthur J. Goldberg to U.N. 
Secretary-General U Thant. 

U.S. /U.N. press release 4783/Corr. 1, dated January 10 

January 8, 1966 
Dear Mr. Secretary General: The Per- 
manent Representative of Cambodia to the 
United Nations recently requested the circu- 
lation of three statements 1 from his gov- 
ernment dated December 25, 26 and 28 
concerning the situation along the frontier 
between Cambodia and the Republic of Viet- 
Nam. 

I should like to recall to the members of 
the Security Council that on May 21, 1964, 
during the Council's consideration of the 
Cambodian Government's complaint, Am- 
bassador Adlai Stevenson summarized my 
Government's policy toward Cambodia in 
these words : 2 

If the people of Cambodia wish to live in peace 
and security and independence — and free from ex- 
ternal alinement if they so choose — then we want 
for them precisely what they want for themselves. 
We have no quarrel whatsoever with the desire of 
Cambodia to go its own way in peace and security. 

Ambassador Stevenson added that Cam- 
bodia cannot be secure so long as the North 
Vietnamese Government continues to direct 
massive violence within the frontiers of 
Cambodia's neighbor, South Viet-Nam. The 
United States, he said, was prepared to dis- 
cuss any practical and constructive steps to 
meet the problem of maintaining peace and 
order along the frontier between Cambodia 
and South Viet-Nam. 

My Government's policy toward Cambodia 
and its people remains today as set forth by 
Mr. Stevenson in 1964. My Government re- 
mains ready to consider any constructive 
proposals to enable Cambodia to pursue its 
chosen path in peace. 

In this connection, the United States Gov- 
ernment has noted with interest the pro- 



1 Not printed here. 

* For text, see Bulletin of June 8, 1964, p. 907. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



167 



posal made by the Cambodian Chief of State 
that the International Control Commission 
assume an increased supervisory role in 
Cambodia. My Government sincerely hopes 
that this initiative on the part of Prince 
Norodom Sihanouk will be given close and 
careful attention by all countries concerned 
with peace and security in Southeast Asia 



and will lead to the development of effective 
measures to prevent any possible abuse of 
Cambodian territory. 

I respectfully request that this letter be 
circulated to all members as a Security 
Council document. 

Sincerely yours, 

Arthur J. Goldberg 



Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations 
and Cooperation Among States 



Statement by William P. Rogers 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 



You will recall that this is the second 
statement the United States has made thus 
far on the principles of international law 
concerning friendly relations. The first was 
directed to the achievements of the Mexico 
City meeting of the Special Committee. 2 To- 
day I should like to talk about the resolution 
which the committee will very shortly be 
adopting, which will have a significant 
bearing on the substance of the enterprise 
in which the United Nations is engaged 
under guidance of Committee VI. 

Secondly, I would like to talk about the 
three further principles of friendly rela- 
tions not considered at Mexico City. 



'Made in Committee VI (Legal) on Dec. 8 (U.S. 
delegation press release 4754) ; for a series of U.S. 
statements made in Committee VI in 1963, see 
Bulletin of Dec. 23, 1963, p. 973; Jan. 13, 1964, 
p. 57; Jan. 27, 1964, p. 133; and Feb. 17, 1964, p. 264. 

a For a statement by Mr. Rogers on Nov. 17, 
see U.S. delegation press release 4706. The 1964 
Special Committee on Principles of International 
Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-opera- 
tion among States met at Mexico City, Aug. 27-Oct. 
2, 1964; for a report on the meeting, see U.N. doc. 
A/5746. 



The United States is, of course, a co- 
sponsor of one of the four draft resolutions 
now before the committee. I have read with 
care and great interest the other three. All 
four, Mr. Chairman, are thoughtful and 
largely constructive. And they bring home 
the fact that even though there are signifi- 
cant differences of viewpoint, these differ- 
ences do not seem to be irreconcilable. We 
would hope that a resolution may be drafted 
which would meet with general agreement. 

Whatever the differences among the four 
drafts, I think a study of them will show 
that there is general agreement on the fol- 
lowing points: The General Assembly will 
carry on with a Special Committee. The 
Committee will be asked to meet to carry 
forward the work thus far done on these 
seven basic principles of international law 
laid down in the charter. And the Committee 
will present the product of its labors to the 
next session of the Assembly for such fur- 
ther action as the Assembly may think fit. 
I do not wish to discuss the four drafts in 
any great detail, since I understand that all 
of them will probably be the subject of 
further informal negotiations. 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Question of the "Consensus" Approach 

One question which has quite properly 
commanded a good deal of attention from 
all sides is that of the approach which the 
Special Committee, and ultimately the Sixth 
Committee and the Assembly itself, should 
take to the formulating of documents on the 
principles. This has been referred to as the 
question of whether the "principle of con- 
sensus" — or, if you prefer, whether the 
principle of seeking to achieve a "general 
agreement" — should be retained. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that there may be 
a wider area of agreement on this question 
than may be apparent. For example, I think 
it is generally recognized that the signifi- 
cance of the end product of our work on the 
"friendly relations" item will vary radically, 
depending on whether it is supported unani- 
mously or virtually unanimously, or whether 
it is dissented from by substantial portions 
of the membership. 

This is true for reasons applicable to 
Assembly resolutions generally. But it is 
true particularly for reasons applicable to a 
resolution which is designed to be an au- 
thoritative statement of what these princi- 
ples of the charter and of international law 
require. While there are important excep- 
tions, the General Assembly for most pur- 
poses is not a legislature and does not make 
law binding and enforcible against all 
member states. If such were the case, a 
member state would lose its sovereignty and 
become part of a single world state. Thus it 
is that the juridical value of resolutions of 
the sort which might eventuate from the 
"friendly relations" item is, as evidence of 
the practice of states accepted as law, 
clearly and carefully articulated by their 
appointed representatives in the United 
Nations. It is for this reason that the ques- 
tion of the consensus approach is impor- 
tant, is basic, and, in our view, not really 
methodological. No one, of course, has in 
mind formally barring the Special Commit- 
tee or the General Assembly from voting. 

The question of consensus, or general 
agreement, then, is not one of procedure. 
Rather, it lies at the heart of the question 



of the value of the end product which we 
want to result from the 4 or more years of 
work which the United Nations will have 
spent on the principles of friendly relations. 
Accordingly, we believe it is vital for the 
Assembly to express to the Special Commit- 
tee the importance of a determined and con- 
tinued effort to achieve consensus, to indi- 
cate that the Assembly believes the Special 
Committee should continue to work essen- 
tially by way of consensus and not confron- 
tation. This is the intent and effect of the 
last operative paragraph of the resolution of 
which we are cosponsors. If we do not 
achieve consensus, if we do not achieve gen- 
eral agreement, on the interpretation of the 
principles, we shall in fact produce texts 
which have no standing in law. 

A closely related question is that of the 
form of the end product of the Assembly's 
work on friendly relations: more particu- 
larly, whether the Assembly should now in 
some way commit itself to the eventual 
adoption of a declaration on the principles — 
which we understand would be a resolution 
of the General Assembly, couched in a cer- 
tain declarative form and language. 

The view of the United States on this 
question is that which certain other delega- 
tions have already expressed: We have no 
objection in principle to a declaration, pro- 
vided that when the time comes to adopt it, 
something has been produced which the 
General Assembly ought to declare. It seems 
to us that the question of a declaration 
really need not, and should not, be addressed 
until we have come to the point of produc- 
ing formulations which, if made the subject 
of a declaration, would enhance the under- 
standing and the efficacy of the charter's 
principles and, equally important, do noth- 
ing to impair them. And then, so far as the 
United States is concerned, the question can 
be answered very easily. 

By way of example, I should say at this 
point that the United States has concluded, 
after some earnest consideration, that on 
two of the principles formulations have now 
been produced which, although by no means 
perfect, might well be considered for inclu- 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



169 



sion in some sort of declaration. We have 
heard suggestions that some of the members 
of the Special Committee might now be 
having second thoughts on these formula- 
tions, on both of which the United States 
had announced earlier in the session it was 
now prepared to agree. 

This raises the question as to whether the 
entire work of the Mexico City meeting is 
not put into jeopardy. All of us recognize, 
of course, that until the moment our work is 
finally completed, what has been previously 
done can always be undone, either by future 
sessions of the Special Committee or by the 
Assembly itself. We think it would be most 
regrettable, however, if the progress 
achieved there were to be lost. Such an 
eventuality would seem clearly to be a step 
away from, rather than toward, the goal of 
a complete set of formulations worthy of 
a declaration, which a number of delega- 
tions are seeking. 

Consequently we believe it would be de- 
sirable, in the interests of orderly progress, 
to confer a certain recognition and special 
status upon the texts already formulated 
on sovereign equality and nonuse of force, 
as is done in the draft resolution intro- 
duced by three Commonwealth powers 
which we are cosponsoring. 3 Otherwise the 
work of the Special Committee, which all 
speakers have praised, might go for nought 
and a new committee might decide to start 
all over again as if nothing had been ac- 
complished at all. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, a word about the 
size and composition of the Special Com- 
mittee, which a number of delegations have 
recommended changing in the direction of 
a much larger committee. We think the 
same committee should be continued. There 
is, of course, always some delicacy involved 
when a member of an existing group rises 
to argue for retaining a given membership, 
particularly when, as in the present case, 
there are many members of the United Na- 
tions whose interest and capacity for valu- 



8 U.N. doc. A/C.6/L.575/Add. 1; this draft resolu- 
tion was not put to a vote. 



able contribution are high. But I think there 
are sound, practical reasons for this position. 
The Special Committee as a whole was, and 
will be, essentially a body for detailed study, 
analysis, and drafting. This being the case, 
one can argue with considerable validity, I 
believe, that it already exceeds the optimum 
size. In fact, to a degree this was recog- 
nized by the members of the Committee, and 
a drafting committee was created. More- 
over, its present members have accumulated 
a valuable body of experience which should 
be utilized to the maximum. Furthermore, 
and most importantly, the end product, of 
course, will be reported back to Committee 
VI, and all member states will have a full 
and complete opportunity to express their 
views and opinions before the matter is 
voted on by Committee VI. Then again, 
each member state will have an opportunity 
to express its view and opinion before the 
matter is voted on by the General Assembly. 

The "Duty To Cooperate" 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I should like to make 
a few preliminary and tentative remarks on 
the three further principles of friendly rela- 
tions, beginning with "The duty of States to 
co-operate with one another in accordance 
with the Charter." 

Mr. Chairman, we think each of the prin- 
ciples of friendly relations is importantly 
related to what is really the essential task 
of the United Nations. That task has to do 
with creating the conditions on this planet 
under which a viable and peaceful interna- 
tional order can develop. The problem is one 
of inducing peoples to be willing to rely on 
a system which binds all equally, which 
benefits all, and which all are working to- 
gether to create. 

A part of this job is to reach general 
agreement on a set of principles which will 
be generally observed, circumscribing the 
exercise of violence and coercion among 
states — for example, the principles of non- 
use of force, nonintervention, and peaceful 
settlement of disputes. Another, and equally 
important, part of the task is stated with 
refreshing directness in article 55 of the 



170 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



charter : 

With a view to the creation of conditions of 
stability and well-being which are necessary for 
peaceful and friendly relations among nations based 
on respect for the principle of equal rights and self- 
determination of peoples, the United Nations shall 
promote : 

a. higher standards of living, full employment, 
and conditions of economic and social progress and 
development; 

b. solutions of international economic, social, 
health, and related problems; and international 
cultural and educational cooperation; and 

c. universal respect for, and observance of, hu- 
man rights and fundamental freedoms for all with- 
out distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. 

This is a big order. It is made on the 
theory that peoples can't very well live up 
to their international civic obligations with 
stomachs empty, with minds that lack in- 
sight or knowledge, or with hearts filled 
with prejudice. In such a world the phrase 
"international law" is an academic luxury 
for the privileged few. 

The duty of the United Nations is to 
"promote" the elimination of these condi- 
tions, in the terms of article 55. The duty of 
member states, stated in article 56, is to 
cooperate to the same ends. Precisely: to 
"take . . . action" with one another, "in 
cooperation with the Organization." It is, of 
course, primarily these two articles which 
are designed to answer to the purpose of the 
United Nations stated in article 1(3), to 

. . . achieve international cooperation in solving 
international problems of an economic, social, cul- 
tural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting 
and encouraging respect for human rights and for 
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as 
to race, sex, language, or religion. . . . 

This, then, is the role of the notion of "co- 
operation" in the charter's scheme of 
things. The charter explicitly recognizes 
the dangerous relation between economic, 
educational, and other forms of deprivation 
and the viability of peace. It imposes a legal 
duty to cooperate toward the elimination of 
the danger. Actually, the charter is some- 
what more demanding than this as to ac- 
tions among states: They must "take joint 
. . . action." It is not enough that a state 
"cooperate" by avoiding impeding the ef- 



forts of others toward the broad ends stated 
in article 55. 

This is a point worth noting carefully, 
Mr. Chairman. Under the charter, it is not 
enough that states merely coexist, even if 
they do so peacefully. We all welcomed, of 
course, the advent of a doctrine of peaceful 
coexistence in the last 10 years and the cor- 
responding decline of the doctrine of con- 
quest by violent Communist revolution. We 
all look forward hopefully to the day when 
this enlightenment will have spread to all 
Communist states, east and west. But the 
charter has already gone one significant 
step farther. Under the charter it is not 
enough that states merely vegetate side by 
side. They are under the strongest duty to 
take affirmative joint action to promote the 
ends described in article 55. 

Now, when is a state in default in its duty 
to cooperate with others toward these ends? 
There is a certain temptation on all of us 
to answer this question merely by listing 
those instances where someone has ignored 
our advice, resisted our demands, or in gen- 
eral declined to see things just as we see 
them. This criterion has at least the virtue 
of simplicity. A somewhat less egocentric 
approach might look to the judgments of 
United Nations organs. Here, however, an 
important distinction is to be found between 
the duties of states in regard to economic 
and social peacebuilding and their duties as 
regards eschewing violence and coercion 
among themselves. As to the latter, the Se- 
curity Council passes upon specific cases 
and turns the general duties stated in the 
charter into specific ones for a particular 
time and place. This is not normally the 
case as to the "duty to cooperate." The 
General Assembly and the Economic and 
Social Council may only recommend in 
these areas. 

For this reason the principle of good- 
faith fulfillment of charter obligations, of 
which I shall speak in a moment, is particu- 
larly important in relation to the duty to 
cooperate. 

Let me note, too, that while the charter 
neither imposes, nor creates the procedures 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



171 



for imposing, more specific "duties to co- 
operate" than that laid down by articles 55 
and 56, it does give some very clear indica- 
tions as to certain specific actions which 
might be taken prima facie as a partial 
fulfillment of that general duty. One of the 
most significant is participation in the spe- 
cialized agencies envisaged in articles 
57-59. 

Equal Rights and Self-Determination 

Let me turn now to the second principle 
— what the charter calls "the principle of 
equal rights and self-determination of peo- 
ples." The experience of the United Nations 
with this principle is great — as extensive as 
with any of the seven principles, and more 
so than with most. It is no secret why. Al- 
most overnight, the political configuration 
of large parts of the globe has undergone a 
remarkable metamorphosis, from colonial 
dependence to national independence. And 
in this process the United Nations has been 
at one and the same time a keenly interested 
observer, a moral mentor, and an active 
participant. 

The United Nations' role has been of his- 
toric dimensions, and it has been played 
with considerable clarity of purpose. Here, 
however, in this committee, the United Na- 
tions is not seeking to practice the principle 
of equal rights and self-determination of 
peoples but seeking to explicate it. In this 
enterprise we may rediscover what probably 
we have all experienced at some time in 
our lives, that it is often easier to know how 
to do a thing than to know how to explain it. 

It would be a mistake to assume that be- 
cause the emergence of dependent peoples 
into independence has become a common- 
place, there are no perplexities remain- 
ing in the application of the principle of 
self-determination, or in understanding its 
scope and limits and its significance for 
the future of mankind. If we are inclined to 
make this mistake, it is because for the most 
part the question of self-determination 
since the birth of the United Nations has 
been the question of decolonization, which 
in turn has usually been a question of emer- 



gence into separate and independent state- 
hood. 

So far as concerns the question of 
whether there is a violation of "the prin- 
ciple of equal rights and self-determina- 
tion of peoples," colonial cases are easy to 
see, understand, and explain. For overt 
colonization, as a form of political organiza- 
tion, is by hypothesis a clear denial of the 
principle of political self-determination, in- 
asmuch as the people in which political 
authority ultimately rests does not include 
the people colonized. A colonial power may, 
of course, by a separate arrangement, rec- 
ognize a right of self-determination for the 
future. And just as colonization is a clear 
instance of the denial of self-determination, 
the attainment of independent statehood is 
the remedy least likely to give rise to doubts 
about whether the requirements of self- 
determination have genuinely been met — 
although there are others which in fact 
may meet these requirements equally well, 
such as free association or integration with 
an independent state. 

But it would be an error to equate self- 
determination solely with the classic de- 
colonization of the last 20 years. Problems 
of self-determination will remain when 
those "last vestiges of colonialism" of 
which the Assembly has spoken are in fact 
eliminated. And these will be problems 
which cannot easily be fit into the familiar 
mold of decolonization. 

This, Mr. Chairman, is no news to the 
members of this committee. We all know 
that at this moment the United Nations is 
seized of a number of vexing problems — 
some old, some new — which are probing and 
testing the scope and content of the notion 
of self-determination embodied in the char- 
ter but which cannot be called "colonial" 
problems. A good many of the perplexities 
which these problems present arise from 
an important peculiarity of the principle of 
equal rights and self-determination, as op- 
posed to the remaining principles of friend- 
ly relations. Our emerging global commu- 
nity is a community of corporate entities 
which we refer to as states. The principle 



172 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of nonuse of force, the principle of non- 
■ intervention or peaceful settlement of dis- 
putes, and the remaining principles — all 
have to do with transactions among these 
corporate entities, or between them and the 
United Nations. It is states which are en- 
joined from using or threatening force 
against one another, or to cooperate with 
one another. The duty to fulfill charter obli- 
J gations in good faith falls upon states and 
is owed to other states members of the 
United Nations or to the organization itself. 
The principle of self-determination is of a 
somewhat different sort. It is, to be sure, 
intended as a guide for the conduct of states 
within the United Nations. But it is not 
states to which the principle of self-deter- 
mination applies, but peoples. 

Juridically, as I have said, the world is 
not made up of peoples but of corporate 
political entities, which themselves enter 
into those various relationships out of 
which a world legal order as envisaged in 
the charter is built. The "principle of equal 
rights and self-determination of peoples" is 
the charter's test of the legitimacy of the 
forms of political organization in which 
human beings find themselves. The funda- 
mental idea that is written into the charter 
is that only that government is legitimate 
which derives from the consent of the peo- 
ple governed. 

But which group of people in any particu- 
lar case should consent? In questions of 
self-determination, consulting the wishes of 
the smaller and more ethnologically selective 
segment of a population may yield different 
results from consultation with a larger, 
more diverse segment. What persons should 
consent, and how is this question to be 
decided? There are, of course, purely ethno- 
logical considerations as to what constitutes 
a single "people." Aside from these, can 
there be more than one "people" in a popu- 
lation which already comprises a single in- 
dependent state? In other words, what is 
the relation between the charter and seces- 
sion? Again, what weight is to be given to 
considerations of economic and political 
viability, particularly when set off against 



considerations of ethnic and cultural simi- 
larities or differences? Furthermore, are 
there genuinely objective criteria governing 
these questions, or are they to be reserved 
in each instance for ad hoc political judg- 
ments, or in some cases even military deci- 
sions? If there are to be no objective cri- 
teria, would there be anything left of the 
"right" of self-determination of peoples, 
beyond simply having enough sympathetic 
votes in the United Nations or enough 
armed men at one's command? It must 
never be forgotten that the charter denies 
self-determination neither to the unpopular 
nor to the weak. 

This is only one set of perplexing ques- 
tions generated by the experience of the 
United Nations with the principle of equal 
rights and self-determination of peoples, 
Mr. Chairman. All are serious. None are 
merely academic. None have been fully and 
adequately answered thus far. And some 
are literally questions of life and death at 
this moment in more than one place on the 
globe. If the United Nations is to search out 
the significance of the charter principle of 
self-determination, it goes without saying 
that these questions must be confronted 
soberly, carefully, and in a genuine spirit of 
cooperation and mutual understanding. They 
must be examined with an eye to the piece- 
by-piece construction of a viable world 
order which is the United Nations' task. 

"Good Faith" Fulfillment of Obligations 

The third principle which I will allude to 
briefly is the "good faith" fulfillment of 
obligations assumed in accordance with the 
charter, which is, of course, stated in article 
2, paragraph 2, of the charter. 

One fruitful inquiry in conversation with 
this principle has to do with the various 
categories of obligations which are "as- 
sumed ... in accordance with the . . . 
Charter." There are, first of all, the obliga- 
tions directly imposed by the charter. Here, 
as I have already suggested, the importance 
of the principle of "good faith" fulfillment 
is greatest in relation to those charter obli- 
gations which cannot be turned into further, 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



173 



more specific legal duties under particular 
circumstances by the action of U.N. organs 
— other than, conceivably, by the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice. But in the case of 
all provisions of the charter imposing duties 
directly upon states, the effect of article 2, 
paragraph 2, is to require first that the 
charter be read in good faith — a necessary 
prerequisite to complying in good faith with 
its requirements. This means simply that it 
must be read without disregard for what it 
plainly requires, even for high purposes. 

It is true that the charter is a constitu- 
tion and that its rules, both of procedure 
and of substance, are more often than not 
quite general. They are, nevertheless, legal 
rules, and it is therefore implicit in the char- 
ter that at some point we may have to forgo 
doing what we very much want to do, what 
it might be very useful to do, simply because 
the rules provide otherwise. We may have 
to do what we would strongly prefer not to 
do, simply because the rules, until changed, 
so require. This is the price we pay for legal 
order. 

And here an important distinction must 
be drawn. What I have said applies not 
only to members of the United Nations indi- 
vidually but to the United Nations itself. 
What we are concerned with is therefore 
not only a duty of states to fulfill obliga- 
tions imposed upon states directly by the 
charter. It is also a duty which falls upon 
members in their capacity as participants 
in the decisionmaking organs of the United 
Nations: the duty to do their utmost to see 
that the organization itself respects the 
terms of its constitution. It is sometimes 
difficult for the organization to restrain it- 
self from buying immediate benefits at the 
expense of the integrity of its charter. But 
if we are not able to do so, Mr. Chairman, 
we will be breaking faith with those who 
have preceded us, leaving the organization 
weak and impoverished in a way which can- 
not be rectified by cash contributions. 

There are, of course, other sorts of duties 
falling within the scope of article 2(2) than 
those imposed directly by the charter — 
namely, duties generated by the operation 



of U.N. organs as provided in the charter. 
Decisions of the Security Council in matters 
of international peace and security; resolu- 
tions of the General Assembly in certain 
limited cases such as the apportionment of 
expenses under article 17; the decisions of 
both organs in establishing their rules of 
procedure as required by articles 21 and 30 
and in a variety of matters having to do 
with the internal operations of the orga- 
nization; and judgments of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice — all these, under the 
charter, may create and impose specific new 
legal duties directly upon states. 

These then, Mr. Chairman, are some gen- 
eral and exploratory remarks, which my 
delegation hopes may contribute to the de- 
veloping picture of these last three princi- 
ples which is being sketched out in the 
committee. The United States looks forward 
with great interest to the further careful 
and more detailed examination of these 
principles in the Special Committee. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, let me say a word 
about the two items on our agenda which 
are closely related to the question of the 
principles of friendly relations and coopera- 
tion. 

It is difficult to know what to say, in a 
brief remark, about the substance of the 
Netherlands item on methods of factfind- 
ing, because it deals with matters of such 
pervasive and fundamental importance in 
the settlement of disputes and indeed in all 
the decisionmaking processes of the United 
Nations system. To ask a lawyer to com- 
ment on the importance of processes of fact- 
finding is something like asking a fish his 
opinion of water, and we are indeed grate- 
ful to the Netherlands delegation for provid- 
ing the focus and insight which their item 
has produced thus far. We are, of course, 
not engaged in a discussion of the item in 
substance, and, in any event, the general 
views of my delegation have been set forth 
on previous occasions. Let me merely say 
here that we wholeheartedly support the 
resolution introduced here yesterday * by 
the distinguished representative of the 
Netherlands. 






174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



My delegation also greatly appreciates 
the initiative of the delegation of Madagas- 
car. The item introduced early in our dis- 
cussion by the distinguished Ambassador of 
; Madagascar, on "Observance by Member 
States of the principles relating to the sov- 
ereignty of States, their territorial integ- 
rity, non-interference in their domestic af- 
fairs, the peaceful settlement of disputes 
and the condemnation of subversive activi- 
ties," has lent that discussion a new di- 
mension and perspective of considerable 
value. We do not yet know exactly what will 
be the action which the committee will wish 
to take at this stage on this item. But my 
delegation expresses the hope that, what- 
ever that action may be, it will enable us to 
continue to reap the benefit of the contribu- 
tion which this item can make to our dis- 
cussion of the principles of friendly rela- 
tions. 

May I close by thanking you, Mr. Chair- 
man, for the opportunity of making this 
statement and by expressing my apprecia- 
tion to my colleagues, the distinguished rep- 
resentatives of the Sixth Committee, for 
their kind attention. Thank you. 5 



'U.N. doc. A/C.6/L.B80. 

' In plenary session on Dec. 20 the General As- 
sembly adopted two resolutions on the "friendly re- 
lations" item. The first (A/RES/2103 (xx)) was 
in two parts: Part A expressed appreciation to the 
1964 Special Committee for the work it had per- 
formed at Mexico City; decided to constitute a Spe- 
cial Committee composed of members of the 1964 
[Special Committee, to which Algeria, Chile, Kenya, 
and Syria would be added; and asked the Commit- 
tee to continue its work on the seven principles of 
international law and to report to the General As- 
sembly at its 21st session. Part B requested the 
i Committee to consider the documents (A/5757 and 
|Add. 1) submitted to the General Assembly and the 
discussions at the 20th session on the item entitled 
"Observance by Member States of the principles 
relating to the sovereignty of States, their terri- 
torial integrity, non-interference in their domestic 
affairs, the peaceful settlement of disputes and the 
! condemnation of subversive activities." The second 
resolution (A/RES/2104(xx) ), on the question of 
factfinding, requested the Secretary-General to 
supplement his "study on the relevant aspects of the 
I problem" and invited member states to submit to the 
Secretary-General "before July 1966, any views or 
further views they may have on this subject." 



U.S. Presents Views on Population 
Growth and Economic Development 

Statement by James Roosevelt 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

Although much worthwhile research re- 
mains to be done, and although much demo- 
graphic information remains to be gathered 
concerning the precise interrelationships in 
given circumstances between population 
changes and economic development, the gen- 
eral facts of the exploding world population 
are well known. The time interval required 
for the world's population to double itself 
has telescoped at an alarming rate. We 
have doubled in number since 1900, when 
the world's population was approximately 
1.5 billion, and today we have a world popu- 
lation of 3 billion. According to projections 
of the Secretariat, we may have 6 billion 
people by the end of the century. I might 
add, parenthetically, that the report of the 
Committee on Population of the United 
States National Citizens Commission on In- 
ternational Cooperation has just reported to 
the President of the United States that if 
present world trends continue, the century- 
end figure will be more than 7 billion. 

Moreover, it is not only a question of ab- 
solute numbers but also one of the rate of 
growth. The world's annual rate of growth 
in 1945 was 1 percent. Today it is about 2 
percent, and some experts have told us 
that the rate is expected to go even higher. 
These projections of the world's population 
present problems of enormous magnitude 
and potentially disastrous consequences, and 
we must, as President Johnson said this 
year at San Francisco, "face forthrightly 
the multiplying problems of our multiplying 
populations and seek the answers to this 
most profound challenge to the future of all 
the world." 2 

Most of the attention regarding the effects 
of population growth has been focused on 



1 Made in Committee II (Economic and Financial) 
on Dec. 15 (U.S. delegation press release 4751). 
■ Bulletin of July 19, 1965, p. 98. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



175 



the circumstances in developing countries, 
where the overall average annual increase 
is slightly more than 2.5 percent and where 
for some countries the growth rate has 
reached 3 percent. In the developing re- 
gions as a whole, food production has barely 
kept pace with the population increase. At 
Belgrade, 3 the Director General of the Food 
and Agriculture Organization pointed out 
that per capita world food production had 
failed to rise appreciably for almost 7 years. 
Other experts pointed out that during the 
1960's food production in the developing re- 
gions of the world had increased less rapidly 
than population, and thus per capita food 
output was actually declining. If the trend 
continues, the outlook is grim indeed and 
the threat of starvation in some countries 
is a very real one. 

But avoiding starvation is not the only, nor 
even the principal, reason for concern 
about population increases. The problem is 
one of diverting resources which could oth- 
erwise be used for capital formation. The 
difficulty is one of finding sufficient savings, 
after expending resources just to meet cur- 
rent consumption needs of an expanding 
population, to invest in order to insure a 
reasonable rate of progress toward mod- 
ernization and a higher standard of living 
based on sustaining economic growth. 

As we all know, the goal of a 5 percent 
annual growth rate in the developing coun- 
tries has not been reached in all developing 
countries. Even if this goal, in terms of 
gross national product, is reached, the pros- 
pect is that population growth would greatly 
dilute its impact on individual levels of wel- 
fare. 

It is in the developing countries that the 
situation is most critical, and it is there 
that population growth threatens to frus- 
trate the aspiration for economic and social 
development. The problem is not, however, 
limited to those countries. In the United 
States, with a population growth rate of 



• The 2d U.N. World Population Conference was 
held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Aug. 30-Sept. 10, 1965. 



about 1.5 percent a year, prospects are that 
our population will grow from its present 
190 million to 300 million by the end of the 
century. A recent report by the National 
Academy of Sciences has revealed a variety 
of problems which even this relatively mod- 
est rate is causing — especially among the 
poor and the uneducated. The problems in- 
volve maternal health, infant mortality and 
morbidity, family life, housing, opportunities 
for education, employment, and a better 
standard of living. The growing population 
adds to strains on our society in the form of 
air and water pollution, transportation dif- 
ficulties, overcrowding in urban areas, the 
depletion of national resources, and the de- 
struction of recreation areas and open space. 

My country's efforts to create a Great So- 
ciety are complicated not only for these rea- 
sons but because of the relatively faster in- 
crease in that portion of the population 
which is at the lower end of the economic 
scale. Parents in the less fortunate eco- 
nomic group have nearly twice as many 
children as those in the most fortunate 
bracket. The relatively high birth rate in 
poor families is not only an important con- 
tributing cause in their poverty — it actually 
tends to perpetuate the circumstances and 
condemns them to life in conditions of rela- 
tive economic and cultural deprivation. 

I have touched on the problems caused by 
population growth in my country only to in- 
dicate that the problem of population growth 
and its economic effects is not confined to 
the developing countries. And if the magni- 
tude of problems faced by my country, with 
its relatively low annual birth rate and high 
per capita income, is immense, what must be 
the problems of a country with an annual 
population growth of 3 percent and a per 
capita income of $100? 

I do not believe, however, that we can 
judge the success of our response in meet- 
ing the challenge of population growth only 
with demographic facts and measurements 
of the standards of living of peoples. There 
is more to life than existence and mere 
freedom from hunger. The goals of national 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and international society should not only be 
higher standards of living for all peoples, re- 
gardless of the number of people in the 
world, but, more importantly, should be the 
satisfaction of the political, cultural, and 
spiritual needs which are fundamental to all 
men. It is against these goals that we must 
measure our efforts, and it is within the con- 
text of these goals that we should view the 
increasing world population and devise ap- 
propriate population policies. Against the 
general background of what I have said, I 
would like to sketch out the policy views of 
my Government on this subject of popula- 
tion growth and economic development. 

First, we are concerned about the eco- 
nomic and social consequences of our own 
population trends and are devoting consider- 
able attention, publicly and privately, to the 
present and probable future demographic 
facts of domestic life. 

Second, we seek more information about 
population trends and circumstances in the 
developing countries, not only as a guide to 
the formation of our own policies but in 
order to help others to know more. We con- 
sider this particularly important in those na- 
tions where present population levels and 
rates of growth may constitute major ob- 
stacles to the realization of desired eco- 
nomic and social development aspirations. 

Third, we oppose any effort to dictate to 
any country the means employed or the 
policies devised to deal with its population 
problems. 

Fourth, while we do not advocate specific 
policies with reference to population growth 
in other countries, we are prepared to ac- 
tively help such countries, at their request, 
in their efforts to deal with the problems in- 
volved. The Agency for International De- 
velopment has extended its assistance be- 
yond statistical, demographic, and public 
health fields, to the direct support of fam- 
ily planning programs. I think it would be 
appropriate to mention that the Agency for 
International Development missions will, in 
accordance with a policy message directed to 
them last March, 4 now respond positively to 



requests for technical, financial, and com- 
modity assistance in support of family 
planning programs. In that message empha- 
sis was put on the following points : 

— Each AID mission assigned one officer 
to become familiar with the population dy- 
namics and program developments in the 
country to which he is posted. It is this of- 
ficer's responsibility to keep both the United 
States mission in that country and the 
Agency for International Development head- 
quarters in Washington appropriately ad- 
vised. 

— The Agency for International Develop- 
ment does not advocate any particular 
method of family regulation. Freedom of 
choice in this matter should be available in 
any program for which technical assistance 
is requested. 

— Requests for assistance in this field, as 
in other fields, will be considered only if 
they are made or approved by the ap- 
propriate authorities of the requesting gov- 
ernment. 

— The Agency for International Develop- 
ment is prepared to entertain requests for 
technical, commodity, and local currency as- 
sistance in support of family planning pro- 
grams. 

— The Agency for International Develop- 
ment will not consider requests for contra- 
ceptive devices or equipment for the manu- 
facture of contraceptives, since experience 
has made it clear that the cost of these items 
is not a stumbling block in countries which 
are developing effective programs. 

As a result of this facet of United States 
policy, the Agency for International Devel- 
opment is at the moment considering the 
first request for such assistance. The Gov- 
ernment of Turkey has requested a $3.5 
million low-interest loan to buy 14,000 ve- 
hicles and educational equipment. This is to 
be used to further its family planning pro- 
gram in rural areas. I am confident the re- 
quest is now receiving most sympathetic 
consideration. 



Not printed here. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



177 



Fifth, as a matter of general United 
States policy, we believe that there remains 
a need for increased knowledge on popula- 
tion matters. We are quite encouraged with 
indications at the Belgrade conference of the 
substantially increased body of demographic 
information available to the international 
community and the growing number of ex- 
perts in this field. We hope these indica- 
tions augur well for further and increasingly 
precise data. 

Sixth, we feel that the United Nations 
and its affiliated organizations have a role 
to play in the population field. My Govern- 
ment has consistently supported expansion 
of the United Nations role in assisting coun- 
tries at their request in action programs 
dealing with population problems. We be- 
lieve that member governments should be 
able to obtain from the United Nations and 
its agencies such assistance as they need 
and request. 

Mr. Chairman, this subject was given 
thorough consideration at the 39th session 
of the Economic and Social Council, and it 
was on the basis of those deliberations that 
the Council passed Resolution 1084. Even 
more detailed examination was made at the 
recent conference at Belgrade. Under the 
crowded schedule of this committee, we 
would have considered it perhaps more ap- 
propriate to have a resolution merely noting 
the Economic and Social Council's resolution 
and the Secretary-General's report on the 
Belgrade conference. Nevertheless, Mr. 
Chairman, my delegation supports this draft 
resolution and its most able introducer, the 
distinguished representative of India, be- 
cause, as you may judge from what I have 
said, there are no important differences be- 
tween my Government's policies with re- 
gard to population growth and economic de- 
velopment and the draft resolution. We will 
therefore vote in favor of it. 5 






* A proposal to postpone consideration of the 
agenda item on "Population growth and economic 
development" until the 21st session of the General 
Assembly was adopted in Committee II on Dec. 15 
and in plenary session on Dec. 20. 



U.S. Supports Proposal for High 
Commissioner for Human Rights 

Statement by Frances E. Willis 

U.S. Representative to the General Assembly* 

Of the fundamental areas of activity for 
our organization, mentioned earlier by my 
distinguished colleague from the United 
Kingdom, my Government agrees that it is 
the area of human rights which has been 
relatively neglected. We believe that we 
should take practical steps now to remedy 
this neglect. The United Nations needs an 
increased executive capacity in the field of 
human rights. We support the proposal of 
Costa Rica to create the post of United Na- 
tions High Commissioner for Human Rights, 
a move to establish this increased executive 
capacity. It is time to follow up on some of 
the ringing statements that have been made 
on the subject. 

I would not wish to take the committee's 
time with a detailed exposition of my Gov- 
ernment's view as to what the proposed 
High Commissioner might be able to do. 
However, in brief outline form let me indi- > 
cate that we believe he could assist signifi- 
cantly in the dispassionate consideration by 
United Nations bodies of human rights | 
around the world by providing an objective 
report annually on the state of human 
rights throughout the world. A High Com- 
missioner for Human Rights might also be 
able to provide appropriate services and as- ' 
sistance to governments at their request. 
Such assistance and services might include 
advice on the establishment of new agencies 
or procedures that would operate in con- 
formity with accepted human rights stand- 
ards. Also at the request of governments, 
the High Commissioner for Human Rights 
might be able to assist by making available 
his good offices in cases of international or 
national disputes over alleged human rights 
violations. 



1 Made in Committee III ( Social, Humanitarian 
and Cultural) on Dec. 13 (U.S. delegation press re- 
lease 4749). 



178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Let me also say that we believe that the 
High Commissioner would not impinge 
upon the present procedures for dealing 
with human rights complaints. If the terms 
of reference are properly drawn and a per- 
son of the desired qualifications fills the post, 
there would be no reason to believe that a 
High Commissioner for Human Rights would 
impinge on the domestic jurisdiction of 
member states. 

At this late stage in this 20th session 
there is no time for our committee to dis- 
cuss this proposal in detail. It appears to 
my delegation that the practical and sensible 
thing to do is to refer the proposal to the 
Commission on Human Rights. My delega- 
tion therefore heartily endorses the resolu- 
tion sponsored by the delegations of Argen- 
tina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Ni- 
geria contained in document A/C.3/L.1328. 
My delegation hopes that this resolution will 
command wide, if not unanimous, support of 
our committee. 2 



Current U.N. Documents: 
A Selected Bibliography 

Mimeographed or processed documents (such as 
those listed below) may be consulted at depository 
libraries in the United States. U.N. printed publi- 
cations may be purchased from the Sales Section 
of tha United Nations, United Nations Plaza, N.Y. 



General Assembly 

Reports of the Second Committee (Economic and 
Financial) 

Review and reappraisal of the role and functions 
of the Economic and Social Council. A/6200. 
December 18, 1965. 4 pp. 

General review of the programs and activities 
in the economic, social, technical cooperation, 
and related fields of the U.N., the specialized 
agencies, the IAEA, UNICEF, and all other 
institutions and agencies related to the U.N. 
system. A/6201. December 18, 1965. 4 pp. 
Reports of the Third Committee (Social, Humani- 
tarian and Cultural) 

Question of Freedom of Information. A/6164. De- 
cember 14, 1965. 3 pp. 



' The General Assembly, in plenary session on 
Dec. 16, adopted unanimously a resolution 
(A/RES/2062 (XX); A/C.3/L. 1328, as amended) 
which referred the proposal to the Commission on 
Human Rights. 



Creation of the post of a United Nations High 
Commissioner for Human Rights. A/6167. De- 
cember 15, 1965. 6 pp. 
Draft international covenants on human rights. 

A/6173. December 16, 1965. 3 pp. 
International year for human rights. A/6184. De- 
cember 18, 1965. 20 pp. 
Draft international convention on the elimination 
of all forms of racial discrimination. A/6181. 
December 18, 1965. 93 pp. 
Reports of the Fourth Committee (Trusteeship) 
Question of Oman. A/6168. December 15, 1965. 

4 pp. 
Implementation of the declaration on the grant- 
ing of independence to colonial countries and 
peoples (territories under Portuguese admin- 
istration) and on special training programs for 
territories under Portuguese administration. 
A/6209. December 20, 1965. 10 pp. 
Information from non-self-governing territories 
transmitted under article 73 e of the charter and 
on offers by member states of study and train- 
ing facilities for inhabitants of non-self-gov- 
erning territories. A/6210. 6 pp. 
Reports of the Trusteeship Council. A/6211. De- 
cember 20, 1965. 6 pp. 
Reports of the Fifth Committee (Administrative 
and Budgetary) 
Technical assistance to promote the teaching, 
study, dissemination, and wider appreciation of 
international law. A/6175/Rev. 1. December 18, 
1965. 2 pp. 
Scale of assessments for the apportionment of the 
expenses of the United Nations. A/6202. De- 
cember 18, 1965. 13 pp. 
Consideration of steps to be taken for the pro- 
gressive development in the field of private 
international law with a particular view to pro- 
moting international trade. A/6206. December 
18, 1965. 9 pp. 
Cost estimates for the maintenance of the United 
Nations Emergency Force. A/6217. December 
20, 1965. 5 pp. 
Budget estimates for the financial year 1965. 

A/6222. December 21, 1965. 16 pp. 
Budget estimates for the financial year 1966. 
A/6223 and Corr. 1. December 21, 1965. 48 pp. 
Report of the Sixth Committee (Legal). Considera- 
tion of principles of international law concern- 
ing friendly relations and cooperation among 
states; and the observance by member states of 
the principles relating to the sovereignty of states, 
their territorial integrity, noninterference in their 
domestic affairs, the peaceful settlement of dis- 
putes, and the condemnation of subversive activi- 
ties. A/6165. December 18, 1965. 35 pp. 



Economic and Social Council 

Commission on Human Rights. Study of discrimina- 
tion against persons born out of wedlock. E/CN.4/ 
Sub. 2/252. November 19, 1965. 207 pp. 

Continuation of the world food program. E/4127/ 
Add. 2. December 14, 1965. 21 pp. 

Report of the Technical Assistance Committee to the 
Economic and Social Council. E/4134. Decem- 
ber 16, 1965. 16 pp. 

United Nations Children's Fund. Digest of UNICEF 
Projects Currently Aided in Africa. E/ICEF/530. 
December 17, 1965. 191 pp. 

Commission on Human Rights. Provisional Agenda. 
Note by the Secretary-General. E/CN.4/894. Jan- 
uary 3, 1966. 13 pp. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



179 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Cotton Textile Arrangement 
With Japan Extended 

DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press release 9 dated January 14 

Notes were exchanged at Washington on 
January 14 between the Governments of 
the United States and Japan which extend 
for an interim period the United States- 
Japanese bilateral arrangement concerning 
trade in cotton textiles, signed in Tokyo on 
August 27, 1963, • and amended in Washing- 
ton on May 19, 1965. 2 This will remain in 
force until December 31, 1967, or until super- 
seded by a new United States-Japanese bi- 
lateral cotton textile arrangement, which- 
ever is the earlier. 

Effective January 1, 1966, all limits and 
ceilings will be increased 5 percent over the 
1965 levels. For the period January 1, 1966- 
March 31, 1966, no other change is made in 
the existing arrangement. If a new arrange- 
ment has not entered into force by March 31, 
1966, some modifications will be made in the 
existing bilateral arrangement and will be 
applied retroactively as from January 1. 
These are : 

(a) A provision allowing additional flexi- 
bility in transfer among groups. 

(b) A provision allowing the ceiling for 
any category given a specific ceiling to be 
exceeded by 5 percent, provided that the 
aggregate agreement ceiling and the ap- 
propriate group ceiling are not thereby ex- 



1 Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
5408 and 5804 ; for background and text of arrange- 
ment, see Bulletin of Sept. 16, 1963, p. 440. 

5 For texts of notes, see ibid., June 14, 1965, p. 
980. 



ceeded. The existing arrangement does not 
allow "swing" into certain categories. 

(c) The dropping of specific subceilings 
for combed ginghams and for other fabrics 
made from combed warp and filling. A 
clause providing for consultations should 
exports of these products disrupt or 
threaten to disrupt the United States do- 
mestic market is included in the text of the 
amended agreement. Export levels during 
the course of any such consultations are as 
provided for in paragraph 5b of the ar- 
rangement. 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES 

Press release 10 dated January 15 

The Japanese Charge d'Affaires to Secretary Rusk 

January 14, 1966 



Excellency: I have the honor to refer to the 
recent discussions held in Geneva and in Washing- 
ton between representatives of our two Governments 
regarding trade in cotton textiles between Japan 
and the United States and to the Arrangement 
between the Government of Japan and the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America concerning 
trade in cotton textiles between Japan and the 
United States, effected by the Exchange of Notes 
on August 27, 1963, as modified by the Exchange 
of Notes on May 19, 1965 (hereinafter referred to 
as "the 1963 Arrangement"). 

I have the honor to confirm, on behalf of the 
Government of Japan, the understandings reached 
between our two Governments that the 1963 Ar- 
rangement shall be extended with the following 
modifications during the interim period beginning 
January 1, 1966, until December 31, 1967, or the 
date of entry into force of a new arrangement 
which will supersede the 1963 Arrangement, which- 
ever date is the earlier. 

1. The following shall be applicable retroactively 
as from January 1, 1966: 

a. The phrase "for the period of three years 
beginning January 1, 1963" in the preamble and 
numbered paragraph 1 b of the 1963 Arrangement 
shall be deleted and replaced by the phrase "for 
the period beginning January 1, 1963, until De- 
cember 31, 1967, or the date of entry into force of 
a new arrangement which will supersede this Ar- 
rangement, whichever date is the earlier". 

b. In numbered paragraph 3 of the 1963 Arrange- 
ment the second and third sentences shall be deleted 
and replaced by the following: 



180 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"The annual aggregate limits for 1965 and each 
subsequent year shall be increased by 5 percent over 
the limit for the preceding year. These annual in- 
creases shall be applied to each limit for the groups 
and to each limit or ceiling within the groups. The 
quantity of 16,155 pounds by which the limit for 
zipper tapes, n.e.s., could be exceeded during 1965 
shall not be included in calculating the limits and 
ceilings applicable after 1965." 

c. Numbered paragraph 10 a of the 1963 Arrange- 
ment shall be deleted and replaced by the follow- 
ing: 

"This Arrangement shall continue in force 
through December 31, 1967, or until the date of the 
entry into force of a new arrangement which will 
supersede this Arrangement, whichever date is the 
earlier, provided that either Government may 
terminate this Arrangement prior thereto effective 
at the beginning of a calendar year by giving sixty 
days' written notice to the other Government." 

2. If the said new arrangement has not entered 
into force by March 31, 1966, the following shall 
be applicable retroactively as from January 1, 1966: 

a. In numbered paragraph 2 of the 1963 Arrange- 
ment the sentence commencing with "Within the 
annual aggregate limit," shall be deleted and re- 
placed by the following: 

"Within the annual aggregate limit, the limits 
for Groups I, II and IV may be exceeded by not 
more than 10 percent, and the limit for Group III 
may be exceeded by not more than 5 percent." 

b. Numbered paragraph 1 b and e in Annex A of 
the 1963 Arrangement shall be deleted and the fol- 
lowing new paragraph 1 b shall be inserted: 

"In the event that (1) exports from Japan of 
"ginghams, combed" should exceed substantially 75 
percent of the limit for "ginghams" or exports from 
Japan of fabrics made from combed warp and filling 
should exceed substantially the volume equivalent to 
the limitation that applied to such exports in 1965, 
respectively, as adjusted in accordance with the 
provisions of paragraph 3 of the Arrangement, and 
(2) as a result of this excess, such exports should 
cause or threaten to cause disruption of the United 
States domestic market, the Government of the 
United States may request, in the manner set forth 
in paragraph 5 of the Arrangement, consultations 
with the Japanese Government to determine an 
appropriate course of action. During the course of 
such consultations, the Japanese Government will 
maintain exports in the products in question at the 
same levels as those mentioned in paragraph 5 b of 
the Arrangement." 

c. Numbered paragraph 5 in Annex A of the 
1963 Arrangement shall be deleted and replaced by 
the following: 



"Within the annual aggregate limit and the 
limitation for each group provided for in paragraph 
2 of the Arrangement, the limits and ceilings set for 
specific products may be exceeded by not more than 
5 percent." 

I have further the honor to request Your Ex- 
cellency to be good enough to confirm the fore- 
going understandings on behalf of the Government 
of the United States. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to 
Your Excellency the assurances of my highest con- 
sideration. 

Susumu Nakagawa 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim 

Assistant Secretary Solomon to the Japanese 
Charge d'Affaires 

January 14, 1966 

Sir: I acknowledge receipt of your note of today's 
date which reads as follows: 

[Full text of Japanese note.] 

I confirm the foregoing understandings on behalf 
of the Government of the United States of America. 

Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my high 
consideration. 

For the Secretary of State: 

Anthony M. Solomon 
Assistant Secretary 



Current Actions 



MULTILATERAL 



Finance 

Agreement amending article III of the Articles of 
Agreement of the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development (TIAS 1502). Adopted 
at Washington August 25, 1965. Entered into force 
December 17, 1965. 

Notifications of acceptance: Afghanistan, Aus- 
tralia, Bolivia, Burundi, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, 
Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Federal 
Republic of Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guate- 
mala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Ire- 
land, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, 
Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Ma- 
lawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, 
Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pak- 
istan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, 
Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, 
South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Syrian 
Arab Republic, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad 
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United 
Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Vene- 
zuela. 



JANUARY 31, 1966 



181 



BILATERAL 



Indonesia 

Amendment to the agreement of June 8, 1960 (TIAS 
4557), for cooperation concerning civil uses of 
atomic energy. Signed at Washington January 12, 
1966. Enters into force on the date on which 
each Government shall have received from the 
other written notification that it has complied 
with all statutory and constitutional requirements 
for entry into force. 

Philippines 

Agreement relating to the establishment of a United 
States Treasury facility at the United States 
Naval Base at Subic Bay. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Manila November 3 and 15, 1965. En- 
tered into force November 15, 1965. 

Viet-Nam 

Agreement amending the agricultural commodities 
agreement of May 26, 1965, as amended (TIAS 
5821, 5867, 5876, 5891). Effected by exchange of 
notes at Saigon December 20, 1965. Entered into 
force December 20, 1965. 

Yugoslavia 

Agreement amending the agreement of October 5, 
1964 (TIAS 5667), concerning exports of cotton 
textiles from Yugoslavia to the United States. 
Effected by exchange of notes at Washington 
December 30, 1965. Entered into force December 
30, 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recent Releases 

For sale by the Superintendent of Document*, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
20U02. Address requests direct to the Superintendent 
of Documents, except in the case of free publications, 
which may be obtained from the Office of Media 
Services, Department of State, Washington, D.C., 
205S0. 

Lend-Lease Activities 1964. A summary of lend- 
lease activities in 1964 and the last of the printed 
periodical reports on this subject. Pub. 8006. Eco- 
nomic Cooperation Series 62. 6 pp. 5e\ 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Protocol 
for the Accession of Spain to the Agreement of 
October 30, 1947. Done at Geneva July 1, 1963. En- 
tered into force August 29, 1963. TIAS 5749. 203 pp. 
70*. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Colom- 
bia. Signed at Bogota October 8, 1964. Exchange of 
notes — Signed at Bogota October 8, 1964, and Feb- 
ruary 11, 1965. Entered into force October 8, 1964. 
TIAS 5797. 14 pp. lOtf. 



Education — Educational Commission and Financing 
of Exchange Programs. Agreement with Uruguay. 
Exchange of notes — Signed at Montevideo March 
22 and May 17, 1965. Entered into force May 17, 
1965. TIAS 5825. 7 pp. 10tf. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with India 
amending the agreement of September 30, 1964, as 
amended. Exchange of notes — Signed at New Delhi 
September 29, 1965. Entered into force September 
29, 1965. TIAS 5875. 3 pp. 5tf. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with the 
Democratic Republic of the Congo amending the 
agreement of April 28, 1964, as amended. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Leopoldville September 21 and 
28, 1965. Entered into force September 28, 1965. 
TIAS 5878. 3 pp. 5*. 

Atomic Energy — Application of Safeguards by the 
IAEA to the United States — Philippines Coopera- 
tion Agreement. Agreement with the Philippines and 
the International Atomic Energy Agency. Signed at 
Vienna June 15 and September 18, 1964. Entered 
into force September 24, 1965. TIAS 5879. 10 pp. 
10<f. 

Atomic Energy — Application of Safeguards by the 
IAEA to the United States — South Africa Coopera- 
tion Agreement. Agreement with the Republic of 
South Africa and the International Atomic Energy 
Agency. Signed at Vienna February 26, 1965. En- 
tered into force October 8, 1965. TIAS 5880. 10 pp. 
10<S. 

Atomic Energy — Application of Safeguards by the 
IAEA to the United States — China Cooperation 
Agreement. Agreement with the Republic of China 
and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Signed 
at Vienna September 21, 1964. Entered into force 
October 29, 1965, TIAS 5882. 10 pp. lO?. 

Defense — Extension of Loan of Vessels. Agreement 
with the Federal Republic of Germany. Exchange 
of notes— Signed at Bonn October 7, 1965. Entered 
into force October 7, 1965. TIAS 5883. 3 pp. 5tf. 

Atomic Energy — Application of Safeguards by the 
IAEA to the United States— Viet-Nam Cooperation 
Agreement. Agreement with the Republic of Viet- 
Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Signed at Vienna September 18 and November 25, 

1964. Entered into force October 21, 1965. TIAS 
5884. 10 pp. lOtf. 

Aviation — Certificates of Airworthiness for Im- 
ported Civil Glider Aircraft. Agreement with Fin- 
land. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington 
November 3, 1965. Entered into force November 3, 

1965. TIAS 5885. 5 pp. 5e\ 

Trade in Cotton Textiles. Agreement with the 
Philippines amending the agreement of February 
24, 1964. Exchange of notes — Signed at Washington 
October 5, 1965. Entered into force October 5, 1965. 
TIAS 5886. 3 pp. 5tf. 

Peace Corps. Agreement with Barbados. Exchange 
of notes — Signed at Bridgetown July 15 and August 
9, 1965. Entered into force August 9, 1965. TIAS 
5887. 3 pp. 5(. 

Agricultural Commodities. Agreement with Guinea 
amending the agreement of May 22, 1963, as amended. 
Exchange of notes — Dated at Conakry September 
18, 1965. Entered into force September 18, 1965. 
TIAS 5890. 3 pp. 5tf. 



182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INDEX January 31, 1966 Vol. LIV, No. 1388 



British Honduras. U.S., U.K., and Canada Spon- 
sor Survey of British Honduras 162 

Burundi. United States Asks for Recall of Bur- 
undi Ambassador (Department statement) . 158 

Cambodia. U.S. Replies to Cambodian Charges 
on Frontier Situation (Goldberg) 167 

Canada. U.S., U.K., and Canada Sponsor Sur- 
vey of British Honduras 162 

Congo (Leopoldville). U.S. Moves To Support 
Sanctions Against Southern Rhodesia . . • 157 

Congress. Congressional Documents Relating 
to Foreign Policy 162 

Economic Affairs 

Cotton Textile Arrangement With Japan Ex- 
tended (Department announcement, exchange 
of notes) 180 

President Ends Increased Duty on Clinical 
Thermometers (proclamation) 159 

President Modifies Import Duty on Stainless- 
Steel Flatware (proclamation) 160 

U.S. Moves To Support Sanctions Against 
Southern Rhodesia 157 

U.S. Presents Views on Population Growth and 
Economic Development (Roosevelt) .... 175 

U.S., U.K., and Canada Sponsor Survey of 
British Honduras 162 

Human Rights. U.S. Supports Proposal for 
High Commissioner for Human Rights 
(Willis) 178 

India. Death of Prime Minister Shastri of 
India (Johnson, Rusk) 156 

International Law. Principles of International 
Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co- 
operation Among States (Rogers) .... 168 

Japan. Cotton Textile Arrangement With 
Japan Extended (Department announcement, 
exchange of notes) 180 

Presidential Documents 

Death of Prime Minister Shastri of India . . 156 

President Ends Increased Duty on Clinical 
Thermometers 159 

President Modifies Import Duty on Stainless- 
Steel Flatware 160 

The State of the Union . 150 

Publications. Recent Releases 182 

Science. International Cooperation in Outer 
Space (Goldberg) 163 

Southern Rhodesia. U.S. Moves To Support 
Sanctions Against Southern Rhodesia . . . 157 

Treaty Information 

Cotton Textile Arrangement With Japan Ex- 
tended (Department announcement, exchange 
of notes) 180 

Current Actions 181 



United Kingdom. U.S., U.K., and Canada Spon- 
sor Survey of British Honduras 162 

United Nations 

Current U.N. Documents 179 

International Cooperation in Outer Space 
(Goldberg) 163 

Principles of International Law Concerning 
Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among 
States (Rogers) 168 

U.S. Presents Views on Population Growth and 
Economic Development (Roosevelt) .... 175 

U.S. Replies to Cambodian Charges on Frontier 
Situation (Goldberg) 167 

U.S. Supports Proposal for High Commissioner 
for Human Rights (Willis) 178 

Viet-Nam 

Secretary Rusk and Vietnamese Premier Re- 
state Basic Positions (text of joint com- 
munique) 155 

The State of the Union (excerpts from Presi- 
dent Johnson's address) 150 

U.S. Replies to Cambodian Charges on Frontier 
Situation (Goldberg) 167 

Zambia. U.S. Moves To Support Sanctions 
Against Southern Rhodesia 157 

Name Index 

Goldberg, Arthur J 163, 167 

Johnson, President 150, 156, 159, 160 

Ky, Nguyen Cao 155 

Rogers, William P 168 

Roosevelt, James 175 

Rusk, Secretary 155, 156 

Willis, Frances E 178 



Check List of Department of State 
Press Releases: January 10-16 

Press releases may be obtained from the 
Office of News, Department of State, Wash- 
ington, D.C., 20520. 

No. Date Subject 

5 1/10 Economic sanctions against 

Southern Rhodesia. 

6 1/10 Rusk: death of Prime Minister 

Shastri. 

7 1/11 U.S. requests recall of Burundi 

Ambassador. 

8 1/14 U.S.-U.K.-Canada economic sur- 

vey of British Honduras. 

9 1/14 U.S.-Japan cotton textile ar- 

rangement. 
10 1/15 Notes amending cotton textile 
arrangement with Japan. 



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OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



Challenges and Choices in U.S. Trade Policy 

1966 should be a critical year for United States trade policy, Assistant Secretary of Ste 
for Economic Affairs Anthony M. Solomon predicted recently. Mr. Solomon sees three major ch 
lenges facing our trade policy: (1) the future pattern of our trade relations with the rich, indi 
trialized nations of the free world — which hinges on the outcome of the Kennedy Round of tra 
negotiations at Geneva ; (2) the trade problems of the more than 100 independent nations of t 
developing world — how to improve and stabilize their trade earnings and how best to organ 
trade with low-income countries; and (3) U.S. trade relations with the Communist countries 
Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union — whether our policies of the last 17 years continue to sei 
American interests well or whether changes in the Communist world and the world at large ht 
made some aspects of U.S. policy obsolete. 

In this pamphlet, which reprints from the Department of State Bulletin two recent 
dresses by Mr. Solomon, the Assistant Secretary discusses these challenges and the choices tl 
will have to be made in the years ahead. 

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THE OFFICIAL WEEKLY RECORD OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY 



THE 

DEPARTMENT 

OF 

STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. LIV, No. 1889 




February 7, 1966 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF PEACE 
Remarks by President Johnson 186 

SECRETARY RUSK'S NEWS CONFERENCE OF JANUARY 21 189 

THE QUEST FOR PEACE IN VIET-NAM 
by Ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg 197 



TOWARD DEEPER CULTURAL RELATIONS IN THE HEMISPHERE 
by Assistant Secretary Frankel 202 



For index set inside back cover 



The Advancement of Peace 



Remarks by President Johnson 



I come back to Independence to be with 
one of the world's most persistent searchers 
for peace in the world. It is quite fitting that 
this day is set aside for the announcement of 
the Harry S. Truman Center for the Ad- 
vancement of Peace in the world. 

I first want to congratulate the men here 
today whose generous public spirit is making 
this Center possible. 

I take my text from the words which 
President Truman spoke just 17 years ago in 
his inaugural address of January 20, 1949. 
"... we must embark," he said, "on a bold 
new program for making the benefits of our 
scientific advances and industrial progress 
available for the improvement and growth 
of underdeveloped areas." 2 



1 Made at Independence, Mo., on Jan. 20 (White 
House press release (Independence, Mo.) dated Jan. 
20, as-delivered text) at a ceremony for the an- 
nouncement of the establishment of the Harry S. 
Truman Center for the Advancement of Peace at the 
Hebrew University at Jerusalem. 

* For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 30, 1949, p. 123. 



This was, as we know now, Point 4. It was 
a bold and vital idea then, and it is just as 
bold and just as much alive as we meet here 
this afternoon. 

The initial Point 4 program of technical 
assistance was enacted in 1949 and has con- 
tinued from that day to this. Congress after 
Congress has continued to appropriate to 
that program — with growing confidence — 
sums which now, I believe, add up to more 
than $3 billion. American experts have 
traveled the globe to every continent, bring- 
ing their skills to the worldwide war against 
ignorance and against hunger and against 
disease. 

And to measure the success of this effort 
we have only to ask: What would the world 
be like today if President Truman had not 
launched this program? 

In this year 1966 I am proposing, on be- 
half of our nation, a major new effort in 
this same field that he began so long ago, 
and I am proud to add to the Point 4 of Presi- 
dent Truman the fourth principle of this 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN VOL. LIV, NO. 1389 PUBLICATION 



The Department of State Bulletin, a 
weekly publication issued by the Office 
of Media Services, Bureau of Public Af- 
fairs, provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with infor- 
mation on developments in the field of 
foreign relations and on the work of the 
Department of State and the Foreign 
Service. The Bulletin includes selected 
press releases on foreign policy, issued 
by the White House and the Department, 
and statements and addresses made by 
the President and by the Secretary of 
State and other officers of the Depart- 



ment, as well as special articles on vari- 
ous phases of International affairs and 
the functions of the Department. Infor- 
mation is included concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which the 
United States is or may become a party 
and treaties of general international in- 
terest. 

Publications of the Department, United 
Nations documents, and legislative mate- 
rial in the field of international relations 
are listed currently. 

The Bulletin is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S. Govern- 



8034 FEBRUARY 7, 1966 

ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. Price: 52 issues, domestic $10, 
foreign $15 ; single copy 30 cents. 

Use of funds for printing of this pub- 
lication approved by the Director of As 
Bureau of the Budget (January 11, 19661. 

note : Contents of this publication an 
not copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the Depart- 
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I 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



year's state of the Union speech : "to help im- 
prove the life of man." 8 

A New Effort To Improve the Life of Man 

How will we help improve the life of man ? 

First, we propose a radical increase in our 
response to the needs of international educa- 
tion. There can be no decent life for any 
man or any people without education. 

The International Education Act of 1966 
will help build partnerships between Amer- 
ican and foreign schools. 

It will recruit teachers for overseas work. 

It will make possible long-term commit- 
ments by American universities toward solv- 
ing the problems of international education. 

It will launch a series of projects to attack 
illiteracy and to find new ways to teach 
basic skills. It will begin to provide for an 
exchange Peace Corps to bring able young 
people from other countries to live and work 
here with us. 

Second, we are going to enlarge our work 
for world health. And the twin of the Inter- 
national Education Act will be the Interna- 
tional Health Act of 1966. And with that act 
we will strike at disease by establishing an 
international medical mission in our Public 
Health Service. 

We plan to triple our effort to train medi- 
cal manpower in the developing countries. 

We plan to double the size of our nutri- 
tion program for mothers and for children. 
We plan to increase by 80 million those who 
will receive adequate diets. 

We plan to set targets and to develop pro- 
grams so in the next decade we can com- 
pletely wipe out smallpox in the entire 
world; we can eliminate malaria in this 
hemisphere and large parts of Africa and 
Asia; we can end yellow fever in this hemi- 
sphere ; we can find new controls for cholera, 
rabies, and other epidemic diseases. 

Third, we will launch a major new attack 
on worldwide hunger. We will present this 
year a new food aid program, designed 
around the principle of intense cooperation 



'For text, see ibid., Jan. 31, 1966, p. 150. 



with those in all hungry countries who are 
ready to help themselves. We will direct our 
assistance program toward a cooperative ef- 
fort to increase agricultural production. We 
will ask the countries which we help to make 
the necessary land reforms, to modernize 
marketing and distribution, to invest greater 
energy and resources in their own food pro- 
duction. 

And in return, we will triple our assistance 
to investments in the powerful weapons of 
modern agriculture. From fertilizer to ma- 
chinery we will direct the efforts of our agri- 
cultural scientists to the special problems of 
the developing countries — to the develop- 
ment of new foods and concentrates. We will 
call for an international effort, including 
institutions like the World Bank, to expand 
the world supply of fertilizer. 

Fourth, we will increase our efforts in 
the great field of human population. The 
hungry world cannot be fed until and unless 
the growth in its resources and the growth 
in its population come into balance. Each 
man and woman — and each nation — must 
make decisions of conscience and policy in 
the face of this great problem. But the posi- 
tion of the United States of America is 
clear. We will give our help and our support 
to nations which make their own decision to 
insure an effective balance between the num- 
bers of their people and the food they have 
to eat. And we will push forward the fron- 
tiers of research in this important field. 

Fifth, the underlying principle of all our 
work with other nations will always be the 
principle of cooperation. We will work with 
those who are willing to work with us for 
their own progress, in the spirit of peace and 
in the spirit of understanding. 

And while we work for peaceful progress, 
we will maintain our strength against ag- 
gression. Nothing is more false than the 
timid complaint that we cannot defend our- 
selves against the aggressor and at the same 
time make progress in the works of peace. 
A celebration which unites the United States 
is a fit time to reaffirm that energy in the 
defense of freedom — and energy and prog- 
ress in the building of a free society — 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



187 



should be the common objectives of any free 
people, large or small. 

The Search for Peace in Viet-Nam 

Now this is the central necessity today of 
the brave people with whom we are associ- 
ated in South Viet-Nam. Just this week the 
Prime Minister of Viet-Nam has pledged his 
country to this necessity. He has spoken for 
progress in rural education, in housing, in 
land reform, and, above all, of the need for 
progress in social revolution and in the build- 
ing of democracy — by constitutional process 
and by free elections. All this he has said in 
the shadow of continuing aggression from 
the North. In all this he will have the full 
support of the United States of America. 

And so, President Truman, as we dedicate 
today in your honor the Harry S. Truman 
Center for the Advancement of Peace, we re- 
call the vision that you gave us to follow 
when you gave your farewell address, and 
I quote : 4 

I have a deep and abiding faith in the destiny of 
free men. With patience and courage, we shall some 
day move on into a new era, a wonderful golden 
age, an age when we can use the peaceful tools that 
science has forged for us to do away with poverty 
and human misery everywhere on earth. 

That is still our goal, President Truman. 
And now we are today redoubling our ef- 
forts to achieve it. 

Today I informed President Truman of 
our worldwide efforts to move the violence 
of Southeast Asia to the table of peaceful 
discussions. I received a report this morning 
before I left Washington from Secretary 
Rusk and Ambassador Harriman on their 
recent travels. I shall be meeting with the 
Secretary and the Ambassador again later 
this afternoon. Both the Secretary and the 
Ambassador told me that in all the capitals 
they visited — and Ambassador Harriman 
went to almost a dozen — government leaders 
recognized the United States' genuine desire 
for peace in the world. 

And of this one thing I am sure: The 
door of peace must be kept wide open for all 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 26, 1953, p. 127. 



who wish to avoid the scourge of war. But 
the door of aggression must be closed and 
bolted if man himself is to survive. 

It is tragic that in the 1960's there are 
still those who would engulf their neighbors 
by force, still those who require that vast 
resources be used to guard the peace rather 
than to bring all the people in the world the 
wonders that are really within their grasp. 

The central purpose of the American 
people is a peace which permits all men to 
remain free. But we must do more. We must 
work, and we must build upon the solid 
foundation, as the Chief Justice said, of law 
among nations. And this is America's de- 
termination, and this is America's commit- 
ment. 

Now let me leave this one last thought 
with you. I think every schoolboy knows 
that peace is not unilateral — it takes more 
than one to sign an agreement. And it seems 
clear to all that what is holding up peace in $ 
the world today is not the United States of 
America. What is holding back the peace is 
the mistaken view on the part of the ag- 
gressors that we are going to give up our 
principles, that we may yield to pressure, or 
abandon our allies, or finally get tired and 
get out. On the day that others decide to 
substitute reason for terror, when they will 
use the pen instead of the hand grenade, 
when they will replace rational logic for 
inflammatory invective, then on that very 
day the journey toward peace can really 
begin. 

If the aggressors are ready for peace, if 
they are ready for a return to a decent 
respect for their neighbors, ready to under- 
stand where their hopeful future really 
lies, let them come to the meeting place and 
we will meet them there. 

Here in the presence of the great man who . 
was the 33d President of the United States, 
who labored so long and so valiantly to 
bring serenity to a troubled world, the 36th 
President of the United States speaks with 
a voice of 190 million Americans: We want - 
a peace with honor and with justice that will 
endure ! 

Now, President Truman, there is one more 



188 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 






bit of business that I would like to take care 
of so long as I have come out here to Inde- 
pendence. I was here not long ago in con- 
nection with a little project that you in- 
augurated two decades ago, but when the 
fellows last night in the Social Security 
office learned I was coming out here again 
to see you and Mrs. Truman today, they 
asked me to bring along your new Medicare 
card. And it is now my great pleasure to 
present here, in the presence of these dis- 
tinguished friends of yours, and many of the 
young men of yesteryear who fought these 
battles with you, to bring card No. 1 for 
you, and card No. 2 for Mrs. Truman. 

They told me, President Truman, that if 
you wished to get the voluntary medical 



insurance, you will have to sign this applica- 
tion form, and they asked me to sign as your 
witness. So you are getting the special treat- 
ment, since cards won't go out to the other 
folks until the end of this month. But we 
wanted you to know, and we wanted the 
entire world to know, that we haven't 
forgotten who is the real daddy of Medicare. 
And because of the fight that you started 
many years ago, 19 million Americans will 
be eligible to receive new hope and new 
security when the program begins on July 
1, and 19 million Americans have another 
reason, another cause, to bless Harry S. 
Truman. 

Again, I want to thank all of you who 
made this great day possible. 



Secretary Rusk's News Conference of January 21 



Press release 15 dated January 21 

Secretary Rusk: Ambassador [W. Aver- 
ell] Harriman and I have now reported to 
the President on our recent journeys abroad. 
Yesterday, at Independence, Missouri, Pres- 
ident Johnson summarized where we are 
with respect to the possibilities of peace in 
Viet-Nam. 1 

You are familiar with the intensive effort 
which has been made since Christmas to 
probe the prospects for peace. We have been 
in touch again with the governments of the 
world and with many of them through spe- 
cial emissaries. There has been an over- 
whelmingly favorable response to these ef- 
forts — except from those who could in fact 
sit down and make peace. 

The diplomatic efforts of the past 4 weeks 
have not caught the other side by surprise. 
In April President Johnson at Baltimore 
called for unconditional discussions. 2 In May 



1 See p. 186. 

' For text of President Johnson's address at Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., on Apr. 7, see 
Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1965, p. 606. 



there was a cessation of bombing which 
ended after a harsh rejection by the other 
side of any serious move toward peace. Over 
the months the President and I have dis- 
cussed the elements of a reasonable peace, 
which were summarized at year's end by the 
so-called 14 points. 3 

For months on end, both publicly and pri- 
vately, it was indicated to the other side that 
the bombing could be stopped as a step 
toward peace, and every possible effort was 
made to ascertain what the response might 
be. But nothing was forthcoming from Hanoi 
on that subject. Nevertheless, a number of 
governments, including Communist govern- 
ments, insisted that diplomacy could play a 
more effective role and the prospect for 
peace would be improved if in fact the 
bombing were suspended. The Christmas 
cease-fire was therefore extended, as far as 
the bombing was concerned, until now the 
suspension is in its 29th day. 

The question posed to the other side — Are 



■ Ibid., Jan. 24, 1966, p. 116. 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



189 



you interested in peace? — is the same ques- 
tion which has been posed for months, and 
indeed years, by all available means. We 
have been waiting for some word from Hanoi 
that goes beyond bitter invective or charges 
that talk of peace is a "trick" or a "deceit" 
or a "swindle." We have been listening for 
sounds other than the sounds of bombs and 
grenades and mortars in South Viet-Nam. I 
regret that I cannot report to you any posi- 
tive and encouraging response to the hopes 
of the overwhelming majority of mankind. 
These past 29 days, against the background 
of all that has gone before, have provided 
every opportunity for the authorities in 
Hanoi to make some serious response. 

The steady purpose of the United States — 
in Southeast Asia and elsewhere — is to do 
our full part in building a decent world order, 
at peace under law, in which small as well 
as large nations can live in safety and free 
from molestation. We must continue on this 
course with patience and persistence. But as 
President Johnson put it yesterday : 

The door of peace must be kept wide open for all 
who wish to avoid the scourge of war. But the 
door of aggression must be closed and bolted if man 
himself is to survive. 

So we shall do what we can to bring peace 
to Southeast Asia and shall do what we must 
to prevent the success of a cruel aggression. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you say in your state- 
ment that Hanoi in the past 29 days has 
been given every opportunity to make some 
favorable response. Does this mean that the 
administration in its decisionmaking proc- 
ess is now at the point where it must decide 
in just what form to take the other hard 
steps tvhich the President warned Decem- 
ber 9 4 would be taken if the Communists 
failed to respond favorably to all of the long 
efforts? In other ivords, are you ready to re- 
sume the bombing? 

A. Well, I think you would not want me — 
or perhaps I should say, you would not ex- 
pect me to go into questions about the future 
military policy or military action. I think the 
President yesterday made the position very 



♦ Ibid., Dec. 27, 1965, p. 1014. 



clear, and he has made clear on many occa- 
sions that our commitment to the safety and 
the freedom of South Viet-Nam is deep and 
that we shall do what is necessary to 
achieve the elementary objectives which we 
and the South Vietnamese share. 

Hanoi's Aggression, the Central Issue 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Secretary-General 
of the United Nations indicated yesterday 
that a concrete proposal which would bring 
the National Liberation Front into a postwar 
liberation government might spur the peace 
negotiations. What is your reaction to that, 
sir? 

A. Well, I think that our view is that the 
government of South Viet-Nam is a matter 
which should be determined by the people of 
South Viet-Nam themselves. We ourselves 
have supported and continue to support the 
idea of free elections in which the South 
Vietnamese people can make these decisions 
rather than have these decisions made for 
them by imposition from the outside. 

What is needed here is a proposal from 
Hanoi looking toward peace. The simple issue 
is the apparent determination of Hanoi to 
impose a political solution upon South Viet- 
Nam by force. If they abandon that determi- 
nation, if they themselves adopt another pol- 
icy, then many of those could fall into line 
and peace could be readily established. 

But that is the heart of the matter. That 
is the central issue. And almost all of the 
other aspects are incidental to that central 
point: Is Hanoi going to hold its hand and 
refrain from trying to impose a political 
solution on South Viet-Nam by force? If the 
answer to that question is yes, they will, then 
peace can be brought about very quickly. If 
their answer to that is no, then we and the 
South Vietnamese will have to do what is 
required. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, sir, the group headed by 
Senate Majority Leader [Mike~\ Mansfield 
warned about the danger of the war expand- 
ing into Southeast Asia and elsewhere in 
Asia. What could you say about that, sir? 

A. I think there is always a danger when 



190 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



an aggressor sets out to impose his will by 
force on someone else and those of us who 
have commitments are resolved to meet our 
commitments. I cannot say that there is no 
danger. But I would say that those dangers 
exist for the other side as well and that 
rational men should try to bring this matter 
to the conference table and not try to — not 
allow this matter to move by stages to the 
kind of conflict which no one could reason- 
ably desire. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you twice mentioned the 
fact that this is the 29th day of no bombing, 
and you seem to Iiave left the impression 
that the string might be running out on this 
particular line of policy. I wonder, sir, if 
that ivas your intention? 

A. I think I have already commented on 
that. I am not going to today get into the 
question of the future and future moves or 
what may be required. What we need is 
something serious from Hanoi pointing to- 
ward peace, and that we have not had. 

The National Liberation Front 

Q. Sir, could you tell us what is the dis- 
tinction in the minds of the U.S. Govern- 
ment officials concerned with the problem of 
not permitting the National Liberation 
Front to be a political entity at negotiations 
and yet saying that we would not be opposed 
to having their views presented? 

A. The so-called National Liberation Front 
which was formed in Hanoi in 1960 is only 
a fraction of the South Vietnamese people. 
There are many other South Vietnamese. 
The overwhelming majority of the South 
Vietnamese people are made up of the Bud- 
dhists and the Catholics and other sects and 
the montagnards, the million who fled from 
Hanoi in 1954, 1955, to escape a Communist 
regime. We feel that the South Vietnamese 
people as a whole should have the respon- 
sibility for making the decisions about their 
future. 
Now, the President, in July, 5 has indi- 
■ cated that if Hanoi is interested in peace, 



5 At a news conference on July 28, 1965. 



there should be no insuperable problem in 
having the views of a so-called Liberation 
Front reflected. But that does not mean that 
they are the representatives of the South 
Vietnamese people, the overwhelming major- 
ity of whom — and there are 14 million of 
them — the overwhelming majority of whom 
want something other than what the Libera- 
tion Front has been offering. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, some military author- 
ities and others already believe the pause has 
gone too long, that it is giving a military 
advantage to the other side. What can you 
tell us about the amount of repairs that the 
North Vietnamese have made to transporta- 
tion and about the infiltration of men and 
supplies and perhaps the arrival of addi- 
tional weapons? 

A. They were, of course, in the North, 
working on repairs before the pause, work- 
ing diligently to restore certain of their fa- 
cilities that have been destroyed by bombing. 
We have had reconnaissance in North Viet- 
Nam over this period. We know that many 
of the installations which were knocked 
out remain knocked out, but we also know 
that they have been working on repairing 
certain of the others. 

Now, this is a matter which was taken 
fully into account in the decisions made with 
respect to the course of the last month. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, have we requested of 
any other nation military assistance, and, if 
so, what response have we had? 

A. Well, we have invited assistance from 
a good many nations in whatever form they 
themselves feel that they can provide. I am 
not able to report on specific decisions taken 
by specific governments today, but we do 
know that a number of governments are 
considering additional assistance to South 
Viet-Nam and we are hopeful that that will 
become apparent in the weeks ahead. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, many persons looking 
back upon this record of negotiations since 
the April speech that you mentioned say that 
they see an evolution in the United States 
position toward a more conciliatory posture 
to provoke negotiations. Do you agree with 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



191 



that, and, if so, could you tell us what you 
think have been the major changes or evolu- 
tions on our side? 

A. I think in April the President made 
very clear and public a point of view which 
he had had before and, indeed, which has 
marked the efforts of the United States Gov- 
ernment for many years. 

The most — the first important step after 
the decisions taken by Hanoi to move into 
Laos and South Viet-Nam, the first im- 
portant step to try to find a peaceful solution 
in Southeast Asia was the conversation be- 
tween President Kennedy and Chairman 
Khrushchev in Vienna in June 1961, 6 and 
there they seemed to reach an agreement 
about Laos as an important first step. That 
led to the Geneva conference and the agree- 
ment on Laos, an agreement which could 
have provided a great benefit to the people 
of Laos as well as a pillar of peace in 
Southeast Asia, except that Hanoi never 
brought themselves into compliance with it 
for a single day, for a single day. They have 
left large numbers of their troops behind. 
They continue to use Laos as an infiltration 
route into South Viet-Nam. 

Nonetheless, from that time onward the 
United States Government has been in touch 
with many governments every year through- 
out the year to explore the possibilities of 
peace in Southeast Asia. During the last 
calendar year, my staff advises me that I 
myself had more than 120 discussions person- 
ally with high officials of other governments 
to explore the possibilities of a peaceful 
settlement in Southeast Asia. 

In April President Johnson made it very 
clear that, as far as we are concerned, the 
door to discussion is open, that if there is 
anyone there at the table, we will be there to 
talk to them about peace. And I think that 
it has been made dramatically clear in the 
past month that, if there are obstacles to 
peace in Southeast Asia, they are not in 
Washington. Those obstacles are in Hanoi. 
Those obstacles lie with those who are de- 



• For background, see Bulletin of June 26, 1961, 
p. 991. 



termined to continue aggression in South- 
east Asia. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you spoke of receiving 
no indication from Hanoi of being interested 
in peace. Can we assume that, therefore, any 
reports we may have received from the 
Russians were negative after the visit of the 
Soviet delegation to Hanoi or that we have 
received no reports from the Russians ? 

A. I would not wish to embroider on what 
I said in terms of channels or communica- 
tions. I am simply saying that we have not 
received the kind of response for which we 
were hoping during this period. 

Free-World Shipping to North Viet-Nam 

Q. Mr. Secretary — 

A. Yes. 

Q. — don't you think there is something 
incongruous in the fact that the British are 
supplying by ship munitions and other ma- 
terials to the Viet Cong, while Australians, 
who are part of the British Commonwealth, 
are fighting the Viet Cong? 

A. I am not aware of any munitions sup- 
plied by the British by ship to the Viet Cong. 
As a matter of fact, free-world shipping to 
North Viet-Nam has been very drastically 
reduced in the past several months. 

We know that strategic materials are not 
moving into North Viet-Nam by ship. Indeed, 
many of those free-world ships go in empty 
in order to bring out fresh fruits and veg- 
etables and other products for other coun- 
tries. These free-world ships, for the most 
part, are under charter to Communist coun- 
tries and are not fully under the control of 
the countries whose flags they fly. 

Q. But the charges are being made in 
Congress to the effect that the British are 
providing such supplies. In addition, it car- 
ries quotations — 

A. I will have my chance this next week to 
discuss that with the Members of the Con- 
gress, but we have no information at all that 
indicates that free-world ships are carrying 
strategic supplies to North Viet-Nam. 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Status of U.S. -Soviet Relations 

Q. Mr. Secretary, I wonder if you could 
discuss with us, on the basis of your talks 
with Mr. Kosygin [Soviet Premier Aleksai 
Kosygin], the status of Soviet- American re- 
lations at this time ? 

A. Well, I would not wish to relate them 
to the Vice President's talk with Mr. Kosy- 
gin, at which I was present. That was in the 
nature of a courtesy call, and we reviewed, 
as the phrase goes, matters of common in- 
terest to the two countries. 

I think that it is clear that the Viet-Nam 
problem has cast some shadow over rela- 
tions between the United States and the 
Soviet Union. As far as we are concerned, 
we would be prepared to try to find ways 
and means to find points of agreement and 
get on with the business of normal relations, 
despite this particular problem. 

We would hope that the Soviet Union, as 
a cochairman of the Geneva conferences of 
1954 and 1962, would take its responsibilities 
as a cochairman seriously and do everything 
that it can to bring these problems of South- 
east Asia to a peaceful conclusion. 

There are some complications, of course, 
within the Communist world which may 
make it difficult for them at particular times 
to move in particular ways, but we would 
hope that they would recognize the impor- 
tance of the agreements of '54 and '62 and do 
what they can to bring about peace in South- 
east Asia on the basis of those two agree- 
ments. 

Q. Mr. Secretary ? 

A. There's a hand in the back here. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, there have been some 
reports that the North Koreans are infiltrat- 
ing into South Korea, perhaps in response to 
the South Korean commitment in Viet-Nam. 
I wonder, sir, if you could tell us how ex- 
tensive this is, what sort of infiltration it is, 
and what is being done to stop it? 

A. I haven't seen anything on that at all. 
Over the years there are occasional infiltra- 
tors along the line in Korea. But I am not 



aware of anything new or especially signifi- 
cant in that field. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, was there specifically 
no reply by the Hanoi government on the 
memorandum which was delivered to them 
by an American diplomat 3 weeks ago or so ? 

A. I think my opening statement covers 
that point. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, would you care to assess 
for us the recent — the significance of the 
recent military takeover in Africa, especially 
in Nigeria, a country which we thought 
would be the standard bearer of Western- 
style democracy in Africa? 

A. There have been events in three or 
four African countries which seem not to be 
connected with each other where special cir- 
cumstances in each country have produced 
changes in government. We ourselves would 
hope that these new countries of Africa 
could find their way onto a path of substan- 
tial and constitutional and stable govern- 
ments which would make it possible for them 
to move toward economic and social develop- 
ment of their peoples. 

I would not wish to comment specifically 
on individual countries at this point because 
we are studying these situations and con- 
sulting other governments about them and 
will be getting into such questions as rec- 
ognition and things of that sort in due 
course. 

Secretary Sees General Trend Toward Peace 

Q. Mr. Secretary, you're marking your 
fifth year in office this week. Could you tell 
us what your most satisfying personal ac- 
complishments have been during this period, 
what you're looking forward to, and whether 
you are finding it difficult or easy to keep 
up the pace after 5 years? 

A. I think the pace has been such I 
haven't really had much time to philosophize 
about the total experience. These have been 
years that have been crowded with events, 
some very satisfying and some difficult and 
dangerous and complicated. 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



193 



I do believe that the world is moving, de- 
spite the present difficulties and the present 
clouds on the horizon, the world is moving 
steadily toward peace. That seems rather a 
bold statement under present circumstances, 
but I do believe there is a greater compre- 
hension of the meaning of war, of a nuclear 
exchange, of the use of massed armies in 
conflict. 

We have not yet resolved the problem of 
what the Communist world calls "wars of na- 
tional liberation." We have not yet achieved 
a situation in which small as well as large 
countries can live securely in peace, safe 
from outside threat or attack by subversion 
or the infiltration of men and arms. That is 
why this situation in Southeast Asia is so 
very important. 

But I think the general trend has been 
toward sobriety, toward prudence, and I 
would hope that that can continue. I think 
that one of the most important tasks in front 
of us is to make more headway in the settle- 
ment of disputes and in getting on with the 
great prospect of disarmament. Far too many 
of the world's resources are consigned to 
arms and based upon the possibility of armed 
conflict. We ought to somehow free mankind 
from this burden. 

But I must say that in the longer range 
I am optimistic about where people are go- 
ing, where nations are going, because I 
think that the decent purposes of ordinary 
men and women all over the world are mak- 
ing themselves felt. But that does not over- 
look the fact that in the short range we have 
some very difficult and dangerous problems 
to solve. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, to clarify one point on 
the Vietnamese situation which has not been 
mentioned here today, the President in his 
state of the Union message 7 suggested one 
possible course of action might be a reduc- 
tion of the level of hostilities. The following 
day 8 the President did mention that there 
had been some reduction of the number of 



' For text, see ibid., Jan. 31, 1966, p. 150. 
" At a news conference on Jan. 13. 



incidents but said that he was not able to say 
whether this was a result of the peace probe 
or not. Could you tell us, sir, what the situ- 
ation is in that regard at this stage ? 

A. We have watched not only the number 
but the character of incidents very closely, 
not only over the past several weeks but 
over the past years. The Viet Cong have 
continued to maintain a high level of terror 
and sabotage incidents. The attacks by or- 
ganized units, say a battalion or larger, will 
vary in number rather considerably from 
period to period. 

There has been some variation in those in 
recent weeks, but on the whole I would think 
it would be unsafe to try to draw any politi- 
cal conclusions from the pattern. These pat- 
terns change, and we see no general trend. 
There is every indication that the other side 
is going to intensify its activity after this 
Tet [Vietnamese Lunar New Year] period. 

Formosa Problem Blocks U.S.-Peiping Talks 

Q. Mr. Secretary, Secretary-General V 
Thant advanced what sounds like a rather 
interesting theory yesterday to the effec 
that the present Chinese Communist leader- 
ship could be compared to a person who had 
suffered a nervous breakdown and therefore 
should be treated with extra kindness in 
order to restore it to complete health. What 
do you think of this as a guide for th 
United States in its attitude toward Red 
China? 

A. Well, there are two sides to that prob- 
lem. As far as we are concerned, in all of 
our talks with the authorities in Peiping — 
we have had more than a hundred twenty- 
five of them now — they start out saying that 
"There is nothing to discuss unless you are 
prepared to surrender Formosa," and when 
we say, "We can't surrender 11 million 
people against their will," then the conversa- 
tion gets rather stilted. 

So I think that those who are concerned 
about improving relations with Peiping must 
face that question : What are you going to do 
about these 11 million people on Formosa? 



194 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



Those who are prepared to surrender them 
might do business with Peiping. But we 
may be in a special position there because we 
have an alliance with the Republic of China 
and have forces in Formosa. But that is the 
beginning and the end of any serious dis- 
cussions with Peiping as far as our own rela- 
tions with them are concerned. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, just to clarify one 
point — 

A. Yes. 

Q. Aside from what we can all read, were 
you telling us that you have had no response 
from Hanoi or no satisfactory response? 

A. Well, I think that I would again go 
back to my statement : "I regret that I can- 
not report to you any positive and encourag- 
ing response to the hopes of the overwhelm- 
ing majority of mankind." 

Q. No encouraging — 

A. No positive and encouraging response. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, despite that fact, Hanoi 
and Peiping have been discussing out loud 
your 14 points in some detail, and quarreling 
with them, of course. Has the United States 
made an effort either — through any channel 
— to clarify some of the questions that have 
been raised on the other side as to the exact 
meaning of certain of these points? 

A. If they want clarification, they know 
how to get it. Why are they afraid to come 
to the table? Why are they afraid to engage 
in discussions? Why? They have not asked 
for clarification. They have simply attacked 
them. They have attacked the idea of peace 
in Southeast Asia. They have called all this 
a "swindle." Peiping even charged that the 
visits of Mr. Kosygin and Vice President 
Humphrey to Delhi for the funeral of Prime 
Minister Shastri was "a part of a collusion 
and a peace swindle." I think that was about 
the words they used. 

Now, they know how to clarify anything 
on which they are confused. And the chan- 
nels are all there, the techniques are all avail- 
able, the possibilities are present. So, if 



they are interested in clarification, we are at 
their disposal. 

Q. Well, is the answer to the question 
"No"? 

A. I beg pardon. 

Q. Is the answer to the question "No" 
— that we have made no effort? 

A. No; the answer to the question is the 
one I gave. (Laughter.) 

U.S.-South Viet-Nam Communique 

Q. Mr. Secretary? 

A. Yes. 

Q. You have said earlier that the only 
obstacles to peace negotiations were Hanoi. 
But we have had reports that there was 
some opposition to peace negotiations in the 
South as well. But since you have just come 
back from there, could you discuss the extent 
and importance of that opposition? 

A. Now, I was in Saigon very recently 
and had full discussions with the Prime 
Minister and the Foreign Minister and with 
other high officials of the Government of 
South Viet-Nam. We issued a joint com- 
munique on January 16 9 — a full copy of 
which is available to you. I think that — well, 
that communique points out that our policies 
are basically the same; that we fully un- 
derstand the position with which they are 
faced, the problems that they are facing out 
there. We are joining with them to meet this 
aggression, which is their great preoccupa- 
tion. 

They are naturally very much concerned 
with the cruel battle that is in front of them. 
But on the other hand, they understand 
that the rest of the world is interested in 
the possibilities of peace, and we agree that 
we would both have to take all the necessary 
military measures in this situation. But we 
would remain alert to all proposals and ini- 
tiatives that might lead to peace. I think 
this was talked out in great detail. 



• For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1966, p. 155. 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



195 



Q. Mr. Secretary, if you would indulge me 
in one more question regarding the tone of 
your opening statement. 

A. Yes. 

Q. Without disclosing any military actions 
that might be taken, and with full recogni- 
tion of the fact that the President will con- 
tinue to press for peace no matter what, I 
would like to ask you whether we are at the 
end of what has been the month-long in- 
tensive phase of this peace offensive? Are 
more peace envoys going abroad as wander- 
ing minstrels in the near future? Or is it 
novj a question of assessment and waiting 
and going through normal diplomatic chan- 
nels? 

A. Well, you intrigue me when you ask for 
a "tone" and refer to "wandering ministrels." 
(Laughter.) I can't really sing what I am 
saying. No, I think what I did today was to 
bring you up to date on the situation as it 
exists now. I think, if you put together the 
statement made by the President yesterday 
in Independence and my remarks this morn- 
ing, you would have as full and as frank a 
statement of where we are today as we can 
provide, based upon all the information that 
is available to us. I would not want to talk 
about tomorrow, or next week, or next 
month. I just want to bring you up to date 
on where we are now. 

Tashkent Agreement 

Q. Mr. Secretary, did the Tashkent decla- 
ration open the way to the resumption of 
economic assistance to India and Pakistan 
by this country? 

A. Well, we would not relate it specifically 
to Tashkent. We are very much encouraged 
by the results at Tashkent and have con- 
gratulated all three parties on what seems 
to have been a most constructive step taken 
there. 

To the extent that the agreement re- 
inforced the possibility of peace in the sub- 
continent, of course, that was very gratify- 
ing and opens the way for aid to accomplish 
the purpose for which it was intended, rather 



than have resources consumed in violence 
between these two great friends of ours in 
the subcontinent. So we were very much 
encouraged by the Tashkent agreement and 
hope and expect that the two Governments 
will proceed now to try to improve their re- 
lations so that all of us can work on the 
problems of the subcontinent under condi- 
tions of peace and some confidence in the 
future. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, on a related aid ques- 
tion, I wonder if you could explain to us why 
you have decided to resume surplus food 
shipments to Egypt? 10 And whether you 
received any assurances that this food would 
not be used to finance indirectly the pur- 
chase of new Soviet arms? 

A. We resumed our food shipments to 
Egypt in an agreement that extends for a 
period of 6 months on the basis of a full 
discussion by our two Governments of our 
own interests on each side, and how we see 
them, and where our common interests 
might provide a basis for common action be- 
tween us. I don't think that these food ship- 
ments are involved with the question of pur- 
chasing arms from any other source by 
Egypt. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, the Chinese leadership 
said this past week that they must prepare 
their people and their military to the pos- 
sibility of ivar with the United States- 
think, as they put it, "in the near future." 
In view of the fact, sir, that you have said 
we have received nothing resembling an en- 
couraging comment from the Communist 
side, I wonder, sir, as you look down through 
1966, whether you feel the United States 
must also make realistically this kind of as- 
sessment as welll 

A. I think that all of those matters are 
matters that are taken fully into account in 
determining what course of action this na- 
tion should follow in dealing with this ag- 



" For text of a memorandum from President John- 
son to Secretary Rusk dated Dec. 29, see ibid., Jan. 
24, 1966, p. 123. 



196 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



agression in Southeast Asia. We have not 
^overlooked any of the contingencies, and we 
dare perfectly aware of the fact that China is 
lathere, across the border, and that they 



have substantial power; but, nevertheless, 
we are meeting our commitments in South- 
east Asia. 

Q. Mr. Secretary, thank you very much. 



The Quest for Peace in Viet-Nam 



by Arthur J. Goldberg 

U.S. Representative to the United Nations 1 



I am deeply gratified to have the oppor- 
tunity of standing in tonight for the Secre- 
tary of State, and I wish to be associated in 
11 full with the words and the sentiment of the 
Citation that has just been read. 

The Secretary has cabled the following 

"nessage, which he has asked me to read for 

1 . 
turn. 



I am profoundly grateful for the high honor your 
>rganization has conferred on my colleagues in the 
^Department of State and Foreign Service and my- 
self, and regret deeply that I cannot be present to 
:hank you in person. I am especially gratified that 
Vour citation recognizes the dedication and high 
^professional competence of our career employees. I 
:j|am proud to serve with them and know they will 
..share my pride in this award bearing the name of 
,i3ur nation's first diplomat. My warm appreciation 
and best wishes to the members of the Printing In- 
dustries of Metropolitan New York. 

Dean Rusk 

The fact that Benjamin Franklin, who 
5 inspires your award, was one of the Found- 
ing Fathers of our country may tend to date 
""our impression of him. Nothing could be a 
greater mistake, for he was a very modern 
■■man in every sense. 

His modernity, I believe, was evident in his 



;| 1 Address made before the Printing Industries of 

Metropolitan New York, Inc., at the Printing Week 

dinner at New York, N.Y., on Jan. 17 (U.S./U.N. 

'!'• press release 4785). Ambassador Goldberg spoke 

II instead of Secretary Rusk and accepted for him the 

Franklin Award for Distinguished Service. 



philosophy that there are important com- 
munities of the mind and the spirit which 
are not circumscribed by national bounda- 
ries. Indeed, 188 years ago he set forth 
succinctly the central objective of the for- 
eign policy of the United States when he 
said: "We propose, if possible, to live in 
peace with all mankind." 

That proposition still guides us today and 
is evident in our belief that a country's 
faith in a world of law and order does not 
stem from the length of its borders or the 
strength of its arms. Much more, it is a re- 
flection of the greatness of its vision and 
the power of its conviction, and these have 
determined our international policy since 
the time of Benjamin Franklin. They are the 
determining reason why our nation is em- 
barked upon an historic quest for peace in 
Viet-Nam. 

U.S. Commitment to World Peace 

I should like to report to you tonight on 
that quest. 

Let me emphasize at the very outset that 
our concern for peace is not limited to Viet- 
Nam. In a day when the moon and the stars 
are being brought ever closer to our earthly 
planet — when continents on opposite sides of 
the world are but a missile shot apart — our 
concern with the peace must be worldwide 
and universal. We recognized that inescap- 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



197 



Franklin Award for Distinguished Service 



Citation to Dean Rusk 1 



More than 25,000 Americans, many serving in 
remote corners of the earth, represent the United 
States in its daily relations with other nations. 
The sum total of the work of these citizens, 
their effectiveness in carrying out the foreign 
policy of the United States, their individual 
contributions to the shaping of that policy, 
exert the most profound influence on the lives, 
fortunes and honor of 190 million Americans, and, 
indeed, on the future of the entire world. 

The selfless dedication, the high level of pro- 
fessional competence of these State Department 
career employees are exemplified by the man who 
since 1961 has served with dignity and ability in 
the tradition of such illustrious Secretaries of 
State as Jefferson, Madison, Adams and Webster. 

Born on a small farm in Georgia, Rhodes 
scholar at Oxford, professor at Mills College, he 
was early attracted to the challenging field of 
political science. A captain in the army reserve, 
he was called when war came to head the British 
Empire Section of military intelligence. By war's 
end he was serving with the rank of colonel as 
deputy chief of staff of the China-Burma-India 
theater. 



1 Read by Bernard W. Slater, chairman of the 
board, Printing Industries of Metropolitan New 
York, Inc., at the Printing Week dinner at New 
York, N.Y., on Jan. 17. 



In 1947 he was appointed by Secretary of State 
George Marshall to a significant post in the State 
Department. As Assistant Secretary for Far East- 
ern Affairs in 1950 he performed a key role in 
this country's vigorous response, both military 
and diplomatic, to the sudden Communist aggres- 
sion in Korea. 

In 1960 he was asked by the newly elected 
President of the United States to leave his posi- 
tion as president of the Rockefeller Foundation 
and assume the arduous duties, the awesome 
responsibilities of the highest ranking Cabinet 
post. When Lyndon B. Johnson took the helm 
of a shocked and grieving nation in November, 
1963, the Secretary of State, never far from the 
new President's side, provided visible evidence — 
to nations both friendly and unfriendly — of con- 
tinuity in our foreign policy. 

For five years he has labored tirelessly, quietly 
and effectively to extend the scope of human con- 
trol over the complex forces which are shaping 
the destiny of our nation. He has stamped his 
own imprint of order, forethought and tenacious 
purposefulness on the wide ranging policies of 
state. A man of courage — trusted by the friends 
of this nation, respected by our antagonists — he 
daily pursues in practical ways the dream of 
Benjamin Franklin for a world of freedom, jus- 
tice, humanity and peace. It is a privilege to 
present the Franklin Award for Distinguished 
Service to Dean Rusk. 



able fact when we signed the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

I have heard those commitments to peace 
in distant parts of the world as well as our 
membership in the United Nations depicted 
by some as a form of starry-eyed idealism 
that is out of tune with the realities of our 
time. Most assuredly it is not; it is based on 
the most practical consideration of all — 
survival. But even if the charge had some 
validity, I would still have no apology. We 
must never forget our ideals, for if we ever 
do, we lose the very essence of the freedom 
that so much of humanity aspires to achieve. 



So there is no gap between our ideals and 
our national interest. Very simply, we can- 
not find enduring peace in isolation apart 
from the world community. 

The first essential in achieving the peace- 
ful world we seek is to put an end to aggres- 
sion — if possible by preventing it, otherwise 
by repelling it. That is the overriding obliga- 
tion of members of the United Nations, and 
it is the constant obligation of all peoples 
who wish to live in peace. 

The Charter of the United Nations rec- 
ognizes the interrelationship between peace 
and the security of nations. It was a rec- 



198 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ignition, I would say, that was the inevi- 
able heritage of a world community just 
merging from the havoc and destruction of 
World War II, a war which had its genesis 
n a Fascist aggression that remained un- 
ihecked. 

The founders of the United Nations, there- 
'ore, well understood the prime need of any 
iiture world order, for not only the last war 
)ut the war before it taught them how end- 
ess is the cannibalistic appetite of the 
successful aggressor and how rapidly his 
iggressions gain momentum and scope. 
Americans are fighting and dying in South 
ftet-Nam tonight because the United States 
las learned that awesome lesson of history. 

The President, I believe, summed it up 
arhen he said in his state of the Union 
iddress 2 that if we yielded to force in Viet- 
nam, 

We would have to fight in one land, and then we 
vould have to fight in another — or abandon much of 
\sia to the domination of Communists. And we 
io not intend to abandon Asia to conquest. 

But as he also said, we have "made it clear 
—from Hanoi to New York — that there are 
10 arbitrary limits to our search for peace." 
[n short, the fight we are now waging on the 
oattlefields of Viet-Nam is matched by a 
peace effort that is being waged with no less 
intensity and resolve. The harsh guns that 
now sound in Viet-Nam must be made the 
last echo of a bitter past, and the rational 
talk of the conference table must open the 
way to the fulfillment of a peaceful future. 

The President's Peace Initiative 

It was to advance this goal that I under- 
took my recent mission for the President, as 
did the Vice President, 8 the Secretary of 
State, Governor Harriman [Ambassador at 
Large W. Averell Harriman], Governor 
Williams [Assistant Secretary for African 
Affairs G. Mennen Williams], McGeorge 



President Joins in Tribute 
to Secretary Rusk 

Following is the text of a telegram sent by 
President Johnson on January 17 to Paul M. 
O'Brien, assistant to the president, Printing 
Industries of Metropolitan New York, Inc., 
which was read at the Printing Week dinner at 
New York, N.Y., on that day. 

It would be difficult to find a man more fit- 
ting for the Franklin Award for Distinguished 
Service than the man you have chosen — Dean 
Rusk. 

Like Benjamin Franklin, Rusk understands 
the vital importance of applying quiet intelli- 
gence and careful thought to perplexing prob- 
lems. He reduces complex situations to pro- 
portions that are comprehensible. 

Carrying on in the high tradition estab- 
lished by Franklin, Rusk represents his coun- 
try with wisdom and honor. He is abroad on an 
important assignment tonight. I am happy to 
add my own greetings and congratulations to 
those of you gathered to pay homage to Dean 
Rusk. 

Lyndon B. Johnson 



' For text, see Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1966, p. 150. 

* For remarks made by Vice President Humphrey 
at the White House on Jan. 3, see ibid., Jan. 24, 
1966, p. 114. 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



Bundy, and all the ambassadors who con- 
veyed our peace messages. 

As the President himself summed it up, in 
1965 alone the Secretary of State and others 
of our representatives had 300 private talks 
for peace in Viet-Nam with both friends and 
adversaries; thus far we have made special 
visits to more than 40 countries and we have 
talked to 113 different governments in their 
capitals. This summary, I should emphasize, 
does not include my many discussions with 
the Secretary-General and with virtually all 
116 other member states of the United 
Nations. 

I can assure you tonight, therefore, that 
our effort is a dynamic and continuing 
process, that we seek — and shall persevere 
in seeking — a peaceful settlement through 
every conceivable channel. 

In virtually all of Europe, Africa, and 
Asia our effort has been received for what 
it is — a serious move to bring reason to 
bear and end the terrible bloodshed that 
profits only the casualty lists. 



199 



There are a few voices that say America 
is engaged in a propaganda maneuver. When 
that voice comes from Peiping, it can be dis- 
missed for what it is worth. When, however, 
it is a voice that comes from those who share 
our yearning for a peaceful world, a word of 
explanation is in order. I can assure you here 
and now that our intent is open and our 
effort is sincere. 

As it is well known, my visit to Rome 
was arranged in complete secrecy. The 
President, furthermore, gave instructions 
that it was to be kept this way insofar as 
possible. The same is true of the missions 
carried out by Governor Harriman and the 
other Presidential emissaries. But when our 
presence became known in the various world 
capitals we visited, we had no choice but to 
explain in general terms the initiative that 
was underway, and we did so out of a 
decent respect for the opinions of mankind — 
opinions that have a vital bearing on the 
success or failure of our effort. We have not, 
however, publicized in any way the sub- 
stance of the discussions that we have held. 
This shall remain the case unless we are au- 
thorized to do otherwise and unless it also 
serves the purposes of our peace mission. 

It must be obvious to all that in conjunc- 
tion with the open diplomacy we are con- 
ducting, there is also a great deal of equally 
quiet diplomacy that is now at work. 

There is, however, one apparent fact that 
can be mentioned. Except for the public re- 
affirmation of old positions, we have not yet 
received a response from the place that holds 
the key to the settlement of the problem — 
Hanoi. As of tonight, we can still not report 
either success or failure. 

U.S. Position Made Crystal Clear 

Despite this, there are already some posi- 
tive results of the President's peace initia- 
tive. The American position has been made 
crystal clear to all parties concerned, and 
any possible misunderstanding about the 
United States position has been eliminated. 

Our aims are now better understood in 
world chanceries and by the people of vari- 
ous countries — including the American 



people themselves. The heart of our aims and 
of our position has been detailed not only in 
the messages to the various governments set- 
ting forth the 14 points of American policy, 4 
but in a letter I sent to the Secretary-Gen- 
eral 5 for distribution to all United Nations 
members, which summarizes the essence of 
these points: 

That the United States is prepared for discus- 
sions or negotiations without any prior conditions 
whatsoever or on the basis of the Geneva Accords 
of 1954 and 1962, that a reciprocal reduction of 
hostilities could be envisaged and that a cease-fire 
might be the first order of business in any dis- 
cussions or negotiations, that the United States 
remains prepared to withdraw its forces from South 
Vietnam as soon as South Vietnam is in a position 
to determine its own future without external inter- 
ference, that the United States desires no continu- 
ing military presence or bases in Vietnam, that the 
future political structure in South Vietnam should 
be determined by the South Vietnamese people 
themselves through democratic processes, and that 
the question of the reunification of the two Viet- 
nams should be decided by the free decision of their 
two peoples. 

In addition, let me emphasize again that 
we would welcome any initiative by the of- 
ficials or the members of the United Na- 
tions — either collectively or individually — 
that would help resolve the situation and 
advance the search for an acceptable for- 
mula to stop the fighting and begin the talk- 
ing. 

If I were to try to single out conclusive 
evidence of our intent, I would point to one 
simple fact : In the past months we have been 
told by friends, by nonalined countries, and 
by unfriendly countries that the key to 
negotiations was for the United States to 
suspend its bombing of North Viet-Nam for 
a reasonable period. The President did so, 
and North Viet-Nam has not been bombed 
since before the Christmas truce. 

It is now being said that the question of 
Viet Cong representation is the chief stum- 
bling block. Our answer has been given by 
the President in these words : 6 



* For an outline of the U.S. position on Viet-Nam, 
see ibid., p. 116. 

• For text, see ibid., p. 117. 

*At a press conference on July 28, 1965. 



200 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Viet Cong would not have difficulty being 
represented and having their views represented if 
for a moment Hanoi decided she wanted to cease 
aggression. I don't think that would be an insur- 
mountable problem. 

Status of the Present Situation 

Sadly, though, the fighting goes on, and 
this in itself is the great tragedy of our day. 
At the present juncture the aim of the United 
States effort is evident. The question that 
now presents itself, therefore, is this : Is the 
sincerity of our effort being matched by the 
other side? 

I cannot tell what the ultimate outcome 
will be. I can only report the status of the 
present situation. I do want to stress that 
the President's state of the Union message 
reflects the mood of the United States — that 
we will never negotiate out of fear, but 
neither shall we fear to negotiate. 

It was this philosophy that guided Presi- 
dent Eisenhower in Korea and President 
Kennedy in the Cuban missile crisis. It is 
this philosophy that guides President John- 
son today. 

It is the reason that prompts me to sum- 
marize once again tonight where we stand 
both in the continued fighting and in the con- 
tinued search for a path to the peace table. 
We repeat it, and we shall repeat it, because 
we want it to be heard that we will not 
accept a settlement imposed by force and 



that we profoundly believe that this conflict 
should be settled by an honorable formula 
honorably negotiated at the conference 
table. We say this because we believe, too, 
that man was created for something far 
better than a lonely death on a battlefield. 

There are, of course, some among us who 
are impatient and who have expressed dis- 
appointment that I and the other Presi- 
dential emissaries did not bring back an im- 
mediate acceptance of our effort to nego- 
tiate the peace. They have been quick to 
label that effort unsuccessful or even a 
failure. 

I do not agree. Whatever the immediate 
outcome — and, as I have said, it is in doubt 
— the President's peace initiative has al- 
ready succeeded in convincing the world 
that America wants peace. And because our 
effort is based on sound moral and human- 
itarian principles, I am convinced that it is 
bound to reach fruition, if not now, then in 
time to come. 

This is my hope not only for America but 
for all humanity. It is one we will attain if 
we will but endure the ordeal of patience 
that our quest for peace demands. 

At this time in our history, it would be 
well for all of us to recall the ancient 
counsel that while the world is full of tribu- 
lations, "tribulation worketh patience; and 
patience, experience; and experience, hope." 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



201 



"There has been a widening realization . . . that education 
is central to the development of human beings, and there- 
fore to economic and social progress . . . international 
education has now come to occupy a central role in inter- 
national affairs. . . ." 



Toward Deeper Cultural Relations in the Hemisphere 



by Charles Frankel 

Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs 1 



My opening words are occasioned by a 
simple fact of geography : We have come to- 
gether for this fourth regular meeting of the 
Inter-American Cultural Council of the Or- 
ganization of American States in the capital 
city of my country. This is the first time the 
Council has met here. While the members of 
my delegation and I do not have the role of 
official hosts, we do welcome you most 
warmly to our city. This is where we live 
and work. 

I know from visits I have made to your 
countries the special feeling you have for 
your own capital cities. Many of them are 
much older than ours is. Many of them, too, 
emerged as cities — which means that they 
grew in a more natural organic manner than 
did Washington. This city was planned to be 
a capital and, in its way, a monument to our 
independence and our Federal system. It had 
no past before that. Yet I have come to like 
this city — personally, and as a place in which 
to live and work and have friends, and not 
simply as a monument. 

It was Aristotle — a gentleman who was an 
immigrant to a big city, but not to our hem- 
isphere — who said that men come together 
in cities in order to live, but they remain to- 



1 Address made at the inaugural session of the 
fourth meeting of the Inter-American Cultural 
Council at Washington on Jan. 18. 



gether in order to live the good life. That is 
true. It is true in a simple factual sense, and 
not simply in a philosophical sense. Because 
people think of cities as places where there 
is a good life, they have been flocking to 
cities, in your countries and in mine. And 
despite the congestion, disorder, and poverty 
which many of them find, it is also true 
that many of them prefer cities to the places 
from which they came. One reason why this 
is so — at any rate, my own guess as to one 
reason why this is so — is that they find in 
cities places where people are willing to talk 
about the nature of the good life. To talk 
about the good life, to explore and debate 
its meaning, is itself part of the good life. 

And this applies even to people who would 
not imagine that they are talking about 
philosophy. For people talk about the good 
life implicitly. They talk about the ends and 
purposes of life when they are deciding how 
to live and making choices about their jobs, 
their governments, their schools, and their 
way of life. Cities are places where things 
are happening and changing. That is what 
makes them exciting, and it is what has al- 
ways made them centers of thought and 
civilization. 

I say all this not to invite this meeting of 
the Inter-American Cultural Council to put 
the subject of urbanism on the agenda. I say 
it only to lead to what seems to me the cen- 



202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tral reason that we have an Inter-American 
Cultural Council and the central business 
that we have to do together. 

A Hemisphere of Cities 

This hemisphere, like the rest of the 
world, is now in the process of becoming 
very rapidly a hemisphere of cities — a hem- 
isphere of events, change, and, inevitably, 
decisions about what we, the inhabitants of 
this hemisphere, mean to make of ourselves 
and our societies. This is the background of 
the impulse and aspiration that are repre- 
sented in the Alliance for Progress. And it is 
in the background of the very great changes 
that we are all engaged in making, and must 
continue to make, in our educational systems 
and our cultural lives. 

Since the last meeting of this Council at 
the ministerial level, at Bogota in 1963, we 
have taken steps in our own country to im- 
prove educational opportunities for our peo- 
ple. I would like to report to you on some of 
these steps at this point in my remarks be- 
cause the national effort of each of our coun- 
tries provides the base from which much of 
our common effort must proceed. 

Twentieth-century societies have many of 
the same problems whether they are rich or 
poor. All must deal with the problem of peo- 
ple coming to cities in great numbers. All 
must deal with the problem of enabling them 
to cope with the increasing complexities and 
varied demands of modern life. Education 
has come to the foreground in our society as 
the prime instrument through which orderly 
social change — an orderly response to the 
needs and challenges of our time — can take 
place. These needs and challenges are as 
familiar to you in your countries as they are 
to us. There has been a widening realization 
in all our countries that education is central 
to the development of human beings, and 
therefore to economic and social progress. 

We see our educational aims in this coun- 
try in terms of five national objectives: 

First, to raise the quality of education in 
our schools everywhere and for everyone; 

Second, to bring equality of educational 
opportunity to every child in the United 



States, whatever his color, or creed, or hand- 
icap, or family circumstance ; 

Third, to provide vocational and technical 
training that is geared to the economy and 
technology of today and tomorrow, not of 
yesterday ; 

Fourth, to make college and university 
study possible for all young people who can 
benefit by it. In our economy, we can no 
longer afford to regard higher education as 
a luxury ; and 

Fifth, to bring our educational resources 
to bear directly on problems in our commu- 
nities — as an indispensable social instrument 
in fashioning the kind of society we want to 
have. 

U.S. Legislation Relating to Education 

Let me, then, refer briefly to some of the 
steps we have taken in the United States to 
move toward these objectives since the last 
meeting of this Council. In a little more than 
2 years, some 20 separate acts of legislation 
relating to education in this country have 
been signed into law by President Johnson. 
Some of the titles of these acts indicate the 
particular problems with which we are try- 
ing to deal : 

The Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963, 
with its loans and grants for building 
classrooms, libraries, laboratories. 

The Vocational Education Act of 1963. 

The Manpower Development and Training 
Act of 1963. 

The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, pro- 
viding new opportunities for adult educa- 
tion. 

The 1964 amendments to the National De- 
fense Education Act, a strengthened pro- 
gram of undergraduate assistance and of 
graduate fellowships to encourage more 
able young people to make teaching a 
career. 

The Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act of 1965. 

The Higher Education Act of 1965. 

The National Foundation on the Arts and 
Humanities Act of 1965, an act which 
symbolized our growing concern not only 
with the answers that science can give but 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



203 



with the great questions asked by the 
humanities. 

It is not possible in brief remarks to de- 
scribe what these legislative steps are now 
making possible and what we have placed 
ourselves in a position to do in future years. 
But I do wish to indicate some of the changes 
by means of brief examples : 

Total United States expenditures for edu- 
cation have more than doubled in the last 
decade and have increased by 25 percent 
since 1963. 

As an indication of the increase in Federal 
support, one college student out of four will 
receive some kind of Federal aid toward his 
education expenses during this academic 
year. Three years ago the figure was 1 in 15. 
For every student enrolled in an educa- 
tional television course in 1963, there are 
four students enrolled today. 

Since the fall of 1963, nearly twice as 
many teacher institutes have been held as 
during the previous 5 years. 

In 1963 United States colleges and uni- 
versities were operating 55 language and 
area centers with a total enrollment of 
31,567 students; in 1965 there were 98 cen- 
ters with an enrollment of more than 43,000 
students. 

These are only random examples of the 
varied kinds of activities being expanded 
and intensified through Federal, State, and 
local channels of support. These are things 
we can do and have, as a nation, decided we 
must do. You are likewise moving through 
historic times in your countries, as you con- 
sider your own educational needs and your 
response to them. 

I have not dwelt at this length on our ex- 
perience in these recent years to ask your 
commendation. I have done so primarily be- 
cause I believe there are important addi- 
tional steps to be taken that are dependent 
on what each country does within its borders. 
These are steps which infuse a larger inter- 
national dimension into education. One is the 
extent to which we seek to know more about 
other countries as a part of our own educa- 
cational development. The second is the ex- 



tent to which we develop cooperative educa- 
tional relationships with other countries as 
a part of our own foreign relations. These 
are relatively new dimensions, which are 
now demanding our closer attention. 

One of the events in education in our 
country in the last year was President John- 
son's speech at the Smithsonian Institution 
in September before scholars of 80 na- 
tions." "... learning," he said, "is basic to 
our hopes .... It is the taproot which gives 
sustaining life to all of our purposes. And 
whatever we seek to do to wage the war on 
poverty, to set new goals for health and 
happiness, to curb crime, or try to bring 
beauty to our cities and our countryside — 
all of these, and more, depend on education." 
But he also gave special emphasis to the 
important idea that learning respects no 
geographic boundaries. Founded "for the in- 
crease and diffusion of knowledge among 
men," the Smithsonian had become the first 
institution in the United States to promote 
scientific and scholarly exchange with all the 
nations of the world. In his address the 
President asked for recommendations for a 
broad and long-range plan of worldwide edu- 
cational endeavor. 

Only last week in his state of the Union 
message 3 the President said he would pro- 
pose to the Congress the International Edu- 
cation Act of 1966— to carry out the partic- 
ipation of our country in the international 
educational proposals he outlined at the 
Smithsonian. 

A Time for New Initiatives 

We in this Council can point to many con- 
structive and useful activities in interna- 
tional education in the 18 years since the 
IACC was established. I know we hold in re- 
spect the efforts of those who have brought 
us to this day. Over the years the Pan Amer- 
ican Union and the Cultural Action Commit- 
tee have been actively furthering the pro- 
grams the Council has recommended. But 
what is most significant is that their work 



3 For text, see Bulletin of Oct. 4, 1965, p. 550. 
' Ibid., Jan. 31, 1966, p. 150. 



204 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



has prepared the way for even more useful 
undertakings. And I believe the time is now 
right for new initiatives. In planning such 
initiatives the Council would not engage in 
functions already being performed in the 
OAS. There are roles in inter-American 
cultural relations which the IACC is uniquely 
qualified to fill. 

The ministers' conference at Bogota in 
1963 made a memorable declaration that I 
believe can help to point the way for us. It 
said in part : 

1. That the full expression of the cultural 
personality of every people is an irreplace- 
able and inalienable part of the common 
heritage of humanity. 

2. That, fundamentally, education has as 
its purpose the full self-realization of men, 
in an atmosphere of freedom, of justice, and 
of peace. 

These declarations suggest the kinds of 
concerns to which I believe this Council 
should give its increasing attention. They are 
fundamental concerns. They root in the cul- 
tural diversity of peoples, in their own in- 
dividual, creative expressions of this diver- 
sity. And they root in the great purpose of 
education, to help men achieve full self- 
realization. 

We need to be concerned not only that men 
have special skills and abilities they can put 
to effective use in tasks of national growth 
and progress. We need also to be concerned 
that they have opportunities for spiritual 
and cultural enrichment. For the cultural 
life of a country depends on the capacities, 
imagination, and insights of its people. So, 
too, does the ability of a country to sustain 
productive and beneficial cultural relations 
with other countries. I am, therefore, sug- 
gesting the importance of ministering to the 
spirits of men, as well as to the needs of 
their minds and bodies to do the world's work. 
Our efforts in educational and cultural fields 
should have in view the many-sidedness of 
man, the many-sidedness of poor men as 
well as of the well-to-do. 

I believe that one of the most fundamental 
needs to which the Council can address itself 



Inter-cultural Understanding 
Among the Americas 

Message of President Johnson * 

I have a special pleasure in welcoming to 
Washington the delegates to the Fourth Meet- 
ing of the Inter-American Cultural Council. 

Your Council — as the agency through which 
the Organization of American States directs 
its efforts in educational, scientific and cul- 
tural fields — symbolizes the patient and pains- 
taking pursuit of the conditions of durable 
peace which we all seek. This search for peace 
is no less significant by being relatively un- 
seen and unheard in a world in which men 
talk more loudly of issues that seem to divide 
them than they do of common interests that 
can unite them. 

I am confident your meeting can have a 
significance beyond the days of your delib- 
erations. Though you build quietly, you build 
no less firmly the sure foundations of societies 
in which free men can truly know and enjoy 
the possibilities of cultural interchange in this 
hemisphere. 

We in our country stand in need of greater 
knowledge and understanding of the old and 
honored cultures to the south of us; and we 
likewise stand in readiness to help those in 
the other American Republics who wish to 
understand us better by learning more about 
our cultural growth and aspirations. In efforts 
our governments are making to realize the 
goals of the Alliance for Progress, the United 
States seeks to encourage greater emphasis on 
bringing about better social and educational 
opportunities for all our growing populations. 

I wish for your deliberations the full suc- 
cess they deserve in planning ways to closer in- 
tercultural understanding among the Americas. 



1 Read at the opening session of the fourth 
meeting of the Inter-American Cultural Coun- 
cil at Washington on Jan. 18 (White House 
press release). 



is that for a broader and deeper and con- 
tinuing dialog between our peoples. I do not 
have in mind conferences and meetings alone, 
though they can help to organize the flow of 
ideas back and forth. The enlarging dis- 
course of which I speak would extend over 
a very broad range of fields of interest of 
all our peoples. It would not always need to 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



205 



be on the practical level, dealing with action 
items. There can be a "hidden agenda" on 
which men may find, perhaps to their sur- 
prise, that hitherto undisclosed values and 
interests put them on the same wavelengths 
with other men of other countries. Such a 
discovery — a discovery that scholars and art- 
ists can make — is often a prelude to a more 
responsive and meaningful discourse be- 
tween nations on practical themes. 

We especially need to find ways of en- 
couraging an expanded and more disciplined 
discourse among intellectuals. More than 
most other groups, intellectuals have the 
power to create, dignify, inflate, criticize, 
moderate, or puncture abstractions and ster- 
eotypes. 

As a Council it could be our role to stimu- 
late and encourage a real proliferation of 
present points of contact and communica- 
tion — throughout the educational, scientific, 
and cultural sectors of our peoples. I believe 
the IACC has a great potential to be realized 
as a forum for more direct and rigorous dia- 
log, at the highest intellectual level, on the 
problems of civilized man in this hemisphere, 
and to foster a widening scope of useful dis- 
cussion in many fields and by a broad range 
of participants. 

An enlarged undertaking of this kind 
would be consonant with the role contem- 
plated for the Council in the Charter of the 
OAS and in the statutes of the IACC. And it 
would be consistent with other steps that 
can be taken to give the IACC a more 
dynamic function. These steps would involve 
the identifying of major obstacles which 
have hindered the full flowering of inter- 
American educational and cultural relations 
and would promote activities designed to 
overcome these obstacles. 

We can encourage, for example, closer re- 
lations between the educational systems of 
the various countries. Our professors and 
teachers can share more fully in the knowl- 
edge of innovations and new techniques and 
in the enriching experiences of teaching and 
learning in other countries. A fundamental 
element in maintaining national sovereignty 
is maintaining control of the sovereignty of 



one's educational system. Countries ought, 
therefore, to do their educational planning 
for themselves. But there is room here for 
the kind of close and continuing collabora- 
tion that can make for shared transnational 
interests, common perspectives, a common 
fund of information and ideas, and a practical 
system of mutual dependence. On our side, 
the need to know more about Latin American 
people and their cultures — and our desire to 
know more — have led many of our schools 
and universities to strengthen the teaching 
of languages and cultures of our hemisphere 
and to begin doing so at an earlier stage in 
the educational process. 

The Council's program should, I believe, 
include new or intensified efforts toward 
goals such as the following: 

1. Expanded and improved teaching of 
the relevant foreign languages in national 
educational systems. 

2. Introduction into national curricula of 
more courses of study in the history and 
culture of the nations of the hemisphere. 

3. Expansion of inter-American interuni- 
versity exchange relationships. 

4. Further development of networks o: 
communication between scholars, artists, an 
other intellectual and professional peopl 
through the strengthening of associations o: 
people within various disciplines. 

5. Greater contribution by the private se 
tors of member nations to educational an 
cultural exchange, or the fostering of sue 
philanthropic activity where it is now mini- 
mal. 

6. Renewed stimulation of efforts in each 
country to guard the basic cultural and spir- 
itual values of the hemisphere. This function 
goes beyond the preservation of historic 
monuments and seeks to insure that modern- 
ization, industrialization, and social and eco- 
nomic development do not erode the cultural 
and spiritual values that animate the nations 
of the Americas. 

This Council can do much to assist the 
forward movement these times are relent- 
lessly developing. And the growing momen- 
tum itself can help to broaden the base of 
support for international educational and cul- 



206 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tural activities. For the breadth of the effort 
requires comparable breadth of support — 
not just by government agencies, by multi- 
lateral organizations, or by international 
banks. This support must also come from the 
people themselves and their own institutions. 

I believe that President Johnson's initia- 
tive at the Smithsonian Institution will be 
remembered for the historic doctrine that 
international education has now come to oc- 
cupy a central role in international affairs, 
a role of direct concern to all of us, officials 
and citizens alike. International education is 
not simply a cause to be espoused. It is now 
a fundamental and overwhelming fact of con- 
temporary life. 

In this great context this Council convenes 
today. These times give us new opportunities. 
And they give us more effective means 
through which we can help to hasten the 
coming of conditions for the good life for 
more of mankind. This, I need hardly remind 
you, is a goal of which philosophers have 
long written and for which men of all walks 
of life have long struggled. But our reach 
toward the goal is growing, and our commit- 
ment to move toward this goal must engage 
us all. 



United States and Canada Sign 
Air Transport Agreement 

The Department of State announced on 
January 17 (press release 11) that repre- 
sentatives of the Governments of the United 
States and Canada had that day signed a 
new air transport agreement at Ottawa. 1 

The agreement was signed on behalf of 
the United States by Ambassador W. Wal- 
ton Butterworth and on behalf of Canada by 

i 

1 For text of a joint statement released by the 

White House at Austin, Tex., on Dec. 31, announcing 

an agreement in principle, see Bulletin of Jan. 

24, 1966, p. 140. 



Paul Martin, Secretary of State for External 
Affairs, and J. W. Pickersgill, Minister of 
Transport. 



U.S. Agency Preparing Claims 
Relating to Gut Dam 

Press release 13 dated January 20 

The Department of State has established 
the United States Agency, Lake Ontario 
Claims Tribunal United States and Canada, 
for the purpose of submitting to arbitration 
claims of American citizens for damages 
relating to the construction and mainte- 
nance by the Government of Canada of Gut 
Dam in the St. Lawrence River. The Tribu- 
nal will be established pursuant to the 
treaty between the United States and Canada, 
signed March 25, 1965, » once this treaty is 
brought into force by being ratified by 
both Governments. 

Considerable property damage from flood- 
ing and erosion occurred in the Great Lakes 
region in 1951 and 1952, when water levels 
were exceptionally high. Property owners on 
Lake Ontario asserted that the high water 
levels were at least partially caused by 
Gut Dam, which had been constructed by the 
Government of Canada in the St. Lawrence 
River near Galops Island in 1903 and re- 
moved, in conjunction with the development 
of the St. Lawrence Seaway, in 1953. 

The United States Agency is presently 
receiving and preparing claims for submis- 
sion to the Tribunal. Ernest L. Kerley has 
been designated the United States Agent; 
Carl F. Goodman has been designated the 
Assistant United States Agent. Any claim- 
ant wishing to correspond regarding claims 
should address the United States Agent, 
Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of 
State, Washington, D.C., 20520. 

1 For text, see Bulletin of Apr. 26, 1965, p. 643. 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



207 



I 



THE CONGRESS 



AID Report for Fiscal 1965 
Transmitted to Congress 

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT 

White House press release dated January 15, for release Jan- 
uary 17 

The President on January 17 transmitted 
to the Congress the annual report on the 
Foreign Assistance Program for fiscal year 
1965. 1 

The report showed the United States com- 
mitted a total of $3.5 billion for mutual 
defense and development programs during 
the fiscal year. Two-thirds of the total — 
$2,178 million — was for economic assistance 
programs administered by the Agency for 
International Development. The balance, ad- 
ministered by the Department of Defense, 
was for military assistance and totaled 
$1,325 million. 

The report said Foreign Assistance Act 
commitments were the lowest since fiscal 
year 1961. 

Nearly 90 percent of the AID economic 
assistance total went to just 25 countries, 
although 77 countries received some kind of 
AID assistance during the year. Four 
countries — Viet-Nam, Laos, Korea, and Jor- 
dan — accounted for 80 percent of AID sup- 
porting assistance during the year. Seven 
countries — Brazil, Chile, India, Nigeria, 
Pakistan, Tunisia, and Turkey — accounted 
for 80 percent of AID development loans. 

The report noted that despite increased 
demands for supporting assistance in South- 
east Asia and the Dominican Republic dur- 
ing the year, more than 75 percent of AID 



1 The 77-page report is for sale by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 (30 cents). 



programs worldwide provided technical and 
capital help for long-term development and 
eventual self-support. 

The report noted that AID programs had 
been brought to a close in five additional 
countries during the year. No new com- 
mitments were made during fiscal 1965 for 
Greece, Iraq, Syria, or Southern Rhodesia, 
and the AID mission to the Republic of 
China on Taiwan was closed June 30, 1965, 
as that nation achieved self-support. 

The report said substantially increased 
amounts of military assistance were allo- 
cated during the year to Southeast Asia 
because of increased Communist pressure 
on South Viet-Nam and its free-world 
neighbors. 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To the Congress of the United States: 

The Annual Report on the Foreign Assist- 
ance Program of the United States for fiscal 
year 1965, which I here transmit, shows 
what Americans have done during the past 
twelve months to help other people help 
themselves. 

The record of these months offers new 
testimony to our continuing conviction that 
our own peace and prosperity here at home 
depends on continued progress toward a 
better life for people everywhere. 

In pursuit of that goal, we have, during 
this past year, placed new emphasis on the 
basic problem of securing more food for the 
world's population. 

We have agreed to extend technical assist- 
ance to countries asking for help on popula- 
tion programs. At the same time, our over- 
seas missions have been directed to give 
priority to projects for achieving better 
agriculture. Additional resources of our 



208 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



great universities have been applied to rural 
development efforts abroad, and we have 
moved to increase the nutritional value of 
food shipped overseas for children. 

During these past twelve months we have 
also: 

• Begun to make education a more vital 
part of our assistance to other nations. 
Today, 70 American universities are engaged 
in the development of 39 Asian, African and 
Latin American countries through this pro- 
gram. 

• Given our full support to development 
of a new life for the people of Southeast 
Asia through a regional development pro- 
gram — a true and hopeful alternative to 
profitless aggression. We have made prog- 
ress toward the establishment of an Asian 
Development Bank, and accelerated plans 
for development of the critical Mekong 
River Basin. 

The twelve months covered by this report 
also reflect our progress toward making our 
aid programs both more realistic, and more 
efficient. For example : 

• Foreign assistance has become a 
smaller factor in our balance of payments. 
In fiscal year 1965, more than 80 cents of 
every AID dollar was spent for the purchase 
of American goods and services. American 
products and skills went overseas as aid; 
most of the dollars which paid for them 
stayed in this country. 

• Foreign aid has become a smaller 
burden on our resources. The $3.5 billion 
committed for military and economic assist- 
ance in fiscal year 1965 represented 3.5 per- 
cent of the Federal budget and one-half of 
one percent of the U.S. gross national 
product. 

At the height of the Marshall Plan, in 
comparison, foreign aid accounted for more 
than 11 percent of the Federal budget and 
nearly 2 percent of our gross national 
product. 

Perhaps the most important single change 



in our AID programs has been the shift 
from simply helping other countries stay 
afloat to helping them become self-support- 
ing, so that our assistance will no longer be 
needed. 

Three-fourths of our AID program in 
fiscal year 1965 was devoted to develop- 
ment assistance: programs of technical and 
capital assistance in agriculture, industry, 
health and education that strengthen the 
ability of other nations to use their own 
resources. 

Finally, private participation in AID pro- 
grams is at an all-time high. Through con- 
tracts with American universities, business 
firms, labor unions, cooperatives, and other 
private groups, AID has sharply increased 
the involvement of non-governmental re- 
sources in international development. 

Two of every five AID-financed techni- 
cians in the field today are not Federal em- 
ployees, but experts from private American 
institutions. 

There is much in the less-developed world 
that causes us deep concern today: enmity 
between neighbor nations that threatens the 
hard-won gains of years of development 
effort ; reluctance to move rapidly on needed 
internal reforms ; political unrest that delays 
constructive programs to help the people ; an 
uncertain race between food supplies and 
population. 

We are right to be concerned for the 
present. But we are also right to be hopeful 
for the future. In this report are recorded 
some of the solid, human achievements on 
which our future hopes are based. 

Whether it provides strength for threat- 
ened peoples like those in Southeast Asia, or 
support for the self-help of millions on the 
move in Latin America, in Africa, in the 
Near East and South Asia, our foreign as- 
sistance program remains an investment of 
critical and promising importance to our 
own national future. 

Lyndon B. Johnson 

January 1966 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



209 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Security Council Again Extends 
U.N. Peace Force in Cyprus 

Statement by James M. Nabrit, Jr. 1 

Once again, Mr. President, this Council 
meets to consider the extension of the U.N. 
Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. We meet in 
the wake of the debate on Cyprus in the 
First Committee of the General Assembly. 

In that debate my delegation, in comment- 
ing on the magnificent job which UNFICYP 
has done in carrying out its mandate, cited 
the efforts of Ambassador [Carlos Alfredo] 
Bernardes and General [K.S.] Thimayya in 
the dangerous Famagusta episode as one 
more example of their skill and dedication. 
That recent flareup in Famagusta points up 
the need to keep the U.N. Force in Cyprus. 

In emphasizing the imperative necessity 
for the extension of the U.N. Force in Cy- 
prus, however, my delegation spoke of the 
grave concern over the financial problems 
with which the Secretary-General deals in 
some detail in the report that he has placed 
before us. 2 With your permission, Mr. Presi- 
dent, I will repeat what Ambassador 
[Charles W.] Yost said on this subject in 
the Political Committee of the present As- 
sembly on December 13. 

If essential funds are not forthcoming, this oper- 
ation simply cannot continue. If it should be inter- 
rupted or reduced to a point at which it is no longer 
effective, the United Nations would have suffered a 
major setback. There would be the gravest risk that 
the bloody events of late 1963 and early 1964 would 
be reenacted and the United Nations would have 
failed in a major peacekeeping responsibility. There- 



1 Made in the Security Council on Dec. 17 (U.S./ 
U.N. press release 4761). Mr. Nabrit is Deputy U.S. 
Representative in the Security Council. 

' U.N. doc. S/7001. 



fore, to those who have already given to this oper- 
ation, I would join the Secretary-General in asking 
that they not withhold even greater support at this 
critical hour. To those countries who have not yet 
contributed, I particularly appeal for tangible sup- 
port of the United Nations in its mission of peace 
and stability. To the parties directly concerned in 
the Cyprus problem who are the chief beneficiaries 
of UNFICYP's efforts, I would direct an especially 
urgent appeal for them to do much more. 

I urge this Council here today to go on 
record in a strong appeal in support of the 
Secretary-General's request for additional 
contributions for UNFICYP from all U.N. 
members. 

Mr. President, serious as the financial 
problem is, I do not think that we would be 
wise to delay a decision on a further exten- 
sion of the Force. My delegation, along with 
several others, has been actively engaged 
during the past weeks in attempts to supple- 
ment the efforts of the Secretary-General to 
stimulate additional contributions. We will 
continue those efforts. As we indicated in the 
Assembly, my Government is prepared to 
make an additional contribution toward the 
current financial deficit, provided such con- 
tributions are also received from a substan- 
tial number of other states. The United 
States will also continue its financial sup- 
port of the U.N. operation in Cyprus if the 
Council, as we believe it should, decides to 
extend that operation. 

Mr. President, in the First Committee of 
the General Assembly on December 13, my 
delegation also stated : 

The world community is entitled to expect that, 
when a dispute is brought before the United Nations 
and the United Nations acts to keep that dispute 
within bounds and to promote a climate conducive 
to negotiations, the parties involved will feel an ob- 
ligation to bring the dispute promptly to a close. 

It was almost a year ago that we said in 
this Council that the time for sterile recrimi- 



210 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nation, for clinging to rigid positions, had 
passed. The parties owe it to the world 
community and to those who have actively 
supported the peacekeeping efforts of the 
United Nations to be about the work of 
solving the dispute. I repeat that advice here 
today with the utmost seriousness. 

An accommodation does not require com- 
promise of principle. What is required, and 
what appears to date to have been lacking, 
is a sense of urgency and a will to concilia- 
tion. The Secretary-General's report under- 
scores the absence of such a will. It is the 
duty of this Council, Mr. President, to carry 
home to the parties the message that the 
United Nations expects them to move for- 
ward toward a resolution of their differ- 
ences and to do so with all dispatch. 

In this connection my delegation looks 
with favor on the constructive appeal to the 
parties made by our distinguished colleague, 
the representative of the Netherlands, to 
enter into negotiations looking to an early 
solution of the dispute and requests the 
Secretary-General to give every assistance 
in facilitating such negotiations and to reac- 
tivate the mediation effort, which has been 
in abeyance these past several months. We 
recognize that the role of the "third man" 
in a dispute as complex and deeply rooted as 
that with which we are dealing is an unen- 
viable one, and we pay tribute to the dedica- 
tion with which the late Ambassador 
[Sakari] Tuomioja and his distinguished suc- 
cessor Senor Galo Plaza pursued their ef- 
forts. A resumption of the mediation effort 
need not, in our view, exclude direct diplo- 
matic contact among the parties concerned. 
What is needed, as I emphasized earlier, is 
a breaking of the ice, the stimulation of a 
disposition by the parties to look for areas 
on which agreement may be possible and to 
progressively narrow the differences until 
the shape of a settlement will become appar- 
ent. 

My delegation has an open mind on the 
question of whether the U.N. Force should 
be extended for 3 months, as stated in the 
draft resolution just circulated, 3 or for 6 
months, as suggested in the Secretary-Gen- 



eral's report. We understand and share the 
misgivings which we know are in the mind 
of the distinguished representative of the 
Netherlands, and indeed of other delega- 
tions, concerning the indefinite continuation 
of the U.N. operation in the absence of clear 
progress toward an agreed solution. We note 
that the Secretary-General in his report re- 
fers to the danger that an overreliance by 
the parties on the United Nations to prevent 
resort to armed force and to maintain the 
status quo may reduce the sense of urgency 
felt by the parties in coming realistically to 
grips with the underlying political issues and 
endeavoring to resolve them. 

Mr. President, my delegation welcomes the 
intention of the Secretary-General to make a 
further cut of 740 men in the strength of 
UNFICYP. We welcome this announcement 
particularly in view of the acute deficit in 
UNFICYP financing. We note that, in the 
judgment of the Force Commander, such a 
reduction can safely be made without im- 
pairing the effectiveness of the Force or 
changing its mandate. I hope that the Sec- 
retary-General will continue to keep the 
question of UNFICYP strength under re- 
view, with the view to further reductions as 
they may become possible. 

To conclude, Mr. President, my delegation 
supports the extension of the United Na- 
tions Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus and ap- 
peals to all member states to contribute to 
the maintenance of that Force. We will sup- 
port also a clear call upon the parties con- 
cerned to recognize their responsibility to 
bring this dispute to a peaceful end. To this 
end we urge the Secretary-General, in con- 
sultation with the parties, to reactivate the 
mediation effort. For all too long Cyprus has 
been an island of crisis. The issues in con- 
tention can be resolved peacefully; they 
must be resolved peacefully. 4 



3 U.N. doc. S/7024. 

4 In a resolution (S/RES/219(1965) (S/7024)) 
unanimously adopted on Dec. 17, the Security Coun- 
cil "extended once again the stationing in Cyprus 
of the United Nations Peace-keeping Force ... for 
an additional period of three months, ending 26 
March 1966." 



FEBRUARY 7, 1966 



211 



United States Announces Pledge 
for Palestine Refugees 

Statement by Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 
U.S. Representative to the General Assembly 1 

In response to the resolution 2 adopted by 
the General Assembly on the 15th of Decem- 
ber, which extended the United Nations Re- 
lief and Works Agency for Palestine Refu- 
gees for another 3 years, it gives me pleasure, 
on behalf of the United States Government, to 
pledge $22.9 million to the agency for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1966. As in the 
past, part of this contribution will consist of 
the foodstuffs which the agency requires. 

This contribution of nearly $23 million is 
a concrete demonstration of the United 
States Government's continuing and sincere 
concern for the welfare of the refugees. 
The United States has been the main finan- 
cial supporter of UNRWA over the years, 
and this latest pledge brings our total con- 
tribution to more than $375 million. While 
we intend to continue our financial support 
for this worthy cause, we believe, as we have 
said in the past, that the United States bears 
a disproportionately large share of the costs 
of the agency. We believe that the commu- 
nity of nations as a whole should manifest 
an equal degree of concern for the plight of 
the refugees and that this concern should be 
reflected in financial support. 

During the course of the discussion of the 
UNRWA item in the committee, I repeat- 
edly emphasized my Government's concern 
that the agency's limited resources should go 
to the truly needy. In this regard we have 
expressed our hope for rapid progress on 
rectification of the relief rolls. We would 
hope that any reductions in the agency's ex- 
penditures which might be necessitated by 
its financial difficulties would not be at the 
expense of the refugee education program, 



the importance of which my Government has 
always emphasized. 

The contribution of the United States, as 
in the past, will be available only to the ex- 
tent that it does not exceed 70 percent of 
the total governmental contributions. We 
again urge the governments directly con- 
cerned with the refugee problem to assume 
a greater role in seeking broader support 
for the agency. We are also convinced there 
are many countries whose interest in the 
stability of the Middle East should make 
them promising sources of more generous 
help. 

May I conclude by expressing the appre- 
ciation of the United States Government for 
the work being done by the Commissioner 
General and his staff. We fully recognize 
the difficulties they encounter in fulfilling 
their tasks, many of which result from the 
financial problems which the agency is fac- 
ing. We would hope that generous contribu-