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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



VOLUME VIII: Numbers 184-209 



January 2 -June 26, 1943 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1943 



U'S.SUPnwNTFNOENTOFOOu.*;fNrs 
SEP 21 1943 






Publication 1982 



INDEX 



Volume VIII: Numbers 184-209, January 2 -June 26, 1943 



Acheson, Dean : 

Addresses, statements, etc. — 

Chamber of Commerce, New York, 378. 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 188, 209. 
Designation as director. Office of Foreign Economic 
Coordination, Department of State, 579. 
Addresses. See under Acheson ; Berle ; Bunn ; Davies ; 
Davis ; Dodds ; Feis ; Grew ; Gulick ; Hawkins ; 
Hooker: Hull; Jackson; Jessup ; Jones; Lehman; 
Pasvolsky ; Roosevelt ; Sayre ; Taylor ; Thomson ; 
Welles; Wluant. 
Afghan Minister to U.S. (Abdol Hosayn Aziz), creden- 
tials, 495. 
Africa. See French North Africa ; French West Africa. 
Agreements, international. See Treaties, agreements, 

etc. 
Agriculture: 

Address by Mr. Berle, 468. 

Food and Agriculture, United Nations Conference on. 

See Food and Agriculutre. 
Foodstuffs production in Brazil, 3j3. 
Labor, importation, 312. 

Trade-agreements program, benefits of. Secretary 
Hull's letter to House Ways and Means Com- 
mittee, 428. 
Air-transport services, U.S. and Canada, 210. 
Algeria (see also French North Africa), German and 
Italian consular staffs formerly at Algiers, deten- 
tion in U.S.. 209. 
Aliens: 

Enemy, transportation, 222. 
Entry into U.S. of alien seamen, 543. 
-billed powers. See United Nations. 
Allied Supply Council, U.S. and Australia, 66. 
American Hemisphere Exports Office, Department of 

State, abolishment, 138. 
American republics (see also the individual countries) : 
Bases, U.S.. 215. 
Commissions and conferences. See Commissions. 

committees, etc. ; Conferences, congresses, etc. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., from — 
Argentina, 496, 522, .544. 
Bolivia, 87, 174, 458. 
Brazil. 62. 137. 496. 497. 
Chile. 174. 



American republics — Continued. 
Cultural leaders, etc.— Continued. 

Colombia. 435. 474. 545. 

Costa Rica. 86. 

Cuba, 223. 314. 

Dominican Republic, 436, 474, 496. 

Ecuador, 350, 60O. 

El Salvador, 223. 

Guatemala, 196. 

Haiti, 328. 

Mexico, 33, 86, 209, 237, 264, 420, 544. 

Nicaragua. 496. 

Panama. 223. 328. 

Paraguay. 522. 

Peru. 328. 

Uruguay. 350, 377. 522. 

Venezuela. 223, 420. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., 544. 
Cultural relations — 

Address by Mr. Thomson, 232. 

Exchange fellowships and travel grants, suspen- 
sion, 8. 

Mexico, visit of American Dental Association presi- 
dent, 196. 
Defense Board, Inter-American, 70. 
Development Commission, Inter-American. 71. 
Diplomatic and consular personnel, exchange with 

Axis powers, 209. 
Education, Conference of Central American Ministers 

of, 34. 
Embassy rank, representation between U.S. and 

seven American republics. 263. 
Exports from Canada and U.S. to. programing, 454; 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, Inter- 
American, 71. 260. 
Juridical Committee, Inter-American, 72. 
Legion of Merit, award to Gen. Cristobal Guzman 

Cardenas, of Mexico, 33. 
Maritime Technical Commission, Inter-American, 73. 
Pan American Day, addresses and messages by — 

President Roosevelt. 321. 

Secretary Hull. 322. 

Under Secretary Welles, 323. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee 
for, 69. 



606 



DEPARTMENT 



STATE BULLETIN 



American republics — Continued. 

Political Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 

73, 202. 
Territorial Administration, Inter-American Commis- 
sion for, 70. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. See Treaties, agreements, 
etc. ; and under name of individual countries. 
Americans : 
Aviators, trial and execution in Japan, 337-339. 
Communications to or from enemy territory, 296. 
Concentration in Germany, 42, 149. 
Exchange arrangements with — 
Germany and Italy, 209. 
Japan, 217, 442. 
Military service of U.S. citizens residing in — 
Brazil, 528. 
Cuba, 157. 
El Salvador, 530. 
Greece, 248. 
Mexico, 87. 

Other co-belligerent countries, list, 175. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees in Far East, 
295, 472. 
Amity, treaty between China and Iraq (1942), 355. 
Anderson, Dewey, appointment in Office of Foreign Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department of 
State, 64. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 66. 
Antilles, French, U.S. informal relations with, termi- 
nation, 359. 
Appleby, Paul H., withdrawal from department, 65. 
Araiza, Evaristo, appointment as Mexican member of 
Mexican-American Commission for Economic Co- 
operation, 458. 
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, U.S. member (Hacli- 

worth), 313. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 496, 522, 544. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., visit of, 544. 
Gen. Agustin P. Justo, death, 61. 
Government headed by Gen. Pedro P. Ramirez, rec- 
ognition by U.S. and other American govern- 
ments, 520. 
Art, Advisory Committee on, 62. 

Asbestos, African, agreement between U.S. and Great 
Britain (19J3) regarding apportioning of supplies, 
503. 
Athlone, Earl of (Governor General of Canada), visit 

to U.S., 350. 
Atlantic Charter, adherence by Peru, 1.'j4. 
Australia : 
American Minister, nomination of Edward Flyun 

as, 85. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies, reply, 56. 
Supply Council, Allied, 66. 



Aviation: 

Canada and U.S., transport services, 210. 
Chile, U.S. military-aviation mission to, 390. 
Peru, air transportation, 175. 
Aviators, American, Japanese trial and execution of, 

337-339. 
Avila Camacho, Manuel (President of Mexico), agree- 
ment with President Roosevelt for economic co- 
operation, U.S. and Mexico, 376. 
Awards : 

Legion of Merit to Gen. Cristobal Guzman Cardenas, 

33. 
Medal for Merit, 348. 
Axis powers. See Germany ; Italy ; Japan. 
Aziz, Abdol Hosayn, credentials as Afghan Minister 
to U.S., 495. 

Bahama Islands, treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Farm labor, with U.S. (1943), 312. 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 

(1937), adherence, 313, 503. 

Radiocommunications convention, inter-American 

(1937), adherence, 313, 503. 

Ballantine, Joseph W., designation as chief of Division 

of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State, 600. 

Baltimore League of Women Voters, Baltimore, Md., 

address by Mr. Bunn, 333. 
Barclay, Edwin (President of Liberia), visit to U.S., 

442, 472. 
Barnes, Maynard B., American Consul General at 

Dakar, 9. 
Bases, U.S., in : 

Other American republics, 215. 
Pacific, 217. 
Belgium, mutual-aid agreement with U.S. (1943), 

text, 102. 
Bene.s, Ednard (Czechoslovakia), visit to U.S., 375, 

420, 521. 
Benton, Russell W., designation as assistant chief. 
Division of Exports and Requirements, Depart- 
ment of State, 138. 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., addresses, messages, etc. : 

American Hungarian Federation, Bridgeport, Conn., 

132. 
Boston mass meeting (delivered by Mr. Hooker) , 395. 
Rotary Club, Reading, Pa., 289. 
United Nations Relief Fund, Inc., Boston, Mass., 38. 
Utah State Agricultural College, 468. 
Bermuda meeting on refugee problem: 
Address by chairman of U.S. delegation (Dodds), 

351. 
Announcement of meeting, 259. 
Communique joint, U.S. and British delegations, 

388. 
Correspondence of Mr. Welles and Mr. Murray re- 
garding, 386. 



INDEX 

Bermuda meeting on refugee problem— Continued. 
Delegation, U.S., 333. 
Keport of meeting, 456. 
Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr., Senate confirmation 
of nomination as American Ambassador to Czech- 
oslovakia, 495. 
Bills of exchange, promissory notes, and cheques, 

conventions on, 111. 
Blaine, James G., anniversary, address by Mr. Welles, 

104. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List of: 
Revision IV, Cumulative Supplements 3, 4, 5, and 6, 

59, 153, 222, 297. 
Revision V and Cumulative Supplements 1 and 2, 
375, 404, 493. 
Boal, Pierre de L., false allegation regarding activ- 
ities, 5. 
Boards. Sre Commissions, committees, etc. 
Bolivia (see aluo American republics) : 

American Ambassador (Boal), false allegation re- 
garding activities of, 5. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 87, 174, 458. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 

374, 421. 
Labor Ministry ofiBcials, visit to U.S., 474. 
Labor mission from U.S., 107, 134, 264. 
President Pefiaranda, visit to U.S., 350, 410, 431. 
Border-crossing regulations, U.S. and Canada, 1.54. 
Boston mass meeting to protest inhuman treatment of 
civilians by Germans, address of Mr. Berle (deliv- 
ered by Mr. Hooker), 395. 
Boston University, address by Mr. Thomson, 232. 
Brazil (see also American republics) : 

Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 62, 137, 496, 497. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., visit of, 544. 
Defense Commission, Joint, with U.S., 74. 
Mello Franco, Afranio de, death, 7. 
President Vargas — 

Meeting with President Roosevelt. 95. 
Son, death of, 134. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Bills of exchange and promissory notes (1930), 111. 

Cheques (1931), 111. 

Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 

208. 
Exjwrt control, decentralization plan, with U.S. 

(1942), signature, 9. 
Foodstuffs production, with U.S. (1942), 353. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S. (1943) text, 

528. 
Postal convention, etc.. Postal Union of the Amer- 
icas and Spain (1936), 10. 
Radiocommunications, inter-American (1937) and 
Santiago revision (1940), approval, 422. 



607 

British West Indies, visit of President Roosevelt to 

Trinidad, 117. 
Broadcasting Agreement, North American Regional 

(1937), 313, 503. 
Bryn RIawr College Summer Institute in International 
Relief Administration, address by Mr. Jessup, 580. 
Budget recommendations. State Department (1944), 108. 
Bunn, Charles, addresses : 

Baltimore League of Women Voters, 333. 
Political Science Association, Washington, 135. 

Caceres, Julian R. (Honduras), credentials as Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 417. 
Caldwell, John K., Senate confirmation as American 
Minister Resident and Consul General to Ethiopia, 
333. 
Canada : 

American Minister (Moffat), death, 110. 
Boards, committees, etc., U.S. and Canada : 
Defense, Permanent Joint Board on, 77. 
Economic Committees, Joint, 74. 
Material Coordinating Committee, 76. 
Production and Resources Board, Combined, U.S., 

Great Britain, and Canada, 67. 
War Production Committee, Joint, 75. 
Border-crossing regulations, 154. 
Governor General, the Earl of Athlone, visit to U.S., 

350. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Air transport, with U.S. (1943), text, 210. 
Claims, U.S. and Canada, waiver arising as result 
of collisions between vessels of war (1943), 
signature, 500. 
Exports to other American republics, programing, 

with U.S. (1943), 454. 
Fats and oils, adherence to 1942 Memorandum of 

Understanding, U.S. and Great Britain, 140. 
Halibut fishery, with U.S. (1937), regulations, 224. 
Industrial diamonds, with U.S. and United King- 
dom (1943), signature, 389. 
Inter-American arrangement concerning radio- 
communications (Santiago revision 1940), ad- 
herence, 503. 
Lake St. Francis, temporary raising of level, with 

U.S. (1942), signature, 140. 
Radiocommunications, inter-American arrange- 
ment concerning (Santiago revision, 1940), 
adherence, 503. 
Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment In- 
surance, with U.S. (1942), Canadian ordinance 
giving effect to, 422. 
University of Toronto, address by Mr. Welles at con- 
vocation, 179. 
Victory Loan campaign at Montreal, address by Mr. 
Grew at opening of, 365. 



608 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 66. 

Casablanca conference, 93. 

Castro, Hector David (El Salvador), credentials as 

Ambassador to U.S., 414. 
Chemistry, 4th South American Congress on, Santiago, 

33. 
Central America. See American republics. 
Chamber of Commerce, New York, address by Mr. 

Acheson, 378. 
Chamber of Commerce of State of New York, address 

by Mr. Welles, 280. 
Cheques, bills of exchange, and promissory notes, con- 
ventions on, 111. 
Chiang Kai-shek, correspondence on relinquishment by 

U.S. of extraterritoriality in China, 61. 
Chiang Kai-shek, JIadame, visit to Washington, 16."i. 
Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, address by Mr. 

Feis, 339. 
Chiefs of Staff, Combined, 66. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 174. 
Cultural leaders from U.S.. visit of, 544. 
Diplomatic relations with Axis powers, severance, 

83. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Military aviation mission, with U.S. (1943), sig- 
nature, 390. 
Mutual aid, with U.S. (1943), signat\ire, -208. 
CTiina {see also Far East) : 

Chiang Kai-sliek, Madame, visit to Washington, 16.j. 
Counselor of Embassy in U.S., former, death, 237. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 522. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Amity, with Iraq (1942), exchange of ratifications, 

35.5. 
Extraterritoriality treaty with Great Britain 
(1943), 
Exchange of ratifications, 458. 
Signature, 60. 
Extraterritoriality treaty with U.S. (1943), 
Chinese satisfaction, 131, 153. 
Proclamation, U.S., 475. 
Ratification, 160, 421, 458. 
Report of Secretary Hull, 239. 
Report of Senate Committee, 245. 
Signature, 59. 

Text and supplementary exchange of notes, 240. 
Transmittal to Senate by the President, 23S. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to armed 

forces I f U.S. allies, replies, 5, 55. 
Churchill, Winston S. : 
Casablanca conference, 93. 

Giraud's speech on French unity, commendation, 229. 
Visit to Washington, 427. 



Citizens Conference on International Economic Union, 

New York, address by Mr. Hawkins. 185, 209. 
Civilian agencies in liberated areas, coordination of 

economic operations, 575. 
Civilian Defense, Office of, addresses by Mr. Grew at : 
Atlanta, 205. 
Buffalo, 591. 
Detroit, 150. 
Nashville, 166. 
Civilian internees in enemy territory, communications 

to or from, 297. 
Civilians in German-occupied Europe, inhuman treat- 
ment of, 395. 
Claims, U.S. and: 
Canada, waiver arising as result of collisions between 

vessels of war, 500. 
Mexico, payment, 7. 
Claims Commission, American-Mexican, 420, 457. 
CoUado, Emilio G., designation as Associate Adviser on 

International Economic Affairs, 139. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Lleras), credentials, 410. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 435, 474, 545. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., visit of, 544. 
Rubber mission, U.S., 174. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Extradition, with U.S. (1940), exchange of ratifi- 
cations, 600. 
Opium convention, international (1936), approval 

by Colombia, 45S'. 
Powers of attorney, protocol (1940), ratification, 
601. 
Combined Chiefs of Staff, 66. 

Combined Food Board, U.S. and Great Britain, 67. 
Combined Production and Resources Board, U.S., Great 

Britain, and Canada, 67. 
Combined Raw Materials Board, U.S. and Great Britain, 

68. 
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board, U.S. and Great 

Britain, 69. 
Commerce, international. See Foreign trade. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
International — 

Defense Board, Inter-American, 33. 
Economic Cooperation, Mexican-American Commis- 
sion for, 376, 457, 473. 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, In- 
ter-American, 71, 260. 
List of commissions, etc., concerned with the war, 

66. 

Political Prisoners and Refugees, Joint Commis- 
sion for, 589. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 73, 202, 
Relief Commission, Neutral, 347. 
Rubber Commission, U.S. and Colombia, 174. 



IXDEX 

Commissions, committees, etc. — Continued. 
National — 
Claims Commission, American-Mexican. 420, 457. 
Cultural relations, music and art, 62. 
Economic Operations, Board of, 139, 579. 
Health and Medical Care, Advisory Committee on, 

257. 
Interdepartmental Policy Committee, establish- 
ment, 577. 
Labor mission, U.S. to Bolivia, 107, 134, 264. 
Medal for Merit Board, 348. 
National Library of Peru and the Geographical 

Society of Lima, Committee to Aid. 520. 
War Relief Control Board, 37, 223. 
Communist International, dissolution, 47.3. 
Confcrcnci's, congresses, etc. : 
International — 

liermuda meeting on refugee problem. See Ber- 
muda meeting. 
Casablanca. Morocco, 93. 

Chemistry, 4th South American Congress on, 33. 
Citizens Conference on International Economic 

Union, New York, 185. 
Education, Conference of Central American Min- 
isters of, 34. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Conference 

on. See Food and Agriculture. 
Intergovernmental Conference on Refugees, 1st, 

fivian-London (1938), 73, 202. 
Postal Union, Universal, 11th Congress, 10. 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 4th Con- 
gress, 10, 534. 
Private Law, International, 2d South American 

Congress on, 112. 
Unification of Laws on Bills of Exchange, Promis- 
sory Notes, and Cheques, 1st and 2d Interna- 
tional Conferences, 111. 
National — 

Social Work, National Conference of. at New York, 

218. 
State Governments, Council of, Baltimore, 96. 
Congress, U.S. : 
Extraterritoriality treaty, U.S. and China (1943) — 
Senate advice and consent to ratification, 160. 
Senate report, 245. 
Foreign Service nominations, Senate confirmation, 

265. 333, 495, 496. 
House Committee on Foreign Affairs — 
Exportation of petroleum to Spain, letter from Mr. 

Welles regarding, 218. 
Lend-Lease Act, extension, statement by Mr. Ache- 
son, 188, 209. 
House Ways and Means Committee, extension of 
Trade Agreements Act — 
Letter from Secretary Hull, 428. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 329. 



609 

Congress, U.S.— Continued. 

Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee, report by Secretary Hull on U.S. 
expenses, 260. 
Legislation, listed, 79, 141, 161, 197, 212, 224, 251, 265, 
286, 314, 333, 356, 391, 423, 436, 459, 475, 535, 
545, GOl. 
Lend-lease operations, report by Edward R. Stet- 

tinius, 230. 
Panama, joint resolution transferring certain rights 

to, 421. 
President Roosevelt's annual message on state of the 

Nation, 15. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, statement 
by Mr. Shaw on nomination of Edward Flynn as 
Minister to Australia, 85. 
Senate Finance Committee, extension of Trade Agree- 
ments Act, statements by — 
Secretary Hull. 443, 446. 
Mr. Sayre, 447. 
Trade Agreements Act, comments by Secretary Hull 
on renewal of, 494. 
Consular and diplomatic personnel. See Diplomatic 

representatives in U.S. ; Foreign Service, U.S. 
Consular convention, U.S. and Mexico (1942), 264, 501, 

545. 
Conventions. See Conferences, congresses, etc. ; Trea- 
ties, agreements, etc. 
Corbett, Jack C. : 

Assistant Adviser on International Economic Affairs, 

Department of State, designation, 139. 
Assistant Executive Secretary of Board of Economic 
Operations, Department of State, designation, 
139. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Escalante), credentials, 412. 
American Ambassador (Des Portes), Senate confir- 
mation of nomination, 265. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 86. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Costa 

Rica, 263. 
Rubber agreement with U.S., supplementary (1943), 
signature, 353. 
Crabtree, Dr. James A., appointment as Chief Medical 
Officer, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations, 256. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies, reply, 55. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 223, 314. 



610 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Cuba — Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military and naval cooperation, with U.S., sup- 
plementary (1943), signature, 501. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S. (1943), text, 

157. 
Sugar, with U.S. (1943), signature, 355. 
Cultural relations. See American republics. 
Czechoslovakia : 
American Ambassador (Biddle), Senate confirmation 

of nomination, 495. 
President BeneS, visit to U.S., 375, 420, 521. 

Dakar : 
American Consulate General, 9. 
American mission to coordinate American activities, 
472. 
Darlington, Charles R., appointment in OflSce of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 
of State, 65. 
Davies, Joseph E., joint statement with Messrs. Lehman 
and Davis regarding private relief organizations, 

. -..; gy_. . -: 

Davis, Norman H., joint statement with Messrs. Lehman 
and Davies regarding private relief organizations, 
37. 
Dayton, Kenneth, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Operations, Department of State: 
Appointment to stalf, 64. 
Designation as 2d Deputy Director, 196. 
DeBayle, Le6n (Nicaragua), credentials as Ambassador 

to U.S., 419. 
Decentralization plan of export control, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Brazil (1942), 9. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942) : 
Adherence by — 
Bolivia, 374, 421. 
Brazil, 208. 
Iraq, 83. 
Anniversary, 3. 
Declarations of war. See War; and the individual 

countries. 
Decorations, Medal for Merit, 348. 
Defense, hemispheric (see also American republics) : 
Bases, U.S., in other American republics, 215. 
Boards, committees, etc. — 

Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, 69. 
Inter-American Defense Board, 70. 
Joint Board, Permanent, U.S. and Canada, 77. 
Joint Brazil - United States Defense Commission, 

74. 
Joint Mexican - United States Defense Commission, 
75. 



Defense, hemispheric — Continued. 
Mutual aid (1943), U.S. and— 
Chile, 208. 
Mexico, 251. 
Refugee problem, 202. 
Defense Materials, Division of. Department of State, 

138, 174. 

Defense sites in Panama, lease by U.S., 459. 

Departmental orders. See State Department. 

Des Portes, Fay A., Senate confirmation of nomination 

as American Ambassador to Costa Rica, 265. 
Development Commission, Inter-American, 71. 
Diamonds, industrial, reserve for United Nations, 389. 
Dickinson, Edwin D., appointment as General Counsel 

of American-Mexican Claims Commission, 457. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 
Credentials, 410-419, 431, 495. 
German and Italian, exchange for Americans, 209. 
Discussion Series, United Nations, 96. 
Documents, transmission to or from enemy territory, 

296. 
Dodds, Harold Willis, address at Bermuda meeting on 

refugee problem, 351. 
Dominican Republic («ee also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Troncoso), credentials, 413. 
American Ambassador (Warren), Senate confirma- 
tion of nomination, 265. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 436, 474, 496. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Dominican 

Republic, 263. 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S. (1943), signa- 
ture, 113. 
Doyle, Albert M., designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Exports and Requirements, Department of 
State, 138. 
Drugs convention, international (1936), 458. 

Economic Affairs, International, Associate and Assist- 
ant Advisers on, 139. 

Economic Coordination, Foreign, Office of, establish- 
ment in Department of State, 579. 

Economic Operations, Board of. Department of State, 

139, 579. 

Economic Studies, Division of, establishment in De- 
partment of State, 63. 
Economics (see also Lend-Le^ise; Mutual aid and Trade 
agreements wider Treaties, agreements, etc.) : 
Addresses, 185, 209, 339, 378, 398, 405, 468. 
Civilian agencies in liberated areas, coordination of 

economic operations, 575. 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, Inter- 
American, 71, 260. 
Joint Economic Committees, U.S. and Canada, 74. 
Mexican -U.S. economic cooperation, 376, 457, 473. 
Panama, transfer by U.S. of certain rights to, 421. 



INDEX 

Ecuador {see also American republics) : 
American Ambassador (Scotten), Senate confirma- 
tion of nomination, 265. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 350, 600. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between Quito and New York, 
377. 
Eden, Anthony : 

Statement regarding publication "Peace and War", 

133. 
Visit to U.S., 216, 279. 
Education, Conference of Central American Ministers 

of, 34. 
El Salvador (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Castro), credentials, 414. 
American Ambassador (Thurston), Senate confirma- 
tion of nomination, 265. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 223. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and El Salva- 
dor, 263. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Education, Central American conventions (1942), 

ratification, 34. 
Military mission, with U.S. (1943), signature, 354. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S. (1943), text, 

630. 
Postal convention, universal (1939), ratification, 
10. 
Embassy rank, representation between U.S. and Costa 
Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guate- 
mala, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua, 263. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

Inter-American, 69. 
Enemy aliens, transportation, 222. 
Enemy-controlled territory, forced transfers of prop- 
erty, 21. 
Enemy territory, transmission of private messages to 

or from, 296. 
Erwin, John D., Senate conlirmation of nomination 

as American Ambassador to Honduras, 265. 
Escalante, Carlos Manuel (Costa Rica), credentials as 

ambassador to U.S., 412. 
Ethiopia, American Minister Resident and Consul Gen- 
eral, Senate confirmation of nomination of John 
K. Caldwell, 333. 
Europe. See War ; and the individual countries. 
Exchange of American and Japanese nationals, 217, 

442. 
Exchange of German and Italian diplomatic represen- 
tatives and Americans, 42, 149, 209. 
Executive agreements. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Executive orders : 

Alien seamen, entry into U.S., 543. 
Foreign-propaganda program, 222. 
548035 — 43 2 



611 

Executives Club, Charlotte, N.C., address by Mr. Sayre, 

507. 
Exports (see also Foreign trade; Trade agreements; 
Treaties, agreements, etc.) : 
Control of, decentralization plan, U.S. and Brazil, 9. 
Petroleum to Spain, 218. 

Programing for foreign purchasing missions, 232. 
Programing of exports from U.S. and Canada to 
other American republics, 4-54. 
Exports and Requirements, Division of. Department of 

State, 138-139. 
Extradition convention, U.S. and Colombia (1940), 600. 
Extraterritoriality in China. See under China. 

Far East (see also the individual countries) : 
American prisoners of war and civilian internees, 

relief and repatriation, 217, 295, 442, 472. 
Extraterritoriality in China, relinquishment by U.S. 
and Great Britain, 59, 134, 153, 160, 238-248, 421, 
458, 475. 
Far Eastern Affairs, Division of, Department of State, 
designation of Joseph W. Ballantine as chief, 600. 
Fats, purchase for United Nations, 140. 
Feis, Herbert, address before Chicago Council on For- 
eign Relations, 339. 
Fellowships awarded by other American republics, sus- 



Fighting France. See France. 
Finance (see also Economics; Lend-lease) : 
Claims payment to U.S. by Mexico, 7. 
State Department (1944), budget recommendations, 

108. 
Swedish national-income and property taxes, col- 
lection, 422. 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, Inter- 
American, 71, 260. 
Finletter, Thomas K. : 
Designation as Executive Director, Office of Foreign 
Economic Coordination, Department of State, 
579. 
Divisions under supervision of Mr. Finletter, 138. 
Fisheries, halibut fishery of Northern Pacific Ocean 

and Bering Sea, regulations, 224. 
Flag Day, U.S., 596. 

Flexner, Carolin, appointment in Office of Foreign Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 
of State, 65. 
Flynn, Edward, Senate nomination as American Min- 
ister to Australia, 85. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Conference on: 
Address by President Roosevelt, 518. 



Delegation, U.S., 29i 
Final Act, text, 546. 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Food and Agriculture, United Nations Conference on — 
Continued. 
Invitation, 271, 298. 

President Koosevelfs letter to opening session, 455. 
Statement by chairman of U.S. delegation, 353. 
Summation of results, 497. 
Food Board, Combined, U.S. and Great Britain, 67. 
Food production, agreements with : 
Brazil, 353. 
Venezuela, 501. 
Foreign Affairs Council, Cleveland, address by Mr. Grew 

under auspices of, 123. 
Foreign Economic Coordination, Office of, establishment 

in Department of State, 579. 
Foreign Funds Control, Division of, Department of 

State, 138. 
Foreign Policy Association : 

Address by Mr. Lehman at New York, 539. 
Address by Mr. Pasvolsky at Pittsbui-gh, 398. 
Foreign-propaganda program, 222. 
Foreign Relations, Chicago Council on, address by Mr. 

Feis, 339. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States", 1928, publica- 
tion of vols. I, II, and III, 10, 237. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Office of. 
See under State Department ; see also Refugees ; 
Relief. 
Foreign Service, U.S. : 

Ambassador to Bolivia (Boal), false allegation re- 
garding activities of, 5. 
Consul General in Martinique, recall, 359. 
Consular convention with Mexico (1942), 264, 501, 

545. 
Consulate General at Dakar, status raised from Con- 
sulate, 9. 
Death of Jay Pierrepont Moffat, 110. 
Embassy rank for representation in Costa Rica, 
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua, 263. 
Nominatioii.s and confirmations, 85, 205, 333, 495, 496. 
Personnel formerly in France, concentration in Ger- 
many, 42, 149, 209. 
Resignations, 265. 
Foreign Territories, Office of. Department of State, G5, 

579. 
Foreign trade, U.S. (see also Shipping) : 

Addresses (see also under Trade agreements) — 
Mr. Acheson, 378. 
Mr. Berle, 468. 
Mr. Feis, 339. 
Mr. Hawkins, 185, 209. 
Mr. Hull, 280, 430. 
Mr. Pasvolsky, 398. 
Mr. Sayre, 370, 507. 
Mr. WeUes, 201, 405. 
Export control, U.S. and Brazil, 9. 



Foreign trade, U.S. — Continued. 
Export of petroleum products to Spain, 218. 
Exports for foreign purchasing missions, programing, 

232. 
Exports from U.S. and Canada to American republics, 

programing, 454. 
Import quotas on wheat and wheat flour, 386. 
National Foreign Trade Week, statement by Secretary 

Hull, 430. 
Proclaimed list of certain blocked nationals, 59, 153, 

222, 297, 375, 404, 493. 
Trade agreements. See Trade agreements. 
Treaties. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
France : 
Antilles, French, termination by U.S. of informal 

relations, 359. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of Fighting France, reply, 58. 
Free French National Committee, declaration regard- 
ing forced transfers of property in euemy- 
con trolled territory, 21. 
Giraud, Henri Honors. See Giraud. 
National Council of Liberation, formation, 514. 
U.S. diplomatic personnel formerly at Vichy, concen- 
tration in Germany, 42, 149, 209. 
Free French National Committee, declaration regard- 
ing forced transfers of property, 21. 
Freedom House broadcast, address by Mr. Grew, 121. 
French Antilles, termination of U.S. informal relations 

with, 359. 
French National Committee, reply to Christmas me.?- 
sage from President Roosevelt to armed forces of 
Fighting France, 58. 
French National Council of Liberation, formation, 514. 
French North Africa: 
German and Italian consular staffs formerly at Al- 
giers, detention in U.S., 209. 
Giraud, Henri Honors. See Giraud. 
Jews in, position, 255. 

Prisoners and refugees in, liberation of, 589. 
Relief in, 103, 294, 492, 587. 

United Nations military operations, success of, 427. 
French West Africa : 
Dakar — 

American Consulate General, 9. 
American mission to coordinate American activ- 
ities, 472. 
Prisoners and refugees in, liberation of, 589. 
Friends' Peace Committee, Philadelphia, ad'dress by 

Mr. Gulick, 274. 
Friends Service Committee, American, relief work in 

North Africa, 294. 
Friendship treaty, China and Iraq (1942), 355. 
Fryer, E. R., appointment as relief director in North 
Africa. 587. 



INiDEX 

Garflns, Valentin R., appointment as Mexican member 
of Mexican-American Commission for Economic 
Cooperation, 458. 
George VI (Great Britain), birthday, 493. 
Germany : 

Consular staff formerly at Algiers, detention in TJ.S., 

209. 
Diplomatic relations with Chile, severance by Chile, 

83. 
Jewish massacres, responsibility for, 395. 
National socialism, study on, 113. 
U.S. diplomatic personnel formerly at Vichy, 42, 149, 

209. 
War against, declaration by Iraq, 42. 
Giraud, Henri Honors : 
Address on French unity, commendation by Secretary 

Hull, 229. 
North Africa — 

Selection as French leader in, 5. 
Statements on problems, 118. 
Glassford, William, appointment to head American 

mission at Dakar, 472. 
Gold, Samuel Marshall, member of American-Mexican 

Claims Commission, oath of ofiBce, 420. 
Great Britain : 
Casablanca conference, 93. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies, reply, 5. 
ChurchiU, Winston S.— 
Casablanca conference, 93. 
Giraud's speech on French unity, commendation, 

229. 
Visit to Washington, 427. 
Commissions, committees, etc., U.S. and Great 
Britain- 
Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 66. 
Chiefs of Staff, Combined, 66. 
Food Board, Combined, 67. 
Middle East Supply Center, 76. 
Munitions Assignments Board, 77. 
Production and Resources Board, Combined, U.S., 

Great Britain, and Canada, 67. 
Raw Materials Board, Combined, 68. 
Shipping Adjustment Board, Combined, 69. 
King George VI, birthday, 493. 
Refugee problem, 202. 
Refugee problem, Bermuda meeting on, 2,59, 333, 351, 

Relief plans, visit of Mr. Lehman to London to dis- 
cuss, 279, 403. 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Eden), visit 

to U.S., 216, 279. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Asbestos, African, with U.S. (1943), signature, 503. 
Extraterritoriality in China, relinquishment, with 
China (1943), signature and exchange of rati- 
fications, 60, 458. 



613 

Great Britain— Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.— Continued. 

Fats and oils, with U.S. (1942), adherence by 

Canada to recommendations, 140. 
Industrial diamonds, with U.S. and Canada (1943), 

signature, 389. 
Marine transportation and litigation, with U.S. 
(1942), signature and text, 28. 
Greece : 

American Ambassador (Kirk), Senate confirmation 

of nomination, 496. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U. S. allies, reply, 58. 
Military service, reciprocal agreement with U.S. 

(1943), text, 248. 
Relief to, operation of scheme, 347. 
Green, Joseph C, studies In international security, 

Department of State, 285. 
Grew, Joseph C, addresses : 
Canadian Victory Loan Campaign, Fourth, Montreal, 

365. 
Cleveland Foreign Affairs Council, 123. 
Freedom House broadcast, 121. 
Harvard Alumni Association, 463. 
Institute of Paper Chemistry, 8th Annual Executives' 

Conference of, 439. 
Office of Civilian Defense at — 
Atlanta, 205. 
Buffalo, 591. 
Detroit, 150. 
Nashville, 166. 
Phoenix Club, Baltimore, 272. 
Union College, 360. 

United War Chest dinner, Philadelphia, 22. 
University of Kentucky, 482. 

Women's National Republican Club luncheon, New 
York, 49, 84. 
Guani, Alberto, visit to U.S., 86. 
Guatemala {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Recinos), credentials, 415. 
American Ambassador (Long), Senate confirmation 

of nomination, 265. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies. 57. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 196. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Guate- 
mala, 263. 
Gulick, Luther: 
Address before Friends' Peace Committee, Philadel- 
phia, 274. 
Appointment in Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Operations, Department of State, 64. 
Guzman Cardenas, Cristobal, Legion of Merit award, 33. 

Hackworth, Green H., U.S. member of Permanent Court 
of Arbitration, 313. 



614 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Haiti (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Liautaud), credentials, 416. 
American Ambassador (Wliite), Senate confirmation 

of nomination, 265. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U. S. Allies, reply, 56. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 328. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Haiti, 
263. 
Halibut fishery of Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering 

Sea, regulations, 224. 
Hanson, Simon G., transfer to Office of Adviser on 
International Economic Affairs, Department of 
State, 139. 
Harvard Alumni Association, address by Mr. Grew, 

463. 
Harvard Group, American Defense, letter from Mr. 
Welles to Prof. Perry on public understanding of 
war issues, 319. 
Haskell, William N., appointment in Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 
of State, 64. 
Hawkins, Harry C, address before the Citizens Con- 
ference on International Economic Union, New 
York, 185, 209. 
Health : 
Advisory Committee on Health and Medical Care, 

257. 
Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions, appointment of Dr. James A. Crabtree 
as chief medical officer, 256. 
Panama, water and sewerage systems, 421. 
Venezuela, inter-American public-health office cre- 
ated under agreement with U.S., 354. 
Henryson, Osmon E., death in plane crash, 84. 
Highway, Chorrera-Rio Hato, provision for pay- 
ment of Panama's share, 421. 
Hodson, William, death in plane crash, 84. 
HoeWer, Fred K., relief director in North Africa, 

103, 587. 
Honduras (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Caceres), credentials, 417. 
American Ambassador (Erwin), Senate confirma- 
tion of nomination, 265. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Hon- 
duras, 263. 
Hooker, Robert G., Jr. : 
Address before Boston mass meeting (delivered on 

behalf of Mr. Berle), 395. 
Designation as Assistant Adviser on International 
Economic Affairs and Executive Secretary of 
Board of Economic Operations, Department of 
State, 139. 
House of Representatives. See Congress, U.S. 



Hull, Cordell (see also State Department) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. — 
Anniversaries, 

Mussolini's entry into the war, 513. 
Red Army, 25th anniversary, 184. 
Soviet Union, 2d anniversary of Nazi attack on, 
596. 
Argentine Government headed by Ramirez, recog- 
nition by U.S., press-conference statement, 520. 
Chile, severance of diplomatic relations with Axis 

powers, 83. 
Communist International, dissolution, 473. 
Death of. 

Department officials in plane crash, 84. 
Justo, Gen. Agustfn P., 61. 
Mello Franco, Dr. Afranio de, 7. 
Moffat, Jay Pierrepont, 110. 
Yung Kwal, 237. 
Extraterritoriality in China, relinquishment by 

U.S., 60, 134. 
French National Council of Liberation, comments 

on formation, 514. 
Giraud, Henri Honor*?, 

Address on French unity, commendation of, 229. 
Selection as French leader In North Africa, 5. 
House Ways and Means Committee, 329. 
National Foreign Trade Week, 430. 
Pan American Day, 322. 
"Peace and War", issuance of publication, 4. 
Trade Agreements Act, extension, 329, 350, 430, 

443, 446, 494. 
United Nations Discussion Series, 96. 
United Nations relief, 37. 
Correspondence- 
Anniversary of mutual-aid agreement with Soviet 

Union, 514. 
Appleby, Paul H., withdrawal as special assistant 
in charge of Office of Foreign Territories, De- 
partment of State, 65. 
BeneS, Bduard, visit to U.S., 521. 
Bolivian adherence to Declaration by United Na- 
tions, 375. 
British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 

(Eden), visit to U.S., 279. 
Death of Frank Lyon Polk, 157. 
Extraterritoriality treaty with China (1943). 
Note to Chinese Ambassador, 245. 
Reply to Chinese Foreign Minister, 61. 
Report to the President, 239. 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, In- 
ter-American, U.S. expenses, 260. 
French Antilles, termination of U.S. informal re- 
lations with, 359. 



Hull, Cordell— Continued. 
Correspondence — Continued. 
Iraq, adherence to Decl;iration by United Nations, 

83. 
Lend-Lease aid, Belgium to U.S., 103. 
PeniTian adherence to Atlantic Charter, 154. 
Refugee problem, efforts of U.S. and British Gov- 
ernments, 202. 
Trade-agreements program, benefits to agriculture, 

428. 
White, Horace G., Jr., condolences on loss at sea, 
259. 
Hungarian Federation, American, message of Mr. 

Berle, 132. 
Hurley, Patrick J., resignation as American Minister 
to New Zealand, 265. 

Immigration : 
Canadian-U.S. border-crossing regulations, 154. 
Refugee problem, 202. 
Imports. Sec Foreign trade. 
India, reply to Christmas message from President 

Roosevelt to armed forces of U.S. allies, 56. 
Industrial diamonds, reserve for United Nations, 389. 
Industrial Organizations, Congress of, request for ad- 
mission of representatives to Bermuda meeting 

on refugee problem, 386. 
Information Board, United Nations, 78. 
Inter-Allied Committee on Post-War Requirements, 69. 
luter-American arrangement concerning radiocom- 

munications (1937) and Santiago revision (1940), 

422, 503. 
Inter-American radiocommunications convention 

(1937), 313, 503. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics ; and 

the indii'idual countries. 
Interdepartmental Policy Committee, establishment, 

577. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Political Refugees, 73, 

202. 
International commissions, conferences, etc. See Com- 
missions, committees, etc. ; Conferences, congresses, 

etc. 
International Law, American Society of, address by Mr. 

Sayre, 370. 
Internees, civilian, in enemy territory, communications 

to or from, 297. 
Iran, trade agreement with U.S. (1943), 299. 
Iraq: 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Amity, with China (1942), exchange of ratifira- 
tions, 355. 

Declaration by United Nations ( 1942) , adherence, 83. 
United Nations armed forces in, rights of, 421. 
War against Axis powers, declaration of, 42. 



615 

Italy : 

Consular staff formerly at Algiers, detention in U.S., 

209. 
Diplomatic relations with Chile, severance by Chile, 

83. 
Mussolini's entry into the war. anniversary, 513. 
War against, declaration by Iraq, 42. 

Jackson, Hugh R. : 

Address before the National Conference of Social 

Work, 218. 
Appointment in Office of Foreign Relief and Re- 
habilitation Operations, Department of State, 
64. 
Visit to London, 279. 
Jamaica, agreement on importation of farm labor, with 

U.S. (1943), 312. 
Japan : 

American aviators, trial and execution, 337-339. 
American prisoners of war and civilian internees, 

relief and repatriation, 217, 295, 442, 472. 
Diplomatic relations with Chile, severance by Chile, 

83. 
Grew, Joseph C, former American Ambassador to, 

addresses. See Grew. 
War against, declaration by Iraq, 42. 
Jessup, Philip C. : 
Address before the Summer Institute in Interna- 
tional Relief Administration, Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege, 580. 
Appointment in Offlce of Foreign Relief and Re- 
habilitation Operations, Department of State, 
85. 
Jewish massacres and German responsibility, address 

of Mr. Berle, 395. 
Jews in North Africa, position of, 255. 
Jimenez, Enrique A. (Panama), credentials as Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 431. 
Jones, Marvin, statement as chairman of U.S. delega- 
tion to United Nations Food Conference, 353. 
.Tones. S. Shepard, designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Political Studies, Department of State, 63. 
Juridical Committee. Inter-American, 72. 
Justo, Agustin P., death, 61. 

Keeley, James H., designation as Chief, Special Division, 

Department of State, 285. 
Kentucky, University of, address by Mr. Grew, 482. 
Kirk, Alexander C., Senate confirmation of nomination 

as American Ambassador to Greece, 496. 
Knox, Charles F., Jr., designation as Assistant Chief, 

Division of Exports and Requirements, Department 

of State, 138. 



616 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLiETrN 



Labor : 

Agricultural, importation, 312. 

Bolivian legislation, false allegation regarding activ- 
ities of American Ambassador, 5. 
Mexican non-agriculutral workers, migration to U.S., 

376. 
Mission to Bolivia, U.S., 107, 134, 264. 
Rehabilitation Through Training. Organization for, 

Labor Division, address by Mr. Lehman, 129. 
Workmen's compensation and unemployment insur- 
ance agreement, U.S. and Canada (1942), 422. 
Labor Ministry officials from Bolivia, visit to U.S., 474. 
Labouisse, Henry R., Jr., designation as Chief, Division 

of Defense Materials, Department of State, 174. 
Lake St. Francis, temporary raising of level, 140. 
Langston, James A., appointment as secretary to Amer- 
ican-Mexican Claims Commission, 420. 
Latin America. See American republics ; and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Lav7, international private, conventions of 2d South 

American congress on, 112. 
Legion of Merit, award to Gen. Crist6bal Guzman Car- 
denas, 33. 
Legislation. See under Congress, U.S. 
Lehman, Herbert H. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. — 

Foreign Policy Association. New York, 539. 
Labor Division, Organization for Rehabililatiou 

Through Training, New York, 129. 
Private relief organizations, joint statement with 

Messrs. Davies and Davis, 37. 
Relief organizations in North Africa, private, 294. 
Testimonial dinner, New York, 31. 
Swarthmore College commencement, 487. 
Visit to London, 403. 
Scope of work, 256. 
Visit to London, 279, 403. 
Leith-Ross Committee, 69. 
Lend-lease Act : 

Anniversary (2d), 216. 
Extension, 1S8, 209. 
Lend-lease aid (see also Mutual-aid agreement.? under 
Treaties, agreements, etc.) : 
Agreements, statement by Mr. Welles, 195. 
Civilian agencies in liberated areas, coordination of 

economic operations, 575. 
Liberia, aid to, 59. 
Operations, report on, 231. 
Programing of exports, 232. 
Liautaud, Andr^ (Haiti), credentials as Ambassador 

to U.S., 416. 
Liberia : 
Lend-lease aid to, 59. 

Mutual-aid treaty, with U.S. (1943), text, 515. 
President Barclay, visit to U.S., 442, 472. 
President Roosevelt's visit to, 94. 



Licenses, program, for foreign purchasing missions, 232. 

Litigation, merchant shipping, 28. 

Lleras, Alberto (Colombia), credentials as Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 410. 

Load line convention, international (1930), 503. 

"London News Chronicle", excerpts from Ramsey's 
interview with Giraud, 118. 

Long, Boaz, Senate confirmation of nomination as 
American Ambassador to Guatemala, 265. 

Los Angeles, disturbances in, 545. 

Luxembourg, reply to Christmas message from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to armed forces of U.S. allies, 58. 

Mail, transmission to or from enemy territory, 296. 
Marine transportation and litigation, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Great Britain (1942), 28. 
Maritime Technical Commission, Inter-American, 73. 
Martinique, termination of U.S. informal relations with, 

Maryland, University of, commencement address by Mr. 

Welles, 120. 
Massacres, Jewish, 395. 

Material Coordinating Committee, U.S. and Canada, 76. 

McDougal, Myres S., appointment in Office of Foreign 

Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 

of State, 65. 

McLaughlin, Charles, member of American-Mexican 

Claims Commission, oath of office, 420. 
Medal for Merit, 348. 
Mello Franco, Afranio de, death, 7. 
Merit, Legion of, award to Gen. Crist6bal Guzman Car- 
denas, 33. 
Messages, private, transmission to or from enemy ter- 
ritory, 296. 
Mexico (see aho American republics) : 
American Dental Association president, visit to, 196. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies, reply, 57. 
Claims Commission, American-Mexican, 420, 4.57. 
Claims payment to U.S., 7. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 33, 86, 209. 2.37, 264, 

420. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., visit of, .544. 
Defense Commission, Joint, U.S. and Mexico, 75. 
Economic cooperation with U.S., 376, 457, 473. 
Guzman Cardenas, Gen. Cristobal, Legion of Merit 

awarded to, 33. 
Los Angeles disturbances, Mexican Ambassador's ex- 
pression of concern, 545. 
President Roosevelt's address at Monterrey, 348. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Consular convention, with U.S. (1942), U.S. rati- 
fication and proclamation, 264, 501, 545. 
Migration of non-agricultural workers, with U.S. 
(1943), signature, 376. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S. (1943), text, 87. 



INDEX 



617 



Mexico — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Mutual aid, with U.S. (IMS), signature, 251. 
Radiocommunlcations, inter-American arrangement 
concerning (Santiago Revision, 1940), reserva- 
tion in ratification, 422. 
Trade, with U.S. (1942), proclamations, U.S., 9. 
Middle East Supply Center, U.S. and Great Britain, 76. 
Military and naval cooperation, U.S. and Cuba, supple- 
mentary agreement (1943), 501. 
Military missions. See Missions, U. S. 
Military operations in North Africa, United Nations, 

success of, 427. 
Military service. See under Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Missions, U.S., to: 

Bolivia, labor exports, 107. 134, 264. 
Chile, military aviation, 390. 
Colombia, rubber, 174. 
Dominican Republic, naval, 113. 
El Salvador, military, 354. 
Moffatt, Jay Pierrepont, death, 110. 
Morfnigo, Higinio (President of Paraguay), visit to 

U.S., 4m. 
Morocco, Casablanca conference, 93. 
Mosely, Philip E., designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Political Studies, Department of State, 63. 
Munitions Assignments Board, U.S. and Great Britain, 

7T. 
Music, Advisory Committee on, 62. 
Mussolini's entry into war, statement by Secretary Hull 

on anniversary of, 513. 
Mutual-aid agreements. See under Treaties, agree- 
ments, etc. 

National Conference of Social Work, address by Mr. 
Jackson, 218. 

National Foreign Trade Week, statement by Secretary 
Hull, 430. 

"National Socialism," publication of the Department 
of State, 113. 

Naval and military cooperation, U.S. and Cuba, supple- 
mentary agreement (1943), 501. 

Naval mission, U.S., to Dominican Republic, 113. 

Near East. See the individual countries. 

Negroes, North Carolina College for, address by Mr. 
Welles, 479. 

Netherlands, mutual-aid agreement, with U.S. (supple- 
mentary, 1943), 5&4. 

Neutral Relief Commission, 347. 

New England Inter-American Institute, Boston Univer- 
sity, address by Mr. Thomson, 232. 

New Zealand : 
American Minister (Hurley), resignation, 265. 
Christmas message from President Roosevelt to 

armed forces of U.S. allies, reply, 55. 
Prizes, capture on high seas, 296. 



Nicaragua (see also American republics) : 

Ambas.sador to U.S. (DeBayle), credentials, 419. 
American Ambassador (Stewart), Senate conflirma- 

tion of nomination, 265. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 496. 
Embassy rank for representation, U.S. and Nic- 
aragua, 263. 
North Africa. See French North Africa. 
North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement 

(1937), 313, 503. 
North Carolina College for Negroes, address by Mr. 

Welles, 479. 
Notter, Harley A., designation as Chief, Division of 
Political Studies, Department of State, 63. 

Oils and oilseeds, purchase for United Nations, 140. 
Osborne, Lithgow, appointment in Office of Foreign 

Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 

of State, 140. 
Opium convention, international (1912), 211, 390; 

(1936), 458. 

Pacific, U.S. bases in, 217. 
Pacific War Council, 77. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Jimenez), credentials, 431. 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 223, 238. 
Transfer of certain rights by U.S., 421. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Defense sites, lea.sed by U.S. (1943), approval 

by Panama, 459 
Money orders, agreement relating to (Postal 
Union of the Americas and Spain, 1936), 
approval, 534. 
Pan America. See American republics. 
Pan American Day, addresses, etc., 321, 322, 323. 
Pan American Union : 
Addresses, etc., before, 104, 321, 322. 
Letter from Mr. Welles to Mr. Galarza in response 
to false allegation regarding activities of 
American Ambassador to Bolivia, 5. 
Paper Chemistry, Institute of, 8th Annual Executives' 

Conference, address by Mr. Grew, 439. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 522. 
President Morinigo, visit to U.S., 494. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 

Opium convention, international (1912), adher- 
ence, 390. 
Trade agreement, with U.S., intention to negotiate, 
597. 
Pasvolsky, Leo: 
Address before the Foreign Policy Association, 

Pittsburgh, 398. 
Supervision of Divisions of Economic Studies and 
Political Studies, Department of State, 63. 



618 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Peace : 

Economic aims, address by Mr. Hawkins, 185, 209. 
Need for building, address by Mr. Sayre, 507. 
Objectives, remarlis by President Roosevelt, 3. 
Reciprocal-trade-agreements program, 169. 
Tools of future peace, address by Mr. Berle, 289. 
"Peace and War", publication of Department of State, 

issuance and favorable reception, 4, 133, 211. 
Peace Problems, Forum on, Toledo, address by Mr. 

Welles, 405. 
Penaranda, Enrique (President of Bolivia), visit to 

U.S., 350, 410, 431. 
Permanent Court of Arbitration, U.S. member (Hack- 
worth), 313. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 328.. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., visit of, 544. 
National Library, destruction of, statement by Am- 
bassador Norweb, 520. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — 
Air transportation, with U.S. (1943), signature, 

175. 
Atlantic Charter (1941), adherence, 154. 
Petroleum, exportation to Spain, 218. 
Philanthropic organizations, private, continuation of 

work, 37. 
Philippines, relief to Americans detained by Japanese 

in, 295. 
Phoenix Club, Baltimore, address by Mr. Grew, 272. 
Poison gas, use by Axis powers, 507. 
Poland, message from President Roosevelt on national 

anniversary, 404. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 

Inter-American, 69. 
Political prisoners and refugees in Africa, liberation. 

Political Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 
73, 202. 

Political Science Association, Washington, address by 
Mr. Bunn, 135. 

Political Studies, Division of, establishment in Depart- 
ment of State, 63. 

Polk, Frank Lyon, death, 157. 

Postal. See under Treaties, agreements, etc. ; Confer- 
ences, congresses, etc. 

Post-war commercial policy of U.S., address by Mr. 
Welles, 280. 

Post-war reconstruction, address by Mr. Jackson, 218. 

Post-war rehabilitation, address by Mr. Sayre, 449. 

Post-War Requirements, Inter-Allied Committee for, 69. 

Post-war supplies, address by Mr. Feis, 339. 

Powers of attorney, protocol, U.S. and Colombia (1940), 
601. 

President, U.S. See Roosevelt. 

Prisoners of war, 295, 297, 472, 589. 

Prizes, capture on high seas, 133, 296. 



Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked nationals. 
Proclamations, capture of prizes on high seas, 133, 296. 
Production and Resources Board, Combined, U.S., Great 

Britain, and Canada, 67. 
Production Committee, Joint War, U.S. and Canada, 75. 
Promissory notes, bills of exchange, and cheques, con- 
ventions on. 111. 
Propaganda, foreign-information activities, 222. 
Property in enemy-controlled territory, forced trans- 
fers, 21. 
Publications : 
Foreign Relations of the United States (1928), 10, 

237. 
Foreign Service List, 436. 
Lists- 
Department of State, 79, 90, 141, 160, 197, 224, 
237, 266, 285, 314, 334, 356, 390, 423, 436, 459, 
504, 535, 602. 
Other agencies, 79, 114, 225, 238, 286, 334, 356, 423, 
459, 535, 604. 
National Socialism, 113. 
Peace and War, 4, 133, 211. 

Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 
Blocked nationals. 
Purchasing mission, foreign, programing of exports for, 
232. 

Radio messages, private, to and from enemy territory, 

298. 
Radioconimunicatious agreements. See under Treaties, 

agreements, etc. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and Ecuador, 377. 
Ramirez, Pedro P., head of new Argentine Govern- 
ment, 520. 
Ravndal, Christian M., designation as Chief, Division 
of Exports and Requirements, Department of 
State, 138. 
Ravndal, Olaf, designation as Assistant Chief, Divi- 
sion of Exports and Requirements, Department of 
State, 138. 
Raw materials : 

Combined Board, U.S. and Great Britain, 68. 
War and post-war materials, address by Mr. Feis, 339. 
Recinos, Adrian, credentials as Guatemalan Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 415. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend-Lease; Mutual aid under 

Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Reciprocal trade agreements. See Trade Agreements. 
Reconstruction, post-war, address by Mr. Jackson, 218. 
Red Army, anniversary, 184. 
Red Cross : 

Communications through, to or from enemy territory, 

296. 
Far East, relief to Americans in, 295. 
Greek-relief scheme, operation, 347. 



INDEX 



Refugees (see aUo Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations; Relief) : 
Bermuda meeting on refugee problem, 259, 333, 351, 

386, 388, -156. 
French North Africa, relief (or, 294. 
French North and West Africa, liberation, 589. 
Intergovernniental Committee on, 73, 202. 
Rogulntions, U.S.: 

Agricultural workers, admission into U.S., 436. 
American-Mexican Claims Commi-ssion, 457. 
Canadian - U.S. border, crossing, 154. 
Rehabilitation. See Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 

Operations; Refugees; Relief. 
Relief (see also Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations; Lend-lea.se; Refugees) : 
Address by Mr. Berle, 38. 
Americans In Far East, 295. 
Economic operations of civilian agencies in liberated 

areas, coordination of, 575. 
Foreign relief and rehabilitation- 
Addresses by, 

Mr. Gulick, 274. 
Mr. Jessup, 580. 
Mr. Lehman, 31, 129, 487, 539. 
Administration of, training for, 580. 
Visit of Mr. Lehman to London to determine needs, 
279, 403. 
Greek-relief scheme, operation, 347. 
North Africa — 

Directors in, 103, 587. 
Private organizations in, 294. 
Tunis, operations in, 492, 587. 
Post-war reconstruction, 218. 
Private organizations, joint statement by Messrs. 

Lehman, Davies, and Davis, 37. 
United Nations, 37. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- 
tration, proposal for, 523, 540, 585. 
War relief, foreign and domestic, 37, 223. 
Repatriation. See Americans. 
Resources Board, Combined Production and, U.S., 

Great Britain, and Canada, 67. 
Reynolds, Thomas F., appointment in Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 
of State, 65. 
Robinson, Dr. J. Ben, visit to Mexico to confer with 

Mexican Dental Association, 196. 
Roosevelt, FrankUn D.: 
Addresses, statements, etc. — 
Anniversaries, 

Declaration by United Nations, 3. 
Lend-lease Act, 216. 
Brazil, meeting with President Vargas in, 95. 
Chiang Kai-shek, Madame, presentation to news- 
paper correspondents, 165. 
B48035 — 43 3 



Roosevelt, Franklin D.— Continued. 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

Diplomatic representatives, remarks in reply to 
presentation of credentials, 411, 413, 414, 415, 
416. 417, 418, 419, 432, 495. 
Japanese trial and execution of American aviators, 

337. 
Message to Congress on state of the Nation, annual, 

15. 
Monterrey, Mexico, 348. 
Pan American Day, 321. 
Peace objectives, 3. 
Poison gas, use by Axis powers, 507. 
United Nations Conference on Food and Agricul- 
ture, 518. 
White House Correspondents A.ssociation, Wash- 
ington, 145. 
Brazil, meeting with President Vargas in, 95. 
Casablanca conference, 93. 
Correspondence — 
Anniversaries, 
Birthday of King George VI of Great Britain, 

493. 
Flag Day, reply to message from Gen. Chiang 

Kai-shek, 597. 
Polish National, 404. 
Red Army, 184. 
Soviet Union, mutual-aid agreement with U.S. 

(1942), 543. 
Soviet Union, Nazi attack on, 596. 
Yugoslavia, constitution of new government, 259. 
Atlantic Charter, Peruvian adherence to, 154. 
Death of son of President Vargas of Brazil, 134. 
Economic operations of civilian agencies in liber- 
ated areas, coordination of, letter to Secretary 
Hull, 575. 
Extraterritoriality in China, relinquishment by 

U.S., 61. 
Extraterritoriality treaty with China, transmittal 

to U.S. Senate, 238. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Of- 
fice of, scope of work, 256. 
French North Africa, success of United Nations mil- 
itary operations in, 427. 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee, letter transmitting to Congress 
Secretary Hull's report on U.S. expenses, 260. 
Lend-lease aid to Liberia, 59. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and Ecuador, 

378. 
Resignation of American Minister to New Zealand 

(Hurley), acceptance, 265. 
Soviet victory at Stalingrad, 117. 
United Nations Conference on Food and Agricul- 
ture, letter to opening session, 455. 



620 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULl^TIN 



Roosevelt, Franklin D.— Continued. 

Economic cooperation, U.S. and Mexico, agreement 
with President Avila Camacho, 376. 

Executive orders, 222, 543. 

Liberia, visit to, 94. 

Proclamations, 133, 296. 

Trinidad, visit to, 117. 
Rotary Club, New York, address by Mr. Welles, 323. 
Rotary Club, Reading, Pa., address by Mr. Berle, 289. 
Rothschild, Baron Edouard de, letter from Mr. Welles 
in reply to statement on position of Jews in North 
Africa, 255. 
Russia. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Rubber : 

Investigations in Costa Rica, 353. 

Program in Peru, facilitation, 175. 

U.S. mission to Colombia, 174. 

St. Lawrence River, lower, conservation of water 

power, 140. 
Salvador. See El Salvador. 
Sandifer, Durward V., designation as Assistant Chief, 

Division of Political Studies, Department of State, 



ition. See Health. 
Saudi Arabia, adherence to international opium con- 
vention (1912), 211. 
Sayre, Francis B. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. — 

American Society of International Law, Wa.shing- 

ton, 370. 
Executives Club, Charlotte, N.C., 507. 
National Woman's Democratic Club, Washington, 

3S2. 
Senate Finance Committee, 447. 
World Trade luncheon. New York, 449. 
T.M.C.A. convention. New Haven, Conn., 43. 
Appointment as Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State and Deputy Director of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, 8. 
Scotten, Robert M., Senate confirmation of nomina- 
tion as American Ambassador to Ecuador, 265. 
Seamen, alien, entry into U.S., 543. 
Seamen, sick and injured, shipowners' liability for 
(International Labor Organization convention, 
1936), 501. 
Security, international, special studies, 285. 
Senate. See Congress, U.S. 
Selective service. See Military service under Treaties, 

agreements, etc. 
Shaw, G. Rowland, statement on nomination of Edward 

Flynn as Minister to Australia, 85. 
Shipowners' liability, sick and injured .seamen (Inter- 
national Labor Organization convention, 1936), 
501. 



Shipping {see also Foreign trade) : 

Inter-American Maritime Technical Commission, 73. 
Litigation, agreement between U.S. and Great Brit- 
ain (1942), 28. 
Petroleum to Spain, 218. 
Prizes, capture on high seas, 133. 
Shipping Adjustment Board, Combined, U.S. and Great 

Britain, 69. 
Ships, waiver of claims arising as result of collisions 
between vessels of war, agreement between U.S. 
and Canada (1943), 50O. 
Social work, contribution to post-war reconstruction, 

address by Mr. Jackson, 218. 
Socialism, national, publication on, issued by Depart- 
ment of State, 113. 
South Africa, Union of, reply to Christmas message 
from President Roosevelt to armed forces of U.S. 
allies, 57. 
South America. See American republics and the indi- 

lidiial countries. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain : 

Exportation of petroleum products to, 218. 
Trade with U.S., wartime, 201. 
Special Division, Department of State, 155, 285. 
Special Research, Division of, Department of State, 

abolishment, 63. 
Stalingrad, Soviet victory, 117. 

Standley, William H., comments of Mr. Welles on re- 
marks regarding aid to Soviet Union, 217. 
State Department: 
American Hemisphere Exports OflBce, 138. 
Budget reconunendations for 1944, 108. 
Defense Materials, Division of, 138. 
Departmental orders, nos. — 

1028, Division of Exports and Requirements, 138. 

1029, Associate and Assistant Advisers on Interna- 
tional Economic Affairs, 139. 

1030, Divisions under supervision of Mr. Finletter, 
138. 

1031, Board of Economic Operations, 139. 

1121, Special Assistant to Secretary of State and 
Deputy Director of Foreign Relief and Reha- 
bilitation Operations (Sayre), 8. 

1124, Divisions of Economic Studies and Political 



1135, Division of Defen.se Materials, 174. 

1166, Office of Foreign Economic Coordination, 579. 
Economic Affairs, International, designation of Asso- 
ciate and Assistant Advisers, 139. 
Economic Operations, Board of, 139, 579. 
Economic Studies, Division of, 63. 
Exports and Requirements, Division of, 138-139. 
Far Eastern Affairs, Division of, 600. 
Foreign Economic Coordination, Office of, 579. 



DCDEX 

State Department — Continued. 

Foreign Funds Control, Division of. 138. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Office 
of— 
Administration of foreign relief and rehabilitation, 

training for, oSO. 
Civilian agencies in liberated areas, coordination of 

economic operations, 575. 
Deputy Director, appointment of Francis B. 

Sayre, 8. 
Deputy Director, 2d, designation of Kenneth Day- 
ton, 196. 
North Africa, directors of relief in. 10:{, 587. 
Scope of worli, 256. 
Staff members, 64, 85, 140, 2.50. 
Foreign Territories. Office of. 65, 579. 
Officials, death in plane crash, 84. 
Political Studies, Division of, 63. 
Publications, tiee Publications. 
Kegulations. transportation of enemy aliens, 222. 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, appoint- 
ment of Francis B. Sayre, 8. 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State (Finlet- 

ter), divisions under supervision of. 138. 
Special Division, 155, 285. 

Special Research, Division of, abolishment, 63. 
White, Horace G., Jr., missing at sea, 2i59. 
World Trade Intelligence, Division of, 138. 
State Governments, Council of, address by Jlr. Winant, 

96. 
Statements. See under names of the individtiaU. 
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr., report to Congress on lend- 
lease operations. 230. 
Stewart, James B., Senate confirmation of nomination 

as American Ambassador to Nicaragua, 265. 
Stinebower, Leroy D., designation as Chief, Division 

of Economic Studies, Department of State, 63. 
Strategic materials: 
Asbestos, African, agreement between U.S. and Great 

Britain (1943). 503. 
Material Coordinating Committee, U.S. and Canada. 
76. 
Students of U.S., exchange fellowships and travel 

grants, suspension, 8. 
Sugar, Cuban, agreement regarding, 3-^5. 
Supply Council, Allied, U.S. and Australia, 66. 
Swarthmore College, commencement address by Mr. 

Lehman, 487. 
Sweden, collection of national-income and property 
taxes, 422. 

Taxes, Swedish national-income and property, collection, 
422. 

Taylor, Myron, statement at Intergovernmental Confer- 
ence on Political Refugees (1938), 202. 



621 

Taylor, Wayne Chatfield, appointment as member of 
Co mm ittee on Economic Cooperation, U.S. and 
Me:xico, 457. 
Telecommunications : 

Ecuador and U.S., direct radiotelegraph circuit be- 
tween, 377. 
Enemy territory, transmission of private messages to 

or from, 296. 
Treaties. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Territorial Administration, Inter-American Commis- 
sion, 70. 
Testimonial dinner. New York, address by Mr. Lehman, 

31. 
Thomson, Charles A., address before New England 

Inter-American Institute, Boston University, 232. 
Thurston. Walter. Senate confirmation of nomination as 

American Ambassador to El Salvador. 2(55. 
Toledo University, address by Mr. Welles at Forum on 

Peace Problems, 405. 
Toronto University, Canada, address by Mr. Welles at 

convocation, 179. 
Trade. See Foreign trade, U.S. ; Treaties, agreements, 

etc. 
Trade agreements : 

Act, extension of, 135, 169, 329, 333, 3.50. 382, 428, 430, 

443. 446. 447, 4M. 
Addresses, etc.— 
Jlr. Acheson, 381. 
Mr. Berle, 470^71. 
Mr. Bunn, 135, 333. 
Mr. Hawkins, 185, 209. 
Mr. Hull, 329, 3.50, 430, 443, 446, 494. 
Mr. Sayre, 47-^8, 372-373, 382, 447, 449, 512. 
Mr. WeUes, 180, 280, 325, 405. 
Agreements with — 
Iran, 299. 
Mexico, 9. 
Paraguay, 597. 
Program, r<5sum4, 169. 
Transportation : 

Air-transport services. U.S. and Canada, 210. 

Enemy aliens, regulations, 222. 

Merchant shipping, litigation, U.S. and Great Britain, 

28. 
Rubber, air-transportation network in Peru, 175. 
Travel, Canadian - U.S. border-crossing regulations, 154. 
Travel-grant awards, suspension, 8. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. (see aUo Trade agreements) : 
Air transportation, U.S. and Peru (1943), signature, 

175. 
Air-transport services, U.S. and Canada (1943), text, 

210. 
Amity, China and Iraq (1942), exchange of ratifica- 
tions, 355. 
Asbestos, African, U.S. and Great Britain (1943), 
signature, 503. 



622 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTN 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — ^Continued. 

Asylum and political refugees, international con- 
vention (1939), promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 

Atlantic Charter (1941), adherence by Peru, 154. 

Bills of exchange and promissory notes (1930), ad- 
herence by Brazil, 111. 

Cheques (1931), adherence by Brazil, 111. 

Civil law, international convention (1940), promul- 
gation by Uruguay, 112. 

Claims, U.S. and Canada, waiver arising as result 
of collisions between vessels of war (1943), sig- 
nature, 500. 

Commercial law, international convention (1940), 
promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 

Commercial navigation, international convention 
(1940), promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 

Consular convention, U.S. and Mexico (1942) — 
Exchange of ratifications, 501. 
Ratification by U.S., 264. 
Proclamatian by U.S., 545. 

Declaration by United Nations (1942) — 
Adherence by, 
Bolivia, 374, 421. 
Brazil, 208. 
Iraq, 83. 
Anniversary of signing, 3. 

Defense sites in Panama, lease of, U.S. and Panama 
(1943), approval by Panama, 459. 

Education, Central American conventions (1942), 
ratification by El Salvador, 34. 

Export control, decentralization plan, U.S. and 
Brazil (1942), signature, 9. 

Exports to other American republics, programing, 
U.S. and Canada (1943), 454. 

Extradition, U. S. and Colombia (1940), exchange of 
ratifications, 600. 

Extraterritoriality in China. See under China. 

Farm labor, U.S. and — 

Bahama Islands (1943), 312. 
Jamaica (1943), 312. 

Fats and oils, U.S. and Great Britain (1942), ad- 
herence by Canada to recommendations, 140. 

Food production, U.S. and — 
Brazil (1942), signature, 353. 
Venezuela (1943), signature, 501. 

Halibut fishery, Canada and U.S. (1937), regula- 
tions, 224. 

Industrial diamonds, U.S., Canada, and United King- 
dom (1943), signature, 389. 

Intellectual property, international convention 
(1939), promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 

Lake St. Francis, temporary raising of level, U.S. 
and Canada (1942), signature, 140. 

Liberal professions, exercise of, international con- 
vention (1939), promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Load line convention, international (1930), extension 

of modifications, 503. 
Marine transportation and litigation, U.S. and Great 
Britain (1942) — 
Signature, 28. 
Text, 29. 
Migration of non-agricultural workers, U.S. and 

Mexico (1943), signature, 376. 
Military aviation mission, U.S. and Chile (1943), sig- 
nature, 390. 
Military and naval cooperation, U.S. and Cuba, sup- 
plementary (1943), signature, 501. 
Military mission, U.S. to El Salvador (1943), signa- 
ture, 354. 
Military service, reciprocal, U.S. and — 
Brazil (1943), test, 528. 
Cuba (1943), text, 157. 
El Salvador (1943), text, 530. 
Greece (1943), text, 248. 
Mexico (1943), text, 87. 
Other co-belligi-rent countries, list, 175. 
Mutual aid, U.S. and — 
Belgium (1943), text, 102. 
Chile (1943), signature, 208, 
Liberia (1943), text, 515. 
Mexico (1943), signature, 251. 
Netherlands, supplementary (1943), signature, 594. 
Soviet Union (1942), anniversary, 514, 543. 
Naval mission, U.S. and Dominican Republic (1943), 

signature, 113. 
Opium convention, international (1912), adherence 
by- 
Paraguay, 390. 
Saudi Arabia, 211. 
Opium convention, international (1936), approval by 

Colombia, 458. 
Penal law, international convention (1940), promul- 
gation by Uruguay, 112. 
Postal- 
Convention, final protocol and regulations, airmail 
provisions, parcel post agreement and final pro- 
tocol, money order agreement and final protocol 
(Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 
1936), ratification by Brazil, 10. 
Money orders, agreement relating to ( Postal Union 
of the Americas and Spain, 1936), approval by 
Panama, 534. 
Universal postal convention (1939), ratification by 
El Salvador, 10. 
Powers of attorney, protocol, U.S. and Colombia 

(1940), ratification by Colombia, 601. 
Processal law, international convention (1940), 

promulgation by Uruguay, 112. 
Rubber, U.S. and Costa Rica, supplementary (1943), 
signature, 853. 



INDEX 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Shipowners' liability (sick and injured seamen) 
(International Labor Organization, 1936), cited 
in Supreme Court decision, 501. 
Sugar, U.S. and Cuba (1943), signature, 355. 
Telecommunications — 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 

(1937), adherence of Bahamas, 313, 503. 
Radiocommuiiioations, inter-American arrange- 
ment concerning (Santiago revision, 1940), 
Brazil, approval, 422. 
Canada, adherence, 503. 
Mexico, reservation in ratification, 422. 
Radiocommunications convention, inter-American 
(1937), adherence of Bahamas, 313, 503. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal, U.S. and — 
Iran (1943), 
Analysis, 300. 
Signature, 299. 
Mexico (1942), proclamations by U.S., 9. 
Paraguay, intention to negotiate, 597. 
United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture, 

Final Act (1943), text, 546. 
United Nations Uelief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, text of draft agreement, 523. 
Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment Insur- 
ance, U.S. and Canada (1942), Canadian ordi- 
nance giving effect to, 422. 
Trimble, William C, designation as Assistant Chief, 
Division of Exports and Requirements, Department 
of State, 138. 
Trinidad, B.W.I., President Roosevelt's visit to, 117. 
Troncoso, J. M. (Dominican Republic), credentials as 

Ambassador to U.S., 413. 
Tunisia, relief operations in {see aUo French North 
Africa; Relief), 492, 587. 

Unemployment-insurance agreement, U.S. and Canada 

(1942), 422. 
Union College, Schenectady, commencement address by 

Mr. Grew, 360. 
Union of South Africa, reply to Christmas message from 
President Roosevelt to armed forces of U.S. allies, 
57. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 
Aid from U.S., comment of Mr. Welles regarding re- 
marks of Ambassador Standley, 217. 
Communist International, dissolution, 473. 
Mutual-aid agreement with U.S. (1942), anniversary, 

514. 543. 
Nazi attack, anniversary, 596. 
Red Army, anniversary, 184. 
Stalingrad victory, 117. 



United Kingdom. See Great Britain. 
United Nations {see also War; and the individual 
ccnintrics) : 
Armed forces — 

Christmas message from President Roosevelt, re- 
plies, 5, 55. 
Rights in Iraq, 421. 
Declaration by (1912), 3, 83, 208, 374, 421. 
Discussion Series, message from Secretary Hull, 96. 
Industrial-diamonds reserve, 389. 
Military operations in French North Africa, success 

of, 427. 
Pacific War Council, 77. 
Peace objectives, 3. 
Property in enemy-controlled territory, declaration 

regarding forced transfers, 21. 
Relief, 37, 38. 

Relief plans, visit of Mr. Lehman to London to dis- 
cuss, 279, 403. 
United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. 

See Food and Agriculture. 
United Nations Declaration (1942), 3, 83, 208, 374, 421. 
United Nations Information Board, 78. 
United Nations Month, 147. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, 523, 540, 585. 
United Nations Week, 37. 
United States: 
Citizens. See Americans. 
Congress. See Congress, U.S. 
Foreign Service. See Foreign Service, U.S. 
Treaties. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
United War Chest dinner, address by Mr. Grew, 22. 
University of Toronto, address by Mr. Welles at con- 
vocation, 179. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 350, 377, 522. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Guani), visit to U.S., 86. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — • 
Load line convention, international (1930), exten- 
sion of modifications, 503. 
Private law, international conventions on (1939 
and 1940), promulgation, 112. 
Utah State Agricultural College, address by Mr. Berle, 



Vargas, Getulio (President of Brazil) : 
Death of son, 134. 

Meeting with President Roosevelt in Brazil, 95. 
Veatch, Roy, appointment in Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, Department of 
State, 65. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visits to U.S., 223, 420. 



624 



DEPARTMEN"T OF STATE BULLETIN 



Venezuela — Continued. 

Food-production agreement with U.S. (19-13), sig- 
nature, 501. 
Health and sanitation, office created under agree- 
ment with U.S., 354. 
Vessels, Inter-American Maritime Technical Commis- 
sion, 73. 
Vessels of war, waiver of claims arising as result of 
collisions, agreement between U.S. and Canada 
(1943), 500. 
Vichy, France, former U.S. diplomatic personnel, con- 
centration in Germany, 42, 149, 209. 

Wadlelgh, H. Julian, designation as Assistant Chief, 
Division of Economic Studies, Department of 
State, 63. 
War (the) : 

Casablanca conference, 93. 

Chile, severance of diplomatic relations with Axis 

powers, 83. 
Commissions, etc., concerned with the war, list of, 66. 
Declaration of war by Iraq against Axis powers, 42. 
French North Africa, success of United Nations mili- 
tary operations in, 427. 
Issues of the war, public understanding of, 319. 
Military-service agreements. See Military service 

under Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Military service of U.S. citizens residing in — 
Brazil, 528. 
Cuba, 157. 
El Salvador, 530. 
Greece, 248. 
Mexico, 87. 

Other co-belligerent countries, list, 175. 
Poison gas, use by Axis powers, 507. 
Prisoners of war, 295, 297, 472, 589. 
Soviet victory at Stalingi'ad, 117. 
War Council, Pacific, 77. 
War Information, Office of, New York, address by Mr. 

Welles under auspices of, 147. 
War Production Committee, Joint, U.S. and Canada, 75. 
War Relief Control Board, 37, 223. 
Warren, Avra M., Senate confirmation of nomination as 
American Ambas.sador to Dominican Republic, 265. 
Water power in lower St. Lawrence, conservation, 140. 
Wei Tao-ming (China), remarks on relinquishment by 

U.S. of extraterritorality in China, 60. 
Welles, Sumner : 

Addresses, statements, etc. — 
Aid to Soviet Union, 217. 
Bases, U.S., 215, 217. 

Chamber of Commerce of State of New York, 280. 
Forum on Peace Problems, Toledo, Ohio, 405. 
James G. Blaine anniversary. Pan American Union, 

104. 
Lend-lease agreements, 195. 



Welles, Sumner — Continued. 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

North Carolina College for Negroes, 479. 

Pan American Day, 323. 

Spain, wartime trade with, 201. 

United Nations Month, opening ceremonies, 147. 

University of Maryland commencement, 120. 

University of Toronto convocation, 179. 
Correspondence — 

Air-transport arrangement with Canada (1943), 
210. 

Bermuda meeting on refugee problem, correspond- 
ence with president of Congress of Industrial 
Organizations, 386. 

Bolivian labor legislation, letter denying alleged ac- 
tivities of American Ambassador, 5. 

Brazilian adherence to Declaration by United Na- 
tions, 209. 

Jews in North Africa, po.sition of, 255. 

Military service by nationals of either country re- 
siding in the other, U.S. and Greece, 248. 

Petroleum exportation to Spain, 218. 

War issues, public understanding of, 319. 
West Africa, French. See French West Africa. 
Wheat and wheat flour, U.S. import quotas on, 386. 
White, Harry D., appointment as member of committee 

on economic cooperation, U.S. and Mexico, 457. 
White, Horace G., Jr., missing at sea, 259. 
White, John Campbell, Senate confirmation of nomina- 
tion as American Ambassador to Haiti, 265. 
White House Correspondents Association, Washington, 

address by President Roosevelt, 145. 
Wlnant, John G., address before Council of State Gov- 
ernments, Baltimore, 96. 
Witt, Edgar E., member of American-Mexican Claims 

Commission, oath of office, 420. 
Woman's Democratic Club, National, address by Mr. 

Sayre, 38S. 
Women's National Republican Club luncheon, address 

by Mr. Grew, 49, 84. 
Workmen's compensation agreement, U.S. and Canada 

(1942), 422. 
World Trade Intelligence, Division of. Department of 

State, 138. 
World Trade luncheon. New York, address by Mr. 

Sayre, 449. 

Xanthaky, George, appointment in Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department 
of State, 65. 

Y.M.C.A. convention at New Haven, Conn., address by 
Mr. Sayre, 43. 

Yugoslavia, anniversary of constitution of new govern- 
ment, 259. 

Yung Kwai (China), death, 237. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

ULLETIN 




JANUARY 2, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 184— Publication 1855 



C 



ontents 



The War Pag. 

Anniversary of the Signing of the Declaration by 

United Nations: Statement by the President . . 3 

Informal Remarks of the President Regarding Peace 

Objectives 3 

Issue of Publication Entitled Peace and War: State- 
ment by the Secretary of State 4 

Selection of General Giraud as French Leader in North 

Africa 5 

Reply of Prime Minister Churchill to the Christmas 

Message to the Armed Forces of Our Allies ... 5 

American Republics 

False Allegation Regarding Activities of the American 

Ambassador to Bolivia 5 

Death of Dr. Mello Franco of Brazil 7 

Payment by Mexico Under the Special Claims Con- 
vention of 1934 7 

Cultural Relations 

Suspension of Exchange Fellowships and Travel-Grant 

Awards to United States Students 8 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 8 

The Foreign Service 

Consulate General at Dakar 9 

[over] 




U. S. SUPERIMTENDEHT OF DOCUMtnTl 
JAM 15 1943 



c 



OnfCnfS— CONTINUED 



Treaty Information Page 
Commerce : 

Understanding With Brazil Regarding a Decentral- 
ization Plan of Export Control 9 

Trade Agreement With Mexico 9 

Postal: 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain 10 

Universal Postal Convention, 1939 10 

Claims: United States and Mexico 10 

Publications 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 192 8, Vol- 
ume 1 10 



The War 



ANNIVERSARY OF THE SIGNING OF THE DECLARATION 
BY UNITED NATIONS 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House January 1] 

One year ago 26 nations signed at Washing- 
ton the Declaration by United Nations.^ 

The world situation at that moment was grim 
indeed. Yet on that last New Year's Day, these 
nations, bound together by the universal ideals 
of the Atlantic Charter, signed an act of faith 
that military aggression, treaty violation, and 
calculated savagery should be remorselessly 
overwhelmed by their combined might and the 
sacred principles of life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness be restored as cherished ideals of 
mankind. They thus created the mightiest 
coalition in history, mighty not only for its over- 
whelming material force but still more for its 
eternal spiritual A-alues. Three other nations 
have since joined that coalition. 

The unity thus achieved amidst dire danger 
has borne rich fruit. The United Nations are 
passing from the defensive to the offensive. 

The unity achieved on the battleline is being 
earnestly sought in the not less complex prob- 



lems on a different front. In this as in no previ- 
ous war men are conscious of the supreme 
necessity of planning what is to come after — 
and of carrj'ing forward into peace the com- 
mon effort which will have brought them vic- 
tory in the war. They have come to see that the 
maintenance and safeguarding of peace is the 
most vital single necessity in the lives of each 
and all of us. 

Our task on this New Year's Day is three- 
fold : first, to press on with the massed forces 
of free humanity till the present bandit assault 
upon civilization is completely crushed ; second, 
so to organize relations among nations that 
forces of barbarism can never again break loose ; 
third, to cooperate to the end that mankind may 
enjoy in peace and in freedom the unprece- 
dented blessings which Divine Providence 
through the progress of civilization has put 
within our reach. 



INFORMAL REMARKS OF THE PRESIDENT REGARDING PEACE OBJECTIVES 



[Released to the press by the White House January 1] 

The following is an excerpt from the extem- 
poraneous and informal remarks made by the 
President at his press conference on Januaiy 1 : 
The President : ... Of course, as I think has 
been intimated before, there are a great many 
objectives when peace comes, so that we won't go 



' BULLETIN of Jan. 3, 1942, p. 3- 



back to the old menace of the pre-war period— 
a great many things the United Nations ought 
to and I think will remain united for. 

However, there is one thing which at the pres- 
ent time stands out as the most important war 
objective, and that is to maintain peace, so that 
all of us, in going through this war, including 
the men on the fighting fronts and on the seas, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



will not have to go through a world cataclysm 
again — that they will have some reasonable 
assurance that their children won't have to go 
through it again. Almost all the other things 
we hope to get out of the war are more or less 
dependent on the maintenance of peace — all 



kinds of planning for the future, economic and 
social, and so forth and so on. It isn't much 
use if there is going to be another world war in 
10 years, or 15 years, or 20 years. All the plan- 
ning for the future is dependent, obviously, on 
peace. 



ISSUE OF PUBLICATION ENTITLED "PEACE AND WAR" 
STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



(Released to the press for publication January 2, 9 p. m.] 

We are issuing today a publication entitled 
"Peace and War", prepared in the Department 
of State.' It is an introduction to a collection of 
documents concerning the foreign relations of 
the United States during the fateful decade 
1931-41. This book and the collection of docu- 
ments which is in the process of publication 
present a record of policies and acts by which 
the United States sought to promote conditions 
of peace and world order and to meet the world- 
wide dangers resulting from Japanese, German, 
and Italian aggression as those dangers arose. 

That record shows, I think, that throughout 
this period our Government consistently advo- 
cated, practiced, and urged upon other countries 
principles of international conduct on the basis 
of which the nations of the world could attain 
security, confidence, and progress. Much was 
accomplished in the face of immense difficulties. 
It is for the establishment of those principles 
that we and our associates are fighting today. 

I am convinced that, had those principles been 
adopted and applied by the nations of the world, 
all legitimate grievances and controversies be- 
tween nations could have been satisfactorily 
adjusted by peaceful processes and without re- 
sort to force. We and all mankind would have 
been spared the horrors of this world-envelop- 
ing war thrust upon us by the criminal ambi- 

' See list of publications, p. 11. 



tions of the leaders of Japan, Germany, and 
Italy, who — intent upon conquest — rejected all 
principles of law, justice, fair-dealing, and 
peaceful negotiation and resorted to the sword. 

In making this information more fully avail- 
able to the people of the United States, we 
earnestly hope that a study of it will help our 
citizens to a clearer understanding of the prob- 
lems and tasks which have confronted us, of 
those which confront us now, and of those which 
will confront us in the crucial days ahead. 

There will be confident hope for the future 
provided our people and other peoples hold fast 
to the eternal principles of law, justice, fair- 
dealing, and morality which we have constantly 
proclaimed and sought to apply, and which 
must underlie any practicable program of peace- 
ful international collaboration for the good of 
all. 

Our people and the peoples of the United 
Nations will need to have in the future, as they 
have today, a unity of purpose and a willing- 
ness to make appropriate and indispensable 
contributions toward the achievement of mili- 
tary victory and toward the establishment and 
maintenance of a peace that will endure. With 
unity of purpose and common effort, there can 
be achieved a peace that will open to all man- 
kind greater opportunity than has ever before 
existed for welfare and progress in every avenue 
of human endeavor. 



JANUARY 2, 194 J 



SELECTION OF GENERAL GIRAUD AS 
FRENCH LEADER IN NORTH AFRICA 

[Heleased to the press December 28] 

The following statement has been made by 
the Secretary of State: 

"The selection of General Giraud to his new 
post is a most fortimate choice and one that will, 
I am sure, receive the enthusiastic commenda- 
tion of all. General Giraud is one of the great 
military commanders of the world today, and 
his i-ecent selection will result in gi-eater unifi- 
cation of all groups and elements behind his 
military leadership and will go far to insure the 
common victory M-ith the restoration of French 
liberty everywhere." 

REPLY OF PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL 
TO THE CHRISTMAS MESSAGE TO THE 
ARMED FORCES OF OL'R ALLIES 

The War Department made public the follow- 
ing message from Prime Minister Churchill, of 
Great Britain, to President Roosevelt, recipro- 



cating greetings which were recently extended 
to the armed forces of our allies on behalf of the 
American Congress and people : 

"I have received the stirring message sent by 
you, Mr. President, at this season from Congress 
and on behalf of the people of the United States 
and have arranged for its transmission to the 
armed forces of Great Britain on land and sea 
and in the air in all parts of the empire or in 
enemy territory. I know it would be their wish 
that I should cordially reciprocate these greet- 
ings. During the past j'ear we have welcomed 
the ever growing forces from America in our 
ports and camps and on our airfields. In all 
theatres of operation men of America and men 
of Britain have fought side by side under each 
other's command, as circumstances required. 
Bonds of respect, comprehension and comrade- 
ship have been forged which will, I pray, far 
out-live this war and be a lasting support in the 
labours of peace when, after we have won vic- 
tory, we strive to build together a better and a 
happier world." 



American Republics 



FALSE ALLEGATION REGARDING ACTIVITIES OF THE AMERICAN 
AMBASSADOR TO BOLIVIA 



[Released to the press January 1] 

The text of a communication which was ad- 
dressed to Mr. Ernesto Galarza, of the Pan 
American Union, Washington, D.C., follows : 

December 31, 1942. 
My Dear Mr. Galarza : 

I have received your letter of December 21, 
1942,^ in which j^ou allege that Mr. Pierre de L. 
Boal, United States Ambassador to Bolivia, 



Not printed herein. 
503883 — 43 2 



nuide certain observations to the President of 
Bolivia intended to diminish the prospect of the 
passage of a labor code which would have cre- 
ated procedures under which labor in Bolivia 
could improve its status. 

At the outset, I must state my surprise that 
you not only made this charge but circulated it 
widely without having made any endeavor to 
verify its accuracy with this Department which 
is charged with the conduct of the foreign rela- 
tions of the United States. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



As soon as I received your letter, I had the 
charge thorouglily investigated. Tlie allegation, 
as I expected, proved to be without foundation. 
The Secretary has already made this clear in 
answer to an inquiry made of him at his press 
conference yesterday. For your convenience a 
copy of the Secretary's remarks is enclosed here- 
with. I desire to make a few additional re- 
marks to those contained in the Secretary's 
statement. 

For you who have followed with greatest care 
every development of the Good Neighbor Policy 
it is scarcely necessary to reiterate that that 
Policy is founded upon the principle of non- 
interference in the internal affairs of other 
countries. This policy, now embodied in an 
inter-American treaty, has been scrupulously 
adhered to. With respect to the particular mat- 
ter under reference, the Department specifically 
instructed Mr. Boal on December 2, 1942, to 
avoid carefully any statements or actions which 
might be construed as an attempt to influence 
Bolivian legislation. 

It has also been a fundamental principle of 
our policy to give all assistance possible to the 
other American republics to raise their standard 
of living, particularly to improve the living 
standards of labor. This has been done time and 
time again on a cooperative basis and, of course, 
without unilateral interference by this Govern- 
ment. In this regard, a United States economic 
mission, in agreement with the Bolivian Govern- 
ment, made a study of ways in which the 
Bolivian economy might be improved. As a 
result of the recommendations of that mission 
arrangements are being completed for the grant- 
ing of specific financial and technical assistance 
which will enable certain vitally important pub- 
lic works and agricultural and industrial de- 
velopment to be carried out. It is my expecta- 
tion that as a result of this cooperative activity 
the production of foodstuffs and other essential 
products in Bolivia will be stimulated for the 
benefit of Bolivian agriculturists and laborers. 

Although I never doubted for a minute that 
Ambassador Boal had strictly adhered to this 



Government's basic policies I immediately asked 
him for a report on your charge that he had 
taken action to diminish the prospects of 
passage of the labor code. 

Ambassador Boal replied that he had never 
at any time taken any action that could be con- 
sidered as intended to influence action on the 
labor code. He did not discuss with the Presi- 
dent, as alleged, or with any other Bolivian 
official, the new administrative expenses that 
would be imposed upon the companies under the 
decree, the question of paying earned wages on 
time, collective bargaining, or any other pro- 
cedure for handling labor problems in connec- 
tion with the mining industry. Mr. Boal did 
not make any suggestion regarding the ap- 
proval of the bill by the President or with 
respect to its enforcement. Since it was obvi- 
ous that the new code would increase the pro- 
duction cost of metals, rubber, and other prod- 
ucts being bought by the United States Govern- 
ment in furtherance of the war effort, Mr. Boal 
asked the President the simple question of what 
he thought the effect of the code would be on 
these costs. This entirely proper question was 
designed to gather information that would be 
useful to the various Government agencies con- 
cerned in the purchase of strategic materials. 

Although it would not be appropriate for me 
to attempt to forecast what attitude the Govern- 
ment buying agencies might take with respect 
to price changes resulting from the new labor 
code, it is of record that this Government, on 
account of the rising cost of living and shortage 
of goods in Bolivia, has joaid generous prices 
for materials produced in Bolivia and that 
prices for tin and tungsten have heretofore been 
revised upward by agreement of the Bolivian 
and United States Governments. 

You doubtlessly know that the labor code was 
promulgated on December 8, 1942 by the Chief 
Executive of Bolivia and is now in effect. You 
may not know that the Government of Bolivia 
has officially denied that Ambassador Boal in- 
tervened in any way with respect to this matter. 

I regret that you chose to disseminate over 



JANUARY 2, 1943 



the country an unfounded allegation without 
having made any attempt to verify the true sit- 
uation with the Department. The last ten years 
of the Good-Neighbor Policy should have been 
convincing j^roof, first, that this Government 
long ago gave up interference in the internal 
affairs of other countries, and, secondly, that 
this Government reflects in its foreign policy 
the objective of its domestic policy, namely, im- 
provement in the standard of living in which all 
elements will participate, but particularly those 
heretofore ill-clothed, badly housed, and poorly 
fed. 
Believe me 

Yours truly, 

SuMNEK Welles 



Excerpt From the Press Conference, Monday, 
December 28, 191,2 

Our Ambassador to Bolivia cables that he did 
not engage in any acts or utterances which could 
be construed at all as an attempt to influence the 
labor plans and proposals and programs that 
were pending in Bolivia; that he once made 
inquiry about tlie effect of the proposed labor 
code on production costs of the strategic mate- 
rials that we were securing from Bolivia ; that 
there was nothing in that inquiry which was 
not in line with his duty to report all economic 
facts to his Government or that could be con- 
strued in any unfavorable light and nothing 
was so intended. 

I think the fact of our Good Neighbor policy 
with all of its philosophies and principles and 
programs as enunciated at Montevideo and 
carried forward with most every kind of cooper- 
ation with each country in the Americas — politi- 
cal, economic, social, moral and cultural — I 
think the progress that has been made steadily 
in that straight course of cooperation with 
noticeable improvement in the welfare and the 
betterment of the people here and everywhere 
is sufficient witness to what we have always 
stood for during these ten years and what we 
shall continue to stand for. 



DEATH OF DR. MELLO FRANCO 
OF BRAZIL 

[Released to the press January 1] 

Tlie following statement has been made by 
the Secretary of State : 

"The death of Dr. Afranio de Mello Franco, 
the distinguished Brazilian statesman and ju- 
rist, is a grievous shock to me personallj' and to 
all his host of friends in the United States. 

'T first came to know Dr. Mello Franco at 
Montevideo in 1933, where he headed the Bra- 
zilian delegation to the Seventli Inter- American 
Conference. The patience, tact, and under- 
standing of Dr. Mello Franco were an important 
contribution to the success of that meeting. 
His influence was equally outstanding at other 
Pan American gatherings. His untiring efforts 
toward amicable solutions of international 
problems over his long and fruitful life have 
given him a proud place in the annals of states- 
manship. 

"Not only Brazil and the American nations 
but also the entire free world will mourn Dr. 
Mello Franco's passing." 

PAYMENT BY MEXICO UNDER THE SPE- 
CIAL CLAIMS CONVENTION OF 1934 

[Released to the press January 2] 

The Ambassador of Mexico formally pre- 
sented to the Secretary of State on January 2 
his Government's check for $500,000 in payment 
of the ninth annual installment, due January 1, 
1943, in accordance with article II of the con- 
vention between the United States of America 
and the United Mexican States, signed at Mex- 
ico City on April 24, 1934, providing for the 
en hJoc settlement of claims presented by the 
Government of the United States to the Com- 
mission established by the Special Claims Con- 
vention, concluded September 10, 1923. 

The Ajnbassador of Mexico also presented a 
check covering interest due under article III of 
the convention of April 24, 1934. 



The Secretary of State requested the Ambas- 
sador of Mexico to convey to his Government 
an expression of this Government's apprecia- 
tion. 



Cultural Relations 



SUSPENSION OF EXCHANGE FELLOW- 
SHIPS AND TRAVEL-GRANT AWARDS 
TO UNITED STATES STUDENTS 

[Released to the press December 29] 

Notes have been addressed by the Department 
of State to the diplomatic missions of the other 
American republics in Washington, informing 
them that the increasingly exigent demands of 
the war upon the manpower supply in the 
United States make it necessary for this Gov- 
ernment to suspend, for the duration of the war, 
the award of official scholarships, fellowships, 
and travel or maintenance grants to students 
from the United States. 

In transmitting this information to the dip- 
lomatic missions of the other American repub- 
lics, the Secretary of State has informed them 
that the Government of the United States be- 
lieves, as they are aware, that all the country's 
energies in human, material, and spiritual re- 
sources must be directed solely toward the wm- 
ning of the war. In practical terms this means 
that most of the persons who would otherwise 
be eligible for appointment as exchange stu- 
dents or recipients of student travel grants 
under Government programs will be engaged in 
the armed forces of the Nation, in the manufac- 
ture of war materials, or in other activities 
closely related to the war effort. 

Fellowships and student travel or mainte- 
nance grants awarded to citizens of the United 
States up to the date of the notification to the 
diplomatic missions will be honored, but no 
grants will be made after that date. They will, 
of course, be resumed as soon as feasible. 

The Secretary of State has also emphasized 
that in adopting this policy the Government of 
the United States has no intention or thought 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of suspending or discontinuing the award of 
fellowships and travel and maintenance grants 
to citizens of the other American republics for 
study in the United States. On the contrary, he 
has expressed the hope that the situation in 
other American countries will permit the con- 
tinuance of this program and that panels under 
the Convention for the Promotion of Inter- 
American Cultural Relations will be submitted 
by other participating countries in accordance 
with the standing procedure. He has added that 
the Department of State and other agencies in 
this Government will request funds for the 1944 
fiscal year to continue this treaty arrangement, 
the award of travel and maintenance grants, and 
similar activities such as the in-service training 
progi-ams of certain Govenmaent departments. 

The Secretary of State recognizes in his com- 
munication to the diplomatic missions of the 
other American republics that it is undoubtedly 
desirable, for the future of inter-American and 
international relations, to build up as large a 
group as possible of well-trained people who are 
skilled in special techniques and speak the lan- 
guages of other American countries. He points 
out that, so far as the United States is concerned, 
many persons with special training are at 
present receiving experience in the other Ameri- 
can republics through the Auxiliary Foreign 
Service and the foreign activities of the 
emergency economic and supplies agencies. It 
is the view of the Department that these persons 
will undoubtedly make an important contribu- 
tion to inter-American understanding in their 
present positions and will furnish for the post- 
war period a body of well-informed persons in 
many technical and professional fields. 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

On December 31, 1942 the Secretary of State 
issued Departmental Order 1121, appointing, 
effective January 1, 1943, the Honorable Francis 



JAJOJARY 2, 1943 



B. Sayre, former Assistant Secretary of State 
and United States High Commissioner to the 
Philippine Islands, Special Assistant to the Sec- 
retary of State and Depnty Director of Foreign 
Kelief and Kehabilitation Operations. 



The Foreign Service 



CONSULATE GENERAL AT DAKAR 

[Released to the press January 1] 

In view of the greatly increased importance 
of French West Africa in the war effort, the 
Department of State has decided to raise the 
status of the Consulate at Dakar to that of a 
Consulate General. Mr. Maynard B. Barnes 
was recently assigned as Consul General at that 
post. 



Treaty Information 



COMMERCE 

Understanding With Brazil Regarding a Decen- 
tralization Plan of Export Control 

[Released to tlie press December 29) 

The State Department and the Board of Eco- 
nomic Warfare announce that an agreement was 
recently reached between the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Brazilian Government for the 
further decentralization of requirements exam- 
ination heretofore carried on in Washington by 
the Office of Exports, Board of Economic War- 
fare. The agreement was worked out jointly by 
a mission sent to Rio de Janeiro by the Board 
of Economic Warfare and the State Depart- 
ment, the United States Embassy, and the Bra- 



zilian Government, represented by the Carteira 
de Exporta^ao e Importa^ao of the Banco do 
Brasil. 

One of the main objectives of the agreement 
is to secure precise requirements figures for Bra- 
zil tlirough the joint consideration of require- 
ments data by the Carteira and officials of the 
United States Embassy. This should provide 
greater assurance that the limited shipping fa- 
cilities currently available are utilized to the 
best advantage. The agreement provides tliat 
the requirements will continue to be met through 
tlie normal channels of trade. While the over- 
all agreement has been signed by the appro- 
iniate officials of the Governments of the United 
States and Brazil, the detailed step-by-step op- 
erations of the plan are not yet fully worked 
out. It is anticipated that an announcement 
will be forthcoming in the near future ex[)lain- 
ing to the exporters in the United States and 
importers in Brazil the methods of operation. 

Trade Agreement With Mexico 

On December 28, 1942 the President pro- 
claimed the trade agreement between the United 
States and Mexico, signed at Washington on 
December 23, 1942. Article XVIII of the agree- 
ment provides that it shall enter into full force 
on the thirtieth day following its proclamation 
by the Presidents of the two countries or, if the 
proclamations are issued on different days, on 
the thirtieth day following the date of the later 
in time of the proclamations. 

On December 31, 1942 the President issued 
a supplementary proclamation which recites 
that the agreement was proclaimed by the Pres- 
ident of the United Mexican States on Decem- 
ber 31, 1942, and proclaims that the agreement 
will enter into force on January 30, 1943, the 
thirtieth day following December 31, 1942. 

The text of this agreement will be printed in 
the Executive Agreement Series. An analysis 
of the general provisions of the agreement will 
appear in the Bulletin, Supplement of Decem- 
ber 26, 1942. 



10 



POSTAL 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain 

Brazil 

The American Embassy at Rio de Janeiro 
transmitted to the Secretary of State with des- 
patch 9411 of December 10, 1942 a transhition of 
Presidential Decree 10,944 of November 26, 1942 
regarding the execution and fulfillment on the 
part of Brazil of the Convention of the Postal 
Union of the Americas and Spain, Final Pro- 
tocol and Regulations of Execution, the Provi- 
sions Relative to the Transportation of Corre- 
spondence by Air, the Parcel Post Agreement 
and Final Protocol, and the Money Order 
Agreement and Final Protocol, signed at the 
Fourth Congress of the Postal Union of the 
Americas and Spain, Panama, December 22, 
1936. 

The decree states in part that the instrument 
of ratification of the above-mentioned acts was 
deposited on May 30, 1942 in the Archives of the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama, de- 
positary of the acts concluded at the Fourth 
Congress of the Postal Union of the Americas 
and Spain. 

Universal Postal Convention, 1939 
El Salvador 

The American Legation at San Salvador 
transmitted to the Secretary of State with des- 
patch 3150 of December 19, 1942 a copy of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIN 

Decree 92 of December 7, 1942 of the National 
Legislative Assembly of the Republic of El Sal- 
vador, regarding the ratification on the part of 
El Salvador of the Convention, Final Protocol 
and Regulations of Execution, the Parcel Post 
Agreement, Final Protocol and Regulations of 
Execution, and the Money Order Agreement 
and Regulations of Execution, signed at the 
Eleventh Congress of the Universal Postal 
Union, Buenos Aires, May 23, 1939. 

The decree provides that it shall have effect 
from the day of its publication in the Diario 
Ofcial, which publication was made on Decem- 
ber 16, 1942. 



CLAIMS 

United States and Mexico 

An announcement of the payment by Mexico 
of the ninth annual installment, due January 1, 
1943, in accordance with article II of the con- 
vention between the United States of America 
and the United Mexican States, signed at Mex- 
ico City on April 24, 1934 (Treaty Series 878), 
providing for the en hloc settlement of claims 
presented by the Government of the LTnited 
States to the Commission established by the 
Special Claims Convention, concluded Septem- 
ber 10, 1923 (Treaty Series 676), appears in this 
Bulletin under the heading "American 
Republics". 



Publications 



FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE 

[Released to the press December 30] 

The Department of State released on Decem- 
ber 30 the first of three volumes containing the 
record of its diplomatic activities for the year 
1928. The second and third volumes are in the 
final stages of printing and will be released at 
an early date. Volume I contains the General 
section dealing with problems of a multilateral 



UNITED STATES, 1928, VOLUME I 

nature followed by sections on American rela- 
tions with Albania, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, 
and Bulgaria. 

It seems a far cry from the total war of today 
back to 1928 when President Coolidge hailed 
the Pact of Paris renouncing war as an instru- 
ment of national policy as "a historic document 
in the history of civilization". The record of 



JANUARY 2, 1943 

the negotiation of the peace pact printed in 
Foreign Relations, 1927 is continued in the vol- 
ume now released. Even amid the general ac- 
claim with which the adoption of this pledge 
was greeted one small cloud appeared on the 
hoi-izon; an Italian diplomat predicted that 
"rising young peoples", who will resent the in- 
fluence possessed by other nations, "will have to 
decide whether to submit to the arrest of their 
development, or fight." He declared that they 
would very properly adopt the second alterna- 
tive. (See page 190.) It will also be noted that 
the seemingly favorable atmosphere attending 
the negotiation of the Pact of Paris led to no 
important tangible results with respect to re- 
duction of armaments, another subject of nego- 
tiations recorded in this volume. 

Students of relations among the American 
republics will find an abundance of material in 
the documents telling of inter- American confer- 
ences and territorial and boundary questions. 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1928, 
volume I, was compiled by Mr. George V. Blue, 



11 

Dr. Victor J. Farrar, and Dr. John G. Eeid 
under the direction of Dr. E. Wilder Spaulding, 
Chief of the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion, and Dr. Ernest K. Perkins, Chief of the 
Research Section of that Division. Copies of 
this volume will be available shortly and may 
be obtained from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments. Tlie price of volume I (cxxni, 1,057 
pages) is $2.25. 



During the week of December 28 - January 2 
the Department also released : 

Principles Governing the Provision of Reciprocal Aid 
in the Prosecution of the War: Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Fighting France — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at London Sep- 
tember 3, 1942. Executive Agrt-ement Series 273. 
Publication 1847. 3 pp. 5c. 

The United Nations: Their Creed for a Free World. 
Addres.s by Sumner Welles, Under Secretary of State, 
before the New York Herald Tribune Forum, Novem- 
ber 17, 1942. Publication 1848. 7 pp. 50. 

Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931- 
1941. Publication 1853. 144 pp. 250. 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price, 10 cents . - - . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE DIBECTOE OF THE BDBEAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



JANUARY 9, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 185— Publication 1863 



C 



ontents 



The War Page 

Mcssacje of the President to the Congress on the State of 

the Nation 15 

Declaration Regarding Forced Transfers of Property in 

Enemy-Controlled Territory 21 

AddressbytheFormerAmericanj\jnbassador to Japan . 22 

Agreement With Great Britain Regarding Problems of 

Marine Transportation and Litigation 28 

General 

Address by Herbert H. Lelmian 31 

American Republics 

Award of the Legion of Merit to General Guzman Car- 
denas of Mexico 33 

International Conferences, ComiMissions, Etc. 

Fourth South American Congress on Chemistry. ... 33 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 33 

Publications 33 

Tre.^ty Information 

Education: Central American Conventions on Educa- 
tion 34 

Claims: Agreement With Great Britain Relating to 
Certain Problems in Marine Transportation and 
Litigation 34 




U. S. SUPERINTFNnENT OF OOCUfH 

JAN 27 1943 



The War 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS ON THE 
STATE OF THE NATION ' 



[Released to the press by the White House January 7] 

Mr. Vice President, Mr. Spe.\ker, Members of 
THE Senate and of the House of Repre- 

SENTATIV'ES : 

Tlie Seventy-eighth Congress assembles in one 
of the great moments in the history of this na- 
tion. The past year was perhaps the most 
crucial for modern civilization ; the coming year 
will be filled with violent conflict — yet with high 
promise of better things. 

Wo must appraise the events of 1942 accord- 
ing to their relative importance; we must exer- 
cise a sense of proportion. 

First in importance in the American scene 
has been the inspiring proof of the great qual- 
ities of our fighting men. They have demon- 
strated these qualities in adversity as well as in 
victory. As long as our flag flies over this Capi- 
tol, Americans will honor the soldiers, sailors, 
and marines who fought our first battles of this 
war against overwhelming odds — the heroes, 
living and dead, of Wake and Bataan and 
Guadalcanal, of the Java Sea and Midway and 
the North Atlantic convoys. Their unconquer- 
able spirit will live forever. 

By far the largest and most important de- 
velopments in the whole strategic picture of 
1942 were the events on the long fronts in 
Russia : first, the implacable defense of Stalin- 
grad ; and, second, the offensives by the Russian 
armies at various points which started in the 
latter part of November and which still roll on 
with great force and effectiveness. 



Delivered before a joint session of the two Houses 
of Congress, Jan. 7, 1943. 
505890—43 2 



The other major events of the year were the 
series of Japanese advances in the Philippines, 
the East Indies, Malaya, and Burma ; the stop- 
ping of the Japanese in the mid-Pacific, the 
south Pacific, and the Indian Oceans; the suc- 
cessful defense of the Near East by the British 
counterattack through Egj'pt and Libya; the 
Ajiierican-British occupation of North Africa. 
Of continuing importance in the year 1942 were 
the unending, bitterly contested battles of the 
convoy routes and the gradual passing of air 
superiority from the Axis to the United Nations. 

The Axis powers knew that they must win the 
war in 1942 — or eventually lose everything. 
I do not need to tell you that our enemies did 
not win this war in 1942. 

In the Pacific area, our most important vic- 
tory in 1942 was the air and naval battle off 
Midway Island. That action is historically im- 
portant because it secured for our use communi- 
cation lines stretching thousands of miles in 
every direction. In placing this emphasis on 
the battle of Midway, I am not unmindful of 
other successful actions in the Pacific, in the air 
and on land and afloat — especially those on the 
Coral Sea and New Guinea and in the Solomon 
Islands. But these actions were essentially de- 
fensive. They were part of the delaying strat- 
egy that characterized this phase of the war. 

During this period we inflicted steady losses 
upon the enemy — great losses of Japanese 
planes, naval vessels, transports, and cargo 
ships. As early as one year ago, we set as a 
primary task in the war of the Pacific day-by- 
day and week-by-week destruction of more 
Japanese war material than Japanese industry 



16 



could replace. Most certainly, that task has 
been and is being performed by our fighting 
ships and planes. A large part of this task has 
been accomplished by the gallant crews of our 
American submarines who strike on the other 
side of the Pacific at Japanese ships — right at 
the very mouth of the harbor of Yokohama. 

We know that, as each day goes by, Japanese 
strength in ships and planes is going down and 
down and American strength in ships and 
planes is going up and up. The eventual out- 
come can be put on a mathematical basis. That 
will become evident to the Japanese people 
themselves when we strike at their own home 
islands and bomb them constantly from the air. 

In the attacks against Japan we shall be 
joined with the heroic people of China, whose 
ideals of peace are so closely akin to our own. 
Even today we are flying as much lend-lease 
material into China as ever traversed the Burma 
Koad, flying it over mountains 17,000 feet high, 
flying blind through sleet and snow. We shall 
overcome all the formidable obstacles and get 
the battle equipment into China to shatter the 
power of our common enemy. From this war, 
China will realize the security, the prosperity, 
and the dignitj' which Japan has sought so 
ruthlessly to destroy. 

The period of our defensive attrition in the 
Pacific is passing. Now our aim is to force the 
Japanese to fight. Last year we stopped them. 
This year we intend to advance. 

In the European theater of war during this 
past year it was clear that our first task was to 
lessen the concentrated pressure on the Russian 
front by compelling Germanj' to divert part of 
her manpower and equipment to another theater 
of war. 

After months of secret planning and prepa- 
ration in the utmost detail, an enormous am- 
phibious expedition was embarked for French 
North Africa from the United States and the 
United Kingdom in hundreds of ships. It 
reached its objectives with very small losses and 
has already produced an important effect upon 
the whole situation of the war. It has opened 
to attack what Mr. Churchill well described as 
"the under-belly of the Axis", and it has re- 
moved the always-dangerous threat of an Axis 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

attack through West Africa against the South 
Atlantic Ocean and the continent of South 
America itself. 

The well-timed and splendidly executed offen- 
sive from Egypt by the British Eighth Army 
was a part of the same major strategy of the 
United Nations. 

Great rains and appalling mud and very 
limited communications have delayed the final 
battles of Tunisia. The Axis is reinforcing its 
strong positions. But I am confident that 
though the fighting will be tough, when the 
final allied assault is made, the last vestige of 
Axis power will be driven from the south shores 
of the Mediterranean. 

Any review of the year 1942 must emphasize 
the magnitude and diversity of the military 
activities in which this nation has become en- 
gaged. As I speak to j^ou, ap^iroximately one 
and a half million of our soldiers, sailors, 
marines, and fliers are in service outside our 
continental limits, all through the world. Our 
merchant seamen are carrying supplies to them 
and to our Allies over every sea lane. 

Few Americans realize the amazing growth of 
our air strength, though I am sure our enemy 
does. Day in and day out our forces are bomb- 
ing the enemy and meeting him in combat on 
many different fronts over the world. And for 
those who question the quality of our aircraft 
and ability of our fliers I point to the fact that 
in Africa we are shooting down two enemy 
planes to every one we lose, and in the Pacific 
and in the southwest Pacific we are shooting 
them down four to one. 

We pay the tribute of the United States of 
America to the fighting men of Russia and 
China and Britain and the various members of 
the British Commonwealth — the millions of 
men who through the years of this war have 
fought our common enemies and have denied 
to them the world conquest which they sought. 

We pay tribute to the soldiers and fliers and 
seamen of others of the United Nations whose 
countries have been overrun by Axis hordes. 

As a result of the allied occupation of North 
Africa, powerful units of the French Army and 
Navy are going into action with the United 
Nations forces. We welcome them as allies and 



JANXTART 9, 1943 



17 



as friends. They join with those Frenchmen 
who, since the dark days of June 1940, have 
been fighting valiantly for the liberation of 
their stricken country. 

We pay tribute to the fighting leaders of our 
Allies, to Winston Churchill, to Joseph Stalin, 
and to the Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. 
There is a very real unanimity between the 
leaders of the United Nations. This unity is 
effective in planning and carrying out the major 
strategy of this war and in building up and 
maintaining the lines of supplies. 

I cannot prophesy. I cannot tell you when 
or where the United Nations are going to strike 
next in Europe. But we are going to strike — 
and strike hard. I cannot tell you whether we 
are going to hit them in Norway, or through 
the Low Countries, or in France, or through 
Sardinia or Sicily, or through the Balkans, or 
through Poland — or at several points simul- 
taneously. But I can tell you that no matter 
where and when we strike by land, we and the 
British and the Russians will hit them from the 
air heavily and relentlessly. Day in and day 
out we shall heap tons upon tons of explosives 
on their war factories and utilities and sea- 
ports. 

Hitler and Mussolini will understand the 
enormity of their miscalculations — that the 
Nazis would always have the advantage of 
superior air power as they did when they 
bombed Warsaw, Rotterdam, London, and 
Coventry. That superiority has gone — for- 
ever. 

Yes, the Nazis and the Fascists have asked 
for it, and they are going to get it. 

Our forward progress in this war has de- 
pended upon our progress on the production 
front. 

There has been criticism of the management 
and conduct of our war production. Much of 
this self-criticism has had a healthy effect. It 
has spurred us on. It has reflected a normal 
American impatience to get on with the job. 
We are the kind of people who are never quite 
satisfied with anything short of miracles. 

But there has been some criticism based on 
guesswork and even on malicious falsification 



of fact. Such criticism creates doubts and fears 
and weakens our total effort. 

I do not wish to suggest that we should be 
completely satisfied with our production prog- 
ress — today, or next month, or ever. But I can 
report to you with genuine pride on what has 
been accomplished during 1942. 

A year ago we set cei'tain production goals for 
1942 and 1943. Some people, including some 
experts, thought that we had pulled some big 
figures out of a hat just to frighten the Axis. 
But we had confidence in the ability of our peo- 
ple to establish new records. That confidence 
has been justified. 

Of course, we realized that some production 
objectives would have to be changed — some ad- 
justed upward and others downward; some 
items would be taken out of the program com- 
pletely and others added. This was inevitable 
as we gained battle experience and as techno- 
logical improvements were made. 

Our 1942 airplane production and tank pro- 
duction fell short, numerically, of the goals set 
a jear ago. Nevertheless, we have plenty of 
reason to be proud of our record for 1942. We 
produced about 48.000 military planes — more 
than the airplane production of Germany, Italy, 
and Japan put together. Last month, Decem- 
ber, we produced 5,.500 military planes, and the 
rate is rapidly rising. Furthermore, as each 
month passes by, the averages of our types 
weigh more, take more man-hours to make, and 
have more striking power. 

In tank production we revised our schedule — 
and for good and sufficient reasons. As a re- 
sult of hard experience in battle, we have 
diverted a portion of our tank-producing ca- 
pacitj^ to a stepped-up production of new, deadly 
field weapons, especial!}' self-propelled artillery. 

Here are some other production figures: 

In 1942 we produced 56,000 combat vehicles, 
such as tanks and self-propelled artillery. 

In 1942 we produced 670,000 machine guns, 
6 times greater than our production in 1941 and 
3 times greater than our total production dur- 
ing the year and a half of our participation in 
the first World War, 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



We produced 21,000 anti-tank guns, 6 times 
greater than our 1941 production. 

We produced ten and a quarter billion rounds 
of small arms ammunition, 5 times greater than 
our 1941 production and 3 times greater than 
our total production in the first World War. 

We produced 181 million rounds of artillery 
ammunition, 12 times greater than our 1941 pro- 
duction and 10 times greater than our total pro- 
duction in the first World War. 

The arsenal of democracy is making good. 

These facts and figures will give no aid and 
comfort to the enemy. On the contrary, I can 
imagine they ■will give him considerable dis- 
comfort. I suspect Hitler and Tojo will find it 
difficult to explain to the German and Japanese 
people just why it is that "decadent, inefficient 
democracy" can produce such phenomenal quan- 
tities of weapons and munitions — and fighting 
men. 

We have given the lie to certain misconcep- 
tions, especially the one which holds that the 
various blocs or groups within a free country 
cannot forego their political and economic dif- 
ferences in time of crisis and work together 
toward a common goal. 

While we have been achieving this miracle of 
production, during the past year our armed 
forces have grown from a little over 2,000,000 
to 7,000,000. In other words, we have with- 
drawn from tlie labor force and the farms some 
5,000,000 of our younger workers. And in spite 
of this our farmers have contributed their share 
to the common effort by producing tlie greatest 
quantity of food ever made available during a 
single year in all our history. 

Is there any person among us so simple as to 
believe that all this could have been done with- 
out creating some dislocations in our normal 
national life, some inconveniences, and even 
some hardships? 

Who could have hoped to have done this 
without burdensome Government regulations 
which are a nuisance to everyone — including 
those who have the thankless task of administer- 
ing them? 

We all know that there have been mistakes — 
mistakes due to the inevitable process of trial 



and error inherent in doing big things for the 
first time. We all know that there have been 
too many complicated forms and questionnaires. 
I know about that. I have had to fill some of 
them out myself. 

But we are determined to see to it that our 
supplies of food and other essential civilian 
goods are distributed on a fair and just basis — 
to rich and poor, management and labor, farmer 
and city-dweller alike. And we are determined 
to keep the cost of living at a stable level. All 
this has required much information. The 
forms and questionnaires represent an honest 
and sincere attempt by honest and sincere offi- 
cials to obtain this information. 

We have learned by the mistakes that have 
been made. 

Our experience will enable us during the com- 
ing year to improve the necessary mechanisms 
of wartime economic controls and to simplify 
administrative procedures. But we do not 
intend to leave things so lax that loopholes will 
be left for cheatere, for chiselers, or for the 
manipulators of the Black Market. 

Of course, there have been inconveniences and 
disturbances — and even hardships. And there 
will be many, many more before we finally win. 
Yes, 1943 will not be an easy year for us on the 
home front. We shall feel in many ways in our 
daily lives the sharp pinch of total war. 

Fortunately, there are only a few Americans 
who place appetite above patriotism. The 
overwhelming majority realize that the food we 
send abroad is for essential military purposes, 
for our own and allied fighting forces, and for 
necessary help in areas that we occupy. 

We Americans intend to do this great job to- 
gether. In our common labors we must build 
and fortify the very foundation of national 
unity : confidence in one another. 

It is often amusing, and it is sometimes politi- 
cally profitable, to picture the city of Washing- 
ton as a madhouse, with the Congress and the 
Administration disrupted with confusion and 
indecision and general incompetence. 

However, what matters most in war is re- 
sults. And the one pertinent fact is that after 
only a few years of preparation and only one 
year of warfare, we are able to engage, spirit- 



ually as well as physically, in the total waging 
of total war. 

Washington may be a madhouse — but only in 
the sense that it is the capital city of a nation 
wliich is figliting mad. And I think that Berlin 
and Rome and Tokyo, which had such contempt 
for the obsolete methods of democracy, would 
now gladly use all they could get of that same 
brand of madness. 

We must not forget that our achievements in 
production have been relatively no greater than 
tliose of the Russians and British and Chinese 
who have developed their war industries under 
the incredible difficulties of battle conditions. 
They have had to continue work through bomb- 
ings and black-outs. They have never quit. 

We Americans are in good, brave company 
in this war, and we are playing our own, 
honorable part in the vast common effort. 

As spokesmen for the United States Govern- 
ment, you and I take off our ha'ts to those re- 
sponsible for our American production : to the 
owners, managers, and supervisors; to the 
draftsmen and engineers; to the workers — men 
and women — in factories and arsenals and ship- 
yards and mines and mills and forests and rail- 
roads and highways. 

We take off our hats to the farmers who have 
faced an unprecedented task of feeding not only 
a great nation but a gi-eat part of the world. 

We take off our hats to all the loyal, anony- 
mous, untiring men and women who have 
worked in private employment and in Govern- 
ment and who have endured rationing and other 
stringencies with good humor and good-will. 

We take off our hats to all Americans who 
have contributed magnificently to our common 
cause. 

I have sought to emphasize a sense of pro- 
portion in this review of the events of the war 
and the needs of the war. 

We should never forget the things we are 
fighting for. But, at this critical period of the 
war, we should confine ourselves to the larger 
objectives and not get bogged down in argument 
over methods and details. 

We, and all the United Nations, want a decent 
peace and a durable peace. In the years be- 



19 

tween the end of the first World War and the 
beginning of the second World War, we were 
not living under a decent or a durable peace. 

I have reason to know that our boys at the 
front are concerned with two broad aims be- 
yond the winning of the war; and their think- 
ing and their opinion coincide with what most 
Americans here back home are mulling over. 
They know, and we know, that it would be in- 
conceivable — it would, indeed, be sacrilegious — 
if this nation and the world did not attain some 
real, lasting good out of all these efforts and 
sufferings and bloodshed and death. 

The men in our armed forces want a lasting 
peace, and, equally, they want permanent em- 
ployment for themselves, their families, and 
their neighbors when they are mustered out 
at the end of the war. 

Two years ago I spoke in my Annual Mes- 
.^age of four freedoms.* The blessings of two 
of them — freedom of speech and freedom of 
religion — are an essential part of the very life 
of this nation; and we hope that these bless- 
ings will be granted to all men everywhere. 

The people at home and the people at the 
front — men and women — are wondering about 
the third freedom, freedom from want. To 
them it means that when they are mustered 
out, when war production is converted to the 
economy of peace, they will have the right to 
expect full employment — for themselves and for 
all able-bodied men and women in America who 
want to work. 

They expect the opportunity to work, to run 
their farms, their stores, to earn decent wages. 
They are eager to face the risks inherent in our 
system of free enterprise. 

They do not want a post-war America which 
suffers from under-nourishment or slums — or 
the dole. They want no get-rich-quick era of 
bogus "prosperity" which will end for them in 
selling apples on a street corner, as happened 
after the bursting of the boom in 1929. 

When you talk with our young men and 

women, you will find they want to work for 

themselves and their families ; they consider they 

have the right to work ; and they know that after 

' H. Doc. 1, 77tli Cong., 1st sess. 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tlie liist war their fathers did not gain that 
right. 

When you talk with our young men and 
women, you will find that with the opportunity 
for employment they want assurance against the 
evils of all major economic hazards — assurance 
that will extend from the cradle to the grave. 
This great Government can and must provide 
this assurance. 

I have been told that this is no time to speak 
of a better America after the war. I am told it 
is a grave error on my part. 
I dissent. 

If the security of the individual citizen or 
the family should become a subject of national 
debate, the country knows where I stand. 

I say this now to this Seventy-eighth Con- 
gress, because it is wholly possible that freedom 
from want — the right of employment and the 
right of assurance against life's hazards — will 
loom very large as a task of America during 
the coming two years. 

I trust it will not be regaixled as an issue, 
but rather as a task for all of us to study sym- 
pathetically, to work out with a constant regard 
for the attainment of the objective, with fair- 
ness to all and with injustice to none. 

In this war of survival we must keep before 
our minds not only the evil things we fight 
against but the good things we are fighting for. 
We fight to retain a great past, and we fight to 
gain a greater future. 

Let us remember that economic safety for the 
America of the future is threatened unless a 
greater economic stability comes to the rest of 
the world. We cannot make America an island 
in either a military or an economic sense. Hit- 
lerism, like any other form of crime or disease, 
can grow from the evil seeds of economic as well 
as military feudalism. 

Victory in this war is the first anrl greatest 
goal before us. Victory in the peace is the next. 
That means striving toward the enlargement of 
the security of man here and throughout the 
world and, finally, striving for the fourth free- 
dom, freedom from fear. 

It is of little account for any of us to talk of 
essential human needs, of attaining security, if 



we run the risk of another World War in 10 or 
20 or 50 years. That is just plain common sense. 
Wars grow in size, in death and destruction, and 
in the inevitability of engulfing all nations, in 
inverse ratio to the shrinking size of the world as 
a result of the conquest of the air. I shudder to 
think of what will happen to humanity, includ- 
ing ourselves, if this war ends in an inconclusive 
peace and another war breaks out when the 
babies of today have grown to fighting age. 

Every normal American prays that neither 
he nor his sons nor his grandsons will be com- 
pelled to go through this horror again. 

Undoubtedly a few Americans, even now. 
think that this nation can end this war com- 
fortably and then climb back into an American 
hole and pull the hole in after them. 

But we have learned that we can never dig a 
hole so deep that it would be safe against pred- 
atory animals. We have also learned that if we 
do not pull the fangs of the predatory animals 
of this world, they will multiply and gi'ow in 
strength and they will be at our throats once 
more in a short generation. 

Most Americans realize more clearly than 
ever before that modern war equipment in the 
hands of aggressor nations can bring danger 
overnight to our own national existence or to 
that of any other nation, or island, or continent. 
It is clear to us that if Germany and Italy and 
Japan — or any one of them — remain armed at 
the end of this war or are permitted to rearm, 
they will again, and inevitably, embark upon an 
ambitious career of world conquest. They must 
be disarmed and kept disarmed, and they 
must abandon the philosophy and the teaching 
of that philosophy which has brought so much 
suffering to the world. 

After the first World War we tried to achieve 
a formula for permanent peace, based on a mag- 
nificent idealism. We failed. But by our fail- 
ure we have learned that we cannot maintain 
peace at this stage of human development by 
good intentions alone. 

Today the United Nations are the mightiest 
military coalition in history. They represent 
an overwhelming majority of the population of 
the world. Bound together in solemn agree- 



JANUARY 9, 1943 



21 



ment that they themselves will not commit acts 
of aggression or conquest against any of their 
neighbors, the United Nations can and must re- 
main united for the maintenance of peace by 
preventing any attempt to rearm in Germany, 
in Japan, in Italy, or in any other nation which 
seeks to violate the Tenth Commandment, 
"Thou shall not covet." 

There are cynics and skeptics who say it can- 
not be done. The American people and all the 
freedom-loving peoples of this earth are now 
demanding that it must be done. And the will 
of these peojjle shall prevail. 

The philosui)hy of the Axis powers is based 
on profound contempt for the human race. If, 
in the formation of our future policy, we were 
guided by the same cynical contempt, then we 
should be surrendering to the philosophy of our 
enemies and our victory would turn to defeat. 

The issue of this war is the basic issue be- 
tween those who believe in mankind and those 
who do not — the ancient issue between those 
who put their faith in the people and those 
who put their faith in dictators and tyrants. 
There have always been those who did not 
believe in the people, who attempted to block 



their forward movement across history, to force 
them back to servility and suffering and silence. 

The people have now gathered tJieir strength. 
They are moving forward in their might and 
power, and no force, no combination of forces, 
no trickery, deceit, or violence can stop them 
now. They see before them the hope of the 
world: a decent, secure, peaceful life for all 
men everywhere. 

I do not prophesy when this war will end. 

But I do believe that this year of 1943 will 
give to the United Nations a very substantial 
advance along the roads that lead to Berlin and 
Home and Tokyo. 

I tell you it is within the realm of possibility 
that this Seventy-eighth Congress may have the 
historic privilege of helping greatly to save the 
world from future fear. 

Therefore, let us — all of us — have confidence; 
let us redouble our efforts. 

A tremendous, costly, long-enduring task in 
peace as well as in war is still ahead of us. 

But as we face that continuing task we may 
know that the state of this nation is good, the 
heart of this nation is sound, the spirit of this 
nation is strong, the faith of this nation is 
eternal. 



DECLARATION REGARDING FORCED TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY 
IN ENEMY-CONTROLLED TERRITORY 



[Released to the press January 5] 

The text of a declaration which has been made 
by the United States and certain others of the 
United Nations, regarding forced transfers 
of property in enemy-controlled territory, 
follows : 

"The Union of South Africa, the United 
States of America, Australia, Belgium, Canada, 
China, the Czechoslovak Republic, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
Greece, India, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, 
New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and 
the French National Committee : 



"Hereby issue a formal warning to all con- 
cerned, and in particular to persons in neutral 
countries, that they intend to do their utmost 
to defeat the methods of dispossession prac- 
ticed by the govermnents with which they are 
at war against the countries and peoples who 
have been so wantonly assaulted and despoiled. 

"Accordingly the governments making this 
declaration and the French National Committee 
reserve all their rights to declare invalid any 
transfers of, or dealings with, property, rights 
and interests of any description whatsoever 
which are, or have been, situated in the terri- 
tories which have come under the occupation or 
control, direct or indirect, of the governments 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



with which they are at war or which belong or 
have belonged, to persons, including juridical 
persons, resident in such territories. This warn- 
ing applies whether such transfers or dealings 
have taken the form of open looting or plunder, 



or of transactions apparently legal in form, even 
when they purport to be voluntarily effected. 

"The governments making this declaration 
and the French National Committee solemnly 
record their solidarity in this matter." 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



lEeleased to the presii January 6] 

Tomorrow we shall have completed our 
thirteenth month of war. We have accom- 
plished much in that time. Few of us could 
have hoped that the greatest arsenal in the his- 
tory of warfare could begin full-scale, effective 
operation in so short a time. Few could have 
foretold that complete ocean-going ships would 
be built and launched in weeks instead of 
months, days instead of weeks, and finally with 
such amazing speed that shipbuilding has al- 
most become a matter of hours. We are turn- 
ing with good-will and enormous energy to the 
job of production. That job of production 
spells the beginning of the end of the Axis. 

Our enemies have known this and have not 
been idle. The striking power of the Wehr- 
maclit has battered itself against the historic 
city of Stalingrad. General Kommel, now in 
full flight from the pursuing Eighth Army, 
came perilously close to Suez. The Japanese 
fleet has come forth repeatedly and fought until 
the propellers of sinking warships churned the 
ocean with Japanese blood. In the critical pe- 
riods of the year just past, it was not our pro- 
duction which stopped the enemy. The full 
power of our production is yet to be felt. It 
was the courage — if you will, the elemental 
guts — of the United Nations forces which 
stopped the enemy. Time and again it was the 
Axis which was superior in weapons and the 
United Nations which were superior in heroism 
and fortitude. The long lines of Japanese 
marching out of Chekiang, the long lines of 
Italians marching under guard to Cairo, the 

^ Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew at the 
United War Chest dinner, Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 6, 

194a 



long lines of Germans reeling before the at- 
tacks of the heroic, inexhaustible Red Army — 
these can testify that once again the immortal 
precedent of Thermopylae has held true, and 
free men, althougli outnumbered, have fought 
unfree men to a standstill which means 
eventual defeat. 

We have built the tools — tools as big as 
cities — needed to build the weapons of war. 
We have begun the building of weapons them- 
selves and have started dispatching our troops 
to the corners of the earth. The Japanese have 
a vain phrase, hakko icMu, signifying their 
hegemony over the eight directions of the uni- 
verse; they are now finding American troops 
and ships and planes in all eight. But the 
really big job — to achieve final and iri'evocable 
victory — still lies ahead. 

Our enemies know this. They are fighting 
for time. The Japanese to the west of us, like 
the Germans to the east, are fighting for time. 
At this moment they are still winning time in 
the Pacific. The Japanese have the resources 
of a score of countries. They have the ma- 
terials and the labor supply for the strongest 
power on earth. But they have not, as yet, 
had the time to put the pieces of this potential 
empire together. They have not welded their 
conquests into a fighting economic and mili- 
tary unit. It is therefore our plain task to 
step in and keep them from taking the time 
they need for building bulwarks against our- 
selves. 

Merely stopping the Japanese will not de- 
feat the Japanese. The warfare of attrition 
cannot be decisive when the enemy has all the 
elements of autarchy. We cannot beat the 
Japanese by a deadlock in which they get 



JAJSrUARY 9, 1943 

stronger. We must defeat the Japanese by 
positive attack — an attack which must be writ- 
ten by our own efforts into the inevitable future 
history of the world. There is no short cut 
to this victory. 

In the war against Japan — as in the war 
against Germany — the speed and character of 
our victory will depend upon the courage, the 
determination, and the intelligence of our own 
and allied fighting men. But victory also de- 
pends on the tools with which we equip our- 
selves and our allies. 

Of the first element, the men themselves, we 
need have no worry. The Chinese troops are 
a living testimony to what human flesh can do 
in a war against machines. The Dutch, Austra- 
lian, Filipino, and American troops in the south 
Pacific have acquitted themselves nobly. A 
great British army is forming in India, and we 
may expect great things of it. But the heroism 
which these forces display will be effective only 
in proportion to the weapons and other war 
materials which we give them. 

The second component of our victory is our 
work here at home. AVe must bear the burden 
of supporting our forces overseas. No one ex- 
pects an army in the field to raise crops, to keep 
cattle, to maintain workshops, and produce its 
own weapons. Yet we, who do these things, 
often forget the immediate and tragic connec- 
tion between what we do here in America and 
what our soldiers do on the field of battle. 
We are the home front. 

Have you realized that it was on this front 
that the Japanese thought they would defeat 
us? The Japanese did not count on defeating 
the American Army and Navy as such. They 
counted on our ignorance of the Far East, and 
on what they considered to be our national 
selfishness, to make us give up. 

At this moment Japan is counting on our 
getting discouraged. Japan is counting on our 
quarreling with one another over rations, over 
wages and hours, over strikes. Japan is count- 
ing on our becoming disillusioned when we 
finally realize the immensity of the task which 
is still ahead of us. 



23 



If we think we have a major victory when 
we have succeeded in stopping the Japanese, 
we are helping Japan. 

If we think that the defeat of Hitler will be 
followed by a simple little war in which Japan 
can be destroyed, almost as an afterthought, 
we are aiding Japan's psychological strategy. 

At the least, Japan will expect to consolidate 
her already enormous victories by offering us a 
"peace" which will gloss over our defeats in the 
Far East. At the most, Japan still expects to 
strike home to the heart of America. 

The Japan which you and I are fighting now 
is an enormous, rich, and really powerful coun- 
try. Let me tell you of a few of the strengths 
of this empire which is now our sworn and 
deadly enemy. 

Japan is unified and pervasively governed. 
The Japanese live by their own rules. They 
swept ahead of Asia by the dictates of their 
rulers. They were accustomed to authoritar- 
ian, totalitarian government from the ages of 
their past growth. When Hitler was a malad- 
justed, unhappy student, and Slussolini an 
ardent young radical, the Japanese military 
leaders were men of foresight and ruthlessly 
cold vision. They already had an obedient, 
faithful people at their command — a people 
who believed in the rule of the warrior, in the 
un freedom of the common man, in the superior- 
ity of the Japanese race to all others, and in 
the absolute incontrovertible rightness of what 
their government did. Japanese democracy 
never went behind these assumptions ; Japanese 
freedom never included the freedom to chal- 
lenge the Kokutai — literally, the national 
body — of the Empire of Japan. Hitler fought 
the German people first, with the stormtroopers 
and the SS., before he captured the German 
state and the German Wehrmacht as instru- 
ments of renewed attacks on free men ; but the 
Japanese leaders never faced an effective op- 
position. They inherited their power from the 
dictatorial, military past of Japan; when the 
hour came for them to bid for wider power, 
perhaps for world dominion, they stepped 
smoothly into their inheritance. 



24 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Today we probably have spiritual allies 
among the German people ; we have few among 
the Japanese. Whatever they may have be- 
lieved, the Japanese today support their gov- 
ernment. That is the difference between the 
raw, new authoritarianism of Hitler and the 
old, suave authoritarianism of Japan. Ger- 
many will stand just so much, and will then, 
in my opinion, collapse from within, but only 
after the Germans are defeated on the field of 
battle, while the Japanese, as a nation, will 
fight to the last ditch. 

Civilized, unified, military, Japan is also up 
to date. In the big cities of Japan skyscrapers 
float on pools of sand, ingeniously built to with- 
stand the concussion of earthquake. The streets 
are asphalted and clean. Busses and streetcars 
run regularly and well. Private homes are 
cheaply built but simple and tasteful ; the Japa- 
nese find them comfortable, and if one burns 
down it costs a fraction of the cost of an equiva- 
lent American home to replace. Their fire- 
fighting force is courageous, scientific, and effi- 
cient. The Japanese have extracted the best of 
their old thrift and the best of modern indus- 
trialism. They combine them. In the shadow 
of long-range electric power lines, the common 
peasants follow an intensive agriculture which 
keeps the home empire blockade-proof and self- 
sufficient. In the modern factories, which pro- 
duce at speeds and standards equaling our own, 
the labor force lives by the old Japanese scale 
and makes possible the price competition which 
we all knew before the war. This up-to- 
dateness of Japan, economically as well as psy- 
chologically, depends on the traditional Japan. 
The Japanese soldier or sailor who lives and 
fights like a Spartan is not undergoing priva- 
tion; he has been a Spartan from birth. Just 
because a Japanese operates a battleship, a ma- 
chine lathe, a modern locomotive, or a combat 
plane, he does not become un- Japanese; he is 
still a tough, simplj' satisfied man who believes 
in obedience and who is used to hard living be- 
cause he has known no other. To call a Japa- 
nese worker or soldier a "coolie" is to forget the 
most dangerous thing about him : the fact that 
he, no less than you or I, is a man of the twen- 



tieth century and can fight, perhaps beat us at 
some of our own games and with some of our 
own weapons. 

Such is the home empire of Nippon. I do not 
have time to tell you of the internal sea com- 
munications which make of the Japanese Em- 
pire an immense, immobile, and unmovable 
fleet — a fleet larger than the mind of man has 
ever dreamed of building — anchored forever 
close to the coast of Asia. Islands are unsink- 
able aircraft carriers, and Japan is all islands. 
Beyond this, I wish there were time to tell you 
of the newly built, up-to-date Japanese mer- 
chant marine, of tlie efficient navy, the huge 
army, the indispensable factories working at 
full time, the diversity and richness of the re- 
sources of Japan. You have known that these 
things were there; remember it now, keep it 
in mind, and consider with me what Japan has 
added. 

To the home empire which I have described, 
Japan has added immense possessions in three 
wars of conquest : the war with China in 1895, 
the war with Russia in 1905, and the present 
war, which began in Manchuria in 1931. Japan 
has taken Korea, China's Manchurian provinces, 
the grain lands and coal and iron of north 
China, the dairy land of inner Mongolia, the 
coast and main rivers of most of China, with 
the biggest cities of China; Japan has taken 
Formosa and Hainan, Indochina and Thailand, 
Burma and British Malaya, the vast empire of 
the Netlierlands Indies, our daughter democracy 
of the Philippines, some of the British, Portu- 
guese, and Australian islands of the southwest 
Pacific, and the strategic Andamans in the Bay 
of Bengal. 

Militarily and navally. this new and greaU'X 
empire depends on internal communications, 
which — in simple language — means that we have 
to go the long way around while they work the 
short way through. To contain and roll back 
such an empire, the encircling forces cannot be 
merely equal; they must be superior, and be 
superior in geometric, not arithmetical, ratio. 
Economically — mark this, for here is the very 
essence of danger — economically, the so-called 
"Greater East Asia" contains everything which 



7ANTJART 9, 1943 

a great power needs. Grain, meat, fish, fruits, 
tobacco, palms for oil, sugar, rubber, oil, coal, 
iron, electric power, labor skilled and un- 
skilled — all of these are at hand. If Japan 
could achieve the impossible, if Japan could 
defeat indomitable China, organize her hold- 
ings, consolidate her position, Japan — not Ger- 
many, not Britain, not Russia, not ourselves — 
Japan could become the strongest power in the 
world. 

To build the empire of the so-called "Greater 
East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere" the Japanese 
need one commodity which we can still deny 
them. This commodity, the basic stuff of hu- 
man life, is the most precious of all. It is time. 
We and our allies have already smashed against 
the gimci'ack empire of Adolf Hitler; our 
United Nations forces in the Don Basin, in 
North Africa, in the British Isles and the Euro- 
pean air are denying Hitler the time he needs 
to cement together the monstrous oligarchy he 
has imposed on Europe. We must, we shall, we 
will combine our denial of time to Hitler with 
a denial of time to Japan. How well and how 
soon we smash the whole Axis depends on our 
own will to work and fight. 

Losing a day, in this war against each end 
of the Axis, is as bad as losing a ship. We 
cannot wait. We cannot afford indecision, or 
disunity, or vain debate. We have started the 
counterattack on Hitler. We must maintain 
this counterattack and move inevitably toward 
the doom of Japan. Japan, left alone, might 
get stronger, as Hitler w^ould have, had we left 
him alone. We cannot let either slave empire 
become entrenched ! 

As Americans we can see the inescapable 
conclusion in our own hearts. We know that 
there cannot be the slightest doubt of our own 
victory; but we must all see and understand 
that the task is a heavy one. China, the largest 
and most patient nation in the world, has 
stopped the thrust of Japanese invasion with 
the living bodies of her young men — indeed of 
men, women, and children ; she has built a new 
and unforgettable Great Wall with the heroic 
Chinese dead, who have died to protect free 
men in China and everywhere. But China has 



25 

done — is doing — ^her share and more; China 
alone cannot defeat Japan. We must weight 
and tip the scales to victory. We cannot accept 
an armistice or stalemate, for the hours are with 
Japan, not with us. If we do not fight at our 
very hardest, and fight now, the period of our 
blood, sweat, and tears may be indefinitely and 
unnecessarily prolonged. We cannot pause, or 
hesitate, or kill time— "as if you could kill time 
without injuring eternity!" 

The Japanese are counting on our not being 
prepared to make great sacrifices. They have 
put great store in what they tliink to be our 
softness. They look upon us as constitutional 
weaklings, demanding our daily comforts and 
unwilling to make the sacrifices demanded for 
victory. The Japanese attach great importance 
to what they thought was our disunity over the 
war issue, and they count on us to delay before 
we develop a fighting spirit. That delay, they 
feel, will give them time to obtain complete 
control of all east Asia. When they struck, 
they made no provision for failure; they left no 
road open for retreat. Japan is counting on 
you — on each of us, one by one — to hold back 
and delay the American war effort long enough 
for Japan to consolidate her potential invinci- 
bility. Japan needs and relies upon your hesi- 
tation, or partial effort, or doubt. 

If we act with total and united effort, we 
can fight this truly global war with the vision 
and courage which such a war requires. We 
can coordinate our Mediterranean strategy 
with a Pacific and Asiatic strategy worthy of 
the challenge with which our enemy has pre- 
sented us. We are strengthening and will 
strengthen our Chinese ally. We are carrying 
and will carry the four freedoms to all the 
peoples now enslaved by Japan. If we make 
time our own ally, we shall have bases in Asia 
from which to fight, allies able to fight glori- 
ously at our side, and an enemy still caught 
in the chaos which he has himself created. 

We can buy leisure and slovenliness at home. 
We can buy more gasoline, more luxury foods, 
more cash in hand. We can buy comfort. 
But — we can buy these things only with the 
lives of our young men, with national honor 



26 



DEPARTMENT OF. STATE BULLETIN 



and security. We cannot fight a global war 
with a partial effort. Global war is total war, 
and total war reaches us here and now in Phila- 
delphia. 

Let me tell you about something which you 
yourself can do. You can fight Japan, just as 
surely as though you found the enemy forces 
here toniglit. You can build the front behind 
the front, by shoring up the home organization 
which supports our military effort overseas. 
This is not a simple job. 

It means keeping the production lines rolling, 
buying bonds, paying taxes, serving in pro- 
tective services, cooperating with rationing, 
scrap conservation, and a score of other activi- 
ties which touch each of our lives. With all 
these things to fill our working and leisure time, 
with all these demands on our attention and 
income, it is of utmost importance that we 
make every effort to conserve time, manpower, 
and money in all our activities. That is just 
what your leaders here in Philadelphia have 
been foresighted enough to do in combining all 
but two of the great community and national 
campaigns for funds into a great United War 
Chest to raise $7,300,000 in one big job and have 
it over with. 

I want to ask you to think for a moment what 
it means in terms of releasing manpower for 
other vital activities to have one big campaign 
in your community instead of 16 this year. You 
must remember that every campaign requires 
the time and effort of many people — both volun- 
teer workers and donors. Think what it means 
to use that time economically and effectively 
for one brief period and then, with the job well 
done, to release it for the many other useful 
tasks that must be done if we are to win the war. 

As subscribers in this community you will be 
able to consider all these appeals in terms of 
one great subscription. This subscription which 
may be paid over the year, of course — this 
permits you to judge in advance the utmost you 
can afford to give without holding back for 



other appeals which might come up again and 
again throughout the year. This assurance 
alone should make it possible to double and 
triple your giving. 

But there are other reasons why you should 
and will double and triple your giving this 
year. And those reasons are directly connected 
with the one great task which lies before all 
Americans today : the single purpose of winning 
the war. 

You have identified them in your United War 
Chest campaign as the three big jobs that you 
must do in one : first, help for our home front ; 
second, help for our men in service ; third, help 
for our fighting allies. 

Let us look at these three jobs separately and 
see just how they are connected with the war. 
Certainly, there can be no question that the aid 
we send to our fighting allies preserves and 
strengthens the spirit of unity between our peo- 
ple and their people which must exist for 
victory. 

Our men in service are a great fighting ma- 
chine. But they are still the boys we have 
known at home. Whether at home or at some 
distant fighting front they are still Americans 
with the interests of typical Americans. I have 
said that the Japanese are formidable fighting 
men, but they are no tougher in a fight than our 
men, given the weapons with which to do the 
job. But our men are Americans and accus- 
tomed to American recreation. Your gifts to 
the United War Chest provide facilities for 
them through the U.S.O. centers all over the 
country and in foreign lands; and your local 
U.S.O. and other agencies are hosts to men in 
service and in the merchant marine. 

But this does not completely discharge our 
obligation to our fighting men. These men who 
went away to train for war, then went overseas 
to fight, are working men who have left their 
dependents behind. They have mothers and 
fathers, sisters and brothers, wives and children, 
sweethearts here in America, here in Philadel- 



JANUARY 9, 1943 

pliia. To them, the sickness and trouble that 
niaj^ come to their loved ones at home is often 
more real than their own sacrifices. Worry 
about these things can be a greater burden than 
the ordeal of combat. If we are to discharge 
our obligation to these men who are fighting 
for our homes as well as tiieir own, we must 
see to it, through our home services for health, 
welfare, and youth, that they are assured prompt 
and effective heli) for their dependents in time 
of need. 

There is another real issue in the strengthen- 
ing of these home services. It is the question 
of keeping the home front strong to back up 
the men on the fighting front. Epidemic can 
wreak havoc with production. Sickness and in- 
jury which takes men and women off the as- 
sembly lines can deprive our forces of the am- 
munition they need to fight and win. There- 
fore, health services and hospitals which have 
been an esteemed part of our peacetime life 
now become vital war services today. 

The same is true of many other home serv- 
ices. Family service, child care, youth guid- 
ance, care of the handicapped, scores of other 
services become a vital part of this battle to 
keep the home population fit and strong. 

So it is obvious that with these three great 
jobs to do in the one United War Chest cam- 
paign in Philadelphia you have a task which far 
exceeds anj^thing of its kind undertaken before. 
The task will mobilize the volunteer service of 
50,000 men and women to work in the cam- 
paign. It is a task which will require the vol- 
unteer giving of every man, woman, and child. 

Now, I have spoken of the fact that in con- 
fronting Axis aggressors we are up against 
totalitarian states which work and live and 
fight, each as a single unit. Our enemies have 
learned to sacrifice and to do without and to 
subordinate the individual to the state. They 
have done so because they have been forced to 
do so. And they are confident of victory be- 
cause they have this compulsory unity and feel 
superior to us, citizens in a democracy. 



27 

Through the United War Chest campaign 
Philadelphia has an opportunity to demonstrate 
the extent to which a democratic people can 
attain unity through volunteer service and vol- 
unteer sacrifice. I want to emphasize the im- 
portance of volunteer service and volunteer sac- 
rifice. That is the keynote of democratic unity. 
It is for this very right to do things voluntarily 
as citizens of a democracy, not slavishly as crea- 
tures of a totalitarian state, that our men over- 
seas are fighting. 

You who are present tonight have not only 
tlie obligation but the privilege of setting the 
pace for the community to which you are going 
to appeal. In former years you would be help- 
ing your city, your neighbors, your own home. 
This year you are offered a chance to do what 
you can for the war effort. 

Our part in this struggle is plain. You and 
I, meeting here tonight, are on the home front. 
Anything which we can do on this home front 
is an integral part of the war. Each of us is 
part of an America all of which is at war. If 
your acceptance of rationing feeds our soldiers 
overseas, then you are yourself one among our 
soldiers. If your gifts of money or time make 
your community stronger, you are fighting Ger- 
many and Japan— fighting the Imperial troops 
here and now in Philadelpliia — by your assist- 
ance to j'our community. 

A common American soldier of the first 
World War expressed the soldier's creed. I 
, commend it to you as the highest standard of 
patriotism and ethics today. With such a creed 
we can and will defeat the evil Goliaths across 
the Atlantic and the Pacific. Without this 
creed we all face the common despair of tragi- 
cally costly victory. In the words of Martin 
Treptow, this is the creed : 

"I will work ; I will save ; I will sacrifice ; I 
will endure ; I will fight cheerfully and do my 
utmost; as if the whole struggle depended on 
me alone." 



28 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETrN 



AGREEMENT WITH GREAT BRITAIN REGARDING PROBLEMS 
OF MARINE TRANSPORTATION AND LITIGATION 



[Released to the press January 7] 

An agreement between the United States and 
Great Britain on certain problems of marine 
transportation and litigation was signed by the 
American Ambassador in London, Mr. John G. 
Winant, and the British Foreign Secretary, Mr. 
Anthony Eden, on December 4, 1942. This 
agreement is another example of the close co- 
operation between the two Governments in the 
prosecution of the war. It is abundantly clear 
that merchant shipping is at the nerve center 
of the whole war effort. This agreement aims 
at eliminating losses of tonnage and manpower 
in useless litigation. In general, each Govern- 
ment has agreed to waive claims against the 
other arising out of collisions, damage to cargo, 
and the rendering of salvage services. In the 
end, of course, with two great fleets such as ours 
the litigation proves useless. Recoveries tend 
to even themselves out. No financial advantage 
is gained by either Government, but much essen- 
tial manpower is lost in the process. 

Ordinarily a casualty at sea involves the ex- 
penditure of much time and skilled manpower 
in assessing the amounts payable by the various 
parties interested in both ship and cargo. De- 
lays occur and frequently ships are threatened 
with arrest or even actually arrested in order 
that security may be provided for meeting the 
claims asserted. 

All this is now a thing of the past where the 
interests involved are those of the British and 
United States Governments. In future, if a 
collision occurs between a ship belonging to the 
one Government (whether warship or mer- 
chantman) and a ship belonging to the other 
Government, no legal proceedings will be taken 
to determine the degree of blame and no claims 
for damages will be made by either Government 
against the other. The work of repair will be 
undertaken at once without thought of anything 
but getting the damaged ship back into service 
in the war effort at the earliest possible moment. 



Nor where cargoes belonging to one Govern- 
ment are damaged while on board a ship belong- 
ing to the other Government will time be wasted 
in the future in determining the liability for | 

such damage. General average contributions 
will not be payable by the one Government to 
the other. 

Another interesting feature of the agreement 
is that in the future all salvage services rendered 
by either Government to the ships or cargo 
owned or insured by the other will be rendered 
on lend-lease terms, each Government paying 
its own nationals. The sole object of salvage 
services rendered will be to bring the ship or 
cargo salved back into service as rapidly as 
possible without regard to any financial con- 
siderations. 

Article IV of the agreement is a further ex- 
ample of close cooperation. Either Govern- 
ment may call upon the other for legal assistance 
where vessels or cargo owned by the one Govern- 
ment are threatened with arrest in the courts of 
the other. Wliere a request is made for such 
assistance the Treasury Solicitor in the United 
Kingdom and the Attorney General in the 
United States will make arrangements for the 
immediate release of the ship and for the pro- 
tection of the interests of the other Government. 
Clearly it is of as much interest to the United 
States that British ships sail as that American 
ships sail, and vice versa. All are equally de- 
voted to the common cause. This article means 
to insure that there will be no delays. 

It will be observed that the provisions of the 
agi'eement regarding waiver of claims relate 
only to claims of one Government against the 
other and do not apply to claims between either 
Government and private interests. 

The texts of the agreement ' and of an ex- 
change of notes in connection therewith follow. 



' The text here printed confoi'ins to the signed orig- 



JAKaARY 9, 1943 

Agreem-ent Between the United States 
And Great Bntain 

The Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
hmd being desirous of defining, in so far as 
certain problems of marine transportation and 
litigation are concerned, the manner in which 
shall be ]irovided mutual aid in the conduct of 
the war including the aid contemplated by the 
Agreements concluded between them at Wash- 
ington on the 23rd February, 1942, and the 3r(l 
September, 1942,' have agreed as follows : 

Akticle 1 

(1) Each contracting Government agrees to 
waive all claims arising out of or in connec- 
tion with negligent navigation or general aver- 
age in respect of any cargo or freight owned by 
such Government and in respect of any vessel 
(including naval vessel) owned by such Gov- 
ernment against the other contracting Govern- 
ment or any cargo, freight or vessel (including 
naval vessel) owned by such other Govern- 
ment or against any servant or agent of such 
other Government or in any case where such 
other Government represents that such claim if 
made would ultimately be borne by such other 
Government. 

(2) Each contracting Government agrees on 
behalf of itself and of any organisation which 
is owned or controlled by it and operating for its 
account or on its behalf to waive all claims for 
salvage services against the other contracting 
Government or against any cargo, freight or 
vessel (including naval vessel) owned by such 
other Government or in any case where such 
f)ther Government represents that such salvage 
claim if made would ultimately be borne by 
such other Government. 

(3) Each contracting Government agrees to 
waive all claims for loss of or damage to cargo 
owned by such Government and arising out of 

' BtTLLEnw of Feb. 28, 1942, p. 190. and of Sept 5, 
1942, p. 734. 



29 



the carriage thereof or for loss of or damage 
to any cargo or vessel owned by one contracting 
Government and caused by the shipment or car- 
riage of cargo owned by the other contracting 
Government against such other Government or 
against any servant or agent of such other Gov- 
ernment or against any vessel (including naval 
vessel) owned by such other Government or in 
any case where such other Government rep- 
resents that the claim if made would ultimately 
be borne by such other Government. 

(4) Each contracting Government under- 
takes not to make any claim in respect of any 
vessel or cargo insured by it to which it may be 
entitled by virtue of any right of subrogation 
either — 

(a) directly against the other contracting 
Government; or 

(b) in any case where such other Govern- 
ment represents that such claim if 
made would ultimately be borne by 
such other Government. 

(.5) Each contracting Government agi'ees to 
extend the principles of this Agreement to such 
other maritime claims as may from time to time 
be agieed between them. 

Ahticle 2 

Where in any case claims arise which are not 
required to be waived by this Agreement in 
addition to or in conjunction with claims which 
are so required to be waived and it is necessary 
in any proceedings including proceedings for 
the limitation of liability that claims be mar- 
shalled or for the proper assessment of any 
salvage or general average that values should 
be estimated, the provisions of this Agreement 
shall not apply but claims which would other- 
wise be required to be waived under this Agi-ee- 
ment shall be asserted. Any recoveries, how- 
ever, shall be waived by the Government en- 
titled to such recoveries or at the option of 
such Government shall be dealt with in such 
other way as will give effect to the purposes of 
this Agreement. 



30 



Akticle 3 



(1) For the purpose of this Agreement the 
expression "vessel owned by a contracting Gov- 
ernment" includes a vessel on bare boat charter 
to a contracting Government or requisitioned 
by a contracting Government on bare boat 
terms or othei-wise in the possession of a con- 
tracting Government (except to the extent that 
the risk of loss or liability is borne by some 
person other than either contracting Gov- 
ernment). 

(2) In order to carry out the full intention 
of the provisions of Article 1 of this Agreement 
each contracting Government will so arrange 
in connection with bare boat charters to it that 
the owners or persons interested through such 
owners shall not have or assert any claims of 
the character specified in Article 1. 

Article 4 

Each contracting Government upon the re- 
quest of the other will provide undertakings 
for the release of vessels or cargo owned by the 
other contracting Government from judicial 
proceedings in Courts in the United States of 
America or in the United Kingdom as the case 
may be where such release will promote the war 
effort and the requesting Government so repre- 
sents, upon compliance with the following 
conditions : 

(a) upon the tender of such request due au- 
thority will be conferred by the Govern- 
ment interested in such vessel or cargo 
upon the law officers of the Government 
furnishing the undertaking to appear on 
their behalf and to conduct the defence 
of such proceedings in so far as such 
vessel or cargo is concerned, to settle or 
compromise any such suit, to assert or 
settle and compromise any claim to 
which the requesting Government may 
be entitled in respect of the subject- 
matter of the suit and to make and re- 
ceive payments in respect thereof; and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE' BtTUiETIN 

(b) the requesting Government upon tender- 
ing such a request will assure the other 
Government of its full co-operation in 
making defence to such suit and assert- 
ing such claims including the making 
available of witnesses and evidence and 
including jjreparation for trial. 
Unless otherwise agreed, each contracting Gov- 
ernment will reimburse or account to the other 
for any payment made or received by the one 
Government on behalf of the other. 

Article 5 
Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed 
as a waiver of the right of either contracting 
Government in appropriate cases to assert sov- 
ereign immunity. 

Article 6 

(1) This Agreement, which shall come into 
force on the date of signature, shall apply in 
respect of all claims arising before the date of 
this Agreement but remaining unsettled at such 
date or which may arise during the currency 
of this Agreement. 

(2) This Agreement shall remain in force 
until the expiration of six months from the 
date upon which either of the contracting 
Governments shall have given notice in writing 
of their intention to terminate it. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly 
authorised to that effect by their respective 
Governments, have signed the present Agree- 
ment and have affixed thereto their seals. 

Done in London in duplicate, this fourth day 
of December, 1942. 

Exchange of Notes Between the American Am- 
hassador and the British Foreign Secretary 

December 4, 1942. 
Sir: 

Witli reference to Article IV of the agree- 
ment signed today between the Government of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain ajid 



JANUARY 9, 194 3 

Northern Ireland and the GoTernment of the 
United States of America rehiting to certain 
problems of maritime transportation and litiga- 
tion, I have the honor to state that for the pres- 
ent and imtil further notice it is the intention 
of my Government that the accounting contem- 
plated hy that Article will be accomplished 
under the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941 
to the extent authorized under that Act. 

Accordingly, the Government of the United 
States will in appropriate cases make such pay- 
ments as arc necessary in the course of opera- 
tions under the agreement according to its 
procedure in the administration of that Act and 
will receive any moneys which may accrue in 
the course of such operations as a benefit under 
that Act and Article VI of the agreement 
between our two Governments dated February 
23, 1942. 

Accept [etc. J John G. Win ant 



31 

Foreign Office, S.W. 1, 

!ith December, 1943. 
Your Excellency, 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of 
your note of to-day's date referring to Article 
IV of the agreement signed to-day between our 
two Governments relating to certain problems 
of marine transportation and litigation. In 
reply I wish to state that for the present and 
until further notice my Government intends 
that the accounting required by Article IV shall 
be on the same basis as the pajTnents contem- 
plated in Your Excellency's note and that the 
Government of the United Kingdom will make 
any payments required by the agreement and 
receive any moneys accruing under it as re- 
ciprocal aid according to the terms of the agree- 
ment between our two Governments dated the 
23rd February, 1942. 

I have [etc.] Antiiont Eden 



General 



ADDRESS BY HERBERT H. LEHMAN' 



[Released to the press January 0] 

I am deeply grateful to you for the honor 
which you have paid me tonight and for the 
splendid manifestation of your friendship and 
confidence. 

Wlien I retired from the Governorship last 
month I had served the people of the State for 
4 years as Lieutenant Governor and for prac- 
tically 10 years as Governor. The years have 
been very busy, crowded with many problems 
and responsibilities previously almost unknown. 
They have been hard years. There have been 
many headaches and many heartaches. But 

' Delivered at a testimonial dinner. New York. N. Y., 
Jan. 9, 1943. Mr. Lehman is Director of the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Depart- 
ment of State. 



there has also come to me much satisfaction in 
having had the privilege of serving the people 
of my State with what I hope has been useful 
and constructive leadership. 

If my administration of the affairs of the 
State has been successful it was due largely to 
the magnificent assistance which I have received 
from my fellow public servants in the State 
Government. They have given warm and loyal 
support. They have been indefatigable in their 
work and devoted in their service. I am deeply 
grateful to them as well as to all the other people 
of the State for their unfailing support and 
encouragement. 

Throughout my public service my philosophy 
of government has been simple and clear. I 
believe with all my heart that government is 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIN 



for the people. It must be clean and honest 
and efficient, but it must be more than merely 
an administrative machine. It must ever con- 
cern itself with the solution of human as well as 
material problems. It must satisfy the needs 
and aspirations of its people, and in order to 
satisfy those needs and aspirations it must be 
flexible enough to meet the changing condi- 
tions of the M'orld today. 

The government and people of New York 
State, I believe, will play a great role in the 
development of the world of tomorrow. We 
must build a better world if democracy and 
orderly goveinment are to survive. People will 
not be satisfied to go back to the old order of 
things. They want freedom, security, lasting 
peace, and opportunity. I know that the en- 
lightened and humane people of New York 
State will continue to play their part in bring- 
ing about a better and more secure world. 

As for my new work as Director of the Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions, we are now plotting the outline of a great 
work, a task which President Roosevelt has 
added to the effort of bringing all iA\e man- 
power and resources of America and the United 
Nations to bear against the enemy. The task 
is to provide the necessities of life — medicines 
and medical service, food, clothing, and shel- 
ter — to the peoples who have been despoiled, 
starved, and plundered by the Axis conquerors. 
This work cannot await the day of victory but 
must be planned and actually begun long before 
the last gun is fired. It must be under way in 
each country as the liberating armies of the 
United Nations release the subjugated peoples 
from the yoke of the enemy. 

I do not think there can possibly be any 
differences of opinion as to the humanitarian 
considerations which prompt America to par- 
ticipate in this work. But over and above the 
humanitarian aspects it seems to me that a very 
fundamental principle is involved which will 
go a long way toward shortening the war and 



a very long way in helping to create the kind 
of stable, equitable, and enduring peace in 
which we are all interested. 

The outlines of this work do not contemplate 
any Utopian system under which this country 
will bestow its blessings on the entire world. 
The task is practical and one of imperative 
necessity. Our objective is to help the liberated 
nations of the world to help themselves — to help 
these nations back to a condition of soundness 
and strength so that each may make its contri- 
bution to victory over our enemies and take its 
place in the better world that must follow the 
peace. 

As yet we are only charting the frontiers of 
this tremendous task. But obviously the first 
necessity will be emergency measures to provide 
the bare necessities of life to the peoples lib- 
erated from Axis control — emergency food to 
stop starvation; emergency shelter to halt 
deatlis by exposure; emergency clothing to re- 
place tliat wliicli has been stolen by the invad- 
ing Axis armies; emergency health and sanita- 
tion measures to forestall the threat of epi- 
demic, a threat which is terrifyingly real in the 
areas which have been under Axis domination. 

Freed of the crushing threat of starvation, 
once again with shelter and clothing to keep 
tlieni warm, and with their commerce again 
functioning, the liberated peoples will be able 
to lay their own plans for repair and recon- 
struction of most of what has been destroyed 
by the ravages of the aggressor nations. 

This is no dream. It is rather a practical, 
businesslike approach to a reconstruction prob- 
lem of great magnitude. We believe that it is 
essential in (lie interests of again establishing 
a stable, secure economy that the countries of the 
world be helped to place themselves again on a 
self-sustaining basis. It is only by such meas- 
ures that the world can be organized on a stable 
basis where the four freedoms can be realized 
and aggression be exiled forever from the family 
of nations. 



JANUARY 9, 1945 



33 



American Republics 



AWARD OF THE LEGION OF MERIT TO 
GENERAL GUZMAN CARDENAS OF 
MEXICO 

The Wliite House announced on January 6, 
1943 that tlie President has awarded the deco- 
ration of the Legion of Merit to General Crist<)- 
bal Guzman Cardenas, of the Mexican Army. 
The citation reads as follows : 

"For extraordinary fidelity and exceptionally 
meritorious conduct in the performance of out- 
standing service while in a position of high re- 
sponsibility as military attache in Washington 
and delegate to the Inter-American Defense 
Board. His services contributed greatly to the 
present close cooperation between Mexico and 
the United States and liis untiring efforts as- 
sisted in the cause of the democracies and the 
defense of the American republics." 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



FOURTH SOUTH AMERICAN CONGRESS 
ON CHEMISTRY 

(Released to the press January 5] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Government of Chile to be represented at 
the Fourth South American Congress on Chem- 
istry, -which will be held at Santiago January 
5-12, 1943 as a part of the centenary celebra- 
tion of the founding of the University of Chile. 

In view of the hea\-y demands of essential 
war traffic upon the overburdened air-transpor- 
tation facilities, it was not deemed advisable 



to select delegates who would be obliged to 
utilize commercial air services. Accordingly, 
the selection of delegates was confined to citizens 
of the United States resident at Santiago. The 
following individuals have been designated with 
the approval of the President to represent this 
Government at the meeting : 

Jolin HaJl Janney, Jr., M.D., Rockefeller Foundation 

Ropre.sentative, Santiago 
Liiwi-cnce Kinnaird, I'h. D., Senior Cultural Relations 

Assistant, American Embassy, Santiago 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Iteleused to the press January 0] 

Dr. Enrique Beltran, Professor of Zoology in 
the National University of Mexico and Chief of 
tlie Laboratory of Protozoology of the Institute 
of Public Health and Tropical Diseases, arrived 
in Wasliington January 3. at the invitation of 
tlie Department of State, for a month's tour of 
licaltli institutes and universities in Washing- 
ton. Baltimore, New York, Chicago, Memphis, 
and New Orleans. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Uniformity of Powers of Attorney To Be Utilized 
Abroad : Protocol Between the United States of 
America and Certain Other American States — 
Opened for signature at the Pan American Union at 
Washington February 17, IWO ; signed for the United 
States of America, ad referendum, October 3, 1941 ; 
proclaimed by the President May 22, 1942. Treaty 
Series 982. 24 pp. .50. 



34 



Treaty Information 



EDUCATION 

Central American Conventions on Education 

El Salvador 

The Amei-ican Legation at San Salvador re- 
ported by a despatch dated November 23, 1942 
that the National Legislative Assembly ratified 
by Decree 68, of November 6, 1942, the Con- 
ventions on Education signed by the delegates 
of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicara- 
gua, Panama, and Costa Eica at the Conference 
of Central American Ministers of Education, 
held at San Jose from August 31 to September 
5, 1942. The decree of ratification was promul- 
gated by the President of El Salvador on Nov- 
ember 9, 1942 and published in the Diario 
Oficial of November 16, 1942. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIN 

The Convention on Education is described as 
containing general provisions for primary 
teaching and secondary teaching, and recom- 
mendations on the subject of university teach- 
ing and on the free exercise of the liberal pro- 
fessions, including those of teaching, commerce, 
and finance. 

CLAIMS 

Agreement With Great Britain Relating to Cer- 
tain Problems of Marine Transportation and 
Litigation 

A statement concerning the agreement re- 
lating to certain problems of marine transpor- 
tation and litigation between this Government 
and the British Govermnent signed in London 
December 4, 1942, together with the text of the 
agreement and an accompanying exchange of 
notes, apj^ears in this Bulletin under the head- 
ing "The War". 



B^r sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C— Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 
FUBLISBSD WIIXKLZ WITH THB APPBOVAL OF THI OIBSCIOB Or TBB BU2BAD OF THB BUDGBT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



JANUARY 16, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 186— Publication 1866 







ontents 



The War p«k» 

United Nations Relief: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 37 

Continuation of Relief Work by Private Organiza- 
tions 37 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 38 

German Action With Respect to the American Group at 

Lourdes, France 42 

Declaration of Wai- by Iraq Against the Axis Powers . 42 

Address by Francis B. Sayre 43 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to 

Japan 49 

Replies to the Christmas Message to the Armed Forces 

of Our Allies 55 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 3 to 

Revision IV ^. 59 

Lend-Lease Aid to Liberia 59 

The Far East 

Treaty With China for Relinquishment of Extraterrito- 
rial Rights in China 59 

American Republics 

Death of General Justo of Ai-gcntina 61 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From the Other American Re- 

pubhcs 62 

Advisory Committees on Music and Art for 1942^3 . 62 

[OVER] 




"■^■S"Pf»i,rr,„worDocw„ 
FEB 2 1943 







OTltCTi *S— CONTINUED 



The Department ^*^^ 

The Divisions of Political Studies and of Economic 

Studies 63 

The Office of Foreign ReUef and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions . 64 

Withdrawal of the Special Assistant in Charge of the 

Office of Foreign Territories 65 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

International Commissions, Committees, Boards, Etc., 

Concerned With the War 66 

Treaty Information 

Extraterritoriahty: Treaty With China for Relinquish- 
ment of Extraterritorial Rights in China .... 79 

Legislation 79 

Publications 79 



The War 



UNITED NATIONS RELIEF 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



1 Released to the press January 15] 

United Nations Week, now being celebrated 
throughout tlie country, has the dual aim of 
more thoroughly acquainting Americans with 
the peoples associated with us and raising funds 
for the relief of their war-stricken whose need 
is very great. 

This project, sponsored by the motion-picture 
industry with the approval of the President's 



War Relief Control Board, offers a splendid 
opportunity to the American people for 
strengthening the spirit of unity so essential to 
winning the war and wiiming the peace. 

United Nations Week gives us all another 
special occasion to learn more about the United 
Nations, sense their need, and rally to the com- 
mon cause. 



CONTINUATION OF RELIEF WORK BY PRIVATE ORG.ANIZATIONS 



[Released to tlie press January 11) 

The Honorable Herbert H. Lehman, Director 
of the O.Tice of Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations, the Honorable Joseph E. 
Davies, Chairman of tlie President's War Re- 
lief Control Board, and the Honorable Norman 
H. Davis, Chairman of the American Red Cross, 
on January 11 issued a joint statement calling 
for continuation of emergency foreign-relief 
work by private organizations to supplement 
measures for mass relief of distressed civilians 
abroad which are being organized by the Gov- 
ernment. 

Mr. Davis, Mr. Davies, and Mr. Lehman said 
that it is essential to continue the relief work 
of private philanthropic organizations, financed 
by voluntary contributions from the public, as 
an expression of the generous sympathies of 
the American people and because of the distinc- 
tive services that quasi-public and voluntary 
agencies can render to complement public re- 
sources and services. 



They emphasized that relief operations of 
private philanthropic agencies or groups can 
and will continue to supj)lement the broad oper- 
ations of the Office of Foreign Relief and Re- 
habilitation Operations, other Federal agencies, 
and the American Red Cross. As in the past, 
private organizations engaging in essential re- 
lief measures for distressed foreign populations 
will continue to procure clearance for their op- 
erations from the President's War Relief Con- 
trol Board, headed by Mr. Davies. 

The joint statement of Mr. Lehman, Mr. 
Davies, and Mr. Davis follows : 

"The President has declared that to the task 
of bringing to bear directly against the enemy 
the full strength of the material resources and 
manpower of the L^nited Nations, there is added 
another task. This task, continuously growing, 
is to supply medicines, food, clothing and other 
necessities of life to the peoples who have been 
plundered, despoiled, and starved. Every pos- 
sible aid will be given, therefore, to help restore 

37 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJliiETrN 



each of the liberated countries to soundness and 
strength so that each may make its full contri- 
bution to the United Nations' victory and to the 
peace which will follow. 

"The united resources and services of Govern- 
ment, sujiplemented by those of the American 
Eed Cross and the International Ked Cross or- 
ganization, and by the voluntary efforts of all 
people will be required for the relief of dis- 
tressed civilians in the countries associated with 
America in this war. While the resources and 
services of Government will be drawn upon to 
furnish the primary supplies for mass emer- 
gency relief of civilian populations, voluntary 
organizations rendering essential services will 
also need to be maintained. 

"Since the outbreak of war in September 
1939, foreign relief has been effected materially 
through many voluntary relief agencies serving 
the people of Great Britain, France, Belgium, 
the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Czechoslo- 



vakia, Yugoslavia, Greece, Russia, China and 
other war-torn countries. 

"Relief work of this character is supplemental 
to supplies and services already extended by the 
Govermnent and which, through operations of 
the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations, will be extended on a steadily in- 
creasing scale. It is likewise supplemental to 
work performed by the American Red Cross. 
Continuation of such voluntary relief work is 
essential not only as an expression of the gen- 
erous sympathies of the American people but 
also as a distinctive service that quasi-public 
and voluntary agencies can render to comple- 
ment public resources and services. There are 
many essential services which can be provided 
by private agencies that cannot be provided 
by the Government. 

"As in the past, private relief agencies will be 
licensed by and registered with the President's 
War Relief Control Board." 



ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE' 



[Released to the press January 10] 

We meet tonight in a country which is com- 
paratively safe. We are so well provided that 
the smallest of our rations would be luxury in 
most other countries. The incidental discom- 
forts we have encountered do not even suggest 
the actual hardships of war. It is right that 
we take part in shouldering some of the bur- 
den of the Relief Fund of the United Nations. 

Because of the heroism and sacrifice of the 
various members of the United Nations we are 
still comparatively safe. Had it not been for 
them, this meeting in Boston on the New Eng- 
land coast — one of the areas most exposed to 
invasion by modern force — might well have 
been a meeting not to offer relief but to ask it. 

This is a new and sobering thought in mod- 
ern American experience. During a long and 



' Delivered at a dinner meeting of the United Nations 
Relief Fund, Inc., Boston, Mass., Jan. 10, 1943. 



brilliant century we have considered 
safe and have taken our comfort and our pros- 
perity for granted. 

No longer can we do this. 

In the first World War the combined resist- 
ance of Russia, Britain, and France kept the 
German armies at bay for more than two years. 
This gave us time to learn our true interest 
and to build up armies and supplies. We were 
thus able to enter the World War of 1914 and to 
pUiy a decisive part. 

When, in 1931, Japan, following a plan of 
world conquest, began her armed invasion of 
China and seized Manchuria, many in this coun- 
try could not conceive that this might affect us. 
When, 10 years ago to the day. Hitler came to 
power in Germany and began to prepare his 
own world conquest, they paid little attention. 
Even when Japanese fury was fully loosed in 
Asia, and when Hitler commenced his seizure, 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

one by one, of European nations, there were 
those who still believed that the force of ag- 
gression was a matter of Old World concern. 

We know today that had it not been for the 
splendid and terrible resistance of China and 
the sacrifice of the European peoples America 
would be facing direct invasion from two sides, 
if indeed that invasion had not already taken 
place. 

The resistance of Poland, backed by the gal- 
lantry of Britain and of France, gave us time, 
literally boiiglit with the blood of others. An 
unreal world had not permitted Czechoslovakia 
to stand to arms, and the Nazis were made mas- 
ters of the key points in the fortress of Europe. 
The combined resistance again secured us two 
years' time to prepare. A terrible roll was 
called: Austria and Czechoslovakia fell. Po- 
land, Britain, France, Norway, Denmark, Bel- 
gium, Holland, Greece, Yugoslavia, Russia — 
these, like China, fought for themselves and 
their liberty, and in doing so fought for and pro- 
tected the liberty of the world and of the United 
States. 

Each of these, taking its toll of the sworn 
enemies of humanity, has maintained the an- 
cient faith that freedom is beyond life. They 
keep alive the hope of ultimate victory. Now 
their work with ours gives certainty of final 
triumph at the end of the long road. It is not 
too much to say that many of us now living 
literally owe our lives to the uncounted heroes, 
men and women, in these countries. Had they 
faltered, we in America would have been in 
grievous case. 

It is sufficiently plain, I think, that we shall 
not again be given time to meet aggressors by 
the sacrifice of other nations. Land armies 
must still cross other countries to reach our 
shores; and when they must fight to do this 
the resistance of their neighbors buys time for 
the Americas. But the next war is more likely 
to be air-borne. Frontiers will be crossed, not 
by armies marching down long roads or travel- 
ing in motorized vehicles. More probably, the 
armies of the future will be able to leave from 
any point on the earth's surface and to attack 
virtually at will any other point in the world, 



39 

It is not likely, again, that any aggressor seek- 
ing world conquest will reckon without the 
United States. Rather, he will seek to cripple 
or conquer the United States first. We had 
a foretaste of that at Pearl Harbor; and it is 
my considered opinion that if there is another 
war its beginning will be 50 Pearl Harbor ex- 
peditions, directed against the principal cities 
of the United States. 

It is of the utmost importance that we learn 
this lesson now and that we never forget it. 
We must learn that if war threatens anew, we 
shall not have a breathing spell of two years 
vouchsafed us by other countries, during 
which we can build our own force. If the 
world to be built permits war, we shall have 
to be ready to meet it instantaneously, or suf- 
fer a terrible price. 

I make these two points because they ex- 
plain with deadly accuracy the appropriate- 
ness of the contributions we are asking for 
the relief of our comrades in this war, and 
why this work is properly carried on imder 
the great name of the United Nations. By 
contributing we pay in some slight measure 
our debt to those who have saved us this time. 
By building the United Nations into a perma- 
nent world force we are sharing the work of 
a safer world for the future. 

Wliat is true of the United States and the 
western world is even more true of the Euro- 
pean nations. All of them are necessarily de- 
pendent on each other. There can be no free 
and safe Poland unless there is also a free 
and safe Czechoslovakia. Nor could Poland 
and Czechoslovakia together exist in a world 
which did not also provide for the freedom 
and existence of Greece and Yugoslavia. The 
armies which fought in the Balkan mountains 
were struggling for Poland, and the Poles who 
fi^ht their own battle for freedom on the 
northern plains, as they succeed, will help to 
liberate the Greeks and the Yugoslavs. 

No part of this struggle is disconnected 
from any other part. Americans are sup- 
ported and protected by the Russian men and 
women fighting the terrible battle of Stalin- 
grad ; and the Russians are assisted and heloed 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



by the Chinese who make headway against the 
Japanese in Yunnan and by our American 
boys in the Solomon Ishtnds. 

Wlien, therefore, we are asked to give to 
the United Nations Relief Fund, let us re- 
member that all these soldiers are brothers in 
arms, brothers to us, and brothers to each 
other. The happiest augury for the world to 
come will be built on the knowledge by many 
individuals that this is true. When an Amer- 
ican of Polish ancestry gives to the war re- 
lief of Czechs and Yugoslavs, he has done 
more than assist a comrade. He has helped 
to build a new and greater world. 

The great good fortune of America makes 
it possible for us to begin this building of a 
world family of nations, because our own life 
is made up of streams of blood and culture 
drawn from all the United Nations. This 
country has freely giyen to all and has re- 
ceived much in return. 

I ask you, in this United Nations Kelief 
Fund, to lay aside some part of the fierce na- 
tionalisms which have so long plagued the 
international family. Let us strike hands here 
and in doing so give pledge for tomorrow. 

The United Nations have before them two 
huge tasks. The first is quite simply that of 
fighting — and fighting to win. Their armies 
are holding many fronts by land, sea, and air. 
The strength of each of these armies is of vital 
importance to all the others. You feel safer 
and happier tonight because the Germans ai-e in 
retreat and the Soviet armies are advancing to- 
ward Eostov-on-Don. The Chinese felt safer 
and happier when American boys landed in the 
Solomon Islands and held that strategic out- 
post against repeated attacks of the Japanese 
fleet. Russia's faith and hope were strengthened 
when British forces drove Rommel out of Egypt 
and across the Libyan Desert, and when Ameri- 
can forces successfully occupied a thousand 
miles of North African coast and compelled the 
German air force to draw planes away from the 
Russian front for the protection of Italy. 

This is not a series of wars ; it is one war. The 
more united the action, the more certain and 
sweeping the victory. 



It is well for us, in America, to remember that 
fact. We have in our own country great groups 
of Americans of foreign ancestry. Naturally 
and properly, they maintain a close interest in 
their countries of origin and desire fervently 
that these countries shall be restored to freedom 
and to national life. Let me express the hope 
that these groups will not allow themselves to 
be led into narrow and nationalist controversy. 
From time to time attempts are made to revive 
in America and among groups of Americans of 
foreign ancestry the disputes and antagonisms 
which far too often disfigure the life of the Old 
World. We have no time and no place for those 
quarrels here. We have learned that all these 
groups, living in America, find that they have 
left their legacies of hatred behind them; that 
races which elsewhere were forced to live in 
continuous quarrels here became neighbors, 
friends, and blood relativ'es. This has been the 
proudest achievement of American life. It is 
perhaps the best contribution we can make to 
international cooperation. 

Whoever seeks to set any race or group in 
America apart from or against any other race 
or group, deserves to be distrusted, both here 
and abroad. America's strength lies in her 
union, just as victory for the United Nations 
lies in the abilitj^ of all that great group of na- 
tions to work together. 

The problem in war is that of attaining unity 
in effort. Those of us who are not in the fighting 
foi'ces must achieve unity of effort in the sup- 
poi'ting work which we must do as civilians. 
It is all part of the same great picture, the pool- 
ing of the resources of mind and material to the 
single task of winning the greatest war history 
lias yet seen. 

This lesson of sinking differences and of 
pooling efforts is one we shall learn with in- 
crei;sing force as the days go on. The inci- 
dents of daily life will teach it to us. In 
wartime the things we eat and use and wear 
become increasingly scarce; increasingly we 
have to share them with our neighbors — not 
only as a nation, through the pooling of war 
supplies, but as individuals, dealing with the 
ordinary problems of life. It is always pos- 



JANUARY 16, 194 3 

sible for an individual or for a group of in- 
dividuals to beat the game, to ask for and get 
more than his fair share, or to seek to preserve 
a special position. When this is done at the 
expense of the whole group, everyone suffers 
in the end. 

Those of us who have cars are learning to 
share their use with others. As rationing be- 
comes increasingly strict — and it must become 
increasingly strict if each is to have his fair 
share — we shall learn that several people 
working together can obtain better results than 
the same number of people trying to work 
alone. I think, in the process, we shall find 
we are happier in the end. I believe we shall 
learn that working together on each other's 
problems is a great human experience. 

Out of that experience all of us should draw 
a greater capacity for dealing with the titanic 
problem of rebuilding a peaceful world when 
the Nazi tj'ranny is stamped out of existence. 
AVhen you have shared your ration of sugar 
witii the family next door and have asked to 
share someone else's gasoline in getting down 
to your job, you understand more easily why 
it is that nations can no longer get along with 
a purely selfish economic system. You begin 
to see more clearly why a country which can- 
not produce enough food to feed its people can 
rightfully ask a share of world trade so that 
it can pay with its manufactures for its daily 
bread. You see the problem not as an imper- 
sonal struggle for markets. You see behind it 
the men and women who are trying to keep 
their children fed. You begin to understand 
how closely connected everything in the world 
is to everything else. You begin to discover, 
somehow, that your morning coffee from Brazil 
depends in large part on the great system of 
American relations, and that the Good Neigh- 
bor Policy is not a phrase for diplomat- to nlay 
with but an art which makes ir possible xor 
you to live more happily. You begin to realize 
that there is a Brazilian who likewise depends 
on those relations for his life, and that when 
he asks to exchange his supplies for our 
products he too is merely seeking the materials 
of decent life. 



41 



Because we are dealing with a world situa- 
tion much of what we do affects people who are 
very far away. We shall see very few of them 
in the flesh. Once in a while a few stories 
become personal. I think of an 11-year-old 
refugee girl whose career I followed from 
the time of her flight from Germany into Hol- 
land and Belgium, and through the long and 
terrible journey out of Belgium, across France, 
through Spain, into Lisbon, and at long last 
to the United States. Her own parents were 
killed very early in this terrible story, and 
she herself lived with five separate families, 
many of them in extreme want, who were 
strangers to her but no strangers to common 
misfortune. That story had something like a 
happy ending, because the child finally arrived 
here and is now safe and in loving hands. 
But for one such incident that we can see, there 
are millions upon millions of cases which we 
shall never know. 

What we must know and must realize is that 
these millions of unseen cases are millions of 
unseen people. Were any of them here, before 
us, we should not need to consider what had to 
be done. We should know as a matter of 
course that plain humanity required our utmost 
in assistance and good-will. 

As the various demands are made on us for 
the sacrifices of war, for the work of war relief, 
and for the post-war arrangements, we shall do 
well to remember these unseen millions who are 
not statistics, not races, not nations, not gov- 
ernments, but human beings. The human re- 
sults we achieve will be the test of our ability 
as people and as a nation. 

It was OH .' said of our country that America 
had ailiieved the state of being a continuous 
and kindly revolution. The creation of the 
United Nations, though forced by a common 
enemy, was itself one of the amazing revolu- 
tions of history. Their agreement upon terms 
of the Atlantic Charter as common principles 
on which were based hopes for a better future 
of the world is almost without parallel. 

We are today sharing the dangers and priva- 
tions and sorrows of war. We are today 
sharing the burdens which flow from that war. 



42 



We are pledged to share the burdens of estab- 
lishing the peace. The lessons which we learn 
in the dark days must be carried over until 
there is established "a peace which will afford 
to all nations the means of dwelling in safety 
within their own boundaries, and which will 
afford assurance that all the men in all the 
lands may live out their lives in freedom from 
fear and want." 



GERMAN ACTION WITH RESPECT TO 
THE AMERICAN GROUP AT LOURDES, 
FRANCE 

[Released to tbe press January 11] 

The Department of State has been advised by 
its Legation at Bern that the German Govern- 
ment has thrown a detachment of SS troops 
around the American group at Lourdes, France. 
The group includes diplomatic and consular 
ofEcers, press correspondents, Red Cross repre- 
sentatives, and relief workers. 

The German Government proposes to trans- 
fer the American group from French soil to a 
site in Germany. 

The German action was taken while the 
United States Government was negotiating 
through the Swiss Government for the exchange 
of its personnel. 

It is reported that the German Government 
thus intends to take upon itself for its own 
purposes the exchange negotiations. 

This autocratic action by the German Govern- 
ment was protested on January 11 by the De- 
partment of State. 



(Released to the press January 13] 

When recent developments resulted in the as- 
sembling of United States officials in France, 
and of members of the former French Embassy, 
including the former Ambassador and his serv- 
ice attaches, and of Fi-ench consulates through- 
out the United States at Hershey, Pa., other 
French personnel were allowed to remain at 
liberty pending disposition of their cases in co- 
operation with other interested agencies of the 
Government, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The Department of State promptly proposed 
tlirough the Swiss Government an agreement to 
exchange the American group in France for the 
former French officials here. The answer as re- 
ported by the Swiss Government was that no 
consideration would be given to the departure 
of the American officials from France until in- 
formation was furnished about the German 
Armistice Commission in Africa and the Ger- 
man Consul in Algiers. The desired informa- 
tion is being obtained by the Department with 
a view to its transmission to the governments of 
the captured enemy nationals as is customary. 
However, the American Government does not 
consider that this information about German 
nationals has any relation to the question of the 
exchange of French and American personnel. 

The German Government has now assumed 
complete jurisdiction over the American group 
and is taking them to Germany under guard of 
German SS troops. 

Several of the French officials have been re- 
leased from Hershey with the approval of other 
interested agencies of the Government and have 
offered their services in the military effort of the 
United Nations against the Axis. 



DECLARATION OF WAR BY IRAQ 
AGAINST THE AXIS POWERS 

[Released to the press January 16] 

The Minister of Iraq called upon the Secre- 
tary of State on January 16 and delivered to him 
the following communication : 

January 16th, 1943. 
Snt: 

I have the honor to inform you that this 
Legation has received the following important 
communication from the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs in Iraq, to be transmitted to the De- 
partment of State. 

In as much as tlie German Government has 
interfered most openly and in every way in the 
domestic affairs of Iraq and has been responsi- 
ble for the instigation and promotion of out- 
right rebellion against the duly constituted 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

Government of Iraq, and whereas the Govern- 
ment of Germany has continued in an open 
manner witliout cessation in its hostile acts 
directed at Iraq by the dissemination through 
radio broadcasts of untruthful rumors and pre- 
varicating reports, of vile slanders directed 
against the royal family, and of direct en- 
couragement to unrest and disaffection, the 
Government of Iraq declares that Iraq regards 
itself, as from midnight on Januaiy 16-17, 
1943, as being at war with Germany. 

And, in as much as the Government of Italy, 
in collaboration with the German Government, 
has committed the same acts constituting inter- 
ference in the domestic affairs of Iraq and has 
been guilty of grave i)rovocation directed 



43 



against Iraq until the present time, it is de- 
clared by the Government of Iraq that Iraq 
regards itself, as of midnight January 16-17, 
1943, as being at war with Italy. 

And, in as much as the Government of Japan 
has been guilty of the flagrant violation of the 
neutrality of Iraq by lending assistance to the 
German and Italian Governments in the inter- 
ference by those Governments in Iraqi domestic 
nuitters, and in as much as the Government of 
Japan has since joined these Governments 
openly in their provocative acts directed against 
Iraq, the Government of Iraq declares that, as 
of midnight on January 10-17, 1943, a state of 
war exists between Iraq and Japan. 

1 take [etc.] Ali Jawdat 



ADDRESS BY FRANCIS B. SAYRE 



(Kelea.se<i to the press January 16J 

It is a thrilling time in which to be alive. We 
are passing, these tremendous days, through one 
of the very great periods of history. It is in 
the days of trial and strain, when burdens seem- 
ingly intolerable must be borne and problems 
apparently insoluble must be successfully 
solved, that men's souls are uplifted and the 
really great pages of history are written. 

The contrast between our present-day world 
and that of the nineteenth century is striking 
indeed. The nineteenth century was a time of 
ease and prosperity, when men devoted their 
lives to material wealth. The sun shone and 
flowers bloomed ; we dreamed that we were ap- 
proaching the day when poverty would be con- 
quered and human want overcome. We could 
see in the not too distant future a time when 
the 

War drum throbbed no longer, and the battle- 
flags were furled. 
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of 
the world. 



» Delivered at the seventy-sixth annual State con- 
vention of the T.M.C.A., New Haven, Conn., Jan. 16, 
1943. Mr. Sayre is Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State, and Deputy Director of Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation Operations. 



In America, as in other western countries, we 
were absorbed in the Herculean labor of build- 
ing an unsurpassed material civilization that 
seemed to us impregnable. 

The mills of the gods grind slowly; but ma- 
terialism and selfishness in the end bear their 
inevitable fruit. America emerged in 1914 
wealthy and powerful beyond her dreams but 
confronted with three haunting problems: one 
in the field of industry, another in that of eco- 
nomics, and a third in the realm of international 
politics. Because these problems are still un- 
solved, because as long as they remain so they 
threaten to bring our civilization crashing 
about our heads, they must be the vital concern 
of every forward-looking man and woman to- 
day. 

The industrial problem came as the very nat- 
ural result of our intensive drive to accumulate 
material wealth. Human values were eclipsed 
by material ones; labor was treated as a com- 
modity and wages in many cases driven down 
by the operation of relentless economic com- 
petition below the poverty level, so that a sub- 
stantial portion of workers, even in times of 
national plenty, were receiving less than suf- 
ficient for the basic necessities of life. Cap- 



44 



ital was invested and effort concentrated in 
whatever enterprise would yield to the inves- 
tor the highest monetary returns, quite regard- 
less of public or social considerations or human 
needs. The result was permanent mass unem- 
ployment — what has been called "the most hid- 
eous of our social evils". There followed grow- 
ing unrest, social maladjustment, ominous fis- 
sures and cracks in the industrial foundations 
of the West. 

In these developments America did not stand 
alone. England, France, Germany, and other 
industrial nations were following the same 
pathway and facing the same darkening hori- 
zon. 

In the economic field an equally grave prob- 
lem developed. Unless a manufacturer can se- 
cure the raw materials he needs and can get 
his goods to market, he must close his factories. 
Obviously, growing industrialization in every 
nation demanded freer access to foreign sources 
of supplies and to overseas markets — in a word, 
fewer barriers to international trade. Yet the 
trend of international trade practices was in 
precisely the opposite direction. Tariffs and 
other trade barriers were pushed up instead of 
down, under the relentless pressure all over the 
world of blocs of producers, intent on gaining 
higher prices for their own goods by excluding 
from the Nation all competing foreign goods. 
With every country thus pushing up its trade 
barriers to ever greater heights, nations were 
forced into an economic nationalism and at- 
tempted self-sufficiency which if unchecked 
threatened to disrupt in time the very founda- 
tions of the economic and commercial structure 
of the world. 

In the realm of international politics the un- 
solved problem of competitive armament-build- 
ing hung, like a sword of Damocles, above our 
heads. For over a century man's main reli- 
ance had been upon guns and battleships and 
material power rather than upon international 
confidence and friendship and the building up 
of peace machinery. It was thought that peace 
could be made secure by lining up the nations 
of the world into two opposing camps, with the 
material strength of each so nearly equal that 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

neither would dare to attack the other. Thus 
we headed into the Triple Alliance versus the 
Triple Entente. 

Any system of nicely balanced military al- 
liances is bound to develop sooner or later into 
a race in competitive armament-building, with 
costs mounting in a continually ascending spi- 
ral. To such a race there can be no relief — 
no end — except war. 

The storm broke in 1914 with tlie crash of 
the first World War. We tried to guard Amer- 
ica against the oncoming disaster; but the ex- 
plosive gases generated by the unsolved prob- 
lems of our materialistic civilization were too 
world-embracing to allow a single nation to 
isolate itself or escape untouched. 

War itself does not solve problems. It mul- 
tiplies and intensifies them. Wliat the Allied 
victory did achieve was to give to statesman- 
ship an unparalleled opportunity at the con- 
clusion of the war to work out and apply solu- 
tions upon which a stable civilization could be 
built. 

Emerging from the war, Anierica found her- 
self in the forefront of a surging army of 
humanity looking to her as the nation of su- 
preme power to lead the world to salvation. 
But America, engrossed in her own aifairs, had 
no battle flag ready — no clearcut vision of the 
goal ahead. We turned our backs upon Wood- 
row Wilson and upon the great ideals for 
which he stood. We scrambled back to "nor- 
malcy", which meant business as usual, selfish- 
ness rampant, and a general unconcern for 
humanity and the rest of the world. 

America lost the lead that was hers. The 
youth whom she had sent to France on a 
crusade to "make the world safe for democ- 
racy" came home to find the ideals for which 
they had offered their lives apparently in the 
scrap heap. What else could happen but a 
tidal wave of disillusionment and cynicism 
sweeping over the country and leaving in its 
wake a sense of frustration and utter futility. 
It poisoned our faith in the goodness of life 
and in the destiny of America. 

Unhappily America's experience was not 
unique. All over the world the same forces 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

of materialism and cynicism gained ascend- 
ency. Particularly in Central Europe the 
losses and suffering resulting from the first 
World War and the prevailing sense of disil- 
lusionment and frustration led to -widespread 
demoralization. Capitalizing upon this tragic 
situation, the Nazi group merged in Germany, 
the culmination and embodiment of stark ma- 
terialism, ready to sell their very souls if they 
could thereby gain material power. Scorning 
the principles and teachings of Christianity 
and in utter contempt for the spiritual values 
and moral foundations upon which alone civi- 
lized life can be built, they called upon all Ger- 
mans wlio believed in sheer brute force as the 
source of greatest power on earth to join with 
them in fighting tlieir way to a position of 
mastery over the rest of the world. 

During the ensuing years efforts have been 
made by our government and by other gov- 
ernments — in many cases constructive and val- 
iant efforts — to meet and to overcome the tor- 
menting problems of modern civilization. Some 
progress has been made. Yet throughout the 
world as a whole the problems still remain 
unsolved. 

All of us know that a mere military vic- 
tory, important and essential as that clearly 
is, will not of itself bring us a lasting peace. 
At the conclusion of the first World War, be- 
cause the basic problems growing out of a 
materialistic civilization were left unsolved, we 
gained only a short respite between wars and 
failed to achieve lasting peace. Military vic- 
tory gave us our chance, but we lost it. The 
situation now is infinitely more grave. If we 
lose our chance again, our plight will be crit- 
ical indeed. 

How can we achieve a durable peace? It is 
not a question of what kind of a peace would 
victors like to impose upon the vanquished, 
but in the cold light of experience how can 
we build a peace which is likely to prove endur- 
ing and which rests upon Christian funda- 
mentals ? 

If I read history aright, such a peace must 
be built upon at least four underlying princi- 
ples: first, international cooperation; second, 
a recognition of the supreme value of human 



45 

personality and of human rights; third, eco- 
nomic freedom; and fourth, international con- 
trol and supervision of armament building. 

In the first place, no peace today can possibly 
be lasting unless it is built upon increasingly 
close international cooperation. The present 
world, as a result of modern scientific invention 
and development, has become so closely knit to- 
gether by steamships and cables and aeroplanes 
and radios that in actual fact no nation any 
longer can isolate its activities — or indeed even 
its thoughts. The old conception that each sov- 
ereign nation is and should be completely inde- 
pendent of every other and thus free to formuj'. 
late its policies and engage in such activities 
as it chooses regardless of every other nation, 
was developed at a time when ocean transporta- 
tion was by sailing ships and there were no 
cables or radios. That day is past. The politi- 
cal, economic, and social policies of every nation 
today have their strong effects and dynamic 
repercussions upon every other nation. An un- 
conscionable tariff wall or an unfair discrimina- 
tion may, perhaps on the other side of the world, 
cut off a whole nation from its accustomed over- 
seas markets and bring its people lengthening 
breadlines and industrial revolution. The 
adoption by one people of a new economic or 
social philosophy may result in thunder and 
lightning on another continent. 

America is now compelled quite against her 
will to turn aside from the pursuits of peace, 
to undergo the convulsion and tragedy of war, 
to send her men and ships and planes across 
the seven seas — ^because of what happened in the 
past 10 years in Manchuria, in Ethiopia, in Aus- 
tria, in Czechoslovakia, in Poland, in Norway, 
in China, in Indochina, and elsewhere in Europe 
and Asia. Was there ever a more terrible object 
lesson set before our eyes of the utter incon- 
gruity of the thesis of national isolationism with 
the realities of modern life? 

America, under present conditions, even if 
she wanted to, cannot live selfishly apart from 
the rest of the world. No nation in the twentieth 
century can possibly live unto itself alone. 

No peace can be lasting unless it is built upon 
these inescapabfe realities. The political, eco- 
nomic, and commercial problems which con- 



46 



DEPARTMEJfT OF STATE BULLETIN 



vulse the modern world and which generate in- 
ternational frictions and breed poisons have 
come to transcend national and even continental 
boundaries. No nation single-handed can solve 
them. For instance, no nation can afford to 
disarm, no matter how peace-loving its people 
may be, as long as no organized international 
force exists to prevent individual freebooters 
from attacking it. No blockade can be made 
effective unless all concerned participate. No 
nation can safely remove its quota restrictions, 
its exchange controls, and its other trade bar- 
riers against discriminatory practices, dumping 
tactics, and the like unless all move together 
in a common frontal attack upon all unconscion- 
able trade barriers. The problems which make 
for war are world-wide in their scope and can 
never be solved except by concerted thought and 
organized joint action on the part of the world 
community. 

My own personal view is that two practical 
conclusions follow. If we are to build for last- 
ing peace, we must abandon the nineteenth- 
century conception that the road to peace lies 
through a nicely poised balance of power. 
Again and again cold experience has taught us 
that no peace dependent upon a balance of 
power lasts. The balance-of-power theory rests 
upon the premise of utterly independent na- 
tions, owing no obligations of any kind to each 
other ; and the peace of the world under twen- 
tieth-century conditions cannot be made secure 
except through the activity of an organized 
group, subject to common obligations and re- 
straints. Whatever may be said in its favor 
under nineteenth-century conditions, the bal- 
ance-of-power theory is under twentieth- 
century conditions the sure way to destruction. 

It further follows that the only way under 
present-day realities to make peace secure is 
to set up an international organization for the 
keeping of the peace. This does not mean cre- 
ating overnight a world government with 
sweeping and general power to invade the do- 
mestic affairs of sovereign states. It does 
mean the delegation to some international or- 
ganization of certain carefully defined and re- 
stricted powers. It means also clothing it with 



sufficient force to carry out effectively those 
restiicted and limited powers. Presumably 
these would include among others the power to 
prevent by concei-ted action international terri- 
torial aggression and thievery, the power to 
regulate and control heavy armament building 
in every country of the world, the power to ad- 
minister and supervise the government of cer- 
tain backward and colonial areas, and the 
l^ower by concerted action to attack certain 
discriminatory and anti-social practices in the 
field of international trade and finance. The 
degree of power accorded to such an organi- 
zation would naturally grow with time as ex- 
perience proved its worth and its competency. 
As a matter of fact, the stabilization of peace 
is less dependent upon strong-arm methods to 
repress force than upon the constant interna- 
tional regulation and adjustment long before 
resort to force is imminent of problems which 
make for conflict. 

The difficulties of creating such an organiza- 
tion, properly delimiting its sphere of action, 
and clothing it with effective power are not to 
be minimized. But there is no other way by 
which independent states can maintain their 
security and their sovereignty. 

The issue of future American participation 
in shaping world affairs has come to be too 
crucial for us to allow it to be decided hence- 
forth upon prejudice or emotion or partisan 
politics. There can be no stable peace unless 
we Americans participate in the building and 
the keeping of it. 

If tlie peace is to be made enduring, it must 
be built also upon a second principle: the 
sacredness of the individual human person- 
ality. Civilization goes forward when the 
fundamental rights and interests of human 
beings are placed first in the scale of values. 
Peoples do not exist to enable governments to 
attain a place in the sun. Governments exist 
to serve peoples. The reasonable security of 
one's person and one's property, freedom of 
conscience, freedom of speech, the right to dis- 
pose of the fruits of one's own labor, equality 
of rights before the law, complete independ- 
ence of thought, and reasonable independence 



JANXTARY 16, 19 43 

of action — these are basic human rights, on the 
safeguarding of which peace must be built if 
it is to be made lasting. 

The history of civilization is the story of the 
slow but ever-increasing recognition and en- 
forcement of these elemental rights of human- 
ity — rights at first accorded only to restricted 
groups, then extended to wider and wider cir- 
cles, and finally covering the great rank and file 
of common men and women. The significant 
fact of history is that whenever these human 
rights have been opposed by kings or feudal 
barons or Junkers or government functionaries, 
struggle has ensued. Often it has taken time, 
but always eventual victory has come to the 
common people and those opposing them have 
gone down in the struggle. It must always be 
thus, for humanity will not tolerate anj- other 
outcome. 

No arrangement which denies or cripples 
these elemental rights will prove stable and no 
state which permanently thwarts them can en- 
dure. That is why the Nazi thesis of a pan- 
German master-race, enslaving and suppressing 
the rest of the world, is doomed to failure from 
the outset. That is why no system of imperial- 
ism, if it be built upon the exploitation of hu- 
man beings, whether white or brown or yellow 
or black, can be enduring. 

Here we touch the verj' heart of the difficulty 
of government over alien peoples. The problem 
of colonial government, which has tormented 
Europe for over 4 centuries, never will be solved 
until we come to realize that the supreme values 
in the world are human personalities. Every 
alien rule based upon mass injustice or exploita- 
tion contains the seeds of unrest and revolution 
and makes against international stability and 
lasting peace. The experience of Great Britain 
in the Dominions and of the United States in 
the Philippines throws interesting light on the 
eflfects of a contrary policy. It was because for 
over 40 years America did her best, for the bene- 
fit of the Filipino people themselves, to build up 
education, public sanitation, good roads, and 
higher standards of living, that when the crisis 
came in December 1941 the Filipino people were 
found fighting shoulder to shoulder with the 
Americans. 



47 

The government of alien peoples carries with 
it distinct responsibilities as well as rights. 
Primary among these is the obligation to pre- 
pare, educate, and strengthen the dependent 
peo))le to stand alone. 

We must seek to eliminate not necessarily all 
alien rule but all alien rule based upon exploita- 
tion. Xo peace based upon a colonial policy of 
exploitation can be a stable one. 

A third fundamental upon which lasting 
peace must be built is economic freedom. The 
resources of the earth are amply sufficient for 
the needs of all peoples. But if the strong and 
powerful set up political barriers or artificial 
ti-ade arrangements which effectively cut na- 
tions off from the goods and raw materials 
needed for their factories and from the foreign 
markets necessary for the sale of their products, 
obviously men will be robbed of their liveli- 
hood and nations will be forced, even against 
their will, into economic struggle and warfare. 

A stable peace cannot be built upon an eco- 
nomic order which foments struggle and unrest. 

Our experience of the 1930's has made certain 
facts indisputably clear. We have learned that 
no industrial nation today can possibly carry 
on without a very large volume of exports and 
imports. Hitler did his best to achieve German 
self-sufficiency, but he failed dismally and was 
finally forced to cry out, "Germany must export 
or die." 

Industrial nations must trade to survive. 
Through poignant suffering we learned that 
accumulating trade barriers, choking and 
strangling international trade spelled mounting 
unemployment and increasing hunger and 
deepening international hostility. No serious 
statesman in this day and generation advocates 
the complete elimination of all tariff walls. . 
But responsible statesmen do advocate — and if 
we are to win the objectives for which the de- 
mocracies are fighting they must insist upon — 
the elimination after the war of those uncon- 
scionable trade barriers which inescapably 
choke the flow of international trade and as a 
result substantially depress the standard of liv- 
ing of entire peoples. The pre-war system of 
mounting and excessive tariffs, of quota restric- 
tions, of artificial exchange controls, of govern- 



48 

ment monopolies, of bilateralistic trade ar- 
rangements — the whole economic panoply of 
fighting devices to enforce some form or other 
of special privilege or unfair discrimination — 
all these must go if our criterion is to be not the 
private profit of small pressure groups but- 
tressed with political power but the welfare and 
the advancement of humanity. We must insist 
upon the enjoyment by all states, great and 
small, victor and vanquished, of access on equal 
terms to the trade and to the raw materials of 
the world which are needed for their economic 
prosperity. 

Here, again, we cannot afford to underesti- 
mate the difficulties. Many of the most power- 
ful and strongly entrenched lobbies in every 
important capitol in the world will fight the 
lowering of trade barriers. Nevertheless, we 
must find the means to unshackle international 
trade or else perish. There is no other possible 
way to build a peace that will last. 

.Finally, a stable peace depends upon our find- 
ing some way to effectuate an international con- 
trol of armaments. In fact, this is but a phase, 
albeit one of outstanding importance, of the 
problem of collective security. There can be 
no secure peace as long as any gang of gunmen 
is free to gain control of a nation's government, 
run up. a swastika or a rising sun or some other 
pirate's emblem, turn the country into a pro- 
ducing arsenal, and then make war upon the 
rest of mankind. 

In the days before aeroplanes and tanks, when 
a nation could withstand attack long enough to 
manufacture weapons adequate for its defense, 
international control of armament-building 
may not have been necessai-y. But today with 
military defense strategy revolutionized by the 
development of aeroplanes and armored di- 
visions the whole picture has changed. We live 
in a machine age. War is waged with mecha- 
nized devices — tanks and flying fortresses and 
intricately planned battleships, which take 
months or j'ears to build and cost a king's ran- 
som. A heavily armed aggressor nation may 
hold all nations not so armed at her mercy; 
for the aggressor can by air attack demolish the 
producing factories in other nations long before 
the necessary defense armament can be pro- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

duced. It is only due to the gallantry and 
heroic fighting of Great Britain, Russia, and 
China and the other United Nations who re- 
sisted the Axis advance that our own country 
has been afforded the precious months necessary 
for the preparation of our defense. 

In other words, modern weapons have so 
basically changed the entire problem of mili- 
tary defense that today no nation can build 
up an arsenal of heavy armament without vi- 
tally threatening the security of every other 
nation. Armament-building has become in the 
world of fact a matter of the most profound 
international concern. By the same token, ar- 
mament-building must henceforth become sub- 
ject to international supervision and control. 
Had this been the case during the last 10 years, 
Germany and Japan would nevei' have gone to 
war. 

The achievement of international control 
raises exceedingly complex problems. But 
these are not insoluble. We must and we will 
find the way to solve them. 

As a matter of fact, probably the time has 
never been so propitious as at the conclusion 
of the present war for the setting up of an in- 
ternational limitation and control of arma- 
ments. In all probability the vast armament 
of Germany, Japan, and Italy will then be 
smashed. Militarism in those countries will 
be discredited. The victorious armaments of 
the world will then be in the hands of lovers 
of peace and democracy. If we are in earnest 
about building the future peace upon secure 
foundations, the victorious nations will then 
have the chance, as nations have never had be- 
fore, to set up an international body to take 
over armament-building plants in the enemy 
countries, to exercise effective control over 
them, and to limit future armament-production 
in all countries to a fixed schedule. This means, 
eventually, international inspection and con- 
trol over the armament plants of the victorious 
as well as of the vanquished nations. It also 
means an international police force if such con- 
trol is to be made effective. 

To achieve enduring peace we must build 
upon these four fundamentals: organized in- 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

tcrnational cooperation, recognition of the su- 
preme value of human personalities and of 
human rights, economic freedom with equality 
of trading opportunity for all nations, and an 
international control and supervision of ar- 
mament-building. Upon these foundations we 
can build a peace that will put new heart into 
mankind. Men and women are weary of war — 
weary of injustice and group selfishness and the 
suffering that selfishness always brings. 
Peoples all over the world are eager to go 
forward. 

Today we stand poised at the fork of the road. 
A new world opens up if we will have it so. 
If we have the courage to fight for it and the 
wit to build for it on foundations that are 
sound and true and Christian, we may enter 
upon one of the shining and constructive eras 
of human history. 



49 

But make no mistake. The winning of the 
war alone will not bring us a world of freedom 
or a world of brotherhood. After the war is 
won the real fight with reaction and selfish priv- 
ilege and "normalcy" will begin ; and if we are 
to win this crucial fight, now is the time, and 
not after that reaction has set in, to think 
through the issues and formulate our program 
and aline our forces. Once the war is won, 
most of our bargaining power with our Allies 
will be gone. 

Let us not forget that in these tremendous 
days, here and now, we can play a part^ — per- 
haps a leading part — in helping to determine 
what road humanity will travel in the difficult 
years ahead. To do so will demand our wisest 
thought and tireless effort and utter consecra- 
tion. Under God's guidance let us go forward 
with wisdom and with faith and without fear. 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



[ReleiiseJ to the press Jimuary 16] 

It is a privilege and pleasure to be with you 
and to talk with you today. Since I have re- 
turned from Tokyo, I have welcomed the op- 
portunity of meeting my fellow Americans in 
all parts of the country and from all condi- 
tions of life. In so doing, I have hoped to do 
my duty of helping them understand the nature 
of our enemies and have also enjoyed the grati- 
fication of a thorough reacquaintance with my 
own people. Only those of you who have lived 
years among foreigners can appreciate the re- 
ality of such a homecoming and can under- 
stand the inexhaustible pleasure which an exile 
feels when he is once again with his own kind. 

But there is a further, special satisfaction 
which I have in talking with you, members and 
guests of the Women's National Republican 
Club, on this occasion. It is this: you sym- 
bolize democracy twice over. You ai-e women. 



^ Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew before 
the Women's National Republican Club luncheon, New 
York, N. Y., Jan. 16, 1943, and broadcast over the 
Columbia Network on a Nation-wide broadcast. 



You are members of a free, vigorous, and pa- 
triotic opposition party. In both capacities you 
retain full political rights, even in wartime. 

Your own freedom, today, in this room, sym- 
bolizes to me the freedom for which we all 
stand. I would like to tell you about three 
things which may make that freedom more 
plain and more dear to you. First, I would 
like to tell you about German women, whom I 
saw in the first World War, and the Japanese 
women, whom I have seen in this one. Sec- 
ondly, I would like to tell you about the magni- 
tude of the war against you and me — particu- 
larly about the Japanese zone of this war, 
which I happen to know best. Third, I want 
to warn you against the menace of a false 
and dangerous peace. These things mean 
something to you. Is it not significant that 
you, American women, have the freedom to 
face your own problems on an occasion such as 
this? 

Can you imagine what this means? Here we 
meet together, peacefully and openly. Wliat 
would happen if a meeting such as this were to 
be convoked in Berlin or in Tokyo? 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



You know what has happened to the women 
of Germany and Japan. You know that both 
these militaristic states have ridden to power 
over the degradation of their own women. You 
know that the three K's — Kinder, Kiiche, 
Kirche, or children, kitchen, church — have been 
marked out by German tradition as the only 
legitimate interests of German women. Today 
they do not even have these. 

We know from incontrovertible evidence that 
the children of German women are taken from 
their mothers by the Xazi party machine. We 
know that these children are taught to be im- 
moral, fanatical little ruffians and that the whole 
power of the German state is mobilized behind 
the nasty job of taking children from their 
mothers, turning them into Hitler'jugend and 
Eitlermcidel, so that the boys of today may be 
the infantry of 1950, and the girls the mothers of 
the cannon fodder of 1970. The German mother 
cannot even whisper to her children, because the 
Nazi camp leaders or other Nazi teachers will 
inveigle the children into talking about home. 
A little boy may repeat something his mother 
told him about the un-Christian war of the 
Nazis; and the mother will be visited by cold- 
faced, overbearing police. On other occasions — 
and these are the saddest of all — the children 
themselves will be perverted and taught to de- 
nounce their own parents to the Gestapo and 
will tattle the talk of the family circle to a 
whole ring of other young fanatics. 

Even the other German spheres for women 
are denied them, since the kitchen has become 
a mere auxiliary to the chemical industries of 
the Reich and the church groans under the op- 
pression of turncoats and fanatics who conspire 
together to degrade the Christian religion. 

Of all Germans, women suffered most during 
the last war. They stood night-long in queues 
for rations which might or might not be there. 
They wept in the privacy and the silence of the 
night. "Wlien the Kaiser talked of German 
power, they knew that his power was com- 
pounded of the death of their husbands and the 
ruin of their homes. They knew the impact of 
war on the bodies of their children; they saw 



undernourishment and disease as the accom- 
paniments of German glory. 

Do you wonder that under the pitiful, short- 
lived German Republic women reached hope- 
fully for educational, political, and economic 
rights? Do you wonder that Hitler and his 
henchmen have tried to drive German women 
down into the hopeless docility of barbarism? 
Do you not see that German women today are 
held by public opinion, by official utterance, and 
by the law itself to be inferior creatures, fit only 
to serve and produce German warriors? Think 
of those women holding a political meeting of 
their own ! Think of the tumult and clamor, 
th.e argument, reproaches, and tears which 
would break forth if they could ever dare meet 
together and talk freely without worry concern- 
ing the Secret State Police of the Third Reich I 
They would appreciate the freedom to speak, 
because they have seen their older men die for 
a government they could no longer respect, 
because they have seen their young men die 
fanatically in a wicked, cruel, futile cause, and 
because they have watched their own children 
being corrupted by the violent speech and coarse 
behavior of Nazi petty officials. 

And yet, German women are privileged in 
comparison with the women of the conquered 
countries. The Nazis want their own women 
to be the physically healthy, morally degraded 
brood-mares of militarism. But for Polish 
women, Greek women, and the women of other 
conquered countries the Nazis bring nothing 
but terror, pain, and all too often death. The 
Germans do not even ship these women to 
Germany. They stai've them, shoot them, hurt 
them in their own homelands, and shovel them 
into common graves with their husbands and 
children. 

I am not telling you these things because 
I believe in atrocity stories. Evei-ything which 
I have mentioned — with other things, far 
worse, about which I do not even wish to think 
— is attested by the word of honorable men 
in responsible, official positions. There is no 
end to the Nazi catalog of terror. 

In Japan it is significant that this same pic- 



JANTJART 16, 1945 



51 



ture of tlie degradation of women holds true. 
Whereas German women once achieved some 
freedom and have once had some rights and 
some education, Japanese women as a group 
have always been under the unquestionable do- 
minion of their masters. No other civilized 
people sells its young girls to panderers with 
such openness. No other civilized people 
makes the mother so completely the slave of 
her husband and the servant of her own sons. 
Tiie Japanese militarists are unfit at home to 
advance the status or the rights of their own 
women, and when they go overseas they show 
foreign women the same and greater contempt. 
American women were forced to take off their 
hats to Japanese sentries in parts of China, 
and their faces were slapped if they tried to 
temporize. The Japanese soldiers, who have 
made "Japanese" a synonym for murder, tor- 
ture, and rape, were men brought up in a 
country which — with all its other, unrelated 
virtues — did not accord women a voice in pri- 
vate or public affairs and which never permitted 
women's influence to soften or moderate the 
harsh progress of fanatical militarism. 

There they are, the womenfolk of our ene- 
mies. Here j'ou are, free women in a free 
country. Can't you see that it is vital to you — 
to each one of you personally — to grasp the 
full implications of the struggle in direct and 
personal terms in order to be able to perform 
your proper share of the war effort? Too 
man}' of us, I fear, have not realized the full 
extent of the war waged by Germany and 
Japan against ourselves. 

Let me tell you about the part of this war 
which I know best, the Japanese war against 
America. I have watched it brew for years 
and feel that I have taken the measure of our 
Japanese enemies. I do not for a moment 
presume to touch upon questions of high policy 
and strategy in the fighting of this war nor 
upon the relative emphasis to be placed on the 
various theaters of war. Our highest lead- 
ers are taking care of that. I speak merely 
of the Japanese war machine as I have known 
it and have seen it grow, in power and deter- 



mination and overweening ambition, during 
the past 10 years of my mission to Japan. 

Let me paint for you the picture as I see it, for 
you women, with an increased share of the na- 
tional burden, have the right to know as much 
as can be known about the problem that con- 
fronts us. I shall not overstate the case nor 
overdraw the picture. Let us look at that pic- 
ture as it faces us today. 

Even before Pearl Harbor Japan was strong 
and possessed a military machine of great 
power — and when I speak of that military ma- 
chine I include all branches of the Japanese 
armed forces : the Army, the Navy, and the Air 
Force. That military machine had been stead- 
ily strengthened and developed during many 
years, especially since Japan's invasion of Man- 
churia in 1931, an act of unprovoked aggression 
which, in effect, commenced the expansionist 
movement of Japan in total disregard of the 
rights and legitimate interests of any nation or 
of any people that might stand in the way of 
that movement. 

In 1937 came Japan's invasion of north China 
and Shanghai, which led to the past six years 
of Sino-Japanese warfare. During all these 
years of their unavailing effort to conquer China 
and to bring about the surrender of the Chinese 
National Government, those Japanese armed 
forces were using China as a training ground in 
preparation for the greater war, already care- 
fuUj- planned, for their eventual conquest and 
intended permanent control of all so-called 
"Greater East Asia including the South Seas" 
and for the imposition upon the peoples of those 
far-flung areas of what Japan is pleased to refer 
to as the "New Order" and the "Co-Prosperity 
Sphere". 

We know what that euphemistic slogan "Co- 
Prosperity" means : it denotes absolute hegem- 
ony — economic, financial, political— for Japan's 
own purely selfish interests and the virtual en- 
slavement of the peoples of those territories to 
do the bidding of their Japanese masters. This 
statement is not a figment of the imagination; 
it is based on practical knowledge of what hap- 
pened in other regions already subjected to 



52 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BUIiLETIN 



Japan's domination. Such a regime will be im- 
posed in every area that may fall under Japan's 
domination. 

During all this period of preparation the 
Japanese military machine has been steadily ex- 
panded and strengthened and trained to a knife- 
edge of war efficiency — in landing on beaches, 
in jungle fighting, and in all the many different 
forms of warfare which it was later to en- 
counter. 

Add to that intensive training the native cour- 
age of the Japanese soldiers and sailors and air- 
men, their determined obedience to orders even 
in the face of certain death, and their fanatical 
joy in dying for their Emperor on the field of 
battle, thus acquiring merit with their revered 
ancestors in the life to come, and you get a grim 
conception of the formidable character of that 
Japanese fighting machine. Furthermore, in 
war Japan is wholly totalitarian ; her economy 
is planned and carried out to the last detail. Xo 
word of criticism of the Government or its acts 
is tolerated ; the so-called "thought control" po- 
lice take care of that. Labor unions are power- 
less. In war Japan is a unit, thinks and acts as 
a unit, labors and fights as a unit. 

With that background, and having in mind 
the strength and power of Japan even before 
Pearl Harbor, consider for a moment the scene 
as it has developed in the Far East. Consider 
the tremendous holdings of Japan today: 
Korea, Manchuria, great areas in China proper, 
Formosa, the Spratly Islands, Indochina, 
Thailand. Burma and the Andamans, the en- 
tire Malay Peninsula, Hongkong and Singa- 
pore, the Philippines, the Netherlands East 
Indies, and, farther to the south and to the 
east, myriads of islands many of which are 
unsinkable aircraft carriers. Those areas con- 
tain all — mind you, all — the raw materials es- 
sential to the development of national power: 
rubber, oil, tin, metals, and foodstuffs — every- 
thing that the most comprehensive economy 
can desire: and they contain, furthermore, mil- 
lions of native inhabitants who experience has 
proved beyond peradventure will be enslaved 
as skilled and unskilled labor by Japan to 
process those raw materials for immediate and 



future use. There you have a recipe and the 
ingredients for national strength and power 
that defeat the imagination even approximately 
to assess. 

Now to this recipe and these ingredients 
add one fui'ther element of grimly ominous 
purport. During all my 10 years in Japan I 
have read the books, the speeches, the newspaper 
and magazine articles of highly placed Jap- 
anese, of generals and admirals, of statesmen 
and diplomats and politicians. Sometimes 
thinly veiled, sometimes not even veiled, has 
emerged their overweening ambition eventu- 
ally to invade and to conquer these United 
States. In their thinking even the megalo- 
mania of Hitler is surpassed. Fantastic if you 
will, but to them it is not fantastic. It was not 
fantastic when the foremost Japanese admiral, 
as recently occurred, publicly stated in all se- 
riousness that he intends that the peace after 
this war will be dictated in the White House in 
Washington — by Japan. It might be 1 year or 
2 years or 5 or 10 years before that Jap- 
anese military machine would find itself ready 
to undertake an all-out attack on this Western 
Hemisphere of ours; they themselves have 
spoken of a 100-year war. But one fact is as 
certain as the law of gravity: if we should 
allow the Japanese to dig in permanently in 
the far-flung areas now occupied, if we should 
allow them to consolidate and to crystallize 
their ill-gotten gains, if we should allow them 
time to fortify those gains to the nth degree, 
as they assuredly will attempt to do, it would 
be only a question of time before they at- 
tempted the conquest of American territory 
nearer home. In no respect do I overstate 
this case. My judgment is based on no wild 
surmise nor upon any far-fetched and imagi- 
native hypothesis. It is based on facts, which 
are there. for all to see, and upon 10 long years 
of intimate experience and observation. 

What worries me in the attitude of our 
fellow countrymen is first the utterly falla- 
cious pre-war thinking which still widely per- 
sists, to the effect that the Japanese, a race of 
little men, good copyists but poor inventors, 
are incapable of developing such power as 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

could ever seriously threaten our home shores, 
our cities, and our homes, a habit of mind 
which is reinforced by the great distances sep- 
arating our homeland from the far eastern 
and southern Pacific battlefronts today. 

I am also worried by the reaction of our 
people to the current successes of our heroic 
fighting men in the Solomons and New Guinea, 
for after each hard-won victory the spirits of 
our people soar. Moral stimulation is good, 
but moral complacency is the most dangerous 
habit of mind we can develop, and that dan- 
ger is serious and ever-present. I have seen 
with my own eyes in some cases and I have had 
first-hand vivid personal accounts in many 
other cases of the horrible tortures inflicted on 
some of our fellow citizens by those utterly 
brutal, ruthless, and sadistic Japanese military 
police ; I received in Tokyo the first-hand stories 
of the rape of Nanking; I have watched dur- 
ing these fateful years the purposeful bombing 
of our American religious missions throughout 
China, over 300 incidents of infamous destruc- 
tion of American life and property, the inten- 
tional sinking of the Panay, the attempts on the 
Tutuila and on our Embassy in Chungking, and 
other efforts on the part of those military ex- 
tremists to bring on war with the United States 
for the very purpose of leading up to the even- 
tual carrying-out of their fell designs; and I 
say to you, without hesitation or reserve, that 
our own country, our cities, our homes are in 
dire peril from the overweening ambition and 
the potential power of that Japanese military 
machine — a power that renders Japan poten- 
tially the strongest nation in the world — po- 
tentially stronger than Great Britain or Ger- 
many or Russia or the United States — and that 
only when that military caste and its machine 
have been wholly crushed and destroyed on the 
field of battle, by land and air and sea, and 
discredited in the eyes of its own people, and 
rendered impotent either to fight further or 
further to reproduce itself in the future, shall 
we in our own land be free from that hideous 
danger and be able once again to turn to paths 
of peace. 



53 

You see that I promise no end to war through 
the simple formula of defeating the enemy to- 
day. Totalitarian aggression must be smashed 
first, and then its stump must be uprooted and 
burned. We cannot win now only, in the course 
of war ; we must win the peace as well. To win 
the peace we must be sure that it is our kind of 
peace and not a peace which compromises with 
German or with Japanese militarism. 

It is with regret, not unmixed with real hu- 
mility, that I repeat to you today words which 
I addressed to a similar audience in January 
1918 — 24 years ago this month. I said then, 
after describing the enemy Germany, from 
which I had recently returned: "Tliat is the 
Germany of today with which we are at war and 
which we have got to defeat; otherwise, as 
surely as the immutable laws of nature con- 
trol the movement of this earth, our future gen- 
erations will have to take up what we now leave 
off, facing the same problem which now con- 
fronts us, perhaps unaided. If we do not want 
to leave this heritage to our imborn sons, if this 
country is not to remain an armed camp per- 
manently, Germany, as she is now organized, 
controlled, and governed, must be defeated." 
Those words are even more true today, and they 
are true as well of that other Germany in the 
Pacific, the Japanese Empire. We failed thpn 
Pacific, the Japanese Empire. We failed then 
enemy ; we must not fail again. 

We must not tolerate Japanese or German 
militarism imder new names and new flags. 
We must not drive the forces of imperialism, 
totalitarianism, and aggression undergi-ound. 
We must annihilate these evil forces and show 
that the age of imperialism is ended. We can- 
not treat with those enemies whose ruin we 
have pledged. We cannot make peace with the 
fanaticism which we have sworn to extermi- 
nate. We must watch vigilantly for the dan- 
gerous signs of a German or Japanese peace 
offensive, designed to let us win the war but to 
lose the peace. Let me tell you about such a 
move, as it could come from Japan; the same 
general tactics would hold true of German 
militarism. 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In my various talks around the country I 
have repeatedly stressed the view that the 
Japanese will not crack. What I mean is ex- 
emplified in the tenacity with which their 
armed forces have been holding out at Buna 
and in Guadalcanal. That is to say, the Jap- 
anese military code does not admit of surrender, 
even when it is the only alternative to annihila- 
tion, but this does not mean that the Japanese 
will stand up to be shot down to the last man 
when some other alternative presents itself, such 
as running away to fight another day. Despite 
their sentimentality and fanaticism the Jap- 
anese are fundamentally a practical people. 
When they find that they cannot win on the 
field of battle, that they are bound to be beaten 
there, and that they therefore are in danger 
of losing all their so-called "Co-Prosperity 
Sphere", there can be no doubt that, rather than 
acceiating a conclusive defeat, rather than tak- 
ing loss of all their gains, they will look about 
for ways of effecting a compromise whereby 
they might avoid the disgrace of defeat and 
might hope to retain a part of their gains. 

At the pi'esent time, of course, the Japanese 
leaders and, even more so, the people are far 
from convinced that they cannot manage to 
retain substantially all their gains. But when 
the allied offensive gains momentum and Jap- 
anese self-confidence is shaken by successive 
reverses and loss of territory, then we may look 
for a development of new tactics. The Jap- 
anese art of self-defense, jujitsu, gives us a clue 
as to what these tactics are likely to be. The 
essence of this art is that by letting the ad- 
versary take the initiative and by giving way 
and simulating defeat the adversary may be 
lulled into dropping his guard ; then, when the 
adversary has advanced too far and is off bal- 
ance, he is destroyed by a quick recovery and 
a lightning attack where he is weakest. 

I have no fear that our military authorities 
are likely to be taken in by any military applica- 
tion of the jujitsu principles. I do feel, however, 
that the American people and the people of 
nations united with them in war on Japan 
should be forewarned against the possibility of 
a jujitsu feint in the realm of diplomacy — 
namely, a peace offensive. The Japanese are 



capable of preparing the ground for such an 
offensive with elaborate care. That is to say, 
the military leaders might begin by bringing 
forth from retirement some former statesman 
with a liberal label and placing him at the head 
of a puppet civilian cabinet. This step would 
be heralded as representing the overthrow of 
military dictatoi'ship in favor of liberalism. 
The scene would then be set for a peace move. 
There might be an announcement by the new 
premier intimating that Japan was ready to 
conclude a peace on a fair and just basis. If 
the United Nations were willing to rise to the 
bait before awaiting at least the clearing of the 
Japanese armed forces from the territories that 
they have seized, so much the better f oi' Japan ; 
but even if the United Nations should insist on 
such withdrawal as a prerequisite to a peace 
parley, such a Japanese move would still seem 
to its authors worthwhile if it should have 
chance of deceiving some of the peoples among 
the United Nations and rendering them luke- 
warm toward the further prosecution of the 
war. The Japanese might well calculate that 
by the time they were ready to launch such a 
peace offensive their peace-loving enemies 
would be so weary of the war that they would 
be receptive to peace offers ; that once an armis- 
tice had been declared and negotiations been 
begun it would be difficult to get their enemies 
to resume fighting again even if the Japanese 
were to hold out for partial retention of their 
gains. 

It is believed that the American people in 
being forewarned against deceptive Japanese 
peace moves should be made to realize that the 
only safe course for the United Nations to take 
in the jiresence of such moves will be to keep in 
mind the President's words to Congress on De- 
cember 8, 1941 that "We will not only defend 
ourselves to the uttermost but will make very 
certain that this form of treachery shall never 
endanger us again", and that we continue to 
press our operations against Japan until she 
has no alternative to admitting defeat and sub- 
mitting to disarmament. If the United Na- 
tions were to begin discussing peace with Japan 
or Germany while she is still armed, the only 



JANUARY 16, 1943 



55 



peace to which such a procedure could lead 
\\ould be an armed truce to be followed by 
even more bitter warfare. 

Members of the Womeii's National Republi- 
can Club and guests, I believe that more than 
anything else today we are consecrated to the 
principle of national unity. Our parties, Dem- 
ocratic, Republican, or other, are constructive 
organizations only so far as they help our 
America, our government, and our armed 
forces. Our wealth is of value only as a means 
to war. Today only victory matters. Nothing 
is easier to lose than freedom ; once lost, it is 
known to be the most precious of all things. 

I have shown you what happens to women — 
iJideed, to everyone — under the militarism 
wliich has corrupted Germany and Japan and 
which now threatens the world. I have de- 
scribed for you how the Axis wages war and 
why the Axis wages war. Truly may it be 
SJiid : "Their object is crime and their method, 
death." And I have sought to warn you 
against the insidious menace of a shameful 
"peace", an armistice which would allow mili- 
tarism to flower again in the next generation, 
when a new crop of infantrymen — sons of op- 
pressed, ignorant mothers — would be ready for 
the harvest of war. 



We are faced with an innnense task. The 
war is the greatest war ever fought. The 
United Nations are the greatest coalition of 
free peoples ever formed; our ranks in this 
war are immeasurably strengthened by the ac- 
tive aid and partnership of the three largest 
countries of the world, China, Great Britain, 
and Russia. We shall control all the seas and 
the air of the world. We shall be able to do 
this only by virtue of putting forth our maxi- 
mum efforts here in America. We can and we 
must mold the world of the future. But to 
do this we must discipline ourselves in self- 
denial; we must exert ourselves to the full 
extent of our several capacities. We must 
work and save and unite; we must day in and 
day out cultivate patience, determination, en- 
durance, and courage. This war, which origi- 
nated so long ago in the beer hulls of Munich 
and the secret haunts of the military extremists 
in Tokj^o, can and will be ended in the ship- 
yards, the factories, the farms, the office and 
conference rooms, and the homes of America 
where, thank heaven, the women still preside. 
To be wise and at the same time womanly is 
to wield a force which can overcome great 
obstacles and can effectively influence the fu- 
ture destiny of the world. 



REPLIES TO THE CHRISTMAS MESSAGE TO THE ARMED FORCES OF OUR ALLIES 



[Released to the press January 11] 

The following replies have been received to 
the President's message conveying the sea- 
son's greetings to the armed forces and auxil- 
iary services of our allies. 

Prime Minister Eraser of New Zealand 
To President Roosevelt 

Wellington, Decemher 26, 19Jt2. 
I am most grateful to you and to Congress 
for the inspiring message wliich you have been 
good enough to transmit to me. The Govern- 
ment and people of New Zealand most warmly 
reciprocate the sentiments so admirably ex- 
pressed in your message and extend to the armed 
forces and auxiliary services of the United 



States of America who are so worthily uphold- 
ing throughout the world the cause of freedom 
and justice, the most cordial good wishes for 
happiness and success in the coming year. 

President Batista of Cuba to Ambassador 
Braden 

[Translation] 

Habana, Decemher 26, 1942. 
I have received your letter of the 24th inst. 
in which you iransmit a message from His 
Excellency, Mr. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 
President of the United States of America, ad- 
dressed to the armed forces and auxiliary serv- 
ices of the allied forces that are engaged in the 
defense of freedom, justice and human rights. 



56 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In accordance with a Joint Resolution of the 
Congress of your country, President Roosevelt 
sends, through me, the best wishes and Christ- 
mas greetings, on behalf of the people of the 
United States, to the armed forces and auxiliary 
services of Cuba. 

In informing His Excellency the President 
of the United States of the gratitude with 
which that cordial and friendly gesture was re- 
ceived by the armed forces of Cuba and by my- 
self personally, I am asking you also to express 
to him our desire to transmit, on behalf of the 
armed forces and people of Cuba and as in- 
dicative of their sincere participation and that 
of the Cuban Government in the struggle in 
which they are now engaged, a cordial greet- 
ing to the brave soldiers of the United States 
who are now fulfilling their duty so admirably ; 
and likewise to express to them our fervent 
hope that victory for our united armies and 
complete and permanent peace will be the result 
of that great eflFort. 

I beg [etc.] 

President Lescot of Haiti to President 
Roosevelt 

[Translation] 

December 25, 1942. 

On Christmas Eve, at the moment when an 
ainxious Christian world awaits the historic 
hour to celebrate the anniversary of the birth 
of the Saviour of the world, I was extremely 
happy to receive the inspiring message which 
Your Excellency has been so good as to ad- 
dress, in his own name and that of the Congress 
and the people of the United States, to the 
Chief of State, the armed forces, and the people 
of Haiti. 

This message, which has been read on this 
Christmas Eve wherever possible throughout 
the territory of Haiti and which is to be pub- 
lished in all the most remote comers of my 
country, has moved every heart by recalling 
how truly the gigantic and magnificent strength 
displayed by all the heroes who belong to the 
nations, great and small, united without dis- 
tinction of race or religion in the defense of 
liberty, justice, and the rights of man and who. 



in all latitudes and at every moment, form with 
their chests a bulwark raised against the im- 
chained forces of evil, in order to bring to the 
world peace, liberty, and progress of human 
welfare. 

Thank you, Mr. President, for recalling this. 
It is with a heart overflowing with gi-atitude 
toward you, who encourage so eloquently the 
Chiefs of State, loyal until death to the noble 
cause to which they have pledged themselves, 
to you who offer such a brilliant example of 
faith in the certain triumph of our arms, that 
in my own name, in the name of the Haitian 
armed forces and of the Haitian people I beg 
of you to accept the wishes which, for you, 
your heroic and powerful armies, and for the 
generous people of the United States, we place 
at the feet of the God of Justice and Love, to 
whom are entrusted the rescuing armies of 
Christian civilization. 

Prime Minister Curtin of Australia 
To President Roosevelt 

Canbebka, December SI, 191^. 
I ask you to be good enough to convey to the 
Congress of the United States the sincere 
thanks of the Govermnent and people of Aus- 
tralia, for the message of greetings and good 
wishes from the United States to the armed 
forces and auxiliary services of Australia. The 
message has been deeply appreciated by all our 
land, sea and air forces, who are firmly united 
with their Allies in the resolve to wage war 
against the aggressor nations until complete 
victory has been attained and a sure basis for 
world peace established. I express my thanks 
to you for your personal wishes and greetings 
to the armed forces and auxiliary services of 
Australia. 

The Viceroy of India to President Roosevelt 
On behalf of the armed forces and auxiliary 
services of India as well as the Princes and the 
people of this country I thank you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, and the Congress of the U. S., most 
warmly for your heartening message and your 
greetings. We are proud to have amongst us, 
at this time, the splendid units of United States 



JANTJART 16, 1943 

forces. We welcome their presence, not only 
for what they are themselves but also as a sym- 
bol of that solidarity, goodwill and cooperation 
which have welded the people of the United 
Nations into a mighty and invincible weapon 
of war, and which, when victory has been won, 
are tools that we shall all need to build a new 
and better world. Side by side with their 
allies, the soldiers and people of India await 
resolutely whatever test of faith and endur- 
ance the future may bring, confident that they 
can resist all assaults of the common enemy, and 
that, with their Allied comradcs-Ln-arms, they 
will, in due time, move forward to grapple 
with him and bring him to the dust. We send 
to you, to the Congress of the U. S., and to all 
the forces of the U. S. wherever they may be on 
sea, on land, and in the air, our greetings, and 
join with you in the hope and prayer that the 
New Year may bring near the day when our ef- 
forts shall be crowned with victory and may 
bring with it also peace and goodwill amongst 
all the peoples of the world. 

President Uhico of Guatemala 
To President Roosevelt 

[Translation] 

I have the honor to express thanks for the 
generous message of the President of the United 
States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, in the noble sen- 
timents of which I join. Once more, on this 
war Christmas, I express my fervid desires for 
the definitive success which is bound to be won 
by the soldiers of liberty and justice who are 
now engaged in tenacious conflict against the 
instruments of oppression on all the coasts and 
in every quarter of the world where the rights 
of peoples have been attacked. With great 
satisfaction on my part there have been trans- 
mitted to the armed forces of Guatemala the 
Christmas wishes and greetings sent to them 
by President Roosevelt and the Congress and 
people of the United States of America as well 
as the fervent hope and prayer for an early and 
complete victory and an enduring peace which 
the Honorable Congressmen formulated in a 
Joint Resolution to express sincere wishes for 
the triumph of the cause of the Allied Nations 
to the end that future Christmases may find 



57 



restored to their homes the men who today are 
suffering and sacrificing for the freedom of all 
peoples. 

Prime Minister Smuts of the Union of South 
Africa to President Roosevelt 

December 30, 1942. 
Your message of greetings and good wishes for 
the armed and auxiliary services of the Allies 
has been duly received and communicated to the 
armed and auxiliary forces of the Union of 
South Africa on behalf of the Government and 
People of South Africa and its Forces by Land, 
Air and Sea. I beg to convey to you our deep 
appreciation of your message which we not only 
accept for ourselves but reciprocate most cor- 
dially for the Armed Forces and Services of the 
United States of America. The People of South 
Africa are proud to have the high privilege of 
serving the cause of human liberation and 
peaceful progress in the company of the people 
of the United States of America and of our 
Allies. To that cause they have dedicated their 
full strength and for it they will wage this 
war until under God's blessing victory crowns 
the right. 

President Avila Camacho of Mexico 
To President Roosevelt 

[Translation] 

December 31, 1942. 
I have read with profound interest the mes- 
sage with which in conformity with the joint 
resolution of the Congress of the United States 
of America Your Excellency transmits an in- 
spired greeting to the armed forces and auxil- 
iary services of the United Nations. The people 
and Army of Mexico who have followed with 
admiration the heroic deeds of these men who, 
coming from the most opposite regions of the 
earth and from the most varied social environ- 
ments, are at present joined in the confra- 
ternity of arms, formulate the most sincere 
wishes for the consummation of our common 
ideal. To their sacrifices, their privations and to 
the inestimable gift of their lives humanity 
owes, even now, the security of the coming into 
being of that world in which we all have placed 



58 



our hope. Cognizfint of the responsibility which 
belongs to it, Mexico will spare no effort to col- 
laborate in the defense of the hemisphere and 
to hasten the victory with its labor and its 
products. The successes gained this year are an 
augury of the final triumph. Therefore, in 
thanking you for your sincere words, confi- 
dently I hope that the troops of the United 
Nations may approach nearer in 1943 to the 
desired goal where this permanent peace to 
which Your Excellency refers may be found. 

General de Gaulle to President Roosevelt 

[Translation] 

Mr. President, I have received and trans- 
mitted to the armed forces of Fighting France 
the good wishes which, in the name of the 
Congress of the United States, in your name, 
and in the name of the American people, you 
were good enough to send them. They will be 
gratefully received. 

I am sure that I speak for all the soldiers, 
sailors, and flyers of Fighting France when, 
in my own name and in the name of the French 
National Committee, I request you to offer the 
Congress of the United States their warm 
thanks and to transmit to the American armed 
forces their fervent good wishes for them and 
the assurance of the pleasure which they feel 
in fighting beside them to bring about the tri- 
umph of freedom and justice in the world. 

Prime Minister Tsouderos of Greece to 
President Roosevelt 

In the name of the Greek armed forces of 
land, sea and air which are today fighting to 
the very limit of their strength for the libera- 
tion of the Greek territories now under occupa- 
tion and for the triumph of our common ideals 
throughout the world, I express to you, Mr. 
President, and to the Congress of the United 
States my warmest thanks for your good wishes 
which I cordially reciprocate. 

The Greek forces are happy to be standing 
at the side of your great country which they 
hold in especial admiration. Eagerly they 
await the impending great battle of the Medi- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

terranean in the course of which they will have 
the opportunity to fight in the company of the 
soldiers, the sailors and the airmen of the 
United States. They believe unswervingly in 
the final victory. I avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity to convey to you my most cordial wishes 
for the New Year. 

Minister of State Dupong, President of the 
Luxembourg Government in Montreal, to 
President Roosevelt 

[Translation] 

It is with emotion that I received the message 
of prayer and hope which, in the name of the 
Congress, the American people, and yourself, 
you asked me to transmit to our soldiers in the 
Allied armies. No news could more encourage 
our valiant fighters during this holiday season. 
Wherever they are, no matter what branch of 
the service they have chosen, they will receive it 
with gratitude and enthusiasm. It will inspire 
them in their fight for the cause of the United 
Nations, which at the same time is the cause 
of their native country. Numbers of them are 
young Luxembourgeois who have joined the 
Allied forces even before the events which made 
a German concentration camp of the Grand 
Duchy of Luxembourg. Others succeeded in 
escaping from the hands of their jailers to at- 
tain the same objective after heroic tribulations. 
They will all respond I am sure to the wishes 
and greetings which the Congress has expressed 
in their regard in its resolution with redoubled 
energy in their fight for liberty and justice. 

The certitude of victory which is given them 
by the presence in the Allied ranks of the inex- 
haustible moral and material forces of the 
United States and the vision of a new era of 
peace with justice and national and social 
gratitude will make them accept with a joyous 
heart the sacrifices which the glorious achieve- 
ment of their task will impose. 

For my part, in the name of the Grand-Ducal 
Government and as interpreter of the senti- 
ments of the Luxembourgeois, I wish most sin- 
cerely for the glory of American forces. May 
God bless them and give them victory I 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 3 TO REVISION IV 

[Released to the press January 16] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Board of Economic "Warfare, and the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs, on Jan- 
uary 16 issued Cumulative Supplement 3 to 
Revision IV of the Proclaimed List of Certain 
Blocked Nationals, promulgated November 12, 
1942. 

Cumulative Supplement 8 to Revision IV 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement 2 dated 
December 18, 1942. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 3 contains 
334 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 41 deletions. Part II contains 120 



59 



additional listings outside of the American re- 
publics and 21 deletions. 



LEND-LEASE AID TO LIBERIA 

The following letter, addressed by the Presi- 
dent to E. R. Stettinius, Jr., Lend-Lease Ad- 
ministrator, was made public at the White 
House January 11: 

"For purposes of implementing the authority 
conferred upon you as Lend-Lease Administra- 
tor by Executive Order No. 8926, dated Oc- 
tober 28, 1941, and in order to enable you to 
arrange for lend-lease aid with the Government 
of Liberia, I hereby find that the defense of 
Liberia is vital to the defense of the United 
States." 



The Far East 



TREATY WITH CHINA FOR RELINQUISHMENT OF EXTRATERRITORIAL RIGHTS 

IN CHINA 



[Released to the press January 11] 

The treat}' and accompanying exchange of 
notes, signed January 11, 1943, between the 
Governments of the United States and China 
provide for the relinquishment by the United 
States of the extraterritorial and other special 
privileges which under treaty provisions the 
United States has hitherto exercised, as have 
other countries, in China and for the adjust- 
ment of various matters in connection with 
this relinquishment. 

Among the more important provisions are 
the following: 

Upon the coming into effect of the treaty, the 
United States relinquishes its extraterritorial 
jurisdiction; relinquishes special right' ac- 
corded under the "Boxer Protocol'" of 1901, in- 
cluding rights in relation to the stationing of 
troops in China ; and relinquishes special rights 
in relation to the system of treaty ports and in 



relation to the Diplomatic Quarter at Peiping 
and to the International Settlements at Shang- 
hai and Amoy, including the special courts at 
Shanghai. The two Governments agree to co- 
operate for the reaching of any necessary agree- 
ments with other Governments for the transfer 
to the Chinese Government of the administra- 
tion and control of the International Set- 
tlements and the Diplomatic Quarter at Peip- 
ing, the Chinese Government to make provision 
for the assumption and discharge of the official 
assets and liabilities of the Settlements and 
of the Diplomatic Quarter. The Chinese Gov- 
ernment accords to the Government of the 
United States continuation of the right to use 
for official purposes the land allotted to the 
latter in the Diplomatic Quarter, upon parts of 
which stand buildings belonging to the United 
States Government. 

Existing rights or titles of American na- 
tionals with regard to real property in China 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



are to be indefeasible; such properry is to be 
subject to Chinese laws concerning taxation, 
national defense, and eminent domain. Ameri- 
can nationals in China are to be accorded rights 
to travel, reside, and cany on trade in China 
similar to rights that have long been accorded 
Chinese nationals throughout the United 
States. Each country is to endeavor to have 
accorded to nationals of the other treatment 
not less favorable than that enjoyed by its own 
nationals in regard to legal proceedings, the 
administration of justice, and the levying of 
taxes. 

Consular officers of each country are to re- 
side in such places as may be agreed upon. 
They are to have the right to interview and to 
communicate with nationals of their country, 
are to be informed inamediately whenever any 
such nationals are under detention or in prison 
or are awaiting trial, and may visit any such 
nationals and receive communications from 
them. 

The United States relinquishes special rights 
in relation to inland navigation and the coast- 
ing trade and special rights hitherto enjoyed by 
American naval vessels in Chinese waters. 
Should either country accord rights of inland 
navigation or coasting trade to vessels of any 
third country such rights are to be accorded 
vessels of the other country. Each country is 
to be accorded the rights which are customary 
and normal in modern international relations 
in regard to the admission of merchant vessels 
into ports open to overseas merchant shipping, 
treatment of merchant vessels in such ports, 
visits by naval vessels, et cetera. In the light 
of the abolition of treaty ports as such, China 
agrees that all coastal ports in Chinese terri- 
tory normally open to American overseas mer- 
chant shipping are to remain open to such 
shipping. 

At a suitable time the two Governments are 
to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of 
a comprehensive modern treaty of friendship, 
commerce, navigation, and consular rights; and 



meanwhile questions affecting the rights of 
American nationals in China not covered by 
the treaty or by subsisting provisions of earlier 
treaties or agreements are to be decided in ac- 
cordance with generally accepted principles of 
international law. 

The treaty and the exchange of notes will be 
submitted to the Senate and are to come into 
force upon the exchange of ratifications. 

The Chinese Government and the British 
Government also signed a treaty on extrater- 
ritoriality at Chungking on January 11. 



[Released to tlie press January 11] 

Upon the signing on January 11 of a treaty 
between the United States of America and the 
Kepublic of China for the relinquislunent of 
extraterritorial rights in China and the regula- 
tion of related matters, the Secretary of State 
made the following statement : 

"It gives every official of this Government 
and every citizen of the United States much 
satisfaction, I am sure, to have this treaty con- 
cluded with our groat friend and associate in 
arms, China. All of us have looked forward to 
this day and it is especially gratifying to me 
personally that it falls to my lot to sign this 
significant treaty on behalf of the American 
Government." 

The Chinese Ambassador, His Excellency 
Dr. Wei Tao-ming, made the following remarks : 

"The signing at Washington today of the new 
treaty between China and the United States — 
both democratic nations on the Pacific and now 
engaged in the common battle for freedom — is 
indeed an event of great significance and will 
further strengthen the friendly relations long 
subsisting between our two peoples. I feel it a 
great honor and privilege to sign this treaty on 
behalf of the National Government of the 
Republic of China.'" 



JANUART 16, 1943 



61 



[Released to the press January 12] 

The following messages have been exchanged 
between the President of the United States and 
His Excellency Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek 
and between the Secretary of State and the Hon- 
orable T. V. Soong. Foreign Minister of China, 
in regard to the signature of the new Amer- 
ican-Chinese treaty : 

General Chiang Kai-shek to President 
Boose i:elt 
I take much pleasure in expressing to you 
the deep' gratification of the Chinese Govern- 
ment and people at the signing of the new treaty 
between our two countries today. It is to me a 
signal proof of the solidarity among the United 
Nations not only for the purposes of the war but 
for the winning of the peace. 

President Roosevelt to General Chiany 
Kai-shek 

I appreciate your telegram of January 11 in 
regard to the signing on that day of the new 
American-Chinese treaty. The people and the 
Government of the United States share the 
gratification of the Goverimient and people 
of China in the accomplishment of this steji 
which we have long wanted to take. I feel that 
it is a step which evidences our common com- 
mitment to high purposes in the conduct of 
human affairs and as such will. I am confident, 
f>n-ther the cause of the United Nations in our 
struggle toward victory and a better world. 

Foreign Minister T. V. Soong 
To Secretary Hull 
I wish to congratulate you and our two coun- 
tries on the signing of the treaty today which I 
am confident will further cement the fi-iendly 
relations between China and the United States. 

Secretary Hull to Foreign Minister 

T. V. Soong 

I thank you for your telegram of Januai-y 11. 



It has been our constant endeavor to move in 
every possible way toward the strengtliening of 
the traditional bonds of friendship between the 
United States and China and I feel with you 
that the newly signed American-Chinese treaty 
will well serve that purpose. 



American Republics 



DEATH OF GENERAL JUSTO 
OF ARGENTINA 

[Released to the prcs.s January 11 J 

The Secretary of State has made the follow- 
ing statement : 

"I have been deeply gi-ieved to learn of the 
sad death of that gi'eat Argentine soldier and 
statesman, His Excellency General Agustin 
P. Justo. General Justo was undoubtedly one 
of the outstanding men in the history of the 
Argentine Republic. I had the privilege of 
knowing him personally, during my visit to 
Buenos Aires in 1936 at the time of the Inter- 
American Conference for the Maintenance of 
Peace. At that time I came to admire and 
respect liis many fine qualities, and his broad 
outlook on inter-American affairs, as President 
of the Argentine nation. His illustrious name 
will always be honored in the United States 
because of his spontaneous and whole-hearted 
message of solidarity and friendship on the 
occasion of Pearl Harbor, and of his continu- 
ous staunch and outspoken support of the 
United Nations in their fight to assure the lib- 
erty and independence of free peoples every- 
where. His death is a great loss to his Ar- 
gentine compatriots, to his fellow Americans 
in the other republics, and to the entire civil- 
ized world." 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the prej3s January 14] 

Senhor Caio Julio Cesar Vieira, well-known 
Brazilian journalist representing the dailies 
O Jomal and Diario da Nolte^ organs of the 
Diarios Associados of Rio de Janeiro, arrived 
in the United States January 10, as a guest of 
the Department of State. 

While in this country Senhor Vieira plans to 
interview officials on the war situation and on 
the relatiiiiis now existing between Brazil and 
the United States; to study the principal as- 
pects of cultural interchange between Brazil 
and the United States, with suggestions as to 
what can be done to further this interchange; 
and in general to gather data on economic 
and commercial relations between the two 
countries. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON MUSIC 
AND ART FOR 1942^3 

[Released to the press January 16] 

The Department of State has announced the 
appointment for the fiscal year 1942-43 of the 
membership of the Advisory Committee on 
Music and the Advisory Committee on Art. 
The purpose of these Committees is to advise 
the Department, through the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations, regarding the stimulation of 
musical and artistic interchange among the 
American republics and the coordination of 
activities in this country which concern inter- 
American music. The Committees will also 
serve the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs in a similar capacity. 

The following leaders in the music world 
have accepted the invitation to membership on 
the Music Committee : 



James R. Angell, Lltt.D., Public Service C'^unseldr, 
Nationjil Broadcasting Company, Inc., RCA Build- 
ing, Radio City, New York, N. Y. 

Aaron Copland, President, American Composers Alli- 
ance, New York, N. Y. 

Olin Downes, Mus.D., Music Critic of The New York 
Times, New York, N. Y. 

Benny Goodman, JMusic Corporation of America, 745 
Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Melville Herskovits, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, 
Northwestern University, 2016 Harrison Street, 
Evanston, 111. 

Edwin Hughes, President, National Music Council, 338 
West Eighty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Alain Locke, Ph.D., Howard University, Washington, 
D. C. 

Lilla Belle Pitts, President, Music Educators National 
Conference, Associate Professor, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

John Sengstaek, President, Standard Music Publishers 
Company, 119 West Fifty-seventh Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

Carleton Sprague Smith, Ph.D., Chief of the Music Di- 
vision, New York Public Library, New York, N. Y. 

Davidson Taylor, Assistant to the Vice President, Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

Deems Taylor, Mus.D., President, American Society of 
Composers, Authors and Publishers, 30 Rockefeller 
Plaza, New York, N. Y. 

The following members of the Art Committee 
have indicated acceptance : 

John E. Abbott, Executive Vice President, Museum of 
Modern Art, 11 West Fifty-third Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

George Biddle, Painter and Sculptor, Croton-on-Hud- 
son, N. Y. 

Robert Woods Bliss, President, American Federation 
of Arts, Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 

Stephen Carlton Clark, Vice President, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, 149 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Ren6 d'Harnoncourt, General Manager, Indian Arts 
and Crafts Board, Office of Indian Affairs, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Grace McCann Morley, Ph.D., Director, San Francisco 
Museum of Art, San Francisco, Calif. 

Daniel Catton Rich, Director of Fine Arts, Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Francis Henry Taylor, Director, Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, N. Y. 

George C. Vaillant, Ph.D., Director, University Mu- 
seum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



The Department 



THE DIVISIONS OF POLITICAL STUDIES AND OF ECONOMIC STUDIES 



By Departmental Order 1124, of January 14, 
1943, the Secretary of State established in the 
Department of State, effective January 1, 1943, 
a Division of Political Studies and a Division of 
Economic Studies, which shall function under 
the general supervision of Mr. Leo Pasvolsky 
in his capacity as Special Assistant to the Secre- 
lary of State. The order sets forth the func- 
tions of the two new divisions as follows: 

"The Division of Political Studies .'^hall have 
responsibility for the conduct of continuing 
and special research, for the preparation of 
studies required in the formulation of policies, 
the planning of integrated programs as a basis 
for action in the field of foreign political rela- 
tions affecting the interests of the United States, 
with particular reference to the long-range im- 
plications of current policies, actions and de- 
velopments in this field affecting post-war 
political reconstruction, and for the formula- 
tion of appropriate recommendations with 
respect to the foregoing. In carrying out these 
responsibilities, the Division of Political 
Studies shall cooperate fully and maintain ef- 
fective liaison with other divisions and offices 
of the Department, in particular the Division 
of Economic Studies, with other departments 
and agencies, and with interdepartmental and 
intergovernmental agencies having joint inter- 
est or authority in the field of activity. 

"Mr. Harley A. Notter is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Durward V. Sandifer, Mr. 
Philip E. Mosely, and Mr. S. Shepard Jones 
are hereby designated Assistant Cliiefs of the 
Division of Political Studies, the symbol desig- 
nation of which shall be PS. 

"The Division of Economic Studies shall have 
responsibility for the conduct of continuing 
and special research and for the preparation 
of studies required in the formulation of poli- 
cies and the planning of integrated programs 
as a basis for action in the field of foreign eco- 



nomic relations affecting the interests of the 
United States, with particular reference to the 
long-range implications of current policies, ac- 
tions and developments in this field affecting 
post-war economic reconstruction, and for the 
formulation of appropriate recommendations 
with regard to the foregoing. In carrying out 
these responsibilities, the Division of Economic 
Studies shall cooperate fully and maintain ef- 
fective liaison with other divisions and offices 
of the Department, in particular the Division 
of Political Studies, with other departments 
and agencies and with interdepartmental and 
intergovernmental agencies having joint in- 
terest or authority in the field of activity. 

"Mr. Leroy D. Stinebower is hereby desig- 
nated Chief, and Mr. H. Julian Wadleigh is 
hereby designated an Assistant Qiief of the 
Division of Economic Studies, the symbol 
designation of which shall be ES. 

"The various divisions and offices of the De- 
partment shall cooperate fully and maintain 
effective liaison with the Division of Political 
Studies and the Division of Economic Studies 
and, in particular, they shall keep those di- 
visions fully informed of current policy de- 
cisions, activities and developments in their 
respective political and economic fields, in- 
viting their participation whenever feasible 
and appropriate in the formulation of policy 
decisions having long-range implications, and 
shall route to them for their information or 
advice communications and other material of 
a policy character falling within the scope of 
their responsibilities or interests. 

"There is hereby established a Committee on 
Special Studies, the purpose of which shall be 
to facilitate the carrying out of the responsi- 
bilities defined in this Order. Mr. Pasvolsky 
shall be the Chairman of the Committee on Spe- 
cial Studies, the other members of which shall 
be the Chiefs of the Divisions of Political 



64 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETIN 



Studies and Economic Studies, and such other 
officers as may be designated by the Secretaiy 
of State. 

"The Division of Special Research is hereby 
abolished and its personnel, equipment and 
other facilities are hereby transferred to the 
new divisions." 

THE OFFICE OF FOREIGN RELIEF AND 
REHABILITATION OPERATIONS 

[Released to the press January 16] 

The Honorable Herbert H. Lehman, Direc- 
tor of the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Operations, on January 16 announced the 
principal members of his staff, who already are 
operating in their new capacities. 

Selection of the Honorable Francis B. Sayre, 
former American High Commissioner to the 
Philippines and former Assistant Secretary of 
State, as Deputy Director of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations and Special As- 
sistant to the Secretary of State was announced 
on December 31. 

Hugh R. Jackson, Special Assistant to the 
Director, formerly was Chief of Operations of 
the Civilian Mobilization Branch of the United 
States Office of Civilian Defense. Previously 
he worked as Associate Secretary of the New 
York State Charities Aid Association. In 
1939 he was Director of Public Assistance in 
the Department of Welfare of New York City, 
organizing and directing the Bureau of Public 
Assistance. In 1940 he became Acting First 
Deputy Commissioner of the Department of 
Welfare. In 1934 he was Executive Secretary 
of the Planning Committee of the New York 
Temporary Emergency Relief Administration 
and in the same year was Executive Secretary 
and Director of Research of the New York 
Governor's Commission on Unemployment 
Relief. 

Dewey Anderson will deal with problems of 
supply and transportation. A former faculty 
member of Stanford University, former Cali- 
fornia State Relief Administrator, and for- 
mer member of the California Legislature, 
Mr. Anderson came to the Office of Foi-eign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations from the 



Board of Economic Warfare, where he served 
as Chief of the American Hemisphere Division. 
He previously was Secretary of the Temporary 
National Economic Committee. He also has 
served as Co-Director of the Institute of Oc- 
cupational Research, Stanford Univereity; Di- 
rector of Research in Economic Problems for 
the John Randolph and Dora Haynes Founda- 
tion at Los Angeles ; and Member of the Board 
of Directors, Western Association of Public 
Administration. 

Kenneth Dayton will deal with financial and 
budgetary matters. Mr. Dayton was Director 
of the Budget in New York City from 1937 until 
December 1942 and has worked in fiscal affairs 
of New York City since 1935. 

The development and determination of re- 
lief programs and requirements will be dealt 
with by Luther Gulick. Mr. Gulick was Di- 
rector of Organizational Planning for the War 
Production Board, on leave from the Institute 
of Public Administration of which he is Direc- 
tor, and from Columbia University, at which he 
is Pi-ofessor of Municipal Finance and Ad- 
ministration. In the 1936-38 period he worked 
with the President's Committee on Administra- 
tion Management in survey work which became 
the basis for presidential reorganization of the 
Federal Government. 

Field operations will be in charge of Lt. Gen. 
William N. Haskell. General Haskell, who will 
become the chief operating officer ui extension 
of relief to sufi'ering populations, has an exten- 
sive background in such work as a result of his 
service under Herbert Hoover immediately after 
the first World War. He served as Chief of 
the Anglo-American Food Mission to Rumania 
in 1919 and in 1920 as Allied High Commis- 
sioner to Armenia representing Great Britain, 
France, Italy, and the United States to coor- 
dinate relief work in Armenia and the Trans- 
Caucasus. In September 1921 he organized and 
headed the American Relief Administration 
Mission to Russia which, at the peak of its 
operations, fed nearly 11,000,000 destitute people 
daily. Coincidently with his Russian work he 
also served as Chief of the American Red Cross 
Mission for Greece, handling relief work for 
Greek and Armenian refugees from the Smyrna 



JANTJART 16, 1943 



65 



disaster. More recently he served under Mr. 
Lehman, then Governor of New York State, as 
Director of Civilian Protection in New York 
State. 

Public information concerning relief and re- 
habilitation activities will be in charge of 
Thomas F. Reynolds. Mr. Reynolds was White 
House correspondent for the Chicago Sun since 
that paper was founded and previously served 
as White House correspondent for the United 
Press Associations. Prior to that time he 
worked for the United Press in Atlanta, Ga., 
and the Middle West, and for several daily 
newspapers in the Middle West. 

Myres S. McDougal has been appointed 
General Counsel in Mr. Lehman's Office. Mr. 
McDougal formerly was Assistant General 
Counsel for the Lend-Lease Administration 
and was Counsel to the Attorney General in 
the trial of eight German saboteurs last sum- 
mer. He also served on the staff of the Baruch 
Rubber Survey Committee. Prior to his service 
in the Government he sensed as Professor of 
Law, Yale Law School, and was Chairman of 
the Yale University Faculty Committee on 
post-war planning. 

Charles F. Darlington is Executive Officer 
of the relief and rehabilitation organization. 
Mr. Darlington previously was Consultant to 
the Division of Commercial Policy and Agree- 
ments in the Department of State. He was 
formerly a member of the Financial Section of 
the Secretariat of the League of Nations at 
Geneva, Switzerland, on tlie staff of the Bank 
of International Settlements at Basel, Switzer- 
land, and later with General Motors' Overseas 
Operations as Foreign Exchange Manager. 
From 1935 to 1939 he was Assistant Chief of 
the Division of Trade Agreements in tlie Depart- 
ment of State. 

George Xanthakj- will serve as one of Mr. 
Lehman's Staff Assistants. Mr. Xanthaky 
formerly was Assistant Counsel to Mr. Leh- 
man in his capacity as Governor of New 
York State, and Assistant to the New York 
State War Plans Coordinator. Since 1939 he 
has served as Mr. Lehman's appointee on the 
Joint Representative Committee to revise the 



New York State law relating to municipal 
taxation. 

Roy Veatch will assist in dealing with prob- 
lems of international relations. Mr. Veatch 
previously was in charge of relief and rehabil- 
itation work in the Division of Special Re- 
search, Department of State. Prior to that 
work he was Assistant Chief of the Relief and 
Reconstruction Section of the Board of Eco- 
nomic Warfare and had worked as Associate 
Executive Secretary of United China Relief 
and Executive Secretary of the Council on Ref- 
ugee Aid. 

Miss Carolin Flexner has also been appoint- 
ed as Staff Assistant. Miss Flexner worked for 
many years with Mr. Lehman during his serv- 
ice as Governor of New York State and assist- 
ed in his philanthropic and social-welfare ac- 
tivities. She has had wide experience in work- 
ing with organizations in the field of national 
and international relief. 



WITHDRAWAL OF THE SPECIAL ASSIST- 
ANT m CHARGE OF THE OFFICE OF 
FOREIGN TERRITORIES 

[Released to the press January 15] 

The following letter has been sent by the 
Secretary of State to the Honorable Paul H. 
Appleby, Under Secretary of Agriculture : 

Jantjabt 15, 1943. 
Mt Deae Mr. Appleby : 

Although it was fully understood that you 
would be unable to assist me for more than a 
comparatively brief period, it is nevertheless 
with the greatest regret that I have accepted 
your withdrawal from the Department on Jan- 
uary ninth as my Special Assistant in Charge 
of the Office of Foreign Territories. Your 
assistance in the inauguration of this office 
and in dealing with matters of a non-military 
character which arose in connection with the 
occupation of North Africa, tasks for which 
you were uniquely qualified, is greatly appre- 
ciated. I wish to express to you my warmest 
thanks. 

Sincerely yours, 

COBDELL HXJLL 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSIONS, COMMITTEES, BOARDS, ETC., CONCERNED 
WITH THE WAR 



The following list includes only organiza- 
tions on which the United States has represen- 
tation. It does not purport to be a complete 
ro.ster of the international agencies established 
among the United Nations to deal with the 
various phases of the war. Suggested addi- 
tions or corrections to this list should be di- 
rected to the Editor of the Bulletin. 
ALLIED SUPPLY COUNCIL 
(United States and Australia) 

Location : 

Australia 
Establishment and Pitkpose: 

Upon the invitation of the Australian Government, 
a United States representative was appointed to this 
Council. According to the Australian Official Short- 
wave News of May 5, 1942, the primary purpose of the 
Council is to coordinate plans and advise on the present 
and potential supplies, of all sorts, available from 
Australian sources. 

Membebship: 

United States representative: 
Col. Royal J. Jenks, United States Army, Vi€e 

Chairman of the Council 
Australian representatives: 
The Hon. J. A. Beasley, Minister for Supply and 

Development, and Shipping, Chairman of the 

Council 
The Hon. N. J. O. Makin, Minister for the Navy 

and Minister for Munitions 
The Hon. R. V. Keane, Minister for Trade and 

Customs and Vice President of the Executive 

Council 
The Hon. J. J. Dedman, Minister for War Organi- 
zation of Industry and Minister in Charge of 

the Council for Scientific and Industrial 

Research 
J. Nolan, Chairman of the Allied Supply Standing 

Committee 

ANGLO-AMERICAN CARIBBEAN COMMISSION 
Location : 

Room 316, Barr Building, 910 Seventeenth Street, 
VVasliington ; REpublic 5600 (State), extension 2612. 



Establishment and Purpose : 

A joint communique released simultaneously in 
Washington and London (March 9, 1042) announced 
the creation of the Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission to encourage and strengthen "social and eco- 
nomic cooperation between the United States of America 
and its possessions and bases in the area known geo- 
graphically and politically as the Caribbean, and the 
United Kingdom and the British colonies in the same 
area, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of research 
in these fields". According to the announcement, 
"members of the Commission will concern themselves 
primarily with matters pertaining to labor, agriculture, 
housing, health, education, social welfare, finance, 
economics, and related subjects in the territories under 
the British and United States flags within this terri- 
tory".— 

Membebship : 

United States Section: 

Charles W. Taussig, of New York, Co-chairman 

Rexford G. Tugwell, Governor of Puerto Rico 

Coert du Bois, Chief of the Caribbean Office, De- 
partment of State 

S. Burns Weston, of Ohio, Secretary 
British Section : 

Sir Frank Stockdale, Comptroller of the British 
West Indies Welfare and Development Fund, 
Co-cJiairman 

Sir Rupert BriarclifCe, Medical Adviser to the 
British West Indies Welfare and Development 
Fund 

Hon. John Huggins, formerly Colonial Secretary, 
Government of Trinidad and Tobago. 

THE COMBINED CHIEFS OF STAFF 

Location : 

Public Health Service Building, Nineteenth and Con- 
stitution Avenue; REpublic 6700 (War), extension 
71469 (Col. Hammond). 

Establishment and Pubpose: 

Established by the United States and Great Britain, 
as announced by the War Department February 6, 
1942, to insure complete coordination of the war effort 
of Great Britain and the United States, including the 
production and distribution of their war supplies, 
and to provide for full British and American coUabora- 



JA!SrUARY 16, 1943 

ti'in with tbp United Nations now associated In the 
prosecution of the war against the Axis powers.' 
Mkmbersuip : 

United fitafcH Johit Chiefs of Staff: 
Admiral William D. Leahy, Chief of Staff to the 
Commander in Chief of the United States 
Army and Navy 
Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff 
Admiral Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief of 
the United States Fleet and Chief of Naval 
Operations 
Lt. Gen. Honry H. Arnold, Commanding General, 
Army Air Forces 
Rcprexentatircn of the British Chiefs of Staff: 
Field Mar.shal Sir John Dill 
Rear Admiral W. R. Patterson 
Lt. Gen. G. N. Macready 
Air Marshal D. C. S. Evill 
United St at ex Secretariat: 
Brig. Gen. John R. Deane, Secretary 
Conidr. L. R. McDowell, Deputj/ Secretary 
Lt. Col. T. W. Hammond, Jr., the Assistant Secre- 
tary (Executive) 
British Secretariat: 

Brig. V. Dykes. Secretary 

Comdr. the Honorable R. D. Coleridge. Deputy 
Secretary 



COMBINED FOOD BOARD 

(United States and Great Britain) 

Location : 

South Building, Department of Agriculture ; REpublic 
4142, e.xteusion 4691. 
Establishment and Purpose: 

The creation of the Combined Food Board was 
announced by the President June n, 1041;, and was 
established by Prime Minister Churchill and President 
Roosevelt to obtain a planned and expeditious utiliza- 
tion of the food resources of the United Nations, in 
order to coordinate further the prosecution of the war 
effort. 

The duties of the Board are to consider, investigate, 
and formulate plans with regard to any question 
relating to the supply, production, transportation, dis- 
posal, allocation or distribution, in or to any part of 
the world, of foods, agricultural materials from which 
foods are derived, and equipment and non-food mater- 
ials ancillary to the production of such foods and 
agricultural materials. It works in collaboration with 
others of the United Nations toward the best utiliza- 
tion of their food resources, and, in collaboration with 



' Other United Nations maintain military and naval 
representatives for liaison with the Combined Chiefs 
of Staff. 



67 



the interested nation or nations, formulates plans and 
recommendations for the development, expansion, pur- 
chase, or other effective use of their food resources. 
Mrsibekship : 
United States: 
Claude Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture 
Paul H. Appleby, Under Secretary of Agriculture, 

Adviser 
Leslie A. Wheeler, Director of Foreign Agricul- 
tural Relations, Department of Agriculture, 
Joint Executive Officer 
Robert B. Schwenger, Office of Foreign Agricul- 
tural Relations, Department of .\griculture, 
Deputy Executive Officer 
Great Britain: 
R. H. Brand, Chairman of British Supply Council 

and Head of British Food Mission 
E. Twentyman, Senior Member, British Food Mis- 
sion, Adviser 
Maurice I. Hutton, British Food Mission, Joint 

Executive Officer 
Eric Roll, British Food Mission, Deputy Executive 
Officer 
Membeeship of the Intek-IAgenct Committee : 
Franz Schneider, War Shipping Administration 
Richard M. Bissell, Jr., War Shipping .Vdministra- 
tion, alternate 
Dean G. Acheson, Assistant Secretary of State 
Dr. Herbert Feis, Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs, Department of State 
Leroy D. Stinebower, Department of State, 
alternate 
Dr. W. T. Elliott, War Production Board 
John L. Pratt, Office of Lend-Lease Administration 
Dr. E. W. Gaumnitz, Board of Economic Warfare 
Roy Hendrickson, Agricultural Marketing Adminis- 
tration 
S. B. Bledsoe, Office of Agricultural War Relations 
J. A. Scott Watson, British Agricultural Attache in 

Washington 
E. Twentyman, British Food Mission 

COMBINED PRODUCTION AND RESOURCES 
BOARD 

(United States, Great Britain, and Canada) 
Location : 

Social Security Building, Fourth and Independence 
Ave. SW. ; REpublic 7500 (War Agencies), extension 
73161 (Mr. Gregg). 
Establishment and Puepose : 

The Combined Production and Resources Board 
was created by President Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill, according to a White House press 
release of June 9, 1942, "in order to complete the or- 
ganization needed for the most effective use of the 
combined resources of the United States and the 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETIN 



United Kingdom in the proseaition of the war". The 
functions of the Board are to "comhine the production 
programs of the United States and the United King- 
dom into a single integrated program, adjusted to the 
strategic requirements of the war . . . and to all rel- 
evant production factors; . . . take account of the 
need for maximum utilization of the productive re- 
sources available to the United States, the British 
Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations, 
the need to reduce demands on shipping to a min- 
imum, and the essential needs of the civilian popula- 
tions" ; and "in close collaboration with the Com- 
bined Chiefs of Staff, assure the continuous adjust- 
ment of the combined production program to meet 
changing military requirements. . . ." 

On November 10, 1942, the Office of War Informa- 
tion announced that Canada had become a full mem- 
ber of the Board because of the "very close relations" 
in the production field which already exist among 
Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. 
Membeeship : 

United States Section: 
Donald Nelson, Chairman, War Production Board, 

Memier 
Milton Katz, Solicitor, War Production Board, 

Executive Officer 
John P. Gregg, Secretary 
In London: 

W. Averell Harriman, Lend-Lease Coordinator, 

Representative 
Philip D. Reed, Deputy Representative 
Briti.ih Section: 

Capt. Oliver Lytellton, British Minister of Pro- 
duction, Memt)er 
Sir Robert J. Sinclair, Director General of Army 
Requirements, British War Office, Deputy 
Memier 
T. H. Brand, British War Cabinet Secretariat in 

London, Executive Officer 
P. Hayward, Secretary 
Canadian Section: 

C. D. Howe, Canadian Minister of Munitions and 

Supply, Member 
E. P. Taylor. Deputy Mewier 



COMBINED RAW MATERIALS BOARD 
(United States and Great Britain) 
Loa^TioN : 

United States group: Social Security Building, 
Fourth and Independence Avenue SW., room 3051 ; 
REpublic 7500 (War Agencies), extension 2212 (Mr. 
Batt) and 3921 (Mr. Sykes). 

British group: The Bradford, 1800 K Street, RE- 
public 7860, extension 242 (Sir Clive BalUieu) and 
187 (Mr. Archer) : also Social Security Building, room 
3051 (Mr. Archer), REpublic 7300 (War Agencies), ex- 
tension 2454. 



Establishment and Purpose : 

The Combined Raw Materials Board was set up 
by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill 
(White House press release of January 26, 1942) to 
"plan the best and speediest development, expansion 
and use of the raw-material resources, under the juris- 
diction or control of the two Governments", and, in col- 
laboration with others of the United Nations, to "work 
toward the best utilization of their raw-material re- 
sources", and, in collaboration with the interested na- 
tion or nations, to "formulate plans and recommen- 
dations for the development, expansion, purchase, or 
other effective use of their raw materials." 
Membeeship : 
United States: 
William L. Batt, Vice Chairman, War Production 

Board, Chairman, 
Howard C. Sykes, Deputy Member and Executive 

Secretary 
George C. McGhee, Deputy Executive Secretary 
Robert A. Gordon, Coordinator of United States 
Information 
O-reat Britain: 

Sir Clive Baillieu, Head of the British Raw Mate- 
rials Mission in the United States 
George Archer, Deputy to the Secretary General, 
British Raw Materials Mission, Executive Sec- 
retary 
A. D. Marris, Counselor, British Embassy, Deputy 

Executive Secretary 
Paul Goldberg, Coordinator of British Information 
0per-\tiN6 Committee of the Combined Raw Materials 
Bo-asd: 
Membership: 

Howard C. Sykes, United States Deputy Member 
and Executive Secretary, Combined Raw Ma- 
terials Board, Chairman 
George Archer, British Executive Secretary, Com- 
bined Raw Materials Board ; and Deputy to 
the Secretary General, British Raw Materials 



Herbert Feis, Adviser on Interna- 
tional Economic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 

Thomas K. Finletter, Special Assist- 
ant to the Secretary of State 



Joint 
Repre- 
sentation, 
United 
States 
Department 
of State 

A. D. Marris, Counselor, British Embassy ; British 
Deputy Executive Secretary, Combined Raw 
Materials Board 
Morris S. Rosenthal, Assistant Director, Board of 

Economic Warfare 
Simon Strauss, Assistant Vice President, Metals 
Reserve Company, Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 
Robert A. Gordon, Coordinator of United States 
Information, Combined Raw Materials Board 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

COMBINED SHIPPING ADJUSTMENT BOAKD 

(United States and Great Britain) 
Location in Washington : 

Department of Commerce Building, Fourteentli and 
Constitution Avenue, room 4713; REpublic 6620 (Mari- 
time Commission), extension 78 (Mr. Scoll). 

ESTABUSHMENT AND PURPOSE: 

Ttie Combined Sliipping Adjustment Board was set 
up by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Churchill, according to a White House press release 
of January 26, 1942, "to adjust and concert in one har- 
monious policy the work of the British Ministry of 
War Transport and the shipping authorities of the 
United States Government". An Executive order of 
February 7, 1942 (No. 9054) established a War Ship- 
ping Administration in the Executive Office of the 
President, which comprises the American section of 
tlie Combined Shipping Adjustment Board. 
Membership: 
In Washington: 

United States representative: 
Rear Admiral Emory S. Land (United States 
Navy, Retired), Chairman, United States 
Maritime Commission; Administrator, War 
Shipping Administration 
llritish repress Htatii-e: 

Sir Arthur Salter, Head of the British Shipping 
Mission in tlie United States 
Joint executive ojfficers: 

David E. Scoll, Assistant to Administrator, War 

Shipping Administration 
W. O. Hart 
In London: 

Brit ish represcn tat ire : 

Lord Leathers, Minister of War Transport 
United States representative: 
W. Averell Harriman, Lend-Lease Coordinator 

THE EMERGENCY ADVISORY COMMITTEE 
FOR POLITICAL DEFENSE 

(Inter -American) 
Location : 
Montevideo 

ESTABUSHMENr AND PtTKPOSE : 

The Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense was established pursuant to a resolution of the 
Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the 
American Republics, held at Rio de Janeiro in January 
1942. The Committee studies and recommends to 
each of the American governments members of the 
Pan American Union appropriate measures for the con- 
trol of sabotage and all otlier types of subversive ac- 
tivities directed by extracontinental forces against the 
ideals and security of the Western Hemisphere. The 
Committee is made up of seven members, each rep- 
resenting the entire inter-American community rather 
than any one nation exclusively. The first meeting was 
held on April 15, 1942. 



69 



Membership : 

From the United States: 

Carl B. Spaeth, former Chief of the American 

Hemisphere Division of the Board of Economic 

Warfare and former Assistant Coordinator of 

Inter-American Affairs 

Selden Chapin, Department of State, Liaison 

Officer of United States Government 
William Sanders, Adviser to Mr. Spaeth 
From Uruguay: 

Dr. Alberto Guani, Minister of Foreign Affairs 
of Uruguay, Chairman 
From Argentina: 

Miguel A. Chiappe, Counselor of the Argentine 
Embassy in Uruguay 
From Brazil: 

Mario Pimentel BrandSo, former Brazilian Am- 
bassador to the United States 
From Chile: 

Ismael Vald^s Florez 
From Mexico: 

Carlos Dario Ojeda, Mexican Ambassador to 
Uruguay 
From Venezuela: 

Eduardo Arroyo Lameda, former Counselor of the 

Venezuelan Embassy in Colombia 
Manuel A. Pulldo M^ndez 
Secretary-General: Dr. Jos6 L. Chouy Terra (Mon- 
tevideo, Uruguay) 



INTER-ALLIED COMMITTEE ON POST-WAR 

REQUIREMENTS 

(Leith-Ross Committee) 

Location : 
London 

Establishment and Purpose: 

The Inter-Allied Committee on Post-War Require- 
ments was set up pursuant to a resolution of the 
representatives of European Allied Governments at 
their second meeting in London, held on September 
24, 1941. The purpose of the Committee is to lay plans 
to secure "food, raw materials and articles of prime 
necessity" to be "made available for the post-war needs 
of countries liberated from Nazi oppression." 
Membership : 
British representative: 

Sir Frederick Leith-Ross, Chairman 
United States representative: 
Alan N. Steyne, Second Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Embassy in London 
Other governments represented: 

Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Free 
France, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
New 2fcaland, Norway, Poland, Union of South 
Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
and Yugoslavia 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION FOR TERRITO- 
RIAL ADMINISTRATION 

Location (Temporary) : 

Pan American Union, Washington ; NAtional 6635. 

ESTABUSHMBNT AND PUHPOSB : 

The Inter-American Commission for Territorial Ad- 
ministration was established under the provisions of 
the Convention on the Provisional Administration of 
European Colonies and Possessions in the Americas, 
which entered into force on January 8, 1942. The 
Commis.slon, composed of a representative from each 
of the ratifying states, shall provide for the provi- 
sional administration of any territory located in the 
Americas, should a non-American state directly or in- 
directly attempt to replace another non-American state 
in the sovereignty or control which it exercised over 
such territory. 
Membership : 
United States: 

Sumner Welles, Under Secretary of State 
Argentina: 

Felipe A. E.spil, Ambassador in Washington 
Rodolfo Garcia Arias, Minister in Washington, 
alternate 
Brazil: 
Maurieio Nabuco, Secretary-General, Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, Rio de Janeiro 
Colombia: 

Gabriel Turbay, Ambassador In Washington 
Costa Rica: 

Luis Fernfindez, Minister in Washington 
Dominican Republic: 

J. M. Troncoso, Minister in Washington 
Ecuador: 

Col6u Eloy Alfaro, Ambas.sador in Washington 
El Salvador: 

Hector David Castro, Minister in Washington 
GuatemnJa: 

Adrian Recinos, Minister in Washington 
Haiti: 

Fernand Dennis, former Minister in Washington 
Eondttras: 

Julian R. Caceres, Minister in Washington 
Mexico: 
Francisco Castillo N5jera, Ambassador in Wash- 
ington 
tUcaragua: 

To be appointed 
Pa nama : 
Ernesto Ja^n Guardia, Ambassador in Washing- 
ton 
Peru : 

Manuel de Freyre y Santander, Ambassador iii 
Washington 



Vrnf/iiaii: 

Juan Carlos Blanco, Ambassador in Washington 
Venezuela: 

Diogenes Escalante, Ambassador in Washington 

INTER-AMERICAN DEFENSE BOARD 

Location of United States Gkoup : 

Federal Reserve Building, 20th and Constitution 
Avenue; REpublic 7500 (War Agencies), extension 
72S72' (Major Chapman). 
Establishment and Pubpose r 

The Inter-American Defense Board was created in 
accordance with a recommendation of the Third Meeting 
of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Repub- 
lics held at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942 that there 
be established in Washington "a commission composed 
of military and naval technicians appointed Ijy each of 
tlie Governments to study and to recommend to them 
the measures necessary for the defense of the Conti- 
nent." The first meeting was held March 30, 1942. 
Membership : 
United States: 
Lt. Gen. Stanley D. Embiek, United States Army 

(Retired), Chairman 
Vice Admiral Alfred W. Johnson, United States 

Navy (Retired) 
Col. Lemuel Mathewson, United States Army, Ad- 

riser 
Lt. Col. Earle W. Hockenberry, United States 
Army, Adviser 
Argentina: 

Capt. Alberto D. Brunet, Argentine Naval and Air 

Attach^ in Washington 
Col. Antonio Parodi, Argentine Military Attache in 
Washington 
Bolii-ia: 

Col. Oscar Moscoso, Bolivian Military and Air 

Attach^ in Washington 
Maj. Augusto Aramayo, Adviser 
Brazil: 

Lt. Col. Stenio Caio de Albuquerque Lima, Act- 
ing Representative 
Col. Armando de Souza e Mello Ararigboia, Bra- 
zilian Air Attach^ in Washington 
Comdr. Edmundo Jordao Amorim do Valle, Bra- 
zilian Naval Attach^ in Washington 
Chile: 

Maj. Gen. Arturo Espinosa Mujica, Chief of Chilean 

Military Mission 
Capt. Immanuel Holger, Chilean Naval Attach^ 

in Washington 
Wing Comdr. Teodoro Ruiz-Diez, Chilean Air At- 

tach^ in Washington 
Lt. Col. Gulllprmo Lopez-Larrafn, Chilean Military 
Attach^ in Washington 



JANTJAET 16, 194! 



71 



Colombia: 
Lt. Col. Ernesto Buenaventura, Colombian Mili- 
tary and Air Attach^ in Washington 
Costa Rica: 

MaJ. Fernando de la Guardia Tinoco 
Cuba: 

Lt. Col. Felipe Manilla, Cuban Military and Air 

Attach(5 in Washington 
Lt. Felipe Cadenas, Cuban Naval Attach^ in 
Washington 
Dominican Republic: 

Maj. Salvador Cobifln, Dominican Military At- 
tach6 in Washington 
Ecuador: 

Col. Agustfn Albfm Borja, Ecuadoran Military At- 
tachd in Washington 
El Salvador: 

Maj. Herman Bar6n, Salvadorau Military Attach^ 
in Washington 
Guatemala: 

Col. F61ix Castellanos, Guatemalan Military At- 
tache- in Washington 
Haiti: 

Col. Roche B. Laroclie, Haitian Military Attach^ 
In Washington 
Hoiiduras: 

Col. Jos6 Augusto Padilla-Vega, Honduran Mili- 
tary Attach^ in Washington (Absent) 
Mexico: 

Brig. Gen. Luis Alamillo Flores, Mexican Military 

Attach^ in Washington 
Lt. Col. Jos^ P^rez Allende, Assistant Mexican 

Military Attach^ for Air in Washington 
Lt. Guillermo Hernflndez Sagarra 
Nicaragua: 

Col. Hermosenes Prado, Secretary of Nicaraguau 
Legation In Washington 
Panama: 

Col. Bey Mario Arosemena, Panamanian Commer- 
cial Counselor In Washington 
Paraguay: 
Lt. Col. Juan Rovira, Paraguayan Military Attach^ 
in Washington 
Peru: 

Capt. Enrique A. Labarthe, Peruvian Naval Attach^ 

in Washington 
Lt. Col. Jorge Sarmiento, Peruvian Military 

Attach^ in Washington 
Col. Armando Revoredo, Peruvian Air Attach^ 
in Washington, Adviser 
Uruguay: 
Col. Hugo Molins, Uruguayan Militaiy Attache 

in Washington 
Lt. Col. Medardo Farias, Uruguayan Military 
Attach^ for Air in Washington 



Venezuela: 

Col. Juan Jones-Parra, Venezuelan Military At- 
tache in Washington 

Coordinator: Maj. Gen. Blanton Winship, United 
States Army 

Secretary Oeneral: Col. Lawrence Higgins, United 
States Army 

INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION 

Location : 

Department of Commerce Building, Fourteenth and 
Constitution Avenue, room 3722; REpublic 7500 (War 
Agencies), extension 6634 (Mr. Oreaniuno). 

EsTABUSHMENT AND PUE1>0SE : 

The Inter-American Development Commission was 
orfianized on June 3, 1940 in accordance with a resolu- 
tion of the Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee (1) to stimulate increase of non- 
competitive imports from the American republics to 
the United States; (2) to stimulate and increase trade 
among the American countries themselves; and (3) 
to encourage development of industry in the American 
republics, particulai'ly along the lines of production of 
consumer goods. 
Membership : 

Nelson A. Rockefeller, Coordinator of luter-American 

Affairs, Chairman 
J. R;ifael Oreamuno, former Minister of Costa Rica 

to the United States, Vice Chairman 
Renato de Azevedo, Managing Director in Now York 

of Lloyd Brasileiro Steamship Company 
George W. Magalhaes, Special Representative of 
Westinghouse Electric International Company, 
New York, N. Y. 
Anibal Jara, Consul General of Chile in New York, 

N. Y. 
John C. McClintock, Executive Director, Office of 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Execu- 
tive Secretary 
Morton D. Carrel, Projects Director 

INTER-AMERICAN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

Location : 

Pan American Union, Seventeenth and Constitution 
Avenue; NAtional 6635 (Dr. Gardel). 
Establishment and Puepose: 

Tlie Committee was established in accordance with 
a resolution of the Meeting of Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs of the American Republics, held at Panama 
September to October 19;^9, that an Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee be cre- 
ated to consider means of establishing a close coopera- 
tion between the American republics in order that they 



72 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETEST 



may protect their economic and financial structure, 
maintain their fiscal equilibrium, safeguard the sta- 
bility of their currencies, promote and expand their 
industries, intensify their agriculture, and develop 
their commerce. The Committee was installed at the 
Pan American Union on November 15, 1939. 
Membership: 
United States: 
Siimner Welles, Under Secretary of State, Chair- 
man 
Nicaragua: 

Le6n DeBayle, Niearaguan Minister in Washing- 
ton, Vice Chairman 
El Salvador: 

Hector David Castro, Salvadoran Minister in 

Washington, Vice Chairman 
Roberto Aguilar Trigueros, Pan American Coffee 
Bureau, New York, N. T. 
Argentina: 

Rodolfo Garcia Arias, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary, Argentine Embassy 
in Washington 
Bolivia : 

Luis Fernando Guachalla, Bolivian Ambassador 

in Washington 
Ren6 Ballividn, Bolivian Commercial Attach^ in 

Washington 
Ratil Diez de Medina, Bolivian Financial Coun- 
selor in Washington 
Brazil: 

• Eurico Penteado, Brazilian Financial Attach^ in 
Washington 
Hugo Gouthier, Second Secretary of Brazilian Em- 
bassy in Washington 
Jos^ A. Barbosa Mello 
Chile: 
Rodolfo Michels, ChUean Ambassador in Wash- 
ington 
Carlos Campbell del Campo, Counselor of Chilean 
Embassy in Washington 
ColomMa: 

Jos^ Camacho Lorenzana, Second Secretary of 
Colombian Embassy in Washington 
Costa Rica: 
J. Rafael Oreamuno, former Costa Rican Minister 
to the United States 
Cuia: 
Ramiro Guerra, Economic Adviser to the "Asocia- 

ci6n Nacional de Hacendados de Cuba" 
Felipe de Pazos, Cuban Commercial Attach^ in 
Washington 
Dominican Republic: 

J. M. Troncoso, Dominican Minister in Washington 
Julio Vega Batlle, First Secretary of Dominican 
Legation In Washington 



Ecuador: 
ColOn Eloy Alfaro, Ecuadoran Ambassador in 

Washington 
Emilio A. Maulme, Ecuadoran Commercial Coun- 
selor in Washington 
Onatemala: 
Enrique Lopez-Herrarte, First Secretary of Guate- 
malan Legation in Washington 
Haiti: 

Andr^ Llataud, Haitian Minister in Wa.shington 
Honduras: 
Julian R. Caceres, Honduran Minister in Wash- 
ington 
Mexico: 

Luis Quintanilla, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary, Mexican Embassy in 
Wa.shington 
Rafael Nieto, First Secretary of Mexican Embassy 
in Washington 
Panama: 

Ernesto Ja& Guardia, Panamanian Ambassador in 

Washington 
Max Heurtematte, First Secretary of the Embassy 
of Panama in Washington 
Paraguay: 

Celso R. Velasquez, Paraguayan Ambassador in 

Wa.shington 
Nestor M. Campos Ros, First Secretary of Para- 
guayan Embassy in Washington 
Peru: 

Juan Chavez, Peruvian Commercial Counselor in 

Washington 
Pedro BeltrSn, OflSce of Commercial Counselor, 
Peruvian Embassy in Washington 
Uruguay: 
Lt. Col. Medardo Farias, Uruguayan Military At- 
tach(5 for Air in Washington 
Venezuela: 
Arturo Lares, Counselor of Venezuelan Embassy 

in Washington 
Luis Coll-Pardo, Venezuelan Commercial Counselor 

In Washington 
Luis E. G6mez Ruiz, First Secretary of Venezuelan 
Embassy in Washington 

Secretary-General: Luis Delgado Gardel 



INTER-AMERICAN JURIDICAL COMMITTEE 

Location : 

Rio de Janeiro 
Establishment and Purpose : 

The Inter-American Juridical Committee came into 
being as a result of a resolution of the Third Meeting 
of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Repub- 



JANUARY 16, 1943 



73 



lies held at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942, which stated 
that "the Inter-Ameriean Neutrality Committee at pres- 
ent existing will continue to function in its present 
form under the name of 'Inter-American Juridical Com- 
mittee' ". The Committee has as its objects: (a) to 
study juridical problems created by the war and those 
which are submitted to it in accordance with the reso- 
lutions approved at the Meetings of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs or at the International Conferences of 
American States; (b) to continue the studies on the 
subject of contraband of war and on the project of a 
code relating to the piinciples and rules of neutrality; 
(c) to report on possible claims arising from the requi- 
sition or use of immobilized merchant vessels or those 
under the flag of a non-American enemy, or belonging to 
states whose territories are occupied by a non-American 
enemy, as well as on possible claims by any American 
republic against a non-American enemy state for un- 
lawful acts committed to the detriment of such republic, 
its nationals, or their property; (d) to develop and co- 
ordinate the work of codifying international law; and 
(e) to formulate recommendations with regard to the 
manner of solving the problems mentioned under (a) 
above. The Committee is made up of seven members, 
each representing the entire inter-American community 
rather than any one nation exclusively. The members 
of the Committee have no other duties than those 
l)ertaining to the Committee. 

AlEMBERSHIP : 

From the United States: 

Dr. Charles G. Fenwick, Professor of Political Sci- 
ence, Bryn Mawr College 
From Argentina: 

Dr. Podesta Costa 

Sr. Eduard Labougle, alternate 
From Brazil: 

(Vacancy) 
From Chile: 

Dr. F«ix Nieto del Rio 
From Costa Rica: 

Dr. Manuel Francisco Jimenez (Absent) 
From Mexico: 

Dr. Pablo Campos Ortiz 
From Venezuela: 

Dr. Carlos Eduardo Stolk 

INTER-AMERICAN JI.XEITIME TECHNICAL 
COMMISSION 
Loo.\TioN : 

Pan American Union, Seventeenth and Constitution 
Avenue; NAtional 6635. 

EST.\BUSHMENT AND PlTtpOSE : 

The Inter-American Maritime Technical Commission 
was established pursuant to a resolution of the Inter- 
American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee 



of November 14, 1941, which recommended the organiza- 
tion of a commission that would be a dependency of 
the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee and would formulate plans for the eflicient 
use of all the merchant vessels of the American repub- 
lics available for service between the American re- 
publics and would recommend to the maritime authori- 
ties the allocation of such vessels to particular routes 
or to the carrying of articles of a specific nature. 
Membership : 
United States: 
Charles R. Stoddard, War Shipping Administra- 
tion, Commerce Department Building, room 
4616; REpublie 6620, extension 579. 
El Salvador: 

Hector David Castro, Salvadoran Minister in 
Washington, Chairman 
Argentina: 
Capt. Alberto D. Brunei, Argentine Naval and Air 
Attach^ in Washington 
Brazil: 

Renato de Azevedo, Managing Director in New 
York of Lloyd Brasileiro Steamship Company 
Chile: 
Capt. Immanuel Holger, Chilean Naval Attach^ in 
Washington 
Colombia : 

Alberto Vargas Narino, Counselor of Colombian 
Embassy in Washington 
Cuba: 

Ramiro Guerra, Economic Adviser to the "Asocia- 

ci(5n Nacional de Hacendados de Cuba" 
Lt. Felipe Cadenas, Cuban Naval Attach^ in 
Washington 
Ecuador: 

Carlos Guzmdn Aspiazu, Ecuadoran Embassy in 
Washington (Absent) 
Mexico: 
Lt. Enrique Carrera Alomla, Acting Mexican Naval 
Attache in Washington 
Peru: 

Capt. Enrique Labarthe, Peruvian Naval Attach^ 
in Washington 
Uruguay: 
Comdr. Mario Collazo Pittaluga, Uruguayan Naval 
Attach^ in Washington 

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE ON POLITI- 
CAL REFUGEES 

Location : 

London 
Establishment and Purpose: 

The Intergovernmental Committee on Political Refu- 
gees is the Committee of the whole of the continuing 
conference of representatives of 32 governments wliich 



74 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



met in fivian, Fiance, in July 1938 on the initiative of 
President Roosevelt for the purpose of ascertaining 
what constructive steps the governments might take in 
common to cope with the urgent problem of the re- 
settlement of political refugees. Radical internal de- 
velopments in a number of European countries had 
rendered it necessary that some concerted humani- 
tarian effort be made to consider all possible opportu- 
nities for relief through permanent resettlement of as 
many oppressed individuals as possible The Com- 
mittee held its first meeting at iSvian, France, in July 
1938, and shortly thereafter established permanent 
headquarters at London under the supervision of a 
Director. Upon the outbreak of war in Europe, seri- 
ous consideration was given to the question of the 
practical value of continuing the Committee. The 
United States and a number of participating govern- 
ments felt that every possible effort should be made 
to maintain the organization and to continue the very 
worthwhile work which was being done. 



United Kingdom : 

Lord Winterton, Chairman 
United States: 

Myron C. Taylor, Vice Chairman 
Other governments represented: 
Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, 
Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Ireland, 
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, 
Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Uruguay, and Venezuela 
Director: 

Sir Herbert Emerson 
Secretary : ( Vacancy ) 

JOINT BRAZIL -UNITED STATES DEFENSE 
COMMISSION 
Location : 

United States members: War Department; REpub- 

lic 6700, extension 72128 
Brazilian members: Federal Reserve Bldg.. Twen- 
tieth and Constitution Avenue ; REpublic 
7500 (War Agencies), extension 72327 

ESTABUSHIIENT AND PUBPOSE : 

The Joint Brazil - United States Defense Commis- 
sion, composed of military delegates from the army, 
navy, and air forces of the two countries, was estab- 
lished in August 1942, for the purpose of making staff 
plans for the mutual defense of the Western Hem- 
isphere. Meetings of the Commission take place in 



Membekship : 
United States: 
Maj. Gen. J. Garesch^ Ord, United States Army, 

Chairman (Room 3E840, Pentagon Building; 

REpublic 6700, extension 72909) 
Rear Admiral William O. Spears, United States 

Navy 
Capt. Thomas H. Robbins, United States Navy 
Col. K. P. Hertford, United States Army 
Col. Joseph Smith, United States Army 
Lt. Col. John D. Gillett, United States Army 
Bra»il: 

Maj. Gen. EstevSo Leitao de Carvalho, Senior 

Member 
Vice Almirante Alvaro Rodrigues de Vasconcellos 
Coronel Aviador Vasco Alves Secco 
Tenente Coronel Joao Vicente Sayao Cardozo 
Capitao-Tenente En6as Arrochellas de Miranda 

Correa, Navy 
CapitSo Aviador Joao da Cruz Secco, Jr. 
Capitao Tasso VUlar de Aquino 

JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEES, UNITED STATES 
AND CANADA 

Location of United States Committee: 

Federal Reserve Building, Twentieth and Constitu- 
tion Avenue, room 30U2; REpublic 1100 (Federal Re- 
serve), extension 311 (Mr. Thorne). 

Establishment and Purpose: 

Establishment of Joint Economic Committees was an- 
nounced by the Governments of the United States and 
Canada on June 17, 19-11. The Committees are to study 
and report to their respective Governments on the 
possibilities of (1) effecting a more economic, more 
efiicient, and more coordinated utilization of the com- 
bined resources of the two countries in the production 
of defense requirements (to the extent that this is not 
covered by other committees and agencies) and (2) 
reducing the probable post-war economic dislocation 
consequent upon the changes which the economy In 
each country is presently undergoing. 
Membership: 

United States Committee: 
Alvin H. Hansen, Special Economic Adviser to the 
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System, Chairman 
William L. Batt, Vice Chairman, War Production 

Board 
E. Dana Durand, United States Tariff Com- 
missioner 
Harry D. White, Director of Monetary Research, 
Department of the Treasury 



JANUARY 16, 1943 



75 



Adolf A. Borle, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State 
(may sit with the Committee as occasion war- 
rants) 

Leroy D. Stinebower, Chief, Division of Economic 
Studies, Department of State; Liaison Officer 
between the Committees and the Department of 
State 

Wendell Thome, United States Federal Reserve 
Board, Secretary 
Canadian Committee: 

W. A. Mackintosh, Special Assistant to the Deputy 
Minister of Finance, Chairman 

George C. Batenian, Metals Controller, Department 
of Munitions and Supply 

J. G. Bouchard, Assistant Deputy Minister, De- 
partment of Agriculture 

D. A. Skelton, Chief, Research Department, Bank 
of Canada 

Hugh L. Keenleyside, Assistant Under Secretary 
of State for External Affairs (may sit with 
the Committee as occasion warrants) 

H. F. Angus, Special Assistant to the Under Secre- 
tary of State for External Affairs ; Liaison 
Officer between, the Committees and the De- 
partment of External Affairs 

J. J. Deutsch, Bank of Canada, Secretary 

JOINT MEXICAN-UNITED STATES DEFENSE 
COMMISSION 

Location of United States Section : 

Pentagon Building, room 3C30; REpublic 6700 
(War), extension 2189 (Capt. Hickman). 

ESTABUSHMENT AND PtJBPOSE : 

The establishment of a mixed defense commission 
to study the problems relating to the defense of the 
two countries was announced on January 12, 1942, 
by the Governments of the United States and Mexico. 
An Executive order of February 27, 1942 (No. 9080) 
formally created, on the part of the Government of the 
United States, the joint commission. The Executive 
order states : "The purposes of the Commission shall 
be to study problems relating to the common defense 
of the United States and Mexico, to consider broad 
plans for the defense of Mexico and adjacent areas 
of the United States, and to propose to the respective 
governments the cooperative measures which, in its 
opinion, should be adopted." 
Membebship: 

United States Section: 
Vice Admiral Alfred W. Johnson, United States 
Navy (Retired), Chairman 



Maj. Gen. John P. Smith, Senior Army Member 
Col. Frederic Glantzberg 
Lt. Col. Earle W. Hockenberry, Secretary 
Capt. George E. Hickman 
Lt. A. W. Laidlaw 
Mexican Section: 

Maj. Gen. Francisco Castillo Niijera, Chief 

Brig. Gen. Luis Alamillo Plores 

Commodore I. Garcia Jurado 

Lt. Col. E. Martin del Campo 

Lt. Col. Jos6 P^rez AUende 

Maj. Raul de Caldo 

Capt. Manuel Martinez Castro 



JOINT WAR PRODUCTION COMMITTEE, 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

Location of United States Section : 

Social Security Building, Fourth and Independence 
Ave. SW., room 5037; REpublic 7500 (War Agencies), 
extension 2134. 

Establishment and Pl-rpose: 

The Joint War Production Committee was first set 
up as the "Joint Defense Production Committee" by 
President Roosevelt and the Prime Minister of Canada, 
W. L. Mackenzie King (announced November 5, 1941), 
pursuant to a recommendation of the Joint Economic 
Committees, United States and Canada, of September 
19, 1941. The purpose of the Committee is to "survey 
the capacity and potential capacity for the production 
of defense matfriel in each country to the end that in 
mobilizing the resources of the two countries each coun- 
try should provide for the common defense effort the 
defense articles which it is best able to produce, taking 
into consideration the desirability of so arranging pro- 
duction for defense purposes as to minimize, as far as 
possible and consistent with the maximum defense ef- 
fort, maladjustments in the post-defense period." 
Membekshep : 

United States Section: 

Charles E. Wilson, Vice Chairman, War Produc- 
tion Board, Chairman 

Robert P. Patterson, Under Secretary of War 

James V. Forrestal, Under Secretary of the Navy 

Milo Perkins, Executive Director, Board of Eco- 
nomic Warfare 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr., Administrator, Office of Lend- 
Lease Administration 

Rear Admiral Howard L. Vickery, Vice Chairman, 
United States Maritime Commission 

Capt. Gilbert Mackay, Executive Secretary 



76 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtJLLETIN 



Canadian Section: 

Harry Carmichael, Coordinator of Production, 
Canadian Department of Munitions and Sup- 
ply, Chairman 

R. P. Bell. Director General, Aircraft Production 
Branch, Department of Munitions and Supply 

E. J. Brunning, Director General, Ammunition and 
Gun Production Branch, Department of Mu- 
nitions and Supply 

J. R. Donald, Director General, Chemicals and Ex- 
plosives Branch, Department of Mxmitions and 
Supply 

Hume Wrong, Canadian Department of External 
Affairs 

H. R. MacMillan, President, Wartime Merchant 
Shipping, Ltd., Montreal 

Roy G. Peers. General Manager, Canadian War 
Supplies, Ltd., Executive Secretary 

MATERIAL COORDINATING COMMITTEE. 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

Location of United States Group : 

Social Security Building, Fourth and Independence 
Avenue SW., room 30.31; REpublic 7500 (War Agen- 
cies), extension 2212 (Mr. Batt) and .3921 (Mr. Sykes). 
Establishment and Purpose: 

Creation of the Material Coordinating Committee, 
United States and Canada, was announced on May 14, 
1941 by William S. Knudsen, at that time Director 
General, Office of Production Management. The pri- 
mary purpose of the Committee is to make possible the 
free exchange of vital Information between responsible 
(iflicials of the two Governments relating to their sup- 
plies of strategic raw materials required for defense 
production. The exchange of such information, it was 
felt, would be of assistance to each Government in 
planning its defense program, especially in relation to 
questions concerning raw-material supplies needed for 
the production of military items. 
Membeeship : 
United States: 
William L. Batt, Vice Chairm 

Board 
Howard C. Sykes, United Sta 
and Executive Secretary, 
terials Board 
George C. McGhee, Executive 
Canada: 
George C. Bateman, Member, 
Industry Control Board ; 
Department of Munitions 
H. J. Symington, Power Contr 
Munitions and Supply 



an. War Production 

tes Deputy Member 
Combined Raw Ma- 

Secretary 

Canadian Wartime 
Metals Controller, 
and Supply 
(iller, Department of 



F. V. C. Hewett, Assistant to the Metals Controller. 
Executive Secretary 

MIDDLE EAST SUPPLY CENTER 

(United States and Great Britain) 

Location : 

Cairo 
Bstabushment and Purpose: 

The Middle East Supply Center was set up in Cairo 
In April 1941 to or.ganize the provisioning of the Mid- 
dle East with civilian supplies. Its main functions 
are (1) to review and coordinate the joint resources 
and civilian requirements in essential commodities of 
the territories (including raw materials required for 
their war industries), in order to make the Middle 
East as self-supporting as possible, and to exchange 
relevant information with corresponding control or- 
ganizations in each territory; and (2) to estimate the 
balance of any essential requirements which must be 
imported from outside of the Middle East and make 
recommendations accordingly to the authorities con- 
cerned, with a view especially to the best use of avail- 
able shipping. Its activities cover the following terri- 
tories: Egypt, Sudan, Turkey (only as far as bulk 
commodities are concerned), Syria, Lebanon, Ethiopia, 
Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Malta, Cyprus. Aden, British 
Sonialiland, Iran, Iraq, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, and oc- 
cupied enemy territory in East Africa. The British 
East Africa territories collaborate in furnishing 
supplies. 

A policy committee functions in London known as 
the Middle East Supplies Committee. 
Me.\[behship of Executive Committee in Cairo: 
United States: 
Frederick Winant, Chairman and Principal Civil- 
ian Representative 
Geu. Russell Maxwell, United States Army, Prin- 
cipal Military Representative 
Col. Samuel Claybaugh, United States Army, 
Deputy for Military Representative 
Great Britain: 

R. G. A. Jackson, Director-General of the Center 
Sir Arthur Rucker, Secretary to the British Min- 
ister of State 
E. H. Murrant, Representative in the Middle East 
of British Ministry of War Transport 
Membeksiiip of JIiddle East Supplies Committee in 
London : 
United States: 
W. Averell Harriman, Lend-Lease Cooi-dinator 
James W. Riddleberger, Second Secretary of 
American Embassy in London, alternate 



JANUARY 16, 1943 

Great Uritdin: 
Cupt. the Rt. Hon. Harry ('rookshank, British 
Financial Secretary of tlie Treasury 

MUNITIONS ASSIGNMENTS BOARD 
(United States and Great Britain) 
Location or Washington Board: 

Public Health Service Building, Nineteenth and Con- 
stitution Avenue; REpublic 6700 (\tar), extension 
71469 

ESTAHLISHMENT AND PURPOSE : 

The Munitions Assignments Board was set up by 
President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, ac- 
cording to a White House press release of January 26, 
1942, which states: "Committees will be formed in 
Washington and London under the Combined Chiefs 
of Staff" to "advise on all [munitions] assignments 
both in quantity and priority, whether to Great Britain 
and the United States or other of the United Nations, 
in accordance with strategic needs." 
.Mkmbkrship of the Washincton Boaku: ' 
liiitctl Statex members: 

Harry L. Hopkins, Chairman 

Admiral J. M. Reeves 

Lt. Gen. Brehon B. Somervell 

Maj. Gen. R. C. Moore 

Maj. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer 

Maj. Gen. J. H. Burns, Executive 

Lt. Col. E. C. Kielkopf, Secretary 
British mcmhem: 

Rear Admiral W. R. Patterson 

Lt. Gen. G. N. Macready 

Air Marshal D. C. S. Evill 

Wing Comdr. T. E. H. Birley, Secretary 

PACIFIC WAR COUNCIL 

Location : 
Washington 

KSTABUSHMENT AND PuBPOSE : 

The creation of the Pacific War Council was an- 
nounced on March 30, 1942 by President Roosevelt. 
Its first session was held at the White House on 
April 1. Concerning its creation, the following quota- 
tion is from The New York Times of March 31, 1912: 

"Speaking through Stephen T. Early, his press 
secretary, the President said : 

" 'It is imperative that all of the United Nations now 
actually engaged in the Pacific conflict consider together 
matters of policy relating to our joint war effort. 



77 



" 'An effective war can only be prosecuted with the 
complete cooperation and understanding of all the na- 
tions concerned. The new council will be in intimate 
contact with a similar body in London.' " ' 
Membership : 

United States: President Franklin D. Roosevelt 
Australia: Sir Owen Dixon, Australian Minister in 

tlie United States 
Canada: Leighton McCarthy, Canadian Minister in 

the United States 
China: Dr. Wei Tno-ming, Chinese Aml)assador in 

the United States 
Netherlands: Dr. Alexander Loudon, Netherlands Am- 
bassador in the United States 
A'cio Zealand: Walter Nash, New Zealand Minister 

in the United States 
Philippine Commonwealth: President Manuel Quezon 
United Kinydom: Viscount Halifax, British Ambassa- 
dor in the United States 

PERMANENT JOINT BOARD ON DEFENSE, 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

Location or United States Section : 

Department of State Building, Seventeenth and 
Pennsylvania .\ venue; REpublic 5600 (State), exten- 
sion 2125 (Mr. Hickerson). 
Estabushment and Purpose: 

The Permanent Joint Board on Defense was set up 
by the United States and Canada in pursuance of a 
joint announcement by President Roosevelt and the 
Prime Minister of Canada, W. L. Mackenzie King, 
dated August 17, 1940, at Ogdensburg, N. Y., for the 
purpose of carrying out "studies relating to sea, land, 
and air problems, including personnel and materiel", 
and to "consider, in the broad sense, the defense of 
tlie north half of the Western Hemisphere." 
Membership : 

United states Sectio?!: 

Fiorello H. La Guardia, Mayor of New York; 
President of the United States Conference of 
Mayors; Chairman 
Maj. Gen. J. P. Smith, United States Army 
Capt. Frank P. Thomas, United States Navy 
Capt. John P. Whitney, United States Navy 
Lt. Col. Earle W. Hockenberry, United States Army 
John Hickerson, Assistant Chief, Division of Euro- 
pean Affairs, Department of State; Secretary 



' A counterpart of this Board, also a combined body, 
established in London. 



"Represented in the London Council are the United 
Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. 
An invitation has been extended to India. 



78 



Canadian Section: 
O. M. Biggar, Chairman 
Maj. Gen. M. A. Pope, General Staff, Canadian 

Army 
Rear Admiral G. C. Jones 
Air Commodore F. V. Heakes, Royal Canadian 

Air Force 
Hugh L. Keenleyside, Assistant Under Secretary 

of State for External Affairs, Secretary 

UNITED NATIONS INFORMATION BOARD 

(Foi-merly Inter-Allied Information Committee) 

Location : 610 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Establishment and Purpose: 

The United Nations Information Office, formerly 
known as the luter-Allied Information Center, was first 
established in September 1940, as a clearing-liouse for 
the information services of the allied nations then at 
war with the Axis powers. In August 1942, following 
the entry of the United States into the war and the 
creation of the Office of War Information, the United 
States became a member of the Committee which con- 
trolled the Center, and arrangements were made for 
periodic meetings in Washington. Membership of the 
Committee gradually increased, and by December 1942, 
19 governments and associated powers were participat- 
ing in the work. In November 1942, the organization 
adopted the names of the United Nations Information 
Board, for the controlling committee, and the United 
Nations Information Office, for the executive organ- 
ization. Membership on the United Nations Infor- 
mation Board and participation in the activities of the 
Office are open to all United Nations or aUied powers. 

Financed by contributions from the various gov- 
ernments and serviced by an international staff, the 
United Nations Information Board maintains a clear- 
ing-house for research and reference with respect to 
material obtained from the information services of 
the various United Nations ; publishes a monthly Re- 
view as an official record, containing speeches, state- 
ments, and other documents of the United Nations ; and 
coordinates, prepares, and makes available material 
from United Nations' sources for radio, films, photo- 
graphs, exhibits, press, and other information media. 
Membebshjp : 
Australia: David W. Bailey, Director, Australian 

News and Information Bureau 
Belgium: J. A. Goris, Commissioner of Information, 
and Henri Fast, Deputy Commissioner of In- 
formation, Belgian Information Center 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Canada: L. B. Pearson, Minister Counselor of the 
Canadian Legation at Washington and Member 
of the Canadian Wartime Information Board, 
Washington ; Mr. Harry Sedgwick, Head of the 
Canadian Wartime Information Office, New Tork 
China: C. L. Hsia, Director, Chinese News Service 
Chechoslovakia: Jan Papanek, Minister, Czechoslo- 
vak Information Service; and Milos Safranek, 
of the Czechoslovak Information Service 
Free Denmark: C. H. W. Hasselriis, Director, Friends 

of Denmark, Inc. 
Fighting France: Adrien Tixier, Head of Delegation 
to the United States of the French National 
Committee; Robert Valeur, Head of the Press 
and Information Service, Fighting French Dele- 
gation, New York; and Prof. F. Hoffherr, of 
France Forever, Inc. 
Oieat Britain: Harold Butler, British Minister at 
Washington ; Donald J. Hall, First Secretary of 
British Embassy at Washington; and V. J. G. 
Stavridi, Liaison Officer for British Information 
Services 
Greece: Nicholas Embiricos, Director, Greek Office 

of Research and Information, New York 
India: Jossleyn Hennessy and O. Rahman, of the 

India Information Office, Washington 
Luxembourg: Andre Wolff, Commissioner of Infor- 
mation, Luxembourg Information Center 
Netherlands: N. A. C. Slotemaker de Bruine, Direc- 
tor, J. M. Huizinga, and C. J. M. Simons, of the 
Netherlands Information Bureau 
New Zealand: Roger Hawthorne, Information Of- 
ficer, New Zealand Legation at Washington 
Norway: Hans Olav, Director, Norwegian Informa- 
tion Bureau 
Philippines: Arturo Botor and David Bernstein, of 
the Office of the President, Commonwealth of 
the Philippines 
Poland: Stefan de Ropp, Director, and Ludwik 
Krzyzanowski, of the Polish Information Center 
Union of South Africa: H. M. Moolman, Public Re- 
lations Officer, South African Legation at Wash- 
ington 
United States of America: Arthur Sweetser, Deputy 
Director, Office of War Information; Nelson 
Rockefeller, Coordinator of Inter-American Af- 
fairs ; Anthony Hyde, Oflice of War Information 
Yugoslavia: Boris Furlan, of the Royal Yugoslav 

Information Office 
Secretary-General of the United Nations Information 
Office: W. Bryant Mumford 



JANTTART 16, 1945 



Treaty Information 



79 



estimates of appropriations for the Department of 
State for the fiscal year 1943, amounting to $7,433,- 
405. H. Doc. 45, 78th Cong., 1st sess. 4 pp. 



EXTRATERRITORIALITY 

Treaty With China for Relinquishment of Extra- 
territorial Rights in China 

A statement regarding the treaty between the 
United States and China for the relinquish- 
ment of extraterritorial rights in China and an 
accompanying exchange of notes, signed Janu- 
ary 11, 1943, appears in this Bulletin under 
the heading "The Far East". 



Legislation 



Retirement and Disability Fund, Foreign Service: Mes- 
sage from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting a report by the Secretary of State, showing 
all receipts and disbursements on account of refunds, 
allowances, and annuities for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1942, in connection with the Foreign Serv- 
ice. H. Doc. 40, 78th Cong., 1st sess. C pp. 

Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the De- 
partment of State : Communication from the Presi- 
dent of the United States transmitting supplemental 



Publications 



Depabtment of State 

Diplomatic List, January 1»43. Publication 1858. 11, 
105 pp. Subscription, $1 a year; single copy, 10^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 3, January 16, 1943, Con- 
taining Additions, Amendments, and Deletions Made 
Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. Publica- 
tion 1862. 45 pp. Free. 

Other Government Agencies 
The Foreign Trade of Latin America: United States 
Tariff Commission Report No. 146, second series. 
Part L Trade of Latin America With the World and 

With the United States. 20<t. 
Part II. Commercial Policies and Trade Relations 
of Individual Latin American Countries : 
Volume 1. The South American Republics. 35^. 
Volume 2. Mexico and the Republics of Central 
America and the West Indies. 40^. 
Part III. Selected Latin American Export Com- 
modities. 35^ 



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PUBLISHSO WBEKLZ WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIBECTOB Of TES BXIBEAU Of IHB BCDGBT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



JANUARY 23, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 187— Publication 1867 



G 



ontents 



The War page 

Adherence by Iraq to the Declaration by United Nations . 83 
Severance by Chile of Diplomatic Relations With the Axis 

Powers 83 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to Japan . 84 
The Department 

Death of Two Officials in Plane Crash 84 

Appointment of Officers 85 

The Foreign Service 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Shaw on Nommation of 

Edward Flynn as Minister to Australia 85 

American Republics 

Visit to the United States of the Uruguayan Minister of 

Foreign Affairs 86 

Agreement With Mexico Regarding Mihtary Service by 

Nationals of Either Country Residing in the Other . 86 
Cultural Relations 

Visit to the United States of Mexican Teachers of En- 
glish 86 

Distinguished Visitors From the Other American Re- 
publics 86 

Treaty Information 

Armed Forces: Agreement With Mexico Regarding Mili- 
tary Service by Nationals of Either Country Residing 

in the Other 87 

Alliance: Declaration by United Nations 90 

Publications 90 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OOCUME^Ff 
FEB 13 1943 



The War 



ADHERENCE BY IRAQ TO THE DECLARATION BY UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press January 23] 

An exchange of communications between the 
Minister of Iraq and the Secretary of State 
concerning the adherence by Iraq to the Dcchi- 
ration by United Nations follows : 

January 16, 1943. 
Sir: 

Now that my Government has been com- 
pelled, in defense of the national integrity of 
Iraq, to declare that there exists a state of war 
between Iraq on the one hand and Germany, 
Italy and Japan on the other, it considers that 
the time has come to subscribe more concretely 
to the common program of purposes and prin- 
ciples embodied in the Atlantic Charter. Those 
purposes and principles coincide with the aspi- 
rations of the people of Iraq. At this time 
when the greater part of the civilized world is 
striving for liberty and independence, Iraq de- 
sires to make its contribution in the struggle 
against the common enemy. My countrj' thus 
takes pride in associating itself with the United 
Nations which are battling for liberty and the 
preservation of civilization. 

I have the honor to inform you that in ac- 
cordance with instructions received from my 
Government, Iraq formally adheres, by means 



of this communication, to the Declaration by 
United Nations, dated January 1, 1942. 

I take [etc.] Ali Jawdat 

January 22, 1943. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note of January 16, 1943, stating that 
as your Government has been compelled, in 
defense of the national integrity of Iraq, to de- 
clare the existence of a state of war with Ger- 
many, Italy, and Japan, it desires to subscribe 
more concretely to the purposes and principles 
embodied in the Atlantic Charter; that those 
purposes and principles coincide with the aspi- 
rations of the people of Iraq; that Iraq desires 
to make its contribution in the struggle against 
the common enemy; and that accordingly Iraq 
formally adheres to the Declaration by United 
Nations. 

It is very gratifying that Iraq is taking a 
position at the side of the freedom-loving na- 
tions which have pledged themselves to employ 
their full resources in the struggle against the 
powers seeking to dominate the world. On be- 
half of the Government of the United States, 
as depository for the Declaration, I take great 
pleasure in welcoming Iraq into the ranks of 
the United Nations. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 



SEVERANCE BY CHILE OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE AXIS POWERS 



[Released to the press January 20] 

The Secretary of State has made the following 
statement : 

"I have just been informed by the Chilean 
Ambassador of the decision of the Chilean Gov- 



ernment to sever diplomatic relations with the 
Axis powers. I welcome this action as an im- 
portant contribution to the security of the 
continent. 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"In a larger sense, however, the Government 
of Chile has taken a step which once more con- 
firms the identity of the ideals and aspirations of 
the Chilean people with those of free peoples 
everywhere in this great struggle. I know that 
I express the feeling of my fellow citizens in 
extending the heartiest good wishes on this oc- 
casion to the Government and people of a tra- 
ditionally friendly country. Chile has now 
taken its place with the 20 American republics 
which have given official and practical expres- 
sion to their realization of the nature of the 
Axis menace." 

[Released to the press January 21] 

When asked for comment upon the address of 
President Kios to the Chilean people in announc- 
ing the breaking of diplomatic relations between 
Chile and the Axis powers, the Secretary said : 

"The very able and timely address of Presi- 
dent Kios was in strict harmony with the pa- 
triotic and highly important step taken by the 
Government of Chile on yesterday. It pro- 
claims resolutely the fundamental purpose 
which is actuating the people and Government 
of Chile, namely, the splendid step of continen- 
tal solidarity and in resistance of the three bar- 
baric countries engaged in world conquest by 
force. 

"President Kios and the people of Chile are 
to be highly complimented and sincerely con- 
gratulated upon this resolute utterance of the 
President." 

ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN 
AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 

CORRIGENDUM 

BtTLLETiN of January 16, 1943, page 53, sec- 
ond column, second paragraph: Delete the 
next-to-last line and, in lieu thereof, insert the 
words, "to rid the world of the militarism 
which is our"; the last sentence of the para- 
graph will then read, "We failed then to rid 
the world of the militarism which is our 
enemy; we must not fail again." 



The Department 



DEATH OF TWO OFFICIALS 
IN PLANE CRASH 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The Secretary of State has made the follow- 
ing statement: 

"It was with sincere regret that I learned of 
the tragic death of two officials of the State De- 
partment in an airplane crash while en route to 
Algeria, Mr. William Hodson and Mr. Osmon 
E. Henrj'son. Mr. William Hodson was killed 
while on his way to undertake an assignment 
as Director of Relief in North Africa and Mr. 
Henryson had been assigned as a clerk to the 
American Consulate General at Algiers. These 
officials died in the performance of their duties 
and have been added to the list of those other 
Americans who have given their lives for their 
country. 

"Upon being informed of the death of Mr. 
Hodson, Mr. Herbert H. Lehman, Director of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, 
said that he had learned of Mr. Hodson's death 
with the greatest personal sadness. He pointed 
out that Mr. Hodson had taken leave of absence 
from his personal work to accept the important 
assignment as Director of Relief in North 
Africa and that he thus died in the service of 
his country. 

"Mr. Hodson was Commissioner of Welfare 
for the City of New York, on leave of absence 
to serve with the Office of Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation Operations. He had served as 
Commissioner of Welfare in New York City 
since January 1, 1934 and had in that position 
administered relief and assistance in the New 
York City area. 

"Prior to his appointment as Commissioner 
of Welfare, he was Director of the Welfare 
Council of the City of New York from 1925 to 
1934. Previous to 1925 he served with the 
Russell Sage Foundation, first as Director of 
the Division of Child Welfare Legislation, later 



JANUARY 23, 1943 

as Director of the Department of Social Legis- 
lation. 

"Mr. Hodson was a past president of the 
American Public Welfare Association and of 
the American Association of Social Workers. 
A native of Minneapolis, he was 51 years old. 
He is survived by liis wife, Mrs. William Hod- 
son, a resident of New York City; by a daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Thomas Street, a resident of Wash- 
ington ; and by two sons, William and Jeremy, 
both at present serving in the armed forces. 

"Mr. Henryson was born at Story City, Iowa, 
on April 19, 1906 and was the son of Mr. Torkel 
T. Henryson, deceased, and of Mrs. Henryson, 
who is now residing in Des Moines, Iowa. He 
attended school at Story City, Iowa, and had 
been residing in Wasliington since 1933. He 
entered the Foreign Service on July 21, 1942, 
and was proceeding to the field on his first 
assignment after a brief detail of duty in the 
Department of State. Prior to entering the 
Foreign Service he had been employed by the 
Work Projects Administration in Washington." 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

[Relonsed to the press January 22] 

Mr. Philip C. Jessup. of Connecticut, will be 
added to the staff of the Director of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations to deal 
with problems of personnel and training, it 
Was announced at the State Department 
January 22. 

Mr. Jessup will take over his new duties next 
week. At the request of Mr. Herbert H. Leh- 
man, Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Operations, he will set up plans and or- 
ganization for procuring personnel for field 
operations in granting aid to distressed people 
and in devising methods of training for the field 
personnel. 

An expert in international law, Mr. Jessup 
recently has played a prominent part in the 
establishment and operations of the Columbia 
University School for Training in International 
Administration, training Navy and civilian per- 
sonnel for duties which will arise in the wake of 
liberation of territories now imder domination 
of the enemy. 

508046—43 2 



85 



He is Professor of International Law at Co- 
lumbia Uiiiver.dty and has held that Chair since 
1935. Although he has been on the faculty of 
Columbia University since 1925, he also has been 
active in international affairs. He was Assistant 
Solicitor of the Department of State from 1924 
to 1925, was Assistant to Mr. Elilui Root at the 
Conference of Jurists on the Permanent Court 
of International Justice in 1929, and was Legal 
Adviser to the United States Ambassador to 
Cuba in 1930. 



The Foreign Service 



STATEMENT BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
SHAW ON NOMINATION OF EDWARD 
FLYNN AS MINISTER TO AUSTRALIA 

[Released to tbe press January 20] 

Mk. Chairman and Members of the Com^ht- 
tee: ^ 
I am instructed by the Secretary of State to 
come here in response to your invitation and to 
submit the following statement relative to the 
nomination of Mr. Edward Flynn for the office 
of Minister to Australia : 

The President, of course, gives his personal 
attention to nominations for the diplomatic 
service, such as the one now pending. This is a 
presidential appointment. Needless to say, the 
President keeps himself thoroughly familiar 
with all essential phases of foreign affairs. 

The State Department knows and recognizes 
that Mr. Flynn is a person of ability, that he is 
a person of intelligence and of professional edu- 
cational training both here and abroad, that he 
has held many public offices, and that he knows 
people and knows well how to get along with 
people. Mr. Flynn served with success as Com- 
missioner for the Federal Government to the 
recent World Fair in New York, where it was a 
part of his function to meet and in numerous 
ways cooperate with similar representatives 
from other nations in matters pertaining to 
their mutual commercial and related interests. 



' Committee on Foreign Relations of the U. S. Senate. 



86 

It is believed that these qualities and this prac- 
tical experience should equip Mr. Flynn to dis- 
charge efficiently the duties of Minister to Aus- 
tralia. 

Subsequent to the nomination of Mr. Flynn, 
certain charges are said to have been filed in 
opposition to his confirmation. It is understood 
that Mr. Flynn will personally appear before 
your Committee and reply to these charges. The 
merits of the charges will of course be passed 
upon by your Committee. 



American Republics 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
URUGUAYAN MINISTER OF FOREIGN 
AFFAIRS 

His Excellency Alberto Guani, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, will arrive in 
Washington the morning of January 23, 1943, 
where he will be met by an official reception 
committee. He will attend a meeting of the 
Governing Board of the Pan American Union 
and be honored at dinner by the Secretary of 
State on that day. During his stay in Washing- 
ton he will be feted at dinners and luncheons by 
Government officials, including Vice President 
Wallace, Under Secretary of State Welles, As- 
sistant Secretary Berle, Attorney General Bid- 
die, and Nelson Rockefeller, as well as by the 
Uruguayan Ambassador in Washington. He 
will leave Washington for Canada on January 
27 and, following a visit in that country, will 
arrive in New York January 31 for a visit, which 
will include among other functions a dinner 
with the Pan American Society. 

AGREEMENT WITH MEXICO REGARDING 
MILITARY SERVICE BY NATIONALS OF 
EITHER COUNTRY RESIDING IN THE 
OTHER 

An exchange of notes between this Govern- 
ment and the Government of Mexico regarding 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIiLETIN 

an agreement between the two countries regulat- 
ing military service by nationals of either 
country residing in the territory of the other 
appears in this Btjlletix under the heading 
"Treaty Information". 



Cultural Relations 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF MEX- 
ICAN TEACHERS OF ENGLISH 

[Released to the press January 21] 

Ten Mexican teachers of English, designated 
by the Ministry of Education of Mexico to 
accept an invitation extended by the United 
States Govermnent to visit the United States 
for two months, arrived in Washington Janu- 
ary 17. These teachers will remain in Wash- 
ington until January 23, when they will leave 
for the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, where they will remain for approximately 
a month, taking special courses and observing 
the teaching of languages. Thereafter they 
will be placed in high schools in various parts 
of the country in order to work in the classroom 
with local teachers. 

The trip of the Mexican teachers of English 
is in connection with the program of cultural 
relations of the Department of State for the 
exchange of teachers of the languages of the 
American republics. The present group is 
made up as follows : Maria-Elena Aleman, Luis 
Cardoza, Yolanda Cordero, Jorge Espino, Luis 
Gutierrez, Armando Huacuja, Eaquel Mendoza, 
Josefina Moreno, Lila Perez Gasga, and Ubaldo 
Vargas Martinez. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The Costa Rican Minister of Education, 
Sefior Luis Demetrio Tinoco, arrived in Wash- 
ington January 20 for a brief visit as a guest 
of this Government. 



JANUARY 23, 1943 



87 



Seilor Tinoco has had a distinguished career 
as a writer, educator, and leader in public af- 
fairs. Following the completion of his legal 
studies in Costa Rica, Seiior Tinoco came to the 
United States for two years of graduate study 
at Columbia University and Georgetown Uni- 
versity. He has published a number of out- 
standing studies on Costa Rican economic and 
financial questions. His academic career in- 
cluded appointments as professor of political 
economy in the School of Law and the National 
School of Agriculture. Prior to his appointment 
as Minister of Education, Seiior Tinoco served 
as a Deputy in the Costa Rican Congress and 



was at one time Under Secretary of Finance and 
Commerce. 

During his visit Seiior Tinoco will meet with 
government officials and leaders in the field of 
education. 

[Released to the press January 21] 

Seiior Jose Carrasco, editor of El Diario, of 
La Paz, Bolivia, the oldest newspaper in the 
Bolivian capital, arrived at Washington on Jan- 
uary 20 as a guest of the Department of State. 
Seiior Carrasco will visit leading newspapers in 
different parts of the country, principally in 
Washington, New York, Chicago, and Los 
Angeles. 



Treaty Information 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreement With Mexico Regarding Military 
Service by Nationals of Either Country Resid- 
ing in the Other 

[Released to the press January 23] 

The Department of State announced on Jan- 
uary 23 that an agreement had been reached be- 
tween the Government of the United States and 
the Government of Mexico regulating military 
service by nationals of either country residing 
in the territory of the other. The text of the 
agreement was proposed in a note which Dr. 
Ezequiel Padilla, Mexican Foreign Minister, ad- 
dressed to the Embassy of the United States at 
Mexico, D.F., on January 22, 1943, and the 
agreement was made effective by a note of the 
same date from the Embassy to the Mexican 
Foreign Office. 

Dr. Padilla stated in his note that the con- 
versations between representatives of the two 
Governments which led up to the agi-eement 
were in complete harmony with the excellent 
relations which unite our two republics in the 
war effort. A translation of the Mexican note 
and the text of the American reply thereto 
follow : 



The Mexican Foreign Minister to the American 
Charge in Mexico, D. F. 

Mr. Ch^vrge d'Atfaires : 

I have the honor to refer to the negotiations 
effected for the purpose of reaching an agree- 
ment regulating certain aspects of the perform- 
ance of military service by nationals of our two 
countries residing in the territory of the other 
country. 

The conversations held to date elicit not only 
the natural interest with which the authorities 
of both nations view this matter but also their 
determination to reach a satisfactory agreement 
which will coincide with the excellent relations 
which bind our two republics. 

In view of the foregoing I beg to propose 
for the consideration of the Government of 
the United States of America, through your 
esteemed mediacy, the following proposed 
arrangement : 

I. The nationals of either country resident 
within the territory of the other may be reg- 
istered and inducted into the armed forces of 
the country of their residence on the same con- 
ditions as the nationals thereof unless other- 
wise provided herein. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



n. Nationals of either country residing in 
the other shall be accorded the same rights and 
privileges as nationals of the country of resi- 
dence. In the selection and induction into their 
armed forces of nationals of the other country 
the authorities of the respective countries shall 
take into account on the same basis as if their 
own nationals were involved the physical con- 
dition and health of the individuals concerned, 
their civil status, their financial dependents, re- 
gardless of the place of residence, and any other 
circumstances which under the laws and regu- 
lations in force in the country of residence 
■would apply in selecting and inducting na- 
tionals of the latter country. 

III. Nationals of either country in the terri- 
tory of the other country for purposes of study 
and with the intention of returning to the coun- 
try of which they are nationals upon the termi- 
nation of such study shall upon establishing 
such facts in accordance with existing selec- 
tive service laws and regulations be relieved 
from the obligation of military service. 

IV. Nationals of either country who under 
the immigration laws of the other country are 
technical residents of that country known as 
"border crossers" shall for military service pur- 
poses be considered residents of the country in 
which they actually live. 

V. Officials and employees of either country 
residing in the other whose official status has 
been notified to the Government of the coun- 
try in which they are residing and accepted by 
that Government shall not be considered for 
military service purposes as residents of the 
coimtry in which they are residing. 

VI. Each Government in so far as necessi- 
ties imposed by the war eifort permit will fur- 
nish the other Government with information 
concerning its nationals who have registered 
for or been inducted into the military service. 

VII. Nationals of either country serving in 
the armed forces of the other country shall re- 
ceive the same treatment and have equal oppor- 
tunities with respect to commissions, promo- 



tions and other incidents of military service as 
are accorded by that country in confoi-mity with 
military law and practice to its nationals. 

VIII. Representatives of either Government 
shall have the right to assist their nationals 
serving in the military forces of the other in all 
matters relating to their welfare including, but 
not limited to, the payment of pensions, gratui- 
ties, indemnities or other benefits to them or 
their dependents wherever the latter may be 
resident. 

IX. Nationals of each country who have been 
registered for or inducted into the army of the 
other country, in accordance with the military 
service laws of the latter, and who have not 
declared their intention to acquire the citizen- 
ship of the country in which they reside, shall, 
upon being designated by the country of which 
they are nationals, and with their consent, be 
released for military service in its forces pro- 
vided that this has no prejudicial effect on the 
common war effort. The procedure for the 
transportation and turning over of these per- 
sons will be agreed upon by the appropriate 
authorities of the two countries who are em- 
powered to bring about the objectives desired. 

X. The understandings in the foregoing ar- 
rangement shall be in effect as of today for the 
duration of the present war and six months 
thereafter. 

Should the Government of the United States 
of America be in agreement with the foregoing 
text I consider that your affirmative reply to 
the present note shall be sufficient for the ar- 
rangement to enter immediately into effect. 

I take [etc.] Ezequiel Padilla 

The American Charge in Mexico^ D. F., to the 
Mex-ican Foreign Minister 

Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to Your Excellency's 
note of January 22, 1943 concerning an agree- 
ment between the Governments of Mexico and 
the United States of America relating to mili- 



JANtJART 23, 1943 



tary service of the nationals of either country 
residing in the other country, which reads 
textually, in translation, as follows : 

I. The nationals of either country resident 
within the territory of the other may be regis- 
tered and inducted into the armed forces of the 
country of their residence on the same condi- 
tions as the nationals thereof unless otherwise 
provided herein. 

II. Nationals of either country residing in 
the other shall be accorded the same rights and 
privileges as nationals of the country of resi- 
dence. In the selection and induction into their 
armed forces of nationals of the other country 
the authorities of the respective countries shall 
take into account on the same basis as if their 
own nationals were involved the physical con- 
dition and healtli of the individuals concerned, 
their civil status, their financial dependents, re- 
gardless of the place of residence, and any other 
circumstances which under the laws and regu- 
lations in force in the country of residence would 
apply in selecting and inducting nationals of 
the latter country. 

III. Nationals of either country in the terri- 
tory of the other country for purposes of study 
and with the intention of returning to the 
country of which they are nationals upon the 
termination of such study shall upon establish- 
ing such facts in accordance with existing se- 
lective service laws and regulations be relieved 
from the obligation of military service. 

IV. Nationals of either country who under 
the immigration laws of the other country are 
technical residents of that country known as 
"border crossers" shall for military service pur- 
poses be considered residents of the country in 
which they actually live. 

V. Officials and employees of either country 
residing in the other whose official status has 
been notified to the Government of the country 
in which they are residing and accepted by that 
Government shall not be considered for military 
service purposes as residents of the counti7 in 
which they are residing. 



YI. Each Government in so far as necessities 
imposed by the war effort permit will furnish 
the other Government with information con- 
cerning its nationals who have registered for or 
been inducted into the military service. 

VII. Nationals of either country serving in 
the armed forces of the otiier country shall re- 
ceive the same treatment and have equal op- 
portunities with respect to commissions, promo- 
tions and other incidents of military service as 
are accorded by that country in conformity with 
military law and practice to its nationals. 

VIII. Representatives of either Government 
shall have the right to assist their nationals 
serving in the military forces of the other in all 
matters relating to their welfare including, but 
not limited to, the payment of pensions, gratui- 
ties, indemnities or other benefits to them or 
their dependents wherever the latter may be 
resident. 

IX. Nationals of each country who have been 
registered for or inducted into the army of the 
other country, in accordance with the military 
service laws of the latter, and who have not 
declared their intention to acquire the citizen- 
ship of the country in which they reside, shall, 
upon being designated by the country of which 
they are nationals, and with their consent, be 
released for military service in its forces pro- 
vided that this has no prejudicial effect on the 
conamon war effort. The procedure for the 
transportation and turning over of these per- 
sons will be agreed upon by the appropriate 
authorities of the two countries who ai'e em- 
powered to bring about the objectives desired. 

X. The understandings in the foregoing ar- 
rangement shall be in effect as of today for the 
duration of the present war and six months 
thereafter. 

The above text has been submitted to my 
Government and has been found entirely ac- 
ceptable. It is the belief of the United States 
Government that this agreement adds further 
testimony to the mutual desire of our respective 
countries to unite their efforts as members of 



90 

the United Nations in prosecuting the war and 
achieving the victory. 
Accept [etc.] Herbert S. Burslet 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXniLETIN 



ALLIANCE 
Declaration by United Nations 

The text of notes exchanged between the 
Minister of Iraq and the Secretary of State 
concerning the adherence by Iraq to the Declara- 
tion by United Nations appears in this Bulletin 
under the heading "The War". 



Publications 



Department of State 

Commercial Relations : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and the Dominican Republic 
Relating to Waiver In Respect of Tariff Preferences 
Accorded Haiti by the Dominican Republic Under a 
Treaty of Commerce Between the Dominican Republic 
and Haiti Signed August 26, 1941, as Modified by an 
Exchange of Notes Signed March 24, 194^— Effected 
by exchange of notes signed November 14, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 274. Publication 1856. 
4 pp. 50. 



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PDBLISHED WEEKLI WITH THE APPEOVAt, OP THE DIRBCTOE OF THE BUKEAD Or THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



JANUARY 30, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 188— Publication 1870 



C 



ontents 




The Wak Page 

The Casablanca Conference 93 

Visit of President Roosevelt to Liberia 94 

Meeting in Brazil of President Roosevelt and President 

Vargas 95 

United Nations Discussion Series: Message From the 

Secretaiy of State 96 

Address by the American Ambassador to Great Britain 
Before the United States Council of State Govern- 
ments 96 

Agreement With Belgium Providing Aid to the United 

States and Its Ai-med Forces 102 

Director of Relief in North Africa 103 

American Republics 

Address by the Under Secretary of State on the Fiftieth 

Anniversary of the Death of James G. Blaine . . 104 

United States Mission of Labor Experts to Bolivia . . 107 
The Department 

Budget Recommendations for the Department of State, 

1944 108 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Jay Pierrepont Motfat: Statement by the 

Secretary of State 110 

Treaty Information 

Finance: Conventions of the First and Second Inter- 
national Conferences for the Unification of Laws 
on Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, and 

Cheques HI 

[ovkrI 



•I, "5. gyPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMEHlfa 

r3 13 1943 







ontents-coNTiNVED 



Treaty Information — Continued Paca 
International Law: Conventions of the Second South 

American Congress en International Private Law . 1 12 
Naval Mission: Agreement With the Dominican 

Repubhc 113 

Mutual Guaranties: Agreement With Belgium . ... 113 

Publications 

Issue of Study Entitled A^aiionai SociaKsm 113 



The War 



THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE 



On January 26, 1943, at 10 p.m., ewt, the 
following communique, cabled from Casablanca, 
Morocco, was made public: 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Minister of Great Britain have been in 
conference near Casablanca since January 14. 

They were accompanied by the combined 
Chiefs of Staff of the two countries; namely — 

For the United States: 

Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of 
the United States Army; Admiral Ernest J. 
King, Commander in Chief of the United States 
Navy ; Lt. Gen. H. H. Arnold, commanding the 
United States Army Air Forces; and 

For Great Britain: 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, First 
Sea Lord ; Gen. Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the 
Imperial General Stall'; and Air Chief Marshal 
Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff. 

These were assisted by: 

Lt. Gen. B. B. Somervell, Commanding Gen- 
eral of the Services of Supply, United States 
Army; Field Marshal Sir John Dill, head of 
the British Joint Staff Mission in Washington; 
Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief 
of Combined Operations; Lt. Gen. Sir Hastings 
Ismay, Chief of Staff to the Office of the jNIin- 
ister of Defense, together with a number of 
staff officers of both countries. 

They have received visits from Mr. Murphy 
(Robert Murphy, United States Minister to 
French North Africa ^) and Mr. MacMillan 



' Mr. Murphy is the President's Personal Repre- 
sentative with the ranlv of Minister, and Chief Civil 
Affairs Officer. 



(Harold MacMillan, British Resident Minister 
for Allied Headquarters in North Africa) ; 
from Lt. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Com- 
nuinder in Chief of the Allied E.xpeditionary 
Force in North Africa; from Admiral of the 
Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, naval com- 
mander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in 
North Africa; from Maj. Gen. Carl Spaatz, air 
commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force 
in North Africa ; from Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark, 
United States Army (Commander of the 
United States Fifth Army in Tunisia), and, 
from Middle East Headquarters, from Gen. Sir 
Harold Alexander, Air Chief Marshal Sir 
Arthur Tedder and Lt. Gen. F. M. Andrews, 
United States Army. 

The President was accompanied by Harry 
Hopkins (Chairman of the British- American 
Munitions Assignments Board) and was joined 
by "W. Averell Harriman (United States 
Defense Expediter in England). 

With the Prime Minister was Lord Leathers, 
British Minister of War Transport. 

For 10 days the combined staffs have been in 
constant session, meeting 2 or 3 times a day and 
recording progress at intervals to the President 
and the Prime Minister. 

The entire field of the war was surveyed 
theater by theater throughout the world, and 
all resources were marshaled for a more intense 
prosecution of the war by sea, land, and air. 

Nothing like this prolonged discussion be- 
tween two allies has ever taken place before. 
Complete agreement was reached between the 
leaders of the two countries and their respec- 
tive staffs upon war plans and enterprises to be 
undertaken during the campaigns of 1943 



94 



against Germany, Italy, and Japan with a view 
to drawing the utmost advantage from the 
markedly favorable turn of events at the close 
of 1942. 

Premier Stalin was cordially invited to meet 
the President and the Prime Minister, in which 
case the meeting would have been held very 
much farther to the east. He was unable to 
leave Eussia at this time on account of the 
great offensive which he himself, as Com- 
mander in Chief, is directing. 

The President and the Prime Minister 
realized up to the full the enormous weight of 
the war which Russia is successfully bearing 
along her whole land front, and their prime 
object has been to draw as much weight as 
possible off the Russian armies by engaging 
the enemy as heavily as possible at the best 
selected points. 

Premier Stalin has been fully informed of 
the military proposals. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUliETIN 

The President and the Prime Minister have 
been in communication with Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek. They have apprised him of 
the measures which they are undertaking to 
assist him in China's magnificent and unrelax- 
ing struggle for the common cause. 

The occasion of the meeting between the 
President and the Prime Minister made it op- 
portune to invite Genei'al Giraud (General 
Henri Honore Giraud, High Commissioner of 
French Africa) to confer with the Combined 
Chiefs of Staff and to arrange for a meeting 
between him and General de Gaulle (General 
Charles de Gaulle, Fighting French Com- 
mander). The two generals have been in close 
consultation. 

The President and the Prime Minister and 
their combined staffs, having completed their 
plans for the offensive campaigns of 1943, have 
now separated in order to put them into active 
and concerted execution. 



VISIT OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO LIBERIA 



[Released to the press by the White House January 28] 

The following despatch, datelined Monrovia, 
Liberia, January 28, 1943, has been received in 
Washington : ^ 

In order to pay his respects to President Ed- 
win Barclay and to review a large detachment 
of American Negro troops. President Roosevelt 
paused here in Liberia en route home from the 
historic Casablanca war-council meeting. The 
Chief Executive while in the African state, 
which was founded by Negro freedmen from the 
United States in 1822, also took advantage of 
this opportunity to inspect the large Firestone 
rubber plantation. Tliis American-sponsored 
project at present is not only supplying the 
United States annually with very many pounds 
of critical war material but is steadily increas- 
ing its output. President Roosevelt and his 
party, traveling in two large four-motor planes 



'The despatch was signed by Capt. George Durno, 
Air Corps, U.S.A., former White House correspondent 
for the International News Service. 



of the Transport Command of the Army Air 
Forces landed at Roberts Field about 50 miles 
from Monrovia. The party was greeted there 
by the Commanding General of the Air Trans- 
port Command, Middle East Wing, Brig. Gen. 
S. W. Fitzgerald ; the Commanding General of 
the Central African Service of Supply, Brig. 
Gen. James F. C. Hyde; Col. Frank H. Collms; 
and Col. Thomas L. Hardin. The presidential 
party, after freshening up, was escorted to the 
officers' mess hall, where President Barclay and 
Clarence L. Simpson, Liberian Secretary of 
State, were waiting with Frederick P. Hibbard, 
United States Charge d'Affaires. Included in 
the luncheon party were Chairman of the 
British-American Munitions Assignment Board, 
Harry L. Hopkins; Surgeon General of the 
Navy and White House physician. Rear Ad- 
miral Ross T. Mclntire ; and Naval Aide to the 
President, Capt. John L. McCrea. After lunch 
President Roosevelt and President Barclay got 
into a jeep and bounced out to the parade 
ground where the Forty-first Engineers and a 



JAITOARY 30, 1943 



95 



part of the Defense Detacliment under the com- 
mand of Col. A. A. Kirchoff were lined up at 
attention. The hand rendered full honors and 
played both national anthems, after which the 
Presidents toured up and down the lines mak- 
ing a careful inspection. The General Man- 
ager of the Firestone plantation, Mr. George 
Seybold, then took over the party and, driving 
through African villages with their picturesque 
circular adobe huts with straw-thatched roofs, 
guided them to tlie great rubber plantation. 
This plantation has 69,000 acres under intensive 
cultivation. Manv of the 18,000 natives, em- 



ployed by Firestone, were seen. There were 
thousands of acres of new rubber shoots. In 
the mature growths, tapping was in full swing, 
and the President saw the latex running into 
the cups. President Roosevelt and Prime Min- 
ister Churchill, upon conclusion of the Casa- 
blanca conference, had motored to Marrakech, 
some 150 miles to the south. They spent the 
night in that very old Berber and Arab town 
nestled at the foot of the Atlas Mountains. 
The two leaders parted the following day; 
President Roosevelt then flew to Liberia with 
but one intervening stop. 



MEETING IN BRAZIL OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND PRESIDENT VARGAS 



(Released to tlie pres.s by the White House January ;!0] 

The President of Brazil and the President of 
the United States met on January 28 at an un- 
announced location in Brazil. The two Presi- 
dents hud lunch together and inspected and re- 
viewed Army, Navy, and air forces of the two 
nations. They passed the evening in confer- 
ence on problems of the World War as a whole 
and especially the joint Brazilian - United 
States effort. They discussed the continuing 
submarine danger from the Caribbean to the 
South Atlantic. President Vargas announced 
gi-eatly increased eflPorts on the part of his 
country to meet this menace. President 
Roosevelt informed his colleague of the very 
significant results of the conference in Casa- 
blanca and of the resolve that the peace to come 
must not allow the Axis to attack civilization 
in future years. Mr. Roosevelt demonstrated 
that the North African expedition has for the 
present eliminated the possibility of the threat 
of a German-held Dakar to American freedom 
at the narrow point of the Atlantic. Both 
President Vargas and President Roosevelt are 
in complete agreement that it must be perma- 
nently and definitely assured that the coasts of 
West Africa and Dakar never again under any 
circiunstances be allowed to become a blockade 
or an invasion threat against the two Americas. 
The two Presidents said : 



''This meeting has given us an opportunity to 
survey the future safety of all the Americas. 
In our opinion each of the Republics is inter- 
ested and affected to an equal degree. In unity 
there is strength. It is the aim of Brazil and 
of the United States to make the Atlantic 
Ocean safe for all. We are deeply grateful for 
the almost unanimous help that our neighbors 
are giving to the great cause of democracy 
throughout the world." 

The above statement is supplemented by the 
following "Memorandum for the Press" from 
President Roosevelt : 

President Roosevelt believed that the Casa- 
blanca Conference was so vital to the war ef- 
fort that he should delay for a short time his 
return to the United States so that he might 
talk informally to President Vargas of Brazil 
about the conference and discuss several details 
of additional mutual aid. President Roosevelt 
on his journey to Africa and on his return has 
had many opportunities to visit and inspect 
vital points of the "Ferry Command" which is 
doing a most difficult job every day in sending 
planes and quantities of vital equipment from 
America to the Middle East, to North Africa, 
to Russia, to the air squadrons in China, and to 
the Burma front. 

The Presidents of the two nations, the United 
States and Brazil, are old friends, and their 
talks were timely and profitable in every way. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



UNITED NATIONS DISCUSSION SERIES' 



Message From the 

[Released to the press January 25] 

I am happy to send my greetings to those 
participating in the United Nations Discus- 
sion Series. 

The nature of the peace settlements con- 
chided at the end of the present conflict will 
fundamentally depend upon the deep desires 
and underlying conviction of the great rank and 
file of peoples which make up the United Na- 
tions. It is therefore of profound importance 
that the peoples of each of these United Na- 
tions should understand the thoughts, the ideals, 
and the purposes of the others. 

We are united in fighting to free and keep 
free our country and all countries from such 
tyranny and slavery as the Axis powers seek 
to impose. We must likewise stand united, 
beyond the victory, in the performance of the 
great tasks of peace. Our unity of purpose 
must be based upon two unalterable resolves: 



Secretary of State 

to destroy utterly the forces of dictatorship, 
tyranny, and inhumanity as exampled today in 
Germany and Italy and Japan ; and, once that 
is accomplished, to press forward with the task 
of building human freedom and Christian mo- 
rality on firmer and broader foundations than 
ever before. 

The peoples of the other United Nations 
have much to give to us by way of ideals, of 
cultural and material aspirations. We have 
much to give to them. The series of lectures 
which you have organized will, I feel sure, con- 
tribute to a clearer mutual understanding and, 
therefore, to a sense of closer international co- 
operation. If we are to build stable founda- 
tions for lasting peace, all of us, everywliere, 
must move progressively toward the insistent 
fact that all mankind is inescapably united in 
a brotherhood of liberty and civilized advance- 
ment. 



ADDRESS BY THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO GREAT BRITAIN BEFORE THE 
UNITED STATES COUNCIL OF STATE GOVERNMENTS = 



[Released to the press January 25] 

Governor O'Connor, Ladies and Gentlemen : 
It is a pleasure to meet with you tonight in 
Baltimore. I never think of this city that I 
am not reminded of Johns Hopkins, that great 
institution that has pioneered in the field of 
medicine and surgery and has contributed so 
much to the understanding of government. In 
our efforts at healing and efficient servicing of 
the people we find here a goodly meeting place. 
Twelve years ago, when the peoples of the 
world were pressing to discover ways and 
means to give effective expression to their eco- 
nomic and political needs at home and to in- 
sure peace abroad, we established the Council 
of State Governments. We felt that we could 
organize an agency or secretariat that would 

'Held at Constitution Hall, Washington, D.C. 
' Delivered by the Honorable John G. Winant in 
Baltimore, Md., Jan. 25, 1943. 



permit exchange of legislative and adminis- 
trative experience including techniques and 
procedures and assist in coordinating and inte- 
grating State governments with Federal agen- 
cies and in doing so we could eliminate waste 
and duplication and make more realistic the 
servicing of democratic institutions. 

The Council of State Governments was or- 
ganized in a period of peace. It has already 
proved itself an essential agency of govern- 
ment in this time of emergency and war, and 
I look for its continuing development and 
further usefulness when the ways of peace have 
once more been reestablished. 

In trying to make some small contribution to 
this evening's meeting, and knowing your deep 
interest in both the mechanics of government 
and general policy, I will try to state in general 
terms the unity of purpose which underlies the 



JANUARY 30, 1943 

British civil organization for total war and to 
show some of the interrelations between the 
various measures adopted in regard to labor, 
taxation, finance, manufacturing and service 
industries, food and nutrition, and social wel- 
fare. Several times State governments have 
asked our Embassy in London to furnish cer- 
tain information which we have in every in- 
stance been able to supply, although I have 
sometimes wondered if the particular facts 
wanted when separated from a related policy 
would be fully understood and correctly 
evaluated. 

In trying to understand the British war ef- 
forts, I think it is well to remember that they 
have been fighting for over 3 years; that the 
enemy is only 18 miles from their shores; that 
their manpower is more limited than our own 
and yet at the same time there is greater con- 
centration of population in a limited area. All 
these factors influence defense, production, and 
administration. In England both men and 
women are conscripted. Since the war began. 
I have been in England many times and during 
the last 2 years in almost continuous residence. 
I believe Great Britain is more efficiently and 
effectively organized, armed, and equipped both 
on the military front and on the civil front than 
at any time since the war began. We have had 
our share in this, and many here know that their 
boys today are somewhere in the British Isles. 
These boys brought with them a sense of 
strength and security' and in their stay there 
are building good-will for all future time. No 
allied army was every more genuinelj' welcomed 
in a foreign land, and soldiers have never 
carried themselves with greater credit to their 
families and to the nation they represent. 

The coordination of government on the non- 
military front has been brought about by a 
Cabinet committee, known as the Lord-Presi- 
dent's Committee, which the Prime Minister 
once referred to as "almost a parallel Cabinet 
concerned with home affairs". A number of 
ministers of Cabinet rank are regular membei-s 
and others are invited when concerned, or as 
may be convenient. Wlienever a matter affect- 
ing a particular ministry is involved, a repre- 



97 



sentative of that ministry is present. Because 
of this committee, the British war economy has 
been hindered to a surprisingly small extent by 
jurisdictional conflicts. Of course the Commit- 
tee should not be conceived of as one which pre- 
pares blueprints for the departments and 
agencies to put into effect. Rather it resolves 
differences, deals with competing claims and 
overlapping, inconsistencies between details of 
policies in different parts of the war economy, 
and gaps in the whole program. Only on half 
a dozen occasions have the differences and the 
problems with which tliey have dealt had to 
be referred to the Prime Minister and the War 
Cabinet. 

Manpower is one of the most vital as well as 
one of the most efficient parts of Britain's war 
effort. The policy followed has been a judicious 
mixture of general planning in advance and 
quick adaptation. The fundamental impor- 
tance of a satisfactory adjustment between the 
demands of the armed forces and those of war 
production may be illustrated by the fact that 
in this war 125 workers are needed in Great 
Britain in munitions for every 100 in the fight- 
ing services, whereas in the last war the ratio 
was only 65 : 100. The pitfall into which some 
countries have fallen during the war — and into 
which Britain fell in the early years of the last 
war — of diverting into the armed forces a large 
quantity of skilled labor indispensable to war- 
time industry was largely avoided by the adop- 
tion, as a result of pre-war planning, of the 
Schedule of Reserved Occupations. AVhen con- 
scription was adopted, and in the earlier stages 
of the war, this provided for the exemption 
temporarily or permanently of whole occupa- 
tional groups from military service. Block 
reservations apply now to only two or three 
classifications. 

This Schedule has been shaped into a flexible 
instrument to check indiscriminate enlistment 
of skilled men. It has not set up permanent 
block exemptions. Individuals could and still 
can make application to volunteer for the armed 
forces, and each case is considered on its merits. 
Next, a Register of Protected Establishments 
was set up. The "protected establisliments" 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



were those that were engaged in work of im- 
portance to the war effort. Differential age 
limits for reservation were set up for protected 
and unprotected establishments. To take an 
imaginary case, workers above 25 might be tem- 
porarily or permanently exempted in protected 
establishments and only workers above 35 in^ 
unprotected establishments. Later, as the needs 
of the forces increased and the regional ma- 
chinery of the Ministry of Labor was ex- 
panded, individual cases were scrutinized and 
workers in scheduled occupations who were in 
jobs not of first importance for the war effort 
or in jobs where they could be replaced by 
women or older men were drawn off either to 
other jobs indispensable to the war effort or 
into the armed forces. 

In this way the scheduling of occupations 
and establishments was no guaranty that the 
workers involved would be permanently ex- 
empted from enlistment, nor did it prevent them 
from making application to volunteer. Changes 
were made in ages of reservations; individual 
cases at all ages were subsequently examined. 

It is important to emphasize this point be- 
cause in the United States there seems to have 
been a feeling that this system could not be 
adopted because of the draft law. There seems 
to have been a mistaken impression that the 
sy&iem implies permanent block reservation. 
But in fact it could probably be represented in 
a legal sense to be merely temporary reserva- 
tion on an individual basis. 

The British system has provided the neces- 
sary elasticity for adjusting the needs of the 
armed forces to the needs of wartime produc- 
tion. Britain has been able both to raise a 
large fighting force and to reach an astonish- 
ingly high level of war production. 

The ever-increasing demands for labor in 
war work and essential related industries led to 
the adoption of a series of measures which 
have brought a complete mobilization of labor 
in war industries in Britain. 

The vital task of obtaining information on 
the whereabouts and composition of the labor 
force was begun early by supplementing the 



annual count under the insurance scheme with 
quarterly returns from employers in the muni- 
tions industries. The classification required in 
the questionnaire was of a relatively simple 
kind; extremely elaborate classification would 
have broken down. This was followed by a 
steady extension of the scope of compulsory 
registration. There were special registra- 
tions of skilled workers by occupational groups 
and a general compulsory registration by age 
classes under the Kegistration for Employment 
Order. 

The needs of the war economy required that 
some types of movement should be facilitated 
and others restricted. As an aid to securing 
both of these objectives all engagement of 
workers in a number of occupations had to be 
made through the Employment Exchanges. 
A National Labor Supply Board with local 
committees was established and Inspectors of 
Labor Supply were appointed. These agen- 
cies worked closely with the Employment Ex- 
changes and with the Supply departments. 

When the ground had been sufficiently pre- 
pared the Essential "Work Order was adopted 
as the chief means of preventing undesirable 
and facilitating desirable movements of labor. 
This order can be applied to an occupation and 
to an establishment at the discretion of the 
Minister of Labor. 

The essence of the Essential Work Order is 
I hat it prevents employers from dismissing 
workers and workers from leaving their jobs 
except with the consent of a National Service 
Officer. It can be applied to an industry and 
to a firm at the discretion of the Minister of 
Labor, and it now covers some 56,000 estab- 
lishments and 7,000,000 workers in 120 in- 
dustries. 

The importance of this measure cannot be 
overestimated. Efficient war economy requires 
not merely a large total supply of labor but 
effective distribution of labor. 

The measures just outlined do not complete 
the picture. It was necessary to utilize to 
maximum advantage women workers and male 
workers over military age and younger men 



JANUART 30, 1943 

rejected from the Army on medical grounds, 
in industries not scheduled under the Essential 
War Order. The Registration for Employ- 
ment Order was used for this purpose. These 
groups were required to register with the Em- 
ployment Exchanges and were called up for 
examination on an individual basis with a view 
to their direction into work of national im- 
portance. The Employment Exchanges ar- 
range to transfer those who are clearly engaged 
in unimportant work. Women in many cases 
were directed into gainful work for the first 
time. Persuasion and voluntary action is tried 
successfully in most cases, but compulsion can 
be used. 

The main purpose of the Concentration of 
Industry Program was to release labor for es- 
sential war work. The chief criterion in 
closing plants is not the efficiency of the plant 
but its location and the types of skill of its 
workers considered in relation to the needs of 
war production. The program necessitates 
curtailment of civilian supplies, and thus there 
is a close link between labor-mobilization and 
the regulation of the consumption of the 
civilian population. 

There has been no "ceiling" on wages and no 
"freezing" of wages in Great Britain. But a 
series of measures extending into different 
parts of the war economy have kept wages 
within reasonable limits. Roughly speaking, 
wage rates in industries other than agriculture 
rose on an average about 28 percent; with 
agriculture included the average was about 31 
percent. The larger part of this increase was 
in the earlier part of the war. Earnings have 
risen nearly 48 percent. 

But a large part of these increases did not 
enter into expenditure. Only about half the 
total of personal money incomes in Great 
Britain have been spent on consumption. The 
level of taxation, the amount of savings, and 
the effects of rationing and scarcities of con- 
sumer goods exercise an extraordinarily re- 
strictive effect on spending and thus on infla- 
tionary tendencies. 

Some elasticity of wage rates has proved to 
be essential to an efficient war economy. The 

608837 — 13 2 



99 



restrictions on the movements of workers de- 
scribed in the preceding section could not have 
been imposed in the case of some industries if 
wage levels in those industries had been frozen. 
It has been necessary to raise wages substan- 
tially in agriculture and coal-mining and to 
some extent in shipbuilding; otherwise workers 
could not have been prevented from leaving 
those occupations without causing serious un- 
rest. 

In general, however, demands for wage in- 
creases have been restrained within narrow lim- 
its for a long time. This may be attributed to 
the following : 

(a) The Essential Work Order, which has 
had the effect of restraining employers from 
competitive bidding for labor. 

(b) The early imposition of an Excess Prof- 
its Tax of 100 percent. Wliatever technical ar- 
guments may be advanced against such a high 
rate, the fact remains that it had a great psy- 
chological effect in reconciling the trade unions 
to a policy of restraint in wage demands. No 
lower rate would have sufficed for this purpose. 
To this should be added the unprecedentedly 
high rates of income tax and other taxes on 
high-income groups. 

(c) The maintenance of the cost-of-living 
index at a stable level. 

(d) The equitable and efficient system of ra- 
tioning and price-control of food and some 
other basic necessities. 

(e) The prohibition of strikes and lock-outs 
with the agreement of organized labor. 

(f) The giving of a statutory and binding 
effect to the awards of the National Arbitration 
Tribunal. 

The importance of holding down prices of 
basic necessities of everyday consumption can 
hardly be overemphasized. Some three million 
British workers had wage contracts linked to 
the cost-of-living index. Not less important, 
however, is the effect on lower-income groups in 
general of rises in the prices of necessities which 
the British have tried to control. Therefore, 
vigorous and successful measures were taken to 
deal with prices and supplies of necessities. 



100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The precise methods of price-control vary with 
diflFerent commodities. British experience dem- 
onstrates, however, that satisfactory price-con- 
trol can only be achieved when the Government 
gets control of supplies and distribution. In 
some cases this has been first applied at a "bottle- 
neck" through which supplies have to pass be- 
tween the production and consumption stages — 
for example, the slaughter houses in the case of 
meat, the Milk Marketing Board in the case of 
milk, the flour mills in the case of flour. In 
some cases control was established by licensing 
first-hand sellers and distributors. All imports 
are purchased by the Government. Home food 
produce is purchased by the Ministry of Food 
or by a body designated by it. At some periods 
limits are set, however, to the amounts of some 
products which the Ministry will buy. This 
tends to produce an even flow of supplies. 
Some 70 percent in value of the Ministry's pur- 
chases are paid for at fixr-d prices. 

As regards first-hand distribution, firms are 
employed in some sort of association in the case 
of most products and are paid by the Ministry. 
Processors' and distributors' margins are also 
regulated in many ways. 

But in wartime there is an unavoidable rise 
in some costs. Therefore, in order to prevent 
the cost-of-living index and the prices of basic 
foods from rising, subsidies are used to cover 
the costs of certain foods. Since the Ministry 
directly or through its agents buys all imported 
and a large part of liome-produced foodstuffs 
this means that its selling price is lower than 
its buying price for the products subsidized. 

The subsidized products include meat, milk, 
cheese, butter, bread, and potatoes, and this in- 
cludes the foods most indispensable from a nu- 
tritional point of view. The subsidies are vital 
to the health and efficiency of the low-income 
groups, to the Government's wage policy, and to 
public morale. The money cost to the Ex- 
chequer has been repaid many times over by the 
stability which they have introduced into the 
war economy through savings to consumers in 
living costs. 



The prices and supplies of clothing and most 
articles of civilian consumption other than food 
are regulated through the Board of Trade. 
Thus two departments — the Ministry of Food 
and the Board of Trade — control almost aU 
civilian consumption. This set-up differs fun- 
damentally from the war organization that we 
adopted. Under the British system control of 
supplies, control of prices, and rationing are 
placed in the same liands. British administra- 
tors have little faith in price ceilings with legal 
penalties for violations unless at the same time 
Government control is established over supplies 
and distribution and is administered through 
the same department as that which controls the 
prices. 

For a wide range of consumers' goods in 
scarce sujjply the British have not merely con- 
trolled supply and the chamiels of distribution 
but also by rationing have controlled final con- 
sumer demand. Rationing was necessary (1) 
to make price-control effective, (2) to insure 
equitable distribution, and (3) as part of a 
nutrition program designed to insure to every- 
one a proper share of foods of outstanding 
nutritional importance. 

Rationing is an outstanding success in the 
British war economy. This is agreed both by 
those who have studied it objectively and by 
those who have lived under it. Methods of 
rationing have been adapted to meet the dif- 
ferent conditions of demand and supply of 
different products and the differing nutritional 
importance of different foods. 

There are three main forms of rationing. 
The first consists in a fixed amount of a single 
product per period of time — for example, a 
weekly ration per person of 2 ounces of butter, 
4 ounces of margarine, 8 ounces of cheese. The 
rations of some of these products have been 
changed at times — for example, in the worst 
period the cheese ration was only 2 ounces. 
But changes are not frequent and the present 
rations of this group of commodities have re- 
mained constant for some time. 



JANTTARY 30, 1943 



101 



The second form of rationing is designed to, 
deal with perishable products of fluctuating 
supply. Examples are milk and eggs. Con- 
sumers register with their retailers, and distri- 
butions are made in accordance with the sup- 
plies available in any period. The egg ration to 
adults varies from 1 to 5 per month. There is 
no marking or clipping of coupons as in the 
case of the first group. 

The third form of rationing is the points- 
rationing scheme. It covers a miscellaneous 
variety of products in short supply but no one 
of which is as indispensable and as much in 
general demand as the products covered by the 
other forms of rationing. The consumer is 
allowed at present 20 points per month. Each 
of the products is given a certain number of 
points per unit — for example, at present a can 
of grade-3 salmon and 1 pound of prunes each 
costs 8 points. The number of points given to 
each product is changed from time to time in 
accordance with changes in demand-and-supply 
conditions. 

Each of these three forms of rationing is 
designed to meet different conditions. Any at- 
tempt to apply one of them over the whole range 
of products would have had unfortunate results. 
In particulai-, any attempt to apply the points 
scheme to cover all products would lead to in- 
equities. The points system regulates ag- 
gregate demand for a group of products. It 
does not necessarily insure a minimum ration 
of any one basic indispensable food. Though 
it diminishes inequality of shopping opportu- 
nity it does not eliminate it entirely. Moreover, 
British experience shows that an individual 
fixed ration of a single essential product is 
usually taken up, even if the individual through 
bad nutritional habits did not in pre-war days 
consume as much as the wartime ration. Cheese 
consumption — vital to British wartime nutri- 
tion — is almost certainly higher on a fixed in- 
dividual ration than it would be if cheese were 
on the points scheme. 

Rationing has been used as an instrument of 
a welfare and nutrition policy. The Milk 



Scheme guarantees to each child under five and 
each nursing mother a specified quantity of 
milk if the income of the parents is below cer- 
tain levels calculated to take account of the 
number of children in the family, and at a 
specially low price if the income of the parents 
is above those levels. Children and nursing 
mothers are also given substantial priorities in 
the distribution of eggs, the price of which is 
kept low by subsidy to enable low-income groups 
to take up priority rations. Codliver oil and 
orange juice or black-currant puree or rose-hip 
puree have been distributed free for infants. 
Such oranges as have been imported have been 
wholly reserved against children's ration books. 
Food has been allocated among establishments 
so as to give larger per-capita amounts of some 
of the most important rationed foods to canteens 
in factories and workplaces, to "British restau- 
rants", and to restaurants in working-class dis- 
tricts. "British restaurants" are communal 
feeding establishments set up by local authori- 
ties with the encouragement of the Ministry of 
Food. They serve good meals for the equiva- 
lent of 20 to 25 cents. 

These and other welfare measures are closely 
related to the general anti-inflation policy, the 
price policy, and the wages policy. Welfare in- 
cluding food and nutrition measures not only 
protect health and sustain morale but reconcile 
workers to sacrifices of much that they enjoyed 
in peacetime. 

The policy of stabilizing the cost-of-living 
index including the prices of basic articles of 
food, with the aid of government subsidies 
where necessary, is fundamental to the whole 
wartime structure, both as a means of prevent- 
ing dangerous inflation and as a means of secur- 
ing, with the aid of rationing, equitable dis- 
tribution. Rationing of basic necessities with- 
out keeping down their prices with the aid of 
subsidies would lead to conditions in which low- 
income groups generally could not buy the 
rations they were entitled to under a rationing 
system. 

In conclusion and without attempting to sum- 



102 

marize the discussion, I want to again empha- 
size the uiterrelations of these policies and add 
that they have been accepted politically and are 
supported by both organized employers and 
organized labor. In spite of the compulsory 
elements in the British system you are con- 
stantly aware that the authorities assumed by 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

the Government are with the consent of the 
people and have the support of the people. The 
most moving thing in England today is its unity 
of purpose. Because of that unity, the Prime 
Minister said the other day that they could now 
"stride forward to the unknown with growing 
confidence". 



AGREEMENT WITH BELGIUM PROVIDING AID TO THE UNITED 
STATES AND ITS ARMED FORCES 



[Released to the press January 30] 

An agreement specifying the principles and 
procedures applicable to the provision of aid 
to the United States and its armed forces by 
the Government of Belgium was concluded 
January 30 by an exchange of notes between 
the Secretary of State and the Belgian Ambas- 
sador, Count Robert van der Straten Ponthoz. 
The Government of Belgium, without awaiting 
the signature of the agreement, has for some 
time been extending such aid. 

The texts of the notes, which are similar to 
those exchanged on September 3, 1942 with 
the Governments of the United Kingdom, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand,' follow : 

The Belgian Ambassador to the Secretary 
Of State 

January 30, 1943. 
Sir: 

In the United Nations declaration of January 
1, 1942, the contracting governments pledged 
themselves to employ their full resources, mili- 
tary and economic, against those nations with 
which they are at war ; and in the Agreement of 
June 16, 1942,^ each contracting government 
undertook to provide the other with such 
articles, services, facilities or information use- 
ful in the prosecution of their common war 
undertaking as each may be in a position to 
supply. It is further the understanding of the 
Government of Belgium that the general prin- 
ciple to be followed in providing mutual aid as 

' BuiXETiN of Sept. 5, 1942, p. 734. 
^Ihid., June 20, 1942, p. 551. 



set forth in the said Agreement of June 16, 
1942, is that the war production and the war 
resources of both Nations should be used by 
the armed forces of each and of the other 
United Nations in ways which most effectively 
utilize the available materials, manpower, pro- 
duction facilities and shipping space. 

With a view, therefore, to supplementing 
Article 11 and Article VI of the Agreement of 
June 16, 1942, between our two Governments 
for the provision- of reciprocal aid, I have the 
honor to set forth the understanding of the 
Government of Belgium of the principles and 
procedures applicable to the provision of aid 
by the Government of Belgium to the armed 
forces of the United States and the manner in 
which such aid will be correlated with the main- 
tenance of such forces by the United States 
Government. 

1. Tlie Government of Belgium, retaining the 
right of final decision in each case in the light 
of its potentialities and responsibilities, will 
provide the United States or its armed forces 
with the following types of assistance as such 
reciprocal aid, when it is found that they can 
most effectively be procured in Belgium or the 
Belgian Congo : 

(a) Supi^lies, materials, facilities and serv- 
ices for the United States forces, except for 
the pay and allowances of such forces, admin- 
istrative expenses, and such local purchases as 
its official establishments may make other than 
through the official establishments of the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium as specified in paragraph 2. 



JANUARY 30, 1948 

(b) Supplies, materials and services needed 
in the construction of military projects, tasks 
and similar cai)ital works required for the com- 
mon war effort in Belgium or the Belgian 
Congo, except for the wages and salaries of 
United States citizens. 

(c) Supplies, materials and services needed 
in the construction of such military projects, 
tasks and capital works in territory other than 
Belgium or the Belgian Congo or territory of 
the United States to the extent that Belgium or 
the Belgian Congo is a more practicable source 
of supply than the United States or another of 
the United Nations. 

2. The practical application of the principles 
formulated in this note, including the proce- 
dure by which requests for aid are made and 
acted upon, shall be worked out as occasion 
may require by agreement between the two Gov- 
ernments, acting when possible through their 
appropriate military or civilian administrative 
authorities. Requests by the United States 
Government for such aid will be presented by 
duly authorized authorities of the United States 
to official agencies of the Belgian Government 
which will be designated or established by the 
Government of Belgium for the purpose of fa- 
cilitating the provision of reciprocal aid. 

3. It is the understanding of the Government 
of Belgium that all such aid, as well as other 
aid, including information, received under Ar- 
ticle VI of the Agreement of June 16, 1942, ac- 
cepted by the President of the United States 
or his authorized representatives from the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium will be received as a benefit 
to the United States under the Act of March 
11, 1941. In so far as circumstances will per- 
mit, appropriate record of aid received under 
this arrangement, except for miscellaneous 
facilities and services, will be kept by each 
Government. 

If the Government of the United States con- 
curs in the foregoing, I would suggest that the 
present note and your reply to that effect be re- 
garded as placing on record the understand- 



103 

ing of our two Governments in this matter and 
that for clarity and convenience of administra- 
tion these arrangements be made retroactive to 
June 16, 1942, the date of the Agreement of the 
two Governments on the principles of mutual 
aid. 
I avail [etc.] 

Count R. VAN DER Straten Ponthoz 

The Secretary of State to the Belgian 
Ambassador 

January 30, 1943. 

ExCEU^ENCT : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note of today's date concerning the 
principles and procedures applicable to the pro- 
vision of aid by the Government of Belgium 
to the armed forces of the United States of 
America. 

In reply I wish to inform you that the Gov- 
ei'nment of the United States agrees with the 
understanding of the Government of Belgium 
as expressed in that note. In accordance with 
the suggestion contained therein, your note and 
this reply will be regarded as placing on record 
the understanding between our two Govern- 
ments in this matter. 

This further integration and strengthening of 
our common war effort gives me great satis- 
faction. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 



DIRECTOR OF RELIEF IN NORTH 
AFRICA 

[Released to the press January 29] 

It was announced at the State Department 
on January 29 that Mr. Fred K. Hoehler had 
arrived in Algeria to serve as Director of Re- 
lief in North Africa for the Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations. 

Mr. Hoehler will report to and work under 
the general direction of the Honorable Robert 
D. Murphy, Personal Representative of the 



104 

President, in Mr. Murphy's caiiacity as Chief 
Civilian Affairs Officer on General Eisen- 
hower's staff in North Africa. 

He will conduct a survey of needs in North 
Africa in connection with relief and rehabili- 
tation and administer such relief as may be 
required in behalf of the Director of Foreign 
Relief and Eehabilitation Operations. Mr. 
Hoehler was designated as Director of Eelief 
in North Africa after the death in an airplane 
crash of Mr. William Hodson while en route 
to Algeria. The Office of Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation O^jerations is dispatching ad- 
ditional personnel into North Africa to work 
with Mr. Hoehler. 

Mr. Hoehler was Director of Public Welfare 
for Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio, 
from 1927 to 1930, and from 1930 to 1935 was 
Cincinnati Safety Director. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

He is the Director of the American Public 
Welfare Association, a position which he has 
held since 1936. More recently he has been 
Executive Director of the Army and Navy Com- 
mittee on Welfare and Recreation and Con- 
sultant to the Federal Security Agency and the 
Children's Bureau of the Labor Department. 

He was a member of the American Delega- 
tion to the International Conference of Local 
Government Authorities at Berlin and Munich 
in 1936 ; a member of the American Delegation 
to the International Conference on Local Gov- 
ernment Personnel at Warsaw, Poland, in 1936 ; 
was a member of the American Delegation to the 
Pan American Congress of Municipalities at 
Santiago, Chile, in 1940 ; and a member of the 
Advisory Committee on Arrangements, Eighth 
Pan American Child Congress, at Wasliington, 
D.C., in 1942. 



American Republics 



ADDRESS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF 
OF THE DEATH OF 

[Released to the press January 27] 

We mark today the fiftieth anniversary of 
the death of James G. Blaine. We undertake 
this act of commemoration in honor of an 
American statesman who had a great vision — 
a vision which we 50 years later see, at least in 
great part, realized. 

It is singularly appropriate that these me- 
morial exercises are held in the home of the 
American nations dedicated to the great cause 
of Pan American union. 

When Secretary Blaine first became promi- 
nent in the public life of our country as one of 
the most brilliant figures ever to tread our polit- 
ical stage, the United States was still passing 
through a period in its history in which the 
American people were occupied almost ex- 



' Delivered by the Honorable Sumner Welles at the 
Pan American Union, Washington, D. C, Jan. 27, 1943. 



STATE ON THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY 
JAMES G. BLAINE ' 

clusively with questions of internal policy — 
with their own domestic affairs. They were 
engaged in expanding the development of our 
rich and varied resources and in repairing the 
ravages, social and political even more than 
economic, resulting from the war between the 
States. Relations with other nations of the 
world were of altogether secondary importance. 
Forty years before, as we all remember, the 
people of our country had paid but scant heed 
to the appeal of Henry Clay to lay the foun- 
dations for the development of closer political 
ties between the United States and the other 
republics of this hemisphere. It is true that 
the United States had manifested its sympathy 
for the American colonies to the south in their 
struggle for freedom and had also expressed 
its determination to oppose any attempt at sub- 
jugating them, but it had failed to go to their 



JANUARY 30, 1943 



105 



aid on several occasions when European na- 
tions had attempted to gain new footholds in 
the Western World or to reestablish the old 
colonial ties. 

During the generation which passed after 
our Civil War, the relations of the United 
States with the other American republics were 
almost entirely limited to commercial ex- 
change. It was then that Secretary Blaine 
came forward with his own proposal for the 
establishment of a policy of close friendship 
and collaboration with the other nations of the 
New World. 

In order to initiate this new policy, Mr. 
Blaine proposed in the year 1881 that there 
be convened at Washington a conference of 
American states in order that they miglit con- 
sult together as to how they might best main- 
tain peace between them and develop more prof- 
itable economic relations. But Mr. Blaine en- 
countered the sfitne blind opposition that had 
balked Henry Chiy when he and John Quincy 
Adams attempted to send representatives of the 
United States to attend the Congress of Pan- 
ama in 1826. Clay had to overcome the deep- 
rooted fear that participation by the United 
States in that Congress would excite the hos- 
tility of the I'owers of Europe. Secretary 
Blaine met with the same suspicion that the 
conference which he proposed would involve 
the United States in "commitments'', "alli- 
ances", and "entanglements". 

For eight j'ears there went on the discussion 
whether some grave menace to the security of 
the United States was not involved in our con- 
sulting our neighbors of the Western Hemi- 
sphere as to the best methods of maintaining 
peace in the New World and of promoting com- 
merce between the American republics. And 
the theory was advanced — a theory of which we 
still hear — that the safety of the United States 
could only be assured by the isolation of the 
^Vmerican people within the borders of their 
own country. The other American republics 
apparently, according to that doctrine, were of 
no importance to the security or the well-being 
of the people of the United States. 



It was fortunate that at length a sounder 
judgment prevailed and that our Congress final- 
ly authorized, eight years after the proposal 
had been made, the dispatch of invitations to 
an inter-American conference. 

It is a strange coincidence that this confer- 
ence was held in 1889, the year in which Adolf 
Hitler was born. That year will always be 
remembered for its association with the origin 
in its present form of Pan Americanism, a 
term instinct with the concept of democracy : 
democratic respect for human rights and liber- 
ties; democratic respect for the sovereign rights 
of every people, great or small ; democratic re- 
spect for that type of international cooperation 
which seeks the achievement of an ideal far 
greater and far more beneficial to humanity 
than narrow nationalism. And that year will 
also be remembered for its association with Hit- 
lerism, a terra synonymous with the most 
shameful form of brute force known : a force 
which would destroy our Christian civilization 
and would, had it been able, have enslaved 
mankind to serve the German master state 
which Hitler and his gang of criminals have 
created. Fortunately for humanity, that so- 
called "master state" is now confronted with no 
alternative but that of unconditional surrender 
to a far greater power: the unconquerable de- 
termination of free men and women to remain 
free. 

In the address which Secretary Blaine deliv- 
ered at the inter-American conference of 1889, 
he laid down a series of bases for the conduct 
of inter- American relations which are as valid 
today as they were when they were proposed. 

"We believe that hearty cooperation, based 
on hearty confidence, will save all American 
States from the burdens and evils which have 
long and cruelly afflicted the older nations of 
the world. 

"We believe that a spirit of justice, of com- 
mon and equal interest between the American 
States, will leave no room for an artificial bal- 
ance of power like unto that which has led to 
wars abroad and drenched Europe in blood. 



106 

"We believe that friendship, avowed with 
candor and maintained with good faith, will 
remove from American States the necessity of 
guarding boundary lines between themselves 
with fortifications and military force . . . 

"We believe that friendship and not force, 
the spirit of just law and not the violence of the 
mob, should be the recognized rule of admin- 
istration between American nations and in 
American nations." 

Since those words were uttered the Ameri- 
can republics have traveled a long road toward 
the realization of their common objective: the 
establishment of the foundations of a new com- 
munity of nations. They have not only laid 
the foundations solidly and pennanently but 
they have ilone much to build the superstruc- 
ture. The record of the past 50 years, since 
the epochal work that Secretary Blaine inaugu- 
rated passed into the hands of other American 
administrations, has not been unmarked by 
developments which were divergent from his 
own high i<k-als. There have been failures of 
statesmanship in this republic and in others, but 
where the American nations have failed they 
have invariably learned the lesson of their fail- 
ure, and they have moved forward once again 
with renewed confidence and with greater as- 
surance toward their goal. 

During the past 10 years, since President 
Roosevelt announced the policy of the Good 
Neighbor, progress has indeed been rapid. It 
has been a decade of deeds and not of words. 

Within a few years after 1933 confidence 
was established throughout the hemisphere in 
the good faith and in the justice of the motives 
of the United States. At the Inter-American 
Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, which 
was held at Buenos Aires in 1936, President 
Roosevelt himself exposed the growing menace 
to the security of the Americas which resulted 
from Hitlerism and from the policies pursued 
by the present Axis partners. In> the same 
spirit that had moved Bolivar more than 100 
years ago, he called for the unity of the 
Americas in order to safeguard the independ- 
ence and the integrity of the American nations. 
At this same conference the first steps were 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BrTLLETIN 

taken to prepare the hemisphere to repel any 
aggression which might come from overseas. 
At every inter-American meeting which has 
taken place since that time, still more practical 
and more detailed agreements have been 
reached between the American states, based, all 
of them, upon the formal recognition that an 
act of aggression on the part of a non-American 
power against any American republic is con- 
sidered as an act of aggression against every 
independent state of the New World. 

This fundamental inter-American policy was 
put to the test by the treacherous attack upon 
Pearl Harbor. The American republics, in ac- 
cordance with their agreements, immediately 
consulted together at the historic conference of 
Rio de Janeiro and recommended the severance 
of all relations between the American nations 
and the Axis powers. 

Today 12 American peoples are at war with 
the Axis countries, and 20 sovereign American 
states have carried out the commitments and 
the recommendations in which 21 voluntarily 
joined a year ago, and are cooperating to the 
full extent of their ability in insuring the pres- 
ervation of the liberty and independence of the 
New World. 

We of the Americas can justly say that in the 
truest sense we have constructed a new order. 
Not the kind of a new order which Hitlerism 
and Japanese militarism practice. Their kind 
of new order can only be carried out through 
conquest and enslavement — enslavement not 
only of the body but of the soul of man as well. 
The kind of new order which we have con- 
structed here in the New World is based on free- 
dom, on tolerance, on charity, and on under- 
standing. It is an order which tends in the 
highest sense to make possible the pursuit of 
real happiness. 

It is my hope that these same 20 American 
states, united today during this war period in 
the defense of the ideals which have brought 
them so closely together, will seize the oppor- 
tunity presented to them at the termination of 
the war jointly to demand that the same prin- 
ciples by which they are guided shall govern 
the conduct of all international relations in the 
world of the future. I am confident that they 



JANtTART 30, 1943 

recognize the vital force and justice of their 
cause. Their opportunity is great. I am per- 
suaded that thiy will avail themselves of it. 

It is not too much to say that the American 
republics must base their legitimate aspiration 
and their hope of living in a decent and peace- 
ful world in the future upon the extension of the 
principles which underlie their own great 
achievement in international living. 

Secretary Blaine would be satisfied with his 
handiwork if ho could today see the outgrowth 
of the policies which he upheld and of the plans 
wliicli he initiated. 

When the common victory of the United Na- 
tions over the Axis powers has been won, and 
when, as we hope, a true international order of 
peace and of justice shall thereafter have been 
secured, the American republics can dedicate 
their full energies to one more great challenge 
of the future: the improvement in the condition 
of their peoples. Nature has abundantly en- 
dowed the New World with the natural re- 
sources that can, through constructive develop- 
ment, bring security and happiness into the lives 
of many millions of people who now suffer from 
want. Through the extension into new fields of 
the same principles of international cooperation 
that underlie the determination of the Americas 
to maintain tlie lilierties of their hemisphere, 
the American republics can once more take the 
lead by being the first of the great regions of 
the world to attain for their people that higher 
general standard of living and of individual 
security of which an ordered and a free world 
is capable. 

UNITED STATES MISSION OF LABOR 
EXPERTS TO BOLIVIA 

[Released to the press January 29] 

The Government of the United States has 
been informed that the Bolivian Government 
has issued the following statement: 

"At the last Cabinet meeting it was agreed 
that the Ministers of Labor and Social Services 
and of Economy and Mines would prepare a 
supreme decree setting up a commission of ex- 
perts responsible for studying the improve- 



107 

ments of the conditions of health, hygiene, 
salaries, and security of workers in general and 
particularly of mine workers. 

"Tlie Minister of Foreign Relations offered 
the information that the Government of the 
United States in accordance with a request 
made by our Government had announced 
through Ambassador Guachalla its desire to co- 
operate in this plan sending any experts that 
might be necessary to study together with those 
designated by the Bolivian Government the 
workers' situation with a view to improving 
their conditions and increasing the production 
of minerals taking into account the problems of 
transportation, wages, mine securitj', and other 
problems pertinent to the main question. 

"Coordinating these ideas the country will 
know within the near future the result of these 
studies imdertaken in order to establish fixed 
forms for the development of a policy bettering 
the living conditions of the working classes." 

In accordance with the invitation extended to 
this Government to take part in the proposed 
study, a mission of labor experts headed by the 
Honorable Calvert Magruder, United States 
Circuit Judge, Boston, will depart from Miami 
for Bolivia on January 30. Other members of 
tlie mission are Mr. Robert J. Watt, Inter- 
national Representative of the American Feder- 
ation of Labor; Mr. Charles R. Hook, Jr., 
Assistant to the President of the Rustless Iron 
and Steel Corporation of Baltimore ; Mr. Alfred 
Giardino. Executive Secretary of the New York 
State Labor Board, at present preparing a study 
of labor conditions in South America for the 
United States Department of Labor ; Mr. Robert 
E. Mathews, attorney, of the Board of Eco- 
nomic Warfare. Mr. Edward G. Trueblood, 
Second Secretary of the American Embassy 
in Mexico, will act as secretary to the mission. 

The members of the mission have had wide 
experience in labor matters. The chairman. 
Judge Magruder, was general counsel of the 
National Labor Relations Board in 1934-35 and 
acted in a similar capacity for the Wage and 
Hour Division of the Department of Labor in 
1938-39. 



108 

Mr. Watt, since 1937, has been a member of 
the governing body of the International Labor 
Organization and is also a member of the War 
Labor Board. He is a member of the National 
Committee on Silicosis, as well as of other com- 
mittees interested in labor problems, and re- 
cently attended the Inter-American Congress 
on Social Planning held in Santiago, Chile, in 
September 1942. 

Mr. Hook has served as district representa- 
tive for Maryland of the "Training Within In- 
dustry" division of the War Production Board 
and as management adviser to the Maryand 
"Training Within Industry" organization, and 
on June 1, 1942 he was appointed a special em- 
ployer member of the Mediation Panel of the 
National War Labor Board. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETm 

Mr. Mathews is a member of the General 
Counsel's office of the Board of Economic War- 
fare on leave from the Faculty of Law of Ohio 
State University at Columbus, where he has 
taught courses in labor law. 

Mr. Giardino is at present with the United 
States Department of Labor on leave of ab- 
sence from the New York State Labor Board. 
He has given courses in labor-law administra- 
tion at Columbia University. 

It is confidently expected that tliis eminent 
group in conjunction with its Bolivian colleagues 
will be able to make a thorough study which 
will be of assistance to the Bolivian Govern- 
ment in the formulation of measures for the 
benefit of labor in Bolivia. 



The Department 



BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 1944 



The budget of the United States Government 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944,^ sent 
by the President to the Congress January 6, 
1943, described the recommendations for the 
Department of State as follows: 

"The Department of State is the principal 
agency of Government responsible under the 
President for the conduct of our foreign rela- 
tions. While the more vital decisions on for- 
eign policy are made by the President, all 
negotiations with foreign countries, including 
specific measures for the protection of Amer- 
ican interests, the promotion of friendly rela- 
tions between the United States and other 
countries, and the conduct of the voluminous 
correspondence with our diplomatic missions 
abroad and with accredited representatives of 



' The Budget of the United States Oovernment for 
the Fiscal Tear Ending June 30, 19J,4. H. Doc. 27, 
78th Cong., 1st sess. 881 pp. 



foreign powers in this country, are adminis- 
tered by the Department of State. 

"At the present time approximately 225 
diplomatic and consular offices are maintained 
throughout the world. It has been necessary 
to close posts in the Axis and Axis-occupied 
countries, but the war has made necessary 
greatly expanded activities and increased ex- 
penditures at existing posts. Disrupted politi- 
cal and economic conditions throughout the 
world have imposed a very heavy burden on 
the Department involving many new problems 
and greatly increasing the work load. As a 
result the Department of State will require 
increased appropriations of approximately 
$8,000,000 for 1944. 

"Foremost among the newer activities is the 
movement toward hemispheric solidarity which 
has made it necessary to more than double our 
foreign establishments in the other American 



JANTJART 30, 1943 

republics. This expansion is the reason for a 
requested additional appropriation of approxi- 
mately $4,300,000 for 1944. Of this amount 
$3,400,000 is to provide for the continuation of 
projects formerly administered by the Coor- 
dinator of Inter- American Affairs and the De- 
fense Supplies Corporation. The program for 
'Cooperation with the American Republics' is 
based on the reciprocal undertakings and co- 
operative purposes enunciated in the treaties, 
resolutions, declarations, and recommendations 
previously signed unanimously by the Ameri- 
can republics. The projects under this program 
afford a practical means of carrying out the 
objective of strengthening the bond of inter- 
American solidarity. 

"There has been a marked increase in the 
number of difficult negotiations with foreign 
governments, particularly in the fields of ex- 
port control and foreign economic require- 
ments, shipping, aviation, acquisition and pre- 
clusive buying of strategic materials, blocking 
exports to pro-Axis firms, transportation, and 
foreign funds control. These negotiations have 
so increased because of the war that it has be- 
come necessary for the Department to establish 
the Foreign Service Auxiliary to supply addi- 
tional personnel, particularly for technical and 
_ administrative functions, in American diplo- 
matic and consular offices. 

"In order to prevent exported materials or 
equipment from falling into the hands of pro- 
Axis firms the Department of State has pub- 
lished a 'Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals,' or blacklist, of approximately 11,000 
firms and individuals whose known sympathies 
are with our enemies, and has taken steps to re- 
duce the activity of all such agencies. 

"Determining basic economic needs of cer- 
tain countries requires knowledge of the iden- 
tity of the principal consumers, their annual 
consumption, final use of the commodities, data 
as to domestic production, stocks on hand, 
possible use of substitute materials, effect on 
the country's economy if the material is not 



109 

available for export in sufficient quantity, cargo 
tonnage needed to sustain the specific areas, 
and pertinent projects for the maintenance of 
war industries helpful to the United States. 

"Increased war production in the United 
States has required negotiations with foreign 
governments for the importation into our coun- 
try of a large number of strategic materials. 
As the enemy has seized more territory, and as 
available shipping has decreased, the United 
States has found it necessary to increase its 
imports from nearby areas which are still access- 
ible. Constant attention is given to plans for 
increasing production and improving transpor- 
tation in these areas. Preclusive purchases, 
primarily in countries bordering on Axis-dom- 
inated areas, involve detailed and complicated 
negotiations. 

"The control of foreign funds in this country 
involves underlying problems of foreign policy. 
It is just as important to prevent currency and 
securities from reaching our enemies as it is 
to block exports of goods to them. The regu- 
latory and enforcement aspects of foreign 
funds control are administered by the Treasury 
Department, but the Department of State must 
consider all foreign implications of actions in 
this field. Many complicated prob'lems arise 
when dealing with release of funds for expenses 
in diplomatic establishments here or abroad of 
various foreign countries; release of funds for 
expenses of other foreign nationals in the 
United States ; questions as to whether financial 
facilities of this country should be used to per- 
mit, or prevent, various trade transactions be- 
tween this country and third countries, and 
between certain third countries; and requests 
for release of blocked funds for shipment of 
goods for relief and rehabilitation of certain 
areas of the world. 

"Other problems which have arisen out of the 
war are evacuation and welfare of Americans 
abroad; liaison with the American Red Cross 
and other relief agencies; insurance of compli- 
ance by this and enemy governments with treaty 



no 

obligations in respect to prisoners of war and 
alien enemy internees; representation by neu- 
tral governments of American interests in 
enemy-occupied territory; and liaison with 
governments representing the interests of 
enemy countries in the United States. 

"Close liaison must be maintained with other 
departments and agencies of the Government 
interested in war activities, particularly the 
Departments of War, Navy, Treasury, Justice, 
the War Shipping Administration, War Pro- 
duction Board, Board of Economic Warfare, 
Lend-Lease Administration, Office of War 
Information, and the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs. Many of these agencies 
have missions abroad performing services in 
their respective specialized fields. The Depart- 
ment of State must be informed at all times 
concerning the work of representatives of other 
ao"encies of our Government in order that it may 
properly carry out its primary responsibility 
of conducting negotiations with the foreign 
governments. The liaison work with other de- 
partments and agencies has reached unprec- 
edented proportions and has required the as- 
sigimient of personnel devoted entirely to such 
duties. 

"The issuance of passports and visas has be- 
come more complicated. With the country at 
war much detailed work is necessary to make 
certain that no travel credentials are issued to 
persons who may become engaged in activities 
inimical to our national welfare. An impor- 
tant example is the case of American seamen, 
who are now required to have passports. This 
is a favored field through which foreign spies 
attempt to enter the United States. Similarly, 
the work load required in the issuance of visas 
to foreign citizens desiring to enter this country 
has tremendously increased. 

"The normal communication channels have 
been so disrupted in many areas of the world 
that it has become necessary for the Depart- 
ment to incur greatly increased expenditures 
for courier travel and telegrams in order to 
safeguard an expanded number of confidential 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

communications. Travel to foreign countries 
must be by air, in most cases, due to both short- 
age of steamer facilities and necessity for speed. 
Costs of transportation items have greatly in- 
creased, in some cases more than 50 percent. 

"All of these expansions have caused propor- 
tionate increases in the work and personnel of 
the administrative and service divisions of the 
Department, especially those dealing with per- 
sonnel, accounts, equipment, files, and com- 
munications." 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF JAY PIERREPONT MOFFAT 
Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press January 24] 

Mr. Moffat's untimely death is a tragic loss 
to our country. He was the highest type of 
officer developed in a trained Foreign Service, 
and he died at the peak of his usefulness. He 
entered the Foreign Service in 1919 and served 
at many posts throughout the world. At every 
post he served with distinction. Everything he 
did he did well. He was promoted through the 
various grades of the Service as his experience 
broadened and his usefulness to his country 
increased. 

Mr. Moffat served two tours of duty in the 
Department of State as an associate of mine and 
worked in daily contact with me for several 
years. He was one of my ablest advisers and 
closest personal friends. In May 1940 he was 
appointed Minister to Canada, one of our most 
important posts, where he had since that time 
represented our country with conspicuous abil- 
ity and success. 

Mr. Moffat's career will be an inspiration to 
the youth of the country. In his death our 
country has lost one of its ablest public servants 
from whom the highest accomplishments had 
come to be expected as a matter of course. 

Mrs. Hull and I are deeply grieved. 



Treaty Information 



FINANCE 

Conventions of the First and Second Inter- 
national Conferences for the Unification of 
Laws on Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, 
and Cheques 

Brazil 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated September 9, 1942, 
the adherence of Brazil to the following three 
conventions, signed at Geneva on June 7, 1930, 
was registered with the Secretariat on August 
26, 1942: 

Convention Providing a Uniform Law for 
Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes, 
with annexes and protocol; 
Convention for the Settlement of Certain Con- 
flicts of Laws in Connection with Bills of 
Exchange and Promissory Notes, with 
protocol ; 
Convention on the Stamp Laws in Connection 
with Bills of Exchange and Promissory 
Notes, with protocol. 
The adherence to the first of the above- 
mentioned conventions is made subject to the 
reservations provided for in articles 2, 3, 5, 6, 
7, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, and 20 of annex n to 
this convention. 

By a second circular dated September 9, 1942 
the Secretary General of the League of Nations 
announced that the adherence of Brazil to the 
following three conventions, signed at Geneva 
on March 19, 1931, was registered with the 
Secretariat on September 9, 1942 : 
Convention Providing a Uniform Law for 

Cheques, with annexes and protocol; 
Convention for the Settlement of Certain Con- 
flicts of Laws in Connection with Cheques, 
with protocol; 
Convention on the Stamp Laws in Connection 
with Cheques, with protocol. 
The adherence of Brazil to the first of the 
above-mentioned conventions is made subject 



10 the reservations provided for in articles 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, IS, 19, 
20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 29, and 30 of annex II to this 
convention. 



The countries which have ratified or adhered 
to the Convention Providing a Uniform Law 
for Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes, 
signed June 7, 1930, are Belgium; Brazil; 
Free City of Danzig; Denmark; Finland; 
France; Germany; Greece; Italy; Japan; 
Monaco; the Netherlands, including Nether- 
lands Indies, Surinam and Curagao; Norway; 
Poland ; Portugal ; Sweden ; Switzerland ; and 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

The countries which have ratified or adhered 
to the Convention for the Settlement of Certain 
Conflicts of Laws in Connection with Bills of 
Exchange and Promissory Notes, signed June 7, 
1930, are Belgiimi; Brazil; Denmark; Finland; 
France; Germany; Greece; Italy; Japan; 
Monaco; Netherlands, including Netherlands 
Indies, Surinam and Curasao; Norway; Po- 
land; Portugal; Sweden; Switzerland; and 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

The countries which have ratified or adliered 
to the Convention on the Stamp Laws in Con- 
nection with Bills of Exchange and Promissory 
Notes, signed June 7, 1930, are Australia ; Bel- 
gium; Brazil; Free City of Danzig; Denmark; 
Finland ; France ; Germany ; Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, including Barbados, Basuto- 
land, Bechuanaland Protectorate, Bermuda, 
British Guiana, British Honduras, Ceylon, Cy- 
prus, Fiji, Gambia (colony and protectorate), 
Gibraltar, Gold Coast (colony, Ashanti, North- 
ern Territories, Togoland under British man- 
date), Kenya (colony and protectorate), Feder- 
ated Malay States (Negri Sembilan, Pahang, 
Perak, Selangor), Unfederated Malay States 
( Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, Trengganu, 
and Brunei) , Malta, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasa- 
land Protectorate, Palestme, Seychelles, Sierra 
111 



112 

Leone (colony and protectorate) , Straits Settle- 
ments, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Uganda Protectorate, Windward Islands (Gre- 
nada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), Bahamas, British 
Solomon Islands Protectorate, Falkland Islands 
and dependencies, Gilbert and Ellice Islands 
Colony, Mauritius, Saint Helena and Ascension, 
Tanganyika Territory, Tonga, Trans-Jordan, 
Zanzibar, Jamaica (including Turks and Caicos 
Islands and Cayman Islands) , Somaliland Pro- 
tectorate; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Monaco; 
Netherlands, including Netherlands Indies, 
Surinam and Curasao; New Hebrides; New- 
foundland; Norway; Poland; Portugal; 
Sweden ; Switzerland ; and the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 

The countries which have ratified or adhered 
to the Convention Providing a Uniform Law 
for Cheques, signed March 19. 1931, are Brazil; 
Free City of Danzig; Denmark; Finland; 
France; Germany; Greece; Italy; Japan; 
Monaco; Netherlands, including Netherlands 
Indies, Surinam and Curasao; Nicaragua; 
Norway; Poland; Portugal; Sweden; and 
Switzerland. 

The countries which have ratified or adhered 
to the Convention for the Settlement of Certain 
Conflicts of Laws in Connection with Cheques, 
signed March 19, 1931, are Brazil, Free City of 
Danzig; Denmark; Finland; France; Ger- 
many ; Greece ; Italy ; Japan ; Monaco ; Nether- 
lands, including Netherlands Indies, Surinam 
and Curagao; Nicaragua; Norway; Poland; 
Portugal; Sweden; and Switzerland. 

The countries which have ratified or adhered 
to the Convention on the Stamp Laws in Con- 
nection with Cheques, signed March 19, 1931, 
are Australia; Brazil; Free City of Danzig; 
Denmark ; Finland ; France ; Germany ; Greece ; 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, including 
Barbados, Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protec- 
torate, Bermuda, British Guiana, British 
Honduras, Ceylon, Cyprus, Fiji, Gambia 
(colony and protectorate), Gibraltar, Gold 
Coast (colony, Ashanti, Northern Territories, 
Togoland under British mandate), Kenya 
(colony and protectorate), Federated Malay 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXILLETm 

States (Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Sel- 
angor), Unfederated Malay States (Johore, 
Kedah, Kelantan, Perils, Trengganu, and 
Brunei), Malta, Northern Ehodesia, Nyasaland 
Protectorate, Palestine, Seychelles, Sierra 
Leone (colony and protectorate). Straits Set- 
tlements, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago, 
Uganda Protectorate, Windward Islands 
(Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), Bahamas, 
British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Falk- 
land Islands and dependencies, Gilbert and 
Ellice Islands Colony, Mauritius, Saint Helena 
and Ascension, Tanganyika, Tonga, Trans- 
Jordan, Zanzibar, Jamaica (including Turks 
and Caicos Islands and Cayman Islands), So- 
maliland Protectorate; Ireland; Italy; Japan; 
Monaco; Netherlands, including Netherlands 
Indies, Surinam and Curasao; Nicaragua; 
Norway; New Hebrides; Poland; Portugal; 
Sweden ; and Switzerland. 

INTERNATIONAL LAW 

Conventions of the Second South American 
Congress on International Private Law 

Untguay 

The American Embassy at Montevideo trans- 
mitted to the Department with a despatch dated 
January 11, 1943, a copy of the Diario Ojicial 
for December 31, 1942, which published the 
decrees by the President of Uruguay promul- 
gating the conventions signed at the Second 
South American Congress on International 
Private Law, held at Montevideo from July 18 
to August 4, 1939, and March 6 to March 19, 
1940, as follows : 

Treaty on Asylum and Political Refugees 

Treaty on Intellectual Property 

Treaty on the Exercise of Liberal Pro- 
fessions 

Treaty on Commercial Navigation 

Treaty on Processal Law 

Treaty on Penal Law 

Treaty on Commercial Law 

Treaty on Civil Law 

Additional Protocol 



The first three treaties were signed on August 
4, 1939; the remaining treaties were signed on 
March 19, 1940. (See the Bulletin of August 
19, 1939, page 144, and June 8, 1940, page 631.) 

NAVAL MISSION 
Agreement With the Dominican RepubHc 

[Released to the press January 25] 

In response to the request of the Government 
of the Dominican Republic, there was signed 
on January 25, 1943 by Cordell Hull, Secretary 
of State, and Seiior Dr. J. M. Troncoso, Min- 
ister of the Dominican Republic at Washington, 
an agreement providing for the detail of a 
United States Naval Mission to the Dominican 
R:^public. 

Tlie agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature but may be 



113 

extended beyond four years at the request of 
the Government of the Dominican Republic. 

The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements 
between the United States and certain other 
American republics providing for the detail 
of officers of the United States Army or Navy 
to advise the armed forces of those countries. 



MUTUAL GUARANTIES 

Agreement With Belgium 

The texts of notes exchanged on January 30, 
1943 between this Government and the Belgian 
Government specifying the principles and proce- 
dures applicable to the provision of aid to the 
United States and its armed forces by the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium appear in this Bulletin 
under the heading "The AVar". 



Publications 



ISSUE OF STUDY ENTITLED "NATIONAL SOCIALISM' 



[Released to the press for publication January 30, 9 p. m.] 

The Department of State is issuing today a 
study entitled National Socialism portraying 
the attempts of the Nazi regime to organize 
and direct Germans or persons of German de- 
scent abroad for the furtherance of Nazi aims. 
The study is accompanied by relevant docu- 
ments consisting of official decrees, authoritative 
speeches, books, and directives of Nazi leaders. 
It includes actual accounts from official German 
sources of those minority groups of German 
extraction which were under Nazi control in the 
occupied countries of Europe. 

It is particularly appropriate that this study 
be released on the occasion of the tenth anni- 
versary of the Nazi accession to power in Ger- 
many. During the past decade the Nazis have 
been in a position to work effectively as leaders 
of a nation on their program of world-conquest 



envisioning a master-and-slave relationship 
with the Germans in the position of the master 
race. The calculated Nazi plan to foment un- 
rest in foreign countries through the use of Ger- 
man minorities is part of the design of world- 
conquest. This plan is based on the concept 
that blood ties are stronger than allegiance to 
a state. The Nazis have sought to impose obli- 
gations to Germany on persons of German de- 
scent whose ancestors left Germany generations 
ago to seek freedom and economic opportunity 
in other lands. The basic philosophy, the agen- 
cies used, and the ultimate aims motivating such 
Nazi activities are treated at length in this 
study. 

Copies of this study, the full title of which 
is National Socialism: Basic Principles, Their 
Application hy the Nazi Party's Foreign Or- 



114 

ganisation, and the Use of Germans Abroad 
for Nasi Aims [vi, 510 pp.], are available 
through the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C, at 
$1 a copy. 

During the week of January 25-30 the De- 
partment of State also released the following 
publication : 

Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment Insur- 
ance in Connection With Construction Projects in 
Canada : Agreement Between tlie United States of 
America and Canada — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed November 2 and 4, 1942. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 279. Publication 1865. 6 pp. 50. 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Recent Government publications that may 
interest readers of the Bulletin are : 
Administration of the Wartime Financial and Property 
Controls of the United States Government. (Treas- 
ury Department, Foreign Funds Control.) 50 pp. 
The Fifth Annual Report of the United States High 
Commissioner to the Philippine Islands to the Presi- 
dent and Congress of the United States, Covering the 
ITlscal Year Ending June 30, 1941. [Includes mes- 
sage from the President transmitting the report to 
Congress.] (H. Doc. 885, 77th Cong., 2d sess.) vi, 
147 pp. 
Report to the 78th Congress on Lend-Lease Operations : 
Letter from the Lend-Lease Administrator transmit- 
ting a report on the operations under the Lend-Lease 
Act, from the passage of the act, March 11, 1941, to 
December 31, 1942. (H. Doe. 57, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess.) 91 pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price, 10 cents - - - 

PCBLISHKD WEEKLY WITH THE APPSOVAL OF THE DIKECTOR CiP THE BDREA 



- Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

OF THE BnDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 189— Publication 1875 



c 



ontents 




The War Page 

The Soviet Victory at Stalingrad 117 

Visit of President Roosevelt to Trinidad 117 

Statements of General Giraud Regarding Problems in 

French North Africa 118 

Address by the Under Secretary of State at the Com- 
mencement Exercises of the University of Marj'- 

land 120 

Addresses by the Former American Ambassador to 
Japan: 

January 31 121 

February 5 123 

Address by Herbert H. Lehman 129 

Message of Assistant Secretary Berle to the American 

Hungarian Federation 132 

Capture of Prizes on the High Seas 133 

Message From the British Foreign Secretary' Regarding 

the Publication "Peace and War" 133 

The Far East 

Chinese Celebration in Honor of the Signature of the 

Extraterritoriality Treaties 134 

American Republics 

Death of the Son of the President of Brazil 134 

United States Mission of Labor Experts to BoUvia . . 134 

Commercial Policy 

The United Nations and the Trade-Agreements Pro- 
gram: Address by Charles Bunn 135 

[oveb] 



U. S. SUPERIflVENOENT OF DOCUMENTo 
FEB 25 1943 







O 71 i6/ltS— CONTINUED 



Cultural Relations Page 
Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 137 

The Department 

Division of Exports and Requirements 138 

Divisions Under Supervision of Special Assistant to the 

Secretary, Thomas K. Finletter 138 

Associate Adviser on International Economic Affairs . 139 

The Board of Economic Operations 139 

Appointment of Assistant in Charge of Special Relief 

Problems 140 

Treaty Information 

Water Power: Agreement With Canada for the Tem- 
porary Raising of the Level of Lake St. Francis . 140 
Strategic Materials: Arrangement for the Purchase of 

Fats, Oils and Oilseeds 140 

Publications 141 

Legislation 141 



The War 



THE SOVIET VICTORY AT STALINGRAD 



[Released to the press by the White House February 5] 

The President, on February 4, sent the fol- 
lowing message to Premier Joseph V. Stalin, 
Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

"As Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States of America, I con- 
gratulate you on the brilliant victory at Stalin- 
grad of the armies under your supreme 
command. The one hundred and sixty-two 
days of epic battle for the city which has for- 
ever honored your name and the decisive result 



which all Americans are celebrating today will 
remain one of the proudest chapters in this war 
of the peoples united against Nazism and its 
emulators. 

"The commanders and fighters of your armies 
at the front and tlie men and women who have 
supported them in factory and field have com- 
bined not only to cover with glory their coun- 
try's arms, but to inspire by their example 
fresh determination among all the United Na- 
tions to bend every energy to bring about the 
final defeat and unconditional surrender of the 
common enemy." 



VISIT OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO TRINIDAD 



[Released to the press by the White House January 31] 

The following despatch, datelined Port-of- 
Spain, Trinidad, British "West Indies, was re- 
ceived by the Wliite House January 30 : ^ 

The people of this island of Trinidad, vital 
defense outpost of the Panama Canal, turned 
out en masse to give President Roosevelt an 
enthusiastic welcome as the American Chief 
Executive made a short stop here on his way 
home from the Allied War Council in Casa- 
blanca. 

The President, intent on inspecting the 
United States Army and Navy installations on 
this island, debarked from his plane at Waller 
Field temporarily and drove through the 
greater part of Trinidad. 

^ This despatch was signed by Capt. George E. Durno, 
Air Corps, U.S.A., former White House correspondent 
for the International News Service, who accompanied 
the President on his trip. 



The big surprise for Mr. Roosevelt came 
when he saw the sidewalks lined with enthu- 
siastic cheering citizens as his motorcade passed 
through Port-of-Spain, the island's principal 
citj'. 

It was the first time since he left the United 
States early in January that any pojjulace, in 
either Africa or South America, had been 
aware that the American Commander in Chief 
was in their very midst. 

On the northward swing from Brazil, where 
an agi-eement had been entered into with 
Getulio Vargas — first, that Dakar should never 
again become a potential Axis threat to world 
shipping; and second, that counter-offensive 
action against U-boat raids on shipping must 
be redoubled — President Roosevelt called spe- 
cifically for a stop at Trinidad. As a result of 
the deal with Great Britain, involving ex- 
117 



118 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETEN 



change of United States destroyers for bases 
in the West Indies, Army and Naval forces 
were stationed in the Trinidad area. 

Top-ranking officers of tliis command were 
waiting to receive the presidential party at 
Waller Field when the two Army Transport 
Command planes eased down onto the runway. 

The President was especially pleased to see 
his personal Chief of Staff, Admiral William 
D, Leahy, who was waiting at the airport when 
the big plane arrived there. Admiral Leahy 
had started with the President for the Casa- 
blanca conference but was forced by an attack 
of influenza to remain in Trinidad until the 
President returned. 

After assuring himself that the former 
United States Ambassador to France was well, 
the President expressed regret that Admiral 
Leahy had not been able to attend the Casa- 
blanca conference. 

The Commander of the Trinidad Naval Op- 
erating Base, Rear Admiral J. B. Oldendorf; 
the Commanding General of the Trinidad Base 
Command, Maj. Gen. Henry Conger Pratt; the 
Commanding General of the Trinidad Mobile 
Forces, Brig. Gen. Owen Summers; and the 
Commanding Officer of Waller Field, Col. Baird 



Johnson, along with Admiral Leahy, joined 
in welcoming the President. 

A motorcade was standing by, and Mr. Roose- 
velt was taken on a tour to inspect the military 
reservation at Fort Read. The group then 
drove over the Churchill-Roosevelt Highway 
to Port-of-Spain. 

The "grapevine" had obviously passed the 
word along that there was a distinguished vis- 
itor present. Americans, English, and natives 
were on hand and gave enthusiastic notice that 
the visit of the President was welcome. Smil- 
ingly, Mr. Roosevelt acknowledged the tribute. 

The official party next examined the large 
naval base, but not before the Chief Executive 
paused at its entrance and congi-atulated the 
Police Commissioner, Mr. Mueller, on the effi- 
cient arrangements. 

The President entertained the British Gov- 
ernor of Trinidad, Sir Bede Clifford, and his 
wife at tea. Sir Bede, as former Governor of 
Nassau, was an old friend of the President. 

With Harry Hopkins, Capt. John L. McCrea, 
Rear Admiral Ross T. Mclntire, General Sum- 
mers, General Pratt, Admiral Oldendorf, and 
Admiral Leahy, the President had a late 
dinner. 



STATEMENTS OF GENERAL GIRAUD REGARDING PROBLEMS IN FRENCH 
NORTH AFRICA 



[Released to the press February 2] 

Excerpts from Guy Ramsey's interview with 
General Giraud, French Commander in Chief 
in French North Africa, in the London News 
Chronicle, to which President Roosevelt invited 
attention in his press conference February 2, 
follow : 

In this interview Ramsey states that Giraud 
"spoke with amazing frankness of many of his 
problems for he believes it is essential that 
Britain and Washington should fully under- 
stand both what those problems are and his 
methods of solving them — methods which he 
states may be open to criticism from people who 
are not so intimately acquainted with France 



and with French Africa as he is." . . . And 
then, Ramsey goes on: "half the population 
of Algiers still calls de Gaulle 'traitor' because 
they believe his only reason for coming to 
Britain was to gain decorations, high rank or 
money (yes this is what a considerable propor- 
tion of the people here genuinely believe) and 
while it is commonly said that the two French 
generals are like a couple of prima domias 
manoeuvring for the centre of the stage General 
Giraud said bluntly: 'the British are right to 
support de Gaulle. He is the only Frenchman 
who has spoken for two years with the voice of 
France. I am not only in accord with him, I am 
one of his greatest admirers as a soldier and for 
what he has done from London'. Here is a sec- 



FBBRTJART 6, 1943 



119 



Olid example of General Giraud's grip on prob- 
lems. 'Doubtless,' he said, 'it is being asked 
■why I do not clear out every man of Vichy from 
my Government. I will tell you why. In the 
first place I need trained administrators. There 
are not so many trained men in North Africa 
available. In the second place not all men who 
have held office under Vichy are, in the sense one 
uses the phrase, men of Vichy. For instance, 
Laval is a man of Vichy and so is Peyi-outon. 
That is, both held office under the Vichy regime. 
Peyrouton knows this country. He is an able 
man. The man he replaced was not sufficiently 
energetic' " (Algiers is the location of the re- 
placement.) '"Do you think I would have 
called in a man like Laval no matter how able? 
There are good men, decent men, who have 
worked for Vichy — and it is folly to call them 
men of Vichy merely because they have held 
office. Peyrouton for example is no man of 
Vichy in that sense — if he had been I would 
not have sent for him. 

" 'Boisson (the Governor of Dakar) is an- 
other. I have been down to French West Africa. 
It is magnificently administered — I have been to 
the Ivory Coast and all the otlier colonies under 
his jurisdiction and all are equally well gov- 
erned — and Boisson although holding office 
under Vichy never allowed a boche in Dakar. 
Do you think I am going to throw out men like 
that, men who are capable patriots?' " 

Urging necessity of proceeding gradually in 
order to avoid "revolution" and unnecessary 
bloodshed Giraud went on to say to Ramsej' : "I 
have the Moslem problem and the Jewish prob- 
lem and I am dealing with both progressively. 
I am not going to try to solve them either by a 
stroke of the pen or a stroke of the sword: I 
know North Africa — I have made my career 
here — and I know that too swift reversals in this 
country mean trouble. I do not want trouble. 
The only trouble I want is trouble for the JocAe". 
Giraud went on to emphasize that he would 
use members of the Sol, Communists, Conserva- 
tives or anyone under the sole criterion that they 
want to fight Germans and not engage in poli- 
tics. (Here the President said this was not a 



bad line for any country these days.) He made 
an eloquent plea for modern arms for his army 
as soon as possible — "I believe I am convinced, 
they will come." (At this point the President 
again interpolated mentioning "raised sights".) 
He went on : "as for me I am not thinking only 
of North Africa. I am thinking of France her- 
self and I am thinking of one million two hun- 
dred thousand Frenchmen imprisoned in Ger- 
many. I have been a prisoner and every day 
those men remain prisoners, every day that 
France remains enslaved and occupied, every 
one of those days for me counts double. I have 
seen my men fight, I say. They are fighting now 
and they are fighting well but with what? 
. . . but with what equipment and especially 
when they see British and American equipment 
beside them and know they have got to be helped 
in everj' action by British or American troops 
for the very reason of this equipment — what 
will happen to their morale if they have to wait 
too long ? For look, I have been in France since 
my escape from Germany. I know that France 
is ready to rise and fight as we are fighting. I 
know my own men are highly trained enough to 
handle rapidly whatever modern weapons are 
given them. 

"And it is right that France should fight to 
free herself. It is not the duty of Britain and 
America to free France — it is the duty of 
France to free herself with British and Ameri- 
can help. 

"France must regain not only her country 
and her empire: France must regain her old 
Frenchness, her old confidence. Then only will 
France really be free. Above all, it is neces- 
sary for Britain and America to understand 
our problems and even my problems. For that 
very reason I am hoping to send to London and 
Washington a small commission of first-class 
men, who know England and the English and 
know the Americans, to create a real liaison. 
Meantime, if you can do anything to present 
the true facts in their true colours you will 
not only be the friend of France but you will 
help more than a little to win the war." 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ADDRESS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE COMMENCEMENT 
EXERCISES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND ^ 



[Released to the press February 4] 

I am deeply grateful to President Byrd for 
having afforded me the privilege of being 
present at these commencement exercises of the 
University of Maryland. 

It is with a feeling of very real humility that 
I have accepted this invitation to say these 
■words of Godspeed to this graduating class. 
For a man who is sitting behind a desk in times 
like these necessarily feels very humble when 
he speaks to his fellow citizens who are about 
to risk their lives for their nation's freedom. 

Some of you, as soon as you leave the Uni- 
versity, are joining the military, the naval, or 
the air forces of your country. Some of you 
will undertake some form of civilian activity 
directly connected with the war effort. All of 
you will contribute in one way or another to 
the defense of the highest interests of the United 
States in this most critical hour of our national 
history. 

We sometimes hear it said, all too frequently 
I think, that the cause for which we are fight- 
ing has not been made sufficiently plain. I 
feel you will agree with me that the issues of 
this conflict in which our people have been 
forced to engage are everlastingly clear. We, 
the people of the United States, are fighting 
to preserve our own liberties and our own inde- 
pendence. We are fighting in order to defeat 
a group of tyrannies, personifying all that 
which is most brutish and most evil in mankind, 
who have thought that they could dominate 
by force and treachery the whole world. And 
we are fighting, I hope and I believe, in order 
to create a world of the future in which the 
smallest nation, as well as the largest nation, 
may find itself safe, and in which men and 
women can live out their lives in peace, in 
individual liberty, and in security. 

I wonder if you realize what the United 
States means to the rest of the world, particu- 

' Delivered by the Honorable Sumner Welles at 
College Park, Md., Feb. 4, 1943. 



larly to the peoples who today are living in the 
slavery imposed by Hitler. I wonder if you 
appreciate fully what the prestige of this 
country of yours actually is, and how great is 
the hope which has been kindled in the hearts 
and minds of men and women throughout the 
world because of the fact that your country is 
joined to the other members of the United Na- 
tions in this battle for freedom. 

That hope rests, of course, in part upon the 
knowledge that the power of this nation is so 
great, now that the miracle of our initial war 
effort has been accomplished, as to make it 
clear beyond the shadow of any doubt that we 
shall achieve the victory which is our objective. 
But that hope rests also upon something else. 
It rests upon the moral character of the United 
States. The peoples of the earth know that 
the United States had no selfish ends in view 
when it engaged in this battle. They know 
that we desire no inch of territory outside of 
our own possessions. They know that we covet 
the property of no other people and that we 
have no desire to dominate any other race. 
They know that we have already granted free- 
dom to the people for whom for a time we served 
as trustees. They know and they hope that 
if this country is willing to exercise its moral 
strength to the same extent as it is now pre- 
pared to make felt its physical strength, the 
ideals for which the American people stand 
and in which they believe can be realized. 

It can never be made too clear, nor reiterated 
too often, that the foreign policy of the people 
of the United States, exactly like their domestic 
policies, should only be determined from the 
standpoint of what the American people believe 
is their real, their practical, self-interest. Our 
foreign policy must not be — and m the long run 
never will be — based upon emotional altruism 
nor sentimental aspiration. What we should 
all of us be asking ourselves day in and day 
out, is not only what policies this country 
should adopt after the war in order to make 
sure that our security and our best interests 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 

are safeguarded but also what this country of 
ours could have done in the past in order to pre- 
vent, or at least to make less likely, the rise of 
the conditions which have permitted the out- 
break of this great world struggle in which we 
are now engaged. 

I doubt that many thinking men and women 
today can fail to recognize the fact that if the 
United States had been willing a generation 
ago to bear its fair share of the responsibility 
for the maintenance of world order, the birth 
iind the fantastic growth of those forces which 
crystallized into Hitlerism and Fascism and 
aggressive Japanese militarism would have 
been far less probable. From the standpoint 
of our selfish interest alone the cost to the 
American people of our assumption of such 
responsibilities during the 25 years that have 
now passed would have been infinitely less than 
the cost of the life and the treasure which we are 
now called upon to bear in order to achieve the 
total victory which is indispensable if our coun- 
try and our civilization are to survive. 

In the positive sense, the free peoples of the 
New World share no responsibility for the out- 
break of this world upheaval. What we in the 
Americas have wanted was to live at peace and 
to enjoy the liberties wliich the struggles of our 
lorefathers conferred upon us. But in the neg- 
ative sense, far too many of us here in the 
United States at least have failed to appreciate 
the basic fact that in the world of today not 
even a hemisphere can live in peace and enjoy 
its liberty, much less achieve prosperity, if the 
rest of the world is going up in flames. For 
that cardinal error we cannot disclaim our full 
share of responsibility. 

In order to force from the enemies of mankind 



121 

that unconditional surrender which is the only 
basis upon which this war can end, we require 
and we are fortunately obtaining the loyal 
and the unwavering coopei'ation for our armies, 
for our navies, and for our air power of the other 
members of the United Nations. We all of us 
recognize that this type of military and naval 
collaboration is essential in order to expedite the 
ultimate victory. Is it not equally true that 
the same form of cooperation is just as indis- 
pensable in the years to come, after the battle is 
won, in order to make certain that peace is main- 
tained, that international prosperity is assured, 
and that the human rights and liberties in which 
we believe are made everlastingly secure? 

As I see it, that is the greatest problem which 
lies before you as you graduate from this uni- 
versity and undertake the task of helping to 
defend your country. You who will be doing 
the fighting and the working which will make 
it possible for us to gain this victory must 
equally be called upon to share in the deter- 
mination of the course which your government 
follows at the conclusion of the war. You have 
before you as signals of warning the mistakes 
of judgment and the lack of foresight of my 
generation and of the generation which pre- 
ceded mine. 

The great question which lies before all of 
us is the question of how our people can best 
assure the safety of our nation in the years to 
come and can best safeguard the individual 
security of each of its citizens. 

In its solution surely the sacrifices which we 
are making today, and the still greater sacri- 
fices which we will yet be called upon to make, 
will light the road toward the attainment of 
the goal for which we strive. 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN, JANUARY 31 



[Released to the press January 31] 

The war which we fight today is a war for 
freedom. We and our allies went to war re- 



' Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew on the 
Freedom House broadcast, Jan. 31, 1943, over station 
WJSV, Washington, D. C. 



luctantly. We went to war, one people at a 
time, to defend the elemental security of our 
homes and lives. The Chinese in 1931 and 1937 
in self-defense, the British and French in 1939 
to assist a beleaguered Poland; Norway, Lux- 
embourg, Holland, Belgium, Greece, and Yugo- 



122 

slavia in 1940; the Russians and ourselves 
together with nine of the otliei- American re- 
publics in 1941 ; Mexico and Brazil in 1942 ; and 
Iraq in 1943 — none of us were willing recruits 
to the world-encompassing tragedy of war. 

But we are in the war now, all of us, for life 
or death. Out of the awful ordeal to which 
our enemies subject us, there comes a command 
from the common people of the world, a com- 
mand which is being obeyed by the leaders of 
all free men. We demand that a war which 
was begun against us be finished by and for 
ourselves. We do not intend to fight this World 
War a third time. We demand that the grim 
cycle of oppi'ession, demagogy, and conquest be 
stopped forever. We demand freedom and 
security. 

The war began as a war of defense. We 
have fought for the right to survive. We are 
doing the job which sharp necessity imposes. 
But beyond this elementary duty there is the 
obligation to win the war, not merely to stop it. 
Our war of defense has already become a world- 
wide offensive. Since there is no such thing as 
defensive victory, we shall have to accept the 
responsibility for offensive operations culmi- 
nating in an effective victory. 

Wliat do we ask of victory? We ask the 
assurance that we shall not have to be parties 
to a repetition of this tragedy. We must anni- 
hilate the forces of militarism in Germany and 
Japan. We must not only punish the criminals 
of this war, but we must make sure that no 
other militarist fanatics will take their places. 
The old German and Japanese militarists must 
be overthrown along with the new. Ten years 
ago Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, 
therewith furthering the attack on world peace 
begun by Japan two 3'ears earlier in Man- 
churia. This decade has taught us that mili- 
tarism can no longer be considered a domestic 
or local matter, beyond the purview of inter- 
national action. We shall not forget this lesson. 

It is not enough that we defend ourselves, 
that WB win the war, that we extirpate mili- 
tarism. Our leaders in the United Nations look 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 

forward to enduring, world-wide peace. Mili- 
tarism can be eradicated only if the funda- 
mental causes of war are wiped out, whether 
these causes are economic, ideological, political, 
or spiritual. Peace must rest on the kind of 
freedom, justice, and security that will forestall 
all future aggressors. 

Such freedom must be thoroughgoing. Four- 
fold, it is freedom of speech and of religion, 
freedom from want and from fear. This free- 
dom is already the subject of solemn interna- 
tional understandings, in the Atlantic Charter, 
in the Declaration of the United Nations, and 
in the concept of reciprocal lend-lease. 

Note that this is a new and comprehensive 
kind of freedom. It is economic as well as 
political. It is world-wide. We have seen the 
effect of the fall of Malaya and the Indies upon 
our transportation system and our household 
economy. We know that no nation can live to 
itself alone. The freedom which we all desire 
is the freedom of global prosperity ; such pros- 
perity is not to be attained by selfishly local 
or selfishly national economic policies. 

We Americans can be proud that our govern- 
ment has followed an economic foreign policy 
intended to provide freedom from want. The 
trade-agreements program of the United States 
has worked realistically and well; it has made 
provision for fair international economic part- 
nerships. Today the war supersedes all other 
considerations; but I think we should realize 
that our good international position today has 
been enhanced by the genuine cooperation that 
we offered our neighbors in recent years. Our 
companion nations in the Pan American Union 
and in the United Nations need no reassuring 
as to our non-aggressive designs. They have 
collaborated with us on equal terms, and today 
we share with them the weapons and materials 
of war. 

When victory comes we shall find at least 
the cornerstone of our freedom from want al- 
ready laid. The lend-lease agreements provide 
that repayment, both by us and to us, shall be 
done in such a way as to further world pros- 



rEBRUART 6, 1943 



123 



perity. We intend that it shall never again be 
said of any state, as Mirabeau said 150 years 
ago, "La guerre est I'industrie nationale de 
la Prusse" — war is the national industry of 
Prussia. 

Freedom awaits our fashioning. The world 
in which we shall live cannot be the creation of 
statesmen alone. It must be formed by the 
good will, the good hearts, the good sense, 
and the good work of the people of all nations. 



The world of freedom can be born only through 
the devoted efforts of free men It is up to us, 
today, to show that freedom works — that free- 
dom can sacrifice, endure, and fight far better 
than can regimentation and oppression. We 
fnust remember the words of John Milton: 
'"Freedom who loves, must first be wise and 
good." We cannot escape the responsibilities. 
We must achieve liberty or we shall be given 
death. 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN, FEBRUARY 5 



[Released to the press February 5] 

It has been a privilege to me to see the beau- 
tiful city of Cleveland. Even more than by the 
beauty of Cleveland's location and the pros- 
perity of her citizens I have been impressed by 
the air of cheerful but serious strenuousness 
which evidences the war effort. 

Let me compare Cleveland with two other 
great cities: Hamburg, which is a little larger; 
and Kobe, which is a little smaller. Like Cleve- 
land, which overlooks beautiful Lake Erie, 
Hamburg and Kobe are water-edge cities. 
Hamburg is a port on the bleak North Sea, while 
Kobe is built along the coast of the spectacu- 
larly beautiful Inland Sea of Japan. All three 
cities are modern and industrial. All three are 
now geared to war. All three are well paved, 
well illuminated, and well built. 

Here the resemblance ends. One of those 
cities, Cleveland, is safe. Hamburg shudders 
at the thought of the RAF, and her burghers 
cannot escape the smell of fire and the sight of 
ruin; while the people of Kobe, if they could 
look into the future, must realize that the even- 
tual destruction of their sea bastions and war 
production plants is as certain as the law of 
gravity. Two of those cities are now slave 

' Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew under 
the auspices of the Cleveland Foreign Affairs Council 
In Cleveland, Feb. 5. 1943. 



cities in which all hope of freedom is set aside ; 
the people of Hamburg and the people of Kobe 
must face the melancholy choice between indi- 
vidual freedom and national defeat. It has 
been many years since I have been in Hamburg 
and a matter of months since I was in Kobe, 
but I cannot help recalling them together. Be- 
fore them, too, the water glitters to a blue hori- 
zon. Within them, too, the industry and intel- 
ligence of mankind has reared a secure fortress 
against the onslaughts of nature. They too 
were fed in peacetime by commerce and kept 
busy by industry. Today they have become 
citadels of violence and aggression and of vir- 
tual enslavement by their military masters; 
■while your city, your Cleveland, remains a 
stronghold of freedom. 

The Germans and Japanese are both modern 
peoples, as are we. Yet they have been seduced 
by their own governments into cruel, reaction- 
ary beliefs concerning their own superiority 
and their racial right to rule the rest of the 
world. In common with one another, they 
have a deep fear and hatred of us, because they 
know that a world in which a powerful America 
exists can never be a world of slavery and op- 
pression. The leaders of the aggressor states 
have made it a part of their basic strategy to 
fight America last. They have hoped that — 
even in -wartime — the American people would 



124 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



not be sufficiently aroused to the dangers which 
beset this Republic. At the worst, they count 
on making a peace which might cheat America 
of the just fruits of a victory of justice. 

The momentous events of the past month are 
evidence that America will enjoy that victory. 
Our people and our leaders have shown alert- 
ness and courage. We are not to be cheated by 
a false peace. We are not to be lulled into 
partial or inadequate efforts. We are giving 
and are to give flaming evidence of our will to 
fight and of our will to carry this war to the 
uttermost ends of the earth, to find our enemies 
and destroy them. But the war is more than 
battles — more, even, than the weapons which 
are built in busy cities, such as yours. It is a 
conflict of ways of life. The victory which we 
seek must come from our own efforts in more 
ways than one : it must come, not merely by the 
heroism of the fighting men on the far flung 
fronts but by the concerted and loyal exertion 
of the whole people. 

It is up to you today in Cleveland to be better, 
live better, work better than your enemies in 
Kobe and Hamburg. You must show that you 
free men can do, by good will and volunteer 
effort, what unfree men achieve only through 
militarism and regimentation. You must show 
that if it is you or they who must win, you will 
win ; if war plants are to burn, let it be those of 
Hamburg re-kindled or those of Kobe set ablaze, 
and not those of Cleveland which shall shudder 
beneath the drone of hostile bombers, not those 
of Cleveland which shall await merciless planes 
striking in from across water. 

Note and remember this : the German plants 
have been bombed and burned, but except for 
the heroic raid of Doolittle and his men the 
Japanese cities have remained as calm and un- 
disturbed as have Cleveland and the rest of our 
mainland towns. Germany has been hit and hit 
again; but Japan, like America, has suffered 
mere scratches. In the long run, Cleveland or 
Kobe will behold fire and death. You are far 
away from war today, but so is Kobe. You are 
no further from the menace of Japan than the 
Japanese are from the menace of you. This is 
an all-out war. Stalemate could only mean the 



doom of civilization. Short of stalemate there 
is no other choice : it is their city or yours. 

Either the men and the weapons of Cleve- 
land will go to Germany and to Japan, beating 
those militarist nations into unconditional sur- 
render, or the Germans and Japanese will fight 
their way here — literally here — and will subject 
us to the oppression which the Poles, the Nor- 
wegians, the Greeks, the Chinese, and Filipinos, 
and a score of other peoples have tastad in all its 
vileness. 

Let me tell you about two things : the nature 
of the enemy, and the dangers of a false, treach- 
erous peace. In speaking of the enemy, I shall 
describe the Japanese. I knew the Germans in 
the first World War and the Japanese in the 
present war. Both have been infected by the 
virus of militarism which has begun to rage 
again until the world is sick with it. Both the 
German and the Japanese Governments took ad- 
vantage of our humanity, our love of peace, to 
betray and conquer their neighbors and to pre- 
pare for war against us. Both are equally 
dangerous. I happen to have come from Tokyo 
most recently, and will for that reason tell you 
about Japan. You must remember, however, 
that what I say of Japan applies most of the 
time to the Germans as well. 

Let me tell you, therefore, about the part of 
this war which I know best : the Japanese war 
against America. I have watched it brew for 
years, and feel that I have taken the measure of 
our Japanese enemies. I do not for a moment 
presume to touch upon questions of high policy 
and strategy in the fighting of this war nor upon 
the relative emphasis to be placed on the various 
theatei-s of war. Our highest leaders are taking 
care of that. I speak merely of the Japanese 
war machine as I have known it and have seen 
it gi'ow, in power and determination and over- 
weening ambition, during the past 10 years of 
my mission to Japan. 

Let me paint for you the picture as I see it, 
for you Clevelanders might in other wars have 
had the right to feel protected by the massive 
continent which shields you on all sides. In 
this age of air power, no mere geography will 
shield you ; and if American planes can bit the 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 

enemy in the Solomon Islands, in Africa, and 
in innermost China, the enemy must be awaited 
everywhere and anywhere. I shall not over- 
state the case nor overdraw the picture. Let us 
look at that picture as it faces us today. 

Even before Pearl Harbor, Japan was strong 
and possessed a military machine of great 
power — and when I speak of that military ma- 
chine I include all branches of the Japanese 
armed forces : the Army, the Navy, and the air 
force. That military machine had been steadily 
strengthened and developed during many years, 
especially since Japan's invasion of Manchuria 
in 1931, an act of unprovoked aggression which, 
in effect, commenced the expansionist move- 
ment of Japan in total disregard of the rights 
and legitimate interests of any nation or of any 
people that might stand in the way of that 
movement. 

In 1937 came Japan's invasion of north 
China and Shanghai, which led to the past six 
years of Sino-Japanese warfare. During all 
these years of their unavailing effort to conquer 
China and to bring about the surrender of the 
Chinese National Government, those Japanese 
armed forces were using China as a training- 
ground in preparation for the greater war, al- 
ready carefully planned, for their eventual 
conquest and intended permanent control of all 
of so-called "Greater East Asia including the 
South Seas" and for the imposition upon the 
peoples of those far-flung areas of what Japan 
is pleased to refer to as the "New Order" and 
the "Co-Prosperity Sphere". 

We know what that euphemistic slogan 
"Co-Prosperity" means: it denotes absolute 
hegemony — economic, financial, political — for 
Japan's own purely selfish interests and the 
virtual enslavement of the peoples of those ter- 
ritories to do the bidding of their Japanese 
masters. This statement is not a figment of the 
imagination ; it is based on practical knowledge 
of what happened in other regions already sub- 
jected to Japan's domination. Such a regime 
will be imposed in everj- area that may fall 
imder Japan's domination. 

During all this period of preparation the 
Japanese military machine has been steadily 



125 

expanded and strengthened and trained to a 
knife-edge of war efficiency — in landing on 
beaches, in jungle fighting, and in all the many 
different forms of warfare which it was later 
to encounter. 

Add to that intensive training the native 
courage of the Japanese soldiers and sailors and 
airmen, their determined obedience to orders 
even in the face of certain death, and their 
fanatical joy in dying for their Emperor on the 
field of battle, thus acquiring merit with their 
revered ancestors in the life to come, and you 
get a grim conception of the formidable charac- 
ter of that Japanese fighting machine. Fur- 
thermore, in war Japan is wholly totalitarian; 
her economy is planned and carried out to the 
last detail. No word of criticism of the Gov- 
ernment or its acts is tolerated; the so-called 
"thought control" police take care of that. La- 
bor unions are powerless. In war Japan is a 
unit, thinks and acts as a unit, labors and fights 
as a unit. 

With that background, and having in mind 
the strength and power of Japan even before 
Pearl Harbor, consider for a moment the scene 
as it has developed in the Far East. Consider 
the tremendous holdings of Japan today — Ko- 
rea, Manchuria, great areas in China proper, 
Formosa, the Spratly Islands, Indochina, Thai- 
land, Burma and the Andamans, the entire 
Malay Peninsula, Hongkong and Singapore, 
the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies 
and, farther to the south and to the east, myr- 
iads of islands many of which are unsmkable 
aircraft carriers. 

Those areas contain all — mind you, all — the 
raw materials essential to the development of 
national power: rubber, oil, tin, metals, and 
foodstuffs — everything that the most compre- 
hensive economy can desire; and they contain 
furthermore millions of native inhabitants who, 
experience has proved beyond peradventure, 
will be enslaved as skilled and unskilled labor by 
Japan to process those raw materials for imme- 
diate and future use. There you have a recipe 
and the ingredients for national strength and 
power that defeat the imagination even ap- 
proximately to assess. 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Now to this recipe and these ingredients add 
one further element of grimly ominous purport. 
During all my 10 years in Japan I have read the 
books, the speeches, the newspaper and maga- 
zine articles of highly placed Japanese, of gen- 
erals and admirals, of statesmen and diplomats 
and politicians. Sometimes thinly veiled, some- 
times not even veiled, has emerged their over- 
weening ambition eventually to invade and to 
conquer these United States. In their thinking, 
even the megalomania of Hitler is surpassed. 
Fantastic if you will, but to them it is not fan- 
tastic. It was not fantastic when the foremost 
Japanese admiral, as recently occurred, pub- 
licly stated in all seriousness that he intends 
that the peace after this war will be dictated in 
the White House in Washington — by Japan. 

It might be 1 year or 2 years or 5 or 10 years 
before that Japanese military machine would 
find itself ready to undertake an all-out attack 
on this Western Hemisphere of ours ; they them- 
selves have spoken of a hundred-year war ; but 
one fact is as certain as the law of gravity : if we 
should allow the Japanese to dig in permanently 
in the far-flung areas now occupied, if we should 
allow them to consolidate and to crystallize their 
ill-gotten gains, if we should allow them time to 
fortify those gains to the nth degree, as they 
assuredly will attempt to do, it would be only a 
question of time before they attempted the con- 
quest of American territory nearer home. In 
no respect do I overstate this case. My judg- 
ment is based on no wild surmise nor upon any 
far-fetched and imaginative hypothesis. It is 
based on facts, which are there for all to see, 
and upon 10 long years of intimate experience 
and observation. 

What worries me in the attitude of our fellow 
countrymen is first the utterly fallacious pre-war 
thinking which still widely persists, to the ef- 
fect that the Japanese, a race of little men, good 
copyists but poor inventors, are incapable of 
developing such power as could ever seriously 
threaten our home shores, our cities, and our 
homes, a habit of mind which is reinforced by 
the great distances separating our homeland 
from the far eastern and southern Pacific battle- 
fronts today. 



I am also worried by the reaction of our peo- 
ple to the current successes of our heroic fight- 
ing men in the Solomons and New Guinea, for 
after each hard-won victory the spirits of our 
people soar. Moral stimulation is good; but 
moral complacency is the most dangerous habit 
of mind we can develop, and that danger is 
serious and ever-present. I have watched the 
intentional sinking of the Panay^ the attempts 
on the Tutuila and on our Embassy in Chung- 
king, and other efforts on the part of those mili- 
tary extremists to bring on war with the United 
States for the very purpose of leading up to the 
eventual carrying out of their fell designs; and 
I say to you, without hesitation or reserve, that 
our own country, our cities, our homes, are in 
dire peril from the overweening ambition and 
the potential power of that Japanese military 
machine — a power that renders Japan poten- 
tially the strongest nation in the world — po- 
tentially stronger than Great Britain or Ger- 
many or Russia or the United States — and that 
only when that military caste and its machine 
have been wholly crushed and destroyed on the 
field of battle, by land and air and sea, and dis- 
credited in the eyes of its own people, and rend- 
ered impotent either to fight further or further 
to reproduce itself in the future, shall we in our 
own land be free from that hideous danger and 
be able once again to turn to paths of peace. 

You see that I promise no end to war through 
the simple formula of defeating the enemy to- 
day. Totalitarian aggression must be smashed 
first, and then its stump must be uprooted and 
burned. It is not enough to win now only, in 
the course of war; we must win the peace as 
well. To win the peace, we must be sure that 
it is our kind of peace and not a peace which 
compromises with German or with Japanese 
militarism. 

It is with regret, not unmixed with humility, 
that I repeat to you today words which I ad- 
dressed to a similar audience in January 1918 — 
24 years ago last month. I said then, after 
describing the enemy Germany, from which I 
had recently returned : "That is the Germany 
of today with which we are at war and which 
we have got to defeat; otherwise, as surely 



FEBRUARY 6, 194 3 



127 



as the immutable laws of nature control the 
movement of this earth, our future generations 
will have to take up what we now leave off, 
facing the same problem which now confronts 
us, perhaps unaided. If we do not want to 
leave this heritage to our unborn sons, if this 
country is not to remain an armed camp per- 
manently, Germany, as she is now organized, 
controlled, and governed, must be defeated." 
Those words are even more true today, and 
they are true as well of that other Germany in 
the Pacific, the Japanese Empire. We failed 
then to rid the world of the militarism which 
is our enemy; we must not fail again. 

We must not tolerate Japanese or German 
militarism under new names and new flags. 
We must not drive the forces of imperialism, 
totalitarianism, and aggression underground. 
We must annihilate these evil forces and show 
that the age of imperialism is ended. We can- 
not afford to treat with those enemies whose 
ruin we have pledged. We cannot afford — 
should they ask it — to make peace with the 
fanaticism which we have sworn to exterminate. 
We must watch vigilantly for the dangerous 
signs of a German or Japanese peace offensive, 
ilesigned to let us win the war but to lose the 
peace. Let me tell jxni about such a move, as 
it could come from Japan; the same general 
tactics would hold true of German militarism. 

In my various talks around the country I have 
repeatedly stressed the view that the Japanese 
will not crack. What I mean is exemplified in 
the tenacity with which their armed forces have 
been holding out in New Guinea and in Guadal- 
canal. That is to say, the Japanese military 
code does not admit of surrender, even when 
it is the only alternative to annihilation, but 
this does not mean that the Japanese will stand 
up to be shot down to the last man when some 
other alternative presents itself, such as running 
away to fight another day. Despite their sen- 
timentality and fanaticism the Japanese are 
fundamentally a practical people. Wlien they 
find that they cannot win on the field of battle, 
that they are bound to be beaten there, and that 
they therefore are in danger of losing all their 
so-called "co-prosperity sphere"', rather than 

510510—43 3 



accept a conclusive defeat, rather than take loss 
of all their gains, it is altogether likely that 
they will look about for ways of effecting a 
compromise whereby they might avoid the dis- 
grace of defeat and might hope to retain a part 
of their gains. 

At the present time, of course, the Japanese 
leaders, and even more so the people, are far 
from convinced that they cannot manage to 
retain substantially all of their gains. But 
when the allied offensive gains momentum and 
Japanese self-confidence is shaken by successive 
reverses and loss of territory, then we may look 
for a development of new tactics. The Jap- 
anese art of self-defense, jujitsu, gives us a clue 
as to what these tactics are likely to be. The 
essence of this art is that by letting the adver- 
sary take the initiative and by giving way and 
simulating defeat the advei-sary may be lulled 
into dropping his guard; then when the ad- 
versary has advanced too far and is off balance, 
he is destroyed by a quick recovery and a light- 
ning attack where he is weakest. 

I have no fear that our military authorities 
are likely to be taken in by any military appli- 
cation of the jujitsu principles. I do feel, how- 
ever, that the American people and the people 
of nations united with them in war on Japan 
should be forewarned against the possibility of 
a jujitsu feint in the realm of diplomacy — 
namely, a peace offensive. The Japanese are 
capable of preparing the ground for such an 
offensive with elaborate care. That is to say, 
the military leaders might begin by bringing 
forth from retirement some former statesman 
with a liberal label and placing him at the head 
of a puppet civilian cabinet. This step would 
be heralded as representing the overthrow of 
military dictatorship in favor of liberalism. 
The scene would then be set for a peace move. 
There might be an announcement by the new 
premier intimating that Japan was ready to 
conclude a peace on a fair and just basis. If 
the United Nations were willing to rise to the 
bait before awaiting at least the clearing of the 
Japanese armed forces from the territories that 
they have seized, so much the better for Japan ; 
but even if the United Nations should insist on 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



such withdrawal as a prerequisite to a peace 
parley, such a Japanese move would still seem to 
its authors worthwhile if it should have chance 
of deceiving some of the peoples among the 
United Nations and rendering them lukewarm 
toward the further prosecution of the war. The 
Japanese might well calculate that by the time 
they were ready to launch such a peace offensive 
their peace-loving enemies would be so weary 
of the war that they would be receptive to peace 
offers ; that once an armistice had been declared 
and negotiations been begun it would be diffi- 
cult to get their enemies to resume fighting 
again even if the Japanese were to hold out for 
partial retention of their gains. 

It is believed that the American people in 
being forewarned against deceptive Japanese 
peace moves should be made to realize that the 
only safe course for the United Nations to take 
in the presence of such moves will be to keep in 
mind the President's words to Congress on De- 
cember 8, 1941 that "We will not only defend 
ourselves to the uttermost but will make very 
certain that this form of treachery shall never 
endanger us again," and that we continue to 
press our operations against Japan until she 
has no alternative to admitting defeat and sub- 
mitting to disarmament. If the United Na- 
tions were to begin discussing peace with Japan 
or Germany while she is still armed, the only 
peace to which such a procedure could lead 
would be an armed truce to be followed by even 
more bitter warfare. 

The President and the Prime Minister made 
it plain at Casablanca that they were not to be 
deceived by such tactics. "Unconditional sur- 
render" is the complete summary of the terms 
which we of the United Nations shall and must 
offer the aggressor powers. To do less would be 
to temporize with murder and to negotiate with 
treachery embodied in human flesh. "We have 
everything to lose and nothing to gain in a 
peace which fails to assure freedom throughout 
the world on the terms which an aroused and 
civilized mankind demands. To barter or bar- 
gain with the substance of freedom would be 
to deny the cause for which our men are dying. 



I have shown you what happens under the 
militarism which has corrupted Germany and 
Japan and which now threatens the world. I 
have described for you how the Axis wages war 
and why the Axis wages war. Truly may it be 
said : "Their object is crime and their method, 
death." And I have sought to warn you against 
the insidious menace of a shameful "peace", an 
armistice which would allow militarism to 
flower again in the next generation, when a new 
crop of infantrymen — sons of oppressed, igno- 
rant mothers — would be ready for the harvest 
of war. 

We are faced with an immense task. This 
war is the greatest war ever fought. The 
United Nations are the gi-eatest coalition of free 
peoples ever formed ; our ranks in this war are 
immeasurably strengthened by the active aid 
and partnership of the three largest countries of 
the world— China, Britain, and Russia. We 
shall control all the seas and the air of the world. 
We shall be able to do this only by virtue of 
putting forth our maximum efforts here in 
America. We can and we must mold the world 
of the future. But to do this we must discipline 
ourselves in self-denial, we must exert ourselves 
to the full extent of our several capacities. 
We must work and save and unite ; we must day 
in and day out cultivate patience, determina- 
tion, endurance, and courage. 

The war is here, confronting me and confront- 
ing you. It is in the air about us. The war is 
not something far away on the other side of the 
world. The war against us consists of immense 
physical forces in the hands of men who are 
brave, furious, implacable enemies. This vio- 
lence and power is being kept out of your homes, 
here in Cleveland, only by the sacrificial ef- 
forts of our allies and of our American men 
overseas. Let these relax, and the Germans and 
Japanese will be here. 

Here in Cleveland you are performing mir- 
acles of production to support the war — to sup- 
port the living wall of human flesh which has 
stopped the enemy. That wall of men has be- 
gun moving on the offensive, but you will not 
be secure imtil it has crushed the Germans and 
Japanese in their own homes. If Cleveland is 



FEBRUART 6, 194 J 



129 



to be safe, Hamburg and Kobe must be put out 
of action as arsenals. Until we have won, you 
can be sure of no future for your children, you 
cannot think of rest for your own old age, you 
cannot even look serenely to the future of your 
country. Today there is no goal short of vic- 
tory; there can be no pause imtil we have at- 



tained complete and total victory. Each of you 
is necessary in this task : every single one of you 
is infinitely precious to the nation which has 
borne and reared you and which now calls on 
you for indispensable help. You, I know, dedi- 
cate and rededicate yourselves to the perform- 
ance of the tasks that lie ahead. 



ADDRESS BY HERBERT H. LEHMAN 



[Released to the press February 1] 

I am deeply grateful for the honor conferred 
upon me tonight by the representatives of labor 
of the city and the State of New York. I am 
glad indeed to see that all labor organizations — 
the American Federation of Labor and the 
CIO — are united here in this purpose. The 
unity of labor hei-e is a symbol of the united 
action which the representatives of the work- 
ing men and women of the city and State of 
New York are achieving at this time of great 
crisis for democracy. 

I want to express my deep appreciation for 
the splendid cooperation I received throughout 
my terms as Governor from the leaders of or- 
ganized labor in the State. The President of 
the State Federation of Labor and the Presi- 
dent of the State CIO were valuable and de- 
voted members of the State War Council during 
my service as Governor and recognized without 
qualification that the first job of labor is to win 
the war and win it completely. They have 
thoroughly appreciated the responsibility of 
labor and have done everything in their power 
to see that those responsibilities were willingly 
and effectively met in the work of marshaling 
every resource of this State and the entire Na- 
tion in a supreme effort to crush forever the 
evil powers of the Axis. 

It is especially fitting that this dinner should 
be arranged by the Labor Division of the Or- 

' Delivered at a testimonial dinner arranged through 
the Labor Division of the Organization for Eehabili- 
tation Through Training, New York, N. Y., Jan. 31, 
1943. Mr. Lehman is Director of the Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department of 
State. 



ganization for Rehabilitation Through Train- 
ing. During the last 62 years ORT has been 
presenting to the world a practical demonstra- 
tion of the effectiveness of the principle of help- 
ing other people to help themselves. I can tes- 
tify to this because I have been connected with 
ORT for the last quarter of a century and I 
have a personal interest and considerable fa- 
miliarity with the great work which this organ- 
ization has done in the many countries of Eu- 
rope. There are hundreds of thousands of 
people the world over who demonstrate the qual- 
ity of this achievement — people who have be- 
come skilled industrial and agricultural work- 
ers and have been trained in skills to enable 
them to help themselves through the assistance 
of ORT. 

The darkness into which the brutal forces of 
aggression have plunged the world has tem- 
porarily obscured the outlines of the work of 
ORT in Europe. But now, as the liberating 
forces of the United Nations gather to deal the 
Axis a finishing blow, we can look toward the 
dawn of a new day in which the ORT's prin- 
ciple of helping others to help themselves will 
be revitalized by all America and extended on 
a broader, even a world-wide, scale. 

Perhaps the paramount lesson that America 
has learned from this war is that the defense 
of our land begins thousands of miles from our 
own shores. It begins on the beaches and on 
the muddy airdromes of North Africa, where 
Lt. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower is bringing a 
mighty expeditionary force of American fight- 
ing men to grips with the military machine of 
Germany and Italy. It begins in the moun- 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tains and along the shores of New Guinea, where 
United Nations' forces under General Douglas 
MacArthur are driving the Japanese into the 
sea. It begins in steaming jungles of Guadal- 
canal, where our Marines and our Army are 
driving the Japanese toward the point of anni- 
hilation. 

This lesson has driven home to Americans 
that there no longer is any place in our life for 
the doctrine of those who would have our Navy 
hug our coasts while the Army dispersed itself 
in small units to wait for the enemy to come 
to our shores. Instead, we have chosen and 
chosen rightly to make our fight wherever de- 
mocracy is threatened and wherever we can 
come to grips with the ruthless enemy who 
would enslave the world under a system of god- 
less and brutal tyranny. 

To crush and crush completely the forces of 
our enemy we must bring to bear against them 
every resource and the full productive capacity 
of the United Nations. And in connection with 
this single world strategy another great task 
has been added. President Roosevelt has stated 
this task: to supply medicines, food, clothing, 
and the other dire needs of those peoples of 
other lands who have been plundered, despoiled, 
and starved as their countries were overrun by 
the hordes of these new vandals of the twentieth 
century. The Nazis and Japanese have made 
a weapon of war out of a campaign of organized 
terror. They seek to impose their will upon the 
unoffending peoples of other lands by butchery, 
starvation, and pillage. In a campaign of 
matchless ruthlessness they have utterly 
stripped the lands they have overrun of food, of 
raw materials, and of all the necessities which 
they could possibly utilize to feed the maw of 
their own war machines. They have used and 
will continue to use hunger as a club to com- 
plete the enslavement, of the people they have 
already subjugated. 

The policy of America and the policy of the 
United Nations is the direct opposite. Under 
the great human principle of helping others to 
help themselves America must use food, cloth- 
ing, shelter, and the necessities of life as a real 
weapon to win complete and overwhelming vic- 



tory and to secure the peace which must follow. 
President Eoosevelt has proclaimed that the 
liberating armies of the United Nations will 
bring with them food for the starving and med- 
icine for the sick. He has stated that every aid 
possible will be given to restore each of the lib- 
erated countries to soundness and to strength 
so that each may make its full contribution to 
a United Nations victory and to the stable and 
enduring peace for which all of us are stri^^ng. 
It now is our work to make real and actual these 
promises which extend to millions of suffering 
victims of the Axis their one ray of hope. 

This great work, with which I am entrusted 
as the Director of the Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, is but an ex- 
tension and a tremendous elaboration of the 
work which you good people already have pio- 
neered through the ORT. Because you have 
already, over the 62 years of your efforts, given 
practical demonstration of the effectiveness and 
practical value of helping people to help them- 
selves, I feel I am speaking tonight to a group 
which can clearly compi-ehend not only the 
humanities of this new assignment but also its 
imperative necessity as a weapon for victory 
and an essential for enduring peace. 

There is no one here who will quarrel with 
the moral necessity for feeding the starving, 
clothing the naked, and for giving human beings 
a new chance to survive in a world which has 
come dangerously close to complete chaos. There 
is no disputing America's generous historic 
sympathy for the common man and woman 
who have been deprived not only of personal 
liberty but of the necessities of life itself. 

But over and above this moral consideration 
which will always be uppermost in our minds 
and in our hearts is the real and undeniable 
military necessity for positive and well-planned 
measures of relief and rehabilitation to be 
launched in the liberated territories as our 
armies drive the Axis forces back toward Berlin 
and Tokyo and Rome. Our intelligence serv- 
ices have reported that when new areas have 
been freed from the Axis yoke we will find 
conditions close to chaos. We will find the 
economic life of the once-occupied countries de- 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 

stroyed. There will be no foodstuffs. There 
will be no goods from which to fabricate cloth- 
ing. There will be no medical facilities to pre- 
vent the spread of pestilence and epidemic from 
the concentration camps and the ghettos, where 
the Nazi leaders have willfully and deliberately 
allowed disease to run rampant as a means of 
exterminating whole races and nationalities. 
There will be no raw materials with which to 
manufacture new goods for commerce. These 
countries, these men and women who comprise 
the populations of these countries, are going to 
be prostrated unless we, as members of the 
family of United Nations, take immediate 
measures to help them to help themselves. 
Shattered economies, pestilence, starvation, and 
death breed riot and anarchy. Because they 
recognize this axiom, the military experts who 
are laying the plans and devising strategy by 
wliich tlie finishing blows will be dealt to the 
world-domination dreams of Adolf Hitler and 
the Japanese warlords will attest to the mili- 
tary necessity of relief work in these areas. It 
is vitally imiJortant, if we are to win this war, 
that we be ready with plans, with materials 
and resources and with personnel to follow up 
military operations with emergency food, emer- 
gency shelter, emergency clothing, and emer- 
gency medical facilities to give assistance to the 
men and women who have kept burning the 
hatred of the Axis and the will to survive and 
be free. 

It should be self-evident that our troops, 
whether in North Africa or any place elsewhere 
in future theaters of operation, will not be able 
to take the offensive successfully if they must 
launch their operations in countries where fam- 
ine and pestilence are generating riot, revolu- 
tion, and complete disorder. As a matter of 
self-preservation and to further our military 
cause we can not allow the plight of these people 
to go unheeded. 

The advance of communications and trans- 
portation has made the world an exceedingly 
small place for the humans who dwell in it. 
And, as the President has aptly pointed out, 
when your neighbor's house is on fire, it is sim- 
ply a matter of prudence to lend him a fire hose 



131 

with which to extinguish the fire lest it spread 
to your own house. In this new world, rendered 
small and compact by the modern miracles of 
transportation and communication, there are 
few to be found who still will argue that Amer- 
ica can continue unheedingly on its own way, 
oblivious that the other half of mankind is 
beset by famine, pestilence, and anarchy. 

But beyond the military necessities there is 
an additional consideration: the uncontestable 
fact that development of measures of relief and 
rehabilitation will go far toward shortening the 
war and a very long way in helping to create 
the kind of stable, equitable, and enduring peace 
wliich all America must seek and strive for. Do 
you think that the peoples of the earth who are 
now sacrificing and laboring and dying so that 
this new and better world may come into be- 
ing — do you think that they will compromise 
for anything less? We must extend to these 
people the full assurances of America and its 
allies that along with our liberating armies will 
come the quick assistance of a working, an ef- 
fective democracy — that supplies of food, cloth- 
ing, shelter, and medicines and the basic 
measures of rehabilitation are ready to give the 
common man and woman a new chance for life. 

Because of the relatively short time in which 
we have been working to organize these meas- 
ures, we as yet are only blazing the trails into 
this immense problem. But it already seems 
clear that the first measures will be strictly 
those of an emergency measure to stop starva- 
tion, to prevent deaths by exposure, to head off 
tlie terrifying threat of epidemic and pestilence. 
Behind those measures must come provision of 
seeds to get a new crop into the ground, because 
experience has shown that once crops have been 
planted and harvested in liberated countries the 
peak of relief operations has been passed and 
the populations once more can begin to help 
themselves. With the real threat of starvation 
eliminated, with people once again provided 
with the bare necessities of shelter and clothing, 
with commerce undergoing a new birth as the 
first crops come in, the men and women who 
have endured so much under the slave system 
of the Nazis and their Axis accomplices will be 



132 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



able to draw their own plans for reconstruction 
of much of what the aggressors have destroyed 
and reconstitution of their institutions and their 
lives. 

This is a tremendous work. This is a work 
which of its very nature must challenge the 
abilities and the resources of all Americans and 
all men of good-will everywhere. But it is 
a work which must be done if the way of life 
and the institutions which we hold so dear 
are to be preserved, if we are to win this war, 
if we are to build a peace in which justice and 
equity will prevail. 

The darkness in which so much of the world 
has been engulfed by the selfish ambitions of 
the aggi-essors can not go on forever. Some- 
time throughout the world the lights will come 
on again. Out of the damage and destruction 
of human life that has accompanied this war — 
as out of all conditions that depress and de- 
grade men — will come a new and gi-eat concept 
of the meaning of life and the role of nations. 
From the subjugation of the peoples who have 
been oppressed, starved, and tortured will come 
a relentless wave of a new human spirit that 
will not be held back. The sacrifices which 
we are making today and which we will have to 
make before victory is gained are creating and 
sharpening the great human hunger for liberty 
and a decent way of life. Out of deaths on the 
battlefield and the sacrifices at home is being 
created a new and better world. 

Victory over the self-styled Nazi supermen 
and the Japanese warlords in itself will not be 
enough. Along with that victory the tidal 
wave of democracy must wash away the wreck- 
age and the barriers of an inadequate world, a 
world too small for the universal concept of 
democratic life and the liberated human spirit. 
This tidal wave of democracy must sweep away 
the debris of a world half democratic and half 
slave to make way for a new life in which 
the basic freedoms of man can find their true 
expression. This is the work to which we are 
addressing ourselves. This is the work wliich, 
with God's help, must be done. 



MESSAGE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
BERLE TO THE AMERICAN HUNGARIAN 
FEDERATION ^ 

[Released to the press February 1] 

I greatly regret that pressure of work pre- 
vents my being with you Sunday night. My 
regret is increased because Americans of Hun- 
garian ancestry have, with few exceptions, loy- 
ally supported the United States and its war 
effort, and many thousands of them are in the 
American armed forces and are working in the 
arsenals of democracy. I am sure they recog- 
nize, as we all do, and as the American Hun- 
garian Federation has repeatedly declared, that 
our common foe is the existence of Nazi tyranny, 
which is today plundering Hungary and send- 
ing Hungarians by thousands to die on the 
Russian plains. Only a victory which wipes 
out the Nazi philosophy and way of life can 
make it possible for Hungary to continue in 
existence. 

You are American citizens and part of the 
great composite stream of American life. You 
know that national unity is essential if America 
is to put forth her greatest effort. Foreign 
politicians may seek to distract you from the 
achievement of this unity. To these your best 
answer is that you are Americans and that you 
do not choose to be led back into the intrigues, 
the hatreds, and the petty quarrels of the old 
Europe. Your voice will be heard through 
your free participation in the American Gov- 
ernment, and you need no instructions from 
abroad as to where your loyalties lie. 

No one who seeks to sow division among 
Americans of foreign ancestry can be counted 
as our friend. The Atlantic Charter has stated 
as an objective a world in which nations large 
and small may have freedom from fear. With 
the victory of the United Nations lies the hope 
of all peoples. 

I give you all greeting in the common effort 
for victory. 

' Meeting held in Bridgeport, Conn., Jan. 31, 1943. 



FEBRUART 6, 1943 

CAPTURE OF PRIZES ON THE HIGH SEAS 

On January 30, 1943 the President issued the 
following proclamation (no. 2575) regarding 
the capture of prizes. 

''Wheheas the act of August 18, 1942, Public 
Law 704, 77th Congress, contains in part the 
following provisions : 

" '•Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assemUed, That the district courts 
shall have original jurisdiction of all prizes cap- 
tured during the present war on the high seas if 
said capture was made by authority of the 
United States or was adopted and ratified by the 
President of the United States and the prize 
was brought into the territorial waters of a co- 
belligerent or was taken or appropriated for the 
use of the United States on the high seas or in 
such territorial waters, including jurisdiction 
of all proceedings for the condemnation of such 
property taken as prize. 



" 'Sec. 3. The jurisdiction of prizes brought 
into the territorial waters of a cobelligerent 
shall not be exercised under authority of this 
Act, nor shall prizes be taken or appropriated 
within such territorial waters for the use of the 
United States, unless the govermnent having 
jurisdiction over such territorial waters con- 
sents to the exercise of such jurisdiction or to 
such taking or appropriation. 



133 

tion acquired by courts of a cobelligerent here- 
under and to all proceedings had or judgments 
rendered in exercise of such jurisdiction.' 

"Whereas the Government of the United 
Kingdom, a cobelligerent, has consented to the 
exercise of the jurisdiction conferred by the said 
act with respect to prizes of the United States 
brought into the territorial waters of the United 
ffingdom and Sierra Leone and to the taking or 
appropriation of such prizes within the terri- 
torial waters of the United Kingdom and Sierra 
Leone for the use of the United States : 

"Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. Eo0SE\T:LT, 

President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority vested 
in me by the said act of August 18, 1942, do 
proclaim that the Government of the United 
Kingdom shall be accorded like privileges with 
respect to prizes captured under authority of 
the said Government and brought into the ter- 
ritorial waters of the United States or taken or 
appropriated in the territorial waters of the 
United States for the use of the said Govern- 
ment. 

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

"Done at the City of "Washington this 30th 
day of January in the year of our Lord 
nineteen hundred and forty-three and of the 
Independence of the United States of America 
the one hundred and sixty-seventh." 



" 'Sec. 7. A cobelligerent of the United States 
which consents to the exercise of the jurisdic- 
tion herein conferred with respect to prizes of 
the United States brought into its territorial 
waters and to the taking or appropriation of 
such prizes within its territorial waters for the 
use of the United States shall be accorded, upon 
proclamation by the President of the United 
States, like privileges with respect to prizes cap- 
tured under authority of such cobelligerent and 
brought into the territorial waters of the United 
States or taken or appropriated in the territorial 
waters of the United States for the use of such 
cobelligerent. Reciprocal recognition and full 
faith and credit shall be given to the jurisdic- 



MESSAGE FROM THE BRITISH FOREIGN 
SECRETARY REGARDING THE PUBLI- 
CATION "PEACE AND WAR" 

[Released to the press January 31] 

Secretary Hull has received from Mr. 
Anthony Eden, British Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, a message containing the following 
statement with respect to the Department's pub- 
lication. Peace arid War:^ 

"I have just finished reading your Depart- 
ment's Wliite Paper 'Peace and War'. May I 

1 Department of State publication 1853. 



134 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



congratulate you warmly on what I regard as a 
most impressive and important document which 
should have an immense educative value. It 
seems to me to present a complete and con\dnc- 
ing statement of United States policy and I hope 
and believe that among other lessons it will 
bring home to all who read it the vital need of 
cooperation between peace-loving nations and 
the folly and danger of selfish nationalist poli- 
cies. I feel that it deserves the widest possible 
publicity." 

The Department of State is informed that 
Peace and War is being published officially in 
Great Britain; that it is being published offi- 
cially or privately in several other countries in 
their own languages. Many thousands of 
copies in Spanish translation have been re- 
quested for distribution in the American 
republics. 

In order to meet widespread requests in the 
United States for Peace and War^ arrangements 
are being made for its distribution by news- 
stands and bookstores throughout the country. 



The Far East 



CHINESE CELEBRATION IN HONOR OF 
THE SIGNATURE OF THE EXTRATER- 
RITORIALITY TREATIES 

[Released to the press February 5] 

The Secretary of State, on February 5, made 
the following statement : 

"There is being held in China a three-day 
celebration beginning today in honor of the 
recent signing of the American-Chinese and the 
British-Chinese treaties for the relinquishment 
of American and British extraterritorial and 
other special rights in China. I am sure that 
this celebration will be noted by the people 
of the United States with the utmost of good 
wishes for the people of China. We all share 



China's gratification, not only because of our 
deep-rooted feeling of friendship for China and 
the Chinese but also because the step that the 
United States and Great Britain have taken 
with China has far-reaching significance as a 
concrete exemplification of the high principles 
for which the United Nations are fighting in 
the common struggle to destroy the forces of 
aggression and to build toward a better world." 



American Republics 



DEATH OF THE SON OF THE PRESIDENT 
OF BRAZIL 

[Released to the press February 3] 

The text of a message from the President of 
the United States to the President of Brazil 
follows : 

Februart 2, 1943. 

The sad news has just reached me that your 
son, Getulio, died today. 

In this hour of tragedy I wish I could be with 
you to tell you of my deep feeling of sympathy. 
When I learned from you that he had been 
stricken, I shared your hope that he would be 
spared for that career of useful service to his 
country for which he was preparing himself. 

Mrs. Roosevelt joins me in this expression of 
our most profound grief at tliis time. 
Your sincere friend, 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

UNITED STATES MISSION OF LABOR 
EXPERTS TO BOLIVIA 

[Released to the press February 2] 

Ml". Martin J. Kyne, Vice President of the 
United Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store 
Employees of America, has been appointed an 
additional member of the Mission of Labor Ex- 
perts being sent to Bolivia by the Government 
of the United States in accordance with an in- 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 

vitation of the Bolivian Government. The or- 
ganization of which Mr. Kyne is an officer is 
affiliated with the Congress of Industrial Or- 
ganizations. It is expected that Mr. Kyne will 
depart from Miami for Bolivia about February 



135 

6 and join the other members of the Mission 
who are already en route. 

The scope and membership of the Mission 
were described in the BtJixjcTiN of January 30, 
1943, p. 107. 



Commercial Policy 



THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE TRADE-AGREEMENTS PROGRAM 
Address by Charles Bunn ^ 



[Released to the press January 31] 

Your chairman has asked me to discuss the 
connection between the American trade-agree- 
ments program and the economic hopes and 
principles of the United Nations. That con- 
nection is clear and specific and is expressed in 
the fundamental documents. 

The United Nations came into existence with 
the promulgation of the Declaration by United 
Nations, January 1, 1942. By that Declara- 
tion the signatory governments, "Having sub- 
scribed to a common program of purposes and 
principles embodied in the Joint Declaration of 
the President of the United States of America 
and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland dated 
August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Char- 
ter" made certain declarations concerning the 
conduct of the war. 

The Atlantic Charter, so adopted by the 
United Nations as their own, contains the fol- 
lowing economic clauses: 

"Fourth, they will endeavor, with due re- 
spect for their existing obligations, to further 
the enjoyment by all States, great or small, vic- 
tor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to 
the trade and to the raw materials of the world 
which are needed for their economic prosperity ; 

1 Delivered before the Political Science Association, 
Washington, D.C., Jan. 31, 1943. Mr. Bunn is Special 
Assistant to the Under Secretary of State and con- 
sultant to the Division of Commercial Policy and 
Agreements, Department of State. 



"Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest 
collaboration between all nations in the eco- 
nomic field with the object of securing, for all, 
improved labor standards, economic advance- 
ment and social security ; 

"Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi 
tyranny, they hope to see established a peace 
which will afford to all nations the means of 
dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, 
and which will afford assurance that all the 
men in all the lands may live out their lives in 
freedom from fear and want; 

"Seventh, such a peace should enable, all men 
to traverse the high seas and oceans without 
hindrance ;" 

In other documents a growing number of the 
United Nations have been even more specific. 
I refer of course to the master agreements con- 
cerning the principles of mutual lend-lease, 
which have been signed between the United 
States and — in the order of signature — the 
United Kingdom, China, the Soviet Union, Bel- 
gium, Poland, the Netherlands, Greece, Czecho- 
slovakia, Norway, and Yugoslavia. These 
agreements are substantially identical. Their 
principles have been accepted by the separate 
and independent action of New Zealand and 
Australia as applicable to their lend-lease rela- 
tions with this country. The part which I shall 
read has also been accepted, quite outside lend- 
lease, by our great northern neighbor, Canada. 
I shall read from the agreement with Great 
Britain because that is the one "the provisions 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and principles of which" were made applicable 
to our lend-lease relations with the Government 
represented by our guest of honor of today, 
the Honorable Walter Nash, the Minister of 
New Zealand, by a note of September 3, 1942, 
over his signature. 

Article VII of the mutual-aid agreement be- 
tween the United States and the United King- 
dom is as follows : 

"In the final determination of the benefits to 
be provided to the United States of America by 
the Government of the United Kingdom in re- 
turn for aid furnished under the Act of Con- 
gress of March 11, 1941, the terms and 
conditions thereof shall be such as not to burden 
commerce between the two countries, but to 
promote mutually advantageous economic rela- 
tions between them and the betterment of 
world-wide economic relations. To that end, 
they shall include provision for agi'eed action 
by the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom, open to participation by all 
other countries of like mind, directed to the ex- 
pansion, by appropriate international and do- 
mestic measures, of production, employment, 
and the exchange and consumption of goods, 
which are the material foundations of the 
liberty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimi- 
nation of all forms of discriminatory treatment 
in international commerce, and to the reduction 
of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in gen- 
eral, to the attainment of all the economic ob- 
jectives set forth in the Joint Declaration made 
on August 14, 1941, by the President of the 
United States of America and the Prime Min- 
ister of the United Kingdom. 

"At an early convenient date, conversations 
shall be begun between the two Governments 
with a view to determining, in the light of gov- 
erning economic conditions, the best means of 
attaining the above-stated objectives by their 
own agreed action and of seeking the agreed ac- 
tion of other like-minded Governments." 

These are brave words, and they express 
high hopes. Whether they are merely words 
and hopes, or whether they in fact become 



reality, depends on what we do from here 
on in. To make them real will need not 
only international negotiations and agree- 
ments but domestic legislation and adminis- 
trative action in many countries and on many 
subjects, the continuous support of democratic 
peoples everywhere, and their continuous re- 
fusal to surrender to short-sighted and sectional 
self-interest. It will not be an easy task, nor yet 
a short one, but on the wisdom and success with 
which it is accomplished we must bet our chil- 
dren's lives and fortunes. 

In this long and hard job the trade-agree- 
ments program takes its perhaps humble, but 
surely necessary, part. The program is based 
on the Trade Agreements Act of 1934. That 
act, as is well known, consists chiefly of an au- 
thority vested in the President to make agree- 
ments with foreign governments concerning 
tariffs, quotas, and the like, and to proclaim the 
changes in American tariff rates provided for 
in such agreements. The President's authority 
is hedged about with a careful body of restric- 
tions, of which the most important are a require- 
ment for public notice and hearings, a limita- 
tion of reductions to 50 percent of the rates that 
would otherwise prevail, and a requirement that 
reductions provided in agreements shall apply, 
on a most-favored-nation basis, to goods of the 
same sort from all friendly foreign countries. 
The act, with its renewals, and the experienced 
and expert organization operating under it fur- 
nish an existing and efiicient tool, the only one 
this counti7 has at present, for the long-standing 
effort of this Government to eliminate discrimi- 
nations in international trade and to reduce un- 
reasonable and burdensome trade barriers by 
international negotiation and agreement. Until 
some better tool is found and put in operation, 
this one is an essential part of the equipment for 
the total job ahead. That it can work, even in 
the midst of war, is shown again by the agree- 
ment with Mexico, signed last December and 
effective yesterday (summary in the Bixlletin 
of the Department of State, December 26, 1942, 
Supplement). And we can be quite sure that 
whatever is attempted in many other fields — to 



FEBRUARY 6, 1843 



13 



expand production and employment, to stabilize 
exchange and currencies, to develop the world's 
resources, to improve the lot of working men 
and farmers, to control the machinations of car- 
tels, to promote international investment — de- 
pends in the long run, for an important part of 
its success, on the facilities for interchanging 
goods. 

Most of us in this room are not professional 
economists, and few of us are businessmen. 
But surely neither the professionals of eco- 
nomic theory nor the managers of business will 
object if we agree with them that markets are 
essential to the solvency of business enterprises. 
Markets often are abroad and are affected by the 
trade restrictions imposed by other countries on 
our goods and by the lack of buying power 
which may result from our own restrictions 
upon theirs. And, on the other side, surely this 
war has taught us— if we did not know it be- 
fore — that the welfare of the American economy 
and the living-standard of us all depends on 
many products imported from abroad. What 
the submarine and the shipping stringency have 
done in war to our second cup of coffee and what 
the Japs have done to our supply of tires, could 
be done equally in peace by unreasonable trade 
restrictions, if we were so silly as to embark on 
tliat path. The trade-agreements program pro- 
poses simply that we continue to move, as we 
have since 1934, in the opposite direction. That 
is also not the whole proposal but an essential 
part of the proposal of the Atlantic Charter, 
the Declaration by United Nations, and the 
lend-lease agreements. 

The President's authority under the last re- 
newal of the act of 1934 will expire next June 
unless extended by the present Congress. I 
have no doubt that the Congress will find it 
proper to consider, sometime between now and 
June, whether to extend it or to let it lapse, 
and if it is to be extended, whether to amend 
in any respect or in either direction the existing 
limitations on the President's authority. The 
reaction of the Congress and the country to 
those questions will be an acid test of our posi- 
tion and intentions. It will let all other coun- 
tries know whether they should plan their own 



economies, so far as relations with this country 
are concerned, on the basis of increased freedom 
of exchange or of heightened barriers and 
autarchy. Those of us who view the partner- 
ship and principles of the United Nations as 
a great hope of the future Mill have no doubt 
where we stand in the debate. 

Perhaps you will let me close with a jjersonal 
reference. Twenty-six j-ears ago this month I 
was invited to become for a period the secre- 
tary of Mr. Justice Holmes. The other war 
deprived me of that chance, but it did not 
deprive me of my admiration for his character 
and work. Before that, back in 1913, he spoke 
to a Harvard meeting in New York and said 
some things which are not without their present- 
day analogy. He is speaking about the Su- 
preme Court of the United States : 

"I do not think the United States would come 
to an end if we lost our power to declare an 
Act of Congress void. I do think the Union 
would be imperiled if we could not make that 
declaration as to the laws of the several States. 
For one in my place sees how often a local policy 
prevails with those who are not trained to na- 
tional views and how often action is taken that 
embodies what the Commerce Clause was 
meant to end." 

The world has grown smaller since Holmes 
spoke. "What the Commerce Clause was 
meant to end" between the States has become 
a burning question between nations. The men 
who try to solve that question and the peoples 
who give them power and support them must 
indeed be trained to more than local views. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press February 2] 

Senhor Sergio Milliet, well-known Brazilian 
journalist and author, head of the editorial sec- 
tion of O Estado de Sao Paulo, a leading news- 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETIN 



paper of Sao Paulo, and also a contributing ed- 
itor of A Manha of Rio de Janeiro, arrived in 
the United States on Monday, February 1, as a 
guest of the Department of State. 

Senhor Milliet is also Chief of the Division 
of Historical and Social Documents of the De- 
partment of Culture of Sao Paulo and director 
of a project of the Libraria Martins of that city 
to publish old Brazilian books now out of print. 
His itinerary in the United States includes lead- 
ing museums, libraries, publishing houses and 
newspapers, and certain factories. 



The Department 



DIVISION OF EXPORTS AND 
REQUIREMENTS 

On February 1, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following Departmental order (no. 
1128) : 

"There is hereby created in the Department 
of State a Division of Exports and Require- 
ments. It shall function as a component part 
of the Board of Economic Operations and un- 
der the supervision of Mr. Thomas K. Finlet- 
ter. Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, 
and under the general direction of Assistant 
Secretary of State Acheson. This Division 
shall have responsibility for all matters of for- 
eign policy involved in the administration of 
the Act of July 2, 1940, as amended (the Ex- 
port Control Act), the Act of March 11, 1941 
(the Lend-Lease Act), except the negotiation 
of master lend-lease agreements and the appli- 
cation of Article VII thereof under said Act, 
the Acts of June 28, 1940, and May 31, 1941 
(in so far as priorities and/or allocations for 
export are concerned), provided that where 
such matters involve arrangements for pur- 



chase of materials, preclusive or otherwise, in 
foreign countries, the policies to be followed 
shall be formulated in the Division of Defense 
Materials. 

"The Division of Exports and Requirements 
shall have responsibility in matters under its 
control for dealing with the Department's cor- 
respondence and contacts with our representa- 
tives abroad and with representatives of foreign 
governments in this country. It shall collabo- 
rate with the geographical and other divisions, 
in particular the Division of Defense Materials, 
concerning the formulation and coordination 
of policy and establish and maintain liaison 
with other departments and agencies of the 
Government. 

"Mr. Christian M. Ravndal is designated 
Chief, and Messrs. Olaf Ravndal, Albert M. 
Doyle, Charles F. Knox, Jr., Russell W. Ben- 
ton, and William C. Trimble are designated 
Assistant Chiefs of the Division of Exports 
and Requirements, the symbol designation of 
which shall be ER. 

"The American Hemisphere Exports Office 
is hereby abolished, and its personnel, equip- 
ment and facilities are hereby transferred to 
the Division of Exports and Requirements. 

"The provisions of this Order shall be effec- 
tive immediately and shall supersede and can- 
cel the provisions of any existing Order in con- 
flict therewith." 



DIVISIONS UNDER SUPERVISION OF SPE- 
CIAL ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY, 
THOMAS K. FINLETTER 

On February 1, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following Departmental order (no. 
1130) : 

"The Division of Exports and Requirements, 
the Foreign Funds Control Division, the Divi- 
sion of Defense Materials, and the Division of 
World Trade Intelligence shall henceforth op- 
erate under the supervision of Mr. Thomas K. 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 



139 



Finletter, Special Assistant to the Secretary, and 
under the general direction of Assistant Secre- 
tary Acheson. On matters involving general 
economic policy, Mr. Finletter and the several 
divisions referred to shall consult with the Office 
of the Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs. 

"The symbol designation of Mr. Finletter's 
office shall be SA/F. 

"The provisions of this Order shall be effec- 
tive immediately and shall supei-sede and cancel 
the provisions of any existing Order in conflict 
therewith." 

ASSOCIATE ADVISER ON INTERNATIONAL 
ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 

On February 1, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following Departmental order (no. 
1129) : 

"There is hereby created in the Oflice of the 
Adviser on International Economic Affairs the 
post of Associate Adviser on Intei-national Eco- 
nomic Affairs. 

"Dr. Emilio G. Collado is hereby designated 
Associate Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs. Dr. Collado shall continue to perform 
his functions as Special Assistant to the Under 
Secretary and to serve as his alternate on the 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Ad- 
visory Committee. 

"Mr. John S. Hooker and Mr. Jack C. Cor- 
bett are designated as Assistant Advisers on 
International Economic Affairs in the Office 
of the Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs. 

"Mr. Simon G. Hanson is transferred to the 
Office of the Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs. He shall continue to act as Consultant 
to the Board of Economic Operations. 

"The symbol designation of Dr. Collado shall 
be EA/C. 

"The personnel, equipment and other facil- 
ities attached to Dr. Collado's office prior to 
this Order are hereby transferred to the Office 



of the Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs. 

"The provisions of this Order shall be effec- 
tive immediately and shall supersede and cancel 
the provisions of any existing Order in conflict 
therewith." 



THE BOARD OF ECONOMIC OPERATIONS 

On February 1, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following De2:)artmental order (no. 
1131): 

"The first paragraph of Departmental Or- 
der 973 of October 7, 1941, is hereby amended 
to read as follows : 

"There is hereby created in the Department 
of State a Board of Economic Operations, the 
members of which shall be Assistant Secre- 
taries of State Acheson and Berle; the Ad- 
viser on International Economic Affairs, Dr. 
Herbert Feis; the Associate Adviser on Inter- 
national Economic Affairs, Dr. Emilio G. Col- 
lado; Special Assistant to the Secretaiy of 
State, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky; Special Assistant 
to the Secretary of State, Mr. Thomas K. Fin- 
letter; Special Assistant to the Under Secre- 
tary, Mr. Max Thornburg; and the Chiefs or, 
in their absence, the Acting Chiefs of the fol- 
lowing divisions: Commercial Policy and 
Agreements, Defense Materials, Exports and 
Requirements, Financial, Foreign Funds Con- 
trol, and World Trade Intelligence. 

"The last three paragi-aphs of that Order are 
amended to read as follows : 

"Mr. John S. Hooker, Assistant Adviser on 
International Economic Affairs, is hereby des- 
ignated as Executive Secretary of the Board. 
He shall prepare agenda for the meetings of 
the Board and shall maintain minutes of such 
meetings. Mr. Jack C. Corbett, Assistant Ad- 
viser on International Economic Affairs, shall 
continue to serve as Assistant Executive Sec- 
retary of the Board. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"The provisions of this Order shall be effec- 
tive immediately and shall supersede and can- 
cel the provisions of any existing Order in 
conflict therewith." 



APPOINTMENT OF ASSISTANT IN CHARGE 
OF SPECIAL RELIEF PROBLEMS 

[Released to the press February 5] 

Mr. Lithgow Osborne has been added to the 
staff of the Honorable Herbert H. Lehman, 
Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations, as Assistant in charge of special re- 
lief problems. Mr. Osborne already has begun 
operating in his new post. 

Under his assignment Mr. Osborne will deal 
with special problems of relief and rehabilita- 
tion in the foreign field as distinguished from 
the general program for extension of mass relief 
to distressed civilian populations. 

A resident of Auburn, N. Y., Mr. Osborne 
served as Conservation Commissioner for the 
State of New York from 1933 until last year. 
Prior to his work in New York State he was 
associated with the Department of State. 

He was private secretary to the Honorable 
James W. Gerard when the latter was Ambassa- 
dor to Germany in 1915 and later became Third 
Secretary of the United States Embassy in Ber- 
lin, serving in that capacity until 1917 when 
diplomatic relations were broken with Germany. 

He was Secretary of Legation at Habana, 
Cuba, and later served in the Legation at Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. He was attached to the 
American Peace Commission in Paris in 1919, 
afterward serving in the Department of State 
m the Western European Division. He was 
Assistant Secretary-General at the Washington 
Disarmament Conference in 1921-1922. 

More recently Mr. Osborne was Chairman of 
the New York State Automotive Rationing 
Committee, in charge of rationing and pooling 
of all State-owned automobiles, tires, and auto- 
motive equipment. 



Treaty Information 



WATER POWER 

Agreement With Canada for the Temporary 
Raising of the Level of Lake St. Francis 

By an exchange of notes dated November 10, 
1941 an agreement was entered into between 
the Government of the United States and the 
Government of Canada for the temporary rais- 
ing of the level of Lake St. Francis during low- 
water periods. The agreement was to remain 
in force until October 1, 1942. 

By a second exchange of notes, dated Octo- 
ber 15, 1942, both Governments agree to con- 
tinue the agreement in force until October 1, 
1943. 

The purpose of the agreement is the con- 
servation of the supply of power in the lower 
St. Lawrence. 

The exchanges of notes will be printed in the 
Executive Agreement Series. 



STRATEGIC MATERIALS 

Arrangement for the Purchase of Fats, 
Oils and Oilseeds 

Canada 

By a note dated November 12, 1942 the 
Canadian Minister at Washington informed the 
Secretary of State that the Canadian Govern- 
ment adheres to the recommendations for action 
under the Memorandum of Understanding, 
dated May 13, 1942, between the United King- 
dom and the United States for the purchase of 
oils, fats, and oilseeds available to the United 
Nations throughout the world. (See the Btjl- 
LEHN of October 3, 1942, page 791.) 



FEBRUARY 6, 1943 



141 



Publications 



Legislation 



Depahtment of* State 

Reciprocal Trade: Agreement and Supplemental Ex- 
changes of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Peru — Signed at Washington May 7, 
1942; effective July 29, 1942. Executive Agreement 
S:eries 256. Publication 1836. 37 pp. 10(f. 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). January 1, 1943. 
Publication 1860. iii, 34 pp. Free. 



Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the 
Department of State : Communication from the Pres- 
ident of the United States transmitting supplemen- 
tal estimates of appropriations for the Department 
of State for the fiscal year 1943, amounting to 
$770,000 [$250,000 for cost-of-living allowances. For- 
eign Service, and $520,000 for the Foreign Service 
Auxiliary]. H. Doc. 66, 78th Cong., 1st sess. 2 pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLT WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE DIBECTOB OF THE BCBEAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 190— Publication 1877 



C 



ontents 




The War p«ge 

Address by the President Before the White House Corre- 
spondents Association 145 

Address by the Under Secretary of State at the Opening 

Ceremonies for United Nations Month 147 

German Action With Respect to Americans Formerly 

Stationed in France 149 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to Japan. 150 

Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 4 to Revision 

IV 153 

The Far East 

Extraterritoriality Treaty With China 153 

American Republics 

Adherence by Peru to the Principles of the Atlantic 

Charter 154 

Agreement With Cuba Regarding Military Service by 

Nationals of Either Country Residing in the Other . 154 

General 

Simphfication of Border-Crossing Regulations on the 

Canadian Border 154 

The Department 

Duties of the Special Division 155 

Death of Frank Lyon Polk 157 

Treaty Information 

Armed Forces: Agreement With Cuba Regarding Military 
Service by Nationals of Either Country Residing in 
the Other 157 

lOVEB] 







U. S. ^.., . i,;i---in.NT OF DOCUMENTS 

FEB 25 1943 



OntCTl tS— CONTINUED 



Treaty Information — Continued Page 

Extraterritoriality: Treaty With China for the Rehn- 

quishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China ... 160 

Publications 160 

Legislation 161 



The War 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT BEFORE THE WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENTS 

ASSOCIATION ' 



(Excerpts) 



. . . Today the whole world is one neighbor- 
hood. That is why this war, which had its 
beginnings in seemingly remote areas, has 
spread to every continent and most of the islands 
of the sea, involving the lives and the liberties 
of the entire human race. And unless the peace 
that follows recognizes that the whole world is 
one neighborhood and does justice to the whole 
human race, the germs of another World War 
will remain as a constant threat to mankind. 



It was made clear to us at Casablanca that 
all Frenchmen outside of France are uniting in 
one great paramount objective — the complete 
liberation of France and of all the French 
people who now suffer the torture of the Nazi 
yoke. As each day passes a spirit of unselfish- 
ness is more greatly uniting all Frenchmen who 
have the opportunity to strike a blow for libera- 
tion. 

In the years of the American and French 
revolution^ the fundamental principle guiding 
our democracies was established. The corner- 
stone of our whole democratic edifice was the 
principle that from the people and the people 
alone flows the authority of government. 

It is one of our war aims, as expressed in the 
Atlantic Charter, that the conquered popula- 
tions of today be again the masters of their 
destiny. There must be no doubt anywhere that 



^ Broadcast from the annual gathering of the Associa- 
tion, Hotel Statler, Washington, D. C, and released by 
the White House for publication Feb. 12, 1943, 9 : 30 
p.m. 

511159 — 43 1 



it is the unalterable purpose of the United Na- 
tions to restore to conquered peoples their 
sacred rights. 

French sovereignty rests with the people of 
France. Its expression has been temporarily 
suspended hy German occupation. Once the 
triumphant armies of the United Nations have 
expelled the common foe, Frenchmen will be 
represented by a government of their own pop- 
ular choice. 

It will be a free choice in eveiy sense. No 
nation in all the world that is free to make a 
choice is going to set itself up under the Fascist 
form of government, or the Nazi form of gov- 
ernment, or the Japanese warlord form of 
government. Such forms are the offspring of 
seizure of power followed by the abridgement 
of freedom. Therefore, the United Nations can 
properly say of these forms of government two 
simple words : "Never again". 

The right of self-determination included in 
the Atlantic Charter does not carry with it the 
right of any government to commit wholesale 
murder or the right to make slaves of its own 
people or of any other peoples in the world. 

And the world can rest assured that this total 
war — this sacrifice of lives all over the globe — 
is not being carried on for the purpose or even 
with the remotest idea of keeping the Quislings 
or Lavals in power anywhere on this earth. 

The decisions reached and the actual plans 
made at Casablanca were not confined to any 
one theater of war or to any one continent or 
ocean or sea. Before this year is out, it will be 
made known to the world — in actions rather 
145 



146 

than in words — that the Casablanca Conference 
produced plenty of news; and it will be bad 
news for the Germans and Italians — and the 
Japanese. 

In an attempt to ward off the inevitable dis- 
aster, the Axis propagandists are trying all their 
old tricks in order to divide the United Nations. 
They seek to create the idea that if we win this 
war, Kussia, England, China, and the United 
States are going to get into a cat-and-dog fight. 

This is their final effort to turn one nation 
against another, in the vain hope that they may 
settle with one or two at a time — that any of 
us may be so gullible and so forgetful as to be 
duped into making "deals" at the expense of our 
allies. 

To these panicky attempts to escape the con- 
sequences of their crimes we say — all the United 
Nations say — that tlie only terms on which we 
shall deal with any Axis government or any 
Axis factions are the terms proclaimed at Casa- 
blanca : "unconditional surrender". In our un- 
compromising policy we mean no harm to the 
common people of the Axis nations. But we do 
mean to impose punishment and retribution in 
full upon their guilty, barbaric leaders. 

The Nazis must be frantic indeed if they be- 
lieve that they can devise any propaganda which 
would turn the British and American and Chi- 
nese governments and peoples against Russia — 
or Russia against the rest of us. 

The overwhelming courage and endurance of 
the Russian people in withstanding and hurling 
back the invaders — and the genius with which 
their great armies have been directed and led 
by Mr. Stalin and their military commanders — 
all speak for themselves. 

The tragedy of the war has sharpened the 
vision of the leadership and peoples of all the 
United Nations, and I can say to you from my 
own full knowledge that they see the utter ne- 
cessity of our standing together after the war 
to secure a peace based on principles of per- 
manence. 

You can be quite sure that if Japan should be 
the first of the Axis partners to fall, the total 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

efforts and resources of all the United Nations 
would be concentrated on the job of crushing 
Germany. 

And, on the other hand, lest there be any 
question in Nazi or Japanese minds that we are 
wholly one in the prosecution of the war to a 
complete victory all over the world, the Prime 
Minister wished to make a formal agreement 
that if Germany should be conquered before 
Japan all British Empire resources and man- 
power would, of course, join with China and us 
in an out-and-out final attack on Japan. I told 
him that no formal statement or agreement 
along these lines was in the least bit necessary — 
that the American people accept the word of a 
great English gentleman — and that it was ob- 
vious and clear that all of us are completely in 
accord in our determination to destroy the forces 
of barbarism in Asia and in Europe and in 
Africa. In other words, our policy toward our 
Japanese enemies is precisely the same as our 
policy toward our Nazi enemies : it is a policy of 
fighting hard on all fronts and ending the war 
as quickly as we can on the uncompromising 
terms of unconditional surrender. 

Today is the anniversary of the birth of a 
gi-eat, plain American. The living memory of 
Abraham Lincoln is now honored and cherished 
by all our people, wherever they may be, and 
by men and women and children throughout the 
British Commonwealth, and the Soviet Union, 
and the Reijublic of China, and in every land on 
earth where people love freedom and will give 
their lives for freedom. 

President Lincoln said in 1862 : "Fellow Citi- 
zens, we cannot escape history. We of this Con- 
gress and this administration will be remem- 
bered in spite of ourselves. No personal signifi- 
cance or insignificance can spare one or another 
of us. The fiery trial through which we pass 
will light us . . . in honor or dishonor, to the 
latest generation." 

Today, 80 years after Lincoln delivered that 
message, the fires of war are blazing across the 
whole horizon of mankind — from Kharkov to 
Kunming — from the Mediterranean to the Coral 
Sea — from Berlin to Tokyo. 



FEBRUARY i; 



147 



Again — wc cannot escape history. We have 
supreme confidence tliat with the help of God 
honor will prevail. We have faith that future 
generations will know that here, in the middle 



of the twentieth century, there came the time 
when men of good will found a way to unite and 
produce and fight to destroy the forces of ig- 
norance, intolerance, slavery, and war. 



ADDRESS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE OPENING CEREMONIES 
FOR UNITED NATIONS MONTH ' 



[Released to the press February 12] 

These ceremonies, which mark the opening 
here in New York City of the United Nations 
Month, possess, I hope, a very deep symbolic 
significance. 

There are meeting together here today with 
representatives of our own country the repre- 
sentative of that great association of free 
peoples known as the British Commonwealth 
of Nations; the representative of the valiant 
Republic of China, which is unquestionably 
destined in the years of the future to become a 
preponderant influence for peace and for stabil- 
ity among the nations of Asia ; and the Ambas- 
sador of Mexico, who comes to us today not 
only as the accredited representative of our 
dynamic and progressive neighbor but also as 
one of the millions of freedom-loving men and 
women who are proud to be citizens of those 20 
American republics who are cooperating so 
loyally together in the defense of the liberty of 
the New World. 

We all of us regret that we could not have 
with us today a representative of that great 
people who are at this moment inflicting so 
crushing a defeat upon the forces of Nazi Ger- 
many, and whose superb resistance to our com- 
mon enemy has won the admiration of us all. 
We recognize that in any gathering which sym- 
bolizes the United Nations the presence and par- 
ticipation of the Soviet Union is imperatively 
required. 

' Delivered by the Honorable Sumner Welles, under 
the auspices of the OflSce of War Information at Rocke- 
feller Center, New York, N.Y., Feb. 12, 1&43, and broad- 
cast by the National Broadcasting Company on a 
Nation-wide hookup. 



This gathering symbolizes, I believe, our 
joint realization that the continued partnership 
of the United Nations will be just as necessary, 
just as essential, after the war is over as it is 
now, in order to assure the winning of our com- 
mon victory in peace as well as in battle. 

With the adherence to the United Nations 
Declaration of the mighty Republic of Brazil 
31 peoples, through their Governments, have 
jointly declared that they will not lay down 
their arms until their common enemies have been 
defeated and have subscribed to the great prin- 
ciples established in the Atlantic Charter. 

We hear it said from time to time on both 
sides of the Atlantic, and occasionally beyond 
the Pacific as well, that this exposition of uni- 
versal objectives known as the Atlantic Charter 
is not sufficiently comprehensive and that it 
should be further clarified. 

It seems to me that there are established 
therein all the objectives which men and women 
who are struggling to preserve our civilization 
and to achieve their own freedom and security 
would wish to have held up before them. 

In Article 8 they are given the assurance that 
in the world of the future peace will be main- 
tained by peace-loving nations, just as the law- 
abiding members of any community see to it 
that a police force maintains law and order in 
their own neighborhood. It is formally stipu- 
lated that "Since no future peace can be main- 
tained if land, sea, or air armaments continue 
to be employed by nations which threaten, or 
may threaten, aggression outside of their fron- 
tiers, they believe, pending the establishment 
of a wider and permanent system of general 
security, that the disarmament of such nations 
is essential". 



148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In Articles 2 and 3 there are set forth the 
very foundations essential to the maintenance 
of individual liberty and democracy in interna- 
tional society. The assurance is given that the 
United Nations "desire to see no territorial 
changes that do not accord with the freely ex- 
pressed wishes of the peoples concerned", and 
that "they respect the right of all peoples to 
choose the form of government under which they 
will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights 
and self-government restored to those who have 
been forcibly deprived of them". 

In Articles 4 and 5 the peoples of the world 
are given the commitment that the United Na- 
tions will further the enjoyment by all states 
of access, on equal terms, to the ti-ade and to the 
raw materials of the world which are needed 
for their economic prosiDerity, and that they 
will stimulate the fullest collaboration between 
all nations in the economic field with the object 
of securing, for all, improved labor standards, 
economic advancement, and social security. 

And, finally, the peoples of the earth are given 
the great promise that the peace which will re- 
sult from this war will afford assurance "that 
all the men in all the lands may live out their 
lives in freedom from fear and want". 

In these objectives to which the peoples of 
the United Nations have pledged their sup- 
port, there are contained all the principles re- 
quii-ed to achieve that kind of world of the fu- 
ture which alone can offer compensation to hu- 
manity for the sorrow and sacrifice expended 
in its achievement. 

But principles and objectives unfortunately 
remain only words and noble aspirations unless 
they are translated into reality. That transla- 
tion into reality is by far the hardest part of the 
task which lies ahead. 

Twenty-five years ago we also had held up 
before us the concept of a free world in which 
peace and justice and international decency 
would prevail. Just because that concept held 
up to mankind at the close of the last war was 
not translated into reality, the world today is 
undergoing this far greater holocaust. 

The sand in the hourglass continues to rim 
out. It would be premature to attempt to 



prophesy how soon the Axis powers of Europe 
will be forced to sue for that unconditional sur- 
render which is the only basis upon which they 
can obtain a cessation of hostilities, or how long 
it will be before the Japanese warlords are 
obliged by the realization of their own utter 
defeat to plead for the same kind of peace. The 
road may still be long before the ultimate vic- 
tory is achieved. 

But it seems to me that all of us who are 
partners in this great association for freedom, 
known as the United Nations, must recognize 
that it is the part of wisdom to lose no present 
opportunity for understanding between us as 
to the manner in which these great principles 
for which we strive shall be translated into 
reality when the victory is ours. 

I cannot but believe that the greatest inspira- 
tion and the most positive assurance which the 
peoples of the world today could possess would 
be the realization that the governments of the 
United Nations had united the work which each 
is doing individually and were joined in chart- 
ing the course which must be followed when the 
war is ended. 

Surely there is much that could now be done 
to determine the practical manner in which the 
police power will be exercised in the world of 
the future ; for only in that way can we be sure 
that we will indeed lighten "the crushing 
burden of armaments for peace-loving peoples"; 
much that could be done to make sure that men 
and women in the future may in fact "live out 
their lives in freedom from fear and want". 

Surely there is also much that could now be 
done to detei-mine the path by which the nations 
of the world can obtain that full measure of 
general economic reconstruction which can only 
be achieved by international cooperation. 

There could be no surer road to disaster, no 
surer means of bringing about unmitigated 
havoc in the future than for the United Nations 
to enter the post-war period as rivals and op- 
ponents in their commercial and financial 
policies rather than as collaborators in a com- 
mon task of seeking and achieving interna- 
tional economic stability and general well- 
being. 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 

Together we can solve this gigantic problem ; 
opposed to one another, no one of us will profit. 
All would share the consequences of a general 
ruin. 

Can anyone doubt that it would be far easier 
to reach that essential common agreement on 
the practical measures required to carry out 
these great principles of the Atlantic Charter 
during these months in which the United 
Nations are joined together in the common 
struggle than if the search for that agreement 
be postponed until after the war is won? 



149 

The necessities of war are daily showing to 
us the possible methods of cooperation in a 
future peace, and the war itself is daily tabu- 
lating the cost of past failure to work for peace 
with that vigor which today we devote toward 
achieving victory. 

It is urgent that we be prepared, by common 
agreement, to make righteous and effective use 
of the day of triumph so that the union against 
the enemies of mankind may become a perma- 
nent pledge for the welfare of all peoples. 



GERMAN ACTION WITH RESPECT TO AMERICANS FORMERLY STATIONED 
IN FRANCE 



At his press conference on Februarj' 11, 1913 
the Under Secretary of State, Mr. Sumner 
Welles, said there were one or two facts that 
he would like to ask the members of the press 
conference to think about since they were of par- 
ticular importance and he wondered if the people 
of this country realized the full significance of 
what he had in mind. Mr. Welles said that he 
was talking about the action of the German Gov- 
ernment in not only refusing to permit the diplo- 
matic personnel of tlie United States who had 
been stationed at Vichy to leave France but also 
the action of the Hitler government in taking 
that considerable number of American diplo- 
matic officers and putting them in concentration 
in Germany. As the press would probably re- 
member, Mr. Welles continued, the reason for 
the action taken was that the German Govern- 
ment insisted that as part of the exchange in- 
volved, not only should the United States Gov- 
ernment permit the members of the French Em- 
bassy staff here to return but also that we should 
permit the Gei-man members of the German 
Armistice Commission in North Africa, who had 
been taken at the time of the American occu- 
pation in North Africa, to be returned to Ger- 
many as a part of the exchange. Frankly, said 
Mr. Welles, that was one of the cheapest efforts 
of international blackmail that he had yet 
known. After pointing out that the German 



Armistice Commission was composed of mili- 
tary and civilian members, Mr. Welles said that 
this Government agreed to pennit the civilian 
members of the German Armistice Commission 
to be returned as a part of the exchange thereto 
properly in accordance with every principle of 
international conduct and law. The military 
members, Mr. Welles said, were regarded in a 
different category and not susceptible to that 
part of the exchange transaction. In conclu- 
sion, Mr. Welles said that that is the reason why 
our American diplomatic officials are now in 
concentration in Germany, and he thought it 
was important that that fact be known and 
thoroughly known. 

When asked if we had made any protest to the 
Germans through the Swiss, Mr. Welles said 
that we had made numerous protests on the sub- 
ject. In reply to a question as to whether there 
was any further action that the Government 
could take, Mr. Welles said not for the moment 
and added that he would put it that way. 

Replying to a correspondent who asked if 
the military members were considered prisoners 
of war, Mr. Welles said that military members 
were considered by the War Department as 
prisoners of war. 

A correspondent asked if the Under Secre- 
tary could elaborate to any extent on the treat- 
ment being accorded the American diplomats in 



150 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULIiETIN 



Germany and began to point out that Mr. Welles 
spoke of a concentration camp. Mr. Welles 
interrupted to say that he did not say "concen- 
tration camp" but had said "in concentration"'. 
Mr. Welles said that he understood that the 
American diplomats were lodged in a hotel 
in western Germany and the reports so far 
would seem to indicate that they were obtaining 
good treatment. When asked if there was no 
prospect of their coming home, Mr. Welles said 
not for the time being for the reasons stated. 

A correspondent asked if that meant that our 
friends in Hershey, Pa., would have to stay 



there a while longer. Mr. Welles said that it 
seemed that way. 

When asked how many were involved, Mr. 
Welles said that the correspondents would be 
given the appropriate figure. (The total num- 
ber of the American group in Germany is 139, 
of which 95 are personnel of the State, War, and 
Navy Departments and the remainder, journal- 
ists and Red Cross and other relief workers. 
The Germans involved in the prospective ex- 
change total 71, of which 47 are military 
personnel and 24 civilians.) 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



[Released to the press February 8] 

Throughout the ages adventurous men have 
dreamed of forbidden, magic cities, where 
wealth and power lay scattered about in endless 
profusion. Sometimes these cities were called 
the Seven Cities of Cibola ; in more recent times 
men have spoken of Shangri-la. Have you ever 
stopped to think that to the German and Jap- 
anese militarists such a forbidden city is plainly 
marked on the map ? In that city the Hitlerite 
and Japanese fanatics could find the weapons 
they need to conquer the world ; they could find 
the wealth, and the skill, and the plants neces- 
sary either to the ruin or to the rebuilding of 
civilization. But that city is closed to them. 
None of them may look upon it and live. It is 
more forbidden than Lhasa, more remote than 
Ultima Thule. To the warlords of Tokyo and 
Berlin that terrible, faraway city is Detroit. 

You are the people of that city, the fabulous 
home of mass-production. You can make the 
terrible legend of your own skill come true in 
the skies of the Axis. You can surpass every- 
thing dreamed of in old tales of magic — every- 
thing but one : the need for labor. Work ; hard, 
grueling work irrespective of rank, income, or 
job; work that will do honor to the men on 



' Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew before 
nn Office of Civilian Defense meeting, Detroit, Mich., 
Feb. 8, 1943. 



Guadalcanal who take no time off, except for 
eternity; work done freely and in a comradely 
way; work in which employee and employer, 
operator and manager, owner and wage-earner 
respect each other's rights but then disregard all 
special rights and privileges in competing to 
see who can make the greatest contribution to 
his nation — work is the magic of Detroit ! The 
work of free men, struggling for the good living 
to which America's freedom entitles them and 
their families, is now pitted head-on against the 
underpaid, slavelike labor of the Axis. 

Let me tell you about that part of the Axis 
which I happen to know best — the Empire of 
Japan, which I left eight months ago, and the 
war machine which Japan has built. 

Even before Pearl Harbor Japan was strong 
and possessed a military machine of great 
power — and when I speak of that military ma- 
chine I include all branches of the Japanese 
armed forces : the Army, the Navy, and the Air 
Force. That military machine had been steadily 
strengthened and developed during many years, 
especially since Japan's invasion of Manchuria 
in 1931, an act of unprovoked aggression which, 
in effect, commenced the expansionist movement 
of Japan in total disregard of the rights and 
legitimate interests of any nation or of any 
people that might stand in the way of that 
movement. In 1937 came Japan's invasion of 
north China and Shanghai, which led to the 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 



151 



past six years of Sino-Japanese warfare. The 
Japanese did not wish to clothe that infamous 
campaign with the name of war: they called it 
first the "China Incident", and later, when great 
Japanese armies were tiying desperately but 
futilely, year after year, to destroy the man- 
power and break the magnificent courage and 
fighting spirit of the ill-equipped but deter- 
mined forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, 
the Japanese people, even with their own un- 
balanced humor, could not fail to perceive the 
sardonic humor of the term "incident", and they 
then, with tragi-comical deliberation, dubbed 
the campaign the "China Affair". But never 
"war". So it is today. 

But during all these years of their unavailing 
effort to conquer China and to bring about the 
surrender of the Chinese National Government 
those Japanese armed forces were using China 
as a training-ground in preparation for the 
greater war, already carefully planned, for 
their eventual conquest and intended permanent 
control of all so-called "Greater East Asia 
including the South Seas" and for the imposi- 
tion upon the peoples of those far-flung areas of 
what Japan is pleased to refer to as the "New 
Order" and the "Co-Prosperity Sphere". We 
know what that euphemistic slogan "Co- 
Prosperity" means: it denotes absolute hegem- 
ony — economic, financial, political — for Japan's 
own purely selfish interests and the virtual 
enslavement of the peoples of those territories 
to do the bidding of their Japanese masters. 
This statement is not a figment of the imagina- 
tion : it is based on practical experience in other 
regions already subjected to Japan's domina- 
tion. Such a regime will be imposed in every 
area that may fall under Japan's domination. 

During all this period of preparation the 
Japanese military machine has been steadily 
expanded and strengthened and trained to a 
knife-edge of war efficiency — in landing on 
beaches, in jungle fighting, and in all the many 
different forms of warfare which it was later to 
encounter. The jealous personal disputes, end- 
less red tape, and face-saving expedients which 
characterize the civil life of Japan in times of 
peace wholly disappear in war; the various 

511159 — 43 2 



branches of their armed forces cooperate in well- 
nigh perfect coordination, and their staff work, 
strategy, and tactics are of a high degree of 
excellence. The precision and speed of their 
campaign in the Malay Peninsula and their 
rapid taking of Singapore are sufficient proof of 
tliat. Furthermore, in war Japan is wholly 
totalitarian ; her economy is planned and carried 
out to the last detail. No word of criticism of 
the Government or its acts is tolerated ; the so- 
called "thought control" police take care of that. 
Labor unions are powerless. In war Japan is a 
unit, thinks and acts as a unit, labors and fights 
as a unit. 

With that background, and having in mind 
the strength and power of Japan even before 
Pearl Harbor, consider for a moment the scene 
as it has developed in the Far East. Consider 
the tremendous holdings of Japan today: 
Korea, Manchuria, great areas in China proper, 
Formosa, the Spratly Islands, Indochina, Thai- 
land, Burma and the Andamans, the entire 
Malay Peninsula, Hongkong and Singapore, the 
Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies and, 
farther to the south and to the east, myriads of 
islands many of which are unsinkable aircraft 
carriers. Those areas contain all — mind you, 
all — the raw materials essential to the develop- 
ment of national power : rubber, oil, tin, metals, 
and foodstuffs — everything that the most com- 
prehensive economy can desire; and they con- 
tain furthermore millions of native inhabitants 
who, experience has proved beyond peradven- 
ture, will be enslaved as skilled and unskilled 
labor by Japan to process those raw materials 
for immediate and future use. Add to that 
the stores of scrap iron for the making of steel 
which have been accumulating these many years 
in the Japanese homeland and the further stores 
acquired in the many conquered and occupied 
ports. There you have a recipe and the in- 
gredients for national strength and power that 
defeat the imagination even approximately to 



Now to this recipe and these ingredients add 
one further element of grimly ominous purport. 
During all my 10 years in Japan I have read 
the books, the speeches, the newspaper and 



152 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETESr 



magazine articles of highly placed Japanese, of 
generals and admirals, of statesmen and diplo- 
mats and politicians. Sometimes thinly veiled, 
sometimes not even veiled, has emerged their 
overweening ambition eventually to invade and 
to conquer these United States. In their think- 
ing, even the megalomania of Hitler is sur- 
passed. Fantastic if you will, but to them it is, 
not fantastic. It was not fantastic — to them — 
when the foremost Japanese admiral, as recently 
occurred, publicly stated in all seriousness that 
the peace after this war shall be dictated in the 
Wliite House in Washington — by Japan. 

It might be 1 year or 2 years or 5 or 10 years 
before that Japanese military machine would 
find itself ready to undertake an all-out attack 
on this Western Hemisphere of ours ; they them- 
selves have spoken of a hundred-year war ; but 
one fact is as certain as the law of gravity : if we 
should allow the Japanese to dig in permanently 
in the far-flung areas now occupied, if we should 
allow them to consolidate and to crystallize their 
ill-gotten gains, if we should allow them time to 
fortify those gains to the nth degree, as they 
assuredly will attempt to do, it would be only a 
question of time before they attempted the con- 
quest of American territory nearer home. 

What worries me in the attitude of our fellow 
countrymen is first the utterly fallacious pre- 
war thinking which still widely persists, to the 
effect that the Japanese, a race of little men, 
good copyists but poor inventors, are incapable 
of developing such power as could ever seriously 
threaten our home shores, our cities, and our 
homes, a habit of mind which is reinforced by 
the great distances separating our homeland 
from the eastern and southern battlefronts 
today. Second, I am worried by the reaction of 
our people to the current successes of our heroic 
fighting men in the Solomons and New Guinea, 
for after each hard-won victory the spirits of 
our people soar. Moral stimulation is good; 
but moral complacency is the most dangerous 
habit of mind we can develop, and that danger 
is serious and ever-present. I have seen with 
my own eyes in some cases and I have had first- 
hand vivid personal accounts in many other 
cases of the horrible tortures inflicted on some 
of our fellow citizens by those utterly brutal. 



ruthless, and sadistic Japanese militai-y police; 
I received in Tokyo the first-hand stories of the 
rape of Nanking; I have watched during these 
fateful years the purposeful bombing of our 
American religious missions throughout China, 
over 300 incidents of infamous destruction of 
American life and property, the intentional 
sinking of the Panay, the attempts on the 
TutuUa and on our Embassy in Chungking, and 
other efl'orts on the part of those military ex- 
tremists to bring on war with the United States 
for the very purpose of leading up to the even- 
tual carrying out of their fell designs; and I 
say to you, without hesitation or reserve, that 
our own country, our cities, our homes are in 
dire peril from the overweening ambition and 
the potential power of that Japanese military 
machine — a power that renders Japan poten- 
tially the strongest nation in the world, poten- 
tially stronger than Great Britain or Germany 
or Russia or the United States — and that only 
when that military caste and its machine have 
been wholly crushed and destroyed on the field 
of battle, by land and air and sea, and dis- 
credited in the eyes of its own people, and ren- 
dered impotent either to fight further or further 
to reproduce itself in the future, shall we in our 
own land be free from that hideous danger and 
be able once again to turn to paths of peace. 

You, people of Detroit, bear an unusual share 
of the responsibility for striking down that 
danger and reopening the paths of peace. You 
symbolize to the world the fabled power of 
American industry and labor. You have the 
magic of skill and organization. You are free 
men, fighting for a free country. Compare 
your position with that of the Japanese : with- 
out labor unions, with little health protection, 
with pitiable political rights, and with a very 
low income, the workers of Japan are pitted 
against the workers of Detroit, who enjoy their 
own organization, a modern community, all 
political rights, a living income now and the 
right to look for a better one when all of us 
seek the prosperity of the common peace. You 
Detroiters, the aristocrats of modern industrial 
production, do you realize that your very name 
has been an inspiration to Stalingrad and a 
terror to Essen and to Osaka ? 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 



153 



Nevertheless, you cannot claim priorities in 
the right to work, fight, and sacrifice for victory. 
All of us Americans — indeed, all of us of the 
United Nations — know what we are fighting 
and to what end we are fighting militarism old 
and new. We are fighting the demagogues of 
Germany and the fanatics of Japan. We are 
fighting racial prejudice, religious oppression, 
and political oppression. We are producing 
weapons now so that we shall not have to pro- 
duce them in the world that we are planning — 
the world in which, vigilant and prosperous, 
we and our allies shall guard the common wel- 
fare of all free nations with an indestructible 
unity of understanding. Valiant China, the 
heroic Soviet Union, the brave British Com- 
monwealth of Nations, our neighbors and 
friends elsewhere in the world — they look to 
America and remember the name Detroit when 
they await the weapons from beyond the seas. 
May God bless you in the efforts which you are 
exerting to achieve for yourselves and your city 
a high and honorable place on the muster-rolls 
of the men who must — who will — defeat the 
Axis! 

PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUP- 
PLEMENT 4 TO REVISION IV 

[Released to the press for publication February 13, 9 p. m.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Acting Attorney General, the Secretary of 
Commerce, the Board of Economic Warfare, 
and the Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs, 
on February 13 issued Cumulative Supplement 
4 to Revision IV of the Proclaimed List of Cer- 
tain Blocked Nationals, promulgated November 
12. 1942. 

Cumulative Supplement 4 to Revision IV 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement 3 dated 
January 16, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 4 contains 
400 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 49 deletions. Part II contains 
159 additional listings outside the American 
republics and 7 deletions. 

The deletion of the three former enemy- 
controlled banks in Brazil — Banco AUemao 



Transatlantico, Banco Germanico da America 
do Sul, and Banque Frangaise et Italienne pour 
I'Amerique du Sud, S.A. — appears in this sup- 
plement. The effective action of the Brazilian 
Government in vesting these banks and in put- 
ting them into active liquidation, pursuant to 
Brazil Decree Law No. 4612 of August 24, 1942, 
has made this step possible. 



The Far East 



EXTRATERRITORIALITY TREATY 
WITH CHINA 

(Released to the press February 11] 

Twelve Chinese cultural associations have 
sent to the President the following telegram 
hailing the treaty relinquishing American ex- 
traterritorial rights in China as "a concrete 
manifestation of the spirit of the Atlantic 
Cliarter" : 

"The conclusion of the new treaty between 
the L^nited States and China on a basis of equal- 
ity and reciprocity is a concrete manifestation 
of the spirit of the Atlantic Charter and opens 
a new era in Sino-American relations which is 
bound to further cement friendship and solidar- 
ity between our two great democracies. The 
fact that our stubborn defense of the cause of 
democracy has won us such consideration and 
goodwill from our Allies, thereby achieving one 
of our highest national aspirations, cannot but 
encourage our people to do their full share in 
this global war against aggression. We thank 
the Government and people of America for this 
friendly gesture and we are grateful particu- 
larly to you for your goodwill and statesman- 
ship which have made possible the consumma- 
tion of this happy historic event. May our two 
nations march on to war and to peace ever close 
together as partners in one cause." 

The Department of State has asked the Em- 
bassy at Chungking to reply to this communi- 
cation in cordial terms, including a hearty re- 



154 

sponse to the desire of the associations that the 
United States and China shall work together 
in war and peace in the cause of freedom. 



An announcement regarding the United 
States Senate's advice and consent to the ratifi- 
cation by the United States of this treaty, signed 
January 11, 1943, appears in this Bulletin 
under the heading "Treaty Information". 



American Republics 



ADHERENCE BY PERU TO THE PRINCI- 
PLES OF THE ATLANTIC CHARTER 

[Released to the press February 10] 

The President has addressed the following 
message to His Excellency Manuel Prado, Presi- 
dent of the Republic of Peru : 

Februakt 10, 1943. 

I have learned with great pleasure of the 
action taken by your Government affirming its 
adherence to the principles of the Atlantic 
Charter. Once again Your Excellency's Gov- 
ernment has manifested its steadfast devotion 
to those ideals for which the United Nations are 
fighting. Such action strengthens the spirit and 
confidence of those nations engaged in this war 
to win freedom and justice for all. With my 
warmest personal regards, I extend to you the 
renewed assurances of my high consideration. 
Franklin D Roosevelt 

The Secretary of State has addressed the fol- 
lowing telegram to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of Peru : 

February 10, 1943. 

I wish to thank Your Excellency for your 
telegram of February 8 ^ in which you advise me 
that the Government of Peru, in its unflinching 
decision to lend all aid to the cause defended by 
the United Nations, has affirmed its adherence 
to the principles of the Atlantic Charter. At 

. ' Not printed herein. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

this period in the history of the struggle for 
justice and freedom, it is a pleasure to know that 
your Govermnent makes this declaration in 
order once again to make known to the world 
the intentions of Peru and the ideals which have 
so long characterized the Peruvian people. 
Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 



AGREEMENT WITH CUBA REGARDING 
MILITARY SERVICE BY NATIONALS OF 
EITHER COUNTRY RESIDING IN THE 
OTHER 

The texts of notes exchanged between the De- 
partment of State and the Cuban Ambassador at 
Washington in regard to the application of the 
Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as 
amended, to Cuban nationals in the United 
States and reciprocal treatment of American 
citizens in Cuba, appear in this Bulletin under 
the heading "Treaty Information". 



General 



SIMPLIFICATION OF BORDER-CROSSING 
REGULATIONS ON THE CANADIAN 
BORDER 

[Released to the press February 12] 

The United States and the Canadian Govern- 
ments, with a desire to simplify travel across the 
border, have agreed on changes which will ex- 
empt Canadian citizens and British subjects 
legally resident in Canada from the necessity 
of obtaining passports for visits of not more 
than 29 days. Entry to the United States for 
longer periods and for other groups will con- 
tinue as at present. 

Under the plan which will go into effect on 
February 15, 1943, a new type of non-immigrant 
border-crossing identification card that does not 
require a passport will be issued by United 
States consular officers in Canada and will bear 
an endorsement by a Canadian immigration 



FEBRUART 13, 1943 

officer guaranteeing the readmissibility of the 
bearer to Canada. This card will be valid for 
any number of visits during a period of one year 
from the date of its issue, provided that no one 
visit shall exceed 29 days. To prevent any in- 
convenience arising during the changeover, the 
non-immigrant border-crossing cards already 
issued will retain their validity until date of 
expiry and if desired may be renewed as in the 
past so long as the Canadian passport remains 
valid. 

Persons desiring to obtain a border-crossing 
card of the new type must apply in person at 
an American consular office in Canada carrying 
three photographs, V/^" square, on non-glazed 
paper, showing full front view without head 



155 

covering. They .should also carry whatever 
evidence they have available as to birthplace, 
nationality, and the period of their residence in 
Canada. In the Consulate they will complete 
an application form in triplicate. 

If the application is approved by the Consul, 
he will issue the border-crossing card and de- 
liver both application and card to the Canadian 
immigration officer in the same center. The 
applicant will then call at the Canadian office 
for the endorsation of the crossing card guaran- 
teeing readmission to Canada and will be given 
the card and one copy of the application form, 
the latter to be left with the United States im- 
migration authorities at port of entry to the 
United States. 



The Department 



DUTIES OF THE SPECIAL DIVISION 



With the establishment on September 1, 1939 
of the Special Division ' the Department of State 
had in view the providing of an adequate means 
of handling special problems arising out of the 
disturbed conditions in Europe, such as ascer- 
taining the whereabouts and welfare of Ameri- 
cans abroad and facilitating their repatriation ; 
the representation by the United States of for- 
eign interests; liaison with the American Red 
Cross; and other related problems that might 
eventually develop. A staff of officers and cleri- 
cal personnel was assigned to handle this work 
under the direction of the Honorable Breck- 
inridge Long, former Ambassador to Italy, as- 
sisted by the Honorable Hugh R. Wilson, former 
Ambassador to Germany, and Mr. George L. 
Brandt, a Foreign Service officer detailed to 
the Division as its administrative officer. 

As a result of the entrj' of the United States 
into the war, the duties of the Special Division 
were increased and their scope expanded. 
The additional responsibilities assumed by the 
Division include those relating to the representa- 



' BuLurriN of Sept. 2, 1939, p. 193. 



tion by the Swiss Government of United States 
interests in enemy and enemy-occupied coun- 
tries; the exchange and repatriation of Ameri- 
can officials and civilians from enemy-controlled 
territories ; the supervision of the representation 
of enemy interests in the United States by third 
powers; the provision of financial assistance to 
needy Americans in enemy countries; and liai- 
son with the President's War Relief Control 
Board for the coordination of foreign-relief op- 
erations with the foreign policy of the United 
States. The Division also handles questions re- 
lating to civilian internees and prisoners of war, 
including inspections of prisoner-of-war and 
civilian-enemy-alien camps in the United 
States in cooperation with the representatives of 
the protecting powers and of the International 
Red Cross, and other matters concerning the 
application of the Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention, the Geneva Red Cross Convention, 
and other pertinent international agreements 
and treaties. 

The Division's work is now handled by five 
ciubdivisions, which operate under the direction 



156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of Mr. Joseijli C. Green, Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State and Chief of the Division, 
assisted by Mr. James H. Keeley, Jr., Senior 
Assistant Cliief, and five Assistant Chiefs, as 
follows : 

The Executive Section, in charge of Mr. Ed- 
win A. Plitt, Assistant Chief, handles the ad- 
ministration of the Division's work and per- 
sonnel of approximately 80 officers and clerks. 

The Welfare Section, in charge of Mr. Frank- 
lin C. Gowen, Assistant Chief, has the responsi- 
bility of handling cases involving the welfare 
and whereabouts of American citizens in for- 
eign countries, the extension of financial as- 
sistance to individual Americans in enemy and 
enemy-occupied territories where the interests 
of the United States are represented by Switzer- 
land, the repatriation of American citizens, liai- 
son work relating to the censoring of cable and 
postal messages, and other matters pertaining 
to Americans abroad. 

The Representation Section, in charge of Mr. 
Albert E. Clattenburg, Jr., Assistant Chief, is 
concerned with the representation by the United 
States Government of foreign interests; repre- 
sentation by a third power of United States in- 
terests in enemy or enemy-occupied territories ; 
the supervision of the representation in the 
United States by third powers of the interests 
of countries with which the United States has 
severed diplomatic relations or is at war; and 
problems related to the foregoing. Among these 
problems are the exchange of official and non- 
official American and Axis powers personnel; 
the notification of hospital ships under the per- 
tinent international conventions; the granting 
by the United States Government of safe-con- 
ducts for travel of enemy nationals between neu- 
tral points, involving liaison with the Treasury 
Department, the Director of Censorship, and 
the Alien Property Custodian on questions of 
enemy-alien property, American property in, 
enemy territory, and the transmission of docu- 
ments or messages to or from enemy territory; 
and other special war problems. • 

The Relief Section, in charge of Mr. Eldred 
D. Kuppinger, Assistant Chief, is the liaison 



office of the Department with the American Red 
Cross and the President's War Relief Control 
Board for the coordination of foreign-relief 
operations with the foreign policy of the United 
States Government and related work, the exten- 
sion of relief abroad to Americans and other 
United Nations nationals, and miscellaneous 
problems arising in connection with the fore- 
going. This work, except as it relates to Ameri- 
can nationals in Axis territory, is shortly to be 
transferred to the Office of Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation Operations. 

The Internees Section, in charge of Mr. Ber- 
nard Gufler, Assistant Chief, has the respon- 
sibility of seeing that the provisions of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention and the 
Geneva Red Cross Convention are applied here 
and abroad. It also handles all questions relat- 
ing to civilian internees, prisoners of war, and 
aliens evacuated from designated military areas. 
It undertakes the inspection of enemy prisoner- 
of-war and civilian-internment camps and deten- 
tion stations in the United States, in cooperation 
with the representatives of the protecting pow- 
ei'S and of the International Red Cross, and the 
representation of the Department of State on 
enemy-alien-internee and prisoner-of-war inter- 
departmental boards. 

The Division, as a whole, functions under 
the general administrative supervision of the 
Honorable Breckinridge Long, Assistant Secre- 
tary of State, in close cooperation with the 
Department's geographical and other divisions 
with whose work much of its activity is associ- 
ated. 

The Division occupies offices on the second 
floor of the Winder Building on Seventeenth 
between F and G Streets. In order to answer 
the numerous inquiries received by telephone 
from interested persons regarduig the where- 
abouts and welfare of Americans abroad, and 
to provide information regarding the procedure 
to be followed in communicating with and ex- 
tending financial assistance to them, an experi- 
enced officer of the Division is especially desig- 
nated for this purpose and can be reached by 
calling REpublic 5600, extension 2155 or 2156. 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 

DEATH OF FRANK LYON POLK ^ 

[Released to the press February 7] 

The following telegram was sent by the Sec- 
retarj' of State to Mrs. Frank Polk : 

"I have learned with great sorrow of the pass- 
ing of your distinguished husband. Mr. Polk 
served his Government well and faithfully for 



157 

many years and his memory will be cherished 
by those in the Department and the Foreign 
Service who were associated with him. It was 
my good fortune to count him a personal friend 
over a period of man}' years. 

"Mrs. Hull and I join his countless friends in 
extending deepest sympathy to you and the 
members of the family in your irreparable loss." 



Treaty Information 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreement With Cuba Regarding Military Serv- 
ice by Nationals of Either Country Residing 
in the Other 

[Released to the press February 11] 

The following notes were exchanged between 
the Department of State and the Cuban Am- 
bassador at Washington in regard to the appli- 
cation of the Selective Training and Service Act 
of 1940, as amended, to Cuban nationals in the 
United States and reciprocal treatment of 
American citizens in Cuba : 

The Secretary of State to the Cuban 
Ambassador at Washington 

Department of State, 
Washington, Novevfiber 6, 19^2. 

EXCELLENCT : 

I have the honor to refer to conversations 
which have taken place between officers of the 
Cuban Embassy and of the Department with 
respect to the application of the United States 
Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, 
as amended, to Cuban citizens residing in the 
United States. 

As you are aware, the Act provides that with 
certain exceptions every male citizen of the 



^ Mr. Polk was Counselor of the Department of State 
(1915-19) and Under Secretary of State (1919-20). 



United States and every other male person re- 
siding in the United States between the ages of 
eighteen and sixty-five shall register. The Act 
further provides that, with certain exceptions, 
registrants within specified age limits are liable 
for active military service in the United States 
armed forces. 

This Government recognizes that from the 
standpoint of morale of the individuals con- 
cerned and the over-all military effort of the 
countries at war with the Axis Powers, it would 
be desirable to permit certain nationals of co- 
belligerent countries who have registered or 
who may register under the Selective Training 
and Service Act of 1940, as amended, to enlist 
in the armed forces of their own country, should 
they desire to do so. It will be recalled that 
during the World War this Government signed 
conventions with certain associated powers on 
this subject. The United States Government 
believes, however, that under existing circum- 
stances the same ends may now be accomplished 
through administrative action, thus obviating 
the delays incident to the signing and ratifica- 
tion of conventions. 

This Government is prepared, therefore, to 
initiate a procedure which will permit aliens 
who have registered under the Selective Train- 
ing and Service Act of 1940, as amended, who 
are nationals of cobelligerent countries and who 
have not declared their intention of becoming 
American citizens to elect to serve in the forces 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BITLLETrN 



of their respective countries, in lieu of service 
in the armed forces of the United States, at any 
time prior to their induction into the armed 
forces of this country. This Government is also 
prepared to afford to nationals of cobelligerent 
countries who have not declared their intention 
of becoming American citizens who may already 
be sei-ving in the armed forces of the United 
States an opportunity of electing to transfer to 
the armed forces of their own country. The 
details of the arrangement are to be worked out 
directly between the War Department and the 
Selective Service System on the part of the 
United States Government and the appropriate 
authorities of the Cuban Government. It 
should be understood, however, that in all cases 
a person exercising an option under the arrange- 
ment must actually be accepted by the military 
authorities of the country of his allegiance be- 
fore his departure from the United States. 

Before the above-mentioned procedure will 
be made effective with respect to a cobelligerent 
country, this Department wishes to receive from 
the diplomatic representative in Washington of 
that country a note stating that his government 
desires to avail itself of the procedure and in so 
doing agrees that : 

(a) No threat or compulsion of any nature 
will be exercised by his government to induce 
any person in the United States to enlist in the 
forces of his or any foreign government : 

(b) Reciprocal treatment will be granted to 
American citizens by his government; that is, 
prior to induction in the armed forces of his 
government they will be granted the oppor- 
tunity of electing to serve in the armed forces 
of the United States in substantially the same 
manner as outlined above. Furthermore, his 
government shall agi-ee to inform all American 
citizens serving in its armed forces or former 
American citizens who may have lost their citi- 
zenship as a result of having taken an oath of 
allegiance on enlistment in such armed forces 
and who are now serving in those forces that 
they may transfer to the armed forces of the 
United States provided they desire to do so and 
provided they are acceptable to the armed 
forces of the United States. The arrangements 



for effecting such transfers are to be worked 
out by the appropriate representatives of the 
armed forces of the respective governments: 

(c) No enlistments will be accepted in the 
United States by his government of American 
citizens subject to registration or of aliens of 
any nationality who have declared their inten- 
tion of becoming American citizens and are sub- 
ject to registration'. 

This Government is prepared to make the 
proposed regime effective immediately with re- 
spect to the Republic of Cuba upon the receipt 
from you of a note stating that your Govern- 
ment desires to participate in it and agrees to 
the stipulations set forth in lettered paragraphs 
(a), (b), and (c) above. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State: 

G. HowLAND Shaw 

The Cuban Ambassador at Washington to the 
Seci'etary of State 

[Translation] 

No. 17 Embassy of Cuba, 

Washington., D. C, January 9, 1943. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to Your Excel- 
lency's note of November 6, 1942, relative to the 
conversations which have taken place between 
officials of tlie Embassy of Cuba and the Depart- 
ment of State with respect to the application 
of the Selective Service and Training Act of 
1940 of the United States, as amended, to Cuban 
citizens residing in the United States. 

Your Excellency states that the said Act pro- 
vides that, with certain exceptions, every male 
citizen of the United States and all other males 
who reside in the United States, between the 
ages of 18 and 65 years, must register, the Act 
further providing that, with certain exceptions, 
the registered individuals included within cer- 
tain specified age limits are subject to rendering 
compulsory active military service in the armed 
forces of the United States. 

In this connection Your Excellency advises 
that the Government of the United States recog- 
nizes that, from the viewpoint of the morale of 
the individuals affected and of the military 



FEBRUARY 13, 1943 



159 



effort in general of the countries at war against 
the Axis powers, it would be desirable to permit 
certain nationals of cobelligerent countries who 
have registei-ed or may register under the Selec- 
tive Service and Training Act of 1940, as 
amended, to enlist in the armed forces of their 
own country if they so desire, for which pur- 
pose Your Excellency's Government is disposed 
to initiate a procedure whereby Cubans who 
have registered under the Selective Service and 
Training Act of 1940, as amended, and who have 
not declared their intention of adopting Ameri- 
can citizenship, will be permitted to elect to 
serve in the armed forces of Cuba instead of 
rendering service in the armed forces of the 
United States, at any time prior to their entry 
into the armed forces of this country. Likewise, 
Cubans who have not declared their intention of 
adopting American citizenship and who are 
already serving in the armed forces of the 
United States will be permitted to elect to trans- 
fer to the armed forces of Cuba. It is stipulated, 
however, that in every case the person exercis- 
ing such an option under this arrangement must 
actually be accepted by the Cuban military 
authorities before his departure from the United 
States. 

It is proposed in Your Excellency's note that 
the details of the arrangement be agreed upon 
directly between the War Department and the 
Selective Service System, on behalf of the 
Government of the United States, and compe- 
tent authorities of the Government of Cuba. 

Your Excellency advises me that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States is disposed to put 
the above-mentioned policy into effect immedi- 
ately with respect to the Republic of Cuba, sub- 
ject to the following conditions: 

a) No threat or coercion of any kind shall be 
used by the Government of Cuba to induce any 
person who is in the United States to enlist in 
the armed forces of Cuba or of any other foreign 
Government. 

b) Reciprocal treatment shall be granted by 
the Government of Cuba to American citizens ; 
that is to say, prior to their entry into the armed 
forces of Cuba they shall be given an oppor- 
tunity to elect to serve in the armed forces of 



the United States in a manner substantially 
similar to that indicated above. Furthermore, 
the Government of Cuba will agree to inform all 
American citizens who are serving in the armed 
forces or former American citizens who have 
lost their citizenship as a consequence of having 
taken an oath of allegiance upon joining the 
armed forces of Cuba and who are now serving 
in the said forces, that they will be able to trans- 
fer to the armed forces of the United States if 
they so desire and provided that they are ac- 
ceptable to the armed forces of the United 
States. The arrangements for effecting such 
transfers shall be agreed upon by the repre- 
sentatives of the armed forces of the respective 
Governments. 

c) Thei-e shall not be accepted by the Repub- 
lic of Cuba enlistments, in the United States, 
of American citizens subject to registration or 
of foreigners of any nationality who have de- 
clared their intention of adopting American 
citizenship and are subject to registration. 

I have the honor to advise Your Excellency 
that my Government desires to avail itself of 
the procedure suggested in Your Excellency's 
note and that it agrees to do so under the condi- 
tions stated and with the stipulations expressed 
in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) set forth above. 

With respect to paragraph (a), nevertheless, 
my Government desires to point out that Obli- 
gatory Military Service exists in Cuba and that, 
although for the time being it is applicable only 
to Cuban citizens, the Cuban Government re- 
serves the right to extend it to foreigners in gen- 
eral. In the later case the stipulations of para- 
graph (b) guarantee to American citizens in 
Cuba the same treatment as that offered by the 
present arrangement to Cuban citizens in the 
United States. 

With respect to the same paragraph (a), it is 
desired to point out, furthermore, that, accord- 
ing to the Emergency Military Service Law of 
1941 of the Republic of Cuba, Cuban citizens 
at present in the United States are under obli- 
gation to register for military service in the 
armed forces in Cuba at consular offices of the 
Republic in this country, being subject to call 



160 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIJ.ETrN 



according to lottery. Non-fulfilment of this 
obligation renders a person liable to appropri- 
ate penalties. 

It is hoped that within a short time it will be 
possible to advise Your Excellency of the desig- 
nation of the Cuban authorities who are to come 
to an agreement with the War Department and 
the Selective Service System regarding the de- 
tails of the arrangement. 

I avail myself [etc.] A. F. Concheso 

T?ie Secretary of State to the Cuban Amlas- 
sador at Washington 

Februakt 1, 1943. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note no. 17 of January 9, 1943, in which 
you state that your Government desires to en- 
ter into the agreement, proposed in my note of 
November 6, 1942, concerning the services of na- 
tionals of one country in the armed foi'ces of the 
other country. You state that your Government 
gives the assurances stipulated in paragraphs 
(a), (b), and (c) of the note of November 6, 
1942. 

I take pleasure in informing you that this 
agreement is now considered by this Govern- 
ment as having become effective on January 11, 
1943, the date on which your note under acknowl- 
edgment was received in the Department. The 
appropriate authorities of this Government will 
be informed accordingly, and I may assure you 
that this Government will carry out the agree- 
ment in the spirit of full cooperation with your 
Government. 

It is suggested that all the details incident to 
carrying out the agreement be discussed directly 
by officers of the Embassy with the appropriate 
officers in the War Department and the Selective 
Service System. Lieutenant Colonel W. D. 
Partlow, of the War Department, and Major 
S. G. Parker, of the Selective Service System, 
will be available to discuss questions relating to 
the exercise of the option prior to induction. 



The Inter-Allied Personnel Board of the War 
Department, which is headed by Major General 
Guy V. Henry, is the agency with which ques- 
tions relating to the discharge of nondeclarant 
nationals of Cuba, who may have been serving 
in the Army of the United States on the effective 
date of the agreement and who desire to trans- 
fer to the Cuban forces, may be discussed. 
Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State : 

G. Rowland Shaw 



EXTRATERRITORIALITY 

Treaty With China for the Relinquishment of 
Extraterritorial Rights in China 

On February 11, 1943 the Senate of the United 
States unanimously passed a resolution giving 
advice and consent of the Senate to the ratifica- 
tion of the treaty between the United States and 
China for the relinquishment of extraterritorial 
rights in China and the regulation of related 
matters, signed at Washington January 11, 
1943 by the Secretary of State, the Honorable 
Cordell Hull, and the Chinese Ambassador at 
Washington, Dr. Wei Tao-ming. The treaty 
will go into effect upon the date of the exchange 
of ratifications. 

The text of the treaty will be printed in the 
Treaty Series. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Diplomatic List, February 1943. Publication 1S73. 
ii, 105 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy 10^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 4, February 12, 1943, 
Containing Additions, Amendments, and Deletions 
Made Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. Publi- 
cation 1874. 61 pp. Free. 



FEBRUARY 13, 



161 



Legislation 



Independent Offices Appropriation BUI for 1944 : Hear- 
ings before the Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 78th 
Cong., 1st sess. [Statements of Assistant Secretary 



Shaw, Monnett B. Davis, and Laurence C. Pranl£, of 
the Department of State, regarding Foreign Service 
pay adjustment, pp. 38^7.] li, 1299 pp. 
Public Debt Act of 1943 : Hearing before the Committee 
on Finance, United Stales Senate, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess., on S. 566, a bill to increase the debt limit of the 
United States, and for other purposes. January 29, 
1943. 21pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C— Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.T5 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OF THE BXIBEAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



FEBRUARY 20, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 191— Publication 1881 



(jontents 

The War Page 

Visit to Washington of Madame Chiang Kai-shek of 

China 165 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to 

Japan 166 

Commercial Policy 

The Reciprocal-Trade-Agreements Program in War and 

Peace 169 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Colombian-American Commission on Rubber . .... 174 
Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Repub- 
lics ;::...; 174 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers ;;..;. 174 

Treaty Information 

Armed Forces: Agreements Regarding the Service of 
Nationals of One Coimtry ia the Armed Forces of 

Another Country 175 

Transit: Agreement With Peru Providing Air-Trans- 
portation Facilities 175 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OOCUWtiHts 

MAR 131943 



The War 



VISIT TO WASHINGTON OF MADAME CHIANG KAI-SHEK OF CHINA 



On February 17, 1943 the White House an- 
nounced that the President and Mrs. Roosevelt 
and a representative of the Department of State 
met Madame Chiang Kai-shek, wife of the Gen- 
eralissimo of China, at the Union Station when 
she arrived in Washington late that afternoon. 
Madame Chiang was driven to the White House 
where she was to be a family guest. She was 
accompanied by her niece, Miss Jeanette Kung, 
and her nepliew, Mr. L. K. Kung. They were 
guests at a family dinner with the President 
and Mrs. Roosevelt on the evening of February 
17. Madame Chiang had been spending the 
past six days at Hyde Park, the President's 
home in New York. 



[Released to the press by the White House February lU) 

At his press conference at the White House 
on February 19 the President made the fol- 
lowing informal remarks in presenting the 
newspaper correspondents to Madame Chiang 
Kai-shek : 

"May I take this opportunity, not to intro- 
duce Madame Chiang to you but to present all 
of you to her. 

"Madame Chiang, this is nearly our one- 
thousandth press conference in ten years, and 
the fact that the press and I are not only on 
speaking terms after all those years is perhaps 
a very good sign. We still talk to each other. 
I think we rather like each other. 

"You have got a veiy representative group 
here. There is no country in the world, I think, 
that has more newspapers on a population ba- 
sis — and magazines — than we have. They are 
very live wires. But I can tell the press some- 



thing besides that, and that is that I wish we — 
the press and myself — knew half as much 
about China as Madame Cliiang knows about 
us, as a special envoy. That is very different 
from most special envoys who come to this 
country. Her visit to us is going to be of real 
help in the days to come, not only because I 
suppose the people of China and the people 
of the United States for a very great numl^er of 
j^ears — well over a century — have been, in 
thought and in objective, closer to us Americans 
than almost any other peoples in the world. 
That is because' we have the same great ideals. 

"China, in the last — less than half — century 
has become one of the great democracies of the 
world, and we must remember always that her 
civilization is thousands of years older than 
ours. And that is why I feel that we in this 
country have a great deal more to learn about 
China than China has to learn about us. 

"Madame Chiang knows this country, and I 
am going to ask her, therefore, as an old friend 
just to say a few words. And afterward, re- 
member always, please, that this conference is 
not quotable for either of us — in other words, 
treat it just as if it were any regidar conference 
of mine. You will receive her, and perhaps she 
will be willing to answer a few questions of the 
'non-catch' type. 

"And so I present to you the American press." 

In response, Madame Chiang made the fol- 
lowing informal remarks : 

"Mb. President, Mrs. Roosevelt, Ladies and 
Gentlemen of the Press : 
"I haven't made any preparations for a 
speech. I don't know what I am supposed to 
165 



166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 



say to you today, but I confess that I have often 
heard that the pen is mightier than the sword. 
And when I saw all those pencils flashing across 
the pages as the President spoke, I must confess 
that whereas I have been to all the fronts in 
China and have never felt any fear so far as 
Japanese swords are concerned, I do not know 
whether I felt fear or not when I saw all your 
pencils flashing across the pages. 

"However, I don't think I do, because I see 
flashes of smiles coming from your faces, so I 
feel that I am amongst friends and that I have 
nothmg to fear from the Press, although I un- 
derstand that there are such questions as 'catch' 
questions. I don't think you are going to heckle 
me with them. I am sure you won't. 

"I want to say one thing to you, and that is 
that we in China have always had social democ- 
racy through these thousands of years and that 



we are now depending on our Press, now and 
in the future, so that in time we shall really 
realize not only social democracy but political 
democracy as well; because, as I said, the pen 
is mightier than the sword, and from what I 
have seen of your American Press, I am sure 
that our hopes for the Chinese Press will also 
be realized. 

"I am particularly referring to the President's 
trip to Casablanca. I am sure that all of you 
knew about it, and yet there was not a single 
word in the Press about it. And I think that 
shows beautiful cooperation between the Ad- 
ministration and the Press. And it is particu- 
larly necessary, during these war days, that 
there should be such cooperation. I want to 
congratulate you on your tact and on your 
integrity. 

"Thank you." 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



[Released to the press February 16] 

Visiting Nashville, observing this beautiful 
capital, talking with your governor and other 
high officials, I have fomid myself impressed by 
your city — impressed not only because of its 
handsome natural setting, its splendid archi- 
tecture, its industrious people, but impressed 
most of all by the spirit of free government and 
civic unity which I observe. 

Free government and civic unity : do you real- 
ize how much they mean to us in our war against 
the German Reich and the Japanese Empire? 
Free government is something which we all 
want and all understand ; but civic unity is the 
supreme duty which accompanies the supreme 
right of self-government. I do not mean the 
external support which you give to the war. I 
mean the mward unity which you display in 
living, working, and striving together toward 
one all-important conunon aim: attack for 
victory ! 



Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew, Special 
Assistant to the Secretary of State, under the auspices 
of the Office of Civilian Defense at Nashville, Tenn., 
Feb. 16, 1943. 



The federal states of the German republic 
have gone into the grasp of Nazi Statthalters, 
arbitrary satraps of their ruthless Fiihrer. The 
Imperial Japanese Diet, or parliament, has this 
very month progressed further toward wiping 
out the rights and prerogatives of the cities and 
prefectures of Japan. Compare this with 
America, where our 49 governments work to- 
gether for the common victory. National 
rights and States' rights have become Ameri- 
can rights ; all stand or fall together. It could 
not be otherwise, when you consider what 
enemies and what dangers we face. Let me 
tell you something about that eneany which I 
happen to know best: Japan. 

Even before Pearl Harbor, Japan was strong 
and possessed a military machine of great 
power — and when I speak of that military ma- 
chine I include all branches of the Japanese 
armed forces : the Army, the Navy, and the Air 
Force. That military machine had been stead- 
ily strengthened and developed during many 
years, especially since Japan's invasion of Man- 
churia in 1931, an act of unprovoked aggression 
which, in effect, commenced the expansionist 
movement of Japan in total disregard of the 



FEBRUARY 20, 1943 

rif^Iits and legitimate interests of any nation or 
of any people that might stand in the way of 
that movement. In 1937 came Japan's inva- 
sion of north China and Shanghai, which led to 
the past six years of Sino-Japanese warfare. 
The Japanese did not wish to clothe that in- 
famous campaign with the name of war: they 
called it first the "China Incident", and later, 
when great Japanese armies were trying 
desperately but futilely, year after year, to 
destroy the manpower and break the magnifi- 
cent courage and fighting spirit of the ill- 
equipped but determined forces of Generalis- 
simo Chiang Kai-shek, the Japanese people, 
even with their own unbalanced humor, could 
not fail to perceive the sardonic humor of the 
term "incident", and they then, with tragi- 
comical deliberation, dubbed the campaign the 
"China Affair" — but never "war". So it is 
today. 

But during all these yeai-s of their unavailing 
effort to conquer China and to bring about the 
surrender of the Chinese National Government 
those Japanese armed forces were using China 
as a training-ground in preparation for the 
greater war, already carefully planned, for 
their eventual conquest and intended permanent 
control of all so-called "Greater East Asia in- 
cluding the South Seas" and for the imposition 
upon the peoples of those far-flung areas of 
what Japan is pleased to refer to as the "New 
Order" and the "Co-Prosperity Sphere". We 
know what that flowery slogan "Co-Prosperity" 
means: it denotes absolute overlordshi^D — eco- 
nomic, financial, political — for Japan's own 
purely selfish interests and the virtual enslave- 
ment of the peoples of those territories to do 
the bidding of their Japanese masters. This 
statement is not a figment of the imagination: 
it is based on practical experience in other re- 
gions already subjected to Japan's domination. 
Such a regime will be imposed in every area that 
may fall under Japan's domination. 

During all this period of preparation the 
Japanese military machine has been steadily 
expanded and strengthened and trained to a 
knife-edge of war efficiency — in landing on 
beaches, in jungle fighting, and in all the many 
different forms of warfare which it was later to 



167 

encounter. The jealous personal disputes, end- 
less red tape, and face-saving expedients which 
characterize the civil life of Japan in times of 
peace wholly disappear in war; the various 
branches of their armed forces cooperate in 
well-nigh perfect coordination, and their staff 
work, strateg}', and tactics are of a high degree 
of excellence. The precision and speed of their 
campaign in the Malay Peninsula and their 
rapid taking of Singapore are sufficient proof 
of that. Furthermore, in war Japan is wholly 
totalitarian; her economy is planned and car- 
ried out to the last detail. No word of criticism 
of the Government or its acts is tolerated ; the 
so-called "thought control" police take care of 
that. Labor unions are powerless. In war 
Japan is a unit, thinks and acts as a unit, labors 
and fights as a unit. 

With that backgi-ound. and having in mind 
the strength and power of Japan even before 
Pearl Harbor, consider for a moment the scene 
as it has developed in the Far East. Consider 
the tremendous holdings of Japan today : Korea, 
Manchuria, great areas in China proper, For- 
mosa, the Spratly Islands, Indochina, Thailand, 
Burma and the Andamans, the entire Malay 
Peninsula, Hongkong and Singapore, the Phil- 
ippines, the Netherlands East Indies, and, far- 
ther to the south and to the east, myriads of 
islands many of which are unsinkable aircraft 
carriers. 

Those areas contain all — mind you, all — the 
raw materials essential to the development of 
national power: rubber, oil, tin, metals, and 
foodstuffs — everything that the most compre- 
hensive economy can desire; and they contain 
furthermore millions of native inhabitants who, 
experience has proved beyond peradventure, 
will be enslaved as skilled and unskilled labor 
by Japan to process those raw materials for 
immediate and future use. Add to that the 
stores of scrap iron for the making of steel which 
have been accumulating these many years in the 
Japanese homeland and the further stores ac- 
quired in the many conquered and occupied 
ports. There you have a recipe and the ingredi- 
ents for national strength and power that defeat 
the imagination even approximately to assess. 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Now to this recipe and those ingredients add 
one further element of grimly ominous purport. 
During all my 10 years in Japan I have read 
the books, the speeches, the newspaper and mag- 
azine articles of highly placed Japanese, of gen- 
erals and admirals, of statesmen and diplomats 
and politicians. Sometimes thinly veiled, some- 
times not even veiled, has emerged their over- 
weening ambition eventually to invade and to 
conquer these United States. In their thinking, 
even the megalomania of Hitler is surpassed. 
Fantastic if you will, but to them it is not fan- 
tastic. It was not fantastic when the foremost 
Japanese admiral, as recently occurred, pub- 
licly stated in all seriousness that he intends that 
the peace after this war will be dictated in the 
White House in Washington — by Japan. 

It might be 1 year or 2 years or 5 or 10 years 
before that Japanese military machine would 
find itself ready to undertake an all-out attack 
on this Western Hemisphere of ours ; they them- 
selves have spoken of a hundred-year war; but 
one fact is as certain as the law of gravity : if 
we should allow the Japanese to dig in perma- 
nently in the far-flung areas now occupied, if 
we should allow them to consolidate and to 
crystallize their ill-gotten gains, if we should 
allow them time to fortify those gains to the 
nth degi-ee, as they assuredly will attempt to do, 
it would be only a question of time before they 
attempted the conquest of American territory 
nearer home. 

What worries me in the attitude of our fellow 
countrymen is first the utterly fallacious pre- 
war thinking which still widely persists, to the 
effect that the Japanese, a race of little men, 
good copyists but poor inventors, are incapable 
of developing such power as could ever seriously 
threaten our home shores, our cities, and our 
homes, a habit of mind which is reinforced by 
the gi-eat distances separating our homeland 
from the eastern and southern battlefronts to- 
day. Second, I am worried by the reaction of 
our people to the current successes of our heroic 
fighting men in the Solomons and New Guinea, 
for after each hard-won victory the spirits of 
our people soar. Moral stimulation is good; 
but moral complacency is the most dangerous 



habit of mind we can develop, and that danger 
is serious and ever-present. For 10 years I have 
watched the aggression of Japan against her 
neighbors, and her spoliation of American life 
and property, and I say to you, without hesita- 
tion or reserve, that our own country, our cities, 
our homes are in dire peril from the overween- 
ing ambition and the potential power of that 
Japanese military machine — a power that ren- 
ders Japan potentially the strongest nation in 
the world, potentially stronger than Great 
Britain or Germany or Eussia or the United 
States — and that only when that military caste 
and its machine have been wholly crushed and 
destroyed on the field of battle, by land and air 
and sea, and discredited in the eyes of its own 
people, and rendered impotent either to fight 
further or further to reproduce itself in the 
future, shall we in our own land be free from 
that hideous danger and be able once again to 
turn to paths of peace. 

Here in Nashville we feel ourselves sheltered 
by the continental power of the United States. 
Land guarded by a vigilant army of citizen 
soldiers, neighboring waters sheltered by one of 
the mightiest navies in the world, airways pa- 
trolled by an incomparable air force — such a 
situation promises security. Let us not forget 
that the engines of war are only tools in the 
hands of men. However strong our defenses 
may be, defense cannot win a war. Indeed, a 
spirit of defense may discount the offensive and 
thus prepare the way to defeat. 

Despite our shelter here in your beautiful city, 
let us not forget the spirit of Andrew Jackson — 
the spirit of democracy with a gim ! We can- 
not and will not wait for the war to cross the 
waters and devastate our beautiful America; 
and if we do not await the enemy here, amidst 
our own homes, we must send our men overseas 
to attack the enemy in foreign lands — prefer- 
ably his own lands. To fight their battles 
abroad, our men must be supplied with all the 
necessities of war; we at home have the added 
strain of maintaining communications lines 
across the greatest oceans of the world. More 
than this, we are fighting a war with allies ; we 
have the complications of really dynamic in- 



FEBRTTART 20, 1943 

ternational relations; we face the jrrave weight 
of world-wide political responsibility ! 

It is at this point that the civic unity of wliich 
I have spoken to you is most urgently needed. 
Wartime does not allow the luxury of formal or 
theoretical dissension: matters which can and 
ought to be the subjects of Nation-wide debate 
in time of peace can and must be immediate de- 
cisions in time of war. Civic unity — a trust in 
one another and in allied peoples — demands 
a powerful inward self-discipline. 

Our enemies are united in Japan. They are 
united by a cult of Japan-worship, by profound 
reverence for the majesty of their own institu- 
tions. The fanaticism, the frugality of speech 
no less than of materials, and the orderliness 
of Japan are things which serve that Empire 
well. We too must be worthy of our enemies 
and worthy of the immense tasks ahead; we 
must present closed ranks to the world. We 
must show that democracy can be — for a specific 
purpose and for a definable time — as monolithic 
as dictatorship. 

In Germany our enemies are also united. 
German unity rests, like the Japanese, in part 



169 

on tradition, in part on patriotism; but, unlike 
the Japanese, it also rests on fear. The Ger- 
man people are intimidated by their own gov- 
ernment. They are afraid of the uncertainties 
of defeat. If they behold an America which 
is united and which is nevertheless free, do you 
not feel sure that the German common people 
will be more inclined to accept the peace of the 
four freedoms? 

At this hour, facing enemies greater than we 
have ever faced before, we Americans will show 
the world what our political system means. We 
will show all nations the spectacle of a free 
people voluntarily united, voluntarily produc- 
ing, giving, fighting. We will show that our 
freedom of speech can be made wholly produc- 
tive and that our freedom of press can be real 
and at the same time open not the slightest 
fissure to sedition, discontent, or defeatism. 
"We will show the Germans and the Japanese 
the power of a moral, civic people, fighting in 
the harness of complete and purposeful alliance 
with all other free peoples. Each of you has 
his task in this struggle, and I know that each 
of you will try to excel his fellow men only in 
the rivalry of common sacrifice ! 



Commercial Policy 



THE RECIPROCAL-TRADE- AGREEMENTS PROGRAM IN WAR AND PEACE 



The reciprocal-trade-agreements program is 
based upon the Trade Agreements Act of June 
12, 1934, which has twice been extended by Con- 
gress for additional 3-year periods, from June 
12, 1937 to June 12, 1940 and again from June 12, 
1940 to June 12, 1943. Further extension of this 
progi-am will be considered by the Seventy- 
eighth Congress. 

Wht It Was Adopted 

Purpose 

To increase foreign markets for products of 
the United States is the primary purpose of 
the trade-agreements program. This purpose 



is sought through reciprocal adjustment of ex- 
cessive trade barriers. The general objectives 
of the program are to substitute economic co- 
operation for economic warfare in our rela- 
tions with other countries; to give economic 
substance to our good-neighbor policy; and to 
create the kind of international economic rela- 
tions upon which a structure of durable peace 
can be erected. 

Necessity 

Normally the United States can and does 
produce more of a great number of farm and 
industrial products than can profitably be sold 
in the American market, 



170 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Wlien large quantities of such goods cannot 
be exported, our agricultural products pile up in 
unmarketable surpluses and our industrial pro- 
duction slows down. The result is felt through- 
out the country in depressed prices, unemploy- 
ment, reduced wages, and poorer home markets 
for American producers. 

Trade between nations declined sharply after 
1929, largely because most nations, including the 
United States, set up excessive barriers against 
imports. By thus making it difficult for its 
people to buy things they needed and desired 
from other countries, each country made it diffi- 
cult — in many cases impossible — for its own 
producers to sell their exportable surpluses in 
other countries. 

The value of the foreign trade of the United 
States fell even more rapidly than did that of 
the world as a whole ; it dropped from $9,640,- 
000,000 in 1929 to $2,934,000,000 in 1932. 

As world trade diminished, employment and 
incomes fell and the world-wide economic de- 
pression was deepened and prolonged. Between 
1929 and 1932 our foreign trade dropped nearly 
70 percent; national income, 43 percent; cash 
farm income, 58 percent ; wages and salaries in 
manufacturing industries, 53 percent. 

Benefits of Foreign Trade 

Expansion of our trade with foreign coun- 
tries benefits the whole country: 

1. It benefits directly the great branches 
of American agriculture and the many in- 
dustries, large and small, that have prod- 
ucts to sell in foreign markets. 

2. It benefits directly American pro- 
ducers who use imported raw materials or 
semi-manufactured products in making 
their finished products. 

3. It benefits millions of workers de- 
pendent upon these branches of agriculture 
and industry for their livelihood. 

4. It improves domestic markets for 
American producers not directly interested 
in export or import trade ; American farm- 
ers and manufacturers who can sell more of 
their goods in foreign markets — and their 



employees as well — are better customers for 
the goods and services of Americans not in 
the business of exporting or importing. 

5. It raises living standards by providing 
more employment, more purchasing power, 
and more goods for American consumers 
at reasonable prices; it increases, to our 
mutual advantage, the exchange of prod- 
ucts we grow or manufacture to better ad- 
vantage than other countries, for products 
that other countries can grow or manufac- 
ture to better advantage than we can. 

Foreign Trade Is Two-Way 

Foreign trade necessarily is two-way trade. 
We cannot export unless we import ; we cannot 
import unless we export. Our exports provide 
purchasing power for the things we import ; our 
imports provide purchasing power to foreign 
countries for the things they buy from us. 
People in foreign countries can buy our prod- 
ucts only to the extent that they can acquire 
United States dollars to pay for them, and the 
only way they can acquire dollars is through the 
sale in this country of their products (includ- 
ing gold and silver) and services or by borrow- 
ing. Loans, even if available to them, merely 
postpone the ultimate necessity for payment in 
the form of commodities or services. If such 
payment is prevented, defaulted debts are 
inevitable. 

How THE Pkogkam Works 

Direct negotiation with other countries is the 
method prescribed by the Trade Agreements 
Act for reducing excessive barriers standing in 
the way of expansion of our foreign trade. 
This method was chosen as more practicable 
and more effective than general downward re- 
vision of the United States tariff alone. Even 
if feasible, such a revision would not insure the 
reciprocal reduction by other countries of their 
tariffs and other barriers, including discrimina- 
tions, against our export trade. 



Specifically, the act empowers the President, 
in order to obtain from other countries conces- 



FEBRUARY 20, 1943 

sions on American exports, to modify excessive 
United States tariflF rates, to bind existing tariff 
rates against increase, and to guarantee con- 
tinued duty-free entry of products now on the 
free list. 

The act does not empower the President to 
modify tariff rates except under a trade agree- 
ment; it does not empower him to reduce the 
duty on any foreign product under a trade 
agreement by more than 50 percent or to trans- 
fer any item from the dutiable list to the free 
list. 

It does require that trade agreements be con- 
cluded only after the President has sought the 
advice of the Departments of State, Agriculture, 
iilnd Commerce, the Tariff Commission, and 
other appropriate agencies of the Government, 
and only after public notice and full oppor- 
tunity for presentation of information and 
views by any interested person. 

All Government agencies concerned with for- 
eign commerce cooperate, through interdepart- 
mental committees, in studying all pertinent 
facts and views. Before any trade agreement 
is concluded, public notice is given of all prod- 
ucts on which concessions by the United States 
will be considered and public hearings are held 
by representatives of the Government agen- 
cies concerned. Resulting recommendations in 
regard to trade agreements are submitted to the 
President through the Secretary of State. 

Concessions Obtained 

The United States, in negotiating a trade 
agi'eement, asks a foreign country to lower its 
excessive tariff rates on our expoits, or to liber- 
alize quota or exchange restrictions on them. 

Such concessions and assurances against 
higher trade barriers have been obtained from 
countries which are important customers for 
thousands of American products, both agi'icul- 
tural and non-agricultural, comprising one 
third of all United States exports. 

Concessions Granted 

Under trade agreements the United States 
has agreed to tariff reductions or to the contin- 
uance of existing tariffs or free entry in the 



171 

case of imported products needed or desired by 
American producers and consumers. Conces- 
sions are granted on imported products more or 
less similar to those produced in the United 
States when they are in the national interest and 
when reciprocal concessions are obtained in re- 
turn — but only after exhaustive study has in- 
dicated that such concessions will not cause 
serious injury to American producers. In ap- 
propriate cases imports of such products per- 
mitted to enter at the reduced tariff rates are 
limited in amount or restricted to seasons when 
similar American products are not marketed in 
quantities sufficient to satisfy the needs of 
American consumers. 

"Most-Favored-Nation" Clause 

The traditional trade policy of the United 
States is not to discriminate between foreign 
nations but to extend equality of tariff treat- 
ment to all who do not discriminate against the 
trade of this country. This policy is embodied 
in the Trade Agreements Act. Under it a lower 
rate of duty on a given product in a trade agree- 
ment with a foreign nation (other than Cuba) 
applies also to the same product from any third 
nation, unless that third nation is found to dis- 
criminate against the products of the United 
States. This policy enables the United States to 
require other countries, as well as the other 
party to the trade agreement, to give our ex- 
ports non-discriminatory treatment. 

This policy of fair treatment on a reciprocal 
basis pays large dividends in dollars and cents 
to American producers who are thus protected 
against foreign tariff and other discriminations. 
It promotes peaceful commercial relations. Dis- 
criminatory trade policies create resentment and 
invite retaliation. 



Beneficial Resitlts of the Program 

The United States has concluded agreements 
with 26 foreign countries. These countries, in 
the order in which the agreements were signed, 
are : Cuba, Brazil, Belgium, and Luxembourg, 
Haiti, Sweden, Colombia, Canada, Honduras, 



172 

the Netherlands, Switzerland, Nicaragua,^ 
Guatemala, France, Finland, Costa Rica, El 
Salvador, Czechoslovakia,^ Ecuador, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, Turkey, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, 
Uruguay, and Mexico. 

About 65 percent of the total foreign trade 
of the United States is carried on with the coun- 
tries with which reciprocal trade agreements 
have been concluded. The United Kingdom 
and Canada are, respectively, the largest and 
the second largest customers for American ex- 
ports. 

Agreements With American Republics 

Trade agreements have been concluded with 
all the other American republics except Bolivia, 
Chile, the Dominican Republic, Panama, and 
Paraguay. Negotiations with Bolivia are un- 
der way. Over 90 percent of the trade of the 
United States with the other American repub- 
lics is with the trade-agreement countries. 

Trade Increases 

The trade-agreements program contributed 
substantially to the increase in United States 
foreign trade between the inauguration of the 
program and the outbreak of war in 1939. 
Other factors have also, of course, affected the 
volume and the nature of our trade. 

During the 2-year period 1934-35 United 
States total foreign trade averaged 4.1 billion 
dollars a year. In the 2-year period 1938-39 
the average was 5.3 billion dollars. 

The contribution of the trade-agreements pro- 
gi-am to the increase in our foreign trade is in- 
dicated by a comparison of United States trade 
with agreement and with non-agreement coun- 
tries. 

In the 2-year period 1938-39, when 16 trade 
agreements were in effect. United States ex- 
ports to the countries covered by these agree- 



^The reciprocal duty concessions and certain provi- 
sions of this agreement ceased to be effective Mar. 
10, 1938. 

° The operation of this agreement was suspended Apr. 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 

ments averaged 62.8 percent greater than in 
1934—35, when only 1 agreement was in effect 
for a year or more. In 1938-39 our exports 
to all other countries were only 31.2 percent 
greater than in 1934-35. 

Our imports from the 16 agreement countries 
averaged 21.6 percent greater in 1938-39 than 
in 1934-35, but our imports from other countries 
averaged only 11.1 percent greater. 

These comparisons reinforce the common- 
sense conclusion that the reduction of excessive 
tariffs and other barriers to the exchange of our 
goods for those of other nations tends to support 
and enlarge our foreign trade. 

Improved Trade Relations 

Trade agreements improve trade relations 
generally between the United States and the 
foreign country concerned. The agreements 
themselves provide a basis for consultation in 
regard to matters dealt with in the agreements. 
Beyond this the cordial atmosphere fostered by 
the agreements paves the way for friendly dis- 
cussion of other trade and economic matters 
not directly involved in the agreements. 

Improved General Relations 

Economic cooperation through mutually ben- 
eficial trade agreements tends to promote good 
relations with other countries. The trade- 
agreements program has helped us to win back, 
to our great advantage, some of the friendships 
vce lost by our short-sighted tariff and war-debt 
policies after the last war. Today the trade 
agreements with the other American republics 
are one of the strongest pillars in the structure 
of hemispheric solidarity and of our global 
good-neighbor policy. 



The Program in War and Peace 

During the War 

Our existing trade agreements with the 
United Kingdom and Canada entered into force 
on January 1, 1939, the year in which war began 



FEBRUARY 20, 1948 

in Europe. The agreement with Turkey took 
effect in May of that year. During the war 
period five new agreements have become effec- 
tive with : Venezueha in December 1939 ; Argen- 
tina in November 1941; Peru in July 1942; 
Uruguay on January 1, 1943; and Mexico on 
January- 30, 1943. During this period four sup- 
plementary agreements (two each with Canada 
and Cuba) were concluded. 

Wartime trade controls, scarcity of shipping, 
and military considerations have come to domi- 
nate the nature and extent of our foreign trade. 
Nevertheless, a considerable amount of trade 
continues to be influenced primarily by eco- 
nomic considerations. The trade-agreements 
program exerts a beneficial influence on our 
trade relations with friendly countries and on 
our own war effort. 

The agreements provide valuable insurance, 
now, against a repetition of the tidal wave of 
trade barriers and discriminations that swept 
over the world after the last war. They pro- 
vide, now, a solid foundation for resumption 
of mutually beneficial trade after the war, when 
so many of our agricultural and industrial pro- 
ducers will need foreign markets if they are to 
avoid curtailment of production and ruinously 
low prices, and when American industry and 
consumers will need imported raw materials 
and semi-manufactured and finished products. 

Trade agreements, old as well as new. help to 
bring about close economic cooperation be- 
tween this country and the other United Nations 
in the joint effort to achieve complete victory. 
These agreements stand today for economic co- 
operation in war and in peace — for a world in 
which men everywhere can produce in accord- 
ance with their ability and exchange their goods 
on a fair and reasonable basis. For this rea- 
son, an active trade-agreements program dur- 
ing the war strengthens the determination of 
the United Nations to win a victory that will 
be worth the cost; it inspires confidence that 
the United States will do its share in creating 
conditions favorable to prosperity and security 
after victory. 



173 

After the War 

Secure peace after victory must be built upon 
the solid fovuidation of economic cooperation. 
Economic insecurity and social unrest, caused 
in considerable part by excessive trade barriers 
and discriminatory trade policies, helped to 
spawn a Hitler and to plunge the world into 
this greatest of all wars before it had recovered 
from the last one. After this war, economic co- 
operation, not economic warfare, must be the 
rule. 

The governments of the United Nations, in 
subscribing to the Atlantic Charter, agreed "to 
further the enjoyment by all States, great or 
small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal 
terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of 
the world which are needed for their economic 
prosperity"; and affirmed their "desire to bring 
about the fullest collaboration between all na- 
tions in the economic field with the object of 
securing, for all, improved labor standards, 
economic advancement, and social security". 

In article VII of the mutual-aid (lend-lease) 
agreement of February 23, 1942 the Govern- 
ments of the United States and of the United 
Kingdom agreed that "In the final detennina- 
t ion of the benefits to be provided to the United 
States of America by the Government of the 
United Kingdom in return for aid furnished 
under the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941, 
the terms and conditions thereof shall be such 
as not to burden commerce between the two 
coimtries, but to promote mutually advanta- 
geous economic relations between them and the 
betterment of world-wide economic relations. 
To that end. they shall include provision for 
agreed action by the United States of America 
arid the United Kingdom, open to participation 
by all other countries of like mind, directed to 
the expansion, by appropriate international and 
domestic measures, of production, employment, 
and the exchange and consumption of goods, 
which are the material foundations of the lib- 
erty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimina- 
tion of all forms of discriminatory treatment 
in international commerce, and to the reduction 



174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETIN 



of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in gen- 
eral, to the attainment of all the economic ob- 
jectives" of the Atlantic Charter. 

Similar article-VII provisions are contained 
in mutual-aid agreements with China, the 
Soviet Union, Belgium, Poland, the Nether- 
lands, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Norway, and 
Yugoslavia. Australia and New Zealand have 
accepted these principles, and Canada, although 
not a recipient of lend-lease aid, has subscribed 
to them. 

The trade-agreements program, if extended 
by the Congress prior to June 12, 1943, will be 
one of the most effective means of applying, in 
cooperation with other countries, these agreed- 
upon principles for the attainment of the eco- 
nomic basis of an enduring peace. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



COLOMBIAN-AMERICAN COMMISSION 
ON RUBBER 

[Released to the press February 19] 

Under an exchange of notes recently com- 
pleted in Bogota between the Acting Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Colombia 
and the American Ambassador, a Colombian- 
American commission has been established and 
charged with the direction of general policy 
with respect to the procurement of rubber in 
Colombia. The commission is composed of the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of 
National Economy, and the Manager of the 
Caja de Credito Agrario Industrial y Minero, 
representing the Colombian Government, and 
the American Ambassador, the Special Repre- 
sentative in Colombia of the Rubber Reserve 
Company, and the Special Representative in 
Colombia of the Board of Economic Warfare, 
representing the Government of the United 
States. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press February 19] 

Dr. Benjamin Subercaseaux, professor of 
psychology at the University of Chile and well- 
known writer, is expected to arrive in Wash- 
ington February 22, at the invitation of the 
Department of State. During his travels in the 
United States he plans to gather material for a 
book on life and opinion in this country. Con- 
sequently his itinerary will include not only cul- 
tural centers, publishing houses, and news- 
papers but also small towns and representative 
regions in different areas where he can see the 
average citizen of the United States in his daily 
activities. 



[Released to the press February 20] 

Father Luis Alberto Tapia, one of the most 
widely known ecclesiastics and educators of 
Bolivia, arrived in Washington February 19. 
While in this country he will be the guest of the 
Department of State. He will spend several 
weeks in Washington and later expects to make 
a trip to the West Coast. 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

Mr. Henry R. Labouisse, Jr., has been desig- 
nated Chief of the Division of Defense Mate- 
rials, effective as of February 1, 1943 (Depart- 
mental Order 1135). 



FEBRUARY 20, 1943 



175 



Treaty Information 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreements Regarding the Service of Nationals 
of One Country in the Armed Forces of 
Another Country 

[ Released to the press February IG] 

A list of agreements in effect with co-bellig- 
erent countries, with the effective date of each, 
regarding the services of nationals of one coun- 
try in the armed forces of the other country 
follows : 

Australia, July 18, 1942 

Belgium, August 4, 1942 

Canada, April 6, 1942 

Cuba, January 11, 1943 

India, May 27, 1&12 

Mexico, January 22, 1943 

New Zealand, July 2, 1942 

Netherlands, July 8, 1942 

Norway, December 24, 1942 

Poland, January 27, 1943 

Union of South Africa, June 11, 1942 

United Kingdom, April 30, 1942 

Yugoslavia, May 18, 1942 



The text of the agreement with Canada was 
printed in the Bulletin of April 11, 1942, page 
315 ; that with Cuba, in the Bulletin of Febru- 
ary 13, 1943, page 157 ; that with Mexico, in the 
BuLurriN of January 23, 1943, page 87. With 
the exception of the agreement with Mexico, all 
others listed above are identical in content. 

TRANSIT 

Agreement With Peru Providing Air- 
Transportation Facilities 

[Released to the press February 19] 

Supplementing the rubber agreement entered 
into April 23, 1942 between the Governments of 
Peru and of the United States, an agreement 
was signed on February 18, 1943 by the De- 
fense Supplies Corporation, a Keconstruction 
Finance Corporation subsidiary, and the Gov- 
ernment of Peru, providing for an air-trans- 
portation netwoi-k to facilitate the rubber pro- 
gram. The agreement signed contemplates the 
financing by Defense Supplies Corporation of 
the construction of certain airport facilities, the 
supplying of certain airplanes, and the improve- 
ment of communication facilities in the remote 
rubber areas. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents -__-_-_ Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PCBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE mBBCTOE OF THE BUEEAD OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 192 -Publication 1888 



C 



ontents 



The War p.^. 
Address by the Under Secretary of State at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto 179 

Twenty -fifth Anniversary of the Red Army 184 

Economic Peace Aims : Address by Harry C. Hawkins . 185 
Extension of the Lcnd-Lease Act: Statement by Assist- 
ant Secretary Achoson 188 

Statement by the Under Secretary of State Regarding 

Lcnd-Lease Agreements 195 

The Dej ahtment 

Appointment of a Second Deputy Director of the OfSce 

of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations . 196 
Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Repub- 
lics 196 

Visit to Mexico of the President of the American 

Dental Association 196 

Publications 197 

Legislation 197 




. iilN TFNOENT Of DOCUMEMS 

MAR 25 1943 



The War 



ADDRESS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE UNIVERSITY 
OF TORONTO ' 



lUeleased to the press February 20] 

I am deeply conscious of the privilege you 
have afforded me of addressing this Convoca- 
tion of the University of Toronto. 

During the century of its magnificently vig- 
orous life this gi-eat institution of learning has 
become, in the field of education, one of the 
recognized glories of our New World. In its 
notable contributions to the welfare of human- 
ity and to the inspiration of the human spirit 
all of us who are citizens of the Western Hem- 
isphere can justly feel satisfaction and pride. 

It is for that reason that I am so greatly hon- 
ored by the degree which the University of 
Toronto is today conferring upon me. 

I know, of course, of the long line of gradu- 
ates from these halls who have distinguished 
themselves in so many varied branches of pub- 
lic endeavor, and I am therefore also peculiarly 
gratified that from now on I may lay claim — at 
least an honorary claim — to a connection with 
the University from which graduated the pres- 
ent Prime Minister of Canada. 

You will, I feel, permit me to say that while 
I know how highly and how justly his outstand- 
ing abilities and achievements are recognized in 
other parts of the world, there is no place out- 
side of his own country where he has won more 
affectionate regard or a higher measure of sin- 
cere admiration than in the United States. 
The peoples of our two countries are singularly 
blessed, in these the most critical moments of 



'Delivered by the Honorable Sumner Welles at 
Toronto. Canada, Feb. 26, 1943. 



their history, that the guidance of the destinies 
of our two nations should have been entrusted 
at this time to two men, Mackenzie King and 
Franklin Roosevelt, who have ever believed in 
the need for complete confidence and under- 
standing between the peoples of Canada and of 
the United States and who have done more than 
any other two men similarly placed in the course 
of our national lives to strengthen in real and 
practical fashion that friendship which is so 
vital to the well-being and to the security of 
us both. 

Today our peoples are fighting side by side to 
defend their liberties and to bring to utter de- 
feat the band of dictatoi-s who have dared to 
think they could extinguish the light of democ- 
racy in the modern world. And we recognize 
fully how long and bitter the road may still be 
before the final victory is won. 

Canada and the United States have had very 
similar problems in this war. 

We have met them in similar ways, and in 
collaboration, in the spirit of the Ogdensburg 
and the Hyde Park agreements.^ 

Our naval and military forces are cooperat- 
ing closely in both oceans and on our land fron- 
tiers. In production we have both faced short- 
ages of raw materials, labor, and manufacturing 
facilities, and our Governments have imposed 
effective, and often parallel, controls to over- 
come these shortages. We have both put our 
civilian economy on rations, increased taxation, 
and regulated prices. We have sought to sup- 

'BtJiXETiN of Aug. 24. liMO. p. 154, and of Apr. 26, 
1941, p. 494. 

179 



180 

ply each other with the things of which one of 
us was short and to coordinate our production 
facilities and resources in the most effective 
ways. 

Both of us are arsenals of the United Nations, 
and in that too we have followed a like policy. 
That policy is pst that food and munitions are 
dispatched to the places where they can be most 
useful in the conduct of the common war, and 
second that deliveries to countries that are not 
in position to make payment now are on terms 
that do not create impossible financial obliga- 
tions later. Both of us are seeking to avoid the 
creation of uncollectable and trouble-breeding 
war debts. 

The present high degree of economic coop- 
eration between our two countries for the pur- 
pose of making as great a contribution as pos- 
sible to the pooled war effort of the United 
Nations is extremely gratifying to us and must 
be so to our allies. Fortunately, the ground- 
work for this close collaboration was laid years 
before the outbreak of war. I refer primarily 
to the two reciprocal-trade agreements between 
us, the first of which entered into force on Jan- 
uary 1, 1936, and the second of which, replacing 
the first, became effective on January 1, 1939.^ 
the first day of the year in which Hitler forced 
upon Europe the war that was destined to 
spread over the globe. 

The trade agreements we entered into in the 
days of precarious peace went a long way to 
heal the economic wounds and attendant ill feel- 
ing each of us had dealt the other in earlier 
years after the first World War. 

On my side of the line there had been the 
so-called Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, followed 
immediately by a general upward revision of 
the tariff in the act of 1922 ; then, on the brink 
of the woi'st economic depression the world has 
suffered, came the monumental barrier created 
by the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act of 1930. In 
our Revenue Act of 1932, two of the four prod- 
ucts subjected to new excise taxes by means of 
a rider to that legislation — lumber and copper — 
were and are of great interest to Canada. These 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN" 

measures in their collective effect struck hard 
at the trade of other countries. Canada felt the 
effects as much as any other country — perhaps 
more than any other. 

Action on your side of the line was not slow 
in coming. You may recall that Canadian du- 
ties on a considerable number of products nor- 
mally imported from the United States were 
raised automatically to the levels pi-ovided for 
on the same products in our Tariff Act of 1930. 
Everyone remembers the Ottawa agreements of 
1932, when the members of the British Common- 
wealth of Nations turned their backs upon the 
United States and all countries and made a des- 
perate effort to make up for lost and depressed 
markets elsewhere by tariff preferences intended 
to encourage an expansion of trade within the 
British Empire. Every country felt the effects 
of the Ottawa agreements; none, I believe, more 
than did the United States. 

I mention these historical facts because they 
serve to remind us of past mistakes, still by 
no means completely remedied, that must be 
avoided after this most costly of all wars, in 
men and wealth, has been brought to an end 
by our common victory. They also serve to 
emphasize the fundamental necessity of carry- 
ing forward constructively the task of economic 
cooperation between us begun with the first trade 
agreement and continued ever since. 

The Governments of your country and mine 
see eye to eye on this. They have formally de- 
clared their intention to seek common goals in 
peace as well as in war. 

On November 30 last, in an exchange of notes, 
our two Governments took another important 
step along the road to a better world after 
victory.^ We agreed not only to try to promote 
advantageous economic relations between our- 
selves but to seek the cooperation of other 
nations of like mind in promoting the better- 
ment of world-wide economic relations. These 
aims involve appropriate national and inter- 
national measures to expand production, em- 
ployment, and the exchange and consumption 



Executive Agreement Series 91 and 149, respectively. 



Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1942, p. 977. 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 

of goods; oliininution of all forms of discrimi- 
natory trciitmciit ill intornational commerce; re- 
duction of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, 
generally, attainment of the economic objectives 
of the Atlantic Charter through the collabora- 
tion of the United Nations which are willing 
to join with us in the realization of these 
objectives. 

Many of the United Nations, through article 
VII of their mutual-aid agreements with the 
United States, have already joined in this same 
declaration of post-war economic objectives. 

Our two countries, in the same exchange of 
notes, have expressed our intention to do some- 
thing concrete about our declaration of aims by 
discussing soon with other United Nations how 
we two and other like-minded nations can agree 
upon a program to carry out these aims. They 
seek to furnish to the world practical evidence 
of the waj's in which two neighboring countries 
that have a long experience of friendly relations 
and a high degree of economic interdependence, 
and that share the conviction that such re- 
ciprocally beneficial relations must form part of 
a general system, may promote by agreed action 
their mutual interests to the benefit of them- 
selves and other countries. 

I am not so bold as to venture a prediction 
here as to the details of such a program. How- 
ever, I am confident that we can march together, 
with other forward-looking nations, along the 
road to a fruitful and secure post-war world, 
provided the people on both sides of the line 
support their Governments, with understanding 
and determination, in their efforts to do every- 
thing within their power to achieve these great 
objectives. 

AVhen the war ends similar problems will face 
us both. We shall both confront the task of 
demobilization, and we shall both endeavor to 
make sure that the young men — and the young 
women — who are discharged from military 
service have a real chance to find useful and 
productive emploj'ment. Both of us prefer a 
system of free enterprise, and we shall both de- 
sire to lighten government controls as rapidly 
as the phenomenon of scarcity vanishes and con- 
ditions permit free enterprise to play its proper 



181 



role. Both of us will find our industries still 
working largely on war orders, and the prob- 
lems of conversion will be urgent. Both of us 
will want to make our contribution to the relief 
and reconstruction of the devastated countries, 
and we shall want to make that contribution in 
the way which will help the peoples of those 
regions get back to health and strength and to 
self-reliance as rapidly as possible. AVe shall 
both be interested in possible international ar- 
rangements about gold, and currencies, and in- 
ternational investment. And we shall both 
desire to increase the economic interchange 
between us and with others on the most fruitful 
basis possible. 

On all these questions we can talk usefully to- 
gether as we have agreed to do. Our discussions 
will become even more useful as we undertake 
to conduct them in an even larger framework, 
the framework of the whole United Nations. 
There is no disagreement anywhere as to what 
the United Nations want. They want full em- 
ployment for their people at good wages and 
under good working conditions and the other 
physical and institutional arrangements that 
add up to freedom from want. But differences 
of opinion doubtless exist within and between 
the several countries as to the means to be 
adopted — divergencies may arise as to the de- 
sirability or efficacy of particular policies or 
measures. 

An examination of the causes of any disagree- 
ment will usually reveal that it exists mainly 
because people are considering the question 
from different viewpoints, that the parties are 
basing their judgments on different or incom- 
plete facts and different considerations. If both 
parties had the same facts and considerations in 
mind, and if each knew fully the reasons behind 
the position taken by the other, there would 
much more quickly be a meeting of minds. 

This is true not only of individuals but also 
of nations, and it suggests the need for joint as 
well as separate study of the facts and considera- 
tions relating to proposals aimed at attaining 
the desired ends. I believe that if the United 
Nations were to set up machinery for the pur- 
pose of assembling and studying all interna- 



182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIK 



tional aspects of problems under the general 
heading of freedom from want, and for as- 
sembling all the pertinent facts and considera- 
tions relating thereto, and for jointly analyzing 
all facts and considerations I'elating to measures 
or policies proposed for furthering the end in 
view, the controversies and conflicts of policy 
which have so long embittered relations in the 
international economic field, and therefore gen- 
erally, might largely disappear. If the analysis 
were thorough enough and the problems of each 
country were fully understood by the others, 
solutions could be found that would serve the 
interests of all concerned. Nothing is more 
clear to my mind than this : if all aspects of an 
economic problem Mere explored, it would be- 
come apparent that the basic interests of all 
countries are largely common interests, that 
each country's economic problems are related to 
and inseparable from those of the others. 

A United Nations' study such as I have in 
mind would explore in a careful, thorough, and 
.systematic way world problems in the economic 
field, toward the .solution of which much prog- 
ress must be made if we are to have anything 
approaching the goal of freedom from want in 
our own countries or elsewhere. People and 
governments here and everywhere are studying 
these problems, are searching for solutions. Tlie 
plans of one government or group of govei'n- 
ments may seem sound enough in the light of 
their own interests but may contain flaws which 
are visible only from the viewpoint of other 
governments or countries. If the study to 
which I have referred did no more than detect 
and focus attention on such flaws, if it did no 
more than prevent the crystallization in one 
country or group of countries of ideas which 
are objectionable from the viewpoint of others, 
it would serve a highly useful purpose. It is, 
however, my hope and belief that a United 
Nations' undertaking such as I have suggested 
would be able to formulate plans and recom- 
mendations of a constructive sort — to find, so to 
speak, common denominators which, in the net, 
would be advantageous to all. Failing to begin 



such organized study and discussion now, there 
is danger that divergent views and policies may 
become crystallized, to the detriment of the 
common war effort, and to the detriment of 
efforts to bring about a peace that will be more 
than a brief and uneasy interlude before 
another even more horrible and more destructive 
war devastates and depopulates the world. 

My Government believes that the initiation 
of such studies' is already overdue. If we do 
not make a start now, there is danger that we 
shall be brought together to make the peace with 
as many plans as there are governments. The 
day of complete victory cannot come too soon ; 
we all give thanks to God for every advance we 
make toward that goal, at every sign of weak- 
ness in our enemies. Between now and that day 
we must endeavor to prepare ourselves to meet 
the responsibilities and to make the most of the 
opportunities that peace will bring. 

I am glad to say that my Government intends 
at once to undertake discussions with other 
members of the United Nations as to the most 
practical and effective methods through which 
the,se vitally necessary conferences and con- 
sultations between us all can be held. It is my 
conviction that from these meetings a large 
measure of agreement will already be found to 
exist, that solutions will be available for such 
divergencies as may be apparent, and that in 
the last analysis it will be found that what may 
even appear to be fundamental obstacles can 
be resolved in the interest of the welfare of us 
all. 

What the people of the United States are 
striving for, I am persuaded, is exactly what the 
people of Canada are striving for. They seek 
the attainment of the noble objectives .set forth 
in the Atlantic Charter. They seek to achieve 
these ends, not because of any altruistic motives, 
not through the dictates of any theoretical 
idealism, but rather because they believe that 
the attainment of these objectives will be in 
their own self-interest — and I believe that in my 
own country we have learned through the bitter 
experience of the past quarter of a century that 



183 



tlie most practical form of self-interest is eii- 
lijrhtcned self-interest. 

We have seen beyond the shadow of any doubt 
that a policy of international cooperation which 
far too many told us 24 years ago was a policy of 
suicidal sentimentality, was in fact a policy of 
advantageous hard-headed realism. 

Most of us have learned a great truth that is 
beginning to dawn upon the consciousness of 
many peoples in all parts of the globe, and that 
is that the real self-interest of one nation coin- 
cides with the permanent, with the ultimate, 
self-interests of other nations. 

For there is no people wliich will not benefit 
more by peace than by war. The preservation 
(if peace and the pi-actice of human tolerance 
must come to be recognized by every nation and 
by every government as the indispensable re(iui- 
sites of all peoples. Never again can humanity 
permit dictator demagogues once more to pro- 
claim the alleged virile glories of war or the 
cruel falsehood that there exists a master race. 

No rational man or woman today can question 
tlie fact that had the nations of tlie world been 
able to create some effective form of interna- 
tional organization in the years that followed 
the close of tlie last great World AVar, and had 
been able to bulwark that organization witli 
judicial and police powers, the devastating trag- 
edy which humanity today is undergoing would 
have been avoided. From the standpoint of ma- 
terial self-interest alone, leaving aside every 
moral consideration, tlie lot of every one of our 
fellow citizens would have been far better. No 
one can appraise the cost of the present war in 
terms of life and human suffering. But we can 
appraise its cost in material terms, and we know 
tliat as a result of this nuiterial cost the standard 
of living of every individual in every region of 
the world will be impaired. 

If at the conclusion of this war the Govern- 
ments of the United Nations are not afforded 
by their peoples the opportunity of collabo- 
rating together in effective policies of recovery, 
or of assuming a joint responsibility for making 



completely sure that the peace of the world is 
not again violated, there can be no result other 
than utter disaster. The structure of our civili- 
zation is not so tough as to nudve it conceivable 
that it would resist a repetition of the present 
holocaust. 

We have evolved liere in the New World a 
system of interiuitional relationshiiis wliich con- 
stitutes perhaps the higliest achievement in the 
sphere of practical international living which 
civilized man has so fai- created. From the his- 
torical standpoint it is vei-y recent indeed, but 
it has grown, gradually perhaps but neverthe- 
less steadily, throughout the i)eriod of the in- 
dividual life of the democracies of the Americas. 
It is a system in which the smallest state is just 
as free to determine its own destiny as the largest 
state. It is a system where the smallest state 
feels just as secure as the largest state because 
of its knowledge that its independence and in- 
tegrity are a matter of vital c(mcern to its more 
powerful neighbors and because of its assur- 
ance that should its liberties be jeoiiardizetl by 
aggression coming from without the Western 
H<'misphere, its more powerful neighbors will 
take the action necessary to repel that danger. 

Every region of the world possesses its own 
peculiar problems, its own special advantages, 
and its own inherent difficulties. We hear much 
of the age-old rivalries which have persisted in 
Europe and in other quarters of the globe. 
But I think that we of the Americas can say that 
if 22 independent democracies such as those 
which occupy North, Central, and South Amer- 
ica — of different races, of different languages, 
and of different origins — can achieve the meas- 
ure of progress which we now have achieved 
toward a peaceful and humane relationship and 
toward profitable economic cooperation, that 
same form of relationship can be achieved in 
all regions of the world. 

The creation of that same kind of decent in- 
ternational relationship by all peoples is the 
objective today of the United Nations. I am 
confident that after the unconditional surrender 



184 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of our common enemies that objective will be 
attained. 

Through our continued cooperation the peace 
of the \vorld can be maintained, for with the 
defeat and total disarmament of the Axis 
powers there can be no further conflict — if the 
United Nations stand together. 

We cannot permit this time that the supreme 
sacrifice which our sons and our brothers are 
making in the defense of our liberties shall be 
made in vain. Only through our combined ef- 
forts can we make certain that the victory which 
we will win in battle can become in fact the 
victory of peace. 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY 
OF THE RED ARMY 

[Released to the press February 22] 

The Secretary of State has made the following 
statement : 

"Tomorrow marks the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of the Red Army, which since June 1941 
has successfully withstood a savage Nazi as- 
sault. Dui-ing tliis period the would-be con- 
querors have had ample opportunity to learn to 
their cost tlie degree of progress achieved by 
the Soviet Government and peoples in the realm 
of national defense. 

"The heroic Red Army, backed by the self- 
sacrificing devotion of the men and women of 
Russia, has met and hurled back the picked 
legions of Nazi Germany. There is not one of 
us who does not remember the heroic battle of 
Stalingrad which ended in utter rout for the 
invaders. It is not the first time in this war 
nor in history that the aggressor's dreams of 
world-conquest have been shattered by the calm 
determination of brave men and women. 



"We can fully understand the pride which 
the Soviet people have today in their armies, and 
we rejoice witli them in the ever-growing tide 
of success which is crowning their ai'ms." 

[Released to the press by the White House February 22] 

Tlie text of a message sent by President Roose- 
velt to Josepli Stalin, Supreme Commander of 
the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union, follows: 

"On behalf of the people of the United States, 
I want to express to the Red Army, on its 
twenty-fifth anniversary, our profound admira- 
tion for its magnificent achievements, unsur- 
passed in all history. 

"For many months, in spite of tremendous 
losses in men, supplies, transportation and terri- 
tory, the Red Army denied victory to a most 
powerful enemy. It checked him at Leningrad, 
at Moscow, at Voronezh, in the Caucasus, and 
finally, at the immortal battle of Stalingi'ad, the 
Red Army not only defeated the enemy but 
launched the great offensive which is still mov- 
ing forward along the whole front from the 
Baltic to the Black Sea. The enforced retreat 
of the enemy is costing him heavily in men, sup- 
l>lies, territory, and especially in morale. 

"Such achievements can only be accomplished 
by an army tliat has skillful leadership, sound 
organization, adequate training, and above all, 
the determination to defeat the enemy, no matter 
what the cost in self-sacrifice. 

"At the same time, I also wish to pay tribute 
to the Russian people from whom the Red Army 
springs, and upon whom it is dependent for its 
men, women and supplies. They, too, are giv- 
ing their full efforts to the war and are making 
the supreme sacrifice. 

"The Red Army and the Russian people have 
surely started the Hitler Forces on the road to 
ultimate defeat and have earned the lasting ad- 
miration of the people of the United States." 



FEBRTJARY 27, 1943 



185 



ECONOMIC PEACE AIMS 



Address by H 

[Released to the press February 26] 

We all recognize that the immediate, all-im- 
portant job is to win the war. We are confident 
of success. Many wars have been fought and 
won — by someone. But a lasting peace has 
never been achieved. This problem is the most 
formidable one to which the human mind can 
address itself. It is not insolvable, but it is 
exceedingly complex and diflScult. 

The immediate and obvious cause of the war 
in whicli we are now engaged was the ambition 
of the Axis powei'S to dominate the world. The 
democracies were disunited. The Axis was able 
to overwhelm them one by one up to the time 
when the danger to those remaining free be- 
came so acute that they were forced to unite 
in self-defense. If the}' had united sooner the 
war would have been shorter. If they had been 
united before the first act of aggression and had 
presented a firm front to the Axis, that first act 
might never have been committed. In short, 
if peace-loving nations pooled their strength 
in time of peace and acted as a unit against 
would-be aggressors, aggression would not take 
place and there would be no war. 

This seems a simple and obvious solution of 
the problem. But in reality it presents only an- 
otlier more basic problem: how to insure that 
peaceful-minded nations will in fact cooperate. 
This requires a higher degree of harmony among 
them than they have ever shown before. In 
time of peace each has often worked against the 
interests of the other. There have been rival- 
ries and resentment. They have been too dis- 



' Delivered before the luncheon session of the Citi- 
zens Conference on International Economic Union, New 
York, N.Y., Feb. 26, 1943. Mr. Hawkins is Chief of 
the Division of Commercial Policy and Agreements 
of the Department. 

513870—43 3 



arry C. Hawkins ' 

united in peace to act together to meet a com- 
mon danger. Only when a crisis has come upon 
them and fear has overridden all other consid- 
erations have they been driven to act together, 
and then it has been too late. 

By all odds the most important cause of dis- 
unity is the conflict arising from economic acts 
and policies. There has been no economic basis 
for peace. Instead there has been economic 
warfare. These are abstract terms that seem 
to pertain to affairs of state rather than to the 
problems of men. But they relate to the most 
intimate and realistic things in life; to things 
which occupy the minds of people everywhere ; 
to the price of crops ; to paying off the mortgage 
on farm or home; to keeping a job; to providing 
food, clothing, and shelter. Let the policies of 
one government strike at these vital interests in 
other countries, let them create conditions there 
which make these pressing personal problems 
more difficult, and the governments concerned 
must immediately deal with the issue ; animosi- 
ties will be built up which will profoundly affect 
the attitudes of governments and peoples toward 
each other. 

In the period following the first World War 
the.se vital personal interests in each country 
were frequently under attack by governments 
of other countries. It was a period character- 
ized by every conceivable kind of restriction 
and limitation on world markets, on which peo- 
ple of each country depended for maintaining 
employment, for obtaining the purchasing 
power for needed imports, and for maintaining 
their standards of living. It was a period char- 
acterized by a cutthroat struggle for desperately 
needed but rapidly shrinking world markets, by 
rapidly rising tariff walls, embargoes, quota- 
restrictions, exchange-controls, devalued cur- 
rencies, and every other kind of trade warfare. 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



The United States played a prominent part 
in this suicidal business. It inaugurated the 
hoped-for era of peace with the Emergency 
Tariff' Act of 1921. In 1922 the Fordney- 
McCumber Tariff Act was enacted, to be fol- 
lowed in 1930 by the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, 
which made another general upward revision of 
the tariff. In 1932 the revenue act of that year 
imposed duties, in the guise of "excise taxes", on 
four important and essential raw materials, 
petroleum, lumber, coal, and copper. These 
measures were imposed for the "protection" of 
home industries. They looked plausible from 
this standpoint. But as it turned out, they de- 
stroyed what they sought to protect. They all 
but destroyed our export industries that gave 
employment to many thousands of our people, 
thereby badly hurting our domestic economy. 
Our trade policy contributed materially to the 
depression in which we found ourselves in the 
early thirties. It did much to shrivel up the 
domestic market that it was designed to 
"protect". 

But these acts of economic warfare did more 
than hurt ourselves. Measures of this kind 
adopted by this and other countries struck hard 
blows at the vital interests of people in other 
countries, at their industries and the labor em- 
ployed in them, at farmers — in brief, at that all- 
important interest, the business of getting a liv- 
ing. The general state of trade warfare that 
prevailed in the period between the wars did 
not provide an atmosphere favorable to coopera- 
tion between nations for preserving law and 
order in the world. 

The international picture during the interval 
between the wars was not, however, wholly dark. 
During the early thirties there were signs of 
returning sanity. The United States had 
played a part in creating economic interna- 
tional chaos. But it was the United States that 
took the lead in starting the world on its way 
toward order and sanity. 

In 1934 the persistent efforts of Secretary of 
State Hull at last bore fruit in the enactment 
of the Trade Agreements Act. The philosophy 
and spirit of this law was the direct antithesis 
of the policies which had previously prevailed. 
It had in view abandoning international trade 



warfare and substituting international economic 
cooperation for it. The act authorized the 
President to conclude what wei'e in effect agree- 
ments for international economic disarmament. 
It authorized him to reduce our tariff, within 
specified limits, in return for reductions in the 
trade barriers imposed against us by foreign 
countries. 

Secretary Hull immediately went to work on 
one of the most formidable and seemingly most 
hopeless tasks that ever confronted a statesman. 
Only with the greatest difficulty could the new 
policy gain headway against the forces which 
the old one had set in motion. The first several 
years of effort resulted in little more than check- 
ing the drift toward national economic self- 
sufficiency which had set in all over the world. 
But by 1939 when the war broke out in Europe 
the new policy was gathering momentum and 
beginning to show substantial results. Many 
agreements had been concluded with foreign 
countries. Our own foreign trade was reviving, 
with consequent beneficial effects to our economy 
as a whole. The tangle of trade restrictions 
which had done so much to ruin world pros- 
perity and to destroy international cooperation 
was beginning to unravel itself. It is upon this 
new policy and the continued leadership of the 
United States in applying it and gaining con- 
verts to it that the hope of international eco- 
nomic cooperation in the next post-war period 
to a large extent depends. 

The peace aims of the United Nations as thus 
far formulated reflect the bitter experience with 
international anarchy in the period between the 
wars. They show a clear recognition of the 
fact that nations cannot cooperate to preserve 
the peace while engaged in an economic slugging 
match. They recognize the fact that national 
economic policies create serious economic dis- 
tress and pave the way for dictators bent on 
war. 

The economic peace aims are stated in the 
Atlantic Charter, to which all the United Na- 
tions have subscribed. In this document they 
agree that tliey will endeavor "to further the 
enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor 
or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the 
trade and to the raw materials of the world 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 



187 



which are needed for their economic prosperity". 
Tliey express tlie desire "to bring about the 
fullest collaboration between all nations in the 
economic field with the object of securing, for 
all, improved labor standards, economic ad- 
vancement and social security". 

The economic peace aims are further set forth 
in the mutual-aid agreements which the United 
States has negotiated with Great Britain, Rus- 
sia, China, and others of the United Nations. 
These agreements were concluded for the pur- 
pose of laying down the principles which will 
govern the settlement for lend-lease aid. In 
essence, they obligate the parties to cooperate 
fully with each other in winning the war and to 
cooperate no less fully in the winning of the 
peace. Specifically, they provide for agreed ac- 
tion between the parties "open to participation 
by all other countries of like mind, directed to 
the expansion, by appropriate international and 
domestic measures, of production, employment, 
and the exchange and consumption of goods, 
which are the material foundations of the lib- 
erty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimina- 
tion of all forms of discriminatory treatment in 
international commerce, and to the reduction of 
tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in general, 
to the attainment of all the economic objectives 
set forth" in the Atlantic Charter. 

The peace aims of the United Nations, in 
brief, envisage economic cooperation rather than 
economic warfare. They endorse the policy of 
reducing trade barriers and abolishing trade 
discriminations, the policy which the United 
States initiated in the Trade Agreements Act of 
1934. They recognize that a main road to inter- 
national law and order is the application of the 
economic policy by which this Government, to 
its everlasting credit, sought to lead the way out 
of chaos in that tragic period between the wars. 

The United Nations have not yet worked out 
the precise steps whereby international coopera- 
tion in the economic field will be assured. But 
whatever steps are taken must be the product of 
the utmost care and deliberation. It must al- 
ways be remembered that the extremely nation- 
alistic policies of the period between the wars 



have left their mark upon the world. Vested 
interests upon wliich many thousands depend 
for their livelihood were created and still exist. 
Rash action can cause serious dislocations. The 
forcing of sudden and drastic adjustments could 
cause serious suffering. We must proceed with 
the same care and persistence that has character- 
ized the life-long efforts of Secretary Hull. It 
is the careful, patient, and persistent kind of 
effort that has characterized his administration 
of the Trade Agreements Act that will bring 
the soundest and safest kind of international 
economic cooperation and thereby lay one of the 
foundation stones of peace. 

Our foreign policy has two basic objectives: 
To help in winning the war and to prepare for 
an enduring peace. The powers created in the 
Lend -Lease Act and the programs of action 
which have been developed under it are of cru- 
cial importance in our work to fulfil both these 
purposes. Lend-lease has become the corner- 
stone of our wartime relations with friendly 
powers. The lend-lease agreements under which 
the lend-lease programs ai'e conducted in war 
also lay foundations upon which peace can be 
built. Lend-lease is an indispensable instrument 
of our foreign policy today. 

This is a war of alliance, and it can be won 
only if all the resources of all the allies are 
pooled in ways which permit the fighting forces 
of the United Nations to hit the enemy hardest 
where it hurts him most. We must fight over 
supply lines which reach to and from every re- 
mote corner of the earth. Shipping is one of 
our most serious shortages, but it is not the 
only one. To overcome supply diiBculties more 
complex than any ever faced before, the United 
Nations must combine more completely and 
more effectively than allies have ever yet done. 

In this task lend-lease is essential, for lend- 
lease is the most expeditious way in which we 
can join America's teclinological genius and in- 
dustrial might with the fighting men of our 
allies already in the field against the enemy. 
Reciprocal lend-lease is the most expeditious 
way in which our allies can, in turn, provide, on 
the spot, weapons and food and other necessities 
for our own fighting men overseas. 



188 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



EXTENSION OF THE LEND-LEASE ACT 



Statement by Assistant Secretary Acheson ' 



At home and abroad, lend-lease provides the 
mechanism whereby the total needs of all United 
Nations forces can be considered together and 
procured together, without financial complica- 
tions and with maximum efficiency. 

The organization of our wartime economic 
controls and our lend-lease machinery allocate 
supplies on the basis of military need, not finan- 
cial ability. Lend-lease has facilitated the 
organization of our domestic economy for war 
and has helped to establish our supply rela- 
tions with friendly govermnents on a sound, 
simple basis. It has required the concentration 
of procurement for foreign governments in the 
hands of our own Government departments; it 
has jDrovided workable channels through which 
the requests of foreign governments can be con- 
sidered and decided. 

The interest of the Department of State in 
the development of the lend-lease program, as 
Mr. Stettinius has indicated to you, is direct and 
continuous. Many aspects of the arrangements 
made for mutual aid, through lend-lease and 
lend-lease in reverse, call for extended negotia- 
tions with foreign governments vitally affecting 
our political and economic relations with them. 
In many instances the Department of State is 
called upon to assist in the process of negoti- 
ation, to the end of coordinating our relations 
with the foreign governments concerned on the 
clearest and firmest possible terms. 

One important phase of the Department's 
interest in lend-lease is the program of lend- 
lease agreements under which war aid is given 
and received. Progress in the development of 
those agreements has been reported in the Presi- 
dent's seven reports to the Congress on lend-lease 
operations and in Mr. Stettinius' recent report 
to the Seventy-eighth Congress.^ 

'Delivered Feb. 3, 1&43 before the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 
in the course of hearings on H. R. 1501, a bill to extend 
for one year the provisions of the Lend-Lease Act. 

" H. i)oc. 57, 78th Cong. 



When I last testified on the subject, before 
the Appropriations Committee of the House of 
Representatives in September 1941, agreements 
had been negotiated with the Dominican Repub- 
lic, Haiti, Paraguay, and the Netherlands. Dis- 
cussions were then under way with the British 
Government and with several of the other 
American republics. On page 10 of Mr. Stet- 
tinius' report to the Congress on lend-lease 
operations you will see a tabulation of the re- 
sults of these discussions and of others later 
initiated. Thirty-seven lend-lease agreements 
have been entered into with 31 of the 43 nations 
declared eligible for lend-lease aid. 

These agreements may be grouped in four 
categories : The 17 special lend-lease agreements 
with the other American republics ; the so-called 
"master lend-lease agreements" which have been 
entered into with 10 governments; the ex- 
changes of notes on reciprocal aid, which apply 
the general principles of the master agreements 
to the particular problems of maintaining our 
armed foi'ces abroad; and, finally, two rather 
specialized agreements with the British, both 
supplementing the British master agreement, 
one on patent questions, the other on the waiver 
of maritime claims. 

The following American republics have 
signed lend-lease agreements: The Dominican 
Republic (August 2, 1941) ; Haiti (September 
16, 1941); Paraguay (September 20, 1941); 
Brazil (October 1, 1941, replaced by a new 
agreement of March 3, 1942) ; Nicaragua (Octo- 
ber 16, 1941) ; Cuba (November 7, 1941) ; Bolivia 
(December 6, 1941) ; Uruguay (January 13, 
1942) ; Costa Rica (January 16, 1942) ; El Sal- 
vador (February 2, 1942) ; Honduras (Feb- 
ruary 28, 1942) ; Peru (March 11, 1942) ; Colom- 
bia "(March 17, 1942) ; Venezuela (March 18, 
1942) ; Mexico (March 27, 1942; this agreement 
is now being revised) ; Ecuador (April 6, 1942) ; 
Guatemala (November 16, 1942). Under them 
we agree to provide the other American repub- 
lics with munitions of war, in certain amounts. 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 



189 



and they, in turn, promise to furnish us with 
whatever defense articles, services, or informa- 
tion they can supply. 

Our siiipments of military goods under these 
agreements, however, may be defei'red or 
stopped entirely whenever, in the opinion of the 
Commander in Chief, further deliveries would 
not be (;onsistent with the requirements of our 
own defense or that of the Western Hemisphere 
as a whole. These agreements contain the safe- 
guards called for by the Lend-Lease Act: the 
prohibition against retransf er of defense articles 
without the I'resident's approval, and the pro- 
vision for protecting the patent rights of iVmeri- 
can citizens. 

These agreements have not been published — 
nor can they be made public now for reasons of 
security. To do so would reveal (he program 
of military material designed for the defense 
of these countries. 

These agreements provide for transfer upon a 
cash reimbursable basis. The amounts to be 
reimbursed have been determined by agreement 
after negotiation. 

I might say further in regard to these particu- 
lar agreements that they differ from the master 
agreements, of which I sliall speak at some 
length later on. in that they provide for the 
transfer of specific amounts of materials. Xot 
only the amounts but the exact designation of 
the equipment requested is contained in sched- 
ules which are attached to the documents and 
revised from time to time in the light of chang- 
ing circumstance. For this reason it is obvi- 
ously undesirable at the present time to print 
those agreements. 

The response to the war of our southern 
neighbors has been magnificent. Eleven have 
declared war, and all but one have broken diplo- 
matic relations with the Axis. These countries 
have contributed greatlj^ to the common war 
eifort. Hundreds of ships have borne raw ma- 
terials to our factories and to those of Great 
Britain. We have had the use of ports and air- 
fields and transportation facilities of all kinds. 
Immense development projects have been under- 
taken cooperatively, to make rubber, lumbei-, 
and many vital minerals available for the war. 



They have worked with us in combating and 
suppressing Axis espionage and in an elaborate 
program for eliminating Axis influence from the 
economic and financial life of the American 
world. 

Our lend-lease aid has been an element of im- 
portance in this broad and cooperative program 
for strengthening the common defense and the 
common war effort of the Americas. 

In September 1941 1 made the following state- 
ment to the Appropriations Committee of the 
House : 

"The role of the other American republics in 
hemispheric defense cannot be measured exclu- 
sively by their obligations and their perform- 
ance under lend-lease agreements. That role 
must be measured in the light of their many 
other substantial contributions of a broad and 
growing program of hemispheric defense. Sim- 
ilarly, the benefits from our hemispheric lend- 
lease program cannot be gauged simply in terms 
of commitments embodied in formal agreements. 
For many of these valuable defense measures 
adopted by the other American republics, even 
though not required by a lend-lease agreement, 
undoubtedly flow from our lend-lease program 
and the hemispheric unity which it promotes." 

I believe that statement is every bit as true 
today as it was in the fall of 1941. 

The agi-eements of which I have spoken deal 
with the provision of specified amounts of equip- 
ment for the defense and security of countries 
which are removed from the scene of combat. 
The next group is with those who are bearing 
or have borne the full brunt of the conflict. 
Here no amounts of equipment or materials can 
be specified. We are transferring and must 
transfer whatever is possible in the exigencies 
of the struggle on all fronts and the possibilities 
of shipping to bring the greatest force against 
the enemy everywhere. This includes weapons 
and supplies for the fighting armies and tools, 
materials, and supplies for the peoples who 
produce for them. 

The so-called "master agreements" have been 
drawn to meet a situation where transfers and 
reciprocal transfers of munitions, materials of 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



all sorts, and the furnishing back and forth of 
services of all sorts must be made freely and 
without limit or interruption for bargaining 
in the supreme interest of winning the war. 
The British master agreement was the first of the 
series to be concluded. It was signed on Febru- 
ary 23, 1942. Since that date identical agree- 
ments have been signed by China (June 2, 
1942) ; the Soviet Union (June 11, 1942) ; Bel- 
gium (June 16, 1942) ; Poland (June 5, 1942) ; 
the Netherlands (July 8, 1942 — a revision and 
enlargement of the earlier agreement) : Greece 
(July 10, 1942) ; Czechoslovakia (July 11, 
1942) : Norway (July 11, 1942) ; Yugoslavia 
(July 24, 1942). 

In addition to these 10 nations Australia and 
New Zealand adhered to the agreement between 
the United Kingdom and the United States, in 
exchanges of notes dated September 3, 1942, cop- 
ies of which are found in appendix XI of Mr. 
Stettinius' recent report to the Congress on lend- 
lease operations, and Canada has accepted the 
principles of article VII of the master agree- 
ments in an exchange of notes with the United 
States dated November 30, 1942. 

Similar agreements with other countries are 
now under consideration and further progi-ess 
in the program of agreements may be expected 
within the next few months. 

These master agreements are simple, broad 
documents, designed to establish a framework 
within which each signatory nation may freely 
aid the other in such ways as the changing course 
of the war makes most appropriate. Wliere 
possible, decisions as to the form such mutual 
aid will take are to be made "in common, pur- 
suant to common plans for winning the war". 
Each nation, of course, reserves the right of 
ultimate decision as to the allocation and use of 
its own resources. The lend-lease and recipro- 
cal lend-lease programs, however, have been a 
powerful element in bringing about the active 
and effective cooperation among allies which is 
the foundation of our strongest hopes for speedy 
and enduring victory. 

The preamble of the agreements recites that 
the signatories are engaged in a cooperative un- 
dertaking together with every other nation or 
people of like mind to the end of laying the 



basis of a just and enduring world peace, secur- 
ing order under law to themselves and all na- 
tions. It continues with a reference to our as- 
sistance of the other Government pursuant to 
the act of March 11, 1941 and states the judg- 
ment that it is expedient "that the final determi- 
nation of the terms and conditions upon which" 
the particular foreign Government "receives 
such aid and of the benefits to be received by 
the United States of America in return therefor 
should be deferred until the extent of defense 
aid is known and until the progress of events 
makes clearer the final terms and conditions and 
benefits which will be in tlie mutual interests 
of the United States of America" and the other 
signatory "and will promote the establishment 
and maintenance of world peace". 

What I have just been reading appears in all 
the master agreements. 

The agreement, therefore, is characterized as 
"preliminary" and its subject matter is defined 
as twofold: The provision of defense aid, on 
the one hand, and on the other, tlie statement 
of "certain considerations which shall be taken 
into account in determining" the terms and con- 
ditions upon which aid has been transferred 
and received. 

The first two articles are the heart of the 
agreements. In them each signatory pledges 
all possible assistance to the other, in tlie form 
of such articles, services, facilities, and infor- 
mation as each may be in a position to supply. 
Under these two articles all our arrangements 
for the interchange of supplies have developed. 
Some are so complex as to require special agree- 
ments setting forth appropriate procedures. 
Others go forward within the framework of 
continuous cooperation which characterizes the 
relations between our armed forces and those 
of the other United Nations. Under these ar- 
ticles mutual aid is provided in every conceiv- 
able form: blankets and scientific information, 
ship repairs, ammunition, and great stores of 
food for our troops. These two articles are 
brief, but they comprehend a vast and ever- 
growing category of supply problems. 

Article III contains the provision, required by 
the act, that the government receiving lend-lease 
aid will not without our consent transfer lend- 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 

lease articles or information to, nor permit their 
use by, anj'one not an officer, employee, or agent 
of the recipient government. Article IV con- 
tains the protection given by the act to American 
patent holders. 

Articles V, VI, and VII deal with certain 
terms and conditions on which lend-lease aid is 
transferred and received. Article V provides 
that the President may request the return of any 
surviving defense article which has been trans- 
ferred to another government and which "shall 
be determined by the President to be useful in 
the defense of the United States of America or 
of the Western Hemisphere or to be otherwise of 
use to the United States of America". That is 
the article which has been referred to as the 
"return article", and is the essence of the lend- 
ing provision of the Lend-Lease Act. These 
articles are transferred for use, and so far as 
they survive the war they are to be returned if, 
as, and when we want them returned. 

Article VI provides that full cognizance be 
taken in any final settlement of all "property, 
services, . . . information, facilities, or other 
benefits or considerations" provided us by the 
other government after March 11, 1941. The 
immense volume of mimitions, supplies, and in- 
formation which our allies, and particularly the 
members of the British Commonwealth, are pro- 
viding to our forces and to our war effort as a 
whole are all to be considered under this head. 

Article VII states the principles according to 
which a final resolution of the lend-lease records 
is to be accomplished. It is not a settlement of 
itself. That is deferred until the progress of 
events makes our problem clearer. But article 
VII does state, both affirmatively and nega- 
tively, the rules according to which that settle- 
ment will be undertaken. It provides an out- 
line of the general approach to the final settle- 
ment. 

The act provides that the benefit to the 
United States from the lend-lease program "may 
be payment or repayment in kind or property, 
or any other direct or indirect benefit which the 
President deems satisfactory". The President's 
fourth report to the Congress on lend-lease 
operations, dated March 11, 1942, puts the 
matter simply. 



191 

The first benefit we receive, he said, is one that 
needs no explanation — it is the direct military 
assistance to American security which results 
from the fight our allies are waging against the 
common enemy. To aid them in that fight has 
always been the basic purpose of the Lend-Lease 
Act; whatever other significance it may have, 
lend-lease was designed as a military weapon, 
and it has proved a most successful one. The 
lend-lease materials we send abroad are part 
of our own effort in the ruthless war which the 
Axis is waging against us. "The major benefit 
we will receive for our lend-lease aid", the Pres- 
ident has said, "will Im? the defeat of the Axis." 

The second benefit to the United States, the 
President has pointed out, is the reciprocal aid 
we receive from our allies. It is now a major 
factor in the supply of our forces abroad, in 
the maintenance abroad of our merchant ma- 
rine, and in the flow of vital industrial and 
military information on which our war produc- 
tion and our war tactics largely depend. The 
equipment and maintenance of our forces abroad 
from the production of Britain, Australia, New 
Zealand, the French, Belgian, and Dutch col- 
onies, and of China, has become an immense and 
steadily growing element in our war effort. The 
information we have been given about the radio 
detection of approaching planes, to mention one 
among many items, is of value beyond measure 
not only to our soldiers and sailors but to all 
of us. 

In this connection, specific reciprocal-aid 
agreements have been made which apply the 
principle of article II of the master agreements 
to the particular problem of supplying our 
armed forces in the field. Eeciprocal-aid agree- 
ments were formally executed with the United 
Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Fight- 
ing France, on September 3, 1942, and with 
Belgium on January 30, 1943. In addition, ne- 
gotiations are now under way looking to the 
execution of similar agreements with others of 
the United Nations. The texts of the reciprocal- 
aid agreements thus far negotiated are to be 
found in appendix XI of Mr. Stettinius' current 
report to Congress. 

"These agreements", the President said in his 
Sixth Report to Congress, "rest on the simple 



192 

principle that each participant provide the other 
with such articles, services, facilities, or infor- 
mation as each may be in a position to supply 
for the joint prosecution of the war. The rule 
to be followed in providing mutual aid is that 
the war production and war resources of each 
nation should be used by all United Nations 
forces in ways which most effectively utilize the 
available materials, manpower, production fa- 
cilities, and shipping space. Reciprocal aid 
represents the most economical use of the war 
resources of the United Nations. It means that 
we are husbanding time and transport to use 
resources where they are. It means also, of 
course, that the peoples of Britain, Australia, 
and New Zealand, already on short rations, are 
freely sharing what they have with our troops." 

In the nature of things, the bulk of the recip- 
rocal aid we receive is in the form of supplies 
and sei-vices for American troops overseas. This 
aid of course has increased. Until very re- 
cently few of us had any idea of the really huge 
volume of assistance being rendered under these 
agreements. Major Spiegelberg has given you 
from first-hand experience an account of this 
development.' 

A third direct benefit to the United States 
from the lend-lease program stipulated for by 
our master agreements is the pledge made by 
our allies that they will work with us, and, in 
the words of article VII, with all other countries 
of like mind, for the economic objectives set out 
in that article. Article VII, which is repeated 
in substance in all our lend-lease agreements, 
reads as follows in the agreement with Great 
Britain : 

"In the final determination of the benefits to 
be provided to the United States of America by 
the Government of the United Kingdom in re- 
turn for aid furnished under the act of Con- 
gress of March 11, 1941, the terms and condi- 
tions thereof shall be such as not to burden com- 
merce between the two countries, but to promote 
mutually advantageous economic relations be- 
tween them and the betterment of world-wide 
economic relations. To that end, they shall in- 

' See pp. 49-80 of the Hearings on H.R. 1501, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULX/ETIN 

elude provision for agreed action by the United 
States of America and the United Kingdom, 
open to participation by all other countries of 
like mind, directed to the expansion, by appro- 
priate international and domestic measures, of 
production, employment, and the exchange and 
consumption of goods, which are the material 
foundations of the liberty and welfare of all 
peoples; to the elimination of all forms of dis- 
criminatory treatment in international com- 
merce, and to the reduction of tariffs and other 
trade barriers; and, in general, to the attain- 
ment of all the economic objectives set forth in 
the joint declaration made on August 14, 1941, 
by the President of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Prime Minister of the United 
Kingdom. 

"At an early convenient date, conversations 
shall be begun between the two Governments 
with a view to determining, in the light of gov- 
erning economic conditions, the best means of 
attaining the above-stated objectives by their 
own agreed action and of seeking the agreed 
action of other like-minded Governments." 

It is to this article that the Under Secretary 
of State referred when he spoke of the first 
master agi*eement as the most important mile- 
stone on the road to the objectives set forth in 
the Atlantic Charter. The greatest economic 
benefit we can seek in the post-war world is the 
benefit which we receive as one of the great com- 
mercial nations from a high level of employment 
everywhere and a high volume of useful inter- 
national trade. 

The program envisaged by article VII has 
two aspects. On the one hand it contains the 
pledge that the terms and conditions of the final 
lend-lease settlement shall be such as not to 
burden commerce between the signatories but to 
promote mutually advantageous economic rela- 
tions between them and the betterment of world- 
wide economic relations. In the light of our 
long and bitter experience with the international 
transfer problems of the 1920's, the President 
here declares one aspect of the relationship to 
which lend-lease transactions give rise. It is not 
a relationship which requires or permits of a 
settlement which will burden the coimnerce be- 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 

tween the parties or between either of them and 
other nations. It does require settlement by 
action which will expand production and em- 
ployment and the exchange and consumption 
of goods. 

By this provision, the President has said, we 
have affirmatively declared our intention to 
avoid a repetition of our international debt ex- 
perience during the twenties. We shall not seek 
the method of settlement by payment in gold or 
goods which in the past has proved an insur- 
mountable burden to the trade of the world. On 
such terms we would have no hopes for the re- 
vival of trade on which all our post-war plans 
must rest and little hope for the survival after 
the war of the United Nations. 

There is another ground, the President has 
said, for this provision of the mastei' agreements. 
I quote here from the President's fifth lend- 
lease message to Congress: 

"A lend-lease settlement which fulfils this 
principle will be sound from the economic point 
of view. But it will have a greater merit. It 
will represent the only fair way to distribute the 
financial costs of war among the United Nations. 

"The real costs of the war cannot be measured, 
nor compared, nor paid for in money. They 
must and are being met in blood and toil. But 
the financial costs of the war can and should be 
met in a way which will serve the needs of last- 
ing peace and mutual economic well-being. 

"All the United Nations are seeking maxi- 
mum conversion to war production, in the light 
of their special resources. If each country de- 
votes roughly the same fraction of its national 
production to the war, then the financial burden 
of war is distributed equally among the United 
Nations in accordance with their ability to pay. 
And although the nations richest in resources 
are able to make larger conti-ibutions, the claim 
of war against each is relatively the same. Such 
a distribution of the financial costs of war means 
that no nation will grow rich from the war effort 
of its allies. The money costs of the war will 
fall according to the rule of equality in sacrifice, 
as in effort." 

Closely linked with the provisions of article 
VII, that the settlement should not burden 



193 

commerce, are its affirmative provisions for 
agreement on "appropriate international and 
domestic measures" to assure the expansion of 
production and employment. The President has 
said in this coimection : 

"If the promise of the peace is to be fulfilled, 
a large volume of production and trade among 
nations must be restored and sustained. This 
trade must be solidly founded on stable ex- 
change relationships and liberal principles of 
commerce. The lend-lease settlements will rest 
on a specific and detailed program for achieving 
these ends, which are, as article VII of the 
agreements with Great Britain, China, and Kus- 
sia point out, 'the material foundations of the 
liberty and welfare of all peoples'. 

"Cooperative action among the United Na- 
tions is contemplated to fulfil this program for 
economic progress, in the many spheres where 
action is needed. It is hoped tliat plans will 
soon develop for a series of agreements and rec- 
ommendations for legislation, in the fields of 
commei'cial policy, of money and finance, inter- 
national investment, and reconstiniction." 

We must seek the reduction of trade bar- 
riers and of other obstacles to trade, both on 
our side and on the side of other nations. Re- 
ducing trade barriers is an indispensably neces- 
sary first step toward our goal of full employ- 
ment. With hampering limitations on trade 
reduced, we can look forward to success in the 
use of positive means of enlarging investment, 
employment, and production. 

These are not the only benefits, large as they 
are, to be expected from the program of lend- 
lease assistance. That program may well in- 
volve arrangements for benefits to the United 
States of other than an economic character. As 
the war develops, it may be expected that ar- 
rangements of this nature will become pertinent 
and will be made. 

There are two other lend-lease agreements to 
which I might call attention. Both supplement 
the master agreement with the United Kingdom 
with reference to specific and relatively tech- 
nical problems. 

The first of these agreements concerns patent 
questions. 



194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Under the Lend-Lease Act and supplemental 
reciprocal-aid agreements it is the established 
policy of the United States to promote, with 
adequate safeguards for the rights of United 
States citizens, the full and complete utilization 
of inventions, processes, and technical informa- 
tion of all kinds in the war production of the 
United Nations. The agreement between Great 
Britain and the United States on the inter- 
change of patent rights, information, inven- 
tions, designs, or processes, signed August 24, 
1942, is one measure designed to implement 
that policy. Under the agreement each Govern- 
ment, so far as it may lawfully do so, agrees 
to procure and make available to the other Gov- 
ernment for use in war production patent rights 
and information. Each Government agrees to 
bear the cost of the procurement of such patent 
rights and information from its own nationals. 

Under the agreement American manufac- 
turers may obtain through the United States 
Government licenses under British-owned 
patents and industrial information in the pos- 
session of the British. These are furnished by 
the British Government under reciprocal lend- 
lease. Because the two Governments had ex- 
changed inventions and information for use in 
war production prior to the signing of the agree- 
ment, the effective date of the agreement was 
fixed at January 1, 1942. The effect of dating 
the agreement back is to place on each Govern- 
ment the cost of acquiring licenses from and 
after January 1, 1942. 

In addition to the exchange of industrial in- 
ventions and information there is constant and 
voluminous interchange of scientific and mili- 
tary information between the two Goverimients. 

The second of these supplemental agreements 
with Great Britain was signed on December 4, 
1942 and conceins maritime claims. It has two 
principal features. The first is the waiver of 
certain claims by one Government against the 
other. In general, each Government has agreed 
to waive claims against the other arising out of 
collisions, damage to cargo, and the rendering 
of salvage services. In the end, of course, with 



two great fleets such as ours litigation proves 
useless. Recoveries tend to even themselves out. 
Ordinarily casualty at sea involves the expendi- 
ture of much time and skill in assessing amounts 
payable by various parties interested in both 
shiiD and cargo. Delays occur and frequently 
ships are tlireatened with arrest or are even 
actually arrested in order that security may be 
provided for meeting claims asserted. All this 
is eliminated by the agreement. If collision 
occurs between a ship belonging to one Govern- 
ment, whether warship or merchantman, and a 
ship belonging to the other Government, no 
legal proceedings will be taken to determine de- 
gree of blame and no claims for damages will 
be made by either Government against the other. 
Work of repair will be vmdertaken at once with- 
out thought of anything but getting the dam- 
aged ship back into service at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. Nor where cargoes belonging to 
one Government are damaged while on board 
ship belonging to the other Government will 
time be wasted in determining liability for sucli 
damage. General average contributions will 
not be payable by one Government to the other. 

Another feature of the agreement is that in 
the future all salvage services rendered by eitlier 
Government to ships or cargo owned or insured 
by the other will be rendered on lend-lease terms, 
each Government paying its own nationals. 
The sole object of salvage services rendered will 
be to bring ship or cargo salvaged back into 
service as rapidly as possible. 

Article IV is the second principal feature of 
the maritime agreement. Under it either Gov- 
ernment may call upon the other for legal as- 
sistance where vessels or cargo owned by one 
Government are threatened with arrest in the 
courts of the other. Where request is made for 
such assistance the Treasury Solicitor in the 
United Kingdom and the Attorney General in 
the United States will make arrangements for 
the immediate release of the ship, and for pro- 
tection of interests of the other Government, on 
lend-lease terms. 



FEBRUARY 27, 194 5 



195 



That article, of course, relates to situations 
where a private vessel has a claim against a 
merchant ship owned or chartered by the United 
States, or vice versa, and in those cases each Gov- 
ernment undertakes to render to its own 
Government all the legal assistance necessary to 
free the ship at once. 

I wish also to mention an informal agreement 
between the War Shipping Administration and 
the British Ministry of War Transport by which 
the latter has assumed financial responsibility 
on lend-lease terms for all disbursements on 
vessels controlled by the War Shipping Admin- 
istration, incurred in ports in the United King- 
dom, the British colonies, and India, to the same 
extent that lend-lease funds are used in United 
States ports with respect to ships controlled by 
the British Ministry. This includes the great 
bulk of ships' expenses, excluding only wages, 
advances to masters, slop-chest supplies, and 
similar items. This is d(me in Britain by a 
method we do not use in extending lend-lease 
aid. The British make advances in sterling to 
the War Shijjping Administration, which in 
tnni makes the necessary disbursements through 
its agents in British, colonial, and Indian ports. 

A similar arrangement is under negotiation 
witli the Governments of Australia and New 
Zealand. These Governments are already bear- 
ing a large part of the expenses of American 
vessels in their ports, but arrangements similar 
to that with the Ministry of War Transport, 
by which sterling is made available for disburse- 
ment by agents of the War Shipping Adminis- 
tration, will afford greater simplicity of 
operation. 

The test of foreign policy in time of war is the 
efl'ectiveness with which it contributes to the 
winning of the war and the extent to which it 
prepares the way for a decent and lasting peace. 
The lend-lease program is today a vital part of 
the foreign policy of the United States. It has 
been proved an effective means of supplying the 
fighting fronts of the United Nations. It is an 
integral part of our organization for waging 
war. Lend-lease agi-eements have been entered 



into from time to time to meet the changing 
needs of our system of war supply, and addi- 
tional agreements will be made in the future to 
deal with the problems of the war as they 
emerge. The powers conferred on the Presi- 
dent in the Lend-Lease Act are and must be 
sufficiently broad to give the flexibility we need 
in adapting our lend-lease program to the 
demands of war. 



STATEMENT BY THE UNDER SECRETARY 
OF STATE REGARDING LEND-LEASE 
AGREEMENTS 

(Released to the press February 23] 

One year ago today Great Britain and the 
United States entered into an agreement for 
mutual aid under the provisions of the Lend- 
Lease Act. Each Government pledged itself to 
utilize its war production and resources in ways 
which most effectively make use of all avail- 
able nuiterials, manpower, production facilities, 
and shipping space for the effective prosecution 
of the war. Article VII of the agieenient looks 
to economic coojjeration in the peace. 

Agreements in identical terms have been 
signed with China, the Soviet Union. Belgium, 
Poland, the Netherlands, Greece, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Norway, and Yugoslavia. Australia and 
New Zealand have accepted the principles of 
the agreement with Great Britain as governing 
their separate lend-lease relations with this 
coimtry, and Canada, quite outside lend-lease, 
has agreed to the economic principles of article 
VII. 

The lend-lease agi-eeiiients with the other 
American republics also call for cooperative and 
agi-eed action. 

Under these lend-lease agreements we are 
placing a share of our war production wherever 
our allies can most effectively use it against the 
common enemy, and our allies are placing at the 
disposal of our men — on land, in the air, and on 
the sea — food, weapons, and help of every sort 
for the same end. 



196 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Tlie Department 



Cultural Relations 



APPOINTMENT OF A SECOND DEPUTY 
DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF FOR- 
EIGN RELIEF AND REHABILITATION 
OPERATIONS 

[Released to the press February 24] 

Mr. Kenneth Dayton, former Director of the 
Budget for the City of New York, has been 
designated Second Deputy Director of the Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions. The appointment was announced by Mr. 
Herbert H. Lehman, Director of the Office, who 
said that Mr. Dayton will continue for the time 
being to supervise the Division of Budget and 
Finance in the Office, of which Division he has 
been Chief. 

In his new capacity Mr. Dayton will work 
closely with Mr. Francis B. Sayre, Deputy Di- 
rector, and with IMr. Lehman in the administra- 
tion of activities of the Office. 

Mr. Dayton was New York City Budget 
Director from December 1937 until December 
1942, when he became associated with the Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehibilitation Opera- 
tions. He had worked in New Y''ork fiscal af- 
fairs continuously since 1934. He was the 
Assistant to the President of the New York 
City Board of Aldermen, 1934-35 ; Deputy Com- 
missioner of Accounts assigned to the Mayor's 
Office from January to August 1936 ; Assistant 
Director of the Budget, New York City, August 
1936 to December 1937; and Acting Director of 
the Budget from July to December 1937, prior 
to his appointment as Director in December 
1937. A native of Plymouth, Conn., Mr. Day- 
ton served in the first World War with the 
Three Hundred and Fifth Machine Gun Bat- 
talion, Seventy-seventh Division. Prior to his 
work in New York fiscal affairs he practiced law 
in New York City. 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press February 26] 

Dr. Flavio Herrera, professor of law at the 
National University of Guatemala and well- 
known writer, arrived in Washington February 
26, as a guest of the Department of State. 
During his stay in the United States Dr. He- 
rrera will visit universities, museums, and re- 
search centers to study methods of operation 
and instruction with a view to the possible ap- 
plication of similar techniques in Guatemala. 



VISIT TO MEXICO OF THE PRESIDENT 
OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIA- 
TION 

[Released to the press February 27] 

Dr. J. Ben Robinson, Dean of the College of 
Dentistry, University of Maryland, and Presi- 
dent of the American Dental Association, has 
been issued a travel grant from the Department 
of State in order to visit Mexico City for the 
purpose of conferring with the Mexican Dental 
Association, visiting dental societies and 
schools, and attending the Fourth Medico- 
Dental Convention, which will be held during 
the first week in March. Dr. Robinson, in ad- 
dition to his position of leadership in the Ameri- 
can Dental Association, is a well-known his- 
torian, dental educator, and anatomist. 

Upon his return from Mexico Dr. Robinson 
will attend the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation of D2ntal Schools in Chicago, where it 
is expected that he will report on his visit to 
Mexico. 

Dr. Robinson will be accompanied on his trip 
by Dr. Daniel F. Lynch, Chairman, Pan Ameri- 



FEBRUARY 27, 1943 



197 



can Ralations ConiPiittee, American Dental As- 
sociation, who is maiiing the journej' at his own 
expense. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Defense Areas: Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Liberia— Signed at Monrovia March 
31, 19-12. Executive Agreement Series 275. Publica- 
tion 1859. 4 pp. 5i. 

Foreign Service List. January 1, 1943. Publication 
1SG8. Iv, 126 pp. Subscription, 50^ a year; single 
copy, 150. 

Temporary Sligration of Mexican Agricultural Work- 
ers: Agreement Between the United States of Amer- 
ica and Mexico — Effected Ijy exchange of notes signed 
August 4, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 278. 
Tublication 1872. 13 pp. 1110. 



Legislation 



Authorizing the Deportation of Aliens to Countries 
Allied With the United States. H.Rept. 135, 78th 
Cong., on H.R. 16S1. 3 pp. 
Amending the Nationality Act of 1940: 

H.Rept. 172, 78th Cong., on H.R. 1291. [Amendments 

to strengthen the national defense and to correct 

certain errors.] 8 pp. 

H.Rept. 173, on H.R. 1296. [Amendments to extend 

time for filing petitions for naturalization.] 

3 pp. 

Relating to the Naturalization of Persons Not Citizens 

Who Serve Honorably in the Military or Naval 

Forces of the United Slates During the Present 

War. H.Rept. 176, 78th Cong., on H.R. 1284. 3 pp. 



Permitting the Naturalization of Certain Persons Not 
Citizens Whose Sons or Daughters Have Served 
With the Land or Naval Forces of the United 
States. H.Rept. 177, 78th Cong., on H.R. 1941. 
3 pp. 
Communication From the President of the United States 
Requesting That No Funds Be Appropriated for the 
United States Courts for China for the Fiscal Year 
1944 [in view of the fact that the treaty with 
China relinquishing extraterritorial rights was 
signed January 11, 1943] . H.Doc. 114, 78th Cong. 
Ip. 
War Relocation Centers : Hearings Before a Subcom- 
mittee of the Committee on Military Affairs, United 
States Senate, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on S. 444, a 
bill providing for the transfer of certain functions 
of the War Relocation Authority to the War De- 
partment. 
[Part 1.] January 20, 27, and 28, 1943. [State- 
ments of the Honorable Joseph C. Grew, former 
American Ambassador to Japan, and Mr. Bernard 
Gufler, Assistant Chief, Special Division of the 
Department of State, pp. 107-121.] 128 pp. 
Part 2. February 11, 1943. pp. 129-1.J8. 
First Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1943: 

Hearings before the Subcommittee of the Commit- 
tee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 
78th Cong., 1st se.ss. [Statements of Assistant 
Secretary Shaw, Laurence C. Frank, Monnett B. 
Davis, and Warren Kelchner, all of the Depart- 
ment of State, pp. 348-412.] ii, 808 pp. 
H.Rept. 170, 78th Cong., on H.R. 1975. [Department 
of State, pp. 27-28.] 31 pp. 
Extension of Lend-Lease Act : 
Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., 
on H.R. 1501, a bill to extend for one year the 
provisions of an act to promote the defense of the 
United States, approved March 11, 1941. Janu- 
ary 29, February 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 23, 
1943. [Statements of Assistant Secretary Ache- 
son, pp. 81, 117 ; of Assistant Secretary Berle, p. 
209.] 364 pp. 
H. Rept. 188, 78th Cong., on H. R. 1501. 15 pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . - Subscription price, $2.T5 a year 

PtJBLISHED WEEKLr WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECIOIi OF THE BUEEAD OF THE BCDOET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



MARCH 6, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 193— Publication 1896 



C 



ontents 




The War p.^. 

United States Trade With Spain: Statement by the 

Acting Secretary of State, Mr. Welles 201 

Efforts Toward Solution of the Refugee Problem . . . '202 
Address by the Former American Amliassador to 

Jai)aii 205 

Miittial-Aid Agreement AVith Chile 208 

Adherence of Brazil to the Declaration by United 

Nations 208 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Acheson and Address 

by Harry C. Hawkins 209 

Detention in the United States of Former German and 

Italian Consular Staffs at Algiers 209 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Republics 209 
Treaty Information 

Aviation : Arrangement With Canada Regarding Air- 
Transport Services 210 

Opium: International Convention of 1912 211 

Mutual Aid: Agreement With Chile 211 

Publications 

Peace and War 211 

Legislation 212 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

MAR 25 1943 



The War 



UNITED STATES TRADE WITH SPAIN 

Statement by the Acting Secretary of State, Mr. Welles 



[Released to the press March 1] 

At the time American forces landed in North 
Africa the President gave the Spanish Gov- 
ernment unqualified assurances that no action 
would be taken by our forces which would call 
for any departure by the Spanish Government 
from its position of neutrality in the war. 
The Spanish Government, on our invitation, 
gave us unqualified assurances that for its part 
the Spanish Government was determined to 
continue its policy of neutrality and that it 
would resist by force any external aggression 
against its territories from whatever source. 

Our trade with Spain is a two-way trade, 
and there are certain commodities in Spain 
which are needed in our war effort. It is natu- 
rally in our interest that those Spanish com- 
modities needed in this country should reach 
the United States rather than fall into enemy 
hands, and to accomplish this a trade program 
is necessary. The trade program with Spain 
has been carefully reviewed by the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff. 

Trade between the United States and Spain 
is of course subject to the control system jointly 
maintained by the United States and the Brit- 
ish Governments, since the British are likewise 
engaged in a two-way trade program with 
Spain. The interchange of goods with Spain 
is a matter of joint discussion and program- 
ing between United States and British au- 
thorities. Before any goods from outside of 
Spain are permitted by the United States and 



British authorities to proceed to their destina- 
tion the fullest assurances satisfactory to both 
the British and the United States Governments 
must be given by the importers and the Span- 
ish Government tliat the goods will not be 
allowed to reach enemy hands, directly or in- 
directly. 

As regards wartime trade between the United 
States and Spain, it nuist be recognized that 
tliis trade can be maintained only to such extent 
as both countries believe to be in their respec- 
tive national interests. Naturally in the case 
of the United States all considerations in re- 
spect to foreign trade are definitely subordi- 
nated to the conduct of the war. 

Spain requires a determinable minimum 
amount of petroleum from the Western Hemi- 
sphere to maintain her economic life. The 
carefully restricted quantity of petroleum 
which has been cleared by the two Govern- 
ments destined to Spain has with the exception 
of packaged lubricants been obtained from 
sources outside of the United States and has 
been transported exclusively in Spanish tank- 
ei-s. This had had no effect whatsoever on the 
quantity of petroleum available to any con- 
sumers in the United States. The restricted 
volume of petroleum imports into Spain has 
l)rovided for minimum current needs and makes 
the accumulation of stocks impossible. No 
petroleum products of aviation grade have been 
included. 

201 



202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



EFFORTS TOWARD SOLUTION OF THE REFUGEE PROBLEM 



[Released to the press March 3] 

The text of a note delivered to the British 
Government by the Secretary of State on Feb- 
ruary 25, 1943 follows: 

February 25, 1943. 

The Secretary of State presents his compli- 
ments to His Excellency the British Ambassador 
and has the honor to refer to the British Em- 
bassy's aide memoire of January 20, 1943,' re- 
lating to the situation of persons fleeing from 
persecution for religious, racial and political 
reasons and to the necessity for intergovern- 
mental relief action in their behalf. 

It is evident that the problem of the refugees 
in question cannot be solved in a satisfactory 
manner by any one of the Governments of the 
United Nations group nor of the neutral coun- 
tries. It has been, and is, the traditional policy 
of this country to seek every available means 
by which to extend to oppressed and persecuted 
peoples such assistance as may be found to be 
feasible and possible under the laws of the 
United States. In pursuance of that policy, 
this Government has been and is taking steps to 
extend assistance in a large measure to those 
European people who have been subjected to 
oppression and persecution under the Hitler re- 
gime. The measures of assistance afforded have 
assumed several forms, as follows : 

1. Joint and several declarations of official 
attitude of condemnation of the policies and 
acts of the Axis Governments and their satel- 
lites in oppression or persecution of religious, 
racial and political minorities; 

2. The appropriation and expenditure of 
large amounts of public and private funds for 
the relief of persons in need as a result of op- 
pression and persecution because of their racial 
origin or religious or political beliefs; 

3. The application of the immigration laws 



Not printed. 



of the United States in the utmost liberal and 
humane spirit of those laws ; 

4. The calling by the President of the United 
States of the first Intergovernmental Conference 
at Evian-London in 1938 for the purpose of 
seeking a solution of refugee problems. There 
may be repeated here the statement made in 
that Conference by the Honorable Myron Taylor 
on behalf of this Government, as follows : 

"In conclusion, I need not emphasize that the 
discrimination and pressure against minority 
groups and the disregard of elementary human 
rights are contrary to the principles of what we 
have come to regard as the accepted standards 
of civilization. We have heard from time to 
time of the disruptive consequences of the dump- 
ing of merchandise upon the world's economy. 
How much more disturbing is the forced and 
chaotic dumping of unfortunate peoples in large 
numbers. Racial and religious problems are, in 
consequence, rendered more acute in all parts of 
the world. Economic retaliation against the 
countries which are responsible for this condi- 
tion is encouraged. The sentiment of interna- 
tional mistrust and suspicion is heightened and 
fear, which is an important obstacle to general 
appeasement between nations, is accentuated. 

"The problem is no longer one of purely 
private concern. It is a problem for inter- 
governmental action. If the present currents 
of migration are permitted to continue to push 
anarchically upon the receiving States and if 
some Governments are to continue to toss large 
sections of their populations lightly upon a 
distressed and unprepared world, then there is 
catastrophic human suffering ahead which can 
only result in general unrest and in general 
international strain which will not be con- 
ducive to the permanent appeasement to which 
all peoples earnestly aspire." 

At the Evian-London Conference and through 
the Intergovernmental Committee which grew 



MARCH 6, 1943 

out of that Conference, this Government exerted 
its most earnest efforts to persuade the various 
countries represented to provide asylum for as 
many refugees from the Axis countries as the 
laws of the several countries would permit. 
This Government has also approached other 
countries for the purpose of finding places of 
settlement for refugees with funds of the United 
States origin being made available. 

5. As shown by the records of the Depart- 
ment of State, from the advent of the Hitler 
regime in 1933 until June 30, 1942, 547,775 visas 
were issued by American diplomatic and con- 
sular officers to natives of nationals of the vari- 
ous countries now dominated by the Axis powers, 
tlie great majority of which persons were ref- 
ugees from Nazi persecution. Of this number 
228,964 were issued in the war years 1939-1942. 
Many more than that number of visas were au- 
thorized during tliis latter period, the aliens in 
whose behalf such authorizations were given 
having been unable to depart from their places 
of foreign residence to reach the United States. 
Yet, of the number actually issued, practically 
all of the aliens who received them during the 
war years 1939-1942 have actually arrived in 
the United States and have remained here, many 
of them having entered in a temporary status 
and not yet having departed. 

6. Over 5,000 visas were authorized for the 
admission into the United States and perma- 
nent i-esidence here of refugee children coming 
from France, Spain and Portugal under ar- 
rangements with certain private persons and or- 
ganizations in the United States for their care. 
Visas were also authorized for the parents ac- 
companying them, in certain cases. This Gov- 
ernment has sought the friendly assistance of 
the Government of Switzerland to eifect the re- 
lease from France of such of these children who 
have not been permitted to leave France, for 
entry into Spain where visas may be issued to 
them by the American consular officers. 

7. Since the entry of the United States into 
the war, there have been no new restrictions 



203 

placed by the Government of the United States 
upon the number of aliens of any nationality 
permitted to proceed to this country under ex- 
isting laws, except for the more intensive ex- 
amination of aliens required for security reasons. 

8. Considerable sums of money have been 
made available by the American Red Cross and 
from other American sources to the American 
Ambassador at Madrid for the care of refugees 
now in Spain pending their evacuation. A 
number of these refugees have already been re- 
moved to North Africa. The continuation of 
this movement and its extent are dependent 
upon military considerations. 

9. The American Red Cross and other Amer- 
ican organizations have provided assistance for 
refugees who have been able to reach other 
neutral countries, such as Iran, and have under- 
taken extended feeding among children, in- 
cluding refugee children, in France. 

10. In evacuating refugees to neutral areas, 
the full influence of the United States diplo- 
matic and consular representatives has been 
from time to time invoked, not only with the op- 
pressor nations but with any Government con- 
cerned, on behalf of the refugees. 

This Government understands that, in addi- 
tion to the refugee classes under immediate con- 
sideration, the British Government has certain 
undertakings for the care of British evacuees 
and of prisoners of war. Likewise, the Govern- 
ment of the United States has certain similar 
undertakings, as follows: 

1. For the successful prosecution of the war 
and for Hemispheric safety, the Government 
of the United States has offered to receive dan- 
gerous Axis nationals from a number of the 
American Republics where facilities for the 
internment or close safeguarding of such Axis 
nationals do not exist. A considerable number 
of such Axis nationals have thus been brought 
to the United States and arrangements are be- 
ing made for the receipt of more of them. 

2. This Government has a number of camps in 



204 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLKTtN 



the United States and more camps are under 
construction or planned for the internment or 
detention of civilian eneifly aliens. There are 
being maintained in these camps thousands of 
such aliens. 

3. This Government has also established other 
camps for prisoners of war which are now in 
use and in which, by arrangement, there will 
also be placed large numbers of United Nations 
prisoners. The accommodation of these prison- 
ers in the United States will leave available 
abroad considerable quantities of food, cloth- 
ing, etc., for refugees there which would other- 
wise be used by those prisoners abroad, while 
on the other hand, the maintenance of the pris- 
oners in the United States will result in a con- 
siderable reduction of supplies available here. 

4. There have been set up in the United States 
a number of relocation centers where approxi- 
mately 110,000 persons of the Japanese race are 
being housed and maintained at public expense 
after removal from vital military areas. 

The Government of the United States fully 
shares the concern expressed liy the British Gov- 
ernment for the situation of the refugees. It 
feels, in view of the facts set forth above, that 
it has been and is making every endeavor to 
relieve the oppressed and persecuted peoples. 
In affording asylum to refugees, however, it is 
and must be bound by legislation enacted by 
Congress determining the immigration policy 
of the United States. 

The United States is of the opinion that fur- 
ther efforts to solve the problem may best be 
undertaken through the instrumentality al- 
ready existing, the Executive Committee of the 
Intergovernmental Committee on Kefugees. 
To this end it may be considered advisable in 
order to facilitate action by the Committee that 
a preliminary exploration of ways and means 
be undertaken informally by representatives 
designated by the Government of the United 
States and the British Government, Such 



exploration might be undertaken along the fol- 
lowing lines : 

A. The refugee problem should not be con- 
sidered as being confined to persons of any par- 
ticular race or faith. Nazi measures against 
minorities have caused the flight of persons of 
various races and faiths, as well as of other 
persons because of their political beliefs. 

B. Wlieresoever practicable, intergovern- 
mental collaboration should be sought in these 
times of transportation difficulty, shipping 
shortage, and submarine menace, to the end that 
arrangements may be determined for temporary 
asylum for refugees as near as possible to the 
areas in which those people find themselves 
at the present time and from which they may 
be returned to their homelands with the great- 
est expediency on the termination of hostilities. 

C. There should accordingly be considered 
plans for the maintenance in neutral countries 
in Europe of those refugees for whose removal 
provision may not be made. Their mainte- 
nance in neutral countries may involve the 
giving of assurances for their support until 
they can be repatriated, which support will 
necessarily come from the United Nations aug- 
mented by funds from private sources. It 
may also involve the giving of assurances in 
all possible cases by their Governments in exile 
for their prompt return to their native coun- 
tries upon the termination of hostilities. 

D. The possibilities for the temporary asylum 
of the refugees, with a view to their repatria- 
tion upon the termination of hostilities, in coun- 
tries other than neutral, and their dependencies, 
should be explored, together with the question 
of the availability of shipping to effect their 
movement from Europe. 

It is suggested that the British and United 
States representatives might meet at Ottawa 
for this preliminary exploration. 

Department of State, 
Washington. 



MARCH 6, 194 3 



205 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN' 



[Released to the press March 3] 

Thanks to the diligence and courage of our 
armed forces and to the zeal of our citizens, 
the submarine menace has been driven further 
from our shores, but the glare of burning tank- 
ers did inform us, a few months ago, that wars 
v.hich start at Gdynia or Loukouchiao can and 
do reach into our homes. No city of ours — not 
even this beautiful, land-sheltered city of At- 
lanta — is completely proof against air attack to- 
day; no hamlet on earth is secure against the 
even more insidious attacks of economic or psy- 
chological warfare. 

The only true security which we Americans 
or any other people can obtain against aggres- 
sion is a security obtained through the security 
of all nations alike. In this second World War 
there are no natives, no foreigners — no our race 
versus their race, our class versus theirs — since 
there are only two sides: our side, the free men 
of the world, who desire liberty, security, justice, 
and prosperity; and their side, the deluded 
pawns of the dictators, who desire power, glory, 
and loot. We of our side shall all win together, 
or perish or be enslaved together: there is no 
middle course, no partial victory possible. We 
must understand this war — understand the glo- 
bal unity of the war — in order to win it. 

I would like to tell you about two things : the 
nature nf the enemy and the dangers of a false, 
treacherous peace. In speaking of the enemy I 
shall describe the Japanese. I knew the Ger- 
mans in World War I, and I know the Japanese 
in World War II. Both have been infected by 
the virus of militarism which has begun to rage 
again until the world is sick with it. Both the 
German and the Japanese Governments took 
advantage of our humanity, our love of peace. 



'Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew, who Is 
now Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, under 
the auspiies of the Office of Civilian Defense at Atlanta, 
Ga., Mar. 2, 19J3. 



to betray and conquer their neighbors and to 
prepare for war against us. Both are extremely 
dangerous. I happen to have come from Tokyo 
most recently, and I shall for that reason tell 
you about Japan. You must remember, how- 
ever, that what I say of Japan applies most of 
the time to the Germans as well. 

Let me tell you, therefore, about the part of 
this war which I know best : the Japanese war 
against America. I watched it brewing for 
years, and I feel that I have taken the measure 
of our Japanese enemies. I do not for a mo- 
ment presume to touch upon questions of high 
policy and strategy in the fighting of this war 
nor upon the relative emphasis to be placed on 
the various theaters of war. Our highest lead- 
ers are taking care of that. I speak merely 
of the Japanese war machine as I have known 
it and have seen it grow, in power and deter- 
mination and overweening ambition, during the 
past 10 years of my mission to Japan. 

Let me paint for you the picture as I see it. 
Even before Pearl Harbor Japan was strong 
and possessed a military machine of great 
power— and when I speak of that military ma- 
chine I include all branches of the Japanese 
armed forces: the Army, the Navy, and the 
Air Force. That military machine had been 
steadily strengthened and developed during 
many years, especially since Japan's invasion 
of Manchuria in 1931, an act of improvoked 
aggression which, in effect, commenced the ex- 
pansionist movement of Japan in total disre- 
gard of the rights and legitimate interests of 
any nation or of any people that might stand 
in the way of that movement. 

In 1937 came Japan's invasion of north China 
and Shanghai, which led to the past six years of 
Sino-Japanese warfare. During all these years 
of their unavailing effort to conquer China and 
to bring about the surrender of the Chinese 
National Government, those Japanese armed 



206 

forces wore using their China campaign as a 
necessai'y prehide to the Pacific and southeast- 
Asiatic campaigns. We Americans now Ifnow 
how long that great wall of living flesh — the 
heroic defenders of China — took the blows of 
Japanese militarism. The Japanese, who fight 
democracy on many fronts in the Pacific and 
Asia today, perfected their diabolical skills 
in their unending violence against China's 
freedom. 

The Japanese fight for the permanent con- 
trol of "Greater East Asia including the South 
Seas" and for the imposition upon the peoples 
of those far-flung areas of what Japan is pleased 
to refer to as the "New Order" and the "Co- 
Prosperity Sphere". 

We know what that flowery slogan "Co- 
Prosperity" means: it denotes absolute over- 
lordship — economic, financial, political — for 
Japan's own purely selfish interests, and the 
virtual enslavement of the peoples of those 
territories to do the bidding of their Japanese 
masters. This statement is not a figment of 
the imagination; it is based on practical knowl- 
edge of what happened in other regions already 
subjected to Japan's domination. Such a 
regime will be imposed in every area that may 
fall under Japan's domination. 

During all this period of preparation the 
Japanese military machine has been steadily 
expanded and strengthened and trained to a 
knife-edge of war efficiency — in landing on 
beaches, in jungle fighting, and in all the many 
different forms of warfare which it was later 
to encounter. 

Add to that intensive training the native 
courage of the Japanese soldiers and sailors and 
airmen, their determined obedience to orders 
even in the face of certain death and their fanati- 
cal joy in dying for their Emperor on the field 
of battle, thus acquiring merit with their re- 
vered ancestors in the life to come, and you 
get a grim conception of the formidable charac- 
ter of that Japanese fighting machine. Further- 
more, in war Japan is wholly totalitarian ; her 
economy is planned and carried out to the last 
detail. No word of criticism of the Govern- 
ment or its acts is tolerated; the so-called 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 

"thought control" police take care of that. La- 
bor unions are powerless. In war Japan is a 
unit, thinks and acts as a unit, labors and fights 
as a unit. 

With that background, and having in mind 
the strength and power of Japan even before 
Pearl Harbor, consider for a moment the scene 
as it has developed in the Far East. Consider 
the tremendous holdings of Japan today : Korea, 
Manchuria, great areas in China proper, For- 
mosa, the Spratly Islands, Indochina, Thailand, 
Burma and the Andamans, the entire Malay 
Peninsula, Hong Kong and Singapore, the 
Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies and, 
farther to the south and to the east, myriads 
of islands many of which are unsinkable air- 
craft carriers. 

Those areas contain all — ^mind you, all — the 
raw materials essential to the development of 
national power: rubber, oil, tin, metals, and 
foodstuffs — everything that the most compre- 
hensive economy can desire; and they contain 
furthermore millions of native inhabitants who, 
experience has proved beyond peradventure, will 
be enslaved as skilled and unskilled labor by 
Japan to process those raw materials for im- 
mediate and future use. There you have a 
recipe and the ingredients for national strength 
and power that defeat the imagination even 
approximately to assess. 

Now to this recipe and these ingredients add 
one further element of grimly ominous purport. 
During all my 10 years in Japan I have read 
the books, the speeches, the newspaper and 
magazine articles of highly placed Japanese, 
of generals and admirals, of statesmen and 
diplomats and politicians. Sometimes thinly 
veiled, sometimes not even veiled, has emerged 
their overweening ambition eventually to invade 
and to conquer these United States. It might 
be 1 year or 2 years or 5 or 10 yeare before 
that Japanese military machine would find it- 
self ready to undertake an all-out attack on this 
Western Hemisphere of ours; they themselves 
have spoken of a 100-year war; but one fact is 
as certain as the law of gravity; if we should 
allow the Japanese to dig in permanently in the 
far-flung areas now occupied, if we should allow 



MARCH 6, 194 3 

them to consolidate and to crystallize their ill- 
gotten gains, if we should allow them time to 
fortify those gains to the nth degree, as they 
assuredly will attempt to do, it would be only 
a question of time before they attempted the 
conquest of American territory nearer home. 

You see that I promise no end to war through 
the simple formula of defeating the enemy to- 
day. Totalitarian aggression must be smashed 
first, and then its stump must be uprooted and 
burned. We cannot win now only, in the course 
of war; we must win the peace as well. To win 
the peace we must be sure that it is our kind of 
[)eaee and not a peace which compromises with 
German or with Japanese militarism. 

It is with regret, not unmi.xed witli real 
liumility, that I repeat to you today wt)r(ls 
which I addressed to a .similar audience in Jan- 
uary 1918 — 24 years ago. I said then, after 
describing the enemy Germany, from which 
I had recently returned : "That is the Germany 
of today with \\ liich we are at war and which 
we have got to defeat; otherwise, as surely as 
the immutable laws of nature control the move- 
ment of this earth, our future generations will 
have to take up what we now leave off, facing 
the same problem which now confronts us, per- 
haps unaided. If we do not want to leave this 
heritage to our unborn sons, if this country is 
not to remain an armed camp permanently. 
Germany, as she is now organized, controlled, 
and governed, must be defeated." Those words 
are even more true today, and they are true as 
well of the Japanese Empire. We failed then 
to rid the world of the militarism which is our 
enemy ; we must not fail again. 

We must not tolerate Japanese or German 
militarism under new names and new flags. 
AVe must not drive the forces of imperialism, 
totalitarianism, and aggi-ession underground. 
We must annihilate these evil forces and show 
that the age of imperialism is ended. We can- 
not treat with those enemies whose ruin we 
have pledged. We cannot make peace with the 
fanaticism which we have sworn to exterminate. 
We must watch vigilantly for the dangerous 
signs of a German or Japanese peace oflFensive, 
designed to let us win the war but to lose the 



207 

peace. Let me tell you about such a move, as 
it could come from Japan; the same general 
tactics would hold true of German militarism. 

At the present time, of course, the Japanese 
leaders, and even more so the people, are far 
from convinced that they cannot manage to re- 
tain substantially all their gains. But when 
the allied offensive gains momentum and Japa- 
nese self-confidence is shaken by successive re- 
verses and loss of territory then we may look 
for a development of new tactics. The Japa- 
nese art of self-defense, jujitsu, gives us a clue 
as to what these tactics are likely to be. The 
essence of this art is that by letting the ad- 
versary take the initiative and by giving way 
and simulating defeat the adversary may be 
lulled into dropping his guard ; then when the 
adversary has advanced too far and is off bal- 
ance he is destroyed by a quick recovery and 
a lightning attack where he is weakest. This 
move would be the Japanese way of avoiding 
a last-ditch fight and would be compatible 
with their fanatical determination not to crack. 

I have no fear that our military authorities 
are likely to be taken in by any military ap- 
plication of the jujitsu principles. I do feel, 
however, that the American people and the peo- 
ple of nations united with them in war on Japan 
should be forewarned against the possibility of 
a jujitsu feint in the realm of diplomacy — 
namely, a peace offensive. The Japanese are 
capable of preparing the ground for such an 
offensive with elaborate care. That is to say, 
the military leiiders might begin by bringing 
forth from retirement some former statesman 
with a liberal label and placing him at the head 
of a puppet civilian cabinet. This step would 
be heralded as representing the overthrow of 
military dictatorship in favor of liberalism. 
The scene would then be set for a peace move. 
There might be an announcement by the new 
premier intimating that Japan was ready to 
conclude a peace on a fair and just basis. If 
the United Nations were willing to rise to the 
bait before awaiting at least the clearing of the 
Japanese armed forces from the territories that 
they have seized, so much the better for Japan, 
but even if the United Nations should insist on 



208 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETrN" 



such withdrawal as a prerequisite to a peace par- 
ley such a Japanese move would still seem to its 
authors worthwhile if it should have chance of 
deceiving some of the peoples among the United 
Nations and rendering them lukewarm toward 
the further prosecution of the war. The Jap- 
anese might well calculate that by the time they 
were ready to launch such a peace offensive their 
peace-loving enemies would be so weary of the 
war that they would be receptive to peace offers ; 
that once an armistice had been declared and 
negotiations been begun it would be difficult to 
get their enemies to resume fighting again even 
if the Japanese were to hold out for partial 
retention of their gains. 

The President and the Prime Minister made 
it plain at Casal)lanca that they were not to be 
deceived by such tactics. "Unconditional sur- 
render" is the complete summary of the terms 
which we of the United Nations shall and must 
offer — so far as the armed conflict is concerned — 
to the aggressor powers. To do less would be to 
temporize with murder and to negotiate with 
treachery embod ied in human flesh — minds and 
hearts. We have everything to lose and noth- 
ing to gain in a peace which fails to assure free- 
dom throughout the world on the terms which 
an aroused and civilized mankind demands. To 
barter or bargain with the substance of free- 
dom would be to deny the cause for which our 
men are dying. 

For us there is no choice. We have one duty, 
and one only: victory. Without victory, final 
and complete, on the terms of the world's free 
men, we cannot build that better world which 
can and must come through our own efforts. 
Against defeat, as against false and unreal peace, 
we have the weapons of intelligence, vigilance, 
and public spirit. I have seen something of 
your war spirit here in Atlanta, and I know that 
you will honor the pledge which each of us has 
made — implicitly or explicitly — to our heroic 
American dead, a pledge first voiced by a youth 
who fell at Chateau Thierry: "I will work; I 
will save; I will sacrifice; I will endure; I will 
fight cheerfully and do my utmost; as if the 
whole struggle depended on me alone." 



MUTUAL-AID AGREEMENT WITH CHILE 

[Released to the press March 2] 

An agreement between the Government of the 
United States of America and the Government 
of the Republic of Chile on the principles of 
mutual aid applicable to the common defense 
of the American continent was signed on March 
2, 1943 by the Honorable Sumner Welles, 
Acting Secretary of State, and His Excellency 
Seiior Don Rodolfo Michels, Ambassador of 
Chile at Washington. 

The agreement was negotiated under the 
authority of and in conformity with the Lend- 
Lease Act of March 11, 1941, which provides 
for the extension of aid to any country whose 
defense the President deems vital to the defense 
of the United States. The provisions of the 
agreement with Chile are the same in substan- 
tial respects as the provisions of agreements 
heretofore entered into by the United States 
with a number of other foreign countries under 
the Lend-Lease Act. 

An exchange of notes between the Acting 
Secretary of State and the Ambassador of Chile 
at the time of the signing of the agreement sets 
forth the mutual understanding of the two 
Governments with respect to the application of 
certain provisions of the agreement. 

ADHERENCE OF BRAZIL TO THE DECLA- 
RATION BY UNITED NATIONS 

[Released to the press March 4] 

An exchange of communications between the 
Brazilian Embassy and the Dejjartment of State 
concerning the adherence of Brazil to the Decla- 
ration by United Nations follows: 

February 8, 1943. 
Mr. Secretary : 

I have the honor to communicate to Your 
Excellency in compliance with instructions 
received from my Government that by act of 
the 6th of this month Brazil declares its formal 
adherence to the Declaration of the United 
Nations and to the Atlantic Charter, to which 
the said Declaration refers. 



209 



In conveying the advice to Your Excellency 
of this decision of the Brazilian Government, 
and also in accordance with tlie above instruc- 
tions, I should very much appreciate the favor 
of your good offices to the end that the same 
be transmitted to the other signatorj' nations 
of the foregoing Declaration. 

I take [etc.] 

Caklos Martins Pereira E Sousa 



Februart 20, 1943. 

Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknovrledge the receipt 
of your note of February 8, 1943 stating that 
on February 6 Brazil declared its formal adher- 
ence to the Declaration by United Nations, and 
to the Atlantic Charter to which the Declara- 
tion refers. 

There is genuine satisfaction that Brazil has 
formally associated itself with the other United 
Nations which have subscribed to the principles 
of the Atlantic Charter and have pledged them- 
selves to employ their full resources in the com- 
mon struggle against the brut al forces seeking to 
subjugate the world. The Government of the 
United States, as depository for the Declara- 
tion, is indeed gratified to welcome Brazil into 
the ranks of the United Nations. 

In accordance witii your request, this Gov- 
ernment will transmit to the other United Na- 
tions the notice of Brazil's adherence to the 
Declaration. 

Accept [etc.] Sumner Welles 

STATEMENT BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY 

ACHESON AND ADDRESS BY 

HARRY C. HAWKINS 

Corrigendiun 

BuLijjTiN of February 27, 1943, page 187: 

The last three paragraphs in the second column 

on this page are not a part of Mr. Hawkins' 

address, "Economic Peace Aims", but constitute 

the first three paragraphs of Mr. Acheson's 

statement, "Extension of the Lend-Lease Act", 

which follows on page 188. 



DETENTION IN THE UNITED STATES OF 
FORMER GERMAN AND ITALIAN CON- 
SULAR STAFFS AT ALGIERS 

[Released to the press March 3] 

There have recently arrived in the United 
States the former German and Italian Consuls 
General at Algiers, their staffs, and the mem- 
bers of their households who were captured 
by the United States armed forces in North 
Africa. These persons are being maintained 
under guard in the Ingleside Hotel near Staun- 
ton, Va., and are not permitted contact with 
the public. 

Officials of the United States and certain of 
the other American republics, together with the 
members of their families, in the fonner un- 
occupied zone of France who were seized a 
short time ago by German authorities have been 
transferred to Germany where they are being 
maintained under conditions corresponding to 
those of the German and Italian official group 
now in the United States. 

Negotiations are under way for the exchange 
of these officials. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press March 1] 

Prof. Rafael Garcia Granados, chairman of 
the section of history of the Faculty of Philos- 
ophy and Letters of the National University of 
Mexico, arrived in AVashington on February 27. 
As a guest of the Department of State he will 
tour this country, visiting leading museums, 
libraries, and universities. 



Treaty Information 



AVIATION 

Arrangement With Canada Regarding 
Air-Transport Services 

[Released to the press March 4] 

By an exchange of notes on August 18, 1939 ^ 
the United States and Canada entered into an 
arrangement in regard to the operation on a 
reciprocal basis of air-transport services be- 
tween the two countries. Article III provides 
that the details of the application of the 
principle of reciprocity shall be the subject of 
amicable adjustment between the competent 
aeronautical authorities of the parties to the 
arrangement. 

By a further arrangement between the United 
States and Canada entered into by an exchange 
of notes effective December 3, 1940 " an agree- 
ment was reached as to routes allocated to 
United States air carriers and those allocated 
to Canadian air carriers. It was specifically 
provided that this agreement would be effec- 
tive until December 31, 1942 and that at least 
six months prior to that date a further confer- 
ence of representatives of the competent aero- 
nautical authorities of the two Governments 
would be called for the purpose of considering 
any revision or modification of their recom- 
mendations, as embodied in the 1940 agreement, 
and any new problems pertaining to air-trans- 
port services which may have arisen in the in- 
terim. In view of the fact that it was imprac- 
ticable because of the war situation for the aero- 
nautical authorities of the two countries to hold 
another meeting prior to the expiration of the 
1940 arrangement, an agreement between the 
United States and Canada was entered into on 
March 4 through an exchange of notes continu- 
ing the 1940 arrangement in force under the con- 

' Executive Asreement Series 159. 
"Executive AfirfeiiiPiit Scries lS(i. 
210 



ditions set forth in these notes the texts of 
which follow: 

The Acting Secretary of State to the Canadian 
Minister 

I have the honor to refer to negotiations 
which have recently taken place between the 
Government of the United States of America 
and the Govermnent of Canada for the conclu- 
sion of a reciprocal undertaking continuing in 
force the arrangement between the two Gov- 
ernments, entered into by an exchange of notes 
dated November 29, 1940 and December 2, 1940, 
for the purpose of giving effect to Article III 
of the Air Transport Arrangement between the 
two Governments concluded on August 18, 1939. 

It is my understanding that it has been agreed 
in the course of the recent negotiations, now 
terminated, that the undertaking referred to in 
the preceding paragrai^h shall be as follows : 

Having in mind the fact that because of the 
war situation it was impracticable for the aero- 
nautical authorities of the United States and 
Canada to hold a meeting six months prior to 
December 31, 1942, as contemplated by the ar- 
rangement between the two Governments en- 
tered into by an exchange of notes dated No- 
vember 29, 1940, and December 2, 1940, for the 
purpose of drawing up new recommendations 
relating to the allocation of air transport routes 
to United States and Canadian air carriers for 
operations between the United States and Can- 
ada, it is now agi-eed that, subject to the provi- 
sions of the succeeding paragraph, the 1940 
arrangement as herein referred to shall be con- 
sidered to have remained in force from December 
31, 1942, and shall continue in force until the end 
of the war. It is also agreed that after the 
termination of the war a conference between 
representatives of the two Governments will 
be held for the purpose of reviewing the situ- 



MARCH 6, 1943 

ation as it may then exist with respect to the 
application of the terms of the arrangement 
covered by the exchange of notes dated Novem- 
ber 29, 1940 and December 2, 1940. 

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, it 
is agreed that the present undertaking may be 
terminated at any time on six montlis' notice 
given in writing by either Government to the 
other Government for important reasons of pub- 
lic policy when the conditions thereof or the 
actual practice thereimder is no longer regarded 
by the Government of the comitry giving such 
notice as being in its interest. Such notice of 
termination shall be given by either Government 
to the other only after consultation between 
the two Governments for a period of at least 
sixty days. 

I shall be glad to have you inform me whether 
it is the understanding of your Government 
that the terms of the undertaking agreed to in 
the recent negotiations, now terminated, are as 
above set forth. If so, it is suggested that the 
undertaking become effective on this date. If 
your Government concurs in this suggestion the 
Government of the United States will regard 
the undertaking as becoming effective on this 
date. 

The Canadian Minister to the Acting Secretary 
Of State 

I have the honour to refer to your note of 
March 4 setting forth your understanding of 
the reciprocal undertaking, agreed to in the 
course of the recent negotiations between the 
Government of Canada and the Government of 
the United States of America, to continue in 
force the arrangement between the two Gov- 
ernments entered into by an exchange of notes 
dated November 29, 1940 and December 2, 1940, 
for the purpose of giving effect to Article III 
of the Air Transport Arrangement between the 
two Governments concluded on August 18, 1939. 

The Canadian Government confirms your un- 
derstanding of the reciprocal undertaking and 



211 

agrees that the undertaking shall be effective 
from the date of your note, namely, March 4, 
1943. 



OPIUM 

International Convention of 1912 

Saudi Arabia 

The Netherlands Ambassador, in a note dated 
February 22, 1948, informed the Secretary of 
State that the Government of Saudi Arabia on 
February 19, 1943 notified the Netherlands 
Government of its adherence to the Interna- 
tional Opium Convention which was signed at 
The Hague January 23, 1912 (Treaty Series 
612). 



MUTUAL AID 

Agreement With (^hile 

An announcement concerning an agreement 
between the Governments of the United States 
and Chile on the principles of mutual aid ap- 
plicable to the conmion defense of the American 
continent, signed at Washington March 2, 1943, 
appears in this Bulletin under the lieading 
"The War". 



Publications 



PEACE AND WAR 

Public demand for the State Department's 
publication Peace and War, which is a state- 
ment concerning the foreign policy of the 
United States during the years 1931-41, espe- 
cially the policies and acts of the United States 
toward promoting conditions of peace and 



212 

world order and toward meeting the world- 
wide dangers resulting from Japanese, German, 
and Italian aggression, has made it one of the 
most popular booklets offered for sale recently 
by the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office. An excerpt from the 
G. P. O. Bulletin of February 24, 1943, is 
illustrative : 

"The Superintendent of Documents origi- 
nally ordered 2,500 copies for sale. The de- 
mand was brisk from the day the book was 
released. He ordered an additional 12,500 
copies ; then he ordered 35,000 more ; and finally 
still another 10,000—60,000 copies in all. More 
than 47,000 were sold in slightly less than a 
4-week period. The price was 25 cents a copy, 
and most of the sales were of single copies." 

Since the above statement was issued, addi- 
tional printings have become necessary, bring- 
ing the total number of copies printed for sale 
in the United States to 135,000. The British 
Government has also published an edition, 
which has already gone through two printings, 
30,000 copies in all, making the booklet a best 
seller among Government publications in Great 
Britain. Peace and War has been translated 
into Portuguese; and Spanish and French 
translations are in process. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

During the week of March 1-6 the Depart- 
ment of State released the following publica- 
tions : 

Naval Mission : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Colombia Continuing in Effect the 
Agreement of November 23, 1938 — Effective by ex- 
change of notes signed September 22 and November 
5, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 280. Publica- 
tion 1869. 3 pp. 5«f. 
Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of the 
Military School and of the Military Academy of El 
Salvador: Agreement Between the United Stales of 
America and El Salvador Extending the Agreement 
of March 27, 1941 — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed October 14 and November 24, 1942. Executive 
Agreement Series 2S1. Publication 1876. 3 pp. oiJ. 
Agricultural Experiment Station in Nicaragua : Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and Nica- 
ragua Approving Memorandum of Understanding 
Signed July 15, 1942— Effected by exchange of notes 
signed October 12 and 27, 1942; effective July 15, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 286. Publication 
1878. 5 pp. 5i. 



Legislation 



Extension of the Lend-Lease Act: Hearings before the 
Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Sen- 
ate, 7Sth Cong., 1st sess., on S. 813. March 1 and 2, 
1943. 46 pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPKOVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BDREAH OP THE BCDQET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



MARCH 13, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 194— Publication 1900 



C 



ontents 




The War Page 

Bases in the Other Anierican Republics 215 

Second Anniversary of Lend-Leasc 216 

Visit of the British Secretary of State for Foreign 

Affairs 216 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals . . . . 217 

Aid to the Soviet Union 217 

Bases in the Pacific 217 

Exportation of Petroleum Products to Spain .... 218 
The Potential Contribution of Social Work to Post- 
war Reconstruction: Address by Hugh R. Jack- 
son 218 

Foreign-Propaganda Program 222 

Transportation of Enemy Aliens 222 

Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision 

IV 222 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other Anaerican Repub- 

Ucs 223 

General 

Contributions for Relief ; 223 

Treaty Information 

Fisheries: Convention With Canada for the Preserva- 
tion of the Hahbut Fishery of the Northern Pacific 
Ocean and Bering Sea 224 

Legislation 224 

Publications 224 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
MAR 25 1943 



The War 



BASES IN THE OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



Upon opening the press conference on March 
6, Mr. Welles, Acting Secretary of State, said 
that as a result of distortion and misconception 
of statements which had recently been made by 
officials and by private persons with regard to 
the policy of the United States concerning some 
of the naval and military activities of our 
Government, there apparently had grown up 
the complete misconception that the Govern- 
ment of the United States was planning to un- 
dertake permanent occupation of bases in the 
Western Hemisphere. That misconception, of 
course, said Mr. Welles, should be knocked on 
the head inunediately as has very effectively 
been done by the Secretary General of the 
Brazilian Foreign Office, among others. Un- 
fortunately, Mr. Welles continued, he had not 
yet received the full text of the speech which 
was made a few days ago by Ambassador Leao 
Velloso, the Brazilian Secretary General, but he 
did want to take cognizance here of the very 
gratifying remarks which Ambassador Velloso 
had made with regard to American-Brazilian 
friendship and particularly the phrases which 
he used when he referred to the old, tried and 
true friendship of American-Brazilian solidar- 
ity. That, said Mr. Welles, he appreciated and 
he heartily reciprocated. 

The facts in regard to this problem, as Mr. 
Welles said he thought the correspondents all 
knew, were as follows: We are making natu- 
rally certain contributions to the militaiy de- 
fenses of the Western Hemisphere. That con- 
tribution, Mr. Welles pointed out, is based first 
upon arrangements which were made between 
our Government and the British Government 



for the lease of certain areas in the AVest Indies 
and elsewhere for the construction of bases ; and 
second, upon certain coopei'ative agreements 
entered into for the duration of the present 
emergency with the governments of a number 
of other American republics in which our armed 
forces have been permitted to use certain speci- 
fied areas under the sovereignty of those gov- 
ernments for purposes in which the govern- 
ments concerned and the United States have a 
common interest. The common interest, Mr. 
Welles continued, is set forth in resolution XV, 
adopted at the meeting of the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of the American Republics at Ha- 
bana in July of 1940. The resolution is en- 
titled "Reciprocal Assistance and Coopera- 
tion for the Defense of the Nations of the 
Americas".^ 

Mr. Welles said that resolution provided 
among other things that in the event that acts 
of aggression are committed against an Amer- 
ican nation by a non- American nation "all the 
signatory nations, or two or more of them, ac- 
cording to circumstances, shall proceed to nego- 
tiate the necessary complementary agreements 
so as to organize cooperation for defense and 
the assistance that they shall lend each other in 
the event of aggressions such as those referred 
to in this declaration." 

The crux of the problem, said Mr. Welles, is 
that this complementary agi-eement of the other 
American republics covers no rights or obliga- 
tions beyond the present emergency and can, of 
course, in no way be said to provide for the 



' Bulletin of Aug. 24, 1940, p. 136. 



215 



216 

establishment of permanent military bases by 
this Government. A correspondent asked in 
connection with the idea of obtaining perma- 
nent bases if it was not our view that that would 
form a part of a mutual defense after the war 
rather than this Government's acquiring bases 
of its own. Mr. Welles replied that so far as 
the "Western Hemisphere was concerned this 
Government had not and does not have the 
intention of undertaking any action for the 
acquisition of any permanent bases which affect 
the territory of any one of the American 
republics. 

Asked if he could say at this time what dis- 
position was planned for the material and other 
equipment which had been put into certain bases 
down there, Mr. Welles replied that in every 
case that was covered by agreements entered into 
between the governments and the United States. 
Those arrangements were incorporated in the 
complementary agreements to which this resolu- 
tion referred. Asked if it was public informa- 
tion that the material will be returned or paid 
for in some reciprocal way, Mr. Welles said that 
none of the agreements had been made public. 
He added that none of the lend-lease agree- 
ments had been made public beyond ourselves 
and the other American republics although they 
hadbeenmade available to the appropriate mem- 
bers of the Congress. When asked if all arrange- 
ments for such bases as were now occupied in 
the emergency had been under lend-lease agree- 
ments, Mr. AVelles replied in the negative, say- 
ing that many of them had nothing whatever 
to do with lend-lease agreements and were in 
the nature of the complementary agreements to 
which the resolution referred. 



SECOND ANNIVERSARY OF LEND-LEASE 

[Released to the press by the White House March 11] 

The following statement by the President 
was read by Vice President Wallace at a 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETrN 

luncheon given on March 11 by E. R. Stettinius, 
Jr., Lend-Lease Administrator, in recognition 
of the second anniversai-y of lend-lease: 

"Two years ago, on March 11, 1941, the Lend- 
Lease Act was approved. 

"Hitler had promised his people that this war 
would be a short one, a single-front war — that 
our aid would be too little and too late. 

"Such also were the promises of the military 
Junta of Japan. 

"Time has given the lie to their promises. 

"Our promises have stood the test of time. 

"For today, as we observe the second anni- 
versary of the Lend-Lease Act, the United 
Nations are on the offensive. 

"Two years ago the question was, Where 
would the Axis strike nest? Now the question 
is, Where will the United Nations strike next? 
The enemy will receive its answers on battle- 
fields of our own choosing. 

"As we strike again and again, lend-lease and 
reciprocal aid will contribute increasingly to the 
inevitable defeat of the Axis. 

"And this mutual aid has become more than 
a joint weapon of war. In the smoke of battle 
lend-lease is helping to forge the unity that will 
be required to make a just and lasting peace." 



VISIT OF THE BRITISH SECRETARY 
OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 

[Released to the press by the White House March 12] 

Mr. Anthony Eden, British Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, has arrived in Wash- 
ington at the invitation of the United States 
Government. The purpose of his visit is to 
undertake a general exchange of views with the 
United States Government on all aspects of the 
war situation and to discuss the most effective 
method of preparing for meetings between the 
Goverimients of all United Nations to consider 



MARCH 13, 194 3 

questions arising out of the war. Mr. Eden will 
also wish to see at first-hand something of the 
irreat war effort of the United States. 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN ANT3 
JAPANESE NATIONALS 

[Released to the press March 10] 

The Department has recently been informed 
through neutral diplomatic channels of the re- 
ceipt by the Japanese Government of this Gov- 
ernment's latest communication proposing fur- 
ther exchanges of American and Japanese na- 
tionals. The Department was advised that 
while the Japanese Government considered it 
impracticable to effect an exchange of American 
nationals on April 1, as suggested by this Gov- 
ernment, the American proposals as a whole 
were being considered and that an early reply 
could be expected. 

AID TO THE SOVIET UNION 

At his press conference on March 9, the Act- 
ing Secretary of State, Mr. Welles, in reply to 
a question of a correspondent, made the follow- 
ing comment in regard to the remarks of the 
American Ambassador to the Soviet Union con- 
cerning aid to the Soviet Union : 

"I have cabled Ambassador Standley, ask- 
ing him to let us have the text of what remarks 
he may have made. I have not yet received a 
reply, and for that reason, until I have received 
a reply from the Ambassador, I am not going 
to comment in any detail on what was said or 
alleged to have been said. I think I should 
make it clear, however, that whatever was said 
in this reported press conference was said with- 
out prior consultation with or reference to this 
Government. The understanding which exists 
between the United Nations in this great enter- 
prise in which they are joined for the purpose 
of defeating utterly the Axis tyrannies and for 
the purpose of insuring the security and the 
liberties of the peoples of the United Nations 
would not be worth very much if it were not 



217 

based upon complete trust and understanding 
between all of them. I believe that that under- 
standing and trust exists, and I am perfectly 
confident that anything that Ambassador 
Standley may have said could not have been in- 
tended to and did not cast any doubt on that 
trust and understanding. For the time being, 
I am going to limit myself to that brief state- 
ment." 



BASES IN THE PACIFIC 

At his press conference on March 8 the Act- 
ing Secretary of State, Mr. "Welles, replying to 
a question of a correspondent concerning re- 
ports in congressional circles that informal as- 
surances have been received from some of our 
Pacific allies concerning permanent rights to 
bases after the war, stated that that raised a 
very important general question and he thought 
the most helpful way he could approach it was 
along the lines that our whole policy is directed 
toward assuring ourselves that the security of 
this country and the security of the people of 
the United States would be completely safe- 
guarded at the end of this war. Certainly one 
of the elements in that policy, Mr. Welles said, 
is the unconditional surrender and the complete 
disarmament of Japan. Mr. Welles continued 
that his belief was that emphasis should be 
placed on the means of international security 
that can be achieved in the future so that the 
Pacific wiU be as safe for aU law-abiding nations 
and peaceful nations that are interested in the 
Pacific as for the United States. Not that the 
United States should claim that the Pacific 
should be a lake imder American jurisdiction, 
but rather, Mr. Welles said, that it should be a 
peaceful lake equally secure and equally safe 
for all powers and particularly for all powers 
interested in the Pacific. Mr. Welles concluded 
that naturally the question which the corre- 
spondent asked was a question which he thought 
all the United Nations would wish to discuss — 
and particularly all the nations which are in- 
terested in the Pacific would wish to discuss. 



218 



DEPARTMEISTT OF STATE BULLETIN- 



EXPORTATION OF PETROLEUM 
PRODUCTS TO SPAIN 

Information as to the amount of petroleum 
products sent to Spain was furnished by the 
Acting Secretary of State, Mr. "Welles, in a let- 
ter to the Chairman of the House Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, the Honorable Sol Bloom. 
The text of the letter follows : 

March 11, 1943. 
My Dear Mr. Bloom : 

Your letter of March 8 enclosing copies of 
House Resolution 150 requesting the President 
to furnish the House information as to the 
amount of petroleum products sent to Spain, 
which has been referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, has been received. 

The exportation of petroleum products to 
Spain from the United States during the past 
2 years have been: 1941, 227.347 metric tons; 
1942, 17,771 metric tons. These are the only 
shipments made from the United States in the 
last 2 years. The last bulk shipment from this 
country occurred on February 19, 1942. 

However, by arrangement between the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and Great Brit- 
ain, Spain has been permitted in her own vessels 
to carry through the blockade certain limited 
quantities of oil bought by Spain in South 
American ports and transported under the 
Spanish flag. The movement envisaged in the 
arrangement was estimated to meet essential 
needs, especially public utilities and transpor- 
tation. Under this procedure Spain does not 



have in stock at any one time a supply for those 
minimum needs for longer than a 60-day period 
with respect to any petroleum products except 
lubricating oil, of which a 90-day limited supply 
is allowed. Adequate guarantees have been fur- 
nished by the Spanish Government to satisfy 
the British and United States Governments that 
none of these petroleum products will leave 
Spain or Spanish territories. The arrange- 
ment for the shipment of these quantities of oil 
was for the purpose of permitting the continu- 
ance at a minimum level of the economic life of 
Spain, Spanish Morocco, and Spain's island pos- 
sessions in the Atlantic. The program of ship- 
ments has received the aj^proval of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff. 

No future sales to Spain from the United 
States are in contemplation except small quan- 
tities of lubricating oils unobtainable in South 
America. 

Any future shipments by Spain from South 
America will be subject to the agreement of the 
British and American Governments and the 
approval of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

As can be seen from the foregoing, the trans- 
portation of petroleum products in Spanish ves- 
sels from ports outside of the United States has 
no relation to the quantity of petroleum prod- 
ucts available to the eastern seaboard of this 
country. 

Yours sincerely, 

Sumner Welles, 

Acting Secretary 



THE POTENTIAE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL WORK TO POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION 
Address by Hugh R. Jackson ' 



IRoIeased to the press March 12] 

It is obviously impossible at this stage of the 
world's history for anyone to know precisely 
the scope and the exact character of the prob- 



' Delivered before the National Conference of Social 
Work, New York, N. ¥., Mar. 12, 1943. Mr. Jackson 
is Special Assistant to the Director of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, Department of State. 



lem which will face us during the remainder 
of this war and at its conclusion in helping to 
meet the needs of the millions of suffering peo- 
ples now held in bondage by the enemy through- 
out the continent of Europe and the Far East. 
The speed of the success of our armed forces, 
the degree of devastation actually wrought in 
driving the Axis forces from the captive areas 



MARCH 13, 1943 

they now hold, and the extent to which these 
ruthless enemies continue and extend their 
phmned and cold-blooded extermination of 
helpless and innocent peoples will all constitute 
factors in the ultimate determination of the 
exact job to be done and the steps which will 
need to be taken for the doing of it. 

But though our blueprints and our strategic 
plans will undoubtedly have to be modified in 
the light of more precise information than that 
which is now available from the occupied areas 
and in the light of developments and actions 
yet to come, we know enough today to realize 
tliat the task of relief and rehabilitation which 
will face us is the most gigantic humanitarian 
task that has ever faced tliis world. We know 
that there is no war in all our history where 
sucli ruthless and deliberate steps have been 
taken for the disintegration of civilian life and 
the suffering and the death of civilian popula- 
tions. We know that the enemy has not only 
slaughtered hundreds of thousands of civilians 
but that he has left millions more to a deliberate 
death of starvation, has purposely separated 
families by thousands of miles, and has brought 
the whole of occupied Europe to the brink of 
starvation for the purpose of feeding himself 
and his war machine. Against the background 
of these facts there is no time to be lost in the 
job of preparing our plans and acquiring our 
supplies for the relief of these people when 
t he armed might of the United Nations has made 
their liberation possible. For the winning of 
the military victory is, in truth, only the be- 
ginning of the job which we must do. That 
victory would certainly be a hollow one indeed 
if we were not prepared to immediately take 
those emergency steps that are required to help 
nourish and clothe and reestablish those whom 
we liberate. 

I do not wish to go into great detail about the 
conditions now actually existing on the con- 
tinent of Europe or in those sections of the Far 
East now held by the enemy. But the recital 
of a few of the facts may help us to realize the 
nature of the problem and the extent to which 
it demands our attention. 

We know that many countries of Europe were 
dependent, even in peacetimes, on outside 



219 

sources for a considerable part of their food- 
stuffs. We likewise know that during this war 
the Axis has drained off much of the already 
inadequate supply produced by the captured 
countriesL Wlien we add to this systematic 
looting the inevitable decrease of production oc- 
casioned by loss of manpower, lack of seeds, 
fertilizers, and machinery it is easy to see that 
the whole of the occupied area is now in a 
desperate plight. We know, for instance, that 
in one occupied country the pre-war food ration 
of 155 kilograms was reduced by October 1941 
to 79 kilograms and by June of 1942 to 50 kilo- 
grams. We have reports that in another 
country 30 percent of the children have lost 
weight and that the gain in weight of the re- 
maining 70 percent is about 40 percent below 
normal. 

It is reported that public education in many 
urban districts is completely disorganized ow- 
ing to the physical weakness and ill-health of 
an ever-increasing number of pupils. Some of 
the students are too weak to go to school, others 
go without having eaten breakfast; cases of 
fainting are frequent, and games and sports 
have been canceled. The children have neither 
the physical nor the intellectual energy neces- 
sary' for any prolonged effort, and tuberculosis 
and other diseases are increasing at a rapid rate. 

It is essential that we recognize now that the 
quantities of food and other supplies required to 
prevent starvation and to meet the minimum 
needs of the occupied areas will be very great. 
The cost of the supplies required when the 
whole of the reoccupied sections is liberated 
will run into hundreds of millions and perhaps 
billions of dollars. It is likewise clear that 
millions of tons of supplies will be required 
before this job is ultimately finished. 

I have emphasized the problem of foodstuffs, 
but the need for other necessities of life is 
equally critical. Medical supplies are virtually 
non-existent in many places, and stores are 
brought out of bandages' and dressings' being 
re-used because of the lack of fresh supplies. 
Clothing, fuel, and shelter are lacking for 
thousands throughout Hitler's captive domain. 

There is no need for my telling a group such 
as this of the inevitable social problems and mal- 



220 

adjustments which basic economic conditions 
such as these bring with them. The complete 
paralysis of community and social facilities, the 
break-down of social organization and institu- 
tions, creates additional handicaps in the meet- 
ing of the problem when the time comes, and 
additional tasks of rehabilitation that must be 
coped with. 

Another great problem that faces us, apart 
from the immediate emergency task of provid- 
ing food, clothing, and shelter, is that of re- 
uniting families and repatriating the millions 
who have been wrenched from their homes and 
from their families as a result of this war. 
Many of those who have fled from their homes 
and others who have left voluntarily or under 
compulsion will not return to their previous 
places of residence, and this group of displaced 
persons will, in and of itself, constitute one of 
the great social problems with which we must 
deal. But millions of others will be anxious 
to return to their own homeland, and the prob- 
lem of arranging such repatriation in an orderly 
and humane manner, of reuniting members of 
families, and of seeing to it that the movement 
of these returning peoples does not create addi- 
tional problems of health and sanitation and 
does not clog the transportation system to the 
point where relief supplies cannot be gotten in, 
represents one of the major jobs to be faced. 
If we include those now held as prisoners of 
war, persons who have been drawn into Ger- 
many or elsewhere for work for the Axis, as 
well as those who have fled from war areas and 
those deported from their homes, we have an 
estimated total of more than 9,000,000 displaced 
persons in Europe alone. 

In addition to this problem of displaced pop- 
ulations we shall undoubtedly be confronted 
with child-welfare problems of great magni- 
tude. No one can forecast the number of home- 
less and parentless children who will need to be 
cared for when this war is over. That there 
will be need for special programs for homeless 
children and for other segments of the popula- 
tion, such as the aged and infirm and the handi- 
capped, is obvious. 

It is clear, therefore, that llie job which faces 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

us to provide the gaunt necessities of food, 
clothing, shelter, and medical care is enormous. 
But in drawing our plans we cannot limit our- 
selves to even this gigantic undertaking. After 
all, our problem is one of helping these people 
to help themselves and though immediate pal- 
liative relief in huge quantities will be required, 
we shall need to go beyond this in our efi'orts if 
these peoples are to be reestablished as partici- 
pants in a peaceful and stable society of nations. 
We must extend to them our aid and our support 
in the rehabilitation of their economic and so- 
cial life. This we shall have to do, not only from 
the point of view of making it possible to reduce 
the expenditure of huge sums of our funds for 
the relief of the stricken parts of the world but 
also from the point of view of our long-range 
self-interest. We are learning the bitter truth 
at the cost of the lives of thousands of American 
boys that we cannot live in comfort and security 
in a world of poverty and instability. And so, 
if we are to build our lives in this nation when 
this is over on a basis of prosperity and of free- 
dom from this terrible debacle of fighting and 
of death, it is imperative for us that we help to 
reestablish the economic and the social as well 
as the political freedom of the oppressed peo- 
ples of this earth. 

The long-range economic reconstruction of 
the liberated areas is not the province of a relief 
and rehabilitation agency, but during the imme- 
diate period of readjustment we will have to 
assume responsibility along with other United 
Nations in a position to do so for help to these 
nations in such matters as the provision of seeds, 
fertilizer, machinery, and the like to aid in the 
immediate reestablishment of local agriculture. 

To do even a part of the task which lies ahead, 
it is clear that we shall need all the resources 
which we can possibly bring to bear. The job 
of meeting the immediate relief needs of the 
presently occupied areas of the world and of 
taking even the first steps toward helping these 
people to reestablish themselves will require the 
efforts not only of this nation but of all nations 
of the world that have resources and supplies 
that may be made available for this undertak- 
ing. Consequently, it is to be hoped that agree- 



MARCH 13, 1943 



221 



ment will be reached for the creation of a 
United Nations relief and rehabilitation agency, 
so that the resonrces and personnel of all the 
governments may be welded togctlier in a single 
and unified organization. 

I have tried to give you, in broad outline, 
some conception of the nature and scope of the 
job which lies ahead. But this description of 
tlie job to be done would not he complete with- 
out at least some mention of the immediate tasks 
which must be faced. 

In the first place, the immediate job is not 
only one of planning for future activities but 
one of operating in areas now occupied by our 
armed forces. The entrance of American and 
British troops into North Africa has been fol- 
lowed by the first field mission of the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, 
iieaded by the president of this Coiiferencf, 
Fred Hoehler. A program of milk-distribu- 
tion to the children of Algeria and Morocco is 
now being carried on by representatives of the 
American Red Cross under the direction and 
supervision of Mr. Hoehler. A relief and re- 
habilitation program for refugees in North 
Africa is also under way. Plans are likewise 
being laid and supplies are being stockpiled for 
the much larger relief and rehabilitation pro- 
gram which will be required when our troops 
liave ousted the Axis from Tunisia. 

One of the most important immediate tasks 
iii that of acquiring at least a part of the sup- 
plies which will be required for the first emer- 
gency period of reoccupation and liberation 
elsewhere. It is not enough that we should 
have the desire to aid the suffering captives of 
the Axis. A substantial part of the foodstuffs, 
file clothing, the medical supplies, the seeds, 
the fertilizer, the machinei-y and equipment 
nmst be secured in advance and be ready for im- 
mediate shipment to the war-torn areas when 
the hour of liberation is at hand. 

The provision of these foodstuffs and other 
supplies represents one of the greatest problems 
to be faced, for they involve the necessity for 
forward buying and the development of ade- 
quate reserves for this purpose as well as other 
contingencies of a military' or civilian character 



at a time when our productive facilities are 
taxed to the utmost to meet the needs of our 
armed forces, our allies, and our civilian econ- 
omy. But despite the difficulties we must pro- 
ceed, for the feeding of these civilian groups 
behind the lines is an absolutely essential part 
of our military requirements, as well as the 
deepest obligation upon our war aims and hu- 
manitarian impulses. Tlie Oihce of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations is already 
at work with the appropriate agencies of the 
Government to see to it that some reserves of 
essential commodities are established to meet 
these essential requirements. 

The acquisition of supplies, their warehous- 
ing at strategic points, and the arrangement for 
transportation of such supplies is the first and 
primary task of the moment, for without such 
supplies we shall be unable to even make a start 
at meeting the job ahead. But in addition to 
supplies we must be ready with specific plans 
for the distribution of these goods and for the 
administration of relief and rehabilitation in 
foreign countries. To this end the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations 
is now at work through its Division of Pro- 
gram and Requirements in the establishment of 
plans and programs. Much of what will be 
done cannot be blueprinted in advance but will 
have to be left to the ingenuity and resource- 
fulness of field staff, but we are committed to 
the policy of trying to foresee our problems to 
the greatest possible extent and to working out 
our problems in advance as much as we can. 

Finally, we shall need a sizeable staff, specifi- 
cally trained to do the many jobs which must 
be done abroad. In this connection there has 
been some talk of many thousands of Amer- 
icans being required for post-war relief and re- 
habilitation. Many persons have gotten an 
altogether exaggerated notion of the amount of 
outside staff that will be required to do this job. 
Let us remember that we are constantly aiming 
to help these enslaved peoples to help them- 
selves and that despite the degree of death and 
dislocation there will still remain some con- 
siderable local leadership which must be built 
up, encouraged, and assisted to do the job. 



222 

The degree of outside staff required will de- 
pend, of course, upon the extent to which the 
political and social forces of the various captive 
nations shall have disintegrated, but in most 
cases we shall be using American or other for- 
eign personnel only for supervision and direc- 
tion, and not for the doing of the total adminis- 
trative job. 

With regard to personnel, it is also appro- 
priate for me to point out to you that this task 
has elements far different from those involved 
in the usual process of American welfare- 
administration. We will need social workers, 
yes — but we shall need, perhaps in even greater 
numbers, persons who are skilled in matters of 
transportation, warehousing, food distribution, 
agricultural development, and the like. 

The job ahead of us is full of pitfalls and diffi- 
culties. It is one of Herculean proportions 
which will demand the support and aid of all 
nations — and all groups, both public and pri- 
vate — which can contribute to its solution. For 
the meeting of this great challenge is essential to 
the well-being of all of us. We cannot fight suc- 
cessfully in the midst of a starving civilian 
population. We cannot expect men with empty 
bellies to join in the creation of a lasting peace. 
We cannot expect children who have been 
wracked by hunger and starvation and ravaged 
with pestilence and disease to build the new free 
world for which we fight. We cannot expect to 
achieve stability and prosperity for ourselves at 
liome in the midst of this sort of world. The 
first great challenge of the peace will be our 
capacity to reestablish the integrity and dignity 
of the human body as well as the integrity of 
the spirit. It is a task which will require the 
best of all of us and further sacrifice and con- 
tribution by all our peojile, and yet it is a job in 
which we cannot and must not fail. 



FOREIGN-PROPAGANDA PROGRAM 

An Executive order (no. 9312) defining the 
foreign-information activities of the Office of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

War Information was signed by the President 
on March 9, 1943. The text of the order ap- 
pears in the Federal Register of March 12, 1943, 
page 3021. 



TRANSPORTATION OF ENEMY ALIENS 

Regulations relating to the transportation of 
subjects or citizens of an enemy nation or an 
ally-of-an-enemy nation by American vessels or 
by American aircraft were issued by the Secre- 
tary of State on March 5, 1943. All previous 
regulations inconsistent therewith were re- 
voked. The text of the regulations, issued pur- 
suant to section 3 (b) of the Trading-with-the- 
Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 412; 50 
U. S. C., App., 3b) and section XXVII of Exec- 
utive Order 2729-A, of October 12, 1917, is 
printed in the Federal Register of March 9, 
1943, pages 2819-2821. 



PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUP- 
PLEMENT 5 TO REVISION IV 

[Released to the press for publication Marcli 13, 9 p.m.] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in con- 
junction with the Acting Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, the Attorney General, the Secretary of 
Commerce, the Board of Economic Warfare, 
and the Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs, 
on March 13 issued Cumulative Supplement 5 
(o Revision IV of the Proclaimed List of Cer- 
tain Blocked Nationals, promulgated Novem- 
ber 12, 1942. 

Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision IV 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement 4, dated 
February 12, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 5 contains 
412 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 53 deletions. Part II contains 
161 additional listings outside the American 
republics and 24 deletions. 



223 



Cultural Relations 



General 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Rpleased to the press March 10] 

Sefior Julio C. Gonzalez Rebull, editor of the 
newspaper El Crhol^ of Habana, Cuba, and 
vice-president of the Crisol Publishing Com- 
pany, arrived in Washington on March 10 for 
a two months' tour of this country at the invi- 
tation of the Department of State. 

Senor Gonzalez Rebull will visit leading pub- 
lishing houses, ncM-spapers, and cultural centers 
throughout the United States. 



[Released to the press March 10] 

Mr. Jose Nucete Sardi, Director of Culture of 
the Ministry of Education of Venezuela and 
well-known journalist and writer, arrived in 
Washington on M;irch 10 at the invitation of 
the Department of State. 

Mr. Nucete Sardi is particularly interested in 
observing the organization of private and state 
imiversities; rural education; industrial, arts, 
and crafts schools; and publications, free study, 
atid extension courses, and student residences in 
the United States. 



I Released to the press March 8] 

Dr. Jose Daniel Crespo, pedagogical adviser 
of the Ministry of Education of Panama, will 
arrive in Washington on March 10, at the invi- 
tation of the Department of State, for a visit to 
educational institutions in the United States. 



[Released to the press March 12] 

Dr. Jose Aviles, President of the Rotary Club 
in San Salvador, El Salvador, and prominent 
lawyer, arrived in Washington on March lU at 
the invitation of the Department of State. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF 

On February 28, 1943 the President's War 
Relief Control Board issued to the press a tabu- 
lation of contributions collected and disbursed 
during the period September 6, 1939 through 
January 1943, as shown in the reports sub- 
mitted by persons and organizations registered 
with the Board for the solicitation and collec- 
tion of contributions to be used for relief in for- 
eign countries, in conformity with the regula- 
tions issued pursuant to section 3 (a) of the act 
of May 1, 1937 as made effective by the Presi- 
dent's proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10, 
1939, section 8 of the act of November 4, 1939 
as made effective by the President's proclama- 
tion of the same date, and Executive Order 9205, 
of July 25, 1942. A list of organizations regis- 
tered for domestic war-relief activities is also 
included. 

The statistics set forth in the tabulation are 
incomplete as regards relief activities which a 
number of registered organizations have been 
carrying on in respect to non-belligerent coun- 
tries, for which registration was not previously 
required. 

The American National Red Cross and cer- 
tain religious organizations are exempted from 
registration with the Board by section 3 of 
Executive Order 9205, and the accounts of these 
organizations are not included in this tabulation. 

Community war chests, war funds, etc., are 
registered with the Board. However, as such 
chests are fund-raising organizations only, and 
as the funds raised for war relief and welfare 
purposes, other than local, are contributed ex- 
clusively to registered organizations, their 
accounts are not included in the tabulation. 

Copies of this tabulation may be obtained 
from the President's War Relief Control Board, 
Washington Building, Washington, D.C. 



224 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Treaty Information 



FISHERIES 

Convention With Canada for the Preservation 
of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific 
Ocean and Bering Sea 

The Federal Register of March 2, 1942 (vol. 
8, no. 42) contains on pages 2608-2610 the text 
of the regulations which, referred to as the 1943 
Halibut Fishery Regulations, were prepared by 
the International Fisjieries Commission pur- 
suant to articles I and III of the Convention be- 
tween the United States and Canada for the 
preservation of the halibut fishery of the 
northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea signed 
at Washington January 29, 1937 (Treaty Series 
917). 

The regulations, having been signed by the 
four members of the Commission, were, pur- 
suant to the above-mentioned articles of the 
Convention, submitted for approval to the 
President of the United States of America and 
to the Governor General of Canada. The regu- 
lations were approved on behalf of Canada by 
an Order in Council of January 29, 1943 and 
by the President of the United States on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1943. They will supersede the 1942 
regulations approved by the President on 
March 25, 1942 which were published in the 
Federal R>'ghtfr of April 16, 1942. 



Legislation 



First Deficiency Appropriation Bill, 1943 : 

Hearings before a subcommittee of tbe Committee on 
Appropriations, United States Senate, TSth 
Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 1975. [Department of 
State, pp. 1-lG, 34, 209-219.] 27.5 pp. 
S. Rept. 98, 7Sth Cong., on H.R. 1975. [Includes 
$491,000 for the Foreign Service Auxiliary (na- 
tional defense).] 6 pp. 



Extension of Lend-Lease Act : 

Extending for 1 year the provisions of an act to 
promote the defense of the United States, ap- 
proved March 11, 1941. S. Rept. 99, 78th Cong., 
on S. 813. 11 pp. 
Index of testimony during hearings before the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representa- 
tives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 1501. 9 pp. 
Authorizing the deportation of aliens to countries 
allied with the United States. H. Rept. 211, 78th 
Cong., on H.R. 2076. 3 pp. 
Requesting the President to furnish the House informa- 
tion as to the amount of petroleum products sent 
to Spain. H. Rept. 245, 7Sth Cong., on H. Res. 150. 
2 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Reciprocal Trade : Agreement and Supplemental Ex- 
changes of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Argentina — Signed at Buenos Aires 
October 14, 1941; effective definitively January 8, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 277. Publication 
1871. 85 pp. lo^*. 

Agricultural Experiment Station in Ecuador: Agree- 
ment between the United States of America and 
Ecuador Approving Memorandum of Understanding 
Signed August 12, 1942 — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed October 20 and 29, 1942 ; effective August 
12, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 284. Publica- 
tion 1879. 10 pp. 50. 

Post-AVar Economic Settlements: Exchange of Notes 
Between the United States of America and Canada^ — 
Signed November 30, 1942. Executive Agreement 
Series 287. Publication 1883. 3 pp. St*. 

Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. VH. 
nos. 158-183A, July 4 - December 26, 1942. Publica- 
tion 1884. 23 pp. Free. 

Haitian Finances : Arrangement Between the United 
States of America and Haiti — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Washington September 17 and 21, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 290. Publication 
1886. 2 pp. 50. 

The Reciprocal-Trade-Agreements Program in War and 
Peace. Commercial Policy Series 73. Publication 
1893. 10 pp. 5^. 



MARCH 13, 194: 



225 



The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: Other Goxt-ojxment Agencies 
Cumulative Supplement No. 5, March 13, 1943, Con- 
taining Additions, Amendments, and Deletions Made Eighth Quarterly Report to Congress on Lend-Lease 
Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. Publication Operations, for the period ended March 11, 1943. (H. 
1895. 81 pp. Free. Doc. 129, 78th Cong.) 56 pp. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PnBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAi 0? THE DIBECTOE OP THE BnBEAD OF THD BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



MARCH 20, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 195— Publication 1904 



C 



ontents 



The War Pas* 

Statements by the Secretary of State Commending 

Speech of General Giraud 229 

Lend-Lease Operations 230 

Pm-chasing-Mission Progi-am Licenses 232 

Cultural Relations 
A Free Mind for a Free World: Address by Charles 

A. Thomson 232 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 237 

General 

Death of Former Counselor of Chinese Embassy. . . . 237 

Publications 

"Foreign Relations of the United States, 1928", Vol- 
umes II and III 237 

Treaty Information 

Extraterritoriality: Treaty With China for the Relin- 
quishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China . . 238 

Armed Forces: Agreement With Greece Regarding Mili- 
tary Service by Nationals of Either Country Re- 
siding in the Other 248 

Mutual Aid : Agreement With Mexico 251 

Legislation 251 




ftPR10W« 



The War 



STATEMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE COMMENDING SPEECH 
OF GENERAL GIRAUD 



[Released to the press March 10] 

General Giraud has now confinned the hopes 
of this Government that his selection as the 
Commander in Chief of the French forces fight- 
ing in North Africa would make possible a 
greater unification of all groups behind his 
military leadership. This should insure the 
proper place for a victorious France in tlie 
restoration of liberty everywhere. 

General Giraud, like a true soldier, has de- 
voted all the time available to him from his 
military duties to the careful and patient study 
of the problems involved in the French terri- 
tories. He has reached the point where, with 
no material disturbance to his military effort, 
he has been able to remove discrimination in 
the treatment of those living under his jurisdic- 
tion. He has now made it possible for all ele- 
ments who desire the defeat of the Axis powers 
and the liberation of French territory to unite 
in their will to rid French soil of the weight of 
the Axis yoke. He has based his authority 
firmly upon the principle of the free expression 
of liberated Frenchmen and, foreseeing all 
France once more mistress of her destiny, 
has swept aside laws and decrees which 
were contrary to her traditional republican 
institutions. 



[Released to the press March 17] 

Prime Minister Churchill has today made a 
very important statement in the House of Com- 
mons, warmly welcoming and commending Gen- 
eral Giraud's speech of Sunday, March 14, 1943. 
The Government of the United States is in the 
heartiest accord with this timely and splendid 
statement of the British Prime Minister and 
finds satisfaction in strongly commending this 
further step toward French unity. 

Tlie statement of the British Prime Minister 
is as follows: 

"His Majesty's Government in the United 
Kingdom warmly welcome General Giraud's 
speech, in particular his abolition of Fi-ench 
legislation subsequent to June 22, 1940, his abro- 
gation of all race distinction between native 
Moslems and Jewish inliabitants, and liis deci- 
sion that municipal assemblies and Conseils 
Gencraux will resume their traditional role with 
their members elected by the people. In order 
to achieve the liberation of France through vic- 
tory, Frenchmen everywhere must be united and, 
above all, all Frenclmaen outside Nazi power 
should act loyally against the common enemy 
without a day's needless delay. This object has 
been promoted by General Giraud's speech and 
the National Committee memorandum, since 
these show that no questions of principle divide 
these two bodies of Frenclimen. 



229 



230 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXHiLETIN 



LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 



On March 11, 1943 the President approved an 
act ^ extending for another year the provisions 
of the Lend-Lease Act, under which the United 
States has for two years rendered aid to its 
allies. Contributing its part to the United Na- 
tions war effort, reverse lend-lease is an increas- 
ingly vital factor in the effective pooling of 
resources. Both outgoing and reciprocal aid 
are discussed fully in the eighth quarterly report 
to Congress by the Lend-Lease Administrator, 
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., for the period ended 
March 11, 1943. 

From March 11, 1941 to March 1, 1943 the 
value of goods transferred and services ren- 
dered under the provisions of the act totaled 
$9,632,000,000. Almost four fifths of that 
amount was provided during the year preceding 
March 1, 1943. By areas, these goods and serv- 
ices were distributed during the 2-year period 
as follows : LTnited Kingdom, 46 percent ; Soviet 
Union, 19 percent ; Africa and the Middle East, 
16 percent; China, India, Australia, and New 
Zealand, 14 percent; other areas, 5 percent. 
During the first year about two thirds of lend- 
lease goods went to Britain, but from March 
1942 to March 1943 the emphasis shifted from 
the United Kingdom to the Middle and Far 
East and to the Soviet Union. More than 
half of lend-lease goods was shipped to these 
points. The trend evident in 1942 continued 
into the first two months of 1943, according to 
the report, which continues: 

"The principal new developments have been : 
(1) An increase in the proportion of total lend- 
lease shipments going to the Soviet Union as 
compared with that going to the United King- 
dom; (2) a sharp increase in the amount of 
food going to U. S. S. R. ; (3) assignment of 
additional planes to the India-China air trans- 
port routes; (4) shipment to North Africa of 
lend-lease arms for General Giraud's ai-my, and 
of food, clothing, and other supplies to the lib- 
erated people of French North Africa." 

Mr. Stettinius reports that shipments to the 

• Public Law 9, 78th Cong. 



Soviet Union were almost 10 percent greater 
in January 1943 than in the preceding month ; 
in February, shipments increased 30 percent 
further. He continues : "In addition to sending 
to the Soviet more lend-lease planes, tanks, and 
trucks than to any other area, we have shipped 
more than 130,000 submachine guns, more than 
98,000,000 pounds of tnt and toluol, more than 
188,000,000 pounds of copper and brass, hun- 
dreds of thousands of miles of telephone wire, 
92,000 tons of rails, car wheels and other rail- 
road equipment, and almost 3,000,000 pairs of 
Army boots. We have sent as well many other 
munitions and war supplies and considerable 
quantities of raw materials, such as steel and 
chemicals, which have been used to manufacture 
bombs and high-explosive shells." 

In commenting on lend-lease aid to China, 
]\Ir. Stettinius states : "The closing of the Burma 
Road left air transport as the only effective 
means of getting supplies into China. Con- 
stant efforts have been made to enlarge this air 
service but up to now the amount of lend-lease 
supplies that we have been able to get into 
China itself has been very small. . . . The 
volume of lend-lease supplies getting into China 
cannot be expanded until the supply routes are 
expanded. American efforts are being concen- 
trated, therefore, on enlarging the capacity of 
the air routes to China, on exploration and de- 
velopment of new routes, and on preparations 
for recapturing those which have been seized by 
the enemy." 

Lend-lease is playing a vital part in North 
Africa, not only by supplying the military com- 
mands but by helping to strengthen the civilian 
fi'ont. The Lend-Lease Administration is 
working closely with the Office of Foreign Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Operations in the North 
African civilian supply program. Shipments 
of civilian supplies to North Africa have been 
small, according to the report, but they are re- 
lieving acute shortages and will help restore 
North Africa as an important area for the pro- 
duction of food and strategic raw materials, 
both greatly needed by the United Nations. 



MARCH 20, 1945 



231 



The reciprocal aid which we receive from our 
allies is now a major factor in the supply of our 
forces abroad and has reached substantial pro- 
portions. "Virtually all of the supplies fur- 
nished by the British to our troops in the 
United Kiiifrdom", the report states, "are sup- 
plied as reverse lend-lease, in addition to almost 
all of the facilities our troops use and the trans- 
portation and other services they require. Part 
of the equipment our troops are using in North 
Africa is British equipment provided as recip- 
rocal aid." 

The report continues: "In 1943 the British 
have agreed to provide our troops in the Euro- 
pean theater with more than 400,000,000 pounds 
of food. . . . This food is either produced by 
the British in the United Kingdom or it is im- 
ported from countries other than the United 
States. . . . 

"The British have made available as reverse 
lend-lease more than 700,000 dead weight tons 
of shipping for American military operations. 

"From July 1 to December 31, 1942, the Brit- 
ish furnished to our forces in the United King- 
dom as reverse lend-lease 1,121,000 ship tons 
of supplies, not including construction mate- 
rials. This was more than we shipped to our 
troops from the United States in that period. 
In addition, construction materials totaling an- 
other 1.595,000 tons were supplied. The United 
States spent only $25,000 in the United King- 
dom in December for supplies for our armed 
forces there. 

"In addition to other supplies, the United 
Kingdom is furnishing new facilities for our 
troops including hundreds of airfields, barracks 
and hospitals. The cost of these facilities is 
estimated at over a half billion dollars. Trans- 
portation, heat, light and telei^hone and other 
communications services are being provided 
free of charge on reverse lend-lease without pay- 
ment by us in cash. . . . 

"Most American troops and their equipment 
have been carried from the United States to 
the British Isles in British ships. "Whenever 
American troops are carried in British ships to 
any area they are transported under reverse 
lend-lease, without any payment by us." 



Food consumption in Australia and New Zea- 
land has been curtailed in order to supply our 
troops with almost all their food requirements 
as reciprocal aid. The report points out that 
"Australia and New Zealand together furnished 
our troops with more than 235.000,000 pounds 
of food from June to December, 1942. ... In 
1942 we received as reciprocal lend-lease from 
Australia and New Zealand more beef, veal, 
lamb and mutton than we exported to all lend- 
lease countries. 

"Australia is also providing munitions to our 
forces out of its own production. New Zealand 
and Australia both have constructed bases, bar- 
racks, and airfields for our forces. Australia 
is providing uniforms made in Australian mills, 
and New Zealand is providing army boots for 
our forces there. 

"Australia's shipyards are building many 
hundreds of landing craft, barges, and other 
small boats for General MacArthur"s men as 
reverse lend-lease. In addition, scores of trawl- 
ers and coastal steamers have been turned over 
for our use by Australia." 

During the last 7 months of 1942 India built 
or turned over to us more than a score of air- 
fields and provided us with 31/2 million gallons 
of gasoline, several hundred trucks, quantities 
of quartermaster supplies, and small arms and 
munitions, in addition to constructing ware- 
houses, repair shops, barracks, hospitals, and 
miles of road. 

"American troops in Iceland and the Fijis, in 
India, Egypt, and Iran, and in various parts of 
Africa, are being supplied by Great Britain, the 
Dominions and India with reciprocal aid. 

"The Fighting French are providing our 
forces with reciprocal aid in Equatorial Africa. 
Belgium is providing aid to our forces in the 
Congo. Even hard-pressed China is providing 
supplies for the U. S. Air Forces in China as 
reciprocal aid." 

Lend-lease and reverse lend-lease are not 
limited to transfers between the United States 
and other United Nations; the other United 
Nations also supply each other on substantially 
the same terms. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PURCHASING-MISSION PROGRAM 
LICENSES 

A new system of advance programing of ex- 
ports for purchasing missions of foreign gov- 
ernments, which will make possible closer co- 
ordination in procurement and shipping, has 
been worked out jointly by the Department of 
State, the Office of Lend-Lease Administration, 
and the Board of Economic Warfare, in agree- 
ment with the purchasing missions. This plan, 
scheduled to become effective on April 1, 1943, 
will provide United States exporters with ad- 
vance information with which to schedule avail- 
able business in accordance with known essen- 
tial requirements. 

As the plan is initiated, it provides for the 
submission by the foreign purchasing agency to 
the Office of Lend-Lease Administration or the 



Board of Economic Warfare of quarterly esti- 
mates of import requirements for the territories 
represented by the mission. All commodities 
now subject to control by the War Production 
Board will be covered by the progi'am license; 
other commodities will be covered by dollar and 
tonnage limitations to keep from crowding out 
essential materials. After issuance of the pro- 
gi-am license, the foreign government certify- 
ing agency designated in the license will au- 
thorize expoi'ts to the amounts and for the uses 
specified in the program license. 

The program-licensing procedure is being 
adopted to make the most essential use of scarce 
materials and shipping space and to coincide 
with the provisions of the Controlled Materials 
Plan and with allocations by the War Produc- 
tion Board. 



Cultural Relations 



A FREE MIND FOR A FREE WORLD 
Address by Charles A. Thomson ^ 



[Released to the press March 13] 

Tonight I bring the New England Inter- 
American Institute a sincere and cordial greet- 
ing from the Under Secretary of State, the 
Honorable Sumner Welles, and his expression of 
profound regret that official matters of the most 
urgent character have made it impossible for 
him to be here in person. He has asked me to 
convey to you his best wishes for the full success 
of the Institute and his appreciation of the 
value of this important initiative toward closer 
fellowship in thought and sentiment on the 
part of the people of the LTnited States with the 
peoples of the other republics of the hemisphere. 

For my own part, I consider it a great priv- 
ilege to participate in this evening's program, 

' Delivered at Boston University, Mar. 15, 1943. Mr. 
Thomson is Chief of the Division of Cultural Relations, 
Department of State. 



dedicated as it is to the enlargement of the 
horizons and the extension of the mutual under- 
standing of the countries of the New World. 
By sponsoring this Institute, Boston Univer- 
sity, with the assistance of the Office of the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs and in co- 
operation with other New England colleges and 
universities and with the Pan American Society 
of Massachusetts, bears witness to the growing 
faith in an underlying continental unity of 
purpose and grants its aid to the wise and pa- 
tient efforts to embody that faith in more effec- 
tive inter-American cooperation. 

That faith and those efforts, given support 
and direction by the joint action of our govern- 
ments, is one of the surest bases for the belief 
that the world beyond the present conflict, the 
world toward which we strive through the con- 
flict, will be a world in which the rewards as 



MARCH 20, 1943 

well as the duties of mankind will be greater 
than in any period in the past. We may well 
rejoice that such a basis has been laid. 

During the past year the Department of State 
in its program of cultural relations invited Dr. 
Jorge Zalamea, a distinguished writer and pub- 
licist of Colombia, to visit the United States. 
On his return he declared in a significant radio 
address : 

"Latin America has an unshakable confidence 
in the final victory of the United States and the 
allied nations. If in order to obtain this victory 
fresh efforts, fresh privations, fresh sacrifices 
should be needed, I am sure that Latin America 
would accept them with serenity because it has 
faith in the future." 

Dr. Zalamea was one of scores of influential 
leaders from the other American republics 
whose first-hand reports have proved a potent 
influence in alining with the United Nations 
the 10 American countries north of the Panama 
Canal, together with Brazil, and inducing 8 of 
the remaining 9 South American countries to 
break diplomatic relations with the Axis. The 
Governments of our neighboring republics have 
ranged themselves with us. But on my trip 
last fall to South America I found that in many 
countries the warmth of the people's support 
surpassed even that of their government. 

Thus cooperation in the political and eco- 
nomic field has been supplemented and strength- 
ened by the development of an underlying basic 
understanding concerning the community of 
interests and efforts that binds the American na- 
tions together. To this understanding have con- 
tributed the interchange of leaders of thought 
and opinion, of research workers, technicians 
and professors, and students; translation back 
and forth of significant and revealing writings ; 
radio broadcasts and the showing of motion 
pictures; cooperation in public health and social 
well-being, in nutrition and education, in child 
welfare and labor protection and similar mat- 
ters of help to daily living. 

These cultural exchanges are a part of those 
activities to which Mr. Welles referred in his 
recent speech at the University of Toronto when 
he remarked : 



233 

"I think that we of America can say that if 
22 independent democracies such as those which 
occupy North, Central, and South America — of 
different origins — can achieve the measure of 
progress which we now have achieved toward 
a peaceful and humane relationship and toward 
profitable economic cooperation, that same form 
of relationship can be achieved in all regions of 
the world." 

Upon the success of the policy of inter- 
American cooperation is founded our faith that 
cooperation among the world's peoples in mu- 
tual efforts to solve their problems is both pos- 
sible and practicable. 

In this faith we recognize that peace must 
be based upon international political coopera- 
tion, which will assure that full security which 
is truly essential to the realization of all the 
hopes of the world's peoples. 

It must also be based upon international 
economic cooperation. Economic cooperation 
can help to achieve that advance of living stand- 
ards among the world's peoples which in turn 
should insure continuing peaceful efforts at the 
solutions of their many different economic 
problems. 

We recognize, further, that peace must be 
based upon a third factor: cultural relations 
among the world's peoples carried out by co- 
operative action. For so far as political and 
economic problems arise out of differences in 
social attitudes, in intellectual outlooks, and in 
the possession of knowledge, they are cultural 
problems. 

Is it not true that this is a war for men's 
minds, and do not our enemies wage cultural 
as well as military, political, and economic war- 
fare? Their cultural aggressions antedate 
their military attacks. 

The National Socialists have created an edu- 
cation for German children and youth aptly 
called "education for death". Upon their vic- 
tims they impose an "education for slavery". 
In the conquered countries east of Germany all 
universities are closed. The libraries have been 
looted and destroyed. The secondary and pri- 
mary schools have been reduced in number and 
their courses of study adulterated with Nazi 



234 

propaganda. Everywhere in the German-oc- 
cupied lands professors, scientists, and teachers 
who have remained intellectually honest have 
been driven into exile or have died in concen- 
tration camps. 

The Japanese warlords have trained their 
people in a subservience that makes each one of 
them — man, woman, and child— an abject mem- 
ber of the state. Each is taught that his chief 
glory is to have been born a Japanese. His 
sole destiny is to live and, if need be, die for 
his emperor. The feudal code of Bushido has 
been made the rule of life for the nation. 

Frankly and openly the Japanese practice a 
cultural imperialism designed to bind their sub- 
ject peoples to their service. Behind their 
armies go agents who take control of news- 
papers, bookshops, publishing houses, radio sta- 
tions, and schools. The study of the Japanese 
language and Japanese culture is made compul- 
sory in the schools. The young of the conquered 
peoples are given Japanese heroes to emulate 
and Japanese songs to sing. Students, authors, 
and scientists are taken to Japan where the ad- 
vantages of cooperating with the Japanese are 
made to appear clear and pleasant. The Jap- 
anese program, "Asia for the Asiatics", involves 
keeping the Asiatic peoples in a state of cultural 
dependency on the dominant power in Asia, 
Japan. 

Our enemies subvert intelligence, learning, 
and research to the service of conquest and en- 
slavement. They impose closed minds upon 
their subject peoples. They make closed intel- 
lectual areas of their conquests. Into areas out- 
side their control they introduce a propaganda, 
often disguised as legitimate cultural activity, 
in order to destroy the freedom and democracy 
they despise and fear. 

The Axis countries mean to base their en- 
during rule upon a monopoly of scientific and 
professional training that will make them alone 
the possessors of the knowledge and skill re- 
quired to operate a modern state. Cleverly and 
insidiously they build tyranny and exploitation 
upon a foundation of inculcated ignorance and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

intellectual stagnation among their subject 
peoples. 

"A people without leaders must remain 
slaves": this is the doctrine which the Axis 
proclaims — and practices. 

This doctrine is the complete antithesis of 
democracy as we Americans know it and fight 
for it. 

Democracy, as my colleague Ralph E. Turner 
has noted, is the right of the individual to take 
part in making the decisions that affect his life. 
Democracy is also the opportunity to take part 
in the action necessary to carry out these 
decisions. 

Side by side with this fundamental principle 
stands our belief in equality, which declai-es that 
one individual shall not be in a position to exer- 
cise power, either political or economic or intel- 
lectual, over another individual to the continu- 
ous advantage of the former or to the permanent 
disadvantage of the latter. 

We understand that democracy requires the 
full use of available knowledge as the means of 
advancing individual and national welfare. In 
our way of life we have given a fundamental 
place to a free access to knowledge and its fullest 
jiossible use. That this element in our life has 
multiplied the "gadgets" which foreign observ- 
ers so often dispraise should not obscure the 
more important fact that it is the basis of our 
high standard of living. 

In these practices of democracy we Americans 
stand at the guidepost to the future. 

In fine, one condition for the final success of 
the cause of the United Nations in the organiza- 
tion of a free, cooperative, and progressive rela- 
tionship among the world peoples is the intel- 
lectual liberty which permits the access of all 
individuals to the whole body of knowledge 
existing in our day. Intellectual liberty, in this 
sense, is not only the essence of democracy ; it is 
also the foundation-stone for the establishment 
and maintenance of the "four freedoms" of the 
Atlantic Charter. More basic even than the 
freedoms that give the individual choice among 
actions and security in achievements is the free- 



MARCH 20, 1943 

(lorn of mind that enables him to improve his 
choices and, consequently, raise his attainments. 

As in the political, economic, and military 
arenas, so in the cultural field the battle between 
the Axis and the United Nations is joined: it 
is intellectual regimentation for the enslave- 
ment of peoples against the cultural cooperation 
of peoples for their own advance toward a better 
life. 

In this conflict the Axis is doomed to defeat, 
not only because of the inherent right and actual 
strength of the United Nations but also because 
all regimes in history that have made intel- 
lectual tyranny their support have gone down; 
and, furthermore, because today the means of 
cultural interchange — radio, motion pictures, 
press, travel, mail service, shipping — are greater 
than ever before. 

But however certain the defeat of the Axis 
may be, the free and full use of knowledge which 
the world's democratic peoples desire can only 
be assured if they take cooperative action to 
promote exchanges of the best products of 
thought and spirit. 

It is the privilege of the Department of State 
to assist agencies such as you represent in the 
organization of this cultural cooperation. 
Through such cooperation the American people 
may give and receive those things which are 
mutually beneficial to the peoples of the world 
in scientific, literarv, educational, and artistic 
fields. 

Cultural cooperation may develop in the post- 
war period along four main lines: (1) the 
diffusion and application of the advances of 
modern science and technology, (2) the under- 
girding of understanding between peoples 
through educational measures, (3) the growth 
of international social services, and (4) the de- 
velopment of intellectual exchange at the level 
of both higher learning and popular knowledge. 

For most men throughout the world, work is 
still drudgery. Poverty is common. Illiteracy 
is general. Life expectanry is low. Life is 
cheap. But they know or are becoming aware 
of the fact that escape from these age-old con- 
ditions is possible. Thus they desire to obtain 



235 

the benefits of modern technology and science. 
Thus the American people have an opportunity 
to provide many people with the means of self- 
help without large cost to themselves or to the 
people aided. 

Not long ago the Chinese Government asked 
the Department of State to help in providing 
China with the services of a score or more of 
experts, including an American plant-breeder 
who could assist the Chinese war effort by the 
scientific improvement of the potato and com 
crops of China. Before departing for China 
the plant-breeder gathered about 15,000 seeds 
of corn. They represented 100 kernels from 
each of the 120 best hybrid varieties and 100 
kernels each from many of the parents of these 
hybrids. He also gathered 20 tubers from each 
of the 53 leading varieties of potatoes. To- 
gether these seeds and tubers represented the 
results of over a half century of American plant- 
breeding. Today these seeds are growing in 
China, and young Chinese are being trained in 
American methods of plant-breeding in oi'der 
that they may select and adapt the varieties of 
corn and potatoes best suited to China. 

This contribution of American plant-breed- 
ing to China — a lend-lease of American brains — 
illustrates how cultural exchanges can contrib- 
ute to the solution of economic problems. In 
fact, in this instance, free cultural exchange pro- 
vides some basis for achieving the freedom from 
want set forth in the Atlantic Charter as one of 
the goals of world liberation. 

It may be safely said that the solution of most 
of the world's basic economic problems — im- 
proved nutrition, higher productivitj" of labor, 
better utilization of resources — will depend 
quite as much upon the spread of scientific 
technology throughout the world as upon politi- 
cal and economic arrangements among states. 

Similarly, it seems clear that improved health 
conditions, the control of epidemics, the lower- 
ing of death rates, and the increase of life ex- 
pectancy will follow from the spread of modern 
scientific therapeutics and preventive medicine. 

A primary objective of free cultural exchange 
in the post-war period will be to build up and 



236 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUU/ETIN 



improve in quality these professional services 
throughout the world. 

In this connection it may be emphasized that 
money is soon spent, while a thing learned, if 
serviceable, is almost never forgotten. 
■ A second form of cultural cooperation, 
closely related to that just mentioned, is the 
development of programs of education for the 
building of international understanding. Any 
plamiing for the rehabilitation of war-torn 
Europe must give attention to the educational 
institutions and educational programs that have 
been destroyed or distorted by the war. Wliile 
the reconstruction of the educational program 
in each country must be done by the people of 
that country, the United States and the other 
United Nations may be of definite assistance. 
Consideration must be given, also, to the cooper- 
ative reorientation of the education in the Axis 
countries, where, as previously remarked, the 
school is now an instrument of warfare. 

But concern with education cannot be lim- 
ited to adjustments required by the war. It is 
the belief of many that one of the reasons we 
lost the last jjeace was the lack of understand- 
ing on the part of the peoples of the meaning 
and importance of international affairs. In a 
democracy, govermnental policies must reflect 
the will of the people. Cooperation among na- 
tions can be carried forwai-d only if tlie people 
of this country and of other countries under- 
stand the cultural and economic interdepend- 
ence of the nations of the modern world and see 
the wisdom of cooperation to achieve an endur- 
ing and progressive peace. Without restricting 
the freedom of any nation in the shaping of its 
own educational program, there is a place for 
international cooperation in the planning of an 
educational program to meet modern needs. 

A third form of cultural cooperation which 
the democratic peoples may be expected to pro- 
mote is the development of international social 
services to control diseases, to regulate the traf- 
fic in drugs, to protect labor, to improve the care 
of children and mothers, and to advance social 
security. Tlieso measures, it is altogether 
likely, will be taken under the jurisdiction of 



some international organization. Although 
they will receive the support of national govern- 
ments, they will be administered by interna- 
tional agencies. 

The fourth form of cultural cooperation is 
the stimulation of intellectual intercourse at the 
level of both higher learning and popular 
knowledge. Intellectual cooperation at the 
level of higher learning has developed steadily 
for almost a century. Between 1930 and 1939 
over 450 international congresses were reported 
held. To such conferences go the world's fore- 
most scholars and scientists, and in them is 
organized that community of knowledge and 
understanding which, represented in all coun- 
tries, is the heart of a growing international 
good-will and understanding. Alongside this 
growth is the still newer development of con- 
tinuous exchange of information about common 
people by means of the radio and the motion 
picture. These means make possible the in- 
forming of common men everywhere about how 
life for common men goes on in every land. In 
the imagery of common life — the field, the shop, 
the factory, the home, and the shrine — is the 
content of a new international understanding. 
No matter how widely separated common men 
may be, they have the opportunity through an 
expanding knowledge of one another, greater 
than ever before, of working out their com- 
mon interest in peace and in the orderly de- 
velopment of their own lives. 

In the past the American people have given 
freely of their cultural heritage and achieve- 
ments to the world's peoples. Today they are 
committed by participation in the present war 
to tJie development and use of their power on a 
woi'ld-wide basis in order to obtain national 
security in an enduring peace. In the immedi- 
ate future their national security will require 
that military, political, and economic measures 
be supported by cultural measures which will 
guard against the dangers of minds poisoned 
for war and areas closed to the flow of informa- 
tion and ideas. In the light of American ex- 
perience and achievement, the freedom of the 
mind for the full use of existing knowledge and 



MARCH 20, 



194: 



237 



for the unrest rained pursuit of new knowledge 
will be the ultimate fruuriinty of national se- 
curity in a democratic world. Cultural coop- 
eration with the world's peoples to support this 
freedom will be an integral part of American 
foreign policy. 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

: Kelpiiscd to the pn-ss March ir.| 

Dr. Daniel F. Rubin de la BorboUa. of 
Mexico, arrived in Washington on March 15, at 
the invitation of the Department of State. Dr. 
Kubin de la Borbolla, who is Director of the 
National School of Anthropology, is interested 
in museum technique, particularly in the field 
of aiitliropology. 



Publications 



General 



DEATH OF FORMER COUNSELOR 
OF CHINESE EMBASSY 

IRelfased to the pipss March 20] 

The Secretary of State has made the follow- 
ing statement : 

"We in the Department have learned with 
great regret of the death of Mr. Yung Kwai, 
who was attached to the Chinese Embassy in 
Washington for a period of nearly 50 years and 
was on several occasions Charge d'Affaires of 
that Mission. Mr. Yung Kwai was held in high 
esteem for his character and attainments by a 
wide circle of friends and acquaintances, and 
he contributed much to the promotion of closer 
relations between the people of China and the 
people of the United States." 



"FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED 
STATES, 1928", VOLUMES II AND III 

[Reloa.sed to the pres.s March 171 

The Department of State released on March 
17 the second and third of the series of three 
volumes dealing with American foreign policy 
for the year 1928. Volume I of this series was 
released on December 30, 1942.' 

Volume II contains sections on relations with 
Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czecho- 
slovakia. Denmark. Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia. 
Finland. France, Germany, and Great Britain. 

Volume III includes the sections (m Greece, 
Haiti, Hejaz and Nejd. Hcmduras. Irish Free 
State, Italy, Japan. Latvia, Liberia, Litluiania. 
Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua. Nor- 
way. Panama, Persia, Poland, Portugal. Ru- 
mania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and 
Turkey. 

Copies of Foreign Relatiom of the United 
States, 1928 shortly will be obtainable from the 
Sui)erintendent of Dcx^uments, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Volume I 
(c XXIII, 1057 pages) is sold for $2.25; Volume 
II (cxiv, 1024 pages) for $2; and Volume III 
(cvi. 1006 pages) for $2. 

During the week of March 15-20 the Depart- 
ment of State also released the following pub- 
lications : 

Register of the Department of State. October 1, 1942. 
Publication 1857. vi, 328 pp. 400. 

Ueciprocal Trade : Agreement and Supplemental Ex- 
changes of Notes Between the United States of Amer- 
ica and Uruguay — Signed at Montevideo July 21, 
1942; effective Jaiuiary 1, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 276. Publication 1880. 65 pp. IQ^. 

Diplomatic List, March 1943. Publication 1892. ii, 
106 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, \0<^. 

Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere : Convention Between the United 
States of America and Other American Republics, 



BtnxETiN of Jan. 2, 1943, p. 10. 



238 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIiJETIN 



and Annex — Convention opened for signature at the 
Pan American Union at Wastiington October 12, 1940 ; 
signed for tlie United States of America October 12, 
1C40 ; proclaimed by the President of the United States 
April 30, 1942. Treaty Series 981. 77 pp. 15<;. 

Recent Government publications that may in- 
terest readers of the Bulletin are : 
Agriculture of Cuba. 1942. (Office of Foreign Agricul- 
tural Relations, Department of Agriculture.) For- 
eign Agriculture Bulletin 2. 144 pp., illus. 200. 



Schedule A: Statistical classification of imports into 
the United States, with rates of duty and regulations 
governing the preparation of monthly, quarterly, and 
annual statements of imports, effective January 1, 
1943. (Census Bureau.) 235 pp. 500. 

Schedule B: Statistical classification of domestic and 
foreign commodities exported from the United States, 
and regulations governing statistical returns of ex- 
ports of commodities, January 1, 1943 (supersedes 
November 1, 1941 issue). (Census Bureau.) 103pp. 
30(f. 



Treaty Information 



EXTRATERRITORIALITY 

Treaty With China for the Relinquishment 
Of Extraterritorial Rights in China 

There are printed below (1) the text of the 
letter of the President of the United States 
transmittinji to the Senate the Treaty between 
the United States of America and the Republic 
of China for the Relinquishment of Extraterri- 
torial Rights in China and the Regulation of 
Related Matters, signed at Washington Janu- 
ary 11, 1943; (2) the report of the Secretary 
of State to the President; (3) the text of the 
treaty; (4) the accompanying exchange of 
notes; and (5) Executive Report No. 2. 78th 
Congress, 1st Session: 

Letter of the President to th^ Semite 
February 1, 1943. 
To THE Senate of the Unffed States : 

I transmit herewith a treaty between the 
United States of America and the Republic of 
China for the relinquishment of extraterritorial 
rights in China and the regulation of related 
matters signed at Washington by the Secretary 
of State and the Ambassador of China on Janu- 
ary 11, 1943, and a supplementary exchange of 
notes also concerning matters related to extra- 



territorial rights which was signed by them at 
the same time and which, according to its terms, 
is made an integral part of the treaty. 

I enclose for the information of the Senate 
a copy of the report of the Secretary of State 
laying the treaty before me, in which its pro- 
visions are reviewed. 

The two main objectives of the treaty, as 
pointed out in the concluding paragraph of the 
Secretary's report, are the abolition of the ex- 
traterritorial system in China and the regula- 
tion of certain related matters. The more im- 
portant among the latter are restated from the 
treaty and the exchange of notes in the report 
of the Secretary of State. 

The treaty and the exchange of notes have my 
approval. 

Accomplishment of the abolition of the extra- 
territorial system in China is a step in line with 
the expressed desires of the Government and 
the people of the United States. The spirit 
reflected by the treaty will, I am sure, be grati- 
fying to the Governments and the peoples of 
all the United Nations. 

I ask the advice and consent of the Senate to 
tlie ratification of the treaty, together with the 
exchange of notes which accompanies it. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



MARCH 20, 194S 



239 



[Enclosure 1] 

Report of the Secretary of State to the President 

January 18, 1943. 

The undersigned, the Secretaiy of State, has 
tlie honor to lay before the President, with a 
view to its transmission to the Senate to receive 
the advice and consent of that body to ratifica- 
tion, if his judgment approve thereof, a treaty 
and supplementary exchange of notes between 
tlie United States of America and the Republic 
of Cliina for the relinquishment of extraterri- 
torial rights in China and the regulation of re- 
lated matters. The treaty was signed at AVash- 
ington on January 11, 1943. 

This treaty constitutes an application in prac- 
tice of principles which are fundamental in our 
foreign policy. It represents the taking of a 
stej) to which this Government and the Cliinese 
Government have long looked forward. 

The treaty, which has now been signed, pro- 
vides for the relinquishment by this country of 
ext raterritorial and other special rights in China 
and stipulates that American nationals in China 
shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Chinese 
Government in accordance with the principles of 
international law and practice. If any ques- 
tion sliould arise in future, affecting rights of 
American nationals or of the American Govern- 
ment in China which are not covered by this 
treaty or by subsisting provisions of other 
treaties between the United States and China, 
these questions are to be decided in accordance 
with the principles of international law and 
practice. The treaty also provides that at a 
suitable time negotiations shall be entered into 
by the two countries for the conclusion of a com- 
prehensive modern treaty of friendship, com- 
merce, navigation, and consular rights. 

A similar treaty with supplementai-y ex- 
change of notes was signed by Great Britain 
with China on January 11, also, and other coun- 
tries have indicated their intention of taking 
action along the same lines. 

In brief summary, the more important mat- 
ters to which the treaty between the United 
States and China relates are the following : 

Under article I all those provisions of treaties 
or agreements which authorize this Government 

517695 — 43 3 



to exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction in Cliina 
are abrogated. 

Article II relates to the termination of Amer- 
ican rights under the Boxer Protocol of 1901, 
including the right to station troops between 
Peiping and the sea and rights in the diplomatic 
quarter at Peiping. Special provision is made 
in the treaty for the continued use by this Gov- 
ei'ument for official purposes of the land in the 
Diplomatic Quarter at Peiping which was allo- 
cated to the United States in accordance with 
that protocol and upon which stand buildings 
belonging to the United States Government in- 
cluding the buildings which formerly housed the 
American Embassy. 

Article III provides for the cessation of this 
Government's rights in relation to the interna- 
tional settlements at Shanghai and Amoy. 

Provision is made in articles II and III for 
cooperation between the United States and 
China for the reaching of any necessary agree- 
ments with other governments for the transfer 
to the Chinese Government of the administra- 
tion and control of the diplomatic quarter at 
Peiping and of the international settlements at 
Shanghai and Amoy, it being expressly under- 
stood that the Chinese Government in taking 
over such administration and control will pro- 
vide for the assumption and discharge of the 
official obligations and liabilities of the diplo- 
matic quarter and the settlements and for the 
recognition and protection of all legitimate 
rights therein. 

Article IV makes provision for the protection 
of existing rights and titles to real property in 
China held by American nationals, including 
corporations and associations, or by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, which might be 
affected by relinquishment of extraterritorial 
jurisdiction. 

In article V the Chinese Government agrees 
to accord to American nationals in China rights 
similar to those long accorded to Chinese na- 
tionals in the United States to travel, reside, 
and carry on trade throughout the whole extent 
of the United States. Hitherto, American and 
other foreign nationals in China have been sub- 
ject to restrictions upon the areas in which they 
might travel, reside, and carry on trade. In 



240 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJIXETDT 



article V, also, each country agrees to endeavor 
to have accorded to nationals of the other 
country treatment no less favorable than that 
enjoyed by its own nationals in regard to legal 
proceedings, the administration of justice and 
the levying of taxes. 

Article VI provides on a reciprocal basis for 
the enjoyment by the consular officers of each 
country in the territory of the other country 
of the rights, privileges, and immunities enjoyed 
under modern international usage, including the 
right to interview and to visit nationals who 
may be under detention or in prison. 

Article VII contains the provisions already 
referred to with regard to the negotiation of 
a comprehensive modern treaty and with regard 
to the settlement in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of international law and practice of any 
questions affecting the rights of American 
nationals or of the American Government which 
may arise in future. 

Article VIII provides for the ratification of 
the treaty and the exchange of ratifications and 
for entry into force on the day of the exchange 
of ratifications. 

The treaty is accompanied by an exchange of 
notes in which the United States relinquishes 
the special rights hitherto possessed by its naval 
vessels in Chinese waters, and special rights 
which vessels of the United States have had in 
relation to inland navigation and the coasting 
trade. Each country is to be accorded the rights 
which are customary and normal in modern in- 
ternational relations in regard to the admission 
of merchant vessels into ports open to overseas 
merchant shipping, the treatment of merchant 
vessels in such ports, and visits by naval vessels. 
If either country accords rights of inland navi- 
gation or coasting trade to vessels of any third 
country such rights would similarly be accorded 
to the vessels of the other country. In the light 
of the abolition of treaty ports as such, all 
coastal ports in Chinese territoi-y which are 
normally open to American overseas merchant 
shipping will remain open to such shipping after 
the coming into effect of the treaty. Provision 



is also made in the notes with regard to certain 
other matters, such as the continuing validity of 
past orders and decisions of the United States 
Court for China and the United States consular 
courts, and the disposition of cases pending be- 
fore such courts. 

This treaty between the United States and 
China is directed toward accomplishing two 
main objectives : First, the abolition of the extra- 
territorial system in China; and, second, the 
regulation of certain related matters, for which 
provision is made in a manner consonant with 
the long-established practices of this country. 

Respectfully submitted. 

CoRDELL Hull 



[Enclosure 2] 

Text of the Treaty'^ 

The United States of America and the Re- 
public of China, desirous of emphasizing the 
friendly relations which have long prevailed be- 
tween their two peoples and of manifesting 
their common desire as equal and sovereign 
States that the high principles in the regulation 
of human affairs to which they are committed 
shall be made broadly effective, have resolved to 
conclude a treaty for the purpose of adjusting 
certain matters in the relations of the two coun- 
tries, and have appointed as their Plenipoten- 
tiaries: 

The President of the United States of Amer- 
ica, 

Mr. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the 
United States of America, and 

The President of the National Government 
of the Republic of China, 

Dr. Wei Tao-ming, Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of 
China to the United States of America; 

Who, having communicated to each other 
their full powers found to be in due form, have 
agreed upon the following articles : 



' The text here printed conforms to the signed 
orisinal. 



MARCH 20, 1943 



241 



Akticle I 
All those provisions of treaties or agreements 
in force between the United States of America 
and the Republic of China which authorize the 
Government of the United States of America 
or its representatives to exercise jurisdiction 
over nationals of the United States of America 
in the territory of the Republic of China are 
hereby abrogated. Nationals of the United 
States of America in such territory shall be sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction of the Government of 
the Republic of China in accordance with the 
principles of international law and practice. 

Aeticle II 

The Government of the United States of 
America considers that the Final Protocol con- 
cluded at Peking on September 7, 1901, between 
the Chinese Government and other governments, 
including the Government of the United States 
of America, should be terminated and agrees 
that the rights accorded to the Government of 
the United States of America under that Pro- 
tocol and under agreements supplementary 
thereto shall cease. 

The Government of the United States of 
America will cooperate with the Government 
of the Republic of China for the reaching of 
any necessary agreements with other govern- 
ments concerned for the transfer to the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of China of the adminis- 
tration and control of the Diplomatic Quarter 
at Peiping, including the official assets and 
the official obligations of the Diplomatic 
Quarter, it being mutually understood that the 
Government of the Republic of China in tak- 
ing over administration and control of the 
Diplomatic Quarter will make provision for the 
assumption and discharge of the official obliga- 
tions and liabilities of the Diplomatic Quarter 
and for the recognition and protection of all 
legitimate rights therein. 

The Government of the Republic of China 
hereby accords to the Government of the United 
States of America a continued right to use 
for official purposes the land which has been 



allocated to the Government of the United 
States of America in the Diplomatic Quarter 
in Peiping, on parts of which are located build- 
ings belonging to the Government of the United 
States of America. 

Abticle III 

The Government of the United States of 
America considers that the International Set- 
tlements at Shanghai and Amoy should revert 
to the administration and control of the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic of China and agrees 
that the rights accorded to the Government of 
the United States of America in relation to 
those Settlements shall cease. 

The Government of the United States of 
America will cooperate with the Government 
of the Republic of China for the reaching of any 
necessary agreements with other governments 
concerned for the transfer to the Government 
of the Republic of China of tlie administration 
and control of the International Settlements at 
Shanghai and Amoy, including the official as- 
sets and the official obligations of those Settle- 
ments, it being mutually understood that the 
Government of the Republic of China in taking 
over administration and control of those Set- 
tlements will make provision for the assumption 
and discharge of the official obligations and lia- 
bilities of those Settlements and for the recogni- 
tion and protection of all legitimate rights 
therein. 

Article IV 

In order to obviate any questions as to exist- 
ing rights in respect of or as to existing titles 
to real property in territory of the Republic of 
China possessed by nationals (including cor- 
porations or associations), or by the Govern- 
ment, of the United States of America, particu- 
larly questions which might arise from the abro- 
gation of the provisions of treaties or agree- 
ments as stipulated in Article I, it is agreed 
that such existing rights or titles shall be inde- 
feasible and shall not be questioned upon any 
ground except upon proof, established through 
due process of law, of fraud or of fraudulent or 
other dishonest practices in the acquisition of 



242 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



such rights or titles, it being understood that no 
right or title shall be rendered invalid by virtue 
of any subsequent change in the official proce- 
dure through which it was acquired. It is also 
agreed that these rights or titles shall be sub- 
ject to the laws and regulations of the Republic 
of China concerning taxation, national defense, 
and the right of eminent domain, and that no 
such rights or titles may be alienated to the 
government or nationals (including corpora- 
tions or associations) of any third country with- 
out the express consent of the Government of 
the Republic of China. 

It is also agreed that if it should be the de- 
sire of the Government of the Republic of China 
to replace, by new deeds of ownership, existing 
leases in perpetuity or other documentary evi- 
dence relating to real property held by na- 
tionals, or by the Government, of the United 
States of America, the replacement shall be 
made by the Chinese authorities without 
charges of any sort and the new deeds of owner- 
ship shall fully protect the holders of such 
leases or other documentary evidence and their 
legal heirs and assigns without diminution of 
their prior rights and interests, including the 
right of alienation. 

It is further agreed that nationals or the 
Government of the United States of America 
shall not be required or asked by the Chinese au- 
thorities to make any payments of fees in 
connection with land transfers for or with rela- 
tion to any period prior to the effective date of 
this treaty. 

Article V 

The Government of the United States of 
America having long accorded rights to na- 
tionals of the Republic of China within the ter- 
ritory of the United States of America to travel, 
reside and carry on trade throughout the whole 
extent of that territory, the Government of the 
Republic of China agrees to accord similar 
rights to nationals of the United States of Amer- 
ica within the territory of the Republic of 
China. Each of the two Governments will en- 
deavor to have accorded in territory under its 



jurisdiction to nationals of the other country, 
in regard to all legal proceedings, and to matters 
relating to the administration of justice, and to 
the levying of taxes or requirements in connec- 
tion therewith, treatment not less favorable than 
that accorded to its own nationals. 
Abticle VI 

The Government of the United States of 
.Vmerica and the Government of the Republic 
of China mutually agree that the consular of- 
ficers of each country, duly provided with exe- 
quaturs, shall be permitted to reside in such 
ports, places and cities as may be agreed upon. 
The consular officers of each country shall have 
the right to interview, to communicate with, and 
to advise nationals of their country within their 
consular districts; they shall be informed im- 
mediately whenever nationals of their country 
are under detention or arrest or in prison or 
are awaiting trial in their consular districts and 
they shall, upon notification to the appropriate 
authorities, be permitted to visit any such na- 
tionals; and, in general, the consular officers of 
each country shall be accorded the rights, privi- 
leges, and immunities enjoyed by consular offi- 
cers under modern international usage. 

It is likewise agreed that the nationals of 
each coiuitry, in the territory of the other coun- 
try, shall have the right at all times to commu- 
nicate with the consular officers of their coun- 
try. Communications to their consular officers 
from nationals of each country who are under 
detention or arrest or in prison or are awaiting 
( rial in the territory of the other country shall 
be forwarded to such consular officers by the 
local authorities. 

Aeticle VH 
The Government of the United States of 
America and the Government of the Republic 
of China mutually agree that they will enter 
into negotiations for the conclusion of a com- 
prehensive modern treaty of friendship, com- 
merce, navigation and consular rights, upon the 
request of either Government or in any case 
within six months after the cessation of the hos- 



MARCH 20, 1943 



243 



tilities in the war against the common enemies 
in which they are now engaged. The treaty to 
be thus negotiated will be based upon the prin- 
ciples of international law and practice as re- 
flected in modern international procedures and 
in the modern treaties which the Government of 
the United States of America and the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of China respectively have 
in recent years concluded with other govern- 
ments. 

Pending the conclusion of a comprehensive 
treaty of the character referred to in the pre- 
ceding paragraph, if any questions affecting the 
rights in territory of the Republic of China of 
nationals (including corporations or associa- 
tions), or of the Government, of the United 
States of America should arise in future and if 
these questions are not covered by the present 
treaty, or by the provisions of existing treaties, 
conventions, or agreements between the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America and the 
Government of the Republic of China not abro- 
gated by or inconsistent with this treaty, such 
questions shall be discussed by representatives 
of the two Governments and shall be decided in 
accordance with generally accepted principles of 
international law and with modern international 
practice. 

AkticxjiVIII 

The present treaty shall come into force on 
the day of the exchange of ratifications. 

The present treaty shall be ratified, and the 
ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington 
as soon as possible. 

Signed and sealed in the English and Chinese 
languages, both equally authentic, in duplicate, 
at Washington, this eleventh day of January, 
one thousand nine himdred forty-three, corre- 
sponding to the eleventh day of the first month 
uf the thirty-second year of the Republic of 
China. 

CoRDELL Hull [seal] 
Wei Tao-mino [seal] 



[Enclosure 3] 

Supplement ary Exchange of Notes 

Chinese Embassy, 
Washington, January 11, 1943. 
Honorable Cordell Hull, 

Secretary of State. 

E.XCELLENCT : 

Under instruction of my Government, I have 
the honor to state that in connection with the 
treaty signed today by the Government of the 
Republic of China and the Government of the 
United States of America, in which the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America relin- 
quishes its extraterritorial and related special 
rights in China, it is the undei-standing of the 
Government of the Republic of China that the 
rights of the Government of the United States 
of America and of its nationals in regard to 
the systems of treaty ports and of special courts 
in the International Settlements at Shanghai 
and Amoy and in regard to the employment of 
foreign pilots in the ports of the territory of 
China are also relinquished. In the light of the 
abolition of treaty ports as such, it is understood 
that all coastal ports in the territory of the Re- 
public of China which are normally open to 
American overseas merchant shipping will re- 
main open to such shipping after the coming 
into effect of the present treaty and the accom- 
panying exchange of notes. 

It is mutually agreed that the merchant ves- 
sels of each country shall be permitted freely to 
come to the ports, places, and waters of the 
other country which are or maj' be open to over- 
seas merchant shipping, and that the treatment 
accorded to such vessels in such ports, places, 
and waters shall be no less favorable than that 
accorded to national vessels and shall be as 
favorable as that accorded to the vessels of any 
third country. 

It is mutually undei"stood that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America relin- 
quishes the special rights which vessels of the 
United States of America have been accorded 
with regard to the coasting trade and inland 
navigation in the waters of the Republic of 



244 

China and that the Government of the Republic 
of China is prepared to take over any Aniericiin 
properties that may have been engaged for those 
purposes and to pay adequate compensation 
therefor. Should either country accord the 
rights of inland navigation or coasting trade to 
vessels of any third country such rights would 
similarly be accorded to the vessels of the other 
coimtry. The coasting trade and inland navi- 
gation of each country are excepted from the re- 
quirement of national treatment and are to be 
regulated according to the laws of each country 
in relation thereto. It is agi-eed, however, that 
vessels of either country shall enjoy within the 
territory of the other country with respect to 
the coasting trade and inland navigation treat- 
ment as favorable as that accorded to the vessels 
of any third country. 

It is mutually understood that the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America relin- 
quishes the special rights which naval vessels 
of the United States of America have been ac- 
corded in the waters of the Republic of China 
and that the Government of the Republic of 
China and the Government of the United States 
of America shall extend to each other the mutual 
courtesy of visits by their warships in accord- 
ance with international usage and comity. 

It is mutually understood that questions 
which are not covered by the present treaty 
and exchange of notes and which may affect 
the sovereignty of the Republic of China shall 
be discussed by representatives of the two Gov- 
ernments and shall be decided in accordance 
with generally accepted principles of interna- 
tional law and with modern international 
practice. 

With reference to Article IV of the treaty, the 
Government of the Republic of China hereby 
declares that the restriction on the right of 
alienation of existing rights or titles to real 
property referred to in that article will be ap- 
plied by the Chinese authorities in an equitable 
manner and that if and when the Chinese Gov- 
ernment declines to give assent to a proposed 
transfer the Chinese Government will, in a spirit 
of justice and with a view to precluding loss 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtJLIiETIN 

on the part of American nationals whose in- 
terests are affected, imdertake, if the American 
party in interest so desires, to take over the right 
or title in question and to pay adequate compen- 
sation therefor. 

It is mutually understood that the orders, 
decrees, judgments, decisions and other acts of 
the United States Court for China and of the 
Consular Courts of the United States of Amer- 
ica in China shall be considered as res judicata 
and shall, when necessary, be enforced by the 
Chinese authorities. It is further understood 
that any cases pending before the United States 
Court for China and the Consular Courts of the 
United States of America in China at the time 
of the coming into effect of this treaty shall, if 
the plaintiff or petitioner so desires, be remitted 
to the appropriate courts of the Government of 
the Republic of China which shall proceed as 
expeditiously as possible with their disposition 
and in so doing shall in so far as practicable 
apply the laws of the United States of America. 

It is understood that these agreements and 
understandings if confirmed by Your Excel- 
lency's Government shall be considered as form- 
ing an integral part of the treaty signed today 
and shall be considered as effective upon the 
date of the entrance into force of that treaty. 

I shall be much obliged if Your Excellency 
will confirm the foregoing. 

I avail [etc.] Wei Tao-ming 



Department of State, 
Washington, Jamuary 11. 1943. 
His Excellency, Dr. Wei Tao-ming. 

Ambassador of China. 
Excellency : 

In connection with the treaty signed today 
between the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of the Republic 
of China in which the Government of the United 
States of America relinquishes its extraterri- 
torial and related special rights in China, I have 
the honor to acknowledge the i-eceipt of your 
note of today's date reading as follows : 

[Here follows the text of the above note from 
the Chinese Ambassador.] 



MARCH 20, 1943 



245 



I have the honor to confirm that the agree- 
ments and understandings which have been 
reached in connection with the treaty signed to- 
day by the Government of the United States 
of America and the Government of the Repub- 
lic of China are as set forth in the above note 
from Your Excellency. 

I avail [etc.] Cordell Hull 

Report of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations, February 11, 1.943 

The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 
having had under consideration Executive A, 
Seventy-eighth Congress, first session, a treaty 
between the United States of America and the 
Republic of China for the relinquishment of 
extraterritorial rights in China and the regu- 
lation of related matters signed at Washing- 
ton on January 11, 1943, and a supplementary 
exchange of notes also concerning matters re- 
lated to extraterritorial rights which was signed 
at the same time and which is made an integral 
part of the treaty, hereby report the same fa- 
vorably to the Senate without amendment with 
the recommendation that it advise and consent 
to its ratification. 

The system of extraterritorial jurisdiction in 
China began with the conclusion of treaties in 
1842 and 1843 between China and Great Brit- 
ain and a treaty in 1844 between China and the 
United States. In those treaties and in treaties 
later concluded between China, Great Britain, 
and the United States and many other coimtries, 
were provisions whereby nationals of the vari- 
ous foreign governments in China were made 
subject in most respects to courts of their own 
countries, those courts functioning under and 
according to the laws of their various countries 
respectively. 

Provisions similar to these had appeared ear- 
lier and have appeared later in treaties to which 
there have been parties on the one hand various 
Occidental countries and on the other hand, var- 
ious Oriental countries. Such provisions have 
in many cases been terminated during the past 
four decades, but in several cases some of such 
provisions still survive. 



At the time when provision for extraterri- 
torial jurisdiction was made in the treaties of a 
century ago — and in earlier times — adoption of 
those provisions was not construed as a deroga- 
tion of sovereignty. Extraterritorial jurisdic- 
tion was regarded as an expedient for the facili- 
tating of contacts and relations between parties 
and groups whose history, philosophy, political 
organization, jurisprudence, and administration 
of justice were widely dissimilar; it was in- 
tended to diminish friction, minimize causes of 
conflict, and contribute to maintenance of con- 
ditions of law and order. In the course of time 
there developed in connection with it various 
abuses, and it made possible some types and not 
a few cases of injustice ; but at the same time and 
on balance, it served usefully through many 
decades the essentially constructive and mutu- 
ally beneficial purposes for which it was in- 
tended. With the passage of time, however, 
conditions changed, and in the light of changes 
siicli steps as those that are now being taken 
toward bringing to an end this system in China 
have been regarded as logical developments in 
tlic interest of all countries concerned. 

Shortly after the beginning of the present 
century, there began to be discussion of discon- 
tinuing these provisions in treaties with China. 
AMicn there was concluded in 1903 a new com- 
mercial treaty between the United States and 
("liina, provision was made that the United 
States would be "prepared to relinquish extra- 
territorial rights (in China) when satisfied that 
the state of the Chinese laws, the arrangements 
for their administration, and other considera- 
tions warrant it in so doing."' A similar provi- 
sion appeared in a treaty between Great Britain 
and China concluded at approximately the same 
time. At the time of the Peace Conference in 
Paris, the question of extraterritorial jurisdic- 
tion was considered, and at that time the extra- 
territorial rights of the Central European 
Powers in China were terminated by the treaties 
whereby the peace settlement was effected. At 
the Washington Conference in 1921-22. there 
was adopted by the nine powers that were 
parties to that conference a resolution in conse- 
quence of and pursuant to which an Interna- 



246 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tiona] Conuiiission on Extraterritoriality went 
to China in 1925. made a study of the Chinese 
system of administration of justice, and sub- 
mitted, under date of September 16, 1926, a 
report thereon. 

In the period from 1903 to 1922 China was 
undergoing a period of transition which was 
marked by a change from empire to republic 
and by efforts of the republic to make its author- 
ity effective throughout China. Also, in this 
period normal international relations were dis- 
rupted by the First World War. 

From 1925 until 1928 the revolutionary move- 
ment in China gained impetus and culminated 
in 1927-28 in the establishment of the present 
government, tlic National Government of the 
Republic of China. 

In 1929 discussions were entered into be- 
tween China and each of several other countries, 
among which wei'e the United States and Great 
Britain, on the subject of extraterritorial juris- 
diction in China. By 1931 these discussions 
were far advanced when they were suspended in 
consequence of Japan's invasion of Manchuria. 
Japan's subsequent movements of aggression in 
Shanghai and in North China during the 
next few years made it not opportune to resume 
discussions of the matter with the Chinese 
Govenunent. 

In 1937 this Government was giving renewed 
favorable consideration to the question when 
Japan embarked on large-scale military opera- 
tions in China. Subsequently, there did not 
again develop until a number of months ago 
a situation deemed favorable to renewing nego- 
tiations on this subject. As soon as it became 
apparent that an opportune moment had again 
arrived, there were begun the conversations and 
negotiations which led to the signing of the 
treaty now under consideration. Such nego- 
tiations were carried on simultaneously between 
the American Government and the Chinese Gov- 
ernment and the British Government and the 
Chinese Government. Treaties similar in gen- 
eral character were signed between the Amer- 
ican and the Chinese Governments and the Brit- 
ish and the Chinese Governments respectively, 
on the same day, January 11, of this year. 



The purpose, the nature, and the conditions of 
the American-Chinese Treaty are set forth in 
the letter addressed by the Secretary of State 
to the President under date of January 18, 1943. 

This treaty was intended to be and is a brief 
and simple document. Its provisions are lim- 
ited to the two objectives of terminating the 
extraterritorial system in China and regulating 
certain related matters. Its political and legal 
purport is indicated in its preamble, which 
reads : 

"The United States of America and the Ee- 
public of China, desirous of emphasizing the 
fi-iendly relations which have long prevailed 
between their two peoples and of manifesting 
their common desire as equal and sovereign 
states that the high principles in the regula- 
tion of human affairs to which they are com- 
mitted shall be made broadly effective, have re- 
solved to conclude a treaty for the purpose of 
adjusting certain matters in the relations of the 
two countries," etc. 

In brief summaiy, the more important mat- 
ters to which the treaty between the United 
States and China relates are the following : 

Under article I all those provisions of treaties 
or agreements which authorize this Government 
to exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction in Cliina 
are abrogated. 

Article 11 relates to the termination of Amer- 
ican rights under the Boxer Protocol of 1901, 
including the right to station troops between 
Peiping and the sea and rights in the diplo- 
matic quarter at Peiping. Special provision 
is made in the treaty for the continued use by 
this Government for official purposes of the 
land in the Diplomatic Quarter at Peiping 
which was allocated to the United States in ac- 
cordance with that protocol and upon which 
stand buildings belonging to the United States 
Goverimient including the buildings which for- 
merly housed the American Embassy. 

Article III provides for the cessation of this 
Government's rights in relation to the inter- 
national settlements at Shanghai and Amoy. 

Provdsion is made in articles 11 and III for 
cooperation between the United States and 



MARCH 20, 1943 



247 



China for the reaching of any necessary agree- 
ments with other governments for the transfer 
to the Chinese Government of the administra- 
tion and control of the diplomatic quarter at 
Peiping and of the international settlements at 
Shanghai and Amoy, it being expressly under- 
stood that the Chinese Government in taking 
over such administration and control will pro- 
vide for the assumption and discharge of the 
official obligations and liabilities of the diplo- 
matic quarter and the settlements and for the 
recognition and protection of all legitimate 
rights therein. 

Article IV makes provision for the protection 
of existing rights and titles to real property 
in China held by American nationals, includ- 
ing corporations and associations, or by the 
Government of the United States, which might 
be affected by relinquishment of extraterritorial 
jurisdiction. 

In article V the Chinese Government agrees 
to accord to American nationals in China rights 
similar to those long accorded to Chinese na- 
tionals in the United States to travel, reside, and 
carry on trade throughout the whole extent of 
the United States. Hitherto, American and 
other foreign nationals in China have been sub- 
ject to restrictions upon the areas in which they 
might travel, reside, and carry on trade. In 
article V, also, each country agrees to endeavor 
to have accorded to nationals of the other coun- 
try treatment no less favorable than that en- 
joyed by its own nationals in regard to legal 
proceedings, the administration of justice and 
the levying of taxes. 

Article VI provides on a reciprocal basis for 
the enjoyment by the consular officers of each 
country in the territory of the other country 
of the rights, privileges, and immunities en- 
joyed under modern international usage, includ- 
ing the right to interview and to visit nationals 
who may be under detention or in prison. 

Article VII contains the provisions already 
referred to with regard to the negotiation of a 
comprehensive modern treaty and with regard 
to the settlement in accordance with the princi- 
ples of international law and practice of any 
questions affecting the rights of American na- 



tionals or of the American Government which 
may arise in future. 

Article VIII provides for the ratification of 
the treaty and the exchange of ratifications and 
for entry into force on the day of the exchange 
of ratifications. 

The treaty is accompanied by an exchange of 
notes in which the United States relinquishes 
the special rights hitherto possessed by its naval 
vessels in Chinese waters, and special rights 
which vessels of the United States have had in 
relation to inland navigation and the coasting 
trade. Each country is to be accorded the rights 
which are customary and normal in modern 
international relations in regard to the admis- 
sion of merchant vessels into ports open to over- 
seas merchant shipping, the treatment of mer- 
chant vessels in such ports, and visits by naval 
vessels. If either country accords rights of in- 
land navigation or coasting trade to vessels of 
any third country such rights would similarly 
be accorded to the vessels of the other country. 
In the light of the abolition of treaty ports as 
such, all coastal ports in Chinese territory which 
are normally open to American overseas mer- 
chant shipping will remain open to such ship- 
ping after the coming into effect of the treaty. 
Provision is also made in the notes with regard 
to certain other matters, such as the continuing 
validity of past orders and decisions of the 
United States Court for China and the United 
States consular courts, and the disposition of 
cases pending before such courts. 

The British-Chinese treaty is similar to this 
treaty both as regards the principal document 
and the supplementary exchange of notes. 
These two treaties pave the way for complete 
termination of the system of extraterritorial 
jurisdiction in China. Various other countries 
have during recent years either lost their ex- 
traterritorial provisions or indicated their in- 
tention of giving them up. Several countries 
are at present either negotiating with China on 
this subject or about to begin such negotiations. 

In line with the spirit of abrogation by the 
United States of extraterritorial rights in 
China, it is important to note that under articles 
2 and 3 of the treaty herein discussed, it is pro- 



248 

vided that tlie United States agrees to cooperate 
with Cliina in reaching agreements with other 
governments for the transfer to the Chinese 
Government of the administration and control 
of the Diplomatic Quarter at Peiping and of the 
administration and control of the International 
Settlement at Shanghai and Amoy. 

As stated by the President in his letter of 
transmittal, accomplishment of the termination 
of the extraterritorial system in China is a step 
in line with the expressed desires of the Govern- 
ment and the people of the United States, and 
the spirit reflected by the treaty will, it is be- 
lieved, be gratifying to the Governments and 
peoples of all the United Nations. 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreement With Greece Regarding Military 
Service by Nationals of Either Country 
Residing in the Other 

[Released to the press March 18] 

The following notes were exchanged between 
the Department of State and the Greek Ambas- 
sador at Washington in regard to the applica- 
tion of the Selective Training and Service Act 
of 1940, as amended, to Greek nationals in the 
United States, on the basis of reciprocity : ^ 

The Secretary of State to the Greek Minister 
At Washinc/ton 



Sir: 



March 31, 1942. 



I have the honor to inform you that the Selec- 
tive Training and Service Act of 1940, as 
amended, provides that with certain exceptions 
every male citizen of the United States and every 
other male person residing in the United States 

"Agreements on this subject are now in effect with 14 
countries (see the list printed in the Bulletin of Feb. 
20, 1943, p. 175). 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIiLETIN 

between the ages of 18 and 65 shall register. 
The Act further provides that, with certain 
exceptions, registrants within sjiccified age lim- 
its are liable for active military service in the 
United States armed forces. 

This Government recognizes that from the 
standpoint of morale of the individuals con- 
cerned and the over-all military effort of the 
countries at war with the Axis Powers, it would 
be desirable to permit certain classes of indi- 
viduals who have registered or who may register 
under the Selective Training and Service Act 
of 1940, as amended, to enlist in the armed forces 
of a co-belligerent country, should they desire 
to do so. It will be recalled that during the 
World War this Government signed conventions 
with certain associated jiowers on this subject. 
The United States Government believes, how- 
ever, that under existing circumstances the same 
ends may now be accomplished through admin- 
istrative action, thus obviating the delays inci- 
dent to the signing and ratification of conven- 
tions. 

This Government is prepared, therefore, to 
initiate a procedure which will permit aliens 
who have registered under the Selective Train- 
ing and Service Act of 1940, as amended, who 
are nationals of co-belligerent countries and 
who have not declared their intention of be- 
coming American citizens to elect to serve in 
the forces of their respective countries, in lieu 
of service in the armed forces of the United 
States, at any time prior to their induction into 
the armed forces of this country. Individuals 
who so elect will be physically examined by the 
armed forces of the United States, and if found 
physically qualified, the results of such exami- 
nations will be forwarded to the proper 
authorities of the co-belligerent nation for de- 
termination of acceptability. Upon receipt of 
notification that an individual is acceptable and 
also receipt of the necessary travel and meal 
vouchers from the co-belligerent government 
involved, the appropriate State Director of the 
Selective Service System will direct the local 



MARCH 20, 1943 

Selective Service Board having jurisdiction in 
the case to send the individual to a designated 
reception point for induction into active service 
in the armed forces of the co-belligerent coun- 
try. If upon arrival it is found that the indi- 
vidual is not acceptable to the armed forces of 
the co-belligerent countrj-, he shall be liable for 
immediate induction into the armed forces of 
the United States. 

Before tlie above-mentioned procedure will 
be made effective with respect to a co-belligerent 
country, this Department wishes to receive from 
the diplomatic representative in Washington of 
that country a note stating that his government 
desires to avail itself of the procedure and in 
so doing agrees that : 

(a) No threat or compulsion of any nature 
will be exercised by his government to induce 
any pei-son in the United States to enlist in the 
forces of any foreign government ; 

(b) Recijjrocal treatment will be granted to 
American citizens by his government; that is, 
prior to induction in the armed forces of his 
government they will be granted the opportu- 
nity of electing to serve in the armed forces of 
the United States in substantially the same man- 
ner as outlined above. Furthermore, his gov- 
ernment shall agree to inform all American cit- 
izens serving in its armed forces or former 
American citizens who may have lost their citi- 
zenship as a result of having taken an oath of 
allegiance on enlistment in such anned forces 
and who are now serving in those forces that 
they may transfer to the armed forces of the 
United States provided they desire to do so and 
provided they are acceptable to the anned forces 
of the United States. The arrangements for 
effecting such transfers are to be worked out by 
the appropriate representatives of the armed 
forces of the respective governments. 

(c) No enlistments will be accepted in the 
United States by his government of American 
citizens subject to registration or of aliens of 
any nationality who have declared their inten- 
tion of becoming American citizens and are 
subject to registration. 



249 

This Government is prepared to make the pro- 
posed regime effective immediately with respect 
to Greece upon the receipt from you of a note 
stating that your government desires to par- 
ticipate in it and agrees to the stipulations set 
forth in lettered paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) 
above. 

Accept [etc.] 

Sumner Welles 
Acting Secretary of State 

The Secretary of State to the Greek Ambassador 
At Washington 

February 8, 1943. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to the Department's 
note of March 31, 1942 and to subsequent con- 
versations had by officers of the Department 
with the Embassy on the subject of the pro- 
posed agreement with your country concerning 
the service of nationals of one country in the 
armed forces of the other country. 

In amplification of the Department's note of 
March 31, 1942 I may state that this Govern- 
ment is prepared, upon the conclusion of the 
proposed agreement, to grant to non-declarant 
Greek nationals serving in the armed forces 
of the United States, who did not previously 
have an opportunity of electing to serve in the 
forces of their own country, the privilege of 
applying for a transfer to the armed forces of 
Greece. Upon the conclusion of the agreement, 
the War Department is prepared to discharge, 
for the purpose of transferring to the armed 
forces of Greece, non-declarant Greek nationals 
serving in the United States forces who did not 
have a previous opportunity of opting for 
service with the Greek forces. I may also state, 
with reference to the second and third sentences 
of the third paragraph of the Department's note 
of March 31, 1942, that the details incident to 
carrying out the agreement may be modified 
in such manner as may be mutually agreeable, 
and to that end it is suggested that this sub- 
ject be discussed by officers of the Embassy with 
the appropriate agencies of the United States 



250 

Government upon the conclusion of the 
agreement. 

If your Government is desirous of entering 
into the proposed agreement, and you will for- 
ward to the Department a note conforming to 
the concluding paragraph of the Department's 
note of March 31, 1942, this Government is pre- 
pared to make the proposed regime effective 
immediately upon the receipt of such note. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretai-y of State: 

G. HowLAND Shaw 



The Greek Ambassador at Washington to the 

Secretary of State 
No. 431 Makch 2, 1943. 

Excellency : 

Eeferring to your Notes of March 31, 1942 and 
February 8, 1943, and to conversations between 
officials of the Greek Embassy and the Depart- 
ment of State regarding the application of the 
Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as 
amended, to Greek nationals in the United 
States and reciprocal treatment of American 
citizens serving in the Greek Army, in accord- 
ance with instructions of my Government I have 
the honor to accept the proposal as outlined in 
your aforesaid Notes and to advise that it agrees 
to do so under the conditions stated and with the 
stipulation set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), 
and (c) in your Note. 

I also wish to bring to the attention of Your 
Excellency that according to a Royal Decree 
Greek citizens belonging to the Navy reserves 
who are residing in the United States and who 
have not declared their intention to become citi- 
zens, are under obligation to register for service 
in the Royal Greek Navy at the Consular offices 
of Greece in this country. 

I shall highly appreciate it if you will advise 
me the names of tlie appropriate officers in the 
War Department and the Selective Service 
System with whom Greek officials may discuss 
all details incident to carrying out the agree- 
ment. 

Accept [etc.] C. Diamantopoulos 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLIaETIN 

The Secretary of State to the Greek Ambassador 
At Washington 

M.\RCH 16, 1943. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your note No. 431 of March 2, 1943, in which you 
state that your Government desires to enter into 
the agreement, proposed in the Department's 
notes of March 31, 1942 and February 8, 1943, 
concerning the services of nationals of one coun- 
try in the armed forces of the other country. 
You state that your Government agrees to the 
conditions and stipulations set forth in para- 
graphs (a), (b) and (c) of the Department's 
note of March 31, 1942. 

I take pleasure in informing you that this 
Government now considers the agreement with 
your Government as having become effective on 
March 2, 1943, the date on which your note under 
acknowledgment was received in the Depart- 
ment. The appropriate authorities of the 
United States Government have been informed 
accordingly, and I may assure you that this 
Government will carry out the agreement in the 
spirit of full cooperation with your Govern- 
ment. 

It is suggested that all the details incident to 
carrying out this agreement be discussed 
directly by officers of the Embassy with the 
appropriate officers of tlie War Department and 
of the Selective Service System. Lieutenant 
Colonel v. L. Sailor, of the Recruiting and In- 
duction Section, Adjutant General's Office, War 
Department, and Lieutenant Colonel S. G. 
Parker, of the Selective Service System, will be 
available to discuss questions relating to the 
exercise of the option prior to induction. The 
Inter Allied Personnel Board of the War De- 
partment, which is headed by Major General 
Guy V. Henry, is the agency with which ques- 
tions relating to the discharge of non-declarant 
nationals of Greece who may have been serving 
in the Army of the United States on the effective 
date of the agreement, and who desire to trans- 
fer to the Greek forces, may be discussed. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State : 

G. Howland Shaw 



MARCH 20, 1943 

MUTUAL AID 
Agreement With Mexico 

An agreement between the Governments of 
the United States and Mexico on the principles 
applying to mutual aid in the prosecution of the 
war against aggression was signed on March 18, 
1943 by Mr. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, 
and Sefior Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Najera, 
Ambassador of Mexico in Washington. 



251 



Legislation 



First Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1943. Conference 
Report. H. Rept. 249, 7Sth Cong., on H.R. 1975. 6 pp. 

Condemning outrages inflicted upon civilians in the 
Nazi-occupied countries and favoring punisliment of 
persons responsible therefor. H. Rept. 252, 78th 
Cong., on S. Con. Res. 9. 1 p. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price. 10 cents . - . - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OP THE DIEBCTOR OF THE BDEEAU OF THE BDDGET 



i 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



MARCH 27, 1943 
Vol. VIII, No. 196— Publication 1907 







ontents 




The War Paee 

The Position of Jews in North Africa 255 

Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations: 

Scope of Work 256 

Appointment of Chief Medical Officer 256 

The Refugee Problem 259 

Anniversary of Constitution of New Government in 

Yugoslavia 259 

The DepartiMent 

Horace G. White, Jr., Reported Missing at Sea . . . . 259 
American Republics 

Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 

Committee 260 

Embassy Rank for Representation Between the United 

States and Seven American Republics 263 

United States Mission of Labor Experts to Bolivia . . 264 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Repub- 

hcs 264 

Treaty Information 

Consular: Convention With Mexico 264 

The Foreign Service 

Resignation of Patrick J. Hm-ley 265 

Diplomatic Confirmations 265 

Legislation 265 

Publications 266 



y. &, SUKKINTENDEMT OF DOCUMENTS 
APR 101943 



The War 



THE POSITION OF JEWS IN NORTH AFRICA 



I Released to the press March 27] 

The following letter has been uddressed to 
Baron Edoiiard de Rothschild by the Under 
Secretary of State : 

March 27, 1943. 
Mr Deak Baron' de Rothschild : 

You will recall that last week you were good 
enough to send me the text of a statement which 
you had prepared for publication regarding the 
general position of the Jewish conununity in 
North Africa and, more particularly, the ab- 
rogation of the Cremieux Decree of 1870 in rela- 
tion to the speech made by General Giraud on 
March 14. 

I felt so strongly that your statement gave 
a completely erroneous picture of tlie position 
of Jews in North Africa and of General (linuid's 
measures in their behalf that I immediately tele- 
graphed a sunmiary of it to our representatives 
there. The following comment, prepared in con- 
sultation with an unbiased specialist familiar 
with the various legal points involved, lias ju.st 
been received. I hasten to send it to you in the 
belief that you will not wish to allow an erro- 
neous impression of the situation to prevail. 

"1. The laws relating to the Jews which were 
of Nazi inspiration were abolished by General 
Giraud by an ordinance of the fourteenth of 
the current month. The Jews are guaranteed 
the right to practice the liberal professions in- 
cluding the holding of public office, the right 
to own property and freely to manage their 
property, assets and all business enterprises, and 
the right to attend institutions of learning of 
all degrees. The Jew is no longer indicated as 



of a race apart in the civil registry records. By 
ordering the reinstatement of all public officials, 
agents and employees excluded because they 
were Jews, General Giraud effaced an odious 
past. The order that property sequestered un- 
der provisional administration would be re- 
stored to the Jews and that the sales of real 
property and other assets would be null and 
void was given with the same objective. Con- 
sequently, Baron de Rothschild's affirmation 
that the decisions of General Giraud are obscure 
and insufficient is unti'ue. 

"2. French citizenship is retained by Jews 
born in France or descendants of parents born 
in France. Baron de Rothschild's affirmation 
that they lose their citizenship is untrue. 

"3. Only native Algerian Jews are affected by 
the Cremieux decree. The Decree is abrogated 
but in the near future a procedure will be es- 
tablished whereby native Algerian Jews who 
desire to become citizens may acquire citizen- 
ship. It may be remembered that, following the 
precedent of 1914-1918, elections are deferred 
until the end of the war, that is to say until 
Metropolitan France is liberated. Conse- 
quently, native Algerian Jews who desire to 
participate in those elections will have ample 
time to become citizens. The affirmation of 
Baron de Rothschild that Jews will be unlaw- 
fully deprived of voting power is likewise abso- 
lutely untrue." 



Believe me, 

Yours very sincerely. 



Sumner Welles 



256 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULL.ETrN' 



OFFICE OF FOREIGN RELIEF AND REHABILITATION OPERATIONS 



Scope of Work 



The scope of the work of Herbert H. Lehman 
as Director of Foreign Belief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations has been defined in a letter from 
tlie President, the text of which is printed 
below : 

March 19, 1943. 
Mt Dear Governor : 

Pending the working out of final plans with 
our allies, I should like to define the scope and 
duties of your work as Director of the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation. 

You are authorized to plan, coordinate, and 
arrange for the administration of this Govern- 
ment's activities for the relief of victims of war 
in areas liberated from Axis control through 
the provision of food, fuel, clothing, and other 
basic necessities, housing facilities, medical and 
other essential services; and to facilitate in 
areas receiving relief the production and trans- 
portation of these articles and the furnishing of 
these services. 

In planning, coordinating and arranging for 
the administration of the above mentioned 
work, you may utilize the facilities of the vari- 
ous government departments, agencies and 
officials which are equipped to assist in this field 
and you may issue to them such directives as 
you deem necessary to achieve consistency in 



l^olicy and coordination in administration. You 
may also utilize the facilities of such private 
organizations and individuals as you may find 
helpful in your work. 

Your operations in any specific area abroad 
will, of course, be subject to the approval of the 
U. S. military commander in that area so long 
as military occupation continues, and in mat- 
tei's of general foreign policy you will be guided 
by the directives of the Secretary of State. 

Your work in the field will likewise need to 
be geared to tliat of our allies in accordance with 
agreements reached with regard to the adminis- 
tration of such functions in each area. Should 
a United Nations organization be established 
for providing relief and rehabilitation to vic- 
tims of war, the Office of Foreign Belief and 
Behabilitation will need adjustment to facili- 
tate that arrangement to the maximum extent 
possible. 

On your organization rests a grave respon- 
sibility and challenging opportunity to facili- 
tate the progress of the war and to relieve the 
deep suff'ering of those under Axis domination. 
I assure you of my full cooperation and that of 
Federal agencies in fields related to your own. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D Bocsevelt 



Appointment of Chief Medical Officer 



[Released to the press for publication Marcli 23, 9 p.m.] 

Tlie appointment of Dr. James A. Crabtree 
as Chief Medical Officer of the Office of Foreign 
Belief and Behabilitation Operations was an- 
nounced on March 23 by Mr. Herbert H. Leh- 
man, the Director. Mr. Lehman also an- 
nounced that three Public Health Service medi- 
cal officers have been assigned by his Office to 
North Africa and will depart for the field as 
soon as transportation facilities are available. 
The three Public Health Service officers are 
Drs. Dudley A. Beekie, Dorland J. Davis, and 



Michael L. Furcolow. Dr. Beekie is assigned 
as Chief Medical Adviser to Mr. Bobert L. 
Murphy, Chief Civilian Affairs Officer on the 
staff of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. 

Dr. Crabtree is assuming the post of Chief 
Medical Officer of the Office of Foreign Belief 
and Behabilitation Operations on loan from the 
United States Public Health Service. For the 
past two years he has served as secretary of the 
Health and Medical Committee of the Office of 
Defense Health and Welfare Services. Addi- 
tionally, he has been the Medical Consultant 



MARCH 27, 1943 

of the Office of Lcnd-Lease Administration for 
the hist six months, dealing; with professional 
problems concerning drugs, hospital, and medi- 
cal supplies. A graduate of Johns Hopkins 
School of Hygiene and Public Health, he served 
in the Tennessee State Health Department in 
a number of capacities and was Deputy Medical 
Director of the Tennessee Valley Authority. 
He was appointed to the Public Health Service 
in 1937. 

Mr. Lehman said that the dispatch of the 
tliree Public Health officers into the North 
African field will strengthen the personnel of 
the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
mission which has been in Algeria and French 
Morocco since Januar}'. Under the direction of 
Mr. Fred K. Hoehler, Director of Relief for 
North Africa, the Office is making preparations 
for extension of relief to distressed civilian 
populations in Tunisia. 

In announcing that Dr. Crabtree was becom- 
ing Chief Medical Officer of the Office of For- 
eign Relief and Rehabilitation Oj^erations Mr. 
Lehman said : 

"It is apparent that the control of epidemics 
is an integral part of the problems which con- 
front tlie OFRRO. Hunger and disease will be 
two major facts in any populations freed from 
enemy domination. These two horsemen alwaj-s 
follow in the wake of war. 

"The Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations has recognized from the outset 
the necessity of planning and executing an ex- 
tensive medical and health program in theaters 
of relief operations. Almost from the outset of 
our operations, the several governmental 
agencies concerned with the various aspects of 
public health and medical care were asked to 
provide their assistance. A number of these 
agencies have been working on these problems 
in advance of the creation of the Office of For- 
eign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations. 

"Accordingly, I created an Advisory Commit- 
tee on Health and Medical Care under the chair- 
manship of Surgeon General Thomas Parran, 
U.S. Public Health Service, and asked the 
heads of a number of other departments to 
assign representatives to sit on the Committee. 



257 

"In establishing this Committee, I asked it to 
undertake the following work: 

"1. To collect and analyze available infor- 
mation concerning disease prevalence 
and important health problems in areas 
which may be reoccupied by our armed 
forces ; 
"2. To appraise the epidemic and other dis- 
ease conditions which are likely to be 
an important part of relief and 
rehabilitation ; 
"3. To estimate the amount and kinds of 
essential health and medical supplies 
and equipment which must be pro- 
vided ; 
"4. To consider — at least in general terms — 
the numbers, skills, and potential 
sources of personnel needed to deal 
with epidemic and other health prob- 
lems; 
"5. To consider, in conjunction with appro- 
priate agricultural and other sources 
of information, the nutritional prob- 
lems ahead; 
"6. To advise the Director of Foreign Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation upon request 
concerning other aspects of public 
health as the occasion requires. 
"In addition to the chairman, Dr. Parran, the 
Committee now includes: Col. James S. Sim- 
mons, U.S. Army; Comdr. T. J. Carter, U.S. 
Navy ; Dr. Martha Eliot, Children's Bureau ; Dr. 
Alfred Colui, Board of Economic Warfare; 
Professor C.-E. A. Winslow, Yale University 
School of Medicine; Dr. Frank G. Boudreau, 
Director of the Milbank Memorial Fund; Mr. 
Selskar Gunn, Vice President of the Rockefeller 
Foundation; and Dr. Crabtree. 

"The fullest cooperation has been extended to 
my Office by all members of this Committee, both 
representatives of Government agencies and non- 
governmental experts." 

Dr. Boudreau formerly was Director of the 
Health Section of the League of Nations and 
was associated with the League for many years. 
Mr. Gunn was in charge of Rockefeller Founda- 
tion activities in Europe for many years, and 



258 

later was in charge of the Foundation's activi- 
ties in the Far East. He has spent 23 of the past 
25 years in foreign public-health work. The 
Rockefeller Foundation has loaned Mr. Gunn 
to the OFERO on a full-time basis as secretary 
of the Advisory Committee. Dr. Winslow, of 
Yale University, participated actively in the 
work of a number of the health committees of the 
League of Nations. 

In commenting on the preparatory work al- 
ready accomplished by the Advisory Committee, 
Mr. Lehman said: 

"The War Department has not only assigned 
Colonel Simmons as its representative on the 
Advisory Committee but has also designated 
Col. Ira V. Hiscock as Liaison Officer. 

"For many months the Lend-Lease Adminis- 
tration has been making an estimate of drugs 
and medical supplies which may be needed after 
the liberation of occupied countries. The full 
cooperation of the National Research Council 
has been available in this work. 

"The Children's Bureau is contributing tech- 
nical aid on child-care and maternity problems. 
Through Dr. Boudreau, of the Food and Nutri- 
tion Board of the National Research Council, 
the best scientific advice has been available con- 
cerning nutrition problems. 

"The American Red Cross is cooperating. 
Initial activities of the Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations in North Africa 
consisted of distribution of considerable supplies 
of powdered milk through child-feeding sta- 
tions, undertaken through the Red Cross. The 
Red Cross additionally has undertaken to supply 
certain laboratory and health supplies. 

"It was apparent that much necessary infor- 
mation concerning public-health problems in 
countries likely to be reoccupied already was 
available in various departments in Washington 
and in data compiled by the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation. This information has been assembled, 
digested, and interpreted country by country 
during recent months. 

"For many years the U.S. Public Health 
Service has assembled current reports on com- 
municable diseases through the offices of all 
American consuls. The Advisory Committee 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

on Health and Medical Care now has received 
this information, together with additional data 
available f i-om the Army and the Navy. 

"In order to deal with special problems, a 
number of subcommittees have been appointed. 
These include the following : 

"Nutrition, under the chairmanship of Dr. 
Boudreau and including Dr. Russell 
Wilder, Dr. W. H. Sebrell, Col. Paul 
E. Howe, Mr. Harold A. Vogel; 
"Sanitation of Environment, under the 
chairmanship of Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow, 
and including Mr. Abel AVolman, Col. 
William A. Hardenbergh. and Senior 
Sanitary Engineer Jolin J. Hoskins; 
"Maternal and Child Health, under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Martha Eliot, and 
including Dr. Henry F. Helmholz, Dr. 
Edwards A. Park, Dr. Nicholson J. 
Eastman, Dr. Clifford Grulee, and Dr. 
Joseph Stokes; 
"Tropical Diseases, under the chairman- 
ship of Colonel Simmons with other 
members to be selected later." 

Mr. Lehman said that Surgeon General Par- 
ran and members of his Committee have been in 
communication with a comparable group in 
Great Britain, which is organized under the 
Inter-Allied Post-War Requirements Com- 
mittee. 

"Uniform standard lists of essential drugs are 
being agreed upon and information is being ex- 
changed between my Committee and the Lon- 
don group", Mr. Lehman said. "Dr. Melville 
MacKenzie, chairman of the London group, has 
been invited to come to the United States for dis- 
cussions. Dr. Raymond Gautier, of Switzer- 
land, who is associated with the League of Na- 
tions, also has been invited to come here for a 
conference concerning health matters. 

"In the field of health, as in other sectors of 
the task of bringing relief and rehabilitation to 
the liberated peoples, it is apparent that there 
will be needed not only the full participation of 
governments but also of all voluntary agencies 
and foundations experienced in this field. The 
task will be so tremendous that even the com- 



MARCH 2 7, 1943 

bined efforts of government and private agencies 
will be unable to meet all the demands. 

"The task of healing the wounds of war 
should engage the full efforts of all the United 
Nations and all freedom-loving people every- 
where. When our victorious United Nations 
ai'mies complete the liberation of the suffering 
[jeoples, it will no longer be a question of how 
nuich we contribute out of our largess to aid 
the starving and the sick, but rather how com- 
pletely we are willing to share our limited joint 
resources to aid the sick and the starving." 



THE REFUGEE PROBLEM 

[Released to the press March 27] 

The Governments of the United States and 
Great Britain have agreed to hold at Bermuda 
the forthcoming meeting on the refugee prob- 
lem.^ The date of the meeting and the names 
of the representatives will be announced shortly. 



ANNIVERSARY OF CONSTITUTION OF 
NEW GOVERNMENT IN YUGOSLAVIA 

[Released to the press March 27] 

The President, on March 27, sent the follow- 
ing telegram to His Majesty Peter II, King of 
Yugoslavia, on the anniversary of the events 
two years ago in the course of which King Peter 
assumed power and a new Government, deter- 
mined to resist Axis pressure, was constituted. 
These events pi'eceded by just 10 days the in- 
vasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. 

March 27, 1943. 

I renew my message of friendship sent you a 
year ago on this memorable day. 

With defiant courage the Yugoslav people cast 
back the challenge of a powerful aggressor and 
chose, under your leadership, valiantly to main- 
tain their right to live as a free nation. This 
act still stands as a noble example of the prin- 
ciples our united arms are now defending. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



259 



The Department 



Bulletin of March 6, 1943, p. 202. 



HORACE G. WHITE, JR., REPORTED 
MISSING AT SEA 

[Released to the press March 20] 

Mr. Horace G. White, Jr., a divisional assis- 
tant in the Department of State who had been 
assigned abroad for special duty, has been re- 
ported missing at sea while en route to his post 
of duty. The Secretary of State has written 
to Mrs. White as follows: 

February 25, 1943. 
My De.\r Mrs. White : 

We in the Department have been waiting each 
day for possible further news of your husband 
and still have genuine hope that he may prove 
to be safe. Many of our soldiers and sailors 
who have long been reported missing are return- 
ing each day. But I do not wish to put off 
sending you some word in regard to him so that 
you may know how much he has been and is in 
the thoughts of his colleagues in the Depart- 
ment. 

During the ye^rs of his work in the Depart- 
ment he contributed to our effort to maintain 
the peace, and since Pearl Harbor, to our effort 
to win the war. He eagerly undertook the as- 
signment with the thought that the proper man- 
agement of economic affairs in the country of 
his assignment was an important factor in the 
usefulness of that country in our war effort. 
So that really he is in the ranks of our soldiers 
and sailors. His friends and working associates 
in the Department were drawn by his devoted 
sincerity, his ability, and his enthusiasm. We 
regarded him as one of the most promising 
younger members of our Department staff. We 
therefore share your sorrow and your hope that 
he may still return. 

Sincereh' yours, 

CoRDELL Hull 



American Republics 



INTER-AMERICAN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 



A message from the President of the United 
States, transmitting a report from the Secre- 
tary of State requesting the passage of legisla- 
tion authorizing the appropriation of such sums 
as may be necessary to pay the proportionate 
share of the United States in the annual expenses 
of the Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee, is printed below : 

December 3, 1942. 
To THE Congress of the UNrrEo States of 
America : 

I commend to the favorable consideration of 
the Congress the enclosed report from the Secre- 
tary of State to the end that legislation may 
be enacted to authorize the appropriation of 
such sums as may be necessary for the payment 
by the United States of its proportionate share 
in the annual expenses of the Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee. 
Franklin D Roose>-elt 

[Enclosure] 

The President : 

It has been abundantly demonstrated in the 
total warfare being waged throughout the world 
today that economic weapons are second in im- 
portance and effectiveness only to the tangible 
implements of war — guns, tanks, airplanes, and 
ships — which modern science has perfected. The 
American republics have devised a collective eco- 
nomic weapon in the Inter-American Financial 
and Economic Advisory Committee which 
serves as an offensive instrument for the de- 
struction of the enemies of democracy and free- 
dom and which is equally important in defend- 
ing the hemisphere from the same type of 
weapon wielded by the aggressor nations. 

The Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee was established by the Pan 
American Union in accordance with resolution 
III of the First Meeting of the Ministers of 



Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, held 
at Panama, Panama, in September and October 
1939, pursuant to agreements reached at the 
Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance 
of Peace and the Eighth International Confer- 
ence of American States. The full text of the 
resolution is enclosed for convenience of refer- 
ence.^ 

The Pan American Union installed the Com- 
mittee at Washington on November 15, 1939, 
when the Honorable Sumner Welles, the United 
States member, was elected the permanent 
Chairman. Administrative and clerical person- 
nel, as well as office quarters and supplies, have 
been furnished by the Pan American Union 
from its regular resources derived from the an- 
imal contributions of the states members. The 
Committee has met at regular intervals since the 
date of its inauguration and has undertaken a 
wide range of studies resulting in the formula- 
tion of a number of constructive recommenda- 
tions to the govei-nments of the 21 American 
republics. 

The Second Meeting of the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of the American Republics, held at 
Habana, Cuba, in July 1940, endoi'sed the work 
of the Committee and enlarged its functions 
as indicated in the following quoted section of 
resolution XXV, Economic and Financial Co- 
operation.^ 

'"''Three. Specifically, to instruct the said 
committee that it proceed forthwith: 

"(a) To cooperate with each country of this 
continent in the study of possible measures for 
the increase of the domestic consumption of its 
own exportable surpluses of those commodities 
which are of primary importance to the mainte- 
nance of the economic life of such countries : 



Not printed herein. See Bulletin of Oct. 7, 1939, 
p. 324. 
' BinxETTiN of Aug. 24, 1940, p. 142. 



MARCH 27, 



261 



"(b) To propose to the American nations im- 
mediiite measures and arrangements of mutual 
benefit tending to increase trade among them 
without injury to the interests of their respective 
producers, for the purpose of providing in- 
creased markets for such products and of ex- 
panding tlieir consumption; 

"(c) To create instruments of inter-Ameri- 
can cooperation for the temporary storing, fi- 
nancing, and handling of any such commodities 
and for their orderly and systematic marketing, 
having in mind the normal conditions of pro- 
duction and distribution thereof; 

"(d) To develop commodity arrangements 
with a view to assuring equitable terms of trade 
for both producers and consumers of the com- 
modities concerned; 

"(e) To recommend methods for improving 
the standard of living of the peoples of the 
Americas, including public health and nutrition 
measures ; 

"(f) To establish appropriate organizations 
for the distribution of a part of the surplus of 
any such commodity, as a humanitarian and 
social relief measure; 

"(g) To consider, while these plans and 
measures are being developed, the desirability 
of a broader system of inter-American coopera- 
tive organization in trade and industrial mat- 
ters, and to propose credit measures and other 
measures of assistance which may be immedi- 
ately necessary in the fields of economics, fi- 
nance, money, and foreign exchange." 

The importance of the Committee's role in 
meeting effectively the problems of economic 
dislocation resulting from world-wide hostili- 
ties was further recognized by the Third Meet- 
ing of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the 
American Republics, held at Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, in January 1942, which adopted several 
resolutions and recommendations assigning spe- 
cific additional tasks to the Committee, includ- 
ing the following : ^ 

(1) The formulation of a general plan for 
hemispheric economic mobilization and the 



' Bltlletin of Feb. 7, 1942, pp. 117-141. 



preparation and periodic revision of a list of 
basic and strategic materials (resolution II, 
Production of Strategic Materials). 

This resolution also provided that in order to 
enable the Committee to carry out the new 
duties entrusted to it, its means of operation be 
expanded immediately and that it be empowered 
to request the American governments to exe- 
cute inter- American economic agreements which 
they had previously approved. 

(2) The improvement and expansion of in- 
ter-American communication facilities — air, 
maritime, land, inland waterway — and the full 
mobilization of transportation facilities (reso- 
lution IV, Mobilization of Transportation 
Facilities). 

(3) The strengthening of the Inter-^Vnierican 
Development Connnission which had been cre- 
ated by the Financial and Economic Advisoi-y 
Committee for the purpose of mobilizing the 
economic forces of the American nations, and 
the creation of a permanent body of technical 
experts to study the natural resources of each 
country when so requested by its government 
(resolution VIII, Inter- American Development 
Commission). 

(4) To serv'e as the recipient of decisions by 
the American governments concerning adher- 
ence to the Convention for the Establishment 
of an Inter- American Bank (resolution X, 
Inter- American Bank). 

(5) The encouragement of capital invest- 
ments by any of the American republics in one 
of the othei-s, requesting the various govern- 
ments to adopt the measures necessary to facili- 
tate the flow and protection of such investments 
within the continent (resolution XI, Invest- 
ment of Capital in the American Republics) . 

(6) Cooperation within its specialized field 
with the Pan American Union and the Inter- 
American Juridical Committee in the fonnula- 
tion of specific recommendations for considei'a- 
tion at the proposed Inter-American Teclinical 
Economic Conference which is to be convoked 
by the Pan American Union to study current 
and post-war economic problems (resolution 
XXV, Post-war Problems). 



262 

(7) The convocation of a conference of repre- 
sentatives of the central banlcs or equivalent or 
analofrous institutions for the purpose of de- 
tiTminating the standards of procedure for the 
uniform handling of bank credits, collections, 
contracts of lease, and consignments of mer- 
chandise involving real or juridical persons or 
nationals of a state which has committed an act 
of aggression against the American continent. 
This conference was held at "Washington, D.C., 
from June 30 to July 10, 1942,^ and resulted in 
important understandings concerning a pressing 
problem which is faced by both belligerent and 
nonbelligerent American states (resolution VI, 
Conference to Standardize Procedure in Bank- 
ing Operations Relating to Nationals of 
Aggressor Countries). 

The above-mentioned Inter-American Con- 
ference on Systems of Economic and Financial 
Control ^ was the second large international 
meeting convoked by the Financial and Eco- 
nomic Advisory Committee, the first having 
been the Inter- American Maritime Conference, 
which was held at Washington, D. C, in Novem- 
ber and December 19i0.-' The latter conference 
gave detailed and constructive consideration to 
the national regulation of maritime services, the 
readjustment of international shipping services 
to meet the problem of dislocations resulting 
from war conditions in Europe, and expansion 
and improvement of inter-American shipping 
facilities. Both of these conferences fulfilled 
in their respective fields an urgent need for 
international consultation and action concerning 
serious problems arising from the emergency 
situation. It is generally agreed that each was 
successful not only in attaining its specific objec- 
tives but also in advancing inter-American 
cooperation and solidarity. 

Additional outstanding accomplishments of 
tlie Committee include — 



' Bulletin of June 27, 1942, p. 567, and of July 4, 
1942, p. 580. 

' Bulletin of Sept. 21, 1940, p. 224 ; of Nov. 30, 1940, 
p. 461 ; and of Dw. 7, 1940, p. 516. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

(1) The drafting of the convention, charter, 
and bylaws of the Inter-American Bank.^ A 
niuiiber of the American republics have already 
adhered to the convention which is still open for 
signature. 

(2) Establishment of the Inter-American De- 
velopment Commission. 

(3) Studies resulting in the inter- American 
coffee agreement * which is designed to stabilize 
the coffee market in a manner equitable both to 
producers and to consumers. 

(4) Study and action to carry out the 12 reso- 
lutions of the Inter-American Maritime Con- 
ference convoked by the Committee. 

(5) The study and redrafting of a previously 
prepared Convention on the Simplification and 
Unification of Customs Procedures and Port 
Formalities and the formulation of recommen- 
dations to the American republics on this gen- 
eral subject. 

(6) The approval and submission to the 
American republics of a Draft Convention on 
Facilities for Commercial Travelers and Com- 
mercial Samples. 

(7) Special studies of topics related to cotton, 
cocoa, financing of the Pan American Highway, 
and the relief distribution of surplus commodi- 
ties. 

(8) A recormnendation to the governments of 
the American republics, which was approved 
unanimously, that legislation and systems of 
control be adopted regulating all exports and 
imports in each country. In this connection, 
the Committee has served as a clearing house 
for information on all matters relating to meas- 
ures taken by the United States prior to Decem- 
ber 1941 regarding export and import control, 
priorities and quotas, foreign trade policies, dis- 
tribution of strategic products, et cetera. 

(9) The study and recommendation of a plan 
for the effective use of more than 100 vessels, 
principally Italian and German, which had been 
immobilized in American ports and which are 

' Bulletin of Mar. 10, 1940, p. 305, and of May 11, 
1940, p. 512. 

* Treaty Series 970 and 979. 



MARCH 27, 194J 



263 



now being operated under this formula in the 
service of the inter-American trade. 

(10) The formulation of recommendations 
concerning tariffs de^signed to assure the sound 
promotion of inter- American trade. 

(11) The creation as a dependency of the 
Committee of the Inter-American Maritime 
Technical Commission which meets regularly to 
study current shipping problems. 

(12) The preparation of a recommendation 
to the American governments that publication 
of statistical data on strategic and vitally im- 
portant products be discontinued except for 
especially authorized official purposes. 

The Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee was especially established 
as an integral part of the inter-^Vmerican or- 
ganization to meet a particular situation and is 
assuming an increasingly important role in the 
concerted efforts of the American republics to 
face with the utmost determination and unity 
of purpose the crisis tlu-ough which the hemi- 
sphere is now passing. During the 3 years of its 
existence, the Committee lias fully demonstrated 
its effectiveness as a powerful instrumentality 
for the protection of the inter-American eco- 
nomic structure during this period of great 
danger to the ideals and way of life of the West- 
ern Hemisphere democracies. It is imperative, 
therefore, that the 21 American republics con- 
tinue to encourage and assist the Committee in 
every appropriate way in the discharge of its 
manifold responsibilities. 

The Chairman of the Committee addressed a 
communication to the Secretary of State under 
date of August 31, 1942, indicating that in order 
to assure adequate resources and facilities for 
the efficient performance of its expanding duties, 
the Committee has decided to establish a sepa- 
rate annual budget thus relieving the Pan Amer- 
ican Union of an increasingly heavy financial 
burden. There is enclosed a copy of Mi". Welles' 
letter transmitting the text of the Committee's 
resolution appending tables indicating the pop- 
ulation and annual quotas of the respective 
countries and the anticipated disbursements for 



the first fiscal year, starting on July 1, 1942. 
It will be observed that the budget in the sum 
of $42,265.85 per annum is bused upon an an- 
nual contribution by each of the 21 American 
republics at the rate of 15 cents United States 
currency per 1,000 inhabitants. Under this 
formula the share of the United States would 
be $22,810 per aninnn. The Department is of 
the opinion that the Committee has adjusted its 
annual budget to conform with the strictest 
standards of economy compatible with the effi- 
cient discliarge of its duties and responsibilities. 

The Ignited States lias consistently and whole- 
heartedly extended its cooperation and facilities 
in furtherance of the Committee's work which 
has been carried on under the leadership of a 
high official of this Government. The activities 
of the Committee constitute an indispensable 
supplement to the all-out war effort of the 
United States and should be supported with the 
same realistic determination that characterizes 
our military contribution to the world-wide 
struggle against totalitarianism. 

I have the honor, therefore, to recommend 
that the Congress be requested to authorize the 
a])propriation of such sums as may be necessary 
for the payment by the United States of its 
projjortionate share in the annual expenses of 
the Inter- American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee. 

A draft of the proposed legislation is en- 
closed for your convenience.^ 

Respectfully submitted. 

CORDELL Hrix 

Department of State, 
December 1, 19A2. 



EMBASSY RANK FOR REPRESENTATION 
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 
SEVEN AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press March 23] 

The Governments of Costa Rica, the Domini- 
can Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States 



Not printed herein. 



264 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETm 



announced on March 23 that arrangements have 
been made whereby the Legations maintained 
by the above-named American republics in 
the United States and the respective Legations 
of the United States in those countries will be 
elevated to the rank of Embassy. The change 
in status will become effective with respect to 
each diplomatic mission upon the presentation 
of the letters of credence of the first Ambas- 
sador to become chief of that mission. 

As a result of the exchange of Ambassadors 
between the United States and the 7 other 
American republics named, all the diplomatic 
missions of the 20 other American republics in 
the United States, and all United States diplo- 
matic missions to the other American republics, 
will hereafter be embassies. This, besides sig- 
nifying the steady strengthening of the bonds 
of friendship, culture, and commerce among the 
American republics concerned, gives formal rec- 
ognition to the democratic principle of juridical 
equality that governs the mutual relations of 
all the American republics. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press March 23] 

Dr. Rodulfo Brito Foucher, rector of the 
National University of Mexico and former dean 
of the law school of that institution, and Sefiora 
Brito Foucher arrived in Washington on March 
21. He is visiting the United States at the invi- 
tation of the Department of State and expects 
to visit universities in this country during his 
stay here. 



Treaty Information 



CONSULAR 
Convention With Mexico 



UNITED STATES MISSION OF LABOR 
EXPERTS TO BOLIVIA 

[Released to the press March 23] 

The Mission of Labor Experts, headed by the 
Honorable Calvert Magruder, United States 
Circuit Judge, sent to Bolivia by tliis Govern- 
ment at the request of the Bolivian Government 
to study labor conditions in that country in 
conjunction with a similar group of Bolivian 
experts has now returned to this country.^ 

A joint report of the United States and Bo- 
livian labor experts was submitted to the Bo- 
livian Government on March 14, 1943. 



'BuiXETiN of Jan. 
134. 



1SM.3, p. 107, and of Feb. 6, 1943, 



On March 26, 1943 the President ratified the 
convention between the United States and 
Mexico defining the duties, rights, privileges, 
exemptions, and immunities of consular officers 
of each country in the territory of the other 
country, signed at Mexico City on August 12, 
1942. 

The convention will take effect in all its pro- 
visions the 30th day after the day of the ex- 
change of ratifications, which will take place 
in Mexico City, and it will continue in force for 
a term of 5 years. If 6 months before the ex- 
piration of the period of 5 yeare neither party 
has given notice of an intention to modify by 
change or omission any of the provisions of any 
of the articles of the convention or of termi- 
nating the convention upon the expiration of the 



MARCH 27, 1943 

5-year period, the convention will continue in 
effect until 6 months from the date on which 
the Government of either High Contracting 
Party shall have notified to the Government of 
the other High Contracting Party an intention 
of modifying or terminating the convention. 



The Foreign Service 



RESIGNATION OF PATRICK J. HURLEY 

(lipleased to the press by the White House March 23] 

On March 23 the President accepted the resig- 
nation of Brig. Gen. Patrick J. Hurley as Min- 
ister to New Zealand, in a letter addressed to 
General Hurley, the text of which follows : 

"The Acting Secretary of State has referred 
to me your letter of March fourth offering your 
resignation as Minister to New Zealand in order 
for you to accept the new duties which I have 
assigned to you. 

"In accepting your resignation as Minister to 
New Zealand, I wish you to know how very 
much I appreciate all that you have done in 
furthering the very happy relationships that 
exist between our people and the people of New 
Zealand." 

General Hurley submitted his resignation in 
a letter addressed to the Secretary of State, the 
text of which follows : 

"The duties which I am assmning today un- 
der the direction of the President will make it 
impossible for me to return as Minister to New 
Zealand, at least for a great period of time. 

"Owing to these circumstances it is with re- 
gret that I hereby tender my resignation as 
Minister to New Zealand, to be effective at your 



265 

pleasure. In my service as Minister I enjoyed 
the most complete and helpful cooi^eration of 
yourself and all of the officers of your Depart- 
ment. 

"On leaving this post I cannot refrain from 
expressing to you the deep sentiments of fellow- 
ship, kinship, and unity of ide^als that I ex- 
jjerienced among the officials and the people of 
New Zealand. As a people and as a Dominion 
New Zealand has never committed a crime. 
That Dominion has the fairest history of any 
of the English-si^eaking nations and I think 
of any nation in the world. In the century of its 
existence New Zealand has always endeavored 
to apply the Golden Rule to tlie solution of its 
problems. The record of New Zealand is one 
to which the English-speaking people all over 
the world may justly pohit with pride." 



DIPLOMATIC CONFIRMATIONS 

On March 26, 1943 the Senate confirmed the 
nominations of the following officers as Ambas- 
sadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
the United States at the posts indicated : Boaz 
Long, Guatemala; Robert M. Scotten, Ecuador; 
Fay A. Des Portes, Costa Rica ; James B. Stew- 
art, Nicaragua; Walter Thui-ston, El Salvador; 
John D. Erwin, Honduras; Avra M. WaiTen, 
Dominican Republic; John Campbell Wliite, 
Haiti. 



Legislation 



Annual Expense of Inter-American Financial and 
Economic Advisory Committee. H. Kept. 298, 
78th Cong., on H.J. Res. 15. 8 pp. 



266 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Authorizing the Execution of Certain Obligations Under 
the Treaties of 1903 and 1936 With Panama, and 
Other Commitments: 
Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
House of Kepreseiitatives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., 
on H.J. Res. 14. March 16, 1943. 12 pp. 
H. Rept. 271, 78th Cong., on H.J. Res. 14. [Includes 
message from the President to the Congress 
dated August 13, 1942, transmitting a request 
for the authorization of the execution of certain 
obligations under the treaties.] 11 pp. 
Participation by the United States in the Emergency 
Advisory Committee for Political Defense. H. 
Rept. 299, 78th Cong., on H.J. Res. 16. [Includes 
report dated December 1, 1942, from the Secretary 
of State to the President.] 2 pp. 
First Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1943 : An Act Mak- 
ing appropriations to supply deficiencies in certain 
appropriations for the fiscal year ending Juue 30, 



1943, and for prior fiscal years, to provide supple- 
mental appropriations for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1943, and for other purposes. [Appro- 
priates the following sums: Emergencies arising in 
the diplomatic and consular service, $3,000,000; 
transportation, Foreign Service, $850,000 ; oflSce and 
living quarters allowances. Foreign Service, $200,- 
000 ; representation allowances. Foreign Service, 
$35,000; miscellaneous salaries and allowances. 
Foreign Service, $150,000; contingent expenses. 
Foreign Service, $2,100,000 ; American Mexican 
Claims Commission, $700,000; U. S. contributions 
to international commissions, congresses, and bu- 
reau.s, $63,405; salaries and expenses. Interna- 
tional Boundary Commission, United States and 
Mexico, $300,000; cost of living allowances. For- 
eign Service, $200,000; Foreign Service, auxiliary 
(emergency), .$491,000.] Approved March 18, 
1943. [H.R. 1975.] Pulilic Law 11, 78th Cong. 
23 pp. 



Publications 



Depahtment of State 

During the quarter beginning January 1, 1943 
the following publications were released by the 
Department : ^ 

1836. Reciprocal Trade: Agreement and Supplemental 
Exchanges of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Peru— Signed at Washington May 7, 
1942; effec'tive July 29, 1942. Executive Agreement 
Series 256. 37 pp. 100. 

1839. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1928, Volume I. cxxiii, 1,057 pp. 
$2.25 (cloth). 

1840. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1928, Volume II. csiv, 1,024 pp. $2 
(cloth). 

1841. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1928, Volume III. cvi, 1,006 pp. 
$2 (cloth). 

1847. Principles Governing the Provision of Reciprocal 
Aid in the Prosecution of the War: Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Fighting 
Prance — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
London September 3, 1942. Executive Agreement 
Series 273. 3 pp. 50. 



' Serial numbers which do not appear in this list have 
appeared previously or will appear in subsequent lists. 



1848. The United Nations: Their Creed for a Free 
World. Address by Sumner Welles, Under Secretary 
of State, before the New York Herald Tribune Forum, 
November 17, 1942. 7 pp. 5(t. 

1853. Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 
1931-1941. 144 pp. 250. 

1854. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VII, no. 

183, December 26, 1942. 16 pp. lO^'." 

18.55. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

184, January 2, 1943. 11 pp. 100. 

1856. Commercial Relations : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and the Dominican Repub- 
lic Relating to Waiver in Respect of Tariff Prefer- 
ences Accorded Haiti by the Dominican Republic 
Under a Treaty of Commerce Between the Dominican 
Republic and Haiti Signed August 26, 1941, as Modi- 
fied by an Exchange of Notes Signed March 24, 1942 — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed November 14, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 274. 4 pp. 50. 

18.57. Register of the Department of State. October 1, 
1942. vi, 328 pp. 400. 

1858. Diplomatic List, January 1943. ii, 105 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 

1859. Defense Areas: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Liberia — Signed at Monrovia 
March 31, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 275. 
4 pp. 50. 



' Subscription, $2.75 a year. 



MARCH 2 7, 194 3 



267 



\ 



1860. Publications of the Dcpaitnieiit of State (a list 
cumulative from October 1, 1929). January 1, 1943. 
iii, 34 pp. Free. 

1861. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VII, no. 
183a, December 26, 1942, Supplement : Trade Agree- 
ment With Mexico. 55 pp. 100. 

1862. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals: Cumulative Supplement No. 3. January 16, 
1943, Containing Additions, Amendments, and Dele- 
tions Made Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. 
45 pp. Free. 

1863. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

185, January 9, 1943. 22 pp. 100. 

1864. National Socialism : Basic Principles, Their Ap- 
plication by the Nazi Party's Foreign Organization, 
and the Use of Germans Abroad for Nazi Aims, vi, 
510 pp. $1 (paper). 

1865. Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment 
Insurance in Connection With Construction Projects 
in Canada: Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Canada — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed November 2 and 4, 1942. Executive 
Agreement Series 279. 6 pp. 50. 

1866. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

186, January 16, liMS. 45 pp. 100. 

1867. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

187, January 23, 1943. 10 pp. 100. 

1868. Foreign Service List. January 1, 1!>13. iv, 126 
pp. Subscription, 500 a year; single copy, 150. 

1869. Naval Mission: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Colombia Continuing in Effect 
the Agreement of November 23, 1938— Effected by 
exchange of notes signed September 22 and No- 
vember 5, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 280. 
3 pp. 50. 

1870. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

188, January 30, 1943. 24 pp. 100. 

1871. Reciprocal Trade: Agreement and Supplemental 
Exchanges of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Argentina — Signed at Buenos Aires Oc- 
tober 14, 1941 ; effective definitively January 8, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 277. 85 pp. 150. 

1S72. Temporary Migration of Mexican Agricultural 
Workers: Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Mexico — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed August 4, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 
278. 13 pp. 100. 

1873. Diplomatic List, February 1943. ii, 105 pp. Sub- 
scription, .$1 a year ; single copy, 100. 

1874. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked ^Na- 
tionals: Cumulative Supplement No. 4, February 12, 
1943, Containing Additions, Amendments, and Dele- 
tions Made Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. 
61 pp. Free. 

1875. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

189, February 6, 1943. 27 pp. 100. 



1876. Detail of Military Oflieer To Serve as Director of 
the Military School and of the Military Academy of 
El Salvador: Agreement Between the United States 
of America and El Salvador Extending the Agreement 
of March 27, 1941 — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed October 14 and November 24, 1942. Executive 
Agreement Series 281. 3 pp. 50. 

1877. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, 
no. 190, February 13, 1943. 19 pp. 100. 

1878. Agricultural Exixriment Station in Nicaragua: 
Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Nicaragua Approving Memorandum of Under- 
standing Signed July 15, 1942 — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed October 12 and 27, 1942; effective 
July 15, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 286. 
5 pp. 50. 

1879. Agricultural Exiicriment Station in Ecuador: 
Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Ecuador Approving Memorandum of Understand- 
ing Signed August 12, 1942 — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed October 20 and 29, 1942 ; effective August 
12, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 284. 10 pp. 50. 

1880. Reciprocal Trade : Agreement and Supplemental 
Exchanges of Notes Between the United States of 
America and Uruguay — Signed at Montevideo July 
21, 1942 ; effective January 1, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 276. 65 pp. 100. 

1881. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

191, February 20, 1943. 13 pp. 100. 

1882. Certain Problems of Marine Transportation and 
Litigiition : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, and Exchange of Notes — 
Agreement signed at London December 4, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 282. 5 pp. 50. 

1583. Post-War Economic Settlements: Exchange of 
Notes Between the United States of America and 
Canada — Signed November 30, 1942. Executive 
Agreement Series 287. 3 pp. 50. 

1584. Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. 
VII, nos. 158-183A, July 4-December 26, 1042. 23 pp. 

Free. 

18SG. Haitian Finances : Arrangement Between the 
United States of America and Haiti— Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington September 
17 and 21, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 290. 
2 pp. 50. 

1S88. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VII I, no. 

192, February 27, 1943. 21 pp. 100. 

1890. Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries Between Peru 
and Ecuador : Protocol Between Peru and Ecuador 
(signed also by representatives of the United States 
of America, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)— Signed 
at Rio de Janeiro January 29, 1&42 ; approved by the 
Congresses of Ecuador and Peru February 26, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 288. 7 pp. 50. 



268 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1891. Rehabilitation of Certain Mexican National Rail- 
ways : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Mexico — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Mexico City November 18, 1942. Executive 
Agreement Series 289. 7 pp. 50. 

1892. Diplomatic List, March 1943. ii, 106 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 

1893. The Reciprocal-Trade-Agreements Program in 
War and Peace. Commercial Policy Series 73. 10 
pp. 50. 

1895. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nation- 
als: Cumulative Supplement No. 5, March 13, 1943, 
Containing Additions, Amendments, and Deletions 
Made Since Revision IV of November 12, 1942. 81 pp. 
Free. 

1896. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 
193, March 6, 1943. 14 pp. 100. 

1899. Inter-American Highway : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Nicaragua — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Washington April 8, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 295. 3 pp. 5^. 



1900. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

194, March 13, 1943. 13 pp. 100. 

1904. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, no. 

195, March 20, 1943. 25 pp. 100. 

Treatt Semes : 

981. Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere : Convention Between the 
United States of America and Other American Re- 
publics, and Annex — Convention opened for signature 
at the Pan American Union at Washington October 
12, 1940; signed for the United States of America 
October 12, 1940; proclaimed by the President of the 
United States April 30, 1942. 77 pp. 150. 

982. Uniformity of Powers of Attorney To Be Utilized 
Abroad : Protocol Between the United States of Amer- 
ica and Certain Other American States— Opened for 
signature at the Pan American Union at Washington 
February 17, 1940 ; signed for the United States of 
America, ad referendum, October 3, 1941 ; proclaimed 
by the President May 22, 1942. 24 pp. 50. 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents . - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

I'DBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BDRKAU OF THE BDDGET 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

3 9999 06352 729 3 



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