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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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Given By 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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VOLUME IX: Numbers 210-235 



July 3-December 25, 1943 




UNITED STATE3 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1944 



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JULY 3, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 210— Pubucation 1956 



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The War 

United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War 

Crimes 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 3 to 

Revision V ; 

Europe 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador of 
Czechoslovakia 

General 

Death of James Brown Scott 

Independence Day: Statement by the Secretary of State . 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Republics . 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Arthur Garrels 

The Department 

Appointment of OflBcers 

Treaty Information 

Telecommunications: International Telecommunication 
Convention 

Legislation. . , , ..,,... 

Publications ...,,. 



Pag» 

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5 

5 

6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
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U, S, SUPfPlNTFNnENT Of UUCUt.lfNn 
AU3 10 ii^ 



The War 



UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF 

WAR CRIMES 



The President has designated the Honorable 
Herbert Claiborne Pell, former American Min- 
ister to Portugal and Hungary, as the repre- 
sentative of the United States on the United 
Nations Commission for the Investigation of 
War Crimes. Announcing this appointment 
on June 29, 1943, the White House said : "It is 
hoped that tlie Commission, which will have its 
headquarters at London, will be able to take 



concrete steps looking to the punishment of 
agents of the Axis powers who have perpetrated 
atrocious crimes against their innocent victims." 
Cooperation of the United States Government 
with the British and other governments in es- 
tablishing such a commission was announced by 
the President in a statement issued on October 
7, 1942.1 



THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENT 3 TO REVISION V 



[Released to the press tor publication July 3, 9 p.m.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Board of Economic Warfare, and the Coor- 
dinator of Inter-American Affairs, on July 3 
issued Cumulative Supplement 3 to Revision V 
of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals, promulgated April 23, 1943. 



Cumulative Supplement 3 to Revision V 
supersedes Ciunulative Supplement 2 dated June 
4, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 3 contains 
142 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 103 deletions. Part II contains 
86 additional listings outside the American 
republics and 17 deletions. 



' Bulletin of October 10, 1942. 



538219—43 



DEPAHTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Europe 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CRE- 
DENCE BY THE AMBASSADOR OF 
CZECHOSLOVAIOA 

[Released to tbe press June 28] 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Czecho- 
slovakia, Mr. Vladimir Hurban, made the fol- 
lowing remarks upon the occasion of the pre- 
sentation of his letters of credence : 

]Mr. PEEsroE>fT: 

I have the honor to place in Your Excellency's 
hands the letters by which the President of the 
Czechoslovak Republic, Dr. Eduard Benes, has 
been pleased to accredit me in the capacity of 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotenti- 
ary near the Government of the United States 
of America. 

A little more than six years ago, when I had 
the honor to present to you, Mr. President, the 
letters accrediting me as Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, I stated that in 
international relations "[it is] the moral obliga- 
tions which, proclaimed, believed, and executed, 
alone can insure the happiness of mankind." 
You, Mr. President, the Government, and the 
people of the United States of America have 
proved the righteousness of this precept in the 
most crucial times of the history of humanity. 
The attitude of the Government of the United 
States toward the smaller nations who were 
overridden by the material forces of the Axis 
powers is among the noblest to be recorded in 
history. 

In my previous remarks, I also stressed the 
important role played by the United States 
during the last war in helping the Czechs, the 
Slovaks, and Carpatho-Russians regain their 
freedom. During the 20 years of liberty, in 
spite of the tremendous difficulties of the post- 
war period, the citizens of Czechoslovakia had 
proved themselves worthy of this trust. Under 
the guidance of President-Liberator Thomas G. 
Masaryk and his successor, Dr. Eduard Benes, 



the Czechoslovak Republic had adhered to the 
democratic jjrinciples. 

I firmly believe that it was in recognition of 
this spirit and earnest endeavor that the United 
States of America was prompted to support my 
refusal to yield to the German demands by pro- 
claiming its firm stand against wanton aggres- 
sion. We did not despair, and the very few 
men who succeeded in escaping, or who were 
beyond the reach of the enemy, set forth to 
organize our fight. The progress of our efforts, 
which are directed not only to the benefit of our 
own country but to that of all decent people the 
world over, is apparent in the fact that the 
Czechoslovak armed forces are now active on 
three fronts. The recent official visit of the 
President of Czechoslovakia, Dr. Eduard Benes, 
and the elevation of the United States Legation 
near the Czechoslovak Government to Embassy 
are a solid proof that we were and are marching 
on the right path. 

By far the greatest triumph of these recent 
events accrues to the suffering people in Czecho- 
slovakia to whom it will be another heartening 
manifestation of the close ties of friendship that 
bind our countries. I assure you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, that the people of Czechoslovakia will 
again prove themselves worthy of the faith your 
great nation has thus vested in them. 

The President's reply to the remarks of the 
newly appointed Ambassador of Czechosk>- 
vakia, Mr. Vladimir Hurban, follows : 

Mr. Ambassador : 

I take great pleasure in receiving from your 
hands the letters with which His Excellency 
President Eduard Benes accredits you as Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
the Czechoslovak Republic near the Government 
of the United States. 

The elevation of our respective diplomatic 
missions to the rank of Embassy reaffirms the 
friendship which has always united our two peo- 
ples and emphasizes our common aim of working 
together to destroy the evil forces which sought 
to impose upon the world their immoral dom- 
ination. 



JULY 3, 1943 



You have alluded, Mr. Ambassador, to the 
beginning of your mission here, some six years 
ago. You came to this country as the repre- 
sentative of a young and vigorous republic 
which was then devoting its sturdy energies to 
perfecting the democratic institutions under 
which the people of Czechoslovakia should work 
out their destiny. You saw those institutions 
destroyed, but you did not lose faith in the 
principles which the wise founders of the Czech- 
oslovak Eepublic had chosen. You did not 
doubt that your people will again take their 
place among the free nations of the world. 

The progress of the war has vindicated your 
faith. The Czechoslovak people by their stead- 
fast resistance to tyranny and their unflinching 
devotion to the cause of the United Nations have 
earned a place in history worthy of their tradi- 
tions. 

I shall be grateful, Mr. Ambassador, if you 
will convey to His Excellency President Benes, 
whose recent visit was a further landmark in 
our efforts to achieve final victory, my sincere 
good wishes for his welfare and for the early 
liberation of the people of Czechoslovakia. 



General 



DEATH OF JAMES BROWN SCOTT ' 

[Released to tlie press June 28] 

The following statement was made by the 
Secretary of State: 

"I deeply regret to learn of the death of Dr. 
James Brown Scott. He was an exceedingly 
able and conscientious citizen with a long and 
distinguished record of public service. In par- 
ticular, his was an outstanding contribution to 
the efforts made during his generation to 
strengthen and extend the principles of inter- 
national law." 



INDEPENDENCE DAY 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press July 3] 

Independence Day is a symbol of the undying 
determination of Americans to be free. It is a 
periodic reminder that courage, hard work, and 
willing sacrifice are as necessary for the preser- 
vation of liberty as they are for its acquisition. 
Millions of Americans are today proudly vindi- 
cating this everlasting truth at evei-y point of 
our war effort, at home and abroad. 



Cultural Relations 



' Vl. Scott was Solicitor of the Departmpnt of State, 
1906-10; Secretary of the Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace, 1910-40 ; and Secretary Emeritus 
of that organization since 1940. 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press July 3] 

Three distinguished Brazilian professional 
men have arrived in Washington for a tour of 
the United States at the invitation of the De- 
partment of State. Tliey are Senhor Marcos 
Augusto Enrietti, of Curitiba; Senhor Nehe- 
mias Gueiros, of Recife ; and Dr. Mem S. Xavier 
da Silveira, of Rio de Janeiro. 

Senhor Enrietti, an agronomist, is director of 
the Institute de Biologia e Pesquisas Tecnolo- 
gicas at Curitiba, and also holds professorships 
of Agronomy and of Veterinary Science in Curi- 
tiba's School of Agronomy and Veterinary 
School, respectively. 

Senhor Gueiros, an educator, plans to visit 
university law schools, but wishes also to see at 
close hand the sociological aspects of life in the 
United States. 

Dr. Xavier da Silveira, as surgeon and endo- 
crinologist, is head of the surgical clinic in the 
Polyclinic at Rio de Janeiro. Last year he rep- 
resented the Brazilian Government at two medi- 
cal congresses in Argentina — Buenos Aires and 
Cordoba. 



6 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUUjETIN 



[Released to the press June 30] 

Dr. Luis Martinez Mont, Inspector General of 
Education in Guatemala, has arrived in Wash- 
ington on the closing stages of a tour that began 
with attendance at the Conference on Visual 
Education in California in June and has in- 
cluded educational institutions in the west, mid- 
dle west, and the east. While in this country, 
Dr. Martinez Mont is a guest of the Department 
of State. After visiting New York, July 2-9, 
whei-e he will spend considerable time at Teach- 
ers College of Columbia University, he will re- 
turn to Guatemala by air in mid-July. 

Dr. Martinez Mont is preparing for his Gov- 
ernment a report on organizational methods in 
our universities, research centers, public schools, 
libraries, and museums. 

[Released to the press June 30] 

Dr. Lauro Cruz Goyenola, Uruguayan spe- 
cialist in rural medicine, has arrived in Wash- 
ington at the invitation of the Department of 
State for a tour of this country. Dr. Cruz 
Goyenola will make a special study for his Gov- 
ernment of popular health education, and will 
observe organization and methods in children's 
hospitals. 



The Foreign Service 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1167 of June 29, 1943, 
Mr. John S. Dickey was designated a Special 
Consultant with such duties as may be assigned 
to him by the Secretary of State. 



Treaty Information 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

International Telecommunication 
Convention 

Paraguay 

According to notifications 425 of February 
16, 1943 and 426 of March 1, 1943 from the Bu- 
reau of the International Telecommunication 
Union at Bern, the adherence by Paraguay to 
the International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion, the Telegraph Regulations, and the Gen- 
eral Radio Regulations, signed at Madrid on 
December 9, 1932, was officially recorded by the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain on March 
4, 1941. 



DEATH OF ARTHUR GARRELS 

[Released to the press June 30] 

The Secretary of State has addressed the fol- 
lowing telegram to Mrs. Arthur Garrels: 

June 30, 1943. 
I am shocked to learn of the passing of your 
distinguished husband and I trust you will ac- 
cept the expression of my deepest sympathy. 
His thirty years in the Foreign Service of his 
country stand as an inspiration to all of us. His 
loyalty and the many achievements of his ca- 
reer were in the finest tradition of the Service 
and will be remembered for many years to come. 



Legislation 



Providing for the Registration and Protection of 
Trade-Marlis Used in Commerce, To Carry Out the 
Provisions of Certain International Conventions, and 
for Other Purposes. H. Kept. 603, 78th Cong., on 
H.R. 82. 17 pp. 

Urgent Deficiency Appropriation Bill, 1943. H. Kept. 
618, 7Sth Cong., on H.R. 2714. 3 pp. 

Independent OflBces Appropriation Act, 1944. [Ameri- 
can Battle Monuments Commission, $45,530; In- 
ter-American Highway; Foreign-Service Pay Ad- 
justment, $340,000.] Approved June 26, 1943. [H.R. 
1762.] Public Law 90, 78th Cong. 31 pp. 



JULY 3, 1943 



An Act To amend an Act entitled "An Act to provide 
for the nse of tlie American National Red Cross in 
aid of the land and naval forces in time of actual or 
threatened war." Approved June 29, 1943. [H.R. 
2292.] Public Law 99, 78th Cong. 1 p. 



Publications 



Depaktment of State 

Foreign Service List, May 1, 1943. [As an economy 
measure, this publication, heretofore printed quar- 
terly, will appear only three times a year (January, 



May, and September) beginning with this issue.] 
Publication 1946. iv, 130 pp. Subscription, 500 a 
year (650 foreign) ; single copy, 200. 
The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 3, July 2, 1943, to Revi- 
sion V of April 23, 1943. Publication 1952. 50 pp. 
Free. 

Other Agencies 

The Basic Principles of the Inter-American System. 
Prepared under the direction of the Executive Com- 
mittee on Post-War Problems of the Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union. (Pan American Union.) 
1943. vi, 40 pp. 150 from the P.A.U. 



U. S. SOVEBIIIIENT PRINTING OFFICti IMS 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, tJ. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHED WBEKLT WITH THE APPEOVAL OP THE DIRECTOtt OF THE BUKEAU OF THE BDDGET 



^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



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ontents 



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TIN 



JULY 10, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 211— Publication 1962 




The War Page 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to Japan . 1 1 
The Task of ReHef and Rehabihtation in Europe and Asia : 

Address by Francis B. Sayre 14 

Sixth Anniversary of the Japanese Attack on China . . 19 

Death of General Sikorski of Poland 19 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Republics . 20 

The Foreign Service 

Confu'mations 21 

Death of Stuart Allen 21 

Treaty Information 

Economics: Agreements Relating to Plantation Rubber 

Investigations 21 

Publications 22 

Legislation 22 



U, S. gliPfTirnrNnENT OF DOCUMENTS 

AUG 101943 



The War 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN ^ 



[Released to the press July 4] 

Throughout my life one of the verses in the 
Bible that has most appealed to me is that mag- 
nificent passage, "They that go down to the sea 
in ships, that do business in great waters ; these 
see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in 
the deep." From earliest youth I have found 
endless inspiration in walking the docks, in 
watching the building of the great vessels that 
one day would carry their cargoes overseas, and 
in the drama of their sailing and return. The 
thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts ; the 
romantic vision of distant lands and ports was 
always vivid in my imagination ; but even today, 
after a lifetime of wanderings in those distant 
places which had stirred the dreams of child- 
hood, the same old thrill comes back to me in 
standing here in this historic port of New Bed- 
ford, the scene of great days and great events 
in the maritime life of our country. 

Today that life moves at maximum intensity. 
The scene is no longer a romantic one. It is a 
stern picture of the all-out effort of an embat- 
tled and grimly determined nation to sweep 
the enemy from the seven seas; to send to our 
boys on many far-flung fronts the sinews of 
war that will enable them to protect our people 
and our land from the well-known hideous 
cruelties of our antagonists; to safeguard our 
freedoms and our way of life ; to cut out for all 
time to come the ravaging cancer of aggressive 
militarism that seeks to blot out our democracy 



' Delivered by the Honorable Joseph C. Grew, who is 
now Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, at a 
Fourth of July rally at New Bedford, Mass. 



and to overrun the world. God help us if those 
enemies should ever come within effective bomb- 
ing range, should ever gain a foothold on our 
beloved soil. 

To you, the men and women of New Bedford, 
workers and managers, private and official par- 
ticipants alike, whatever be your stations in the 
tremendous undertaking to which we, the free 
people of a free country, have irrevocably set 
our hand, I say this word of congratulation and 
exhortation : congratulation that you are given 
the opportunity to play your essential part in 
the united effort; exhortation to play that part 
to the very limit of your several capacities. I 
cannot imagine any man, woman, or child in 
our great land who would not be miserable if he 
felt that he was not pulling his full weight in 
the boat. It doesn't matter how inconspicuous 
may be the nature of our individual task — the 
riveter in the shipyard, the clerk in the office; 
the electrician, the carpenter, the girl who 
types or files the papers; the messenger, the 
manager, the president of the company; and 
yes, let us add, the erstwhile diplomat who 
talks about what he knows on the basis of long 
and active experience — there is but one cri- 
terion to guide us, the confident knowledge that 
each of us is functioning to the maximum of his 
individual capacity in the circumstances in 
which he finds himself. Nothing less than 
maximum is enough if our consciences are to 
be clear. 

Tlie other day a group of visitors were walk- 
ing through a hospital which had just received 
some of our wounded soldiers from Tunisia. 

The visitors were 



One of them had no legs 



11 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLIiETIN 



embarrassed, but a man jumped into the breach. 
"How'd you lose 'em, Buddy?" The soldier 
looked up, studied the visitor for a moment, and 
then said, "Lose what?" "Your legs; how'd 
you lose your legs?" The wounded man re- 
mained silent for a moment, thinking, and then 
he replied, almost as if talking to himself, "I 
didn't lose them ; I exchanged them for a clear 
conscience." 

I am profoundly glad, my friends, to come to 
New Bedford on this great day. It would thrill 
me at any time to come again to this scene of 
some of the happiest days of my own youth, but 
to come on the Fourth of July is genuinely in- 
spiring. For this is the day on which we re- 
charge the storage batteries of our patriotism, 
our love of country, the outstanding day on 
which we stop to think what our country has 
given us and what we in turn owe to our United 
States. Perhaps I, who have lived long years 
in totalitarian lands, with their regimentation, 
their secret police and spies, their control over 
the actions and over the very thoughts of the 
individual, am in an especially favorable posi- 
tion to assess the true value of our free democ- 
racy, the blessings of our national heritage. 
Profound gratitude for those blessings wells up 
in me today. But democracy is not a one-way 
street. We receive, we must give ; and in time 
of war the emphasis must inevitably rest not 
upon values received but upon service rendered. 
Today our flag takes on an added sanctity. I 
feel moved to stand before it in full measure of 
reverence and affection and to pour out to it even 
the inadequate expressions that come to my lips, 
words of simple gratitude and pledges of future 
effort to guard it against anything that might 
sully its purity or that might impair those bless- 
ings of our national life for which it stands — 
pledges of service to our nation. 

Can any American feel otherwise? Can any 
American be willing to receive and not to give 
his maximum ? On this Independence Day let 
us each take stock of the degree of his effort 
in this war; let us each, no matter what the 
character of his individual work, remember 



that soldier who had exchanged his legs for a 
clear conscience; and let us each ask himself: 
"Is my own conscience clear?" 

And now a word about our enemy Japan. 
I know that enemy well as one should come to 
know any people well among whom one has 
lived for 10 long and trying years. Not many 
of our people really understand that enemy. 
There is still abroad in our country all too 
much fallacious thinking to the effect that once 
we get around to it we shall have little difficulty 
in conquering Japan. Some of our people do 
not seem to realize that we have steadily, in- 
tensively, and progressively been "getting 
around" to that task ever since Pearl Harbor 
as a few outstanding incidents such as those that 
have happened in the Coral Sea, at Midway 
Island, at Guadalcanal, at New Guinea, and at 
Attu have brilliantly attested. Today we are 
sending to the Asiatic theater every instru- 
ment of war that the traffic will stand, and the 
traffic itself is steadily increasing. Those who 
have said and who sometimes still say, "Wlien 
we're through with Hitler we'll mop up the 
Japs" seem to have little comiDrehension of the 
magnitude of the task we face. It is true that 
we are fighting a global war, a war waged in 
many theaters and on many fronts. No theater, 
no front, is being neglected, and every suc- 
cess of our arms, the arms of the United Na- 
tions, in Russia or Africa, in Germany or the 
Near East, spells a success in the Pacific Ocean 
theater, and vice versa. I have high hopes 
that even though we still have a long way to 
go and a hard road ahead before we shall bring 
Germany and Italy to the unconditional sur- 
render which is the irrevocable objective of our 
effort, the tide of war, now flowing in our 
favor, will never ebb. But even when we can 
turn our entire attention to Japan, let us not 
for a moment think that we can regard with 
complacency the problem of defeating that 
enemy. 

Let me try to paint the picture briefly. First, 
the Japanese, as we have seen, are fanatical. 



JULY 10, 1943 



13 



last-ditch fighters. Surrender or capture is to 
them the deptli of ignominious disgrace to tliem- 
selves, their families, and tlieir ancestors. We 
liave seen how on Attn, even after tlie Japanese 
officers and the main force were wiped out, in- 
dividual soldiers still fought from their fox- 
holes in the mountains. For all I know, some 
of them are still fighting there. Their cour- 
age, stamina, discipline, and the drastic and 
Spartan character of their training until they 
have been brought to a knife-edge of war effi- 
ciency are marked in high degree. Today the 
Japanese occupy tremendous areas throughout 
East Asia and in the islands of the Pacific — 
areas which contain every raw material needed 
by any country for national power — and they 
control some 300 million native inhabitants in 
those areas whom we know, by experience, they 
will use as forced labor to develop those raw 
materials. In the ports that they have taken 
there exist great potentialities for additional 
shipbuilding facilities. The industrial plants 
everywhere in those regions they will have put 
in first-rate working order — for the Japanese 
are tremendously industrious, thorough, perti- 
nacious, and scientifically expert. No grass will 
have grown under their feet, for they will un- 
doubtedly have aimed from the start to make 
those areas so far as possible self-sustaining and 
independent of shipping facilities to and from 
the homeland. Their shipping is vulnerable 
and will become increasingly so as time goes on. 
Eventually, if we have not reached that point 
already, we shall sink their ships faster than 
they can build. They know this, and they will 
therefore prepare for the day when they can no 
longer depend on ships for maintenance of their 
supplies. 

Wliere does this thought lead ? Mind you, I 
do not wish to overstate the case. It leads to 
the conviction that even after we have put 
Tokyo and the Japanese Government out of 
action, whether by bombing or invasion of the 
homeland or both, those fanatical, last-ditch 
fighters will continue to fight wherever they 
may be — in the Philippines and China, Hong 
Kong and Formosa, Singapore, the Malay 



Peninsula, Thailand, Indochina, Burma, the 
Dutch East Indies, and in the many islands to 
the south and east. Kemember, surrender is to 
them the depth of disgrace. 

There's the problem. It isn't going to be so 
easy "to mop up the Japs". And there is no 
sense in thinking it will be. Complacency in 
war is always dangerous. That is what 1 have 
been trying to tell our people ever since I re- 
turned from Japan last August, nearly a year 
ago. And I have been telling them that there 
must be no half-way measures in solving that 
problem, no temporizing, no compromise, no 
half-baked peace. We can never relax in safe- 
ty and security in our own country until that 
cancer of Japanese aggressive militarism, 
which has spread over most of East Asia — and 
which if left alone would assuredly some day 
spread over into our hemisphere — has been ut- 
terly destroyed, cut out to the last cell, and 
rendered powerless ever to reproduce itself in 
future. To most of our people the overweening 
ambition and megalomania of those Japanese 
military leaders are incomprehensible. Those 
leaders have long planned and built against the 
day when, having developed the immense poten- 
tialities of power now at their command, they 
would come over and attack these United States. 
When Admiral Yamamoto said in public before 
he was recently killed that the peace after this 
war will be dictated in the White House in 
Washington, he was speaking in grim serious- 
ness. And only a few days ago another of his 
breed repeated the same thought. 

Well, we are not going to leave that cancer 
alone. We are not, thank heaven, leaving it 
alone today. But we have a long, difficult task 
ahead, beset, I fear, with much blood and sweat 
and tears. Once the American people fully 
comprehend the magnitude of this task they 
will see it through with their traditional grit 
and determination. All of this adds up to three 
simple "musts": We must not relax; we must 
continually intensify our ettort in this war; 
and our effort must depend not alone upon our 
boys at the front but upon every one of us 
throughout our mighty land, , 



14 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUUiETIH 

THE TASK OF RELIEF AND REHABILITATION IN EUROPE AND ASIA 

Address by Francis B. Sayre ^ 



[Released to the press July 8] 

I greatly appreciate this opportunity to meet 
with the members of the Kiwanis Club, one of 
the forward-looking groups of this busy and 
active city of Baltimore. Since the great days 
of American trade when the merchants of Bal- 
timore sent their clipper ships across the seven 
seas, the jieople of your city have been well 
aware of the impact of world events upon our 
daily lives. They have recognized the hard 
fact that neither nations nor people, at least 
under modern conditions, have it in their power 
to live happily or prosperously if cut off and 
insulated from the rest of the world. This 
afternoon I should like to discuss with you one 
of the vital world problems which looms imme- 
diately ahead — the task of bringing relief and 
rehabilitation to the stricken peoples of Europe 
and Asia. 



At the conclusion of the war, ravaged Europe 
and Asia will be faced with dire need and grip- 
ping distress unprecedented in all history. In 
four years of fighting in Europe and six years 
of fighting in Asia, the Axis has overrun 35 
nations and hundreds of islands in which were 
living over 600 millions of people. Battle, 
murder, and criminal violence have blackened 
most of Europe and much of Asia. Men and 
women have been killed and carried off into 
slavery. Homes have been destroyed. Cities 
have been pillaged; whole nations have been 
looted and plundered of their resources; the 
economies of entire peoples have been disrupted 
and exploited; whole races have been driven 
into exile and despair. The Four Horsemen 
of the Apocalypse are riding furiously through 
Europe and Asia today. 



' Delivered at a Kiwsnis Club luncheon, Baltimore, 
July 8, 1943. Mr. Sayre is Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State and Deputy Director of the Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, De- 
partment of State. 



If the new world for which we have been 
fighting is to be made a living reality we must 
go forward boldly and without fear. We are 
fighting to make secure for ourselves and for 
our children a way of life which is very pre- 
cious to us, one based upon individual freedom 
and equality of opportunity and equal justice 
to the weak as to the strong. To maintain this 
way of life there is only one practicable way. 
Pious hopes and Fourth of July oratory will 
not be sufficient. 

We must get down to realities. We must 
learn to realize that the entii-e world has be- 
come so closely knit together by trade, by mod- 
ern technological development, by economic in- 
termeshing between country and country, that 
it is quite impos.sible for half of the world to 
remain free while the other half is enslaved by 
ruthless force and oppression. In the light of 
existing conditions we cannot preserve individ- 
ual liberty and peace for ourselves by fencing 
our own country off from the rest of the world. 

The only way to make secure our way of life 
is first to help liberate the nations and peoples 
now overrun and enslaved by Axis armies and 
then to help them rebuild their social and eco- 
nomic and industrial life. We must assist in a 
world offensive against suffering and need as a 
first step toward restoration of world order and 
a decent way of life for all peoples. Tlirough 
the relief and rehabilitation of Europe and 
Asia lies our only pathway toward peace and 
security. 

The cost will be high, but every day we are 
manifesting our faith afresh that no price can 
be too great for human liberty and security. 
This will be part of the inescapable cost of 
gaining the objectives for which we are fight- 
ing. In comparison with the lavish and un- 
precedented expenditures of human life and na- 
tional wealth which the winning of the war 
compels and which will be futile if we cannot 
push through to our ultimate objectives, the 
cost will be extremely mgdest. 



JULY 10, 1943 



15 



From the viewpoint of our own country's ma- 
terial interests our stake in the success of this 
work is enormous. Indeed, upon success or 
faihire in the rehabilitation of the stricken 
peoples of the world depends our own future 
prosperity or adversity. The United States 
cannot remain prosperous in a world of bank- 
rujit customers. 

Following the war, millions of our men will 
be returning from the battlefronts looking for 
peacetime work. The problem of how to pre- 
vent mass unemployment — one of the outstand- 
ing unsolved problems of our civilization — will 
begin once more to torment us. To increase 
American employment at home and keep Amer- 
ican factory wheels turning we must find mar- 
kets for American goods and build up pur- 
chasing power abroad. At the same time 
Europe will be in dire need of foodstuffs and 
cotton and automobiles, of textiles and agri- 
cultural implements and machinery, of the 
thousand and one things that the United States 
is prepared to produce in quantity and to sell — 
if we can only find markets and people with 
purchasing power to buy them. Do you see 
how vital it is for us in our own self-interest to 
get Europe and Asia back on their feet? 

We faced the same problem in the years fol- 
lowing the first World War. We fancied we 
were solving it during those fantastic days of 
the 'twenties by selling vast quantities of Amer- 
ican goods abroad — and at the same time lend- 
ing abroad the money with which to pay for 
them. In that way we were also able to raise 
our tariflF wall to unprecedented heights. But 
the loans in large part proved uncollectible, so 
that in effect we deprived ourselves of Amer- 
ican goods and wealth, compromised the ability 
of the borrowers to obtain funds for construc- 
tive purposes, and saddled the world with the 
burdens and problems of rising trade barriers 
and uncollectible debts. In the final outcome 
the policy of the 'twenties cost us substantial 
portions of our wealth and strengthened the 
forces which brought on the second World 
War. Surely Americans could not be satisfied 
with a repetition of that policy. 



Furthermore, American prosperity cannot 
possibly be maintained in a world constantly 
upset by the recurrent threat of war. Eco- 
nomic progress cannot be built upon social un- 
rest and political tension. Poverty and oppres- 
sion in any part of the world, with resulting 
political instability, are direct menaces to the 
economic well-being and progress of the United 
States and of every other industrial country. 
Twice within a generation has the economy of 
the United States been disrupted and our 
standard of living compromised by war, even 
though originating on another continent. 
Surely it must be manifest to all that the 
United States has a tremendous material stake 
in the building of the kind of peace that will 
last. One of the foundation stones for such 
a peace is the relief and rehabilitation of the 
peoples of Europe and Asia. 

n 

Concretely, what is the nature of the initial 
job which we must perform to get Europe back 
on its feet again ? In the ring of countries sur- 
rounding Germany which have been invaded 
and looted by Nazi armies, the population living 
west of Soviet Kussia — excluding Germany it- 
self, the United Kingdom, and the neutrals — 
is about 250 million people. No one can say 
when the armies of the United Nations will be 
able to free those peoples. At least we, in con- 
cert with the other United Nations, must be 
prepared to afford relief to as many as 150 to 
160 million people between now and the end of 
1944. Among these the need will be pitiful, 
immediate, and great beyond anything in the 
history of war. 

When United Nations forces march into the 
ruins of Europe, first things must come first. 
We cannot expect that disorganized and starv- 
ing and desperate people will be able to partici- 
pate in the building of a constructive peace. 
We must begin by feeding the starving and 
binding up the wounds of the stricken, by check- 
ing the ravages of epidemics and diseases, by 
helping liberated peoples to replace anarchy by 
law and organized government. 



16 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BXTLLETrN 



All this we must do witli an immediacy and 
on a scale never before attempted. It will be 
a monumental task. But it cannot be shirked. 
It will be an absolutely necessary prerequisite 
to the larger and the more difficult task of 
starting the wheels of industry and commerce 
turning again in liberated areas. 

Fortunately, so far as food relief is concerned, 
the individual items needed at the outset are 
very few and very modest. Some soup or stew, 
some bread, a nourishing spread, and milk for 
babies and children will meet the first demands 
and keep body and soul together. Then will 
follow, until the next full harvest, perhaps a 
year later, the continuous need for wheat, sugar, 
and other staples to supplement the locally 
available vegetables and other foods. 

The task of distributing relief at the outset 
rests with the military. Indeed, as need 
scarcely be pointed out, the initial work of re- 
lief and rehabilitation is an inseparable part 
of military operations. In total war the mili- 
tary is compelled to concern itself with the care 
of the civilian population in theaters of war, 
lest hunger and disease produce rioting and civil 
disturbance. Military operations may easily 
be jeopardized or hindered by civilian food 
riots, civil disturbances, interruption of trans- 
port services, or epideriiics behind the lines. 
Our War Department has recognized these in- 
escapable facts and has made quick and sys- 
tematic relief for civil populations in combat 
areas an integral part of the military task. 

The work of emergency civil relief at the 
outset, therefore, is undertaken by Army per- 
sonnel with Army supplies and under Army 
direction. As the enemy is driven out the mili- 
tary must be prepared to operate mobile soup 
kitchens to keep homeless and penniless people 
alive, and to organize public-health services to 
prevent the spread of epidemics and to insure 
an adequate water supply. Shelter and cloth- 
ing are secondary needs which must be supplied 
so far as transport and other arrangements 
allow. 

As the active front moves forward and order 
begins to emerge from chaos the nature of the 
relief problem changes. The civilian popula- 



tion repair and rebuild their homes as rapidly 
as possible and return to live in them. Soup 
kitchens are replaced by rationed supplies is- 
sued in various centers to the needy to be taken 
home and there consumed by the reassembled 
families. Many of the population will be able 
to procure and prepare their own food. But 
there will still for a time be large numbers of 
needy men, women, and children to whom 
standard rations must be supplied to keep them 
alive until the wheels of normal food produc- 
tion can be set in motion. 

During this period the articles of diet will be 
somewhat more varied than during the initial 
emergency period. Nevertheless because of 
shortage of world supplies, of ships, and of 
transport facilities, the standard of relief set 
will have to be quite modest. There will prob- 
ably not be enough food left at the end of the 
war to give everyone the ration that he or she 
should have. If we are to judge of practical 
possibilities by the amount available, it seems 
doubtful whether at the beginning it will be 
possible to import more food than sufficient to 
afford a general average of 2,000 calories a day. 
This is less than two thirds of an average 
American, Norwegian, or Italian pre-war diet. 
But at least it is better than the diet to which 
the Germans have condemned most of the peo- 
ple now under German domination, and, 
if wisely planned, will maintain the people 
of Europe during the early stages of re- 
habilitation. 

After the initial period, the responsibility 
for administering civilian relief will naturally 
pass from the military to civilian authorities. 
To meet such responsibilities so far as they de- 
volve upon the United States the President au- 
thorized the Director of the Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations "to plan, 
coordinate, and arrange for the administration 
of this Government's activities for the relief of 
victims of war in areas liberated from Axis con- 
trol through the provision of food, fuel, cloth- 
ing, and other basic necessities, housing facili- 
ties, medical and other essential services; and 
to facilitate in areas receiving relief the pro- 
duction and transportation of these articles and 



JULY 10, 1943 



17 



the furnishing of these services." Even though 
the area may still be under military occupation 
and all activities subject to the control of the 
theater commander, during this period the ad- 
ministration of relief will be principally by 
civilian personnel and with civilian supplies 
gathered for that purpose by the civilian relief 
organization. 

It will not do to think of relief work during 
this period merely in terms of charity. In some 
of the areas, stripped of food supplies by sys- 
tematic German pillage, the people may be des- 
perately in need of food even though well able 
to pay for it. In other areas the people may 
lack both food and money although their gov- 
ernments in exile may be possessed of ample 
funds. In still other countries both people and 
their governments may lack food and money. 
In all these areas the fundamental task will be 
to get relief goods to people in dire need so as 
to save life and prevent riots and civil strife. 
The essential nature of the task will be the same, 
whether the relief goods are distributed through 
the channels of commerce or those of charity. 
The method of distribution must be determined 
by existing conditions. If some countries are 
genuinely unable to pay for the relief they 
need, we do not propose to withhold relief nor, 
on the other hand, to saddle them with the kind 
of debts which we know can never be collected. 
I do not mean to imply that there is anything 
wrong per se in extending loans for relief goods 
in instances where countries have sufficient po- 
tential assets to retire them in due course with- 
out permanent impairment of their economic 
structures. Wliat we must guard against is the 
financing of relief by loans which can never be 
paid and which militate against the very re- 
habilitation which we seek to achieve. 

Some have suggested that the administra- 
tion of relief be utilized after the war to gain 
political objectives, and many will be anxious 
to use relief agencies for their own selfish pur- 
poses. The liberated areas will doubtless be- 
come hotbeds of bitterly striving and opposing 
factions, many of them bent on selfish power. 
Political intrigues will fill the air. From all 



such factional strife America must resolutely 
hold aloof. Our only objective is to bring help 
to human beings in distress and to assist them, 
once they are able, to set up the governments of 
their choice, so long as these do not rest upon 
the tyranny of force. The underlying corner- 
stone of the undertaking of relief must be dis- 
tribution solely on the basis of human need, 
without discrimination on account of race, 
color, creed, or political belief. 

It is obvious that the furnishing of relief 
cannot be continued indefinitely. In fact, one 
of our primary purposes will be to eliminate 
the need for relief at the earliest possible mo- 
ment. Our objective is to help those who have 
been prostrated by Axis tyranny and oppres- 
sion to get on their own feet — to help people to 
help themselves. Until the first crop can be 
planted and tended and reaped, help from the 
outside may be necessary on an extended scale; 
after the first harvest the problem of relief 
will be less acute. From the very outset, there- 
fore, if we are to avoid the necessity of ad- 
ministering relief indefinitely, we must plan 
and provide the means for helping people to 
get their crops planted and tended and their 
factory wheels turning again. This means pro- 
viding seeds and fertilizers and where neces- 
sary a limited amount of agricultural tools. It 
may also mean providing a modest quantity of 
industrial machinery in some cases where fac- 
tories can be put into the speedy production of 
relief supplies. Rehabilitation is thus a neces- 
sary and essential part of relief. Seeds for an 
ensuing year's crop may save more lives than 
an equal quantity of food. 

It is clear that if relief supplies are to be on 
hand when the need presents itself they must 
be planned and procured considerably in ad- 
vance. In view of the present short supply of 
most foodstuffs they cannot be had by a simple 
purchase and sale over the counter. In many 
cases the needed foodstuffs today are not in 
existence. 

To feed Iowa wheat or New Jersey soup to a 
starving child in Greece or Norway or Poland 
or France requires many months of prepara- 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULIjErrrN 



tion. The food must first be allocated, by the 
appropriate American control agencies, then it 
must be procured for relief purposes, next it 
must be warehoused and means must be found 
for shipping it overseas. All these steps entail 
baffling problems involving considerable time 
and delay. 

The problem of clothing, medical supplies, 
and personnel present still other problems. 

Difficult as these are they can and are being 
met with characteristic American vigor and in- 
genuity. 

The preliminary part of the work must be 
that of formulating carefully thought out plans 
and specifications for each separate country as 
well as for the entire over-all needs of Axis- 
dominated countries. Next, allocations must be 
sought from the various control agencies for at 
least part of the relief supplies required. At 
the same time purchases must be made where 
possible and supplies be gathered for relief pur- 
poses. The Office of Foreign Kelief and Ke- 
habilitation Operations is at present engaged in 
every one of these activities, and progress is 



being made. 



Ill 



In a task as gigantic and world-wide as meet- 
ing the relief needs of the liberated areas in 
the coming months it is manifest that neither 
the United States nor any one of its allies could 
possibly do the job unassisted. The amount of 
food and other relief supplies necessary to meet 
urgent demands will be beyond the productive 
resources of any single nation. Furthermore, 
the furnishing of nation-wide relief is too deli- 
cate a task, too fraught with explosive issues, 
too provocative of resentments, to be under- 
taken wisely by any nation acting alone. The 
relief and rehabilitation of the continents of 
Europe and Asia involve the building of foun- 
dations which will have much to do with the 
shaping of the future peace and economic ac- 
tivity of the peoples of those areas. In a task 
as vast as this, all the peace-loving nations 
should participate, and all those should have a 
part who are concerned in making the future 
economic world one of fair-dealing and non- 



discrimination and freedom from autocratic 
regimentation. 

Our own country has therefore taken the lead 
in placing before the governments of the United 
Nations and of the other nations associated 
with them in this war a plan for the creation 
of a United Nations Relief and Kehabilitation 
Administration. Under the draft agreement, 
which has been proposed and which has already 
been agreed upon in principle by Great Britain, 
the Soviet Union, China, and the United States, 
an international administration is to be set up, 
headed by a director general and a council of 
representatives of all the member nations.^ 
This administration is to plan, coordinate, and 
administer measures for the relief of victims 
of war through the provision of food, fuel, 
clothing, and other basic necessities, housing 
facilities, medical and other essential services; 
and to facilitate in areas receiving relief the 
production and transportation of these articles 
and the furnishing of these services so far as 
necessary to the adequate provision of relief. 
This will involve international cooperation and 
joint activity in the planning of relief activities, 
the purchasing of supplies, the achieving of an 
equitable allocation of available supplies among 
competing countries, the use of ships and other 
methods of transportation, and the distribution 
of relief in the various localities. 

I need scarcely add that in this world-wide 
undertaking all member states will be asked 
to contribute relief supplies, services, and 
money according to their ability. The bene- 
ficiary countries as well as all others will be 
expected to pull their weight in the boat to 
the utmost of their capacity and to transfer to 
other distressed countries such surplus com- 
modities as they can produce. 

For months we have been talking about post- 
war planning and international collaboration. 
We have been discussing how to build sound 
foundations for a stable peace. JNow \xe are 
facing the realities. Here is the acid test of 
whether we can or whether we cannot forget our 
selfish dilferences and work together whole- 



' Bulletin of June 12, 1943, p. 523. 



JULY 10, 1943 

heartedly for common objectives which must 
be achieved if we are to go forward and attain 
humanity's place in the sun. 

True, it is only part of the task which awaits 
us. Other more difficult parts of the work re- 
main — the achievement of some form of inter- 
national organization for the keeping of the 
peace, the effective limitation and control of 
armament production, the inauguration of 
practicable means for the peaceful settlement 
of international disputes, the reduction of trade 
barriers throughout the world, the elimination 
of unfair trade practices and discriminations, 
the development of international responsibility 
with respect to certain backward areas. What 
we must remember is that these tasks cannot 
all be accomplished at once. Months and years 
of devoted study and consecrated effort will be 
necessary for the building of the international 
peace structure. Here, in this comparatively 
less difficult part of the task, we begin. 

All forward-looking nations are in agreement 
in desiring to find practicable ways for bring- 
ing relief to stricken Europe and Asia at the 
end of the war. For agricultural nations eager 
to sell their surpluses it is manifestly to their 
interest to do so. For predominantly indus- 
trial nations eager to avoid mass unemployment 
following the sudden curtailment of wartime 
production it is manifestly to their interest to 
do so. 

If humanity is to go forward it is of crucial 
importance that we together work out success- 
ful methods for administering relief to stricken 
peoples at the end of the war. It is of even 
more crucial importance that in this vital test 
of international cooperation we learn how to 
plan and work together for the achievement of 
common goals of peace-loving nations. 

SIXTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE JAPANESE 
ATTACK ON CHINA 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The President of the United States has sent 
the following telegram to Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-shek of China: 



19 

July 6, 1943. 

Six years ago today, July 7, 1937, the Japa- 
nese launched at Lukouchiao a new and brutal 
attack on China. Under your outstanding 
leadership the Chinese armies and people im- 
mediately rose to the defense of their country, 
and for six years they have used every weapon 
in their power to strike back ceaselessly at the 
wanton aggressor. 

The valor and sacrifices of the Chinese peo- 
ple in the cause of fi-eedom have inspired the 
people of the United States. "We know, as you 
do, how much must be done before the enemy 
is crushed and peace and justice are established 
throughout the world. Our people are joined 
in a common cause. Our arms are mounting, 
our strength is rising, our determination stands 
firm, and our triumph is inevitable. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

DEATH OF GENERAL SIKORSKI 
OF POLAND 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The Secretary of State made the following 
statement on the death of General Sikorski : 

"I am inexpressibly shocked at the sad news 
of the death of General Sikorski, the Prime 
Minister of Poland and Commander in Chief 
of the Polish armed forces, in an airplane ac- 
cident. The death of General Sikorski, who 
symbolized so vividly the indomitable spirit of 
the Polish people, is a very real loss not only 
to the Polish Government and people but to the 
United Nations and the cause for which we 
are fighting. The American people share the 
sense of loss of the Polish people at the tragic 
death of General Sikorski, his daughter, and 
his distinguished compatriots who perished 
with him." 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The President of the United States has sent 
the following message to the President of the 
Eepublic of Poland, His Excellency Wladys- 
law Raczkiewicz: 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLErriK 



July 5, 1943. 

I am deeply grieved to learn of the untimely 
death of General Sikorski, his daughter and 
the Polish officials who perished with him. On 
behalf of the American people and myself, I 
extend to you and to the Polish people our heart- 
felt sympathy. 

During his several visits to Washington, 1 
had the opportunity of personally becoming 
well acquainted with General Sikorski. 
Through my associations with him I learned to 
admire his integrity, his patriotism and those 
great qualities of leadership which so fully jus- 
tilled the confidence which you and the Polish 
people placed in him. His high sense of states- 
manship and devotion to the cause of liberty 
and democracy made him one of the outstanding 
leaders of our times. His passing represents a 
severe loss to all freedom-loving people. 

Fkanklin D Eoosevelt 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The following message has been sent by the 
Secretary of State to the Minister of Foreign 
Afl'airs of Poland, His Excellency Count Ed- 
ward Raczynski : 

July 5, 1943. 

It was with profound grief that I learned of 
the death of General Sikorski, his daughter 
and the distinguished Polish officials who were 
with him. I take this opportunity to extend 
to you my deepest sympathy in this great loss 
to Poland. All who knew General Sikorski 
were impressed by his sincerity of purpose, high- 
minded devotion to duty and outstanding 
statesmanship. 

CoRDELL Hull 

[Released to the press July 10] 

President Roosevelt has sent the following 
telegram to the President of Poland, His Excel- 
lency Wladyslaw Kaczkiewicz : 

July 9, 1943. 
Thank you for your cordial message on the 
occasion of American Independence Day. I 
fully share your views that our increasing vic- 



tories are bringing closer the hour of deliver- 
ance for the nations of Europe struggling 
against the brutal invader. 

I have also received from Gibraltar an Inde- 
pendence Day message from General Sikorski 
sent just before the tragic accident which de- 
prived Poland and the world of the services of 
this outstanding statesman and soldier. "We 
all realize how deeply his passing is felt by the 
Polish people, in particular by those in Poland 
who have been so relentlessly and courageously 
resisting the efforts of the Nazi enemy to stamp 
out their spirit of liberty and independence. 
Fully cognizant of what the loss of General 
Sikorski means to the brave and dauntless peo- 
ples of Poland, I am confident that they will 
carry on with redoubled efforts their fight 
against Nazi tyranny, secure in the thought that 
the high principles of integrity, justice and 
statesmanship laid down by General Sikorski, 
will be carried on by other leaders. 

The Polish people may be certain that their 
sufferings and unceasing contributions to our 
common cause will not be forgotten when their 
hour of liberation strikes. 

Franklin D Eoosevelt 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press July 6] 

Seiior Enrique Serpa, Cuban newspaperman 
and author, has arrived in Washington as a 
guest of the Department of State for a tour 
of this country. 

Seiior Serpa, a feature writer for the Habana 
daily, El Pais, has four times been awarded the 
prize for journalism established by the Min- 
istry of Education of Cuba. He received also 
this year the Varela Zequeira Award given by 
the Lions Club of Habana for the best news- 
story of 1942. 



JULY 10, 1943 



21 



[Released to the press July 9] 

Dr. Sergio Bagu, Argentine educator and 
author, arrived in Washington July 8 at the 
invitation of the Department of State. While 
in this country Dr. Bagu will visit universities 
and other cultural centers in all parts of the 
country. His fundamental purpose is to ac- 
quaint himself with the plans being advanced 
by different groups for economic and social 
reconstruction after the war. 

[Released to the press July 9] 

Dr. Ernesto Caceres, of Lima, Chief of the 
Department of Mail Services of Peru — a post 
corresponding to that of Assistant Postmaster 
General — has arrived in this country at the in- 
vitation of the Department of State to study 
United States postal organization. He will 
spend the greater part of his three months' visit 
in Washington and New York, and will devote 
special attention to mail transportation. 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On July 7, 1943, the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of Ray Atlierton to be American 
Minister to Canada, and also to serve concur- 
rently as Minister to Denmark and as Minister 
near tlie Government of Luxembourg now 
established in Canada; William C. Burdett, to 
be American Minister to New Zealand; and 
Loy W. Henderson, to be American Minister to 
Iraq. 

DEATH OF STUART ALLEN 

[Released to the press July 6] 

The Secretary of State has sent the following 
telegram to Mrs. Stuart Allen whose husband 
was a Foreign Service officer assigned as Con- 
sul at Vancouver, Canada, at the time of his 
death at that post on July 5, 1943 : 



"Please accept the expression of my deepest 
sympathy in the loss of your husband, Stuart 
Allen, who gave fourteen years of loyal serv- 
ice to his counti-y and who will be greatly 
missed by his many and devoted friends 
throughout the Department and the Foreign 
Service." 



Treaty Information 



ECONOMICS 

Agreements Relating to Plantation Rubber 
Investigations 

Ho7iduras 

By a despatch dated June 30, 1943 the Ameri- 
can Ambassador at Tegucigalpa sent to the 
DejDartment of State a certified copy of a note 
dated June 18, 1943 addressed by the Ambassa- 
dor to the Honduran Minister of l^'oreign Af- 
fairs and the original of a note dated J une 28, 
1943 addressed by the Honduran Minister of 
Foreign Affairs to the Ambassador, effecting 
an agreement between the United States and 
Honduras for the extension after June 30, 1943, 
and until six months from the date of a notice 
of termination given by either Government, of 
a cooperative agreement for plantation rubber 
investigations in Honduras which was signed 
on February 28, 1941, in the English and 
Spanish languages, by the Ministro de 1^'omento, 
Agricultura, y Trabajo of the Kepublic of Hon- 
duras and the Acting Secretary of Agriculture 
of the United States. 

Nicaragua 

By a despatch dated June 29, 1943 the Amer- 
ican Ambassador at Managua sent to the De- 
partment of State a certified copy of a note 
dated June 23, 1943 addressed by the Ambassa- 
dor, to the Nicara'guan Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs and the original of a note dated June 26, 
1943 addressed by the Nicaraguan Minister of 
Foreign Affairs to the Ambassador, effecting an 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



agreement between the United States and Nica- 
ragua for the extension after June 30, 1943, and 
until six months from the date of a notice of 
termination given by either Government, of an 
agreement for extension and continuation of 
plantation rubber investigations in Nicaragua 
which was signed on January 11, 1941, in the 
English and Spanish languages, by the Minister 
of Agriculture and Labor of the Kepublic of 
Nicaragua and the Acting Chief of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Reciprocal Trade: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Mexico — Signed at Washing- 
ton December 23, 1942; effective January 30, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 311. Publication 1941. 
81pp. 150. 

Cooperative Rubber Investigations in Costa Rica : Sup- 
plementary Agreement Between the United States of 
America and Costa Rica — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at San Jos6 April 3, 1943 ; effective 
April 3, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 318. 
Publication 1949. 5 pp. 50 

Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of the 
Military School and of the Military Academy of El 
Salvador : Agreement Between the United States of 
America and El Salvador Extending the Agreement 
of March 27, 1941 — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at San Salvador March 25, 1943; effective 
March 27, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 316. 
Publication 1950. 4 pp. 50. 

Other Government Agencies 

War Developments in the West Indies [articles]. (Bu- 
reau of Foreign and Domestic Comnierce, Depart- 
ment of Commerce.) May 1943. 39 pp., illus., proc- 
essed (from various issues of Foreign Commerce 
Weekly). Free from Bureau of Foreign and Domes- 
tic Commerce. 

Labor Conditions in Latin America. (Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, Department of Labor.) 1943. Serial 
no. R. 1523. Latin American Series 14. ii, 10 pp. 
Free from Department of I.,abor. 



Manpower Control in Germany. (Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, Department of Labor.) 1943. Serial no. 
R. 1508. 12 pp. Free from Department of Labor. 

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Program, June 1934-April 
1943. (Legislative Reference Service, Library of 
Congress.) April 1943. Public Affairs Bulletin 19. 
ill, 107 pp., processed. Printed for official use and 
not available for distribution. 

International Law Documents, 1941. (Naval War Col- 
lege.) 1943. vi, 167 pp. 600 from G. P. O. 

Are Wars Inevitable? [with list of references]. 
(Smithsonian Institution.) May 11, 1943. War 
Background Studies 12 ; Publication 3730. iii, 36 pp. 
Free from Smithsonian Institution. 

Trade Agreement Between the United States and 
Mexico: Digests of Trade Data With Respect to 
Products on Which Concessions Were Granted by the 
United States. (Tariff Commission.) 1943. Ixvi, 
355 pp., processed. Free from Tariff Commission. 

Abridged Instructions for Preparation of Reports on 
Form TFR-500, Relating to Property in Foreign 
Countries by Individuals Whose Property in All For- 
eign Countries Had Total Value Less Than $50,000. 
(Foreign Funds Control, Treasury Department.) 
June 1943. 9 pp. Free from Treasury Department. 



Legislation 



Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce Appro- 
priation Act, 1944: An Act Making appropriations 
for the Departments of State, Justice, and Com- 
merce, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944, and 
for other purposes. Approved July 1, 1943. [H.R. 
2307.] Public Law 105, 78th Cong. 34 pp. 

Urgent Deficiency Appropriation Bill, 1943. Confer- 
ence Report. H. Rept. 661, 78th Cong., on H. R. 
2714. 4 pp. 

National War Agencies Appropriation Bill for 1944 
(H.R. 2968) : 

Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess. [Office of the Coordinator of Inter-Amer- 
ican Affairs, pp. 44-53, 122; excerpt from state- 
ment by the former American Ambassador to 
Japan in connection with consideration of the 
War Relocation Authority, pp. 392-393.] 414 pp. 

S. Rept. 367, 78th Cong. 4 pp. 

Conference Report. H. Repts. 674 and 696, 78th 
Cong. 1 p. 



JULY 10, 1943 



23 



Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1943 : Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess., on H.R. 3030, An Act Mailing appropriations 
to supply deficiencies in certain appropriations 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943, etc. 
[Inter-American Highway, Costa Rica, pp. 66-74.] 
156 pp. 

Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts : Hearings Before 
the Committee on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess., on H.R. 1882 and H.R. 2309, bills to repeal 
the Chinese Exclusion Acts, to put the Chinese on 



a quota basis, and to permit their naturalization. 
May 19, 20, 26, 27, and June 2 and 3, 1943. 283 pp. 
Certain OflBcers and Employees of the Foreign Service 
of the United States : Message from the President 
of the United States transmitting report from the 
Secretary of State to the end that legislation may 
be enacted appropriating the sum of $141,037.61 
for the relief of certain oflScers and employees of 
the Foreign Service of the United States who have 
sustained losses by reason of war conditions which 
have been prevailing in all parts of the world dur- 
ing the past 5 years. H. Doc. 250, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess. 30 pp. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIEECTOE OF THE BUEEAC OF THE BDBOET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



B 




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I 




G 



JULY 17, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 212— Publication 1967 



ontents 



The War Page 
Message of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 

Churchill to the People of Italy 27 

Statement by the President on Bastille Day 28 

Address by the Former American Ambassador to Japan . 28 
\< Relief Supplies to American Prisoners of War in 

! Japanese Custody 31 

New Authority in the French Antilles 32 

Unification of Agencies Concerned With Foreign 

Economic Affairs 32 

Launching of Liberty Ship Robert Lansing 33 

Inteenational'^Confeeences, Commissions, Etc. 

United Nations Interim Commission on Food and 
Agriculture : 

Designation of United States Representative 33 

Program of the Inaugural Session and List of Repre- 
sentatives 33 

Address of Welcome at the Inaugural Session by 

Assistant Secretary of State Acheson 35 

Address at the Inaugural Session by the Representa- 
tive of India 37 

Mexican-American Commission for Economic Coopera- 
tion 38 

[over] 








AUG 10 1943 



ontents-coNTmvED 



Treaty Information page 

Military Mission: Agreement With Guatemala for the 
Detail of a United States Army Officer as Director 
of the Guatemalan Polytechnic School 46 

The Department 

Designation of H. Charles Spruks To Take Charge 

of Miami Office 47 

Cultural Relations 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Republics . 47 

Publications 47 

Legislation 47 



The War 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL 

TO THE PEOPLE OF ITALY 



(Released to the press by the White House July 16) 

On July 16 the President and the Prime Min- 
ister of Great Britain sent the following joint 
message to the people of Italy : 

"At this moment the combined armed forces 
of the United States and Great Britain under 
the command of General Eisenhower and his 
Deputy General Alexander are carrying the war 
deep into the territory of your country. This 
is the direct consequence of the shameful lead- 
ership to which you have been subjected by 
Mussolini and his Fascist regime. 

''Mussolini carried you into this war as the 
satellite of a brutal destroyer of peoples and 
liberties. Mussolini plunged you into a war 
which he thought Hitler had already won. In 
spite of Italy's great vulnerability to attack by 
air and sea, your Fascist leaders sent your sons, 
your ships, your air forces, to distant battle- 
fields to aid Germany in her attempt to conquer 
England, Russia, and the world. This associa- 
tion with the designs of Nazi-controlled Ger- 
many was unworthy of Italy's ancient traditions 
of freedom and culture — traditions to which the 
peoples of America and Great Britain owe so 
much. 

"Your soldiers have fought not in the interests 
of Italy but for Nazi Germany. They have 
fought courageously, but they have been be- 
trayed and abandoned by the Germans on the 
Russian front and on every battlefield in Africa 
from El Alamein to Cape Bon. Today Ger- 
many's hopes for world conquest have been 



blasted on all fronts. The skies over Italy are 
dominated by the vast air armadas of the 
United States and Great Britain. Italy's sea- 
coasts are threatened by the greatest accumula- 
tion of British and Allied sea power ever con- 
centrated in the Mediterranean. 

"The forces now opposed to you are pledged 
to destroy the power of Nazi Germany — power 
which has ruthlessly been used to inflict slavery, 
destruction, and death on all those who refuse 
to recognize the Germans as the master race. 
The sole hope for Italy's survival lies in hon- 
orable capitulation to the overwhelming power 
of the military forces of the United Nations. If 
you continue to tolerate the Fascist regime 
which serves the evil power of the Nazis, you 
must suffer the consequences of your own choice. 
We take no satisfaction in invading Italian soil 
and bringing the tragic devastation of war 
home to the Italian people. But we are de- 
termined to destroy the false leaders and their 
doctrines which have brought Italy to her pres- 
ent position. 

"Every moment that you resist the combined 
forces of the United Nations — every drop of 
blood that j'ou sacrifice — can serve only one pur- 
pose : to give the Fascist and Nazi leadei's a little 
more time to escape from the inevitable conse- 
quences of their own crimes. All your interests 
and all your traditions have been betrayed by 
Nazi Germany and your own false and corrupt 
leaders; it is only by disavowing both that a 

27 



28 



DEPAHTMENT OF STATE BULLiErrrN 



reconstituted Italy can hope to occupy a re- 
spected place in the family of European 
Nations. 

"The time has now come for you, the Italian 
people, to consult your own self-respect and your 



own interests and your own desire for a restora- 
tion of national dignity, security, and peace. 
The time has come for you to decide whether 
Italians shall die for Mussolini and Hitler — or 
live for Italy, and for civilization." 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT ON BASTILLE DAY 



[Released to the press by the White House July 14] 

The 14th of July is, for all the peoples of 
the world devoted to the ideals of liberty, a 
day of celebration. We observe it this year, 
here in the United States, with special fervor. 
Immortal France has reaffirmed once again, in 
the most heroic circumstances, her greatness and 
her glory. 

On this anniversary of the winning by the 
French people of their liberties I wish to recall 
again that the fundamental principles which 
guide our democracies were evolved from the 
American and the French Ksvolutions. The 
keystone of our democratic structure is the 
principle which places governmental authority 
in the people, and in the people only. There 
can be one symbol only for Frenchmen — France 
herself. She transcends all parties, personali- 
ties, and groups: they live indeed only in the 
glory of French nationhood. 



One of our war aims, as set forth in the 
Atlantic Charter, is to restoi'e the mastery of 
their destinies to the peoples now under the 
invaders' yoke. Tliere must be no doubt any- 
where of the imalterable determination of the 
United Nations to restore to the oppressed 
peoples their full and sacred rights. 

French sovereignty resides in the people of 
France. 

Today this people is shackled by barbaric 
oppression. In the freedom of tomorrow, 
when Frenchmen and their brothers in arms 
of the United Nations have cleansed French 
soil of the enemy, the French people will again 
give expression to their freedom in the erecting 
of a government of their own free choice. 

Long live Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. 
May France live forever ! 



ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



[Released to the press July 14] 

The scene was the regimental mess hall of one 
of the Prussian Guard regiments in Berlin ; the 
date, some time in 1912 or 1913 ; the hour, late. 
Much champagne had been consumed, and re- 
straints were off. 

"Die Wacht am Rhein" had been sung in 
thunderous volume; glasses had been banged 
on the table to the toast "Der Tag". "In Vino 
Veritas." I said to the Junker officer beside 
me: "There you have the quintessence of the 
martial spirit. In fact, the German Array re- 



minds me of a football team which after long 
training is tired of practice and wants a game." 
"Yes," he replied, "you are right. And we shall 
have that game, unquestionably. It's only a 
matter of time before we shall have to fight our 
traditional enemy, France, again." He spoke 
of it much as one might speak of our Army- 
Navy football game — as an inevitable engage- 

' Delivered by the Honorable Josepli C. Grew, wlio is 
now Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, at 
Columbia University, New Yorli, July 13, 1943. 



JULY 17, 1943 



29 



ment. "But that will be quite simple," he con- 
tinued; "we are much stronger than France. 
We may have to go in through Balgium, but of 
course the Belgians won't fight; they will sim- 
ply let us through. And the British couldn't 
fight if they wanted to; they're a decadent 
race, and anyway they are far too much oc- 
cupied with their labor troubles and the Irish 
problem. We can count them out. As for you 
in America, it would be laughable for you to 
try to fight us. Of course the hundreds of 
thousands of Germans in your country would 
never allow that, and even if you should try to 
come in, you could never get a single soldier 
across the Atlantic ; we would attend to that." 

Thus the Prussian officer before 1914. 

Time moves on to the early spring of 1941. 
The panorama has moved too, and another scene 
is presented, the garden at the Tokyo home of 
Matsuoka, Japanese Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs. We walk up and down by the hour, both 
smoking pipes ; he talks, and I, as usual, listen. 
"Democracy is bankrupt;" he says — how pre- 
cisely I remember those words — "this is the day 
of the great military powers. Germany will 
unquestionably win this war and will control all 
of Europe, while we are the stabilizing force in 
the Far East, and we shall create in Greater 
East Asia, including the South Seas, a new order 
constructed on the principle of co-prosperity." 
His predecessor, Arita, had contrasted the great 
open spaces of the South Seas regions and their 
vast natural resources with overcrowded Japan, 
a country poor in resources. Matsuoka de- 
veloped that theme. And then he went on to say 
that if the United States should get into a shoot- 
ing war with Germany, even in defense against 
the German submarines, Japan would be 
obliged, on the basis of article 3 o"f the Tripar- 
tite Pact, to go to war with us. "Democracy is 
decadent," he repeated, and he added : "But if 
you insist on sending your shijJS into the Euro- 
pean war zone, you will have to take the conse- 
quences." 

A few months earlier, after Japan had joined 
the Axis, I was playing golf one Saturday when 
a messenger hurried on to the course and said 
that the Foreign Office wanted to see me im- 



mediately. As it was my first game in several 
weeks I finished the 18 holes and then repaired 
to the official residence of the Vice Foreign Min- 
ister. The higher officials were sitting in a circle 
with an admiral of the Navy, expressions of deep 
concern written on their faces. They handed 
me a telegram and said : "What does this mean ??' 
I read it. It was a press telegram saying that 
Mr. Hull had called home all Americans in the' 
Far East who could be spared from their duties. 
I said: "Gentlemen, I have not yet seen this 
news; presumably a telegram is now on my desk 
in the Embassy. But I can tell you at once what 
it means. When you joined the Axis and en- 
tered into partnership with a country which 
has threatened my country and has announced 
its intention to wreck many of the fundamental 
principles for which my country stands, you be- 
lieved that we would become intimidated and 
would step back. I told you on the contrary that 
we would step forward. This is the first step." 
Those Japanese officials wei'e amazed. 

In international relationships, not only in 
past history but in contemporary affairs — and 
certainly this axiom will apply with equal or 
greater force in future — one of the funda- 
mental sources of danger is the lack of under- 
standing, the erroneous conception, among 
governments and peoples, of the background, 
the underlying impulses and motivations, the 
psychology, stamina, and spirit of other peo- 
ples. Had the Germans in 1914 and the Jap- 
anese ill 1941 better understood those things, 
had they more accurately conceived the inher- 
ent qualities of their future enemies, might they 
not have hesitated to rush headlong toward cer- 
tain ultimate destruction? Democracy, they 
said, is bankrupt ; the people of the democracies 
decadent, soft, flabby from too much luxury, 
disunited by too much individual independence, 
unwilling to save or to sacrifice their comforts, 
unable to unite or to endure the grim and con- 
stantly intensified demands of total war. 

Alas, what they did not know and perhaps 
do not yet wholly understand is that, while we 
in the democracies begin war as novices and in 
low gear because we are not in time of peace 
geared for war, with the wheels of our war 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



AUGUST 21, 1943 
Vol, IX, No. 217— Publication 1979 







ontents 



The War Pag, 

American Eelations With Africa: Address by Heniy S. 

Villard 103 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals ... 110 
The American Commission for the Protection and Sal- 
vage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in Europe . Ill 
Tentative Proposal for an International Stabilization 

Fund 112 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission 112 

First Pan American Physical Education Congress . . . 113 

Publications 113 

Treaty Information 

Armed Forces: Agreement With China Regarding 
Jurisdiction Over Criminal Offenses by Armed 
Forces 114 

Strategic Materials: Agreement Regarding the 1944 

Cuban Sugar Crop 116 

Finance: Agreement With Canada Regarding Pro- 
vincial and Municipal Taxation Imposed Upon 
the United States Government, United States 
Contractors Engaged on the Alaska Highway, 
and Other United States Defense Projects in 
Canada 116 




J. b. bui tWtNTfNDENT Of OOCUMENt.- 

CEP 9 1943 



G 



ontents-coTiTiNVEB 



Treaty Information— Continued Page 

Military and Naval Missions: [over] 

Agreement Renewing Agreement With Panama for 
the Detail of a United States Army Officer as 
Adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of 

Panama 117 

Agreement Renewing Naval Mission Agreement 

With Colombia 117 



The War 



AMERICAN RELATIONS WITH AFRICA 

Address by Henry S. Villard ^ 



[Released to the press August 19] 

Never before has the word Africa meant so 
much to the people of the United States. On 
the morning of November 8, 1942, the name of 
the erstwhile Dark Continent leaped into the 
headlines, and America suddenly learned that 
thousands of her sons had landed on what vised 
to be considered a distant shore. By now we 
all know the enormous importance of North 
Africa to the prosecution of the war against the 
Axis and the part it plays in global strategy. 

But Africa is a vast territory, three and one- 
half times as big as the United States, with a 
population about as large. It embraces a tre- 
mendous range of climate, geography, flora and 
fauna, natural resources, and cultures. The 
Africa of the Congo is very different from 
Morocco or Algeria. Ethiopia is totally unlike 
Portuguese Mozambique. The Union of South 
Africa has an individuality of its own. Yet 
each in its way represents the continent, a piece 
of the jig-saw puzzle which goes to make up the 
variegated whole. 

In these days of miraculously fast transporta- 
tion, the existence of such a huge land with still 
undeveloped riches and a relatively primitive 
native population is alone enough to arouse our 
curiosity. In addition, the war has turned a 
powerful searchlight on Africa, focusing at- 
tention on its strategic position and bringing 
home the fact that there are intricate problems 
to be solved there if future threats to world 
peace are to be avoided. 



From Brazzaville to Casablanca, from Accra 
to Nairobi, from Eritrea to Cairo, our boys in 
uniform are learning today what Africa is like. 
Many of them will come back with a first-hand 
knowledge of those problems which must be 
considered in any organization for the peace — 
problems dealing with the orderly exploitation 
of raw materials, with the opportunity for 
trade by all nations, with the welfare and ad- 
vancement of the native inhabitants. These 
are subjects which must interest everyone con- 
cerned with human progress, whether in the 
economic, commercial, or sociological field. 
For the first time we as a nation are beginning 
to ask exactly what are the relations of our 
country with the great undeveloped continent 
across the seas, and what are those relations to 
be in the future. 

I shall try to state the main problems with 
respect to Africa from the standpoint of the 
American Government. But first, let me men- 
tion briefly the historic connections of this 
country with the Africa we have always heard 
about and read about, but which because of its 
remoteness from our ordinary paths of travel 
few of us have ever visited. 

Our first contact with Africa is traceable to 
the iniquitous practice of slave trading. To 
our forefathers, perhaps, as in the case of the 

' Delivered on August 19 by Mr. Villard, who Is As- 
sistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs 
of the Department of State, at the Chautauqua Insti- 
tute, Chautauqua, N. Y. 

103 



104 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



other raiding nations, it did not seem particu- 
larly wrong to land upon an alien coast, seize 
its helpless people, and consign them and their 
descendants to slavery — all in the name of 
progress and the upbuilding of civilization. 
The inhuman traffic in slaves and rum carried 
on by early traders and businessmen in the 
Ivory Coast, the Gold Coast, and the Slave 
Coast of Africa had a lasting influence not only 
on our own society but on the outlook of the 
African tribal communities, and reflects the 
dark record of those who participated in the 
spoils. 

But early in the nineteenth century a bright 
spot appeared in the unpleasant picture. Af- 
ter the acts of 1818 and 1819 had declared trad- 
ing in slaves to be piracy, colonization societies 
in the eastern States made efforts to transport 
and settle in Africa the increasing numbers of 
slaves who had obtained their freedom and for 
whom no economic solution appeared to exist in 
this country. The plans first took tangible 
form in 1821 when, in a transaction reminiscent 
of the purchase of Manhattan Island, a strip 
of land on the edge of the continent nearest to 
South America was obtained from the natives 
of West Africa "for a miscellaneous assort- 
ment, including muskets, tobacco, umbrellas, 
hats, soap, calico, and other things." 

Philanthropy and government joined hands 
in the founding of what is now Liberia. Amer- 
ican naval vessels brought additional settlers 
in succeeding years, who gradually merged into 
groups of self-administered communities. 
Their difficulties rivaled those of our Pilgrim 
Fathers. Disease, attacks by native tribes, lack 
of supplies, and adverse climatic conditions 
played havoc with the early colonists. Health 
was imperiled ; deaths were frequent. In 1837 
the struggling communities united in the Com- 
monwealth of Liberia, governed by a board of 
directors delegated by the several parent soci- 
eties in the United States. A dispute with the 
neighboring British colony of Sierra Leone 
over the right to levy local import duties re- 
sulted in the decision to inaugurate a republic. 
Liberia's declaration of independence was pro- 
claimed on July 24, 1847, and treaties were soon 



afterward negotiated with various European 
countries. 

For political reasons in that crucial period 
immediately preceding our Civil War it was not 
possible for the American Government to ex- 
tend recognition to its i^rotege until 1862. 
From then on, however, the progress of the 
young republic has been followed with a sym- 
pathetic and watchful eye in the United States. 
As I shall explain later, it is the one place on 
the African Continent where our national help 
has been markedly felt — and doubtless our in- 
terest there will continue and deepen. 

Piracy — from Africa — entered into our re- 
lationship at an early date. Under the leader- 
ship of the notorious deys of Algiers, corsairs 
of the Barbary States attacked our shipping in 
the Mediterranean, pillaging our vessels and 
seeking to exact tribute from our merchants. 
In the years between 1801 and 1819 occurred 
many of the incidents which are familiar to 
every American schoolboy, climaxed by the fa- 
mous encounter of Stephen Decatur with the 
Algerian frigate Copper Bottom on June 10, 
1815. By our victory on that occasion we not 
only put an end to the depredations of the cor- 
sair admiral, Rais Hammida, but paved the way 
for the abolition of piracy, of the payment of 
tribute, and of the enslavement of Christian 
prisoners. Our nation was scarcely 40 years 
old when it performed that task. The exploits 
of American naval vessels off the shores of 
Tripoli brought about what none of the Euro- 
pean powers of the time accomplished. It is 
peculiarly fitting that our air, land, and sea 
forces should have returned to the scene today 
to defeat the Nazi and Fascist highwaymen in 
the Mediterranean. 

The most noteworthy contribution by an 
American to the development of Africa lay in 
the work of Stanley, whose name will be for- 
ever associated with the penetration of the 
Congo. His pioneering activities between 1879 
and 1883 stirred our national pride and made us 
conscious of the immense tract of totally un- 
known land that awaited exploration. Here 
was a challenge, sentimental and humani- 
tarian — and to the keen-eyed Yankee, commer- 



AUGUST 21, 1943 



105 



cial as well. In his annual message to Congress 
of December 4, 1883, President Arthur stated 
that the area was being opened to commerce by 
King Leopold's International Association of tlie 
Congo ; that an American citizen, Stanley, was 
the chief executive officer ; that the objects of the 
association were philanthropic ; that the United 
States could not be indifferent to this work, nor 
to the interests of its citizens; and finally that 
cooperation with other commercial powers 
might become advisable in order to promote the 
rights of trade and residence in the Congo Val- 
ley free from the interference or political con- 
trol of any one nation. 

Shortly thereafter we recognized the flag of 
the International Africa Association as the flag 
of a friendly government — and we were the 
first to do so. 

With the opening-up of the Congo, the era 
of colonial rivalries and annexations was on. 
It became necessary to define the formalities to 
be observed in order that new occupations along 
the coast of Africa might be considered effec- 
tive. The question of freedom of commerce 
had to be discussed, as well as the principle of 
freedom of navigation as applied to interna- 
tional rivers, such as in the case of the Danube. 
Acting in concert with the French Govermnent, 
the German Government proposed in October 
1884 that representatives of the various powers 
interested in African commerce should hold a 
conference at Berlin. 

On the stipulation that we should not be 
bound by any of the conclusions that might be 
reached, the United States accepted an invi- 
tation to attend this first international meeting 
on Africa. We signed the General Act of the 
Congress of Berlin on February 26, 1885. 
Shortly thereafter the administration of Presi- 
dent Arthur ended and that of President Cleve- 
land began. It was therefore up to a different 
administration from that under which the 
United States had participated in the conference 
to decide whether or not the act should be sub- 
mitted to the Senate for ratification. President 
Cleveland refrained from asking the Senate's 
approval. The reason he gave was the inclu- 
sion in the act of certain provisions obligating 



the signatories to maintain neutrality in the 
Congo region, which were held to conflict with 
our traditional policy of non-intervention in 
the disputes of other nations with regard lo 
territorial questions. 

Although we did not ratify the Act of Bei'lin, 
we made clear our benevolent attitude toward 
the principles it laid down. A great area 
known as the Conventional Basin of the Congo 
was delimited, in which the "open door" policy 
of trade was to apply. The understanding 
reached on this and other matters pertaining 
to the newly discovered heart of Africa was the 
cornerstone on which rested all subsequent 
agreements dealing with that continent. 

Free trade in the Congo at first was short- 
lived. In 1890 the nations met again at Brus- 
sels and passed a General Act and Declaration 
permitting the imposition of 10 percent import 
duties. The United States did not even sign 
this declaration, and stood aside while it was 
made applicable by the signatory nations. 

In the busy days of treaty-making following 
the first World War this Government became a 
party to several agreements relating to Africa. 
First and foremost, the Convention of St. Ger- 
raain-en-Laye, signed in September 1919, re- 
vised the previous acts concerning the Conven- 
tional Basin of the Congo, restored freedom of 
trade, and is the instrument governing our rela- 
tions with that area today. We signed multi- 
lateral conventions on particular subjects: the 
liquor traffic, in 1919; the arms trade, in 1925; 
slavery, in 1926. Between 1923 and 1925 we ne- 
gotiated six conventions with the powers hold- 
ing mandates in Africa, securing our rights in 
the colonial territories which Germany surren- 
dered by the Treaty of Versailles. Those con- 
ventions established the fundamental principle 
that we had a right to be consulted in the dis- 
position of the ex-pnemy colonies, regardless of 
the fact that the Peace Treaty of 1919 had not 
been accepted by the United States. This in- 
terest of our Government in the mandated ter- 
ritories was a significant step in the relationship 
of America to Africa. It not only marked the 
advent of American influence in the determina- 



106 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tion of ultimate sovereignty over a substantial 
portion of African soil, but also secured us 
equality of opportunity so far as trade or com- 
merce was concerned. 

As I have previously suggested, on all the 
checkerboard map of Africa our ties with the 
Negro Republic of Liberia have been the most 
intimate. With a constitution, flag, and govern- 
ment patterned on our own, with a history of 
American encouragement and supervision 
against possible foreign encroachments, it is 
natural that Liberia should constitute our main 
link with the Africa of today. Liberia looms 
out of all proportion to its size for a number of 
reasons. 

For one thing, Liberia is a source of that vital 
commodity, rubber. The Firestone plantations, 
American-owned, are producing about 35 mil- 
lion pounds annually. Another point is Li- 
beria's favorable situation at the so-called nar- 
rows of the South Atlantic. According to pre- 
cise measurement of the air routes, the Pan 
American Airways base at Fisherman Lake, 
Liberia, is actually nearer to Brazil than the 
French port of Dakar. The implications of 
such a strategic location in the aerial age that is 
sure to follow this war are quite obvious. 

Liberia stands ready to encourage American 
enterprise. Last June President Barclay vis- 
ited Washington and made it clear that he would 
welcome the development of his country by 
United States interests, provided only that they 
benefited Liberia and did not exploit his people. 
The extension of lend-lease aid and the presence 
in Liberia at this moment of American forces 
under the terms of a defense agreement entered 
into last year give an indication of the recipro- 
cal assistance which the two countries are ren- 
dering. I do not doubt that in any plans which 
may be worked out for international security 
after the present conflict, Liberia — across the 
way from the bulge of Brazil — will be one of 
the focal points of special importance to the 
Americas. 

Mention should be made here of our relations 
with Ethiopia. No discussion of Africa would 
be complete without reference to the valiant 



Kingdom of Haile Selassie, one of the first vic- 
tims of Axis aggression and the first to recover 
its independence. During the entire period of 
Italian occupation, the United States Govern- 
ment steadfastly refused to recognize Italy's 
claim to sovereignty over Ethiopian territory. 
I have been assured by Mr. Yilma Deressa, Vice 
Minister of Finance of Ethiopia, who was the 
chief Ethiopian delegate to the recent inter- 
national food conference at Hot Springs, that 
this attitude on the part of our Government will 
never be forgotten in his country. 

An extraordinary development of Africa's 
physical resources is taking place today. The 
war has created an insatiable demand for min- 
erals, lumber, foodstuffs, and tropical produce 
of every sort, draining off surpluses and awak- 
ening new demands in hitherto untouched re- 
gions. Under lend-lease, military supplies have 
flowed in a steady stream to the defense of 
African territories ; modern roads and railways 
have been constructed; air bases have dotted 
the landscapes and the airplane has become a 
familiar sight; ports have been enlarged and 
improved. As new needs have arisen under 
the emergency, the demand has increased for 
such little-known ores as tantalite or columbite, 
and for such exotic products as shea butter and 
kapok and calabar beans and pyrethrum. In 
the cause of victory, agents of this Government 
have flown hither and yon collecting valuable 
products for shipment to the Allied war ma- 
chine. The expansion of trade which has oc- 
curred in each direction is limited only by the 
desperately overburdened shipping facilities. 

Such has been the impact of war on the econ- 
omy of Africa that far-reaching results may 
be anticipated. The artificial stimulus has 
caused many changes in methods of production 
and in the utilization of native labor. A new 
standard of living has been introduced, from 
which Africa cannot retreat. 

Now what of the postwar period? To what 
extent will our ships continue to ply the waters 
of Africa, laden with building supplies and 
machinery on the one hand and returning with 
valuable tropical cargos on the other? Com- 



AUGUST 21, 1943 



107 



mon sense tells us that the wartime pitch can- 
not be maintained, that the requirements of the 
African bases will diminish sharply. It is 
problematical to what degree our lend-lease ar- 
rangements will permit us to extend the proj- 
ects which have so materially assisted the com- 
mon war effort in Africa. War goods will be 
replaced by peace goods, and our normal ship- 
ments of automobiles, radios, leaf tobacco, and 
hardware will be resumed. 

Yet trade is bound to grow over the years. 
"We would not be American if we were not in- 
terested in that. Moreover, our recently de- 
veloped use for some of Africa's products may 
well persist after the war. The staggering 
consumption of metals alone may seriously af- 
fect our own reserves, for instance, of man- 
ganese, copper, and tin. Natural resources 
such as exist in Africa offer great reservoirs for 
development and use by the peoples of the 
world — including those indigenous to Africa. 
In the past these reservoirs have in some in- 
stances been responsible for international 
jealousies and bitter strife. 

To avoid this prolific source of unrest and 
competition, point four of the Atlantic Charter 
was framed. I repeat here the declaration of 
President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Churchill that their respective countries 
". . . will endeavor, with due respect for their 
existing obligations, to further the enjoyment 
by all States, great or small, victor or van- 
quished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade 
and to the raw materials of the world which are 
needed for their economic prosperity." 

^-Mien the time comes to formulate the condi- 
tions for the better world we all hope will fol- 
low the present struggle, I feel certain that the 
American principle of equality of opportunity 
in trade will remain a paramount factor in 
Africa, applicable in the colonies of whatever 
nationality. Furthermore, our interest in 
Africa is not that of the pirates of old who 
plundered and robbed and took without giving 
in return. Africa needs our skills and serv- 
ices in order to achieve greater productivity, 
just as we need access to Africa's resources. 



There will be ample room for cooperative effort 
in the working-out of mutually beneficial eco- 
nomic undertakings. 

Opportunities for American aid of one kind 
or another in Africa after the war will be 
boundless. The single problem of education is 
enough to stagger the imagination. The need 
for educational facilities will dwarf all previ- 
ous efforts of the missionary and philanthropic 
societies which have carried the burden of in- 
struction in the past. For instance, the matter 
of health will crj' loudly for attention. Weav- 
ing together the African communities by air, 
and linking them up in turn with the other re- 
gions of the world, brings in its train a host of 
medical problems. In addition to the inex- 
haustible need for private practice, Africa may 
require the establishment of an adequate trop- 
ical health institute sponsored by governments 
or by an international organization, to prevent 
the transmission of disease and to help eradi- 
cate local sources of infection. 

It is certain that in the fields of education, 
of medicine, of social welfare in general, Amer- 
ica can find full scope for its philanthropic 
impulses. 

While we are well aware of the economic pos- 
sibilities in Africa and the amazing accessibility 
of that continent which is now a fact, the politi- 
cal aspects of the colonial question are also 
clearly of interest to the American people. I 
say this for two reasons : First, because Amer- 
icans are intensely alive to developments all 
over the world; secondly, because the peaceful 
development and welfare of Africa inescapably 
affect the security of all the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The appearance of sore spots and fric- 
tions in the colonial systems of Africa is surely 
a matter of concern to us. 

From the political standpoint, various solu- 
tions have been proposed here and abroad for 
the problem of colonies. The British Labor 
Party advocates a form of international super- 
vision over the national administration of col- 
onies, carried out by an International Colonial 
Commission functioning under a theoretical 
International Authority to be created after the 



108 



DEPAETMEiNT? OF STATE BTJLIE.TrN" 



war. This would leave the existing local ad- 
ministrations intact but would make them re- 
sponsible to the bar of an expert public opinion. 
Others would go further and transfer the sov- 
ereignty now exercised by the controlling power 
to an international body charged with full legis- 
lative and administrative authority over a col- 
ony. Both these forms of international control 
embody the mandate principle, evolved after 
the last war, under which the victorious powers 
assumed the guardianship of certain backward 
peoples "not yet able to stand alone." The Man- 
dates Commission of the League of Nations 
supervised the carrying-out of various manda- 
tory obligations designed to protect the native 
from abuse and to uphold the international 
commitments of the admmistering power. 
Those who advocate a different system believe 
that the Mandates Coimnission suffered from 
the same fault as its parent body : it lacked the 
teeth to make itself effective ; nor could it initi- 
ate policies of its own. They point out that 
while no harm and some good actually resulted 
from the mandate system in Africa, its applica- 
tion in the islands of the Pacific was a tragic 
failure. The Japanese thumbed their noses at 
the Mandates Conmiission and secretly fortified 
the islands entrusted to their care — eventually 
using them for bases in their attack on Pearl 
Harbor. 

Still another suggestion has been made for 
the future handling of colonial problems, which 
has received attention on both sides of the At- 
lantic. This involves the establishment of re- 
gional councils, composed of representatives of 
the powers controlling adjacent or neighboring 
colonial territories, together with such other 
powers as have a valid related interest, as, for 
example, from the standpoint of security. A 
regional council would aim at consultation and 
cooperation on problems common to the imme- 
diate area, on coordination of policies, and 
on mutual checks and criticisms. Here again, 
the proposal is based on the principles of 
trusteeship. 



Whatever the dispositions of the peace to 
come, it is unlikely in the extreme that the for- 
mer enemy territories in Africa will come into 
the outright possession of any one power. It 
is equally improbable that the United States 
would alone accept jurisdiction or control over 
any part of such former enemy territory. Not- 
withstanding the astonishing and probably 
Axis-inspired rumors which crop up from time 
to time, this Government — in keeping with its 
traditional policy throughout the world — has 
no designs on the colonial possessions of other 
nations and no desire to carve out for its ex- 
clusive benefit any portion of Africa. 

Some of our allies in this great war have 
looked with mixed feelings at America's inter- 
est in the future treatment of Africa and its in- 
habitants. Yet it is entirely natural in a war 
for the Four Freedoms that we as Americans 
should openly discuss the question of political 
advancement for the natives of Africa. That 
does not mean we intend to see one set of views 
or another enforced, or that we even listen seri- 
ously to the extremists who advocate the instant 
liberation of all dependencies from external 
control. Aside from the chaos and confusion 
which would result from casting adrift on the j 
uncertain political seas great masses of inex- 
perienced people, the readiness of the commu- J 
nities involved requires the most serious thought. ! 

The Anglo-Saxon democracies freely admit 
that self-government is a desirable goal. More- 
over, it is increasingly recognized that the im- 
perialism of the past, the old system of colonial 
exploitation, is giving way to new social con- 
cepts. Yet great as our desire may be to see 
the Africans enjoy and profit by political inde- 
pendence, we must remember that definite stages 
of economic progress must precede the capacity 
to manage successfully the self-governing in- 
stitutions of an independent political entity. 

We should furthermore remember that only 
a small minority of the peoples in the colonies 
have expressed a desire for self-government. 
While we may assume that many more would 
ask for it if they knew what it meant and were 



AUGUST 21, 1943 

able to make their wishes known, it is also 
true that many of the inhabitants of these col- 
onies are actually opposed to self-government. 
In Nigeria, for example, numerous Africans op- 
pose it on the ground that they receive a greater 
measure of justice from British courts than they 
do from the African courts functioning in the 
same districts, and because of the fear that 
many of the people would fare less well under a 
purely African regime. 

We reserve to ourselves full liberty of discus- 
sion on such important questions affecting the 
advance of mankind. But in fairness to the 
colonial powers who ai'e our allies, and for the 
sake of greater unity in war and peace, we 
would do well to reflect that we have minorities 
in territories under the United States flag who 
call for self-government. Even though many 
Americans may agree with them, we would 
scarcely welcome being advised by our allies to 
hasten the grant of self-government wherever it 
is asked. If we consider how thorny are the 
problems in our own territories, we will be less 
hasty in reaching conclusions about Africa. 

No doubt the governing powers would wel- 
come our participation in international bodies 
or regional councils, should they be set up, spe- 
cifically to aid in the development of Africa for 
the benefit of the African people. As I have 
just pointed out, the opportunities for improve- 
ment in living standards, in education, health, 
and agriculture, are practically without end. 
The governing powers have developed their 
colonies with limited colonial revenues. 
Granted that these resources have not per- 
mitted as rapid development as the British 
people — or as you and I — might wish, it is 
worth noting that the British Parliament re- 
cently voted to make available over the next 10 
years sums which may amount to 55 million 
pounds or more for the development of the 
British colonies. That is only a drop in the 
bucket of appropriations which Africa could 
absorb, but it is a start. 

If we wish to obtain benefits from the devel- 
opment of Africa, in the interest of all 
peoples — including the natives themselves — 
capital must be supplied for various purposes 

B47B38 — 43 2 



109 

and from various sources: philanthropic, com- 
mercial, and perhaps international. The proof 
of our sincerity in fulfilling hopes awakened 
during these years of war wiU lie in our will- 
ingness to contribute to and invest in the future 
of Africa. 

I have mentioned the Treaty of St. Germain, 
signed in 1919, and known as the revising con- 
vention of previous acts on Africa. One of the 
provisions of the St. Germain treaty was that 
another international conference should be held 
10 years after the treaty had gone into effect. 
The purpose of the second meeting would be to 
introduce such modifications as experience 
might have shown to be necessary. In the dec- 
ade before the outbreak of the present war, the 
nations were obviously too preoccupied with 
matters nearer home, for no one ever suggested 
the calling of that second conference. 

So much has been said and written about 
colonial problems, so prominent has been the 
discussion about Africa's raw materials, that 
another meeting of the nations interested in 
Africa at some future date seems likely. As 
presently distributed among the powers, the 
colonial dependencies present questions which 
must be settled, particularly those relating to 
strategic and economic advantages. 

The continent of Africa is bound to play a 
prominent part in any system of international 
security which may be devised for the future. 
At Dakar the presence of an American naval 
mission under Vice Admiral William Glassford 
is testimony to the importance of the Atlantic 
routes and to our cooperation with the French 
in making them safe for travel. Such a stra- 
tegic locality as Liberia has been shown to be 
vital to the defense of this hemisphere. Our 
traditional policy of the "open door," if ap- 
plied uniformly to all colonial areas, is one 
which we confidently expect will aid in remov- 
ing sources of economic conflict and contribute 
to the advancement of the native. If raw ma- 
terials are made accessible to all on a basis of 
non-discrimination, one of the fundamental 
excuses for conquest by force will be destroyed 
and a real step will be taken toward a peaceful 
world. 



110 



DBPARTMEJSfT OP STATE BUIiUETIN 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



[Eeleaeed to the press August 20] 

The United States Government has requested 
Japan to grant and to obtain from its allies safe- 
conduct for the exchange vessel Gripshohn and 
has good reason to hope that safe-conduct for 
the vessel will be received in time to permit the 
forthcoming exchange to be made at Mormugao, 
Goa, Portuguese India, by October 15. 

As soon as additional details are available the 
State Department will make a further an- 
nouncement for the information of relatives 
and friends of those Americans who are ex- 
pected to return from the Far East. 

The War Department last night, August 19, 
issued the following notice, which is self- 
explanatory : 

"The sailing of the excliange ship Gripshohn 
to the Far East has been advanced. All persons 
who received labels from the Provost Marshal 
General authorizing packages to be sent to 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in the 
Far East must have such packages in New York 
by midnight of August 27. This changes the 
former time for receipt of parcels in New York 
from September 15 to August 27 and applies 
only to persons who received the labels from the 
Office of the Provost Marshal General for pack- 
ages to prisoners of war and civilian internees 
in the Far East." 

[Released to the press August 21] 

In connection with the forthcoming exchange 
of American and Japanese nationals at Mor- 
mugao, Goa, Portuguese India, the Department 
of State in cooperation with the Post Office De- 
partment has made special arrangements for 
the dispatch and delivei-y of first-class mail to 
the returning American repatriates on the ex- 
change vessel Gripuholm,. Parcels may not be 
sent to persons returning on the Gripshohn as 
all cargo space has been made available to tlie 



American Red Cross for medicines, concen- 
trated foods, and other relief supplies for 
prisoners of war and interned civilians in the 
Far East. Next-of-kin parcels for prisoners of 
war and interned civilians remaining in the Far 
East may be sent by those who have received the 
necessary labels from the Office of the Provost 
Marshal General, if they reach New York by 
August 27 as already announced to the press. 

Mail (letters and postal cards but not par- 
cels) for the American nationals returning from 
the Far East should bear full foreign postage 
and be mailed in time to reach New York by 
August 30 at the latest. They should be ad- 
dressed in accordance with the following model : 

John Jones, 

Prospective Repatriate on M.S. G-ripsholm, 
Care of Postmaster, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mail sent as prescribed above will be delivered 
after the vessel has cleared the port of Mor- 
mugao on the return voyage. There is no as- 
surance that mail sent to the repatriates through 
other channels will reach Mormugao in time to 
be delivered to the repatriates. 

On the return voyage the Grlpsholm is sched- 
uled to call at Poi't Elizabeth and Rio de Janeiro 
where mail may also be addressed to prospective 
repatriates in care of the American Consulate 
and Ajnerican Embassy, respectively. 

It is expected that mail intended for officially 
reported American prisoners of war and civilian 
internees in the Far East, addressed in the usual 
manner for such mail, will also be carried on the 
Gripsholm. 

Subject to censorship regulations, commercial 
facilities are understood to be available for tele- 
graph communication with persons at Mor- 
mugao. 

Ample supplies of food, clothing, and medi- 
cines will be provided on the exchange vessel to 
meet the needs of its passengers. 



AUGUST 21, 1943 



111 



THE ARIERICAN COMMISSION FOR THE PROTECTION AND SALVAGE OF ARTISTIC 

AND HISTORIC MONUMENTS IN EUROPE 



[Released to the press August 20] 

The President has approved the establishment 
of an American Commission for the Protection 
and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monu- 
ments in Europe, with the Honorable Owen J. 
Roberts, Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, as chairman. Mr. David E. Fin- 
ley, Director of the National Gallery and a 
member of the Commission of Fine Arts, has 
been appointed vice chairman, and Mr. Hunt- 
ington Cairns, seci'etary-treasurer of the Gal- 
lery, will serve as secretary-treasurer of the 
Commission. The other members of the Com- 
mission are: The Honorable Herbert Lehman, 
Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations; the Honorable Archibald Mac- 
Leish, Librarian of Congress; Dr. William Bell 
Dinsmoor, President of the Archeological In- 
stitute of America ; Dr. Francis Henry Taylor, 
Director of the Metropolitan Museum in New 
York and President of the Association of Art 
Museum Directors ; and Dr. Paul J. Sachs, As- 
sociate Director of the Fogg Museum of Fine 
Arts of Harvard University. The members 
will serve for three years. 

The headquarters of the Commission will be 
in the National Gallery of Art. The Commis- 
sion will cooperate with the appropriate 
branches of the Army and of the Department 
of State, including the Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, as well as with 
appropriate civilian agencies. The Commis- 
sion will also advise and work with the School 
of Military Government at Charlottesville, Va., 
and subsequent organizations of civilian char- 
acter which may take over control of occupied 
territory when it is possible to relinquish mili- 
tary control. 

The Commission may be called upon to fur- 
nish museum officials and art historians to the 
General Staff of the Army, so that, so far as 
is consistent with military necessity, works of 
cultural value may be protected in countries oc- 



cupied by the armies of the United Nations. 
One of the principal functions of the Commis- 
sion will be to act as a channel of communication 
between the Army and the various universities, 
museums, and other scholarly institutions, or- 
ganizations, and individuals from whom infor- 
mation and services are desired. Already much 
valuable material has been collected and fur- 
nished to the Army by museums and universities 
through the efforts of individual members of 
the Commission and others serving in a volun- 
teer capacity. 

The Commission will function under the aus- 
pices of the United States Government and in 
conjunction with similar groups in other coun- 
tries for the protection and conservation of 
works of art and of artistic and historic records 
in Europe, and to aid in salvaging and restoring 
to the lawful owners such objects as have been 
appropriated by the Axis powers or individuals 
acting under their authority or consent. 

The appointment of the Ajnerican Commis- 
sion for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic 
and Historic Monuments in Europe is evidence 
of the concern felt by the United States Govern- 
ment and by artistic and learned circles in this 
country for the safety of artistic treasures in 
Europe, placed in jeopardy by the war. It is 
also evidence of the Government's intention 
that, when military operations have been con- 
cluded, there shall be restitution of public prop- 
erty appropriated by the Axis powers. It is 
expected that the Commission will use its good 
offices toward this end and will advocate also 
that, where it is not possible to restore such 
property, either because it has been destroyed or 
cannot be found, restitution in kind should be 
made by the Axis powers to the countries from 
which property has been taken. The Commis- 
sion, it is anticipated, will also urge that resti- 
tution be made of private property appropri- 
ated by the Axis nations. 



112 



DEPAKTMEiNT OF STATE BUTJ.F.HTN" 



TENTATIVE PROPOSAL FOR AN INTER- 
NATIONAL STABILIZATION FUND 

On August 20, 1943 the Treasury Department 
made public a revised draft of a tentative pro- 
posal for an international stabilization fund of 
the United and Associated Nations, prepared 
by technical experts of the Treasury in coopera- 
tion with monetary experts from nearly 30 other 
countries. The revised draft is only a prelim- 
inary document and has not received the official 
approval either of the Treasury Department or 
of the Government. The revision has been pre- 
ceded by exploratory discussions which have 
been continuing in Washington since March 
1943, in response to an invitation from the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury to the finance ministers 
of the United Nations, enclosing for their exam- 
ination a preliminary draft of the Treasury's 
tentative proposal. The finance ministers were 
requested to submit the draft for study by their 
financial experts and to send experts to Wash- 
ington for discussion of the feasibility of inter- 
national monetary cooperation along the sug- 
gested lines of the proposal. 

The Treasury Department's aniiouncement 
stated that the proposed plan cannot by itself 
achieve monetary stability. It can, however, 
provide a working basis for the recovery of 
world trade, facilitate the restoration of inter- 
national economic equilibrium, and contribute 
to the maintenance of world monetary stability. 

In general the plan provides for (1) an inter- 
national agreement to help stabilize foreign- 
exchange rates and avoid competitive currency 
depreciation; (2) resources from which coun- 
tries can buy needed foreign exchange under ap- 
propriate safeguards while taking timely steps 
to adjust their international position; (3) en- 
couragement for the adoption of measures to 
bring about equilibrium in the international 
balance of payments of member countries ; and 
(4) policies designed to eliminate exchange con- 
trols and discriminatory currency practices 
which interfere with the balanced growth of in- 
ternational trade. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



ANGLO-AMERICAN CARIBBEAN 
COMMISSION 

[Released to the press August 17] 

The Department is informed that the follow- 
ing joint communique of the Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission meeting at St. Thomas 
was issued August 17: 

"The Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion is holding its fourth meeting under United 
States co-chairman, Mr. Charles W. Taussig, at 
Charlotte Amalie in St. Thomas of the Virgin 
Islands of the United States on August seven- 
teenth and following days. British represen- 
tation will comprise the British co-chairman, 
Sir Frank Stockdale, and Mr. A. J. Wakefield, 
Inspector General of Agriculture in the West 
Indies, who has been nominated as British 
member for the meeting. Sir John Huggins, 
British resident member in Washington, will 
not be available as he has not yet returned from 
discussions in London prior to assuming duty as 
Governor of Jamaica. Mr. Rexford G. Tug- 
well, Governor of Puerto Rico and Mr. Coert 
duBois of the State Department, Washington, 
who are United States members of the com- 
mission, will also be present. 

"Main subject for discussion relates to agri- 
cultural research in the Caribbean. The com- 
mission has therefore taken the opportunity to 
invite representatives from the agricultural ex- 
perimental station of the United States, Great 
Britain and the Netherlands in the Caribbean 
area to attend so that they may confer and ar- 
range for exchange of information and coordi- 
nation of such research generally. In this con- 
nection the commission will adopt as the basis 
of their deliberations the recommendations and 
report of the United Nations Food Conference 
at Hot Springs, as these recommendations will 



AUGTJST 21, 1943 



113 



provide the foundation for coordinated eflPort 
L in the planning of agricultural and other re- 
search in the Caribbean by the participating re- 
search institutes and experimental stations now 
meeting at St. Thomas. These recommenda- 
tions will also be of assistance to the commis- 
sion in its studies of nutrition, agriculture and 
fisheries problems in that area. A report of 
this meeting will be transmitted to the govern- 
ments of the participating countries and to the 
Interim Commission charged with carrying out 
the recommendations of the United Nations 
conference on food and agi'iculture." 

FIRST PAN AMERICAN PHYSICAL 
EDUCATION CONGRESS 

The United States Government received an 
invitation from the Brazilian Government to 
be represented at the First Pan American Phy- 
sical Education Congress, which was held at 
Rio de Janeiro July 19-31, 1943. In view of 
the pressing transportation problems caused by 
war conditions, it was not deemed feasible to 
send a delegation from the United States. 
However, through the cooperation of the De- 
partments of War and Navy, the following per- 
sons attended the meeting in an unoiEcial ca- 
pacity : Capt. R. T. Cassidy, Assistant Military 
Attache, and Lt. (j.g.) Hoyt Breslin De 
Shields, Jr., U. S. N. R. American Ambassa- 
dor Caffery also was present at the inaugural 
session of the Congress. 

The Congress adopted 21 resolutions dealing 
with the problems of physical education in the 
American republics. 

These resolutions set forth that an elemen- 
tary basis for the educational structure of the 
American nations is the institution of physical 
training as a regular part of general education. 
It should commence in the primary schools, 
under the guidance of trained specialists, so 
that the child may develop not only morally 



and intellectually, but physically, with a view 
to making him a well-balanced, useful member 
of society. 

Stress was laid on the proper types of phy- 
sical training for the respective age and sex 
groups and the necessity for properly trained 
persons to take charge of such activities. In 
the field of education for the Indians, for ex- 
ample, the Congress felt that physical training 
should be directed by persons who know the 
language of the Indians, or by Indians espe- 
cially trained for this work. 

Efforts should be made to set up practical 
medical records, and the collaboration of a 
specialized doctor with the physical training 
teacher should be permanent. 

Corrective training for handicapped or weak 
persons was advocated, recognizing the neces- 
sity for setting up special routines. 

The delegates to the Congress resolved to 
consider the Pan American Congress of Phy- 
sical Education as an institution of permanent 
character for the exchange and collaboration 
of the governments and educational institu- 
tions of the American republics in the coordi- 
nation of activities of this type in the regular 
educational system of the American nations. 
It was unanimously resolved, therefore, to set 
up a pei-manent secretariat under the patronage 
of the Direcion de Educacion Fisica de Peru. 



Publications 



Depaetment or State 

Militai-y Service : Agreement Between the UniteU States 
of Amei-ica and Greece — Effected by exchanges of 
notes signed at Washington March 31, 1942, February 
8 and March 2 and 16, 1943 ; effective March 2, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 322. Publication 1971. 
5 pp. 5^. 



Treaty Information 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreement With China Regarding Jurisdic- 
tion Over Criminal Offenses by Armed 
Forces 

The Secretary of State has received from the 
American Embassy at Chimgking copies of the 
notes, in English and Cliinese, which were ex- 
changed on May 21, 1943 between Mr. George 
Atcheson, Jr., American Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim, and Dr. Kuo-Cheng Wu, Political Vice 
Minister in Charge of Ministerial Affairs, 
Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, effecting 
an agreement between the United States and 
China regarding the jurisdiction over criminal 
offenses which may be committed by the armed 
forces of either country in territory of the other 
country. The Government of the United States 
previously had entered into arrangements of a 
similar character with a number of other coun- 
tries. 

According to information received in the De- 
partment of State from the American Embassy 
at Chungking the following statement was made 
by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 
connection with the publication in China of the 
notes of May 21, 1943 : 

"According to international law and interna- 
tional practice, when the armed forces of the 
Allied nations are stationed in the territory of 
another for the purpose of undertaking joint 
military operations, exclusive criminal jurisdic- 
tion over members of such forces is exercised by 
the military or naval courts or authorities of the 
country to which such forces belong. This prac- 
tice was followed in the last world war. Last 
year, when the United States despatched armed 
forces to territories under British jurisdiction, 
the United States and the British Governments 
reached an agreement whereby the armed forces 
of the United States stationed in British terri- 
114 



tory are formally placed under the exclusive 
jurisdiction of the United States military or 
naval courts or authorities in respect of crim- 
inal offenses. 

"Inasmuch as all nationals of the United 
States in China, including those belonging to its 
armed forces, enjoyed extraterritorial rights, 
there was no need for any special regulations. '• 
However, as the exchange of ratifications of the 
new Sino-American treaty has already taken 
place,^ United States nationals in China are 
henceforth subject to our jurisdiction. There- 
fore, the necessity has been felt that the question 
of criminal jurisdiction over members of the 
armed forces of the United States in China 
should be clearly defined. 

"Accordingly, the Political Vice Minister in 
charge of Ministerial Affairs of the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, Dr. K. C. Wu. on behalf of the 
Chinese Goverimient, and the Charge d'Affaires 
ad interim, of the United States, Mr. George 
Atcheson, on behalf of the United States Gov- 
ernment, have reached an understanding, on the 
basis of equality and reciprocity which has been 
placed on record by an exchange of notes on 
May 21, 1943, to the effect that jurisdiction over 
criminal offenses committed by members of the 
armed forces of the United States in China shall 
be exclusively exercised by the service courts 
and the military and naval authorities of the 
United States, and that the United States Gov- 
ernment shall make like arrangements to en- 
sure to such Chinese forces as may be stationed 
in territory under United States jurisdiction a 
position corresponding to that of the United 
States forces in China." 

The texts in English of the notes exchanged 
on May 21, 1943, are as follows : 



• BxnxETiN of Jan. 16, 1943, p. 59 ; Treaty Series 984. 



AUGUST 21, 1943 



115 



The American Charge at Chungking to the 

Chinese Political Vice Minister in Charge 

of Ministerial Affairs^ Ministry of Foreign 

Affairs 

Chungking, May 21, 1943. 
Excellency : 

Confirming the understanding reached in the 
conversations which have taken place in 
Chungking between representatives of our two 
Governments, I have the honor to inform Your 
Excellency that it is the desire of the Govern- 
ment of the United States that the service courts 
and authorities of its military and naval forces 
shall during the continuance of the present con- 
flict against our common enemies exercise ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over criminal offenses which 
may be committed in China by members of such 
forces. 

If cases arise in which for special reasons the 
service authorities of the Government of the 
United States may prefer not to exercise the 
above jurisdiction, it is proposed that in any 
such case a written statement to that effect shall 
be sent to the Chinese Government through dip- 
lomatic channels, in which event it would be 
open to the Chinese authorities to assume juris- 
diction. 

Assurance is given that the service courts and 
authorities of the United States forces in China 
will be willing and able to try, and on convic- 
tion to punish, all criminal offenses which mem- 
bers of the United States forces may be alleged 
on sufficient evidence to have committed in 
China and that the United States authorities 
will be willing in principle to investigate and 
deal appropriately with any alleged criminal 
offenses committed by such forces in China 
which may be brought to their attention by the 
competent Chinese authorities or which the 
United States authorities may find have taken 
place. 

Insofar as may be compatible with military 
security, the service authorities of the United 
States will conduct the trial of any member of 
the United States forces for an offense against 



a member of the civilian population promptly 
in open court in China and within a reasonable 
distance from the place where the offense is al- 
leged to have been committed so that witnesses 
may not be required to travel great distances to 
attend the trial. 

The competent United States authorities will 
be prepared to cooperate with the authorities 
of China in setting up a satisfactory procedure 
for affording such mutual assistance as may be 
requii-ed in making investigations and collect- 
ing evidence with respect to offenses alleged to 
have been committed by members of the armed 
forces of the United States. As a general rule 
it would probably be desirable that preliminary 
action should be taken by the Chinese authori- 
ties on behalf of the United States authorities 
where the witnesses or other persons from whom 
it is desired to obtain testimony are not mem- 
bers of the United States forces. In prosecu- 
tions in Chinese courts of persons who are not 
members of the United States forces, but where 
members of such forces are in any way con- 
cerned, the service authorities of the United 
States will be glad to render such assistance as 
is possible in obtaining testimony of members 
of such forces or in making appropriate investi- 
gations. 

Inasmuch as the interests of our common 
cause will best be served by provision that the 
foregoing arrangement may be placed on a re- 
ciprocal basis, the Government of the United 
States will be ready to make like arrangements 
to ensure to such Chinese forces as may be sta- 
tioned in territory under United States juris- 
diction a position corresponding to that of the 
United States forces in China. 

It is proposed that the foregoing arrange- 
ment shall be in effect during the present war 
and for a period of six months thereafter. 

If the above arrangement is acceptable to the 
Giinese Government, this note and the reply 
thereto accepting the provisions outlined shall 
be regarded as placing on record the under- 
standing between our two Governments. 

I avail [etc.] Geokge Atcheson, Jr. 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJULETIN 



The Chinese Political Vice Minister in Charge 
of Ministerial Affairs, Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, to the American Charge at Chung- 
king 

Mat 21, 1943. 
Monsieur le Chaege d' Aft aires : 

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of 
your Note of to-day's date reading as follows : 

[Here follows full text of Charge's note, 
printed above.] 

I have the honor to inform you that I am 
authorized to confirm, on behalf of the National 
Government of the Republic of China, that the 
understanding arrived at between our respec- 
tive Governments regarding jurisdiction over 
criminal offenses which may be committed by 
members of the United States armed forces in 
China, with a provision for placing the said 
imderstanding on a reciprocal basis to ensure to 
such Chinese forces as may be stationed in terri- 
tory under United States jurisdiction a posi- 
tion corresponding to that of the United States 
forces in China, is as set forth in your Note 
under reply. 

The present Note and your Note under reply 
will accordingly be regarded as placing this 
understanding on record. 
I avail myself [etc.] Kuo-Cheno Wu 

STRATEGIC MATERIALS 

Agreement Regarding the 1944 Cuban 
Sugar Crop 

[Keleaeed to the press August 21] 

It was announced jointly on August 21 by the 
Department of State, the Cuban Embassy, and 
the Commodity Credit Corporation that an 
agreement, subject to final approval by the 
Cuban Government, has been negotiated by a 
Cuban commission and officials of the United 
States Government, under which the Commod- 
ity Credit Corporation will purchase a mini- 
mum of 4 million short tons of 1944 crop Cuban 



sugar at 2.65 cents a pound, f .o.b. Cuban ports. 
Purchase of the 1943 crop was 3 million short 
tons at 2.65 cents a pound. The 1944 agree- 
ment is based on principles similar to those of 
the 1943 contract, with certain modifications 
mutually agreed upon. 

The 1944 Cuban crop-purchase contract will 
be executed by the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion and the Cuban Sugar Stabilization Insti- 
tute, and it is expected that it will be signed at 
an early date. 

Sugar purchased under this agreement will 
be utilized for supplying the requirements of 
this country and of other United Nations. 

The agreement represents a further step in 
friendly reciprocal cooperation between the two 
Governments in the war effort. 

FINANCE 

Agreement With Canada Regarding Provincial 
and Municipal Taxation Imposed Upon the 
United States Government, United States 
Contractors Engaged on the Alaska High- 
way, and Other United States Defense 
Projects in Canada 

An agreement between the United States and 
Canada regarding provincial and municipal 
taxation levied upon the United States Govern- 
ment, the United States contractors engaged on 
the Alaska Highway, and other United States 
defense projects in Canada was effected by an 
exchange of notes signed August 6 and 9, 1943, 
between the Canadian Secretary of State for 
External Affairs and the American Minister at 
Ottawa. 

By this agreement the Canadian Government 
undertakes, as a contribution to the costs of the 
United States defense projects in Canada, to 
reimburse or refund to the United States Gov- 
ernment any amounts paid by the United States 
Government as pi'ovincial or municipal taxes 
levied in i-espect of such projects, any amounts 
paid by the United States Government to United 
States contractors employed by it on its military 



AUGUST 21, 1943 



117 



projects in Canada in respect of municipal taxes 
assessed against such contractors as owners or 
lease-holders of property and in respect of mu- 
nicipal fees charged for building permits in con- 
nection therewith, and any payments made by 
the United States Government to United States 
contractors in respect of license fees for motor 
vehicles employed on United States defense 
projects in Canada. The Canadian Government 
also undertakes by the agreement to request the 
provinces in which United States projects are 
being executed not to impose license fees on non- 
military drivers of trucks belonging to the 
United States Army and not to levy head or poll 
taxes on non-military personnel normally resi- 
dent in the United States which is engaged on 
United States military projects in Canada. 

MILITARY AND NAVAL MISSIONS 
Agreement Renewing Agreement With Pan- 
ama for the Detail of a United States Army 
Officer as Adviser to the Minister of Foreign 
AS'airs of Panama 

By an exchange of notes signed July 6 and 
August 5, 1943, between the Ambassador of Pan- 
ama in Washington and the Secretary of State, 



there was effected an agreement between the 
United States and Panama renewing for a 
period of one year the agreement signed on 
July 7', 1942,^ for the detail of a United States 
Army officer to serve as adviser to the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of Panama. 



Agreement Renewing Naval Mission 
Agreement With Colombia 

By an exchange of notes signed July 23 and 
August 7, 1943, between the Ambassador of Co- 
lombia in Washington and the Secretary of 
State, there was effected an agreement between 
the United States and Colombia renewing for 
a period of one year the Naval Mission Agree- 
ment signed November 23, 1938,^ as amended by 
the supplementary agi'eement signed August 30, 
1941,^ and as extended by the agreement effected 
by an exchange of notes signed September 22 
and November 5, 1942.* 



^ Bulletin of July 11, 1942, p. 624 ; Executive Agree- 
ment Series 258. 

' Executive Agreement Series 140. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 30, 1&41, p. 173 ; Executive Agree- 
ment Series 218. 

* Executive Agreement Series 280. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



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Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED weekly WITH THE APPBOVAL or THE DIRECTOE OF THE BDEEAn OF THE BUDGET 



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AUGUST 28, 1943 

Vol. IX, No. 218— Publication 1984 



C 



ontents 



The War Page 

The Quebec Conference 121 

Address by the President Before the Canadian Parlia- 
ment at Ottawa 122 

Lend-Lease Operations: Letter of the President to 
Congress Transmitting the Eleventh Quarterly 
Report 124 

Recognition of the French Committee of National Lib- 
eration : Statement bj' the President 125 

Radio Address by the Former American Ambassador to 

Japan 126 

Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations : 
Report on Activities of Medical Personnel in North 
Africa 129 

The Proclaimed List : Cumulative Supplement 5 to Re- 
vision V 132 

American Republics 

Radio Address by Assistant Secretary Berle on the 

Inter- American University of the Air . .... 132 

Commercial Polict 

Trade Agreement With Iceland : Analysis of General 

Provisions and Reciprocal Benefits 133 

The Department 

Creation of the War Commodities Division and the 
Blockade and Supply Division in the Office of For- 
eign Economic Coordination 142 

Abolislmient of the Division of Foreign Funds Control . 143 

[OVER] 




St? ^"^ 



I? 



ontents-coNTiNVED 

General Page 

Visas for Officials of Foreign Governments 144 

CXTLTURAL RELATIONS 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 144 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Frederick P. Hibbard 144 

Legislation 145 

Regulations 145 

Publications 145 



The War 



THE QUEBEC CONFERENCE 



The following text of a joint statement by 
Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britain 
and President Roosevelt was handed to news- 
papermen at a press conference on August 24 in 
Quebec, Canada : 

"The Anglo-American war conference, which 
opened at Quebec on August 11, under the hos- 
pitable auspices of the Canadian Government, 
has now concluded its work. 

"The whole field of world operations has 
been surveyed in the light of the many gi-atify- 
ing events which have taken place since the 
meeting of the President and the Prime Min- 
ister in Washington at the end of May, and the 
necessary decisions have been taken to provide 
for the forward action of the fleets, armies, and 
air forces of the two nations. 

"Considering that these forces are inter- 
mingled in continuous action against the enemy 
in several quarters of the globe, it is indis- 
pensable that entire unity of aim and method 
should be maintained at the summit of the war 
direction. 

"Further conferences will be needed, pi'ob- 
ably at shorter intervals than before, as the war 
effort of the United States and British Com- 
monwealth and Empire against the enemy 
spreads and deepens. 

"It would not be helpful to the fighting troops 



to make any announcement of the decisions 
which have been reached. These can only 
emerge in action. 

"It may, however, be stated that the mil- 
itary discussions of the chiefs of staff turned 
vei'y largely upon the war against Japan and 
the bringing of effective aid to China. Dr. 
T. V. Soong, representing the Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, was a party to the discussions. 
In this field, as in the European, the President 
and the Prime Minister w^ere able to receive and 
apiarove the unanimous recommendation of the 
Combined Chiefs of Staff. Agreements were 
also reached upon the political issues under- 
lying or arising out of the military operations. 

"It was resolved to hold another conference 
before the end of the year between the British 
and American authorities, in addition to any 
tri-partite meeting which it may be possible to 
arrange with Soviet Russia. Full reports of 
the decisions so far as they affect the war against 
Germany and Italy will be furnished to the 
Soviet Government. 

"Consideration has been given during the 
Conference to the question of relations with the 
French Committee of Liberation, and it is un- 
derstood that an announcement by a number of 
governments will be made in the latter part of 
the week." 

121 



122 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUULETTN 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT BEFORE THE CANADIAN PARLIAMENT 

AT OTTAWA^ 



YouB Excellency, Members of the Parlia- 
ment, My Good Friends and Neighbors or the 
Dominion of Canada : 

It was exactly five years ago last Wednesday 
that I came to Canada to receive the high honor 
of a degree at Queen's University. On that oc- 
casion — one year before the invasion of Poland, 
three years before Pearl Harbor — I said : 

"We in the Americas are no longer a far- 
away continent, to v.hich the eddies of contro- 
versies beyond the seas could bring no interest 
or no harm. Instead, we in the Americas have 
become a consideration to every propaganda 
office and to every general staff beyond the seas. 
The vast amount of our resources, the vigor of 
our commerce, and the strength of our men 
have made us vital factors in world peace 
whether we choose it or not." ^ 

We did not choose this war, and that "we" 
includes each and every one of the United Na- 
tions. 

War was violently forced upon us by crimi- 
nal agressors, who measure their standards of 
morality by the extent of the death and the de- 
struction that they can inflict upon their neigh- 
bors. 

In this war Canadians and Americans have 
fought shoulder to shoulder, as our men and our 
women and our children have worked together 
and played together in happier times of peace. 

Today, in devout gratitude, we are celebrating 
a brilliant victory won by British, Canadian, 
and American fighting men in Sicily. 

Today we rejoice also in another event for 
which we need not apologize. A year ago Japan 
occupied several of the Aleutian Islands and 
made a great "to-do" about the invasion of the 
continent of North America. I regret to say 



that some Americans and some Canadians — for 
political purposes chiefly — wished our Govern- 
ments to withdraw from the Atlantic and the 
Mediterranean campaigns and divert all our 
vast strength to the removal of the Japs from a 
few rocky specks in the Aleutians. 

Today our wiser councils have maintained 
our efforts in the Atlantic area and the south- 
west Pacific with ever-gi'owing contributions; 
and in the northwest Pacific a relatively small 
campaign has been assisted by the Japs them- 
selves in the elimination of the last Jap from 
Attu and Kiska. We have been told that Japs 
never surrender ; their headlong retreat satisfies 
us just as well. 

Great councils are being held here on the free 
and honored soil of Canada — councils which 
look to the future conduct of this war and to 
the years of building a new progress for man- 
kind. 

To these councils Canadians and Americans 
alike again welcome that wise and good and gal- 
lant gentleman, the Prime Minister of Great 
Britain. 

Mr. King, my old friend, may I through you 
thank the people of Canada for their hospital- 
ity to all of us. Your course and mine have run 
so closely and affectionately during these many 
long years that this meeting adds another link 
to that chain. I have always felt at home in 
Canada and you, I think, have always felt at 
home in the United States. 

During the past days in Quebec, the combined 
staff's have been sitting around a table talking 
things over, discussing ways and means, in the 



'Delivered Aug. 25, 1943. The test here printed is 
the official text released to the press in Ottawa. 
' Bulletin of Aug. 20, 1938, p. 124. 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



123 



manner of friends, in the manner of partners — 
I may even say in the manner of members of the 
same family. 

AVe have talked constructively of our common 
purposes in this war, of our determination to 
achieve victory in the shortest possible time, of 
our essential cooperation with our great and 
brave fighting allies. 

And we have arrived, harmoniously, at cer- 
tain definite conclusions. Of course, I am not 
at liberty to disclose just what these conclusions 
are. But in due time we shall communicate the 
secret information of the Quebec Conference to 
Germany, Italy, and Japan. We shall commu- 
nicate this information to our enemies in the 
only language their twisted minds seem capable 
of understanding. 

Sometimes I wish that that gi'eat master of 
intuition, the Nazi leader, could have been 
present in spirit at the Quebec Conference — I 
am thorouglily glad he was not there in person. 
If he and his generals had known our plans 
they would have realized that discretion is still 
the better part of valor and that surrender 
would pay them better now than later. 

The evil characteristic that makes a Nazi a 
Nazi is his utter inability to understand and 
therefore to respect the qualities or the rights 
of his fellow men. His only method of dealing 
with his neighbor is first to delude him with lies, 
then to attack him treacherously, then beat him 
down and step on him, and then either kill him 
or enslave him. The same thing is true of the 
fanatical militarists of Japan. 

Because their own instincts and impulses are 
essentially inhuman, our enemies simply cannot 
comprehend how it is that decent, sensible, in- 
dividual human beings manage to get along to- 
gether and live together as good neighbors. 

That is why our enemies are doing their des- 
perate best to misrepresent the purposes and 
the results of this Quebec Conference. They 



still seek to divide and conquer allies who refuse 
to be divided just as cheerfully as they refuse 
to be conquered. 

We spend our energies and our resources and 
the very lives of our sons and daughters because 
a band of gangsters in the community of nations 
declines to recognize the fundamentals of de- 
cent human conduct. 

We have been forced to call out the sheriff's 
posse to break up the gang in order that 
gangsterism may be eliminated in the com- 
munity of nations. 

We are making sure — absolutely, irrevocably 
sure — that this time the lesson is driven home 
to them once and for all. We are going to be 
rid of outlaws this time. 

Every one of the United Nations believes that 
only a real and lasting peace can justify the 
sacrifices we are making, and our unanimity 
gives us confidence in seeking that goal. 

It is no secret that at Quebec there was much 
talk of the postwar world. That discussion was 
doubtless duplicated simultaneously in dozens 
of nations and hundreds of cities and among 
millions of people. 

There is a longing in the air. It is not a long- 
ing to go back to what they call "the good old 
days". I have distinct reservations as to how 
good "the good old days" were. I would rather 
believe that we can achieve new and better days. 

Absolute victory in this war will give greater 
opportunities to the world because the winning 
of the war in itself is proving that concerted 
action can accomplish things. Surely we can 
make strides toward a greater freedom from 
want than the world has yet enjoyed. Surely 
by unanimous action in driving out the outlaws 
and keeping them under heel forever we can 
attain a freedom from fear of violence. 

I am everlastingly angry only at those who 
assert vociferously that the Four Freedoms and 
the Atlantic Charter are nonsense because they 



124 

are unattainable. If they had lived a century 
and a half ago they would have sneered and said 
that the Declaration of Independence was utter 
piffle. If they had lived nearly a thousand years 
ago they would have laughed uproariously at 
the ideals of Magna Carta. And if they had 
lived several thousand years ago they would 
have derided Moses when he came from the 
mountain with the Ten Commandments. 

We concede that these great teachings are not 
perfectly lived up to today, and we concede that 
the good old world cannot arrive at Utopia over- 
night. But I would rather be a builder than a 
wrecker, hoping always that the structure of 
life is growing, not dying. 



DEPARTMENT (W STATE BULLETIN 

May the destroyers who still persist in our 
midst decrease. They, like some of our enemies, 
have a long road to travel before they accept 
the ethics of humanity. 

Some day — in the distant future perhaps, 
but some day with certainty — all of them will 
remember with the Master: "Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself." 

Ma visite a la ville historique de Quebec 
rappelle vivement a mon esprit que le Canada 
est une nation fondee sur I'union de deux 
grandes races. L'harmonie de leur association 
dans I'egalite peut servir d'exemple al'humanite 
toute entiere — un exemple partout dans le 
monde.^ 



LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 
Letter of the President to Congress Transmitting the Eleventh Quarterly Report 



[Released to the press by the White House August 25] 

The following letter of the Pi'esident to the 
Congress accompanied a report on lend-lease 
operations for the period ended July 31, 1943 : ^ 

"I am transmitting herewith to the Seventy- 
eighth Congress a report of operations under 
the Lend-Lease Act for the period ended July 
31, 1943. 

"In the month of July alone, lend-lease aid 
exceeded a billion dollars. Lend-lease supplies 
are hastening the day of final victory. 

"Sicily has fallen. The fascist dictator has 
been thrown out of power. For the first time 
the United Nations forces occupy part of the 
homeland of the enemy. 

"The subjugated peoples of Nazi Europe are 
now aware that the European fortress is not 

' The following is a translation of the last paragraph 
of the President's address : My vi.sit to the old city of 
Quebec has recalled vividly to my mind that Canada is a 
nation founded on a union of two great races. The 
harmony of their equal partnership is an example to 
all mankind — an example everywhere in the world. 

"Not printed herein. 



impregnable. The great oifensives of the Soviet 
Army on the Eastern Front, the continued 
heroic struggle of the Chinese, and the British 
offensives in other areas, aided by lend-lease 
munitions and supplies, are having their reper- 
cussions both on and behind the battle lines. 
Our might and that of our allies is being felt 
in the Axis satellite nations of the Balkans and 
Middle Europe, and in Nazi Germany as well. 
From Hamburg on the North Sea to Ploesti in 
Rumania, the people know from first-hand ex- 
perience with what crushing force the United 
Nations can strike, 

"Except for the responsible fascist leaders, 
the people of the Axis need not fear uncondi- 
tional surrender to the United Nations. I have 
said that we shall bring food for the starving 
and medicine for the sick in the areas liberated 
by the United Nations. We have done so, under 
lend-lease, in North Africa. We are doing so 
in Sicily. We shall continue to do so in other 
areas, as they are liberated, to prevent economic 
breakdown and to aid the liberated peoples to 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



125 



produce and to help themselves. We shall pro- 
vide these necessary civilian supplies in support 
of our military operations and as a matter 
of simple humanity. The people of Axis- 
controlled areas may be assured that when they 
agree to unconditional surrender they will not 
be trading Axis despotism for ruin under the 
United Nations. The goal of the United Na- 
tions is to permit liberated peoples to create a 
free political life of their own choosing and to 
attain economic security. These are two of the 
great objectives of the Atlantic Charter. 

"But until the day of unconditional surrender, 
the United Nations will continue with the force 
of all their power to hit the enemy. We are 
striking hard and ready to strike harder. 
Greatly increased United States forces and 
greatly increased lend-lease supplies are on the 
way to the battle fronts. The longer this war 
goes on, the stronger the United Nations will be- 
come. 

"The United Nations are growing stronger 
because each of them is contributing to the 
common struggle in full measure — whether in 
men, in weapons, or in materials. Each is con- 
tributing in accordance with its ability and its 
resources. Everything that all of us have is 
dedicated to victory over the Axis powers. 



The Congress in passing and extending the 
Lend-Lease Act made it plain that the United 
States wants no new war debts to jeopardize 
the coming peace. Victory and a secure peace 
are the only coin in which we can be repaid. 

"This report on lend-lease and reverse "lend- 
lease activities should be both an assurance and 
a warning to our enemies. The power of the 
United Nations is great. The will of the 
United Nations is fixed. In this common war 
we fight as one man, for one victory — and we 
shall have it." 

In brief, the report stated that since the 
passage of the Lend-Lease Act on March 11, 
1941, the aid i-endered by the United States to its 
allies has totaled $13,973,339,000. Of this 
amount, munitions comprised 50 percent ; in- 
dustrial products, 21 percent; food and other 
agricultural products, 14 percent; and shipping, 
ship repairs, and other services, 15 percent. In 
the period March 11, 1941-June 30, 1943, the 
United Kingdom received a total of $4,458,000,- 
000 in lend-lease exports ; the Soviet Union, $2,- ~ 
444,000,000; Africa, the Middle East, and the 
Mediterranean area, $1,363,000,000; China, In- 
dia, Australia, and New Zealand, $1,133,000,000; 
and others, $484,000,000. 



RECOGNITION OF THE FRENCH COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL LIBERATION 

Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by the White House August 26] 

The Government of the United States de- 
sires again to make clear its purpose of co- 
operating with all patriotic Frenclmien, look- 
ing to the liberation of the French people and 
French territories from the oppressions of the 
enemy. 

The Government of the United States, ac- 
cordingly, welcomes the establishment of the 
French Committee of National Liberation. It 
is our expectation that the Committee will func- 
tion on the principle of collective responsibility 



of all its members for the active prosecution of 
the war. 

In view of the paramount importance of 
the common war effort, the relationship with 
the French Committee of National Liberation 
must continue to be subject to the military re- 
quirements of the Allied commanders. 

The Government of the United States takes 
note, with sympathy, of the desire of the Com- 
mittee to be regarded as the body qualified to 
insure the administration and defense of French 
interests. The extent to which it may be pos- 



126 



DEPARTMENT O'E STATE BXILLETrN' 



sible to give effect to this desire must however 
be reserved for consideration in each case as it 
arises. 

On these understandings the Government 
of the United States recognizes the French Com- 
mittee of National Liberation as administering 
those French overseas territories •which ac- 
knowledge its authority. 

This statement does not constitute recogni- 
tion of a government of France or of the French 
Empire by the Government of the United States. 

It does constitute recognition of the French 
Committee of National Liberation as function- 



ing within specific limitations during the war. 
Later on the people of France, in a free and un- 
trammeled manner, will proceed in due course 
to select their own government and their own 
officials to administer it. 

The Government of the United States wel- 
comes the Committee's expressed determination 
to continue the common struggle in close cooper- 
ation with all the Allies until French soil is 
freed from its invaders and until victory is com- 
l^lete over all enemy powers. 

May the restoration of France come with the 
utmost speed. 



RADIO ADDRESS BY THE FORMER AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN > 



[Released to the press August 2S] 

In speaking tonight on the radio program of 
the Commission to Study the Organization of 
Peace I am especially glad to be associated with 
the public-spirited exploratory work of that 
body. Mankind learns something from experi- 
ence, but the memory of man is short and he is 
ten'ibly pi'one to repeat old errors. The mis- 
takes made at Versailles and afterward must 
■not he made again. To guard against those 
mistakes we need a public opinion enlightened 
by incisive thought and study, and to further 
that study is the fundamental purpose of the 
commission under whose auspices this program 
is presented jointly with the National Broad- 
casting Company. 

I shall speak briefly tonight on two points: 
First, our war with Japan ; second, what shall be 
done with Japan when we have attained com- 
plete and final victory? Please note that I do 
not say "if" but "when". Military Japan, 
without any shadow of doubt in my mind, is 
definitely doomed. 

' Delivered on Aug. 28 by the Honorable Joseph C. 
Grew, who is now Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State, on the weekly program "For This We Fight" 
under the auspices of the Commission to Study the 
Organization of Peace. 



As to the first point, people all over our coun- 
try have asked me and still are asking: How 
long will it take to defeat Japan? Well, we 
have heard a good many different views on 
that subject. Some, perhaps many, of our peo- 
ple still indulge in the old wishful thinking: 
"When we really get around to the Japs we'll 
mop them up quickly enough." I might sug- 
gest here that ever since Pearl Harbor we've 
been "getting around" to the Japanese, as a few 
brilliant incidents in the Coral Sea, at Midway, 
on Guadalcanal, on Attu, in the Gulf of Kula, 
at Munda, at Salamaua and several other places 
would seem to attest. On the other hand, Sec- 
retary linox has stated that our best naval and 
military brains are now planning for battles 
which may have to be fought in 1949. He added 
that it need not last that long and that we can 
win before that time but we can assure our- 
selves that this war will last even longer if our 
efforts to win it are sabotaged by those who 
carelessh' believe that it has already been won. 
"This war," he said, "will last until 1949 and 
longer if the home front fails to back up our 
men in battle." 

To that view I heartily subscribe. 

Recent news has been heartening. In every 
arm — in the air, on land, at sea — we have con- 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



127 



clusively shown our superiority over the Jap- 
anese forces. The process of attrition by wliich 
we are constantly whittling down their man- 
power, their planes, their warships, their sup- 
ply vessels, and their power to produce steadily 
proceeds. But let us not forget that the Jap- 
anese — on Attu, at Munda, and elsewhere — ^liave 
shown themselves to be fanatical, last-ditch 
fighters; capture or sun-ender represents to 
them the depth of shame by which they, their 
families, their ancestors, and their Emperor are 
disgraced. Mr. Ralph Knight, editor of the 
Post-Star of Glens Falls, N. Y., points out that 
our campaign against Munda airport proceeded 
at the rate of a few yards a day and that Tokyo 
is about 5,300,000 yards from Mundaj. "We 
leave for debate," he writes, "the proposition of 
■whether the water which intervenes is an ad- 
vantage or a disadvantage to the doughboy. 
The salient point is that the doughboy still has 
the rest of the way to go." Other routes to 
Tokyo will no doubt be used in due course, but 
I think we have little ground as yet for believ- 
. ing that our final victory over Japan, even after 
the European end of the Axis has been elimi- 
nated, can be quickly aclueved. We must sedu- 
lously guard against wishful thinking, un- 
founded optimism, and smug complacency. We 
cannot afford, any of us, to relax for a single 
moment our all-out, steadily accelerating wax 
effort. 

Now, what shall be done with Japan after we 
have achieved final victory? Here again a 
good many imponderable factors enter into the 
problem. Among these factors will of course be 
the extent of the impact on the Japanese people 
of their losses, their defeat, and their final un- 
conditional surrender, as well as the attitude to- 
ward Japan at that time of the other United 
Nations. 

Our Government is constantly studying post- 
war problems but I do not know what the out- 
come of those studies will be. 

In any discussion of post-war policy it should 
be borne in mind that one fundamental princi- 
ple set forth in the Atlantic Charter is respect 
for the right of all peoples to choose the form of 

548605 — 13 2 



government under which they will live. The 
Charter, however, contains, inter alia, another 
principle of equal fundamental importance, 
namely, abandonment of the use of force and, 
pending the establishment of a wider and per- 
manent system of general security, the disarma- 
ment of nations which threaten, or may threaten, 
aggression outside of their frontiers. In the 
light of that latter provision, common sense 
dictates that the military terms of settlement 
sliall prevent Japan fi-om again becoming a 
menace to international peace. This of course 
presupposes disarmament and the denial to 
Japan of certain strategic islands, quite apart 
from the restitution by Japan of other terri- 
tories seized by force. It presupposes too the 
condign punishment of Japan's military leaders 
responsible for her aggression, as well as of those 
guilty of the hideous and utterly barbarous 
cruelties practiced alike upon prisoners and 
woimded and upon non-combatant civilians of 
the United Nations. 

But that would solve only a part of the prob- 
lem. Effective steps will undoubtedly have to 
be taken to rid the Japanese permanently of the 
cult of militarism of which, in varying degrees, 
they have been the unresisting pawns through- 
out their history. This will of course mean a 
substantial reorientation of their domestic life 
and outlook through the process of re-education 
in all their institutions of learning from the 
kindergarten to the university. 

My own opinion, based upon my 10 years of 
experience in Japan, is that this process will 
present no insuperable obstacles. At least a part 
of that process will come about automatically 
with the defeat of the Japanese nation. First 
of all, we must remember that in Japanese life 
and thought a loss of "face" plays an important 
role. When the Japanese people witness the 
complete defeat and discomfiture of their army 
and navy and air force — which they have been 
told have never yet lost a war and, being 
allegedly protected by their sun goddess, can 
never be beaten — that military machine will be 
discredited throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. Within the last generation there 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETrN' 



have been times when the prestige of the 
Japanese Army was so low that army officers 
were reluctant to wear uniform in public when 
off duty; and the incursion into Manchuria in 
1931 was undoubtedly stimulated if not impelled 
among other considerations by the desire of the 
army to recover its former influence and pres- 
tige. Wliat has happened before can happen 
again. Throughout Japanese history the pendu- 
lum has swung to and fro between aggressive 
and peace-seeking policies and action. 

Furthermore, ever since the Manchuria ven- 
ture, and especially since the commencement of 
the China war in 1937, the Japanese people have 
suffered acutely. Living conditions have be- 
come harder ; the standard of living has steadily 
deteriorated, and periodically Japanese families 
have received from overseas in ever-increasing 
numbers the little white boxes containing the 
ashes of their loved ones. They are taught the 
glories of such sacrifice, but human nature and 
human sorrow are fundamentally much the same 
everywhere. Weariness of war is just as current 
among the Japanese as among any other people. 

It is my belief that when Japan's war with 
the United Nations is over, even in their defeat, 
the great majority of the Japanese people will 
give a sigh of profound relief and will welcome 
a new orientation and outlook so long as they 
are not deprived of the hope of better things to 
come. 

Just as we must not deny to ourselves hope of 
better things to come, so we must not deny them 
or any one else, that hope. I have no sympathy 
whatever with those who hold, as some people 
hold, that before we can find permanent peace 
in the Orient, the Japanese common people will 
have to be decimated. Man for man, the 
Japanese people at home in their own land are 
not inherently the wolves in human form which 
some of our own people who do not know them 
believe. Once caught in the military machine 
they are taught brutality, cruelty, trickery, and 
ruthlessness as a matter of high strategy — in the 
mistaken belief of their leaders that these things 
will break the morale of their enemies and lead 
to victory. Little do those Japanese leaders 



seem to realize that such methods of warfare 
have an effect precisely the reverse of that in- 
tended. The Japanese people are going to learn 
to their sorrow that crime and brutality do not 
pay, and once they have learned that lesson, the 
finer qualities which I know that many of them 
possess will have opportunity to come to the 
fore. The Japanese in their own Japan are 
naturally a thrifty, hard-working, progres- 
sive people with great recuperative powers. 
Throughout their history they have become 
inured to and have surmounted great disasters — 
disasters wreaked by fire and flood, by earth- 
quake and typhoon. Given the opportunity, 
they will likewise overcome the ravages of war, 
even with their substance spent and their cities 
destroyed. Those recuperative powers must be 
wisely directed into the healthy channels of 
peaceful economic and cultural pursuits and 
away, forever, from military enterprise. 

But many difficult problems will confront us 
in the post-war settlement with Japan, problems 
of industry, commerce, agriculture, and finance, 
of education and government. We are already 
preparing against the day when those problems 
will arise but the time has not yet come when 
their solution can be decided upon in detail. As 
a fundamental conception, I personally believe 
that the healthy growth, wisely guided in its ini- 
tial stages, will have to come — through re- 
education — from within. If an ancient tree is 
torn up by the roots and remodeled it will not 
live, but if the healthy trunk and roots remain 
the branches and foliage can, with care, achieve 
regeneration. Whatever is found to be healthy 
in the Japanese body politic should be pre- 
served; the rotten branches must be ruthlessly 
cut away. 

Only skilled hands should be permitted to 
deal with that eventual problem upon the happy 
solution of which so very much in the shaping 
of our post-war world will depend. 

But first of all, let us get on with the war in 
the winning of which every one of us has his or 
her part to play. It is a hard war ; it may be a 
long war. But it is our war — yours and mine — 
and the maximum effort of all of us is needed 
for ultimate victory. 



AtTGtrST 28, 1943 

OFFICE OF FOREIGN RELIEF AND REHABILITATION OPERATIONS 
Report^on^ Activities of Medical Personnel in North Africa 



129 



[Released to the press August 25] 

The Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations on August 25 reported on activ- 
ities of medical personnel attached to its North 
African mission and outlined the nature of its 
preparations for health and medical measures 
in future relief theaters. 

It was pointed out that public-health experts 
on the staff of OFR are making detailed prep- 
arations to follow up and supplement measures 
of the Army Medical Corps to forestall the pos- 
sibility of epidemics of major proportions de- 
veloping in the wake of war. 

Health and medical care preparations were 
undertaken in the relief and rehabilitation pro- 
gram on the basis of statistics which showed 
that malnourisliment and a break-down in sani- 
tary services and standards which invariably 
accompany warfare resulted in the first World 
War in deaths and impaired health among ci- 
vilians considerably in excess of deaths and 
mutilations due to battle. The world-wide 
scope of the present war with great dislocations 
of populations holds possibilities of danger even 
greater than that of the first World War. 

Recognizing that control programs must be 
initiated and followed up with the utmost care 
during every stage of military operations, OFR 
is going ahead with sanitary programs to ac- 
company Allied arms in all relief theaters. Dr. 
James A. Crabtree, on loan to the relief office 
from the U.S. Public Health Service and for- 
merly in charge of medical activities for the 
Office of Lend-Lease Administration, is direct- 
ing the work with the assistance of and guid- 
ance from an ofr committee on health and 
medical care. Dr. Thomas Parran, the Surgeon 
Greneral of the U.S. Public Health Service, is 
chairman of the committee, and Mr. Selskar M. 
Gunn, on loan from the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, is executive secretary. 

Experience in medical relief is being acquii'ed 
in North Africa, where public-health officers, 



assigned to OFK by the U.S. Public Health 
Service, have been at work for the past six 
months as members of the North African relief 
and rehabilitation mission. These officers have 
been attached by General Eisenhower to the 
military command and given supervisory re- 
sponsibility for activities affecting civilian 
health in the North African region, working at 
all times in close cooperation with medical offi- 
cers of the Allied armies. In any activity af- 
fecting the civilian population, they work 
through the French civil authorities, utilizing 
existing health and governmental services and 
French professional personnel in the execution 
of programs. 

On the military side, the most important ac- 
tivity of the public-health staff in North Africa 
to date has been in connection with the Tunisian 
campaign. OFR health officers, Lt. Col. Douglas 
L. Reekie and Maj. Michael L. Furcolow, were 
attached at an early date to the Tunisian de- 
tachment, the military group made responsible 
by General Eisenhower for civilian relation- 
ships during the campaign. 

While relief supplies of food and clothing 
were handled directly by the detachment and 
the OFB mission working with the detaclunent, 
French military authorities were given respon- 
sibility for medical and sanitary supplies. In 
close liaison with local French health and med- 
ical authorities, ofr medical personnel followed 
the advancing armies in all phases of the cam- 
paign, and within 24 hours after the fall of 
Tunis two OFR medical officers were in the city 
and were helping to establish sanitary controls 
for the entire region. 

Development of the North African campaign 
made health and medical problems less compli- 
cated than had been anticipated. It had been 
feared that the severe bombardment of Axis 
forces in Tunis might create a serious health 
problem through destruction or damage to the 
water supply and sewage-disposal systems of 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULIETIN 



the city. Yet, so precisely had Allied bombers 
concentrated on the harbor area that only minor 
damage of this type occurred in the city, and 
fears that typhoid and dysentery might become 
serious in Tunis and spread to other areas were 
promptly dissipated by rapid repairs effected 
by military engineers. Likewise, typhus, the 
louse-borne disease which readily assumes epi- 
demic form in the uncleanliness of battle con- 
ditions, had been feared because it was known 
that only the year before there had been close 
to 25 thousand active cases in the region. Yet 
this year only a few scattered cases were re- 
ported in all of Tunisia. It was assumed there 
would be some damage to hospital facilities, 
but in Tunis the hospitals were found intact with 
a thousand empty beds. Although some of the 
other Tunisian cities, such as Bizerte and 
Sousse, had received rougher treatment, the 
public-health officers reported in general after 
the campaign that health conditions through- 
out the area were normal in virtually every re- 
spect. Captured atabrine was on hand for the 
malaria cases, and sulfa drugs were made avail- 
able from military stores to make good the two 
most serious deficiencies in medical supplies. 
First-aid stations for air-raid casualties were 
found to be adequate. 

In Tunisia OFR's public-health officers worked 
closely with relief officials who were distrib- 
uting food, a reasonably adequate diet being al- 
ways a first line of defense against outbreaks of 
disease. Although food supplies were short in 
the region and there were some signs of under- 
nourishment among children, the problem was 
approached by establishment of relief markets 
in the villages and provision of dried or evapo- 
rated milk for certain groups of children who 
were in real need. The oncoming harvest and 
the gradual revival of trade eventually removed 
the need for food-relief measures. 

In his military capacity Major Furcolow 
served as the Army's public-health officer in the 
Pantelleria and Lampedusa campaigns. He 
was assigned to Pantelleria immediately after 
the island's surrender and marshaled local facil- 
ities to provide proper medical attention and 



adequate sanitary measures for the destitute 
population. 

Elsewhere in North Afi-ica, OFB medical 
persoimel have had a variety of duties. A 
principal task since arrival of the OFR mission 
early in the year has been teclmical assistance 
to French authorities hi estimating and ad- 
justing to available supply requests upon Lend- 
Lease for drugs, medicines, and other medical 
supplies. As such materials had been short in 
the region during the period of German domi- 
nation, it was essential that physicians, hos- 
pitals, health departments, and the normal out- 
lets for the sale of drugs and medicines to the 
public be resupplied as rapidly as possible. 
Another task was assistance given the French 
authorities in efforts to restore normal health 
services in rural areas and cities of the region. 
Notably, the city of Oran was helped in this 
manner, Dr. Reekie assisting in the establish- 
ment of a modern health department for the 
city. At other points, de-lousing stations were 
established near cities to prevent the carrying 
of typhus-bearing lice into the coastal areas 
during the periodic migration of the Arab pop- 
ulation to city markets. Operating through 
civilian authorities, continuous support has been 
given to military programs for the control of 
venereal disease. 

Because of its bearing in the future on health 
problems created by airj^lane traffic, a program 
of great interest initiated by the health officers 
in North Africa is the de-insectization of air- 
planes entering the region from outside points. 
Several potentially dangerous diseases, now 
more or less localized, can be cari'ied from one 
jDortion of the world to another by insects in air- 
planes. The problem is being met in North 
Africa where, with OFR assistance, considerable 
progress has been made in developing techniques 
to neutralize the danger that disease might be 
spread by such means. 

While much of the health program for North 
Africa was necessarilj' being improvised on the 
spot, preparations were being made in Wash- 
ington for more systematic programs in future 
relief theaters. To meet varying conditions in 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



131 



prospective relief theaters, several diflFereiit 
types of "packaged" units of medical supplies 
are being assembled under direction of Dr. 
Crabtree for inunediate shipment to any area 
of need. One is a basic emergency unit com- 
prised of the minimal medical supplies required 
for the control of the more common diseases of 
world-wide occurrence. This unit is designed 
to care for the needs of a population group of 
100 thousand f)eople for a period of one month, 
and includes some 150 items considered by ex- 
pert authority to represent an irreducible min- 
imum for basic medical needs. Multiples of 
this unit can be immediately shipped into any 
area of medical relief acti\'ities during initial 
stages of operations. Secondly, plans are being 
made for a larger standard unit of supplies made 
up of the various drugs, medicines, and surgical 
and sanitary equipment which will be lequired 
by a population group of a million people over 
a three months" period. This unit could be 
shipped into an area of relief activities when 
the total health situation of the ai'ea had been 
surveyed and final requirements for medical re- 
lief definitely established. There are approxi- 
mately 1,500 items in the standard unit, ranging 
from the ordinary medicines for colds and head- 
aches to equipment for water pm-ification and 
de-lousing operations. Finally, there are spe- 
cial supplemental "jsackages" made up of the 
necessary supplies for combating diseases pe- 
culiar to certain regions or for diseases in 
epidemic form. 

Minimum "precautionary reserves" of hos- 
pital and laboratory equipment are being "jjack- 
aged" and kept ready in storage for immediate 
shipment in accordance with needs developing 
after military action. In this field of supply two 
standard hospital units have been prepared, one 
comprising the essential equipment (exclusive 
of buildings) for a 50-bed hospital and the other 
similar equipment for a larger, 150-bed hospital. 
The "packaged" laboratory materials include 
equipment for epidemic-control laboratories, 
emergency field laboratories, the minimal 
laboratory requirements of a 50-bed or 150- 

548605 — 43 — —3 



bed hospital, a central pathological laboratory, 
and a laboratory supply center. There are 
supplemental laboratory units, also, so that 
anj' one of the basic laboratory "packages" can 
be readily exjjanded to correspond with disease 
conditions encountered or the extent of need in 
terms of population. 

Provision of the necessary professional and 
scientific personnel to carry out and supervise 
health programs in reoccupied comitries pre- 
sents a major problem. While the Nazis have 
systematically attempted the extermination of 
professional classes in some countries, it is be- 
lieved enough trained people will be found in 
most of the reoccupied regions to carry out the 
bulk of the work under progressively diminish- 
ing supervision from health oflScials of the 
United States or of other United Nations. Lists 
of local health officials, heads of hospitals, se- 
lected physicians, nurses, and sanitary engineers, 
dating from the period inunediately preceding 
German occupation, are in existence for most 
of the European countries where action will .be 
taken, and most of these people, OPR officials be- 
lieve, will be available for active assistance in 
the carrying-out of programs. 

OFR's health officials are.j^roceeding slowly 
in recruiting American persomiel for service 
abroad. A limited number of health-officer 
"teams" are being brought together under OFR 
auspices, however, for service in areas which 
may be opened for relief activities in the near 
future. An OFR 2)ublic-health team is made up 
of a principal medical officer, a sanitary engi- 
neer, a pediatrician, a medical nutritionist, a 
medical supply officer, a nursing specialist, and 
for certain areas depending upon need, a malari- 
ologist, and a hospital administrator. 

Diet and food supply are among the concerns 
of OFR's public-health officers, since a starving 
or debilitated population offers numerous op- 
portunities for disease to develop and increases 
the chances for outbreaks of disease in epidemic 
form. It is thus necessary in efforts to prevent 
serious epidemics to consider food problems at 
all times in any area of relief operations. OFR's 



132 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETrN' 



medical staff in Washington, consequently, is 
cooperating closely in preparations for the feed- 
ing of distressed populations abroad, while in 
the field it is expected that guidance on use of 
available food supplies will become a major re- 
sponsibility of field officers. 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 

SUPPLEMENT 5 TO REVISION V 

[Released to tlie press for publication August 28, 9 p.m.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, tlic 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 



the Office of Economic Warfare, and the Coor- 
dinator of Inter- Amei'ican Affairs, on August 
28 if-iued Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision 
V of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals, promulgated April 23, 1943. 

Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision V 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement 4 dated July 
30, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 5 contains 
280 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 60 deletions. Part II contains 122 
additional listings outside the American re- 
publics and 22 deletions. 



American Republics 



RADIO ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE ON THE INTER-AMERICAN 

UNIVERSITY OF THE AIR ^ 



[Eeleased to the press August 22] 

If you have followed this series of the Inter- 
American University of the Air you will have 
been convinced of one thing : The power which 
has held the Western Hemisphere together in 
this tremendous world conflict has been a moral 
power — a power based on the ideas of the free 
men seeking a safer and more decent world. 

You heard Cordell Hull stand up at the Lima 
Conference and say that noble ideas and 
spiritual forces in the end have a greater 
trimnph than ideas of force. 

The rest of the story bore him out; and this 
is the story. Mr. Hull spoke in Lima on Christ- 
mas Eve of nineteen hundred and thirty-eight. 
Eight months later Hitler put in motion his 
plans for all-out world conquest. The American 
nations following the Lima Declaration agreed 
at Panama to stand together. 

The Hitler machine made steady progress. 
Poland went down ; then Norway, Denmark, 
Belgium, Holland, France, Yugoslavia, and 
Greece. 



Britain stood alone, and her only source of 
supply was the group of western nations. 

Slowly, steadily, help from the inter-Ameri- 
can group increased. Food and munitions in 
growing quantities reached the British Isles and 
the armies defending Egypt and the Suez Canal. 

In June of 1941 Germany attacked Russia. 
On December 7, 1941 the Axis attacked the 
United States and with the United States the 
entire American world. She cut off even the 
air routes to the Far East; and the German 
Marshal Rommel in Africa speeded his cam- 
paign to seize the Mediterranean and the Near 
East. 

The American nations offered to the United 
States free passage through their territories and 
such help as they could give so that American 
force could be thrown into the battle from the 
United States, across the shoulder of Brazil, by 
air to the shoulder of Africa, and by air across 

' Delivered over facilities of the National Broadcast- 
ing Company on Aug. 22, 1943. 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



133 



Africa to Egypt and the Suez area. Wlien the 
struggle looked most desperate, Brazil, not 
waiting for Allied victory, threw in her lot with 
the Allies and declared war on Germany. 

Airplanes, fighters, and munitions from the 
United States, using the line of communications 
which the American nations offered, were able 
to assist the British forces when their backs were 
against the wall at El Alamein. Eommel was 
defeated and driven back. The British Eighth 
Army, with American planes and tanks and 
ammunition which had come through South 
America, began its historic, victorious march 
across Africa to Tunis, where American armies 
under General Eisenhower's command, receiv- 
ing air supplies through South America, had 
thrust into North Africa ; and to go from Tunis 
to Sicily — and its march is not yet done. 

But meanwhile the resources of the American 
nations were being mobilized toward the muni- 
tions plants so that South and Central American 
copper, nickel, tin, and rubber flowed in a great 



stream through North America to emerge as 
airplanes and guns and bombs with which to 
hold the great line of freedom from Australia 
to Italy, from Soviet Russia to South Africa. 

In asking for the united spiritual force of the 
American free nations at Lima, Mr. Hull and 
his colleagues had laid the foundation for the 
victories that are happening now. 

There were cynics who sneered at the inter- 
American policy of good-neighborship cooper- 
ation. They do not sneer today. Because of 
that policy you and I have been saved from 
warfare in our own cities and upon our own 
shores. 

The Mexican Foreign Minister, Dr. Padilla, 
sees this force as one of the great forces in re- 
building the world-to-come on a cleaner, better 
base. We in the Department of State believe 
he is right — that free cooperation by free na- 
tions acting in a spirit of good-neighborship can 
help the world toward that freedom from fear 
and want which all of us seek. 



Commercial Policy 



TRADE AGREEMENT WITH ICELAND 
Analysis of General Provisions and Reciprocal Benefits ^ 



[Released to the press August 27] 

I. Signature of the Agreement 

A reciprocal trade agreement between the 
United States and Iceland, negotiated under au- 
thority of the Trade Agreements Act, was 
signed on August 27, 1943 at Reykjavik by Le- 
land B. Morris, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary of the United States of 
America to Iceland, and His Excellency Vil- 
hjalmur Thor, Minister for Foreign Affairs of 
Iceland. This is the thirty-second reciprocal 
trade agreement concluded under authority of 
the Trade Agreements Act and the seventh new 



agreement to be signed since the outbreak of the 
present war. 

The text of the agreement will be printed in 
the Executive Agreement Series. 

' This information has been prepared by representa- 
tives of the Department of State, the Department of 
Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Depart- 
ment of the Treasury, and the Tariff Commission. 
These Government agencies, under the reciprocal-trade- 
agreements program, cooperate in the formulation, ne- 
gotiation, and conclusion of all trade agreements en- 
tered into by the United States under the provisions of 
the Trade Agreements Act of 1934, as extended by joint 
resolutions of Congress of Mar. 1, 1937, Apr. 12, 1940, 
and June 7, 1943. 



134 

The agreement will enter into force 30 days 
after completion of the necessary formalities by 
the Government of Iceland, proclamation of the 
agreement by the President of the United States, 
and exchange of the appropriate instruments 
by the two Governments. It will remain in 
force for 3 years from its effective date unless 
terminated earlier under special circumstances. 
If by the end of the 3-year period neither Gov- 
ernment has given 6 months' notice to the other 
of intention to terminate the agreement, it will 
continue in force thereafter subject to termina- 
tion on 6 months' notice or on shorter notice 
under special circumstances. 

The trade agreement is designed not only to 
facilitate trade between the United States and 
Iceland during the present emergency but also 
to provide a basis for expanded trade relations 
between them after the war. It is in line with 
the policy of cooperation between the Govern- 
ments of the United States and of Iceland ex- 
pressed in the messages exchanged on July 1, 
1941 between the President of the United States 
and the Prime Minister of Iceland.^ 

The Icelandic market for American products 
is not relatively large, but in proportion to its 
population (122,000) Iceland consmnes a con- 
siderable quantity of American pi'oducts. 
United States trade with Iceland, which had 
been increasing before the war, has expanded 
further during the war. 

United States exports to Iceland, not includ- 
ing American products which may have been 
exported through third countries, reached a 
high point of $448,000 in 1929, declined to 
$67,000 in 1932, and by .successive stages recov- 
ered to $442,000 in 1939. United States imports 
from Iceland amounted to $544,000 in 1929, 
dropped to $324,000 in 1932, and, primarily be- 
cause of increased takings of cod-liver oil, rose 
to $1,375,000 in 1939. 

II. Analysis of the Agreement 

The reciprocal concessions provided for in the 
trade agieement are listed in schedules I and II 

^ BiTixirriN of July 12, 1941, p. 15. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULliETrN' 

appended thereto. Schedule I includes conces- 
sions made by Iceland on imports from the 
United States, and schedule II covers conces- 
sions made by the United States on Icelandic 
products. 

A. CONCESSIONS OBTAINED BT THE UNITED STATES 

In the agreement, Iceland makes tariff con- 
cessions on United States agricultural and in- 
dustrial products included in 24 Icelandic tariff 
items. Iceland's imports of these products 
from the United States in 1939 were valued at 
$116,000, or 33 percent of the total value of Ice- 
land's imports from the United States in that 
year. In 1940 the international situation re- 
sulted in the elimination of Iceland's foi-mer 
sources of supply of many products. That fac- 
tor, together with the opening of direct shipping 
lines between the two countries, accounts, in the 
main, for a subsequent increase in United States 
exports to Iceland, which were valued at 
$2,254,000 in 1940. 

The following paragraphs describe the scope 
and nature of the concessions on United States 
exports to Iceland included in schedule I of the 
trade agreement. Table A of this analysis 
gives details of these concessions and data on 
trade in concession items. 

Because of its climate and physical resources 
Iceland depends largely on other countries for 
much of its food supply and for many of its 
non-food products. Fish, dairy products, meat, 
and potatoes are the only articles of food nor- 
mally produced in Iceland in sufficient quanti- 
ties to meet domestic requirements. 

In the past many important products have 
been imported from the United Kingdom, the 
Scandinavian countries, and other European 
countries which maintained direct shipping con- 
nections with Iceland. Icelandic trade statis- 
tics indicate that in 1939 about $200,000 worth 
of foodstuffs and about $150,000 worth of non- 
food products were imported from the United 
States. Over 30 percent of this trade is now 
covered by tariff concessions obtained in the 
agreement. 



AUGUST 28, 1948 



135 



Fruits 

Apples, raisins, and prunes are Iceland's 
leading fruit imports from the United States. 
Before the war Iceland imported significant 
quantities of these fruits from the United King- 
dom, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, which 
ordinarily are themselves important markets 
for United States fruits of these kinds, produc- 
ing little or none for export. Probably, there- 
fore, the United States actually supplies a much 
larger part of Iceland's imports of these fruits 
than is indicated in the official statistics. Un- 
der the agreement the ad valorem portion of the 
Icelandic import rate of duty on apples and 
pears is reduced by two thirds and that on rai- 
sins and prunes by one half. The specific rates 
on all these fruits are bomid against increase. 
These changes in the rates of duty result, on the 
basis of 1940 statistics, in a reduction of the 
combined import charge of 55 percent in the 
case of apples and 44 percent in the case of 
prunes and raisins. A comparable figure for 
pears is not available. 

Fruit juices 

Tlie ad valorem portion of the import rate of 
duty on unsweetened fruit juices is reduced by 
almost three fourths and that on sweetened 
fruit juices by four fifths. The specific rates on 
these products are bound. The changes in the 
rates of duty on unsweetened fruit juices result, 
on the basis of 1940 statistics, in a reduction of 
60 percent in the combined import charge on 
this item. A comparable figure for sweetened 
fruit juices is not available. 

Cereals <md cereal froducts 

Practically all of Iceland's cereal require- 
ments must be imported, and Icelandic import 
duties on cereals are generally low. The agree- 
ment provides for a reduction of one half in the 
rate of import duty on unground corn, while 
the moderate tariff rates on corn meal, unground 
rice, wheat flour, oat flour, and oat gi'its (in- 
cluding rolled oats) are bound against increase. 

At one time more than 50 percent of Iceland's 



total imports of prepared breakfast foods made 
from corn, bran, rice, etc., were imported from 
the United States. In 1939, however, Iceland 
began to limit its imports strictly to essentials, 
and imports of prepared breakfast foods were 
curtailed. Under the agi'eement the ad valorem 
portion of the import rate of duty on prepared 
breakfast foods is reduced by two thirds, and 
the specific rate is bound against increase. Sta- 
tistics for calculating the percentage reduction 
in the combined import charge on these items 
are not available. 

Vegetable oils 

Imports of cottonseed oil and soybean oil 
are used in Iceland primarily in the margarine 
industiy. Present moderate rates on these 
products are bound against increase. 

Other products 

Iceland has become an increasingly large mar- 
ket for lubricating oils. The present moderate 
rates on these products are bomid in the agree- 
ment. 

The market for rubber boots in Iceland is rela- 
tively large in proportion to the population of 
the country, and the United States is a leading 
source of imports. The agreement binds the 
present moderate rate of duty against increase. 

Tlie United States has been a leading supplier 
of harrows to Iceland. The present moderate 
rate of duty on these implements is bound 
against increase. 

The United States has supplied typewriters 
and calculating, adding, duplicating, and other 
office machines and parts to Iceland for a num- 
ber of years. The agi-eement provides for a 50- 
percent reduction in the rate of duty on these 
items. 

B. CONCESSIONS ON IMPORTS INTO THE 
UNITED STATES 

Iceland is not ordinarily a large supplier of 
United States imports other than cod-liver oil, 
but during the war, imports of other fisli prod- 
ucts from Iceland have been increasing. 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtJIXiETTN' 



In the agreement the United States grants 
concessions on Icelandic products of which im- 
ports into the United States in 1939 were valued' 
at $1,314,000. Since total United States im- 
ports from Iceland in 1939 were valued at 
$1,375,000, the agreement concessions cover over 
96 percent of the total. This figure includes im- 
ports of cod-liver oil and cod oil valued at 
$1,099,000. These products are bound on the 
free list. 

The following paragi-aphs describe the scope 
and nature of the concessions on United States 
imports from Iceland included in schedule II of 
the trade agreement and table B of this analysis 
gives details of these concessions and data on 
trade in concession items. 

Duty Reductions 

In the agreement the United States reduces 
its duties on commodities of which United States 
imports from Iceland in 1939 (the last year be- 
fore the war became general) were valued at 
$215,000 or 16 percent of total imports from 
Iceland in that year. 

Eemng oil {par. 62) 

Imports of herring oil into the United States 
from Iceland were formerly substantial, rajig- 
ing from 15 million to 39 million pounds a year 
in the period 1926-32, but the import tax of 3 
cents a pound imposed by the United States in 
1934, together with the tariff duty of 5 cents a 
gallon, imposed under the Tariff Act of 1930, 
has practically proliibited imports in recent 
years. Duty and tax are each reduced by one 
half in the agreement. United States imports 
of palm and coconut oils, for which herring oil 
can be substituted in some cases, have been cur- 
tailed because of the war. 

Fish, dried and unsalted {par. 717 (c) ) 

Fish commercially known as stockfish is 
practically the only type of dried and unsalted 
fish imported into the United States under the 
provisions of paragraph 717(c) of the Tariff 
Act of 1930. Under a 1932 Customs Court de- 
cision (T.D. 45672; 61 Treas. Dec. 1019) im- 



ports of stockfish were entered under the classi- 
fication "other fish" dried and unsalted dutiable 
at 11/4 cents a pound. On February 25, 1943 the 
Customs Court (CD. 740) reversed the earlier 
decision and held that stockfish is dutiable at the 
higher rate of 2i/^ cents a pound applicable to 
the classification "cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 
and cusk". This type of fish is actually cod dried 
in the wind and sun. Imports supply practically 
all United States consumption except in Alaska, 
where there is a small production. The rate of 
duty is reduced by the agreement from 2i/^ cents 
a pound to li^ cents a pound. Since the war 
began Iceland has become the principal supplier 
of this kind of preserved fish to the United 
States market. However, this reduction in duty 
may not result immediately in increased United 
States imports because Iceland is at present 
committed to supply the United Kingdom with 
large quantities of codfish. 

The rate of duty on dried and unsalted fish 
other than cod and related species is reduced 
from 114 cents a pound to % cent a pound. Im- 
ports in that classification have been negligible. 

Smohed folloch, canned in oil {par. 718 {a)) 

Smoked pollock from Iceland, usually mar- 
keted as "sea salmon", is a specialty not pro- 
duced in the United States. The duty is reduced 
from 30 percent ad valorem to 15 percent. Im- 
ports have heretofore amounted to only a few 
thousand pounds annually. 

Canned fish, not in oil {par. 718 (&) ) 

Imports from Iceland in this classification 
have consisted largely of fish cakes, balls, pud- 
dings, and fillets in wine sauce. Under normal 
conditions Norway is the principal supplier of 
such imjDorts into the United States. The duty 
is reduced from 25 percent ad valorem to 12^4 
percent. The reduction does not apply to her- 
ring and anchovies, on which concessions have 
been made in other trade agreements. 

Pickled herring {par. 719 {^) ) 

Pickled herring is, by value, the most im- 
portant dutiable commodity imported from 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



137 



Iceland. Some imports of these herring have 
been dutiable at 1 cent a pound and others at 
% cent. The agreement reduces both rates to 
14 cent a pound. This concession applies only 
to herring in immediate containers which with 
their contents weigh more than 15 pounds each 
and contain more than 10 pounds of herring, net 
weight. Domestic production of pickled her- 
ring occurs chiefly in Alaska, but most of the 
Alaskan herring is manufactured into meal and 
oil or used as bait. 

Fish, smoked or kippered {par. 720 (a) (6) ) 

The duty on certain smoked or kippered fish is 
reduced from 25 percent ad valorem to 12i/^ 
percent. The reduction does not apply to 
salmon, herring, or cod and related species but 
covers only a small miscellaneous group of fish, 
imports of which are negligible and have never 
exceeded 1 percent of domestic production. 

Caviar and fish roe (par. 721 (d) ) 

The agreement reduces the rate of duty from 
20 cents a pound to 10 cents a pound on caviar 
(except sturgeon) and other fish roe, not boiled. 
The rate on boiled fish roe is reduced from 30 
percent ad valorem to 15 percent. The 20-cent- 
a-pound rate on imports of caviar into the 
United States in 1940 was equivalent to about 
69 percent ad valorem. 

Lamh and sheep fur shins {par. 1519 {a) ) 

The only item other than a fish product cov- 
ered by the agreement is lamb and sheep fur 
skins. The rate of duty on these products was 
reduced from 25 percent ad valorem to 15 per- 
cent in the agreement witli the United Kingdom, 
was bound against increase in the agreement 
with Argentina, and is now further reduced to 
121/2 percent ad valorem in the agreement with 
Iceland. Most of the United States market is 
supplied by imported peltries dressed in this 
country. Imports of the dressed furs have, 
therefore, been small. Iceland has been one of 
the principal suppliers of United States imports. 



Items Bound Duty -Free 

In the agreement the United States binds the 
duty-free status of commodities imported into 
the United States in 1939 to the value of $1,099,- 
000, or 80 percent of total imports from Iceland 
in that year. This relatively large proportion 
of duty-free imports is accounted for by the fact 
that cod-liver oil, which is duty-free under the 
Tariff Act of 1930, predominates in total 
imports. 

Cod-liver oil and cod oil {par. 1730 {b) ) 

The agreement binds cod-liver oil and cod oil 
on the free list. Imports have ordinarily sup- 
plied the major portion of domestic consump- 
tion. Cod-liver oil, which constitutes by far the 
bulk of our imports under this paragraph, con- 
tains vitamins A and D and is used for medic- 
inal purposes in human and animal nutrition. 

Fish scrap and fish meal {pars. 1685 amd 1780) 

The existing duty-free status of fish scrap and 
meal is bound in the agreement. Imports supply 
about one fourth of domestic consumption and 
are used in fertilizer and as poultry feed. 

C. GENERAL PROVISIONS OF THE AGREEMENT 

The general provisions of the agreement em- 
body the basic principle of equality of treat- 
ment essential to the development of interna- 
tional trade upon a sound and non-discrimina- 
tory basis. They define the nature of the obli- 
gations assumed by each country in making 
tariff concessions to the other, set forth recip- 
rocal assurances of non-discriminatory treat- 
ment with respect to all forms of trade regula- 
tions and various other matters affecting the 
trade between the two countries. 

Provisions Relating to Treatment of Trade in 
General 

Article I provides that the United States and 
Iceland shall in general accord to each other 
unconditional most-favored-nation treatment 
with respect to customs duties and related mat- 
ters, including methods of levying duties and 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJT.TiF.TDT 



charges and the application of rules and for- 
malities. This means that each country obli- 
gates itself to extend to the other, immediately 
and without compensation, the lowest rates of 
customs duties which are granted to any other 
country, either by autonomous action or in con- 
nection with a commercial agreement with a 
third country. 

Article II of the agreement provides that in- 
ternal taxes or charges levied in either country 
on products imported from the other shall not 
be higher than those imposed on like articles of 
domestic or of other foreign origin. 

Article III applies the principle of non-dis- 
criminatory treatment to prohibitions, to im- 
port quotas, and to other forms of quantitative 
restrictions on imports. It provides that any 
such restriction shall be based upon a predeter- 
mined amount of total imports of the article, 
i.e., a global quota. If either country establishes 
such restrictions and if any third country is 
allotted a share of the total amount of permitted 
importations of any article, the other country 
shall also, as a general rule, be allotted a share 
which shall be based upon the proportion of the 
total imports of such article which that country 
supplied in a previous representative period, 
account being taken, so far as practicable, of any 
special factors which may have affected or may 
be affecting the trade in that article. 

Article IV extends the principle of non-dis- 
criminatory treatment to any form of exchange 
control by either country over the transfer of 
payments for imports originating in the other 
country. Accordingly, this article provides 
that in regard to restrictions or delays on pay- 
ments, exchange rates, and taxes or charges on 
exchange transactions, the Government of either 
country shall accord to any product originating 
in the other country treatment no less favorable 
than that accorded the like product originating 
in any third country. 

Article V extends the principle of non-dis- 
criminatory treatment to foreign purchases by 
the Government of either country or by ex- 
clusive agencies established, maintained, or 
sponsored by either Government. 



Article VI provides for prompt publication 
of laws, regulations, and administrative and 
judicial decisions relating to classification of 
articles for customs purposes or to rates of duty. 
Except as otherwise specifically provided in 
statutes of the United States relating to articles 
imported into Puerto Rico, such laws, regula- 
tions, and decisions shall be applied uniformly 
at all ports of the respective countries. With 
certain customary exceptions relating to anti- 
dumping duties, health or public-safety meas- 
ures, or judicial decisions, this article also pro- 
vides that no administrative ruling by either 
country effecting advances in rates of duties 
or charges applicable under an established and 
uniform practice to imports originating in the 
other country, or imposing any new require- 
ment with respect to such importations, shall 
be effective retroactively or with respect to ar- 
ticles imported within 30 days after the date of 
publication of notice of such ruling in the usual 
oflScial manner. In addition, this article pro- 
vides that in connection with the importation of 
articles of the other country errors in docu- 
mentation which are obviously clerical or with 
regard to which good faith can be established 
will not occasion the imposition by the Govern- 
ment of either country of other than nominal 
penalties. 

Provisions Relating to Concessions 

Articles VII and VIII of the agreement relate 
to the tariff concessions granted by Iceland and 
the United States, respectively, on products of 
the other country. They provide that the prod- 
ucts included in the schedule of concessions 
granted by either comitry shall, upon importa- 
tion into tlie other country, be exempt from 
ordinary customs duties higher than those spec- 
ified in the schedule, and from all other charges 
in connection with importation in excess of 
those imposed on the day of signature of the 
agreement or required to be imposed thereafter 
by laws in force on that day. 

Article IX permits either country, notwith- 
standing the provisions of Articles VII and 
Vni, to impose on any product imported from 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



139 



the other country an import charge equivalent 
to an internal tax imposed on a similar domestic 
product or on an article from which the im- 
ported product has been made. 

Article X safeguards importers against ad- 
verse changes in the methods of determining 
dutiable value and of converting currencies in 
connection with articles listed in the schedules 
which are or may be subject to ad valoi'em rates 
of duty. 

Article XI contains a general undertaking 
that no quantitative restrictions shall be im- 
posed by either country on the importation or 
sale of products of the other country listed in 
the schedules annexed to the agreement, with a 
reservation that this provision does not apply to 
quantitative restrictions imposed by either 
country in conjunction with governmental 
measures which operate to regulate or control 
the production, market supply, quality, or 
prices of like domestic articles, or which tend 
to increase the labor costs of production of such 
articles, or which are necessary to maintain the 
exchange value of the currency of the country. 
Whenever either Government proposes to im- 
pose or substantially change any quantitative 
regulation authorized by this article it shall 
give the other Government written notice and 
an opportunity for consultation. If agree- 
ment is not reached, the Government which 
proposes to take such action shall be free to do 
so, and the other Government shall be free, 
within 30 days after such action is taken, to 
terminate this agreement in whole or in part 
on 30 days' written notice. 

Article XII provides that if the Government 
of either country considers that an industry or 
the commerce of that country is prejudiced, or 
any object of the agreement is impaired or nulli- 
fied as a result of any circumstance or of any 
measure taken by the other Government, 
whether or not such measure conflicts with the 
terms of the agreement, the latter Government 
shall sympathetically consider such representa- 
tions or proposals as may be made by the former 
Government. If agreement is not reached 
within 30 days after such representations or pro- 



posals have been received, the Government mak- 
ing them shall be free, within 15 days after the 
expiration of the 30 days, to terminate the 
agreement in whole or in part on 30 days' 
written notice. 

Provisions as to Application of the Agreement 

Article XIII provides that the agreement 
shall apply, on the part of each country, to its 
customs territory. The most important terri- 
tories and possessions of the United States in- 
cluded in its customs territory are Alaska, Ha- 
waii, and Puerto Rico. However, the most- 
favored-nation provisions of the agreement will 
apply also to those possessions of the United 
States which have separate tariff jurisdictions, 
including the Philippines, the Virgin Islands of 
the United States, American Samoa, and the 
island of Guam. 

Article XIV excepts from the application of 
the agreement, as is customary, special advan- 
tages which may be granted by the Govermnent 
of either country to adjacent countries to facili- 
tate frontier traffic, and advantages accorded to 
any third country as a result of a customs union. 
There is also included the usual exception relat- 
ing to special advantages accorded by the United 
States and its territories and possessions or the 
Panama Canal Zone to one another or to Cuba. 

Article XV provides that nothing in the 
agreement shall prevent the adoption or en- 
forcement by either country of measures im- 
posed on humanitarian grounds ; measures relat- 
ing to imports or exports of gold and silver; 
sanitary regulations for the protection of hu- 
man, animal, and plant life; measures relating 
to public security; measures for the enforce- 
ment of police or revenue laws; measures relat- 
ing to neutrality; or measures taken for the 
protection of the country's essential interests in 
time of war or other national emergency. 

Article XVI provides for adequate oppor- 
tunity for consultation and sympathetic con- 
sideration of representations in regard to opera- 
tion of customs regulations and related matters, 
quantitative restrictions, and sanitary regula- 
tions. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 



Article XVII provides that the agreement 
shall enter into force on the thirtieth day follow- 
ing the exchange of the President's proclama- 
tion of the agreement and the appropriate in- 
strument of the Government of Iceland. 

Article XVIII provides that the agreement 
is to remain in force for a term of 3 years unless 
terminated earlier in accordance with the pro- 



visions of article XI or article XII. If neither 
Government has given the other notice in writ- 
ing of intention to terminate tlie agreement at 
least 6 months prior to the expiration of this 
term, it will continue in force thereafter, subject 
to termination on 6 months' written notice or in 
accordance with the provisions of article XI or 
article XII. 



TABLE A 

Itemized List of Tariff Concessions Obtained From Iceiland (Schedule I) 

Note: Specific duties are assessed in terms of aurar, each of which equals Moo of a crown. The value 
of Icelandic imports from the United States is converted into United States dollars from crowns at the rate : one 
crown equals $0.1537. The ad valorem duties specified are assessed on the c.i.f. value of the goods. It is believed 
that some of Iceland's imports, while reported in Iceland's official statistics as coming from other countries, 
actually originate in the United States, n.a. means not available ; n.o.s. means not otherwise specified. 



Icelandic tariff 



Group Section Item 



Description of article 



Rate of duty 



Before agreement 



After agreement 



Reduction 
in duly 
(approxi- 
mate) o or 
extent of 
concession 
(percent) 



Icelandic im- 
ports from 
United States 
(United States 
doilars) 



1939 



1940 



II 

n 

II 

II 

II 
II 
II 

II 
II 
II 
II 

III 

III 

IV 
IV 
IV 
V 



Fresli apples 

Fresh pears 

Raisins _ 

Prunes 

Rice, unground, unpolished.. 

Corn, unground 

Wheat flour _ 

Oatmeal 

Corn meal 

Oat grits (rolled oats) 

Kice, unground, polished, includ- 
ing rice grits. 
Cottonseed oil 

Soybean oil 

Prepared breakfast foods (corn- 
flakes, bran, rice, etc.). 

Pulp and juices of fruit (unsweet- 
ened).^ 

Juices of fruits or plant parts 
(sweetened).* 

Lubricating oil .-_ 



7 aurar per gross kilo-l- 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-(- 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-j- 

60% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-h 

50% ad valorem. 

2% ad valorem. 

8% ad valorem 

2 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 

2% ad valorem 

8% ad valorem 

2% ad valorem. 

2% ad valorem 

2 aurar per gross kilo -J- 

8% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo + 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo -h 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo + 

60% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo -t- 

2% ad valorem. 



7 aurar per gross kilo-f- 

10% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kiio-J- 

10% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-h 

25% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-f 

25% ad valorem. 

2% ad valorem 

4% ad valorem,. 

2 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 

2% ad valorem 

8% ad valorem 

2% ad valorem 

2% ad valorem 

2 aurar per gross kilo -f 

8% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo + 

10% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo -t- 

8% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo •+■ 

10% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo + 

2% ad valorem. 



65 

n.a. 

44 

44 

Bound 

50 

Bound 

Bound 
Bound 
Bound 
Bound 

Bound 

Bound 

n.a. 
60 

n.a. 
Bound 



410 

(») 

None « 

138 

None 
2, 166 
18,219 

None 
None 
21, 989 
10, 472 

1,709 

5,233 

None 

None 

None 

34, 643 



16, 387 

(') 

4,036 

2,228 

None 

9,627 

188,684 

713 
23, 948 
73, 592 
30, 920 

6,487 
52, 217 

None 
419 

None 
79, 023 



See footnotes at end of table. 



AUGUST 28, 194 3 



141 



TABLE A— Continued 
Itemized List op Tabtttf Concessions Obtained From Iceland (Sohedttle I) — Continued 



Icelandic tariCf 


Description of article 


Rate of duty 


Reduction 
in duty 
(approxi- 
mate) ■> or 
extent of 

concession 
(percent) 


Icelandic im- 
ports from 
United States 
(United States 
dollars) 


Group 


Section 


Item 


Before agreement 


After agreement 


1939 


1940 


XII 


54 
72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
72 


6 
11 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 




20 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo + 

2% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo + 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kiIo+ 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo+ 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo+ 

30% ad valorem. 
7 aurar per gross kilo-j- 

30% ad valorem. 


20 aurar per gross kilo + 

8% ad valorem. 
2 aurar per gross kilo + 

2% ad valorem. 
3\^ aurar per gross kilo + 

15% ad valorem. 
3>^ aurar per gross kilo+ 

15% ad valorem. 
3H aurar per gross kilo+ 

15% ad valorem. 
3}4 aurar per gross kilo+ 

15% ad valorem. 
314 aurar per gross kilo+ 

15% ad valorem. 


Bound 
Bound 
60 
60 
60 
60 
50 


16, 501 
981 
1,306 
2,045 
(') 
(<) 
200 


42,699 


XVI 




XVI 


Calculating machines 


4,814 
4,475 
(') 
(•) 
198 


XVI 


Typewriters 


XVI 


Adding macbines 


XVI 




XVI 


Other office machines and parts 
therefor, n.o.s. 



• Reduction in the combined specific and ad valorem duty, based on data for Icelandic imports from the United States in 1940. 
6 Not separately classified. 

• Although no raisins are reported as coming from the United States in Iceland's official import statistics, it is believed that some raisins as well as 
some other products may have been transshipped from other countries. 

<* Figures are for imports listed in Iceland's otflcial Import statistics as "fruit pulp". 

• Figures are for imports listed in Iceland's olficial import statistics as "fruit juices". 
/ Statistics for adding machines are included with those for calculating machines. 

' Statistics for duplicating machines are Included with those for other office machines, n. o. s. 



TABLE B 

Itemized List of Tariff Concessions Made to Iceland (Schedule II) 

Note: Import data for dutiable products do not include imports free of dutj^ under special provisions of the 
Tariff Act of 1930, or imports from Cuba subject to preferential reductions in duty. n.a. means not available. 



Paragraph 

number in 

Tariff Act 

of 1930 


Item (abbreviated description) 


Rate of duty 


Ad valorem 
equivalent 
before agree- 
ment (basis 
1940 imports) 
(percent) 


United States imports for con- 
sumption (in thousands of 
dollars) from: 


Before agreement 


After agreement 


Iceland 


All countries 




1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


62 




5^ per gallon+3^ per pound 
tax. 

2Hi per pound 


2'Ai per gallon+ 
IW per pound 
tax. 

l}4t per pound. . . 

Hi per pound — 
15% ad valoicm.. 
12}4% ad va- 
lorem. 


87.6 
(duty plus tax). 

21.3 

7.9 
30 
25.0 


None 

None 

(•) 
n.a. 
4 


(•) 

C) 

39 
'7 
28 


(-) 

(•) 

380 

n.a. 

1,092 


(•) 


717(c) 


Fish, dried and unsalted; 
Cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 

and cusk. 

Other, including shark flns.._ 

Smoked pollock, canned in oil.. 

Canned fish, not in oil (except 

salmon, anchovies, and 

herring in 1-pound cans). 


(•) 




IK*^ per pound . . 


219 


718(a) 




n.a. 


718 (b) 


25% ad valorem. . 


450 









See footnotes at end of table. 



142 



DEPARTMENT OT STATE BTTLLETUST 
TABLE B— Continued 
Itemized List of Takitf Concessions Made to Iceland (Schedttle II) — Continued 



Paragraph 

number in 

Taria Act 

of 1930 



Item (abbreviated description) 



Kate of duty 



Before agreement 



After agreement 



Ad valorem 
equivalent 
before agree- 
ment (basis 
1940 imports) 
(percent) 



United States imports for con- 
sumption (in thousands of 
dollars) from: 



Iceland 



1940 



All countries 



1939 



1940 



719 (4). 



720(a) (6)- 



721(d). 



721(d) 

1619(a) 



1730 (b) . 
1730(b). 



1780.. 
1685- . 



Pickled or salted herring except 
in small kegs. 



Smoked or kippered flsh, except 
salmon, herring, cod, and 
related species. 

Caviar (except sturgeon) and 
other roe, not boiled. 

Fish roe, boiled 

Lamb and sheep fur skins 



Cod-liver oil 

Cod oil. .- 

Fish scrap and flsh meal: 

For feed 

For fertilizer 



Hi per pound (reduced from 
H per pound in agreements 
with United Kingdom and 
Canada, effective Jan. 1, 
1939). 

25% ad valorem 

20^ per pound 

30% ad valorem 

15% ad valorem (reduced 
from 25% ad valorem in 
agreement with United 
Kingdom, effective Jan. 1, 
1939 and bound against in- 
crease in agreement with 
Argentina, effective Nov. 
16, 1941). 

Free , 

Free. 

Free 

Bound free (in agreements 
with United Kingdom, 
effective Jan. 1, 1939, and 
with Mexico, effective Jan. 
30, 1943). 



Hi per pound - 



I2H% ad valorem 



10^ per pound 

16% ad valorem.. 
12H% ad valorem 



Bound free 
Bound free 

Bound free 
Bound free 



17.3 



25.0 



68.6 



30.0 
15.0 



None 

(•) 
(") 



None 



(-) 

12 
3 



1,094 
6 



None 
None 



1,790 
26 

None 
50 



3,731 
602 



2,098 
467 



• Less than $500. 

» Estimated by Tariff Commission firom analysis of imports under a broader statistical classification. 



1,288 



17 
9 



2,521 

267 



1,910 
311 



The Department 



CREATION OF THE WAR COMMODITIES DIVISION AND THE BLOCKADE AND SUPPLY 
DIVISION IN THE OFFICE OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC COORDINATION 



On August 27, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following departmental order : 

Departmental Order 1190 
1. There is hereby created in the Office of For- 
eign Economic Coordination a War Commodi- 
ties Division which, under the direction of the 



Deputy Director of the Office in charge of coor- 
dinating the foreign policy aspects of wartime 
economic controls and operations, and in con- 
sultation with other interested divisions and 
offices of the Department, shall be responsible 
for: 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



143 



(a) all matters of foreign policy involved in 
the procurement abroad of materials and prod- 
ucts needed in the prosecution of the war or for 
purposes of relief and rehabilitation ; and 

(6) the representation of the Department be- 
fore the Combined Kaw Materials Board, the 
Combined Food Board and the Combined Pro- 
duction and Resources Board, including repre- 
sentation of the Department on operating, ad- 
visory or other committees of such boards. 

Mr. T. Ross Cissel, Jr., is designated Chief of 
this Division, the symbol of which shall be CD. 

2. There is hereby created in the Office of 
Foreign Economic Coordination a Blockade and 
Supply Division which, under the direction of 
the Deputy Director of the Office in charge of 
coordinating the foreign policy aspects of war- 
time economic controls and operations, and in 
consultation with other interested divisions and 
offices of the Department, shall be responsible 
for: 

(a) the formulation and execution of pro- 
grams relating to the economic blockade of en- 
emy and enemy-occupied territories; 

(b) the conduct of preclusive purchasing op- 



erations in all areas throughout the world; 

(c) the formulation and execution, in collab- 
oration with the War Commodities Division, of 
procurement programs in so far as such pro- 
grams are considered or negotiated in connec- 
tion with export programs, for all areas within 
the Eastern Hemisphere; and 

(d) the formulation and execution of pro- 
grams for import requirements of all areas 
within the Eastern Hemisphere. The Division 
of Exports and Requirements shall be given an 
opportunity to keep itself informed of such pro- 
grams as formulated by the Blockade and Sup- 
ply Division and shall continue to be responsible 
for the presentation of such requirements with 
the appropriate claimant agency to the various 
requirements committees of the War Production 
Board. 

Mr. Livingston T. Merchant is designated 
Chief of the Blockade and Supply Division, 
the symbol of which shall be BSD. 

3. The Division of Defense Materials is here- 
by abolished, and its personnel transferred to 
the Blockade and Supply Division and the War 
Commodities Division as may be determined. 



ABOLISHMENT OF THE DIVISION OF FOREIGN FUNDS CONTROL 



On August 27, 1943 the Secretary of State 
issued the following departmental order: 

Departmental Order 1191 

The Foreign Funds Control Division is 
hereby abolished and its functions transferred 
as follows: 

1. The Division of World Trade Intelligence 
shall hereafter be responsible for all questions 
of foreign policy arising from the administra- 
tion of Executive Order No. 8389, as amended, 
and of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals in regard to persons in the other 
American republics and arising from the ap- 
plication of the recommendations of the Inter- 



American Conference on Systems of Economic 
and Financial Control, except that matters re- 
lating to the replacement of Axis firms shall be 
dealt with by the Special Assistant to the Under 
Secretary, Mr. Collado. 

2. The Division of Blockade and Supply shall 
be responsible for questions of foreign policy 
arising from the application of the Proclaimed 
List of Certain Blocked Nationals and trading- 
with-the-enemy restrictions to persons in 
foreign countries other than the other American 
republics. 

3. The Deputy Director of the Office of 
Foreign Economic Coordination in charge of 
planning economic activities related to liberated 
areas shall be responsible for all questions of 



144 



DEPARTMENT OfF STATE BtH/LETIN 



foreign policy relating to the application of 
foreign funds and property controls to terri- 
tories which have been or are subject to enemy 
domination, including the application of 
Executive Order No. 8389, as amended, to prop- 
erty located in the United States of govern- 
ments of such territories and their nationals, 
questions relating to the operations of the Alien 
Property Custodian, and questions relating to 
the property control measures of other United 
Nations. 

4. The Financial Division shall be responsible 
for all other questions of foreign policy arising 
in connection with foreign funds control. 

The personnel of the Foreign Funds Control 
Division shall be reassigned as may be deter- 
mined. 



General 



VISAS FOR OFFICIALS OF FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENTS 

On August 25, 1943, the Acting Secretary of 
State, Mr. Berle, issued the following depart- 
mental order : 

Departmental Order 1189 

By virtue of the authority delegated to me 
under the President's Proclamation No. 2523 
of November 14, 1941, to issue permits-to-enter, 
or to designate appropriate officers to issue 
permits-to-enter, to aliens seeking to enter the 
United States under the Act of Congress ap- 
proved on June 21, 1941, I hereby authorize 
the Chief or the Assistant Chief of the Visa Di- 
vision to issue, in his discretion, diplomatic or 
other appropriate nonimmigrant passport visas 
to aliens who are officials of foreign govern- 
ments, or who hold positions tantamount 
thereto, the members of their families, and their 
attendants, servants, and employees, who are in 
the United States and who desire to reenter the 
United States after a temporary absence. 



Such visas shall be valid for such period as 
the Chief or the Assistant Chief of the Visa 
Division may, in his discretion, prescribe. 

No fees are prescribed for the issuance of 
visas under this order. 



Cultural Relations 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press August 26] 

Two eminent ecclesiastics of Chile, Monsenor 
Manuel Larrain Errazuriz, Bishop of Taica, and 
Monseiior Javier Bascuiian Valdes, Rector of 
the Junior Seminary at Santiago, have arrived 
in Washington as guests of the Department of 
State. During the next two months they will 
visit educational institutions and social-service 
centers in Baltimore, New York, Boston, Buf- 
falo, Chicago, and St. Louis, as well as in the 
National Capital. 

While in this country, the two distinguished 
guests will make a special study of seminaries 
and universities, and of the organization of 
Catholic welfare services in general. 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF FREDERICK P. HIBBARD 

[Released to the press August 23] 

The following statement was authorized from 
Quebec by the Secretary of State : 

"I am deeply grieved to announce the death of 
Mr. Frederick P. Hibbard, until recently Ameri- 
can Charge d'Affaires ad interim at Monrovia, 
Liberia. His loss will be a tremendous shock 
not only to his colleagues in the Foreign Service 



AUGUST 28, 1943 



145 



but to the countless friends he had made for 
himself and for the United States in the course 
of his varied service in many parts of the world. 
I can think of no officer whose passing would be 
more regi-etted, for Mr. Hibbard was univer- 
sally beloved by all those with whom he came 
in contact, and his unique personality was a 
source of real moral inspiration to everyone 
with whom he served. 

"I think it may be truly said that Mr. Hib- 
bard gave his life for the Service to which he 
had devoted his entire career. Mr. Hibbard was 
suddenly taken ill while serving as the Depart- 
ment's representative with the official party of 
President Barclay and President-elect Tubman 
of Liberia, who visited this country last June. 
He had previously suffered a serious illness at 
his post in Monrovia, from which he had not 
fully recovered. To the long years of whole- 
hearted labor abroad must be added the strain 
of the wartime emergency, which in the end 
told upon his health with fatal results. 

"An outstanding career officer who had served 
with distinction wherever he was assigned, Mr. 
Hibbai-d had only recently received a promo- 
tion to class I, the highest rank in the Foreign 
Service. His wide experience, his knowledge of 
the world, and the personal characteristics 
which had endeared him to his many friends, 
will be irreplaceable." 



Legislation 



United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture : 
Hearing Before the Committee on Agriculture, House 
of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on the Report 
of Judge Marvin Jones, President of the United Na- 
tions Conference on Food and Agriculture, Held at 
Hot Springs, Va., May 18 to June 3, 1943. June 22, 
1943. ii, 55 pp. 



Regulations 



statement of General Economic Programs and Policies 
[of the Office of Economic Warfare]. [Approved by 
resolution of the War Mobilization Committee July 
29,1943.] August 23, 1943. 8 Federal Register 11770 



Publications 



Department of State 

Military Service : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Brazil — Effected by exchanges of 
notes signed at Washington January 23, April 28, 
and May 24, 1943 ; effective April 30, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 327. Publication 1973. 6 pp. 50. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : 
Cumulative Supplement No. 5, August 27, 1943, to Re- 
vision V of April 23, 1943. Publication 1978. 74 pp. 
Free. 



U. S. GOveRNMENT PRINriNfi OFFICCt l»43 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents ... - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OP THE DIRECTOE OF THE BUEEAD Off THE BUDGET 



p 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLE 



IN 



c 



SEPTEMBER 4, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 219— Publication 1988 



ontents 



The War p»Be 

Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals . . . 149 

Declaration on German Crimes in Poland 150 

Policy Toward Foreign Political Leaders and Groups iu 

the United States 150 

Resistance of Denmark to German Domination: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 152 

Letter From the Secretary of State to the Danish 

Minister in Washington 153 

Appointment of Area Director of Economic Operations 

for Italy 153 

Allied Occupation of Italy 153 

Fourth Anniversary of the German Attack on Poland . 153 

Consultation With the Soviet Government 154 

Statement by the Secretary of State Regarding False 

Charges by Drew Pearson 154 

General 

Excepting Certain Persons From the Classification 

"Alien Enemy" 155 

American Republics 

Mexican Industrial Commission 155 

Treaty Information 

Telecommunications: International Telecommunication 

Convention, Revisions of Cairo, 1938 155 

Publications 156 




The War 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



[Released to the press September 2] 

The departure of the motor vessel Gripshohn 
from Jersey City early the morning of Septem- 
ber 2 on a gecond American-Japanese exchange 
voyage culminates the extensive negotiations 
carried on for over a year by the Department 
of State with the JajDanese Government through 
neutral diplomatic channels. Progress concern- 
ing these negotiations has been announced pre- 
viously by the Department from time to time. 

The first exchange, consisting of American 
and Japanese officials and non-officials, was 
made last summer. On its current voyage, the 
ship is leaving the United States with a pas- 
senger list of more than 1,330 Japanese civil- 
ians. The Gripsholm will stop at Rio de Ja- 
neiro, Brazil, and Montevideo, Uruguay, where 
additional Japanese civilians totaling 173 will 
be embarked. En route to the exchange point 
at Mormugao the Gripsholm will also stop at 
Port Elizabeth, Union of South Africa, for fuel 
and water. 

The exchange of American and Japanese na- 
tionals is scheduled to take place on or about 
October 15 at Mormugao, the principal port of 
the Portuguese colony of Goa on the west coast 
of India. The Japanese Government in turn 
will transport to Mormugao on the Japanese 
exchange vessel Tela Maru nationals of the 
United States, certain of the other American 
republics and Canada, totaling 1,500, of which 
about 1,250 are nationals of the United States, 
to be exchanged for the equivalent number of 
Japanese nationals aboard the Gnpsholm. 

550109—43 



The Tela Maru is scheduled to leave Japan 
September 15. The reason for the different sail- 
ing dates is accounted for by the length of time 
required for each vessel to reach Mormugao. 
It will touch at ports in China, the Philippine 
Islands, and Indochina to embark American 
passengers and will call at Singapore for fuel 
and water. The passenger list of returning 
Americans is not yet complete and cannot be 
complete until the Tela Maru has left her last 
port of call, which will be about October 1. As 
soon as it is received, the Department will no- 
tify relatives and others concerned and wiU 
make the list public. 

Each exchange vessel will travel without con- 
voy under safe-conduct of all belligerent gov- 
ernments. The vessels bear special markings 
to distinguish them from ordinary commercial 
passenger vessels and to indicate clearly the spe- 
cial mission upon which they are engaged. At 
night the vessels will be fully lighted. 

Upon the completion of the exchange the 
Gripsltolm is scheduled to return to New York 
via Port Elizabeth and Rio de Janeiro and is 
expected to reach New York early in December. 

Relief supplies, consisting of medicines, con- 
centrated foods, vitamins, blood plasma, etc., 
are being shipped on the Gripsholm by the 
American Red Cross and the War Department. 
These supplies are intended for distribution to 
American prisoners of war and civilian in- 
ternees in Japan and Japanese-controlled ter- 
ritories, including the Philippine Islands. 

149 



150 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

DECLARATION ON GERMAN CRIMES IN POLAND 



[Released to the press August 30] 

Trustworthy information has reached the 
United States Government regarding the 
crimes committed by the German invaders 
against the population of Poland. Since the 
autumn of 1942 a belt of territory extending 
from the province of Bialystok southward 
along the line of the Kiver Bug has been sys- 
tematically emptied of its inhabitants. In 
July 1943 these measures were extended to 
practically the whole of the province of Lublin, 
where hundreds of thousands of persons have 
been deported from their homes or extermi- 
nated. 

These measures are being carried out with 
the utmost brutality. Many of the victims are 
killed on the spot. The rest are segregated. 
Men from 14 to 50 are taken away to work for 



Germany. Some children are killed on the 
spot; others are separated from their parents 
and either sent to Germany to be brought up as 
Germans or sold to German settlers or dis- 
patched with the women and old men to con- 
centration camps. 

The United States Government reaffirms its 
resolve to punish the instigators and actual 
perpetrators of these crimes. It further de- 
clares that, so long as such atrocities continue 
to be coimiiitted by the representatives and in 
the name of Germany, they must be taken into 
account against the tune of the final settlement 
with Germany. Meanwhile the war against 
Germany will be prosecuted with the utmost 
vigor until the barbarous Hitlerite tyranny has 
been finally overthrown. 



POLICY TOWARD FOREIGN POLITICAL LEADERS AND GROUPS IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



[Released to the press August 30] 

The text of a letter from Mr. M. B. Schnap- 
per, Executive Secretary, American Council on 
Public Affairs, to Assistant Secretary of State 
Berle follows: 

JuLT 23, 1943. 

Dear Mr. Berle : 

The assertion is frequently made — sometimes 
by men and journals of good will — that the De- 
partment of State has pursued a policy of re- 
buffing and ignoring exiled leaders who look 
to a democratic revitalization of Europe and 
that, on the other hand, it has been favorably 
disposed toward highly conservative and reac- 
tionary persons who are desirous of retaining 
the evils of pre-war Europe. Assertions of this 
sort have been particularly emphatic of late in 
connection with the Department's policy with 
regard to Italy. 



While I do not believe these assertions, I feel 
that many of them have been made because of 
ignorance as to the actual facts as well as be- 
cause the Department of State has not clearly 
defined its position — possibly because it has not 
been called upon to do so. 

Permit me to invite you to clarify the situa- 
tion to the extent that it is appropriate to do 
so at the present time. I should explain that I 
address this letter to you because of your con- 
tinued interest in liberal trends in the United 
States. 

Sincerely, 

M. B. Schnapper 



The text of the reply of Assistant Secretary 
of State Berle to Mr. Schnapper follows : 



SEPTEMBER 4, 19 43 



151 



August 28, 1943. 
My Dear Mr. Schnapper: 

In your letter of July 23, 1943 you state that : 

"The assertion is frequently made — some- 
times by men and journals of good will — that 
the Department of State has pursued a policy 
of rebuffing and ignoring exiled leaders who 
look to a democratic revitalization of Europe 
and that, on the other hand, it has been favor- 
ably disposed toward highly conservative and 
reactionary persons who are desirous of retain- 
ing the evils of pre-war Europe. Assertions of 
this sort have been particularly emphatic of late 
in connection with the Department's policy with 
regard to Italy." 

You suggest a clarifying statement if the pres- 
ent time is' appropriate. 

The Government of the United States has 
consistently maintained a policy directed to- 
wards a democratic solution in the occupied 
countries and in the enemy countries, as and 
when the people of these countries shall be free 
to speak. The Atlantic Charter declares the 
right of the people of each country to live 
under a government of their own choosing. 

The assertion that the Department of State 
has favored persons desirous of retaining the 
evils of pre-war Europe is really amazing in 
view of the long and tenaciously held policies 
of this country. Under them, refugees from 
Europe seeking safety from oppression have 
been admitted to the United States. They have 
been permitted to come to the United States and 
to state their views and political platforms to an 
extent not permitted by any other country on 
earth. They can and do offer their views 
through the American institution of free speech 
and free press for acceptance or rejection by 
our public opinion. Under the American tra- 
dition the Department of State can scarcely do 
more. By doing it, the Department has given 
greater privilege to those who wish a revitaliza- 
tion of Europe than has been granted anywhere 
else in the world. This is the American — the 
democratic — way. 

550109—43^—2 



Europeans reaching this country cannot be 
judged merely on the basis of political "name- 
calling". Conservatives who have consistently 
and vigorously fought Fascism are often at- 
tacked by groups who also are fighting Fascism 
but who are pleading for particular reforms, 
and these in turn are commonly accused of being 
reactionary or even Fascist by more radical 
groups. Frequently foreign racial or political 
issues are brought into the discussion. In gen- 
eral, the United States public with great good 
sense has declined to become excited about this 
name-calling; and is properly suspicious when 
these controversies i^each the point, as they often 
do, of becoming campaigns of defamation. 

At no time has the Department pursued a 
policy of rebuffing leaders who look toward a 
democratic revitalization of Europe, nor has it 
engaged in any policy of encouraging conserva- 
tive and reactionary persons desirous of retain- 
ing the evils of pre-war Europe. 

Leaders and groups of all shades of thought 
have sought here the refuge which we have 
gladly offered. Many of them have asked to be 
recognized or accepted or dealt with as repre- 
senting the country from which they came. 
Their claims thus to speak for an invaded or 
silenced country are often disputed by other 
groups and leaders of the same nationality, and 
attacked by leaders and groups of other na- 
tionalities. These claims properly ought to be 
settled by the people of their own country, not 
by the State Department. 

The degree of support which free movements 
or leadei's in exile may have in their own coun- 
tries in most cases can be only a matter of con- 
jecture until there are means of access to their 
own people. It is probable that no political 
group in exile would have much chance of per- 
manent success in rallying the people of the 
country to its cause if its strength lay chiefly 
in the support of foreign states. For these rea- 
sons the United States has not felt it possible 
to extend recognition to these individuals or 
groups, even though in many cases their views 
and sentiments may be highly praiseworthy. 



152 



DEPARTMENT O'F STATE BULLETIN 



As early as December 1941, the Department 
adopted a policy which has proved both wise 
and necessary. The jjolicy then enunciated in- 
cluded the following declarations : 

"In harmony with the basic principles of lib- 
erty, the people of the United States do have a 
sympathetic interest in movements by aliens 
in this country who desire to liberate their 
countries from Axis domination. 

"The Department of State is glad to be in- 
formed of the plans and proposed activities of 
such 'free movements' and of organizations rep- 
resenting such movements. . . . 

"The Department has taken cognizance of 
the existence of a number of committees repre- 
senting free movements but has not extended 
any form of recognition to them, formal or 
informal. . . ." ' 

The Government of the United States has 
been glad to receive the suggestions, the ideas, 
the plans, of all of these "free" movements and 
their leaders. But decision upon their claims 
rests not in the hands of this Government, but 
in the hands of their own people. 

All of us appreciate to the full the devotion 
to ideals of freedom and democracy which 
those who have struggled against Naziistn and 
Fascism share with us. At the same time we 
must be careful not to take any steps whose 
effect might be to prejudice the freedom of 
choice of any people whose voice is now silent. 

The United States ran up the flag of democ- 
racy in 1776 by asserting that government rested 
on the just consent of the governed. Upon its 
shores from that day to this. Frenchmen, Ger- 
mans, Hungarians, Poles, Italians, Spaniards, 
Russians, and representatives of every race in 
the world have maintained the doctrine of free- 
dom upon the soil of the United States. This 
is as true today as it has been from the begin- 
ning of our history. I am confident that no 
baseless rumors nor even statements, frequently 
circulated for ulterior propaganda purposes, 
will long mislead men of good-will or the Amer- 



' Bulletin of Dec. 13, lp41, p. 519. 



ican public generally. You will have noticed, 
in respect of the assertions you cite, that they 
are never even remotely backed up by evidence. 
Your letter was occasioned in part by certain 
wild yarns which are hardly worth the trouble 
of denying. Some of these seem, indeed, to 
have been circulated by foreign political per- 
sonages enjoying American hospitality. One 
such was the rumor circulated a few weeks' ago 
that Count Ciano w;,s in the United States; 
another, that some 'an for a "Catholic Axis" 
was being elaborated in Washington; a third, 
that some scheme of Fascist federation of 
Eastern Europe aimed against the Soviet Union 
was being worked up, and s'o forth and so on. 
A very recent illustration was the story indus- 
triously circulated in some quarters that this 
Government was seeking to establish contact 
with Laval or other representatives of the de- 
funct Petain Administration in Occupied 
France. These are truthless trifles which cir- 
culate in wartime, all too often borne on cur- 
rents of factional dispute or European propa- 
ganda. They merit no attention. 
Sincerely yours, 

Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 



RESISTANCE OF DENMARK TO 
GERMAN DOMINATION 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press September 2] 

The Secretary of State at his press and radio 
news conference on September 2 made the fol- 
lowing statement: 

"Recent events in Denmark are an eloquent 
reminder that German rule in any circumstance 
is intolerable to a free and democratic people. 
Germany on the defensive in the Mediterranean 
area and on the Russian front, has gained an- 
other brutal and illusive 'victory' over a small 
defenseless country. The resistance of the 
Danish King and people to German domination 
will give new heart and encouragement to all 
peoples of Nazi-subjugated Europe." 



SEPTEMBER 4, 1943 



153 



Letter From the Secretary of State to the 
Danish Minister in Washington 

[Released to the press September 2] 

The Secretary of State has sent the following 
communication to the Honorable Henrik de 
KautFmann, Minister of Denmark: 

September 2, 1943. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to r^^fer to reports concern- 
ing further German oppressive measures taken 
in Denmark. While deta iled information is not 
yet available, the Germans clearly have decided 
to extinguish the last remnants of freedom left 
in your country in a final attempt to crush the 
spirit of resistance to a brutal conqueror so 
gallantly displayed by your King and country- 
men. 

You are, I am sure, proud of this reaffirma- 
tion of your country's devotion to the prin- 
ciples of freedom and denaocracy and of its 
determination to contribute toward the reestab- 
lishment of these principles. I offer to you on 
behalf of the Government and people of the 
United States of America profound sympathy 
for the sufferings already endured and still to 
come in Denmark. 

I shall continue to look to you as the duly 
accredited representative in this country of the 
Kingdom of Denmark and hope that in the not 
too distant future your relations with this 
country may be conducted against the back- 
ground of a freed and happy Danish people. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 

APPOINTMENT OF AREA DIRECTOR OF 
ECONOMIC OPERATIONS FOR ITALY 

1 Released to the press September 4] 

The Secretary of State has appointed Calvin 
Benham Baldwin to be Area Director of eco- 
nomic operations for Italy in accordance with 
the plan of coordination of all United States 
economic activities abroad as established by the 
President's letter of June 3, 1943.^ Mr. Baldwin 



' Bulletin of June 26, 1943, p. 575. 



will deal with economic affairs in Italy when- 
ever the United States civilian agencies enter 
the country to assist in connection with its sup- 
ply and other economic problems. At the same 
time plans are well under way toward the or- 
ganization of a trained staff of experts to ac- 
company Mr. Baldwin, and a definite program 
of operations is in preparation. Mr. Baldwin, 
wlio has been Administrator of the Farm Se- 
curity Administration since 1940, will assume 
his duties in the Office of Foreign Economic 
Coordination in the near future. 



ALLIED OCCUPATION OF ITALY 

[Released to the press September 3] 

The Secretary of State at his press and radio 
news conference September 3 made the follow- 
ing statement : 

"We are all observing the occupation of a 
portion of continental Europe. This is the first 
step in such continental occupation by the Allied 
armies and I think it well illustrates the steady 
and the persistent course of the Allied military 
forces in their movement on continental Eu- 
rope. I do not think that the fourth anniver- 
sary of the British entry into the war could 
be better celebrated than by the occupation of 
a portion of Italy by the British Eighth Army." 



FOURTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GERMAN 
ATTACK ON POLAND 

[Released to the press September 1] 

The following messages, dated August 31, 
1943, were exchanged by the President of the 
United States and the President of the Republic 
of Poland on the occasion of the fourth anni- 
versary of the German attack on Poland : 

The President of the United States to the 
President of the Republic of Poland 
On this occasion, the fourth anniversary of 
the outbreak of war, the whole world will recall 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETrNT 



again the gallant and defiant stand made by the 
heroic Polish nation and army against the 
overwhelming, ruthless and unprovoked attack 
launched by the Nazis. 

The tremendous hardships and privations 
which the people in Poland have so valiantly 
undergone during these long years and their 
continued resistance to their cruel oppress'ors 
are an inspiration to us all. 

The daiing and heroic exploits of the Polish 
Air Force, Navy and Army, combined with the 
efforts of the other and overwhelming forces 
of the United Nations, will assure victory, the 
restoration of a rule of justice and the liberation 
of all the peoples now living under Nazi subju- 
gation. 

The President of the Republic of Poland to the 
President of the United States 

On the occasion of the fourth anniversary of 
the outbreak of the second world war unleashed 
by Germany's criminal aggression against 
Poland I wish to convey to you, Mr. President, 
and to the American nation the assurance of 
our unchangeable friendship and our solidarity 
with the great American democracy in defense 
of our common Christian heritage. 

In taking up the unequal struggle against the 
brutal might of Germany the Polish nation, in- 
spired by the righteousness of its cause, firmly 
believed that it had the full moral support of 
the American people under your great leader- 
ship long before America herself became the 
victim of a similar wanton and treacherous 
aggression. 

On entering the fifth year of its' uncompro- 
mising struggle for freedom the Polish nation 
is sustained by the unshakeable faith that the 
noble principles of the Atlantic Charter and 
of the four freedoms upholding the rights of 
man and nations proclaimed by you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, as an act of faith of the people of Amer- 



ica will be fully realized after victory is 
achieved and will become the cornerstone of the 
coming world of peace, justice and human 
happiness. 



CONSULTATION WITH THE SOVIET 
GOVERNMENT 

[Released to the press September 1] 

The following statement has been issued by 
the Department of State : 

"The Soviet Government has been consulted 
and has been kept fully informed by the United 
States and British Governments in regard to all 
aspects of the military situation as it has devel- 
oped in connection with operations against Italy 
and other operations in the European theater, 
and with respect to political situations arising 
directly out of military operations." 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE REGARDING FALSE CHARGES 
BY DREW PEARSON 

[Released to the press August 30] 

The Secretary of State at his press and radio 
news conference August 30 made the following 
statement : 

"I do not ordinarily take notice of attacks 
made on either the State Department or myself. 
When these attacks, however, concern our re- 
lations with an Allied Government, I must take 
notice of them. I am informed that recently 
Drew Pearson published over the radio and in 
the press the charge that I and other high offi- 
cials in the State Department are opposed to the 
Soviet Government and that we actually wish 
the Soviet Union to be bled white. I desire 
to brand these statements as monstrous and dia- 
bolical falsehoods." 



SEPTEMBER 4, 1943 



155 



General 



EXCEPTING CERTAIN PERSONS FROM 
THE CLASSIFICATION "ALIEN ENEMY" 

By an Executive order (no. 9372) of August 
27, 1943, the President, under authority of the 
provisions of the Nationality Act of 1940 (54 
Stat. 1150; U. S. C, title 8, sec. 726), excepted 
from the classification "alien enemy" all per- 
sons whom the Attorney General, the Commis- 
sioner of Immigration and Naturalization, or 
any district director of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service shall, after investigation 
fully establishing their loyalty, certify as per- 
sons loyal to the United States. This order su- 
persedes Executive Order 9106 of March 20, 
1942, entitled "Excepting Certain Persons From 
the Classification of 'Alien Enemy' for the 
Purpose of Permitting Them To Apply for 
Naturalization." The full text of Executive 
Order 9372 appears in the Federal Register of 
August 31, 1943, page 11887. 



American Republics 



MEXICAN INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION 

[ Released to the press September 1 ] 

President Eoosevelt on September 1 an- 
nounced the appointment of the Honorable 
Wayne C. Taylor, Under Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Honorable Nelson A. Rockefeller, 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and 
Chairman of the Inter-American Development 
Commission, and Mr. Thomas H. Lockett, Coun- 
selor of Embassy for Economic Affairs in Mex- 
ico City, to serve as the United States members 
of the Industrial Commission established by the 
Government of Mexico as the result of a recom- 
mendation contained in the report of the 



Mexican-American Commission for Economic 
Cooperation. 

The Industrial Conunission has been set up 
as a continuing body to study and develop long- 
term programs for the industrialization of 
Mexico. 

The Mexican Government has named as its 
members on the Commission Lie. Primo Villa 
Michel, Coordinator of Coordination and De- 
velopment of Production ; Ing. Evarista Araiza, 
Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Bank 
of Mexico and General Manager of the Monter- 
I'ey Steel Works ; and Salvador Ugarte, a well- 
known banker. 



Treaty Information 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion, Revisions of Cairo, 1938 

Colombia 

According to notification 436 dated August 
1, 1943 from the Bureau of the International 
Telecommunication Union at Bern, the Bu- 
reau was notified by a telegram received on 
July 28, 1943 that the National Congress of 
Colombia had approved the Telegraph Regula- 
tions and the Telephone Regulations, as well as 
the Final Protocols thereof, which were signed 
at Cairo. 

Ethiopia 

According to notification 436 dated August 
1, 1943 from the Bureau of the International 
Telecommunication Union at Bern, the Min- 
ister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones of 
the Empire of Ethiopia notified the Bureau by 
a letter dated March 16, 1943, received July 19, 
of the adherence of Ethiopia to the Regulations 
of Cairo, 1938. 



156 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtJU^Tm 



Publications 



tween the United States of America and Guatemala — 
Signed at Washington July 17, 1943; effective July 
17, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 329. Publi- 
cation 1980. 10 pp. 50. 
Military Service: Agreement Between the United 
Depabtment of State States of America and Mexico— Effected by exchange 

of notes signed at Mexico City January 22, 1943; 
Detail of Military Ofllcer To Serve as Director of the effective January 22, 1943. Executive Agreement 

Polytechnic School of Guatemala : Agi-eement Be- Series 323. Publication 1981. 5 pp. 50. 



U. i. GOVERNHENT PRINTIHa OFFICE, l»49 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHBD WSSELI WITH THE APPBOVAL Of TBS DIBECTOB OF THE BDBSAU Of THE BCDQST 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



B 




J 



H 



1 r 



A 



1 




C< 



SEPTEMBER 11, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 220— Publication 1991 



ontents 



The War page 

Message of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Churchill to Marshal Badoglio and the People of 
Italy 159 

The International Position of Argentina: Correspond- 
ence Between the Secretary of State and the 
Argentine Foreign Minister 159 

Adherence of Iran to the Declaration by United 

Nations 166 

Appointment of American Director of Economic 

Operations in the Middle East 167 

Contributions for Relief 167 

Laws Enacted by the French Government Prior to the 

German Invasion 168 

Report on Lend-Lease Operations 168 

American Republics 

Anniversary of Independence of Brazil 168 

Arrest of Power Officials m Argentina 169 

Visit to the United States of the Chilean Minister of 

Foreign Afi'airs 169 

The Department 

Death of Frederick P. Keppel 169 

Regulations 169 

Publications 170 




U. 8. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
SEP 29 1B43 



The War 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL 
TO MARSHAL BADOGLIO AND THE PEOPLE OF ITALY 



[Released to the press by the White House September 10] 

President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Cliurchill on September 10 dispatched the fol- 
lowing message to Marshal Badoglio and to 
tlie people of Italy: 

"It has fallen to you in the hour of your 
country's agony to take the first decisive steps 
to win peace and freedom for the Italian 
people and to win back for Italy an honourable 
place in the civilization of Europe. 

"You have already freed your country from 
from Fascist servitude. There remains the 
even more important task of cleansing the 
Italian soil from the German invaders. Hit- 
ler, through his accomplice Mussolini, has 
brought Italy to the verge of ruin. He has 
driven the Italians into disastrous campaigns 
in the sands of Egypt and the snows of Russia. 
The Germans have always deserted the Italian 
troops on the battlefield, sacrificing them con- 



temptuously in order to cover their own re- 
treats. Now Hitler threatens to subject you all 
to the cruelties he is perpetrating in so many 
lands. 

"Now is the time for every Italian to strike 
his blow. The liberatmg armies of the West- 
ern World are coming to your rescue. We 
have very strong forces and are entering at 
many points. The Geiman terror in Italy 
will not last long. They will be extirpated 
from your land and you, by helping in this 
great surge of liberation, will place yourselves 
once more among the true and long-proved 
friends of your country from whom you have 
been so wrongfully estranged. 

"Take every chance you can. Strike hard 
and strike home. Have faith in your future. 
All will come well. March forward with your 
American and British friends in the great 
world movement towards Freedom, Justice and 
Peace." 



THE INTERNATIONAL POSITION OF ARGENTINA 
Correspondence Between the Secretary of State and the Argentine Foreign Minister 

[Released to the press September S] 



On August 5, 1943, Vice Admiral Segundo 
Storni, Foreign Minister of Argentina, ad- 
dressed a letter to the Secretary of State con- 
cerning the present situation of the Argentine 



Government. The Secretary's reply dated 
August 30, 1943 was delivered to Vice Ad- 
miral Storni on September 7. The complete 
texts of these letters are printed below. 



159 



160 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Translation] 

Buenos Aires, August 5, 1943. 

Mr. Secretary of State: 

Coinciding with Ambassador Armour's trip 
to the United States, I have thought it de- 
sirable to place myself in direct contact with 
you, in order to set forth confidentially to 
your friendly Government the situation of the 
new Argentine Government established as the 
result of the military movement of June 4, 
particularly with reference to the international 
position of this country. I do so with the full 
approval of the President of the Nation and in 
the hope that, by this means, his views may also 
be made known to President Roosevelt. 

The military movement which has just 
overthrown the govermnent of Seiior Castillo 
assumed power as an inevitable consequence 
of the atmosphere of corruption that unfor- 
tunately had penetrated the political and ad- 
ministrative life of the country. The 
unanimous approval with which the renovat- 
ing work of the new Government is being 
followed is the best justification of the move- 
ment. The Government has complete control 
of the situation, supported by all sound 
opinion in the country and fully upheld by 
the armed forces. But there is one factor 
which carries decisive weight in the work that 
it is doing: I refer to the international situa- 
tion and to the problems of foreign policy 
with which the Republic is confronted. 

Due to lack of adequate information or to 
other causes the origin of which I do not know, 
there has been created with respect to the situa- 
tion of neutrality of the Argentine Republic an 
atmosphere which is prejudicial to good rela- 
tions with the countries of America and espe- 
cially with that great friendly nation (the 
United States). Thus the nimor has spread 
that General Ramirez, the armed forces, and 
the men who form this new Government profess 
a markedly totalitarian ideology or, at the least, 
that we look upon the Axis powers with great 
sympathy. I can affirm, and I beg that you, 
Mr. Secretary, accept this affirmation as the 



word of a man of honor, that such assumptions 
are absolutely false. The Argentine nation, its 
armed forces, and the men in its Government 
base their acts on the firmest democratic convic- 
tions. We are men of Ameiica: our historic 
tradition is very clear and it will not be modified 
now or in the future by the adoption of dictato- 
rial systems of government that are repugnant 
to our consciences as free men — as men who, 
today as in the past, feel indissolubly linked 
with the other inhabitants of this continent, of 
jjrofoundly democratic origins. 

The situation of neutrality that the Argentine 
Republic has had to observe up to now has not 
been understood. Moreover, it has given rise 
to suspicious comments. In judging that neu- 
trality it has been forgotten, against all the 
evidence, that Argentine ships are operating 
exclusively in the service of the Allied nations 
and particularly of the American countries, 
extending by the decision of this new Govern- 
ment to the very zone of operations proclaimed 
by Germany. There have also been forgotten 
the Argentine decrees granting the status of 
"non-belligerency" exclusively to one of the 
belligerent parties. There have likewise been 
disregarded the protests made by Germany, 
Italy, and Japan after the secrecy of their 
official communications with their embassies 
here was prohibited, while the other countries 
continue to have the free use of their cables. 

It is difficult to ignore the collaboration that 
the Argentine Republic is giving to the cause of 
the Allied nations under the conditions of a 
neuti'ality which, more than tolerant, is of an 
evidently benevolent character. This current 
of collaboration is even more effective in the 
field of our exports, placed at the almost exclu- 
sive service of the Allied cause and of the 
American countries, in so doing many times 
depriving our counti-y of articles necessary for 
its own defense. 

The effort that Argentina is making should 
be understood. It is not fair to forget that this 
new Government has sprung from a revolution- 
ary movement which was planned and carried 
out in order to overthrow a government that 



SEPTEMBER 11, 194 3 



161 



did not understand the reality of internal and 
foreign policy. But the change, particularly 
with reference to foreign policy, could not be 
effected in a violent manner because our country 
was not ready for it. In this connection, it 
should not be forgotten that the Argentine Re- 
public has been living and is still living in an 
atmosi:)here of peace, work, and comparative 
abundance; that our people ai'e influenced by 
the ties of kinship of numerous foreign colonies ; 
that there exists fear of the communist danger, 
the propagation of which in our country has 
corrupted even the most genuinely democratic 
institutions such as Accion Argentina and the 
Junta de la Victoria. It should be recalled that, 
on the other hand, the Government that was 
overthrown maintained its neutrality even dur- 
ing the most critical period of our relations 
with the Axis countries, as undoubtedly was the 
case with the repeated torpedoing of Argentine 
ships and the Japanese attack against Pearl 
Harbor. 

This situation, Mr. Secretary, cannot be 
abruptly changed by a revolutionary govern- 
ment that must reconstruct the country, which is 
corrupted in its administration and in its edu- 
cational and social institutions. The changes 
can be brought about only as rapidly as the 
internal situation may permit. The spirit in 
which they have been begun in the international 
position of the country is clear and evident and 
deserves to be noted in a friendly way and with- 
out bias by your Government. 

Argentine sentiment, eminently American, 
firmly opposed to totalitarian regimes, is on 
the side of the United Nations in its material 
and spiritual action. But you, Mr. Secretary, 
citizen of a country that venerates freedom of 
conscience, will acknowledge that it is not pos- 
sible, without preliminary preparation, to force 
the Argentine conscience with a view to leading 
it coldly and without any immediate motive 
to the breaking of relations with the Axis. The 
war having reached its present stage, when de- 
feat is inexorably drawing closer to the 
countries of the Axis, this unexpected rupture 
would furthermore put Argentine chivalry to a 
hard test. Let it suffice to recall the judg- 



ment which Italy merited when, in a similar 
situation, it took its position against defeated 
France. 

I cannot fail to point out to you, Mr. Secre- 
tary, the concern with which I view future pos- 
sibilities if, because of the persistence in the 
present lack of comprehension, Argentina 
should continue to be denied the materials that 
it needs in order to increase its production and 
to arm itself in order to fulfill, should the 
case arise, its obligations for continental de- 
fense. It is of particular interest to recall 
that some time ago the Argentine Republic 
offered to increase shipments of fuels and heavy 
oils to American countries, for which purpose 
it sought from the United States the shipment 
of the machinery essential in order to increase 
its productive capacity. Unfortunately, thus 
far this request has not been heeded, no recogni- 
tion being made of the sacrifice at which our 
country is extending its assistance to friendly 
countries in order to supply them so far as pos- 
sible with the much-coveted fuel. Petroleum 
production has decreased because of the de- 
terioration of the equipment, and our reserves 
have diminished considerably. Today, in 
order to compensate for this shortage, we find 
it necessary to burn in the boilers of factories 
and plants millions of quintals of corn, wheat, 
and linseed. With the aid of the United States, 
Argentina could burn its own petroleum, keep- 
ing that wealth of grain to supply the Allied 
nations and to form a reserve stock that would 
make it possible to feed the European peoples 
threatened with hunger. 

The Government of General Ramirez will 
spare no effort to fulfill the obligations con- 
tracted. But, as I have already said, it will not 
be able to do so without a cause to justifiy it. 
To act otherwise would afford grounds to be- 
lieve action is being taken under the pressure 
or threat of foreign agents, and this would not 
be tolerated by either the people or the armed 
forces of the country. 

I believe that in this long letter I have ex- 
plained to you, Mr. Secretary, the real situa- 
tion of the Argentine Republic with respect 
to its sentiments of deep friendshijD and soli- 



162 

darity with the American countries. I do not 
doubt that in contemplating the situation from 
the high position that the government of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt occupies in the world, it will 
be appreciated that it is not just to maintain 
the attitude of suspicion assumed toward^ a 
country such as ours, which has shown unmis- 
takably its feelings of friendship and frank 
support for the countries that are fighting for 
freedom. I cannot believe that it is desired to 
eliminate the action of Argentina within the 
concert of American nations, on the basis that 
our neutrality — which is only theoretical — 
places us in an equivocal position with respect 
to the rest of the countries of this continent. 
I can affinn to you, Mr. Secretary, that the 
Axis countries have nothing to hope for from 
our Government and that public opinion is daily 
more unfavorable to them. But this evolu- 
tion would be more rapid and effective for the 
American cause if President Roosevelt should 
make a gesture of genuine friendship toward 
our people ; such a gesture might be the urgent 
provision of airplanes, spare parts, armaments, 
and machinery to restore Argentina to the posi- 
tion of equilibrium to which it is entitled with 
respect to other South American countries. 

This- general and sincere picture of the 
Argentine situation will explain to you, Mr. 
Secretary of State, the obstacles— up to now 
insurmountable— encountered by this Govern- 
ment in fulfilling the last part of its original 
objectives. On the basis of the loyal under- 
standing that we reciprocally owe to each 
other, I wish to rely on the spirit of good will 
with which we shall be heard, which would be 
a concrete proof of the friendship that this 
Government is seeking in its present difficult 
initial period. Moreover, Ambassador Ar- 
mour, who has penetrated with intelligent and 
friendly understanding into all the aspects of 
our complicated internal situation and who was 
the confidential recipient of these thoughts, 
personally expressed by His Excellency the 
President of the Nation, will be able to convey 
to you, Mr. Secretary, a more complete per- 



DEPARTMENT OE STATE BU1.LETIN 

sonal impression obtained directly from the 
present reality of the life of our country. 

I am very happy on this occasion to renew 
to you, Mr. Secretary, the assurance of my 
cordial and friendly consideration. 

SEGtTNDO R. StOKNI 



August 30, 1943. 
My Dear Mr. Minister: 

I have received your letter of August 5, in 
which you were good enough to inform me 
regarding the situation of the new Argentine 
Government established as the result of the 
military movement of June 4, particularly with 
reference to the international position of Argen- 
tina. I note that your letter has the full ap- 
proval of the President of Argentina and I have 
been pleased to make the views expressed therein 
known to President Roosevelt. 

It is profoundly satisfactory to note your 
statement that the people of your country feel 
themselves indissolubly linked with the other 
inhabitants of this continent of profoundly 
democratic origins. This statement will be most 
welcome to the citizens of the United States 
actively engaged at the cost of tremendous sacri- 
fices in lives and materials in a war for the 
survival of the principles so eloquently described 
by you. I feel sure that in the same spirit it will 
be warmly greeted by the peoples of all of the 
other republics of the Hemisphere which have 
taken measures essential to the defense of our 
continent against a menace now happily being 
overcome by the joint efforts of the friends of 
freedom everywhere. 

However, it is with regret that my Govern- 
ment and the people of the United States have 
been forced to the conclusion that the un- 
doubted sentiments of the Argentine people 
have not been implemented by action called 
for by the commitments freely entered into 
by their Government in common with the 
governments of the other twenty American 
republics. 

Your Excellency is, of course, fully familiar 
with those commitments. As they particu- 



SEPTEMBER 11, 1943 



163 



larly affect the present world conflict, they are 
based upon Resohition XV adopted by the 
Foreign Ministers of the American Republics 
at Habana in July of 1940. That Resolution 
provides that any attempt on the part of a 
non- American state against the integrity or 
inviolability of the territory, the sovereignty 
or the political independence of an American 
state shall be considered as an act of aggres- 
sion against the states which signed this decla- 
ration. The act of aggression contemplated in 
this Declaration took place on December 7, 
1941. In January of 1942 the Foreign Min- 
isters of the American Republics met at Rio 
de Janeiro to consider the measures which they 
should adopt for common defense. A Resolu- 
tion recommending the break of diplomatic 
relations with Japan, Germany and Italy was 
adopted. The wording of that Resolution was 
the subject of prolonged discussion and the 
text finally agreed upon was fully responsive 
to the views expressed by the Argentine Gov- 
ernment. I believe it desirable to quote the 
Resolution in full : 

"Breaking of Diplomatio Relations 

"I The American Republics reaffirm their 
declaration to consider any act of aggression 
on the part of a non-American State against 
one of them as an act of aggression against all 
of them, constituting as it does an immediate 
threat to the liberty and independence of 
America. 

"II The American Republics reaffirm their 
complete solidarity and their determination to 
cooperate jointly for their mutual protection 
until the effects of the present aggression against 
the Continent have disappeared. 

"Ill The American Republics, in accordance 
with the procedures established by their own 
laws and in conformity with the position and 
circumstances obtaining in each country in the 
existing continental conflict, recommend the 
breaking of their diplomatic relations with 
Japan, Germany and Italy, since the first- 
mentioned State attacked and the other two 
declared war on an American country. 



"IV Finally, the American Republics de- 
clare that, prior to the reestablishment of the 
relations referred to in the preceding para- 
graph, they will consult among themselves in 
order that their action may have a solidary 
character." ^ 

With the exception of Argentina, all of the 
American Republics have severed diplomatic 
relations with Japan, Germany and Italy and 
of these twenty republics thirteen are at war 
with the Axis powers. 

Resolution V, adopted by the Consultative 
Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Rio de 
Janeiro, stipulated by unanimous agreement 
the immediate adoption of any additional 
measures necessary to cut off for the duration 
of the present Hemispheric emergency all com- 
mercial and financial intercourse, direct or in- 
direct, between the Western Hemisphere and 
the nations signatory to the Tri-Partite Pact 
and the territories dominated by them. The 
Argentine representative at the Meeting ad- 
hered to this Resolution with the following 
reservation : 

"The Argentine Delegation requests that it 
be recorded in the minutes, as well as at the 
end of this draft resolution, that the Argentine 
Republic agrees with the necessity of adopting 
economic and financial control measures with 
regard to all foreign and domestic activities 
of firms or enterprises which may, in one way 
or another, affect the welfare of the republics 
of America or the solidarity or defense of the 
Continent. It has adopted and is prepared to 
adopt further measures in this respect, in ac- 
cordance with the present resolution, extending 
them, however, to firms or enterprises managed 
or controlled by aliens or from foreign bel- 
ligerent countries not in the American Con- 
tinent." 2 

The Argentine Government has failed to effect 
the severance of financial and commercial rela- 
tions called for by Resolution V. Moreover, 



' Bulletin of Feb. 7, 1942, p. 118. 
'lUd., p. 140. 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETIN 



financial transactions of direct benefit to the 
enemies of the United Nations have been author- 
ized by agencies of tlie Argentine Government. 

Resohition XVII adopted at Rio provided 
for a concerted effort to discover and combat 
subversive activities. It is notorious that Axis 
agents in Argentina have been and are engag- 
ing in systematic espionage which has cost the 
United Nations ships and lives. Vicious' prop- 
aganda aimed at the United Nations appears 
in publications which are supported by sub- 
sidies from Axis sources. These publications 
have benefited by a Government decree which 
enables them to receive supplies of newsprint 
at favorable prices through the intei-vention of 
the Argentine Ministry of Agriculture. 

Resolution XL adopted at the Rio de Janeiro 
Meeting recommended that each American 
republic adopt the necessary and immediate 
measures to close all radiotelephone and radio- 
telegraph communications between the Ameri- 
can Republics and the aggressor States and all 
territories subservient to them., except in so far 
as official communications of the American Gov- 
ernments are concerned. Argentina is the only 
one of the twenty-one American Republics now 
permitting radiotelephone and radiotelegraph 
communications with Japan, Germany and 
Italy. 

The above summary of certain of the inter- 
American commitments freely entered into by 
Argentina, together with the twenty other 
American republics, furnishes a convincing ex- 
pression of the reason why the situation of neu- 
trality which Your Excellency states the Argen- 
tine Republic has had to observe up to now has 
not been understood. 

It is, of course, a matter solely within the 
competence of the Argentine Government to 
judge the degree to which Argentine public 
opinion which you state is firmly opposed to 
totalitarian regimes will support a foreign 
policy designed at the very least to reduce the 
assistance which Argentina's present position 
has rendered and is continuing to render those 
regimes. Nor can I pass upon the question of 



the nature of the motive which you believe 
would be necessary to enable the Argentine Gov- 
ernment to fulfill the obligations it has con- 
tracted. I must, however, express my astonish- 
ment at 3'our statement that for the Argentine 
Government to fulfill those obligations would 
afford grounds to believe that such action was 
taken under the pressure or threat of foreign 
agents. The obligations in question were freely 
entered into by all the American Republics, and 
have been carried out by all except Argentina. 

In concluding tlie discussion of this subject, 
I believe it fitting to recall that the public and 
private statements made by the President of 
the Nation and by Your Excellency during the 
first few weeks of the tenure of office of the new 
Argentine Government gave my Government 
positive ground for the belief that Argentine 
sentiments of continental solidarity and of ad- 
herence to inter-American commitments would 
be translated into effective action within a spe- 
cific and brief period. 

It is no doubt true as indicated by Your 
Excellency that the products of Argentine 
agriculture and mining have been of the great- 
est value to the cause of the United Nations. 
Those products, however, have found markets 
at equitable prices in the determination of 
which the United Nations have consistently 
refused to take advantage of the fact that they 
are, thanks to the efficiency of their military 
and naval operations, the only major markets 
open to Argentina. A glance at Argentine 
economic statistics will show that Argentina's 
economic transactions with the United Na- 
tions have been highly beneficial to Argentina. 
I am, of course, not fully informed regarding 
the degree to which these transactions may 
have resulted in the sacrifice of materials es- 
sential to the defense of Argentina as men- 
tioned in Your Excellency's letter. In this 
connection, however, it may be noted that 
neither the present Argentine Government nor 
its predecessor has at any time evidenced a 
disposition to strengthen the security of Ar- 
gentina by having Argentine military and 



SEPTEMBER 11, 1943 



165 



naval forces take part in measures designed 
for the defense of the hemisphere. 

With respect to Your Excellency's state- 
ment to the effect that Argentina is being de- 
nied materials which she requires to increase 
her production of commodities essential to the 
United Nations, you are, of coui'se, aware that 
the conditions of the war have imposed upon 
the United States and the other United Na- 
tions the necessity for a very careful allocation 
of available materials of a critical and strategic 
nature in order that these materials may be 
used to the best advantage in furtherance of 
the war effort. Notwithstanding these circum- 
stances, Argentine essential civilian require- 
ments, particularly those related to public 
health and the maintenance of essential serv- 
ices, have received fair treatment. 

With regard to the petroleum negotiations, it 
may be pointed out that Argentina, thanks to 
its natural resources, the production of which 
has increased during the war period, and to its 
ability to import, has enjoyed during the past 
year and a half far greater oil supplies for the 
consumption of its civilian population than 
have the neighboring republics. Those repub- 
lics have received extremely limited supplies 
made possible through cooperative action in 
which the Government of the United States 
and of the producing republics other than 
Argentina have participated. Considerable 
hardship and sacrifice has resulted owing to the 
serious shortage of ocean-going tankers. Thus, 
while the Argentine people were enjoying gas- 
oline supplies equivalent to about seventy per- 
cent of their normal civilian requirements, the 
peoples of Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay, Chile 
and, in general, other republics were receiving 
only approximately forty percent of normal 
civilian requirements. Argentine assistance 
would have been of great value during this very 
difficult period. 

The negotiations to which your letter refers 
have been concerned with the provision of ma- 
terials and sujjplies to enable the future pro- 
duction of the Argentine oil fields to be main- 



tained and even to be increased. The lack of 
these materials has not in any way affected the 
ability of Argentina to cooperate with the 
neighboring republics during the past eighteen 
months if Argentina had desired to cooperate. 

With regard to the matter of arms and mu- 
nitions, your letter states that the evolution of 
Argentine public opinion would be more rapid 
and effective in favor of tlie American coun- 
tries if President Roosevelt were to make an 
open and friendly gesture toward the Argen- 
tine people such as would be the immediate 
supply of airplanes, replacement parts, arma- 
ments and machinery, in order to restore Ar- 
gentina to the position of equilibrium which 
corresponds to her with respect to other South 
American countries. In reply, I must point 
out emphatically that questions of military and 
naval equilibrimn as between American repub- 
lics are surely inconsistent with the inter- 
American doctrine of the peaceful settlement 
of international disputes to which so many 
practical contributions have been made by Ar- 
gentine statesmen. In fact, one of the most 
specific expressions of that doctrine, known as 
the Treaty of Non-Aggression and Concilia- 
tion, was the work of a distinguished Argentine 
Minister for Foreign Affairs. To furnish arms 
and munitions for the purpose indicated by 
Your Excellency would appear to this Gov- 
ernment to be clearly inconsistent with the 
juridical and moral foundations upon which 
existing inter-American understanding and 
agreements are based. 

I must also recall that it has been frequently 
indicated to representatives of your Govern- 
ment, including the military and naval officers 
who visited Washington more than a year ago, 
that the supply of arms and munitions by the 
United States to the other American republics 
is exclusively for the purpose of contributing 
to the defense of the Hemisphere against pos- 
sible aggression. In the determination of the 
contribution which the Government of the 
United States could make to the preparations 
for defense of the other nineteen American 



550536 — 43- 



166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTCTLLETIN 



Republics which jointly determined upon the 
need for such defense, the Government of the 
United States has been guided exclusively by 
considerations of hemispheric security. Since 
Argentina, both by its words and its actions, 
has indicated clearly that the Argentine armed 
forces will not under present conditions be used 
in a manner designed to forward the cause of 
the security of the New World, and, thereby, 
the vital war interests of the United States, it 
would be impossible for the President of the 
United States to enter into an agi-eement to 
furnish arms and munitions to Argentina un- 
der the Lend-Lease Act. 

I have written Your Excellency in this detail 
since I am sure from the frank and friendly 
terms in which your letter to me is couched, 
that you would desire an equally frank and 
friendly exposition of the views of this Govern- 
ment. I feel that I should be lacking in such 
frankness, however, were I to leave you under 
the impression that the Government and the 
people of the United States have not viewed 



with deep regret the course followed by the 
Argentine Government in so far as concerns 
hemispheric defense since the Conference of 
Foreign Ministers in Rio de Janeiro. I am in 
entire agreement with your statement that 
defeat is inexorably drawing closer to the 
countries of the Axis. In recognition of that 
fact the United Nations and those associated 
with them are devoting their attention in a wide 
variety of practical and constructive ways to 
the problems of post-war organization. Thus 
the failure of the Argentine Government to 
comply with its inter-American commitments 
has not only resulted in the non-participation 
of Argentina in the defense of the continent in 
a most critical period, it is also depriving 
Argentina of participation in tlie studies, dis- 
cussions, meetings and arrangements designed 
to solve the post-war problems mentioned above. 
I am pleased to take this opportunity of ex- 
tending to Your Excellency the renewed assur- 
ances of my high consideration. 

CoEDELL Hull 



ADHERENCE OF IRAN TO THE DECLARATION BY UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press September 11] 

The following communications concerning 
the adherence of Iran to the Declaration by 
United Nations have been exchanged by the 
Minister of Iran and the Secretary of State : 

September 10, 1943. 
Mr. Secretart: 

I have the honor to communicate to Your 
Excellency, in compliance with instructions re- 
ceived from my Government, that by act of the 
9th day of this month, Iran declares the exist- 
ence of a state of war with Germany and for- 
mally adheres to the Declaration of the United 
Nations : 

The Iranian people and their Government, 



sincerely believing in the principles of the 
Atlantic Charter, have already contributed by 
all ways and means at their disposal to the 
common cause of the Allies and to the prosecu- 
tion of the war against aggressore. Now, in- 
terpreting this obvious policy, they have de- 
cided to adhere formally to the Declaration of 
the United Nations dated January 1, 1942. 

In conveying the advice to Your Excellency 
of this decision of the Iranian Government, and 
also in accordance with the above instructions, 
I should very much appreciate the favor of your 
good offices to the end that the same be trans- 
mitted to the other signatory nations of the 
foregoing Declaration. 

I take [etc.] M. Shatesteh 



SEPTEMBER 11, 19 43 



167 



September 10, 1943. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note of September 10, 1943 in which 
you state, in compliance with instructions from 
your Government, that by act of September 9, 
1943 Iran declared the existence of a state of war 
with Germany and formally adhered to the 
Declaration by United Nations. 

This action of the Government of Iran is 
a new manifestation of the determination of 
Iran to contribute to the cause of the freedom- 
loving nations in their struggle for victory over 
Hitlerism. The Government of the United 
States, as depository for the Declaration, is in- 
deed gratified to welcome Iran into the ranks 
of the United Nations. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 

APPOINTMENT OF AMERICAN DIRECTOR 
OF ECONOMIC OPERATIONS IN THE 
MIDDLE EAST 

[Released to the press by the White House September 10) 

The President has appointed the Honorable 
James M. Landis to serve as American Director 
of Economic Operations in the Middle East 
and principal American civilian representa- 
tive at the Middle East Supply Center with the 
personal rank of Minister. Mr. Landis will be 
assigned to our legations in the Middle East as 
Special Assistant to the Minister to facilitate 
his duties in connection with his work in Cairo 
and the areas serviced by the Middle East Sup- 
ply Center. 

Mr. Fred Winant, who formerly held the 
position of principal American civilian repre- 
sentative, will take over the direction of the 
Middle East supply work in Washington. 

Mr. Landis, whose resignation as Director of 
the Office of Civilian Defense was announced 
by the President the afternoon of September 10, 
has served in the past as chairman of the Se- 
curities and Exchange Commission and as a 
member of the Federal Trade Commission. He 
was special trial examiner for the United States 



Department of Labor and also acted as con- 
sultant to the Advisory Commission to the 
Counsel of National Defense and the War De- 
partment. He is on leave of absence as Dean of 
the Harvard Law School. 

It is expected that Mr. Landis will leave for 
Cairo shortly. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF 

On September 4, 1943 the President's War 
Relief Control Board released to the press a 
tabulation of contributions collected and dis- 
bursed during the period September 6, 1939 
through July 1943, as shown in the reports sub- 
mitted by persons and organizations registered 
with the Board for the solicitation and collec- 
tion of contributions to be used for relief in 
foreign countries, in conformity with the regu- 
lations issued pursuant to section 3 (a) of the 
act of May 1, 1937, as made effective by the Pres- 
ident's proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10, 
1939 ; section 8 of the act of November 4, 1939, 
as made effective by the President's proclama- 
tion of the same date; and Executive Order 
9205 of July 25, 1942. The statistics set forth 
in the tabulation are incomplete with regard 
to relief activities which a number of registered 
organizations have been carrying on in respect 
to non-belligerent countries, for which registra- 
tion was not previously requii'ed. 

The American National Red Cross and cer- 
tain religious organizations are exempted from 
registration with the Board by section 3 of 
Executive Order 9205, and the accounts of these 
organizations are not included in this tabula- 
lation. Community war chests, war funds, etc., 
are registered with the Board. However, as 
such chests are fund-raising organizations 
only, and as the funds raised for war relief 
and welfare purposes, other than local, are 
contributed exclusively to registered organiza- 
tions, their accounts are not included in the 
tabulation. 

Copies of this tabulation are available from 
the President's War Relief Control Board, 
Washington Building, Washington, D.C. 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUliLETIN 



LAWS ENACTED BY THE FRENCH GOV- 
ERNMENT PRIOR TO THE GERMAN IN- 
VASION 

Of interest is a recent decision by the New 
Yoi'k Sujireme Court which held that securities 
deposited in a New York bank and charged to 
the account of its French branch, at a time when 
the claimant was domiciled in France, pursuant 
to laws and decrees of the French Government 
issued subsequent to the opening of hostilities 
between France and Germany, may not be re- 
covered in reple^dn by their owner, a French 
national and a refugee in the United States. 
Although the Court agreed that under present 
war conditions there is no existing French Gov- 
ernment recognized by the United States to 
which application may be made for release of 
the securities, it ruled that the laws validly en- 
acted by the French Government before the 
invasion by Germany "are still the laws of the 
French State and will still be the laws of France 
when the invader is driven out." [Bercholz v. 
Guaranty Trust Co. of N. Y., Aug. 10, 1943; 
N. Y. Sup. Ct., Spec. Term, Part III, N. Y. 
City (Koch, J.)] 



REPORT ON LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 

In his press and radio news conference on 
September 7, 1943, the President stated that 
while he was in Quebec a draft of the letter to 
Congress transmitting the Eleventh Quarterly 
Report on Lend-Lease Operations was printed 
niadvertently without his approval and that a 
new copy of the letter is being sent to Congress 
with two sentences contained in the original 
l^rint deleted. Accordingly, in the text of the 
letter of transmittal as printed in the Bulletin 
of August 28, 1943, the two sentences which ap- 
pear at the beginning of the right-hand column 
on page 125 should be deleted. 



American Republics 



ANNIVERSARY OF INDEPENDENCE 
OF BRAZIL 

[Released to the press September 7] 

The President has sent the following mes- 
sage to the President of the United States of 
Brazil on the occasion of the Brazilian Inde- 
pendence Day: 

The White House, September 7, 194^. 

I am happy to convey to Your Excellency 
and through you to the Brazilian people the 
congratulations and fraternal regards of the 
people of the United States on the anniversary 
of the independence of Brazil. This auspi- 
cious event will be celebrated throughout the 
Americas, which have benefited so much from 
the enlightened fruits of Brazilian independ- 
ence and devotion to neighborly cooperation. 
In the past year the close ties which have long 
bound the people of Brazil and those of the 
United States have grown even firmer through 
their comradeship of arms in the common 
struggle against Axis tyranny and its threat to 
the freedom they cherish. This comradeship 
is fittingly symbolized by the visit to the United 
States of General Dutra. 

Brazil and the United States, together with 
their staunch allies, can foresee with certainty 
the total and inevitable defeat of the forces 
of treachery and oppression, now that the fight 
is being carried vigorously and successfully to 
the homelands of our enemies. We can all 
look forward confidently to the better and 
fuller world in which liberty will reign when 
victory is achieved. May the collaboration of 
the people and Governments of Brazil and the 
United States grow ever stronger in the days 
of well-won peace to come. 



SEPTEMBER 11, 1943 



169 



I take this occasion to add my personal greet- 
ings and best wishes for your health and for 
the happiness and prosperity of the Brazilian 
nation. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

ARREST OF POWER OFFICIALS 
IN ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press September 6] 

In the early morning of September 4, the 
Argentine police occupied the principal office 
of a subsidiary company of the American and 
Foreign Power Company in Buenos Aires and 
arrested several of the officers. 

The American Embassy in Buenos Aires 
immediately requested the Argentine Govern- 
ment to permit an official from the Embassy to 
see David Matson, the only American arrested. 
The Argentine Government was also requested 
to give the Embassy complete information con- 
cerning the reasons for the arrests. All of the 
persons arrested were released on the evening 
of September 4. The Embassy is keeping in 
close touch with the situation. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
CHILEAN MINISTER OF FOREIGN AF- 
FAIRS 

[Released to the press September 10] 

His Excellency Senor Dr. Don Joaquin Fer- 
nandez, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile, 
will visit the United States as a guest of this 
Government, arriving in Washington on Friday, 
September 17. He will stay at Blair House 
during his visit to Washington and will subse- 
quently visit other cities in the United States. 



The Department 



DEATH OF FREDERICK P. KEPPEL 

[Released to the press September 9] 

The Secretary has sent the following letter 
to Mrs. Frederick P. Keppel : 



September 9, 1943. 
Dear Mrs. Keppel : 

I am deeply grieved to learn of the death of 
your distinguished husband. He was an out- 
standing citizen who rendered highly useful 
and meritorious service to the community and 
to the country. In the field of education, phil- 
anthropic entei'iirises, and in government, his 
work was of an unusually high order, and his 
record is one fully in keeping with his sterling 
qualities of character and mind. 

I extend to you and to members of the family 
my heartfelt sympathy in your irreparable loss. 
Sincerely yours, 

Cordell Hull 



Regulations 



General Rulings and Public Circulars Under Execu- 
tive Order 8389, April 10, 1940, as Amended [re- 
lating to foreign-funds control], and Regulations 
Issued Pursuant Thereto. (Monetary Offices, 
Treasury Department.) September 3, 1943. 8Fed- 
eral Register 12285-12288. 

[Amendment to General Ruling 4] Netherlands Pos- 
sessions. 

[Amendment to General Ruling 5 and revocation 
of General Ruling 6A] Importation of Securities 
and Currency. 

[Amendment to General Ruling 11] Trade or Com- 
munication With an Enemy National. 

[Public Circular 5B] Special Accounts Established 
by Alien Property Custodian. 

[Public Circular 23] Applications for Licenses. 

General In Transit Licenses [Amendment 98, defining 
country groups and listing commodities which un- 
der certain conditions may not be exijorted pur- 
suant to any general license]. (Office of Exports, 
Office of Economic Warfare.) August 31, 1943. 8 
Federal Register 12288. 

Primary Inspection and Detention: Admission [into 
the United States] Under Bond of Immigrant Aliens 
Liliely To Become Public Charges. (Immigration 
and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice.) 
August 21, 1943. 8 Federal Register 12236. 



170 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULiETIlSr 



Publications 



Department of State 

Alaska Highway : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Canada — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Washington July 19, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 331. Publication 1977. 
2 pp. 5^. 

Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, 
nos. 184-209, January 2-June 26, 1043. Publication 
1982. 20 pp. Free. 

Other Government Agencies 

United Nations Food Conference : Pre-War Agricul- 
tural Production and Trade of Selected Countries. 
May 1943. (Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations, Department of Agriculture.) 40 pp., proc- 
essed. Available free from Agriculture Department. 



Brief Survey of Important Industrial and Power 
Plants in Manchuria. Dec. 17, 1942. (Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of 
Commerce.) ii, 25 pp., processed. Available free 
from Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

Wartime Developments on West Coast of South 
America [articles from Foreign Commerce Weekly]. 
June 1943. (Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Department of Commerce.) 28 pp., illus., 
processed. Available free from Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce. 

Selection of Works for Understanding of World Af- 
fairs Since 1914. 1943. (Bibliogi-aphy Division, 
Library of Congress.) 95 pp., processed. Free to 
Institutions only from Library of Congress. 

Foreign-Trade and Exchange Controls in Germany : 
Report on Methods and Policies of German Foreign- 
Trade Control, With Special Reference to Period 
1931-39, Under Provisions of Sec. 332, Title 3, Pt. 2 
of Tariff Act of 1930. 1943. (Tariff Commission.) 
xi, 294 pp. (Report 150, 2d series.) 85^, paper, 
from Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTIKG OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEKKLI WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOB OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



'1'35'3.| ft 30 

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




E 



J 




r 



1 




SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 221— Publication 1995 



C 



ontents 




The War 

Our Foreign Policy in the Fi-amework of Our National 

Interests: Address by the Secretary of State . . . 
Statement by the Secretary of State on the Anniversary 

of the Mukden Incident 

Adherence of Iran to the Declaration by United 

Nations 

Health Problems in Occupied Countries: Address by 

James A. Crabtree 

Facilities for News Correspondents Provided by Allied 

Headquarters in North Afi'ica 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 



Legislation 



General 

Africa — Maps and Man: Address by S. W. Boggs 



American Republics 

Anniversary of Mexican Independence 
Anniversary of Chilean Independence . 



Cultural Relations 

The Non-Theatrical Motion-Picture Program Abroad . 
Distinguished Visitors From Other American Repub- 
lics 

[over] 



Page 

173 
179 
180 
180 
185 

187 
187 

188 



196 

197 



197 
201 







OnieyiiS-CONTINUED 

Treaty Information Page 

Military and Naval Missions: Agreement With Ecuador 
for Detail of United States Army Officer as Tech- 
nical Director of the Eloy Alfaro Military College 

of Ecuador 201 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain 201 

Publications 202 



IJ. S. SUPFP!l*iT'^Nr»F"T '" 



. Tf^ 



The War 



OUR FOREIGN POLICY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF OUR 
NATIONAL INTERESTS 

Address by the Secretary of State ^ 



(Released to the press September 12] 
I 

In July of last year, in an address over these 
networks, I outlined, as definitely as was possible 
at that time, the chief problems and conditions 
confronting us in the field of foreign relations 
and sought to indicate some of the policies neces- 
sary for meeting these problems. I pointed out 
that in the present conflict each of the United 
Nations is fighting for the preservation of its 
freedom, its homes, its very existence ; and that 
only through united effort to defeat our enemies 
can freedom or the opportunity for freedom be 
preserved — for all countries and all peoples. I 
spoke of the need to chart for the future a course 
based on enduring spii'itual values which would 
bring our nation and all nations greater hope for 
enduring peace and greater measure of human 
welfare. To this end, I urged intensive study, 
hard thinking, broad vision, and leadership by 
all those, within each nation, \s ho provide spirit- 
ual, moral, and intellectual guidance. 

At that time, the military picture was still 
dark. The United Nations were still fishtins: 
a desperate war of defense against better pre- 
pared foes. We had suffered a succession of 
grim defeats. 

Since then, the military picture has greatly 
changed. 

We are now winning heartening victories — in 
the air, at sea, and on land. Our counterblows 
are steadily increasing in power and effective- 
ness. They are stepping-stones to our final 
triumph over the forces of conquest and 
savagery. 



Attainment of complete victory, although 
now certain, is still a formidable task. Our 
lesser enemies are fast losing heart and strength. 
Italy has already surrendered. But our princi- 
pal enemies, Germany and Japan, though 
shaken, still possess great resources and enor- 
mous strength. They still control vast por- 
tions of Europe and of Asia. To defeat them 
completely, the United Nations need to make, 
on the battlefront and at home, efforts even 
greater than those thus far made. 

In making these more intensified efforts, it 
is more important than ever for all concerned 
to have a clear understanding of what is at 
stake, now and in the future. 

During recent months, public discussion and 
debate on a high plane have revealed the pro- 
found concern of our people with the issues of 
the countrj^'s foreign relations. These issues 
need to be seen in their full perspective. Un- 
less our peo]5le so see them, and unless our 
people are willing to translate their understand- 
ing of them into action, the well-being of the 
nation — and even its very life — ^may be gravely 
menaced. 

The foreign policy of any country must be 
expressive of that country's fundamental na- 
tional interests. No country can keep faith 
with itself unless that is so. 

In determining our foreign policy we must 
first see clearly what our true national interests 
are. We must also bear in mind that other 



^ Broadcast over the network of the National Broad- 
casting Company, Sept. 12, 1943. 

173 



174 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETDST 



countries with which we deal in the conduct of 
foreign relations have their national interests, 
which, of coui-se, determine their policies. 

Obviously there are, even between friendly 
nations, diii'erences as regards their respective 
aims and purposes and as regards the means of 
attaining them. But there are also immense 
areas of common interest. By cooperating 
within those areas, the nations not only can ad- 
vance more effectively the aims and purposes 
which they have in common, but can also find 
increased opportunity to reconcile, by peace- 
ful means and to mutual advantage, such dif- 
ferences as may exist among them. 



II 



At the present time, the paramount aim of 
our foreign policy, and the punimount aim of 
the foreign policy of each of the other United 
Nations, is to defeat our enemies as quickly as 
possible. Here we have a vast area of common 
interest and a broad basis of cooperative action 
in the service of that interest. 

Every weapon of our military and economic 
activity and every instrumentality of our di- 
plomacy have been and are directed toward 
the strengthening of the combined war effort. 
All these necessarily go together. 

The land, air, and sea forces of the United 
States are fighting v/itli surpassing skill and 
heroism in the Mediterranean, over the Nazi- 
held fortress of Europe, in the far reaches of 
the Pacific and of Asia. In each of the thea- 
ters of war they are operating shoulder to 
shoulder in a spirit of superb comradeship with 
the gallant forces of one or more of our Allies. 

The resolute will and devoted effort of our 
people have brought about the greatest miracle 
of production and delivery in all history. Our 
war supplies are flowing outward in a constant 
and ever-increasing stream, not alone to those 
areas in which our own forces are engaged, but 
to every point on the globe at which the armed 
forces of the United Nations are fighting. 

We are in continuous consultation with our 
Allies on various phases of military, economic, 



and political activity — as required by the exi- 
gencies of a constantly changing situation. 

Our cooperation with our Allies has long since 
reached the state where contingents of the 
forces of various Allies are serving side by side 
under unified command. We have developed 
this type of cooperation with invincible Britain ; 
with intrepid and resolute Canada, Australia, 
New Zealand, and South Africa; with valiant 
and determined China; and with the forces of 
other Allies. It is being rapidly extended as 
the military operations progress. 

To the Soviet Union, whose heroic armies 
and civilian population have earned everlasting 
renown through their magnificent feats of 
courage and sacrifice, we have been glad to 
render all possible aid. It is our desire and 
our settled policy that collaboration and co- 
operation between our two countries shall 
steadily increase during and following the war. 

With the re-emerging military power of 
France we have been and are developing a 
heartening degree of coordinated effort. We 
look forward to the day when reborn France 
will again take her rightful jDlace in the family 
of free nations. 

With governments which the Axis powers 
have driven from their invaded and brutally 
oppressed but unconquerable countries we have 
the most friendly relations. These relations re- 
flect our profound and active sympathy for the 
suffering of their peoples and our determina- 
tion that the victory of the United Nations 
shall restore their nations to freedom. 

With all but one of the nations of the West- 
ern Hemisphere we have today the closest ties 
of solidarity and association — the fruit of 10 
years of unremitting labor on the part of all 
of these nations to build in this hemisphere a 
fraternity of Good Neighbors. Each of our 
American associates is making a magnificent 
contribution to the war effort. Here we have, 
in peace and in war, a highly successful exam- 
ple of cooperation between sovereign nations. 

The victories of the United Nations have 
been the direct result, not of separate and un- 
coordinated military, economic, and diplomatic 



SEPTEMBER 18, 194 3 



175 



action, but of close coordimition of all three 
types of action, both within each of the na- 
tions and among all of them. It is well to 
i-ecall some outstanding examples. 

Our protracted diplomatic effort to achieve 
a fair and peaceful solution of difficulties in the 
Far East afforded our military authorities and 
those of other countries now in the ranks of the 
United Nations many months of precious time 
for strengthening defenses against the combined 
Axis threats in the Atlantic and in the Pacific, 
in case Japan should reject a peaceful settlement 
as she eventually did. 

The drawing-together of the American 
republics to assure their common defense made 
it possible to establish a line of communications 
through the Caribbean, Brazil, and the South 
Atlantic. That line proved to be of invaluable 
importance alike in transporting equipment to 
the British forces at El Alamein; in supply- 
ing our own expedition to North Africa ; and, at 
a desperate hour, in putting our warplanes into 
the air over the Pacific islands and in Cliina. 

Diplomatic foresight and patient and vigor- 
ous activity by the agencies of our foreign policy 
played an indispensable part in preparing the 
way by which the huge strategic North African 
area was brought without heavy losses into the 
sphere of the United Nations and the French 
fleet was kept out of German hands. Had Vichy 
felt it feasible to ignore our diplomatic pressure 
directed toward preventing the surrender of the 
North and West African areas to the Nazis and 
the delivery of the French fleet to Hitler as 
Laval had planned, or had Spain entered the 
war on the side of the Axis as Hitler had hoped, 
control of the Mediterranean would have early 
fallen into the hands of our enemies. Instead, 
the Allied forces converged, with a skill and 
precision unequaled in military annals, upon 
this gateway through which we are now invad- 
ing the European Continent. 

The Mediterranean operations weakened the 
German air force available on the Soviet front 
just as the Kussian resistance, by holding the 
Gei-man armies on the eastern battle line, pre- 
vented Hitler from parrying our thrust toward 



his southern flank. Meanwhile, our constant 
military pressure against Japan had its inevi- 
table effect in deterring Japan from aggression 
against the Soviet Union. 

Our diplomatic agreements with fearless 
Danish officials on free soil and with the Gov- 
ermiient of Iceland made it possible to guard 
the great North Atlantic passage as a precious 
route for our supplies and troops and as defense 
against attack from the north. 

Tlie perseverance of China, the first victin) 
of the movement of aggression, in resistance 
to Japan has been aided in no small measure by 
the faith of her leaders in us, based on their 
knowledge of our history and policy and on 
their observation, as time went on, of our efforts 
to achieve a fair and peaceful settlement in the 
Far East, our economic support, and more re- 
cently, our military assistance. China's resist- 
ance has held enmeshed on her front sub- 
stantial Japanese forces which might otherwise 
have been loosed against us and other of the 
United Nations in the Pacific; and China is 
playing an important part in the United Na- 
tions' program for the winning of the war and 
achievement of a stable peace. 

The agencies of our foreign policy are at all 
times at work as instruments of national de- 
fense. Since the attack upon us, they have been 
intensivelj- at work in assistinir our armed forces 
to achieve the victories which are now fast in- 
creasing in numbers and significance. 

ni 

Beyond final victory, our fundamental na- 
tional interests are — as they always have been — 
the assuring of our national security and the 
fostering of the economic and social well-being 
of our people. To maintain these interests, our 
foreign policy must necessarily deal with cur- 
rent conditions and must plan for the future 
in the light of the concepts and beliefs which 
we, as a nation, accept for ourselves as the guid- 
ing lines of our international behavior. 

Throughout our national history, our basic 
policy in dealing with foreign nations has rested 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETrN' 



upon certain beliefs which are widely and 
deeply rooted in the minds of our people. Out- 
standing among these are : 

1. All peoples who, with "a decent respect to 
the opinions of mankind", have qualified 
themselves to assume and to discharge the 
responsibilities of liberty are entitled to its 
enjoyment. 

2. Each sovereign nation, large or small, is in 
law and under law the equal of every other 
nation. 

3. All nations, large and small, which re- 
spect the rights of others, are entitled to free- 
dom from outside interference in their internal 
affairs. 

4. Willingness to settle international dis- 
putes by peaceful means, acceptance of inter- 
national law, and observance of its principles 
are the bases of order among nations and of 
mankind's continuing search for enduring 
peace. 

5. Nondiscrimination in economic opportu- 
nity and treatment is essential to the mainte- 
nance and promotion of sound international 
relations. 

6. Cooperation between nations in the spirit 
of good neighbors, founded on the principles 
of liberty, equality, justice, morality, and law, 
is the most effective method of safeguarding 
and promoting the political, the economic, the 
social, and the cultural well-being of our na- 
tion and of all nations. 

These beliefs are among the most important 
tenets of our national faith. They are capable 
of universal application as rules of national 
and international conduct. In their applica- 
tion by other niilions and in willingness and 
preparedness on the part of all peacefully in- 
clined nations to join together to make them 
effective lies the greatest hope of security, hap- 
piness, and progress for this country and for 
all countries. 

Vigorous participation in efforts to establish 
a system of international relations based on 
these rules of conduct, and thus to create con- 
ditions in which war may be effectively 
banished, is and must be a fundamental feature 



of our foreign policy — second only to our pres- 
ent over-riding preoccupation with the win- 
ning of complete military victory. Here, too, 
our nation and other peacefully inclined na- 
tions have a vast and crucial area of common 
interest. 

In the Atlantic Charter and in the Declara- 
tion by United Nations, the nations now as- 
sociated in this war for self-preservation have 
clearly expressed their recognition of the ex- 
istence of this area of common interest. Our 
task and that of our associates is to utilize this 
common interest to create an effective system 
of international cooperation for the mainte- 
nance of peace. 

As I read our history and the temper of 
our people today, our nation intends to do its 
part, jointly with the other peace-seeking na- 
tions, in helping the war-torn world to heal 
its wounds. I am sure also that our nation 
and each of the nations associated today in 
the greatest cooperative enterprise in his- 
tory — the winning of this war — intends to do 
its part, after the victory of the United Na- 
tions, in meeting the immense needs of the post- 
war period. Those needs will embrace the task 
of taking practical steps to create conditions 
in which there will be security for every na- 
tion; in which each nation will have enhanced 
opportunities to develop and progress in ways 
of its own choosing; in which there will be, 
for each nation, improved facilities to attain, 
by its own effort and in cooperation with 
others, an increasing measure of political sta- 
bility and of economic, social, and cultural 
welfare. 

If our nation and like-minded nations fail in 
this task, the way will be open for a new rise 
of international anarchy, for new and even 
mere destructive wars, for an unprecedented 
material and spiritual impoverishment of man- 
kind. Many times in the course of history 
nations have drifted into catastrophe through 
failure, until too late, to recognize the dangers 
which confronted them and to take the meas- 
ures necessary to ward off those dangers. Post- 
war cooperation to maintain the peace is for 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



177 



each peace-seeking nation scarcely less essen- 
tial for its self-preservation than is the present 
cooperative effort to win the war. 

IV 

If there is anything on which all right- 
thinking people are agreed, it is the proposi- 
tion that the monstrous specter of a world war 
shall not again show its head. The people of 
this and other lands voice this demand in- 
sistently. There is danger in complacency and 
wishful thinking. The nations that stand for 
peace and security must now make up their 
minds and act together — or there will be neither 
peace nor security. 

It is abundantly clear that a system of organ- 
ized international cooperation for the mainte- 
nance of peace must be based upon the willing- 
ness of the cooperating nations to use force, if 
necessary, to keep the peace. There must be 
certainty that adequate and appropriate means 
are available and will be used for this purpose. 
Readiness to use force, if necessary, for the 
maintenance of peace is indispensable if effective 
substitutes for war are to be found. 

Differences between nations which lead to- 
ward armed conflict may be those of a non-legal 
character, commonly referred to as political, 
and those capable of being resolved by applying 
rules of law, commonly referred to as justiciable. 
Another cause of armed conflict is aggression 
by nations whose only motive is conquest and 
self-aggrandizement. "We must, therefore, pro- 
vide for differences of a political character, for 
those of a legal nature, and for cases where there 
is plain and unadulterated aggression. 

Political differences which present a threat 
to the peace of the world should be submitted 
to agencies which would use the remedies of dis- 
cussion, negotiation, conciliation, and good 
offices. 

Disputes of a legal character which present 
a threat to the peace of the world should be 
adjudicated by an international court of justice 
whose decisions would be based upon applica- 
tion of principles of law. 



But to assure peace there must also be means 
for restraining aggressors and nations that seek 
to resort to force for the accomplislunent of 
purposes of their own. The peacefully inclined 
nations must, in the interest of general peace 
and security, be willing to accept responsibility 
for this task in accordance with their respective 
capacities. 

The success of an organized system of inter- 
national cooperation with the maintenance of 
peace as its paramount objective depends, to an 
important degree, upon what happens within as 
well as among nations. We know that political 
controversies and economic sti'ife among na- 
tions are fruitful causes of hostility and conflict. 
But we also know that economic stagnation and 
distress, cultural backwardness, and social 
unrest within nations, wherever they exist, 
may undermine all efforts for stable peace. 

The primary responsibility for dealing with 
these conditions rests on each and every nation 
concerned. But each nation will be greatly 
helped in this task by the establishment of 
sound trade and other economic relations with 
other nations, based on a comprehensive system 
of mutually beneficial international coopera- 
tion, not alone in these respects, but also in 
furthering educational advancement and in 
promoting observance of basic human rights. 

There rests upon the independent nations a 
responsibility in relation to dependent peoples 
who aspire to liberty. It should be the duty of 
nations having political ties with such peoples, 
of mandatories, of trustees, or of other agencies, 
as the case may be, to help the aspiring peoples 
to develop materially and educationally, to pre- 
pare themselves for the duties and responsibili- 
ties of self-government, and to attain liberty. 
An excellent example of what can be achieved 
is afforded in the record of our relationship 
with the Philippines. 

Organized international cooperation can be 
successful only to the extent to which the nations 
of the world are willing to accept certain funda- 
mental propositions. 

First, each nation should maintain a stable 
goyeniment. Each nation should be free to 



178 

decide for itself the forms and details of its gov- 
ernmental organization — so long as it conducts 
its affairs in such a way as not to menace the 
peace and security of other nations. 

Second, each nation should conduct its eco- 
nomic affairs in such a way as to promote the 
most effective utilization of its human and 
material resources and the greatest practicable 
measure of economic welfare and social se- 
curity for all of its citizens. Each nation 
should be free to decide for itself the forms 
of its internal economic and social organiza- 
tion — ^but it should conduct its affairs in such 
a way as to respect the rights of others and to 
play its necessary part in a system of sound 
international economic relations. 

Third, each nation should be willing to sub- 
mit differences arising between it and other na- 
tions to processes of peaceful settlement and 
should be prepared to carry out other obliga- 
tions that may devolve upon it in an effective 
system of organized peace. 

All of this calls for the creation of a system 
of international relations based on rules of 
morality, law, and justice as distinguished from 
the anarchy of unbridled and discordant na- 
tionalisms, economic and political. The out- 
standing characteristic of such a system is 
liberty under law for nations as well as indi- 
viduals. Its method is peaceful cooperation. 

The form and functions of the international 
agencies of the future, the extent to which the 
existing court of international justice may or 
may not need to be remodeled, the scope and 
character of the means for making interna- 
tional action effective in the maintenance of 
peace, the nature of international economic 
institutions and arrangements that may be 
desirable and feasible — all these are among the 
problems which are receiving attention and 
which will need to be determined by agreement 
among governments, subject, of course, to ap- 
proval by their respective peoples. They are 
being studied intensively by this Government 
and by other governments. Tliey are gradual- 
ly being made subjects of consultation between 
and among governments. They are being 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE Btn^LETIN 

studied and discussed by the people of this 
country and the peoples of other countries. 
In the final analysis, it is the will of the peo- 
ples of the world that decides the all-embracing 
issues of peace and of human welfare. 



The outbreak of war made it clear that prob- 
lems of crucial importance in the field of 
foreign relations would confront this country 
as well as other countries upon the termination 
of hostilities. It became the obvious duty of 
the Department of State to give special atten- 
tion to the study of conditions and develop- 
ments relating to such problems. As the war 
spread over the earth, the scope of these studies 
was extended and work upon them was steadily 
increased, so far as was compatible with the 
fullest possible prosecution of the war. 

By direction of the President and with his 
active intei-est in the work, the Department of 
State undertook, through special groups or- 
ganized for the purpose, to examine the various 
matters affecting the conclusion of the war, the 
making of the peace, and preparation for deal- 
ing with post-war problems. In doing this 
work, we have had collaboration of representa- 
tives of other interested agencies of the Gov- 
ernment and of many national leaders, without 
regard to their political affiliation, and the 
assistance of a specially constituted and highly 
qualified research staff. We have been aided 
greatly by public discussion of the problems in- 
volved on the part of responsible private indi- 
viduals and groups and by the numerous sug- 
gestions and expressions of opinion which we 
have received from all parts of the country. 
In proceeding with this Mork we envisage the 
fullest cooperation between the executive and 
the legislative branches of the Government. 

"We have now reached a stage at which it be- 
comes possible to discuss in greater detail some 
of the basic problems outlined in this address 
and in my previous statements. I hope to be 
able to undertake this from time to time in the 
early future. 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



179 



The supreme importance of these problems 
should lift them far above the realm of partisan 
considerations or party politics. It is gratify- 
ing that both in the Congress and elsewhere 
great numbers of thoughtful men have so ap- 



proached them. A heavy responsibility rests 
upon all of us to consider these all-important 
post-war problems and to contribute to their 
solution in a wholly non-partisan spirit. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE ON THE ANNIVERSARY 

OF THE MUKDEN INCIDENT 



[Released to the press September 17] 

Tomorrow, September 18, is the anniversary 
of the "Mukden incident". It is the anniver- 
sary of the beginning of Japanese military ag- 
gression against China in 1931. It is regarded 
in many quarters as dating the beginning of 
the present life-and-death struggle throughout 
the world in which peacefully minded nations 
are now engaged with the forces of aggression. 

The Japanese occupied Manchuria and at- 
tacked Shanghai. They continued their 
aggressive campaign against the Chinese, prin- 
cipally in north China. The Chinese, resisting 
in spirit, but desiring to avoid general conflict, 
endeavored through negotiation to reach a 
peaceful settlement. On July 7, 1937 Japanese 
troops launched an unprovoked attack against 
Chinese troops near the Marco Polo bridge. 
Following that attack Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-shek made a stirring address in which he 
asked whether China had not reached the "limit 
of endurance"; declared that, if the limit had 
been reached, "we cannot do otherwise than 
resist"; and made an earnest appeal to the 
Chinese people : "Everyone everywhere will 
have to shoulder the responsibility for protect- 
ing the country and resisting the foe." 

The Chinese people shouldered that responsi- 
bility. 

At Shanghai in 1937 the cream of the Chinese 
armies gave battle to Japanese naval and mili- 
tary forces possessed of overwhelmingly supe- 
rior equipment. These Chinese forces stood 
their ground, exacted a heavy toll, and were 
virtually destroyed before their remnants fell 
back. 



Through six long years the Chinese people 
have stood staunchly behind their armies and, 
under circumstances of great economic depriva- 
tion and physical hardships, have continued 
bravely to oppose the enemy. When Nanking, 
the capital, fell, the Government moved to Han- 
kow, and Chinese resistance continued. When 
Hankow fell the Government moved to Chung- 
king, and China's resistance continued. Large 
Japanese armies have been engaged and con- 
tained in north, central, and south China, and 
their casualties and expenditures of materials 
have been great. They have won battles and 
they have lost battles but they have since 1938 
made in China no substantial net gains. Three 
times they endeavored to take Changsha; and 
three times they failed. They have had many 
other failures, both military and political. To 
their repeated offers of a compromise peace, the 
Chinese have consistently refused to listen. 

China's struggle has been and is our strug- 
gle — the struggle of the peace-seeking nations 
against the forces of aggression. Since Pearl 
Harbor we and other nations have joined 
forces with China. I am confident that, as more 
weapons become available, Chinese resistance 
will develop into offensive action and the enemy 
will be swept from Chinese soil. 

Long having refused, against odds, to be 
conquered, China has made, is making, and will 
continue to make important contribution to- 
ward the common cause of victory over aggres- 
sion and of establishing conditions of peace, 
freedom, and security through cooperative asso- 
ciation and action on the part of the United 
Nations and united peoples. 



551827—43- 



180 DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ADHERENCE OF IRAN TO THE DECLARATION BY UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press September 13] 

The following exchange of communications 
took place between the Secretary of State and 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran, His 
Excellency Mohammad Saed, regarding Iran's 
declaration of a state of war against Germany 
and adherence to the Declaration by United 
Nations : 

[Translation] 
Tehran, Septemher 10, 191^3. 
On this occasion when the Imperial Govern- 
ment, in view of the hostile activities displayed 
in Iran by German agents to create disorders in 
the country and in order to safeguard security 
and tranquility thus endangered, has seen itself 
obligated by right to declare the existence of a 
state of war between Iran and Germany, I have 
the honor to advise Your Excellency that my 
Government, with the approval of the Parlia- 
ment, has just declared its adherence to the 
Declaration of United Nations of January 1, 
1942. The Government and the Iranian Nation 
are happy to be in a position by this means to 
contribute in perfect collaboration and with the 
efficacious cooperation of their Allies to the 
achievement of the aims announced in the At- 
lantic Charter, based on the liberty of peoples 
and the safeguarding of a lasting peace, in order 
to be able to preserve world civilization from 
any attack and assure the happiness of humanity 



to which aims my country has always shown its 
profound attachment. In view of this circum- 
stance Mr. Shayesteh, Minister of Iran, has just 
been authorized to sign the above-mentioned 
Declaration. 

Saed 



Septembke 13, 1943. . 

I have received Your Excellency's telegram 
of September 10, 1943 regarding Iran's declara- 
tion of the existence of a state of war with Ger- 
many and adherence to the Declaration by 
United Nations. You state that the Iranian 
Government and the Iranian Nation are happy 
to be in a position thus to contribute to the 
achievement of the aims of the Atlantic Char- 
ter, based on the liberty of peoples and the 
safeguarding of a lasting peace in order in the 
future to preserve world civilization from at- 
tack and assure the happiness of humanity. 

I assure you that the Government of the 
United States is very glad to welcome this for- 
mal association of Iran with the nations which 
are fighting for liberty and for the safeguarding 
of a just and lasting peace. I am pleased to in- 
form you that arrangements have been made 
for your Minister at Washington to affix his sig- 
nature tomorrow in connection with Iran's ad- 
herence to the Declaration by United Nations. 

CoRDELL Hull 



HEALTH PROBLEMS IN OCCUPIED COUNTRIES 
Address by James A. Crabtree ^ 



[Released to the press September 15] 

If one could visualize a vast community with 
a conglomerate of world-wide geographic and 
cultural pattern, containing more than a quar- 
ter of a billion people, some of whom have been 
in slavery for more than six years, others for a 
shorter time, 60 to 70 million of whom are vir- 
tually homeless, a great number destined to suc- 
cumb to the great pestilences of war, notably 



typhus, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, malaria, 
and tuberculosis, the majority of whom bear 
emotional scars as residuals of Gestapo-like 
treatment, and all of whom fall into one of two 



" Delivered before the United Nations session at the 
meeting of the American Hospital Association, Buffalo, 
N. y., Sept. 15, 1943. Dr. Crabtree is Chief Medical 
Officer of the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations, Department of Stata 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



181 



categories — either starving or hungry — then one 
could conceive in hazy outline the health prob- 
lems in occupied countries. 

If I were required to list the first three pub- 
lic-health problems in the order of their ur- 
gency, I should not hesitate to place at the top 
of the list starvation. Epidemics, I think, might 
meet all other challenges for second place. Run- 
ning a close third would be the special problem 
of maternity and infancy. 

As one reads and studies the reports which 
come out from the several occupied territories, 
one cannot help but be impressed with the 
dominant role which such reports attach to the 
problem of hunger. It is interwoven in one 
way or another with practically every other 
major problem. It looms large as an independ- 
ent entity among the causes of death ; it exag- 
gerates tenfold the problems of maternity and 
infancy; it contributes in considerable degree 
to the excess morbidity from malaria; it ex- 
presses itself in undue fatality rates for a whole 
host of diseases, notably typhus fever; and in 
its own insidious way, it is wiping out the 
gains of a generation in the world-wide move- 
ment toward the prevention and control of 
tuberculosis. 

From the beginning of this war, food has 
been the sharp weapon of the Axis powers. 
Among the starving countries are occupied 
China, occupied Russia, Poland, Yugoslavia, 
and Greece. The hungry countries include all 
the rest, notably Belgium, France, the Nether- 
lands, and Norway. It is in the distribution of 
food that racial and political discriminations 
have been most notorious. 

Problems of epidemic disease are so inevitable 
that in some instances they can almost be fore- 
told with mathematical precision. 

The abrupt displacement of millions of 
people from their native to foreign environ- 
ments, the break-down of sanitation and other 
health-protection services, the confiscation by 
the enemy of hospitals, drugs, and biological 
supplies, and the discriminatory policies cover- 
ing the use by the native population of what 
remains, the overcrowding, the lack of food, 



clothing, shelter, fuel, and soap — all these pro- 
vide a backstage for bringing into boldest relief 
pestilence with all its variations. 

Ominous warnings have already been given 
us by typhus fever in the Balkans; cases of 
malignant malaria in the Mediterranean coun- 
tries alone are numbered in millions ; the enteric 
diseases, particularly typhoid fever and bacil- 
lary dysentery, are on the increase in every oc- 
cupied territory ; diphtheria apparently has in- 
creased both in incidence and in severity; and 
over every country for which we have infor- 
mation considered trustworthy the dark 
shadow of tuberculosis becomes increasingly 
heavy. 

Infant mortality has long been accepted as 
the most sensitive index of the health status of 
a people. Under the general conditions now 
prevailing in all occupied areas, it comes as no 
surprise to learn that infant-mortality rates 
have increased from 20 to more than 60 percent 
above their pre-war levels, that premature 
births and miscarriages have more than doubled 
in frequency, that hunger edema is listed among 
the leading causes of death among children, and 
that indeed in certain areas a second preg- 
nancy during the war is considered tantamount 
to suicide. 

To the extent that experiences following the 
last World War can be translated into present- 
day problems, one of the most difficult and seri- 
ously urgent issues to be met will be that of the 
care and repatriation of displaced persons. It 
is estimated that in Europe alone these people 
number from 10 to 20 million and that this num- 
ber will greatly increase with the progress of 
Allied military operations. These people in- 
clude prisoners of war, civilian internees, forced 
laborers, evacuees from military areas, political 
prisoners, internees for racial reasons, orphans, 
former residents of "blitzed" areas, and large 
groups of refugees who, escaping from their 
native countries to avoid the cruelties of the 
Gestapo, have become dispersed throughout 
practically the rest of the world. 

The provision of the necessary medical facil- 
ities and public-health safeguards whereby 



182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATEi BULLETIN 



these people can be returned and restored to 
their homes and families will constitiite one of 
the major public-health undertakings of relief 
and rehabilitation. Here one may anticipate 
the entire gamut of public-health problems with 
some emphasis on orphaned children, expectant 
mothers, the venereal diseases, and general ill- 
ness, but with the whole picture dominated by 
epidemic disease. 

Aside from such general infectious diseases as 
influenza, measles, meningitis, etc., these people 
returning from any area are potential sources 
of spread of smallpox, dysentery, and typhoid 
fever. Those returning from war-devastated 
areas may transmit malaria, typhus fever, or 
relapsing fever ; yellow fever from certain areas 
of Africa ; trachoma, hookworm, and leishmani- 
asis from Africa and the Middle East; cholera 
from Asia and the Middle East. 

Finally, no broad outline of the over-all pub- 
lic-health picture would be adequate without 
reference to the problem of medical and sanita- 
tion supplies and materials. 

No country, including our own, is entirely self- 
sufficient in the goods and materials needed spe- 
cifically for the maintenance of he.Jtli. Some 
of the occupied territories prior to the war were 
more or less self-sufficient; others were almost 
completely dependent upon imports. Today, 
however, all of thei.i can be placed in one of two 
categories, that is, either deficient or destitute. 
With enemy-controlled conversion of manufac- 
turing plants over to the production of war com- 
modities, with the cutting-off of sources of sup- 
ply of raw materials, with the lack of mainte- 
nance and replacement parts, and with the 
shortages of manpower, particularly within 
these technical skills, health and sanitation 
commodities throughout all occupied areas are 
in extremely short sujDply. This is especially 
true in the case of expendable goods, such as 
pharmaceuticals, biologies, chemicals for water 
purification, and expendable hospital supplies. 
For non-expendable materials the problem is 
undoubtedly spotty in distribution. There is 
reason to believe, for example, that in such 
counti-ies as Greece, Poland, Yugoslavia, and 
occupied Russia, the so-called destitution factor 



as related to hospital equipment may be prac- 
tically 100 percent, while in other areas it may 
be relatively small. 

These are the essential highlights, as we see 
them, of the public-health problems which 
must be met as efforts are successful in liberat- 
ing the people of occupied countries. 

From a technical point of view, it would be 
relatively easy to outline the measures which 
could be taken to meet these problems with 
reasonable effectiveness. Yet the measures 
themselves, when considered as a program of 
action, all point to the fundamental problem 
of public-health organization and personnel 
within the countries in question. These two 
elements are basic to any thoughtfully con- 
ceived program of action, and they will deter- 
mine, in the last analysis, whether this war in 
the pattern of all others before it is to be fol- 
lowed by pestilence and disease far more de- 
structive of human life than war casualties 
themselves. It is hardly necessary here to em- 
phasize that this concept of the strategic posi- 
tion of the official health organization and of 
the reliance that must be placed upon it to solve 
its own problems, using outside help and assist- 
ance only to support it, underlies the basic phi- 
losophy of the organization which I represent. 

The Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations, created almost a year ago, is the 
instrument through which plans for our Gov- 
ernment's participation in health and medical 
assistance to reoccupied countries are being 
made. 

Let me again emphasize that our work from 
the very beginning has been geared to the prin- 
ciple that we must help the people of the occu- 
pied countries help themselves and that full 
reliance must be placed upon each national gov- 
ernment to the extent that it becomes stabilized, 
to provide for its own people as far as its re- 
sources will permit. 

We believe, however, that there are problems 
ahead which go far beyond the capacities of 
individual areas and for which America must 
contribute her share of aid, not only for reasons 
of humanitarianism but also to assist in speed- 
ing the successful prosecution of the war. 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



183 



Obviously, our program to date has been 
essentially planning at home rather than work- 
ing abroad. Efforts are being made to collect 
all information available regarding epidemics 
and other health problems, including nutrition, 
of the various countries. With the assistance of 
an Advisory Health Committee and appropri- 
ate technical subcommittees, our staff is engaged 
in translating this information into terms of 
needed supplies and personnel and is endeavor- 
ing to build up a reservoir of both goods and 
people to be drawn upon as required. 

In the field of medical and sanitation supplies 
our work has of necessity moved fairly rapidly. 
With large numbers of essential health and 
medical commodities in relatively short supply, 
it is imperative that forward buying programs 
be initiated as far in advance of anticipated 
need as possible, in order that delivery schedules 
may be adjusted to the practical realities of 
plant capacity, manpower, and raw materials. 
Even under the wisest procurement policy and 
with a maximum of good luck, it is clear that 
the productive resources of the Allied nations 
will fall short of meeting all the legitimate re- 
quirements of the occupied territories for 
health and medical supplies. Yet I think it 
safe to say that the United States can provide 
its appropriate share of the absolutely basic 
essentials without detriment to the continuing 
efficiency of our own health services and insti- 
tutions. 

To meet the varying conditions in prospective 
relief theaters, we are assembling several dif- 
ferent types of "packaged" units of supplies for 
immediate shipment to any area of need. One 
of these is a so-called "emergency unit" contain- 
ing only the items required for the treatment 
and control of those diseases known to be of 
world-wide occurrence. This unit is designed 
to care for the needs of a group of 100 thousand 
people for one month. Multiples of this unit 
can be shipped into any area of medical relief 
activities during the very earliest stages of 
operations with reasonable assurance that the 
basic health needs can be met with a minimum 
of waste of supplies. 



In addition to the emergency unit, supple- 
mental supplies are being pi-ovided for com- 
bating diseases peculiar to certain regions or 
for diseases in epidemic form. 

Similarly, reserves of hospital and laboratory 
supplies and equipment are being built up pri- 
marily to deal with epidemics and secondarily 
to relieve to some extent the destitution which 
the areas will have reached in commodities of 
this character. 

Experience in North Africa to date, though 
limited, has been useful in pointing up some of 
the problems which undoubtedly lie ahead. For 
the past six months, we have had a small medical 
staff attached to the North African Belief and 
Rehabilitation Mission. Our medical officers, 
working in close cooperation with the Allied 
armies, have been concerned primarily with the 
impact of military operations upon civilian 
health. In any activity affecting the civilian 
population, they work through the French 
health authorities, utilizing fully existing 
health and medical services. 

They not only participated in the immediate 
relief progi'am in Tunisia but actually accom- 
panied the forces occupying Pantelleria and 
Lampedusa and marshaled local facilities for 
public-health and medical care. 

A principal task since their arrival has been 
to give technical assistance to the French au- 
thorities in estimating and adjusting to avail- 
able supply requirements for drugs and other 
medical and sanitation commodities. Another 
task has been to assist the French in restoring 
normal health services in rural areas, and par- 
ticularly in regions where the impact of mili- 
tary operations has been most severe. 

Although experience in North Africa un- 
doubtedly will prove in some respects to be far 
from typical, it is providing a general insight 
into some of the problems to come in other areas. 
The first immediate problem from the point of 
view of the public health is hunger; the picture 
is dominated secondly by epidemic disease; 
thirdly, the problem of displaced persons; and 
finally, the question of organizing and marshal- 
ing national and local resources, including sup- 



184 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE' BTJLLETESr 



plies, personnel, and institutions, to meet the 
issues as they arise. 

As we interpret reports from the field, every 
feature of our experience to date points up 
the importance of local institutions and re- 
sources and emphasizes their latent power when 
once again given an opportunity to do construc- 
tive work, thus confirming the essential sound- 
ness of our basic policj', that is, of helping the 
people help themselves. 

With only this experience in North Africa as 
a guide to date, we are proceeding sloWly in re- 
cruiting American personnel for health service 
abroad. A limited number of health teams are 
being brought together, however, for work in 
areas which may be opened for relief activities 
in the near future. In the absence of more de- 
tailed knowledge of actual needs, we are includ- 
ing as a nucleus of the health team of each for- 
eign mission a chief medical officer, a sanitary 
engineer, a pediatrician, a medical nutritionist, 
a medical supply officer, a public-health nurse, 
and for certain areas depending upon circum- 
stances, a hospital administrator, a malariolo- 
gist, an entomologist, and perhaps an expert in 
each of such fields as tuberculosis and tropical 
diseases. 

I would again emphasize that the prime re- 
sponsibility of these people will be to assist in 
the organization and strengthening of official 
health services and in gearing them to meet 
needs which in some respects will have no prece- 
dent in their histoi-y. 

Although we cannot now foretell the number 
of American personnel tliat will be needed, we 
do have convictions as to what their general 
qualifications should be. They must be experi- 
enced in American methods of administration 
and well abreast of modern technics in medicine 
and hygiene, yet thoroughly tolerant of the tech- 
nical points of view of their colleagues in other 
countries; they must be mature in judgment, 
yet physically fit to withstand the rigors of liv- 
ing and working in a war-torn environment ; in 
undertaking their tasks they must be motivated 
by the highest ideals of service and not by mere 
considerations of adventure. Though their 



training over here will have been appraised in 
the light of their knowledge of refinements of 
American methods and technics, they must view 
the public-health problems over there in the 
proper perspective of deep-rooted cultural pat- 
terns and social institutions, and they must 
recognize the necessity, in many areas, for ap- 
proaching problems at their very grass roots, 
where the very essence of public health, such as 
housing, agriculture, food, and shelter must be 
taken into account and not, as over here, taken 
for granted; and, finally, they must uphold the 
dignity to which each of them will have been 
lifted in the eyes of liberated peoples by the 
traditions of our democracy. 

Never before in the long succession of wars 
that have arisen to halt temporarily the progress 
in human relationships have so many people, 
at the very time they were fighting for free 
existence, been so preoccupied with problems of 
l^eace. 

The two great obligations facing the liberty- 
loving people throughout the world today are 
first, to make every possible contribution to- 
ward a speedy and complete military victory, 
and second, to develop and maintain policies 
and programs of action that will make secure 
a peace between nations. 

No two people would probably have identical 
concepts of what precisely is meant by peace. 
Certainly it is some form of orderly world so- 
ciety in which human needs can be reasonably 
satisfied. Certainly victory in itself is not 
peace. A peace which is likely to be lasting 
must be conceived in intelligence, derived in a 
spirit of compassion for man's welfare and 
security, and maintained through some form of 
dynamic instrument for mternational collab- 
oration and cooperation. 

Public health in all its phases is eminently 
suited to serve as one spearhead for the progres- 
sive movement toward an eventual world so- 
ciety of nations. As such it assumes a major 
role in meeting the challenge for a durable 
peace. The vastness and drama of this chal- 
lenge are second only to that of winning the 
war. 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



185 



FACILITIES FOR NEWS CORRESPONDENTS PROVIDED BY ALLIED HEADQUARTERS 

IN NORTH AFRICA 



[Released to the press September 18] 

The following summary of facilities afforded 
correspondents by Allied Force Headquarters 
in North Africa was issued jointly by the State 
and War Departments on August 11, 1913: 

Allied Force Headquarters is providing fa- 
cilities for more than 125 press and radio cor- 
respondents and photographers to tell the world 
the story of military and political developments 
in the North African theater. 

The number and distribution of the cor- 
respondents in the theater varies from week to 
week. On August 10, 1943, a total of 129 press 
and radio correspondents and photographers 
were accredited to Allied Force Headquarters 
and on active duty. This number included 68 
Americans, 36 British correspondents exclusive 
of Canadians, 20 Canadians, 2 French corre- 
spondents, and 3 miscellaneous. Of the total 
approximately 50 were in Algiers and the others 
in Sicily at advanced air or naval bases or with 
the Royal and United States Navies. 

The task of providing housing, food, trans- 
portation, and copy-transmission facilities to 
this number of correspondents in an active mili- 
tary theater where accommodations are limited 
or non-existent has taxed the resources of the 
public-relations officers of afhq. The results, 
particularly the matter of convenient and com- 
fortable living and working quaiters, often 
have left much to be desired, in the view of the 
public-relations officers themselves as well as 
in that of the correspondents. Generally, how- 
ever, they have been the best that could be 
achieved under the circumstances of material 
and human limitations. 

Military requirements naturally have prior- 
ity on all facilities in such a theater of opera- 
tions as North Africa, with resulting limitation 
on the accommodations and facilities available 
for correspondents. The number of press and 
radio representatives who can be accepted for 
work in the theater, therefore, is limited by (a) 



the available housing and transportation accom- 
modations and (&) copy-transmission facilities. 

The War Establishment of the British Public 
Relations Sei-vice was framed to control 24 
correspondents. Since this number is exceeded 
by 12, the strain on accommodations obviously 
has increased. The unexpected arrival of a 
large number of Canadian correspondents 
added to accommodation and communication 
difficulties. 

The American Public Relations Officer lim- 
ited American correspondents to six for each 
news service, three for each radio network, two 
each for newspapers which operate a foreign- 
news service, one each for individual news- 
papers, and one to each magazine. Photog- 
raphers were admitted freely, since they oper- 
ated as a pool for the entire American press. In 
addition, special writers and columnists have 
been admitted from time to time at the request 
of the War Department Bureau of Public Rela- 
tions. 

All the public-information media mentioned 
quickly filled their quotas. An unexpectedly 
large number of representatives of individual 
newspapers and columnists applied for accred- 
itation. At times correspondents allocated to 
the Navy would turn up in Algiers. This led 
to severe strain on accommodations and com- 
munication facilities. Because of this, the 
Public Relations Officer currently is preparing 
an over-all ceiling plan for an unalterable top 
number of correspondents. He proposes to 
send this plan to the War Department with a 
request for approval. 

In overcrowded Algiers, the Public Relations 
Officer has seven requisitioned rooms in a con- 
venient downtown hotel available for the use 
of correspondents. From two to five corre- 
spondents live in one room, but still it has not 
been possible to accommodate all the corre- 
spondents in this central lodging place. Some 
have found their own villas and apartments, 
others have been biUeted in somewhat remote 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE- BULLETIN 



and unsuitable quarters by the general AFHQ 
billeting officer, and still others have crowded 
into the already filled hotel rooms in emergen- 
cies. All the correspondents have the privilege 
of eating at Army officers' messes. 

Transportation into the theater and to various 
points within the theater also is provided by 
Army authorities. Depending on the urgency 
of their travel and the facilities available, cor- 
respondents travel either in Army planes or 
motor vehicles to North African points outside 
Algiers. Both planes and fast surface trans- 
portation were available for correspondents 
going to and returning from Sicily. A limited 
number of vehicles are available for transporta- 
tion within Algiers. Some of the correspond- 
ents have bought or rented their own automo- 
biles but depend on the Army for gasoline. 

The Army has shared its communication fa- 
cilities with the correspondents, transmitting 
millions of words of press copy over Army Sig- 
nal Corps circuits free of charge to supplement 
limited commercial cable and radio facilities. 
Something new in the transmission of news 
stories was inaugurated last December — the 
"voicecast" system. Correspondents turn over 
some of their copy to the radio division of the 
Public Relations Branch, and an Army an- 
nouncer reads the stories over the air while they 
are copied in the correspondents' home offices. 
Two periods daily of voice transmission have 
been established, and as much as 17 thousand 
words of copy a day have been transmitted in 
this fashion. 

Through the first part of August, all copy 
from the Sicilian front was flown by air courier 
either to Malta or to Algiers for censorship 
and transmission. From Malta, copy is trans- 
mitted over high-speed wireless of Cable & 
Wireless, Ltd. From Algiers, it is sent through 
United States Army Signal Corps facilities to 
Washington, via the previously mentioned voice 
broadcast; via Mackay Radio direct to New 
York City ; via wireless high-speed transmitter 
of Cable & Wireless, Ltd., to the United King- 
dom ; via cable to Gibraltar for relay from there 
by Cable & Wireless, Ltd. 



A designated number of words are being 
lifted each day from the load borne by the Sig- 
nal Corps and transferred to the commercial 
Mackay channel. This will be continued until 
the Signal Corps is relieved of all press traffic. 
However, the Signal Corps has agreed to stand 
by and pick up the load again in case of 
emergency. 

Algiers channels can handle a press file of 80 
thousand words daily. Malta wireless handles 
40 thousand words daily and sometimes slightly 
more. It is anticipated that future operations 
will require the dispatch of a minimum of 130 
thousand words a day on peak days. 

Through the cooperation of the Psychologi- 
cal Warfare Branch of the Information and 
Censorship Section of AFHQ, the Public Rela- 
tions Officer is setting up wireless Morse and 
voicecast facilities in Sicily, so that a certain 
amount of traffic can be handled fi'om there. 
Experiments on the transmitters sent to Sicily 
already are being conducted as of August 10. 
The success of these experiments will determine 
the number of correspondents who will be able 
to file from Sicily in the future. The initial ex- 
periments indicated that eventually 80 thou- 
sand words a day can be transmitted from 
Sicily to the United Kingdom and the United 
States. If this proves possible, most of the cor- 
respondents in Algiers will go to Sicily, and a 
large public-relations headquarters will be nec- 
essary there. 

In Algiers, the Public Relations Branch has 
provided for the use of the correspondents a 
press room, adjacent to a copy I'oora where press 
copy is submitted for censorship and transmis- 
sion. Qualified officers go into the press room 
as often as military developments require — 
usually several times daily — to read communi- 
ques and give supplementary explanations of 
the land, air, and naval situation. Frequently 
press conferences are arranged with officers 
fresh from some operation or specially qualified 
to tell the correspondents about some particular 
activity. 

All press copy is examined by Army censors 
to make sure that no information of value to the 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



187 



enemy is inadvertently transmitted in a news 
story. The only censorship exercised is on the 
grounds of military security. Since last Janu- 
ary there has been no political censorship. It 
has been difficult to draw the line in some cases 
between militai-y and civilian censorship, cor- 
respondents sometimes contending that cuts 
made by the censor in a political news story 
amounted to political censorship. The rule has 
been, however — and the British and American 
civil representatives in Algiers have insisted on 
this — that any cut made by the censors in press 
copy be justified solely on military security 
grounds. 

Full cooperation of the Allied army and civil 
authorities is extended the correspondents for 
reporting political news. Communication and 
other facilities are used without any distinction 
between strictly military and political news. 
The correspondents who do not have their own 
automobiles also use what limited transporta- 
tion facilities the Public Relations Branch has 
available for going to press conferences held by 
members of the French Committee of National 
Liberation, covering meetings of the Com- 
mittee, etc. Communiques of the Committee are 
posted on the bulletin board in the aFHQ press 
room, and its telephone facilities are used by the 
correspondents in contacting various political 
news sources. 

Robert D. Murphy, President Roosevelt's rep- 
resentative in Algiers, and Harold MacMillan, 
British Resident Minister, held several joint 
"background" press conferences to give the cor- 
respondents the most accurate information at 
their disposal and keep them informed about 
Allied policy during the critical period of the 
formation of the Committee of National Libera- 
tion. 

In addition to the regularly accredited corre- 
spondents in the North African theater for mili- 
tary and political reporting, aPHQ permitted 
10 correspondents above the quota limitations to 
enter the theater for a 30-day period soon after 
General DeGaulle's arrival in Algiers. These 
were British and American correspondents as- 
signed especially to report the political situa- 



tion, augmenting the work of the regularly ac- 
credited correspondents covering both military 
and political news. 

To meet requests for increased facilities for 
special political news reporting, the Public Re- 
lations Officer now has agreed to accept an addi- 
tional quota of correspondents for the special 
purpose of writing on political matters. At 
first, this quota is limited to three British and 
three Americans because of the limitations on 
accommodations and communication facilities, 
but is expected to be increased as soon as war 
correspondents already in Algiers move for- 
ward. In view of the established quota ar- 
rangements for reporters with military assign- 
ments in the theater, the additional correspond- 
ents under this plan will not be entitled to cover 
military news, afhq will cooperate in arrang- 
ing housing, transpoi'tation, and communica- 
tion facilities for them. 

The Information Commissariat of the French 
Committee of National Liberation has set up a 
press room near the afhq Public Relations 
headquarters, and it is expected that the corre- 
spondents assigned especially to cover the 
French political situation will work from this 
office. 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1199 of September 
13, 1943, the Secretary of State designated Mr. 
H. Freeman Matthews, a Foreign Service officer 
of class I, as Chief of the Division of European 
Affairs, effective August 19, 1943. 



Legislation 



Progress of the War : Message f roin the President of the 
United States transmitting a report to Congress on 
the subject of the progress of the war. H. Doc. 272, 
78th Cong. 12 pp. 



General 

AFRICA: IMAPS AND MAN 

Address by S. W. Boggs ^ 



[Released to the press September 17] 

Nothing in the annals of geographic discovery 
seems stranger than the belatedness of African 
exploration. Altliough ancient civilizations 
flourished in Mediterranean Africa, it is only 
within the lifetime of men still among us that 
the elementary geography of the interior of the 
continent became known. The great rivers and 
lakes of North and South America were better 
known within two centuries of Columbus' 
voyages than were the Nile, the Niger, the Con- 
go, and the Zambezi and the great African lakes 
a hundred years ago. By 1850 even the explo- 
ration of the Arctic and Antarctic left problems 
perhaps no more baflBing than those of central 
Africa. This apparent anomaly in geographic 
exploration is not a historical accident, how- 
ever, but due in large part to the character of 
Africa's coasts and ocean currents, its topog- 
raphy, climate, and vegetation— factors that 
affect Africa's future as certainly as they have 
influenced its past. 

The naming of the second largest continent 
came slowly, because for so many centuries the 
great land mass was not an object of concrete 
experience. The name seems to have been de- 
rived from a Berber community, Afriga, a dis- 
trict south of Carthage, and the Koman 
province, Africa, corresponded approximately 
to Tunisia of our day. The names Libya and 
Ethiopia long extended over much greater por- 
tions of the map than did the name Africa. If 
we were to look at maps that have come down 
to us during a score of centuries we would see 
how slowly geographical knowledge of Africa 
grew and would better appreciate why Stanley 
called it the "Dark Continent". 

Herodotus ascended the Nile as far as the first 
cataract about 450 B.C. and called Egypt the 

188 



"gift of the Nile" as he perceived how that 
great river brings water and silt from unknown 
sources across a hundred miles of desert sand. 
Hearing apparently of the Niger river system 
south of the vast Sahara barrier, he believed it 
to be the source of the Nile, reaching Upper 
Egypt after a series of long subterranean jour- 
neys. That idea persisted on European maps 
for more than 2,000 years. 

About 150 years earlier, Pharaoh Necho had 
dispatched an expedition of Phoenicians, the 
great mariners of their day, starting them south 
through the Red Sea, and ordering them to fol- 
low the coasts until they should enter the Pillars 
of Hercules, and continue through the Mediter- 
ranean to Egypt. Generally favored by ocean 
currents and winds, as they would be in clock- 
wise circumnavigation of Africa, they appar- 
ently succeeded, sailing into the Strait of Gi-* 
braltar in the third year. Herodotus did not be- 
lieve that they had sailed around "Libya", 
partly because they reported that they had the 
sun on their right, or to the north, in the south- 
ern part of their journey. We can only spec- 
ulate what might have been the effect on sub- 
sequent exploration if Herodotus had handed 
down the story of tliis great expedition of more 
than 2,500 years ago as credible history. 

The great astronomer and geographer Clau- 
dius Ptolemy, of Alexandria, may have been the 
first to lay down meridians and parallels to con- 
stitute a map projection on which places wei'e 
represented according to latitude and longitude. 
Coasts, rivers, and cities were positioned on the 
map largely from vague estimates of direction 



'Delivered at a meeting of the Association of Ameri- 
can Geographers, Washington, Sept. 17. Mr. Boggs is 
the Geographer of the Department of State. 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



189 



and distance obtained from manuscripts and 
from the testimony of contemporary travelers. 
Latitude was obtained or corrected by occa- 
sional astronomical observations. True longi- 
tude relationships required determination of 
the time of day simultaneously at widely sepa- 
rated places, and about the only means was to 
note the difference of time of recorded eclipses, 
which were seldom available, whereas we now 
use chronometers, telegraph, and wireless. 

Ptolemy's world map may best be evaluated 
by replotting it upon a modern map. Ptolemy 
unfortunately did not accept the remarkably ac- 
curate determination of the circumference of 



the spherical earth made some three centuries 
earlier by Eratosthenes, but used the later fig- 
ure of Poseidonius. He therefore greatly over- 
estimated his east-west distances measured as 
longitude, which conversely accounted in part 
for the subsequent underestimate of the distance 
westward from Europe to Asia, ultimately en- 
couraging Columbus to attempt his great voy- 
ages. From Greek explorers of the east coast 
of Africa Ptolemy had learned of two great 
lakes as the sources of the Nile, south of the 
equator, near the "Mountains of the Moon" — 
whose snow-covered peaks were not again re- 
ported by white men until 1888. 




PTOLEMY'S MAP REPLOTTED ON A MODERN 
MAP BASE 

Ptolemy's map of the known world, as of the second 
centufy A.D., is here replotted and superposed on the 
new Miller cylindrical projection. It is here adjusted 



to the equator and to the meridian of Alexandria, 
Egypt. Note the sources of the Nile in two lakes sup- 
posed to be south of the equator ; also the excessive 
east-west distances measured as longitude and the 
supposed enclosure of the Indian Ocean by extensions 
of Africa and Asia. 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETTN' 



Roman Africa stopped with the Sahara. 
Rome added little to African geography, al- 
though Nero sent an expedition to solve the 
mystery of the sources of the Nile, pushing the 
limit of the known world southward to within 
four degrees of the equator. 

During the centuries which the peoples of 
European outlook call the "Middle Ages" Euro- 
pean exploration of Africa remained in abey- 
ance. In Europe, geographical knowledge of 
Africa, Asia, and even parts of Europe actually 
contracted and merged with legend and fable, 
while in Asia, Mongols, Turks, and Arabs were 
expanding their knowledge. 

A form of map known as "T-0" maps came 
into being, and an extremely large number were 
made. A circumfluent ocean constituted an "O" 
encircling the known lands. As the term ori- 
ented implies, east was at the top — with pi-oper 
regard for Jerusalem, as viewed from Europe. 
A vertical line in the Mediterranean separated 
Europe and Africa, and a horizontal line crossed 
the "T", representing the Don and Nile Rivers, 
which constituted the western limit of Asia. 
Probably St. Augustine had such a map before 
him when he wrote a certain passage in The City 
of God. 

These and other fanciful maps of the time 
illustrate the absence of an adventuring and 
inquiring attitude without which exploration 
of foreign lands was impossible. 

Then from Arabia came Islam with dynamic 
force, eager to explore new lands. Moslems 
translated Aristotle and Ptolemy into Arabic, 
mediating Greek learning to Europe. They 
also developed the art of navigation to a new 
level. Northern and northeastei-n Africa be- 
came Mohammedan, and Moslem traders pene- 
trated south of the Sahara into the Sudan — 
Negro territory. 

Europe began to become Africa-conscious 
when Prince Henry of Portugal, early in the 
fifteenth century, learned about Africa and nav- 
igation from the Moors. Fired with contem- 
porary crusading zeal, he initiated scientific nav- 
igation and dispatched expeditions that devel- 
oped frequent contact with Africa around the 
bulge and along the Guinea coast. His efforts 



helped to make the name and influence of Port- 
ugal great, but contributed to the establishment 
of the slave trade by nations that professed 
Christianity, a traffic that had long been prac- 
ticed by the Arabs and other peoples, especially 
along the east coast of Africa. 

Late in the fifteenth century Portuguese ex- 
plorers surged boldly around unknown Africa. 
Bartholomew Diaz in 1488 crossed the equator 
and, against adverse currents, journeyed as far 
south of it as Gibraltar lies to the north and 
made certain that he had passed the farthest 
southei-n point of Africa before he had to turn 
back. Then, about the time of Columbus' third 
voyage westward, Vasco da Gama swept around 
Africa and made his way to India, encounter- 
ing there and in East Africa the Moslem forces 
that had made impossible such a journey by the 
short route through the Red Sea. 

These and succeeding voyages to India and 
the east resulted in little more than the estab- 
lishment of coastal "factories" and trading 
posts with the interior, whence came slaves, 
gold, and ivory for two centuries. 

The Diego Ribero map, 1529, portrayed the 
broadened knowledge obtained largely in less 
than a half century. However, it placed the 
sources of the Nile and the "Mountains of the 
Moon" in southern Africa, and the east-west 
extent of the continent was conspicuously ex- 
cessive. Long thereafter the maps of Africa 
showed enormous lakes far south of the equator 
as sources of the Nile, a great westward-flowing 
river almost from the Nile to the Atlantic, and 
the names Libya and Ethiopia spread far into 
southern Africa. There was no true concept of 
the Niger or the Congo Rivers nor of the great 
lakes of the east. 

The Blue Nile, rising in Ethiopia, was first 
traced by Bruce in 1771. The true nature of the 
course of the Niger, on whose upper course lay 
the famed and overrated Timbuktu, was not 
known to Europeans until Mungo Park's jour- 
neys, 1795-1805, and Lander, 1831. Great 
names crowd the annals of central African ex- 
ploitation in the latter half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury — among them Burton, Speke, Livingstone, 
and Stanley — when the Lakes Victoria, Tan- 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



191 



ganyika, and Nyassa were found, and the Congo, 
Zambezi, and upper Nile traced and mapped in 
their essential character. The belatedness of 
African exploration cannot better be indicated 
than by the fact that in 1876, when H. M. Stan- 
ley resumed his study of Lake Tanganyika, he 
was uncertain whether its waters, via the Luku- 
ga River, belonged to the system of the Nile, the 
Congo, or the Zambezi. 

Physical Africa 

What have the physical features of Africa to 
do with this remarkable delay in the explora- 
tion of almost the entire continent south of 
the part that belongs more to Europe than to 
Africa? 

First, the Sahara is an obstacle even greater 
than its vast size suggests. Only the camel 
made its crossing possible, and what pay-load 
was worth the long, difficult journey? 

Second, the nature of the coasts is a serious 
handicap. With an area three times that of Eu- 
rope, the coastline of Africa is only about four 
fifths as long — in sjiite of Europe's broad at- 
tachment to Asia. The remarkably smooth, 
curved coastline is nearly harboi'less, and there 
are no widely entrant identations of the coasts 
and no large peninsulas with sheltering islands 
nearby. 

Third, the currents and winds in general 
favored clockwise navigation of sailing ships, 
down the east coast and up the west. Arab pene- 
tration from the east was thus assisted by na- 
ture. The going south from Europe was much 
more difficult and hazardous. 

Fourth, the continent is largely a plateau and 
is like an inverted saucer, with very narrow 
coastal plains. The great rivers are not naviga- 
ble from the sea and their interior courses are 
broken by falls and cataracts, notably the Con- 
go. There are no navigable rivers comparable 
with the Amazon, the Mississippi, the St. Law- 
rence, the Rhine, the Danube, the Yangtze. 

Fifth, climate and vegetation, which is im- 
mediately dependent upon it, added greatly to 
the obstacles of exploration. Only a portion 
of the southern tip of Africa enjoys a Mediter- 



ranean type of climate similar to a narrow 
coastal strip of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. 
Africa is the most tropical of the continents. 
Luxuriant vegetation flourishes in steaming, 
torrid heat and high humidity. The tropical 
i-ain forest, tropical grassland or savanna, and 
the hot desert, all have great heat in common. 

Furthermore it should be remembered that 
continental unity has little reality save as a 
continuous obstacle to navigation by sea. It 
may be easier to circumnavigate the earth in a 
sailing vessel than to make a long overland 
journey on foot or even up unknown rivers. 
Stanley's porters laboriously carried the parts 
of a small steamer, the Lady Alice, with which 
they navigated Lake Victoria, Lake Tan- 
ganyika, and the upper courses of the Congo 
River. 

World Relationships 

Since the days of the great explorations, end- 
ing about 60 years ago, the hitherto unknown 
portions of Africa have been almost catapulted 
into relationships with the rest of the world. 
With a great stream of vital raw materials now 
coming out of Africa and a vast network of stra- 
tegic air services crossing the continent, it is 
difficult to appreciate the inhibitions, the ter- 
rors of the unknown, and the very real physical 
obstacles that so recently isolated Africa. 
What is haj^pening to Africa with accentuated 
abruptness, however, epiti.mizes what is hap- 
pening to the world as a whole. 

Political relationships 

The political map of Africa signifies the most 
important relationship of practically all parts 
of the continent witli the outside world. As 
recently as 1876 the map showed little more 
than a fringe of small coastal colonies. Some 
of the Portuguese small holdings and all of 
those of the Netherlands had changed hands, 
and the embryos of the greater British and 
French empires appear. The geographical 
secrets of the interior had just been revealed, 
and astonishing discoveries in diamonds in 1866 
had touched off an eager and frequently futile 
rush to find sudden riches in many areas. 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Congress of Berlin of 1884-85 failed in 
its effort to provide international supervision of 
colonial administrations but attempted to estab- 
lish freedom of trade, for all nations, within 
the Congo basin. 

Within the first decade of the twentieth cen- 
tury practically all of Africa had been ab- 
sorbed by the colonial powers, and by 1934 the 
present boundaries of colonies and dependen- 
cies had been established and the former Ger- 
man colonies had become mandated territories. 
The colonial expansion inland from the coasts 
and delimitation of these territories proceeded 
without much regard for native societies. In 
the words of the Encyclopaedia Britannica as 
applied to the west-coast areas, "This interna- 
tional patchwork persists". 

Railroads and roads are patterned to conform 
to the political boundaries, and development of 
the continent is conditioned to the political map. 
Colonial administration has made notable prog- 
ress in many parts of the continent since the 
beginning of the century, and today in various 
areas it has come to take a long-range view and 
makes a genuine effort to protect the interest of 
the native peoples. 

Econorrdo and trade relationships 

Africa's commercial relationships with the 
world depend largely upon its present and po- 
tential agricultural and mineral production. 

As the most tropical continent, Africa in- 
cludes one of the great regions that is comple- 
mentary to the areas in northern mid-latitudes, 
including much of Europe and the United 
States, in which industry and commerce have 
developed greatly. Vegetable oils, in Africa 
chiefly from the oil palm and the peanut (the 
latter transplanted from tropical America), 
were one of the objects of interest of the Euro- 
pean powers during the period of colonial 
partition. 

Of the various agricultural products exported 
from Africa, cereals are at present first in im- 
portance, chiefly from North Africa, and then 
from South Africa. Cotton is nest, from 
Egypt and East Africa. Oil seeds and vege- 



table oils rank third and cacao fourth in point 
of value. 

The mineral endowment of Africa is very 
gi-eat, and it is important to the rest of the 
world. Ninety-eight percent of the world's 
diamonds are produced in Africa. The dia- 
monds essential in di'illing machinery and 
other industrial uses are now mined chiefly in 
Belgian Congo. 

In 1938 Africa produced about %o o^ the 
world's cobalt, % of the phosphate rock, % of the 
gold. One third of the world's vanadium and 
a third of the chromite have been coming out 
of Africa. The largest manganese mine in the 
world is in the Gold Coast, and there are ex- 
tensive reserves of this important mineral in 
South Africa. 

The great copper production from Belgian 
Congo and Northern Rhodesia comes at low 
cost from very high-grade ores, and the reserves 
are very large. 

An eighth of the tin comes from Africa, and 
much more may come in the future. Almost all 
of these minerals, and others available in 
Africa, are vital in modern industry. 

Coal and petroleum for industry and trans- 
portation have not been discovered in great 
quantities, and much of the continent may have 
to depend upon fuel wood and local hydroelec- 
tric power. About one third of the world's esti- 
mated water-power reserves are estimated to 
reside in the Congo and Niger River systems — 
much of it so expensive to develop that it may 
never be utilized unless it proves worthwhile in 
a world-integrated economy. 

Transportation and communications 

Interrelationships between peoples and con- 
tinents now depend upon transport which is ma- 
chine-powered, because in the last analysis it is 
so much more economical of human effort. In 
Africa, the waterways navigable to steamers in- 
clude the magnificent great lakes of the eastern- 
central part of the continent and portions of the 
principal rivers — always interrupted by rapids 
and cataracts — notably the Nile and the Congo. 
Nowhere is there a railway network except in 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



193 



western Mediterranean Africa and a portion of 
the Union of South Africa. Motorable roads 
are already faii'Iy extensive and are developing 
steadily. 

The movement of goods in both native and in- 
ternational trade in parts of the continent is still 
dependent solely upon primitive transport. In 
the Belgian Congo, at least, Europeans are no 
longer permitted to hire porters, thus conserving 
labor and encouraging the use of motor roads. 

The world of transportation costs, in which 
Africa finds an important place through trade 
and commerce, can scarcely be visualized on 
maps even with the most striking contrasts of 
color, because the diffei'ences are so nearly as- 
tronomic. They might be comprehended more 
readily by means of an electric globe, the con- 
struction of which would be analogous to elec- 
tric-power transmission systems. Cover the 
high seas, where freight can be moved at Yiq cent 
a ton-mile, with silver (the best electrical con- 
ductor) or with silver wires connecting all the 
world's ports; the navigable high seas will be 
insulated from the coasts except at ports; for 
railroads select a steel alloy wire whose electrical 
resistance is about 10 times that of silver ; then 
choose wire and strands of other materials with 
from 20 times to 10 thousand times the resist- 
ance of silver for roads, caravan routes, and 
trails traveled by auto trucks, horses and wag- 
ons, pack animals, and human porters. The 
rest of the globe should be covered with an al- 
most perfect insulating, non-conducting mate- 
rial such as glass or porcelain. Now, with deli- 
cate instruments determine the relative electri- 
cal resistance between alternate routes to find 
which way freight will move between any two 
points. You will come to realize that, whereas 
"a thousand years are as one day" with the Lord 
of the universe, a thousand miles by ocean 
freighter are as a fraction of a mile over the 
Burma Road, with man who regards himself 
"lord of the earth". 

Wliat the airplane will do for Africa and 
for the world no one can foretell. 'Wlien some- 
one can fly a thousand miles and drop bread 



or a bomb beside me, the question "Wlio is my 
neighbor?" becomes more puzzling than ever. 
In any event, it will soon be physically possible 
for someone from another continent to drop 
down almost anywhere in Africa and inquire of 
the local inhabitants what they have in their 
subsoil or what they can produce on their land 
which would be of interest to the rest of the 
world. And the movement of goods by air, 
while much more expensive than by sea or even 
by railroad or motor road, is generally more 
economical than transport by human porters 
or pack animals. The airplane surmounts the 
handicaps of Africa's long stretches of harbor- 
less coasts and its lack of great rivers navigable 
from the sea. In undeveloped regions air 
freight and express will tend to supplant prim- 
itive transport except over very short distances 
and to bridge gaps between the railroads, motor 
roads, and steamship services, at least until 
more economical surface facilities can be pro- 
vided. No one can prophesy what the map of 
air services in Africa even a decade hence will 
look like. 

This rapidly changing world — of which 
Africa is an integral part — is frequently called 
"a shrinking world", represented pictorially by 
a series of smaller and smaller globes, for the 
horse-and-buggy days, railroad travel, and 
finally airplanes. However, the term "shrink- 
ing" is quite misleading. The significant fact 
is that the reduction of time multiplies the 
achievement which is possible in any unit of 
time. The world of experience is rapidly ex- 
panding for all mankind, whether regarded 
from the viewpoint of the individual or of cor- 
porate groups or nations. Our lives may be 
expanded and enriched because we can go 
farther and do more, and friends from great dis- 
tances may come to us. We should realize, on 
the other hand, that modern technology, in 
vastly increasing the distance at which prac- 
tically all forces may operate with great effect, 
makes intensification of rivalries possible, even 
to the ends of the earth, if they are not curbed 
and controlled. 



194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



Some geographical relationships 

Picture for yourself a native school in cen- 
tral Africa in which a native teacher is teach- 
ing geography to the coming generation. 
Today she has a map of Africa before the 
pupils, and she has at her disposal basic knowl- 
edge of lakes and river systems unknown to a 
human soul a century ago, and has probably had 
personal experience with river steamers or rail- 
roads, automobiles, airplanes, and radios. 
Next month or next year the pupils may study 
the United States, or Asia, or a world map. 
They are learning something about us, much of 
it not in the classroom. They need not re- 
capitulate our mistakes, in information and 
attitudes, but may be conducted directly, by 
routes of understanding adapted to their own 
background, into sane relationships with the 
whole world. 

There are but few great physical barriers to 
the extension of mechanized transport in Africa, 
and the native peoples will thereby have con- 
tacts which are constantly widening. At least 
in the great Bantu area the numerous languages 
are closely related, and there are already im- 
portant linguae francae and increasing use of 
English, French, and other European languages 
throughout Africa that enable one to move 
about without great difficulty. Less dissimilar- 
ity of cultures than in most other great areas 
and the absence of nationalistic traditions tend 
to facilitate integration of African societies. 
Public-health measures are reducing the death 
rate, especially the high infant mortality, and 
the relatively sparse population is likely to in- 
crease rapidly in some areas, further tending to 
bring the peoples into closer touch with one 
another and with the world. 

The peoples of Africa have many problems, 
some of them very new. They cannot be 
solved by wishful thinking. "Longing for 
home cannot take you across the river" is a 
Mongo proverb. The problems of the native 
peoples cannot be solved by integrating or or- 
ganizing the continent or large regions in oppo- 
sition to other continents or regions. It will 
be normal for many communities or small 



regions in Africa to maintain closer relations 
with distant parts of the world than with 
nearby portions of their own continent. The 
peoples of Africa cannot alter the fact that 
they live in the same world with the peoples of 
Europe, Asia, and the Americas. 

What, then, of our adaptation to Africa ? We 
shall need to unlearn some of our old geography 
and to learn some new geograi^hy relating to 
Africa. We should become aware, in the first 
place, that it is commonly underrated as to 
area, partly because, on the usual type of maps, 
especially Mercator's, the land areas of northern 
Asia, Europe, and North America are so greatly 
exaggerated. As may be seen on a globe, it is 
as far east-west across Africa, from Dakar to 
Cape Guardafui, as it is across Russian terri- 
tory from Odessa on the Black Sea to Bering 
Strait. 

We also frequently fail to realize the geo- 
graphical relation between Africa and the 
United States because of our use of Mercator 
maps and of Eastern and Western Hemisphere 
maps. That part of Africa which is within a 
hemisphere centered at Eastport, Maine, is 
equal to the entire continent of South America 
in both area and population. From Washing- 
ton, D. C, the farthest corner of Egypt, on the 
Red Sea, is nearer than Cape Horn. 

These geographical relationships of Africa 
with Asia and the Americas have become evi- 
dent as we have studied a globe with the aid 
of a transpai'ent plastic hemisphere on which 
continental outlines were traced. By moving 
the transparent hemisphere anywhere over the 
globe one may compare any portion of the earth 
with any other, and may study great circle 
routes and distances, without any of the distor- 
tions of scale and area which attend the use of 
flat maps. Unfortunately such devices cannot 
become available for general use until the ma- 
terials can be directed to peacetime services. 
But we all need to learn that one of the most 
important aids to global thinking is the globe 
itself, with simple means of measuring and com- 
paring one area with another. 

Abraham Lincoln said ". . . we cannot escape 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



195 



North Pole 




WORLD RELATIONSHIPS OF THE UNITED 

STATES 

That part of Africa which is within a hemisphere 
centered at Eastpnrt. Maine, is equal to tlie entire con- 
tinent of South America in both area and population. 
The line of heavy dots encircling the hemisphere inset 
is duplicated on the world map (on the Miller cylin- 
drical projection). The map illustrates, in addition, 
other hemispheres centered at points in the United 



States. To the north of the dashed line, all lands 
(solid black) and seas are within a radius of about 
6,220 miles of ever]) part of the United States, that is, 
measured across the country, as from Maine across 
California to a point southwest of the Hawaiian 
Islands. All lands and seas to the north of the south- 
ern dotted line are within hemispheres centered within 
some part of the United States; note that this includes 
not only all of South America but also all of Europe, 
the larger part of Asia, and well over half of Africa. 



history." If we cannot escape history, neither 
can we escape geography — the geography of 
rapidly changing world relationships, cultural 
and economic, between peoples of every part of 
the globe. 

The geographical relationships which may 
scarcely be perceived except on a globe have 
come to have real significance for the first time 
in history. Actual distances between places on 



the earth are important because in the invisible 
ocean of air above us, far deeper than the deep- 
est sea, overlying land and sea alike, airplanes 
are flying. Heretofore the distances that really 
counted were measured in time of surface travel 
and in the cost of passenger travel or freight 
rates. Today, because of the airplane, direct 
global relationships tend to determine both time 
and cost, except for bulk freight. 



196 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtrLLETIN" 



The adjustments which we must make with 
reference to other continents are perhaps anal- 
ogous, in a sense, to the change of viewpoint 
required when modern astronomy was born, four 
centuries ago. The discoveries of Copernicus, 
Kepler, and Galileo, making the earth but one 
of a family of planets revolving about the sun, 
were humiliating and were passionately resisted 
when men believed the universe to be geocen- 
tric. None could then imagine the great series 
of subsequent astronomic discovei'ies pertain- 
ing to the vast universe, in which the physics 
of stars and atoms are intimately related. Sim- 
ilarly today, men of all races and nationalities 
tend to resist the implications of world inter- 
relationships, fearing that their fixed positions 
will dissolve before their eyes and that they 
may have to move in orbits which are related 
to, and influenced by, those of other peoples. 

We should, however, focus on facts not fears. 
One of those facts is that men employ the cheap- 
est and fastest means of travel, communication, 
and the transport of goods at their disposal. 
They will in Africa, and we do with reference 
to Africa. Men want their expenditure of effort 
or of money to coimt, without much thought of 
social or political implications. In the horse- 
and-buggy days men began using automobiles 
without insisting on knowing the possible effects 
on road building, steel and rubber industries, 
petroleum consumption, or international travel. 
And now that men have made their adjustments 
and regard automobiles as normal, some of the 
viewpoints and attitudes of a half century ago 
seem a bit antiquated. Likewise, when men have 
learned to employ the great facilities now at 
their disposal they can only regard their ex- 
panded geographical and cultural relationships 
as normal. With the emphasis upon such facts 
rather than fears, the instrumentalities that are 
being so effectively and so tragically used for 
brutalitarian ends can more readily be dedicated 
to humanitarian objectives and world order. 



American Republics 



ANMVERSARY OF MEXICAN 
INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press September 16] 

The President has sent the following message 
to His Excellency Gen. Manuel Avila Camacho, 
President of the United Mexican States, on the 
occasion of the anniversary of Mexican in- 
dependence : . 

Septembek 16, 1943. 

It is with particular pleasure that I extend to 
Your Excellency and to the Mexican people my 
heartiest congratulations on this anniversary of 
Mexican independence which finds Mexico and 
the United States firmly allied in a common and 
triumphant struggle to preserve the heritage of 
liberty and democracy left us by those whose 
deeds we celebrate on our national holidays. 

On this day you and your compati'iots may 
contemplate with satisfaction the contributions 
you are making to the cause of the United 
Nations. Mexicans have laid down their lives 
for that cause. Mexicans are fighting and 
working for it. The products of Mexico in an 
ever increasing stream are swelling the arsenal 
in which the victory of that cause is being 
forged. 

I am happy to send to Your Excellency at 
this time my most sincere good wishes for the 
continued welfare of the United Mexican States 
as well as my most cordial personal greetings. 
I cherish the recollection of our meeting last 
April and greatly value your friendship. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



The following message was sent by the Sec- 
retary of State to His Excellency Ezequiel 
Padilla, Secretary of Foreign Relations of 
Mexico : 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



197 



Septeiuber 16, 1943. 
On this anniversary of the Independence of 
your great nation, I extend cordial greetings to 
Your Excellency and sincere good wishes for 
the continued welfare of the people of Mexico 
and for your personal well-being. I also take 
this occasion to send you my warmest personal 
regards and to renew the assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

CoEDELL Hull 



ANNIVERSARY OF CHILEAN 
INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press September 18] 

The President sent the following message to 
His Excellency Juan Antonio Rios, President 
of the Republic of Chile, on the occasion of the 
anniversary of Chilean independence: 



September 18, 1943. 

On this the one hundred and thirty-third 
anniversary of Chilean independence it gives 
me pleasure to convey to you and the people of 
your great country my own personal felicita- 
tions. The instinctive democracy and love of 
liberty which have characterized the Chilean 
people through the generations are well known 
and appreciated in this country and their 
alignment on the side of the forces combatting 
aggression in the present heroic struggle for 
the maintenance of liberty and human rights 
and their devotion to the spirit of continental 
solidarity are in accord with the traditions of 
your people. We in the United States are 
particularly honored to have with us on this 
historic day, your distinguished Foreign Min- 
ister, Dr. Joaquin Fernandez Fernandez. 

My warmest congratulations on this memo- 
rable day. 

Cordial best wishes. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



Cultural Relations 



THE NON-THEATRICAL MOTION-PICTURE PROGRAM ABROAD 



The development by the Department of State 
of a non-theatrical motion-picture program in 
foreign countries is not well known to the gen- 
eral public, whose knowledge of films is con- 
fined chiefly to those products of Hollywood 
which are made for purposes of entertainment. 
In order to point out the objectives of the non- 
theatrical film program and its potentialities 
for increased international understanding and 
knowledge, it is necessary to show how the pro- 
gram is being carried out. 

In 1938 the United States was at peace. The 
efforts of its leaders and people were being 
exerted to maintain peace. The Division of 
Cultural Relations was established in the De- 



partment of State for the purpose of assisting 
in the international exchange of cultural infor- 
mation and promoting international intellec- 
tual cooperation to form a sound basis of 
understanding for peaceful international rela- 
tions. The Division of Cultural Relations 
made a study to determine the quantity and 
types of requests received from abroad for 
motion pictures about the United States and, as 
a result of the need indicated by the study, began 
distributing on a small scale Government-made 
and Government-approved information films. 
Today, the Department has an active motion- 
picture section. Officers of the Department who 
have had years of experience in the Department 



198 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and abroad review all motion pictures intended 
for distribution, through official Government 
channels, outside the United States. Through 
the offices of the Foreign Service the Depart- 
ment distributes appropriate films to fill specific 
needs in all parts of the world. This includes 
all the other American republics and such dis- 
tant places as Australia, Iceland, China, 
Morocco, Greenland, New Zealand, Iran, Por- 
tugal, SjDain, Iraq, Union of Soviet Socialist 
Kepublics, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, India, 
Egypt, and Ceylon. 

Other agencies of the Government are play- 
ing an important part in the film program. 
After the President declared a national emer- 
gency in 1939, the Office of the Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs was set up, with a 
motion-picture division provided with funds to 
institute an accelerated film program for in- 
forming the i^eople of the other American re- 
publics about tlie United States, its people, and 
its military activities. The importance of the 
part played by that office can be measured by 
the 9,238 persons refDorted attending exliibi- 
tionso f films in February 1942, under the su- 
pervisionof the Foreign Service establishments 
compared to a total of 1,59-1,789 reported in 
July 1943. The majority of the total was ac- 
counted for in the other American republics. 
With the entry of the United States into the 
war against the Axis, the Motion Picture Bu- 
reau of the Office of War Information's Over- 
seas Branch began preparing foreign-language 
informational films and supplying additional 
projection equipment for film showings in 
coiuitries outside the Western Hemisphere. 
This program, now well under way, is being 
extended to include all countries with which 
diplomatic and consular relations are main- 
tained. 

The motion picture is a recognized instru- 
ment of communication capable of presenting 
clearly to millions, literate or not, the best- 
selling novel of the year, the latest victory on 
the battle fronts, or, by means of animation, it 
can describe in detail the internal operation 
of an engine. Informative motion pictures are 
so effective that the Axis countries have given 



them an important place in their programs of 
psychological warfare. A recent report on the 
Nazis' use of motion pictures pointed out that 
since the beginning of the National Socialist 
regime the Nazi leaders have recognized the 
power of the motion picture as a political 
instrument, and, by a large-scale organizational 
effort, have coordinated the work of the Ger- 
man film industry with the objectives of 
national policy by selection and training of 
special personnel; by the control of film pro- 
duction through banking credits, censorship, 
and systematic propaganda directives; and by 
an energetic distribution program at home and 
abroad. The chief of the film division of the 
Nazi Ministry of Propaganda believes that 
motion pictures have the most intensive effect 
upon the largest audience and that films can 
undermine undesirable attitudes just as they 
can form desirable opinions. The Japanese, 
too, use the motion picture as a means of show- 
ing Japanes'e "cultural'' achievements and the 
advantages which they believe accrue from 
living in the so-called "Greater East Asia Co- 
Prosperity Sphere" ; nor did Fascist Italy neg- 
lect the use of films in support of political 
ideologies. 

The totalitarian nations make use of motion 
pictures for the purpose of propagating their 
destructive political and military ideologies. 
Other countries have put films to a constructive 
use as a means of issuing reliable information 
to their own peoples and to the world for the 
purpose of contributing to greater international 
understanding and fellowship. Early in the 
1920's Great Britain developed an educational 
film program which grew in quality and effec- 
tiveness as film-making techniques improved. 
Great Britain, Canada, Australia, France, 
Sweden, Brazil, Switzerland, and others have 
used, and still use, motion pictures to portray 
various aspects of their national life to other 
jjcoples of the world. 

With war foremost in the events of the world, 
many of the non-theatrical films are war films, 
depicting progress on the battle fronts, and the 
size and strength of the United States' war 
effort in troop training and in industry and 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



199 



agriculture. Other films are on non-war sub- 
jects and show daily life and technical and 
scientific progress in the United States. The 
latter type of film, which will continue to be 
of value when the war ends, is meant to inter- 
pret this nation to the other nations with which 
it must work and live. Effective factual films 
provide stimulation of interest in and create a 
desire for further knowledge of, a particular 
subject or region. Most important, however, is 
the rapid and convincing manner in which 
these films spread a knowledge of people and 
ideals, of technological and scientific advances. 
Such cultural exchange may help to form the 
solid bases for international understanding and 
friendship. 

Language constitutes the greatest handicap 
to the program. For example, China presents 
a problem in scoring because no one language 
serves the entire country. Instead, there are a 
series of dialects, each hardly intelligible when 
spoken to persons in other parts of the republic, 
though always understandable when written in 
the universal Chinese characters. Scoring a 
film in 20 or 30 languages is costly if only few 
prints of each language version are needed. 
The Mandarin dialect, therefore, is used in 
scoring films for China since it reaches the 
largest percentage of the population. In 
Africa there are 34 native languages in addition 
to English, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, and Italian, which would have to be used 
to make the pictures perfectly understood by 
the entire population. India presents a similar 
problem with approximately 22 distinct lan- 
guages, plus their many variations, in addition 
to English. Fortunately, certain major lan- 
guages are widely spoken and understood, mak- 
ing it possible to reach a large majority of the 
people by using only those languages. 

There are many actual physical difficulties, 
some made more acute by war conditions. 
Transportation is one of the latter. Gasoline 
shortages have been an everpresent hindrance 
to the United States officials and their civilian 
helpers conducting the showings. In Brazil, 
projectors, screens, and films are being trans- 
ported in charcoal-burning trucks. Portable 



generators must also be carried to the many 
places where there is no electricity. Electric 
voltage and cycles vary all over the world, and 
projection equipment must be adapted to it. 
It varies from city to city and even within 
many cities. In one Bolivian village in the 
foothills of the Andes half of the town had to 
be blacked-out to obtain sufficient current to 
operate the projector. 

Handicaps, however, are not insurmountable 
when nationals of the foreign countries cooper- 
ate so energetically in carrying out the non- 
theatrical motion-picture program. The Cen- 
tral do Brazil Railway in Brazil has supplied 
a special railway car to carry the 16-millimeter 
projection units along its right-of-way, notify- 
ing the mayor or appi'opriate officials of towns 
where stops are to be made. A Chilean railroad 
offers free trips to the projectionists. In Colom- 
bia the National Railways outfitted a railroad 
car for 16-millimeter and 35-millimeter projec- 
tion trips. In Monterrey, Mexico, business in- 
terests are lending to the American Consulate, 
for its showings, a generator, a turntable to play 
recordings, and a truck. In Central America 
one connnercial company lends its projectors, 
houses the projectionist who visits its camps and 
towns and hospitals, and even provides its air- 
plane and pilot for quick trips to small, remote 
villages. More than once the United States 
Army has lent a helping hand in distant places, 
using a "jeep" where other means of passage was 
impossible. Now and then someone even lends 
a mule for trips into the interior. 

Generally, the films are shown to selected 
audiences — audiences appropriate for the pic- 
tures shown. The audience may consist of one 
person — the president of the country in which 
the films are to be exhibited ; a few doctors inter- 
ested in a film portraying some new technique 
in surgery developed by the profession in the 
United States; a roomful of professors and 
teachers, who study a number of pedagogical 
films and discuss the place of this aid to visual 
education in the modern curriculum ; or school 
children in their classes, who, as future leaders 
and citizens, study films on hygiene, history, and 
science, as well as regional aspects of the United 



200 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETm 



States, its people and government, thereby as- 
suring more amicable international relations 
among future generations. Also there may be 
throngs of thousands gathered in plazas, far 
from the actual battle, watching Allied bombers 
roar across the English Channel to attack objec- 
tives in occupied Europe. 

In the other American republics, for example, 
the types of audiences are numerous. In one 
country, the projector used by the American 
Embassy in the capital city during the day for 
educational showings in schools was loaded onto 
a truck and carried outside the city to the cotfee 
plantations for showings in the early evening 
to the coffee pickers, many of whom had never 
seen a motion picture. The films were received 
rousingly by the laborers. At the other extreme 
are the seminaries and schools of the churches, 
sometimes located in isolated spots, whose stu- 
dents are thirsting for knowledge of the outside 
world. According to one field report, two 
priests from a seminary appeared at the Amer- 
ican Embassy in a leading South American cap- 
ital one afternoon to request a showing at the 
school. They wistfully inquired whether a 
three-hour exhibition would be asldng too much, 
since the students were permitted to see films 
only once a year, and if, in addition to a number 
of educational films, the Embassy could also 
furnish films on the war, showing planes, tanks, 
and battleships. The Embassy was glad to 
accede to both requests. 

Enthusiastic audiences have become a routine 
but never uninteresting nor unimportant story 
to the officials of the Department of State in 
charge of the non-theatrical film program. In 
the diplomatic despatches which flow steadily 
into the Department they read of film showings 
being held in remote interior towns where the 
projector is set up in the little plazas. Plioto- 
graphs of the audiences gathered there show 
the eagerness with which the people attend the 
exhibitions. One despatch mentioned that 
"three benclies at the rear broke under the 
weight of tlie persons standing on them before 
the show was over." This was because more 
than 500 eager townspeople had jammed into 
the little hall where the showing was scheduled. 



In the small towns of Baruta and El Hatillo, 
Venezuela, 40 percent of the population at- 
tended single film showings in the plaza. In 
Naranjo, Costa Rica, the American Embassy's 
representatives were using the Teatro Carballo, 
which accommodates 300 persons, but 488 of the 
townspeople managed to cram their way inside 
an hour before the performance. The Em- 
bassy's report to the Department said : "All the 
aisles and galleries were crowded and the pres- 
sure was so great at the rear that we could 
hardly work around the machine. It got very 
hot but nobody went home. One person tried 
to stick his head outside one of the theater 
doors after the first picture and some 20 persons 
jammed through the door before it could be 
closed and barred again. We needed the services 
of three or four policemen, not to protect us 
against Nazi sympathizers, but to keep the 
crowds out of the theater." 

At Galeana, Mexico, a small, inaccessible 
town, the yearly fair was in progress, and the 
motion pictures in the plaza were to supply 
the outstanding entertainment. The report of 
the American Consul at Monterrey said, in part : 
"Many of the peo^jle walked 20 kilometers [over 
12 miles] or more to see the showings, and many 
of these people had never seen a motion picture 
before. . . . The first night there were 2,000 
to see the pictures, the second night about 3,000, 
and on Sunday, the third night, there were over 
5,000. Some of the comments made by the Mex- 
ican officials follow : 'Words cannot convince 
these country people that there is a war going 
on, but these pictures certainly do.' 'These pic- 
tures give our people more education in one 
night than we could do in a year.' 'Our people 
hear about American production but never real- 
ize what it is all about ; now they know what a 
plane is and what a tank looks like.' 'Such pic- 
tures make us feel closer and more friendly to 
you and help us to know your country better.' " 

Report after report makes it evident to the 
Department that the portable projector and the 
16-millimeter film are bringing tlie story of the 
United States to people wanting information — 
both to those eager to participate in a war which 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1943 



201 



many times is quite remote from small settle- 
ments in the interior of some country, and to the 
people of non-belligerent countries who realize 
the great influence the war and its outcome will 
have on their own lives. 

The motion-picture program is serving a pres- 
ent need in informing interested and friendly 
nations of the war effort of the United States 
and a long-range need in identifying the true 
spirit of the people of the United States through 
motion pictures showing their daily lives, their 
work, their institutions, and their land. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to tbe press September 14] 

Senor Domingo Melfi, editor of La Nacion, a 
leading newspaper of Santiago, Chile, has ar- 
rived in Washington for a coast-to-coast visit 
as a guest of the Department of State. Senor 
Melfi, who is accompanied by his wife, is inter- 
ested in observing the contribution of the 
United States toward victory for the United 
Nations and in viewing cultural centers in this 
country, especially art galleries, universities, 
and libraries. 



Treaty Information 



MILITARY AND NAVAL MISSIONS 

Agreement With Ecuador for Detail of United 
States Army Officer as Technical Director 
of the Eloy Alfaro Military College of 
Ecuador 

[Released to the press September 13] 

In conformity with the request of the Gov- 
ernment of Ecuador, there was signed on Sep- 
tember 13, 1943 by the Honorable Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, and Senor Capitan Colon 
Eloy Alfaro, Ambassador of Ecuador in Wash- 



ington, an agreement providing for the detail 
of an officer of the United States Army to serve 
as Technical Director of the Eloy Alfaro Mili- 
tary College of Ecuador. 

The agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature but may be 
extended beyond that period at the request of 
the Government of Ecuador. 

The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements 
between the United States and certain other 
American republics providing for the detail of 
officers of the United States Army or Navy to 
advise the armed forces of those countries. 

POSTAL 

Postal Union of the Americas and Spain 

Brazil; Guatemala 

With a note dated September 2, 1943 the Am- 
bassador of Panama at Washington transmitted 
to the Secretary of State certified copies of the 
instruments of deposit on May 30, 1942 and 
October 5, 1938, respectively, of the ratifications 
by the Governments of Brazil and Guatemala 
of the acts of the Fourth Congress of the Postal 
Union of the Americas and Spain, signed at 
Panama on December 22, 1936. 



According to information in the records of 
the Department of State the status of the acts 
of the Fourth Congress of the Postal Union of 
the Americas and Spain signed at Panama on 
December 22, 1936 is as follows : 

Convention of the Postal Union 
of the Americas and Spain 

Ratifications have been deposited by the 
United States of America, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Canada, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Sal- 
vador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, 
Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Argentina, 
Honduras, and Peru have approved or ratified 
the convention, but their respective ratifications 
have not yet been deposited. 



202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE' BXTIXETIK 



Provisions Relating to the Transportation of 
Correspondence hy Air 

Ratifications have been deposited by Bolivia, 
Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, 
Mexico, Panama, Spain, Uruguay, and Vene- 
zuela. Argentina, Honduras, and Peru have 
approved or ratified the provisions, but their 
respective latitications have not yet been depos- 
ited. 

Agreement Relating to Parcel Post 

Ratifications have been deposited by the 
United States of America, Bolivia, Brazil, Can- 
ada, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salva- 
dor, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Spain, Uru- 
guay, and Venezuela. Argentina, Honduras, 
and Peru have approved or ratiiied the agree- 
ment, but their respective ratifications have not 
yet been deposited. 

Agreement Relating to Money Orders 

Ratifications have been deposited by the 
United States of America, Bolivia, Brazil, El 
Salvador, Mexico, Panama, Spain, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela. Argentina, Honduras, and 
Peru have approved or ratified the agreement, 
but their respective ratifications have not yet 
been deposited. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Apportiouing of Supplies of African Asbestos : Arrange- 
ment Between tlie United States of Americi and the 
United Kingdom of Groat Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, Aijproving Memorandum of Understanding 
Signed January 6, 1^43 — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at London April 30, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 332. Publication 1985. 7 pp. 5^. 

Military Service : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and El S.ilvador — Effected by exchanges 
of notes signed at Washington April 3 and May 14 and 
31, 1943 : effective May l.j, 1913. Executive Agreement 
Series 32.j. Publication 1986. 10 pp. 5^. 

Diplomatic List, September 1943. I'ublication 1987. 
ii, 114 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy 100. 

Our Foreign Policy in the Framework of Our National 
Interests : Radio Address by Cordell Hull, Secretary 
of State, September 12, 1943. Publication 1990. 13 
pp. ^i. 

Other Agencies 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association 
for the Year 1941 (in three volumes). Vol. I. H. 
Doc. 512 (part 1), 77th Cong, xxvi, 343 pp. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printinj; OflBce, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THD BUREAU OF THE BCDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




•\_yi 




J 



C 



ontents 



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1 




SEPTEMBER 25, 1943 
Vol. IX, No. 222— Publication 1999 




The War page 

Foreign Economic Administration and Foreign Relief: 
Appointment of Leo T. Crowley as Foreign Economic 
Administrator and Appointment of Herbert H. 
Lehman as Special Assistant to the President . . 205 
Appointment of Chairmen of Area Committees for 
Coordination of the Planning of United States 
Agencies for Foreign Economic Rehabilitation . . 206 
Former German, French, and Italian Officials in the 

United States 207 

Transfer to Neutral Ownership of Enemy Assets in 

Italy 207 

Passage of the Fulbright Resolution by the House of 

Representatives 207 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 6 to 

Revision V 208 

The Deiartment 

Resignation of Sumner Welles and Appointment of 
Edward R. Stettuiius, Jr., as Under Secretary of 
State 208 

Records of the Department of State 209 

The Near East 

Visit to the United States of the Foreign Minister of 

Saudi Arabia 210 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Charles C. Broy 210 

[OVEB] 







ontents-coNTiNVEXi 



International Confekences, Commissions, Etc. ^*^* 

Conference of Ministers and Directors of Education of 

the American Republics 210 

Treaty Information 

Economics: Draft Agreement for United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 211 

RevisedTextasof September 20, 1943 211 

Strategic Materials: Agreement Regarding the 1944 

Cuban Sugar Crop 216 

Military and Naval Missions: Agreement With Argen- 
tina Renewing Agreement of June 29, 1940 . . . 216 

Publications 217 



U. S. SUPERlNTfNOFNT OF DOCUMENT! 

OCT 21 1943 



The War 



FOREIGN ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATION AND FOREIGN RELIEF 

Appointment of Leo T. Crowley as Foreign Economic Administrator and Appointment of 
Herbert H. Lehman as Special Assistant to the President 



[Released to the press by the White House September 25] 

The President on September 25 announced 
the creation of the Office of Foreign Economic 
Administration to centralize the activities 
formerly carried on by the Offices of Lend-Lease 
Administration, Foreign Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Operations, and Economic Warfare. 

In creating this new office the President an- 
nomiced that Mr. Leo T. Crowley, Director of 
Economic Warfare, will become the Foreign 
Economic Administrator. The President said : 
"Leo Crowley is one of the best administrators 
in or out of government, and I find great satis- 
faction in promoting him to a position which 
will centralize all foreign economic functions in 
one operating agency." 

Governor Herbert Lehman ^ has been ap- 
pointed Special Assistant to the President 
for the purpose of perfecting the plans for the 
meeting of representatives of the United Nations 
on November 9. It is expected that Governor 
Lehman will be urged by this Government for 
the appointment of Director of the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

The text of the Executive order creating the 
Foreign Economic Administration follows: 



' The former Governor of New York, who has been 
Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions since Dec. 1942. 



ExECUTiv-E Order 9380 

Foreign Economic Administration 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
Constitution and the statutes of the United 
States, as President of the United States and 
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, 
and in order to unify and consolidate__govern- 
mental activities relating to foreign economic 
affairs, it is hereby ordered as follows : 

1. There is established in the Office for 
Emergency Management of the Executive Office 
of the President the Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration (hereinafter referred to as the Ad- 
ministration), at the head of which shall be an 
Administrator. 

2. The Office of Lend-Lease Administration, 
the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations, the Office of Economic Warfare (to- 
gether with the corporations, agencies, and 
functions transferred thereto by Executive 
Order No. 9361 of July 15, 1943), the Office of 
Foreign Economic Coordination (except such 
functions and personnel thereof as the Director 
of the Budget shall determine are not concei-ned 
with foreign economic operations) and their 
respective functions, powers, and duties are 
transferred to and consolidated in the 
Administration. 

205 



206 



DEPAETMENT OT' STATE BULLETIN' 



3. The Administrator may establish such of- ' 
fices, bureaus, or divisions in the Administration 
as may be necessary to carry out tlie provisions 
of this order, and may assign to them such of the 
functions and duties of the offices, agencies and 
corporations consolidated by this order as he 
may deem desirable in the interest of efficient 
administration. 

4. The powers and functions of the Adminis- 
tration shall be exercised in conformity with the 
foreign policy of the United States as defined by 
the Secretary of State. As soon as military 
operations permit, the Administration shall 
assume responsibility for and control of all 
activities of the United States Government in 
liberated areas with respect to supplying the 
requirements of and procuring materials in such 
areas. 

5. All the personnel, property, records, funds 
(including all unexpended balances of appro- 
priations, allocations, or other funds now avail- 
able), contracts, assets, liabilities, and capital 
stock (including shares of stock) of the offices, 
agencies and corporations consolidated by 
paragraph 2 of this order are transferred to the 
Administration for use in connection with the 
exexxise and j)erformance of its functions, pow- 
ers, and duties. In the case of capital stock 



(including shares of stock), the transfer shall 
be to such agency, corporation, office, officer or 
person as the Administrator shall designate. 
The Administrator is authorized to employ such 
persoimel as may be necessary in the perform- 
ance of the functions of the Administration and 
in order to carry out the purposes of this order. 

6. No part of any funds appropriated or made 
available under Public Law 139, approved July 
12, 1943, shall hereafter be used directly or 
indirectly by the Administrator for the procure- 
ment of services, supplies, or equipment out- 
side the United States except for the purpose 
of executing general economic programs or 
policies formally approved by a majority of the 
War Mobilization Committee in writing filed 
with the Secretary of State prior to any such 
expenditure. 

7. All prior Executive Orders in so far as 
they are in conflict herewith are amended ac- 
cordingly. This order shall take effect upon 
the taking of office by the Administrator, except 
that the agencies and offices consolidated by 
paragraph 2 hereof shall continue to exercise 
their respective functions pending any contrary 
determination by the Achninistrator. 

Fkankun D Eoosevelt 
The White House, 
September 25, WJfS. 



Appointment of Chairmen of Area Committees for Coordination of the Planning of United 
States Agencies for Foreign Economic Rehabilitation 



[Released to the press September 22-24] 

Mr. Charles P. Taft has been appointed by 
the Department of State as chairman of the area 
committee for coordination of the planning of 
United States agencies in providing assistance 
in the economic rehabilitation of the East In- 
dies and as chairman of a similar committee for 
Malaya. Mr. Taft has been Director of the 
Community War Services, Federal Security 
Agency, since February 1941 and a member of 
the President's War Relief Control Board since 
March 1941. 



Mr. Ernest McKinley Fisher has been ap- 
pointed by the Department of State as chair- 
man of the area committee for coordination of 
the planning of United States agencies in pro- 
viding assistance in the economic rehabilitation 
of the Low Countries — Belgium, Luxembourg, 
and the Netherlands. Mr. Fisher has been Con- 
sultant to the Coordinator of Defense Housing 
since 1940. 

Mr. Grenville Ross Holden has been ap- 
pointed by the Department of State as chair- 
man of the area committee for coordination of 



SEPTEMBER 25, 1943 



207 



the planning of United States agencies in pro- 
viding assistance in tlie economic rehabilitation 
of Scandinavia. Since 1940 Mr. Holden has 
been Chief of the Light Metals Production 
Branch of the Office of Production Management 
and later Special Assistant to the Administra- 
tor of the Office of Price Administration. 

These officers will, as representatives of the 
Department of State, head these interdepart- 
mental committees composed of representatives 
of the various agencies interested in economic 
problems in the respective areas after the libera- 
tion. The committees will, in the meantime, 
develop complete plans and programs dealing 
with supply and other economic problems in the 
solution of which the United States may partic- 
ipate. These committees in the Office of For- 
eign Economic Coordination of the Department 
of State have been set up in accordance with the 
plan laid down by the President in his letter of 
June 3, 1943 to the Secretary of State.^ 



FORMER GERMAN, FRENCH, AND ITALIAN 
OFFICIALS IN THE UNITED STATES 

[Released to the press September 24] 

The former French Ambassador and French 
official personnel in the United States now as- 
sembled at the Hershey Hotel at Hershey, Pa., 
will shortly be transferred to Three Hills at 
Warm Springs, Va. Appropriate agencies of 
the Government have approved the release of a 
number of the French officials formerly at Her- 
shey, many of whom have offered their services 
in the military effort of the United Nations 
against the enemy. 

The Department of State has been and is still 
endeavoring to obtain the release of United 
States official personnel and official personnel of 
certain of the other American republics who 
were removed from France to Germany, in ex- 
change for a number of Germans held in the 
United States, including German officials cap- 
tured in North Africa, and the French as- 
sembled at Hershey. 



[Released to the press September 24] 

Following their capture in North Africa, 
German and Italian officials formerly function- 
ing there have been maintained under guard in 
the Ingleside Hotel near Staunton, Va. The 
Italian officials will shortly be transferred to the 
Hotel Shenvalee at New Market, Va. 



TRANSFER TO NEUTRAL OWNERSHIP 
OF ENEMY ASSETS IN ITALY 

[Released to the press September 21] 

The Department of State issued the follow- 
ing statement on September 21 : 

"It has come to the knowledge of the govern- 
ments of the United States of America and the 
United Kingdom that certain concerns in neu- 
tral countries, in anticipation of the early oc- 
cupation of Italy by Allied forces, contemplate 
acquiring or purporting to acquire enemy- 
owned shares in Italian companies, and other 
enemy assets in Italy. The two governments 
reserve the right to treat as invalid any trans- 
fer to neutral ownership of any enemy-owned 
rights or interests in property in Italy. Na- 
tionals or firms in neutral countries acquiring or 
purporting to acquire such rights or interests 
render themselves liable to all sanctions at the 
disposal of the governments of the United States 
of America and the United Kingdom.'' 



PASSAGE OF THE FULBRIGHT RESOLU- 
TION BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENT- 
ATIVES 

[Released to the press September 22] 

At his press and radio news conference Sep- 
tember 22, the Secretary of State was requested 
to comment on the passage of the Fulbright 
Resolution in the House of Representatives.^ 
He replied : 

"It is exceedingly gratifying that the House 
of Representatives has passed the Fulbright 



^ Bulletin of June 26, 1943, p. 575. 



■ H. Con. Res. 25, 78th Cong., 1st sess. 



208 



DEPARTMEiNT O'F STATE BUIiLErrrN 



Kesolution with such an overwhelming majority. 
I believe that the Members of the House, who 
have just returned from their constituencies, 
reflect in this action the determination of the 
people of the United States to collaborate effec- 
tively with other nations after the war to keep 
the peace. It is significant and commendable 
that in the Committee on Foreign Affairs and on 
the floor of the House the discussions of this 
resolution have been on a high plane and have 
been carried on in a non-partisan spirit." 



tember 25 issued Cumulative Supplement 6 to 
Kevision V of the Proclaimed List of Certain 
Blocked Nationals, promulgated April 23, 1943. 

Cumulative Supplement 6 to Revision V 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement 5 dated 
August 27, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 6 contains 
158 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 85 deletions. Part II contains 
158 additional listings outside the American re- 
publics and 42 deletions. 



THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 6 TO REVISION V 

[Released to the press for publication September 25, 9 p.m.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Coimnerce, 
the Office of Economic Warfare, and the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs, on Sep- 



DRAFT AGREEMENT FOR UNITED 
NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITA- 
TION ADMINISTRATION 

A statement by the Secretary of State re- 
garding the draft agreement for a United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, 
together with the revised text of the draft 
agreement, appears in this Bulletin under the 
heading "Treatv Information". 



The Department 



RESIGNATION OF SUMNER WELLES AND APPOINTMENT OF EDWARD R. 
STETTINIUS, JR., AS UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press by the White House September 25 '] 

The President has announced the resignation 
of Sumner Welles as Under Secretary of State 
and the appointment of his successor, Edward R. 
Stettinius, Jr., now Lend-Lease Administrator. 

In announcing Mr. Welles' resignation, the 
President stated that he had accepted it with 
deep and sincere regret. He said that Mr. 
Welles had advised him of his desire to be re- 



^ The information in this announcement was given 
to the press in the same release which announced the 
creation of tlie Foreign Economic Administration (see 
page 20.'> I . 



lieved of his heavy governmental duties in view 
of his wife's health, and he could understand 
and sympathize with that desire. 

The President commended Mr. Welles' long 
service in the Department and said : "Mr. Welles 
has served the Department of State and this 
Government with unfailing devotion for many 
years." 

Commenting on the Stettinius appointment, 
the President said that his broad experience 
with our Allies both before and after Pearl 
Harbor as Lend-Lease Administrator, and his 
long experience as an executive in business, 
splendidly equipped him for his new post. 



SEPTEMBER 25, 1943 



209 



RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Since the establishment of The National 
Archives in Washington by the act of Congress 
approved June 19, 1934, the Department of State 
has been gradually transferring its non-cur- 
rent records to that agency in pursuance of a 
policy designed to assure the preservation of the 
records and to make them available for examina- 
tion by historians, scholars in the field of inter- 
national relations, and other interested persons. 
The bulk of the departmental records, as dis- 
tinguished from diplomatic and consular post 
records, for the period 1789-1910 has already 
been transferred to the custody of The National 
Archives. The shipping to Washington of the 
records of embassies, legations, and consulates, 
which commenced in 1930, was accelerated b}' the 
inauguration in 1938 of a program looking to the 
ultimate transfer to The National Archives of 
all diplomatic and consular post records for the 
period prior to August 15, 1912. 

The year 1910 (1912 for post records) was 
selected as a convenient dividing point for the 
transfer of records to The National Archives 
because at that time the Department's system 
of filing was reorganized on the principle of 
the Dewey decimal library-classification system. 
Before 1906 the departmental records were, gen- 
erally speaking, bound in strict chronological 
order according to country (as Despatches, 
Great Britain), post (as Consular Despatches, 
Montevideo), source (as Notes from the Mexi- 
can Legation) , or subject matter (as Credences) . 
From 1906 to 1910 the records were filed accord- 
ing to subject matter only. In transferring 
records to The National Archives, the Depart- 
ment has not, however, made the years 1910 and 
1912 a rigid line of demarcation. A few groups 
of departmental records as well as some post 
records covering more recent years have been 
sent to The National Archives as permanent ac- 
cessions, e.g., the signed original treaties of the 
United States for the period 1778-1932 and the 
records of the Legation at Tirana, Albania, for 
the period 1903-39. 



The departmental and post records for the 
period 1789-1910 may be examined freely at The 
National Archives, with a few exceptions, sub- 
ject to regulations prescribed by that agency. 
The records of the Department for the period 
1910 to December 31, 1920 which are filed in the 
Department of State, as well as those depart- 
mental and post records for the same period 
which are in the custody of The National 
Archives, may be examined upon authorization 
by the Chief of the Division of Research and 
Publication of the Department.^ Because of 
the wartime demands ujjon the personnel of 
the Department as well as the constant use which 
is being made of the current files, it is not prac- 
ticable at present to make the records of the 
Department of State-for the period after Decem- 
ber 31, 1920 available for examination by per- 
sons other than officers of the Government. 

Those records filed in the Department of 
State which are available upon authorization — 
namely, for the period 1910-20— have been con- 
sulted by eminent scholars engaged in research 
in various fields: United States diplomatic 
history ; interpretation of United States policy 
toward particular countries or in geographic 
areas, such as Latin America ; and specific 
phases of United States relations witk an- 
other government during the 1910-20 decade, 
such as intergovernmental loans, economic and 
commercial relations, recogTiition of certain 
political changes or conditions within another 
country, cooperation between United States con- 
sular representatives and local port authorities 
in a port of a foreign country, etc. The rela- 
tions between European nations in the years 
immediately preceding the first World War also 
have been a subject for research involving use 
of the Department's records. 

The records of the Department of State 
housed in The National Archives are borrowed 



' BuixETiN of July 1, 1939, p. 10, and of July 26, 1941, 

p. 78. 



210 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETrN 



as needed in the current work of the Department 
through the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion, which maintains liaison with The National 
Archives through the Division of State Depart- 
ment Archives in that agency. Records of early 
years can provide background information for 
studies undertaken in the Department, or re- 
veal precedents for, or historical development 
of, particular situations or conditions existent 
in foreign countries and in our relations with 
them. 

The significant records of the Department 
regularly are made available to the interested 
public through the medium of such publications 
of the Department as Papers Relating to the 
Foreign Relations of the United States and the 
Department of State Bitlletin. Other publica- 
tions of the Department which make available 
important Department records include Terri- 
torial Papers of the United States, compiled and 
edited by Clarence E. Carter; Treaties and 
Other International Acts of the United States 
of America, edited by Hunter Miller; and 
Digest of International Law, by Green H. Hack- 
worth. 



The Near East 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF 
THE FOREIGN MINISTER OF SAUDI 
ARABIA 

[Released to the press September 2.'3] 

His Royal Highness Amir Faisal, Foreign 
Minister of Saudi Arabia, will visit the United 
States as a guest of this Government and is ex- 
pected to aiTive in Washington on Thursday, 
September 30, 1943. The Foreign Minister will 
spend a few days in Washington and New York 
and later will visit certain irrigation projects 
in the southwest portion of the United States. 

The Foreign Minister will be accompanied 
by his brother, His Royal Highness Amir 
Khalid, and by Shaikh Hafiz Wahba, Saudi 
Arabian Minister to London. 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF CHARLES C. BROY 

[Released to the press September 21] 

The Secretary of State regrets to announce the 
death on September 21 of Mr. Charles Clinton 
Broy, a Foreign Service officer, who had been on 
duty at the Department of State in the Visa 
Division. It will be recalled that Mr. Broy was 
seriously injured in a motor accident between 
Cologne and Brussels on August 29, 1940 while 
on official duty. His death, after many years 
of faithful and distinguished service to his 
government, occurred suddenly as the result of 
a heart attack. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS AND DIREC- 
TORS OF EDUCATION OF THE AMERI- 
CAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press September 24] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Government of Panama to participate in 
the Conference of Ministers and Directors of 
Education of the American Republics to be held 
at Panama from September 27 to October 4, 
1943 on the occasion of the inauguration of the 
Inter-American University at Panama. The 
President has approved the designation of Dr. 
John W. Studebaker, Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, United States Office of Education, as this 
Govei-nment's official delegate to the meeting. 

The principal topics on the agenda are "Phi- 
losophy of Education and Current Technical 
Problems", "Closer Relations Among the 
Peoples of the Hemisphere Tlirough Cultural 
Exchanges", and "Artistic Education and Co- 
ordination of the American Educational Sys- 
tems". 



Treaty Information 



ECONOMICS 

Draft Agreement for United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press September 24] 

The Department announced on June 10, 
1943 that this Government was at that time 
placing a draft agreement for a United Nations 
Eelief and Rehabilitation Administration be- 
fore all the United Nations and the other na- 
tions associated with them in this war.^ It was 
explained that the jDlan was still tentative and 
that the text was submitted for consideration 
and discussion. 

As a result of the study and discussion of the 
draft agreement by all governments concerned, 
during the past three months, the text has been 
considerably modified. It is believed that the 
plan has been improved and the language clari- 
fied, in line with the desires expressed by the 
many govermnents which have been giving care- 
ful attention to this proposal. 

The revised text of the draft agreement is 
being placed before all the other governments 
concerned and the French Committee of Na- 
tional Liberation, and this Government is in- 
quiring as to whether each of the others will be 
prepared to join in signature of the agreement 
in this form. The United States Government 
is ready to sign the agreement, and it has sug- 
gested that the ceremony of signature be held 
in the "Wliite House in Washington early in 
November if the draft is acceptable to the other 
governments. The United States also has sug- 
gested that the first session of the council of 



' BuujsTiN of June 12, 19-13, p. 523. 

552612—13 2 



the new organization, on which all member gov- 
ernments will be represented, be held iimne- 
diately after signature of the agreement. If 
this plan is acceptable to the other governments 
it is probable that arrangements will be made 
to hold the council meeting some place outside 
of Washington. 

It is planned after signature of the agreement 
to lay before Congress a joint resolution which 
would authorize appropriations for United 
States participation in the work of the new or- 
ganization. 

In the course of the negotiation of this agi-ee- 
ment we in this Government have had an op- 
portunity to learn of the great importance which 
all the United Nations and associated nations 
place upon the best possible arrangements for 
the relief and rehabilitation of the victims of 
war. We have found each of these nations 
sincerely interested in making the greatest pos- 
sible contribution to such an effort, and I have 
been impressed with their desire to act jointly, 
through a single United Nations agency, in 
undertaking this great task. I believe that this 
unanimous desire to work together in meeting 
the urgent human needs of the victims of war 
augurs well for the futui'e of international co- 
operation in other fields. 

Eevised Text as of September 20, 1943 

[Released to the press September 24] 

The Governments or Authorities whose duly- 
authorized repi'esentatives have subscribed 
hereto, 

Being United Nations or being associated with 
the United Nations in this war, 

Being determined that immediately upon the 
liberation of any area by the armed forces of the 



211 



212 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Nations or as a consequence of retreat of 
tlie enemy the population thereof shall receive 
aid and relief from their sufferings, food, cloth- 
ing and shelter, aid in the prevention of pesti- 
lence and in the recovery of the health of the 
people, and that preparation and arrangements 
shall be made for the return of prisoners and 
exiles to their homes and for assistance in the 
resumption of urgently needed agricultural and 
industrial production and the restoration of es- 
sential services, 
Have agreed as follows: 

Article I 

There is hereby established the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion. 

1. The Administiation shall have power to 
acquire, hold and convey property, to enter into 
contracts and undertake obligations, to desig- 
nate or create agencies and to review the activi- 
ties of agencies so created, to manage undertak- 
ings and in general to perform any legal act ap- 
propriate to its objects and purposes. 

2. Subject to the provisions of Article VII, 
the purposes and functions of the Administra- 
tion shall be as follows : 

(a) To plan, coordinate, administer or ar- 
range for the administration of measures for the 
I'elief of victims of war in any area under the 
control of any of the United Nations through 
the provision of food, fuel, clothing, shelter and 
other basic necessities, medical and other essen- 
tial services; and to facilitate in such areas, so 
far as necessary to the adequate provision of 
relief, the production and transportation of 
these articles and the furnishing of these serv- 
ices. The form of activities of the Adminis- 
tration within the territory of a member govern- 
ment wherein that government exercises admin- 
istrative authority and the responsibility to be 
assumed by the member government for carry- 
ing' out measures plamied by the Administration 
therein shall be determined after consultation 



with and with the consent of the member gov- 
ernment. 

(b) To formulate and recommend measures 
for individual or joint action by any or all of 
the member governments for the coordination 
of purchasing, the use of ships and other pro- 
curement activities in the period following the 
cessation of hostilities, with a view to integrat- 
ing the plans and activities of the Administra- 
tion with the total movement of supplies, and 
for the purpose of achieving an equitable dis- 
tribution of available supplies. The Adminis- 
tration may administer such coordination meas- 
ures as may be authorized by the member 
governments concerned. 

(c) To study, formulate and recommend 
for individual or joint action by any or all of 
the member governments measures with respect 
to such related matters, arising out of its ex- 
perience in planning and performing the work 
of relief and rehabilitation, as may be proposed 
by any of the member governments. Such pro- 
posals shall be studied and recommendations 
formulated if the proposals are supported by a 
vote of the Council, and the recommendations 
shall be referred to any or all of the member 
governments for individual or joint action if 
approved by unanimous vote of the Central 
Committee and by vote of the Council. 

Abticle II 

MEMBERSHIP 

The members of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration shall be the 
governments or authorities signatory hereto and 
such other governments or authorities as may 
upon application for membership be admitted 
thereto by action of the Council. The Council 
may, if it desires, authorize the Central Com- 
mittee to accept new members between sessions 
of the Council. 

Wlierever the term "member government" is 
used in this Agreement it shall be construed to 
mean a member of the Administration whether 
a government or an authority. 



SEPTEMBER 2 5, 19 43 



213 



Article III 



THE COUNCIL 



1. Each member government shall name one 
representative, and such alternates as may be 
necessary, upon the Council of the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, 
which shall be the policy-making body of the 
Administration. The Council shall, for each of 
its sessions, select one of its members to preside 
at the session. The Council shall determine its 
own rules of procedure. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided by the Agreement or by action of the 
Council, the Council shall vote by simple 
majority. 

2. The Council shall be convened in regular 
session not less than twice a year by the Central 
Committee. It may be convened in special ses- 
sion whenever the Central Committee shall deem 
necessary, and shall be convened within thirty 
days after request therefor by one-third of the 
members of the Council. 

3. The Central Committee of the Council shall 
consist of the representatives of China, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States of America, 
with the Director General presiding, without 
vote. Between sessions of the Council it shall 
when necessary make policy decisions of an 
emergency nature. All such decisions shall be 
recorded in the minutes of the Central Commit- 
tee which shall be communicated promptly to 
each member government. Such decisions shall 
be open to reconsideration by the Council at 
any regular session or at any special session 
called in accordance with Article III, paragraph 
2. The Central Committee shall invite the par- 
ticipation of the representatives of any member 
government at those of its meetings at which ac- 
tion of special interest to such government is dis- 
cussed. It shall invite the participation of the 
representative serving as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Supplies of the Council at those of 
its meetings at which policies affecting the pro- 
vision of supplies are discussed. 



4. The Committee on Supplies of the Council 
shall consist of the members of the Council, or 
their alternates, representing those member gov- 
ernments likely to be principal suppliers of ma- 
terials for relief and rehabilitation. The mem- 
bers shall be appointed by the Council, and the 
Council may authorize the Central Committee 
to make emergency appointments between ses- 
sions of the Council, such appointments to con- 
tinue until the next session of the Council. The 
Committee on Supplies shall consider, formu- 
late and recommend to the Council and the 
Central Committee policies designed to assure 
the provision of required supplies. The Cen- 
tral Committee shall from time to time meet 
with the Committee on Supplies to review 
policy matters affecting supplies. 

5. The Committee of the Council for Europe 
shall consist of all the members of the Council, 
or their alternates, representing member govern- 
ments of territories within the European area, 
and such other members of the Council, repre- 
senting other governments directly concerned 
with the problems of relief and rehabilitation in 
the European area, as shall be appointed by the 
Council ; the Council may authorize the Central 
Committee to make these appointments in cases 
of emergency between sessions of the Council, 
such appointments to continue until the next 
session of the Council. The Committee of the 
Council for the Far East shall consist of all the 
members of the CouncU, or their alternates, rep- 
resenting member governments of territories 
within the Far Eastern area, and such other 
members of the Council representing other gov- 
ernments directly concerned with the problems 
of relief and rehabilitation in the Far Eastern 
area as shall be appointed by the Council ; the 
Council may authorize the Central Committee 
to make these appointments in cases of emer- 
gency between sessions of the Council, such ap- 
pointments to continue until the next session of 
the Council. The regional committees shall 
normally meet within their respective areas. 
They shall consider and recommend to the Coun- 



214 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cil and the Central Committee policies with 
respect to relief and rehabilitation within their 
respective areas. The Committee of the Coun- 
cil for Europe shall replace the Inter-Allied 
Committee on European post-war relief estab- 
lished in London on September 24, 1941 and 
the records of the latter shall be made available 
to the Committee for Europe. 

6. The Council shall establish such other 
standing regional committees as it shall consider 
desirable, the functions of such committees and 
the method of appointing their members being 
identical to that provided in paragraph 5 of this 
Article with respect to the Committees of the 
Council for Europe and for the Far East. The 
Council shall also establish such other standing 
committees as it considers desirable to advise it, 
and, in intervals between sessions of the Council, 
to advise the Central Coimnittee. For such 
technical standing committees as may be estab- 
lished, in respect of particular problems such as 
nutrition, health, agriculture, transport, repatri- 
ation, and finance, the members may be mem- 
bers of the Council or alternates nominated 
by them because of special competence in their 
respective fields of work. The members shall be 
appointed by the Council, and the Council may 
authorize the Central Committee to make 
emergency appointments between sessions of the 
Council, such appointments to continue until the 
next session of the Council. Should a regional 
committee so desire, subcommittees of the tech- 
nical standing committees shall be established by 
the technical committees in consultation with 
the regional committees, to advise the regional 
committees. 

7. The travel and other expenses of membei's 
of the Council and of members of its commit- 
tees shall be borne by the governments which 
they represent. 

8. All reports and recommendations of com- 
mittees of the Council shall be transmitted to 
the Director General for distribution to the 
Council and the Central Committee by the sec- 



retariat of the Council established under the 
provisions of Article IV, paragraph 4. 

Article IV 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL, 

1. The executive authority of the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
shall be in the Director General, who shall be ap- 
ponited by the Council on the nomination by 
unanimous vote of the Central Committee. The 
Director General may be removed by the Coun- 
cil on recommendation, by unanimous vote, of 
the Central Committee. 

2. The Director General shall have full power 
and authority for carrying out relief operations 
contemplated by Article I, paragraph 2 (a), 
within the limits of available resources and the 
broad policies determined by the Council or its 
Central Committee. Immediately upon taking 
office he shall in conjunction with the military 
and other appropriate authorities of the United 
Nations prepare plans for the emergency relief 
of the civilian population in any area occupied 
by the armed forces of any of the United Na- 
tions, arrange for the procurement and assem- 
bly of the necessary supplies and create or select 
the emergenc}' organization required for this 
purpose. In arranging for the procurement, 
transportation, and distribution of supplies and 
services, he and his representatives shall con- 
sult and collaborate with the appropriate au- 
thorities of the United Nations and shall, where- 
ever practicable, use the facilities made available 
by such authorities. Foreign voluntary relief 
agencies may not engage in activity in any area 
receiving relief from the Administration with- 
out the consent and unless subject to the regula- 
tion of the Director General. The powers and 
duties of the Director General are subject to the 
limitations of Article VII. 

3. The Director General shall also be respon- 
sible for the organization and the direction of 
the functions contemplated by Article I, 
paragraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c) . 



SEPTEMBER 25, 1943 



215 



4. The Director General shall appoint such 
Deputy Directors General, officers, expert per- 
sonnel, and staff at his headquarters and else- 
where, including field missions, as he shall find 
necessary, and he may delegate to them such 
of his powers as he may deem appropriate. The 
Director General, or upon his authorization the 
Dejjuty Directors General, shall supply such 
secretariat and other staff and facilities as shall 
be required by the Council and its committees, 
including the regional committees and subcom- 
mittees. Such Deputy Directors General as 
shall be assigned special functions within a 
region shall attend meetings of the regional 
standing committee whenever possible and shall 
keep it advised on the progiess of the relief and 
rehabilitation program within the region. 

5. The Director General shall make periodic 
reports to tlie Central Committee and to the 
Council covering the progress of the Admin- 
istration's activities. The reports shall be made 
public except for such poilions as the Central 
Committee may consider it necessary, in the in- 
terest of the United Nations, to keep confiden- 
tial ; if a report affects the interests of a member 
government in such a way as to render it ques- 
tionable whether it should be published, such 
government sliall have an opportmiity of ex- 
pressing its views on the question of publication. 
The Director General shall also arrange to have 
prepared periodic reports covering the activities 
of the Administration within each region and he 
shall transmit such reports with his comments 
thereon to the Council, the Central Committee 
and the respective regional committees. 

Abticxe V 

SUPPLIES AND RESOURCES 

1. In so far as its appropriate constitutional 
bodies shall authorize, each member govern- 
ment will contribute to the support of the Ad- 
ministration in order to accomplish the pur- 
poses of Article I, paragraph 2(a). The amount 
and character of the contributions of each mem- 
ber government under this provision will be 



determined from time to time by its appropriate 
constitutional bodies. All such contributions 
received by the Administration shall be ac- 
counted for. 

2. The supplies and resources made available 
by the member governments shall be kept in re- 
view in relation to prospective requirements by 
the Director General, who shall initiate action 
with the member governments with a view to as- 
suring such additional supplies and resources 
as may be required. 

3. All purchases by any of the member gov- 
ernments, to be made outside their own terri- 
tories during the war for relief or rehabilitation 
purposes, shall be made only after consultation 
with the Director General, and shall, so far as 
practicable, be carried out through the appro- 
priate United Nations agency. 

Article VI 

ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES 

The Director General shall submit to the 
Council an annual budget, and from time to 
time such supplementary budgets as may be re- 
quired, covering the necessary administrative 
expenses of the Administration. Upon ap- 
proval of a budget by the Council the total 
amount approved shall be allocated to the mem- 
ber governments in proportions to be determined 
by the Council. Each member government un- 
dertakes, subject to the requirements of its 
constitutional procedure, to contribute to the 
Administration promptly its share of the ad- 
ministrative expenses so determined. 

Article VII 

Notwithstanding any other provision herein 
contained, while hostilities or other military 
necessities exist in any area, the Administration 
and its Director General shall not undertake 
activities therein without the consent of the 
military command of that area, and unless sub- 
ject to such control as the command may find 
necessary. The determination that such hostil- 
ities or military necessities exist in any area shall 
be made by its military commander. 



216 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Article VULL 



AMENDMENT 



The provisions of this Agreement may be 
amended as follows : 

(a) Amendments involving new obligations 
for member governments shall require the ap- 
proval of the Council by a two-thirds vote and 
shall take effect for each member government 
on acceptance by it ; 

(b) Amendments involving modification of 
Article III or Article IV shall take effect on 
adoption by the Council by a two-thirds vote, 
including the votes of all the members of the 
Central Committee; 

(c) Other amendments shall take effect on 
adoption by the Council by a two-thirds vote. 

Article IX 

ENTRY INTO FORCE 

; This Agreement shall enter into force with 
respect to each signatory on the date when the 
Agreement is signed by that signatory, unless 
otherwise specified by such signatory. 

Article X 

. ■, withdrawal 

Any member government may give notice of 
withdrawal from the Administration at any 
time after the expiration of six months from 
the entry into force of the Agreement for that 
government. Such notice shall take effect twelve 
months after the date of its communication to 
the Director General subject to the member 
government having met by that time all finan- 
cial, supply or other material obligations ac- 
cepted or undertaken by it. 

STRATEGIC MATERIALS 

Agreement Regarding the 1944 Cuban 
Sugar Crop 

[Released to the press September 22] 

Announcement has been made of the signing 
on September 22, 1943 of the 1944 Cuban Sugar 
Purchase Contract, executed by Commodity 



Credit Corporation and the Cuban Sugar Stabi- 
lization Institute.^ Mr. J. B. Hutson, president 
of Commodity Credit Corporation, signed for 
the corporation, and for the institute the signers 
were Dr. Amadeo Lopez Castro, Secretary of the 
Presidency, Senator Jose Manuel Casanova, 
Seiior Gaston Godoy, Senor Teodoro Santieste- 
ban, Dr. Arturo M. Manas, and Dr. Oscar Al- 
bertini. 

In accordance with the recent agreement 
reached by officials of the Cuban Government 
and representatives of the Cuban sugar industry 
conferring with officials of Commodity Credit 
Corporation, the Department of State, and the 
Office of Economic Warfare, the contract (the 
largest ever negotiated) provides for the pur- 
chase by the corporation of a minimum of 4 
million short tons of 1944 crop Cuban sugar at 
2.65 cents a pound, f. o. b, Cuban ports. Other 
provisions closely parallel those established in 
the purchase of the 1943 sugar crop. 

The 1944 sugar crop is the third successive 
crop to be sold by the Cuban Government to 
the United States Government. The signing 
of the contract is further significant evidence of 
the cooperation of the two countries in the 
joint war effort. 

MILITARY AND NAVAL MISSIONS 

Agreement With Argentina RencMdng Agree- 
ment of June 29, 1940 

By an exchange of notes dated June 23, 1943 
and September 2, 1943 between the Secretary of 
State and the Argentine Ambassador in Wash- 
ington, the agreement of June 29, 1940 between 
the United States and Argentina relating to 
military aviation instructors, providing for the 
detail of United States Army Air Corps officers 
to assist the Argentine Ministry of War (Exec- 
utive Agreement Sex'ies 175), as renewed by 
the agreement of May 23 and June 3, 1941 ( Exec- 
utive Agreement Series 211), was renewed for a 
further period of two years commencing on 
June 29, 1943. 



' BuiXETiN of Aug. 21, 1943, p. 116. 



Publications 



Departivient of State 

During the quarter beginning July 1, 1943, 
the following publications have been released 
by the Department : ' 

1927. Digest of International Liiw (by Green Haywoofl 
Hackworth, Legal Adviser of the Department of 
State), vol. V, chs. XVI-XVIII [ch. XVI: 
Treaties; ch. XVII: Hemispheric Security; ch. 
XVIII: State Responsibility and International 
Claims], vi, 851 pp. $2.50. 

1936. The Trade Agreements Program : Countries With 
Which Trade Agreements Have Been Concluded, and 
With Which Negotiations Have Been Announced as 
of May 1, 1943. Map Series 7. 13 in. high X 22i,4 
in. wide. 50. 

1941. Reciprocal Trade : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Mexico — Signed at Washington 
December 23, 1942 ; effective January 30, 1943. Ex- 
ecutive Agreement Series 311. 81 pp. 15^. 

1946. Foreign Service List, May 1, 1943. [As an econ- 
omy measure, this publication, heretofore printed 
quarterly, will appear only three times a year (Janu- 
ary, May, and September) beginning with this issue.] 
Iv, 130 pp. Subscription, 50<t a year (65^ foreign) ; 
single copy, 20«(. 

1949. Cooperative Rubber Investigations in Costa Rica : 
Supplementary Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Costa Rica — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at San Jos6 April 3, 1943 ; effective April 
3, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 318. 5 pp. 5(i. 

1950. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of 
the Military School and of the Militai-y Academy of 
El Salvador : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and El Salvador Extending the Agree- 
ment of March 27, 1941 — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at San Salvador March 25, 1943 ; ef- 
fective March 27, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
316. 4 pp. 5<f. 

1952. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals : Cumulative Supplement No. 3, July 2, 1943, 
to Revision V of April 23, 1943. 50 pp. Free. 

1953. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. VIII, 
no. 209, June 26, 1943. 32 pp. 100." 

'Serial numbers which do not appear in this list 
have appeared previously or will appear in subsequent 
Usts. 



1954. Industrial Diamonds : Agreement and Exchange 
of Notes Between the United States of America, 
Canada, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland — Agreement signed at London 
March 26, 1943 : effective March 26, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 317. 15 pp. 100. 

1955. Diplomatic List, July 1943. ii, 113 pp. Subscrip- 
tion, $1 a year ; single copy, 10^. 

19.56. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

210, July 3, 1943. 7 pp. 100. 

1957. Publications of the Department of State (a list 
cumulative from October 1, 1929). July 1, 1943. iv, 
32 pp. Free. 

1959. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Norway — Effected by ex- 
changes of notes signed at Washington March 31, 
October 6, and December 23, 1942, and January 16, 
1943 ; effective December 24, 1942. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 319. 5 pp. 50. 

1960. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Poland — Effected by exchanges 
of notes signed at Washington March 30 and Decem- 
ber 14, 1942, January 26 and February 25, 1943 ; ef- 
fective January 27, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
320. 6 pp. 50. 

1962. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

211, July 10, 1943. 15 pp. 100. 

1964. Principles Applying to Mutual Aid for Defense: 
Preliminary Agreement and Exchange of Notes Be- 
tween the United States of America and Liberia — 
Agreement signed at New York June 8, 1943 ; effective 
June 8, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 324. 5 pp. 
5<(. 

1966. Principles Applying to the Provision of Aid to the 
Armed Forces of the United States : Supplementary 
Agreement Between the United States of America and 
the Netherlands — Effected by exchange of notes signed 

at Washington June 14, 1943 ; effective July 8, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 326. 3 pp. 50. 

1967. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

212, July 17, 19t3. 24 pp. 10(t. 

1968. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nation- 
als : Cumulative Supplement No. 4, July 30, 1943, to 
Revision V of April 23, 1943. 62 pp. Free. 

1969. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

213, July 24, 1943. 6 pp. 10«(. 



' Subscription, $2.75 a year. 



217 



218 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



1970. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Cuba — Effected by exctianges 
of notes signed at Washington November 6, 1942, 
January 9 and February 1, 1943 ; effective January 
11, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 321. 8 pp. 5«S. 

1971. Military Service: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Greece — Effected by exchanges 
of notes signed at Washington March 31, 1942, Feb- 
ruary 8 and March 2 and 16, 1943 ; effective March 2, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 322. 5 pp. 5<t. 

1972. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

214, July 31, 1943. 25 pp. 10<J. 

1973. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Brazil — Effected by exchanges 
of notes signed at Washington January 23, April 28, 
and May 24, 1943 ; effective April 30, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 327. 6 pp. 5^. 

1974. Diplomatic List, August 1943. ii, 113 pp. Sub- 
scription, $1 a year ; single copy, 10^. 

1975. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

215, August 7, 1943. 7 pp. 100. 

1976. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

216, August 14, 1943. 11 pp. 10<J. 

1977. Alaska Highway : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Canada — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Washington July 19, 1943. Execu- 
tive Agreement Series 331. 2 pp. 5<}. 

1978. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nation- 
als: Cumulative Supplement No. 5, August 27, 1943, 
to Revision V of April 23, 1943. 74 pp. Free. 

1979. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

217, August 21, 1943. 17 pp. 10«(. 

1980. Detail of Military Officer To Serve as Director of 
the Polytechnic School of Guatemala : Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Guatemala — 
Signed at Washington July 17, 1943; effective July 
17, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 329. 10 pp. 5(f. 

1981. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Mexico — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Mexico City January 22, 1943 ; 
effective January 22, 1943. Executive Agreement 
Series 323. 5 pp. 5(*. 

1982. Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. 
VIII, nos. 184-209, January 2-June 26, 1943. 22 
pp. Free. 

1984. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

218, August 28, 1943. 27 pp. 10«}. 

1985. Apportioning of Supplies of African Asbestos: 
Arrangement Between the United States of America 
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland, Approving Memorandum of Understand- 
ing Signed January 6, 1943 — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at London April 30, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 332. 7 pp. 5(f. 



1986. Military Service : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and El Salvador — Effected by ex- 
changes of notes signed at Washington April 3 and 
May 14 and 31, 1943; effective May 15, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 325. 10 pp. 50. 

1987. Diplomatic List, September 1943. ii, 114 pp. 
Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy lOi^. 

1988. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. EX, no. 

219, September 4, 1943. 10 pp. 10(*. 

1990. Our Foreign Policy in the Framework of Our Na- 
tional Interests : Radio Address by Cordell Hull, Sec- 
retary of State, September 12, 1943. 13 pp. 5^. 

1991. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

220, September 11, 1943. 14 pp. 10(#. 

1994. The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nation- 
als: Cumulative Supplement No. 6, September 24, 
1943, to Revision V of April 23, 1943. 89 pp. Free. 

1995. The Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, no. 

221, September 18, 1943. 32 pp. 100. 

Treaty Series 

984. Relinquishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China 
and the Regulation of Related Matters : Treaty and 
an Accompanying Exchange of Notes Between the 
United States of America and China — Signed at 
Washington January 11, 1943; proclaimed by the 
President of the United States May 24, 1943. 35 
pp. 50. 

The Department of State also publishes the 
slip laws and Statutes at Large. Laws are 
issued in a special series and are numbered in 
the order in which they are signed. Treaties 
also are issued in a special series and are num- 
bered in the order in which they are proclaimed. 
Spanish, Portuguese, and French translations, 
prepared by the Department's Central Trans- 
lating Office, have their own publication num- 
bers running consecutively from 1. All other 
publications of the Department since October 
1, 1929 are numbered consecutively in the order 
in which they are sent to press; in addition, 
some of them are subdivided into series accord- 
ing to general subject. 

To avoid delay, requests for publications of 
the Department of State should be addressed 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 
except in the case of free publications, which 
may be obtained from the Department. The 



SEPTEMBER 25, 1943 

Superintendent of Documents will accept de- 
posits against which the cost of publications 
ordered may be charged and will notify the 
depositor when the deposit is exhausted. The 
cost to depositors of a complete set of the pub- 
lications of the Department for a year will 
probably be somewhat in excess of $15. Orders 
may be placed, however, with the Superintend- 
ent of Documents for single publications or for 
one or more series. 



219 

The Superintendent of Documents also has, 
for free distribution, the following price lists 
which may be of interest : Foreign Relations of 
the United States; American History and 
Biography; TariflF; Immigration; Alaska and 
Hawaii ; Insular Possessions ; Laws ; Commerce 
and Manufactures ; Political Science ; and Maps. 
A list of publications of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce may be obtained from 
the Department of Commerce. 



0. S. GOVERNHENT PRINTING OFFICEi l»43 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing OfiBce, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents — — - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PtIELISHED WEEKLY WITH TKB APPBOVAL OP THE DIEECTOE OF THE BUEBAC OF THE BUDGET 



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