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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



APRIL 1, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 249— Publication 2094 



C 



ontents 




The War Page 

Participation of the United States in Emergency Edu- 
cational and Cultural Rebuilding of the War-Torn 

United Nations , 299 

Censorship 300 

Third Anniversary of Constitution of New Government 

in Yugoslavia 301 

Civil Aviation 301 

The Proclaimed List: Revision VII 301 

Award of the Medal for Merit 301 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in London . 302 

American Republics 

Death of the Ambassador of Peru : 

Statement by the President 302 

Statement by the Secretary of State 302 

Distinguished Visitors From the Other American 

Republics 302 

The Department 

Petroleum Division: Departmental Order 1245 of 

March 27, 1944 303 

Aviation Division: Departmental Order 1246 of March 

28, 1944 303 

Appointment of Officers 304 

The Foreign Service 

Death of Clayson W. Aldridge 304 

Death of Theodore C. Weber 304 



[over] 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF 00CUMENT§ 

MAY 6 1944 







07lienj5-CONTIMJED 



Treaty Information Page 

Lapse of Agreements With Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic Relating to Reciprocal Concessions in the 

Haitian-Dominican Commercial Treaty 305 

Trade Agreement With Iran 305 

Agreement for United Nations Rehef and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration 305 

Operation of Pan-American Airways Over British 

Columbia 306 

Jurisdiction Over Criminal Offenses Committed by 

Armed Forces 306 

Inter-American Institute of Agi'icultural Sciences . . 306 

Publications 306 

Legislation 307 



The War 



PARTICIPATION OF THE UNITED STATES IN EMERGENCY EDUCATIONAL 
AND CULTURAL REBUILDING OF THE WAR-TORN UNITED NATIONS 



[Released to the press March 31] 

War is destroying the educational and cultural 
organizations of the countries occupied by the 
enemy. Universities, schools, libraries, museums, 
and scientific laboratories have been wrecked or 
greatly damaged. Books and equipment have 
been stolen. Retreating Axis armies are likely 
to do still more injury. 

Teachers, students, and scientists have been sin- 
gled out for special persecution. Many have been 
imprisoned, dei^orted, or killed — particularly those 
refusing to collaborate with the enemy. In fact, 
the enemy is deliberately depriving his victims of 
those tools of intellectual life without which their 
recovery is impossible. 

Educational disorganization and economic and 
social distress are connected, one intensifying the 
other. Increasingly the war-torn countries are 
likely to suffer declines of their standards of liv- 
ing and health to critically low levels. The whole 
people will suffer, but in a special degree the chil- 
dren. Such conditions unavoidably tend toward 
internal disorder and external difficulties and may 
create new threats to the economic stability and 
political security of the world, upon which, in fact, 
depend the well-being and peace of the American 
people. 

The peoples who survive this ordeal will need 
help- — in order to help themselves. They are fac- 
ing enormous problems in rebuilding educational 
and cultural life without essential facilities and 
without adequate trained personnel. Plans for 
these tasks must be made now and the work im- 
dertaken as soon as possible. 

Because of the unprecedented crisis which must 
be faced in this regard, the Department of State 
believes that the participation of the United States 

581X65 — 44 1 



Government in an international program for the 
rebuilding of essential educational and cultural 
facilities of the war-torn countries in the period 
immediately following hostilities is an important 
service in the national interest and in the interest 
of international security and that steps looking to 
this participation should be taken. 

In the Department's study to date of the kind 
of program that would be practicable and desir- 
able, certain conclusions have already become clear. 
It would be unwise for this Government to un- 
dertake to apply, much less impose, a foreign edu- 
cational program or system in any liberated coun- 
try or to develop a program for the placement of 
American teachers in the schools of these coun- 
tries or for the preparation of textbooks in the 
United States for use in such schools. 

In order to help the war-torn countries to help 
themselves in the rebuilding of essential educa- 
tional and cultural facilities, the Department pro- 
jDoses to collaborate for the time being with the 
Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in 
London and to cooperate with the nations repre- 
sented in this Conference, with the other United 
Nations, and with the nations associated with the 
United Nations in the war in forming, as soon as 
practicable, a United Nations organization for 
educational and cultural reconstruction. It recog- 
nizes that a significant effort has already been made 
abroad and that useful work has been begun in the 
shaping of an emergency program to meet this 
need. 

This program, it now appears, may consist of 
(1) assistance in the restocking of essential edu- 
cational facilities, especially with books and scien- 
tific and other teaching aids, (2) assistance in the 
providing of opportunities for the training of care- 

299 



300 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



fully selected foreign students in American educa- 
tional institutions, (3) assistance in reestablishing 
essential library facilities, and (4) assistance in 
the recovery and restoration to their rightful own- 
ers of educational, scientific, artistic, and archival 
materials looted by the Axis countries. 

In this program, as in all other activities in edu- 
cational and related fields, the Department will 
seek the advice and cooperation of other agencies 
and organizations, both governmental and private. 
It will attempt to operate in a manner equally ad- 
vantageous to all the countries concerned. This 
reciprocal relationship is basic in any sound pro- 
gram of educational and cultural relations. 

This statement concerning the participation of 
the United States in emergency restoration of es- 
sential educational and cultural facilities of the 
war-torn United Nations deals with only one of the 
important educational and cultural problems in 
the international field which are receiving active 
consideration. Also of very great significance is 
the long-range furtherance of educational and cul- 
tural relations among nations. The Department 
wishes increasing]}' to encourage democratic inter- 
national cooperation in developing reciprocal and 
desirable educational and cultural relations among 
the nations and peoples of the world, especially 
looking toward the promotion of free and friendly 
intellectual intercourse among them in the interest 
of international peace and security. 

No attempt is made here to deal with the im- 
portant questions concerning the educational and 
cultural jDrograms of the Axis countries. 

CENSORSHIP 

The Secretary of State was asked on March 27, 
1944 whether he would comment on the statement 
made by Governor Dewey in his addi-ess on 
March 24 that "when we find the State Depart- 
ment requesting the British censor to suppress po- 
litical news sent to American papers by American 
correspondents abroad, it begins to amount to a 
deliberate and dangerous suppression of news at 
home." 

The Secretary made the following reply to this 
inquiry : 

"Governor Dewey is 100 percent wrong in the 
accuracy of his statement. All my life I have not 



only talked about a free press, I have fought for it. 
When these rumors of jjolitical censorship in Eng- 
land started in November 1942 I wrote Bj'ron 
Price and cabled Ambassador Winant to tell Mr. 
Eden my conviction that 'fundamentally the long- 
range interests of international friendship are best 
served by permitting the people of any country to 
know what people in friendly countries are think- 
ing and saying about them, however unpleasant 
some of those opinions may be.' Both Mr. Price 
and Mr. Eden expressed full agreement. 

"These i-umors cropped up again while I was 
in Florida last month, and Mr. Stettinius made 
unequivocally clear that that is still our policy. 
His statement was published widely at the time. 

"I am glad to see a press dispatch from London 
yesterday stating that the British Government 
fully understands, and shares, our opposition to 
political censorshij) and our conviction that plain 
speaking is more healthful than suppression." 

[Released to the press March 28] 

At the Secretary of State's press conference 
March 28 a correspondent called attention to an 
article in the New York Times from London which 
stated that the London office took no exception to 
Secretary Hull's statement yesterday, but that 
there had been repeated instances of objections 
from Washington to stories by American corre- 
spondents about diplomatic developments which 
had been passed in regular routine through the 
British censorship. 

Commenting on this Secretary Hull said: 
"The statement I gave you yesterday is entirely 
accurate. We have never requested the British 
for any kind of censorsliip whatsoever except on 
grounds of military security or for the safety of 
high officials while traveling. There seems to be a 
confusion between the censorship of news in the 
possession of the press and the avoidance of pre- 
mature disclosures to the press of confidential in- 
formation. The disclosure of confidential infor- 
mation is a matter between the governments con- 
ducting negotiations, et cetera, and upon which 
there is usually consultation before publication. 
We ourselves never think of publishing something 
in that connection witliout first conferring with 
the other government and having an agreement. 
That is a matter for decisions of the governments 
iind not a matter of censorship. 



APRIL 1, 1944 



301 



"Where there has occurred in the past premature 
disclosure to the press by unauthorized officials, 
usually anonymous, on either the part of this Gov- 
erinnent or the British Government, each Govern- 
ment has customarily called the attention of the 
other Government to the infringement of agree- 
ment between the two Governments. Any such 
action is in no way related to the question of cen- 
sorship upon which our position is unequivocal 
and clear. 

"Any claim that the State Department has re- 
quested the British censor to suppress political 
news is therefore entirely wrong." 

THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF CONSTITUTION 
OF NEW GOVERNMENT IN YUGOSLAVIA 

[Released to the press March 28] 

The President has sent the following message 
to King Peter II of Yugoslavia, now in London : 

March 27. 1944. 
Three years ago today the Yugoslav people ral- 
lied to begin their gallant struggle against the 
forces of oppression and tyranny, a struggle that 
has become epic in the minds and hearts of Amer- 
icans. In greeting Your Majesty on this anni- 
versary I extend to the embattled people of Yugo- 
slavia an expression of America's admiration and 
friendship. 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt 

CIVIL AVIATION 

[Released to the press March 31] 

Mr. Adolf A. Berle, Jr., Assistant Secretary of 
State, and Mr. Edward Warner, Vice Chairman 
of the Civil Aeronautics Board, are going to 
London for an exploratory exchange of views on 
civil aviation with His Majesty's Government in 
the United Kingdom as a first step toward pre- 
liminary international discussion this summer. 

It is expected that a group composed of Mr. 
Joseph C. Grew, Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State, Mr. L. Welch Pogue, Chairman of the 
Civil Aeronautics Board, Mr. William A. M. Bur- 
den, Assistant Secretary of Commerce, and others 
will conduct similar exploratory conversations 
with representatives of the U.S.S.R. in Washing- 
ton within the next fortnight. 



THE PROCLAIMED LIST: REVISION VII 

[Released to the press March 20] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney 
General, the Secretary of Commerce, the Admin- 
istrator of the Foreign Economic Administration, 
and the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, 
pursuant to the proclamation by the President of 
July 17, 1941 providing for the Proclaimed List 
of Certain Blocked Nationals, on March 23, 1944 
issued Revision VII of the Proclaimed List. Re- 
vision VII supersedes Revision VI, dated October 
7, 1943, and consolidates Revision VI with its six 
supplements. 

No new additions to or deletions from the Pro- 
claimed List are made in this revision. Certain 
minor changes in the spelling of names listed are 
made. 

Revision VII follows the listing arrangement 
used in Revision VI. The list is divided into two 
parts: Part I relates to listings in the American 
republics and part II to listings in countries other 
than the American republics. Revision VII con- 
tains a total of 1.5,061 listings, of which 10,146 are 
in part I and 4,915 in part II. 

AWARD OF THE MEDAL FOR MERIT 

[Released to the press March 28] 

The President has awarded the Medal for Merit 
to ^Ir. John C. Garand, head engineer. Ordnance 
Department, U.S. Ai-my, and to Dr. Albert Hoyt 
Taylor, chief physicist. Naval Research Labora- 
tory, for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the 
performance of outstanding services. 

The citation accompanying the award of the 
Medal for Merit to Mr. Garand reads as follows : 

"For exceptionally meritorious conduct in the 
performance of outstanding services in designing 
and perfecting the United States Rifle Caliber .30, 
Ml. Mr. Garand has devoted more than sixteen 
years, i.e., from 1919 to 1936, at the Springfield 
Armory, Springfield, Massachusetts, developing 
this rifle with great initiative, ceaseless patience,, 
skill and technological brilliance. 

"Mr. Garand's devotion to his work has been 
complete and his attitude towards his accomplish- 



581165—44- 



302 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



merits one of modesty and patriotic unselfishness. 
The United States Rifle Caliber .30, Ml. popularly 
known as the Garand, capable of 100 rounds a min- 
ute, gives a single Ml rifle platoon today more fire 
power than an entire company had in 1918. The 
father of this rifle has rendered an exceptional 
service to his country and contributed conspicu- 
ously to the common war effort." 

Mr. Garand also worked on the improvement of 
this rifle during the later years and brought it to a 
still higher state of perfection. 

The citation for Dr. Taylor is as follows : 

"For exceptionally meritorious conduct in the 
performance of outstanding services in the line of 
his profession as member of the staff of the Naval 
Research Laboratory. Undiscouraged by fre- 
quent handicaps, Doctor Taylor labored tirelessly 
in a course of intensive research and experimenta- 
tion which eventually resulted in the discovery 
and development of radar. His foresight, tech- 
nical skill, and steadfast perseverance contributed 
in large measure to the timely introduction of a 
scientific device which has yielded the United 
States Navy a definite advantage over her enemies 
during the present war." 

The presentation of the medals was made by the - 
Secretary of State as chairman of the Medal for 
Merit Board. The other members of the Board 
are the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the 
Navy. 



American Republics 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



CONFERENCE OF ALLIED MINISTERS 
OF EDUCATION IN LONDON 

[Released to the press April 1] 

The Secretary of State announced on April 1 
that Dean C. Mildred Thompson of Vassar College 
had been appointed a member of the American 
delegation to collaborate with the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education in London. 



DEATH OF THE AMBASSADOR OF PERU 
Statement by the President 

[Released to the press April 1] 

I am deeply shocked and grieved at the news of 
the sudden death of the Ambassador of Peru, Don 
Manuel de Freyre y Santander, who has been my 
'very good personal friend for many years. 

His long career as representative of Peru in 
Washington was characterized by an unusual and 
sympathetic understanding. During his years 
here he represented his country ably and effec- 
tively. 

I join with his many friends everywhere in 
mourning him. 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press April 1] 

I have just called at the Peruvian Embassy 
where I presented my sincere condolences to the 
family and to the staff of the late Peruvian Am- 
bassador, His Excellency Don Manuel de Freyre y 
Santander. The death of Senor de Freyre fills me 
with a deep sense of personal loss. He was a 
valued friend and counselor. 

An able representative of Peru to the United 
States, like his father before him, this descendant 
of one of the Liberators throughout his long i-esi- 
dence among us — as a boy, as a young man, and 
finally as the distinguished Dean of the Diplo- 
matic Corps — contributed greatly to the good rela- 
tions between Peru and the United States. 

The death of the Peruvian Ambassador deprives 
his country of a public servant of the highest order 
at a time when the freedom-loving people through- 
out the world need leaders of his outstanding 
qualities. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press March 28] 

The Reverend Roberto Saboia de Medeiros, S.J., 
of Sao Paulo, Brazil, has arrived in Washington 



APRIL 1, 1944 



303 



as a guest of the Department of State, under whose 
auspices he will study social welfare in the United 
States. 

Father Saboia de Medeiros, who is president of 
the Social Action Association and editor of the 
Social Service Review, has founded clinics, work- 
ers' clubs, and theatrical groups, and is planning 
schools of industrial chemistry and business man- 
agement to train young Brazilians for the expected 
industrialization of Brazil. One of the objects of 
his present trip is to recruit in the United States 
sevei'al faculty members for proposed schools of 
industrial chemistry and business education at Sao 
Paulo. 

Father Saboia de Medeiros believes that the 
material strength of this country has been suffi- 
ciently emphasized abroad and that it is necessary 
now to bring to other countries a knowledge and 
understanding of the ideals which have motived 
this country's growth and brought it to its present 
position in the world. Consequently, his trip 
bears a dii'ect relation to an exposition he plans 
to have in Sao Paulo of books, moving pictures, 
exhibits, and other materials illustrative of the 
ideals and spirit of the United States. 



The Department 



PETROLEUM DIVISION 

Departmental Order 1245 of March 27, 1944 ' 

There is hereby established in the Office of 
Economic Affairs a Petroleum Division which shall 
have responsibility for the initiation, develop- 
ment and coordination of policy and action in all 
matters pertaining to petroleum and petroleum 
products and, within that scope, responsibility for 
liaison with intergovernmental agencies concerned 
with international problems in this field and with 
the Petroleum Administration for War, the For- 
eign Economic Administration and other depart- 
ments and agencies which are or may hereafter be 
concerned with petroleum and petroleum products. 
Since the Department's policy with regard to 



petroleum and with regard to other commodities 
must be consistent, it is important that this Divi- 
sion collaborate closely with the Commodities 
Division. Other divisions concerned should also 
be consulted as occasion may arise. 

Mr. Charles B. Rayner is temporarily designated 
Acting Chief of the Petroleum Division in addi- 
tion to and concurrent with his duties as Adviser 
on Petroleum Policy in the Office of Economic 
Affairs. 

Mr. James C. Sappington 3d is designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Petroleum Division. 

The routing symbol of the Petroleum Division 
is PED. 

Departmental Order no. 1218 is amended ac- 
cordingly and the following changes are made: 
Under Office of Economic Affairs 3. Comoaodities 
Division (a) ,- delete the phrase petroleum and pe- 
troleum products", (d), delete the phrase "the 
Office of Petroleum Administrator for War", sec- 
ond paragraph, delete the designation of Mr. Sap- 
pington as Assistant Chief .of the Commodities 
Division. 

CORDELL HtJLL 

AVIATION DIVISION 

Departmental Order 1246 of March 28, 1944 ' 

In order to amplify and clarify the functions 
and responsibilities of the Aviation Division of the 
Office of Transportation and Communications, 
page 10 of Departmental Order No. 1218 of Jan- 
uary 15, 1944, which set forth the functions and 
responsibilities of the Aviation Division,* is 
amended to read as follows : 

1. Aviation Division. 

The Aviation Division shall have responsibility 
for initiating, developing and coordinating policy 
and action in all matters pertaining to : 

(a) International aviation, including the de- 
velopment and operation of airlines and air trans- 
portation, the acquisition of landing rights abroad, 
and matters relating to airports and airways. 



' Effective Mar. 24, 1&44. 

' Buixehn of Jan. 15, 1944, p. 53. 

' Effective Mar. 27, 1944. 

* Bin-LETiN of Jan. 15, 1944, p. 49. 



304 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(b) Discussions with foreign countries on mat- 
ters relating to civil aviation and the drafting of 
agreements on this subject. 

(c) Assembling basic material and otherwise 
preparing for international aviation conferences. 

(d) Eepresentation of the Department on the 
International Technical Committee of Aerial 
Legal Experts (CITEJA), the United States Na- 
tional Commission of the Permanent American 
Aeronautical Commission (CAPA) and other in- 
ternational bodies dealing with aeronautical 
affairs. 

(e) Matters of policy relating to international 
air mail. 

(f) Presentation to the Munitions Assignments 
Committee (Air) or other appropriate allocation 
authorities of foreign requests for aircraft and 
collaboration with other offices and divisions of 
the Department and of other Departments and 
agencies of the Government concerned in the ex- 
port of aircraft. 

(g) Training of foreign aircraft and ground 
personnel in the United States and abroad, includ- 
ing collaboration and coordination with the Civil 
Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Admin- 
istration and other Departments and agencies of 
the Government and with foreign agencies engaged 
in like activities. 

(h) Obtaining military and civil flight permits 
for United States aircraft proceeding abroad and 
for foreign aircraft visiting the United States and 
its possessions on request of diplomatic missions 
accredited to the United States. 

(i) Screening of non-military requests for 
travel priorities for civilian personnel and the 
presentation of these requests to military author- 
ities. 

(j) Eepresentation on interdepartmental com- 
mittees considering problems involving aviation. 

(k) Miscellaneous matters involving aviation in 
general including liaison with the Department of 
Commerce, Civil Aeronautics, Civil Aeronautics 
Administration, the War, Navy, and Post Office 
Departments, Defense Supplies Corporation and 
otlier Departments and agencies of the Govern- 
ment. 



In carrying out these functions and responsibil- 
ities, the Aviation Division shall work in close co- 
operation with all other interested divisions of the 
Department. 

Mr. Stokely W. Morgan is hereby designated 
Chief and Mr. Joe D. Walstrom Assistant Chief of 
the Aviation Division. Mr. Stephen Latchford 
will continue to serve as Adviser on Air Law in 
this Division. 

The routing symbol of the Aviation Division 
is AD. 

CoRDEUL Hull 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1247 of March 29, 1944, 
effective March 27, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. Livingston T. Merchant as Chief of 
the Eastern Hemisphere Division. 

By Departmental Order 1248 of March 29, 1944, 
effective March 27, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. Walter N. Walmsley, Jr. as Acting 
Chief of the Division of River Plate Affairs, in ad- 
dition to his duties as Chief of the Division of 
Brazilian Affairs. 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF CLAYSON W. ALDRIDGE 

[Released to the press April 1] 

The Department of State has learned with regret 
of the death of Clayson W. Aldridge, a Foreign 
Service officer, who entered the Foreign Service 
March 20, 1925. Mr. Aldridge died at the Naval 
Hospital. Corona. Calif., on March 30, 1944. 

DEATH OF THEODORE C. WEBER 

[Released to tbe press April 1] 

The Department of State has learned with regret 
of the death on Marcli 30 of Theodore C. Weber, 
a Foreign Service officer, who entered the Foreign 
Service March 23, 1942 and was appointed vice 
consul at Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic, 
August 11. 1943. 



APRIL 1, 1944 



305 



Treaty Information 



LAPSE OF AGREEMENTS WITH HAITI AND 
THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC RELATING 
TO RECIPROCAL CONCESSIONS IN THE 
HAITIAN -DOMINICAN COMMERCIAL 
TREATY 

[Released to the press March 27] 

In notes exchanged between the United States 
and Haiti and the United States and the Domini- 
can Republic during 1942, the United States agreed 
not to claim the benefit of reductions in customs 
duties granted by Haiti and the Dominican Re- 
public to each other on a restricted number of 
products specifically provided for in the Haitian- 
Dominican commercial treaty signed on August 
26, 1941. 

That commercial treaty expired on March 24, 
1944 and in consequence tliereof the above-men- 
tioned agreements in the notes exchanged by the 
United States and Haiti and the Dominican Re- 
public automatically lapsed on the same date. 
These notes were exchanged between the United 
States and Haiti on February 16 and 19 ^ and on 
April 25,- 1942, and between the United States and 
the Dominican Republic on November 14, 1942.^ 

TRADE AGREEMENT WITH IRAN 

[Released to the press March 31] 

On March 31, 1944 the President proclaimed 
the trade agreement between the United States and 
Iran, with an accompanying exchange of notes, 
signed at Washington on April 8, 1943. 

Article XIV of the agreement provides that it 
shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following 
the exchange of the proclamation of the President 
of the United States for the instrument of ratifica- 
tion of the Government of Iran. Following the 
exchange of the proclamation and the instrument 
of ratification the President will issue a supple- 
mentary proclamation setting forth the date of 
entry into force. 

The English text of the agreement, with the ac- 
companying exchange of notes, was made public 
in the Department's press release 133 of April 8, 



1913. An analysis of the agreement was printed 
in the Buixetin of April 10, 1943, p. 299. 

AGREEMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS RELIEF 
AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

Notification.s and documents relating to ap- 
proval or ratification of the Agreement for United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
signed in Washington on 'November 9, 1943,^ have 
been received by the Government of the United 
States of America as follows : 

The Ambassador of the Dominican Republic 
transmitted to the Secretary of State, with a note 
of February 15, 1944, the instrument of ratification 
of the agreement signed by the President of the 
Dominican Republic on January 24, 1944 and two 
certified copies of the Gaceta Oficial No. 6016 of 
January 1, 1944, in which is published Resolution 
457 of the National Congress approving the 
agreement. 

The Ambassador of El Salvador informed the 
Secretary of State, by a note of March 16, 1944, 
that the National Legislative Assembly of El 
Salvador ratified the agreement on December 23, 
1943 and that the decree of ratification was pub- 
lished in the Diario Oficial of El Salvador on Jan- 
uary 10, 1944. 

The Minister of Ethiopia transmitted to the 
Secretarj' of State, with a communication of Feb- 
ruary 14, 1944, the instrument of ratification of the 
agreement signed by the Emperor of the Imperial 
Ethiopian Government on January 18, 1944. 

The Ambassador of Honduras informed the Sec- 
retary of State, by a note of January 27, 1944, that 
(Ml January 15, 1944 the Executive Power of Hon- 
duras promulgated Decree 13 of the National Con- 
gress of Honduras approving the agreement. 

The Ambassador of Mexico informed the Secre- 
tary of State, by a note of February 8, 1944, that 
the decree of the Chamber of Senators of the Con- 
gress of the United Mexican States approving the 
agreement was published in the Diario Ofxiial of 
his Government on January 7, 1944. 



' Executive Agreement Series 238. 
- Executive Agreement Series 252. 
^ Executive Agreement Series 274. 
■* Executive Agreement Series 352. 



306 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Secretary of Stiite has acknowledged the re- 
ceipt of these communications and has informed 
the other governments or authorities concerned and 
the Dii-ector General of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration of the ap- 
proval or ratification of the agreement by the 
above-mentioned countries. 

On March 28, 1944 the President approved an 
act entitled "Joint Resolution To enable the United 
States to participate in the work of the United 
Nations relief and rehabilitation organization" 
(Public Law 267, 78th Cong.). The law author- 
izes appropriations not to exceed $1,350,000,000 for 
participation by the United States in the work 
of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration. 

OPERATION OF PAN-AMERICAN AIRWAYS 
OVER BRITISH COLUMBIA 

An agreement has been eilected between the Gov- 
ernment of the United States and the Government 
of Canada, by an exchange of notes at Ottawa 
dated June 12, 1943 and January 26, 1944, whereby 
Canada grants permission to the Pan-American 
Airways system to operate, for a period of six 
months from January 26, 1944, over British Co- 
lumbia and to stop at Prince George for refueling 
while en route between Seattle, Wash., and Juneau, 
Alaska. The authorization , granted under the 
present agreement and any renewal thereof in no 
way commits the Canadian Government with re- 
spect to post-war commercial aviation policy. 

JURISDICTION OVER CRIMINAL OFFENSES 
COMMITTED BY ARIMED FORCES 

An agreement regarding jurisdiction of offenses 
committed by members of the armed forces of tlie 
United States in Canada has been effected by an 
exchange of notes at Ottawa dated December 27, 
1943, February 10, 1944, and March 9, 1944 between 
the United States and Canada. 

Agreements regarding criminal offenses com- 
mitted by members of armed forces have also been 
concluded by the United States with China,^ 
Egypt, Great Britain,^ and India. 



INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

The White House announced ^ that on April 1, 
1944 the President transmitted to the Senate, with 
a view to receiving the advice and consent of that 
body to ratification, a Convention on the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
which was opened for signature at the Pan Amer- 
ican Union on January 15, 1944. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Plantatiou Rubber Investigations : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Nicaragua Continuing in 
Force an Agreement of January 11, 1941, and Text of 
Agreement of January 11, l'.)41 — Effected by excliange 
(if notes signed at Managua June 23 and 26, 1943 ; ef- 
fective July 1, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 357. 
Publication 2085. 8 pp. 5f. 

HeaUii and Sanitation Program: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Colombia — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Bogota October 23, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 369. Publication 2080. 5 
pp. 5^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : Re- 
vision VII, March 23, 1944, Proniulgated Pursuant to 
Proclamation 2497 of the President of July 17. 1941. 
Publication 20S1. 374 pp. Free. 

Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. IX, nos. 
210-235, July 3-December 25, 1943. Publication 2087. 
19 pp. Free. 

Other Government Agencies 

■'Iran in 1943", by John A. Calhoun, Third Secretary and 
Vice Consul of the American Legation at Tehran, Iran. 

"Turkey in 1943", by Earle C. Taylor, Commercial Attach^ 
of the American Embassy at Ankara, Turkey. 

"Canadian Farm Sentiment : Today's Dominant Trends", 
by Clifford C. Taylor, Agricultural Attache, and Irven 
M. Eitrelm, Third Secretary and Vice Consul of the 
American Embassy at Ottavpa, Canada. 

The first two articles listed above will be found 
in the April 1, 1944 issue of the Department of 



' Executive Agreement Series 360. 
''Executive Agreement Series 355. 
' White House press release, Apr. 1, 1944. 



APRIL 1, 1944 ' 307 

Commerce publication entitled Foreign Commerce 
Weekly. The article on "Canadian Farm Senti- 
ment" will be found in the April 8, 1944 issue of 



Legislation 



that periodical. Copies of Foreign Commerce Amending Section 323 of the NationaUty Act of 1940. 

Weekly may be obtained from the Superintendent H. Kept. 1310, 78th Cong., on H. R. 2522. [Favorable re- 

of Documents, Government Printing Office, for the Ex^tension^f Lend-Lease. H. Kept. 1316, 78th Cong., on 

price of 10 cents each. H.R. 4254. [Favorable report.] 12 pp. 



D. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi 1944 



For sale by the Superintendeut of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



/ UO D, I rj ^ ^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



fc 



APRIL 8, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 250— Publication 2099 



ontents 




The War Page 
The Importance of International Commerce to Pros- 
perity 311 

Accidental Bombing of Schaffhausen 314 

Soviet Statement Regarding Rumania 315 

Petroleum Questions: Preliminary Discussions by the 

United States and the United Kingdom 315 

Albania's Struggle for Freedom: Statement by the 

Department of State 315 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 1 to 

Revision VII 315 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

The International Labor Conference at Philado>Iphia: 

By Otis E. Muliiken . 316 

Inter- American Commission of Women 325 

Europe 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Minister of 

the Union of South Africa 326 



American Ri!publics 

Celebration in Chile of the Day of the Americas . . . 327 
Visit to the United States of the Head of the Municipal 

Library of Habana 327 

The Far East 

Return From China of United States Technical Expert . 327 

The Department 

Financial Matters: Departmental Order 1252 of April 

1, 1944 328 

[over] 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOl.. 

MAY 6 1944 







OMteTlfS-CONTINUED 

The Foreign Service Page 

Death of Edwin Lowe Neville 329 

Consular Offices 329 

General 

Blair-Lee House 329 

Treaty Information 

Agreement for United Nations Kelief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration 329 

Final Act of International Whalmg Conference .... 329 

Inter-American Indian Institute 330 

Renewal of Naval Mission Agreement With Peru . . . 330 

Publications 330 

Legislation 331 



The War 



THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE TO PROSPERITY 



[Released to the press April 2] 

The text of a broadcast entitled "The Impor- 
tance of International Commerce to Prosperity", 
which was arranged by the World Wide Broad- 
casting Foundation and which was given by 
Mr. Harry C. Hawkins, Director of the Office of 
Economic Affairs of the Department of State, over 
Station WINX, Washington, D.C., April 2, 1944, 
follows : 

Announcer: Plenty of jobs, security, perma- 
nent prosperity — these are the things we want 
most for ourselves, for our figliting men when 
they return, for our children, after we have won 
the war. Yet the United States could not long 
remain an island of prosperity in a world sea of 
poverty. 

To show us why this is so, this week's "Beyond 
Victory" program, brought to you by the World 
Wide Broadcasting Foundation of Boston and 
the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 
calls upon one of the leading officials of the United 
States Department of State, Mr. Harry C. Haw- 
kins. For many years Mr. Hawkins has been 
working closely with Secretary Hull in carrying 
out the reciprocal-trade agreements. He is now 
the Director of the Office of Economic Affairs of 
the State Department. 

We take you to Washington, where Mr. Haw- 
kins will be interviewed by Mr. William Harris. 

Harris: Mr. Hawkins — to start right off with 
a hard question — Do you think that after the war 
our first consideration should be the economic wel- 
fai'e of other countries, bearing in mind how im- 
portant that welfare is to permanent peace? Or 
do you think we ought to concentrate on the enor- 
mous problems of employment and production 
that we're going to have right here at home ? 

58228& 44 1 



Hawkins: Well, Mr. Harris, if we had to make 
such a choice that would be a hard question. How- 
ever, in my opinion we can and should do every- 
thing in our power to expand employment and 
production here in the United States after the 
war. And at the same time we can and should help 
other nations to expand their employment and 
production. If we do that, I believe we will have 
the best possible basis for an enduring peace. 

Harris: That sounds very encouraging, Mr. 
Hawkins — in spite of that ominous "if". But how 
can we help other nations expand their employ- 
ment and production ? By removing all our tariff 
barriers ? 

Hawkins: Oh, no. That would be too drastic 
and too one-sided. What we do need is a tariff 
and foreign-trade policy that will call for inter- 
national cooperation to bring about a substantial 
reduction of trade barriers, theirs as well as ours, 
in the real, long-run interests of all countries. 

Harris: And if we don't adopt such a policy? 

Hawkins: If we and all other countries don't 
consider each other's long-run trade interests, we'll 
all soon be engaged in trade warfare as we have in 
the past, and all our hard lessons will have taught 
us nothing. 

Harris : Well, by trade warfare, Mr. Hawkins, 
do you mean when one nation discriminates against 
another by refusing to admit its goods? 

Hawkins: Not necessarilj', Mr. Harris. Trade 
warfare doesn't always start with a deliberately 
hostile act; it doesn't always start with discrim- 
ination against some particular nation; and it 
doesn't always mean flatly refusing to accept 
goods. What happens more often is that a coun- 
try imposes high tariffs on imports, usually in an 
attempt to benefit some of its domestic producers 
and without regard to how the tariff is going to 

311 



312 

aflFect foreign producers or even how it's going to 
affect its own export interests in the long run. 
The result is that producers in other countries are 
deprived of outlets for their products, and so those 
countries set up trade barriers of their own against 
imports. This hits still other countries and they 
in turn take similar action. Some countries begin 
to make unfair and discriminatory deals, and so 
unemployment and economic sickness begin to 
spread thi'oughout the world. 

Harris : And that's the way wars are caused. 
Hawkins: That's one thing that can contribute 
to them. We've seen that when a country gets 
starved out economically, its people are all too 
ready to follow the first dictator who may rise up 
and promise tliem all jobs. Trade conflict breeds 
non-cooperation, suspicion, bitterness. Nations 
which are economic enemies are not likely to re- 
main political friends for long. 

Harris: Well, that's a grim picture you've 
painted, but I know enougli about international 
trade to realize that that's just what has happened 
sometimes in the past. Let's all earnestly hope it 
doesn't happen again. 

Hawkins: It is with that hope that the nations 
of the world — outside the Axis — have been turn- 
ing to trade cooperation, to giving some consid- 
eration to the other fellow's interests, and thereby 
looking out for each one's own ultimate benefit. 

Harris: Well, exactly what does that mean in 
terms of tariffs? 

Hawkins: A good example is the trade-agree- 
ments law which we have had in effect since 1934. 
This law authorizes the President to negotiate and 
conclude with other comitries reciprocal agree- 
ments which provide for reduction, within definite 
limits, of our tariffs which unduly hamper their 
exports to us, in return for reductions by them in 
their trade barriers against our exports. 

Harris: That sounds pretty com23licated to me. 

Hawkins : Well, some aspects of it are technical, 
of course, but let me give you an example, although 
it is far too simple to be an accurate picture of all 
that a trade agreement is and how it is made. At 
one time the United States had a high tariff on 
imports of Brazil nuts. Perhaps our imports of 
these nuts were not very important in our whole 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

national economy, but they were very important 
to the producers in Brazil, and our tariff limited 
their sales and profits in this country. At the same 
time. United States automobile and parts manu- 
facturers wanted to sell more of their products in 
Brazil, but the Brazilian tariff on such articles cut 
down the profits or limited the volume of such 
sales. In our reciprocal-trade agreement with 
Brazil we reduced our tariff on Brazil nuts, while 
they reduced their tariffs on automobiles and 
parts. 

Harris: I can see how that kind of trade co- 
operation would make for better feeling between, 
countries and therefore would contribute to world , 
peace. But will trade cooperation help solve our 
own post-war problems in this country? After 
all, we can't help being interested in our own 
prosperity. 

Hawkins : That is just what I am talking about. 
I believe that we must look at post-war trade prob- 
lems realistically and not sentimentally. And 
from a purely self-interested point of view, trade 
cooperation will, in my opinion, help us a great 
deal. As you know, we've got to plan on enor- 
mously increased production in this comitry after 
the war, and the American domestic market can't 
absorb all that production indefinitely. There 
won't be any question about our needing gi'eatly 
increased foreign markets. 

Harris : And I sujDpose American producers are 
well aware of that? 

Hawkins: Oh, yes — very well aware. Take 
agriculture, for example. The Farm Bureau 
Federation came out last spring with the statement 
that if farmers are to maintain their production 
after the war, their export outlets absolutely must 
be restored. 

Harris: That's very interesting. I shouldn't 
have supposed that farmers would be so much in- 
terested in exports. 

Hawkins: Certainly they are. Many people 
don't realize, Mr. Harris, that about half of all this 
country's exports in normal times have been agi'i- 
cultural products. In fact, more than half of one 
crop — cotton — has been sold in foreign markets in 
many past years. Large percentages of our wheat, 
fruit, tobacco, and corn (when it has been trans- 



APRIL 8, 1944 



313 



formed into pork and lard) are exported when 
tliere are foreign markets for them. 

Harris: Well, I confess I hadn't realized that 
agi'iculture has such a big stake in exports. I do 
know that American industry is talking about the 
necessity for large-scale foreign trade if business is 
to expand after the war. By the way, how about 
labor, Mr. Hawkins? How does it feel about 
trade cooperation ? 

H.\WKiNS : Many labor leaders feel the same way 
industry and agriculture do. Mr. William Green, 
president of the A. F. of L., has urged the renewal 
of the trade-agreements law we were discussing 
just now, because he says labor is determined to 
assure for itself a security based upon full employ- 
ment in an expanding industry and trade which, 
in turn, require foreign markets. 

Harris : Then I gather tliat agriculture, indus- 
try, and labor are all agreed there is a potential 
world market for our goods. Can you give us 
any idea as to how much of a market that might 
be, Mr. Hawkins? 

Hawkins : Well, there are more than two billion 
people in the world outside the United States — 
and they're all potential customers of ours if we 
will think of them that way. Of course, only a 
relatively few have living standards and purchas- 
ing power comparable to our own. The vast ma- 
jority are very poor, according to our standards, 
and individually they can buy very little, but in the 
aggregate their purchasing power is enormous. 

Harris: And I suppose that as their living 
standards improve, the world market for Ameri- 
can goods will expand, too. 

Hawkins: Certainly, although its expansion 
will depend on a variety of things, such as the 
investment of capital, the development of natural 
resources, and so forth. But basic to everything 
else is the ability to trade in their products. 

Harris : Mr. Hawkins, why do people often seem 
more enthusiastic about the exporting angle of 
foreign trade than about the importing angle ? 

Hawkins: Well, Mr. Harris, in any business 
deal most people are more eager to sell than to 
buy. However, the reason a person wants to sell 
something is to get the wherewithal to buy other 
things he wants. Countries are like individuals 



in that respect. The United States, to be specific, 
can't go on selling its products abroad indefinitely 
unless it accepts the products of other countries in 
return. If other countries can't get United States 
dollars by selling their goods in the United States 
they can't buy our things. 

Harris : Some people are afraid of flooding our 
own markets with cheap imports from foreign 
countries with living standards lower than ours 
and in that way throwing Americans out of jobs 
or cutting their wages down to the low foreign 
levels. AVhat about that fear ? 

Hawkins: AVe must remember, first, that com- 
petitive ability depends on efficiency of production. 
Low living standards and low wages do not neces- 
sarily mean efficient production — in fact, misery 
and efficiency seldom go together. Actually, al- 
though many of our industries pny the highest 
wages in the world, their efficiency is also the high- 
est in the world, and therefore the unit cost of 
their product, including wages, is so low that they 
can compete successfully in the world market 
wliere wages are far lower. 

Harris : However, I suppose there are some in- 
dustries which really do benefit from high pro- 
tective tariffs. 

Hawkins: They are relatively few. A promi- 
nent labor economist has made some interesting 
studies along this line. He found that of 45 mil- 
lion people employed in this country in 1940, only 
2 or 3 million were actually jDroducing goods 
which, without tariff protection, might meet seri- 
ous foreign competition in the domestic market. 
The vast majority — 42 or 43 million jDcople — are 
actually harmed by excessive tariffs and other 
trade restrictions and would gain from expansion 
of both our import and our exjDort trade. 

Harris: In other words, a minority of 5 or 6 
percent of our population has been benefiting from 
high tariffs at the expense of 42 million of our 
people and their families who would be better off 
if their industries had more foreign markets ! It 
seems to me that you've made out a very fine case 
for trade cooperation, Mr. Hawkins, and you've 
also made the same point for international eco- 
nomics which our guest on this program, Mr. Paul 
Hoffman of the Committee for Economic Develop- 



314 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULMTIN 



ment, made last -week for domestic economics. Mr. 
Hoffman emphasized that many of our economic 
ills result from a basic sense of fear, and it seems 
that may be true of nations, also. 

But here's one thing I'd like to ask you, Mr. 
Hawkins. I know industrialists are counting on a 
large backed-up demand in this country for con- 
sumer goods after the war. In some cases it may 
be months or years before that demand is satisfied 
and producers can turn their attention to foreign 
markets. That being the case, is there any very 
pressing need for improving our trade relations 



now! 



Hawkins : Yes, we would benefit by improving 
them as soon as possible, partly because of the 
foreign-relief programs ahead in the immediate 
post-war period. The American interest con- 
cerned here is that of the American taxpayer, who 
is already heavily burdened and will be anxious to 



keep down the costs of these programs. He will 
therefore have a direct interest in getting the war- 
impoverished peoples of the world off the dole and 
onto a pi'oductive self-sustaining basis as soon as 
possible. 

All that I have said comes to this, Mr. Harris. 
From whatever angle we view the post-war situa- 
tion, trade policies of nations, particularly indus- 
trial nations, are of key importance. Our farmers, 
our manufacturers, our workers, all of us as tax- 
payers and consumers, have a big stake in an ex- 
panding world market. And, as I said at the 
beginning, trade policies will be important in de- 
termining whether this time we win and main- 
tain the peace. 

Harris : Thank you, Mr. Hawkins. Our guest 
on this "Beyond Victory" program has been Mr. 
Harry C. Hawkins, Director of the Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs of the Department of State. 



ACCIDENTAL BOMBING OF SCHAFFHAUSEN 



[Released to the press April 3] 

The Secretary of State on April 3, 1944 made 
the following statement regarding the accidental 
bombing by American planes of the Swiss city of 
Schaffhausen on April 1 : 

"I desire to express my own and all Americans' 
deep regret over the tragic bombing by American 
planes of the Swiss City of Schaffhausen on 
April 1. 

"I have been in close touch with the Secretary 
of War regarding this matter, and he tells me 
investigations which he has so far been able to 
complete indicate that in the course of operations 
against the Nazi war machine a group of our 
bombers, due to a chain of events negating the 
extensive precautions which had been taken to 
prevent incidents of this character, mistakenly 
flew over and bombed Swiss areas located on the 
north side of the Rhine. 

"Secretary Stimson has expressed to me the deep 
regret which he and the American air forces feel 
over this tragedy. He has also asked me to 
assure the Swiss Government that every precau- 



tion will be taken to prevent in so far as is humanly 
possible the repetition of this unfortunate event. 
General Spaatz, accompanied by Ambassador 
Winant, has already called on the Swiss Charge 
d'Affaires in London and expressed the deep re- 
gret of himself and the men in his command at the 
accidental bombing of Schaffliausen. 

"Naturally this Govermnent will make appro- 
priate reparations for the damage resulting from 
this unfortunate event in so far as that is humanly 
l^ossible. 

"I am informing the Swiss Minister in the fore- 
going sense and am instructing the American 
ilinister in Bern to do likewise with the Swiss 
Government." 

[Released to the press April 3] 

The Secretary of State has received the follow- 
ing message, dated April 3, 1944, from the Amer- 
ican Ambassador in London, the Honorable John 
G. Winant: 

"This noon General Spaatz and I called at the 
Swiss Legation and expressed to Mr. Girardet, 



APRIL 8, 1944 



315 



who is Charge d'Affaires in the absence of the 
Minister, our deep regret at the accidental bomb- 
ing of Schaffhausen by our air force. General 
Spaatz told Mr. Girardet how sincerely sorry our 
airmen were that this had happened." 

SOVIET STATEMENT REGARDING 
RUMANIA 

[Released to the press April 3] 

In answer to a question concerning the state- 
ment made by the People's Commissar for For- 
eign Affairs, Mr. V. M. Molotov, regarding 
Rumania, the Secretary of State said on April 
3,1944: 

"I have noted with considerable interest the 
statement made by Mr. M(jlotov in connection 
with the military operations now being conducted 
in Rumania. This statement makes clear to the 
Rumanian people that the main business of the 
armies of Soviet Russia is to defeat the enemy 
in the field. The political assurances which the 
statement contains should help the Rumanians 
to see that their own ultimate interests require 
that German forces be driven from their country." 

PETROLEUM QUESTIONS 

Preliminary Discussions by the United States and 
the United Kingdom 

[Released to the press April 3] 

The Department of State announced, on March 
7, 1944,' that the Governments of the United 
States and the United Kingdom would undertake 
preliminary and exploratory discussions on pe- 
troleum questions and that these discussions would 
be, in tlie first instance, on an expert technical 
level. 

The British Government is announcing that 
the group which will conduct these discussions 
on its behalf and which is about to depart for 
Washington is headed by Sir William Brown, 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., C.B.E., and that the other 
members are Commodore A. W. Clarke, D.S.O., 
R.N.; Sir William Fraser, C.B.E.; Sir Frederick 

' Bulletin of Mar. 11, 1944, p. 238. 



Godber; F. Harner; J. H. Le Rougetel, C.M.G., 
M.C.; and F. C. Starling, C.B.E. The secretary 
of the British group will hz Mr. V. Butler. 

The membership of the expert technical group 
which will conduct the preliminary exploratory 
discussions for the United States Government will 
be announced within the next few days. 

ALBANIA'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM 

Statement by the Department of State 

[Released to the press April 6] 

On April 7, 1939 — Good Friday — the forces of 
Fascism struck at Albania in sudden and shame- 
less aggression, and Mussolini proclaimed its 
incorporation into Fascism's so-called empire. Al- 
though the fall of Mussolini and the lifting of 
the Fascist yoke brought not freedom but Nazi 
occupation, the Albanian people have not since 
that Good Friday five years ago abandoned their 
struggle to throw out the invader and regain their 
freedom. 

As is well known, the Government of the United 
States never, recognized the Fascist annexation of 
Albania. Today it looks to the Albanian people 
to unite their efforts against the Nazi enemy, thus 
hastening the restoration to their country of the 
freedom they so ardently desire. 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 1 TO REVISION VII 

[Released to the press April 8] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Administrator of the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration, and the Acting Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs, on April 8, 1944, issued 
Cumulative Supplement 1 to Revision VII of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
promulgated March 23, 1944. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 1 contains 69 
additional listings in the other American repub- 
lics and 83 deletions. Part II contains 51 addi- 
tional listings outside the American republics and 
17 deletions. 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE AT PHILADELPHIA 

By Otis E. Mulliken "■ 



An earlier article^ describing the International 
Labor Organization concluded by posing the 
question : What is the future of the I.L.O. ? That 
question will be answered in large measure by the 
actions taken by the representatives of over 40 na- 
tions who will convene in Philadelphia on April 
20, 1944. It is possible, however, by an examina- 
tion of the proposals the Office has suggested for 
consideration at the Conference to arrive at some 
tentative conclusions. 

The following agenda was adopted by the Gov- 
erning Body at its meeting in London : 

I. Future policy, program, and status of the 

International Labor Organization. 

II. Kecommendations to the United Nations for 

present and post-war social policy. 

III. The organization of employment in the 
transition from war to peace. 

IV. Social security : principles, and problems 
arising out of the war. 

V. Minimum standards of social policy in 

dependent territories. 

VI. Reports on the application of conventions 
(article 22 of the Constitution). 

VII. Director's report. 

In connection with the first five items on the 
agenda, the Office has prepared reports which in- 
clude a declaration of aims, seventeen suggested 
resolutions and recommendations, and one draft 
convention. This article is concerned with a brief 
description of the principles and programs con- 
tained in these proposals. 

It is not intended to offer any critical analysis 
or discussion of the proposals but simply to pro- 
vide for the readers of the Bulletin a summary 
outline of the subjects to be discussed at Philadel- 
phia. The language of the recommendations 
themselves or of the Office reports is frequently 
employed. In this article attention will be di- 
316 



rected primarily toward those items on the agenda 
which bear upon the future policy and status of 
the I.L.O. and upon its recommended solutions for 
some of the more important post-war problems. 

I. Future Policy, Program, and Status of the 
I.L.O. 

The social objectives of fr^e peoples find sum- 
mary expression in the Atlantic Charter,^ espe- 
cially in the fifth point which states the desire 
"to bring about the fullest collaboration between 
all nations in the economic field with the object of 
securing, for all, improved labor standards, eco- 
nomic advancement and social security". At the 
London meeting of the Governing Body, Mr. 
Bevin, the British Minister of Labor and National 
Service, referring to the I.L.O. said, "I look upon 
it as the body whicli will be charged with the duty 
of assisting Governments through its advice to 
give effect to Article 5 of the Atlantic Charter". 
He continued to state later that, "This at once con- 
stitutes an opportunity but equally a responsi- 
bility for the International Labor Organization". 

The Organization has accepted this charge and 
the first item on the agenda is a solemn declara- 
tion restating the aims and purposes of the I.L.O. 
The Office has proposed a draft declaration which 
summarizes so well the viewpoint and the objec- 
tives of tlie Organization that it is reproduced 
here. It should be noted, however, that this is 
not a final statement of aims and purposes but 
a draft which the delegates will consider. The 
proposed declaration reads as follows: 

"The General Conference of the International 
Labour Organisation, meeting in its Twenty-sixth 
Session in Philadelphia, hereby adopts, this 



" The author of this article Is Acting Chief of the Divi- 
sion (if Labor Relations, Department of State. 
= BTJLLjn-iN of Mar. 18, 1944, p. 2.57. 
' Executive Agreement Series 236. 



APRIL S, 1944 



317 



day of in the year nineteen hundred and 

forty-four, the present Declaration of the aims 
and purposes of the International Labour Organi- 
sation and of the principles which should inspire 
the policy of its Members. 

"The Conference reafBrms the fundamental 
principles on which the Organisation is based and, 
in particular, that labour is not a commodity ; that 
freedom of expression and of association are es- 
sential to sustained progress; that poverty any- 
where constitutes a danger to prosperity every- 
where, and that accordingly the war against want, 
while it requires to be carried on with unrelenting 
vigour within each nation, equally requires con- 
tinuous and concerted international effort in which 
the representatives of workers and employers, en- 
joying equal status with those of Governments, 
join with them in free discussion and democratic 
decision witli a view to the promotion of the com- 
mon welfare. 

"Believing that experience has fully demon- 
strated the truth of the statement in the Preamble 
to the Constitution of the International Labour 
Organisation that lasting peace can be established 
only if it is based on social justice, the Conference 
affirms that all human beings, irrespective of race, 
creed or sex, have the right to pursue both their 
material well-being and their spiritual develop- 
ment in conditions of freedom and dignity, of eco- 
nomic security and equal opportunity, that the 
attainment of the conditions in which this shall 
be possible must constitute the central aim of na- 
tional and international policy, and that all poli- 
cies and measures, in particular those of an eco- 
nomic and financial character, must be judged in 
this light and accepted only in so far as they may 
be held to promote and not to hinder the achieve- 
ment of this fundamental objective. 

"The Conference declares that it is accordingly 
a responsibility of the International Labour Or- 
ganisation to scrutinise all international economic 
and financial policies and measures in the light of 
this fundamental objective and that in discharging 
the tasks entrusted to it the International Labour 
Organisation may consider all relevant economic 
and financial factors and include in its decisions 
and recommendations any provisions which it con- 
siders appropriate. 

582288 — 14— — 2 



"Amony the matters to which urgent attention 
should be given by the International Labour Or- 
ganisation, the Conference attaches special im- 
portance to the following : 

"The maintenance of full employment and the 

raising of standards of living ; 
"The employment of workers in the occupations in 
which they can have the satisfaction of giving 
the fullest measure of their skill and attain- 
ments and make their greatest contribution to 
the common well-being and, as a means to the 
attainment of this end, the provision under ade- 
quate guarantees for all concerned of facilities 
for training and the transfer of labour, includ- 
ing migration for employment and settlement; 
"The application of policies in regard to wages 
and earnings, hours and other conditions of 
work calculated to ensure a just share of the 
fruits of progress to all, and the assurance of a 
minimum living wage to all in need of such 
protection ; 
"The effective recognition of the right of collective 
bargaining, the co-operation of management and 
labour in the continuous improvement of pro- 
ductive efficiency, and the collaboration of work- 
ers and employers in the initiation and applica- 
tion of social and economic measures; 
"The extension to the whole population of social 
security measures providing a basic income in 
case of inability to work or to obtain work, and 
providing comprehensive medical care; 
"The provision of adequate protection for the life 

and health of workere in all occupations; 
"Provision for child welfare and maternity pro- 
tection, and the provision of adequate nutrition, 
housing and facilities for recreation and culture ; 
"The assurance of equality of educational and 
vocational opportunity. 

"Confident that the fuller and broader utilisa- 
tion of the world's productive resources necessary 
for the achievement of the objectives set forth in 
this Declaration can be secured by effective inter- 
national and national action, including for example 
measures to avoid severe economic fluctuations, to 
maintain consumption at a high level, to ensure 
the productive investment of all savings, to pro- 
mote the economic and social advancement of the 
less developed regions of the world, to assure 



318 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



greater stability in world prices of primary prod- 
iicts, and to promote a high and steady volume of 
international trade, the Conference pledges the 
full co-operation of the International Labour Or- 
ganisation with such international bodies as may 
be entrusted with a share of the responsibility for 
this great task and for the promotion of the health, 
education and well-being of all peoples. 

"The Conference affirms that the principles set 
forth in this Declaration are fully applicable to 
all peoples everywhere and that, while the manner 
of their application must be determined with due 
regard to the stage of social and economic develop- 
ment reached by each people, their progressive 
application to peoples who are still dependent, as 
well as to those who have already achieved self- 
government, is a matter of concern to the whole 
civilised world." 

It would be easy to comment at length upon the 
implications and significance of this statement. 
A few remarks must suffice. It will be noted that 
the statement affirms the indivisibility of the pros- 
perity of all peoples and that war against want 
requires not only unrelenting vigor within each 
nation but also continuous and concerted interna- 
tional action. The affirmation that the attain- 
ment of conditions which will make possible ma- 
terial well-being and spiritual development in con- 
ditions of freedom and dignity, economic security, 
and equal opportunity "must constitute the central 
aim of national and international policy" repeats 
a thought expressed by President Roosevelt in ad- 
dressing the Conference in 1941. At that time 
he said: "We have learned too well that social 
problems and economic problems are not separate 
watertight compartments in the international any 
more than in the national sphere. In interna- 
tional as in national affairs economic policy can 
no longer be an end in itself. It is merely a means 
for achieving social objectives". 

The stated responsibility of the Organization to 
examine economic and financial policies and meas- 
ures in the light of the social objectives should also 
be noted. The British Foreign Secretary, Mr. 
Eden, had told the Governing Body in December : 
"Your Organization will no doubt scrutinize plans 
for economic and financial reconstruction from the 
point of view of the social objectives at which you 



aim, and in doing this you will help to make sure 
that we steadily pursue the road which the United 
Nations have chosen to travel". 

The maintenance of full employment and the 
raising of standards of living are listed first among 
the matters to which special importance is at- 
tached. These and the other matters listed cover 
a wide range of necessary activity, and the Office 
recognizes that other international organizations 
are likely to have the primary responsibility for 
the necessary international action — ^lience, it 
pledges its cooperation to these other agencies. 

The I.L.O. recognizes that the functional ap- 
proach to the problem of world order at present 
being followed raises directly the question of its 
relation to other international organizations. It 
directs attention to its cooperative activities in 
the past and points out that it has been the con- 
sistent policy of the Organization to establish 
close collaboration with new agencies as they are 
established and to offer any assistance which the 
experience of the I.L.O. may be able to contribute 
to their successful development. The Office states 
that it is increasingly acknowledged that what- 
ever functional bodies may be established will 
have to be effectively coordinated in a general 
pattern of international economic organization 
and that the I.L.O., as the watchdog of those who 
would be the first to suffer from a failure to 
maintain full employment, has a primary interest 
in the achievement of harmonious working rela- 
tions between all the constituent functional parts 
of the group of social and economic institutions 
which the world's needs require. At the same 
time attention is directed to the unique position 
of the I.L.O. as a tripartite organization and its 
particular competence to function as a world par- 
liament of social and economic affairs. 

Several sections of the second resolution pro- 
posed under this item on the agenda deal with 
this pi'oblem of the relation of the I.L.O. to other 
international organizations. These sections pro- 
vide that the Conference and the Governing Body 
may invite public international organizations to 
send representatives to participate in or attend 
all or any of their meetings or parts thereof, 
without vote, on such conditions as they may 
respectively determine and that the Governing 



APRIL 8, 1944 



319 



Body may invite such organizations to be repre- 
sented on any committee or at any regional, tech- 
nical, or special conferences convened under the 
auspices of the I.L.O. In addition, the Govern- 
ing Body may enter into agreements for the main- 
tenance of joint committees. 

It is recognized that the decisions of the Con- 
ference will necessarily constitute only a starting- 
point of the post-war program of action of the 
Organization. The Office in report I outlines 
some of the elements out of which an adequate 
program of international action in the social field 
can be evolved. There are problems of the organ- 
ization of employment which involve the estab- 
lishment of effective i^ublic employment services, 
the regular ization of employment, provision for 
disabled workers, training, retraining, and voca- 
tional guidance. Many phases of social insurance 
require further development. Some of the as- 
pects of wage policy will require further exam- 
ination. Not only are there such questions as 
the method of wage payment, guaranteed weekly 
wages, the principles of fixing minimum wages, 
but it is suggested that there might be inter- 
national fair-wages clauses in connection with 
projects financed by international loans. 

There will be housing problems after the war 
involving questions of minimum standards of con- 
struction and the organization and financing of 
housing for low-income groups. In the rebuilding 
of factories, attention should be directed to condi- 
tions of health, safety, and well-being for the 
workers who will be employed in them. Inter- 
national health and safety standards are suggested 
and the formulation of model safety codes. Much 
remains to be done in the field of industrial health 
and hygiene. 

Among the groups of workers to whom special 
attention should be directed are young persons, 
women, maritime workers, agricultural workers, 
and professional workers. Important problems 
of migration and settlement are certain to arise. 
In addition to imjDroving the administration of 
social legislation, labor statistics — upon which 
successful administration is so dependent — -must 
also be improved. 

To carry out the aims of the I.L.O. and its sug- 
gested future pi-ogram a resolution is proposed 



to provide for a number of new practices. The 
sections of this resolution referring to relations 
with other international organizations have been 
noted. Although it is not possible to describe all 
of the proposed changes in machinery and pro- 
cedures, mention may be made of two of the more 
important which bear on the future development 
of the I.L.O. 

The Organization has already met with success 
in experimenting with regional action. The most 
successful experiment has been the holding of the 
First and Second Labor Conferences of American 
States in Santiago, Chile, in 1936 and in Habana, 
Cuba, in 1939. The Organization has long been 
considering holding similar conferences in the Far 
East. To facilitate this type of activity the resolu- 
tion provides that the Governing Body may con- 
vene special conferences for particular regions, for 
dependent territories, and for groups of territories 
confronted with common or comparable social or 
economic problems and that it may adopt statutes 
defining the constitutional powers and procedure 
of regional or functional bodies designed to op- 
erate within the framework of the I.L.O. 

The reference to functional bodies ties in with 
a proposal recently made by the British Govern- 
ment for the establislunent by the I.L.O. of indus- 
trial committees for the main world industries. 
This proposal and the desire to make more ade- 
quate provision for the problems of special groups 
of workers such as agricultural, maritime, and 
professional workers have led to the inclusion in 
the resolution of a proposal to establish such spe- 
cial committees. 

The balance of the "Proposed Resolution Con- 
cerning the Constitutional Practice of the Inter- 
national Labor Organization" comprises a number 
of teclinical and procedural pi'ovisions which, al- 
though important, are of less general interest and 
will be passed over m this resume. Similarly, only 
the titles of the other three resolutions suggested 
under the first item of the agenda will be men- 
tioned. They are : "Proposed Resolution Concern- 
ing the Inclusion in New or Revised National Con- 
stitutions of Provision for the Consideration by 
Legislative Authorities of the Decisions of the 
International Labour Conference", "Proposed 
Resolution Concerning Facilities for the Efficient 



320 

Discharge of the Kesponsibilities Entrusted to the 
International Labour Organisation", and "Pro- 
posed Resolution Concerning the Place of the Next 
Session of the International Labour Conference". 

II. Recommendations to the United Nations for 
Present and Post-war Social Policy 

The second item on the agenda affords the Con- 
ference an opportunity to assist the United Na- 
tions in amplifying their social aims and to offer 
suggestions for the solution of the many social 
problems which remain before us in the war and 
which will face us in the post-war period. The 
Office suggests four resolutions for the considera- 
tion of the Conference. The first is concerned 
with the economic policies for the attainment of 
social objectives, the second with the social pro- 
visions in the peace settlement, the third with the 
government and administration by the United 
Nations of Germany and other totalitarian coun- 
tries in Europe, and the fourth with measures 
for the protection of transferred foreign workers 
and of foreign workers' organizations. 

The first subject on which the I.L.O. proposes to 
make recommendations to the United Nations is 
the economic policy for the attainment of social 
objectives. The jiroposed resolution is divided into 
two parts: international policy and national 
policy. 

The Conference proposes to welcome the creation 
of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration and to urge all states concerned to 
cooperate actively in the tasks entrusted to it. It 
is also proposed to urge the setting up of a per- 
manent international organization, of the type pro- 
vided for in resolution II of the Final Act of the 
United Nations Conference on Food and Agricul- 
ture, in an effort to raise the level of nutrition and 
improve the efficiency of agricultural production 
and distribution. 

For varying periods after the termination of 
hostilities many essential commodities and trans- 
port facilities will be in short supply and inter- 
national arrangements will be needed to insure a 
fair allocation of available supplies and to prevent 
excessive price movements; it is therefore recom- 
. mended that the Governments of the United Na- 
tions continue in operation, for such periods as 
serious shortages may persist, the existing ma- 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 

chinery of international coordination and control. 
In recognition of the fact that a satisfactory 
international monetary system is essential to the 
full development of economic relations between 
nations and consequently to the raising of stand- 
ards of living, approval is given to the establish- 
ment of effective international machinery, and it 
is urged that in establishing such machinery the 
authorities be required to have regard in apply- 
ing their policies to the effect of their decisions 
on employment and living standards. Similarly, 
a proposal for an international bank of reconstruc- 
tion and development is approved, and it is sug- 
gested that the terms of all contracts for develop- 
ment works financed by loans of the bank should 
include appropriate provisions regarding the wel- 
fare and working conditions of the labor employed. 
The resolution further suggests that the United 
Nations should take vigorous action to promote the 
expansion of trade by elimination of all forms of 
discriminatory treatment in international com- 
merce and the reduction of tariffs and other trade 
barriers and that the United Nations should facil- 
itate the coordination, through international ma- 
chinery, of the commercial policies of all countries 
for the purpose of promoting a steady expansion 
of world trade. Consideration should also be 
given to insuring the availability to all purchas- 
ers of adequate supplies of essential raw materials 
and foodstuffs at prices which afford a reasonable 
return to the efficient producer. Consumers as 
well as producers should be represented in such 
international arrangements, and workers engaged 
in the production of such goods should be assured 
fair remuneration, satisfactory working condi- 
tions, and adequate social-security protection. 

Specific attention is directed to the oil prob- 
lem. The resolution states that the United Nations 
should institute international arrangements for 
the development of the world's oil resources in the 
interests of all peof)Ies on a basis that will afford 
fair compensation to producing countries and fa- 
cilitate the attainment by the peoples of those 
countries of standards of social and economic well- 
being having a reasonable relation to the value of 
their contribution to the world's economy. 

In connection with international migration the 
resolution provides that the United Nations should 
initiate measures to facilitate, by the provision of 



APEIL 8, 1944 



321 



necessary technical and financial assistance, regu- 
lated migration of labor and settlers in accordance 
with the economic development of the various 
countries. 

The final provision with respect to international 
policy recognizes the existence of differences of 
opinion with regard to the advantages and disad- 
vantages of international industrial agreements 
concerning such matters as patent rights, the con- 
trol of production, and the allocation of markets. 
It states, however, that full publicity should be 
given to the existence and operation of such agree- 
ments and that they should be registered with an 
international authority to which full information 
should be submitted. 

Simultaneously with consideration of the inter- 
national policies just described, there should be 
prepaz'ed and applied national policies aiming at 
full employment, social security, and rising stand- 
ards of living. Plans should be made for the 
rapid and orderly conversion of the national econ- 
omies from wartime to peacetime requirements. 
Continuation of price control and rationing may 
be necessary to prevent a price inflation which 
would be followed by collapse and wide-spread 
unemployment. The productive elBciency of the 
economic system should be promoted by encour- 
aging enterjjrise and technological progress. All 
appropriate measures should be taken to maintain 
a high and steady level of economic activity and 
employment by sustaining the volume of demand 
for consumers' goods and by insuring the pro- 
ductive investment of all savings. 

In using the term •peace settlement the Office 
points out that it should be understood in its 
widest interpretation and not limited to the politi- 
cal instrument whereby what is technically a state 
of war becomes technically a state of peace. 
Eather, the term is applied to all the measures 
which may be taken between some or all of the 
United Nations and which will settle the condi- 
tions of the post-war world. Such agreements 
may be general in scope or may deal only with 
some specific problem, possibly purely technical or 
organizational. The meeting in Philadelphia 
might itself be considered one of a series of such 
conferences. 



In making' recommendations for the social pro- 
visions of the peace settlement, the Conference will 
be fulfilling a function performed by the Labor 
Commission of the Peace Conference of 1919 which 
submitted for inclusion in the Peace Treaty the 
Constitution of the I.L.O. and in particular the 
general principles included in the Preamble and 
in article 41. Following these provisions as a 
model the Office proposes to include in the peace 
settlement an adaptation of the statement of aims 
and purposes referred to above. It also stipulates, 
as a provision of this recommendation, that all 
arrangements for economic cooperation between 
any of the United Nations should be framed with 
due regard to their social repercussions. 

In connection with dependent territories it is 
suggested that the United Nations apply the prin- 
ciple that all policies affecting dependent terri- 
tories shall be primarilj' directed to the well-being 
and development of the peoples of such territories. 
It is also suggested that the Office appoint a rep- 
resentative on any committee which may be en- 
trusted with the task of watching over the appli- 
cation of the principle of international account- 
ability. 

The Office suggests that in any negotiations re- 
garding the organization, control, and operation 
of merchant shipping and, in particular, in making 
arrangements for the disposal of merchant ship- 
ping, consideration should be given to the possi- 
bility of including stipulations relating to the 
standard of accommodation to be provided for 
crews, and other appropriate matters. Similarly, 
in making international arrangements concerning 

o o a 

transport by air, land, and inland waterway, the 
United Nations should have due regard to the ef- 
fects of such arrangements on the working and 
living conditions of the persons employed in such 
transport. 

Recognizing the possibility of territorial read- 
justments following the war, it is proposed that 
provision should be made for the protection of 
the social-insurance rights of the people affected 
and that any arrangements for the exchange of 
populations should include apijropriate protec- 
tive provisions for the working populations in- 
volved. 



322 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



A very interesting and suggestive proposal re- 
lates to the social policy to be applied in Germany 
and totalitarian countries in Europe during the 
period of military occupation. The recommenda- 
tion states that the first task of the occupying 
authority will probably be clearing the ground 
for the establishment of governmental and other 
institutions based upon democratic principles. 
Totalitarian institutions must be liquidated and 
totalitarian influences removed. The German 
Labor Front should be abolislied, and persons who 
were conspicuously and actively identified with 
the former regime should be eliminated from all 
posts in tlie labor and social administration of the 
country. All discrimination in the field of social 
and economic legislation and administration on 
grounds of race or religion should be immediately 
abolislied. Persons who have been imprisoned 
because of their trade-union activities should be 
released, and freedom of association for workers 
should be established. 

The Office recognizes the j^roblem involved in 
establishing the necessary administrative controls 
during the period of military occupation and 
recommends the appointment of a United Nations 
Labor Commissioner. This man would be re- 
sponsible for the administration of social and 
labor laws and regidations including those con- 
cerning such matters as: the regulation of con- 
ditions of employment, determination of wage 
rates, industrial health and safety, protection of 
particular categories of employed persons, free- 
dom of association, industrial relations, settlement 
of labor disputes, employment and manpower 
problems, vocational training and guidance, pro- 
vision for unemployment, social insurance, fac- 
tory inspection, and the cooperative movement. 
He would also have the power to modify existing 
laws and regulations on these subjects and to 
promulgate new ones. 

To assist the commissioner an advisory board of 
not more than 20 persons would be established, 
chosen to include representatives of the workers 
of the country and other persons with experience 
with trade-union organizations to be appointed 
after consultation with the principal international 
trade-union organizations and the trade-union 



movements of the leading United Nations. Pro- 
vision is also made for deputy commissioners and 
regional advisory boards. 

The commissioner should give every reasonable 
facility and encouragement to tlie reconstitution of 
free organizations for the promotion of the occu- 
pational and economic interests of the workers. 
He sliould be enabled to draw upon the funds of 
the totalitarian labor organizations to assist in 
this jDurpose and to continue the institutions of 
social value wliich jjrovided for the recreational 
and cultural needs of the workers. The social- 
insurance system should be continued with benefits 
paid and contributions collected. Tlxe occupying 
autliority should pay the employer's social-insur- 
ance contribution for the M'orkers it employs. 

Special attention should be devoted by the com- 
missioner to the adaptation of existing institutions 
concerned with the civic or vocational training of 
young workers and for the organization of their 
recreation and spare-time pursuits. 

Collective bargaining is to become the normal 
basis for the determination of conditions of em- 
ployment at the earliest possible moment. The 
commissioner is responsible for the settlement of 
industrial disputes and grievances and for pro- 
moting the cooperation of the. workers with the 
occupying authorities. 

The Office recognizes the special problems of the 
transferred workers now in Germany and suggests 
certain safeguards to be applied pending their 
repatriation by the United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration. The United Na- 
tions Labor Commissioner should take all possible 
steps to prevent the involuntary unemployment 
of foreign workers pending their repatriation. 
Their dismissal should be subject to the approval 
of his representative charged with responsibility 
for protecting their interests both with respect to 
their employment and their feeding, housing, and 
so on. In cases where it is impossible to assure 
continued employment of foreign workers, they 
should receive their full wages in casli and kind 
at tlie cost of the public authority. All discrimi- 
nation against foreign workers should immediately 
be abolished. 



APRIL S, 1944 



332 



III. The Organization of Employment in the 
Transition From War to Peace 

It is not surprising to find that employment 
problems occupy a central place on the agenda of 
the Conference. First, there is the growing em- 
phasis in current thinking on the importance of 
full employment; seondly, there is the awareness 
that tlie post-war period, with its demobilization 
of the armed forces and of war industries, will 
present many difficult problems of employment 
adjustment. 

The Office has prepared five proposed recom- 
mendations for the consideration of the Con- 
ference. The first of these states that the pro- 

\ motion of full employment with a view to raising 
standards of living throughout the world is a pri- 
mary objective of the I.L.O. In order to achieve 

I full employment the resolution points out that 
economic measures providing employment oppor- 

I tunities must be supplemented by effective organi- 
zation to help employers secure the most suitable 
workers and the workers to find the most suitable 
employment. It is further recognized that the 
character and magnitude of the employment ad- 
justments will necessitate special action. 

In view of these problems, the Office proceeds 
to set forth in some detail the measures which 
should be taken by each nation. The importance 
of collecting in advance the requisite information 
on the employment skills of the persons to be 
demobilized and canvassing the probable demands 
for labor is stressed. Attention is called to the 
need of coordinating the rate of demobilization 
with the opportunities for employment. The em- 
ployment problem will involve not only the de- 
mobilization of the armed forces but also the re- 
conversion of war industries, both private and 
government-owned. There is need for cooperation 
between workers' and employers' organizations in 
making the necessary adjustments and for co- 
operation of both workers and employers in using 
the employment service. Vocational guidance and 
training and retraining progi-ams will be neces- 
sary. Just as during the war pei'iod, it will be im- 
portant to facilitate the geographic mobility of 
workers. The exigencies of war have made it 
necessary to employ large numbers of young people 



and women. The provision to be made for them 
as war production terminates will constitute a 
pressing social and economic problem. Special at- 
tention must be given to the employment of dis- 
abled persons. The recommendation offers many 
constructive suggestions on these matters. 

For the effective organization of employment 
an efficient public employment service is required. 
The valuable services to be rendered by such an 
organization during normal periods are prac- 
tically indispensable during a period of such wide- 
spread employment adjustments as we face. The 
second recommendation therefore deals with the 
functions of an employment service! 

Experience has demonstrated that the timing 
of public works and their coordination with gen- 
eral industrial activity are important means of 
reducing industi'ial fluctuations and stimulating 
economic recovery from periods of depression. A 
third recommendation deals with this subject. 

As will be noted below, the I.L.O. has over a 
period of many years given attention to social- 
insurance problems. It is quite natural therefore 
that in a fourth recommendation it suggests steps 
to be taken in connection with providing income 
security and medical care for persons released 
from the armed ser^aces and from war employ- 
ment. A mustering-out grant is suggested and 
also provision for unemployment benefits and sick- 
ness-insurance rights pending the absorption of 
the persons affected into the regular social-insur- 
ance system. 

In the fiftli recommendation under this agenda 
item, the attention of the members is called to the 
15 conventions and recommendations on these 
problems adopted by preceding Conferences. 

IV. Social Secunty: Principles and Prohlems 
Arising out of the War 

Under this item the Office proposes the consid- 
eration of three recommendations, a resolution, 
and a draft convention — the only draft convention^ 
proposed for consideration at the Conference. 

The recommendations and the resolution will be 
considered first. The first of the recommenda- 
tions relates to income security. It states as prin- 
ciples that income-security schemes should relieve 



324 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



want and prevent destitution by restoi'ing, up to 
a certain level, income which is lost by reason of 
inability to work or to obtain work or by reason 
of the death of the breadwinner. Income security 
should be organized, as far as possible, on the 
basis of social insurance. Provision for needs not 
covered by social insurance should be met by social 
assistance. The contingencies covered by social 
insurance should include sickness, maternity, in- 
validity, old age, death of the breadwinner, unem- 
ployment, emergency expenses, and employment 
injuries. The recommendation sets forth certain 
standards to be achieved in protection against each 
of these contingencies, the persons to be covered, 
the benefit rates and contribution conditions, the 
distribution of the costs, and standards of admin- 
istrative procedures. Social assistance should be 
provided for the maintenance of children, needy 
invalids, aged persons, and widows. 

The second recommendation is concerned with 
medical care. It provides for either a j^ublic 
medical-care service or a social-insurance medical- 
care service. The system should aim at covering 
all members of the community, whether or not 
they are gainfully employed, and should be coor- 
dinated with general health services. The recom- 
mendation contains provisions for assuring the 
quality of medical service, financing, supervising, 
and administering it. 

The third recommendation is also included 
under item III on the agenda and is concerned 
with income seciu-ity and medical care for persons 
discharged from the armed services and war em- 
ployment. It is intended to assure that these per- 
sons receive this protection pending their entry 
into insurable employment. 

The resolution provides that the members of 
the Organization cooperate by making their social- 
insurance experts available to other countries and 
by making comparable the statistics of the social- 
security services. 

The single draft convention proposed for action 
by the Conference is entitled "Proposed Draft 
Convention Concerning the Maintenance of the 
Pension Eights of Displaced Persons". The draft 
convention contains many carefully detailed pro- 
visions, but its purpose can be described in non- 
technical terms. The effect of the proposed con- 



vention would be to maintain the social-insurance 
pension rights of all persons displaced during the 
war with respect to the pension insurance scheme 
to which they were subject in their country of 
residence. Although it has general applicability 
it is designed primarily for the benefit of the 
workers who have been taken from their native 
countries for employment in Germany. It would 
provide for the transfer from Germany, for ex- 
ample, to the worker's native country, of the social- 
insurance contributions which may be considered 
to have been deducted from his wages or made by 
the employer while he was employed in Germany. 
In effect it gives the worker credit in the social 
institutions of his native land for the period he 
was unable to contribute to and be a member of 
those institutions because of his employment in 
a foreign country. This is very important because 
social-insurance benefits are usually based on the 
period of contributions and their amount. 

V. Minirmim. Standards of Social Policy in 
Dependent Territories 

The OiEce has prepared a proposed recommen- 
dation containing 53 articles covering veiy fully 
the social and labor problems of dependent ter- 
ritories. 

The statement of general principles in part I 
indicates the general approach to these problems. 
All policies affecting dependent territories are to 
be primarily directed to the well-being and de- 
velopment of the peoples of such territories. In ' 
order to promote economic advancement, thus 
laying the foundations of social progress, pro- 
vision should be made for financial and technical 
assistance in the economic development of the 
dependent territories. Development funds should 
be created to assure the necessary supply of capi- 
tal. Action should be taken to establish condi- 
tions of trade sufficient for the maintenance of 
reasonable standards of living. All necessary 
steps are to be taken to promote improvement in 
such fields as public health, housing, nutrition, 
education, the welfare of children, the status of 
women, conditions of employment, the remunera- 
tion of wage earners and independent producers, 
social security, standards of public services, and 
general production. Finally, all possible steps 



APRIL 8, 1944 



325 



are to be taken to associate the peoples of the 
dependent territories in the framing and execu- 
tion of measures of social progress through their 
own appropriate institutions. 

Each member of the Organization is to take 
such measures as are within its competence to 
promote the well-being and development of the 
peoples of the dependent territories through the 
application of the general principles cited above, 
and each member who is responsible for any de- 
pendent territory is to take the necessary steps 
to secure the application in such territory of the 
minimum standards iirovided in the recommenda- 
tion. 

It is not possible here to provide even a sum- 
mary description of these many standards. The 
most that can be done is to enumerate the subjects 
covered, with the hope that this will convey an 
impression of the scope of the standards. The 
subjects covered include slavery; the use of 
opium; forced or compulsory labor; the recruit- 
ing of workers; contracts of employment; the use 
of penal sanctions; the employment of children 
and young persons; the employment of women; 
remuneration; the use of land; health, housing, 
and social security; hours and holidays; the pro- 
hibition of color and religious bars; inspection 
and safety; industrial organization; and cooper- 
ative organizations. 

The summary description of the recommenda- 
tions on social policy for dependent territories 
concludes this outline of the subjects on the agenda 
for the Philadelphia Conference. The question of 
the future of the I.L.O. was raised at the beginning 
of this article. It was there stated that the an- 
swer must rest with actions taken by the delegates. 
This survey, however, may have indicated the 
potentialities of the I.L.O. as a leader in guiding 
the nations to the achievement of the social ob- 
jectives which are so important to the future peace 
and security of the world. If the Conference can 
formulate wise and far-sighted policies on the sub- 
jects presented for its consideration and can es- 
tablish the basis of international understanding 
and support for their effectuation, the future of 
the I.L.O. is assured. The delegates who will 
gather in Philadelphia on April 20 meet with a 



most important duty to perform — not alone for 
the Organization and for the United Nations but 
for the peoples of all the world. 

INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION OF WOMEN 

[Released to the press April 8] 

The President has approved the appointment 
of Miss Mary Cannon, director of the Latin Amer- 
ican Division, Women's Bureau, Department of 
Labor, as the representative of the United States 
of America on the Inter-American Commission 
of Women to succeed Miss Mary N. Winslow, of 
AVashington, who has recently resigned. Miss 
Winslow had served in this capacity since Janu- 
ary 1939. 

The Secretary of State expressed regret that 
Miss Winslow no longer found it possible to con- 
tinue in this position, and in accepting her resig- 
nation expressed his appreciation of her diligent 
efforts during the past five years to advance the 
work of the Commission along constructive and 
practical lines. 

The Commission was originally established in 
accordance with a resolution of the Sixth Inter- 
national Conference of American States in 1928 
as an autonomous body to compile and assemble 
data concerning the civil and political rights of 
women. It presented reports to the Seventh Con- 
ference at Montevideo in 1933 and to the Eighth 
Conference at Lima in 1938. The Lima Confer- 
ence recognized the important part that women 
play in the political and social organization of 
nations and considered that the Commission 
should be made an integral part of the inter- Am- 
erican organization in an advisory capacity, the 
members to be appointed by their respective gov- 
ernments. 

Miss Cannon, as director of the Latin American 
Division of the Women's Bureau, an official agency 
representing the women of this country, is thor- 
oughly familiar with the questions and problems 
which receive the attention of the Commission. 
Miss Cannon has a wide acquaintance among the 
women of the other American republics as well as 
a thorough first-hand knowledge of conditions in 
many of those countries. 



326 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Europe 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE 
BY THE MINISTER OF THE UNION OF 
SOUTH AFRICA 

[Released to the press April 3] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Minister 
of the Union of South Africa, Dr. S. F. N. Gie, 
upon the occasion of the presentation of liis letters 
of credence, April 2, 19i4, follow : 

Mr. President, 

I have the honor to present to you the letters by 
which His Majesty the King has accredited me as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the Union of South Africa near the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America and the 
letters of recall of my distinguished predecessor, 
Mr. Ralph W. Close. 

I have also the honor to convey to you the 
friendly greetings of Field Marshal Smuts. 

I esteem it a very high privilege to represent 
my country here and am deeply conscious that 
brotherhood-in-arms is strongly inspiring and 
stimulating the happy and close relations long 
existing between our two countries. 

It is unnecessary for me to dwell on South 
Africa's participation in the war. The part she 
has played and is playing is known, and Field 
Marshal Smuts, who shapes and inspires that part, 
has eloquently underlined how decisive it has been 
at crucial stages of the gi-eat conflict. 

The most powerful pi'opelling force behind our 
participation is probably the strong democratic 
spirit of our people. Democracy is deeply inbred 
in them, and they have rallied to its defense. 

A special word of grateful appreciation in con- 
nection with the mobilization of our material re- 
sources for the war is appropriate here. Amer- 
ican industrial supplies have to a very important 
extent rendered possible the exceedingly rapid 
growth and expansion of the Union's own indus- 
trial war effort. 

The war has brought South Africa closer to 
America, and I visualize many abiding results, 



spiritual and material, of mutual contacts so estab- 
lished. Not least among them may prove to be 
enhanced mutual interest and understanding in 
regard to American and South African problems. 

And this process is but a part of a vastly greater 
movement. From the war, wide international col- 
laboration has gained a new significance as a fact 
and a goal. 

The strong and fruitful cooperation within that 
unique and vital combination of sovereign states, 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, has been 
strikingly made manifest, and as Axis aggression 
extended the conflict, the present world-embracing 
collaboration of the United Nations was estab- 
lished. 

I beg your kind indulgence, Sir, when I continue 
to speak of matters long foreseen and grasped by 
you and about which you have uttered many wise 
words. 

The evil powers that we oppose, by their philoso- 
phies, policies, and acts, have made abundantly 
clear that they are mortal enemies of decent rela- 
tions between peoples. Their goal is domination. 
They have been and are being frustrated by the 
forces they have challenged, forces of national 
and human solidarity, and their complete defeat 
will be achieved by the collaboration of the United 
Nations. 

It is my confident hope that the goal of coordi- 
nated international collaboration will be as zeal- 
ously pursued and strongly seeui'cd after the war 
as during it. One would have ground for despair 
in visualizing the future if one could not cherish 
this hope. 

With such feelings, and enormously impressed 
by the great American republic's prodigious and 
still mounting contributions to our common war 
effort, and by the very large and responsible part 
it will be called upon to play when world peace 
must be shaped and maintained, I assume my post 
here. 

I am sure, Mr. President, that I can rely on the 
same cordial cooperation and assistance on the 
part of the administration in the execution of my 
duties as was so readily accorded my pi-edecessor. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Dr. 
S.F.N. Gie follows: 



APRIL 8, 1944 



327 



Me. Minister : 

I am very happy to welcome you to Washington 
and to receive from your hands the letters by which 
His Majesty the King has accredited you Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the 
Union of South Africa to the United States in 
succession to the Honorable Ralph W. Close whose 
letters of recall you have just handed me. 

I greatly appreciate the friendly greetings 
which you bring to me from the people of the 
Union of South Africa and from their great and 
gallant leader, Field Marshal Smuts. Under his 
inspiring leadership the Union of South Africa 
has made and is making a heroic contribution to 
the final defeat of our enemies. Especially great 
has been South Africa's role in the driving of the 
enemy from the whole continent of Africa. 

Thus to the common ideals and traditions which 
have long united our peoples in close friendship 
has now been added a comradeship-in-arms. I 
am confident that our countries and the nations 
associated with them shall march forward to- 
gether to the happy day of victory and to the 
challenging tasks that lie beyond. 

I hope, Mr. Minister, that your stay in Wash- 
ington may be a pleasant one, and I wish to assure 
you that the American Government will endeavor 
to help you in every way to carry out your duties 
as Minister. 



American Republics 



CELEBRATION IN CHILE OF THE DAY OF 
THE AMERICAS 

[Released to the press April 5] 

Congressmen Pete Jarman of Alabama and 
Robert Bruce Chiperfield of Illinois are leaving on 
the evening of April 5, 1944 for Miami en route 
to Santiago, Chile, where they will be the official 
delegates of the House of Representatives at a 
legislative session to be held by the Chilean Cham- 
ber of Deputies in Santiago on April 14 in 
celebration of the Day of the Americas. Repre- 
sentatives of the legislative bodies of the other 



American republics will also attend the ceremony. 

On their southward journey the congressmen 

will make brief visits to Panama and Peru; on 

their return trip they will 'also visit Colombia, 



Guatemala, and Mexico. 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
HEAD OF THE MUNICIPAL LIBRARY OF 
HABANA 

Dr. Fermin Peraza y Sarausa, who is head of 
the municipal library of Habana, Cuba, and who 
has edited since 1937 a bibliographical annual en- 
titled Anuario Bibliogrdfico Cubano^ has arrived 
in Washington for a three months' visit as guest 
of the Department of State. While he is here 
he will act as visiting consultant in Cuban bibli- 
ograi^hy of the Hispanic Foundation of the Li- 
brary of Congress. Dr. Peraza y Sarausa's visit 
to the United States is the result of the first of a 
series of invitations which will be extended to 
bibliographic experts from the other American 
republics to act successively as consultants of the 
Hispanic Foundation. 



The Far East 



RETURN FROM CHINA OF UNITED STATES 
TECHNICAL EXPERT 

[ Released to the press April 4 ] 

Dr. Ralph W. Phillips, of the Department of 
Agriculture, who was released to the Department 
of State for service in China, has returned to 
Washington. He was in China for nine months 
as a technical expert under the Department's cul- 
tural-relations program and during that time 
traveled in many parts of west China, studying 
livestock-production problems and advising the 
Chinese Ministries of Agriculture, Communica- 
tions, and War on their animal-breeding and trans- 
portation problems. During the return trip from 
China, he spent two months at the request of the 
Government of India studying livestock-produc- 
tion problems and the research and other organiza- 
tions maintained for livestock-improvement work 



328 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in that country and making recommendations for 
the improvement of that work. Dr. Phillips has 
returned to his regular position in the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, 
where he is in charge of genetics investigations. 



The Department 



FINANCIAL MATTERS 

Departmental Order 1252 of April 1, 1944 ^ 

Under Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 
1944. the Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs, Office of Economic Affairs, is responsible for 
initiation, development, and coordination of policy 
and action pertaining to international financial 
and monetary matters. Under the same Order the 
Liberated Areas Division, Office of Wartime Eco- 
nomic Aifairs, is responsible for the initiation and 
coordination of policy and action in all wartime 
economic matters pertaining to enemy, enemy- 
occupied, and liberated areas. In order to concen- 
trate in one Division responsibility for financial 
matters, responsibility for these matters in the 
above areas is hei'eby transferred from the Liber- 
ated Areas Division to the Division of Financial 
and Monetary AlFairs. The relationships between 
the Division of Financial and Monetary Aifairs 
and the Liberated Areas Division and the Division 
of World Trade Intelligence are hereby redefined. 

Transfer of Functions From the Liberated Areas 
Division 
Departmental Order 1218 is hereby amended by 
the transfer of functions listed in section (b) of the 
Liberated Areas Division to the Division of Finan- 
cial and Monetary Affairs: "(b) fiscal matters, in- 
cluding banking matters; and financial and 
property controls, including the application of 
Executive Oi-der no. 8389, as amended, to property 
located in the United States of governments of 
those areas and their nationals, and questions re- 
lating to the Alien Property Custodian and to the 



'Effective Mar. 30, 1944. 



property control measures of other United 
Nations". 

Relations With the Liberated Areas Division 

In carrying out its responsibilities, the Division 
of Financial and Monetary' Affairs shall work in 
close collaboration with the Liberated Areas Divi- 
sion. The Liberated Areas Division continues to 
be resjjonsible for the initiation and coordination 
of policy and action in all wartime economic mat- 
ters pertaining to enemy, enemj^-occupied and 
liberated ai'eas, except those matters covered in 
(b) above. The area representatives in this Divi- 
sion will be the focal point of contact regarding all 
matters in the area. 

Relations With the Division of World Trade 
Intelligence 

The Division of World Trade Intelligence shall 
have primary responsibility for the initiation and 
formulation of policy and for action with respect 
to the application and administration of foreign 
funds control (Executive Order 8389, as amended) 
except with respect to the govermnents or nationals 
of enemy, enemy-occupied, or liberated areas. In 
carrying out its responsibilities, the Division of 
World Trade Intelligence shall consult with the 
Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs in the 
formulation of policy on foreign funds control 
matters, such as the extension of controls to addi- 
tional countries, the lifting or relaxing of con- 
trols, modifications of control through general 
licenses or rulings, and arrangements for the utili- 
zation of the funds of governments or their official 
banks. 

The Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs 
shall have primary responsibility for the initia- 
tion and formulation of policy and for action in 
matters relating to the application of foreign 
funds control measures to property of govern- 
ments or nationals of enemy, enemy-occupied or 
liberated areas. The Division of Financial and 
Monetary Affairs shall keep the Division of World 
Trade Intelligence informed of policy develop- 
ments with regard to these matters. As policies 
become established, the Division of World Trade 
Intelligence shall assume the handling of individ- 
ual cases within the framework of these policies. 



APRIL S, 1944 



329 



The Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs 
shall also have primary responsibility for policy 
and action in cases involving the control of im- 
ported securities under General Ruling 5, pur- 
suant to Executive Order 8389, as amended, and 
in matters pertaining to the servicing of dollar 
bonds. Subject to the foregoing exceptions, the 
Division of "World Trade Intelligence shall 
handle all individual freezing cases and license 
applications. 

CoRDELL Hull 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF EDWIN LOWE NEVILLE 

Tlie Department of State has learned with regret 
of the death on April 7, 1944 in Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, of the Honorable Edwin Lowe Neville. 
Mr. Neville, who entered the Foreign Service of 
the United States as a student interpreter in Japan 
in 1907, served at Foreign Service posts in Korea, 
Switzerland, and Japan. He was designated an 
Expert Assistant at the Conference on the Limita- 
tion of Armament in Washington, 1921-22, a rep- 
resentative on the Advisory Board to the Federal 
Narcotics Control Board in 1922, and a delegate 
to the International Narcotics Conference at 
Geneva in 1924-2.5. On May 28, 1937 he was ap- 
pointed Minister of the United States to Siam. 
He retired from the Foreign Service in 1940. 

The Secretary of State has sent the following 
telegram to Messrs. Richard and Edwin Neville, 
sons of Mr. Neville : 

I have just learned with deepest regret of your 
father's passing. During his long and distin- 
guished career as a public servant, he endeared 
himself to all who knew him and won their en- 
during respect. Mrs. Hull and I send you both 
our profound sympathy. 

CoEDELL Hull 

CONSULAR OFFICES 

The American Vice Consulate at Corumba, 
Brazil, was closed, effective March 31, 1944. 



General 



BLAIRLEE HOUSE 

The remodeling, redecoration, and furnishing of 
historic Blair-Lee House, which was undertaken 
by the Public Buildings Administration for the 
Department of State, has been completed. The 
facilities afforded by the Blair-Lee House, which is 
located at 1653 Pennsylvania Avenue, across from 
the Department of State, and which adjoins the 
Blair House, will enable the Department to make 
suitable arrangements for the accommodation in 
Washington of distinguished foreign visitors, such 
as visiting delegates to conferences, holders of 
travel grants, professors, and other guests of the 
Government. 



Treaty Information 



AGREEMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS RE- 
LIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINIS- 
TRATION 

Haiti 

The American Charge d'Affaires ad interim at 
Port-au-Prince transmitted to the Department 
with a despatch of March 23, 1944 copies of Le 
Moniteuvoi March 16, 1943 in which was published 
decree 362 of February 29, 1944 of the National 
Assembly of Haiti, ratifying the Agreement for 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration signed at AVashington on November 
9, 1943 (Executive Agreement Sei-ies 352). 

FINAL ACT OF INTERNATIONAL WHALING 
CONFERENCE 

The American Embassy in London transmitted 
to the Department of State with a despatch of 
April 1, 1944 certified copies of the Final Act of 
the International Whaling Conference signed at 
London on January 31, 1944 by representatives of 



330 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Governments of the United States of America, 
the Union of Soutli Africa, tlie Commonwealth of 
Australia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and 
Norway. The Conference was held in London on 
January 4, 13, 19, and 31, 1944. 



INTER-AMERICAN INDIAN INSTITUTE 

Dominican Republic 

The Mexican Charge d'Affaires ad interim at 
Washington informed the Secretary of State, by a 
note of March 27, 1944, that the adherence of the 
Dominican Republic to the Convention Providing 
for the Creation of an Inter-American Indian 
Institute, opened for signature from November 1 
to December 31, 1940, was registered on November 
11, 1943 with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 
Mexico in accordance with the second paragraph 
of article XVI of that convention. 



RENEWAL OF NAVAL-MISSION AGREEMENT 
WITH PERU 

By an exchange of notes signed at Washington 
January 31, February 9, and March 21 and 31, 
1944 an agreement was effected between the Gov- 
ernment of the United States and the Government 
of Peru for the renewal of the agreement for the 
assignment of a United States Naval Mission to 
Peru signed at Washington on July 31, 1940 
(Executive Agreement Series 177). 

The Governments of the United States and Peru 
have agreed to renew the agreement of 1940 for a 
period of four years from July 31, 1944, the date 
of termination of that agreement. The agree- 
ment of July 31, 1940 has been amended by the 
addition of the following article: 

The members of this Mission are permitted and 
may be authorized to represent the United States 
of America on any commission and in any other 
capacity having to do with military cooperation 
or hemispheric defense without prejudice to this 
Agreement, during the present war emergency. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Foreign Service List, January 31, 1944. Publication 2079. 
iv, 132 pp. Subscription, 500 a year (650 foreign) ; 
single copy, 200. 

Military Mission : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Iran — Signed at Tehran November 27, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 361. Publication 
20S4. 16 pp. 100. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : Cumu- 
lative Supplement No. 1, April 7, 1944, to Revision VII 
of March 23, 1944. Publication 2093. 16 pp. Free. 

Other Agencies 

Dairy Industry of Honduras, by R. E. Hodgson and A. C. 
Dahlberg. Nov. 1943. (Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Dairy Industry.) ii, 30 pp., processed. Avail- 
able from Bureau of Dairy Industry. 

General Censuses and Vital Statistics in the Americas : 
Annotated Bibliography of Historical Censuses and Cur- 
rent Vital Statistics of the Twenty-one American Re- 
publics, American Sections of the British Commonwealth 
of Nations, American Colonies of Denmark, France, and 
the Netherlands, and American Territories and Posses- 
sions of the United States. 1943. (Department of Com- 
merce, Bureau of the Census.) ix, 151 pp., 6j(^ (avail- 
able from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office). 

Education in Cuba [with bibliography], by Severin K. 
Turosienski. 1943. (Federal Security Agency, United 
States Office of Education.) vi, 90 pp., illus., 20^ (avail- 
able from the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office). 

Nutrition Problems and Programs in Latin America in 
1943, by Marjorie M. Heseltine. 1944. (Department of 
Labor, Children's Bureau.) 4 pp. Available from Chil- 
dren's Bureau. 

Labor Conditions in Latin America. 1944. (Department 
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Latin American 
Series 16.) ii, 13 pp. Available from Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. 

Labor Conditions in the Netherlands, by Margaret H. 
Schoenfeld and M. Mead Smith. 1944. (Department 
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. ) i, 26 pp. Avail- 
able from Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Bolivia, Storehouse of Metals. 1944. (Office of the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs.) 12 pp., illus. 
Available from CIAA. 

Preliminary Bibliography of Colombia, compiled by Ben- 
jamin Keen, Guy S. M(5traux, and Bernard J. Siegel. 



APRIL 8, 1944 



331 



Dee. 1, 1943. (Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs.) ii, 60 pp., processed. Available 
from ClAA. 

Venezuela, Land of Oil. 1944. (Office of the Coordinator 
of Inter-American Affairs.) 16 pp., illus. Available 
from CIAA. 

Price Control in the Republic of Colombia, by Ben W. 
Lewis. Jan. 1943. [1944]. (Office of Price Adminis- 
tration.) ii, 68 pp., processed. Available from Office 
of Price Administration. 

Control of Production, Distribution, and Consumption in 
Norway. Nov. 1943. (Office of Price Administration.) 
i, 17 pp., processed. Available from Office of Pfice Ad- 
ministration. 

Description of Thirty Towns in Tucatdn, Mexico [with 
bibliography], by Morris Sleggerda. 1943. (Smith- 
sonian Institution, American Ethnology Bureau.) i, 
22 pp. Available from Smithsonian Institution. 



Legislation 



First Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1944 : An Act Making 
appropriations to supply deficiencies in certain appro- 
priations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944, and 
for prior fiscal years, to provide supplemental appro- 
priations for the fi.scal year ending June 30, 1944, and 
for other purposes. Approved AprU 1, 1944. [H.R. 
4346.] Public Law 279, 78th Cong. [Department of 
State, pp. 13, 26, 37, and 40.] 40 pp. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration : 
Joint Resolution To enable the United States to partici- 
pate in the work of the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Organization. Approved March 28, 1944. 
[H.J. Res. 192.] Public Law 267, 78th Cong. 7 pp. 



U. S. COVERSMENT PRINTING OFFICCi 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - . Subscription price. $2.75 a year 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECTOE OF THE BUREAtJ OF THE BUDGET 



9 3 J" 3. ifii-io 
THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



H 



■^ nn 







riN 



APRIL 15, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 251— Publication 2102 



ontents 



The War Page 

Foreign Policy of the United States of America : Address 

by the Secretary of State . . . 335 

Foreign Affairs of the United States in Wartime and 

After: Address by Assistant Secretary Long . . . 342 
Adherence by Liberia to the Dechiration by United 

Nations 346 

Petrolemn Questions: PreUminary Discussions by the 

United States and the United Kingdom 346 

Presentation of Soviet Awards to Members of the 

American Armed Forces and Merchant Marine . . 347 

American Republics 

Pan American Day: Address by the Secretary of State . 349 
Attempted Assassination of President of Mexico ... 351 

The Far East 

American Aid to China Since 1931 351 

The Department 

Establishment of an Industry Branch in the Commodi- 
ties Division of the Office of Economic Affahs: 
Departmental Order 1254 of April 10, 1944 ... 365 

Appointment of Officers 366 

Treaty Information 

Declaration by United Nations 366 

Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic. . . 366 

Legislation 366 

Publications 367 




y. §. SUPEftlNTErtDEilT OF DOCUMEMTS 

MAY 6 1944 



The War 



FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
Address by the Secretary of State ^ 



[Released to the press April 9] 

I want to talk with j'ou this evening about 
the foreign policy of the United States. This 
is not, as some writers assume, a mysterious 
game carried on by diplomats with other diplomats 
in foreign offices all over the world. It is for us 
the task of focusing and giving effect in the world 
outside our borders to the will of 135 million people 
through the constitutional processes which govern 
our democracy. For this reason our foreign policy 
must be simple and direct and founded upon the 
interests and purposes of the American people. 
It has continuity of basic objectives because it is 
rooted in the traditions and aspirations of our 
people. It must, of course, be applied in the light 
of experience and the lessons of the past. 

In talking about foreign policy it is well to re- 
member, as Justice Hohnes said, that a page of 
history is worth a volume of logic. There are 
three outstanding lessons in our recent history to 
which I particularly wish to draw your attention. 
In the first place, since the outbreak of the present 
war in Europe, we and those nations who are now 
our allies have moved from relative weakness to 
strength. In the second place, during that same 
period we in this country have moved from a deep- 
seated tendency toward separate action to the 
knowledge and conviction that only through unity 
of action can there be achieved in this world the 
results which are essential for the continuance of 
free peoples. And, thirdly, we have moved from a 
careless tolerance of evil institutions to the convic- 
tion that free governments and Nazi and Fascist 
governments cannot exist together in this world 
because the very nature of the latter requires them 
to be aggressors and the very nature of free gov- 



ernments too often lays them open to treacherous 
and well-laid plans of attack. 

An undei-standing of these points will help to 
clarify the polic}' which this Government has been 
and is following. 

In 1940, with the fall of France, the peoples of 
the free world awoke with horror to find them- 
selves on the very brink of defeat. Only Britain 
in the west and China in the east stood between 
them and disaster, and the space on which they 
stood was narrow and precarious. At that mo- 
ment the free nations were militarily weak, and 
their enemies and potential enemies were strong 
and well prepared. Even before that this country 
had begun its preparations for self-defense. Soon 
thereafter we started upon the long hard road of 
mobilizing our great natural resources, our vast 
productive potentialities, and our reserves of man- 
power to defend ourselves and to strengthen those 
who were resisting the aggressors. 

This was a major decision of foreign policy. 
Since that decision was made we have moved far 
from the former position. We and our Allies are 
attaining a strength which can leave no doubt as 
to the outcome. That outcome is far from 
achieved. There are desjaerate periods still before 
us, but we have built the strength which we sought 
iiud we need only to maintain the will to use it. 

This decision which we have made and carried 
out was not a decision to make a mere sporadic 
effort. An episode is not a policy. The American 
people are determined to press forward with our 
Allies to the defeat of our enemies and the de- 
struction of the Nazi and Fascist systems which 



' Broadcast over the network of the Columbia Broad- 
casting System. Apr. 9, 1944. 

335 



336 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



plunged us into the war. And they are also de- 
termined to go on, after the victory, with our Allies 
and all other nations which desire peace and free- 
dom to establish and maintain in full sti-ength the 
institutions without which peace and freedom can- 
not be an enduring reality. We cannot move in 
and out of international cooperation and in and 
out of participation in the responsibilities of a 
member of the family of nations. The political, 
material, and spiritual strength of the free and 
democratic nations not only is greatly dependent 
upon the strength which our full participation 
brings to the common effort but, as we now know, is 
a vital factor in our own strength. As it is with 
the keystone of an arch, neither the keystone nor 
the arch can stand alone. 

This growth of our strength entails consequences 
in our foreign policy. Let us look first at our 
relations with the neutral nations. 

In the two years following Pearl Harbor, while 
we were mustering our strength and helping to 
restore that of our Allies, our relations with these 
neutral nations and their attitude toward our ene- 
mies were conditioned by the position in which we 
found ourselves. We have constantly sought to 
keep before them what they, of course, know — 
that upon our victory hangs their very existence 
and freedom as independent nations. We have 
sought in every way to reduce the aid which their 
trade with the enemy gives him and to increase 
the strength which we might draw from them. 
But our power was limited. They and we have 
continually been forced to accept compromises 
which we certainly would not have chosen. 

That period, I believe, is rapidly drawing to a 
close. It is clear to all that our strength and that 
of our Allies now makes only one outcome of this 
war possible. That strength now makes it clear 
that we are not asking these neutral nations to 
expose themselves to certain destruction when we 
ask them not to prolong the war, with its conse- 
quences of suffering and death, by sending aid to 
the enemy. 

We can no longer acquiesce in these nations' 
drawing upon the resources of the allied world 
when they at the same time contribute to the death 
of troops whose sacrifice contributes to their sal- 
vation as well as ours. We have scrupulously re- 



spected the sovereignty of these nations; and we 
have not coerced, nor shall we coerce, any nation 
to join us in the fight. We have said to these coun- 
tries that it is no longer necessary for them to pur- 
chase protection against aggression by furnish- 
ing aid to our enemy — whether it be by permitting 
official German agents to carry on their activities 
of espionage against the Allies within neutral 
borders, or by sending to Germany the essential 
ingredients of the steel which kills our soldiers, 
or by permitting highly skilled workers and fac- 
tories to supply products which can no longer 
issue from the smoking ruins of German factories. 
We ask them only, but with insistence, to cease 
aiding our enemy. 

The allied strength has now grown to the point 
where we are on the verge of great events. Of 
military events I cannot speak. It is enough that 
they are in the hands of men who have the com- 
plete trust of the American people. We await 
their development with absolute confidence. But 
I can and should discuss with you what may 
happen close upon the heels of military action. 

As I look at the map of Europe, certain things 
seem clear to me. As the Nazis go down to defeat 
they will inevitably leave behind them in Ger- 
many and the satellite states of southeastern 
Europe a legacy of confusion. It is essential that 
we and our Allies establish the controls necessary 
to bring order out of this chaos as rapidly as pos- 
sible and do everything possible to prevent its 
spread to the German-occupied countries of east- 
ern and western Europe while they are in the 
throes of reestablishing government and repair- 
ing the most brutal ravages of the war. If con- 
fusion should spread throughout Europe it is dif- 
ficult to over-emphasize the seriousness of the 
disaster that may follow. Therefore, for us, for 
the world, and for the countries concerned, a 
stable Europe should be an immediate objective of 
allied policy. 

Stability and order do not and cannot mean re- 
action. Order there must be to avoid chaos. But 
it must be achieved in a manner which will give 
full scope to men and women who look forward, 
men and women who will end Fascism and all its 
works and create the institutions of a free and 
democratic way of life. 



APRIL 15, 1944 



337 



We look with hope and with deep faith to a 
period of great democratic accomplishment in 
Europe. Liberation from the German yoke will 
give the peoples of Europe a new and magnificent 
opportunity to fulfill their democratic aspirations, 
both in building democratic political institutions 
of their own choice and in acliieving the social and 
economic democracy on which political democracy 
must rest. It is important to our national interest 
to encourage tlie establishment in Europe of strong 
and progressive popular governments, dedicated 
like our own to improving the social welfare of the 
people as a whole — governments which will join 
the common effort of nations in creating the con- 
ditions of lasting peace and in promoting the ex- 
pansion of production, employment, and the ex- 
change and consumption of goods, which are the 
material foundations of the liberty and welfare of 
all peoples. 

It is hard to imagine a stable Europe if there is 
instability in its component parts, of which France 
is one of the most important. What, then, is our 
policy toward France? Our first concern is to 
defeat the enemy, drive him from French territory 
and the territory of all the adjacent countries 
which he has overrun. To do this the supreme 
military commander must have unfettered au- 
thority. But we have no purpose or wish to gov- 
ern France or to administer any affairs save those 
which are necessary for military operations 
against the enemy. It is of the utmost importance 
that civil authority in France should be exercised 
by Frenchmen, should be swiftly established, and 
should operate in accordance with advanced plan- 
ning as fully as military operations will permit. 
It is essential that the material foundations of the 
life of the French people be at once restored or re- 
sumed. Only in this way can stability be achieved. 

It has always been our thought in planning for 
this end that we should look to Frenchmen to un- 
dertake civil administration and assist them in 
that task without compromising in any way the 
right of the French people to choose the ultimate 
form and personnel of the government which 
tliey may wish to establish. That must be left to 
the free and untrammeled choice of the French 
people. 



The President and I are clear, therefore, as to 
the need, from the outset, of French civil admin- 
istration — and democratic French administra- 
tion — in France. We are disposed to see the 
French Committee of National Liberation exercise 
leadersliip to establish law and order under the 
supervision of the allied commander in chief. The 
Committee has given public assurance that it does 
not propose to perpetuate its authority. On the 
contrary, it has given assurance that it wishes at 
the earliest possible date to have the French people 
exercise their own sovereign will in accordance 
with French constitutional processes. The Com- 
mittee is, of course, not the government of France, 
and we cannot recognize it as such. In accordance 
with this understanding of mutual purposes the 
Committee will have every opportunity to under- 
take civil administration and our cooperation and 
help in every practicable way in making it success- 
ful. It has been a symbol of the spirit of France 
and of French resistance. We have fully cooper- 
ated with it in all the military phases of the war 
effort, including the furnishing of arms and equip- 
ment to the French armed forces. Our central and 
abiding purpose is to aid the French people, our 
oldest friends, in providing a democratic, compe- 
tent, and French administration of liberated 
French territory. 

In Italy our interests are likewise in assisting in 
the development at the earliest moment of a free 
and democratic Italian government. As I said 
some moments ago, we have learned that there can- 
not be any compromise with Fascism — whether in 
Italy or in any other country. It must always be 
the enemy, and it must be our determined policy 
to do all in our power to end it. Here again, 
within these limits, it is not our purpose or policy 
to impose the ultimate form or personnel of gov- 
ernment. Here again we wish to give every op- 
portunity for a free expression of a free Italy. 
We had hoped that before this enough of Italy 
would have been freed so that we might have had 
at least a preliminary expression of that will. 
Events have not progressed according to our hopes. 

The present situation, then, is this : In October 
1943 the President, Mr. Churchill, and Marshal 
Stalin accepted the active cooperation of the 
Italian Government and its armed forces as a co- 



338 

belligerent in the war against Germany under the 
supervision of an Allied Control Commission. 
The declaration regarding Italy made at Moscow 
by the British, Soviet, and American Governments 
confirmed the policy initiated by the British and 
American Governments that the Italian Govern- 
ment shall be made more democratic by the intro- 
duction of representatives of those sections of the 
Italian people who have alwaj's opposed Fascism ; 
that all institutions and organizations created by 
the Fascist regime shall be suppressed; that all 
Fascists or pro-Fascist elements shall be removed 
from the administration and from the institutions 
and organizations of a public character; and that 
democratic organs of local governments shall be 
created. Finally, it recites that nothing in tlie 
declaration should operate against the right of the 
Italian people "ultimately to choose their own 
form of government". 

■ This policy has been and is being carried out. 
Only that part which calls for the introduction 
into the central government of more democratic 
elements has not yet been put into effect. This 
does not signify any change in the clear and an- 
nounced policy. Thus far it has been thought by 
those chiefly responsible for the military situation 
that it would be prejudiced by an imposed recon- 
struction of the government, and a reconstruction 
by agreement has not yet been possible. But there 
is already promise of success in the activities of 
the political parties which are currently holding 
conferences with a view to drawing up a program 
for the political reconstruction of their country 
along democratic lines. The Permanent Execu- 
tive Junta is seeking a solution which will pro- 
vide for the cooperation of the liberal political 
groups within the government. Thus, after 21 
years, we see a rebirth of political consciousness 
and activity in Italy, which jioints the way to the 
ultimate free expression of the Italian people in 
the choice of their government. 

Wliat I have said related to some of the most 
immediate of our problems and the effect of our 
policy toward them as we and our Allies have 
moved from a position of weakness to one of 
strength. There remain the more far-reaching 
relations between us and our Allies in dealing with 
our enemies and in providing for future peace, 
freedom from aggression, and opportunity for ex- 



DEPAKTMBNT OF STATE BULLETIN 

panding material well-being. Here I would only 
mislead you if I spoke of definitive solutions. 
These require the slow, hard process, essential to 
enduring and accepted solutions among free 
peoples, of full discussion with our Allies and 
among our own people. But such discussion is 
now in progress. After two years of intensive 
study, the basis upon which our policy must be 
founded is soundly established; the direction is 
clear ; and the general methods of accomplishment 
aie emerging. 

This basis of policy and these methods rest upon 
the second of the lessons which I said at the outset 
of my remarks was found in the pages of our re- 
cent history. It is that action upon these matters 
cannot be separate but must be agreed and united 
action. This is fundamental. It must underlie the 
entire range of our policy. The free nations have 
been brought to the very brink of destruction by 
allowing themselves to be separated and divided. 
If any lesson has ever been hammered home with 
blood and suffering, that one has been. And the 
lesson is not yet ended. 

However difficult the road may be, there is no 
hope of turning victory into enduring peace unless 
the real interests of this country, the British 
■Comn)onweaIth, the Soviet Union, and China are 
liannonized and unless they agree and act together. 
Tliis is the solid framework upon which all future 
policy and international organization nuist be built. 
It offers the fullest opportunity for the develop- 
ment of institutions in which all free nations may 
participate democratically, thi-ough which a reign 
of law and morality may arise, and through which 
the material interests of all may be advanced. But 
without an enduring understanding between these 
four nations upon their fundamental purposes, in- 
terests, and obligations to one another, all organi- 
zations to preserve peace are creations on paper 
and the path is wide open again for the rise of a 
new aggressor. 

This essential understanding and unity of action 
among the four nations is not in substitution or 
derogation of unity among the United Nations. 
But it is basic to all organized international action 
because ui^on its reality depends the possibility of 
enduring peace and fi'ee institutions rather than 
new coalitions and a new pre-war period. Nor do 
1 suggest that any conclusions of these four na- 



ATHIL 15, 1944 



339 



tions can or should be without the participation of 
the other United Nations. I am stating what I 
believe the common sense of my fellow countrymen 
and all men will recognize — that for these powers 
to become divided in their aims and fail to recog- 
nize and harmonize their basic interests can pro- 
duce only disaster and that, no machinery, as such, 
can produce this essential harmony and unity. 

The road to agreement is a difficult one, as any 
man knows who has ever tried to get two other 
men, or a city council, or a trade gathering, or a 
legislative body, to agree upon anything. Agree- 
ment can be achieved only by trying to understand 
the other fellow's point of view and by going as far 
as possible to meet it. 

Although the road to unity of purpose and ac- 
tion is long and difficult we have taken long strides 
upon our way. The Atlantic Charter was pro- 
claimed by the President and the Prime Minister 
of Great Britain in August 1941. Then, by the 
Declaration of the United Nations of January 1', 
1942, these nations adopted the principles of the 
Atlantic Charter, agreed to devote all their re- 
sources to the winning of the war, and pledged 
themselves not to conclude a separate armistice or 
peace with their common enemies. 

After that came the declaration signed at Mos- 
cow on October 30, 1913. Here the four nations 
who are carrying and must carry the chief burden 
of defeating their enemies renewed their determi- 
nation by joint action to aciiieve this end. But 
they went further than this and pledged coopera- 
tion with one another to establish at the earliest 
practicable date, with other peace-loving states, an 
effective international organization to maintain 
peace and security, which in principle met with 
overwhelming non-partisan approval by the Con- 
gress in the Connally and Fulbright resolutions. 

Further steps along the road of united allied 
action were taken at the conference at Cairo, 
where the President and Mr. Churchill met with 
Ganeralissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and at the con- 
ference at Tehran, where they met with Marshal 
Stalin. At Tehran the three Allies fighting in 
Europe reached complete agreement on military 
plans for winning the war and made plain their 
determination to achieve harmonious action in the 
jjeriod of peace. That concert among the Allies 
rests on broad foundations of common interests 



and common aspirations, and it will endure. The' 
Tehran declaration made it clear also that in the 
tasks of peace we shall welcome the cooperation 
and active participation of all nations, large and 
small, which wish to enter into the world family of 
democratic nations. 

The Cairo declaration as to the Pacific assured 
the liquidation of Japan's occupations and thefts 
of territory to deprive her of the power to attack 
her neighbors again, to restore Chinese territories 
to China, and freedom to the people of Korea. 

No one knows better than we and our Allies who 
iiave signed these documents that they did not and 
do not settle all questions or provide a formula for 
the settlement of all questions or lay down a de- 
tailed blueprint for the future. Any man of ex- 
perience knows that an attempt to do this would 
have been as futile as it would have been foolish. 

There has been discussion recently of the At- 
lantic Charter and of its application to various 
situations. The Charter is an expression of funda- 
mental objectives toward which we and our Allies 
are directing our policies. It states that the na- 
tions accepting it are not fighting for the sake of 
aggrandizement, territorial or otherwise. It lays 
down the common principles upon which rest the 
hope of liberty, economic opportvinity, peace, and 
security through international cooperation. It is 
not a code of law from which detailed answers to 
every question can be distilled by painstaking 
analysis of its words and phrases. It points the 
direction in which solutions are to be sought; it 
does not give solutions. It charts the course upon 
which we are embarked and shall continue. That 
course includes the prevention of aggression and 
the establishment of world security. The Charter 
certainly does not prevent any steps, including 
those relating to enemy states, necessary to achieve 
these objectives. What is fundamental are the 
objectives of the Charter and the determination 
to achieve them. 

It is hardly to be supposed that all the more 
than 30 boundary questions in Europe can be set- 
tled while the fighting is still in progress. This 
does not mean that certain questions may not and 
should not in the meantime be settled by friendly 
conference and agreement. We are at all times 
ready to further an understanding and settlement 
of questions which may arise between our Allies, 



340 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



as is exemplified by our offer to be of such service 
to Poland and the Soviet Union. Our offer is still 
open. Our policy upon these matters, as upon all 
others, is the fundamental necessity for agreed 
action and the prevention of disunity among us. 

So it is with the basic conviction that we must 
have agreed action and unity of action that we 
have gone to work upon the form and substance of 
an international organization to maintain peace 
and prevent aggression and upon the economic 
and other cooperative arrangements which are 
necessary in order that we maintain our position 
as a working partner with other free nations. All 
of these matters are in different stages of develop- 
ment. 

It is obvious, of course, that no matter how bril- 
liant and desirable any course may seem it is 
wholly impracticable and impossible unless it is a 
course which finds basic accc])tance, not only by 
our Allies but by the people of this country and by 
the legislative branch of this Government, which, 
under our Constitution, shares with the Executive 
power and responsibility for final action. 

A proposal is worse than useless if it is not ac- 
ceptable to those nations who must share with us 
the responsibility for its execution. It is danger- 
ous for us and misleading to them if in the final 
outcome it does not have the necessary support in 
this country. It is, therefore, necessary both 
abroad and at home not to proceed by presenting 
elaborate proposals, which only produce diver- 
gence of opinion upon details, many of which may 
be immaterial. The only practicable coiu'se is to 
begin by obtaining agreement, first, upon broad 
principles, setting forth direction and general 
policy. We must then go on to explore alterna- 
tive methods and finally settle upon a proposal 
■which embodies the principal elements of agree- 
ment and leaves to future experience and discus- 
sion those matters of comparative detail which at 
present remain in the realm of speculation. 

It is a difficult procedure and a slow procedure, 
as the time wliich has been required to work out 
the arrangements for such a universally accepted 
objective as international relief makes evident. 
It is a procedure in which misunderstanding, the 
premature hardening of positions, and unin- 
formed criticism frequently cause months of de- 



lay and endless confusion, sometimes utter frus- 
tration. It is a procedure in which the people, who 
are sovereign, must not only educate their servants 
but must be willing to be educated by them. 

In this way we are proceeding with the matter 
of an international organization to maintain peace 
and prevent aggression. Such an organization 
must be based upon firm and binding obligations 
that the member nations will not use force against 
each other and against any other nation except in 
accordance with the arrangements made. It must 
provide for the maintenance of adequate forces to 
preserve pence and it must provide the institutions 
and procedures for calling this force into action to 
preserve peace. But it must provide more than 
this. It must provide for an international court 
for the development and application of law to the 
settlement of international controversies which 
fall within the realm of law, for the development 
of machinery for adjusting controversies to which 
the field of law has not yet been extended, and for 
other institutions for the development of new rules 
to keep abreast of a changing world with new 
problems and new interests. 

We are at a stage where much of the work of 
formulating plans for the organization to main- 
tain peace has been accomplished. It is right and 
necessary that we should have the advice and help 
of an increasing number of members of the Con- 
gress. Accordingly, I have requested the Chair- 
man of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations 
to designate a representative, bipartisan group for 
'this purpose. Following these and similar dis- 
cussions with members of the House of Representa- 
tives, we shall be in a position to go forward again 
with other nations and, upon learning their views, 
be able to submit to the democratic processes of 
discussion a more concrete proposal. 

With the same determination to achieve agree- 
ment and unity we talked with our Allies at Tehran 
regarding the treatment of Nazi Germany and with 
our Allies at Cairo regarding the treatment which 
should be accorded Japan. In the formulation of 
our policy toward our enemies we are moved both 
by the two lessons from our history of which I 
have spoken and by the third. This is that there 
can be no compromise with Fascism and Nazism. 
It must go everywhere. Its leaders, its insti- 



APRIL 15, 1944 



341 



tutions, the power which supports it must go. 
They can expect no negotiated peace, no compro- 
mise, no opportunity to return. Upon that this 
peoi:)le and this Government are determined and 
our Allies are equally determined. We have 
found no difference of opinion among our Allies 
that the organization and purposes of the Nazi 
state and its Japanese counterpart, and the mili- 
tai-y system in all of its ramifications upon which 
thej' rest, are, and by their very nature must be, 
directed toward conquest. There was no disagree- 
ment that even after the defeat of the enemy there 
will be no security unless and until our victory is 
used to destroy these systems to their very founda- 
tion. The action which must be taken to achieve 
these ends must be, as I have said, agreed action. 
We are working with our Allies now upon these 
courses. 

The conference at Moscow, as you will recall, 
established the European Advisory Commission, 
which is now at work in London upon the treat- 
ment of Germany. Out of these discussions will 
come back to the governments for their considera- 
tion proposals for concrete action. 

Along with arrangements by which nations may 
be secure and free must go arrangements by which 
men and women who compose those nations may 
live and have the opportunity through their efforts 
to improve their material condition. As I said 
earlier, we will fail indeed if we win a victory only 
to let the free peoples of this world, through any 
absence of action on our part, sink into weakness 
and despair. 

The heart of the matter lies in action which will 
stimulate and expand production in industry and 
agriculture and free international commerce from 
excessive and unreasonable restrictions. These are 
the essential prerequisites to maintaining and im- 
proving the standard of living in our own and in 
all countries. Production cannot go forward 
without arrangements to provide investment capi- 
tal. Trade cannot be conducted without stable cur- 
rencies in which payments can be promised and 
made. Trade cannot develop unless excessive 
barriers in the form of tariffs, preferences, quotas, 
exchange controls, monopolies, and subsidies, and 
others are reduced or eliminated. It needs also 
agreed arrangements under which communication 

583484— 4t 2 



systems between nations and transport by air and 
sea can develop. And much of all this will miss its 
mark of satisfying human needs unless we take 
agreed action for the imj^rovement of labor stand- 
ards and standards of health and nutrition. 

I shall not on this occasion be able to explain 
the work which has been done — and it is exten- 
sive — in these fields. In many of them proposals 
are far advanced toward the stage of discussion 
with members of the Congress prior to formulation 
for public discussion. 

I hope, however, that I have been able in some 
measure to bring before you the immensity of the 
task which lies before us all, the nature of the diffi- 
culties M'hich are involved, and the conviction and 
purpose with which we are attacking them. Our 
foreign policy is comprehensive, is stable, and is 
known of all men. As the President has said, 
neither he nor I have made or will make any secret 
agreement or commitment, political or financial. 
The officials of the Government have not been un- 
mindful of the responsibility resting upon them, 
nor have they spared either energy or such abili- 
ties as they possess in discharging that responsi- 
bility. 

May I close with a word as to the responsibility 
which rests upon us. The United Nations will de- 
termine by action or lack of action whether this 
world will be visited by another war within the 
next 20 or 25 years, or whether policies of organ- 
ized peace shall guide the course of the world. We 
are moving closer and closer to the hour of decision. 
Only the fullest measure of wisdom, unity, and 
alertness can enable us to meet that unprecedented 
responsibility. 

All of these questions of foreign policy which, as 
I said earlier, is the matter of focusing and ex- 
pressing your will in the world outside our bor- 
ders, are difficult and often involve matters of con- 
troversy. Under our constitutional system the 
will of the American people in this field is not 
effective unless it is united will. If we are divided 
we are ineffective. We are in a year of a national 
election in which it is easy to arouse controversy 
on almost any subject, whether or not the subject is 
an issue in the campaign. You, therefore, as well 
as we who are in public office, bear a great respon- 
sibility. It is the responsibility of avoiding need- 



342 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



less controversy in the formulation of your judg- 
ments. It is the responsibility for sober and con- 
sidered thought and expression. It is the respon- 
sibility for patience both with our Allies and with 
those who must speak for you with them. Once 



before in our lifetime we fell into disunity and 
became ineffective in world affairs by reason of 
it. Should this happen again it will be a tragedy 
to you and to your children and to the world for 
generations. 



FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE UNITED STATES IN WARTIME AND AFTER 
Address by Assistant Secretary Long ^ 



[Released to the press April 12] 

It is with a solemn understanding of the sig- 
nificance of this meeting and of the forward-look- 
ing undertaking of this post-war forum that I 
address this gathering tonight. I bring the best 
wishes of Secretary Hull and give expression to 
his hope that your deliberations will be highly 
productive — not alone in the nature of the con- 
clusions to which you may come but in the success 
they may promise for the realization of a stable 
peace and for a better world. 

It is a jnatter of solid encouragement that an 
organization such as the American Federation of 
Labor, which has done so much to stimulate the 
conscience and actions of mankind in behalf of 
human welfare and whicli has so consistently 
recognized that the human element is not a simple 
matter of local or national concern, is directing 
its energies toward seeking solutions for post-war 
problems. 

The post-war world presents in prospect many 
vistas which have a present interest and which 
hold forth a promise of political stability and eco- 
nomic prosperity, but there will be no realization 
of those promises unless we win this war — and 
win it comi^letely. 

Victory in this war cannot be reckoned merely 
in terms of a successful repulse of the enemy. 
Our victory must mean complete destruction of 
Fascism and Nazism and the obliteration of every 
vestige of the vicious movement which set out to 
destroy, all over the globe, the very foundations 
of freedom and democracy. And this includes the 
Axis partner Japan and its brutal attempts at 
domination. All the power of this nation is 
directed to that end. That is the reason the full 
diplomatic power of the United States has been 



and must remain committed to support in every 
possible way the armed forces in attaining their 
military objectives, to the end that the enemy may 
be completely overcojne as quickly as possible. 
Our diplomatic activity is to be judged primarily 
by the standard as to whether it will be of maxi- 
mum effectiveness in winning this war by promot- 
ing Allied cooperation to that end. Thereafter 
it will be judged by the measure of cooperation 
it has achieved among the peacefully inclined 
nations of the world and the success it may achieve 
in collaboration with them in laying the basis for 
a peace of political security and economic well- 
being. 

Of fundamental importance in such an under- 
taking as the waging of this world-wide war is 
full cooperation among our Allies; and that has 
been a primary objective of the wartime foreign 
policy of the United States. Through our diplo- 
matic activity we have developed a very close and 
satisfying cooperation with our Allies against the 
connnon eneniy. That does not mean that we 
have each seen each detail with the same eye but 
it does mean that we work and fight in unison, 
that we are united on all-important policy, and 
that we are all determined to fight it through to 
complete victory. 

Occasional instances in the kaleidoscopic 
changes of events, in which in some detail there 
may not have been full concert of action between 
great allies, have been fully discussed in public, 
while the continuing coordination and cordial co- 
operation in the common effort, which is the basic 
fact, is frequently overlooked even though it be 

' Delivered before the American Federation of Labor 
Forum on Labor and the Post-war World, New York, N.Y., 
Apr. 12, 1944. 



APRIL 15, 1944 



343 



essential to victory. No one supposes that by sign- 
ing the Atlantic Charter, the Declaration of the 
United Nations, and the Moscow Declaration the 
signatories disposed of all the details of their mul- 
tiple relationships. The important fact is, how- 
ever, that they are in harmony as to their general 
objectives and agreed on as to how to achieve them. 
It is easy, particularly under the stress and worry 
of wartime conditions, to magnify some problems 
out of all proportion to their real merit in relation 
to the attainment of military success. 

We are approaching the time when the Allied 
military operations against Nazi Germany will 
bring about the liberation of those nations which 
have been so long and so tragically under its brutal 
domination. We shall carry with us into those 
ravaged territories our deep and abiding interest 
in the restoration of individual liberty; of popular 
institutions of government ; of freedom of worship, 
of speech, and of the press; of right of assembly; 
and of all the rights and privileges of free peoples. 
In keeping with the provisions of the Atlantic 
Charter and in line with our own devotion to 
democratic principles we intend to take no action 
which will in any way interfere with the free and 
untrammeled choice by these nations of the offi- 
cials and the govei'nments under whose authority 
they wish to live. We will not permit the armed 
forces of this country to be used for the support of 
any group or any government contrary to the will 
of the people. We intend to do everytliing we can 
toward encouraging and assisting these liberated 
nations to shape their own destinies and to develop 
their own way of life. We intend to make our 
contribution toward aiding them to recover from 
the political, moral, and economic prostration into 
which they have been plunged by the ruthless 
enemy. 

For effective prosecution of the war there is need 
that all peoples now submerged under Axis inva- 
sion use all their energies to resist the invaders and 
thus speed the day of their own liberation. Inter- 
nal political controversies inevitably weaken the 
war effort. We have consistently urged that they 
not be permitted to impair the war effort. 

Such a situation, for example, has existed in 
Yugoslavia. Even beneath the heel of Axis occu- 
pation that country, formed of many races, has 



fallen into divided councils. These divisions have 
seemed to us tragic in themselves and calculated 
only to benefit the common Nazi enemy. Our pol- 
icy has been to endeavor to bring these elements 
into sufficient harmony so that they can make a 
common front against a connnon enemy. We are, 
meanwhile, cooperating in furnishing arras and 
supplies to all Yugoslavs who are fighting the 
Germans. 

A similar tragedy almost occurred in Greece. 
Happily it was averted by common effort of the 
Allies. The differences have, for the time being, 
been composed. Political questions have been set 
aside for orderly solution when time permits, and 
energies are pooled for the common struggle. 

Sometimes the objective is not achieved. Fin- 
land is a case in point. Finland, an ally of Nazi 
Germany, seems unfortunately to be choosing a 
course of action very different from what we de- 
sire. We have made every effort to induce Finland 
to terminate her ill-chosen association with Ger- 
many. We have emphasized to her the conse- 
quences which must flow from a continued partici- 
pation in the war on the side of the enemy. We 
luive repeatedly made clear to her that responsi- 
bility for the consequences of continuing her asso- 
ciation with Nazi Germany must rest solely on the 
Finnish Government, just as, in the case of Ger- 
many's other satellites, the responsibility for re- 
maining in the war on the side of our principal 
enemy nuist rest solely on them. 

The American people need have no fear that the 
American point of view is not being vigorously 
and effectively presented on every occasion where 
our immediate or long-range interests are involved. 
These problems ai'e solved, in consultation with 
our Allies, in accord with the controlling purpose 
of unity in the war effort and in keeping with the 
fundamental principles of democratic philosophy. 

The diplomatic power of the United States is the 
servant of American foreign policy. There is an 
inclination to confuse the two — but they should be 
distinguished. Diplomatic activity is particular 
action taken in the application of foreign policy to 
a specific situation, while foreign policy itself is 
general in character. 

American foreign policy is a composite of many 
factors and influences. The principles of social 



344 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



justice, individual liberty, orderly democratic gov- 
ernment, and fair play which compose our ]^x)litical 
philosophy are the spirit of that policy. These and 
other principles well known to every American are 
part of our foreign policy because they are a part 
of America. Whatever else it contains, it must 
always reflect the doctrines, philosophies, aspira- 
tions, and practices of the American people. 

Our success in the working out of these princi- 
ples will, of course, vary with time, place, and the 
exigencies of military necessity. However, this 
Government will give representation abroad to the 
ideals of America and, within the limits of the 
principle of self-determination, encourage demo- 
cratic practices in liberated countries. 

I have emphasized the dominant part that the 
war and its winning must pluy in the application 
of our current foreign policy. But, essential as is 
the total defeat of the Axis, that is not and can- 
not be the sole great objective. There are two 
others with which American foreign policy must 
be concerned — the prevention of future wars and 
the promotion of conditions which will permit our 
people to attain the greatest possible measure of 
economic well-being. 

I should like to speak briefly of our preparations 
for the future in these two broad fields, of the 
establishment of an effective system of interna- 
tional peace and security, and of the creation of 
conditions and agencies for the propiotion of 
economic and social welfare. 

For some time the Department of State, in 
cooperation with other agencies of the Govern- 
ment, in collaboration with individual members 
of the Congress, and in consultation with indi- 
viduals of experience in private life, has been 
engaged in studying these questions and in formu- 
lating the bases for constructive programs of 
action. 

A thorough analysis of the mistakes of the un- 
happy past, a study of current developments, and 
an examination of future possibilities have led us 
to the following conclusions as regards some of 
the basic problems involved in the future preven- 
tion of aggression and war : 

1. The major nations together with the other 
law-abiding states should create an international 



organization for the maintenance of peace and 
security. 

2. The major nations — and in due course all 
nations — should pledge themselves not to use force 
against each other or against any other nation, 
except on the basis of arrangements made in con- 
nection with such an international organization. 

3. Each of the major nations, and any other 
nations to be agreed upon, should accept special 
responsibility for maintaining adequate forces and 
for using such forces, on the basis of arrangements 
made in connection with the international organi- 
zation, to prevent or suppress all disturbances of 
the peace. 

Our basic thought is that a general international 
organization of sovereign nations, having for its 
primary objective the maintenance of peace and 
security, should comj^rise effective agencies and 
arrangements for the pacific settlement of inter- 
national controversies, for joint use of force to 
suppress disturbances of the peace, and for foster- 
ing cooperative effort among nations for the pro- 
gressive improvement of the general welfare. 
The organization should at the outset provide the 
indispensable minimum of machinery of action 
and should be expected to develop and grow as 
time goes on and as circumstances may indicate 
to be wise. It is clear that there must be some 
general body on which all member states will be 
equally represented to serve as a world assembly 
of nations. There must be a court of international 
justice. And there must be a small body or coun- 
cil, representative of the large and small nations, 
endowed with adequate powers and means to 
arrange for maintaining the peace. 

The step in the direction of creating an effective 
general international organization was taken at 
Moscow. The four-nation declaration signed 
there constitutes a solemn declaration of intention 
on the part of the four major countries to act in 
common for the preservation of peace and security 
and to take the lead in the establishment of a 
permanent international organization for this 
basic purpose. The next step had to be a joint 
examination of the problems involved in setting 
up such an organization. 

Our studies in preparation for discussion with 
other governmenis, which were well advanced be- 



APRIL 15, 1944 



345 



fore the Moscow Conference, have been intensively 
carried forward since. They have involved a care- 
ful examination of the various alternatives with 
respect to the structure, powers, and procedures of 
an international organization. They have in- 
volved also an examination of our constitutional 
processes as regards participation by this country 
in the creation and functioning of such an organi- 
zation, including especially the providing of armed 
forces for international action. 

The next step involves additional conferences 
with representatives of both parties in the Con- 
gress and thereafter a full exchange of views with / 
other governments and, in accordance with our 
constitutional provisions, discussions at home — 
all looking toward an agreed proposal for an ef- 
fective international security organization. 

At the same time our thoughts have been on 
the other related question — that of economic 
security. 

International cooperation is as important in one 
field as in the other. This is not the occasion to 
undertake an extensive discussion of the broad 
question of economic collaboration, but I do wish 
to stress the need for collaboration in this field 
as well. 

Events have lifted one fundamental aspect out 
of the realm of speculation and controversy. The 
economic interdependence of nations is no longer 
a theory but a well-substantiated fact. The eco- 
nomic and social policies of one nation exercise in- 
fluence on the economic and social conditions of 
other countries. This phenomenon of interna- 
tional relations leads to one basic conclusion : na- 
tional and international economic policies should 
be formulated with a recognition of the basic and 
permanent interests of all peoples. These policies 
should be designed to promote, as widely as possi- 
ble, full and productive employment under con- 
ditions favorable to the physical and moral well- 
being of the worker. 

Under present-day conditions, all nations are 
vitally dependent on each other as regards their 
economic and social well-being. The .state of em- 
ployment, distribution, and living conditions in 
our country and in every other country are mutu- 
ally interdependent. Hence the welfare of every 
country requires the greatest practical measure of 



collaboration between nations on policies affecting 
the production, distribution, and use of the world's 
goods and resoui'fces. I need hardly underscore 
the fact that no group has a larger stake in both 
the economic and social-security aspects of post- 
war economic cooperation than has labor. The 
reduction of the barriers to an expansion of mutu- 
ally profitable trade after the war will be needed 
in order to open opportunities for work for mil- 
lions now employed in war production and millions 
now serving in our armed forces. 

In the field of international cooperation dir'ectly 
affecting the interests and problems of labor, we 
are fortunate in already having an international 
organization with 25 years of experience — the 
International Labor Organization. In this field 
we do not have to wait for the establishment of a 
suitable vehicle. 

A few of those present tonight, working and 
planning with others, assumed responsibility in 
the movement which led to its establishment. I 
refer to Mr. William Green, Mr. Matthew Woll, 
and to Prof. James T. Shotwell, who was not only 
collaborator in the movement but its historian as 
well. And yet another in that group also here 
tonight is the distinguished Minister of Great 
Britain, Mr. Harold Butler. Without the unre- 
mitting labors of these able and forward-looking 
men — always remembering as one of the leaders 
of the whole group, the late Samuel Gompers — 
without them there plight not be an I.L.O. 

But there is ! And it is fitting in this connection 
to recall that one of the most important steps — if 
not the most important— which this country took 
during the inter-war period toward assuming its 
rightful place as an active member of organized 
international society was taken in 1934 when Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, pursuant to a joint resolution of 
the Congress, accepted membership for us in the 
I.L.O. It is commonly acknowledged today that 
the establishment of that organization marked one 
of the truly significant milestones in the history of 
a social progress. 

It has a value today of particular importance, 
when some persons are skeptical about the possibil- 
ities of world peace through international organi- 
zation. I suggest that such persons study the 
history of the I.L.O. At the time of its inception 



346 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



there was hunger, miaery, and serious disorder 
throughout Europe. President Roosevelt, refer- 
ring to its origin, said of it later, "To many it was 
a wild dream." The dream, carrying hope to 
those who could hope, has justified the confidence 
of its founders and become an outstanding demon- 
stration of the effectiveness of men of many na- 
tions, when determined to do so, to work together 
for the good of all. It is an inspiration to those 
■who believe that the mind and heart of man can 
solve the problems of mankind. 

ADHERENCE BY LIBERIA TO THE DECLARA- 
TION BY UNITED NATIONS 

[Released to tbe press April 10] 

The Liberian Consul General in New York, the 
Honorable Walter F. Walker, acting on behalf of 
the Government of Liberia, signed on April 10, 
1944 in the Department of State the Declaration 
by United Nations. The texts of communications 
exchanged between Secretary of State Hull and the 
Secretary of State of Liberia, His Excellency 
Gabriel S. Dennis, regarding Liberia's adherence 
to the Declaration follow: 

26th February, 1944. 
Your Excellency, 

The Government of Liberia declared by Procla- 
mation on the 27th day of January 1944, a state of 
war existing between Liberia on the one hand, and 
Germany and Japan on the other. Motivated by 
the principles of human freedom and the right of 
self-determination, the Government subscribes and 
endorses the purposes and principles as enunciated 
by, and embodied in, the Joint Declaration of the 
President of the United States of America and the 
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, dated August 14, 
1941, known as the Atlantic Charter, and adheres 
by this communication to the Declaration by 
L'nited Nations, dated January 1, 1942. 

The Honourable Walter F. Walker, Consul- 
General of Liberia at New York City, has been 
authorized to sign the above mentioned Decla- 
ration. 

Be pleased to accept [etc.] 

Gabriel S. Dennis 



April 6, 1944. 

I have received your communication of Feb- 
ruary 26, 1944, stating that the Government of 
Liberia declared by proclamation on January 27, 
1944 a state of war existing between Liberia on the 
one hand and Germany and Japan on the other; 
that motivated by the principles of human freedom 
and the right of self-determination, the Govern- 
ment subscribes to and endorses the purposes and 
principles of the Atlantic Charter; that the Gov- 
ernment of Liberia adheres to the Declaration by 
United Nations and has authorized Walter F. 
Walker, Consul General at New York City, to sign 
the Declaration. 

The Government of the United States, as de- 
pository for the Declaration, is gratified to wel- 
come Liberia into the ranks of the United Nations. 
This action of Liberia brings to thirty-five the 
number of L^nited Nations, all of which have 
pledged themselves to employ their full resources 
in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. 

Arrangements are being made for Consul Gen- 
eral Walker to sign the Declaration. 

Please accept [etc.] 

Cordell Hull 

PETROLEUM QUESTIONS 

Preliminary Discussions by the United States 
and the United Kingdom 

[Released to the press .\pril 11] 

The group of experts who will conduct for the 

Government of the United States the preliminary 

exploratory discussions with tlie Government of 

the United Kingdom on oil will be composed of 

.the following persons: 

Mr. Charles Rayner, Petroleum Adviser, Department of 
State, chairman 

Mr. Ralph K. Davies, Deputy Petroleum Administrator for 
War, i-ice chairman 

Mr. Paul Ailing, Deputy Director, Office of Near Eastern 
and African Affair.s, Department of State 

Mr. Leroy Stineliower, Adviser, Office of Economic Affairs, 
Department of State 

Mr. George Walden, Special Assistant to the Deputy Pe- 
troleum Administrator for War 

Mr. C. S. Snodgrass, Director, Foreign Refining Division, 
Petroleum Administration for War 

Brig. Gen. Howard Peckham, War Department 

Com. A. V. Carter, Navy Department 



APRIL 15, 19 14 



347 



The Department of State announced on March 
7, 1944,^ tliat these discussions would take place. 
The membership of the group of experts who will 
conduct the discussions for the Government of the 
United Kingdom was announced on April 3, 1944.- 

[Released to the press April 13] 

The Department of State announced on April 
13, 1944, that the Senate's Special Committee on 
Petroleum will be kept informed regarding the 
course of the preliminary exploratory discussions 
with the United Kingdom on oil which are ex- 
pected to begin about April 17. 

Moreover, in order that the views of the Ameri- 
can oil industry regarding problems that may 
arise in the discussions may be taken into account, 
representatives drawn from various sections of the 
industry have been invited to meet with the group 
of experts who will conduct the oil discussions for 
the United States Government. In this connec- 
tion, invitations have been issued to the following 
persons : 

W. R. Boyd, Washington, D.C. 
John A. Brown, New York, N.Y. 
H. D. Collier, San Francisco, Calif. 
J. Frank Drake, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Orville Harden, New York, N.Y. 
George A. Hill, Houston, Tex. 
A. Jacobson, New York, N.Y. 
W. Alton Jones, Los Angele.s, Calif. 
W. S. S. Rodgers, New York, N.Y. 
Ralph T. Zook, Bradford, Pa. 

PRESENTATION OF SOVIET AWARDS TO 
MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN ARMED 
FORCES AND MERCHANT MARINE 

[Released to the press .\pril 11] 

In a ceremony held on April 11, 1944, in the 
Chinese Room of the Mayflower Hotel the Secre- 
tary of State received on behalf of the American 
Government from the Ambassador of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, Mr. Andrei A. 
Gromyko, a number of decorations which the 
Soviet Government has awarded to members of 
the American armed forces and merchant marine. 



" Bulletin of Mar. 11, 1044, p. 238. 
- Bulletin of Apr. 8, 1044, p. 31.5. 



There follows a list of officers and men receiving 
decorations. 

United States Army 

Obdeb of Suvorov, first degree 

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Order of Suvorov, second degree 

Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz 
Ordeh of Suvorov, third degree 

Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Anderson 

Lt. Oil. Samuel g. Graham, Inf. 
Order of Kutuzov, second degree 

Lt. Gen. Ira Eaker 
Order of Kutuzov, third degree 

Col. Frederick W. Castle, A.C. 

Lt. Col. William O. Darliy, F.A. 
Order op .\lex.vnuer Ne\'skt 

Maj. William T. Boren, A.C. 

Maj. William L. Leverette, A.C. 

1st Lt. William W. Kellogg, C.E. 
OEDiai OF Pateiotio War, first degree 

Brig. Gen. Curtis E. Hemay 

Col. Arman Peterson, A.C. 

Staff Sgt. John D. Coffee, Inf. 
Order of Patriotic War, second degree 

Col. Joseph J. Preston, A.C. 

Col. Russell A. Wilson, A.C. 

1st Lt. David M. Williams, A.C. 

Tech. Sgt. Edward J. Leary, A.C. 

Cpl. James D. Slaton, Inf. 

Pfc. Ramon G. Gutierrez, Inf. 
Order of the Red Star 

Col. Arthur G. Salisbury, A.C. 

1st Lt. Edwin F. Gould, F.A. 

Master Sgt. James L. Kemp, S.C. 

Staff Sgt. James R. Fields, A.C. 

Staff Sgt. Robert D. Sterevich, A.C. 

Staff Sgt. Emery B. Hutchings, A.C. 

Staff Sgt. William A. Krause, A.C. 

United States Navy 

Order of Suvorov, second degree 

Rear Admiral Robert C. Giffen 
Order of Suvorov, third degree 

Capt. Norman C. Gillette 
Order of Kutuzov, first degree 

Vice Admiral Henry K. Hewitt 
Order of Kutuzov, second degree 

Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill 
Ordbh of Kutuzov, third degree 

Capt. Howard E. Orem 
Order of Albsander Nevsky 

Capt. Don P. Moon 
Order of Patriotic War. first degree 

Lt. Ralph E. Boticher 

Lt. (j. g. ) Jeremiah E. Mahoney 



348 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Oeder of Patmotic War, second degree 

Hugh P. Wriglit, gunner's mate, third class 
Ward L. Gemnier, lidntswain's mate, second class 

Ordbk of the Red St^mi 
Lt. Rufus T. Brum 
Lt. John Li. Laird 
Lt. (j.g.) George B. Lennig 
George J. Norton, gunner's mate, second class 
Lloyd R. Weeks, gunner's mate, third class 
Albert F. Wohlers, coxswain 

United States Merehant Marine 

Red Star Awards 

Alexander S. Henry, nraster mariner 

Clyde Neil Andrews, second mate 

Edward Michael Fetherston, third mate 

Maurice Breen, purser 
Medal for Valob Awards 

K. V. Johnson, ordinary seaman 

Frank F. Townsend, chief engineer 

J. W. Lintlom, master mariner 
Medal for Bravery im Action 

Harry F. Rjan, master mariner 

R. E. Hocken, master mariner 

Raymond P. Hi)lubfiwicz, cadet-midshipman 

[Released to the press April 11] 

The remarks of the Soviet Ambassador at the 
ceremony for the presentation of Soviet awards 
to members of the American ai'med forces and 
merchant marine follow : 

Mr. Secretary : I am vei'y happy to present to 
you today the orders and medals awarded by the 
Soviet Government to members of the armed 
forces and merchant marine of the United States 
of America. The Soviet Government presented 
these decorations to 26 representatives of the 
Army, 16 representatives of the Navy, and 10 rep- 
resentatives of the merchant marine of the United 
States for their outstanding services in the strug- 
gle against our common enemy — Hitlerite Ger- 
many. These awards furthermore express the 
friendly feelings of the Soviet people toward the 
people of the United States. 

Both our countries are waging the struggle 
against our common enemy, Hitlerite Germany, 
and its satellites in Europe. For almost three 
years the Red Ar.my has conducted a life-and- 
death struggle against the crafty enemy. Strain- 
ing all its forces and supjiorted by the whole 
Soviet people, our Army not only stopped the 



enemy but inflicted a number of serious defeats 
upon him which predetermined the inevitability 
of his final i-out. At the present time the armies 
of the Soviet Union successfully continue ridding 
Soviet soil of enemy troops. 

Although my country still carries the main 
burden of military efforts and sacrifices, its peoples 
mark with satisfaction the steadily gi'owing role 
and importance of the armed forces of the friendly 
American people in this struggle. American 
troops, and troops of our common ally. Great 
Britain, have struck the enemy a nmnber of serious 
blows in the Mediterranean theater of war and in 
the south of Italy. 

American fliers have been and are successfully 
bombing military objectives in Fascist Germany. 

I am particularly haijpy that among those dec- 
orated by my Government is General Eisenhower, 
who receives the highest award of the Soviet 
Union — the Order of Suvorov of the First Degree. 

I am much pleased also that those receiving high 
awards include such outstanding representatives 
of the armed forces of the United States as Lieu- 
tenant General Spaatz, Lieutenant General Eaker, 
Vice Admiral Hewitt, and other ranking officers. 

I have good reason to be confident that the 
courage and skill shown in the past by those who 
have been awarded decorations will be multiplied 
by the American armed forces in the forthcoming 
decisive battles against the hated enemy, in which 
American officers, soldiers, and seamen will dem- 
onstrate their self-sacrifice and courage. These 
battles must and cannot fail to lead to the final rout 
of the enemy forces, to the hastening of the com- 
plete liberation of Europe from Hitlerite bar- 
barism, to the elimination of the fascist menace 
forever. The peoples of our two countries, and 
those of all the United Nations, have no doubts 
that the joint efforts of the Allies will bring final 
defeat to the enemy. They have no doubts that 
victory will be ours. 

Permit me, Mr. Secretary, on behalf of my Gov- 
ernment, to convey through you to the members 
of the United States Army, Navy, and merchant 
marine decorated by the Soviet Government my 
sincere congratulations and wishes for success in 
tiieir future activities in the struggle against the 
enemy. 



APRIL 15, 1944 



349 



The remarks of the Secretary of State in reply 
to Ambassador Gromyko follow : 

In the name of the Government of the United 
States I wish to express to you, Mr. Ambassador, 
and to your Government my great appreciation 
for the high honor shown to the United States and 
to the members of its Army, Navy, and merchant 
marine by the award of these decorations. I also 
wish to thank j-ou for the friendly sentiments 
which 3'ou have expressed. 

As j'ou know, the officers and men to whom these 
decorations are destined are not able to be present 
today because they are on active duty on various 
fields of battle, either engaged in the relentless 



struggle against our common enemy, Nazi Ger- 
many, or carrying on that no less important 
activity — the transportation of supplies to our 
armies and to those of our Allies. 

These men will receive with pride and gratitude 
the honor shown them by the Soviet Government 
and will be inspired to carry on with increased 
vigor their contributions to our final victory. 

The American people, I am sure, greatly ap- 
preciate this tribute to the bravery and ability of 
our officers and men from the Soviet Union, whose 
armed forces are daily offering an inspiration to all 
freedom-loving people by new and decisive 
victories. 



American Republics 



PAN AMERICAN DAY 

Address by the Secretary of State ^ ' 



[Released to the press April 14] 

Pan American Day is an important anniversary 
to the nations of the Americas. We meet today 
to honor tliose whose vision and energy established 
and for more than 50 years have carried forward 
the Pan American Union and all that it signifies. 
It is well to ask ourselves why it is that we can 
meet in the midst of the greatest war of history 
and why it is that we have so great an achieve- 
ment to coimnemorate. For in doing so we may 
more clearly see the giiideposts which point the 
true direction in which we may go forward to new 
cooperation among ourselves ajid new cooperation 
with other nations of the earth. 

Inter-American unity was not' brought about by 
force and is not based upon the conception of a 
master race whose mission is to rule. It was not 
produced by nations witli a homogeneous racial 
origin. It does not depend upon the bonds of a 
common language or a culture based on a common 
literature or common customs and habits. 

Were these the only sources of international 
unity and common action, the future for the world 
would be dark indeed. But inter- American miity 

583484 — 44 3 



proves that theie are other sources more subtle and 
even stronger — ^sources which offer hope to a world 
which can find no hope in the factors which I have 
mentioned. Our unity comes from a passionate 
devotion to human liberty and national independ- 
ence which is so strong that it does not stop with 
the effort of each jDCople to secure liberty for itself 
but goes on to respect as no less valid the desire of 
other peoples to achieve the same liberty in accord- 
ance with their own traditions and historic insti- 
tutions. Although the language of Bolivar and 
San Martin was different from that of Washing- 
ton and Jefferson, they were expressing the same 
purposes and principles, and they led their coun- 
trymen along tlie same i)aths. These are the paths 
along which inter- American unity has developed, 
growing ever stionger as the American nations 
have come to understand one another and to have 
trust and confidence in one another's purposes and 
to work together for purposes so identic that they 
produced, not division and jealousy, but unity of 
thought and action. 



' Delivered before the Pan American Union, Apr. 14, 1944. 



350 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



As the years have gone on, the true principles 
underlying inter- American unity have been made 
more specific as one inter-American conference 
has followed another. In the years between the 
world wars the trust and confidence between the 
American nations grew ever stronger while else- 
where the growth of ambitions of conquest by 
force brought division and fear. It is the com- 
mon pride of the American republics and the 
good fortune of all mankind that the torch of 
international cooperation has burned at its bright- 
est in the affairs of this hemisphere precisely at a 
time when it was being blacked out elsewhere. It 
is natural that the history of an international 
association which has endured longer than any 
other should provide encouraging guidance for 
the future. 

At the Montevideo Conference in 1933 the Amer- 
ican republics aiBrmed their belief in certain 
essential principles upon which cooperation be- 
tween nations and international order must be 
based. Ajxiong them was the principle that every 
nation, large and small, was equal before the law 
of nations. Another was the right of every 
nation to develop its own institutions, free from 
intervention by others. We already see the be- 
ginning of a wider application of these basic prin- 
ciples. They were stated in the Atlantic Charter, 
the United Nations Declaration, and the declara- 
tions made at Moscow. Specifically, it was agi-eed 
at Moscow that membership in the world security 
organization must be upon the basis of the sov- 
ereign equality of all nations, weak as well as 
strong, and the right of every nation to a govern- 
ment of its own choice. 

The American nations spoke with a united voice 
at Buenos Aires as early as 1936 and Lima in 1938 
of the dangers to world peace which impended, and 
took united action to defend the hemisphere 
against them. When the attack came many of the 
American republics immediately sprang to the de- 
fense of the hemisphere. Shortly after the con- 
ference at Rio de Janeiro others took the same 
course. This chapter in our American history will 
ever be a gallant and glorious one. It teaches that 
unity of purpose, a common and passionate devo- 
tion to the maintenance of freedom, and mutual 
trust and confidence are the essential elements with- 
out which no amount of international organization 



and machinery can succeed. But it also teaches us 
and other nations that international organization 
and machinery are necessary. Successful as our 
common action has been, it has not been complete. 
And it took time, which may not always be avail- 
able. Therefore, we learn that an international 
organization, whether in the field of inter-Ameri- 
can cooperation or in the broader field of world 
peace, must have two main supports. It must 
gather its greatest strength from the rightness and 
justness of the principles upon which it is founded 
and the mutual trust of its members. It must also 
have such an essential framework and machinery 
and such an acceptance of their obligations on the 
part of its members as will enable it to act prompt- 
ly and effectively in times of crisis. 

Another guidepost for the future which our 
common experience before and during this war has 
raised is in the economic field. With the outbreak 
of the war the continent mobilized economically. 
The extent to which the products of the hemisphere 
have contributed to the growing success of the war 
against Germany and Japan cannot be overesti- 
mated. Millions of men and women throughout 
the hemisphere are devoting themselves unspar- 
ingly to the production of essential materials and 
to the forging of the weapons of our common vic- 
tory. All this has been done under the great 
handicaps of the dislocations produced by the war. 

At the end of the war all of our countrie's will be 
faced by problems of immense gravity. Out of 
the experience of our association in peace and in 
war we have learned that the expansion of mate- 
rial well-being can only come with an expansion of 
production and trade and hence an increase in con- 
sumption. We have learned too that no one nation 
can solve its problems by itself. An increase in 
production requires financing, a wise selection of 
the goods to be produced, and wise and fair com- 
mercial jjolicies to enable goods to flow to their 
markets and necessary purchases to be made in 
leturn. All of this requires cooperative effort and 
the creation of international arrangements 
through which that effort may have concrete ex- 
pression. But it requires something more than 
this. It requires the respect by each nation for 
each other nation, of which I have spoken, in the 
field of political relations. International cooper- 
ation in the economic field is the opposite of eco- 



APRIL 15, 1944 



351 



nomic imperialism, by which one country seeks to 
exploit another. It is also the opposite of eco- 
nomic nationalism, by which each nation seeks to 
live unto itself. 

We citizens of this hemisphere have great oppor- 
tunities before us. The community of action 
among the American nations, already highly de- 
veloped, will at the end of the war be indispensable 
in the advaHcement of our economic well-being 
and in the establishment of an international organ- 
ization to prevent the recurrence of world wars. 
Together, as I have said, we foresaw, pointed out, 
and prepared against the dangers of war. To- 
gether we must foresee and prepare for the ever- 
greater common task of the peace. I believe that 
as in future j-ears men of the Americas meet to 
commemorate this day they will see unfolded be- 
fore their eyes ever-increasing evidence that the 
path along which inter- American cooperation has 
led is the path to human liberty and human 
welfare. 



ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF 
PRESIDENT OF MEXICO 

[Released to the press AprU 11] 

The following messages, dated April 10, 1944, 
were sent by President Roosevelt to His Excellency 
Manuel Avila Camacho, President of Mexico, and 
by Secretary of State Cordell Hull to His Excel- 
lency Ezequiel Padilla, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs of Mexico : 

I have been deeply shocked by the news of the 
dastardly attempt made on your life today, and I 
sincerely congi'atulate you on the most fortunate 
outcome of this unhappy event. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



Please convey to His Excellency President Avila 
Camacho my deep gratification that he so fortu- 
nately escaped injury in the outrageous assault 
made upon him today. 

Cordell Hull 



The Far East 



AMERICAN AID TO CHINA SINCE 1931 



[Note: The following article, which is based on data 
contained in official sources, has been prepared by several 
officers of the Department of State in an effort to provide 
a comprehensive picture of the various forms in which 
American assistance has been rendered to China.] 

Introduction 

During the period of a century which has elapsed 
since the United States entered into treaty rela- 
tions with China, the United States has consist- 
ently pursued a policy of friendly helpfulness to- 
ward that country. This policy was conspicuously 
illustrated in the efforts of the United States Gov- 
ernment to avert the partitioning of China at the 
close of the nineteenth century, when Jolin Hay 
circulated to the powers the open-door notes, and 
m the initiative taken by the United States Gov- 
ernment which resulted in the conclusion of the 
nine-power treaty of February 6, 1922 containing 
provisions designed to assure the peace, integrity, 
and stability of China. The policy historically 



pursued by the United States toward China has 
been based primarily upon so broad and funda- 
mental an interest that it has served the best in- 
terests of both China and the United States. 

Since the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 
September 1931 the long history of consistent 
American aid to and support of China has been 
given fresh manifestation in various ways. This 
assistance may be discussed^ under the following 
heads : Diplomatic aid, financial aid, lend-lease as- 
sistance, military aid, technical assistance, Ameri- 
can Red Cross assistance, and assistance by private 
American agencies. 

Diplomatic Aid 

Japan's occupation of Manchuria in 1931 and 
her subsequent successive course of aggression in 
China proper constituted clear violations of the 
principles of policy which the United States Gov- 
ernment conceived to be essential for the mainte- 



352 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nance of sound international relations. Conse- 
quently the United States Government endeavored 
constantly, consistently, and with unremitting ef- 
fort to persuade Japan to desist from her policy 
of aggression. Whenever the occasion for such 
action arose, the United States made known its 
unalterable opposition to the course which Japan 
was pursuing. 

The occupation of Manchuria by Japanese 
armed forces caused the United States, as early as 

1932, to express its views w^ith respect to develop- 
ments in the Far East. On January 7, 1932 
identical notes, which gave expression to what has 
since been called the doctrine of "non-recogni- 
tion", were sent to the Chinese and Japanese Gov- 
ernments. It was stated in these notes that the 
United States could not "admit the legality of any 
situation de fcwto nor does it intend to recognize 
any treaty or agi'eement entered into between those 
Governments, or agents thereof, which may im- 
pair the treaty rights of the United States or its 
citizens in China, including those which relate 
to the sovereignty, the independence, or the terri- 
torial and administrative integrity of the Republic 
of China, or to the international policy relative to 
China, commonly known as the open door policy ; 
and that it does not intend to recognize any situa- 
tion, treaty or agreement which may be brought 
about bj' means contrary to the covenants and 
obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 
1928, to which Treaty both China and Japan, as 
well as the United States, are pai'ties." 

Approximately a year later, on February 2'5, 

1933, after the League of Nations had completed 
a study of the controversy between Japan and 
China and had adopted and transmitted to the 
United States for consideration a report embody- 
ing a number of conclusions with respect thereto, 
the Secretary of State declared in a communica- 
tion addressed to the Secretary General of the 
League: "The findings of fact arrived at by the 
League and the understanding of the facts derived 
by the American Government from reports made 
to it by its own representatives are in substantial 
accord. In the light of its findings of fact, the 
Assembly of the League has formulated a meas- 
ured statement of conclusions. With those con- 
clusions the American Government is in general 
accord." The Secretary of State added : "In their 



affirmations respectively of the principle of non- 
recognition and their attitude in regard thereto 
the League and the United States are on common 
gi'ound." 

During the period from 1934 until the outbreak 
of hostilities between Japan and China in the 
summer of 1937 it was necessary for the United 
States Government to take diplomatic action on 
a number of occasions in an effort to preserve and 
protect legitimate American interests in China 
and to support the fundamental principles of 
American policies in dealing with foreign nations. 

On April 17, 1934, Mr. Amau, Chief of the 
Bureau of Information and Intelligence of the 
Japanese Foreign Office, issued a statement which 
disclosed the China policy of the Japanese Gov- 
ernment. This statement, which became known 
as the "xVmau statement", referred to "the special 
position of Japan in her relations with China", 
declared that "there is no country but China which 
is in a position to share with Japan the responsi- 
bility for the maintenance of peace in East Asia", 
and asserted Japan's opposition to (1) "any 
attempt on the part of China to avail herself of 
the influence of any other country in order to 
resist Japan", (2) "any action taken by China, 
calculated to play one power against another", 
(3) "any joint operations undertaken by foreign 
powers even in the name of technical or financial 
assistance", and (4) any action which might tend 
to strengthen China in a military sense. 

On April 28, 1934, the Secretary of State in- 
structed the American Ambassador at Tokyo, 
Mr. Grew, to deliver an aide-memoire on the sub- 
ject to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
It was pointed out in the aide-memoire that the 
relations of the United States with China, as well 
as with other countries, were governed by the 
generally accepted principles of international law 
and the provisions of treaties to which the United 
States was a party, that the LTnited States had 
certain rights and obligations with respect to 
China, and that treaties could be lawfully modi- 
fied or terminated "only by processes pi'escribed or 
recognized or agreed upon by the parties to them". 
It was further stated: "In the opinion of the 
American people and the American Government, 
no nation can, without the assent of the other 
nations concerned, rightfully endeavor to make 



APRIL 15, 1944 



353 



conclusive its will in situations where there are 
involved the rights, the obligations and the legiti- 
mate interests of other sovereign states." 

A Japanese military demarche in north China 
in support of a so-called "movement for autonomy" 
in that region induced the Secretary of State to 
issue to the press on December 5, 1935 a further 
statement with respect to the attitude and policy 
of the United States. The Secretary declared that 
unusual developments in any region of China were 
rightfully and necessarily of concern not only to 
the Government and people of China but to all 
the powers which had interests in China, for, "in 
relations with China and in China, the treaty 
rights and treaty obligations of the 'treaty powers' 
are identical." The Secretary reiterated his belief 
that governments and peoples must keep faith in 
principles and pledges and that in international 
relations there must be agreements and respect for 
agreements. His statement concluded: "This 
country has abiding faith in the fundamental 
principles of its traditional policy. This Govern- 
ment adheres to the provisions of the treaties to 
which it is a party and continues to bespeak respect 
by all nations for the provisions of treaties sol- 
emnly entered into for the purpose of facilitating 
and regulating, to reciprocal common advantage, 
the contacts between and among the countries 
signatory." 

A clash between Japanese and Chinese forces 
which occurred near Peiping on July 7, 1937 
marked the opening of the wide-spread armed 
conflict that has raged continuously between Japan 
and China since that time. Reports which he had 
received regarding the action of July 7 caused the 
Secretary to reiterate yet again in a statement 
made on July 16, 1937 the fundamental principles 
of American foreign policy. Shortly thereafter, on 
July 21, the United States Government offered the 
Japanese and Chinese Governments, through their 
respective diplomatic representatives at Wash- 
ington, its good offices. These efforts were of no 
avail, and on October 6, 1937 the Department of 
State announced that the United States Govern- 
ment had been "forced to the conclusion that the 
action of Japan in China is inconsistent with the 
principles which should govern the relationships 
between nations and is contrary to the provisions 
of the nine-power treaty of February 6, 1922, re- 



garding principles and policies to be followed in 
matters concerning China, and to those of the Kel- 
logg-Briand Pact of August 27, 1928." 

During the period from 1937 to December 7, 1941 
the United States Government undertook, when- 
ever it could projjerly take action, to bring about 
a peaceful solution of the conflict and to insure 
both the protection of American lives and property 
and the observance of the traditional principles 
of American foreign policy. Mention may be 
made, by way of illustration, of certain types of 
United States activity. 

Efforts were made during this period by the 
United States Government to prevent the indis- 
criminate bombing of civilian populations by 
Japanese air forces. On June 3, 1938, for ex- 
ample, the Acting Secretary of State, Mr. Welles, 
denounced the ruthless bombing of unfortified lo- 
calities which had caused the death of many hun- 
dreds of civilians in both China and Spain. On 
June 11, 1938 the Secretary of State deplored the 
bombing of civilian populations from the air and 
expressed the hope that American manufacturers 
or exporters of airplanes and airplane parts would 
not sell bombers to nations which would use them 
to bomb civilian populations. On December 2, 
1939 the President declared in a public statement 
that the American policy of discouraging the ex- 
port of planes to countries engaged in unprovoked 
bombing and machine-gunning of civilian popula- 
tions from the air would apply also to materials 
essential to airplane manufacture ; and on Decem- 
ber 20, 1939 the Department of State announced 
the extension of the policy to include the delivery 
of the technical information required for the pro- 
duction of high-quality aviation gasoline. 

Representations were made to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment in an effort to restrain Japanese agen- 
cies in China from taking action which menaced 
or injured American lives, property, or other in- 
terests. On October 6, 1938, for example, there 
was sent to the Japanese Government a compre- 
hensive note enumerating the measures taken by 
Japanese agencies which were regarded as un- 
warranted, unlawful, contrary to treaties, or in- 
consistent with announced policies of the Japanese 
Government. In reply to this note the Japanese 
Government on November 18, after referring to a 
"new situation fast developing in East Asia", as- 



354 

serted that "any attempt to apply to the conditions 
of today and tomorrow inapplicable ideas and 
principles of the past neither would contribute 
toward the estabhshment of a real peace in East 
Asia nor solve the immediate issues." The Japa- 
nese Government subsequently made it clear, dur- 
ing conversations held in Tokyo between officials 
of the Japanese Foreign Office and United States 
diplomatic representatives, that Japan expected to 
be the sole arbiter of political and economic devel- 
opments in China. In the light of these develop- 
ments, the United States Government sent to the 
Japanese Government on December 31, 1938 a fur- 
ther communication in which the traditional 
principles of American foreign policy were re- 
asserted and in which it was announced that the 
United States could not assent to any impairment 
of its rights. 

As the conflict in China became more wide- 
spread, Japanese interference with American com- 
mercial and other interests in China increased. 
Consequently, the United States Government in a 
note of July 26, 1939 addressed to the Japanese 
Ambassador at Washington gave notice, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Treaty of Com- 
merce and Navigation of February 21, 1911 be- 
tween the United States and Japan, of its desire 
that the treaty be terminated and its expectation, 
since the required notice had been given, that the 
treaty woukl expire six months thereafter. It was 
declared in the note tliat this action was taken 
"with a view to better safeguarding and promoting 
American interests as new developments require". 
The treaty was permitted to lapse on January 26, 
1940, and, notwithstanding repeated Japarfese re- 
quests for the conclusion of some other arrange- 
ment to fill this gap, no other arrangement was 
concluded between the two countries. 

Early in 1940 the Japanese established at Nan- 
king a puppet Chinese government under Wang 
Ching-wei. In reply to an inquiry regarding this 
action, the Secretary of State dechired on March 
30, 1940, "the setting up of a new regime at Nan- 
king has the appearance of a further step in a pro- 
gi'am of one country by armed force to impose its 
will upon a neighboring country and to block off 
» a large area of the world from normal political and 
economic relationships with the rest of the world." 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The Secretary continued: "Twelve years ago the 
Goverment of the United States recognized, as did 
other governments, the National Government of 
the Republic of China. The Government of the 
United States has ample reason for believing that 
that Government, with capital now at Chungking, 
has had and still has the allegiance and support of 
the great majority of the Chinese people. The 
Government of the United States of course con- 
tinues to recognize that Government as the Gov- 
ernment of China." . 

In September 1940 Japan took steps to place her 
armed forces in position to attack China from 
French Indochina. On September 4 Mr. Hull 
made mention of the officially declared desires of 
the American Government and several other gov- 
ernments, including the Japanese, that the prin- 
ciple of the status quo be preserved in the Pacific, 
with special reference to the Netherlands Indies 
and French Indochina ; he then remai-ked that, 
should events confirm reports of the delivery by 
Japanese officials of an ultimatum to the local 
authorities of French Indochina calling for facili- 
ties for the passage of Japanese troops and for the 
use of bases, the effect upon public opinion in the 
United States would be unfortunate. Soon there- 
after, developments in French Indocliina caused 
Mr. Hull to say on September 23 that it appeared 
obvious that the status quo in Indochina was being 
upset under duress. 

In an endeavor to halt the course of develop- 
ments in the Far East and to establish a basis for 
stability and progress in the entire Pacific area, 
the United States entered into discussions with 
Japan in 1941. During the conversations, which 
took place over a period of nine months, the United 
States took into account not only its own legitimate 
interests but also those of China, Japan, and other 
countries. When questions relating to the legiti- 
mate rights and interests of other countries arose, 
the United States Government kept in appropriate 
contact with the representatives of those countries. 

During the conversations the United States con- 
sistently advocated certain fundamental princi- 
ples which should govern international relations. 
These were : 

The principle of inviolability of territorial in- 
tegrity and sovereignty of all nations; 



APRIL 15, 1944 



355 



The principle of non-interference in the internal 

affairs of other countries; 
The principle of ecpiality — including equality of 

commercial opportunit_y and treatment; and 
The principle of reliance upon international 

cooi^eration and conciliation for the pi'even- 

tion and pacific settlement of controversies. 

The Government of the United States steadfastly 
refused to consider any agreement with Japan 
under the teniis of which Japan would be permit- 
ted to retain Japanese troops in China or which 
was inconsistent with respect for China's sover- 
eignty, independence, and territorial integrity. 

The conversations were temporarily suspended 
by the United States in July 1941, because in that 
month the Japanese began sending troops and 
equipment into southern Indochina. The United 
States Government also adopted measures to freeze 
Japanese assets in this country, with the result 
that trade between the two countries practically 
ceased. While the Japanese Government asserted 
that the move into Indochina was for the purpose 
of bringing the China "incident" to an end, the 
United States Government refused to countenance 
or give assent to the presence of any Japanese 
troops in that area. 

At the urgent and insistent request of the Jap- 
anese Government, the conversations were resumed 
during the following month. Finally, after sev- 
eral formulas had been proposed and discussed, the 
Japanese Government submitted on November 20, 
1941 a narrow proposal which inter alia called for 
the discontinuance by the United States of aid to 
China. It contained, however, no provision for 
the abandonment by Japan of her warlike aims 
or operations. The proposal obviously offered no 
basis for a peaceful settlement or even for a tem- 
porary adjustment. 

In an effort to clarify the issues, the United 
States Government presented to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment on November 26, 1941 a clear-cut plan for 
a broad but simple settlement. The plan con- 
tained the following and other proposals : (1) The 
Government of Japan should withdraw all mili- 
tary, naval, air, and police forces from China and 
Indochina; (2) the Governments of the United 
States and Japan would pledge not to support any 
government in China other than the National Gov- 



ernment of the Republic of China with capital 
tcAnporarily at Cliungking; {?>) the two Govern- 
ments would pledge to relinquish extraterritorial 
and related rights in China and to endeavor to 
obtain the agreement of other governments pos- 
sessing such rights to give up those rights. 

These negotiations were abruptly terminated on 
December 7, 1941 by the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor. 

Mention should be made of the fact that during 
the period prior to the outbreak of hostilities be- 
tween the United States and Japan the efforts made 
by the United States to aid China and to maintain 
its traditional foreign policies were by no means 
confined to negotiations with Japan. When, for 
example, reports were circulated in July 1940 that 
the British Government planned to prohibit tem- 
porarily the movement of certain commodities over 
the Burma Road, the Secretary of State declared 
on July 16, in response to an inquiry on the subject, 
that the United States had a legitimate interest in 
the keeping open of arteries of commerce in every 
part of the world and that, as a consequence, 
"action such as this, if taken, . . . would constitute 
unwarranted interpositions of obstacles to world 
trade". 

Since the outbreak of the war between the United 
States and Japan, the United States Government 
has taken a number of important steps which have 
had the effect of improving China's international 
position and prestige. 

On October 9, 1942 the United States Govern- 
ment took the initiative in approaching the Chi- 
nese Government with regard to the negotiation of 
a treaty providing for the relinquishment of Amer- 
ican extraterritorial rights in China and for the 
settlement of related questions. A treaty accom- 
plishing these objectives was signed on January 11, 
1943 and became effective with the exchange of rat- 
ifications on May 20, 1943. This treaty, together 
with a similar Sino-British ti^eaty which was ne- 
gotiated at the same time, was hailed by Chinese 
leaders as restoring China to a position of equality 
with the United States and Great Britain. 

On December 17, 1943 the President signed an 
act, which had been passed by large majorities of 
both Houses of Congress, removing long-standing 
legislative discriminations against the Chinese. 



356 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The act repealed the Chinese exclusion laws, estab- 
lished an annual Chinese immigi'ation quota, and 
made legally admitted Chinese eligible to naturali- 
zation as American citizens. The enactment of 
this legislation had been specifically recommended 
by the President in order to "correct a historic mis- 
take" and give "additional proof that we regard 
Cliina not only as a partner in waging war but 
that we shall regard her as a partner in days of 
peace". 

In conjunction with other members of the United 
Nations, the United States Government has also 
participated in other actions which demonstrate 
its desire and intention to treat China as an equal 
among the major powers and to contribute to the 
strengthening of the Chinese nation. Among the 
more outstanding examples of such action have 
been : the joint four-nation declaration at Moscow, 
which recognized the right and responsibility of 
China to participate jointly with the United 
States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in the 
prosecution of the war, the organization of the 
peace, and the establishment of machinery for 
post-war international cooperation ; the joint com- 
munique issued at Cairo by President Roosevelt, 
Prime Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, which reaffirmed the recognition 
accorded to China at Moscow and pledged the 
restoration to Cliina of Manchuria, Formosa, and 
the Pescadores; and the prominent part assigned 
to Chinese representatives in the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

Financial Aid 

Boxer Indemnity 

The first financial obligation of importance cre- 
ated between the Governments of China and the 
United States was the American share of the so- 
called "Boxer Indemnity" imposed upon China 
by the Boxer protocol of September 7, 1901 and 
its supplemental agreements. Under arrange- 
ments provided through congressional action in 
1908 and 1924, the United States followed the 
practice of remitting all Boxer payments not al- 
located to legitimate claimants; and those remit- 
tances, which were earmarked for educational pur- 
poses, became, in effect, the earliest example of 
financial aid to China on the part of the United 



States Government. This particular kind of aid 
was suspended in 1939, when the Chinese Govern- 
ment notified the Secretary of State that it was 
forced to suspend payments of the indemnity be- 
cause of financial troubles. The United States 
acquiesced in the suspension of the payments and 
eventually, on January 11, 1943, yielded all further 
claims to indemnity payments. 

Loans and credits 

Although private American citizens and Ameri- 
can banks invested money in the numerous Chinese 
bond issues floated both before and after the crea- 
tion of the Chinese Republic, no United States 
governmental financial aid was extended to China, 
except for the Boxer remissions, until September 
25, 1931. On that date, however, the Grain Sta- 
bilization Board, in accordance with a decision 
reached by the Federal Farm Board, concluded a 
contract with the Chinese Government for the sale 
to China on credit of 450,000 short tons of Ameri- 
can wheat and wheat flours to be used in relief 
operations necessitated by the 1931 Yangtze flood. 
The total amount of the obligation incurred by 
China under this agreement was $9,212,826. 

On May 29, 1933 negotiations were concluded 
between the Chinese Government and the Recon- 
struction Finance Corporation for a credit of 
$50,000,000, advanced at an interest rate of 5 per- 
cent, to be used for the purchase of American cot- 
ton, wheat, and flour. Of the total amount, ap- 
proximately $40,000,000 was to be spent on cotton, 
$6,000,000 on wheat, and at least $4,000,000 on flour. 
This credit was to be secured by a first charge on 
certain Chinese taxes and by junior charges on 
certain other taxes. 

By a modification of the agreement on February 
23, 1934 the size of the cotton credit was reduced to 
$10,000,000. The original sum set aside for flour 
was also too high for the Chinese, and only 
$1,105,385 of it was actually used. Thus, when the 
Export-Import Bank took over the administra- 
tion of the credit in 1936, the total amount of the 
$50,000,000 credit actually utilized was only 
$17,105,385. 

The Export-Import Bank, to which had been 
transferred early in 1936 the administration of the 
Flood Relief Loan of 1931 and the Cotton, Wheat, 
and Flour Credit of 1933, announced on June 20, 



APRIL 15, 1944 



357 



1936 that the two loans had been consolidated and 
that payments would be made in quarterly instal- 
ments over a period of six years. The consolida- 
tion note was secured by a first charge on China's 
internal (consolidated) taxes and on the 5 percent 
flood-relief customs surtax. 

To aid the Chinese Government in financing the 
purchase of railway equipment in the United 
States, the Export-Import Bank committed itself 
on May 4, 1937 to furnish up to $1,600,000 for this 
purpose, provided the amount did not exceed one 
half of the promissory notes issued by the Chinese 
Ministry of Railways and guaranteed by one of the 
government-supported Chinese banks. Under this 
commitment the Export-Import Bank actually 
disbursed $733,200. The final repayment of this 
credit was completed by the Chinese Government 
on July 13, 1942. 

On December 15, 1938 announcement was made 
of the extension to China of a credit under the 
terms of which the Export-Import Bank would 
advance $25,000,000 to the Universal Trading Cor- 
poration, a Chinese-owned American corporation, 
which would use the funds to purchase American 
agricultural and manufactured products for ex- 
port to China. The credits were to be repaid from 
profits derived from the importation and sale in the 
United States of Chinese wood (tung) oil, repay- 
ment to be guaranteed by the Bank of China, of 
which the Chinese Government controlled approxi- 
mately half the stock. Wliile, according to the 
terms of a contract which was signed on February 
8, 1939, the entire credit was to be repaid by 
January 1, 1944, the Chinese Government was able 
to complete the repayment on March 31, 1942, al- 
most two years ahead of schedule, because of the 
funds accruing from the sale in the United States 
of imported wood oil. 

It should be noted that, although the wood-oil 
credit was commercial in character, its announce- 
ment on December 15, 1938, at a time when, in the 
terms of Chinese leaders, China was facing its 
"darkest hour" because of the fall of Canton and 
Hankow, did much to counteract the discouraging 
effect of military developments. 

On March 7, 1940, just prior to the setting up of 
the puppet Wang Ching-wei regime at Nanking, 
the Export-Import Bank allocated $20,000,000 for 



credits to finance exports to China. These credits 
were to be handled in substantially the same way 
as those provided in the wood-oil loan, except that 
China was to pay off the new loan with profits ac- 
cruing from shipments of tin to the United States. 

In September 1940 the Chinese Government re- 
quested another loan. This request was promptly 
met. The Federal Loan Agency announced on 
September 25, 1940 that the Export-Import Bank 
had authorized credits of $25,000,000 to the Chi- 
nese Government, with repayment guaranteed by 
the Central Bank of China. At the same time it 
was announced tliat the Metals Reserve Company 
had agreed to buy from the National Resources 
Commission of China $30,000,000 worth of tungs- 
ten, from the sale of which the new credit would 
be paid. 

A decision on the part of the Export-Import 
Bank to extend a further loan of $50,000,000 to the 
Central Bank of China was announced on Decem- 
ber 1, 1940, the day after Japan gave formal recog- 
nition to the Wang Ching-wei regime as the "Na- 
tional Government of China" and concluded a 
"treaty" with that regime. It was stipulated that 
the loan should be repaid from the profits received 
by the Chinese National Resources Commission 
from the sale of tin, wolframite, and antimony to 
the Metals Reserve Company. 

American aid through silver purchases 

Prior to 1933 China was normally a silver-im- 
porting country. As a result, however, of the loss 
of Manchuria, whose trade had yielded an export 
balance to China, and of the world trend away 
from gold standards, which tended to increase the 
price of silver and other commodities as well as 
gold, silver began to leave China. The loss of silver 
caused a decrease in the amount of the Chinese cur- 
rency available for circulation, thereby hampering 
Chinese trade and commerce, and a reduction in 
the size of the reserves held by Chinese banks, with 
the result that there was a sharjj contraction of 
credit. Although the Chinese Government placed 
an export tax on silver in an effort to check the flow 
of that commodity from the country, this action 
failed to have any beneficial effect, primarily be- 
cause of the ease with which smuggling operations 
could be engaged in. 



358 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The American Silver Purchase Act of 1934 
proved to be a blessing to China for, despite the 
fact that it created serious strains on the Chinese 
economy by stimulating tlie export of silver from 
China, it enabled the Chinese Government to sell 
silver at a good price. In order to take advantage 
of tliis condition and to have foreign exchange re- 
ceived from the sale of silver accrue to the benefit 
of the Government, China in Xovember 1935 na- 
tionalized silver and decided to stabilize the yuan 
(tlie Chinese dollar) in terms of the American dol- 
lar and the British pound sterling. In the same 
month the United States, acting under the author- 
ity of the Silver Purchase Act, concluded an agree- 
ment with China for the sale to the United States 
of 50,000,000 ounces of silver. The silver was 
shipped to the United States during December 1935 
and January 1936. On May 18, 193G the Secretary 
of the Treasury, Mr. Morgenthau, announced the 
conclusion of another agreement for the purchase 
of a similar amount of silver and declared that tlie 
payment for the silver would be in foreign ex- 
change, thereby assisting the Chinese Government 
in its efforts at currency stabilization. 

On July 9, 1937 the Treasury Department 
announced a broadening of the scope of these 
arrangements under whicli the Central Bank of 
China could obtain dollar exchange for stabiliza- 
tion purposes. The announcement also disclosed 
that the Treasury would sell a substantial amount 
of gold to the Chinese Government and would 
make further silver purchases in order to assist 
China in buying the gold. This agreement was 
renewed in July 1938 and again in September 1938. 

By the end of 1938 the flow of silver from China 
had almost come to a halt. During the period 
1935-38 there had accrued to China, as a result of 
the measures taken by the American Government, 
foi-eign exchange to an amount estimated at be- 
tween $300,000,000 and $350,000,000. Thus, by 
the end of the period of heavy silver sales by China, 
the United States was actively engaged in mone- 
tary support of the Chinese Government, and 
China had sold the great bulk of her monetary 
silver. 

Despite the aid China received from the United 
States under these agreements, and despite China's 
continued effort after the outbreak of the conflict 



with Japan in 1937 to stabilize the yuan, currency 
stabilization was rendered difficult by the disrup- 
tion of normal trade and finance and by the Jap- 
anese occupation of key areas of China. Lacking 
control of all the areas in which its curi'ency was 
used, the Chinese Government was unable effec- 
tively to control the total exports and imports of 
the country. The Japanese, as they obtained 
Chinese national currency in occupied areas, pre- 
sented it for redemption into foreign exchange, 
with the result that valuable foreign exchange was 
gained by Japan and was lost by China. China 
was finally forced to suspend operations for main- 
taining the stability of the yuan and to allow 
exchange rates to fall. 

Because of these conditions it was announced on 
December 1, 1940 that the United States would 
extend to China a stabilization loan of $50,000,000 
in connection with a credit of the same amount to 
be extended by the Export -Import Bank. As the 
details of the stabilization loan had to be worked 
out, the final agreement, dated April 1, 1941, was 
not signed until April 25, 1941. Under the terms 
of this agreement the United States Stabilization 
Fund was to buy Chinese yuan upon the request 
of the Central Bank of China to the amount of 
$50,000,000, and the Chinese Government banks 
were to contribute $20,000,000 to the resources of a 
Stabilization Board to be established under the 
agreement. 

At approximately the same time the Chinese 
Government concluded a similar agreement with 
Great Britain by which the British were to extend 
to China a somewhat smaller stabilization loan 
(£5,000,000) to be administered by the same 
Stabilization Board. Thus, although the Sino- 
American and the Sino-British stabilization agree- 
ments were technically distinct, it tiad been agreed 
that all stabilization operations were to be carried 
on by a single Board composed of five members : 
three Chinese, one British, and one American. 

On July 26, 1941, only a few months after the 
establishment of the Stabilization Board, the 
United States issued a freezing order under the 
terms of which the assets of China and Japan in 
the United States were placed under the supervi- 
sion of the United States Treasury. Chinese 
funds in the United States were frozen, at the 



APRIL 15, 1944 



359 



request of the Chinese Government, in order to 
safeguard the operations of the new Stabilization 
Board, since the old Anglo-Chinese Stabilization 
Fund had lost heavily at the hands of Japanese 
speculators in Shanghai who had been able to make 
free use of dollar funds in the United States. 
After the freezing order took effect it became im- 
possible, despite the fact that China had neither 
military nor political control over Chinese assets in 
the United States or in the occupied regions of 
China, for any flight of capital from China to take 
place and for any Chinese funds to be out of 
Chinese jurisdiction. According to reliable re- 
ports, received approximately two months after 
the issuance of the freezing order, foreign-ex- 
change speculation had been brought to a virtual 
standstill. 

The stabilization operations which have been 
carried on since the establishment of the new Chi- 
nese monetary system in November 1935 have cost 
the American and British Governments many mil- 
lions of dollars in foreign exchange and somewhat 
smaller amounts in actual losses. 

Loan to Chirm of $500JX)OfiOO in 191^2 

On January 31, 1942 the President addressed to 
Congress a letter in which he declared : "Respon- 
sible officials both of this Government and of the 
Government of China have brought to my atten- 
tion the existence of urgent need for the immedi- 
ate extension to China of economic and financial 
assistance, going beyond in amount and different 
in form from such aid as Congress has already 
authorized. I believe that such additional as- 
sistance would serve to strengthen China's posi- 
tion as regards both her internal economy and her 
capacity in general to function with great military 
effectiveness in our common effort." Enclosed 
with the President's letter was a draft of a joint 
resolution which the President urged Congress to 
pass in order to authorize the Secretary of the 
Treasury, with the approval of the President, "to 
loan or extend credit or give other financial aid 
to China in an amount not to exceed in the aggre- 
gate $500,000,000". The joint resolution was 
promptly passed by Congress and was signed by 
the President on February 7, 1942. Less than a 
week later the money to implement this aid was 
appropriated. 



Lend-Lease Assistance 

On May 6, 1941, less than two months after the 
approval of the Lend-Lease Act, the President, in 
accordance with the provisions of the act, declared 
the defense of China to be vital to the defense of 
the LTnited States. Mr. Lauchlin Currie, who had 
gone to China in January 1941 to survey that 
country's needs, and other Government officials 
had developed, after Mr. Currie's return to Wash- 
ington in March 1941, a lend-lease program de- 
signed to meet the emergency needs of China. The 
President's action on May 6 made it possible to put 
that program into effect. 

Lend-lease aid to China in 1941 was aimed par- 
ticularly at improving transport over the Burma 
Road, the only artery through which goods could 
flow into Cliina. The first lend-lease shipments 
to China consisted primarily of trucks, spare parts, 
motor fuel, and lubricants for use on the Burma 
Road and material for the development of the 
highway. As Chiang Kai-shek had made an ur- 
gent request of Mr. Currie during the latter's visit 
to China for American technical trafiic advisers to 
survey the Burma Road and to make recommenda- 
tions for increasing traffic over it, a mission of 
American traffic experts, headed by Mr. Daniel 
Arnstein, left Washington in June 1941. After 
this mission had completed its study, the Chinese 
Government undertook a number of measures to 
improve the administration of the road, more spare 
parts and repair equipment were furnished to 
China under lend-lease, and a number of American 
technicians, including loatters, dispatchers, ter- 
minal managers, shop superintendents, foremen, 
and mechanics, were recruited in the United States 
and sent to China at lend-lease expense. 

Concurrently the Chinese Government was 
pushing a program for hard-surfacing tlie road. 
Chinese laborers laid a stone base, while the United 
States contributed to the project by furnishing to 
China in the form of lend-lease aid grading equip- 
ment, earth-moving equipment, and thousands of 
tons of asphalt. 

Because of these efforts and because of the ar- 
rival of large numbers of American trucks, the 
tonnage being carried over the Burma Road by 
October and November 1941 was almost four times 
greater than it had been during the early months 



360 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of 1941. The quantity of material carried each 
montli had increased from 4,000 to 15,000 tons. 

During 1941 lend-lease funds to the amount of 
$15,000,000 were also allocated to China for use in 
connection with the construction of a railroad from 
Burma into China which would have made pos- 
sible a great increase in the volume of supplies be- 
ing transported to the Chinese. The completion 
of this project was prevented, however, by Japa- 
nese military operations in Burma. 

The fall of Burma and the seizure of the south- 
ern portion of the Burma Eoad by the Japanese 
left air transport as the only effective means of 
getting supplies into China. Great progress has 
been made, particularly during the past year, in 
the development of the air-transport route into 
China. It is stated in this connection in the Four- 
teenth Report to Congress on Lewi-Lease Opera- 
tions that "In the last tliree months of 1943, more 
air cargo for United States and Chinese forces was 
carried into China by air than in the preceding 
nine months of the year. In the month of De- 
cember alone, twice as much cargo was flown into 
China as in all of 1942. In January 1944, the ton- 
nage of goods flown into China was fifteen times 
that of January 1943 — and the monthly toimage is 
continuing to increase." It is recorded in the same 
report that the total value of lend-lease supplies 
transferred to China through December 31, 1943 
amounted to $200,995,000, of which $175,576,000 
represented goods and $25,419,000 represented 
services rendered; and that, in addition, goods 
valued at $191,731,000 were consigned to the United 
States commanding general in the India-China 
theater for transfer to China. 

Constant efforts have also been made' to develop 
new land supply routes. At the present time, for 
example. United States engineers are constructing 
the new Ledo Road across upper Burma. 

It should be added that action has also been 
taken to make India a great supply base for opera- 
tions which will have as major objectives the ex- 
pulsion of the Japanese from Burma and the re- 
opening of land transportation through that area 
for supplies for China. Stockpiles of material for 
China are being established there in increasing 
quantities. Raw materials and machine tools are 



being sent in order to augment India's productive 
capacity. American equipment and technical as- 
sistance for the improvement of India's port facili- 
ties and railway transport system have been pro- 
vided on an extensive scale in order to increase 
India's capacity to handle and transport supplies 
essential to the United Nations war effort, includ- 
ing the mounting stores of material that await 
shipment to China as soon as new transportation 
routes are opened. 

The lend-lease assistance supplied to — or for the 
future benefit of — China since the cutting of the 
Burma Road has been increasingly concerned with 
military aid. Consequently, no hard-and-fast dis- 
tinction call be made between lend-lease assistance 
and military aid. 

Military Aid 

In 1941 the Division of Defense Aid Reports, 
China Defense Supplies (the official agency of the 
Chinese Government handling lend-lease requisi- 
tions) , and the War Depai'tment developed a proj- 
ect under lend-lease for equipping and training 
large numbers of Chinese forces. Tlie United 
States Government subsequently organized a mili- 
tary mission, which was led by Brigadier General 
(now Major General) Magruder and was com- 
posed of specialists in all phases of modern war- 
fare, to advise and consult with Chinese autliori- 
ties regarding the use of defense materials that 
had been provided to them in connection with this 
project, as well as those scheduled for future 
delivery. The mission, which arrived in China 
in November 1941, was supported by lend-lease 
funds. 

Little of the equipment intended for China's 
ground forces under this program ever reached 
China, but the United States was more successful 
in furnishing China with assistance from the air. 
Colonel (now Major General) Claire Chennault. 
who had been serving the Chinese Government as 
a special technical adviser to the Chinese Air Force 
since 1937, and General P. T. Mow of the Chinese 
Air Force had visited Washington in November 
1940 on a mission for Generalissimo Chiang Kai- 
shek in an effort (1) to obtain fighter planes and to 
enlist volunteer American airmen to fly them 



APRIL IS, 1044 



361 



against the Japanese and (2) to start a program 
for building a strong and well-equipped Chinese 
Air Force. 

By January 1941 Colonel Chennault's plan to 
obtain fighter planes and American pilots had 
been approved. Arrangements were made to allot 
to the Chinese Government 100 P-40 fighter planes 
whicli had previously been allocated for delivery 
to Great Britain, and by the end of February 1941 
the first 36 of tlie planes had been shipped from 
New York. Meanwhile Colonel Chennault, with 
the help of the War and Navy Departments, suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the services of 100 veteran 
pilots and 150 technicians and ground-crew per- 
sonnel. Thus there was formed the nucleus for 
the American Volunteer Group (the "Flying 
Tigers"), which was formally constituted by an 
order issued by Chiang Kai-shek on August 1, 1941 
and which, prior to its disbandment in July 1942, 
provided an effective air defense for southwest 
China and rendered invaluable assistance to hard- 
pressed Chinese and other forces in Burma. 

The outbreak of war in the Pacific created an 
urgent need for American air forces in the India- 
China theater. Consequently, the Tenth United 
States Air Force was organized in India early in 
1942, and, by the time of the disbandment of the 
American Volunteer Group, an air unit of the 
American Army had been established in China. 
The air unit in China, which was commanded by 
General Chennault and which included among its 
personnel a number of the former "Flying Tigers", 
operated as a part of the Tenth United States Air 
Force until March 10, 1943 when, in I'ecognition of 
its increasingly important role, it was formally 
activated as the Fourteenth United States Air 
Force. This force has kept control of the air over 
unoccupied China, has engaged in constantly ex- 
panding operations against the Japanese, has ably 
performed the vital mission of protecting the ter- 
minal bases of air transport, and has helped the 
Chinese create one of the most efficient aircraft- 
warning systems in existence. The activities of 
this force have been of inestimable value in helping 
to maintain China's military position and morale. 
The Tenth United States Air Force has also con- 
tinued to give effective, although less direct, aid 
to Cliina. 



In addition to furnishing China with fighter 
planes and pilots, the United States took steps to 
put into effect a program for building a strong and 
well-equipped Chinese Air Force. In May 1941, 
shortly after China was declared eligible to receive 
lend-lease aid, an American Air Mission headed by 
Brigadier General Clagett, Commander of the 
Philippine Air Force, was sent to China to survey 
the situation. Although the Mission's report 
stressed CMna's critical need for fighters and 
bombers, it contained the recommendation that the 
first action taken should be the development of a 
progi-am to train Chinese pilots and mechanics, as 
China did not have enough men trained to fly or 
maintain the planes that were needed. 

As a result of this recommendation, and as a re- 
sult of the almost insuperable difficulties that 
would be encountered in trying to establish avia- 
tion training centers in China, there was developed 
a program for using lend-lease funds to train Chi- 
nese flyers in the United States. Groups of Chi- 
nese pilots have since that time taken standard 
United States Army Air Corps training courses in 
this country, at Thunderbird Field in Arizona. 
The American Army has also undertaken the train- 
ing of Chinese aviation personnel in India. 

The program for training Chinese aviation per- 
sonnel has had an important bearing on opera- 
tions against the Japanese. In November 1943 
announcement was made of the formation of a 
Chinese-American Composite Wing of the Chi- 
nese Air Force. This wing, under the command 
of General Chennault is composed of Chinese and 
American airmen and ground units and is equipped 
with the latest type of P^O's and B-25's. As it 
is intended that this wing shall form the nucleus 
for a strong Chinese air force, it has been an- 
nounced that, as the Chinese personnel gain ex- 
perience, the American jjersonnel will gradually 
be withdrawn. 

Soon after the entry of the United States into 
the war there was established an American Mili- 
tary Mission to China under Major General (now 
Lieutenant General) Stilwell. General Stilwell, 
who was also Chief of Staff to Generalissimo 
Chiang Kai-shek, was entrusted with the duty of 
representing the United States in the manifold ac- 
tivities relating to our military interests in China. 



362 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Under the direction of this Mission and of General 
Stilwell's commnnd in India, there was undertaken 
an extensive program for equipping and training 
Chinese ground foi'ces, as well as Chinese air units. 

At camps in India large numbers of Chinese 
troops have been equipped, through lend-lease, 
with the latest tyi)es of American weapons. Amer- 
ican Army officers have trained them in the use 
of those weapons and have organized them into 
hard-hitting triangular divisions, some of the per- 
sonnel of which have already demonstrated their 
combat efficiency in operations in northern Burma. 
This program has provided not only complete tac- 
tical units but also cadres for the training of 
Chinese divisions beyond the mountains in China 
proper. 

Since April 1943 American Army officers, each 
of whom is a specialist in some phase of modern 
warfare, have also been operating training centers 
for Chinese officers in China. A field-artillery 
center, for example, has graduated more than 5,000 
officers; an infantry center has graduated more 
than 3,000. American officers have also gone into 
the field with units of the Chinese Army to serve 
as instructors, advisers, and observers; and Amer- 
ican ordnance officers, with the assistance of Chi- 
nese mechanics, liave been engaged in the work of 
restoring worn Chinese equipment. It should also 
be mentioned that American field-hospital units 
have been sent to China and to Northern Burma 
to aid the Chinese armies and that American Army 
engineers and other specialists have been sent to 
China to help improve communications and air- 
base facilities. 

An outstanding form of military aid that has 
been rendered to China has been the contribution 
American Army forces have made to the develop- 
ment and improvement of transportation facilities 
for China. After the Burma Eoad was closed, vir- 
tually all the supplies destined for China had to be 
transported by air from India. Part of this traffic 
has been carried by planes operated by the China 
National Aviation Corporation, which also oper- 
ates several important air routes within China. 
Included in this company's fleet of American 
planes are cargo planes which have been furnished 
to China through lend-lease channels. The bulk 
of the supplies which are flown from India to 



China are, however, transported by the United 
States Army Air Transport Command. 

Since April 8, 1942 the United States Army Air 
Transport Command has operated a ferry service 
over the towering "hump" of the Himalayas. The 
moving of cargoes by this route has been accom- 
plished only because of the great skill, persever- 
ance, and personal daring of the members of the 
Command. The transport planes which shut- 
tle day and night over the most hazardous terrain 
in the world must carry not only the greatest pos- 
sible load of supplies for use in equipping the Chi- 
nese Army and in building and defending China's 
airdromes, but also every item of equipment needed 
for the maintenance and expanding operations of 
the Fourteenth United States Air Force in China. 
They must accommodate a constant flow of mili- 
tary personnel, and on return trips to India they 
are loaded with important Chinese exports, such 
as tungsten, for the use of China's allies. 

A C-87 transport can deliver four tons of 100- 
octane gasoline, but to do this it must itself use 
three and one-half tons of the precious commodity. 
Before the bombers comprising a heavy bombard- 
. ment group can go on one combat flight, they must 
make four trips over the "hump," as they must pro- 
vide their own gasoline, bombs, and replacement 
parts. 

Despite the tremendous difficulties which have 
been encountered, and despite losses of men and 
equipment because of bad weather and attacks by 
Japanese fighter planes, the Air Transport Com- 
mand has continued to deliver the goods in an 
increasingly effective manner. Reference has 
already been made in the section headed "Lend- 
Lease Assistance" to the fact that in December 
1943 twice as much cargo was flown into China 
as in all of 1942 and that the tonnage of the goods 
flown into China during January 1944 was 15 times 
greater than that flown in during January 1943. 

This growth in the volume of the goods that 
can be carried is the result of determined efforts to 
improve the efficiency and to expand the facilities 
of the service. In April 1942 the Air Transport 
Command had for use in China only a few pilots, 
second-hand two-engined planes, and poor air- 
field facilities. Since that time the Command has 
built up a remarkable organization which is 



APRIL 15, 1944- 



363 



equipped with a great fleet of transports (includ- 
ing Army f our-engined Liberators) , which has an 
extensive sj'stem of airfields and ground facilities, 
and which is said to employ more transport pilots 
than flew in the United States at any time before 
the war. General Stilwell has recently announced 
that, with a view to providing the Fourteenth 
United States Air Force and the Chinese armies 
with enough supplies to support intensified opera- 
tions against the Japanese, new-type planes, capa- 
ble of making non-stop flights from India's west- 
coast ports to China and of carrying much larger 
loads than those carried by the transports now in 
operation, will be placed in service as soon as 
adequate new airfields, now being constructed, are 
ready. 

In addition to increasing the air-transport 
facilities between India and China, the Axnerican 
Arm}' is cooperating with Chinese forces in the 
construction and protection against Japanese 
attacks of the new Ledo Road to China through 
northern Burma. This work is progressing satis- 
factorily despite extremely unfavorable weather 
conditions. 

While detailed information with regard to mili- 
tary supplies thus far shipped to China has not 
yet been published, some idea of their character 
may be gained from the Fourteenth Report to Con- 
gress on Lend-Lease Operations. It is stated in 
this report that lend-lease supplies transferred to 
Ciiina through December 31, 1943 included, in ad- 
dition to industrial items valued at $28,952,000, 
munitions totaling $146,545,000 in value. These 
munitions comprised, in the descending order of 
tlieir value, aircraft and parts, motor vehicles and 
parts, ammunition, ordnance, and watercraft and 
parts. During the same period there were, in ad- 
dition, consigned to- the United States command- 
ing general in the India-China theatre for transfer 
to China goods valued at $191,731,000, consisting 
of ammunition, tanks and parts, ordnance, motor 
vehicles, and miscellaneous military equipment. 
To appraise the significance of these figures, one 
should bear in mind the great increase in the 
volume of supplies sent to China which has de- 
veloped only within recent months. 

Some assistance, including the training of naval 
personnel in the United States, has also been 
rendered to China by the United States Navy. 



Of greater sigriificancie than the action that has 
been taken thus far to aid China in a military way 
is the promise which has been made regarding 
future assistance to China. The United States 
Government stands ready to supply Chinese armies 
with the needed arms and equipment as rapidly as 
the opening of transportation routes permits. The 
United States Government has repeatedly stated, 
both before and since the outbreak of war in the 
Pacific, that it would not permit the conquest of 
China by Japan. The United States Government 
has, in successive declarations of war aims, clearly 
indicated that it will not rest until Japan has been 
driven from the territories which it has occupied 
by force and is rendered incapable of future ag- 
gression. The armed forces and resources of the ■ 
United States are pledged to the accomplishment 
of this task. 

Technical Assistance 

Cultural-relations program of the Department of 
State 

In January 1942 the cultural-relations program, 
which had previously been restricted to the other 
American republics, was extended to include 
China. The three basic activities which were in- 
augurated at that time were : (1) The provision of 
outstanding technical and educational specialists 
to China; (2) the extension of aid to Chinese stu- 
dents in the United States, thus augmenting 
China's supply of skilled technicians; and (3) the 
furnishing of certain urgently needed informa- 
tional materials such as microfilms of scholarly and 
scientific articles and books, and documentary and 
educational motion pictures. A grant which made 
it possible to initiate these activities was obtained 
from the President's Emergency Fund. 

Since January 1942 the United States has, at the 
request of the Chinese Government, sent 21 Ameri- 
can specialists to China to consult with and advise 
Chinese experts regarding problems in such fields 
as agriculture, communications, cooperatives, en- 
gineering, health, industry, information, and river 
control. They have already done much useful 
work in their respective fields, and nine of them 
have completed their assignments. 

Other forms of aid which are being currently 
rendered to China under the program include: 
grants for tuition and living expenses to some 200 



364 

Chinese students in the United States ; the place- 
ment in practical training in this country of ap- 
proximately 400 Chinese students who have com- 
pleted their studies ; the monthly transmission to 
China of about 100,000 pages of scientific and tech- 
nical journals in microfilm form and the equipping 
with projecting apparatus of microfilm libraries; 
the preparation of Chinese sound tracks for Chi- 
nese non-theatrical motion pictures ; and the meet- 
ing of special requests from Chinese scholars and 
scientists for technical data. The Department has 
also defrayed the expenses of a year's visit to the 
United States for six professors selected by the 
faculties of leading Chinese universities. 

Assistance through other Government agencies 

A number of United States Government agencies 
other than those which have already been men- 
tioned in this article have furnished to the Chi- 
nese Government various kinds of assistance. 
"While limitations of space and security prevent 
the presentation of any detailed description of the 
activities of these agencies, the following examples 
may serve to indicate the wide range of subjects 
with which they deal : Board of Economic War- 
fare personnel have rendered valuable teclvnical 
assistance to the Chinese Government in connec- 
tion with transportation and other problems ; rep- 
resentatives of the Office of War Information have 
disseminated in China news and literature designed 
to give the Chinese people a picture of the various 
phases of our war effort; a representative of the 
Department of the Treasury was a member of the 
Stabilization Board until the suspension of activ- 
ities; the Library of Congress has permitted rep- 
resentatives of Chinese libraries and universities to 
select books for their institutions from the Li- 
brary's reserves of duplicate editions ; and several 
Government agencies have aided Chinese sent to 
this country in their efforts to obtain technical 
training in fields directly or indirectly related to 
China's war effort. 

American Ked Cross Assistance 

The American Red Cross, which began to send 
relief materials to China soon after that country 
was invaded by the Japanese, has vigorously per- 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

sisted, despite many difficulties, in its efforts to aid 
China in every possible respect. 

In October 1940 representatives of the American 
Red Cross were sent to China in order to supervise 
relief activities. They established general areas of 
operation in both occupied and unoccupied China 
and directed the distribution in those areas of large 
quantities of rice and medicinal supplies. While 
civilian-relief operations in the occupied areas 
were terminated by the outbreak of hostilities be- 
tween the United States and Japan, the relief work 
in west China was continued on an extensive scale. 

The Japanese occupation of Burma and inter-, 
ruption of land communication with China caused 
a drastic reduction in the volume of the shipments 
of relief materials into China. While the Ameri- 
can Red Cross continued to send to India consid- 
erable quantities of supplies, especially drugs and 
medicines, for storage in warehouses until such 
time as they could be flown into China, the cargo 
space available for such materials in transport 
planes was limited. In November 1943, however, 
there occurred the first large-scale movement of 
American Red Cross relief materials to China since 
the closing of the Burma Road, for in that month 
15 plane-loads of medical supplies were flown from 
India to China. It was announced that other large 
shipments were to follow. 

Despite the numerous obstacles which impeded 
the flow of relief supplies to China, the value of 
the materials which the American Red Cross had 
succeeded in sending to China had reached a total 
of $4,718,000 by the end of December 1943. Of this 
amount $3,454,000 Avas furnished by the United 
States Government and the balance was furnished 
by the American Red Cross. 

Assistance by Private American Agencies 

While this article is concerned primarily with 
the assistance given to China by the United States 
Government, no discussion of American aid to 
China would be complete without at least some 
reference to the important role played in this con- 
nection by private American institutions. There 
should be included in this category not only the 
large number of organizations which have been 
carrying on educational and medical work in 



APRIL 15, 11B44 



365 



China for a long time but also the many new or- 
ganizations which have been established for the 
specific purpose of meeting China's wartime needs 
in such fields as education, famine relief, and 
medicine. 

An idea of the impressive proportions of the 
assistance rendered to China by these organiza- 
tions may be gained by citing the work done in the 
past by only one of them, United China Relief. 
During 1942 United China Relief raised a total 
of $6,931,317 for relief purposes. During 1943 the 
amount raised for China by United China Relief 
direct and through the National War Fund was 
$8,189,191. 



The Department 



ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY BRANCH 
IN THE COMMODITIES DIVISION OF THE 
OFFICE OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 

Departmental Order 1254 of AprU 10, 1944 ^ 

The policies of the United States Government 
on cartels and related international industrial ar- 
rangements are inseparable aspects of United 
States commercial policy, and accordingly are of 
direct concern to the Department of State. Dur- 
ing the coming periods of peace settlement, post- 
war adjustment, industrial rehabilitation, and re- 
vival of international trade, cartel problems will be 
a major concern in international affairs. 

In order that responsibility for the Depart- 
ment's policy and action on all matters regarding 
international industrial arrangements may be 
clearly fixed and properly coordinated, there is 
hereby established an Industry Branch in the Com- 
modities Division of the Office of Economic Af- 
fairs. Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 
1944, is accordingly amended. 

The' Industry Branch shall be responsible for 
initiation, formulation, and coordination of policy 
and action on all cartel and related international 
industrial arrangements. This will include such 
activities as : 



^ Effective Apr. 17, 1944. 



(a) Assembling and analyzing basic data and 
information^, and preparing background and policy 
studies on international cartels, inter-corporate 
relations of United States and foreign firms, pat- 
ent and other market regulating agreements, trade- 
marks and trade names, intergovernmental indus- 
trial agreements, and related matters. 

(b) Development of policies and programs for 
controlling cartels, combines, restrictive patent 
agreements, and other restrictive international 
business arrangements. 

(c) Determination and promotion of standards 
for intergovernmental industrial agreements and 
of the forms of international organization required 
to implement such standards and general pro- 
grams. 

(d) Development of data, recommendations, 
and policies, in collaboration with other Divisions 
of the Department and other interested Federal 
agencies, such as the Department of Justice, De- 
partment' of Commerce, Office of Strategic Serv- 
ices, and the Foreign Economic Administration, 
for use in international discussions and negotia- 
tions regarding international cartel matters. 

(e) Formulation of policy on matters of inter- 
national industrial arrangements involved in the 
treatment of industry in enemy and ex-enemy 
countries during the period of military occupation. 

(f) Review of policy documents pertaining to 
foreign industrial arrangements submitted to the 
Department by other Federal agencies and inter- 
departmental committees. 

( g) Provision of a central source of current in- 
formation for other Offices of the Department on 
cartels and related aspects of international indus- 
trial arrangements, including agreements allocat- 
ing quotas or areas, price-fixing arrangements, and 
patent and trade-mark agreements. 

(h) Provision of secretariat (agenda, support- 
ing documents, and minutes), and participation in 
the work of interdivisional or interdepartmental 
committees concerned with problems of interna- 
tional industrial organization. 

(i) Review of legislative proposals and discus- 
sions relating to foreign contracts, patents, trade- 
marks, cartels, etc. 

(j) Policy advice to Divisions of the Depart- 
ment and other Federal agencies with regard to 



366 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



current supply arrangements involving industrial 
combines, cartels, and similar problems. 

In carrying out these responsibilities, the In- 
dustry Branch of the Commodities Division shall 
work in close collaboration with other Divisions 
of the Department whose work bears upon cartel 
questions, particularly the Division of Financial 
and Monetary Affairs, the Division of Commercial 
Policy and other Divisions of the Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs, the Liberated Areas Division and 
other Divisions of the Office of Wartime Economic 
Affairs, and the Divisions of the Office of Special 
Political Affairs. 

The Industry Branch shall act as the Depart- 
ment's liaison with the Department of Justice on 
any matters affecting international cartels and in- 
dustrial arrangements. 

CoRDELL Hull 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1255 of April 13, 1944, 
effective April 10, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. David McK. Key as Acting Liaison 
Officer with responsibility for assisting the Sec- 
retary and the Under Secretary in their liaison 
with the War and Navy Departments and such 
other duties as may be assigned to him. 



Treaty Information 



DECLARATION BV UNITED NATIONS 

An announcement regarding the signature of 
the Declaration by United Nations for Liberia 
by the Liberian Consul General at New York, the 
Honorable Walter F. Walker, and the text of a 
telegram sent by the Secretary of State to the 
Liberian Secretary of State concerning the adher- 
ence by Liberia to the Declaration appear in this 
issue of the Bulletin under the heading "The 
War". 

The Declaration by United Nations (Executive 
Agreement Series 236), which was concluded at 
Washington on January 1, 1942, was signed by 
representatives of twenty-six nations on that date. 
Since January 1, 1942 nine additional nations have 



adhered to the Declaration and their respective 
representatives have signed the document. 

Representatives of the following nations signed 
the Declaration by United Nations on January 1, 
1942: 



United States of America 
United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Northern 

Ireland 
Union of Soviet Socialist 

Republics 
China 
Australia 
Belgium 
Canada 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 
Dominican Republic 
El Salvador 

The following nations have adhered to the 
Declaration and their respective representatives 
have signed the document since January 1, 1942 : 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ethiopia 

Iran 



Greece 

Guatenrala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

India 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

New Zsaland 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Poland 

Union of South Africa 

Yugoslavia 



Iraq 
Liberia 
Mexico 

Commonwealth of the 
Philippines 



REGULATION OF INTER-AMERICAN 
AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 

The White House announced ^ that on April 12, 
1944 the President transmitted to the Senate, with 
a view to receiving the advice and consent of that 
body to ratification, a Convention on the Eegula- 
tion of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, which 
was opened for signature at the Pan American 
Union on December 15, 1943 and signed on behalf 
of the United States on December 31, 1943. 



Legislation 



The Illinois Waterway — Diversion of Water from Lake 
Michigan : Hearings before the Committee on Rivers and 
Harbors, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess., on H.J. Res. 148. September 28, November 9, 10, 
11, 1943. vi, 270 pp. 



' White House pre.ss release, Apr. 12, 1944. 



APRIL 15, 1944 ■ 367 



Publications 



Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washington 
March 3, 19-12. Executive Agreement Series 370. Pub- 
lication 2091. 5 pp. 5«(. 
Diplomatic List, April 1944. Publication 209.5. ii, 123 pp. 
Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy 10«(. 
Department of State Counseling ami Guidance for the Foreign Student. By 

William H. Dennis, Division of Science, Education, and 
Mobilization of Productive Resources of Brazil : Agree- Art, Department of State. Publication 2097. ii, 8 pp. 

ment Between the United States of America and Brazil — Free. 



0. S. GOVERHMtNT rRINTINC OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government PrintinR Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THB AFPHOVAL OF THE DIBECTOn OF THE BUBEAU OF THE EDDGET 



^'Jr- 



^^" 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



J 



J 



H 



1 rm 



J 



Tin 



c 



APRIL 22, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 252— Publication 2111 



ontents 




The War Pag» 

International Stabilization Plan 371 

Preservation of Rome From Destruction 371 

Petroleum Questions: Preliminary Discussions With the 

United Kingdom 372 

Status of Countries in Relation to the War, April 22, 

1944 373 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
Twenty-sixth International Labor Conference: 

jNlcssage of President Roosevelt 382 

Message of the Secretary of State 383 

Fifth Pan American Conference of National Directors 

of Health 384 

First West Indian Conference 384 

Europe 

Visit to the United States of the Governor General of 

the Belgian Congo 384 

American Republics 

Visit to the United States of the President-Elect of 

Costa Rica 385 

Distinguished Visitor From the Other American 

Republics . . . . 385 

Australasia 

Visit to the United States of the Prune Minister of 

Australia 385 

[over] 



U. s. suFERifrr:::::;;: cr r:.:j,\,j<Ki$ 
JUN 15 1^44 







ontents-coNTmvED 

Publications rage 

The Fifteenth Year of the Department's "New Pubhca- 

tions Program": By E. Wilder Spaulding .... 385 
"Papers Kehxting to the Foreign Relations of the United 

States, 1929", Vohimes II and III 387 

The Foreign Service 

Embassy Rank for Representation Between the United 

States and Portugal 388 

Consular Offices 388 

Treaty Information 

Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Admmistration 388 

Legislation 388 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Piinting Office. Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPUOVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE BDREAC OF THE BUDGET 



The War 



INTERNATIONAL STABILIZATION PLAN 



[Released to the press April 22] 

The Secretary of State made the following 
statement on April 22, 1944 concerning the 
"progress report"' on tlie Treasury Department's 
International Stabilization Plan made by Secre- 
tary Morgenthau to seven committees of the 
Senate and the House of Representatives : 

"In my estimation, vrorld stabilization of cur- 
rencies and promotion of fruitful international 
investment, wliich are basic to an expansion of 
mutually beneficial trade, are of first order of 
importance for the post-war period. We liave no 
way of knowing, of course, how far away victory 
may be. But we do know that victory will come 
sooner or later; and when it does we will be faced 
with the most difficult international reconstruc- 
tion job in the history of the world. A great many 
things will tend to interfere with our getting on 
with the reconstruction expeditiously — natural 
hurdles that we have no control over. But among 
the greatest difficulties will be uncertainty as to 
tlie stability of currencies and as to the flow of 
international investment for jDost-war reconstruc- 
tion and development. These we can do some- 
thing about — and most assuredly should. With- 



out solving these problems we shall be immensely 
handicapped in seeing an expansion of our foreign 
trade and balanced prosperity for our nation. 

"Under the leadership of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, technicians of this and 30 other countries 
have worked out a set of basic i^rinciples with 
which all these technicians are in substantial 
agreement. These principles constitute a frame- 
work within which a plan can be developed with 
the minimum number of trappings and complica- 
tions — a plan that will help bring prospei'ity to 
our own country when the war is won. 

"No government is yet committed to any defi- 
nite plan or even to these principles. It is my 
earnest hope, however, that Congress, when it is 
called upon to make a decision, will consider the 
value of the international currency-stabilization 
and investment programs as essential means of 
strengthening our own economy here at home. 

"If such programs can be put into operation be- 
fore the end of the war, we will save much time in 
the task of bringing about domestic and world- 
wide prosperity when hostilities cease, and im- 
measurably strengthen the prospects for an endur- 
ing peace." 



PRESERVATION OF ROME FROM DESTRUCTION 



[Keleased to the press April 19] 

The text of a communication from President 
Roosevelt to ilr. de Valera, the Irish Prime Minis- 
ter, is printed below. This message was trans- 



mitted on April 3 by the Secretary of Stat* 
through the Irish Minister in Washington. 

"I have received through your Minister your 
recent communication concerning the danger 

371 



372 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which now threatens the city of Rome. I share 
your concern for the preservation of that ancient 
monument of our common civilization and faith. 
"It is well known that American military au- 
thorities in Italy are committed to a policy of 
avoiding damage to religious shrines and histori- 
cal monuments to the extent humanly possible in 
modern warfare. This ajDplies to the city of Rome 
as well as to other parts of Italy where the forces 
of the United Nations are engaged in active fight- 
ing. We have tried scrupulously — often at con- 
siderable sacrifice — to spare religious and cultural 
monuments and we shall continue to do so. 



"However, in addressing an appeal to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States to preserve Rome 
from destruction, you are, of course, aware that 
the Germans, occupying the Italian capital by 
force, are using to the limit of its capacities the 
communication network and other facilities of 
Rome to further a purely German military opera- 
tion. If the German forces were not entrenched 
in Rome, no question would arise concerning the 
city's preservation. 

''I note that you have sent a similar communica- 
tion to the German Government. The fate of 
Rome rests in that quarter." 



PETROLEUM QUESTIONS 

Preliminary Discussions With the United Kingdom 



[Released to the press April 19] 

The Department of State announced on April 
13, 1944 that ten American oil officials had been 
invited to meet with the group of experts who will 
conduct for the United States Government the 
preliminary exploratory oil discussions with the 
Government of the United Kingdom which began 
April 18 in Washington. This meeting took 
place in Washington last week. To facilitate the 
day-to-day discussions with the British represen- 
tatives three of these ten oil-industry officials, Mr. 
John A. Brown, Mr. W. S. S. Rodgers, and Mr. A. 
Jacobsen, have been requested to sit as advisers 
with the United States group of experts. Addi- 
tional advisers from among the ten oil-industry 
officials announced on April 13 will be asked to 
sit with the American expert group from time to 
time, should that prove desirable in the light of 
specific problems which may arise in the course of 
the discussions. 

Mr. James C. Sappington, 3d, Assistant Chief of 
the Petroleum Division, Department of State, 



has been designated executive secretary, and Mr. 
John A. Loftus, also of the Petroleum Division, 
Department of State, has been designated record- 
ing secretary of the United States group of experts. 

[neleased to the press April 21] 

The preliminary exploratory discussions on pe- 
troleum which were begun on April 18, 1944 in 
Washington between groups of experts represent- 
ing the Governments of the United States and the 
United Kingdom are progressing satisfactorily in 
their initial stage. 

The discussions are proceeding on the basis of 
the recognition that ample petroleum supplies 
available in international trade are necessary for 
the security and prosperity of nations ; that for the 
foreseeable future the petroleum resources of the 
woi'Id are adequate to assure ample supplies for 
increasing post-war markets; and that expanding 
world demand must be met by the orderly flow of 
oil from the various producing countries of the 
world. 



APRIL 22, 1944 



373 



STATUS OF COUNTRIES IN RELATION TO THE WAR, APRIL 22, 1944 

Compiled iy Katharine Elizabeth Crane 

[Any coiTPctions or omissions sliould be brought to the attention 
of Dr. Crane in tlie Division of Research and Puhlifation] 



I. Countries at War or in a State of Severed 
Diplomatic Relations 
II. Signatories of the Declaration by United 
Nations, January 1, 1942, and Adherents 
to the Declaration 
III. Countries and Authorities Declared Eligible 
for Lend-Lease Aid 



IV. Governments or Authorities Associated With 

the United Nations in the War 
V. American Republics Signatories of Pledges 
of Mutual Aid Against Aggression 
VI. Countries in a State of Armistice Relations 
VII. Status of Countries in Relation to the War 
(Summary) 



TABLE I 

COUNTMES AT WAR OE IN A STATE OF SEVERED DIPLOMATIC ReI^TIONS 



The table which appears below contains an indication of 
the countries wliich are at war with one another and the 
countries which have severed diplomatic relations with one 
another, as well as the dates of the declarations of war or 
severances of diplomatic relations. The table includes the 
names of only such countries as are named in the table 
of contents of the January 31, 1944 is.sue of the Foreign 
Service List, published by the Department of State. Thus 
the table does not include any indication of declarations 
of war or similar actions of the French Committee of 
National Liberation, the Netherlands Indies, various units 
of the British colonial empire, the governmental author- 
ities in control of Albania, etc. 

The table is intended to be a rough-and-ready guide but 
does not purport to be definitive from the point of view of 
international law. The term Axis, which is used in some 
declarations of war, is understood, for the purposes of this 
table, to include Germany, Italy, and Japan (signatories of 
the Tripartite Pact of Sept. 27, 1940),. and Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Rumania (adherents to the Tripartite Pact). A 
few questions of interpretation have been settled in what 
appears to be a reasonable manner, as indicated in the 
footnotes. Extracts from official declarations, announce- 
ments, etc., with respect to a considerable number of the 
states of war and states of severed diplomatic relations 
will be found in the Department of State Bulletin of 
December 20, 1941 and of February 7 and April 18, 1942. 

KET 

WAR indicates that the countries are at war ; 

BEL indicates a "state of belligerency" ; 

sev indicates that the countries are in a state of sev- 
ered diplomatic relations (or a state which 
appears to be that of severed diplomatic 
relations) ; 
1 following WAR, BEL, or sev indicates that the 
country named in the left-hand column declared 
war against (or engaged in hostilities against or 
tooli similar action which api^ears to constitute 



a state of war against) or severed diplomatic 
relations with (or tooli action in the nature of 
a severance of diplomatic relations with) the 
country named in the upper row; 
u indicates that tlie country in the upper row took 
corresponding action against the country named 
in the left-hand column. 
In cases in which both 1 and u appear, they are given in 

chronological order. 
Letters in parentheses refer to footnotes at the end of the 
table. 

The left-hand column contains the names of countries 
which have signed or adherdd to the Declaration by 
United Nations (in CAPITAL letters) ; which have de- 
clared war against one or more of the Axis countries but 
have not adhered to the Declaration by United Nations ; 
or which are in a state of severed diplomatic relations 
(or a state which appears to be that of severed diplomatic 
relations) with one or more of the Axis countries. 

The upper row contains the names of countries which 
are at war with, or in a state of severed diplomatic rela- 
tions with, one or more of the countries named in the 
left-hand column. 

The date given in each case (except the dates in paren- 
theses) is the elfective date (or what appears to be the 
effective date) of the action; e.g., if a country (or its 
diplomatic representative at Washington) announced on 
one date that it was or would be at war with a second 
country as of another date, the latter date is given. Dates 
in parentheses, however, are the dates of the announce- 
ments in cases in which the effective dates are not speci- 
fled in tlie announcements. Where two dates are given, 
or a date and a footnote reference, they are given in 
order corresponding to that of the 1 and u. It may be 
necessary to revise certain of the dates, as the Department 
has not yet received the exact texts of all relevant offlcial 
documents regarding declarations of war and severances 
of diiilomatic relations. 



374 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TABLE I— Continued 
CouNTEiES AT Wab OR IN A Statb OF SEVERED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS — Continued 



AMERICA, 
UNITED 
STATES 
OF. 

Argentina 

AUSTRALIA 



BELGIUM- 

BOLIVIA... 
BRAZIL 



Bulgaria 



CANADA. 



Chile. 



CHINA. 



COLOMBIA. 

COSTA 

RICA. 
CUBA 



CZECHO- 
SLOVA- 
KIA. 

DOMINI- 
CAN RE- 
PUBLIC. 

Ecuador 



Egypt. 



EL SALVA- 
DOR. 
ETHIOPIA. 



WAR-ul 

(12/13/41) 
(6/5/42) 

sev-1 

(2/4/44) 
WAR-1 
1/6/42 

sev-ul 
(3/4/41) 

3/5/41 
WAR-1 



Denmark" 



sev-1 
(5/18/43) 



WAR-1 



sev-1 

1/5/42 



sev-u 
7/15/40 



Finland 



WAR-1 

12/8/41 

sev-1 
(6/29/41) 



WAR-1 

12/7/41 



WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 
(') 



sev-1 

1/5/42 



F'rance 



sev-u 

11/8/42 



sev-1 

(2/4/44) 



sev-u 
9/5/40 



sev-1 
(11/9/42) 

sev-1 

(5/18/43) 

sev-1 

8/1/43 



sev-1 

11/26/42 



sev-1 
(11/9/42) 



sev-1 

11/11/42 

C) 



sev-1 

(0 

sev-1 

11/13/42 



Germany 



WAR-ul 

12/11/41 
(12/11/41) 

sev-1 
1/26/44 
WAR-1 
(9/3/39) 



WAR- 





ul 



WAR-1 

(0 
WAR-1 
(8/22/42) 
WAR-1 
9/10/39 

sev-1 
1/20/43 
WAR-1 
12/9/41 

midnight 

BEI^l 

(11/26/43) 

WAR-1 

12/11/41 
WAR-1 

12/11/41 
WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 

W 
WAR-1 

12/11/41 

sev-1 
1/29/42 

sev-1 
(9/3/39) 
WAR-1 
(12/12/41) 
WAR-1 
(12/1/42) 



Hungary 



WAR-ul 

(12/12/41) 
(6/5/42) 

sev-1 

(2/4/44) 
WAR-1 
12/8/41 

sev-1 
C) 

WAR-1 

(.0 

sev-u 

5/2/42 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

sev-1 
(5/18/43) 



sev-1 

5/15/42 



WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 



sev-1 

12/15/41 



Italy 



WAR-ul 

12/11/41 
(12/11/41) 



WAR-1 
6/11/40 

WAR-1 

(11/23/40) 

WAR-1 

in 

WAR-1 

(8/22/42) 
WAR-1 
6/10/40 

sev-1 
1/20/43 
WAR-1 
12/9/41 

midnight 
sev-1 

12/19/41 
WAR-1 

12/11/41 
WAR-1 

12/11/41 
WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 

(') 
WAR-1 

12/11/41 

sev-1 

1/29/42 

sev-1 

6/12/40 

WAR-1 

(12/12/41) 

WAR-1 

(12/1/42) 



.lapan 



WAR-ul 

12/7/41 

(12/8/41) 

sev-1 

1/26/44 

WAR-lu 

12/8/41 

W 

WAR-1 

(12/20/41) 

WAR-1 

(0 

sev-1 

1/28/42 

WAR-Iu 

12/7/41 

{") 

sev-1 

1/20/43 

WAR-1 

(12/9/41 

midnight) 

sev-1 
(12/8/41) 
WAR-1 
12/8/41 
WAR-1 
12/9/41 
WAR-1 
(12/9/41) 

WAR-1 

12/8/41 

sev-1 

l/29/t2 

sev-1 

12/9/41 

WAR-1 

(12/8/41) 

WAR-1 

(12/1/42) 



Rumania 



WAR-ul 

(12/12/41) 
(6/5/42) 

sev-1 
(2/4/44) 
WAR-1 
12/8/41 

sev-1 
{') 

WAR-1 

« 

sev-u 

(3/6/42) 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

sev-1 
(5/18/43) 



sev-1 
5/15/42 



WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 
(') 



sev-1 
12/15/41 



APRIL 22, 1944 



375 



TABLE I— Continued 
Countries at War or in a State of Severed Diplomatic Relations — Continued 





Bulgaria 


Denmark" 


Finland 


France 


Germany 


Hungary 


Italy 


.Japan 


Rumania 


Thai- 
land 


France . 










WAR-1 

9/3/39 

WAR-u 

(4/6/41) 

WAR-1 

(12/11/41) 
WAR-1 

(12/12/41) 

WAR-1 

12/13/41 




WAR-u 

6/11/40 

WAR-ul 

(') 

10/28/40 

WAR-1 
(12/11/41) 

WAR-1 
(12/12/41) 

WAR-I 
12/13/41 








GREECE .. 


WAR-u 

(*) 






sev-u 
(6/30/42) 

sev-I 
11/12/42 

sev-1 
11/10/42 

sev-I 

(11/13/42) 


sev-u 

(6/24/41) 


sev-1 
12/7/41 

WAR-1 

(12/9/41) 
WAR-1 
(12/8/41) 

WAR-1 

12/8/41 


sev-u 
(6/24/41) 




GUATEMA- 








LA. 
HAITI 


WAR-1 

(12/24/41) 






WAR-I 

(12/24/41) 


WAR-lu 

(12/24/41) 
12/24/41 




HON D U- 








RAS. 
INDIA ("•)._ 














IRAN 


sev-I 
9/16/41 








WAR-I 

9/9/43 

WAR-I 

1/16/43 

midnight 

WAR-I 

(10/13/43) 

WAR-1 

(1/27/44) 

WAR-ul 

(") 
WAR-1 
5/22/42 
WAR-ul 

C) 
(5/10/40) 

WAR-1 
9/3/39 

WAR-1 
12/11/41 

WAR-ul 
4/8-9/40 
4/8-9/40 

(') 

WAR-1 

(12/12/41) 

sev-1 

1/28/42 


sev-1 
9/16/41 


sev-I 

9/18/41 

WAR-1 

1/16/43 

midnight 


sev-1 

4/13/42 

WAR-1 

1/16/43 

midnight 


sev-1 
9/16/41 




IRAQ 






sev-I 
(11/16/41) 




Italy 














LIBERIA... 














WAR-1 

(1/27/44) 
WAR-1 

(") 
WAR-1 
5/22/42 
WAR-1 

(12/8/41) 

WAR-1 u 

(12/8/41) 

C) 
WAR-1 
12/8/41 

(') 

sev-1 

(") 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

sev-1 

1/28/42 






LUX E M- 


WAR-1 

(") 

sev-1 

12/20/41 

sev-ul 

(3/4/41) 
3/9/41 

WAR-1 

12/13/41 

WAR-1 

12/19/41 






sev-u 
9/5/40 
sev-1 
11/9/42 
sev-u 
9/5/40 

sev-I 

(11/17/42) 

sev-I 
(11/10/42) 

sev-u 
9/5/40 

sev-1 
(11/13/42) 


WAR-I 

sev-1 

12/19/41 

sev-1 

4/9/41 

W 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

WAR-1 
12/19/41 


WAR-1 

(") 
WAR-1 

5/22/42 
WAR-1 
12/11/41 

WAR-1 

6/11/40 

WAR-1 

12/11/41 

sev 
(') 

WAR-1 

(12/12/41) 

sev-1 

1/28/42 


WAR-1 

(") 
sev-1 

(°) 

sev-1 

2/11/41 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

WAR-ul 

12/19/41 

12/19/41 

sev-I 

w 




BOURG. 
MEXICO .. 








NETHER- 
LANDS. 

NEW ZEA- 


sev-ul 

5/10/40 

7/15/40 

C) 


sev-1 
(6/28/41) 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 


sev-1 
12/9/41 

WAR 1 


LAND. 
NICARA- 




1/25/42 


GUA. 
NORWAY... 


sev-u 
7/15/40 


sev-I 

(12/7/41) 




PANAMA . 








Paraguay 































376 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TABLE I— Continued 

COUNTEIES AT WaR OR IN A STATE OF SEVERED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS Continued 





Bulgaria 


Denmark" 


Finland 


France 


Germany 


Hungary 


Italy 


Japan 


Rumania 


Thai- 
land 


Peru 








sev-lu 
(1/26/43) 
(1/26/43) 


sev-1 
1/24/42 




sev-1 
1/24/42 


sev-1 
1/24/42 






PHILIP 














PINES, 
COMMON- 
WEALTH 
OF THE. 
POLANDC") 


sev-ul 
(3/4/41) 
3/5/41 




sev-u 
6/24/41 


sev-u 
9/23/40 


WAR-u 
9/1/39 


scv-ul 
C) 


sev 
(0 

(") 

WAR-1 
6/11/40 

WAR-u 

6/22/41 

WAR-ul 
6/11/40 
6/11/40 
sev-1 
1/25/42 
sev-1 
12/31/41 
WAR-u 
(4/6/41) 


WAR-1 

12/11/41 


sev-1 
11/5/40 
C") 










Kingdom 
of. 
UNION OF 


WAR-1 

12/13/41 




WAR-1 

12/8/41 

WAR 

(") 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 


sev-1 

4/23/42 

sev-u 
(6/30/41) 

sev-u 
(..) 

sev-1 

(5/12/43) 


WAR-1 

9/6/39 

WAR-u 

6/22/41 

WAR-1 
9/3/39 

sev-1 
1/25/42 

sev-1 

12/31/41 

WAR-u 

4/6/41 


WAR-1 

12/8/41 

WAR-u 

6/27/41 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 

sev-u 

(5/4/42) 


WAR-lu 

12/8/41 


WAR-1 

12/8/41 

WAR-u 

6/22/41 

("■') 

WAR-1 

12/7/41 


WAR-1 


SOUTH 
AFRICA. 
UNION OF 


sev-u 
(6/26/41) 


1/25/42 


SOVIET 
SOCIAL- 
IST RE- 
PUBLICS 

("■). 
UNITED 


WAR-ul 
(12/13/41) 
12/13/41 


WAR-ul 

12/7/41 
(12/8/41) 

sev-1 
1/25/42 

sev-1 
12/31/41 
WAR-1 
12/7/41 


WAR-ul 


K I N G - 
DOM. 




1/25/42 
1/25/42 


VpTiPziipla 












YUGOSLA- 


WAR-ul 

(") 
4/6/41 




sev-1 

(8/22/41) 


sev-u 
8/22/41 


WAR-ul 

{") 
4/10/41 


sev-1 
5/9/41 




VIA. 







" Although the name of Denmark appears in the upper 
row, it may be pointed out that that country was in- 
vaded by the Germans on Apr. 9, 1940, and since that date 
the Government of Denmark has been regarded by the 
Government of the United States as "a government which 
is patently acting under duress and which is in no sense 
a free agent" (Department of State Bulletin, Apr. 19, 
1941, p. 470). 

* According to a telegram of Dec. 17, 1941 from the 
American Legation at Stockholm the Japanese Charge at 
Stockholm was reported, in a Stockholm newspaper, to 
have stated that Japan considered itself at war with 
Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa as well as with the United States and Great 
Britain. 

" Germany invaded Belgium, Luxembourg, and the 
Netherlands on May 9-10, 1940. No record has beeu 



found of a formal declaration of war between Germany 
and Belgium. On May 10, 1940, however, the Belgian 
Government declared in a note to foreign governments 
that the Belgian Army would defend Belgian national 
territory with all its force. On Dec. 20, 1941 the Belgian 
Ambassador at Washington informed the Secretary of 
State of a Belgian proclamation that war "exists" be- 
tween Belgium and Japan, as it "already exists with Ger- 
many and Italy". 

•* No record of a formal severance of diplomatic rela- 
tions has been found, but according to telegrams from 
the American Minister at Budapest the Belgian Minis- 
ter departed on Apr. 11, 1941 finder instructions from his 
Government. 

" According to a telegram from the American Minister 
at Bucharest the Belgian Minister departed on Feb. 14, 
1941. A despatch of Feb. 28, 1941 from the American 



APRIL 22, 1944 



377 



Minister to Rumania, in reporting tlie departure of tlie 
Belgian Minister from Bucharest, stated that the Belgian 
Minister indicated that this was not a "rupture" of rela- 
tions. The note by which the Belgian Minister informed 
the Rumanian Government of his approaching departure 
explained that he was "called to other functions". He 
also added the information that, after his departure, the 
affairs of his Legation would be conducted by the Minister 
of the United States until other disposition was made by 
his Government. 

I A telegram of Apr. 27, 1943 from the Minister of For- 
eign AITairs of Bolivia to the Secretary of State of the 
United States reads in part as follows (in translation) : 
"In harmony with the decree issued by my Government on 
the 7th day of the current month and year declaring a 
state of war between Bolivia and the nations of the Axis 
. . . Bolivia formally adheres by means of this communi- 
cation to the declaration of the United Nations". On Nov. 
26, 1943 the Bolivian Congress approved Bolivia's adher- 
ence to the Declaration by United Nations, and it sanc- 
tioned the Bolivian decree of Apr. 7, 1943 by which a state 
of war was declared to exist between Bolivia and the Axis 
powers. A Bolivian decree formally declaring that Bo- 
livia is at war with the Axis powers was issued on Dec. 
4, 1943. 

^A declaration which was broadcast from London on 
Dee. 9, 1941 by the Minister of State in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of the Czechoslovak Government stated : 
"The Czechoslovak Government proclaims that every 
country waging war against the British Empire and the 
Soviet Union or against the United States of America, 
becomes, automatically, and with all the relevant impli- 
cations, an enenJy of the Czechoslovak Republic". 
Czechoslovakia is indicated in the table as being at war 
with Bulgaria and Thailand, although neither of them 
was at war with the British Empire, the Soviet Union, or 
the United States until after Dec. 9, 1941. A document 
dated London, Dee. 16, 1941, and described in a note of 
Oct. 20. 1943 from the Czechoslovak Embassy at Wa.shing- 
ton as "the official text of the Declaration of a State of 
War", reads In part as follows : "I hereby proclaim that 
the Czechoslovak Republic is in a state of war with all 
countries which are in a state of war with Great Britain, 
the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics or the United 
States of America, and that the state of war between the 
Czechoslovak Republic on one side, Germany and Hun- 
gary on the other, has been in existence since the moment 
when the Governments of these countries committed acts 
of violence against the security, independence and terri- 
torial integrity of the Republic". 

* Dominican official representatives in France were re- 
called on Nov. 11, 1942. Relations between the two coun- 
tries are considered "virtually broken". 

* According to the Jan. 7, 1942 issue of Progrds Egyptien. 
the Under Secretary of the Egyptian Foreign Office said : 
"Strictly speaking a rupture of diplomatic relations be- 
tween the Egyptian Government and the Government of 
Vichy has not taken place. It is simply an interruption 
or cessation of these relations. This measure aims only 
at the official representation of the Government of Vichy, 

584452 — 44 2 



it does not imply any modification of the status of French 
nationals". 

' Date uncertain ; apparently Mar. 5, 1942 or earlier. 

* Bulgaria announced on Apr. 24, 1941 that a state of 
war existed in those areas of Greece and Yugoslavia occu- 
pied by Bulgarian troops. 

' Italy attacked Greece on Oct. 28, 1940. 

"' Separate announcements, to accord with various 'ac- 
tions taken by the United Kingdom, were published in the 
Gazette of India. Fur example, as regards Germany, the 
announcement reads as follows : "I, Victor Alexander 
John, Marquess of Linlithgow, Governor-General of India 
and cx-offioio Vice-Admiral therein, being satisfied there- 
of by information received by me, do hereby proclaim that 
war has broken out between His Majesty and Germany". 

" The German Minister to Luxembourg informed the 
Luxembourg Foreign Office on May 10, 1940 that "the Gov- 
ernment of the Reich is forced to extend to Luxembourg 
territory the military operations started upon". The Lux- 
embourg Government has on various occasions indicated 
that it is fighting for the independence of the country, and 
in a note of Sept. 8, 1942 to the Secretary of State the 
Minister of Luxembourg at Washington stated that the 
Luxembourg Government considered itself in a state of 
war with the Axis powers. 

° A statement issued by the Mexican Foreign Office on 
Dec. 23, 1941 relating to the declaration of war by Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Rumania against the United States reads in 
part as follows (in translation) : " . . . the Government 
of Mexico has resolved to declare its diplomatic relations 
with those nations to be severed. ... As regards Ru- 
mania, it may be said that Mexico has no treaty of friend- 
ship with that country nor do diplomatic relations with it 
exist". 

" In a note of Apr. 2, 1SM3 to the Department of State the 
Netherlands Ambassador stated that the severance of dip- 
lomatic relations between the Netherlands and Denmark 
must be considered to have become effective on May 10, 

1940. In a telegram of July 17, 1940 to the Department of 
State the American Legation at Copenhagen, however, re- 
ported that the Danish Government had that morning con- 
firmed reports of the recall of the Danish diplomatic 
representatives from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Nor- 
way. The Danish Foreign Office added that the activities 
of these offices had ended as of July 15. 

' The Netherlands Charge at Budapest informed the Hun- 
garian Foreign Office on Apr. 9, 1941 that he had been in- 
structed by his Government to leave Hungary. Accord- 
ing to a note of Apr. 2, 1943 from the Netherlands Ambas- 
sador at Washington to the Department of State, the 
Netherlands Charge at Budapest left Hungary on Apr. 9, 

1941, and the Ambassador informed the Department that 
the decision of the Netherlands Government to sever diiv 
lomatic relations with the Hungarian Government was 
made on Apr. 8, 1941. A telegram of Apr. 11, 1941 from 
the American Legation at Budapest to the Department 
stated that the Netherlands ChargC' left Budapest for 
Moscow at noon on Apr. 11. 

"■ Nicaraguan newspapers of Dec. 9, 1941 printed a mani- 
festo of the President of Nicaragua declaring that the 



378 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nicaraguan Goveriiiueiit "finds itself under the necessity 
of considering Nicaragua in a state of war 'de heclio" with 
Japan pending the legal declaration of such status by the 
National Congress" (translation). On the same date the 
Nicaraguan Congress resolved that "From the eighth day 
of the current month a state of war has existed between 
the Republic of Nicaragua and the Empire of Japan" 
(translation). The President of Nicaragua signed the 
resolution on Dec. 10. The American Minister at Managua 
telegraphed to the Department on Dec. 11 as follows: 
"Minister of Foreign Affairs informs me that a formal 
declaration of war against Japan has been passed by Con- 
gress, has been signed by President Somoza and is in 
effect today." 

' Germany attacked Norway on the night of Apr. 8-9, 
1940. The Apr. 26, 1940 issue of the ReichsgesetsWatt, 
teil 1, no. 74, p. 677, contains a decree of the Fiihrer for 
the Exercising of Governmental Authority in Norway, 
Apr. 24, 1940, which reads as follows (in translation) : 
"The Nygaardsvold [I'remier of Norway] Government 
through its proclamation and conduct, as well as the mili- 
tary fighting that is taking place as a result of its will, 
has created a state of war between Norway and the Ger- 
man Reich". In an undated telegram received by the 
Department of State on Apr. 9, 1940 at 12:04 a.m., the 
American Minister at Oslo (Mrs. Harrinfan) stated: 
"Foreign Minister informs me . . . that Norway is 
at war with Germany". A telegram of Apr. 11, 1940 from 
the American Legation at Stockholm reported that Mrs. 
Harriman had .stated in a telephone conversation at 3 : 30 
p.m. "that the Norwegian Foreign Minister had told her 
that Norway has not declared war on Germany but at 
the same time as Norway had been attacked she considers 
herself at war". In a telegram of Apr. 29 the American 
Legation at Stockholm stated that a declaration issued 
by the Norwegian Government declared that the "Nor- 
wegian Government has been aware of this state of war 
ever since night between April eighth and ninth". 

' No record of a formal severance of diplomatic relations 
has been found, but on June 13, 1940 the diplomatic repre- 
sentative of Norway left Rome. 

" Date uncertain ; presumably about Dec. 9, 1941. 

' No record of a formal severance of diplomatic relations 
has been found, but the Norwegian Minister to Rumania, 
who was also accredited to Yugoslavia, left Bucharest on 
Feb. 21, 1941 to take up his residence at Belgrade. 

" On Apr. 26, 1943 the Soviet Government sent to the 
Polish Embassy at Moscow a note, dated Apr. 2.5, in which 
it announced the decision "to suspend its relations with 
the Polish Government". 

' German troops invaded Poland on Sept. 1, 1939. No 
record of a formal declaration of war has been found, 
but a proclamation issued by Hitler to the German armed 
forces and broadcast on Sept. 1, 1939 reads in part as 
follows (in translation) : "The Polish State has refused 
the peaceful arrangement of neighborly relations striven 
for by me ; instead it has appealed to arms ... To put 
an end. to these mad doings no other means are left me 
than from now on to pit force against force". 



'' In a note of Dec. 24, 1940 to the Hungarian Government 
the Polish Minister at Budapest referred to the note of 
Dec. 7, 1940 from the Hungarian Government requesting 
that the necessary measures be taken to end all activities 
of the Polish Legation at Budapest, and he informed the 
Hungarian Government that he had consulted his Govern- 
ment and had received pertinent instructions and that 
the Polish Legation at Budapest would cease its activities 
on Jan. 1, 1941. 

" No record of a fornral severance of diplomatic relations 
has been found, but on June 13, 1940 the diplomatic 
representative of Poland left Rome. On June 13 the Polish 
Ambassador at Washington informed an officer of the 
Department of State that according to a telegram he 
had received from his Government "the relationship be- 
tween the Polish and the Italian Governments would be 
similar to that between the British and the French Gov- 
ernments on the one hand and the Soviet Government on 
the other hand during the recent i)eriod when the French 
and the British Ambassadors were absent from their posts 
at Moscow". 

°* The departure of the Polish diplomatic and consular 
representatives in Rumania was characterized in the Polish 
Embassy's note to the Foreign Office as a "suspension" of 
Polish-Rumanian relations. 

'■''About February 1942 the Italian Legation at Jidda 
was closed at the request of the Saudi Arabian Govern- 
ment but with the explicit statement by the Saudi Arabian 
Government that the removal of the Italian Legation per- 
sonnel did not constitute a rupture of diplomatic relations. 

" A statement of the Finnish Government to the press 
concerning the announcement made by the Prime Minister 
of Finland in the session of the Diet, June 25, 1941, reads 
as follows (in translation furnished by the Finnish Gov- 
ernment) : "Prime Minister Rangell made a review of the 
present situation and the facts which bad led to it. The 
Prime Minister stated that Finland became the object of 
an aggression from the part of the Soviet Union on the 
morning, June 25th, when the Soviet Union began military 
operations against Finland, on account of which Finland 
has resorted to self-defense with all military means in her 
power. 

"Having heard this the Prime Minister's statement the 
Diet uuiinimously gave the Government their full votes 
of confidence." 

'''' Rumania attacked certain Soviet territory on June 
-2, 1941 with a view to re-possessing it. No record of a 
formal declaration of war has been found. On June 22 
General Antonescu, Chief of the Rumanian State, issued 
a proclamation to the Rumanian Army, which reads in 
part as follows (in translation) : "Fight for the liberation 
of our brothers of Bessarabia and Bucovina . . . Victory 
will be ours. On to battle". In a proclamation to the 
Nation on the same day he said "I call you to battle . . . 
The holy war has begun". 

" On July 5, 1940 the American Embassy in France 
reported to the Department of State that orders had been 
.<ent recalling the French Charge at London. In a telegram 
of July 7, 1940 the American Embassy at London informed 



APRIL 22, 1944 



379 



the Department of State (1) that the French Charge on 
July 7 informally advised the British Foreign Office of 
the severance of relations and (2) that on July 8 the 
French Chargt'' vcould deliver a formal note. 

" Bulgaria and Hungary are declared by the Yugoslav 
Government to have participated in the German attack of 
early April 1941 upon Yugoslavia. Bulgaria announced 
on Apr. 24, 1941 that a state of war existed in those areas 
of Greece and Yugoslavia occupied by Bulgarian troops. 
Admiral Horthy's command of Apr. 10, 1941 to the Hun- 
garian Army reads in part as follows (in translation) : 
"Duty again calls us to hasten to help such of our Hun- 
garian blood as were detached from us. ... Forward, 
to the thousand-year frontier to the south !" 

TABLE II 

SlONATOBIES OF THE DeCLAEATION BY UNITED NATIONS, JANU- 
ARY 1, 1942, AND Adherents to the Declaration 

SIGNATORIES 



America, United States of 

Australia 

Belgium 

Canada 

China 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Dominican Republic 

El Salvador 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 



India 

Luxembourg 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
Nicaragua 
Norway 
Panama 
Poland 

Union of South Africa 
Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics 
United Kingdom 
Yugoslavia 



ADHERENTS 



Country 



Bolivia 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ethiopia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Liberia 

Mexico 

Philippines, Common- 
wealth of the. 



Date of notiflcation 
of adherence 



Apr. 

Feb. 

Dec. 

July 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

June 

June 



27, 1943 
8, 1943° 

22, 1943 

28, 1942 
10,1943' 
16, 1943 
26, 1944 

5, 1942 
10, 1943 



Date on which an 
official repre- 
sentative of the 
country affixed 
his signature to 
the Declaration 



May 

Apr. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Sept. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

June 

June 



5, 1943 
10, 1943 
17, 1944 

7, 1944 
14, 1943 
10, 1944 
10, 1944 
10, 1942 
14, 1942 



° The Brazilian notification, a note of Feb. 8, 1943 from the Brazilian 
Ambassador at Washington to the Secretary of State, stated, in translation, 
". . . by act of the 6th of this month Brazil declared formal adherence to 
the Declaration of the United Nations". 

' The Iranian notification, a note of Sept. 10, 1943 from the Iranian Min- 
ister at Washington, stated, ". . . by act of the 9th day of this month 
Iran declares the existence of a state of war with Germany and formally 
adheres to the Declaration of the United Nations". 



TABLE III 

Countries and Authorities Declaked Euqible for 
Lend-Lease Aid 

The following list of countries and authorities declared 
by the President of the United States to be eligible for 
lend-lease aid is reproduced from the Report to Congress 
on Lend-Lease Operations to December 31, 1943 (H. Doc. 
497, 78th Cong., pp. 60-61). The dates on which such 
eligibility was declared are also given from the same 
source. 



Argentina 

Australia 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Dominican Republic 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Ethiopia 

French Committee of National Liber- 
ation." 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Iceland 

India 

Iran 

Iraq 

Liberia 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Poland 

Saudi Arabia 

South Africa 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Yugoslavia 



May 6 
Nov. \l 
June 13 
May 6, 
May 6, 
Nov. 11 
May 6, 
May 6, 
May 6, 
May 
May 
Jan. 5 
May 6 
May 6 
Nov. 11 
May 6, 
Dec. 7 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 13 
Mar. 11 
May 6 
May 6, 
May 6 
July 1 
Nov. 11 
Mar. 10, 
Mav 1 
Mar. 10, 
May 6, 
Aug. 21 
Nov. 11 
May 6, 
June 4, 
May 6 
Mav 6 
MaV 6, 
Aug. 28, 
Feb. 18, 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 7, 
Mar. 11 
Nov. 7, 
Mav 6, 
May 6, 
Nov. 11 



1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1942 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1942 
1941 
1942 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1942 
1942 
1942 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1943 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 



» "Territory under the jurisdiction of the French National Com- 
mittee was declared eligible to receive lend-lease aid on November 
11, 1941, . . . French North and West Africa were declared eli- 
gible to receive lend-lease aid on November 13, 1942. On Septem- 
ber 25, 1943, a Lend-Lease Modus Vivendi Agreement governing 
lend-lease aid and reciprocal aid was entered into with the French 
Committee of Natioual Liberation, successor to the French Na- 
tional Committee and to the Haut Commandenient en Chef Civile 
et Militaire established in French North and West Africa after the 
events of November 19-42." [Footnote in H. Doc. 497.] 



380 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TABLE IV 

Governments oe Authokities Associated With the 
United Nations in the Wae 

A press release of the Department of State which was 
issued on June 11, 1&13 in connection with the publication 
of the Draft Agreement for a United Nations Relief and 
Kehabilitation Administration listed the following coun- 
tries as "nations associated with the United Nations in 
this war" (Department of State Bulletin, June 12, 1943, 
p. 524) : 



Chile 

Colombia " 
Ecuador 
Egypt 



Iceland 
Iran « 
Liberia ° 
Paraguay 



Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



Official representatives at the United Nations Conference 
on Food and Agriculture, Hot Springs, Va., May 18- June 3, 
1943, included (a) representatives of all the United Na- 
tions, (b) representatives of the 11 above-mentioned 
"nations associated with the United Nations in this war", 
(c) representatives of the French Delegation, and (d) the 
Honorable Henrils de Kauffmann, Danish Minister at 
Washington, who attended in response to an Invitation of 
the Government of the United States to be present in a 
personal capacity. 

Representatives of groups (a), (b),and (c) listed above, 
and Mr. de Kauffmann, were "designated by the United 
and Associated Nations as representatives" on the United 
Nations Interim Commission on Food and Agriculture 
(Department of State Bulletin, July 17, 1943, p. 34). 

The Draft Agreement for a United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Adnfinistration referred to in the first 
paragraph of this table was revised as a result of study 
and discussion by the governments concerned. A revised 
text was signed on Nov. 9, 1943 by representatives of the 
governments concerned and the French Committee of 
National Liberation. The agreement begins as follows 
(Executive Agreement Series 352) : 

"The Governments or Authorities whose duly authorized 
representatives have subscribed hereto, 

"Being United Nations or being associated with the 
United Nations in this war". 

TABLE V 

Amerioan Republics Signatories of Pledges of MtrruAr 
Aid Against Aggression 

Pledges of mutual aid against aggression, of hemisphere 
solidarity, etc., have been undertaken by all the American 



republics in instruments adopted at various inter-Ameri- 
can conferences and meetings. The 21 American republics, 
all of which have broken off relations with or have de- 
clared war against the Axis, are as follows : 



America, United 

States of 
Argentina 
Bolivia 
Brazil 
Chile 
Colombia 
Costa Rica 



Cuba 

Dominican Re- 
public 
Ecuador 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 
Haiti 
Honduras 

TABLE VI 



Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



" Colombia, Iran, and Liberia have adhered to the Declaration 
by United Nations (see table I). 



Countries in a State of Armistice Relations 

France 

An armistice between France and Germany was signed 
on June 22, 1940, 6 : 50 p.m., German summer time. Article 
XXIII provided that the armistice "becomes effective as 
soon as the French Government also has reached an agree- 
ment with the Italian Government regarding cessation of 
hostilities" and that "Hostilities will be stopped six hours 
after the moment at which the Italian Government has 
notified the German Government of conclusion of its agree- 
ment" (translation transmitted by the Associated Press 
in Berlin and published in certain American newspapers 
on June 26, 1940). 

An armistice between France and Italy was signed on 
June 24, 1940, 7:15 p.m., Rome time. Article XXV pro- 
vided that the armistice "will become effective upon sig- 
nature" and that "Hostilities will cease . . . six hours 
from the moment in which the Italian Government com- 
municates to the German Government the conclusion of 
this agreement" (same source). 

The Italian Government notified the German Govern- 
ment on June 24, 1940, 7 : 35 p.m., Rome time, of the sign- 
ing of the French-Italian armistice. Hostilities accord- 
ingly ceased on June 2.5, 1940, 1 : 35 a.m., Rome time (12 : 35 
a.m., EYench time). 

Italy 

An announcement which was issued by the Allied head- 
quarters in North Africa at noon on September S, 1943 and 
which was read over the radio by General Eisenhower 
beginning at noon on September 8, 1943 reads in part as 
follows : "Some weeks ago the Italian Government made 
an approach to the British and American Governments 
with a view to concluding an armistice. . . . The Ar- 
mistice was signed ... on September third, but it was 
agreed . . . that the Armistice should come into force 
at a moment most favorable for the Allies, . . . That 
moment has now arrived. . . ." 



APRIL 22, 1944 



381 



TABLE VII 
Status of Cotjntbibs in Relation to the War (Sdmmary) 





.3 

Ml 

"3 


a 

a 

CD 

Q 


73 

a 
S 


o 
o 

c 

t 


a 
O 


>> 

a 

bO 

c 

3 

W 


t— < 


a 
a 

1-5 


T3 

a 


03 

1 

a 

3 


s 


CO 


America, United 
States of 


H U 
HL 

LU 

LU 
HLU 
H LU 

LU 
AH L 

LU 
HLU 
HLU 
HLU 

LU 

HLU 
AHL 
A L 

H LU 
LU 


w 
s 
w 

s 






s 
s 

s 


w 
s 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
s 
w 

B 

w 
w 
w 

w 
s 
s 
w 
w 

a 


w 
s 
w 

(S) 

s 

w 

s 

s 
w 

s 


a 

(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 

S 
(a) 

S 

(a) 
(a) 
(a) 

(a) 

S 

S 

(a) 
(a) 

a 


W 

s 
w 
w 
w 
s 
w 
s 
w 
s 
w 
w 
w 

w 

s 
s 
w 
w 




w 
s 
w 

(S) 


(W) 




Argentina .. 








Australia 

Belgium 


"{i)" 


w 

s 


w 




Bolivia- 






Brazil 












s 
w 

s 






Canada . _ 






w 


s 
s 
s 
s 






Chile 


s 








China 










Colombia.- 
















Costa Rica . 










w 






Cuba 








s 

(S) 






Czechoslovakia 

Dominican Repub- 
lic 


(W) 




w 




w 


(W) 




Ecuador ._ 
















Egypt 

El Salvador . 


s 




s 


(S) 

s 




s 


S 




Ethiopia ._ 
















France .. 










s 






s 


French Committee 
of National Lib- 
eration 


A L 

LU 

HLU 

HLU 

HLU 

A L 

LU 

LU 

LU 
















Greece .. . . ._ 


(W) 






s 
s 
s 
s 


W 
W 
W 
W 


s 
w 


(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 


s 
w 
w 
w 




s 






Guatemala 










Haiti 


w 








w 






Honduras __ 










Iceland 
















India 

Iran 


(W) 

s 




(W) 


(S) 


(W) 

w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
s 
s 


(W) 

s 


(a) 
S 
(a) 


(W) 

s 
w 




(W) 

s 


(W) 




Iraq. 






s 

a 






Italy.. ... 








(S) 






(a) 


Liberia . ._ 


LU 

U 

HLU 

LU 

LU 

HLU 

LU 

HLU 

AHL 

AHL 












w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
s 
w 
s 
s 








Luxembourg 


w 
s 
s 
w 
w 






s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


w 
s 
s 
w 
w 


(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(S) 
(a) 
S 
S 




w 

(S) 

s 
w 
w 

(S) 






Mexico.- 










Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua.. 


(S) 


s 
w 


s 
w 




Norway . . 


(S) 


s 






Panama 






Paraguay . 
















Peru 








s 











382 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TABLE VII— Continued 





c4 

"3 
pq 


-a 

a 

q 


a 
S 
"a 

S 


a 
2 




a 

S3 
O 


CSS 

c 

3 


3 
1— ( 


a 
p. 

03 
1-5 


•a 
1 

PL, 


_o3 

'3 

o3 

a 


■a 
a 

'3 


03 


Philippines, Com- 
monwealth of 
the U 


























Poland LU 


S 




S 


S 


w 


(S) 


(S) 
(S) 


W 




(S) 




(S) 


Turkey L 

Union of South 

Africa LU 

Union of Soviet 
Socialist Repub- 
lics L U 
























w 
w 


(S) 


w 

w 
w 


S 

s 
s 
s 


w 

w 
w 

s 
s 
w 


w 

w 
w 

s 

w 


(a) 

(a) 
a 
S 
S 

(a) 


w 
w 

S 

s 
w 


(S) 


w 

w 
w 


W 




United Kingdom.. L U 
Uruguay AH L 


W 


















Yugoslavia LU 


(W) 




s 


s 




s 













A — Governments or authorities associated with the United Nations in the 

war. 
a — In a state of armistice relations. 
B— In a "state of beUigerency". 
H— American republics, signatories of pledges of hemisphere solidarity, 

mutual aid against aggression, etc. 
L — Declared eligible for lend-lease aid; i. e., declared to be a country or 

entity the defense of which is vital to the defense of the United States. 



S— In a state of severed diplomatic relations or a state which has some of 

the characteristics of severed diplomatic relations. 
U— Signatory of or adherent to the Declaration by United Nations. 
W — At war, either by formal declaration or de focio. 

Letters enclosed in parentheses indicate that the situation is open to differ- 
ent interpretations; for details see table I and the footnotes thereto. 




TWENTY-SIXTH INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE 

Message of President Roosevelt ^ 



To THE Members of the International Labor 
Conference: I send you greetings and a warm 
welcome. We are glad to liaA'e you in the United 
States. It is a privilege to welcome on our 
soil for the third time a general conference of your 
great organization. The Conference that opens 
today is most significant in the annals of inter- 
national gatherings. The mere fact that, in the 
tradition of the founders of the International 
Labor Organization, the Conference still main- 
tains its distinctive democratic tripartite char- 
acter, is in itself of significance. As pai-t of the 
regular constitutional machinery of the I.L.O., it 
also testifies to the vitality of one of the few inter- 
national organizations which have continued to 
function throughout the war. The determination 



on the part of its member states that the I.L.O. 
should continue its activities during the war years 
is evidence of the indestructible tenacity of the 
democratic way of life. As representatives of the 
practical affairs of these nations — not only of their 
governments but also of their workers and em- 
ployers — you have come together to make plans 
and recommendations for the continuing improve- 
ment of labor standards and for raising the stand- 
ard of living of the world's people. 

The tasks you are undertaking, even at the 
moment when the tide of war is mounting, bear 
testimony to the fact that the welfare of the 

' Read to the opening session of the Conference at 
Philadelphia, Pa., Apr. 20, 1944, by Secretary of Labor 
Frances Perkins. 



APRIL 22, 1944 



383 



world's population and their liberty are a first 
and an ultimate concern of those dedicated to root 
out from this earth every trace of Nazi ideas and 
Nazi methods. We know that the conditions of a 
lasting peace can be secured only through soundly- 
organized economic institutions, fortified by hu- 
mane labor standards, regular employment, and 
adequate income for all the people. Within the 
field of your activity the United Nations have no 
need to extemporize a new organization — the ways 
and means for obtaining this underwriting of a 
permanent peace are among the items on the 
agenda of your Conference. In your recommenda- 
tions will lie the foundation of those agreements 
in the field of labor and social standards which 
must be part of any permanent international ar- 
rangement for a decent world. The Secretary of 
State, Cordell Hull, has already publicly an- 
nounced that the Government of the United States 
is now working on plans for an international 
organization to maintain peace. He has also re- 
ferred to the "economic and other cooperative ar- 
rangements" which must be made in order that the 
peoples of the world may "have the opportunity 



through their own efforts to improve their ma- 
terial condition". As part of these plans and in- 
ternational arrangements, I see in the I. L. O. a 
permanent instrument of representative character 
for the formulation of international policy on 
matters directlj' affecting the welfare of labor and 
for international collaboration in this field. 

I see it as a body with the requisite authority 
to formulate and secure the adoption of those 
basic minimum standards that shall apply 
throughout the world to the conditions of employ- 
ment. As part of these arrangements, also, I see 
in the I. L. O. an organization which shall serve the 
world for investigation and research, for discus- 
sion and debate. But more than that — it must be 
the agency for decision and for action on those 
economic and social matters related to the welfare 
of working people which are practical for industry 
and designed to enhance the opportunities for a 
good life for peoples the world over. It is to the 
I. L. O. that we shall look as the official interna- 
tional organization where ideas, experience, and 
movements in the field of labor and social develop- 
ment may find practical and effective expression. 



Message of the Secretary of State ^ 



I am happy to extend my cordial greetings to 
the twenty-sixth session of the International Labor 
Conference. 

You are not strangers in this country. Your 
first session, held in Washington in 1919, laid his- 
toric foundations for your work, and your most 
recent session, in New York in 1941, expressed the 
determination of free peoples the world over to 
carry this war on to victory and to restore and 
strengthen the liberty, the dignity, and the inalien- 
able rights of man. 

You are meeting in a city in which, many years 
ago, our forefathers met in conference to pioneer 
these fields. From their debates emerged the 
Declaration of Independence which proclaimed 
the self-evident truths that all men are created 
equal and endowed by their Creator with the 
inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness. A few years later in another con- 
ference in Philadelphia the Constitution of the 
United States was framed "to establish justice, 
insure domestic tranquility, promote the general 



welfare and secure the blessings of liberty" for 
themselves and their posterity. 

Twenty-five years ago the same "sentiments of 
justice and humanity" led to the creation of the 
International Labor Organization. Designed to 
deal with those labor conditions which involve 
"such injustice, hardship and privation . . . 
that the peace and harmony of the world are im- 
perilled", the International Labor Organization 
also was designed as a great pillar in the arch of 
peace and security. It too proclaimed the need 
of tranquility and the promotion of the common 
welfare. Just twenty-five years ago this month a 
little band of courageous and determined men 
were busy organizing, the first session of this Con- 
ference, which was held in Washington in October 
1919. 

No groups have larger stakes in both the 
economic and social aspects of international co- 
operation tha,n those represented at the Inter- 



' Sent to the Conference on Apr. 21, 1M4. 



384 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



national Labor Conference. We are fortunate 
indeed to have the machinery of a well-established 
and experienced organization to facilitate inter- 
national collaboration in mattei's directly aifecting 
the interests and problems of employers and 
workers. The agenda of your present session 
shows both how far you have progressed and how 
far we have still to go. 

The interdependence of nations, to which this 
Conference draws dramatic attention, has been 
driven home upon us with increasing force. We 
have learned that deep-seated economic and social 
evils cannot be cured by the action of any one 
country alone. Accordingly, it is essential that 
this Conference should lay down a program which 
will increase still further the effectiveness of the 
International Labor Organization in the difficult 
days to come and to assist us in directing national 
and international policies to the advancement of 
the basic and permanent interests of all peoples. 

FIFTH FAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF 
NATIONAL DIRECTORS OF HEALTH 

[Released to the press April IS] 

The President has approved the designation of 
the following persons to represent this Government 
at the Fifth Pan American Conference of National 
Directors of Health, which will be held in Wash- 
ington from A)n-il 22 to April 2&, 1944 : 

Surg. Gen. Thomas Parran, Public Health Service, Federal 

Security Agency, chairman 
Senior Surg. R. E. Bodet, Public Health Service, Assistant 

Chief, Foreign Quarantine Division 
Capt. F. J. Carter, Medical Corps, U.S.N., Chief, Preventive 

Medicine Division, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, 

Department of the Navy 
Medical Director G. L. iJunnahoo, Public Health Service, 

Chief, Foreign Quarantine Division 
Brig. Gen. J. S. Simmons, Medical Corps, U.S.A., Chief, 

Preventive Medicine, Office of the Surgeon General, 

Department of War 
Asst. Surg. Gen. R. C. Williams, Public Health Service, 

in charge of Bureau of Medical Services 

Among the topics for discussion at the meeting 
are wartime and post-war prevention of the inter- 
national spread of communicable diseases, the ad- 
visability of changing the present international 
agreements with reference to problems affecting 
quarantine safeguards and sanitary control of air 



navigation, and post-war policies affecting inter- 
national health. 

FIRST WEST INDIAN CONFERENCE 

[Released to the press .ipril 18] 

The Anglo-American Caribbean Commission an- 
nounced on April 18, 1944, through the State De- 
partment, that the islands of St. Thomas and St. 
John, of the Virgin Island group of the United 
States, are the first territories represented at the 
recent West Indian Conference in Barbados^ to 
accept and endorse the conference report. 

Ten colonies and territories of the Caribbean 
region were represented at the First West Indian 
Conference held March 21-30 at Barbados, Brit- 
ish West Indies, under the auspices of the Anglo- 
American Caribbean Commission. Delegates and 
advisers were present from the Bahamas, Barba- 
dos, Leeward Islands, Windward Islands, Jamaica, 
Trinidad, British Guiana, British Honduras, 
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United 
States. 

Valdemar A. Hill, chairman of the joint Munici- 
pal Council of St. Thomas-St. John, and delegate 
from those islands to the West Indian Conference, 
introduced the resolution into the Council, which 
met in formal session on April 13 and endorsed 
the Conference report by unanimous vote. 



Europe 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
GOVERNOR GENERAL OF THE BELGIAN 
CONGO 

[Released to the press April 21] 

His Excellency Pierre Ryckmans, Governor 
General of the Belgian Congo, arrived in Wash- 
ington April 21 and will remain several days as 
the guest of the Government at the Blair-Lee 
House. 

The Honorable Dean Acheson, Assistant 
Secretary of State, gave a dinner in honor of Mr. 
Ryckmans at the Carlton Hotel, the evening of 
the twenty-first. 



' Bulletin of Mar. 18, 1944, p. 262. 



APRIL 22, 1944 



385 



American Republics 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
PRESIDENT-ELECT OF COSTA RICA 

The President-elect of Costa Rica, His Excel- 
lency Tedoro Picudo, accompanied by Seiiora de 
Picado, will arrive in Washington on April 25, 
where he will be a guest of the Government until 
his dejiarture on April 27. The program for the 
visit was announced by the Department of State 
in a press release (no. 143) on April 22. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITOR FROM THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Dr. Manuel Gonzalez-Montesinos, who is pro- 
fessor of comparative literature and public-rela- 
tions officer of the National University of Mexico, 
has arrived in Washington as the guest of the De- 
Iiartment of State. He plans to visit Harvard, 
Yale, Columbia, the University of California, and 
probably the Universities of Chicago and Michi- 
gan. Dr. Gonzalez-Montesinos also intends to 
I'e-visit the Univei'sity of Texas, where he has 
already given a series of lectui'es on the literary 
relationships of Spain and France with Mexico, 



in order to do research in the Genaro Garcia 
Library, which possesses one of the most important 
Mexican collections in existence. 



Australasia 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
PRIME MINISTER OF AUSTRALIA 

[Released to the press April 20] 

The Right Honorable John Curtin, Prime Min- 
ister of Australia, and Mrs. Curtin will arrive in 
Washington on Sunday, April 23, and will re- 
main several days as the guests of the Govern- 
ment at the Blair House. 

The Prime Minister's party is made up as 
follows : 

The Right Honorable John Curtin, Prime Minister of 
Australia 

Mrs. Curtin 

Gen. Sir Tlionias Rlamey, Commander in Chief of A.M.F. 

Sir Fredericli Shedden. Under Secretary of War 

Mr. F. A. McLauglilin, Private Secretary 

Mr. D. K. Rodgers, Press Secretary 

Maj. D. H. Dwyer, Personal Assistant to the Commander 
in Chief 

Mr. S. Landau, Personal Assistant to the Secretary, De- 
partment of Defense 



Publications 



THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF THE DEPARTMENT'S "NEW PUBLICATIONS PROGRAM" 

By E. Wilder Spcmlding ^ 



Fifteen years ago the Department of State in- 
augurated a ''new i^ublications program". In 
spite of the repudiation of the Treaty of Versailles, 
this Government's interests in the outside world 
had been steadily increasing. The interested 
public and officials alike were beginning to urge 
that it was the Department's responsibility to pro- 
vide a really adequate printed record of our for- 
eign policies that would be readily available to all 
who chose to read it. Mimeographed announce- 
ments and occasional pamphlets were not enough. 



A distinguished group of scholars, publicists, and 
international lawyers came to Washington, Con- 
gressional hearings were held, generous appro- 
priations were granted by the Congress, and the 
new publications progi-am was launched vmder 
Dr. Tyler Dennett, the Historical Adviser, on 
October 1, 1929. 

The program envisioned by the planners of 1929 
was intended to provide basic documentary ma- 

" The author of this article is Acting Chief of the Division 
of Research and Publication. 



386 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



terial in permanent and systematic form. First 
and foremost, the series Foreign Relations of the 
United States, which was lagging sadly, was to be 
brought much more nearly up to date. Dr. Hunter 
Miller was to " do a momnnental edition of 
annotated treaty texts, Treaties and Other Inter'na- 
tional Acts of the United States. The Depart- 
ment's press releases were to be printed each week 
in pamphlet form. Executive agreements of the 
United States were to appear in a series paralleling 
the ancient Treaty Series. Documentation on in- 
ternational conferences and arbitrations was to 
be brought together in well-defined series. Other 
series were arranged to include publications re- 
garding the several geographic areas and other 
subjects like immigration and maps. The work 
on the Statutes at Large was to be continued in 
the OfBce of the Historical Adviser and that Office 
was also to prepare for publication the old records 
of the continental territories of the United States. 

The new ijrogram started slowly. In 1931 Dr. 
Miller succeeded Dr. Dennett as Historical Ad- 
viser, and another change took place in 1933 when 
Dr. Cyril Wynne and his new Division of Research 
and Publication took over the publishing work. 
Those men, however, never lost sight of the broad 
objectives, and they received constant support and 
encouragement from committees on the Depart- 
ment's publications that were appointed by various 
professional associations. New projects, like the 
splendid Digest of Internatioiml Law prepared by 
the Legal Adviser, Green H. Hackworth, were 
incorporated into the program. 

The past publishing year represented a high 
point in the fulfilment of the plan of 1929. It 
was doubtless the most successful year in the his- 
tory of State Department publishing. Quantita- 
tively it was an advance over all previous years in 
spite of the many far-reaching economies necessi- 
tated by the war. Mailing lists were reduced, 
formats were cheapened, and non-essential publi- 
cations were eliminated so that the essential print- 
ing could continue. But most significant of all 
was the fact that the war itself made it important 
to hasten projects already under way and to in- 
augin-ate new ones. The volume Peace and War, 
which outlined Secretary Hull's foreign policies 
from 1931 to Pearl Harbor, attracted nation-wide 



attention, was translated into several foreign lan- 
guages, and was sold in tens of thousands. Na- 
tional Socialism, also inspired by the war, was 
another best-seller. 

Never before had seven Foreign Relations vol- 
umes been published within a year's time. There 
were three of the regular annual volimies — for 
1928 and 1929, two on the Paris Peace Conference, 
and two on relations with Japan from 1931 to 1941. 
Not for many years had volumes in that series ap- 
peared with papers as recent as the correspondence 
printed in the two large Japan volumes. The year 
1943 saw the i^ublication of volumes V, VI, and 
VII of Mr. Hackworth's Digest of International 
Law, thus completing the series except for the 
index volume which has only recently been sent to 
press. It saw the completion of Dr. Marjorie M. 
Whiteman's three-volume Damages in Interna- 
tional Law. A sizeable volume on Michigan Terri- 
tory was the eleventh in the Territorial Papers 
series which is edited by Dr. Clarence E. Carter in 
the Division of Research and Publication. Docu- 
ments on the Hot Springs Conference on Food and 
Agriculture and on the Atlantic City Conference 
on Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation appeared in 
the Conference Series. There were over 70 num- 
bers in the Executive Agreement Series. 

The weekly Department of State Bulletin, which 
succeeded the printed Press Releases in 1939, be- 
came increasingly useful, as evidenced by a i-ap- 
idly growing mailing list, to other Government 
agencies interested in foreign policy and came to 
be more and more widely recognized by writers in 
the field as the authoritative source for the texts of 
this Government's pronouncements on foreign 
policy. The Bulletin now contains an ever-in- 
creasing amount of data especially prepared for 
publication in its pages. 

The Department announced on April 16, 1944 
the publication of the second and third Foreign 
Relations volumes for 1929. Their publication 
means that there is now in print considerable official 
documentation on American foreign policy for 
every year since 1861 : Foreign Relations for the 
years 1861 through 1929, the printed Press Re- 
leases from 1929 to 1939, and the Department of 
State Bulletin from 1939 to the present. Thus the 



APRIL 22, 1944 



387 



Department has, to that extent, now filled the docu- 
mentary gap between the past and the present of 
our foreign policies. 

It was a disappointment to those concerned with 
the publishing program that all of the 1929 
Foreign Relations volumes did not appear in 1943. 
It is to be exi^ected, however, that war will produce 
many conditions that are unfavorable to the 
maintenance of a thoroughly satisfactory publi- 
cations schedule. War brings shortages in per- 
sonnel, in printing fmids, and in paper, and it 



produces troublesome delays of nlany varieties. 
On the other hand, the Department of State 
realizes, as evidenced by the recent formation of 
the Office of Public Information of which the 
Division of Kesearch and Publication is a part, 
that a continuously expanding information policy 
is one of its primary responsibilities in these 
critical times, and there is therefore reason to hope 
that the year 1943 will not too long remain the 
high point in the Department's publisliing 
program. 



'PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1929' 

VOLUMES II AND HI 



[Released to the press April 16] 

The Department of State released on April 16 
the second and third of three volumes ^ containing 
a documentary record of American diplomacy for 
the year 1929. The volumes now released contain 
nearly two thousand pages of documents ar- 
ranged under the following country headings : 

Volume II : Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Cuba, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, 
Ethiopia, France, and Germany. 

Volume III : Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Irish Free State, 
Japan, Latvia, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, 
Morocco, Xetherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, 
Panama, Persia, Portugal, Rumania, Siam, Spain, 
Turkey, Union of South Africa, Venezuela, and 
Yugoslavia. 

A dozen different topics are treated in the sedi- 
tion on Canada, the common frontier giving rise 
to questions relating to liquor smuggling, fisheries, 
apportionment of waters, inland navigation, air- 
craft, and radio. 

The China section comprises more than two 
thirds of volume II because of the extensive corre- 
spondence with respect to problems relating to 
continued civil war, extraterritoriality, and the 
Sino-Soviet dispute over the control of the Chinese 
Eastern Railway. In respect to the last of these 
issues, the Kellogg-Briand pact for the renunci- 
ation of war was invoked bv the United States. 



' For release of volume I, see BuiXETriN of Dec. 18, 1943, 
p. 433. 



Documents in the section on Germany deal for 
the most part with the Young plan for repara- 
tions and with payments owed by Germany for 
the costs of the American army of occupation and 
other claims. The American Government still 
held to its policy of complete separation of Allied 
debts owed to the United States from reparation 
payments sought from Germany. 

Volume III opens with reports on the visit to 
Washington of the British Prime Minister, Ram- 
say MacDonald. Conferences at the Rapidan 
camp and in Washington considered questions of 
prohibition enforcement, freedom of the seas, 
amendment of the Kellogg pact, and naval mat- 
ters. Another topic of interest in the section on 
Great Britain is that of the protection of Ameri- 
can lives and property endangered by riots in 
Palestine. 

The section on Japan shows the difficulty of 
securing ratification by that nation of the Kel- 
logg-Briand pact because of the fact that the com- 
mitments were made by the several governments 
"in the names of their respective peoples". Final 
ratification was made with the declaration by the 
Imperial Government that this phrase "viewed in 
the light of the provisions of the Imperial Consti- 
tution, is understood to be inapplicable in so far 
as Japan is concerned." Another group of docu- 
ments relating to Japan tells of Japanese objec- 
tion to visits by American naval vessels to un- 
opened ports in the islands under mandate to 
Japan. 

Other subjects presented in these volumes cover 
a wide range of political, economic, and legal prob- 



388 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



lems of which the protection of motion-picture 
rights in France, rectification of the Eio Grande 
boundary between the United States and Mexico, 
reservation of American rights in Morocco, iVmer- 
ican interest in the oil fields of the Netherlands 
East Indies, assistance in the supervision of elec- 
tions in Nicaragua, treaty relations with Panama, 
the question of compensation for American prop- 
erty taken by the Spanish Petroleum Monopoly, 
and the establishment of direct diplomatic rela- 
tions between the United States and the Union of 
South Africa are only a few examples. 

The volumes described above will be available 
to the public shortly and may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Govermnent 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. The price 
for volume II (cxxxix, 1132 pp.) is $2.50 and for 
volume III (cxiii, 885 pp.) is $2. 



The following publication has also been released 
by the Department : 

Foreign Policy of the United States of America : Address 
by Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, over the network 
of the Columbia Broadcasting System April 9, 1944. 
Publication 2096. 16 pp. 50. 



Legislation 



Extension of Lend-Lease Act : 

Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 2d sess., on 
H.R. 4254. March 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9, 1944. [State- 
ment of Under Secretary of State Stettinius, pp. 31--41 ; 
statement of Assistant Secretary of State Aeheson, 
pp. 119-141.] iv, 281 pp. 
Index of Testimony During Hearings Before the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs, Hou.se of Representatives, 
78th Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 4251. ii, 6 pp. 
Foreign Policy of the United States: Address of the 
Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, delivered 
April 9, 1944 over the radio network of the Columbia 
Broadcasting System. S. Doc. 181, 78th Cong, ii, 9 pp. 
Investigation of Political, Economic, and Social Conditions 
in Puerto R'ico : Appendix to Hearings Before the Sub- 
committee of the Committee on Insular Affairs, House 
of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., pursuant to 
H. Res. 150. vi, 538 pp. 
Requesting Certain Information From the President. H. 
Rept. 1361, 7Sth Cong., on H. Con. Res. 77. [Adverse 
report] 1 p. 



The Foreign Service 



EMBASSY RANK FOR REPRESENTATION 
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 
PORTUGAL 

[Released to the press April 21] 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica, having in mind the character and the grow- 
ing importance of relations between the two coun- 
tries, has expressed the intention of raising its 
legation in Lisbon to the rank of embassy and has 
expressed at the same time the hope that the 
Portuguese Government would accredit a repre- 
sentative from Portugal at Washington with equal 
rank. 

The Portuguese Government, having taken note 
of this contemplated action with the greatest pleas- 
ure, has expressed its appreciation to the American 
Government for its initiative and has declared it- 
self readily willing to reciprocate. 

Accordingly, the two Governments have agreed 
to raise their respective legations at Washington 
and Lisbon to embassies. 

CONSULAR OFFICES 

The Department of State has been informed of 
the closing of the American Vice Consulate at 
Osorno, Chile, effective March 31, 1944, and the 
establishment of American consulates at San 
Sebastian, Spain, and Grenada, British West 
Indies, effective April 5 and 6, 1944, respectively. 



Treaty Information 



AGREEMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS RELIEF 
AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

The Ambassador of Mexico transmitted to the 
Secretary of State, with a note of April 3, 1944, 
an authenticated copy of the decree published in 
the Diario Oficial of the United Mexican States on 
March 22, 1944, promulgating the Agreement for 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration signed in Washington on November 9, 
1943. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




^\^ 



I 



J 



H 



1 r 



I 



1 




APRIL 29, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 253— Publication 2114 



C< 



ontents 



The War p.,ge 
Economic Foreign Policy: Address by Harry C. 

Hawkins 39 1 

Visitof the Under Secretary of State to London .... 395 
General 

Death of the Secretary of the Navy: 

Statement by the President 396 

Statement by the Secretary of State 396 

Proclamation by the Secretary of State 396 

Economic Affairs 

Changes in Certain Turkish Import Duties 397 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
Fifth Pan American Conference of National Directors of 

Health: Remarks of Assistant Secretary Berle . . 398 

The Department 

Treaty Section Organized in the Division of Research 

and Publication 399 

Appointment of Officers 400 

Treaty InforxMation 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences . . . 400 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 400 

Commercial"Modus Vivendi", Canada and Venezuela . 400 

Exchange of Publications, Ecuador and Panama ... 401 

[over] 




•J. S. £: 







OTltSIl ^5— CONTINUED 

The Foreign Service ^i^ee 

Consular Offices 401 

American Republics 

Appointment of Special Representative to Inaugura- 
tion of President of Costa Rica 401 

Publications 401 

Legislation 402 



The War 



ECONOMIC FOREIGN POLICY 

Address by Harry C. Hawkins ^ 



[Released to the press April 25] 

My remarks this evening will relate mainly to 
the subject of economic foreign policy. This is a 
subject in which this organization has long shown 
a highly intelligent and constructive interest. 
The most important instrument of that policy for 
some years has been the reciprocal-trade-agree- 
ments program carried on under the authority of 
the Trade Agreements Act of 1934. This pro- 
gram has been consistently and effectively sup- 
ported by the Federation and its member organ- 
izations. As recently as 1943, when the Trade 
Agreements Act was before Congress, Mrs. Har- 
vey W. Wiley appeared before the Ways and 
Means Committee to favor renewal of the act and 
to present a most excellent statement from your 
President, Mrs. John L. Whitehurst. 



The problems of economic policy in the future 
will in many ways be different from those we have 
had to deal with in the past. The world is under- 
going a tremendous upheaval that will ci'eate eco- 
nomic, social, and political problems of great 
variety and extreme difficulty for many years to 
come. 

For the present and immediate future, of course, 
all problems cluster around the central one of 
winning the war. All considerations of foreign 
and domestic policy must be subordinated to those 
bearing upon the central problem of bringing the 
war to a successful conclusion. 

For the future, the primary objective of for- 
eign policy must be the preservation of the peace 
we are now fighting to attain. 



War is the common source of most of the diffi- 
culties we faced before the present conflict and of 
those we will have to face when these hostilities 
end. A major part of the economic dislocations 
and social unrest that characterized the troubled 
20 years prior to the outbreak of the present war 
were the direct outgrowth of the first world war. 
We were still wrestling with these problems when 
the second world war broke upon us. The pres- 
ent conflict will pile new problems and difficulties 
upon the old ones. A third world war would find 
us still trying to recover from the first and the 
second and might well create dislocations and 
problems with which we could not cope. Viewed 
in broad perspective, our civilization during the 
last 30 years seems to have taken a decidedly down- 
ward course. If we do not succeed in preventing 
a third world war this cumulative trend may well 
become a nose-dive from which we cannot pull 
out. 

Therefore, the major problem of foreign policy 
for the post-war world will be to prevent the recur- 
rence of war; to kill the evil parent of the brood 
of troubles that beset mankind. 

Obviously there is no single, simple formula for 
implementing this major policy. Our policies in 
many fields must be made to contribute har- 
moniously to this end. They must support and 
not conflict with each other. They must be woven 
together, so to speak, in an orderly pattern for 
peace. 



' Delivered at the 03d annual meeting of the General 
Federation of Women's Clubs, St. Louis, Mo., Apr. 25, 1944. 
Mr. Hawkins is the Director of the Office of Economic 
Affairs of the Department of State. 

891 



392 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



There are two main parts of this broad pattern, 
or, to change the metaphor, two main supporting 
elements for the peace structure. The first of 
these is a carefully devised system of security, the 
essential feature of which is a suitable arrange- 
ment whereby the law-abiding nations will unite 
to curb outlaw elements in the society of nations. 
The second is the creation of a better world eco- 
nomic order, the essential purposes of which are 
to eliminate the economic causes of international 
friction and to reduce the poverty and distress 
which gangster elements in any nation can so 
effectively exploit to build up their own strength. 

The problem of buikling the peace structure is 
like that of building a bridge. There must be 
solid support at both ends. No matter how well 
constructed the support nu\y be at one end, there 
can be no bridge unless there is solid support at 
the other. 

In considering the problem of how to create an 
enduring peace it is important that we all bear 
carefully in mind a further essential fact. This 
fact is that neither a system of collective security 
nor a sound economic system can work effectively 
without the other. 

A world in which each nation is compelled to 
rely solely on itself for its own security cannot be 
a prosperous world. In such a world the people 
of each country would have to bear a very heavy 
burden of armaments. Moreover, as happened in 
the period between the wars, each nation would 
inevitably tend to subordinate sound economic 
considerations to measures designed to promote 
security. Each would tend to seek national eco- 
nomic self-sufficiency for security reasons, at great 
sacrifice to the economic welfare of its own people 
and those of other nations. 

A sound economic order, therefore, depends 
upon the creation of a security system. But the 
reverse is also true: a collective security system 
depends upon the creation of a sound economic 
order. The security system would break down if 
economic conditions became too bad. Obviously 
the successful operation of such a system will 
depend much more upon the readiness to use force 
against outlaw nations than upon the actual use 



of it. If economic conditions became so bad that 
desperate people were frecjuently turning to fol- 
low leaders of the gangster sort, force would have 
to be employed so often as to create a virtually 
constant state of war. A community in which 
the police are constantly engaged in gun-fights 
with outlaw elements is not a peaceful community. 

II 

In considering our economic foreign policies, 
therefore, we must remember that they are part of 
our general foreign policy; that they must serve 
not onljr economic ends but must supplement other 
foreign policies, all in the interest of attaining our 
major objective of creating an enduring peace. 

We must also remember that each plan or policy 
for improving economic conditions must supple- 
ment rather than conflict with other economic 
plans and measures; in brief, that our economic 
foreign policy must make a harmonious pattern. 

The most basic need in the post-war world will 
be the expansion of international trade. This is a 
basic and indispensable requirement. Most plans 
for creating better economic conditions in the post- 
war world have, or should have, this as one of their 
primary objects. 

Policies relating to the creation and improve- 
ment of shipping and aviation services must keep 
in view the fact that these transportation indus- 
tries are the servants of trade and that the maxi- 
mum expansion of international trade requires the 
efficient service and low cost that tends to result 
from competition. 

Internal measures which contribute to main- 
taining a high and steady level of employment are 
of interest to other nations because of the effect on 
international trade. A high and steady level of 
productive employment in any country is of bene- 
fit to others because it means the maintenance of a 
high and steady level of purchasing power for 
foreign goods and is, therefore, a highly impor- 
tant factor in maintaining a flourishing interna- 
tional trade. 

Measures which will facilitate employment of 
investment capital by nations that have it, in de- 
veloping the resources and industries on a sound 



APRIL 29, 1944 



393 



basis of countries wliere it is needed, bring about 
an increase in living standards in the countries 
wliere tlie funds are invested. Such investment is 
important from an international point of view 
because it increases purchasing power for foreign 
goods and i-esults in an increase in international 
trade, which is the only way in wliich the invest- 
ing country and the woild at large can fully share 
in tlie wealth whicli sucli funds create. 

Measures for the stabilization of currencies must 
have as a primary object the creation of conditions 
under which trade between nations can better 
flourish. Such measures are essential for this pur- 
pose and are an indispensable part of the post-war 
economic pattern. 

Obviously it would make little sense for govern- 
ments with one hand to go to such pains to create 
these facilities and conditions with a view to caus- 
ing international trade to expand and with the 
other hand to erect trade barriers for the purpose 
of destroying it. An indispensable part of the 
pattern, therefore, is positive and vigorous action 
by governments to bring about a reduction of the 
barriers to trade by which they have sought to 
stifle it. If not prevented by restrictive govern- 
ment action millions of producers and traders 
throughout the world would spontaneously de- 
velop a thriving international trade which would 
not only serve their own interests but would create 
incieased employment and raise living standards 
throughout the world. 

There is a further reason why governments must 
refrain after the war from the kind of trade war- 
fare in which they previously indulged. Not only 
do high tariffs and other such impediments to 
trade nullify all other measures for promoting it, 
but deliberately destructive measures of this sort 
are highly provocative and create friction and ill- 
feeling such as a mere failure to take positive 
trade-promotion measures would not. When a 
government, under pressure from special interests 
within the coimtr}', raises uni'easonable or exces- 
sive tariffs or other restrictions against imports 
in order to slielter the special interests concerned 
from foreign competition, it not only injures its 
own consumers and expoil interests but strikes a 



devastating blow at the vital interests of countries 
whose goods are shut out. Such trade restrictions 
create unemployment and the necessity for pain- 
ful internal economic adjustments in the coun- 
tries whose trade is cut down. They provoke 
retaliation and recrimination. They create a sit- 
uation in which a spirit of international coopera- 
tion cannot develop, and a spirit of cooperation is 
the verj' cement wliich must hold together any 
world organization that may be established for 
the preservation of the peace. 

It may be asked what it is going to cost us to 
cooperate with other nations in bringing about an 
expansion of trade. The answer is that we, like 
other countries, would not lose but, on the con- 
trary, would gain enormously by it. 

Foreign trade has always been important to us 
and will be even more so after the war. The great 
expansion of production as a result of the war and 
the further expansion of which we are capable, 
creates a need for wide and expanding markets, 
and the export of our surplus production will 
provide the means of obtaining from abroad the 
many thin,gs we lack and help to supply new defi- 
ciencies resulting from the depletion of our 
resources by the war. An expanding market of 
world-wide scope, therefore, means expanding 
pros]:)erity in this country, as it does in others. 

Nor do I believe there is ground for the fear 
sometimes expressed that because of the low wages 
and living- standards prevailing in many parts of 
tlie world we will not be able to compete in the 
world market. The United States has a mature 
and highly develop-ed economy. This country is 
known throughout the world for the efficiency of 
its labor, for its managerial skill, its inventive 
genius, and the quality and utility of its products. 
The economic giant of private enterprise here 
today recognizes that it does not need to cower 
behind tariff' barricades in quaking fear of foreign 
competition. 

Ill 

The need for international action on the trade- 
barrier problem is self-evident. Finding an ade- 
quate solution will, however, Ije far from easy, if 



394 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNl 



past experience is any guide. Indeed, the trade- 
barrier problem may well be one of the rocks on 
which the post-war peace effort might founder. 

It is highly important, therefore, that we make 
a most thoughtful analysis of the situation with 
which we will have to deal when the war is over and 
carefully make the best plans we can to meet it. 

There will be a considerable period of time after 
hostilities cease during which the world will still 
be shaken by the gradually subsiding convulsions 
of war. There will be a period of transition 
from war to peace, a period during which the daily 
economic problems to be dealt with will be of an 
emergency character such as those with which we 
have had to deal during the war. There will be 
the necessity of providing relief for the starving 
and impoverished peoples in the areas devastated 
by the war or looted by the enemy. There will be 
shortages of shipping, scarcities of many prod- 
ucts, and surpluses of others. Government con- 
trols which were necessary during the war will 
have to be maintained for a considerable period of 
time. 

Obviously it would not be realistic during such 
a period to expect governments to relax their con- 
trol and regulation of trade and to give free play 
to those ever-present forces of private enterprise 
which cause trade spontaneously to expand. 

On the other hand, we cannot postpone action 
until the transition period laas ended and until 
conditions which will come to be regarded as nor- 
mal shall have been established. It would be 
fatal to the attainment of the ends in view to let 
matters drift at such a time. 

To a greater extent than in any other period in 
history systems of production throughout the 
world will be in a fluid state. 

In Europe the economic system will have been 
so completely disrupted that reconstruction will 
consist almost in starting anew to create an eco- 
nomic order. 

In the United States and in most other countries, 
there has been a similar though, in most cases, a 
less extreme upheaval. Industries have been con- 
verted from peacetime to wartime production and 
when hostilities end there will be an almost uni- 
versal problem of reconversion to peacetime pro- 



duction. Businessmen will realize that the condi- 
tions under which they carried on their operations 
prior to the war will no longer exist ; that tlie size 
and character of their market may have radically 
altered; that there are new problems of raw- 
material sui:)ply; and in general that the condi- 
tions under which they formerly carried on their 
peacetime operations have been radically changed 
as a consequence of war. 

Moreover, to a larger extent than ever before, 
producers will be in a position to adjust them- 
selves to whatever national trade and other policies 
may have been adopted. In fact, so far as possi- 
ble, they will want to know what those policies are 
going to be. The sooner, therefore, that basic 
national policies can be established, the better will 
business and all other interests be able to orient 
themselves in the post-war world. 

There is a further reason for the early formula- 
tion of national policy and plans of action with 
respect to international barriers to peacetime 
trade. There is nothing clearer from experience 
than the fact that it will be fatal if matters are 
allowed to drift. There is an inherent tendency 
of tariffs and other trade barriers to rise in re- 
sponse to the proddings of well-organized special 
interests. The gains to such interests seem tangi- 
ble and obvious, and the losses to consumer and 
export interests, though serious, are much less ob- 
vious. There is also a stubborn inherent resist- 
ance to reduction, once such barriers have been 
established. 

If vigorous measures are not taken to bring 
about the removal or mitigation of government 
controls as soon as the need for them is past it is 
almost inevitable that, while many unpopular 
controls will in due course be abandoned, those 
which stifle foreign competition would be likely 
to be maintained indefinitely and increased. 

These coiisiderations lead to the conclusion 
that plans should be made for attacking the trade- 
barrier problem immediately upon termination of 
hostilities, or even earlier, if jsracticable. 

Such plans should have in view international 
commitments whereby wartime restrictions on in- 
ternational trade will be relaxed as the emergency 
need for them passes. Tliis will at least prevent 



APRIL 29, 1944 



395 



wartime restrictions on trade from being con- 
tinued indefinitely into the post-war period, if not 
permanently. 

Sucli action will not, iiowever, be enough. Cer- 
tainl}' no one familiar with the barb-wire en- 
tanglements which obstructed international trade 
in the period prior to the war would be content 
to see the commercial policy of nations revert to 
what it was during that period. Plans for dealing 
with the trade-barrier i^roblem should, therefore, 
include international commitments and arrange- 
ments whereby pre-war tariffs and other barriers 
to trade throughout the world would be reduced 
under suitable safeguards as the period of transi- 
tion proceeds and the acute problems of that period 
give way to more chronic ones. AVe need, in brief, 
to lay down in advance the plan for a new eco- 
nomic order in tlie world and get the nations of the 
world committed to it at the earliest practicable 
date. 

As I have already said, no one familiar with 
this problem can have any illusions regarding the 
formidable difficulties it presents. It may well be 
that the old forces which asserted themselves not 
long after the last war will assert themselves again 
after this one. It may well be that important 
countries will again take steps to shut out imports 
from their former allies; that nation will again 
strike at the vital economic interests of nation and 
re-create the state of trade warfare and interna- 
tional economic anarchy that developed after the 
last war. 

On the other hand, there is hope in the possi- 
bility that we may have learned from experience. 
Certainly our armed forces who have been exposed 
to the hazards and horrors of this conflict, and 
those at home who have suffered the bereavements 
of war, are not likely to be complacent with na- 
tional policies that permit us to drift in a direction 
which can only lead to a repetition not many years 
hence of what they are now going through. 

At least that ought to be true, provided, and 
always provided, that the individual citizen un- 
derstands the true implications of such policies. 
It is the opportunity and responsibility of organi- 
zations such as the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs to continue to play a highly important role 



in the task of creating a secure and prosperous 
nation in a world of peace and plenty. 

VISIT OF THE UNDER SECRETARY OF 
STATE TO LONDON 

[Released to the press April 29] 

The following statement has been issued in Lon- 
don jointly by Foreign Secretary Eden and Under 
Secretary of State Stettinius : 

"Mr. Stettinius, Under Secretary of State, and 
a delegation composed of senior representatives 
of the United States Government have been visit- 
ing this country during the past three weeks on 
behalf of Mr. Cordell Hull, United States Secre- 
tary of State, for informal and exploratory ex- 
changes of views. Their visit has afforded His 
Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom a 
welcome opportunity to repay courtesies extended 
to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and 
other members of the Foreign Office on their visits 
to Washington in the recent past. 

"During their stay Mr. Stettinius and his party 
have had an informal discussion covering the very 
wide fields in which the two countries are col- 
laborating so closely in the prosecution of the war. 
They have had conversations with the Prime Min- 
ister and the Foreign Secretary as well as with 
numerous other Ministers and with officials. The 
discussions have covered important current ques- 
tions and others that will become of importance 
as hostilities draw to a close and also long-range 
questions in connection with the post-war period. 

"In all fields the discussions have revealed a very 
large measure of common ground. The talks have 
been of great assistance in the task of coordinating 
policies, and all those concerned in both Govern- 
ments have expressed great satisfaction with the 
results. 

"During the period of the talks opportunities 
have been taken to keep the Soviet and Chinese 
Governments informed as to the course of the 
discussions. 

"Mr. Stettinius has particularly expressed on be- 
half of himself and members of his mission great 
appreciation of their warm, friendly reception 
and of the frank cooperation they have received 
from all quarters." 



General 



DEATH OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY 



Statement by the President 

[Released to the press by the White House April 2n] 

I announce to the nation at war the sudden 
passing of the Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox. 
It is a heavy loss to us and to me especially, who 
had come to lean on him increasingly. 

He has clone much for his country ; he has helped 
greatly in our defense and in making victoi'y 
certain. 

Finally, I like to think of his bigness and his 
loyalty. Truly he put his country first. We shall 
greatly miss his ability and his friendship. 

Franklin D Eoose^-elt 



Statement by the Secretary of Stale 

[Released to the press April 28] 

It is with a deejD sense of grief that I have 
learned of the passing of our distinguished Secre- 
tary of the Navy, Colonel Knox. I shall always 
cherish my close association and abiding friend- 
ship with him over many years. 

In his chosen profession of journalism he leaves 
a record of outstanding accomplishment and 
achievement. Twice during his lifetime he bore 
ai-ms in defense of our countr}', and in its servic:e 
he has truly given his life in the desperate struggle 
which has engulfed the world. To his last high 
office he brought sujaerb qualities of leadership, 
vision, and driving energy, which have been re- 
flected in the glorious records of our armed forces. 
396 



He was a man of highest character and ideals, and 
his passing is a grievous blow to the country and 
to all nations and peoples associated with us in 
the war. 



Proclamation by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press April 28] 

To THE People of the UNrrEo States: 

Frank Knox, Secretary of the Navy, died in the 
city of Washington on the afternoon of Friday, 
April twenty-eighth, at eight minutes after one 
o'clock. 

The death of this distinguished member of the 
President's Cabinet comes as a great sliock and a 
great sorrow to his friends and as a national be- 
reavement to the Government and people of the 
United States. 

Mr. Knox served with honor in the armed forces 
of the United States during the Spanish-Amer- 
ican War and the World War, and was publisher 
of the Chicago Daily News when appointed Sec- 
retary of the Navy on July 11, 1940. 

As a mark of respect to the memory of Secre- 
tary Knox, the President directs that the national 
flag be displayed at half st;\if on all public build- 
ings in the city of Washington until the inter- 
ment shall have taken place. 

By direction of the President, 

CoRDELL Hull, 

-p, o /Seo-efan/ of State 

JjErARTJIENT OF StATE, "^ ' 

Washington, April 28, 19J^. 



APRIL 29, 1944 



397 



E 



conomic 



Affa 



lis 



CHANGES IN CERTAIN TURKISH IMPORT 
DUTIES 

[ Released to the press April 28) 

In a note dated April 22. 194-4, from the Secre- 
tary of State to the Turkish Ambassador in Wasii- 
iiiflton, replying to a note from the latter dated 
April 14, 1944, the Government of the United 
States, pursuant to article I of the trade agree- 
ment between the United States and Turkey, 
signed April 1, 1939, has agreed to accept certain 
proposed reductions in Turkish import duties as 
satisfactory compensation for certain proposed 
increases in Turkish import duties on products 
listed in schedule I of the trade agreement. 

The duty changes involved are as follows: the 
duty on heavy mineral oils, Turkish tariff no. 
695-D, and their residues comprising machine oil, 
mazout oil, motorine and other such combustibles, 
which in schedule I of the trade agreement is 0.95 
piastre per kilo, will be increased to 2.75 piastres 
per kilo, and the duty on kerosene, Turkish tariff 
no. 695-C, which is 6 piastres per kilo, will be 
reduced to 3.3 piastres per kilo. 

The texts of the notes are as follows : 

The Turkish Amiassadoi' to the Secretary of State 

I have the honor to refer to the trade agreement 
between the Reiiublic of Turkey and the United 
States of America signed at Ankara, April 1, 1939, 
Article I of which reads as follows : 

"Natural or manufactured products originating 
in the United States of America, eiuunerated and 
described in Schedule I annexed to this Agreement, 
shall, on their importation into the territory of the 
Turkish Republic, be accorded the tariff reduc- 
tions provided for in the said Schedule. 

"In the event that the Government of the Turk- 
ish Republic should increase the duties provided 
for in the said Schedule, such increased duties shall 
not be applied to the said products until two 
months after the date of their promulgation. 

585610—44 2 



"If before the expiration of the aforesaid period 
of two months an agreement between the two Gov- 
ernments has not been reached with respect to 
such compensatory modifications of this Agree- 
ment as may be deemed appropriate, the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America shall be free 
within fifteen days after the date of the applica- 
tion of such increased duties to terminate this 
Agreement in its entirety on thirty days' written 
notice." 

The duty on heavy mineral oils, Turkish tariff 
no. 695-D, and their residues, comprising machine 
oil, mazout, motorine, and other such combustibles, 
as provided in Schedule I of the trade agreement, 
is 0.95 piastre per kilo, while the duty on kero- 
sene, tariff no. G95-C, is 6 piastres per kilo. 

During recent years the quality of motorine has 
been greatly improved so as to make it desirable to 
apply the same duties to motorine as to kerosene. 
To raise the duty on motorine to the level exist- 
ing for kerosene would necessitate raising the price 
of motorine to such height as would cause harmful 
repercussions. Therefore, in accordance with the 
terms of Article I of the trade agreement, the 
Turkish Government contemplates reducing the 
duty on tariff no. G95-C to 3.30 piastres per kilo 
while raising that on tariff no. G95-D to 2.75 
piastres per kilo (which with the existing excise 
tax on motorine of 0.55 piastre per kilo would 
amount to 3.30 piastres per kilo.) 

In view of these circumstances, I have the honor 
to inquire whether the Government of the United 
States would have any objection to these contem- 
plated changes as described above. 

Accept [etc.] 

The Secretanj of State to the Turkish Anibaiiiiador 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
Your Excellency's note of April 14, 1944, referring 
to Article I of the trade agreement between the 
United States of America and the Republic of 
Turkey, and explaining the desire of the Turkish 
Government to increase the duty on tariff no. 
695-D from 0.95 piastres per kilo, as provided in 



398 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETESIi 



Schedule I of the trade agreement, to 2.75 piastres 
per kilo and at the same time, in accordance with 
the provisions of Article I of the trade agreement, 
to reduce the duty on tariff no. 695-C from 6.00 
piastres per kilo to 3.30 piastres per kilo. 



In view of the circumstances described in Your 
Excellency's note I have the honor to reply that 
the Government of the United States does not 
object to tlie above mentioned duty changes. 

Accept [etc.] 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



FIFTH PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF NATIONAL DIRECTORS OF HEALTH 

Remarks of Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to the press April 24] 

Mr. Director and Gentlemen: A meeting, in 
wartime, of the National Directors of Health of 
the American republics is not a diversion from the 
war effort. Eather it is a recognition of certain 
outstanding necessities of statesmanship. 

The entire world is now spending life and 
health in a huge war. It has already sustained 
great direct losses through death, wounds, and 
disease suffered on the field of battle. The indi- 
rect losses are far greater. Uncounted millions 
of men, women, and children have died and are 
dying from starvation, exposure, and pestilence. 
The living, in great parts of the earth, are so 
weakened that they can fall an easy prey to sick- 
ness or become unable to sustain the struggle for 
life which lies ahead. 

From this danger none of us are exempt. The 
Western Hemisphere up to now has not met the 
same hardships which affect the continents of 
Europe, Asia, and Africa. This is because the 
theaters of direct fighting have been on the other 
side of the world. But we cannot rely on this 
for safety ; germs and infections can travel where 
no enemy shot or plane can penetrate. The job 
of maintaining public health when armies shuttle 
back and forth across the oceans and when fleets 
of planes bridge the seas in a few hours, will 
be met only by unceasing energy and unceasing 
industry. 

The American world looks to you and to your 
associates to defend it from the diseases of war. 
If you succeed you will stand high in the ranks 
of men who well served their countries in this 



difficult time. If you fail the responsibility will 
be very great. For that reason the emphasis must 
be less on the words we say here than on the work 
we do when we get home. 

But, though the task of the defense of national 
health is very great, you are charged with an even 
greater work. That is the improvement of human 
material upon which the statesmen and even the 
civilization of the future must be based. Nations 
are now judged not merely by their military 
might, but their economic abilit}^ They are 
judged by the health and strength of their people. 
The rate of tuberculosis among chil<h-en is as care- 
fully watched as the size or equipment of its army. 
The ability to stamp out malaria and hookworm is 
a greater national asset than the modern equip- 
ment of guns, planes, and parachutes. 

This is particularly true of the Americas. 
Here are adequate resources on which to found 
great civilizations. But they can only be organ- 
ized and developed by healthy, energetic, and 
industrious men. This human material is in .your 
keeping. The time will come when the history 
books pay as much attention to the successes and 
actual operations of public health as they do to the 
actions and successes of politicians and generals. 

This is an opportunity for all of you which I 
l^ersonally envy. The man who is able to say at 
the end of his public service that he has improved 
the health of his country, and particularly of its 
children, can rest assured that he has affected his- 



' Delivered at the opening session of the Conference 
held at the Pan American Union Building on Apr. 24, 1944. 



APRIL 29, 1944 



399 



tory as much, if not more, than any other public 
servant of his time. 

I like to think that the work j'ou are doing has a 
particular American quality. In national thought 
the Americas have preserved one quality which is 
distinctly their own. They are thinking of indi- 
vidual men and women. They think of John 
Smith, and Juan Pablo, and Joao Suarez, and 
Jean Le Maitre, and of their wives and their chil- 
dren. As countries and as a Hemisphere we are 
interested in people. Every one of them means 
something to us. The misfortune of illness or 
sadness of any one of them is a misfortune to all 
of us. We believe in the dignity of human life 



and of human personality, and for that reason no 
national government, and no inter-American con- 
ference, can forget that responsibility for individ- 
ual life and happiness. 

Eecognizing this high duty and heavy respon- 
sibility which rest upon you, let me, on behalf of 
the Government of the United States, welcome you 
to this, your fifth conference. May your delib- 
erations be wise; and may there come from it 
increased resolution and determination to go back 
to your various countries and to do, in sweat and 
toil, the work which justifies the happy name 
which has been given our part of the world as the 
Continent of Hope. 



The Department 



TREATY SECTION ORGANIZED IN THE DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION 



Probably at no other time in world history has 
so much attention been focused on the making of 
international agreements — agreements Avhich will 
insure enduring peace, agreements which will 
promote ecpnomic, political, and social under- 
standing and cooperation among all nations. And 
probably at no other time in world history has it 
been so imperative that the officials of the Govern- 
ment entrusted with the conduct of its foreign 
affairs have authoritative information and com- 
petent assistance in every respect on treaty 
matters. 

It is to meet this need for a repository of treaty 
information and a corps of technical experts on 
treaty matters that a Treaty Section is being or- 
ganized in the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion. Under Departmental Order 1218 of Janu- 
ary 15, 1941 the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion and the Legal Adviser's office are assigned 
certain responsibilities in carrying out the func- 
tions of the former Treaty Division. Those as- 
signed the Division of Research and Publication 
are as follows: ". . . collection, compilation 
and maintenance of information pertaining to 
treaties and other international agreements, the 



performance of research and the furnishing of 
information and advice, other than of a legal char- 
acter, with respect to the provisions of such exist- 
ing or proposed instruments; procedural matters, 
including the preparation of full powers, ratifi- 
cations, proclamations and protocols, and matters 
related to the signing, ratification, proclamation 
and registration of treaties and other international 
agreements (except with respect to proclamations 
of trade agreements, which shall be handled in 
the Division of Commercial Policy) ; and custody 
of the originals of treaties and other international 
agreements ... " 

Mr. Bryton Barron, a former Rhodes scholar 
and Assistant Chief of the Division of Research 
and Publication, has been appointed Chief of the 
Treaty Section. Mr. Charles I. Bevans and Mr. 
William V. "Wliittington, both veteran members 
of the former Treaty Division, have been desig- 
nated Assistant Chiefs, and additional personnel 
is being provided to meet the needs of the situation. 

It is intended that the Treaty Section shall be- 
come as useful as possible to officers of the Depart- 
ment who are concerned with the negotiation and 
drafting of treaties and other international agree- 



400 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nients, ijarticularly with reference to background 
information, substance, style, and procedure. 
Through the maintenance of authoritative up-to- 
date records on the status of existing treaties and 
other international agreements between the United 
States and other countries, as well as between for- 
eign countries, through the publication of current 
treaty information in the Department of State 
Bulletin, and through making readily available 
in printed form true copies of treaties and other 
international agreements in the Treaty Series and 
Executive Agreement Series* there will be a con- 
tinuance and expansion of services which the new 
Section may render in an informational capacity 
to the Department, other Government agencies, 
members of Congress, and the public in general. 
The organization of the Treaty Section is 
planned not only with a view to meeting current 
requirements for authoritative information and 
expert assistance on treaty matters but also to 
meeting the demands that will be made of the 
Section in connection with the making of post- 
war settlements. 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1256 of April 25, 1944, 
effective April 24, 1944, the Seci-etary of State 
designated Mr. Kobert E. Ward as Acting Chief 
of the Division of Departmental Personnel. 

By Departmental Order 1259 of April 26, 1944, 
effective April 25, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. John Peurifoy as Executive Officer 
of the Office of Pul)lic Information. 

By Departmental Order 1260 of April 26, 1944, 
effective April 25, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. James H. Wright as Assistant to 
the Director of the Office of American Republic 
Affairs. 

By Departmental Order 1261 of April 27, 1944, 
effective May 1, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. Alger Hiss as Special Assistant to the 
Director of the Office of Special Political Affairs. 

By Departmental Order 1262 of April 27, 1944, 
effective May 1, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. George A. Gordon as Special Assistant 
to the Secretary; Mr. Frederick B. Lyon as Chief 



of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation; 
and Mr. Fletcher Warren as Executive Assistant 
to the Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. Berle. 



Treaty Information 



INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

Uniguay 

The Director General of the Pan American 
LTnion informed the Secretary of State, by a let- 
ter of April 21, 1944, that the Convention on the 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sci- 
ences, which was opened for signature at the Pan 
American L^nion on January 15, 1944, was signed 
for Uruguay on April 17, 1944. 

PROTOCOL ON PELAGIC WHALING 

Norii:ay 

The American Embassy in London transmitted 
to the Department of State, with a despatch of 
April 15, 1944, a copy of a note of April 12, 1944 
from the British Foreign Office, in, which the 
Government of the United Kingdom informs the 
Government of the United States, in accordance 
with article 7 of the protocol on pelagic whaling 
signed at London on February 7, 1944, of the 
deposit in the archives of the Government of the 
United Kingdom, on March 31, 1944, of the in- 
strument of ratification of that protocol by the 
Government of Norway. According to the De- 
jiartment's information, Norway is the first of the 
governments which signed the protocol to deposit 
its instrument of ratification. 

COMMERCIAL "MODUS VIVENDI", 
CANADA AND VENEZUELA 

The American Embassy at Caracas informed 
the Department, by a despatch of April 15, 1944, 
of the further renewal, without modifications, for 
a period of one year, or until April 9, 1945, of the 
modus Vivendi governing commercial relations be- 
tween Canada and Venezuela which was concluded 



APRIL 2 9, 1044 



401 



at Caraciis on March 26, 1941. The renewal was ef- 
fected by an exchange of notes signed at Caracas 
on April 8. 1944 by the British Minister to Vene- 
zuela and the Venezuelan Minister for Foreign 
Affairs. 

EXCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS, 
ECUADOR AND PANAMA 

The American Embassy in Quito transmitted to 
the Department, with a despatch of March 1, 1944, 
a copy of an agreement between Ecuador and Pan- 
ama providing for the exchange of official and 
literary publications, signed at Panama on Janu- 
ary 12, 1944, as published in the monthly bulletin 
of the Ecuadoran Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
dated February 25, 1944. The agreement also pro- 
vides that the Governments of each country recom- 
mend that the primary and normal schools of each 
Government study the history, physical geogra- 
phy, and cultural life of the other contracting 
party. The agreement provides that it will be- 
come effective immediately upon approval by both 
Governments and that it may be terminated only 
when one of the Governments denounces it upon a 
notice of one year. 

TREATY SECTION IN THE DEPARTMENT 

An article entitled "Treaty Section Organized in 
the Division of Research and Publication" appears 
in this issue of the Bulletin under the heading 
'•The Department". 



The Foreign Service 



CONSULAR OFFICES 

The American Consulate at Hull, England, was 
reestablished, effective April 21, 1944. 

The American Vice Consulate at Ciudad 
Bolivar, Venezuela, was closed, efl'ective April 26, 
1944. 



American Republics 



APPOINTMENT OF SPECIAL REPRESENTA- 
TIVE TO INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT 
OF COSTA RICA 

[Released to Uie press April 20] 

The Department of State announced on April 
26 that President Roosevelt has appointed the 
Honorable Spruille Braden, American Ambassa- 
dor to Cuba, as Special Representative with the 
rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary to the inauguration on May 8, 1944 of 
Sefior Teodoro Picado as President of Costa Rica. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Jurisdiction Over Criminal Offenses Committed by the 
Armed Forces of tlie United States in Egyiat : Agreement 
Between the United States of America and Egypt and 
Proces-Verbal — Agreement effected by excliauges of 
notes signed at Cairo Marcli 2, 1943 ; effective JIarcb 2, 

1943. Executive Agreement Series 356. Publication 
2090. 17 pp. 10«f. 

Project To Increase the Production of Rubber in Brazil : 
Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Brazil — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Wash- 
ington March 3, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 371. 
Publication 2098. 5 pp. 5^. 

Foreign Consular Oflices in the United States. March 1, 

1944. Publication 2092. iv, 49 pp. 15^. 

The Importance of International Commerce to Prosperity. 
Radio broadcast by Harry C. Hawkins. Publication 
2104. Commercial Policy Series 74. 8 pp. 54. 

Other Government Agencies 

"Brazil's Market for Medicinals", by F. C. Fornes, .Jr., 
Consul, and R. E. Hoverter, Economic Analyst, of the 
American Conisulate General at Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

"Sweden's Expanding Pharmaceutical Industry", based on 
a rejxirt prepared by Grant Olson, Attache of the Amer- 
ican Legation at Stockholm, Sweden. 



402 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETENl 



The first article listed under "Other Govern- 
ment Agencies" will be found in the April 29, 1944 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication 
entitled Foreign Commerce Weekly. The second 
article will be found in the May 6, 1944 issue of 
that periodical. Copies of Foreign Commerce 
Weekly may be obtained from the Superintendent 
of Documents. Government Printing Office, for 
the price of 10 cents each. 



Legislation 



Investigation of Political, Economic, and Social Conditions 

in Puerto Rico : 
Hearings Before the Suljcommittee of the Committee on 

Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 

2d sess., on H. Res. 159. March 3 and 4, 1944. 11, 

52 pp. 
H. Rept. 1399, 78th Cong., on H. Ees. 159. [Favorable 

report.] 17 pp. 



O. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE) 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printinp; Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OF THE BUBEIAU OF THB BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 




rm 



TIN 

MAY 6, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 254— Publication 2120 







ontents 



The War p^^^ 

Some Economic Weapons in Total Warfare: Address by 

Francis H. Russell at Annual Meetmg of American 

Drug Manufacturers Association 405 

Petroleum Questions: Conclusion of Discussions With 

the United Kingdom 411 

Agreement With Spain on Certain Outstanding Issues . 412 
The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 2 to 

Revision VII 412 

National Anniversary of Poland 412 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 413 
Status of Countries in Relation to the War, April 22, 

1944: Corrigenda 413 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in London . 413 
First Conference of Commissions of Inter-American 

Development 415 

American Republics 

Fellowships in Public Administration for Representa- 
tives From the Other American Republics .... 416 
Visit of Colombian Museum Director 416 

Near East 

Birthday of the King of Iraq 416 

[over] 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

JUN 15 1944 







OntGTl tS—CONTlN U ED 

The Department Page 

Principles and Policies of Departmental Personnel 
Administration: Departmental Order 1272 of May 

3, 1944 417 

Protection and Promotion of American Commercial and 
Agricultural Interests in Foreign Coimtries: De- 
partmental Order 1264 of April 28, 1944 420 

Appointment of Officers 420 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 420 

Consular OflBces 420 

Treaty Information 

Granting of Plenipotentiary Powers in the Field of 
Foreign Relations to Each of the Soviet Socialist 
Republics 421 

Exchange of Publications, United States and Guate- 
mala 422 

Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic. . . 422 

Publications 422 

Legislation 422 



The War 



SOME ECONOMIC WEAPONS IN TOTAL WARFARE 

Address by Francis H. Russell at Annual Meeting of American Drug Manufacturers Association 



[Released to the press May 4] 

This conference has been considering ways in 
which a great American industry whicli is de- 
voted to combating lauman ills can most effec- 
tively extend the capacity for human happiness 
both in this country and abroad. In tlie subject 
which I have been asked to discuss with you we 
sliall be faced with the opposite of tliat picture. 
We sliall see how Axis industries were converted 
into wide-spread and powerful instruments of 
aggression and became integral parts of the Axis 
war-macliine. If some bit of evidence were wanted 
that we are in a total conflict with an enemy wlio 
has converted to the ends of war even the most 
humanitarian pliases of life it could be found in 
the striking contrast afforded by the topics of 
discussion of this conference. Foreign trade can 
be and, in a world devoted to peace, is a force 
making for mutual prosperity, international co- 
liesion and understanding. Like many anotlier in- 
strument of peace, it can also become a menacing 
weapon of war. 

As week follows week and Allied victories 
mount, it becomes increasingly, and comfortably, 
difficult to recall the narrow margin that at one 
time stood between the democratic nations and de- 
feat. The reason for the narrowness of this escape 
from world slavery is not hard to find. In a 
very real sense the German nation has been moving 
toward this war for decades. Its philosophers and 
writers have been conditioning the German people 
in the concepts of racial supremacy. Its Army has 
pushed military science to its utmost limits. Its 

^ Delivered at Hot Springs, Va., May 4, 1944. Mr. Rus- 
sell is Chief of the Division of World Trade Intelligence, 
Department of State, and chairman of the Interdepart- 
mental Committee on the Proclaimed List. 



rulers have impressed on the people a blind sub- 
servience to the state. Its psychologists have con- 
ducted studies into tlie most efficient use of propa- 
ganda for the purpose of confusing, friglitening, 
hilling, and otherwise subverting and affecting the 
conduct of other peoples. Its econonaists and busi- 
nessmen have exploited all the means by which 
ambitions of world domination could be furthered 
by German economy at home and abroad. 

Of these various theaters of warfare, perhaps 
the one that was most successfully hidden from the 
world was the Nazi campaign of economic aggres- 
sion. It is about some of the features of that 
campaign and the action taken by the Allied gov- 
ernments to meet and overcome it that I would 
like to speak to you. 

When the Nazi party came to power, one of 
the first things that its leaders did, coincident 
with the building of its powerful forces, its 
spreading of moral confusion and mass lies, and 
its campaign of diplomatic intimidation, was to 
proceed systematically to apply well-prepared 
plans for converting Germany's vast foreign 
commerce and finance structure into a weapon 
of aggression. From its inception the Nazi 
regime in Germany waged undeclared and total 
economic warfare throughout the world. To- 
gether with their Fascist and Japanese partners, 
they carried out an economic penetration the 
ultimate aim of which was not mutually profitable 
trade but the subjugation of the national economy 
of entire countries to Axis purposes. The thor- 
oughness of the Nazis in turning their foreign 
trade into a weapon of war was typical of their 
genius for prostituting education, religion, litera- 
ture, art, the press, and the radio to their self- 
aggrandizing aims. 

405 



406 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



There thus came into existence a partnership 
of the political, military, and industrial factions 
of the German nation. Each of these elements 
was essential for carrying out the plan of world 
conquest. The Nazi party directed the nation's 
politics, carried on the necessary propaganda, 
and suppressed all opposition. The Army built 
up what was then the world's most powerful mili- 
tary machine. German industry went to work to 
build up a solid economic support. 

German industrial enteri^rises like I. G. Farben 
were manipulated in such a manner as to obtain 
for the Nazi party the greatest influence beyond 
the borders of Germany. This single concern 
which I have mentioned employed an army of 
•some 300,000 workers and had scientific research 
facilities employing upwards of 10,000 chemists 
and other trained scientists. Backed as it was 
by the Nazi party, it was probably unmatched in 
sheer economic power by any other single indus- 
trial enterprise in the world. Other German in- 
dustries were similarly concentrated, or "ration- 
alized", and backed by the party organization. 
The lives and business activities of German na- 
tionals and supporters abroad were organized and 
directed to the single purpose of Nazi world 
domination. Branches and subsidiaries were 
built up in almost all countries of the world. 
German export trade was pushed to the limit to 
obtain the much-needed foreign exchange. Ger- 
man firms were brought into a dominant position 
in important international cartels, patent pools, 
syndicates, and other monopolistic and restrictive 
arrangements so that their influence was pyra- 
mided. This program was furthered by care- 
fully directed and unlimited bribery and, where 
necessary, by force or threat of force. 

Grerman foreign business representatives were 
encouraged to acquire local citizenship and, by 
carrying on their subversive activities clandes- 
tinely as "loyal citizens" of the foreign country 
so long as caution required, they were in a position 
to emerge in their true colors whenever shifting 
political or military conditions rendered it expedi- 
ent. And on the other hand, when Germany's 
official relations with a foreign coimtry were 
broken oif , resulting in the enforced departure of 
the official German foreign-service representatives, 
the trained German business representatives re- 



mained at their posts abroad and carried on the 

activities of the official representatives unofficially, 
thus enabling the Nazi regime to maintain at least 
some sort of contact with the foreign country from 
which it would otherwise be completely cut off. 

German banks abroad were not mere financial 
institutions. They were in actuality the treas- 
urer and financial backer of the local Nazi party. 
They received party contributions, supervised 
party expenditures, received party funds from 
Germany under various guises, and juggled the 
deposits among nmnerous accounts. 

German firms assisted in the collection of "do- 
nations" to the Nazi party funds. These collec- 
tions were frequently regulated by a compulsory 
quota sj'Stem, sometimes 10 percent or higher of 
the person's or firm's income, and when the indi- 
viduals were reluctant to make these contributions 
the Nazi organization did not hesitate to threaten 
retaliation upon relatives in Germany. 

The work which this great foreign organization 
of Axis industry carried out was manifold. It 
included espionage, political pressure, the plan- 
ning of sabotage activities, the disposition of cur- 
rency and securities looted in the occupied 
countries, the smuggling of precious war materials 
to Germany, the collection and transmission of in- 
formation concerning ships and ship movements 
and war plans of the United Nations, arrange- 
ments for secret German submarine bases, the 
organization of a "chain" for German intelligence 
to leave the United States and other Allied coun- 
tries, the hiding of escaped Nazi seamen, and the 
maintenance of clandestine wireless stations for 
direct communication with Germany and the other 
Axis powers. The program which the world-wide 
network of Axis firms made jDOssible included also 
the dissemination of vicious attacks against the 
United Nations and other types of propaganda; 
the magnifying of any incipient anti-Allied senti- 
ment in the hope of swinging neutral countries 
into the Axis camp ; the prevention of economic co- 
operation by neutral countries with the Allies; the 
subsidizing of newspapers, radio stations, and 
other media of propaganda ; the fostering of local 
Nazi political and semi-military organizations 
which were divided into the typical blocks, sectors, 
and cells and were subject to the direction of a 
Nazi chief in the local German Embassy ; the pro- 



MAY 0, 1944 



407 



motion of Nazi schools, Nazi labor fronts, Nazi 
youth, women's and athletic organizations, and 
other devices for promoting the Nazification of 
foreign communities ; the fostering of native Nazi 
and Fascist movements ; the impressing upon the 
neutral countries of the magnitude of German 
military victories and the fear of the consequences 
of non-coopei-ation ; the establishment of a close 
liaison between the German Army and tlie armies 
of small neutral countries : these and other activi- 
ties were directed at the heart of the United 
Nations war effort, and the defense of the Western 
Hemisphere. These subvei'sive measures were car- 
ried on behind a show of ordinary business and 
social activity. Nearly all of the persons involved 
in them were able to mask their true activities 
through their connections with Axis commercial 
firms. Special concessions were given to local 
firms that cooperated and others were induced by 
threats and promises to become subservient to the 
Nazi organization and to take part in its program. 
Now what was the goal of all this vast en- 
deavor ? The stakes, we may be sure, were at least 
commensurate to the effort. They were twofold : 
First, in those countries in Europe which were to 
be permitted by the Nazis to remain neutral the 
object was to assure the greatest possible contribu- 
tion by their economy to that of Germany's. Neu- 
tral factories, mines, and banks were to be induced 
to contribute as largely as possible to Axis war 
needs. Secondly, the Axis objective in the West- 
ern Hemisphere, in addition to the one which I 
have just mentioned, was to bring about if pos- 
sible a policy of positive cooperation by some of 
the other American republics with the Axis coun- 
tries, or, if that was not possible, to secure a thor- 
oughly detached neutrality on the part of these 
countries so that this immense area with its 120 
million people and enormous resources of min- 
erals, food, and other products, occupying a stra- 
tegic military position, would be dissuaded from 
any cooperation with the democratic powers and 
would be ripe for aggression when the conquest 
of Europe had been completed. 

This was the strategy and these were the tac- 
tics which were employed by the Axis nations in 
this sector of their economic warfare. It was 
against an attack of this nature that this Gov- 
ernment and others against whom it was directed 



had to devise adequate countermeasures. 

One of the principal weapons that was used by 
this Government was the Proclaimed List, which 
was established by proclamation of the President 
on July 17, 1941. You will note that this was 
prior to Pearl Harbor. It was adopted at that 
time as a measure of national defense following 
the declaration of the existence of an unlimited 
national emergency by the President on May 27, 
1941. The disastrous experience of the nations 
in Europe and Asia which had been overrun by 
the Axis armies had made it abundantly clear 
that it was suicidal to temporize further with 
Axis pre-military acts of penetration and aggres- 
sion. 

Tliere are now included in the Proclaimed List 
some 15,000 persons and fii-ms located in the 20 
other American republics, the 5 neutral European 
countries ( Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden, 
and Liechtenstein) and their possessions in Africa 
and the Far East, and 4 Near Eastern coun- 
tries (Morocco, Turkey, Iran, and Iraq). It is 
believed that at the present time, at least in so far 
as the other American republics are concerned, 
the Proclaimed List includes all important per- 
sons or firms that have been operating on behalf 
of the totalitarian powers or against the security 
of this hemisphere. Names on the List vary from 
some of the largest industrial, commercial, and 
financial entities in the respective countries to 
lesser firms and persons who have been willing to 
assist Proclaimed List nationals in circumvent- 
ing the List by cloaking. It has been the policy of 
the Proclaimed List authorities to strike wher- 
ever they found the Axis at work — at manufac- 
turers and dealers in drugs, electrical goods, 
hardware, chemicals, banks, insurance companies, 
railroads, mines — in fact firms in every field of 
activity upon which the Axis drew for support. 
The List includes Axis-subsidized newspapers, 
radio stations, and motion-picture houses. This 
Government has scrupulously avoided infringing 
upon freedom of expression in other countries, 
but when newspapers and other media of ex- 
pression cease to be free media of expression and 
become merely instruments of propaganda sub- 
sidized by the Axis governments, listing action 
is taken in order to deprive them of newsprint 
and necessary equipment. 



408 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The inclusion of a name in the Proclaimed List 
immediately sets in motion the entii-e machinery 
of United States economic-warfare sanctions. The 
Treasury Department freezes all assets a firm may 
possess in this countiy, and all movements of funds 
of such firms in any of our 15,000 banks are stopped. 
The Foreign Economic Administration denies ex- 
port licenses and other economic facilities to listed 
firms. Customs officials are notified to intercept 
goods on dock or in transit. Any American con- 
cerns who are known to have contractual relations 
with a Proclaimed List national are advised of the 
listing action by the Department of Commerce. 
The Office of Censorship monitors all communica- 
tions relating to listed firms. They are, in brief, 
denied all trade and facilities which this Govern- 
ment is in a position to control, a substantial pen- 
alty under the conditions of wartime international 
trade. 

The Proclaimed List has an effectiveness, how- 
ever, far beyond that which results from these sanc- 
tions. Listing also results in invoking all of the 
sanctions of the European blockade, and the Pro- 
claimed List is also, as I shall point out shortly, 
the basis of many controls which are enforced by 
other governments. Beyond that it has received 
the support of the business community and gen- 
eral public in countries where the firms are located, 
so that persons and firms on the Proclaimed List 
are regarded in their communities as enemies of 
the democratic cause and are the object of business 
and social ostracism. And the overhanging threat 
of the possible application of all these sanctions 
has had the effect of preventing many thousands of 
persons and firms from engaging in unfriendly 
activities who might otherwise have succumbed to 
the threats or blandishments of the Axis. 

The Axis governments have adopted a multi- 
tude of stratagems and have drawn upon all of 
their organizational facilities to combat the effec- 
tiveness of the Proclaimed List and to save some- 
thing of their economic basis of subversive activ- 
ities in South America. Cloaking-rings were estab- 
lished, spurious transfers of ownership were made, 
and political pressure, threats of retaliation, and 
promises of post-war privileges in the event of an 
Axis victory were resorted to. Nevertheless, the 
result has been that the vast majority of the 10,000 
or more firms or persons on the Proclaimed List 



in the other American republics have been neutral- 
ized as far as contributing to the Axis cause is 
concerned. Many of them have been completely 
eliminated from business, others have been satis- 
factorily reorganized or have given undertakings 
of future good conduct, others have been placed 
under governmental surveillance or have otherwise 
been reduced to impotence. It should be borne in 
mind that it has not been our objective to eliminate 
completely from economic activity all persons and 
firms on the Proclaimed List. That has been our 
objective with respect to the Axis spearhead firms, 
such firms as I. G. Farben, Ferrostahl, Tubos Man- 
nesmann, Mitsui and Mitsubishi, Siemens Schu- 
ckert, and other Axis concerns that were part and 
parcel of the Axis war-machine. The great major- 
ity of these and other spearhead firms have been 
put out of business in the countries of this hemi- 
sphere with, of course, the notable exception of 
one country. 

In the neutral countries of Europe all available 
sanctions have been used to prevent so far as possi- 
ble a substantial utilization by the Nazi war- 
machine of the productive resources and other fa- 
cilities located in those countries. The threat of 
listing has had an increasingly potent effect, and 
the results of this program in depriving the Axis 
of goods and facilities which they might other- 
wise have received have been very considerable. 
Not only has it tended to sustain the full effect of 
our bombing of German factories, since many neu- 
tral factories have been unwilling to incur the 
danger of our sanctions by helping the Germans 
to make up their loss in production through pur- 
chases in neutral countries, but it has deprived the 
Axis of many of the raw materials which they had 
to import from neutral countries in order to keep 
their factories running and has brought home to 
the Germans in many ways the fact that the noose 
of economic strangulation was being drawn tighter 
and tighter. 

Because of the rigorous consequences that result 
to persons and firms included in the Proclaimed 
List, this Government has taken steps to assure that 
so far as possible these consequences fall solely on 
persons or firms who are identified with or have 
given assistance to the Axis. It has endeavored 
to be scrupulously careful and fair in reaching 
decisions on the inclusion or removal of names on 



MAY 6, 1944 



409 



tlie Proclaimed List. Under the President's proc- 
lamation of July 17, 1941, establishing the Pro- 
claimed List, no name may be added to or removed 
from the List without the unanimous approval of 
six governmental departments and agencies: the 
Department of State, the Treasury Department, 
the Department of Justice, the Department of 
Commerce, the Foreign Economic Administration, 
and the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. 
Every case is considered by these agencies on the 
basis of all available information, and no action 
is taken on any case unless the reliability of the 
information has been vouched for by an official 
agency of this Government. Full reports with 
respect to every name are furnished to the Inter- 
departmental Committee on the Proclaimed List 
by the Division of World Trade Intelligence of the 
State Department, which draws upon the Foreign 
Service and many other sources for its files relat- 
ing to some 500,000 firms and persons in foreign 
countries. 

The authorities charged with the administra- 
tion of the Proclaimed List have borne in mind 
that the List is not, of course, an end in itself. It 
has been but one of the weapons for hitting at the 
might and power of the Axis. It has been used 
whenever that end would be served; it has not 
been used when other courses of action would con- 
tribute more effectively to the fight against the 
Axis ; and it has not been used for any other pur- 
pose than the winning of the war. This means 
that in i-are cases, for instance, where the neutral 
subsidiaries of firms having their main houses in 
enemy territory could be removed from enemy 
control and were willing to cooperate by making 
their resources and facilities available to the Al- 
lies, thus depriving the Axis of them, this Gov- 
ernment has, under proper controls, accepted 
those benefits and has not insisted on making the 
resources of the firm available to the Axis camp. 
It also means that the Proclaimed List authori- 
ties have been scrupulously intent on not permit- 
ting the List to be used under any circumstance? 
to promote the commercial interests of this coun- 
try or to enforce any policies of this Government 
that were not connected with the war effort. It 
has been recognized that to do- so would weaken 
the prestige of the List and greatly lessen its 
effectiveness as an instrument of war. 



No persons have been included in the Pro- 
claimed List merely because of their nationality 
or extraction. Inclusion in the List is based ex- 
clusively upon evidence of enemy control, par- 
ticipation in Axis activities, Nazi party affiliation, 
contribution to Axis funds, distribution of prop- 
aganda, participation in evasion of Allied con- 
trols, and other specific inimical activities. It has 
been recognized that there are persons of Italian 
and German nationality or extraction in the coun- 
tries to which the Proclaimed List applies who 
have consistently and sincerely refused to have 
anything whatsoever to do with pro-Axis ele- 
ments or activities. These people have had noth- 
ing to fear from the Proclaimed List. On the 
other hand, there have been persons and firms 
who while not themselves directly identified with 
Axis subversive activities nevertheless contrib- 
uted to the support of such activities by acting as 
"cloaks" for pro-Axis persons and fii-ms in effect- 
ing commercial and financial transactions. With 
regard to such persons this Government, pursu- 
ant to its fixed policy of non-intervention in the 
internal affairs of other countries, has scrupu- 
lously respected the right of such persons to deal 
with whomever they choose, but it has in turn ex- 
ercised its right to determine whether under the 
existing conditions it could permit its own citi- 
zens to trade with persons and firms abroad who, 
for their own reasons, chose to traffic with and 
thereby assist our enemies in their avowed pur- 
pose of destroying this nation and its democratic 
principles. It has gone on the principle that a 
nation which respects the rights of others because 
it respects its own responsibilities and rights can- 
not permit its own trade to jeopardize indirectly 
the victory which it is at the same time asking its 
citizens to achieve with their very lives. 

The Proclaimed List authorities have, moreover, 
been quick to correct the few inevitable mistakes 
which occur in an operation such as the Pro- 
claimed List. They have been ready and anxious 
to reconsider any case where the reasons which 
led to inclusion in the Proclaimed List have been 
sincerely and effectively corrected or eliminated 
by the persons or firms concerned. It is a matter 
of considerable satisfaction that in the great ma- 
jority of cases which have been removed from the 
List the action was based on appropriate correc- 



410 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tive measures taken by the firms or the govern- 
ment involved. 

But the Prochiimed List, effective as it has been, 
could not alone have achieved the whole goal of 
eliminating or neutralizing Axis economic pene- 
tration in the Western Hemisphere. This end 
has been substantially achieved because the Pro- 
claimed List has been used in unison with other 
measures. The agencies charged with the mainte- 
nance of the Proclaimed List have acted in close 
cooperation with the British authorities in charge 
of the British Statutory List so that the Axis 
firms have not been able to play one of us against 
the other although they have frequently tried to 
do so. 

Another great weapon that has been used in 
combating the economic war-machine, in so far 
as its operations in the Western Hemisphere are 
concerned, has been the structure of local controls 
which have been enacted and applied by most of 
the other American republics carrying out the res- 
olutions and recommendations agreed upon by all 
of the American republics at several inter- Amer- 
ican conferences. The principal conferences 
which dealt with this problem were the meeting 
of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Amer- 
ican republics at Habana in July 1940; another 
meeting at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942; and 
the Inter- American Conference on Systems of Eco- 
nomic and Financial Controls at Washington in 
July 1942. 

These conferences recommended the immediate 
adoption by all of the American republics of any 
measures necessary to break off all commercial 
and financial intercourse with the Axis nations 
and to eliminate through vesting, forced sale, liq- 
uidation, intervention, blocking, or other con- 
trols all other financial and commercial activities 
prejudicial to the security of the American 
countries. 

In most of the other American republics, con- 
trols pursuant to these resolutions have been en- 
acted and put into effect. As a result. Axis drug, 
metal and electrical houses, coffee and quinine 
fincas^ Axis-controlled railroads, airways, banks, 
insurance, chemical, and other companies, and 
many hundreds of other Nazi, Fascist, and Jap- 
anese business enterprises that were supporting the 
Axis cause have been completely eliminated or re- 



organized or placed under such controls that they 
can no longer assist the enemy. 

In the case of those countries that have carried 
out the resolutions of the Rio and Washington 
conferences the controls which have been estab- 
lished have in most cases been coordinated with 
this Government's Proclaimed List. As the com- 
bined effect of the Proclaimed List controls and 
the local governmental controls has operated to 
eliminate or place in satisfactory hands firms that 
were on the Proclaimed List, such names have been 
deleted. Thus local firms that have been satisfac- 
torily I'eorganized, subjected to intervention or 
other surveillance, or which have given satisfactory 
undertakings to this Government or to the local 
government have been restored to participation 
in the local economy. In this way it has been pos- 
sible to give full recognition both to our war ob- 
jectives of combating the Axis war-machine in all 
of its manifestations and also to local economic 
needs. Where the results of listing have denied 
to a country the services of an essential firm this 
Government has been active in taking steps to 
assure a meeting of local economic needs in so far 
as possible from United States or other available 
friendly sources. This system of consultation and 
reciprocal collaboration has been an outstanding 
example of inter- American cooperation. 

It has apparently been assumed by some of the 
firms that have cooperated with the Axis that the 
Proclaimed List and the sanctions which are based 
upon it will terminate with the cessation of hos- 
tilities in Europe and that listed firms and indi- 
viduals will then be restored to normal trade 
facilities. There is no basis for such an assump- 
tion. It need not be stated that this Government 
does not consider the Proclaimed List as an ap- 
propriate part of the type of normal peacetime 
trade policies which it hopes eventually will be 
established. It is clear, however, that there will 
inevitably be a transition period from war to 
peacetime conditions and that the List cannot be 
withdrawn upon the termination of armed con- 
flict. In view of the total character of the present 
conflict and its vast impact upon commerce it will 
necessarily take time to effect adjustments of eco- 
nomic-warfare controls. Such adjustments will 
be carried out with regard to specific circum- 
stances. The problem of eliminating economic- 



MAY 6, 1944 



411 



warfare controls, and in particular the Proclaimed 
List, is believed in general to be capable of prompt 
solution in regions far removed from tlie scene of 
conflict where the spearheads of Axis aggression 
have been eliminated. The withdrawal of such 
controls may be expected to be slower with respect 
to areas adjacent to the scene of conflict and par- 
ticularly with respect to nationals of, or residents 
in, neutral countries who have engaged, or who 
may engage, actively in equipping or servicing the 
military machine of the enemy — which the Allied 
governments are deterniined to destroy — or who 
have rendered other important aid to the enemy. 
What I have said has necessarily been in the 
nature of a very general outline. It has not been 
possible to give you very much of the color of this 
phase of the war effort nor to describe any of the 
multitude of individual battles that have been 
fought. It will be clear, however, that the enemy 
has been fairly effectively dealt with in one more 
sector of the war. It will have been clear also 
that this success has been due to a cooperative 
effort which has received the participation not 
only of the various interested departments of this 
Government and of American business but of the 
British Government and our other Allies, the 
governments of virtually all of the other Amer- 
ican republics, and of pro-democratic businessmen 
and people generally in widely scattered sections 
of the world. 



PETROLEUM QUESTIONS 

Conclusion of Discussions With the 
United Kingdom 

[Released to the press May 3] 

Tlie preliminary exploratory discussions on 
petroleum between groups of experts representing 
the Governments of the United States and the 
United Kingdom, which began in Washington on 
April 18, were concluded in a joint session held on 
May 3. 

In a spirit of understanding and cooperation 
the two groups explored the full range of both 
countries' interest in petroleum on the basis of 
broad principles looking to the orderly long- 
range development of abundant oil supplies. The 

586349—44 2 



two groups are now reporting the results of these 
discussions to their Governments. 

After the full discussion of broad principles 
the two groups reviewed various specific matters 
of mutual interest relating to the production, dis- 
tribution, and transportation of oil. These 
specific matters included jjending problems affect- 
ing the oil operations abroad of the American and 
British oil industry; questions relating to oil 
production, particularly in the Middle East; the 
proposed trans-Arabian pipeline; and the Iraq 
Petroleum Company's project for an additional 
pipeline from Kirkuk, Iraq, to Haifa. The 
groups shared the view that the peacetime inter- 
governmental aspects of such matters should be 
resolved, as between the two Governments, within 
the framework of the broad principles which had 
been discussed. 

In issuing the foregoing announcement, which 
also is being made in London, it is pointed out 
that the United States group was composed of 
representatives of the Departments of State, War, 
and Navy and the Petroleum Administration for 
War. Ten officials of the American oil industry 
were invited to present their views in connection 
with the discussions.^ Three of these officials, Mr. 
John A. Brown, Mr. W. S. S. Rodgers, and Mr. A. 
Jacobsen, attended the discussions as advisers to 
the United States group of experts.^ 

The report of the United States group of ex- 
perts will be considered by the Cabinet committee 
appointed by the President for that purpose of 
which Secretary Hull is Chairman. On March 7, 
1944 the State Department announced ^ that, in 
addition to Secretary Hull, this committee con- 
sisted of Secretary Ickes, Vice Chairman ; Acting 
Secretary of the Navy Forrestal; Under Secre- 
tary of War Patterson; Mr. Charles E. Wilson, 
Vice Chairman of the War Production Board; 
and Mr. Charles Rayner, Petroleum Adviser, De- 
partment of State. Since that time Mr. Leo 
Crowley, Director of the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration, and Mr. Ralph K. Davies, Deputy 
Petroleum Administrator for War, have been 
included on this committee. 



" F.iXLETiN of Apr. 15, 1944, p. 346. 
' Botletin of Apr. 22, 1944, p. 372. 
" BuiiETiN of Mar. 11, 1944, p. 238. 



412 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



AGREEMENT WITH SPAIN ON CERTAIN 
OUTSTANDING ISSUES 

[Released to the press May 2] 

After a protracted period of negotiation with 
the Si^anish Government, the American and Brit- 
ish Governments have received assurances from 
the Spanish Government which permit a settle- 
ment of certain outstanding issues. 

The Spanish Government has agreed to expel 
designated Axis agents from Tangier, the Span- 
ish Zone in North Africa, and from the Spanish 
mainhind. It has agreed to the closing of the 
German Consulate and other Axis agencies in 
Tangier. It has agreed to the release of certain 
Italian conunercial ships now interned in Spanish 
waters and to the submission to arbitration of the 
question of releasing Italian warships likewise 
interned in Spanish waters. It has withdrawn all 
Spanish military forces from the eastern front. 
It has maintained a complete embargo on exports 
of wolfram since February 1, 1944, at which time 
bulk petroleum shipments were suspended, and 
has now agreed for the remainder of the year to 
impose a drastic curtailment of wolfram exports 
to Germany. 

One of our objectives in these negotiations was 
to continue to deprive Germany of Spanish 
wolfram. Although agreement was reached on 
a basis less than a total embargo of wolfram ship- 
ments, this action was taken to obtain immediate 
settlement on the urgent request of the British 
Government. Under the curtailed program not 
more than 20 tons of wolfram may be exported to 
Germany from Spain in each of the months May 
and June. Thereafter for the remainder of the 
year, if as a practical matter they can be made, 
exports may not exceed 40 tons per montli. It is 
improbable that any of this can be utilized in 
military products during this year. 

In view of the foregoing negotiations, permis- 
sion will now be given for the renewal of bulk 
petroleum loadings by Spanish tankers in the 
Caribbean and the lifting from the United States 
ports of minor quantities of packaged petroleum 
products in accordance with the controlled pro- 
gram in operation prior to the suspension of such 
loadings. 



THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 2 TO REVISION VII 

[Released to the press May 6] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, 
the Administrator of the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration, and the Coordinator of Inter- Amer- 
ican Affairs, issued on May 6, 1944 Cumulative 
Supplement 2 to Revision VII of the Proclaimed 
List of Certain Blocked Nationals, promulgated 
March 23, 1944. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 2 contains 33 
additional listings in the other American republics 
and 103 deletions. Part II contains 93 additional 
listings outside the American republics and 18 
deletions. 

With the issuance of this Supplement the Pro- 
claimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals has 
been extended to include certain cases in Ireland 
(fiire). 



NATIONAL ANNIVERSARY OF POLAND 

[Released to the press May 2] 

The text of a telegram sent by the President of 
the United States to His Excellency Wladyslaw 
Raczkiewicz, President of Poland, upon the oc- 
casion of the national anniversary of Poland, 
follows : 

Mat 3, 1944. 
On the occasion of the National Anniversary of 
Poland, I take great pleasure in sending to the 
Polish people through you my greetings and best 
wishes in which I am joined by the people of the 
United States. It is fitting to recall in this fateful 
fifth year of the war that it was Poland who first 
defied the Nazi hordes. The continued resistance 
of the Polish people against their Nazi oppressors 
is an inspiration to all. The relentless struggle 
being carried on by the United Nations will hasten 
victory and the liberation of all freedom loving 
peoples. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



MAY 6, 1944 



413 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN 
NATIONALS 

[Released to the press May 1] 

The Department of State and the War Depart- 
ment announced on May 1 that the motorship 
Gripshohn is expected to leave New York on or 
about May 2 to carry out a further exchange with 
Germany of seriously sick and seriously wounded 
prisoners of war who are found to be entitled to 
repatriation under the terms of the Geneva Prison- 
ers of War Convention, and of surplus protected 
personnel entitled to repatriation under the terms 
of the Geneva Red Cross Convention. It has been 
agreed the repatriables of each side will be ex- 
changed at Barcelona on or about May 17. The 
Spanish Government has been asked to cooperate 
by lending its facilities for the exchange. The 
Gripshohn is expected to return to New York in 
early June with American repatriates. The vessel 
will travel both ways under safe-conducts of all 
belligerents. 

The names of the prospective American repa- 
triates are not yet known, and it will not be 
possible to determine their identity until after the 
Gripsholm has sailed from Barcelona. Every ef- 
fort will be made to dispatch notification to the 



next of kin at the earliest moment after the identity 
of each repatriate has been established beyond 
possibility of doubt. 

STATUS OF COUNTRIES IN RELATION TO 
THE WAR, APRIL 22, 1944 

Corrigenda 

BtJLLirriN of April 22, 1944 : 

Page 375: Under the box heading "France", 
insert opposite Italy in place of the leaders the 
following : 

WAR-1 
6/11/40 

Under the box heading "Japan", take out the 
parentheses around the date opposite Guatemala. 
It should read "12/9/41". 

Page 379: In table II under "Adherents" 
change the date in the second column opposite 
Philippines from "June 10, 1943" to "June 10, 
1942" ; in the last colvmin opposite Iraq change the 
date from "Apr. 10, 1944" to "Apr. 10, 1943" and 
that ojjposite Mexico from "June 10, 1942" to 
"June 14, 1942". 

Page 380: The last three words in the foot- 
note should read " (see table II ) ". 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



CONFERENCE OF ALLIED MINISTERS OF EDUCATION IN LONDON 



ineleased to the press May 3] 

The Secretary of State announced on May 3 
that Congressman J. William Fulbright, chair- 
man of the American Delegation to the Confer- 
ence of Allied Ministers of Education in London, 
has returned to this country with three other 
members — the Honorable Archibald MacLeish, 
Librarian of Congress; John W. Studebaker, 
United States Commissioner of Education; and 
Dean C. Mildred Thompson of Vassar College. 
The delegation has been at work in London for 
the past month. 

"The discussions of the delegation with repre- 
sentatives of other nations", Congressman Ful- 



bright stated, "were based on the proposition 
that free and unrestricted interchange between 
the peoples of the world of ideas and knowledge 
and unrestricted education are essential to the 
preservation of security and peace." 

The delegation brought back an encouraging 
report of progress being made by the interested 
nations toward a cooperative approach to the re- 
establishment of essential educational and cul- 
tural facilities upon an emergency basis. 

The discussions of the Conference, the mem- 
bers of the delegation reported, made clear the 
threat to civilization created by the cold-blooded 
and considered destruction by the Axis of the edu- 



414 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cational and cultural resources of great parts of 
the continents of Europe and Asia; the murder 
of teachers, artists, scientists, and intellectual 
leaders; the burning of books; the pillaging and 
mutilation of works of art ; the rifling of archives ; 
and the theft of scientific apparatus. 

The American delegation collaborated with the 
Conference on two main tasks: First, in drafting 
a tentative plan for a United Nations agency for 
educational and cultural reconstruction ; and sec- 
ondly, in ascertaining the essential emergency 
needs of the war-devastated Allied countries to 
reestablish educational services. 

The tentative plan for a United Nations agency 
for educational and cultural reconstruction was 
fonnulated at open meetings presided over by 
Congressman Fulbright and was then accepted by 
the Conference for informal submission to the 
United Nations and Associated Nations for study 
and comment. 

The tentative plan brought back by the delega- 
tion will be studied by the interested agencies of 
this Government and be made the subject of dis- 
cussions with members of Congress for the pur- 
pose of furnishing the Conference with the views 
of the United States Government concerning the 
proposed United Nations agency. 

Two members of the delegation. Dr. Grayson 
N. Kefauver and Dr. Ralph E. Turner, both of 
the Department of State, are continuing in Lon- 
don to complete the gathering of full factual in- 
formation regarding emergency basic needs for 
reestablishing essential educational and cultural 
facilities in Allied liberated areas. 

The progress made at the London meeting is 
another important step in the direction of laying 
the foundations for international cooperation in 
the future. 

The following memorandum was issued to the 
press on April 20, 1944 by the Secretariat of the 
Conference of Ministers of Education of Allied 
Governments : 

"A tentative draft constitution for a United 
Nations Organization for Educational and Cul- 
tural Reconstruction was accepted by the Confer- 
ence of Allied Ministers of Education yesterday, 
19th April. It will be forwarded to the Allied 
and Associated Governments, and if adopted by 



them it will permit joint efforts in this field in line 
with parallel work already being developed by the 
Food Conference and UNRRA. General accept- 
ance of the creation of an international organiza- 
tion to undertake cooperatively the vitally im- 
portant work of restoring the educational and 
cultural heritages of war-torn countries would 
carry the United Nations past another important 
station on the road toward lasting peace. 

"The wisdom of building an international 
structure piece by piece on sound foundations is 
recognized clearly today. The projected Organi- 
zation for Educational and Cultural Reconstruc- 
tion would direct its activities at first to the emer- 
gency woi'k of restoring the educational systems 
and the cultural institutions destroyed by the Axis 
powers. It is believed that the projected organi- 
zation would gain experience in performing these 
emergency tasks which would create a basis for 
lasting international cooperation in educational 
and cultural fields. 

"The proposed constitution was drafted at two 
Open Meetings convened by the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education and the American 
Education Delegation, headed by Congressman 
Fulbright, which came to London earlj' this 
month to work out plans for American collab- 
oration with the Conference. The meetings were 
attended by representatives of all member and ob- 
server states currently interested in the Confer- 
ence and were presided over by Congressman 
Fulbright. The device of holding Open Meet- 
ings enabled all representatives present to par- 
ticipate fully, equally, and without prejudice to 
their positions in the Conference. The Consti- 
tution is both broad enough and flexible enough to 
enable the projected organization to deal' vigor- 
ously and successfully with the problems of edu- 
cational and cultural reconstruction. 

"The need for the proposed organization is 
stated in the Preamble of the jDroposed Constitu- 
tion which says in part : 'To deprive any part of 
the interdependent modem world of the cultural 
resources, human and material, through which its 
children are trained and its people informed, is to 
destroy to that extent the common knowledge and 
the mutual understanding upon which the peace 
of the world and its security must rest.' 



I 



I 



MAY 6, 1944 



415 



"The text of the tentative draft Constitution 
consists of seven sections. The first contains a 
statement of the underlying reasons why inter- 
national cooperation in educational reconstruc- 
tion should be attempted. 

"The second defines the functions of the pro- 
jected organization in terms which should permit 
it to work effectively in the fields of educational 
and cultural rehabilitation and reconstruction 
and to develojj ultimately into a permanent body 
with broader activities. 

''Section three declares that membership shall 
be open to all the United Nations and Associated 
Nations and to such other nations as shall be ac- 
cepted by the Assembly, upon application thereto, 
after the cessation of hostilities with the Axis. 

"Section four, which lists the agencies of the 
proposed organization, provides for an Assembly 
with equal representation and votes for all mem- 
ber states, and Executive Board to be elected by 
the Assembly and an International Secretariat. 

"The fifth, or financial section, states that ad- 
ministrative expenses shall be shared by the mem- 
ber nations on a basis to be agreed by the As- 
sembly. It also provides for the creation of an 
Emergency Rehabilitation Fund controlled by an 
Emergency Rehabilitation Fund Committee. Na- 
tional contributions to the Rehabilitation Fund 
will be fixed by the Committee subject to the ap- 
proval of each contributing nation, and the Com- 
mittee will also make allocations from the Fund. 
The Committee will consist of representatives of 
the three States making the largest contributions 
for administrative expenses and three members 
elected by the Executive Board. 

"Section six contains provisions relating to 
ratification, amendment, and interpretation which 
follow closely those in the statutes of other inter- 
national bodies. 

"Section seven contains provisions requiring 
member nations to supply information about edu- 
cation and cultural matters, defining the legal 
status of the organization and its staff, providing 
for cooperation between the organization and exist- 
ing international organizations in the educational 
and cultural fields, and governing the relationship 
of the organization to any agency for coordinat- 
ing public international organizations." 



FIRST CONFERENCE OF COMMISSIONS OF 
INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT 

[Released to the press by the Inter-American Development Com- 
mission May 2] 

The program for the First Conference of Com- 
missions of Inter-American Development, to be 
held in New York May 9 to 18, was announced May 
2 by Nelson A. Rockefeller, chairman of the In- 
ter-American Development Commission. 

The Conference will bring to the United States 
many prominent businessmen from the other 
American republics for discussion of measures for 
further development of the natural resources of 
the Americas. 

The Inter- American Development Commission 
and the 21 commissions in the American re- 
publics were organized under government spon- 
sorship, with membership consisting of business- 
men representative of commerce, industry, and 
finance. They are channels for collaboration be- 
tween government and business in economic de- 
velopment. Established in wartime, the commis- 
sions have aided the mobilization of hemisphere 
economic resources for the wai- effort. 

The agenda of the Conference is organized un- 
der two sections: (1) Economic Development and 
Investments and (2) International Trade and 
Transportation. Specific topics of the agenda 
follow : 



Section I. Economic Development and 

Investments 

Subjects: Analysis of the pertinent parts of re- 
ports presented by the national commissions and 
discussions of the following subjects so far as they 
pertain to a consideration of the basic objective 
above: Full utilization of natural resources, eco- 
nomic stability, currency stabilization, establish- 
ment of new industries, instruments for economic 
development, technical assistance, levels of living, 
debt services, credit facilities, equitable credit 
terms, equality of treatment of foreign invest- 
ments, taxation, methods of investment, govern- 
ment operations, and private enterprises. 



416 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN. 



Section II. International Trade and 
Transportation 

Subjects: Analysis of the pertinent parts of the 
reports presented by the national commissions and 
discussion of the following subjects so far as they 
pertain to a consideration of the basic objectives 
above: Trade barriers (tariffs, quotas, exchange 
control, export taxes, State trading), customs 
unions and preferences, commodity policies (in- 
ternational agreements, subsidies) , monopolies and 
cartels, transportation facilities and services, rate 
policies, equality in protection from risks, na- 
tional merchant marines, and tourist trade. 



American Republics 



FELLOWSHIPS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 
FOR REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE 
OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

The Director of the Bureau of the Budget has 
issued, pursuant to statutory authority and official 
recommendations and subject to appropriations 
available, regulations with respect to fellowships 
in public administration which will be awarded 
to qualified applicants from the other American 
republics. The fellowships, which will be awarded 
by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget with 
the ajiproval of the Secretary of State, will be of 
the intem-training and training-in-research type 
and may include advance univei'sity instruction at 
colleges and univei-sities and practical training and 
observation in Government departments and agen- 
cies. Each application shall be transmitted to the 
Secretary of State by the government of the Amer- 
ican republic of which the applicant is a citizen 
through the American diplomatic mission accred- 
ited to that government. 

Each applicant awarded a fellowship may be 
granted, upon the recommendation of the Director 
of the Bureau of the Budget, monthly allowances 
for quarters and subsistence during the entire 
period spent in the United States, or its terri- 
tories or possessions; certain transportation ex- 
penses; a per diem in lieu of subsistence while in 
travel status (except that no per diem will be 



allowed concurrently with monthly allowances) ; 
and other expenses. Each applicant shall submit 
written reports of progress in studies and reseacch 
at such intervals as the Director of the Bureau of 
the Budget may direct. 

Fellowships may be awarded for periods not ex- 
ceeding 12 months of actual study and research 
and may be extended for not exceeding the same 
periods. Fellowships may be canceled for cause 
by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, with 
the approval of the Secretary of State. 

The full text of the regulations appears in the 
Federal Register of May 6, 1944, page 4799. 

VISIT OF COLOMBIAN MUSEUM 
DIRECTOR 

Seiiorita Teresa Cuervo Borda, Director of Casa 
Colonial, the national museum of colonial art and 
history at Bogota, Colombia, has arrived in Wash- 
ington as a guest of the Department of State. 
She plans to visit not only archives, libraries, and 
museums in the national capital and other areas 
of the United States but also to observe what has 
been done in such colonial restorations as those at 
Williamsburg, Virginia, for the Casa Colonial, 
in addition to being a national museum, is a mas- 
terpiece of the restoration of an early Spanish 
colonial house. 



Near East 



BIRTHDAY OF THE KING OF IRAQ 

[Released to the press May 2] 

The President has sent the following message to 
His Highness Prince Abdul Ilah, Regent of the 
Kingdom of Iraq, on the occasion of the birthday 
of the King of Iraq : 

May 2, 1944. 

It gives me great pleasure to express to His 
Majesty King Faisal II my sincere good wishes 
on this anniversary of his birth and to convey to 
the people of Iraq the greetings of the people of 
the United States on this happy occasion. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



The Department 



PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES OF DEPARTMENTAL PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION 



Departmental Order 1272 of May 3, 1944 ' 



Purpose and Authority. The purpose of the 
present order, issued under R.S. 161 (5 U.S.C. 22), 
is to set forth tlie principles and policies which 
are to govern the inauguration of the new person- 
nel program under Departmental Order 1218 as 
amended. 

The Department of State exists to serve the 
public interest within the framework established 
by the Constitution, by statute, and by regulation. 
The Department has the major responsibility, un- 
der the President, for determining the foreign 
policy of the United States Government and for 
conducting its foreign relations. 

The observance of the principles and policies 
outlined herein is fundamental to fulfilling the 
Department's responsibilities. The best interests 
of all will be served by the improvement of De- 
partmental standards for discharging these re- 
sponsibilities and by giving due recognition to 
each employee's effort. 

Since it is the practice of the Department to call 
in Foreign Service officers to supplement the reg- 
ular staff of the Department, it is incumbent upon 
these ofScere, while on duty in the Department, to 
subscribe to the principles and policies outlined 
below. 

Fundamental, Principles 

1. Tlie Department recognizes as a fundamental 
requirement of effective operation, the need for 
and the importance of establishing and maintain- 
ing mutually satisfactory and effective working 
relationships among all employees. The Depart- 
ment realizes that its responsibilities will be per- 
formed most ably if all its employees understand 
the importance of their work and identify them- 
selves with it. It is the responsibility of each 
administrative official to organize his work so 

' Effective May 3, 1944. 



that every member of his staff will feel the chal- 
lenge of contributing to his full capacity in the 
task to be done. 

2. It is the primary objective of the Depart- 
ment's program of personnel administration to 
recruit, develop, and maintain a staff of qualified, 
efficient, and well-adjusted workers and to encour- 
age the maximum use of their skills and abilities. 
This may be acconqDlished principally through 
the proper selection, placement, upgrading, su- 
pervision, training, and remuneration of em- 
ployees and througli the maintenance of proper 
working conditions. 

3. The Department recognizes that the indi- 
vidual employee's rights and interests with refer- 
ence to his position are based, upon his ability 
and performance without discrimination or prej- 
udice. He is entitled to fair treatment by his su- 
pervisors, equitable compensation for his services, 
and deserved consideration for his advancement 
within the Department. 

4. The Department intends to create and main- 
tain an environment for work which will en- 
courage employees to grow and foster a high 
degree of effort and productivity. It is essential 
that all officials in administrative or supervisory 
positions clearly understand and apply the major 
principles and policies of deptirtmental personnel 
administration in the interest of high morale. 

POUCIES 

1. Appointment. The Department selects its 
staff on the basis of merit, without discrimination. 
The selection of candidates is based on the re- 
quirements of the position, ability, skill, training, 
experience, character, and physical fitness. AH 
appointments are made in accordance with ap- 
plicable Civil Service laws and regulations. 

2. Placement and Transfer, (a) Employees 
are placed in positions for which they are equipped 

417 



418 



DEPARTMENT OF STAT'E BULLETIN 



by experience, training, and physical fitness. 
Physical fitness is considered an important factor 
in the selection of each employee. It is the aim 
of the Department to make the best possible use of 
the skills and abilities of employees at all levels. 
If the initial placement does not engage the full 
capacities of employees, consistent with the De- 
p-artment's requirements and efficiency, steps will 
be taken to transfer them to positions more com- 
mensurate with their capacities. Administrative 
and supervisory personnel have a responsibility 
to assist in making such adjustments. 

(b) It will be the policy to make inter-division 
transfers wherever necessary in the best interest 
of the Department's work. In order to avoid 
dislocation in operations within the division con- 
cerned, it is the obligation of each supervisor so to 
train emp]o3'ees and organize the flow of his work 
as to facilitate the release of efficient employees 
for upgrading elsewhere in the Department. 

3. ProTnotion From Within, (a) In order to 
encourage the development of careers in the De- 
partment, the policy of promotion from within 
will be observed. Promotions are made on the 
basis of competency on the present job and ability 
to assume and discharge efficiently greater respon- 
sibilities. Ability of the individual to work har- 
moniously and effectively with fellow employees 
and to contribute to the improvement of methods 
and procedures, are factors in advancement to 
more responsible duties. Each administrator and 
supervisor should be alert to and should assist in 
the development of a high degree of efficiency in 
the employees whose work he directs. 

(b) In filling vacancies, consideration will be 
given first to proficient employees within the 
immediate section, then within the division, and, 
finally elsewhere within the Department. If 
other considerations are equal, length of service 
may be a determining factor in promotions. If 
qualified employees are not available, the Depart- 
ment will make appointments from outside when 
it is deemed to be in its best interest. 

(c) It is the intention of the Department to 
recognize the efforts of its employees to raise 
their qualifications for service. It is incumbent 
upon every employee to inform his supervisor and 
the Division of Departmental Personnel of addi- 



tional qualifications acquired through study or 
other means of self-development. Adequate 
records of experience, training, and performance 
will be maintained for each employee as a method 
of carrying out this policy. 

4. Classifcation of Positio-ns. It is the policy of 
the Department to make equitable payment for 
the work performed. This means that positions 
will be properly classified and graded on the basis 
of duties and responsibilities, in accordance with 
the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923 as 
amended. 

5. Service Ratings. Service ratings for all Fed- 
eral employees are prescribed by law. Tlie de- 
velopment of sound standards of performance 
is an inherent part of each supervisor's re- 
sponsibility, and he is called upon to appraise 
objectively and continuously the individual per- 
formance of his subordinates on the basis of such 
standards. This appraisal is one of the factors in 
determining the advancement or retention of 
employees and provides the basis for promotion 
under the Mead-Ramspeck Act of August 1, 1941. 

6. Overtime, (a) It is the policy of the Depart- 
ment to perform its day-to-day functions within 
the prescribed work-week, and supervisors have 
the responsibility to organize their work so that 
this policy may be observed. Voluntary overtime 
of employees in order to meet abnormal pressures 
of work will be considered by the Department as ?. 
factor in giving due recognition for service. 

(b) When emergencies require the Department 
to direct employees to work beyond the normal 
work day, they shall be duly compensated. Over- 
time compensation for such work may be given, 
or compensatory leave in lieu thereof. % 

7. Leave. The Department favors the intelli- j 
gent use of annual leave for the purpose of rest, 
recreation, and recuperation as a benefit to both 
the employee and the Department. The period 

of continuous leave must be determined as a 
matter of administrative discretion, in the light 
of the urgency of the work of the employee. 

8. Separations, (a) Continued employment by J 
the Department requires that employees render 
honest, efficient, and loyal service. It is the policy 

of the Department to terminate appointments 
when such separation will promote the efficiency 



MAY 6, 1944 



419 



of the service. This will be done in accordance 
with Civil Service procedure. Employees whose 
appointments must be terminated for any cause 
whatsoever will be accorded a fair hearing by the 
Department under procedures already in effect. 
They will also be informed of their right to appeal 
to the Civil Service Commission and, at the dis- 
cretion of the Commission, to have their names 
placed on reemployment lists. 

(b) Wlien a reduction of force is necessary, 
employees will be retained on the basis of merit, 
with due allowance for length of service and other 
considerations prescribed by Civil Service regula- 
tions. Since service ratings are the criteria of 
merit, the Department expects all supervisors to 
make accurate evaluations of employees. 

9. Traming. The Department considers it a 
responsibility of management to train the staff 
as a means of increasing efficiency. It is a major 
responsibility of every supervisor to see that each 
employee under his supervision is instructed in his 
duties and in the best methods of performing them. 
The Department will assist employees to attain 
the required level of performance through train- 
ing programs administered within a division or, 
where circumstances warrant, on a Department- 
wide basis. Such programs are designed to im- 
prove work practices and processes at all levels. 

10. Supervisory-Employee Conferences. The 
Department recognizes that frequent consultations 
between employees and their supervisors are essen- 
tial to good working relationships. All super- 
visors will be encouraged to develop a program of 
supervisory-employee conferences and to acquire 
the technique of securing group participation 
through the conference method. These conferences 
will provide a medium for the exchange of infor- 
mation and constructive ideas and for the develop- 
ment of leadership among employees. When prop- 
erly conducted, they will contribute to the develop- 
ment of high morale and to the stimulation of a 
growing interest in the Department's methods of 
operation. 

11. Employee Suggestions. It will be the policy 
of the Department to encourage suggestions for 
improving the policies, the methods and proce- 
dures, the working conditions, and other phases 
of employment. Employees should feel free to 



make suggestions to their immediate supervisors 
or to higher officials of the Department. The effec- 
tive carrying out of the Department's responsibil- 
ities requires full employee participation in the 
conduct of its affairs. An employee-suggestion 
system will be established, by means of which 
employee suggestions will be given proper con- 
sideration. 

12. Oounseling. The Depailment will provide 
an adequate and competent counseling service for 
its employees. This service will assist individual 
employees to solve the problems arising in their 
work and employment relations, as well as those 
of a more personal character. 

13. Grievances. The Department will see that 
all employees are fairly treated in every respect. 
To this end supervisors are encouraged to use every 
available means to aid in solving the problems of 
their employees. Where an adjustment between 
supervisor and employee does not seem possible, 
the Counseling Service is available for consulta- 
tion and guidance. If the problem cannot be sat- 
isfactorily adjusted through these channels, em- 
ployees may avail themselves of the procedure es- 
tablished by the Department for the hearing of 
grievances. Employees are assured complete free- 
dom in presenting grievances, without fear of re- 
prisal or discrimination. The Department empha- 
sizes the responsibility of all officials to cooperate 
in the observance of this policy. 

14. Health and, Safety. The Department will 
provide an adequate program for the health and 
safety of its employees. The purpose of this pro- 
gram will be to maintain the health and well-being 
of every employee, which will automatically in- 
crease efficiency and productivity, thus reducing 
absenteeism. In addition to first-aid care for the 
sick and injured the program will cover such 
matters as personal hygiene, nutrition, safe and 
sanitary working conditions, and related subjects. 

15. Employee Organizations. Organizations of 
government employees have a logical place in gov- 
ernment affairs. The Department subscribes to 
the belief that its employees have a right to join 
or refrain from joining employee organizations. 
Any choice made in this matter will be without 
interference, coercion, restraint, fear of discrimi- 
nation or reprisal. 



420 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIOSr 



16. Employee Services. The Department real- 
izes that the personal adjustment of its employ- 
ees to life in the community has an important 
bearing on their attitude toward their work and 
the satisfaction they derive therefrom. Employ- 
ees may be assisted in becoming happily inte- 
grated into the community through help regard- 
ing housing, transportation, financial matters, 
health, recreation, and other individual interests. 
Staff members will cooperate with employees in 
organizing and promoting cultural, recreational, 
and educational activities. 

11 . Supervisory Responsibilities, (a) The De- 
partment believes that high morale among its 
employees is fundamental to the successful carry- 
ing out of its functions. Supervisors are key peo- 
ple in the Department and the creation and main- 
tenance of high morale in their units is their im- 
mediate responsibility. The methods of organiz- 
ing and administering their work should include 
continuous instruction of the employees in the 
techniques of their work, enlistment of their in- 
terest in proficiency, and recognition of their 
wholehearted endeavor. 

(b) It will be the policy of the Department to 
instruct supervisors in the proper application of 
these principles and policies. 



The Division of Departmental Personnel has 
the responsibility for assisting operating officials 
in the establishment and maintenance of a pro- 
gressive personnel program designed to stimu- 
late employees so that their efforts will result in 
satisfaction to themselves, credit to the Depart- 
ment, and benefit to the nation. 

CORDELL HtILL 

PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF AMERI- 
CAN COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL 
INTERESTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

Departmental Order 1264 of April 28, 1944 ' 

Mr. Homer S. Fox is hereby designated Con- 
sultant on Foreign Trade Protection and Pro- 
motion in the Division of Commercial Policy. 

'Effective Apr. 28, 1944. 

" Press Releases, May IS, 1939, p. 395. 



The Consultant on Foreign Trade Protection and 
Promotion shall have responsibility for develop- 
ing jjlans and advising the Chief of the Division 
of Commercial Policy with respect to the protec- 
tion and promotion of American commercial and 
agricultural intei'ests in foreign countries and un- 
der the general supervision of the Chief of the 
Division of Commercial F'olicy, for the execution 
of the functions relative to tlie protection and pro- 
motion of American commercial and agricultural 
interests abroad, which were transferred to the 
Department of State by Reorganization Plan No. 
11,^ and responsibility with respect to which was 
placed in the Division of Commercial Policy by 
Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 1944. 

CoRDELL Hull 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1265 of May 1, 1944, 
effective May 1, 1944, the Secretary of State des- 
ignated Mr. Stanley K. Hornbeck as Special As- 
sistant to the Secretary. 

By Departmental Order 1266 of May 1, 1944, 
effective May 1, 1944, the Secretary of State des- 
ignated Mr. Joseph C. Grew as Director of the 
Office of Far Eastern Affairs. 

By Departmental Order 1268 of May 2, 1944, 
effective May 2, 1944, the Secretary of State des- 
ignated Mr. John M. Cabot as Acting Chief tem- 
porarily of the Division of Caribbean and Cen- 
tral Ajnerican Affairs. 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On May 3, 1944 the Senate confirmed the nom- 
ination of S. Pinkney Tuck to be American Min- ■ 
ister to Egypt and R. Henry Norweb to be Ameri- f 
can Ambassador to Portugal. 

CONSULAR OFFICES 

The American Vice Consulate at Manta, Ecua- 
dor, was closed, effective April 29, 1944. 



Treaty Information 



GRANTING OF PLENIPOTENTIARY POWERS IN THE FIELD OF FOREIGN RELATIONS 
TO EACH OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 



Under provisions of the law adopted by the 
Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics on February 1, 1944, each Soviet Re- 
public has the right to enter into direct relations 
with foreign states and to conclude agreements 
with them. 

A translation of the law and a translation of a 
circular note of February 11, 1944 from the Soviet 
Foreign Office concerning the reorganization of 
the People's Connnissariat for Foreign Affairs, 
with which the law was enclosed, were transmitted 
to the Department of State with a despatch of 
February 15, 1944 from the American Embassy at 
Moscow. 

The circular note reads in part as follows 
(translation) : 

"With a view to expanding international rela- 
tions and to strengthening the collaboration of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics with other 
states, and in view of the growing need of the 
Soviet Republics for establishing direct relations 
with foreign states, the new Law provides that 
each Soviet Republic has the right to enter into 
direct relations with foreign states, to conclude 
agreements with them and to exchange diplomatic 
and consular representatives. The Law of Feb- 
ruary 1, 1944, introduces appropriate amendments 
into the present Constitution of the Union of So- 
viet Socialist Republics of December 5, 1936." 

A translation of the text of the law follows : 

The Law foe the Granting to the Union Re- 
puBiiics OF Plenipotentiary Powers in the 
Field of Foreign Relations and for the Cor- 
responding Reorganization of the People's 
Commissariat for Foreign Affairs From an 
All-Union to a Union-Republican People's 
Commissariat. 

With a view to extending international relations 
and to strengthening the collaboration of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics with other 
states and in view of the growing need of the 



Union Repubhcs to establish direct relations with 
foreign states, the Supreme Soviet of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics resolves: 

1. To provide that the Union Republics may 
enter into direct relations with foreign states and 
conclude agreements with them. 

2. To include in the Constitution of the 
U. S. S. R. the following amendments : 

(a). Add to Article 14 point "a" of the Con- 
stitution of the U. S. S. R. after the words "repre- 
sentation of the Union in international relations, 
conclusion and ratification of treaties" the words 
"the establishment of the general form of mutual 
relations of the Union Republics with foreign 
states" whereby this point will read as follows: 

" (a) . Representation of the Union in inter- 
national relations, conclusion and ratification 
of treaties with other states, and the establish- 
ment of the general form of mutual relations 
of the Union Republics with foreign states." 

(b). Add to the Constitution of the U. S. S. R. 
Article 18-a with the following content : 

"Article 18-a. Each Union Republic has 
the right to enter into direct relations with 
foreign states, to conclude agreements with 
them and to exchange diplomatic and consular 
representatives." 

(c). Add to Article 60 of the Constitution of 
the U. S. S. E. point "e" with the following con- 
tent : 

"(e). Establishes representation of the 
Union Republic in international relations." 

3. To reorganize the People's Commissariat for 
Foreign Affairs from an All-Union to a Union- 
Republican People's Commissariat. 

President of the Presidium of the Supreme So- 
viet of the U. S. S. R., M. Kalinin. 

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme So- 
viet of the U. S. S. R., A. Gorkin. 

Moscow, Kremlin, February 1, 19^^. 

421 



422 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIK 



EXCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS, 
UNITED STATES AND GUATEMALA 

The American Ambassador to Guatemala trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of State, with a despatch 
dated April 24, 1944, an agreement between the 
Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of Guatemala for the exchange of official 
publications. The agreement, which was con- 
cluded by an exchange of notes dated March 23, 
1944 and April 13, 1944, became effective on 
March 23, 1944. 

Lists of official publications to be exchanged 
accompanied each note. Under the terms of the 
agreement, each Government agrees to furnish to 
the other Government, without the necessity of 
subsequent negotiation, new and important pub- 
lications which may be initiated in the future. 
The official exchange office for the transmission 
of the publications on the part of the United 
States is the Smithsonian Institution; the official 
exchange office on the part of Guatemala is 
the Tipogi-afia Nacional. The publications ex- 
changed will be received for the United States by 
the Library of Congress and for Guatemala by tiie 
Biblioteca Nacional de Guatemala. Each Govern- 
ment agrees to bear postal, railroad, steamship, 
and other charges arisin,g in its own territory and 
to expedite the shipments so far as possible. 

REGULATION OF INTER-AMERICAN 
AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 

Honduras 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union, by a letter of May 2, 1944, informed the 
Secretary of State that on April 24, 1944 His 
Excellency the Ambassador of Honduras in the 
United States, Seiior Dr. Don Julian R. Caceres, 
signed, in the name of his Government, the Con- 
vention on the Kegulation of Inter-American 
Automotive Traffic, which was deposited with the 
Pan American Union and opened for signature on 
December 15, 1943. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Temporary Raising of Level of Lake St. Francis During 
Low-Water Periods: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Canada Continuing In Effect 
the Agreement of November 10, 1941 as Continued by 
the Agreement of October 5 and 9, 1942 — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington October 5 and 
9, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 377. Publication 
2101. 2 pp. 5<;. 

Haitian Finances: Supplementary Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Haiti — Signed at Port-au- 
Prince August 28, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
378. Publication 2107. 2 pp. 5(f. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Ecuador — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Washington February 24, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 379. Publication 
2109. 3 pp. 5^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: Cumu- 
lative Supplement No. 2, May 5, 1944, to Revision VII 
of March 23, 1944. Publication 2113. 25 pp. Free. 



Legislation 



Supplemental Estimate — Department of State: Commu- 
nication from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting supplemental estimate of appropriation for the 
Department of State, fiscal year 1945, amounting to 
$.50,000, in the form of an amendment to the budget 
for said fiscal year. S. Doc. 186, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

Estimate of Appropriation To Enable the United States 
To Participate in the Work of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration : Communication 
from the President of the United States transmitting an 
estimate of appropriation to enable the United States 
to participate in the work of the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration, as authorized by the 
act of March 28, 1944 (Public Law 267), in the amount 
of $450,000,000, and a proposed provision authorizing 
the disposition or expenditure by the President of sup- 
plies, services, or funds available under the act of March 
11, 1041 (22 U. S. C. 411^19), in the amount of 
$3.50,000,000. H. Doc. 572, 78th Cong. 5 pp. 



0. f. «OVERNHENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1>44 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 



PtTBLISHBD W&BKLY WITH THE APPBOTAL OF THK DIRBCTOB OF THE BUBDAU OF THS BCDQBT 



'i'ii ■ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



c 



MAY 13, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 255— Publication 2125 



ontents 




The WaB Page 

Declaration by the Airferiean, British, and Soviet Gov- 
ernments Regarding the Four Axis Satellites . . . 425 

InteknationaJj Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

First Conference of Commissions of Inter-American 
Development : 

Message of President Eoosevelt 426 

Message of the Secretaiy of State 426 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle : A Challenging 

Opportunity 427 

General 

Cultural-Cooperation Program of the Department of 

State : Address by Assistant Secretary Shaw .... 429 

American Republics 

Visit of Peruvian Architect 435 

Visit of Director of Mexican Institute of Tropical Medi- 
cine 435 

Visit of Haitian Physician and Engineer 435 

The Department 

Systematizing Departmental Orders and Other Issu- 
ances : Departmental Order 1269 of May 3, 1944 . 436 
Establisliment of Division of American Republics Anal- 
ysis and Liaison: Departmental Order 1271 of 

May 3, 1944 443 

Appointment of Officers 444 

[oveb] 



U. S. SUPERlWEiCEKT Of DOCUMENT^ 

JUAI 15 1944 







OMieAliS-CONTINUED 

Treaty Information Page 

Treaties and Other International Agreements: Proce- 
dure, Formalities, and the Information Facilities of 
the Department of State : By William V. Whitting- 

ton 445 

Additional Diversion of Waters of the Niagara River 

for Power Purposes 455 

Mutual-Aid Agreeement, Canada and the French 

Committee of National Liberation 456 

Treaty Between Canada and China for the Relinquish- 
ment of Extraterritorial Rights in China 458 

Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences . . . 461 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 461 

Agi'eement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration 461 

The Foreign Service 461 

Legislation 461 

pubucations 4^ 



The War 



DECLARATION BY THE AMERICAN, BRITISH, AND SOVIET GOVERNMENTS 
REGARDING THE FOUR AXIS SATELLITES 



[Released to the press May 12] 

Through the fateful policy of their leadei-s, the 
people of Hungary are suffering the humiliation 
of German occupation. Rumania is still bound 
to the Xazis in a war now bringing devastation 
to its own people. The Governments of Bulgaria 
and Finland have placed their countries in the 
service of Germany and remain in the war at Ger- 
many's side. 

The Governments of Great Britain, the Soviet 
Union, and the United States think it right that 
these peoples should realize the following facts : 

1. The Axis satellites, Hungary, Rumania, Bul- 
garia, and Finland, despite their realization of the 
inevitability of a crushing Nazi defeat and their 
desire to get out of the war are by their present 
policies and attitudes contributing materially to 
the strength of the German war-machine. 



2. These nations still have it within their power, 
by withdrawing from the war and ceasing their 
collaboration with Germany and by resisting the 
forces of Nazism by every possible means, to 
shorten the European struggle, diminish their own 
ultimate sacrifices, and contribute to the Allied 
victory. 

3. While these nations cannot escape their re- 
sponsibility for having participated in the war 
at the side of Nazi Germany, the longer they con- 
tinue at war in collaboration with Germany the 
more disastrous will be the consequences to them 
and the more rigorous will be the terms which will 
be imposed upon them. 

4. These nations ifiust therefore decide now 
whether they intend to persist in their present 
hopeless and calamitous policy of opposing the 
inevitable Allied victoiy, while there is yet time 
for them to contribute to that victory. 



425 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



FIRST CONFERENCE OF COMMISSIONS OF INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT 

Message of President Roosevelt ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House May 9] 

It gives me great pleasure to extend a very warm 
greeting to the delegates of the First Conference 
of Commissions of Inter- American Development. 

The Americas, through joint action based upon 
the principles agreed upon at the Pan American 
meetings, have mobilized their resources against 
the common enemy. They are patrolling hemi- 
sphere waters, strengthening military bases, sup- 
plying great quantities of strategic materials. 
These are all playing a notable part in the ever- 
rising strength of the Unit«d Nations' fighting 
forces. 

But many tasks requiring joint effort among the 
Americas remain. One of the most important 
immediate jobs is preparation for the time when we 
will have to readjust our economies after war pro- 
duction has passed its peak. How well we succeed 
in making a smooth transition from war to peace 



will depend in large part upon how we prepare 
now. 

The Inter- American Development Commission, 
and the 21 individual country commissions, consti- 
tute one of the invaluable mechanisms which the 
Americas have created for mutually beneficial co- 
operation. The delegates to this conference have 
an important function in preparing for the future 
as well as aiding the wartime mobilization of hemi- 
sphere resources. This Conference and the com- 
missions provide a particularly effective channel 
for the direct participation by private business in 
hemisphere economic progress. 

This Conference is building upon a strong foun- 
dation — cooperation, equality, and opportunity — 
which we together have laid through the years. 
Inter-American cooperation has been tested in 
peace and in war, and today is preparing for the 
readjustment period ahead of us. 



Message of the Secretary of State ' 



[Released to the press May 10] 

I am most happy to have this opportunity of ex- 
tending a message of greeting to the Conference of 
Commissions of Inter- American Development and 
of wishing it full success in its deliberations. 

Although the present circumstances demand that 
our energies be devoted primarily to the prosecu- 
tion of the war, it is also important that plans be 
outlined now for post-war economic development. 
In the formulation of such plans it is highly de- 
sirable that representatives of private business and 
financial interests in the American republics con- 
sult together on important issues and make known 
their views to the govermnents and to the public 
generally. 

426 



The Conference of the Inter- American Develop- 
ment Commissions, therefore, has an excellent op- 
portunity for constructive accomplishment. The 
exchange of opinions based on national points of 
view can be most helpful in arriving at a mutually 
satisfactory understanding on many important 
questions. This should permit agreement on 
broad principles which will serve as a basis for 
specific programs. Such exchanges of views can 
also facilitate the coordination of national pro- 
grams in an effective manner. 



' Read at the opening session of the Conference in New 
York, N. Y., May 9, 1944. 

^ Read at the opening plenary session of the Conference, 
May 10, 1944. 



MAY 13, 1944 



427 



Concentration upon the number and complexity 
of post-war economic problems, serious as these 
will be, perliaps tends to create a state of mind 
which reflects an undue caution concerning the fu- 
ture. This Conference, with the strength and 
vitality of private initiative behind its work, can 
provide a bold and vigorous leadership in direct- 
ing plans, thoughts, and hopes to the almost un- 



limited' opportunities and possibilities for eco- 
nomic progress in the years of peace to come. Ex- 
panded production and trade, based on sound and 
liberal principles, bringing more goods and serv- 
ices to more people — these are goals worthy of the 
best efforts of all of us. I feel certain that the Con- 
ference will chart a straight course toward those 
objectives. 



Address by Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 
A Ch^vllenging Opportunity 



[Released to the press May 13] 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : During your 
meetings you have been taking counsel as to prac- 
■ tical ways and means of safeguarding and in- 
creasing the prosperity of the countries in North 
and South America. You have considered the 
Western Hemisphere as a whole. You have been 
right in doing this. 

The American nations have a common destiny. 
They are locked together by ties of friendship and 
by ties of self-interest. It is clear that the founda- 
tion of the foreign policy of the United States 
must be the policy of the good neighbor ; and that 
while we hope this will become world-wide, it will 
always be applied to the American group of coun- 
tries. So far as the United States is concerned, 
no policy can be sound unless it takes account of 
this basic reality. 

Your plan has been to provide greater develop- 
ment for the Americas by setting up industries 
where possible in the other American republics. 
In time, if you are fully successful, no country will 
be limited to agriculture or mining; but all will 
have as great a measure of factory and industrial 
life as they find it to their advantage to have. 

From the point of view of the United States this 
is thoroughly sound. We have long since escaped 
from the idea that some countries were merely beds 
of raw materials or agricultural production, to be 
exploited for the benefit of foreign manufacturers. 
We have come to that conclusion partly because it 
was morally wrong. It is simply not right for 
some countries to expect to maintain the high 



prosperity which can come with industry by ex- 
ploiting the inability of other countries to create 
and support industries for themselves. But we 
have also learned that the self-interest of the 
United States, as a manufacturing country, is best 
served by the growth of industry elsewhere. Our 
best customers have been industrialized countries. 
Wliat we lose in competitive industry we more 
than make up in markets occasioned by the in- 
crease in wages and the growing prosperity of the 
countries which improve their economic life. 

In general, we will explore the possibilities for 
accomplishing this growth of industry in the 
American republics through private enterprise. 
This is as it should be, since America is a con- 
tinent of private enterprise. But it is appropriate 
to realize fully the contract with society which 
private enterprise is assuming. In these days, 
private investment and private enterprise take 
on obligations not only to their investors and 
owners but also to their labor and to society. This 
is especially true in the American republics, where 
the growth of industry will change certain civi- 
lizations from the old course of an agricultural 
society. 

An enterprise today is expected to give substan- 
tially continuous employment. It seems probable 
that this obligation will be stressed in countries 
which turn from agriculture to industry, because 
land at least furnished shelter and food — even at 
a low standard — to the people on it at all times. 



' Delivered in New York, N.Y., May 13, 1944. 



428 

A factory which pays relatively high wages for 
certain periods, drawing men away from the land, 
will not be considered successful if it throws those 
men out on the street at intervals, leaving them to 
charity or starvation. We are just beginning to 
learn this in the United States, for the obliga- 
tions are beginning to be asserted against private 
enterprise here just as they ai-e elsewhere. 

And where any area becomes industrialized you 
will find that private enterprise, or private enter- 
prise and the state working together, are expected 
to provide general employment for the population 
which must find its livelihood in that area. This, 
too, is an obligation which is being brought home 
to the United States as well as to other Ajmerican 
republics. This is partly due to our experience 
after the last war. Our returning soldiers, on 
discharge from the Army, will not be content to 
sell apples; and I think it unlikely that British 
soldiers on discharge will walk up and down the 
streets with blankets asking for coppers, as hap- 
pened in some English cities after the last war. 
Neither does it seem likely that the people of any 
country will stay quiet if there are on the one 
hand material resources and the machinery to 
make needed goods out of them, both lying idle 
while unemployed people unsuccessfully seek 
work. 

Both investment and private enterprise have to 
take account of these social demands and make 
their plans accordingly. Plans can be made which 
will take account of these conditions, and we will 
arrange to make them. 

These demands can be met. But the best brains 
and the best planning and the best management 
in the hemisphere will be needed. 

When industry is entering a new area, experi- 
ence shows that it has to do a number of things. 
It has to provide training for workers who until 
now have not had a chance to learn modern skills. 
It has to offer opportunity to capable people to 
make progress in the organization and in the 
industry. This means opportunity for better 
technical education. Not infrequently it means 
assistance at the lowest levels : provision for better 
health, provision for better feeding, provision for 
better living conditions. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

You cannot operate a sound industrial plant on 
the peon system. Ultimately, sound and healthy 
industrialization means the end of the peon sys- 
tem — and that is just what it ought to mean. 

Private enterprise and private investment in 
the hemisphere, looked at against this back- 
ground, thus widens its horizon. It has to pro- 
vide steady work for the people who work for 
it — and that means planning, scheduling of pro- 
duction, leveling off the peaks and valleys of 
production. It ought to mean also reasonable 
unemployment-compensation arrangements to take 
care of those interruptions which cannot be fore- 
seen or provided against, either by direct compen- 
sation or by bracketing industrial employment 
with a certain amount of agricultural resources. 

It means planning for workers' health, and that 
in turn means working with the public-health au- 
thorities in the country in which the enterprise 
is situated. 

It means working with the education systems 
of the area in which the enterprise is at work. 
The workers who are becoming trained will want 
better training for their children. 

It means that the enterprise must take a vivid 
interest in the supply and cost of food and of the 
necessities of life. The managers of the enter- 
prise in the coming generation ought to be the 
first line of defense against exploitation by prof- 
iteers in food or medical supplies or other eco- 
nomic necessities. All this is part of the process 
of progressive raising of living standards. It is 
part of the everyday work of a modern industrial 
enterprise. 

It is particularly welcome to know that you 
who are businessmen have endeavored to tackle 
this problem on the theory that ownership of the 
enterprises you project shall be in part, if not in 
whole, in the country where the enterprise is 
located. We ai'e progi'essively learning that no 
enterprise is sound unless it returns to the country 
in which it is, in one form or another, as much as 
it takes out. There is at present no reason why 
this should not be brought about. In older days 
we used to say that the countries of America out- 
side of the United States and Canada lacked 
capital. This is no longer true. At present it is 



MAY 13, 1944 



429 



far more difficult to find management than to find 
money; and the problem of most of the Amer- 
icas is to make effective use of the capital which it 
has accumulated as a result of the war. If this 
is done, there ought to be no difficulty in coopera- 
tion between the technicians of the United States 
and the enterprises of the other American re- 
publics, which will be mutually beneficial to 
both. 

In the Americas, no one can prevent our prog- 
ress except ourselves. We have the resources, we 
have the technical ability, we have the capital, 
and, God knows, we have the need for goods. We 



have a challenging opportunity to enter a stage 
of development more promising to the men and 
women of our countries, of all walks of life, than 
l^erhaps the world has even seen. We shall need 
to find new methods in economics and finance as 
modern as the new methods which we have de- 
veloped in engineering, in chemistry, and in pro- 
duction. We shall undoubtedly need greater 
development in the art of government and in 
bringing together the resources of public and pri- 
vate organization. The work is fundamental. 
From the conditions so created, countries can 
build anew. 



General 



CULTURAL-COOPERATION PROGRAM OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Address by Assistant Secretary Shaw ' 



[Released to the press May 8] 

Six years ago — in 1938 — a separate division to 
handle international cultural relations was estab- 
lished in the Department of State. This action 
was but a tardy recognition in terms of organi- 
zation of the fact that such relations are of essen- 
tial importance to all men, regardless of country, 
race, creed, or economic status. Certainly it would 
be misleading to suggest that governments have 
only recently interested themselves in promoting 
and facilitating the international exchange of 
knowledge, skills, and the arts. 

Tlie scholars of your university are better able 
than I to trace the history of cultural relations, 
but I suspect that the history of the subject is 
nothing less than the story of mankind. One of 
the best known of the early cultural-exchange ven- 
tures of modern history is to be found in the story 
of Marco Polo and his father, Nicolo Polo. The 
accounts of their travels tell us that on Nicolo 
Polo's first visit to Kublai Khan, that renowned 
ruler requested Nicolo to return on a second mis- 
sion with a hundred able teachers of the liberal 
arts and religion. Unfortunately, as we know, 



this particular exchange of learned men was not 
carried out, but on the return visit to Kublai 
Khan's court Nicolo did take with him his son, 
Marco Polo. The following brief excerpt from a 
history of the travelers indicates that Marco Polo 
thoroughly understood the work of a cultural-rela- 
tions attache in the sense in which we use that term 
today. I quote: 

"Mark, during his stay at court, had observed 
the Khan's delight in hearing of strange coun- 
tries, their marvels, manners, and oddities, and 
had heard his majesty's frank expressions of dis- 
gust at the stupidity of his commissioners when 
they could speak of nothing but the official busi- 
ness on which they had been sent. Profiting by 
these observations, he took care to store his mem- 
ory or his notebooks with all curious facts that 
wei-e likely to interest Kublai, and related them 
with vivacity on his return to Court." 

It is worth noting, moreover, that Marco Polo's 
success seems in large measure to have been due 



^ Delivered at the Loyola University Forum, New Or- 
leans, La., May 8, 1944, 



430 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to his appreciation of the basic principle that in 
sound international cultural relations there must 
be reciprocity. We, like him, must be always on 
the alert to know the other person's way of life 
as well as to make our own way known to these 
others. A well -conceived and effectively admin- 
istered cultural-relations program must in the 
long run be genuinely cooperative. The simple 
words "give and take" are words of practical 
wisdom in this field of work. 

The interest of our Government in the develop- 
ment of cooperative cultural exchanges with other 
nations is motivated neither by sentimental nor 
by sinister purposes. It is based simply on a clear 
recognition that the daily processes of living and 
of living spiritually and intellectually are the 
common — indeed the commonest — interest of all 
mankind. And, after all, international relations 
in the last analysis consist of dealings, whether 
diplomatic, commercial, or, for want of a better 
word, "cultural", in matters which are of common 
interest to men of all nations. 

We hear a great deal today to the effect that 
this war is a "people's war" and that it must be 
followed by a "people's peace". A vitally im- 
portant idea is permeating international affairs 
when men begin to speak in terms of a people's 
war and a people's peace. That idea, of course, 
is a real belief in the worth of the individual 
human being entirely irrespective of nationality, 
race, creed, or economic status. It is an important 
idea for many reasons, but for us it is all impor- 
tant because it represents the central core of faith 
around which our country and indeed all free 
countries have built their institutions and their 
very lives. In the connection we are dealing with 
in this talk it represents a conviction that necessary 
as governments are they alone cannot win this war 
and they alone cannot make or maintain a secure 
and a fruitful peace. This is the faith stated in 
simplest terms which is at the heart of our inter- 
national cultural-relations program. 

I am going to examine the concept of cultural 
relations with you today in terms of the tangible 
things which make up our cultural-cooperation 
program. First, however, it will be helpful to 
clear away a basic misconception which carica- 
tures this whole subject. The worst of several 



misconceptions with which we have to deal is the 
misunderstanding created in some people's minds 
by the very term "cultural relations". Sometime 
in our past history the word "cultural" became 
associated somehow with a privileged, an esoteric, 
a relatively idle and unproductive group in our 
society. I do not need to enter into a lengthy 
description of the group to which I refer. 
Among other attributes it was considered to have 
the characteristic of putting on "false airs". 
Now, the putting on of false airs is the last thing 
which ought to be associated with a man or woman 
of culture, but at least some members of the group 
to which I am referring decided that their in- 
adequacies would be best hidden by making over- 
much of that which they entirely lacked, namely, 
a serious and a creative concern with things of the 
mind. That is how the word "culture" got a bad 
name. The answer to this misunderstanding is 
not to turn good words over to bad company, but 
rather to turn the bad company out. There is no 
place in the cultural-relations program of this 
Government for the dilettante. 

Let me mention another misconception. Our 
cultural-relations program includes the fine arts, 
and it is right that it should do so. But I want 
to make it clear that the words "culture" and "cul- 
tural" as we use them are not at all restricted to 
the fine arts, important as they undoubtedly are. 
We use these terms to cover the entire range of 
knowledge — technical and otherwise — that knowl- 
edge in which men have a common stake and 
which in one way or another can advantageously 
be shared cooperatively. 

So much for the general principles, the philos- 
ophy which we have applied and which we propose 
to continue applying in the field of international 
cuhural relations. I want now to tell you of some 
of the specific things we have actually done. They 
have fallen into certain categories: the exchange 
of professors and students ; travel grants to leaders 1 
of science, education, and the professions; assist- " 
ance in the maintenance of libraries and the trans- 
lation of books; encouragement of cultural insti- J 
tutes; and the use of motion pictures and radio. ™ 

Under our program 23 professors have been 
exchanged between the United States and other 
republics in the Western Hemisphere. Last year, 



MAY 13, 1944 



431 



for instance, the National University of Mexico 
expressed interest in receiving from the United 
States a professor who could teach English as a 
foreign language. Dr. Albert Markwardt of the 
University of Michigan was given this assignment 
and was made Director of the English Language 
Institute in Mexico City, which specializes in the 
training of English teachers for the Mexican pub- 
lic schools. Similarly the Venezuelan language 
specialist, Mariano Picon-Salas, was brought to 
Columbia University to teach in the Romance Lan- 
guage Department. Thus the current of inter- 
change has been in both directions, which is as 
it should be. 

Since 1940 the Dejjartment of State has in part 
supported the exchange of students by issuing 
travel gi-ants to some and by awai-ding mainte- 
nance grants each year to a carefully selected group 
of graduate students from the other nations of the 
liemisphere. We know that nearly all these stu- 
dents have had a successful and profitable stay in 
the United States, for, every day, letters are re- 
ceived in the Department from some of them who 
have either returned to their homeland or who are 
still on our campuses. They tell us what they 
think of the experience of living in the United 
States. Let me read you an excerpt from one of 
these student letters, written by a young man 28 
years old who has studied soil science at a univer- 
sity in the Middle West. He is both critical and 
fair. He writes : 

"The university life in the United States differs 
. . . very much from the university life of the 
Latin American countries, and from that of the 
university life of my own country, especially in 
methods of education. I have observed here that 
the university students are conducted as 'kids' 
of high school. In other words tliey do not have 
any mental independence during their college 
years . . . 

"In other respects of the American university 
life, we the Latin American students have a gi-eat 
lesson to learn, and I want to point it out. One 
of them is the higher training in citizenship. The 
other lesson that we need to learn and assimilate 
is the dignity of manual labor and the role that this 
thing plays in the humble dignity of the American 



students, working in tasks which in my country 
would be considered beneath the proud dignity of 
a university student." 

Nearly all the students assisted by the Depart- 
ment are graduate students. About a third of 
them are studying medicine and dentistry, and 
most of the others are in the various sciences or 
engineering. 

Another kind of grant is offered by the Depart- 
ment of State for exchange visits in the Western 
Hemisphere by leaders of science, education, and 
the professions. You have doubtless met some 
of these prominent visitoi-s. They have come from 
20 of the other American republics, and they have 
included scholars and university presidents, at 
least 50 journalists, a number of leaders in social 
welfare, and many scientists working upon health 
and agricultural problems. 

These three types of grants are of particular im- 
portance, since they enable people to travel and 
exchange ideas in the most effective possible way, 
namely, face to face. 

We are no less interested in centere of Ameri- 
can culture abroad. Not long ago there came over 
my desk in the Department of State the annual re- 
poi't of the Benjamin Franklin Library at Mexico 
City. This library was set up on a modest scale 
in 1942 with funds from the United States Gov- 
ernment. It now has 8,000 volumes concerning 
the United States, of which over 1,000 were donated 
by private citizens during the past year. Nearly 
60,000 loans of books were made in 1943. In- 
terestingly enough, about half the readers were 
Mexican children who crowded into the small 
reading-room specially reserved for them, and 
overflowed into the halls. The auditorium in the 
libraiy is used for weekly motion pictures on the 
United States and for lectures by visiting Ameri- 
cans. English classes, also given in the building, 
showed a remarkable growth last year. Whereas 
in January there were 150 students, in November 
there were 650. In addition to these libraries 
devoted exclusively to the United States, our Gov- 
ernment has aided approximately 500 public U- 
braries in Central and South America to increase 
their collections of books in English about the 
United States. 



587463 — 44- 



432 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



We have concerned ourselves with the transla- 
tion of books from English into Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, and the translation of books from those 
languages into English. As you know, our book- 
stores in the United States have seldom carried 
titles by Latin American authors, and the reverse 
is also true; bookstores in Central and South 
America prior to the war offered for sale almost 
no translations of books from the United States, 
whereas European books, especially those from 
Spain, France, and Germany, were to be found 
everywhere. To meet this need, a program was 
inaugurated in 1941 to give special grants to pub- 
lishers, generally sufficient to pay the cost of the 
translation of a book; the publisher then took care 
of publication and distribution. 

The cultural-cooperation program also assists 
groups of private citizens who are interested in 
developing better understanding between the 
United States and the other American republics. 
In the princij^al cities of the hemisphere there ai'e 
centers which are commonly known as cultural in- 
stitutes. They are equipped with small libraries 
of American books and periodicals. Lectures are 
arranged and motion pictures and an occasional ex- 
hibition are shown at these institutes. Nearly all 
these institutes offer classes for the teaching of 
English, Spanish, and Portuguese. You will un- 
derstand how strong and independent these or- 
ganizations are when I tell you that they raised ap- 
proximately half their total budgets through local 
donations last year. Latest reports indicate that 
the institutes now have enrolled over 12,000 stu- 
dents of English. 

Let me emphasize the fact that this is no one-way 
project, for the Coordinator of Inter-American 
Affairs has been aiding the establishment of inter- 
American centers here in the United States which 
carry on similar activities, including the promo- 
tion of the Spanish and Portuguese languages. 

No account of our cultural-relations program 
would be complete without mention of the useful 
part that motion pictures and radio have played. 
Educational motion pictures are presented in 
schools, hospitals, and army training-camps; and 
before all kinds of public gatherings, for we have 
ever in mind that our program is essentially a dem- 
ocratic one — a people s program. I recall recent 



reports of exhibitions in city department stores 
and in village squares, and the pictures themselves 
concern agriculture, public health, the industries of 
the United States, our geography, our sports, and 
our schools. Recently the audiences which have 
seen these pictures have exceeded 3,000,000 pereons 
a month. 

The radio has also been useful in reaching large 
masses of people. A single radio chain in Colom- 
bia, which was broadcasting English lessons pre- 
pared by a local Ajnerican resident, received 13,- 
000 requests for the small printed textbook which 
accompanied the radio course. 

Many of the activities which I have just men- 
tioned owe a great deal to the collaboration and 
assistance of other agencies, both inside and outside 
the Government, and notably, of course, to the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs and, in the 
case of activities carried on outside of the Ameri- 
can republics, to the Office of War Information. 

We ai'e often asked : Is our cultural-relations 
program successful ? Is it realistic ? Does it pay ? 
Of course, it is not a perfect program. Notliing in 
a democracy is perfect. Mistakes have been made ; 
improvements are and always will be in order; 
they have been suggested and are being carried 
out ; but the successes have been tangible, and it is a 
fact that this program has done much to open up 
an uninterrupted current of ideas between the 
peoples of the Western Hemisphere. This is not a 
Department of State evaluation alone but that of 
independent judges. In 1941 five members of the 
Appropriations Committee of the United States 
House of Representatives made a tour of the hem- 
isphere and investigated, among other things, the 
work in cultural relations. The committee mem- 
bers reported that the program, conducted at rela- 
tively modest cost, was generally effective and 
productive of notable results. Their report con- 
tained suggestions for strengthening the program, 
including greater emphasis on the teaching of 
English, and a stronger program for the transla- 
tion of books. During the past two years marked 
progress has been made in these two activities. 

I would like to cite another judgment on this 
program — that of the other governments in the ; 
hemisphere. Their active cooperation with the 
Department of State, including the sharing of the 



MAY 13, 1944 



433 



financial expense of many projects, has been most 
gratifying. For instance, in Nicaragua the Gov- 
ernment is providing free of charge the building 
and utilities for the United States Library; in 
Brazil the Government has set up at its own ex- 
pense six professorships in United States language 
and literature in its national universities; and in 
Peru the Government appropriated $50,000 last 
year for the expense of F'eruvian students coming 
to the United States and $10,000 for United States 
students to study in Peru. 

I have given to you a brief account of some of 
our experience to date in conducting a program 
of cultural relations. How should we shape our 
plans for the future ? 

We seek the fundamental goal of constructing 
after the war a more stable world order, both with 
respect to the maintenance of peace and to the 
achievement of the freedoms, the economic ad- 
vancement, and the various forms of security de- 
manded by the peoples of all nations. 

There is need for developing a greater under- 
standing of cultural differences and a greater dis- 
cernment of common beliefs and values beneath 
these differences. The separation of nations into 
violently opposed and sternly barricaded ideologi- 
cal camps is a disaster of the first magnitude. It 
is essential too that we make a concerted effort 
toward a greater understanding and a greater 
consensus among the peoples of the world in the 
field of ideas and values if an international order 
in any degree approximating our hopes for peace 
is to be achieved. 

How will our cultural-relations program be ex- 
tended and what will be its principal activities? 

A program with the Axis-dominated countries 
on the continent of Europe must be considered 
in the light of conditions after those countries 
are liberated. Looking beyond Europe, long- 
range programs are needed in the Near and Mid- 
dle East, where a better understanding with the 
peoples of that part of the world is already a mat- 
ter of first-rate importance. Already we have re- 
ceived many requests. We have been asked by the 
Afghan Government to send American engineers 
to replace the Japanese engineers in Afghanistan ; 
the Government of India has requested an hydrau- 



lic engineer; China has requested more than 20 
technical experts of various kinds. 

We are assisting Chinese students as a wartime 
measure. Approximately 1,500 of these students 
were studying in the United States at the outbreak 
of the Pacific war. They were unable to return 
home and were cut off from their usual source of 
funds, and about 350 have received financial aid 
from the United States Government, and a similar 
number were given aid by the Chinese Govern- 
ment. ( 

Another major activity which the Department 
foresees is the world-wide exchange of books and 
periodicals and the wider use of public libraries. 
Our great foundations in the United States have 
already made a beginning in this work. The 
Rockefeller Foundation has given $50,000 for the 
stockpiling of United States technical and schol- 
arly journals during the war for distribution to 
foreign libraries after the war. The American 
Library Association is calling for donations of 
many tyi^es of books to be sent to libraries in dev- 
astated areas. United States publishers are dis- 
cussing measures to reduce the export price of their 
books and thus make them more accessible to 
schools and libraries abroad. Some United States 
magazines have published inexpensive overseas 
editions. The Department of State is studying 
these private activities and proposes to lend as- 
sistance in some regions where private initiative 
is unable to bear the full burden. 

There remains one important and far-reaching 
activity to which I shall devote the remainder of 
my remarks. That is the problem of assisting 
Europe and Asia to rehabilitate their schools and 
other cultural institutions. That problem is a 
challenge to our Government and to our people — 
a challenge even to the boys and girls in our 
schools who enjoy advantages which are denied 
to many children in Europe. 

We have recognized that there are three distinct 
parts to this problem: (1) emei'gency aid for the 
liberated countries; (2) educational policies to- 
ward the Axis countries; and (3) a permanent 
international organization for education. 

We have now, as you know, taken action on the 
first of these problems, relating to liberated areas. 



434 

We have stated our jwlicy, and our official delega- 
tion to London, where the rebuilding of education 
in the liberated countries has been discussed, has 
just returned. 

The press has recently carried many reports on 
the destruction of educational facilities in Europe. 
We know that the occupied countries in western 
Europe— France, Belgium, Holland, and Nor- 
way — have so far suffered relatively little damage 
to their universities and schools, but that many 
of their teachers and professors have died in con- 
centration camps. In eastern Europe on the 
other hand— in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugo- 
slavia, and Greece— the Germans have destroyed 
virtually all intellectual and cultural life. Early 
in the war Germany gave particular attention to 
the elimination of scientists, students, and teachers, 
and nearly all the equipment of libraries, labora- 
tories, and schools has been destroyed. The Uni- 
versity of Warsaw, for example, formerly con- 
tained thirty-one scientific institutes. Fifteen 
were completely destroyed by the Germans and 
eight others have been stripped of all equipment. 

At the University of Cracow, largest scientific 
center in Poland, the library was removed by the 
Germans, and 170 professors were deported to 
concentration camps where many have since died. 
It is unnecessary to burden you with further de- 
tails. Reports from all parts of eastern Europe 
indicate the almost total destruction of educa- 
tional facilities and the disappearance of most 
leaders of education. These people, where lib- 
erated, will need help in order to help themselves. 
They must have equipment and training for their 
personnel before they can begin to restore the 
process of civilized living. 

In our recent statement of policy concerning 
the educational restoration of the liberated coun- 
tries we have recognized that each nation has de- 
termined and must continue to determine its own 
educational system. Each of these liberated na- 
tions is clearly entitled to this freedom of choice, 
and in that connection the following words of our 
policy statement deserve emphasis: 

"It would be unwise for this Government to un- 
dertake to apply, much less impose, a foreign 
educational program or system in any liberated 
country, or to develop a program for the place- 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ment of American teachers in the schools of these 
countries, or for the preparation of textbooks in 
the United States for use in such schools." 

Tliese are activities of which the Department of 
State does not approve. The policy statement 
recognized the usefulness of four types of aid to 
the liberated countries. These are : 

First, assistance in restocking books, scientific 
equipment, and other teaching aids. 

Secondly, assistance in providing opportunities 
for the training of foreign students in American 
institutions. 

Thirdly, assistance in reestablishing essential 
library facilities. 

And finally, assistance in recovering educa- 
tional and other cultural materials looted by the 
Axis. 

In order to cooperate with the other United 
Nations in carrying out these activities the De- 
partment sent to London last month a delegation 
of six Americans under the leadership of Con- 
gressman J. William Fulbright of Arkansas to 
collaborate with the Conference of Allied Minis- 
ters of Education. The Conference is recom- 
mending to the participating governments a plan 
for a temporary international organization for 
education. This plan is now under consideration. 
At the approiJriate time the problem of a per- 
manent organization will be considered in the 
light of experience and the existing circumstances. 

It is not possible at present to make any precise 
statement concerning education or the treatment 
of education in the Axis countries, and particu- 
larly in Germany. These are questions to be de- 
termined by combined agreement on the part of 
the United Nations. They are questions to which 
we are devoting much careful thought, since we 
are fully alive to their momentous importance in 
terms of the kind of world in which our children 
and our gi-andchildren are to live. This much, 
however, I can say : We believe that, while force 
can be used to destroy the way of life of a people, 
it cannot successfully build and permanently main- 
tain a new life. Other and very different methods 
must be used — methods which are the very antith- 
esis of the methods practiced by our enemies. 



MAY 13, 1944 



435 



And now, by way of conclusion, I want to ask 
your cooperation in carrying on tlie important 
part of our foreign relations which I have tried to 
describe. We do not think of our cultural-rela- 
tions progi'am as any exclusively governmental 
activity. Eather do we think of that program as 
the expression of the best thought of our univer- 
sities, colleges, and educational organizations, and 
of ourselves in the Department of State as a source 
of information for the guidance of that expression 
and as a focusing and coordinating center from 
which it may proceed with a maximum of effec- 
tiveness. 



American Republics 



VISIT OF PERUVIAN ARCHITECT 

Senor Emilio Harth-Terre, distinguished Peru- 
vian architect, has arrived in Washington as a 
guest of the Department of State. As he is at the 
present time engaged with plans for the immediate 
rebuilding of the National Library at Lima, which 
was devastated by fire in 1943, he plans to visit the 
larger libraries of this country and to observe in 
detail such library services as stacks, elevators, and 
air-conditioning. 

Senor Harth-Terre is Professor of Fine Arts in 
the School of Fine Arts at Lima and is a founding 
member of the National Council for the Preserva- 
tion and Restoration of Historical Monuments. 
In the latter capacity he was charged with the now 
completed reconstruction of the Cathedral of 
Lima. He has also reconstructed, among many 
other important works, the tower of the Church 
of Santo Domingo, which fell during an earth- 
quake ; the f agade of the Church of La Merced, de- 
stroyed in the Revolution; and the Convent of St. 
Augustine at Sana. 

During his tour of this country, Senor Harth- 
Terre will give a number of lectures and conduct 
several round-tables on Peruvian art and architec- 
ture. 



VISIT OF DIRECTOR OF MEXICAN INSTI- 
TUTE OF TROPICAL MEDICINE 

Dr. Jose Zozaya, Director of the Institute of 
Public Health and Tropical Diseases of Mexico, 
has arrived in Washington as a guest of the De- 
partment of State. Dr. Zozaya, a Harvard grad- 
uate, is also chairman of the Medical and Biologi- 
cal Sciences section of the ConmiSn Impulsora y 
Coordinadora de l-a Investigacion Cienti'ftca, an 
organization which was established last year by 
President Avila Camacho and which corresponds 
to our National Research Council. 

While he is in the United States Dr. Zozaya will 
visit public-health centers and universities in 
Washington, Philadelphia, New York, and Chi- 
cago; will spend some time at Harvard and the 
University of Michigan ; and will extend to young 
physicians who wish to specialize in tropical medi- 
cine and to established specialists in that field in- 
vitations to pursue their investigations at the In- 
stitute of Public Health and Tropical Diseases of 
Mexico. 



VISIT OF HAITIAN PHYSICIAN AND 
ENGINEER 

[Released to the press May 11] 

Two distinguished Haitians, Mr. Felix Bayard 
and Dr. Catts Pressoir, have arrived in Washing- 
ton as guests of the Department of State. Mr. 
Bayard is head of the Government Printing Of- 
fice of Haiti and editor of Le Moniteur, the official 
gazette. Dr. Pressoir, physician and educator, is 
professor of psychology in the Lycee Petion at 
Port-au-Prince. 

Mr. Bayard is especially interested in printing 
processes. During his stay in Washington he will 
observe the work of the Government Printing Of- 
fice. He will then spend several weeks visiting 
printing establishments in New York and Albany. 

Dr. Pressoir, during his visit to this country, 
will devote especial attention to university meth- 
ods and programs. He will visit medical col- 
leges and centers of learning in Washington, 
Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Chicago. 



The Department 



SYSTEMATIZING DEPARTMENTAL ORDERS AND OTHER ISSUANCES 
Departmental Order 1269 of May 3, 1944 ^ 



Purpose and authority. The purpose of the 
present order, issued under authority contained in 
R. S. 161 (5 U. S. C. 22), is to systematize the var- 
ious chisses of orders, instructions, and notices of 
the Department of State, exchisive of those relat- 
ing solely to the Foreign Service, in the following 
series : 

Departmental Orders 
Departmental Regulations 
Departmental Designations 
Administrative Instructions — 

General Administration 

Personnel 

Budget and Fiscal 

Communications and Records 

Coordination and Review 

Operating Facilities 

Security Control 

Official Travel 
Public Notices 
Announcements (unnumbered) 

The content of each of the foregoing series will be 
as indicated herein. 

1 Departmental Orders, (a) The continued se- 
ries of Departmental Orders will deal with the 
organization of the Department, the definition and 
assignment of functions and responsibilities (in- 
cluding the establishment of primary units down 
to and within divisions), relations with other 
agencies, and delegations of authority by position 
titles. 

(b) Departmental Orders will be signed by the 
Secretary or Acting Secretary. 

2 Departmental Regulations, (a) This new 
numbered series will comprise all regulatory mat- 

436 



ter of general apj^licability and legal effect, that is, 
rules which affect the public and are issued under 
statute or Executive order. Departmental Regula- 
tions must under the law be issued in the codified 
form and style of the Code of Federal Regulations 
and be transmitted immediately upon signature to 
the Division of the Federal Register, National 
Archives, for filing and promulgation in the 
Register. 

(b) Departmental Regulations will be signed 
by the Secretaiy or Acting Secretary. 

3 Departmental Designations, (a) This new 
numbered series will comprise designations of in- 
dividuals by name to principal positions within 
the Department, including assistant chiefs of di- 
visions and officers of comparable responsibility, 
and also necessary delegations to individuals by 
name of obligating, certifying, approving, and like 
types of authority. 

(b) Departmental Designations will be signed 
by the Secretary or Acting Secretary, or the As- 
sistant Secretary in charge of administration. 

4 Administrative Insfruction.s. This new mul- 
tiple series will be the medium by which the poli- 
cies and organization set forth basically in De- 
partmental Orders will be implemented in detail. 
The series will be subdivided into several separate- 
ly numbered categories : General Administration ; 
Personnel; Budget and Fiscal; Communications 
and Records; Coordination and Review; Operat- 
ing Facilities; Security Control; and Official 
Travel. 

5 Administrative Instructions — General Ad- 
ministration, (a) This new numbered series will 
comprise detailed instructions on subjects not 



' EfEective May 3, 1944. 



MAY 13, 1944 



437 



primarily related to those specially dealt with in 
the following categories of Administrative In- 
structions. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of Ad- 
ministrative Management and approved by the 
Director of the Office of Departmental Adminis- 
tration. 

6 Administrative Instructions — Personnel, (a) 
This new numbered sei'ies will comprise the de- 
tailed instructions on various aspects of personnel 
administration. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of De- 
partmental Personnel and approved by the Direc- 
tor of the Office of Departmental Administration. 

7 Administrative Instructions — B ud g et and 
Fiscal, (a) This new numbered series will com- 
prise detailed instructions on various aspects of 
budgetary and fiscal administration. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of Bud- 
get and Finance and approved by the Director of 
tlie Office of Departmental Administration. 

8 Administrative Insfruct/om — Communica- 
tions and Records, (a) This new numbered 
series will comprise detailed instructions on the 
handhng of telegraphic and other communications 
and on the custody and disposition of records. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of 
Communications and Records and approved by the 
Director of the Office of Departmental 
Administration. 

9 Administrative Instructions — Coordination 
and Review, (a) This new numbered series will 
comprise detailed instructions on the preparation, 
coordination, and signature of the Department's 
correspondence. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of Co- 
ordination and Review and approved by the Direc- 
tor of the Office of Departmental Administration. 

10 Administrative Instructions — perating 
Facilities, (a) This new numbered series will 
comprise detailed instructions on supplies, equip- 



ment, space, messenger service, duplicating service, 
and other operating facilities of the Department, 
(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division 
of Administrative Management and approved 
by the Director of the Office of Departmental 
Administration. 

11 Ad7ninhtrative Instructions — Security Con- 
trol, (a) This new numbered series will comprise 
detailed instructions to insure the security of in- 
formation, transactions, and documents of concern 
to the Department. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Assistant Secretary in charge 
of administration as Security Officer of the De- 
partment or, in his absence, by the Director of the 
Office of Departmental Administration. 

12 Administrative Instructions — Offi.cial Travel. 
(a) This new numbered series will comprise de- 
tailed instructions issued in accordance with 
statutes and regulations governing official travel, 
notification of changes made in the Standardized 
Government Travel Regulations, and other per- 
tinent matters. 

(b) This series of Administrative Instructions 
will be signed by the Chief of the Division of Bud- 
get and Finance and approved by the Director 
of the Office of Departmental Administration. 

13 Puhlic Notices, (a) This new numbered 
series will comprise items of information which 
are of public interest and of sufficient legal import 
to I'equire publication in the Federal Register but 
which, being non-regulatory in nature, are not 
properly included in the Code of Federal Regu- 
lations; for example, notices of public hearings 
on trade agreements. 

(b) Departmental Public Notices will be signed 
by the Secretary or Acting Secretary. 

14 Ajinouncements. (a) In addition to the fore- 
going regular numbered series, this new unnum- 
bered category will be the vehicle for informative 
items of timely interest within the Department, 
such as patriotic or charitable appeals or general 
notices to the personnel. 

(b) Announcements will be signed by the ap- 
propriate responsible officers of the Department. 



438 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



15 Control,clearance, and distribution, (a) All 
of the foregoing classes of material shall be cleared 
with the Office of Departmental Administration, 
which shall be responsible for: (1) decision re- 
garding appropriate treatment in one of the De- 
partmental series; (2) analysis of the proposal 
from the standpoint of organization, functions, 
and over-all administrative considerations, in- 
cluding its effect throughout the Department; 
(3) matters of form and style; (4) clearance of 
the draft through other offices, including consul- 
tation with the Office of the Legal Adviser and, 
where necessary, the Division of Research and 
Publication; and (5) processing and distribution 
of the document. 

(b) Any office or division which desires to ini- 
tiate a document in any of the foregoing series is 
requested to consult with the appropriate staff of 
the Office of Departmental Administration in 
planning and developing the draft. 

16 Standards of style, (a) As a convenience to 
drafting officers, standards of style and arrange- 
ment for Departmental Orders, Departmental 
Designations, and Administrative Instructions 
are given in annex A of the present order. 

(b) Standards of style and procedure for De- 
partmental Regulations and Public Notices, and 
also for Executive orders and proclamations, are 
given in annex B of the present order. The re- 
quirements set forth herein and elaborated in 
annex B to this order supersede those set forth in 
Departmental Orders 663 of January 19, 1937, 790 
of March 30, 1939, and 820 of October 5, 1939, 
which are hereby repealed. 

(c) In general the standards of style for the 
unnumbered Announcement series should accord 
with the Style Manual of the Department of 
State; the form of this series must necessarily be 
adapted to the variable nature of the context, and 
standards therefor cannot be established. 

17 Maintenance of series files in the several Of- 
fices a/nd divisions. All Offices and divisions shall 
maintain a permanent file of all issues in the sev- 
eral series prescribed in this order. It is recom- 
mended that the documents be kept serially by 
classes, thus making them available for frequent 
reference and for use in orienting new personnel. 



18 Issiiance of intra-Office and intra-divisioiiol 
instructions. In addition to the documents dealt 
with in this order, it is assumed that each Director 
of Office and Chief of Division will issue instruc- 
tions on the internal affairs of the Office or divi- 
sion. The appropriate staff of the Office of De- 
partmental Administration is available for con- 
sultation in the drafting of such instructions. In 
most cases the Office of Departmental Administra- 
tion should be consulted in advance, in order to 
decide whether the subject requires treatment at 
the Department level. It is suggested that intra- 
Office and intra-di visional instructions be issued 
in appropriately numbered series and that copies 
tliereof be filed with the Office of Departmental 
Administration for purposes of information. 

19 Effective date of documents in the series. 
Unless otherwise specifically indicated therein the 
effective date of any order, designation, or in- 
struction will be the date of its signature and the 
effective date of any regulation will be the date 
of filing in the Division of the Federal Register, 
National Archives. 

CORDELL HtJIiL 

Mat 3, 1944. 

Annex A to Departmental Order 1269 

Standards of style an*d arrangement for depart- 
mental ORDERS, departmental DESIGNATIONS, 
and administrative INSTRUCTIONS 

The following paragraphs on standards of 
style and arrangement are to govern in the prep- 
aration of Departmental Orders, Departmental 
Designations, and Administrative Instructions. 

1 Serial numbering 

2 General style 

3 Subject-matter 

4 Headings and paragraphs 

5 Preamble to orders 

6 References to officials by title 

7 Preliminary draft 

8 Final draft for signature 

9 Signature and date line 
10 Dates of issue and effect 



MAY 13, 1944 



439 



11 Supplemented, amended, or superseded 

documents 

12 Cross-reference citations 

13 Accompaniments 

14 Amendment of the standards 

15 Repository for the signed originals and 

first carbons 

16 Ijidexes 

1 Serial numhering. (a) Each of the new 
series or subseries is to be numbered consecutively, 
beginning with arable 1; the Departmental 
Orders will continue the present serial number- 
ing. The serial number is to be inserted in the 
banner heading immediately after signature. 

(b) Administrative Instructions will bear only 
one number, that of the subseries, which is to be 
assigned in accordance with paragraph (a) 
above. For example : Administrative Instruc- 
tions — General Administration 1, 2, etc. ; Admin- 
strative Instructions — Budget and Fiscal 1, 2, 
etc. 

(c) Citations to the numbered series are to be 
given in the following abbreviated form : 

Departmental Orders: DO 
Departmental Regulations : DE 
Departmental Designations : DD 
Administrative Instructions — 

General Administration: AI-GA 

Personnel : AI-P 

Budget and Fiscal: AI-BF 

Communications and Records: AI-DCR 
' Coordination and Review : AI-CR 

Operating Facilities: AI-OF 

Security Control : AI-SC 

Official Travel : AI-OT 

2 General style. In general the style of these 
series is to be governed by the Style Manual of 
the Department of State. Any deviation there- 
from must be approved by the Office of Depart- 
mental Administration. 

3 Subject-maiter. Each document is to be lim- 
ited to one subject, which is to appear as an all- 
capital centered heading immediately following 
the banner heading. 



4 Headings and paragraphs. The following 
style relating to headings and paragraphs applies 
to all documents issued in these series : 

(a) All headings are to be topical and as short 
as possible. 

(b) Paragraphs are to be numbered consecu- 
tively throughout, beginning with arable 1, fol- 
lowed by one space but no period; they are also 
to carry underscored paragraph headings, with 
only proper names capitalized. 

(c) Subparagraphs to a numbered paragraph 
are to be lettered consecutively in parentheses, be- 
ginning each time with ( a ) . Lettered paragraphs 
are not to carry paragraph headings. 

5 Preamble to orders. The text of every order 
is to begin with a preamble giving the purpose of 
and authority for its issue; if deemed advisable, 
it may also give the background necessary for a 
clear understanding thereof. 

6 References to officials hy title. References to 
officials, wherever possible, are to be by title only. 
However, in the case of an Assistant Secretary of 
State or a Special Assistant to the Secretary, it 
may sometimes be necessary to use the personal 
name as well as the title. 

7 Preliminary draft. A preliminary draft 
should be prepared for submission to all interested 
offices for approval and initialing. Such draft 
should be initialed by the originating office, which 
must assume final responsibility therefor other 
than that attaching to the Office of Departmental 
Administration under paragraph 14 of Depart- 
mental Order 1269. 

8 Final draft for signature. The final draft 
for signature is to be prepared as follows : 

(a) Special, colored, letter-size sheets with ban- 
ner headings have been provided for the series 
and are to be used for the first page of the final 
draft. Blank sheets of a corresponding color are 
to be used for all following pages. 

(b) The first carbon (first page excepted) is to 
be on the regular blue sheets customarily used for 
filing in the Division of Communications and Rec- 
ords ; other carbons, as needed are to be on flimsy 
paper. 



587463 — 44- 



440 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(c) The first page of all carbon copies of all 
documents is to match the first page of the original 
with regard to color of paper and banner heading. 

(d) The symbols of the originating or respon- 
sible offices are to be placed only on the carbon 
copies, blue carbons included; the initials of the 
originating or responsible officers are to be placed 
only on the blue carbons. 

(e) The initials of responsible and approving 
officers are to be inserted prior to signature. 

9 Signature and date line, (a) Sufficient space 
is always to be left for the signature. The title 
of the Secretary is not to appear under the signa- 
ture of a document in any of these three series; 
the title of all other signing officers is to be typed 
in, immediately beneath the space left for sig- 
nature. 

(b) The original only is to be signed. 

(c) The date is to be placed on the original and 
first carbon at the end of the document, on the 
line immediately following the signature, indented 
five spaces from the left-hand margin. 

10 Dates of issue and effect. The date of issue 
is the date of signature and is to be entered with the 
date of effect in the banner heading prior to proc- 
essing for distribution. The date of effect is de- 
termined by circumstances; if not otherwise spe- 
cifically indicated in the document, it is to be the 
date of its signature. 

11 Supplemented, amended, or superseded docu- 
ments. Statements with regard to supplemented, 
amended, or superseded documents in these series 
are to be definite, with accurate citations to the 
serial numbers and dates of the documents affected. 

12 Cross-reference citations. Cross-reference 
citations, where necessary, are to be given at the 
end of the document, immediately preceding the 
signature. 

13 Accompaniments, (a) All accompaniments 
are to bear appropriate references to the docu- 
ments they accompany. 

(b) Accompanying forms, graphs, and tables 
are to bear appropriate designations or numbers, 
and month-and-year date; references to them 
should always be made in the appropriate places 
in the text of the document they accompany. 

(c) Accompaniments to a document are to be 
listed at the end of the document they accompany. 



14 Amendment of the standards. These stand- 
ards of style and arrangement may be amended, 
supplemented, or abrogated only as deemed neces- 
sary and approved by the Office of Departmental 
Administration. 

15 Repository for the signed originals and first 
carbons. The Office of Departmental Administra- 
tion is to be the repository for the signed originals 
of the above classes of documents and also for the 
originals of all notices; the Division of Communi- 
cations and Records is to be the repository for the 
first carbons thereof. 

16 Indexes. Indexes to the above classes of 
documents will be issued periodically by the Office 
of Departmental Administration. 

Annex B to Departmental Order 1269 

standards of style and procedure for depart- 
mental regulations and public notices 

Since under the law (44 U.S.C. 305(a); 1 
CFR 2.2) the Departmental Regulations and Pub- 
lic Notices must be filed with the Division of the 
Federal Register, National Archives, immediately 
upon signature in order to be legally effective as of 
the date of issue and to be promulgated in the 
Register as soon thereafter as possible, and since 
under the law (1 CFR, 1943 Cum. Supp., pt. 2), the 
Departmental Regulations must be issued in the 
form and style of the Code of Federal Regulations, 
the preparation of both of these series must differ 
in certain respects from that of all other seties. 
The following standards of style and procedure 
are to govern in the preparation of Departmental 
Regulations and Public Notices. 

1 Two editions of each series 

2 Serial numbering 

3 Codification of the Departmental 

Regulations 

4 Subject-matter and headings 

5 Arrangement of the Departmental 

Regulations 

6 Arrangement of the Public Notices 

7 General Style 

8 Preamble 

9 Headings 

10 References to officials by title 



MAY 13, 1944 



441 



11 Preliminary drafts 

12 Final drafts for signature 

13 Signature and date line 

14 Dates of issue and effect 

15 Supplemented, amended, or superseded 

regulations 

16 Cross-reference citations 

17 Accompaniments 

18 Amendment of the standards 

19 Repository for the signed originals and 

first carbons 

20 Filing of the regulations and notices with 

the Division of the Federal Register 

21 Executive Oi'ders and Proclamations 

Attachment : Sample of CFR codification 

1 Two editions of each series, (a) The Depart- 
mental Regulations and Public Notices will each 
necessarily be issued in two editions, a regular De- 
paitmental edition and a special edition for the 
Federal Register. The Departmental edition will 
be the official source of the Register edition. 

(b) The two editions will be textually identical ; 
differences in arrangement and procedure are in- 
dicated hereinafter. 

2 Serial numbering, (a) Each series will be 
numbered consecutively, beginning with arabic 1. 

(b) In the Departmental edition the serial num- 
ber will be inserted in the banner heading; in the 
Register edition it will be inserted in brackets im- 
mediately preceding the preamble. In each edi- 
tion the insertion should be made immediately 
after signature. 

3 C odifieation of the Departmental Regulations. 
The Departmental Regulations are to be codified 
for inclusion in title 22 of the Code of Federal Reg- 
ulations, under the appropriate part heading of the 
Code sample attached hereto) ; if the subject is 
not already covered in the Code, a new part head- 
ing must be assigned. 

4 Subject-matter and headings. Each document 
is to be limited to a single subject, which will be 
indicated by the part heading in the Departmental 
Regulations and by the main heading in a Public 
Notice. 

5 Arrangement of the Departmental Regula- 
tions, (a) The Departmental Regulations are to 
be arranged in arabic-numbered parts, arabic-num- 



bered sections, and lettered paragraphs (lower- 
case letters in parentheses) ; subparagraphs (pref- 
erably indented) are to be arabic-numbered in 
parentheses. 

(b) The section number is to include the part 
number and to be preceded by the section symbol ; 
for example, section 1 of part 1 would have "§1.1" 
as its section number. 

(c) The sections are also to carry underscored 
section headings. 

(d) The paragraphs and subparagraphs are not 
to carry headings of any kind. 

6 Arrangement of the Public Notices. Other 
than as indicated in paragraph 4 above, the ar- 
rangement of the Public Notices is to be governed 
by the context; however, for simplicity in refer- 
ence it is desirable that the paragraphs be numbered 
consecutively in arabic numerals and be given an 
underscored paragraph heading. 

7 General style. Except as otherwise indicated 
herein or in the Federal Register Regulations as 
modified by the Archives, the general style of the 
Departmental Regulations and Public Notices is 
to be governed by the Style Manual of the Depart- 
ment of State. Any deviation therefrom must be 
approved by the Office of Departmental Adminis- 
tration. 

8 Preamble. The text of every Departmental 
Regulation and Public Notice is to begin with a 
preamble stating the purpose of and authority 
for its issue. 

9 Headings. All headings are to be topical and 
as short as possible. 

10 References to officials by title. References 
to officials are to be by title only. 

11 Preliminary drafts, (a) The preliminary 
drafts are to be prepared in the same way as those 
of all the other series. See DO 1269, annex A, 
par. 7. 

(b) Each such draft Regulation and Public 
Notice is to be submitted to the Division of Re- 
search and Publication for codification, editing, 
or apj^roval. 

12 Final drafts for signature. The final drafts 
for signature are to be prepared as follows : 

(a) The Departmental edition of both the Reg- 
ulations and the Public Notices is to be prepared in 
the same way as all the other series. See DO 1269, 
annex A, pars. 8(a)-8(e). 



442 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULIiETTN 



(b) The Register edition of both the Regula- 
tions and the Public Notices is to be typed on 
legal-size sheets, the original on plain white paper, 
the first carbon on the usual blue paper, and seven 
additional carbons on white flimsy paper. 
Neither the original nor any copy of this edition 
is to bear oiBce symbols or the initials of approving 
officers. 

13 Signature and date line, (a) Sufficient 
space is always to be left for the signature. The 
title of the Secretary or Acting Secretary is to be 
typed in, immediately beneath the space left for 
signature. 

(b) The original of each edition is to be signed. 

(c) The date is to be placed at the end of the 
document on the line immediately following the 
signature, indented five spaces from the left-hand 
margin. 

14 Dates of issue and effect. The date of issue 
is the date of signature. The date of effect is the 
date of filing in the Division of the Federal Reg- 
ister, or a date subsequent thereto if specifically 
so indicated in the document. Both dates are to 
be inserted in the banner heading of the Depart- 
mental edition prior to processing for distribu- 
tion. 

15 Supplemented, amended, or superseded reg- 
ulations. Statements with regard to supple- 
mented, amended, or superseded regulations are 
to be definite, with specific reference to the affected 
title and section of the Code of Federal Regula- 
tions. A footnote giving the number of the cor- 
responding Departmental Regulation series is to 
be inserted in the Departmental edition. 

16 Cross-reference citations. Cross-reference 
citations, where necessary, are to be given at the 
end of the document, immediately preceding the 
signature. 

17 Accompaniments. Tlie procedure with re- 
gard to the accompaniments of documents is to 
accord with that for all the other series. See DO 
1269, amiex A, par. 13. 

18 Amendment of the standards. Tliese stand- 
ards of style and procedure may be altered by 
revision of the regulations of the National 
Archives, so far as those regulations are appli- 
cable ; otherwise only upon approval of the Office 
of Departmental Administration. 



19 Repository for the signed originals and first 
carhon-s. (a) The Office of Departmental Ad- 
ministration is to be the repository for the signed 
originals of the Departmental edition of both 
issuances; the Division of Communications and 
Records is to be the repository of the first carbons 
thereof. 

(b) The National Archives will be the reposi- 
tory for the signed originals of the Register edi- 
tion of both issuances : the Office of Departmental 
Administration, the Division of Communications 
and Records, and the Division of Research and 
Publications will each be the repository for one 
carbon thereof. 

20 Filing of the regulations and notices with 
the Division of the Federal Register, (a) Four 
copies of the regulations and notices (the original 
bearing the Department seal and three certified 
copies thereof) are to be transmitted to the Direc- 
tor of the Division of the Federal Register, 
National Archives, at the earliest possible moment 
after signature. The Office of Departmental Ad- 
ministration will assume responsibility for the 
affixation of seal, the certification, and the prompt 
delivery of the documents to the National 
Arcliives. 

(b) After the Register edition has been duly 
recorded in the National Archives, the dates of 
issue and effect may be inserted in the banner 
lieading of the Departmental edition and that 
edition processed for distribution in the Depart- 
ment. 

21 Executive Orders and Proclamations, (a) 
The preparation of Executive Orders and Procla- 
mations is specifically governed by Executive 
Order 7298 of February 18, 1936, the pertinent 
provisions of which are incorporated in the Fed- 
eral Register Regulations (1 CFR 2.6). Tlie 
drafting of and procedures for such orders and 
proclamations will therefore^conform with those 
regulations. 

(b) At least seven carbon copies (one blue and 
six flimsies) are to be made of every Executive 
Order and Proclamation prepared in the Depart- 
ment of State, the original and six carbons being 
required for the Bureau of the Budget. 

(c) The proclamations prepared by all Gov- 
ernment departments and agencies, after signa- 



I 



MAY 13, 1944 



443 



ture by the President, are sent to the Department 
of State for signature by the Secretary, affixation 
of the Great Seal, and immediate transmission of 
the original and two carbon copies to the Division 
of the Federal Register, National Archives, for 
filing and promulgation. The Office of Depart- 
mental Administration will continue to have re- 
sponsibility for the proper performance of these 
functions. 

(d) Nothing in this paragraph 21 shall be con- 
strued to apply to proclamations regarding 
treaties, conventions, protocols, and other inter- 
national agreements. 

[Sample of CFR Codification] 
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS 



TITLE 22— FOREIGN RELATIONS 

Chapter I — Department of State 

Part S — Certificates of Authentication 

[Departmental Order 1218-A] 

Under the authority contained in R. S. 161 (3 U.S.C. 
22) , § 8.1 of title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations, 
issued on May 24, 1&43 (8 F.R. 6918), is hereby amended 
to read as follows : 

§ 8.1 Officers authorized to sign and issue certificates of 
authentication. The Chief or Acting Chief, Division of 
Administrative Management, is hereby authorized to sign 
and issue certificates of authentication under the Seal of 
the Department of State for and in the name of the Sec- 
retary of State or Acting Secretary of State. The form 
of authentication shall be as follows : "In testimony 

whereof, I, , Secretary of State (or 

Acting Secretary of State), have hereunto caused the Seal 
of the Department of State to be affixed and my name 
subscribed by the Chief (or Acting Chief), Division of 
Administrative Management, of the said Department, at 
the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, this 

day of , 19 , 

Secretary of State. By , Chief (or 

Acting Chief), Division of Administrative Management." 
(R.S. 161; 5 U.S.C. 22) 

The title of this part is hereby changed to read "Part 
8 — Certificates of Authentication". 

This amendment is effective ijnmediately. 

CoRUELL Hull 
Secretary of I'^tnte 

February 8, 1944 



ESTABLISHMENT OF DIVISION OF AMERI- 
CAN REPUBLICS ANALYSIS AND LIAISON 

Departmental Order 1271 of May 3, 1944 ^ 

1 Establishment of the division. There is 
hereby established a Division of American Ke- 
publics Analysis and Liaison in the Office of Amer- 
ican Republic Affairs. The Division of American 
Republics Analysis and Liaison shall be respon- 
sible for: (a) analysis of data and preparation of 
special studies and reports on developments within 
and among the Latin- American countries; (b) 
liaison with other offices of the Department and 
with other agencies of the Government on matters 
of general policy in the inter- American field which 
are outside the scope of the geographic divisions 
of the Office; and (c) formulation of policy to be 
adopted by the Office of American Republic Af- 
fairs concerning inter-American organizations, 
conferences, and conventions. 

2 Organization of the division. The Division 
of American Reijublics Analysis and Liaison shall 
consist of three sections : Analysis Section ; Liai- 
son Section ; and Inter-American Section. 

3 Analysis Section, (a) The Analysis Section 
is responsible for the collection and analysis of 
data from all sources, including regular Depart- 
mental despatches and memoranda, reports of 
other Federal agencies, and published documents 
bearing on the work of the Office of American Re- 
public Affairs; the conduct of special studies on 
current conditions, trends and policy questions of 
interest to the divisions of the Office of American 
Rejjublic Affairs; tlie assembling and digesting 
of research materials on background and policy 
developments of interest to officers of the Office, the 
missions, and selected officers of the Department; 
cooperation with other divisions of the Department 
on research relating to the other American Re- 
publics, particularly the divisions of the Office of 
Special Political Affairs and the Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs; cooperation with the research staff 
of other Government agencies engaged in research 
on Latin-American problems; contact, when ap- 
propriate, with the Division of Research and Pub- 
lication ; and maintenance of a reference service on 



• Effective May 3. 1944. 



444 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



data concerning the other American Republics for 
all officers of American Republic Affairs, other 
officers of the Department and other Federal agen- 
cies "who may have occasion to call on this service, 
(b) This section shall serve as the research staff 
to the Director and Deputy Director of the Office 
on problems with which they are dealing, and to 
the Chiefs of the divisions on special problems. 
In rendering this assistance, the section shall take 
the initiative in selecting topics warranting analy- 
sis and shall develop recommendations bearing on 
policy, as well as answering requests for informa- 
tion and research. The section will work with the 
planning staff of tlie Office of Foreign Service 
Administration on the development of standards 
for tlie improvement of reporting from tlie mis- 
sions and for the evaluation of Foreign Service 
reports. 

4 Liaison Section, (a) The Liaison Section is 
responsible for maintaining liaison on policy mat- 
ters of the Office of American Republic Affairs, 
outside the scope of the geographic divisions, with 
other offices of the Department concerned with 
general inter- American activities, and for advis- 
ing the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and 
other agencies of the Government carrying on 
programs in the other American Republics on the 
relation of their progi'ams to tlie policy of the 
Office of American Republic Affairs. 

(b) The Liaison Section will assist the Chief 
Informational Liaison Officer in carrying on the 
work of tlie Information Service Committee; in 
advising with the Special Assistant, Mr. McDer- 
mott, on press matters ; and in consulting with the 
Office of Public Information on its public informa- 
tion activities and its cultural relations programs. 

5 Inter-American Section. The Inter- American 
Section will formulate and recommend policy and 
action to be adopted by the Office of American 
Republic Affairs on Departmental problems of an 
inter-American character as distinguished from 
problems falling within the scope of the geo- 
graphic divisions. The section will also, working 
closely with the Division of International Con- 
ferences and the Division of International Security 
and Organization, handle for the Office of Ameri- 
can Republic Affairs policy matters relating to 



American participation in inter-American or- 
ganizations, meetings, treaties, and conventions. 

6 Assistance from other divisions of the Office. 
In performing its work the division will call upon 
the geographic divisions of the Office of American 
Republic Affairs for assistance in keeping cur- 
rently apprised of developments in and policy 
toward the several countries. 

7 Transfer of personnel to the division. Per- 
sonnel presently performing any of the functions 
cited in this order are hereby transferred to the 
Division of American Republics Analysis and 
Liaison. 

8 Routing symbol. The routing symbol for the 
Division of American Republics Analysis and 
Liaison shall be RL. 

9 Departmental Order amended. The provi- 
sions of Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 
1944, which relate to the functions of the Office 
of American Republic Affairs, are accordingly 
amended. 

CoKDELL Hull 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 1 of May 3, 1944, 
effective May 3, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. Jolin C. Dreier as Chief of the Division 
of American Republics Analysis and Liaison, Of- 
fice of American Republic Affairs. 



[Released to the press May 8] 

Because of the serious illness of his wife, which 
occurred on the eve of his intended return to 
Algiers, Mr. Edwin C. Wilson has found it neces- 
sary to remain here in Washington and will there- 
fore be unable to resume his duties as representa- 
tive of the United States to the French Committee 
of National Liberation at Algiers. 

Mr. Wilson has been designated as Director of 
the Office of Special Political Affairs of the De- 
partment, and he assumed his new duties on May 
8, 1944. 



Treaty Information 



TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS: PROCEDURE, FORMALITIES, 
AND THE INFORMATION FACILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

By William. V. Whittington ^ 



In article II, section 2 of the Constitution of the 
United States it is provided, with reference to the 
powers of the President, as follows : 

"He shall have Power, by and with the Advice 
and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, pro- 
vided two thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; ..." 

The treaty-making power under the Constitu- 
tion and the relative functions of the several 
branches of the Government in the making and 
execution of treaties are subjects which have been 
dealt with in countless volumes, articles, and dis- 
courses. They are subjects concerning which it is 
easy to excite discussion in almost any group of 
individuals interested in the processes of govern- 
ment. 

However, little has been written with respect to 
matters of a procedural or formal character af- 
fecting the making of international agreements. 
An explanation of certain procedures and formali- 
ties incident to the making of treaties and other 
international agreements should be useful, not 
only as a guide for oificials having responsibilities 
in connection with negotiations but also as a source 
of information for others who may have an in- 
terest, either practical or academic, in the subject. 

Some insight into these procedures and formali- 
ties may be obtained by giving attention to the 
functions and the work of the office of the Depart- 
ment of State which is charged with the immediate 
responsibility in regard to such matters: the 
Treaty Section of the Division of Research and 
Publication. 



In order to gain a proper perspective it is well 
to relate a bit of departmental history. 

On April 21, 1928 there was created in the De- 
partment of State a Treaty Division, "organized 
in response to the need for centralization and con- 
sistent direction in the drafting and negotiation 
of agreements with other countries." ^ 

The functions of the Treaty Division, as out- 
lined in official publications, were as follows : ^ 

"Charged with assisting, when and as requested 
by the responsible officers, in the drafting of 
treaties and other international agreements, and 
cori'espondence pertaining to the negotiation, con- 
struction, and termination of treaties. The di- 
vision is also charged with maintaining a set of 
treaties and other international agreements in 
force to which the United States is a party, and' 
likewise those to which it is not a party, together 
with the pertinent laws, proclamations, Executive 
orders, and resolutions; maintaining lists of 
treaties and other international agreements be- 
tween the United States and foreign governments 
which are in process of negotiation or ratifica- 
tion; collecting and keeping available informa- 
tion regarding the application, interpretation, and 
status of treaties; analyzing treaties by subject, 

' The author of this article is Assistant Chief of the 
Treaty Section, Division of Research and Publication, 
Department of State. 

^ The Department of State of the Vnited States, rev. ed. 
June 1936, prepared by E. Wilder Spaulding and George 
Verne Blue, Division of Research and Publication. (De- 
partment of State publication 878, p. 30.) 

'Register of the Department of State, to and including 
the edition of Oct. 1, 1942; and Congressional Directory, 
to and including the edition of Jan. 1944 (78th Cong., 
2d Sess.). 

445 



446 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and assembling, comparing, and studying the 
provisions on the same subject in different 
treaties; examining the texts of treaties, conven- 
tions, or international agreements to which the 
United States is a party, with a view to recom- 
mending such action as may be required to obtain 
the fulfilment by the other party of its duties and 
obligations and to effect the performance of the 
duties and obligations of the United States by 
legislative or administrative acts; maintaining 
lists of treaties, conventions, or international 
agreements expiring or subject to extension with 
a view to considering the renewal or extension 
thereof; performing the duties of a secretariat for 
all treaties of which the United States is the de- 
positary; and with performing such other duties 
as may be assigned by the Secretary of State." 

By Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 
1944, relating to the organization of the Depart- 
ment of State, it was provided that the Legal 
Adviser "shall have general responsibility for all 
matters of a legal character concerning the De- 
partment, including matters of a legal character 
formerly dealt with by the Treaty Division, which 
is hereby abolished." 

By the same departmental order certain of the 
functions of the former Treaty Division were 
transferred to the Division of Research and Pub- 
lication, as follows : 

"The Division of Research and Publication 
shall have responsibility in matters pertaining 
to: ... (d) collection, compilation and main- 
tenance of information pertaining to treaties and 
other international agreements, the performance 
of research and the furnishing of information and 
advice, other than of a legal character, with re- 
spect to the provisions of such existing or proposed 
instruments; procedural matters, including the 
preparation of full powers, ratifications, procla- 
mations and protocols, and matters related to the 
signing, ratification, proclamation and registra- 
tion of treaties and other international agreements 
(except with respect to proclamations of trade 
agreements, which shall be handled in the Divi- 
sion of Commercial Policy) ; and custody of the 
originals of treaties and other international agree- 
ments; ... " 



By the end of the year 1943 the staff of the 
Treaty Division had been reduced, through retire- 
ments, deaths, and wartime manpower problems, 
to a total of four regular full-time employees, each 
of whom had had years of training and experience 
in matters affecting treaties and other interna- 
tional agreements. The staff, records, and offices 
of the former Treaty Division were transferred to 
the Division of Research and Publication and be- 
came the nucleus of the Treaty Section of that 
Division. Other competent assistants have been 
added to the staff since January 15, 1944. 

It is necessarily true that the brevity of descrip- 
tion required by departmental orders leaves much 
to be desired so far as the presentation of an 
adequate picture of the work is concerned. A field 
of operations that is potentially as broad as the 
entire field of foreign relations is summarized 
in less than a hundred words. To obtain a better 
appreciation of certain factors which are, in some 
respects, no less important from the standpoint of 
an effective conduct of foreign relations than the 
technical negotiations which precede the signing 
of an international agreement or the action which 
is taken in connection with Senate consideration 
of an international agreement, it would be helpful 
to give some attention to the functions of the 
Treaty Section. 

n 

'■^collection, compilation and maintenance of infor- 
mation pertaining to treaties and other interna- 
tional agreements" 

Before proceeding any farther, perhaps it would 
be well to concentrate upon the words "treaties 
and other international agreements". The usual 
distinction between treaties, in a constitutional 
sense, and Executive agreements should be borne 
in mind. An international agreement which is 
entered into subject to the constitutional proce- 
dures incident to approval by the Senate and sub- 
sequent ratification by the President is regarded 
as a treaty in the constitutional sense. Other inter- 
national agreements, effected in a variety of ways 
in pursuance of the Executive authority and not 
requiring submission to the Senate for its advice 



MAY 13, 1944 



447 



and consent to ratification, are commonly referred 
to as Executive agreements/ 

The immediate availability of full, accurate, and 
authoritative information concerning treaties and 
other international agreements which have been 
entered into — not only agreements between the 
Government of the United States and foreign gov- 
ernments but also agreements which have been 
entered into between other governments and to 
M-hich the United States is not a party — is essen- 
tial : essential in the determination of policies and 
programs affecting the foreign relations of the 
United States, and essential in the intelligent 
preparation for negotiations with foreign gov- 
ernments and in the effective handling of those 
negotiations. 

Frequently one must perceive clearly where one 
has been in order to understand better what lies 
ahead. It was Patrick Henry who said : "I know 
of no way of judging the future but by the past." 
"Study the past if you would divine the future" 
is the way Confucius expresses the same idea. 

In short, the collection, compilation, and main- 
tenance of authoritative information pertaining to 
treaties and other international agreements is an 
indispensable part of the process of treaty-making. 

The technicalities involved in the performance 
of this task are alniost inexplicable to one who has 
not dealt with the problems at first-hand. To 
speak, for instance, of signatures, ratifications, ad- 
herences, reservations, depositaries, procedures for 
bringing into force or for termination, proclama- 
tions, execution, source references, et cetera, prob- 
ably conveys a very nebulous picture of the scope of 
the work involved. 

The Treaty Section, continuing a system devised 
in the former Treaty Division, undertakes to main- 
tain a card-index file in which there is a separate 
card record for each treaty, and for each interna- 



■ For additional comments on tliis subject, see "Treaties 
and Their Legal Effects", an address delivered on May 4, 
1940 at a luncheon of the Federal Bar Association by 
William V. Whittington {Bulletin. May 11, 1940, p. 502) ; 
also The Makiny uf Treaties and International Agreements 
and the Work of the Treaty Division of the Department 
of State, an address delivered on Apr. 29, 1938 before the 
Conference of Teachers of International Law by William 
V. Whittington (Department of State publication 1174). 



tional agreement other than a treaty, with respect 
to which any information is available. These 
card records are undoubtedly among the most fre- 
quently consulted records in the Department of 
State. The aim is to have these records so com- 
plete, and yet so concise, that any inquiry concern- 
ing a particular treaty or other agreement may be 
answered reliably within the space of a minute or 
less, so long as the inquiry does not require a tech- 
nical analysis of the provisions or extensive re- 
search and the compilation of material. 

To indicate here every kind of information that 
is cataloged on the "treaty cards" would be, of 
course, impossible. At the risk of being tiresome, 
one fairly typical example will be given. The rec- 
ord taken for this purpose is one which relates to 
the Convention for the Suppression of the Abuse of 
Opium and Other Drugs, signed at The Hague 
January 23, 1912, and the Final Protocol relating 
thereto, signed at The Hague July 9, 1913.- 

The record for the Opium Convention and Final 
Protocol shows at the top and to the left of the 
card the words "Opium and Other Drugs", which 
are the key to the record's place in the alphabetical 
index. Immediately below these key words are the 
words "The Hague January 23, 1912". Among 
other information shown on the record are: The 
full titles of the convention and final protocol ; the 
places and dates of signature ; the name of the de- 
positary government; information, with appro- 
priate references to convention provisions, show- 
ing "How made effective", "Date of entry into 
force", "Term", and "Procedure for termination"; 
a space for inserting information as to the date of 
termination, at such time as the instrmnents are 
terminated ; an indication of specific references in 
the convention to prior treaties ; the date of proc- 
lamation by the President; information concern- 
ing final action, if any, taken by each of the 58 
signatory countries and each of the adhering coun- 
tries for bringing the convention into force ; infor- 
mation concerning reservations made by signatory 
countries ; source references to official publications 
containing the texts of the convention and final 
protocol, including among others the Statutes at 
Large, the United States Treaty Series, and the 

" Treaty Series 612, 38 Stat., pt. 2, 1912, 1937. 



448 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



League of Nations Treaty Series ; and remarks con- 
cerning other matters of interest in I'elation to the 
convention and final protocol, including refer- 
ences to legislation and court decisions affecting 
their operation. 

Substantially the same kind of information as 
that indicated above is recorded for each multi- 
lateral treaty — that is, each treaty to which there 
are more than two contracting parties. In the 
case of bilateral treaties, with only two contract- 
ing iDarties, similar information is recorded, ex- 
cept that notations regarding exchange of ratifi- 
cations take the place of notations regarding 
deposit of ratification or adherence. Pertinent 
information is recorded also, in a similar way, 
with respect to other international agreements. 

There are, of course, many treaties and other 
agreements to which the United States has been 
a party but which are no longer in force and also 
a vast number of foreign treaties and other agree- 
ments to which the United States is not a party. 
To have readily available information regarding 
such treaties is sometimes no less important than 
to have information regarding treaties of the 
United States presently in force. 

The Treaty Section undertakes to keep the 
treaty cards at all times as accurate and reliable 
as possible, well knowing that it is likely to be 
called upon at any time for information upon 
which an important course of action may depend. 

In addition to these card records, the Treaty 
Section maintains records and registers showing 
the progress of treaty negotiations and the action 
taken toward bringing into force a treaty which 
has been signed. Just as it is necessary in any 
railway system to know at any time the location 
of a particular railway car, its direction of travel, 
and the load it is carrying, it is necessary in the 
process of treaty-making to follow a particular 
treaty through its various stages: signature, sub- 
mission by the Secretary of State to the Presi- 
dent, transmission by the President to the Senate, 
reference to the Senate Committee on Foi'eign 
Relations, publication in Senate confidential docu- 
ment, removal of the Senate's "injunction of 
secrecy", report of the Committee to the Senate 
either with or without amendment, advice and 
consent of the Senate to ratification, ratification 



by the President, exchange or deposit of ratifica- 
tion, proclamation, and registration. 

It is necessary also to follow the treaties and 
other international agreements of the United 
States through the stages of publication in the 
official series and in the Statutes at Large. 
Treaties of the United States which enter into 
force as a result of ratification by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate are printed in an 
official Treaty Series. Other international agree- 
ments of the United States, which are commonly 
referi'ed to as Executive agreements and most of 
which are effected by the simple procedure of an 
exchange of diplomatic notes expressing a mu- 
tual understanding concerning matters of an 
administrative character, are printed in an official 
Executive Agreement Series, which was inaugu- 
rated in 1929. Before that year a number of Ex- 
ecutive agreements had been printed in the Treaty 
Series. 

Each treaty and each Executive agreement is 
printed separately in leaflet form in the appropri- 
ate numbered series. At the present time the 
Treaty Series numbers run to 986, although actu- 
ally there are more than a thousand separate in- 
struments in the series, owing to the fact that 
among the earlier numbers there are some accom- 
panied by letters or fractions. There are 391 sep- 
arate publications in the Executive Agreement 
Series at this time. 

The Treaty Section handles the preliminary task 
of preparing treaties and other international 
agreements of the United States for publication 
in the Treaty Series or Executive Agreement Se- 
ries, follows the progress of each document in the 
course of publication, and, when the publication 
has been completed, obtains from the Government 
Printing Office a supply of each of the printed leaf- 
lets. The Section is in a position, therefore, in 
response to inquiries, to supply copies of printed 
treaties and Executive agreements of the United 
States to officials and to others who may have need 
for them. In the event that the supply of printed 
leaflet copies has been exhausted, as is the case with 
some of the earlier treaties, the Section is able to 
direct inquirers to the United States Statutes at 
Large or to other official publications containing 
the texts of international agreements. Frequently 



MAY 13, 1944 



449 



it has been found necessary to invite the attention 
of inquirers, inchiding lawyers, to the fact that un- 
der title 1, section 30, of the United States Code 
the Statutes at Large "shall be legal evidence of 
the . . . treaties, international agreements other 
than treaties, . . . therein contained, in all the 
courts of the United States, the several States, and 
the Territories and insular possessions of the 
United States." 

Frequently the need for information concern- 
ing a particular agreement or a particular pro- 
vision is not so important as the need for a refer- 
ence to or an analysis of all provisions relating to 
a particular subject. Certain types of provisions 
are the subject of frequent inquiry. It is conven- 
ient, therefore, to have readily available in some 
cases lists of treaties or compilations of provisions 
relating to a particular matter ; for example, pro- 
visions relating to the competency and authority 
of consular officers in connection with the settle- 
ment of estates or the rights of inheritance, ac- 
quisition, and ownership of property. The Treaty 
Section undertakes, as did the former Treaty Di- 
vision, to prepare such lists or compilations as 
i-eady sources of information. 

The Treaty Section prepares material relating 
to treaties and other international agreements for 
publication in the Department of State Bulleti7i, 
under the heading "Treaty Information". 

It should be clear from the incomplete picture 
presented above concerning the information facili- 
ties of the Treaty Section, that the collection, com- 
pilation, and maintenance of information pertain- 
ing to treaties and other international agreements 
is a task which requires continuous and careful re- 
search involving the study of agreements, laws, 
judicial decisions, and any available document or 
publication which may have a bearing upon the 
matter. Among the members of the staff of the 
Section are some who have a knowledge of for- 
eign languages. Consequently, many publications 
in foreign languages can be examined within the 
Section without the need for burdening the De- 
partment's central translating staff. 



Ill 



"the performance of research and the furnishing 
of information and advice, other than of a legal 



character, with respect to the jrrovlsions of such 
existing or proposed insfrmne7ifs" 

The following comments in an address delivered 
a few years ago are pertinent : ^ 

"During the past 160 years the conduct of inter- 
national relations, while facilitated in certain re- 
spects by reason of improved methods of communi- 
cation and transportation, has tended to become 
far more complex and to require an increasing use 
of carefully negotiated treaties or agreements for 
the regulation of intercourse between the nations. 

"In the conduct of our foreign relations there is 
no more important function imposed upon the 
Department of State than that of the negotiation 
of agreements with other nations, whereby the 
rights, privileges, and immunities of American 
citizens may be given a legal status independent 
of general international law, which, only too often, 
is inadequate to guarantee the desired measure of 
protection and security. 

"In general, therefore, the task of preparing for 
and negotiating agreements with foreign coun- 
tries, especially in I'egard to commercial dealings 
or trade reciprocity, requires a vast amount of 
study and intensive research. A large part of this 
labor involves the analytical study of provisions 
in other ti'eaties, both those which continue in 
force and those which, for one reason or another, 
have ceased to be in force, containing provisions 
of a comparable nature." 

The Treaty Section receives many inquiries or 
requests for information each day. Dui'ing some 
months the telephone inquiries alone have totaled 
a thousand or more. These inquiries may be from 
other offices of the Department of State, from 
offices of other departments or agencies of the 
Govermnent, from the offices of Senators or Repre- 
sentatives, from foreign diplomatic missions in 
Washington, and from lawyers, authors, and 
others. In any case, where the existence or status 
of treaty provisions may be a factor to be con- 
sidered, the Treaty Section is likely to receive by 
telephone or in writing, or sometimes by the per- 

' "Compilation of Analytical Treaty Index", an address 
delivered on Apr. 20, 1938 at a lunclieon of the Federal 
Bar Association by William V. Whittington (Department 
of State Press Releases, Apr. 23, 1938, p. 496). 



450 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sonal visit of the inquirer, a request for informa- 
tion regarding such provisions. 

The inquiries range from simple questions which 
may be answered by quick reference to the treaty 
cards to complex questions which may require days 
or weeks of research. In some cases an authori- 
tative response to an inquiry may be a vital factor 
in determining the political or military action of 
this Government. In some cases the granting of 
a right to an individual, either an American citi- 
zen abroad or an alien in this country, may depend 
upon the nature of the information furnished in 
response to an inquiry. 

The officers of the Treaty Section, in addition 
to the preparation of research memorandums, 
draft official correspondence furnishing informa- 
tion within the scope of the functions of the Sec- 
tion, including instructions to American diplo- 
matic missions abroad, notes to foreign diplomatic 
missions in Washington, letters to other depart- 
ments or agencies of the Government, and letters 
to individuals or organizations. 

Other offices of the Department call upon the 
Treaty Section for assistance and advice in con- 
nection with iDcnding or contemplated negotia- 
tions for treaties and other international agree- 
ments. Officers of the Treaty Section, assisting 
in the drafting of instruments, have participated 
in discussions and conferences, not only in Wash- 
ington but in foreign countries. They are credited 
with having given material assistance particu- 
larly in matters of treaty terminology, style, pro- 
cedures, and formalities. They have had con- 
siderable experience in dealing with treaty 
matters and have made extensive studies concern- 
ing treaty procedures not only of the United 
States but also of foreign countries. 

In as much as the Legal Adviser of the Depart- 
ment is charged with the responsibility of giving 
advice of a legal character, the officers of the 
Treaty Section do not undertake to give such ad- 
vice. However, offices of the Department having 
need for information and advice, other than of 
a legal character, with respect to existing or pro- 
posed treaties or other international agreements 
may and do call upon the Treaty Section. When- 
ever requested by the appropriate officers of the 
Department, and upon the basis of information as 
to the substance of desired provisions, the technical 



officers of the Section have prepared provisional 
or tentative drafts of treaties or other agi-eements, 
or of provisions to be incorporated in such instru- 
ments, for consideration by the Department. 

IV 

'■'■procedural matters, incluSing the preparation 
of full powers, ratifications, proclamations and 
protocols, and matters related to the signing, rati- 
fication, proclamation and 7'egistration of treaties 
and other international agreements {except with 
respect to proclamations of trade agreements, 
which shall he handled i?i the Division of Com- 
mercial Policy) " 

As might well be imagined, even by one who 
knows little more about treaties than the fact that 
they are contracts or agreements between two or 
more sovereign governments, there is much more 
to the process of treaty-making than a mere "meet- 
ing of the minds" or, for that matter, than the 
signing of a written document. 

The conduct of foreign relations is burdened 
necessarily with certain formalities with which 
we would not wish to be bothered in dealing with 
our neighbors next door. This is especially true 
in the matter of entering into agreements. 

Some of the formalities and procedures inci- 
dent to the making of international agreements 
may seem cumbersome, but there can be no doubt 
that they are essential. In many cases there is 
substantial uniformity in the practices of the 
various governments. 

Treaties and other international agreements 
may be negotiated in a variety of ways. Most 
Executive agreements of the United States have 
been effected by exchanges of notes, usually con- 
sisting of an interchange of official communica- 
tions between two governments, one of the notes 
making a proposal with respect to some adminis- 
trative matter of mutual concern to both govern- 
ments and the other note accepting the proposal 
and acknowledging that the agreement is to be con- 
sidered in effect. There is no complexity as to the 
procedure in such cases, and usually there is no 
formality different from that involved in the 
sending of any diplomatic communication. 

In the making of treaties and certain other 
international agreements, arrangements customar- 
ily are made for the signing of a single instrument 



i 



MAY 13, 1944 



451 



in one or several languages. In the case of bi- 
lateral treaties or agreements the instrument is 
engrossed and signed in an original for each gov- 
ernment. This is usually the culminating act in a 
series of discussions or a period of negotiations 
between the authorities of the two governments. 
In the case of multilateral treaties the negotiations 
frequently are conducted in an international con- 
ference, called especially for that purpose, at 
which the interested governments are represented 
by delegates. The original of the multilateral 
treaty, when signed, is retained in the archives 
either of a depositary government or of an inter- 
national organization such as the Pan American 
Union or the League of Nations. The depositary 
authority will furnish certified copies to all the 
signatories of the treaty. 

Full powers. Each representative or plenipo- 
tentiary who signs a treaty is furnished a full 
power, signed by the chief executive of his govern- 
ment. This full power, which is the formal evi- 
dence of the representative's authority to sign on 
behalf of his government, just as a power of attor- 
ney is the evidence of authority for the perfor- 
mance of certain acts, must be prepared esi>ecially 
for the occasion, naming the representative and 
showing his title and a clear indication of the par- 
ticular instrument which he is entitled to sign. A 
full power for the signing of a treaty on behalf of 
this Government contains a statement to the effect 
that the signing of the treaty is subject to ratifica- 
tion by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. The terminology of full powers, although 
of a standard form in some resjiects, will vary ac- 
cording to the nature of the instrument to be 
signed, the mode of its negotiation, and the coun- 
tries involved. 

Engrossing. When the terms of the treaty or 
other international agreement have been agreed 
upon, the text thereof, either in one language or 
in several languages, will be engrossed for signa- 
ture — that is, it will be typed, exact in all respects 
as agreed upon, on so-called "treaty paper". The 
treaty paper used by the Department of State, in 
the case of an instrument to be signed in Wash- 
ington, is a high-quality, large-size double sheet, 
with blocked lines marking off a portion thereof 
slightly less in size than a standard long sheet of 
typewriting paper. The paper is heavy and both 



sides may be used. The double sheet makes it pos- 
sible to bind the completed document in book 
fashion. When the text is in more than one lan- 
guage, the languages preferably are typed in par- 
allel columns. When this is not convenient the 
engrossing will be done if possible in such a way 
that the languages will appear on pages facing 
each other. In some instances it is necessary to 
have the full text in one of the languages follow 
the full text in the other language, for example, an 
instrmnent signed in English and an oriental lan- 
guage, such as Chinese.^ Since the Department of 
State does not have machines for the typing of 
oriental languages, the Department usually enlists 
the aid of a person or persons capable of engrossing 
such language by hand on the treaty paper. The 
text of the treaty or other agi"eement, in all lan- 
guages in which it is to be signed, is engrossed in 
duplicate. The duplicates are the same in all 
respects with the sole exception of the alternat 
form : in the original to be retained by the Depart- 
ment of State for this Government the references 
to the two governments will place this Government 
first and the signature of this Government's pleni- 
potentiary will appear first, while in the original 
to be transmitted to the other government that 
government will be placed first in the references 
and the signature of that government's pleni- 
potentiary will ajjpear first. 

Signature. When the engrossing of a treaty or 
other international agreement which is to be 
signed in a single instrument has been completed 
arrangements are made for signature. The ar- 
rangements are made, usually by telephone, with 
the office of the Secretary or Acting Secretary of 
State and with the foreign diplomatic mission 
concerned for the signing of the agreement at a 
certain time and place, the place being ordinarily 
the office of the Secretary or Acting Secretary. 
At the time agreed upon, the signing officers, to- 
gether with those who are charged with handling 
the formalities, and certain others who may have 
had a hand in negotiating the particular agree- 
ment, gather, and within a comjiaratively short 
space of time the signing will have been accom- 
plished. There is more ceremony in some cases 



' See Treaty Series 984, the treaty relinquishing extra- 
territorial rights in China and the regulation of related 
matters, signed at Washington Jan. 11, 1943. 



452 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



than in others, depending upon the nature of the 
agreement. In the case of all treaties and of most 
other intei'national agreements signed in a single 
instrument, the signatures of the plenipotentiaries 
are accompanied by their seals, with ribbons fast- 
ened in the seals and binding the document. One 
of the duplicate originals is handed to the foreign 
plenipotentiary for transmission to his govern- 
ment, while one is retained in the Department of 
State. 

Procedure governed ty nature of agreement. 
When the formality of signing and sealing the 
instrument has been completed, the next step de- 
pends upon the nature of the agreement. In the 
case of certain agreements other than treaties, 
such as reciprocal trade agreements negotiated 
and signed in pursuance of existing legislation 
authorizing such agreements, the next step is 
proclamation by the President. That is a sub- 
ject to be dealt with hereinafter. In the case of a 
treaty the next step is that which is directed to- 
ward ratification. It should be mentioned at this 
jjoint also that the comments above concerning the 
arrangements for, and the act of, signing agree- 
ments have reference primarily to bilateral instru- 
ments. It has been indicated elsewhere that 
multilateral instruments are, as a rule, signed in 
a single document which is retained by a stipu- 
lated depositary, certified copies of the multi- 
lateral instrument being furnished to all the 
signatories. 

Tiansw.isswn to the Senate. After a treaty has 
been signed and sealed, a communication consti- 
tuting a report on the treaty and explaining the 
provisions thereof at such length as circumstances 
appear to make desirable is prepared for trans- 
mission by the Secretary of State to the President. 
Accompanying this report to the President will be 
the original of the treaty in the case of a bilateral 
treaty, or a certified copy in the case of a multilat- 
eral treaty, and a message from the President to 
the Senate for transmission of the treaty, and the 
report. If the President should approve thereof, 
he will sign the message and will send the docu- 
ments on their way to the Senate. 

Reference to Committee. Upon receipt by the 
Senate the English text of the treaty, together 
with the accompanying papers, is ordered to be 
printed in a Senate document and the matter is re- 
ferred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. 



The material printed in the Senate document will 
be based upon exact "printer's copies" which are 
made in the Department of State and are sent 
along with the original material. A supply of the 
printed Senate document is received in the De- 
partment of State for official use. The text of the 
treaty is not made public until the Senate removes 
its "injunction of secrecy". Tliis may be done 
quickly after the reference to the Committee or it 
may be done after the Committee has given full 
consideration to various factors. When the Sen- 
ate indicates that the treaty is made public, copies 
of the Senate document are available for general 
distribution. 

Action hy the Senate. Hearings are held by the 
Committee on Foreign Relations in due course and 
the Department of State is represented in such 
hearings by one or more persons familiar with the 
subject-matter of the treaty and the procedure by 
which it was entered into. The Committee, in re- 
porting its recommendations with respect to a 
treaty which has been under consideration by it, 
customarily submits to the Senate a written report, 
usually quite brief, which will be printed in a 
nimibei*ed Senate executive report. If the Com- 
mittee should have approved the treaty as sub- 
mitted by the President, it will "report the same 
favorably to the Senate without amendment with 
the recommendation that it advise and consent to 
its ratification". On the other hand, if the Com- 
mittee has any objection or suggestion to make 
concerning the treaty the report will set forth the 
matter in such detail as the Committee may deem 
appiopriate. 

Ratification. Upon the supposition that the 
Senate, in accordance with recommendations made 
by the Committee on Foreign Relations, advises 
and consents to ratification of the treaty the orig- 
inal document will be returned to the Depart- 
ment of State with a resolution certifying to that 
effect. It then becomes necessary for an instru- 
ment of ratification to be prepared for the Presi- 
dent's signature. This instrument will set forth 
all pertinent facts, including the title of the treaty, 
the date of signature, the countries involved, and 
the language or languages in which signed, with 
an indication that the original or the certified 
copy of the treaty is annexed thereto, followed by 
a specific statement as to the action taken by the 
Senate, with the text of any reservation or amend- 



MAY 13, 1944 



453 



ment which the Senate may have proposed, and 
a declaration by the F'resident that he has seen 
and considered the said treaty and that he does 
thereby "in pursuance of the aforesaid advice and 
consent of the Senate, ratify and confinn the same 
and every article and clause thereof." A dupli- 
cate of this ratification, the duplicate commonly 
being referred to as "the exchange copy", is pre- 
pared at the same time. It differs from the prin- 
cipal instrument in that the text of the treaty 
usually is set forth "word for word" in the in- 
strument of ratification, whereas the principal in- 
strument annexes the original or the certified copy. 
The instrument of ratification and the exchange 
copy thereof then are sent to the White House 
where, if approved by the President, he will sign 
them and have them returned to the Department 
of State for further action. 

Deposit of ratificafioti. In the case of a multi- 
lateral treaty, the exchange copy of the instru- 
ment of ratification will be sent with an official 
communication to the depositary authority and 
will be "deposited" by that authority with the 
archives pertaining to the treaty. If the United 
States be the depositary, then this Government 
will send to the other signatories of the treaty no- 
tices informing them of the deposit of this Gov- 
ernment's ratification. Depositary authorities are 
charged by the terms of the treaties entrusted to 
their custody to notify all signatories concerning 
all deposits of ratification and also concerning all 
adherences to or withdrawals from such treaties. 
The term "adherence" is used customarily in the 
case of a non-signatory country or territory which 
becomes a party to the treaty in accordance with 
provisions in the treaty for that purpose. It is 
usual, by the terms of the treaty, for the treaty 
to come into force as to each signatory upon the 
deposit of its ratification or as to each non-signa- 
tory upon the deposit or notification of its ad- 
herence. The provisions may vary in this respect. 

Exchange of ratifications. In the case of a bi- 
lateral treaty, the usual procedure is to make ar- 
rangements for the formal exchange of the re- 
spective instruments of ratification of the two 
governments. The formalities in this respect are 
much the same as in the making of arrangements 
for signing the treaty. A document called a pro- 
tocol of exchange is prepared for signature by the 



plenipotentiaries effecting the exchange of instru- 
ments, as formal evidence of the action taken. 
This protocol of exchange, which sets forth the 
essential facts concerning the action taken, is en- 
grossed in duplicate (an original for each govern- 
ment), on treaty paper of the kind to which ref- 
erence has been made. It is usual, by the terms 
of a bilateral treaty, for the treaty to come into 
force upon the exchange of the instruments of 
ratification. 

Proclamation of treaties. Although the ex- 
change or deposit of ratifications is customarily 
the final action needed to bring the treaty into 
definitive international effect, a treaty is always 
proclaimed by the President. This proclamation, 
which is prepared in the Department of State, re- 
fers in exact terms to the title, date, and signatories 
of the treaty, with an indication as to the language 
or languages in which the treaty was signed, then 
usually embodies the signed original of the treaty, 
followed by statements with respect to all perti- 
nent matters upon which the full effectiveness of 
the treaty depends, including the provisions con- 
cerning the coming into force of the treaty, the 
action taken in pursuance of those provisions, and 
a textual reference to any reservation which may 
have been made in regard to this Government's 
obligations under the treaty. The j^roclamation 
concludes with a declaration to the effect that the 
President has caused the treaty "to be made public 
to the end that the same and every article and 
clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with 
good faith by the United States of America, the 
citizens of the United States of America, and all 
other persons subject to the jurisdiction thereof". 
The proclamation is sent to the White House for 
the President's approval and signature. After 
the proclamation has been signed by the President 
it is returned to the Dei^artment of State for such 
further action as may be needed, including pub- 
lication. 

Proclamation of trade agreements. The pro- 
cedure for the proclamation of reciprocal trade 
agreements is different in some respects from the 
procedure with respect to treaties. Reciprocal 
trade agreements and other international agree- 
ments which are not treaties are not ratified. No 
in.strument of ratification is necessary. The trade 
agreements which have been entered into under 
the act of 1934, or under that act as extended and 



454 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



amended,^ have contained provisions whereby such 
agreements would enter into force after a specified 
lapse of time following the exchange of the Presi- 
dent's jjroclamation for the instrument of ratifica- 
tion or the proclamation of the foreign govern- 
ment. This has meant that in preparing the proc- 
lamations of trade agreements it has been neces- 
sary to have them prepared and signed in dupli- 
cate. One of the duplicates is an exchange copy, 
and formalities are observed for the exchange of 
proclamations or for the exchange of the proc- 
lamation for an instrument of ratification in much 
the same way as in the case of an exchange of 
treaty ratifications. After this exchange, a sup- 
plementary 23roclamation, simpler in both form 
and substance than the principal proclamation, is 
prepared and sent to the White House for signa- 
ture by the President. The object of this supple- 
mentary proclamation is to proclaim the date on 
which the trade agreement is to come into force. 
When this action has been taken, the usual pro- 
cedure with a view to publication is taken. Mean- 
while, as a matter of practice the Department of 
State, as promptly as possible, has furnished photo- 
stat copies of trade agreements to those depart- 
ments and agencies of the Government which are 
charged with the carrying out of the obligations 
of this Govermnent under such agreements. 

Piiilication. When all procedures necessary to 
give full effect to a treaty or other agreement have 
been followed as indicated above, preparations are 
made for the publication of the texts thereof in the 
official Treaty Series or Executive Agreement Se- 
ries and in the United States Statutes at Large. 
It is appropriate here to point out that title I, sec- 
tion 30, of the United States Code contains the 
following provision : 

"The Secretary of State shall cause to be com- 
piled, edited, indexed, and published, the United 
States Statutes at Large, whicli shall contain . . . 
all treaties to which the United States is a party 
that have been j^roclaimed since the date of the 
adjournment of the regular session of Congress 
next preceding; all international agi'eements other 
than treaties to which the United States is a party 



' 48 Stat. 943 ; 50 Stat. 24 ; 54 Stat. 107 ; 57 Stat. 125. 



that have been signed, proclaimed, or with refer- 
ence to which any other final formality has been 
executed, since that date ; ..." 

Press releases. Upon certain occasions the De- 
partment of State issues press releases giving in- 
formation concerning action taken with respect to 
treaties or other international agreements. Such 
occasions include the signing, the exchange or de- 
posit of formal instruments, and the signing of 
proclamations or supplementary proclamations. 
The texts of such press releases are printed in the 
Department of State Bulletin, together with other 
information i-egarding treaties and other interna- 
tional agreements. 

Registration. When treaties have been printed 
in the Treaty Series or when other international 
agreements have been printed in the Executive 
Agreement Series the Department of State sends 
certified copies of the printed texts to the Pan 
American Union and, when circumstances affect- 
ing postal communication have permitted, to the 
League of Nations for registration in accordance 
with arrangements made on this subject. In the 
case of the League of Nations, of course, this ac- 
tion is merely evidence of cooperation with a view 
to the recording or registration of international 
agreements by the League and with a view to 
the publication of such agreements in the League 
of Nations Treaty Series.^ 

The drafting of full powers, supervising the en- 
grossing of formal documents, handling the for- 
malities in connection with the signature of trea- 
ties and other formal instruments, the drafting 
of reports and messages with a view to ratification 
of treaties, participation when needed in connec- 
tion with Senate Committee hearings with respect 
to treaties, the drafting of instruments of ratifica- 
tion, proclamations, and protocols, the deposit of 
instruments of ratification in the case of multi- 
lateral treaties, the registration of treaties and 
other agreements, the preliminary work in prepar- 
ing treaties and other agreements for publication, 
and, in general, fulfilling the responsibilities of a 

'See Executive (Agreement Series 70, 49 Stat., pt. 2, 
3059: arrangement effected by exchange of notes between 
tlie Acting Legal Adviser of the Secretariat of the League 
of Vatious and the American Consul at Geneva, Jan. 
22 and 23, 1934. 



MAY 13, 1944 

secretariat, including the drafting of official com- 
munications and press releases relating to such 
matters, require considerable technical training 
and painstaking effort. The above outline of cer- 
tain procedures and formalities should be sufficient 
evidence of that fact. This work is a part of the 
responsibility of the Treaty Section, except that, 
with respect to proclamations of trade agi'eements, 
the determination of the context of such proclama- 
tions is a matter that is handled in the Division of 
Commercial Policy. 

V 

"an<^ custody of the originals of treaties and other 
international agreements" 

After the signing of an international agreement 
and until such agreement has entered into force 
and the Treaty Section has prepared the texts for 
publication in the Treaty Series or Executive 
Agreement Series, the Section is charged with 
responsibility as custodian of the originals or cer- 
tified copies of treaties and other international 
agreements. 

When the material for publication is placed in 
the hands of the editorial staff of the Division of 
Research and Publication the custody of the orig- 
inals or certified copies is transferred to the sec- 
tion of the Divison charged with maintaining the 
permanent archives of international agreements. 

In the case of some treaties which have been 
signed on behalf of the United States but which, 
for one reason or another, do not enter into force 
with respect to the United States, the originals or 
certified copies thereof usually are held in the 
Treaty Section until such time as circumstances 
warrant the placing of such documents in the per- 
manent archives of the Department as "unper- 
fected treaties". 

In as much as the Treaty Section is the De- 
partment's clearing-house for information in re- 
gard to treaties and other international agree- 
ments and for a time is the custodian of originals 
or certified copies of such instruments, offices of 
the Department which have the primary respon- 
sibility for handling negotiations of international 
agreements dealing with matters within the scope 
of their respective functions have also the respon- 
sibility for keeping the Treaty Section informed 



455 

with respect to such agreements concluded or 
signed, including agreements effected by exchanges 
of notes. 

VI 

So much for a behind-the-scenes view of some 
of the less-publicized ramifications in the process 
of making treaties and other international 
agreements. 

The procedures, formalities, and functions 
which have been the subject of comment may be 
compared with cogs in the wheels of a giant ma- 
chine: when all are properly geared and lubri- 
cated the machine will operate smoothly and ef- 
ficiently, but let one of the cogs cease to function 
as it should and there may be embarrassing con- 
sequences. In other words, all these procedures, 
formalities, and functions are essential and impor- 
tant factors in dealing with foreign relations. 

ADDITIONAL DIVERSION OF WATERS OF 
THE NIAGARA RIVER FOR POWER PUR- 
POSES 

An arrangement between the United States and 
Canada providing for an additional emergency 
diversion for power purposes of waters of the 
Niagara River above the Falls has been entered 
into, subject to approval by the Senate, by an 
exchange of notes dated May 3, 1944 between the 
Secretary of State and the Canadian Ambassador 
in Washington. 

This arrangement, which supplements the ar- 
rangement effected by an exchange of notes of 
May 20, 1941 ( Executive Agreement Series 209 ; see 
Bulletin of June 7, 1941, p. 709, and June 14, 1941, 
p. 736) and the supplementary arrangement ef- 
fected by exchange of notes dated October 27 and 
November 27, 1941 (Executive Agreement Series 
223; see Bulletin of Dec. 6, 1941, p. 456), amends 
in its application article V of the treaty of Janu- 
ary 11, 1909 between the United States and His 
Britannic Majesty relating to the boundary be- 
tween the United States and Canada (Treaty Se- 
ries 548), to permit, for the duration of the emer- 
gency unless terminated earlier by agreement, an 
additional diversion of the waters of the Niagara 
River above the Falls. 



456 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



MUTUAL-AID AGREEMENT, 
CANADA AND THE FRENCH COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL LIBERATION 



The American Embassy at Ottawa transmitted 
to the Department of State, with a despatch of 
April 20, 1944, a copy of an agreement, signed at 
Ottawa on April 14, 1944 between the Government 
of Canada and the French Committee of National 
Liberation on the principles applying to the provi- 
sion by Canada of Canadian war supplies to the 
French Committee of National Liberation under 
the War Appropriation (United Nations Mutual 
Aid) Act of Canada, 1943. The agreement be- 
came effective on April 14, 1944, the date of signa- 
ture. 

The text of the agreement follows : 

Whereas Canada and the French Committee 
of National Liberation are associated in the pres- 
ent war, and 

Whereas it is desirable that war supplies should 
be distributed in accordance with strategic needs 
of the war and in such manner as to contribute most 
effectively to the winning of the war and the estab- 
lislunent of peace, and 

Whereas it is expedient that the conditions upon 
which such war supplies are made available should 
not be such as to burden post-war commerce, or 
lead to the imposition of trade restrictions or 
otherwise prejudice a just and enduring peace, 
and 

Whereas the Government of Canada and the 
French Committee of National Liberation are 
mutually desirous of concluding an agreement in 
regard to the conditions upon which Canadian 
war supplies will be made available to the French 
Committee of National Liberation, 

The Undersigned, being duly authorized by the 
Government of Canada and the French Committee 
of National Liberation respectively for the pur- 
pose, have agreed as follows : — 

Article I 

The Government of Canada will make available 
under the War Appropriation (United Nations 
Mutual Aid) Act of Canada, 1943, to the French 
Committee of National Liberation such war sup- 



plies as the Government of Canada shall authorize 
from time to time to be provided. 

Abticle II 

The French Committee of National Liberation 
will continue to contribute to the defence of Can- 
ada and the strengthening thereof and will provide 
such articles, services, facilities or information as 
it may be in a position to supply and as may from 
time to time be determined by common agreement 
in the light of the development of the war. 

Article III 

Tlie French Committee of National Liberation 
will, in support of any applications to the Gov- 
ernment of Canada for the provision of war sup- 
jDlies under this agreement, furnish the Govern- 
ment of Canada with such relevant information 
as the Government of Canada may require for the 
purpose of deciding upon the applications and for 
executing the purjioses of this agreement. 

Article IV 

Tlie French Committee of National Liberation 
agrees to use any war supplies delivered to it under 
this agreement in the joint and effective prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

Article V 

The French Committee of National Liberation 
will not without the consent of the Government 
of Canada sell to any other Government or to per- 
sons in other countries war supplies delivered to 
it under this agreement. 

Article VI 

The Government of Canada will not require 
the French Committee of National Liberation to 
re-deliver to the Government of Canada any war 
supplies delivered under this agreement except as 
specifically provided in Articles VII and VIII and 
subject to any special agreement which may be 
concluded in the circumstances contemplated in 
Article IX. 



MAY 13, 1944 



457 



Article VII 

Title to any cargo ships delivered under this 
agreement will remain with the Government of 
Canada and the ships shall be chartered to the 
French Committee of National Liberation on 
terms providing for their re-delivery. 

Article VIII 

Upon the cessation of hostilities in any major 
theatre of war, any war supplies which have been 
transferred to the French Committee of National 
Liberation under this agreement and are still in 
Canada or in ocean transit shall revert to Canadian 
ownership, except those supplies destined for a 
theatre of war in which hostilities have not ceased 
or supplies made available for relief purposes 
or such other supplies as the Government of Can- 
ada may specify. 

Article IX 

The Government of Canada reserves the right 
to request : 

(a) the delivery, after the cessation of hostili- 
ties in any theatre of war, for relief and rehabili- 
tation pui-poses, to another United Nation or to 
an international organization, of automotive equip- 
ment supplied under this agreement ; 

(b) the transfer to Canadian forces serving out- 
side Canada after the cessation of hostilities of 
vehicles, aircraft, ordnance or military equipment 
supplied under this agreement to the French Com- 
mittee of National Liberation if such war sup- 
plies are required for the use of such Canadian 
forces and are not requii-ed by the P'rench Com- 
mittee of National Liberation for military opera- 
tions ; and 

(c) the return to Canada after the war, if re- 
quired in Canada for Canadian purposes, of air- 
craft and automotive equipment supplied under 
this agreement which may still be serviceable, due 
regard being had to the degree of wastage likely 
to have been suffered by these articles, provided 
that when the identity of such Canadian equip- 
ment has been lost as a result of pooling arrange- 
ments or for other reasons, the French Commit- 
tee of National Liberation may substitute equip- 
ment of a similar type. 



The French Committee of National Liberation 
agrees to use its best endeavours to meet any such 
requests on such reasonable terms and conditions 
as shall be settled in consultation with the Gov- 
ernment of Canada. 

Article X 

The Government of Canada and the French 
Committee of National Liberation re-affirm their 
desire to promote mutually advantageous eco- 
nomic relations between Canada and France and 
throughout the world. They declare that their 
guiding purposes include the adoption of meas- 
ures designed to promote employment, the pro- 
duction and consumption of goods, and the expan- 
sion of commerce through appropriate interna- 
tional agreements on commercial policy, with the 
object of contributing to the attainment of all the 
economic objectives set forth in the Declaration 
of August 14th, 1941, known as the Atlantic 
Charter. 

Article XI 

This agreement will take effect as from this 
day's date. It shall apply to war supplies fur- 
nished to the French Committee of National Lib- 
eration by the Government of Canada under the 
authority of the War Appropriation (United Na- 
tions Mutual Aid) Act of Canada, 1943, or sub- 
stituted Act, including supplies furnished under 
the said Act before the conclusion of this agree- 
ment. It shall continue in force until a date to be 
agreed upon by the Government of Canada and 
the French Committee of National Liberation. 

Dated at Ottawa this fourteenth day of April, 
nineteen hundred and forty-four. 

Signed for and on behalf of 

the Govermnent of Canada : 

W. L. Mackenzie King 
C. D. Howe 

Signed for and on behalf of 

the French Committee of 
National Liberation : 

G. BONNEAU 



458 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TREATY BETWEEN CANADA AND CHINA FOR THE RELINQUISHMENT OF 
EXTRATERRITORIAL RIGHTS IN CHINA 



The American Embassy at Ottawa transmitted 
to the Department of State, with a despatch of 
April 19, 1944, a copy of a treaty between Canada 
and the Republic of China concerning the relin- 
quishment of extraterritorial rights in China and 
the regulation of related matters, with exchange of 
notes, signed at Ottawa on April 14, 1944. 

The English text of the treaty and the exchange 
of notes follow : 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland 
and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Em- 
peror of India, in respect of Canada, and His Ex- 
cellency the President of the National Government 
of the Republic of China ; 

Desiring to promote a spirit of friendship in 
the general relations between Canada and China, 
and for this purpose to adjust certain matters in 
the relations of the two countries; 

Have decided to conclude a Treaty for this pur- 
pose, and to that end have appointed as their 
Plenipotentiaries : 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland 
and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Em- 
peror of India, for Canada : 

The Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie King, 
Prime Minister, President of the Privy Council 
and Secretary of State for External Affairs of 
Canada, and 

His Excellency the President of the National 
Government of the Republic of China : 

His Excellency Dr. Liu Shih Shun, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Repub- 
lic of China to Canada ; 

Who, having communicated to each other their 
full powers, found in good and due form, have 
agreed on the following Articles: 

Article I 

In the present Treaty the expression "compa- 
nies" shall be interpreted as meaning limited lia- 
bility and other companies, partnerships and as- 



sociations constituted under the laws of Canada 
or of the Republic of China as the case may be. 

Article II 

All provisions of treaties or agreements in force 
between Canada and China, which authorize any 
British or Canadian authoi'ity to exercise juris- 
diction in China over Canadian nationals or com- 
panies are hereby abrogated. Canadian nationals 
and companies shall be subject in China to the ju- 
risdiction of the Government of the Republic of 
China, in accordance with the principles of inter- 
national law and practice. 

Article III 

The Government of Canada will cooperate, to 
the extent that any Canadian interest may be in- 
volved, with the Government of the Republic of 
China in negotiations and arrangements for the 
abandonment by foreign Governments of special 
privileges held by them in Peiping, Shanghai, 
Amoy, Tientsin and Canton, and will raise no ob- 
jection to any measures which may be directed to 
the abolition of such special privileges. 

Article IV 

(1) Article II of the present Treaty shall not 
affect existing rights in respect of, or existing 
titles to, real property in China held by Canadian 
nationals or companies. Such existing rights and 
titles shall be indefeasible except upon proof, es- 
tablished through due process of law, that such 
rights or titles have been acquired by fraud or by 
fraudulent or dishonest practices, it being under- 
stood that no right or title shall be rendered in- 
valid by virtue of any subsequent change in the 
official procedure through which it was acquired. 
It is agreed that the exercise of these rights or 
titles shall be subject to the laws and regulations 
of the Republic of China concerning taxation, 
national defence and the right of eminent domain 
and that no such rights or titles may be alienated 



MAY 13, 1944 



459 



to the Government or nationals (including com- 
panies) of any third country without the express 
consent of the Government of the Republic of 
China. And it is further agreed that the restric- 
tion on the right of alienation of existing right? 
and titles to real property referred to in this Ar- 
ticle will be applied by the Chinese authorities in 
an equitable manner and that if, and when, the 
Government of the Republic of China declines to 
give assent to a proposed transfer, the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of China will, in a spirit of 
justice and with a view to precluding loss on the 
part of the nationals or companies whose inter- 
ests are affected, undertake, if so requested by 
the nationals or companies to whom permission 
to alienate has been refused, to take over the rights 
and titles in question and to pay adequate com- 
pensation tlierefor. 

(2) Should the Government of the Republic 
of China desire to replace by new and appropri- 
ate deeds existing documentary evidence relat- 
ing to real property held by Canadian nationals 
or companies, the new deeds shall fully protect 
the prior rights and interests of the Canadian 
nationals or companies, and their legal heirs, suc- 
cessors or assigns. 

(3) Canadian nationals or companies shall not 
be required by the Chinese authorities to make any 
payments of fees in connection with land trans- 
fers for or with relation to any period prior to the 
day of coming into force of the present Treaty. 

ARTICliE V 

The Government of Canada having long ac- 
corded rights to nationals of the Republic of 
China within the territory of Canada to travel, 
reside and carry on trade throughout the whole 
extent of that territory, the Government of the 
Republic of China agrees to accord similar 
rights to Canadian nationals within the territory 
of the Republic of China. Each of the two Gov- 
ernments will endeavour to accord in territoi-y 
under its jurisdiction to nationals and companies 
of the other country in regard to all legal proceed- 
ings and in matters relating to the administration 
of justice, and to the levying of taxes or require- 



ments in connection therewith, treatment not less 
favourable than that accorded to its own nationals 
and companies. 

Article VI 

The consular officers of one High Contracting 
Party, duly provided with exequaturs, shall be 
permitted to reside in such ports, places and cities 
of the other High Contracting Party as may be 
agreed upon. The consular officers of each of the 
High Contracting Parties shall have the right to 
interview, to communicate with, and to advise 
nationals or companies of their country within 
their consular districts; they shall be informed 
immediately whenever nationals of their country 
are under detention or arrest or in prison or are 
awaiting trial in their consular districts and they 
shall, upon notification to the appropriate au- 
thorities, be permitted to visit any such nationals ; 
and, in general, the consular officers of each of the 
High Contracting Parties in the territory of the 
other shall be accorded the rights, privileges and 
immunities enjoyed by consular officers under 
modern international usage. 

It is likewise agreed that the nationals or com- 
panies of each of the High Contracting Parties in 
the territory of the other shall have the right at 
all times to communicate with the consular officers 
of their country. Communications to their con- 
sular officers from nationals of each of the High 
Contracting Parties who are under detention or 
arrest or in prison or are awaiting trial in the 
territory of the other High Contracting Party 
shall be forwarded to such consular officers by the 
local authorities. 

Article VII 

(1) The High Contracting Parties agree that 
they will enter into negotiations for the conclu- 
sion of a comprehensive modern treaty or treaties 
of friendship, commerce, navigation and consular 
rights upon the request of either of them or in 
any case within six months after the cessation of 
the hostilities in the war against the common 
enemies in which they are both now engaged. The 
treaty or treaties to be thus negotiated will be 
based upon the principles of international law and 



460 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



practice as reflected in modern international pro- 
cedure and in the modern treaties which each of 
the Governments has concluded with other 
Powers in recent years. 

(2) Pending the conclusion of the comprehen- 
sive treaty or treaties referred to in the preceding 
paragraph, if any questions affecting the rights in 
the territory of the Republic of China of the 
Canadian Government or of Canadian nationals 
or companies should arise in future and if these 
questions are not covered by the present Treaty 
and annexed exchange of notes or by the provi- 
sions of the existing treaties, conventions and 
agreements between the Governments of Canada 
and the Republic of China wliich are not abro- 
gated by or inconsistent with the present Treaty 
and annexed exchange of notes, such questions 
shall be discussed by representatives of the two 
Governments and shall be decided in accordance 
with the generally accepted principles of inter- 
national law and with modern international 
practice. 

Article VIII 

The High Contracting Parties agree that ques- 
tions which may affect the sovereignty of the Re- 
public of China and which are not covered by the 
present Treaty and annexed exchange of notes 
shall be discussed by representatives of the High 
Contracting Parties and decided in accordance 
with generally accepted principles of international 
law and modern international practice. 

Article IX 

The present Treaty shall be ratified and the in- 
stnnnents of ratification shall be exchanged at 
Chungking as soon as possible. The present 
Treaty shall come into force and be effective on 
the day of the exchange of ratifications. 

In witness whereof the above-mentioned Pleni- 
potentiaries have signed the present Treaty and 
affixed thereto their seals. 

Done at Ottawa this fifteenth day of April, 1944, 
corresponding to the fifteenth day of the fourth 
month of the thirty-third year of the Republic of 



China, in duplicate in English and Chinese, both 

texts being equally authentic. 

W. L. Mackenzie King 
Lm Shih Shun 



Embassy of the Republic of China, 

Ottawa, April i^, 19JfJf. 
Sir, 

In connection with the Treaty signed today be- 
tween His Excellency the President of the National 
Government of the Republic of China and His 
Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the 
British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of 
India, for Canada, I have the honour to state that 
it is the understanding of the National Govern- 
ment of the Republic of China that all rights and 
privileges relinquished by His Majesty the King, 
for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and India, as provided in the 
Treaty and exchange of notes of January 11, 1943, 
between the Republic of China on the one hand 
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Nortliern Ireland and India on the other, have 
been similarly relinquished by His Majesty the 
King for Canada. This understanding, if con- 
firmed by your Govermnent, shall be considered as 
forming an integral part of the Treaty signed to- 
day and shall be considered to be effective upon the 
date of the entry into force of that Treaty. I 
should be glad if you would confirm the above 
understanding on behalf of the Government of 
Canada. 

I avail [etc.] Liu Shih Shun 

The Secretary of State 
FOR External Affairs, 

Ottawa. 



Ottawa, April 14, 1944- 
Excellency, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
your Excellency's note of today's date reading as 
follows — 



i 



MAT 13, 1944 



461 



[Here follows the note from His Excellency Liu 
Shili Shun printed above.] 

I have the honour on behalf of the Government 
of Canada to confirm the understanding of the 
National Government of the Kepublic of China 
that all rights and privileges relinquished by His 
Majesty the King, for the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland and India, as 
provided in the Treaty and exchange of notes of 
January 11th, 1943, between the Republic of China 
on the one hand and the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and India on the 
other, have been similarly relinquished by His 
Majesty the King for Canada. 

This understanding shall be considered as form- 
ing an integral part of the Treaty signed today 
and shall be considered to be effective upon the dat« 
of the entry into force of that Treaty. 

Accept [etc.] 

W. L. Mackenzie King 
Secretary of State for External Affairs 

His Excellency Dr. Lru Shih Shun, 

Amhassador of the Republic of China, 
Chinese Ejnbassy, Ottawa. 



PROTOCOL ON PELAGIC WHALING 

The White House announced on May 10, 1944 
that on that date the President transmitted to the 
Senate, with a view to receiving the advice and 
consent of that body to ratification, a protocol re- 
lating to pelagic whaling operations, which was 
signed at London on February 7, 1944 for the 
United States of America, the Union of South 
Africa, the Commonwealth of Australia, the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and Norway. 

AGREEMENT FOR UNITED NATIONS RELIEF 
AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION 

India 

The Office of the Personal Representative of the 
President of the United States at New Delhi in- 
formed the Department of State, in a despatch of 
April 10, 1944, that the Legislative Assembly of 
India and the Council of State (Upper House) 
had approved on April 5 and 6, 1944, respectively, 
the Agreement for United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Administration signed at Washington 
on November 9, 1943. 



INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

El Salvador 

The American Embassy at San Salvador in- 
formed the Department of State, by a despatch of 
April 24, 1944, that on March 29, 1944 the National 
Legislative Assembly of El Salvador ratified the 
Convention on the Liter-American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences, which was opened for sig- 
nature at the Pan American Union on January 15, 
1944. The decree of ratification of the Conven- 
tion, copies of which were enclosed with the des- 
patch, was published in the Diario Oficial of April 
20, 1944. 

The decree reads in part as follows (transla- 
tion) : "The present decree will have the force of 
law from the day of its publication in the Diario 
OfudaV 



The Foreign Service 



The American Consulate at Southampton, Eng- 
land, was reestablished, effective April 30, 1944. 



Legislation 



Extension of Lend-Lease Act : 

Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 

United States Senate, 7Sth Cong., 2d sess., on H. B. 

4254. April 26, 1S>44. il, 54 pp. 

S. Kept. 848, 7Sth Cong., on H. R. 4254. [Favorable 

report. ] 5 pp. 

Estimate of Appropriation for the American Commission 

for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic 

Monuments in War Areas : Communication from the 



462 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



President of the United States transmitting an estimate 
of approiiriation for the American Commission for the 
Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monu- 
ments in War Areas, for the fiscal year 1945, amounting 
to $59,000. H. Doe. 568, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 
Retired Officers or Employees of the United States 
Tendered Decorations From Foreign Governments: 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting list of retired officers or employees of the 
United States for whom the Department of State is 
holding decorations, orders, medals, or presents ten- 
dered them by foreign governments. H. Doe. 583, 78th 
Cong. 3 pp. 



Recruiting of Mexican Non-Agricultural Workers : Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and Mex- 
ico — Etiected by exchange of notes signed at Mexico City 
April 29, 1943; effective April 29, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 376. Publication 2108. 14 pp. 50. 

Foreign Affairs of the United States in Wartime and 
After : Address by Breckenridge Long, Assistant Secre- 
tary of State, before the American Federation of Labor 
Fonim on Labor and the Post-War World, New York, 
N. Y., April 12, 1944. Publication 2110. 9 pp. 50. 

Diplomatic List, May 1944. Publication 2117. ii, 122 pp. 
Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Plantation Rubber Investigations : Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Mexico Continuing 
in Force an Agreement of April 11, 1941 as Supple- 
mented by an Agreement of July 14, 1942 and an Agree- 
ment of March 3, 4, and 29 and April 3, 1943, and Texts 
of Above-Cited Agreements — Effected by exchange of 
notes signed at Mexico City July 10 and September 20, 
1943; effective July 1, 1943. Executive Agreement Se- 
ries 364. Publication 2105. 20 pp. 100. 



Other Government Agencies 

Education in China Today [with bibliography], by C. O. 
Arndt, Severin K. Turosienski, and Tung Yuen Fong. 
1944. (Federal Security Agency, United States Office 
of Education.) 12 pp. 50 (available from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Printing Office). 

Greece, Selected List of References ; compiled by Ann 
Duncan Brown and Helen Dudenbostel Jones. 1943. 
(Bibliography Division, Library of Congress.) iv, 101 
pp., processed. Available from Library of Congress (free 
to institutions only). 

Colombia, Land of El Dorado. 1944. (Office of the Co- 
ordinator of Inter- American Affairs.) IG pp., illus. 
Available from CIAA. 



U. S. eOVERHHENT PRINTIHC OFFICE, IS44 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, ?2.75 a year 



PUBUSHEO WEBKLY WITH THB APPBOYAL OF THE DIBECTOR OF THE BUBEAD OF THE BUOOBT 



I-' 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.B U jL JL 



H 



1 r 



1 JL 



1 



N 



MAY 20, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 256— Publication 2128 







ontents 



The War Page 

Statement I)y the President 455 

Wartime Economic Problems and Post- War Trade: 

Address by Charles P. Taft 465 

Supplies for Liberated Areas: By James ^. SiiZ/weZZ . . 469 

Extension of the Lend-Lcase Act 478 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 478 
Civil-Affairs Agreements With Belgium, the Nether- 
lands, and Norway 479 

General 

National Foreign-Trade Week: Statement by tlie Sec- 
retary of State 479 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Twenty-sixth International Labor Conference: Re- 
marks by President Roosevelt 481 

Proposed Declaration Concernmg the Aims and Pur- 
poses of the International Labor Organization . . 482 

First Conference of Commissions of In ter- American 

Development 483 

A Pattern of National Unity: Address by Assistant 

Secretary Berle 484 

American Republics 

Protocol of Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries, Ecua- 
dor and Peru 487 

[oyer] 




tJ. §: gyPIRIffTENOENT OF DOCUh.twTS 

JUN 15 1944 







OIltentS-CONTlNVED 



The Department Page 

Change in Title of the Office of Foreign Service Admin- 
istration and Creation of the Division of Foreign 
Buildings Operations: Departmental Order 1273 

of May 6, 1944 488 

Modification of the Visa Procedure 490 

Appointment of Officers 490 

Treaty Information 

Australian -New Zealand Agreement, 1944 490 

Renewal of Naval-Aviation-Mission Agreement With 

Peru 490 



B. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19*4 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D, C, 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

FtlBLISHEP WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE 0IRECTOK OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



The War 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House May 20] 

President Eoosevelt made the following state- 
ment on May 20 in connection with Vice Presi- 
dent "Wallace's trij) to China : 

"I have asked the Vice President of the United 
States to serve as a messenger for me in China. 
He is taking with him Mr. John Carter Vincent, 
Chief of the Division of Cliinese Affairs, State 
Dejiartment ; Mr. Owen Lattimore, Deputy Direc- 
tor of the Overseas Branch, Office of War Infor- 
mation; and Mr. John Hazard, Chief Liaison 
Officer, Division for Soviet Supply, Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration. 

'"Eastern Asia will play a very important part 



in the future history of the world. Forces are 
heing unleashed there which are of the utmost im- 
portance to our future peace and prosperity. The 
Vice President, because of his present position 
as well as his training in economics and agricul- 
ture, is unusually well fitted to bring both to me 
and to the people of the United States a most valu- 
able first-hand report. 

"For the time being nothing more can be said 
of certain aspects of the Vice President's trip. 
Suffice it to say that he will be visiting a dozen 
places w'hich I have long wanted to see. He left 
today and will report to me upon his return which 
is expected about the middle of July." 



WARTIME ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND POST-WAR TRADE 

Address by Charles P. Tafl '■ 



[Released to the press May 17] 

The League of Women Voters seeks good gov- 
ernment in community, state, and nation and intel- 
ligent participation in government by all citizens, 
especially women. The League has emphasized the 
importance of foreign affairs and in that part of 
its program has made one of its greatest contribu- 
tions to the national interest. 

We need good government in our communities. 
We have made great progress in the 50 years since 
the National Municipal League first was organ- 
ized, and started people thinking about good pub- 
lic services well administered. The reforms that 
began in the cities have spread to the states and 
national governments, and the League has had an 
important part in every one of those fields. 

Those principles of local self-government and 
sound administration in public service are more 
important than ever today. Our civil-affairs offi- 
cers in Italy have found, and later in Germany and 
Japan will find, their greatest difficulty in the 
development of local political responsibility. I 
heard Count Sforza say a few months ago that 
Italy has one of the oldest traditions of local self- 



government, which gives hope there, in spite of the 
twenty-odd years of suppression. 

But it will be in Germany, with its centralized 
dictatorship, and in Japan, where little if any 
democratic experience or ideal has ever existed at 
the grass roots, that we shall have occasion to 
think well of our own citizenship and freedom — 
something we may have taken too lightly hereto- 
fore. W^e have a jewel of great price that we must 
cherish and preserve when we have won our battle 
in its defense. We are the oldest republic in the 
world with a tradition of democracy that devel- 
oped even faster than in the British Isles and Hol- 
land, from which came its beginnings. We face 
the menace of the dictatorships with a pattern of 
living and government essential for the future of 
the w' orld. 

This is a critical moment in the war. It is a 
critical moment from the strategic standpoint, 



' Delivered before a meeting of the Indiana League of 
Women Voters, Indianapolis, Ind., May 17, 1944. Mr. 
Taft is Director of tlie Ofiiee of Wartime Economic 
Affairs, Department of State. 

465 



466 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



with two of the prongs of our great world offensive 
already started toward the vitals of our enemies. 
In Itaiy and around the world, in the central and 
southwest Pacific, parts of the supreme attack have 
begun. The great invasion is poised. 

The real crisis is spiritual. We Americans re- 
acted none too well to the news from Cassino and 
Anzio, and we have been showing signs of strain. 
Can we stand up when the casualty lists begin to 
mount from the second and tliird and fourth 
fronts? We have been tired, and the British for 
good reason have been more tired than we. They 
have been at it two years longer than we, and they 
have lost in proportion to their population 10 or 
12 times as many as we liave, military and civilian, 
at the front and in the bombing blitz. Probably 
that is why criticism of both of our Governments, 
and especially of tlieii- foreign policies, rose on 
both sides of the Atlantic during these bleak win- 
ter months when plans were coming to fruition. 

This was the time when our faith and touglmess 
l>egan to be put to the test. Can we hold to our 
beliefs and stay by our judgment? Old principles 
sometimes seem watery and ineffective, patience 
wears thin, and you inspect your most trusted 
leaders. 

Mr. Hull himself was llms suspect dining that 
period, but his speech of April 9 reasserted his 
leadershij) of Americans of good-will. Democrats 
and Republicans alike. Mr. Hull presented to the 
people of the United States a vigorous reaffirma- 
tion of faith with a democratic toughness of fiber 
that gives hope to all of us, and gave specific guid- 
ance in some of these problems of foreign policy 
that have been a source of worry in the United 
States. 

This was his final paragraph : 

"All of these questions of foreign policy which, 
as I said earlier, is the matter of focusing and ex- 
pressing your will in the world outside our borders, 
are difficult and often involve matters of contro- 
versy. Under our constitutional system the will 
of the American people in this field is not effective 
imless it is united will. If we are divided we are 
ineffective. We are in a year of a national election 
in whicli it is easy to arouse controversy on almost 
any subject, whether or not the subject is an issue 
in the campaign. You, therefore, as well as we 



who are in public office, bear a great responsibility. 
It is the responsibility of avoiding needless con- 
troversy in tlie formulation of your judginents. It 
is the responsibility for sober and considered 
thought and expression. It is the responsibility 
for patience both with our Allies and with those 
who must speak for you with them. Once before 
in our lifetime we fell into disunity and became 
ineffective in world affairs by reason of it. Should 
this happen again it will be a tragedy to you and 
to your children and to the world for generations." 

My own concern in the Department of State in 
helping to produce that unity and prevent disunity 
is in the economic field, and particularly in the 
current operations of many Government depart- 
ments which affect our foreign relations. While 
theoretically I have Wartime Economic Affairs, 
and Hari-y Hawkins the Office of Economic Af- 
fairs, meaning long-time and post-war economics, 
the line can never be drawn with any exactitude. 
Every day I have to know from Mr. Hawkins' di- 
visions what is long-time policy in order to have 
our operating divisions guide current operations in 
the direction called for by that policy. 

^Ir. Hull referred to a number of these economic 
problems in his address. I am sure you will be 
interested in having me sjjell out some of his brief 
references. One of our most important responsi- 
bilities is in dealing with the European neutrals. 
Our growing strength and that of our Allies makes 
only one outcome of this war possible, he said : 

"We can no longer acquiesce in these nations' 
drawing ui)on the resources of the Allied world 
when they at the same time contribute to the death 
of troops whose sacrifice contributes to their salva- 
tion as well as ours. We .have scrupulously re- 
sfjccted the sovereignty of these nations; and we 
have not coerced, nor shall we coerce, any nation 
to join us in the fight. We have said to these 
countries that it is no longer necessary for them 
to purchase protection against aggression by fur- 
iii.shing aid to our enemy — whether it be by permit- 
ting official German agents to carry on their activi- 
ties of espionage against the Allies within neutral 
borders, or by sending to Germany the essential 
ingredients of the steel which kills our soldiers, 
or by permitting highly skilled workers and fac- 
tories to supply products which can no longer issue 



MAY 20, 1944 



467 



from the smoking ruins of German factories. We 
ask tliem only, but \Yith insistence, to cease aiding 
our enemy." 

The problem of German espionage by official 
agents in Spain and Ireland is a political matter 
not in my field. But the situation with reference 
to ferro-alloys from the neutrals surrounding 
Germany is very much my business. Wolfram 
(tungsten), nickel and chrome, and molybdenum 
and manganese come from Finland, Turkey, Spain, 
and Portugal; iron ore and ball bearings come 
from Sweden, and other articles from Switzer- 
land. We are saying to all these countries, with 
all the seriousness we can muster — you cannot 
continue to help the Germans kill our boys. You 
have limited these shipments considerably by 
agreement with us. Now you must limit them all 
still further and stop shipping what can be used 
by our enemies. Turkey has stopped chrome. 
Spain has cut wolfram to 25 percent of what she 
issued export licenses for in 1943. Our political 
and economic warfare people are going after Por- 
tugal and Sweden. 

Mr. Hull referred to order in Europe as essen- 
tial for the winning of the war. The order re- 
quired is economic as well as militai'y or police 
order. It is going to be terribly difficult to get 
the necessary food and supplies into Europe and 
distribute them equitably. Rationing will have to 
continue and somebody has to administer it. In- 
flation is one of the serious difficulties until normal 
channels of exports and imports are opened. So 
price control must continue. Americans of the 
blood of the liberated nations are naturally con- 
cerned and want to give and send money. Until 
the economic machinery is running on a relatively 
normal basis, sending money into these countries 
is no help but on the contrary will only contribute 
to inflation. The only answer is to ship food and 
supplies, and that will go just as fast as the gov- 
ernments and UNRRA can accomplish it. When 
food is a little more plentiful, then people can 
help their relatives by food drafts, mass extra 
shipments packaged on arrival in the foreign 
country and delivered to the person designated. 
That was done after the last war, but it will not be 
possible again for some time to come. 

The process that gets supplies where they must 
go is a complicated one in which the United 



States and the United Kingdom are operating 
as partners. That is no mere phrase. We have 
44 United and Associated Nations, but they have 
not yet completely learned to work together. The 
British and Americans are doing so, and their 
experience is a pattern for real progress toward 
international peace among all nations. 

Each of us, the British and ourselves, produce 
certain goods for the war effort. There are not 
enough to go around and each of us has agencies 
that allocate our production and our raw mate- 
rials to the domestic needs, and to the demands of 
tiie war abroad. For instance, there is a U.S. 
Food Requirements and Allocations Committee, 
■with members among others from the Army, Navy, 
Maritime Commission, War Production Board, 
AYar Food Administration, Foreign Economic 
Administration, and State Department. The War 
Production Board Requirements Committee is 
the same kind of body in the field of raw materials 
and manufactured goods from the United States. 

But then you have to measure U.S. allocations 
against supplies in the United Kingdom and other 
parts of the world, and needs abroad as well. So 
the Ignited States and the United Kingdom come 
together in what are called the Combined 
Boards— Combined Food Board, Combined Raw 
Materials Board, Combined Production and Re- 
sources Board, and Combined Shipping Adjust- 
ment Board, with Canada sharing in certain of 
these operations. There is full disclosure of all in- 
formation and a successful effort to operate with 
pooled resources and an agreed allocation of sup- 
plies available from other areas. 

But what you need from other countries does not 
come without effort, and the Government itself 
often has to send representatives abroad to be sure 
we get what we need. We may have to provide 
incentive payments, or even put on development 
programs to secure marginal ]n-oduction. In con- 
nection with that you must provide enough sup- 
plies to maintain the basic economies of those 
countries, and because there is virtually no area 
which is not contributing in .some measure to our 
united war effort, we find ourselves, United States 
and United Kingdom, assuming the responsibility 
of organizing the provision for the basic needs of 
tbe non-Axis world. 

That means a pretty complete disruption of 
normal lines of trade and a disruption equally of 



468 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the usual commercial channels. One of our steady 
persistent pressures, especially now as all but a 
few items are, while short, adequate for restricted 
needs, is to restore the use of the usual importers 
and exporters with their connections in banking, 
insurance, and as far as possible in shipping. In- 
ertia is hard to overcome, and foreign govern- 
ments, which have learned how to manage trade, 
don't let go easily of their trade controls. 

When surpluses come, as they have begun to in 
the case of wool, balsa, and shellac, for instance, 
we are faced with the problem of cutting back 
orders to fit requirements, although we may have 
made extensive moral commitments abroad. The 
State Department and Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration have their more extensive headaches with 
those questions. 

As these supplies become easier and the ship- 
ping more abundant, the allocations by some of 
these boards have less and less basis in supply and 
shipping considerations and more and more in 
post-war objectives for trade. We are scrutiniz- 
ing those decisions thoroughly and reviewing them 
to get rid both of unnecessary restrictions and of 
assignment of purchasing or selling areas that 
have become an assignment of markets divorced 
from strictly war considerations. 

At that stage you have to define your objective 
for post-war trade. My chief, in his speecli of 
April 9, reiterated the policy of tliis Government: 

"The heart of the matter lies in action which 
will stimulate and expand production in industry 
and agriculture and free international commerce 
from excessive and unreasonable restrictions. 
These are the essential prerequisites to maintain- 
ing and improving the standard of living in our 
own and in all countries. Production cannot go 
forward without arrangements to provide invest- 
ment capital. Trade cannot be conducted without 
stable currencies in which payments can be pi'om- 
ised and made. Trade cannot develop unless ex- 
cessive barriers in the form of tariffs, preferences, 
quotas, exchange controls, monopolies, and sub- 
sidies, and others are reduced or eliminated. It 
needs also agreed arrangements under which com- 
munication systems between nations and transport 
by air and sea can develop. And much of all this 
will miss its mark of satisfying human needs unless 
we take agreed action for the improvement of 



labor standards and standards of health and 
nutrition." 

Those ideals and objectives are not mere gen- 
eralities. With the experience of 10 years in ad- 
ministering the trade-agreements program, the 
staff of the State Department in commercial and 
commodity policy has been working for 2 years on 
very specific proposals and has been exploring their 
practical applications with the British, Canadians, 
and Latin American countries. 

Against the program you have first the old high- 
tariff ideas. These have lost any general support 
but still constitute an important section of opinion. 

Against this program also you have the program 
of the Federation of British Industry and the views 
expressed recently in a series of articles in the 
London Economist. These views call for a sterl- 
ing bloc of the United Kingdom, colonies, and the 
dominions, \A\xs the nearby European powers. 
Within that bloc would be a managed economy on 
an international scale, to jDrotect those within the 
bloc from the competition and trade and financial 
policies of the other nations. 

I will only say tonight that whatever you may 
hear at the moment, tliere is a large and I believe 
preponderant section of British opinion in business 
and in government to the contrary, and in favor of 
Secretary Hull's general proposals. That is alwaj'S 
on the condition that trade is so restored that 
Britain can export all that it must export to pay 
for the things it must import if it is to live at all. 

But the most dangerous views that we must meet 
are those of the pessimist, who says: Yes, this is 
all right in theory, and I would go along if it were 
possible. But these other nations will only look 
out for No. 1, especially the British and Russians, 
and in the end we shall only live by barter and 
bilateral exchanges that get us those few things we 
need. We must become self-contained and stand 
by our own strength. So speaks the pessimist and 
jingo-nationalist. 

In that way lies disaster. Our metals are run- 
ning out, and so may our oil eventually unless we 
exercise some restraint when our automobiles go 
back unrestrained on the highways after the war. 
Other essentials must come from abroad, and in 50 
years, like the British, we shall have to export to 
pay for the things we need for life. 



MAT 20, 1944 

We need an act of faith, not by ourselves, but 
jointly with the British Commonwealth and China 
and the other great trading powers. Russia is a 
state trader, but there is already evidence that that 
situation can be met by amicable agreement. 

We sliall travel after this war, as our i^eople have 
always traveled, and many times more often. The 
money we spend abroad enables foreigners to buy 
our goods. 

Every country will need industrial rehabilita- 
tion and reconstruction. We can afford to give 
long credits at low interest to industrialize them 
with our machinery, for that makes more custom- 
ers, able to buy more. It need not be economic 
imperialism, for, as in the case of the Export- 
Import Bank, we can require that the cost of local 
supplies and labor for projects abroad shall be 
furnished abroad, and at least 50-percent invest- 
ment from the foreign nation. An industrialized 
world with adequate labor protection and social- 



469 

welfare measures means that we do not need to 
worry in the end about cheap labor. In the mean- 
time our productive labor has shown that cheap 
labor is usually not as productive and that we can 
compete with anybody if we have a fair chance 
without controls and quotas and tariffs in foreign 
countries. 

Nobody is looking for free trade. Free trade 
without restriction could mean utter disruption 
of successful industries and major unemployment 
in spots. But the automobile industry has been 
only one demonstration— wheat in the northwest 
states is anotlier— that the most expert industrial 
and agricultural country in the world does not need 
to fear competition. Cheap labor is inefficient 
labor. We can afford to buy foreign products 
we need and use them for our profit, convenience, 
and pleasure, while we sell ours in exchange, 
around a great free globe of peace and prosperity. 



SUPPLIES FOR LIBERATED AREAS 

By James A. Stillwell'- 



It is not at all surprising that John Q. Public 
has so many and varied misconceptions concern- 
ing the role of the United States Government in 
providing supplies for the relief of the liberated 
populations of the world. Tlie campaign for vic- 
tory, with all its tremendous problems of logistics 
and its requirements of secrecy, cuts across so many 
of the plans for relief that officials with direct re- 
sponsibility often develop differing viewpoints. 
Many Government officials not directly connected 
with these operations have the same misconcep- 
tions of the problem as those so frequently ex- 
pressed by the citizens at large. 

At first glance this state of affairs may sound 
appalling, but by reviewing the varied events in 
the development of the United States Govern- 
ment's participation in the foreign-relief activities 
one can understand much easier that a state of 
confusion could exist. A review of those events 
tends to develop an appreciative attitude toward 
the groups who are directly responsible for pro- 
ducing relief supplies. 

As early as September 1941 a group of officials 
in the United Kingdom began to lay the ground- 



work for the planning of civilian-supply require- 
ments for the areas of Europe, then dominated by 
the Axis. The Allied governments realized that 
this was a problem of direct concern. Therefore, 
the Inter-Allied Committee on Post-War Require- 
ments was established in London under the leader- 
ship of Sir Frederick Leith-Ross. The purpose of 
the Committee was to establish over-all require- 
ments for food, clothing, medical and sanitary 
supplies, and temporary slielter that would be 
necessary in the event of liberation of the Axis- 
dominated areas. 

Tins Committee worked out an elaborate set of 
requirements for each of the countries under Axis 
domination. It divided these programs into four 
"time periods" of six months each, developing one 
set of figures upon what was called an "unscorched 
policy" and another upon what was called 
"scorched policy". Obviously, on an unscorched 
assumption the damage inflicted bj^ a retreating 
army and the destruction necessary to the advance 



' Mr. Stillwell is Adviser on Supplies in the Liberated 
Areas Division, Department of State. 



470 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of the Allied forces were assumed to be negligible. 
The importation of relief supplies under such con- 
ditions would naturally be far less in quantity than 
that necessary under any condition that would be 
likely to exist following the defeat of the Axis 
forces. 

The figures developed on the second assumption, 
oi- scorched policy, pyramided into fantastic pro- 
portions. In the developing of these two pro- 
grams, the Committee accumulated a great mass of 
invaluable factual data. It made elaborate studies 
of the eating habits in the various countries of 
Europe and drew up detailed tables of the nutri- 
tional value of food consumed and the average 
caloric consumption of the population of Europe. 
From these studies the Committee developed all 
the subsequent programs of food requirements for 
the liberated populations of Europe. 

The Leith-Ross committee consisted of members 
from the United Kingdom, the United States, and 
the various governments-in-exile. United States 
representatives, however, did not participate ac- 
tively in the formulation of the figures. The vari- 
ous technical groups drav>n from the ^Ministry of 
Food and from the Ministry of Supplies of the 
British Government did the actual work on these 
studies. 

In preparing its figiu-es, the Leith-Ross com- 
mittee did not attempt to relate the requirements 
to supply availability but concentrated its efforts 
to produce requirements figures based upon arbi- 
trary assumptions. 

Early in March 1943 the British Government 
appointed Sir Hubert Young to direct a system- 
atic revision of the Leith-Ross figures based upon 
actual trends and anticipated developments in the 
Allied war against the Axis. 

In this work Sir Hubert Young was appointed 
as working assistant to Sir Robert Sinclair. They 
established various working parties which re- 
viewed the figures by commodity and which pro- 
duced voluminous reports concerning every pliase 
of civilian supply in the liberated countries. 

A review of the reports of the Leith-Ross com- 
mittee and those of the Young-Sinclair working 
parties would prompt many people to say that a 
lot of paper had been wasted by "stratosphere 
planning." Such a statement, however, would be 
a gross injustice to the valuable work that these 



two connnittees had performed. One should re- 
member that the "long distance" plamiing which 
has been accomplished in Washington could never 
have been started without the untold amount of 
factual data documented by the Leith-Ross com- 
mittee and by the Young-Sinclair woi'king parties. 

Not before the invasion of North Africa was 
being planned did the United States Government 
become acutely aware of the practical planning 
necessary to the relief of the oppressed popula- 
tions of occupied areas. 

Officials interested in post-war relief found it 
extremely difficult to divert the attention of the 
leaders in Washington from the actual prosecution 
of the war to the intangible job of planning civilian 
supplies for sick and hungry people who, we 
hoped, might be liberated in the near future. 
Many people, to be sure, looked upon this Gov- 
ernment's first step toward establishing a foreign- 
relief organization as a "glorified world-wide 
WPA project." 

Governor Lehman faced a rather hostile atmos- 
phere when he came to Washington on December 
4, 1942 as Director of the newly established Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations. 
Militai-y leaders were too busy with the grim busi- 
ness of winning a war and officials of other Gov- 
ernment agencies were too engrossed in handling 
the specific essential jobs outlined for them to dis- 
cuss problems of relief after a war that was cer- 
tainly far from being won. To complicate Gov- 
ernor Lehman's problem further, the Office of For- 
eign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations received 
no funds to activate the programs of relief that 
it had established. Director Lehman was in- 
structed to look to the Lend-Lease Administra- 
tion for any funds necessary for the procurement 
of supplies for relief purposes. 

This type of procurement was an entirelj' new 
field for the Lend-Lease Administration, particu- 
lai'ly in view of the fact that all of its previous 
activities had been on a government-to-govern- 
ment basis ; whereas, the handling of procurement 
for the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
was a very indirect business and one that would 
necessitate uncertain quantities of supplies for un- 
certain destinations. This plan would mean 
"stockpiling relief supplies". Many members of 
Congress and the allocating authorities in Wash- 



MAT 20, 1944 



471 



ington looked upon such a plan with A'ery little 
favor. 

In order to fulfil its responsibilities, however, 
the Lend-Lease Administration established a Lib- 
erated Areas Branch in March 1943, under the di- 
rection of Mr. Walter Thaj'er. In the meantime, 
the Office of Foreign Belief and Rehabilitation 
Operations had established several technical 
groups who were producing requirements pro- 
grams for the relief activities that they antici- 
pated. They had established also a Procurement 
Division for the purpose of activating these pro- 
grams into actual goods. 

Thus began an era of jurisdictional difficulties. 

The Lend-Lease Administration felt its respon- 
sibilities as custodian of the lend-lease funds. The 
Office of Foreign Eelief and Rehabilitation was 
keenly aware of its responsibilities for directing 
the relief role to be played by this Government in 
liberated areas. Differences of ojjinion would in- 
evitable' arise concerning the validity and even the 
necessity for the supplies that OFRRO was requi- 
sitioning. Effective working agreements between 
the two organizations were soon established, how- 
ever, and the difficult task of clearing the various 
hurdles of allocations of materials, production 
priorities, and delivery schedules progressed. 

Both the Lend-Lease Administration and the 
Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation were 
having personnel difficulties which further compli- 
cated this process of development; the latter, an 
entirely new organization, was forced to gather 
personnel who were entirely unfamiliai* with the 
intricate processes of governmental procurement. 
All of them were enthusiastic in their main ob- 
jective of producing a program of civilian sup- 
plies for the suffering populations of Europe, but 
they were definitely annoyed when those programs 
were not promptly translated into terms of actual 
supplies. Before the meshing of the gears of the 
new philosophy of lelief could be synchronized 
with that of the prosecution of the war policy 
existent in Washington OFRRO and Lend-Lease 
Administration experienced a period of change. 

Mr. Walter Thaj'er of the Lend-Lease Adminis- 
tration had been called to London to assume an 
important position on the staff of Mr. Averill Har- 
riman's mission in London ; the Assistant Director 

588741 — 14 2 



of Liberated Areas Branch, Mr. John O'Boyle, was 
called into Uncle Sam's Army ; Mr. Rupert Emer- 
son, formerly Regional Administrator for the 
Office of Price Administration, was brought to the 
Lend-Lease Administration to head a new Lib- 
erated Areas Division; and the writer was ap- 
pointed as Deputy Director to assist in the reor- 
ganization and enlargement of the Division. 

By this time, because of the lack of tangible evi- 
dence of progress, the officials of the Office of 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation were becoming 
increasingly impatient. The very excellent 
groundwork done by Messrs. Thayer and O'Boyle 
enabled the new Liberated Areas Division to pro- 
duce some early results for OFRRO in the form of 
actual contracts for the procurement of the goods. 

The purchase of supplies for relief purposes was 
restricted to those items which required a lengthy 
period of manufacture and which were of common 
need to all areas. To have procured large quan- 
tities of food supplies or other perishable products, 
since the fact of liberation was undeterminable, 
would have been impracticable. 

Contracts were made, therefore, for the procure- 
ment of shoes, used clothing, a few textile materials, 
and a variety of hand tools and other small equip- 
ment necessary to a relief operation. One should 
point out that procurement was approved only for 
those items that would obviously be required from 
this country's production, and that procurement 
was limited to quantities that could be only a mere 
token of the actual requirements. 

Several million pairs of shoes suitable for relief 
purposes were procured, sorted, and packed for ex- 
port. Since these shoes were secured from dis- 
tressed stocks, the civilian supply of this country 
was not affected. In view of the fact that leather 
was in extremely short supply, a shoe was designed 
to be made primarily of canvas uppers with compo- 
sition soles. Contracts were let with several manu- 
facturers to produce several million pairs of this 
type of shoe. As a result, approximately 13,- 
OOO.nOO pairs of shoes, at the average cost of $1.33 a 
pair, will be in stockpile ready for relief use by 
July 1944. 

The procurement of supplies for relief purposes 
presents many more problems than any other type 
of procurement, pai'ticularly while all of the 



472 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nation's industries are busy producing materials 
for war. 

It was essential that any items procured for 
relief purposes should not create an undue burden 
either on the material supply or on the production 
facilities of this country. Public opinion must 
also be taken into account. Many persons thought 
that the American public did not look favorably 
upon restrictive rationing, even though the pro- 
curement of large quantities of relief supplies 
had caused that restriction. To make up relief 
supplies of those items which could be supplied, 
as far as possible, without an undue drain on the 
civilian economy was important ; and to maintain 
the position of the American taxpayer by holding 
the cost of relief goods to the lowest possible figure 
was essential. 

With those factors in mind, procurement officials 
were instructed to take advantage of all used 
materials available. As a result of this instruc- 
tion, thev had to face many more complicated 
problems. 

From a political point of view, the peoples of 
Europe wlio would be the recipients of those relief 
goods had to be given some consideration. The 
benevolence of the United States Government 
would not be particularly impressive to those peo- 
ples if we attempted to present them with 
worn-out, tattered clothing and broken-down 
equipment as our effort toward their relief. Con- 
sequently, the procurement of used materials had 
to be directed in a sensible manner. 

The procurement of used articles also presented 
many operational difficulties. For example, the 
purcliase of new clothing necessary to clothe a 
stated number of individuals of all ages is rela- 
tively simple since it can be ordered by specific 
sizes, qualities, and amounts. Used clothing, 
which generally must be repaired and disinfected, 
cannot be gathered by any definite specifications. 
The piocess of sorting, disinfecting, repairing, 
and packing is in itself a major operation. The 
procurement contracts, however, alM'ays include 
specific packing instructions so that when the arti- 
cles are finished they are delivered to the trans- 
portation agents properly packed, marked, and 
ready for shipment. 

In spite of all these difficulties, large amounts 
of used garments of all types, including blankets, 
were assembled and made ready for export. 



Neither the Office of Foreign Relief and E«- 
Iiabilitation nor the Office of Lend-Lease Admini- 
stration had any specific information concerning 
when, wliere, or how much of these goods would 
be needed. This fact made all these operations 
more difficult. 

Tlie War Department had also been drawn into 
the relief business by virtue of its participation in 
tlie invasion of Sicily and Italy. The War De- 
partment's basic philosophy concerning civilian 
supplies in liberated areas was drawn from the 
rules adopted at the Geneva Conference. Under 
these rules, the armed forces were obligated to 
prevent starvation and the spread of disease and 
pestilence among the people .of the areas they oc- 
cupy. They could fulfil this obligation by dis- 
tributing basic Army rations to starving people 
and by applying simple precautions for their 
health and sanitation. 

The Secretary of War, soon realizing, however, 
lliat the regular operational divisions of the Army 
could not be expected to handle properly the civil- 
ian-sui)ply problems presented by the liberation of 
large jiopulations, established a Civilian Affairs 
Division in his General Staff and appointed Maj. 
Gen. John H. Hilldring as its Director. This 
Civilian Affairs Division was to be responsible for 
the establishing of policies, the programming of 
requirements, and the administering of the relief 
activities of the Army in all areas where the 
United States was to participate in military 
operations. 

With so many different organizations dealing 
with relief problems for the same areas and with 
no definite understanding among them as to the 
specific responsibilities of each, a general state 
of confusion naturally developed. For this rea- 
son, the Department of State was directed to 
establish the Office of Foreign Economic Coordina- 
tion .under the direction of Assistant Secretary 
Dean Acheson. This Office was to provide a forum 
wliere jurisdictional questions among the various 
agencies could be heard and general agreements 
could be reached concerning the operations of this 
Government's relief activities. Up until this time, 
little attention had been given to the problem of 
coordinating the Anglo-American view of relief 
operations. Obviously, this coordination was 
necessary if we expected the United Kingdom to 
bear a part of the material and financial burden. 



MAY 20, 1944 



473 



The idea of an international relief organization 
had been quite generally discussed, but the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United 
Kingdom recognized that they would have to bear 
the major portion of the cost. 

The very nature of our military relations with 
the United Kingdom made it simple to establish 
a combined mechanism for handling military re- 
lief problems. The Combined Civil Affairs Com- 
mittee was therefore organized under the Com- 
bined Chiefs of Stall' for the purpose of dealing 
with the civilian-supply problems which directly 
affected military operations. Thus civilian-sup- 
ply problems in Italy became a proper subject for 
the Combined Civil Affairs Committee. No one 
knew just how, when, or where military respon- 
sibilit^v would cease and civilian responsibility 
would begin. 

These are a few of the problems which Mr. 
Acheson's coordinating committee had to face. All 
the civilian agencies directly concerned with I'elief 
activities were represented on the Committee. 
General Hilldring was the War Department's rep- 
resentative. The early sessions of the Committee 
served to outline prominently the disorganized 
state of this Government's relief efforts and to 
establish the necessity for the combined planning 
of the United States and United Kingdom civilian 
organization and for the direct coordination of 
those plans with the military relief programs. 

The Committee could not possibly relate the 
civilian agencies' responsibilities to definite time 
periods, because when a so-called military period 
would start or end was not known; nor could the 
Committee determine which civilian agency would 
assume operational responsibilities when the 
period of military responsibility had ended. 

Negotiation necessary to the establishment of 
an international relief organization had been quite 
successful. On November 9, 1943, forty-four na- 
tions signed the agreement to participate in an 
international relief effort. 

Representatives of these forty-four nations at- 
tended the first conference of the United Nations 
Relief and Reliabilitation Administration in At- 
lantic City from November 9 through December 3, 
1943. Governor Lehman, the Director of the Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation, was unani- 
mously elected as the Director General of this new 



international organization, and Mi'. Acheson 
became the United States member of the council. 

It was generally understood that the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
would absorb the personnel of the Office of Foreign 
Relief and Rehabilitation Operations. 

The President, in the meantime, had issued an 
Executive order for the amalgamation of the Lend- 
Lease Achninistration, the Office of Foreign Eco- 
nomic Coordination, the Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation Operations, the Office of Eco- 
nomic Warfare, and the United States Commercial 
Corporation into one agency: the Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration. Tliis amalgamation elimi- 
nated most of the difficulty of determining which 
civilian agency would be responsible for relief ac- 
tivities; but it did not establish the relative re- 
sponsibilities of the military, the United States 
civilian agencies, and the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration. The United 
States Army was the only agency of this Govern- 
ment directly involved in current civilian-supply 
problems in Italy. The military leaders were not 
eager to continue handling the relief problems in 
the liberated areas, but no other agency existed, at 
that particular time, to which they could transfer 
this responsibility. 

On November 10 the President addressed a letter 
to Secretary of War Stimson directing the War 
Department to assume the responsibility for ship- 
ping and distributing relief supplies to the civilian 
populations of liberated areas until such time as 
the civilian agencies would be in a position to take 
over the longer-range program of relief. 

AVith the placing of this new responsibility upon 
the War Department and with the establishment of 
UNRRA, plus the organization of FEA, the char- 
acter of the work to be done within the Depart- 
ment of State concerning relief operations was 
materially changed. A residual part of the Office 
of Foreign Economic Coordination was, therefore, 
retained in the Department of State as the Office 
of the Special Adviser on Liberated Areas, and 
early in November 1943 several area and func- 
tional advisers to Assistant Secretary Dean Ache- 
son were appointed to carry out the work neces- 
sary in the liberated-areas activities. 

One of these positions was designated for an 
Adviser on Supplies for Liberated Areas, whose 



474 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



duty was to advise the FEA and the War Depart- 
ment on foreign-policy questions in supplying the 
liberated areas. The course of events required 
what in effect was coordination by the Department 
of State between the United States agencies, 
UNRRA. and the governments-in-exile. 

In spite of the fact that the War Department 
had had no previous direct responsibility for for- 
mulating plans and for preparing the programs 
of civilian supplies for liberated areas, it was ob- 
viously a military necessity in the immediate zone 
of operations and therefore essential to prepare 
such plans as promptly as possible. Procurement 
of supplies had to be coordinated under one general 
plan. Furthermore, the progress of the war in 
Europe made it quite obvious that this Govern- 
ment would be caught again in the position of "too 
little and too late" unless quick results could be 
obtained in the field of actual procurement of nec- 
essary relief supplies. 

On November 17, 1943 General Hilldring called 
a meeting of what he designated as an Ad Hoc 
Economic Committee to discuss the activation of 
the President's directive to the War Department 
concerning its civilian-supply activities. Since 
most of the members of the Division of Economic 
Affairs of the Department of State and the offi- 
cials of the Liberated Areas Division of FEA were 
attending the UNRRA Conference in Atlantic 
City, the Adviser on Supplies of the Department 
of State attended the meeting, representing both 
the Liberated Areas of the Department and the 
Liberated Areas of FEA. 

At that meeting the Committee drew up plans 
whereby a working relationship between FEA, the 
DeiJartment of State, and the War Department 
would be immediately established for the purpose 
of preparing a program of supplies for liberated 
areas. 

A Supply Subcommittee which had been estab- 
lished under the jurisdiction of the old OFEC had 
made very little progress toward accomplishing 
a combined United States - United Kingdom pro- 
gram for the countries of Europe. This Commit- 
tee, consisting of representation from the British 
Embassy Staff, the Department of State, FEA, 
and the International Division of the War Depart- 
ment, attempted a reconciliation of the Young- 
Sinclair figures with those which OFRRO had 



produced. It failed to accomplish tliis purpose, 
mainly because of the lack of a coordinated Ameri- 
can view. The Committee had, however, succeeded 
in performing the very useful function of an oper- 
ating facility for clearance of current requests from 
the Allied military leaders in Italy for many types 
of items which the supply authorities of either 
the United States or United Kingdom military 
organizations had failed to procure. 

Up until that time the War Department had 
taken the position that it could supply only those 
items for civilian relief which were already in- 
cluded in its regular Army supply program. Con- 
sequently, it called upon the Lend-Lease Division 
of FEA to procure such things as clothing and 
textiles, agricultural implements, seeds, pesticides, 
and fertilizers. 

The handling of civilian affairs in Italy and of 
the requisitions from General Eisenhower had long 
since pointed out the necessity of supplying items 
that would assist the liberated people to produce 
food, clothing, and other supplies essential to the 
relief within the area liberated. Actual impor- 
tation of civilian supplies into the liberated areas 
of Sicily and Italy was increasing at such a rapid 
rate that if continued it would have been necessary 
to import, within a very few months, all of the 
consumer goods necessary to civilian existence. 
The civilian-affairs officials of the Allied armies 
backed by the Allied commander began calling 
frantically for the importation of agricultural- 
production goods, particularly seeds, fertilizers, 
and many types of repair equipment, so that both 
the agricultural and industrial facilities could be 
put to work producing indigenous supplies. 

Fortunately, the old Liberated Areas Division 
of Lend-Lease and the Office of Foreign Relief 
and Rehabilitation persomiel had continued to pro- 
cure and stockjDile several basic items which they 
were quite certain would be necessary in relief 
operations. Up to that time, many people had 
roundly criticized, both publicly and privately, 
those activities. 

Only through these stockpiles was the United 
States Army able to meet several emergency situa- 
tions, to avert chaotic conditions developing 
among the civilian populations, and to make emer- 
gency shipments of clothing during the winter 
months for approximately 400,000 men, women, 



MAY 2 0, 1944 



475 



and children in Italy. It was able to deliver, also, 
several thousand tons of fertilizers, seed potatoes, 
pesticides, coal-mine repair equipment, and many 
other essential items that could not have been ob- 
tained had the stockpiles not been developed. 

These experiences were of inestimable value in 
re-orienting the general approach to the problems 
of civilian relief and supply. 

On December 21, 1943 General Hilldring, Chief 
of the Civil Affairs Division of tlie General Staff, 
formed a working party of representatives of the 
Doixirtnient of State. FEA, and the International 
Division of the Army to produce a program of 
sujiplies for all the areas of Europe to be liberated. 
The pi'ograni had to be of such a character that it 
would receive the consolidated support of all 
American agencies. 

Since the military period of operations in Euro- 
pean areas could not be determined and since it 
was not known when the invasion would start, the 
working party agreed that a program should be 
jiroduced which would be so modest in character 
that immediate procurement could be undertaken. 

For this reason, the first six months were desig- 
nated, merely for the convenience of planning, as 
the "military period". However, in some areas 
the military authorities would have to maintain 
control of civilian-supply activities for much 
longer than six months, whereas in other areas 
military control might not be necessary for longer 
than one, two, or three months. 

The working parties were directed to produce a 
complete program within seven days' time. They 
operated day and night, drawing together factual 
data from the studies made by the Leith-Ross 
committee, Young-Sinclair working parties, the 
OFRRO organization, and the technical staffs of 
the War Department. They produced two sets of 
figures, designated as "Plan A" and "Plan B". 

Plan A was based upon the assumption of a com- 
plete collapse of the Axis in Europe by February 
1, 1944 and no scorching in the areas liberated. 
Plan B was developed on the assumption of col- 
lapse during the early months of the year but with 
considerable amount of scorching in the areas 
liberated. A variation of these plans, assuming 
collapse during the fall season of the year, was 
developed to determine the essential diffei'ences in 
the requirements of a particular area for the dif- 
ferent seasons of the year. 

riSS741 — 44 3 



About January 1, 1944, the supply officials of 
the United States Army presented Plan A to the 
British Army Staff for concurrence, through the 
Supply Subcommittee of the Combined Civil Af- 
fairs Committee. The British referred the figures 
to the War Office in Loudon, and several discus- 
sions between the British Military, United States 
Military, the Department of State, and FEA 
representatives ensued, before the CCAC gave the 
program official approval on February 17, 1944. 

Plan A in its original form included supplies 
of food, medical and sanitary supplies, soap, 
petroleum, coal, clothing, textiles, shoes, and agri- 
cultural-production goods for all the countries of 
Europe except Germany and Austria. The plan 
included only a small quantity of supplies for the 
relief of a portion of Allied prisoners of war and 
alien forced-labor battalions within Germany and 
Austria. It provided no goods for the relief of 
German nationals, pending determination of policy 
on the treatment of Germany after surrender. 

The food program in Plan A was based upon 
tonnages necessary to supplement the indigenous 
supplies. In a country wliere a part of the popula- 
tion is receiving on the present ration only 1,500 
calories per da_y per person, Plan A provides suffi- 
cient food to supply an additional 500 calories a day 
for each jDerson. At best, these tonnages will prob- 
ably supply only enough food to bring the per- 
capita intake of persons now receiving less than, 
2j000 calories a day up to that level, which, accord- 
ing to nutritionists, is the minimum for bare sub- 
sistence. The average dailj' consumption of food 
by the people in the United States is about 3,400 
calories. Tonnages of food in Plan A would pro- 
vide only 7 percent of the calories consumed in the 
same areas in a corresponding pre-war period. 

By volume, Plan A calls for the importation of 
about 3,300,000 metric tons of food to the liberated 
areas of Europe during the first 6-month period. 
To the average individual that may appear to be a 
staggering figure, and the figures as such should 
be cautiously used. The conunon belief of the 
American people is that the United States will have 
to be the, "bread basket" for all the suffering popu- 
lations of the world for a period of time after the 
war is won. For this reason, the average person 
would automatically assume that a major portion 
of the 3,300,000 tons of food would have to come 
from the United States. 



476 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIISi 



The facts are quite contrary to the general im- 
pression. Of the total amount of food required in 
Plan A, supply authorities estimate that only about 
16 percent to 20 percent by voliune will have to be 
furnished from the United States. This estimate 
can be easily understood upon proper analysis of 
the content of the food program. Of the 3,300,000 
tons of food required, wheat alone makes up a 
total of 2,500,000 tons. The United States is not 
a major source for exportable surpluses of wheat. 
Approximately 95 percent of the wheat will have 
to come from sources outside the United States, 
such as Canada, Australia, India, and Argentina. 
By volume, the United States will probably be the 
source of supply for less than 15 percent of the 
total requirements. That volume, however, will 
represent approximately 55 percent to 60 percent 
of the dollar value of the total program, since the 
items which the United States must furnish in 
quantity, such as medical supplies, clothing, tex- 
tiles, shoes, and agricultural equipment, have a 
much higher unit cost than do foodstuffs and coal. 

The officials of the Army Service Forces of the 
United States Army have constantly maintained 
the position that they should procure only those 
items common to their regular Army Supply Pro- 
gram. They, therefore, requested the officials of 
the FEA to assume the responsibility for the pro- 
curement of the clothing, textiles, shoes, and agri- 
cultural-production goods included in Plan A. 
Since some sort of machinery, under this arrange- 
ment, was necessary to coordinate the views of 
FEA, the Department of State, and the Army on 
problems of supply, the United States Procure- 
ment Committee was established on about Febru- 
ary 1, 1944. Its members consisted of the Chief 
of the International Division, United States 
Army; Procurement Officer, Liberated Areas 
Branch, FEA; and the Adviser on Supplies, De- 
partment of State. The chief purpose of this 
Committee was to iron out the operational difficul- 
ties encountered in attempting to place the United 
States portion of Plan A into actual procurement ; 
and in order to carry out its responsibilities, the 
Committee secured the cooperation of the various 
governmental agencies which had a direct inter- 
est in the supply problems. The Committee estab- 
lished, as a result, the practice of providing a 
forum where such agencies as the War Shipping 
Administration, the Treasury, WPB, and the 



technical-service branches of the Army could ex- 
press their views concerning the supply problems 
presented. 

Even after Plan A was produced in its original 
form, a tremendous amount of work was necessary 
before the program could be submitted to allocat- 
ing authorities for recommendations concerning 
sources of supply. The technical staffs of FEA 
and the service branches of the Army presented, 
through the facilities of the United States Pro- 
curement Committee, detailed specifications of all 
the requirements. 

If the United States Procurement Committee 
could have submitted all of the program to one 
committee or to one industry division of the War 
Production Board, the United States allocating 
authority for supplies other than food, the mat- 
ter of securing advice from the supply authorities 
would have been reasonably easy. But the proc- 
ess was not so simple as that. 

It was necessary to submit the food and soap 
requirements of the program to the War Food 
Administration. However, several different divi- 
sions of WPB handle the allocation of other com- 
modities in the program, such as medical and sani- 
tary supplies, which consist of some 7,000 items. 
That part of the program as well as many other 
parts had to be broken down so that it could be 
presented to the proper authorities. Coal is un- 
der the jui'isdiction of the Solid Fuels Adminis- 
trator; petroleum allocations are handled by the 
Army and Navy Petroleum Board ; textiles, cloth- 
ing, and shoes come under the authority of the 
Textile Industry Division of WPB ; and agricul- 
tural-machinery part of the agricultural program J 
comes under the jurisdiction of another industry ■ 
division of WPB ; and the fertilizer and part of 
the agricultural program come under the juris- 
diction of both the War Food Administration and 
the WPB. 

One should readily understand, therefore, that 
the presentation of the program (Plan A) to allo- 
cating authorities was a major operation. 

Many meetings were held, both at high and low 
levels, concerning the apparent lack of progress 
in the implementation of Plan A. 

In the meantime, however, the United States 
Army had decided that it had no direct respon- 
sibility for programming supplies for the countries 
of Eastern Europe and therefore did not feel 



MAY 2 0, 10 11 



477 



justified in requesting allocating authorities to 
indicate sources of supply for the part of Plan A 
designated for that area. Several conferences 
were held among the officials of FEA, the De- 
partment of State, and the War Department con- 
cerning this problem. Subsequently, an agree- 
ment was reached whereby the War Department 
would be responsible for the programming and 
procuring of the supplies to come from the United 
States destined for Western Europe, Germany, 
Austria, and that part of Italy yet to be liberated. 
Supplies for the Balkans, Southern Italy, Sicily, 
and Sardinia would be handled as a direct Lend- 
Lease operation, but FEA would transfer the sup- 
plies so procured to the United States Army for 
transportation to the ultimate destination. It was 
assumed that in the part of Eastern Europe which 
is to be the scene of Russian military operations, 
the primary responsibility for civilian supplies 
during the military period would be the direct 
concern of the Soviet forces, and any assistance 
required from the United States would be given 
through the mechanics of the Soviet Lend-Lease 
Protocol. 

In accordance with these agreements, the De- 
partment of State, FEA, and the War Department 
prepared a combined statement which they pre- 
sented to the Appropriations Committee of the 
House of Representatives, and from which they 
drew up the budgets for the fiscal year 1945. 

^Vlien the American allocating authorities had 
made their recommendations concerning the source 
of supply, they presented those recommendations 
to the Combined Boards for official Anglo-Ameri- 
can opinions. 

Upon receipt of a source-of-supply recommen- 
dation from the Combined Boards, the combined 
United States - United Kingdom military author- 
ities had to determine procurement responsibility 
as between these respective countries. That is the 
point which has now been reached. 

From the procedural difficulties outlined above, 
it is surprising that any supplies have been pro- 
cured. Actually, however, when the final agree- 
ment is reached in a few days as to procurement 
responsibility on the total requirements of Plan A, 
enough supplies will already have been procured 
in stockpile to cover at least 50 percent of the pro- 
gram. Because of the previous procurement activ- 
ities on the old OFRRO programs, the FEA will 



have sufficient quantities of clothing, shoes, tex- 
tiles, and agricultural equipment to meet a large 
percentage of the United States share. Sizeable 
quantities of medical and sanitary supplies, soap 
and food can be drawn from the Army stockpiles. 
At the same time, pi-ocurement has been proceed- 
ing in the United Kingdom to the extent that that 
nation will be able to provide its share of Plan A 
for a 90-day period from existing stockpiles. Ad- 
ditional procurement will be necessary, of course, 
but the actual ability to meet urgent demands is 
far greater than is generally realized. 

In the United States procurement has also pro- 
gressed enough to be in a position to negotiate cost 
responsibility with the United Kingdom. This 
negotiation is now under way. 

Of course, Plan A is not a complete program of 
relief for the Liberated Areas of Europe, nor is it 
a fixed program for the military period. It covers 
only a six-month period, and it is expected that 
the i-evision processes will be continuous and will 
be based on actual reports from the field. 

The completion of this first effort, however, has 
provided a basic program against which procure- 
ment has proceeded, and the process of its de- 
velopment has established the machinery through 
which revisions and additional progi'ams can be 
greatly facilitated. 

Some progress has been made toward establish- 
ing a direct coordination between the program 
for the military period with the programs being 
developed by UNRRA for subsequent periods. It 
is anticipated, however, that UNRRA will operate 
only in those areas where the indigenous Allied 
govermnents are not capable of handling their 
own post-military relief activities. Some of these 
governments may be able to pay for the supplies 
distributed during the military period. The re- 
cipients themselves will pay for much of the food 
and equipment, which is more correctly described 
as civilian supply than as relief. 

The total burden upon the United States for 
relief supplies to Liberated Areas cannot, at this 
time, be determined. If, however, this discussion 
of Plan A clears up some of the misconceptions 
concerning the extent and the scope of this Gov- 
ernment's plans for providing civilian supplies to 
the liberated populations of the world, it will 
have accomplished a useful purpose. 



478 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



EXTENSION OF THE LEND-LEASE ACT ' 

[Released to the press by the White House May 17] 

On May 17. 1944, the President approved H.R. 
4254, the extension of the Lend-Lease Act, and 
issued the following statement : 

"Once again, by overwhelming majorities, the 
elected representatives of the American people in 
the Congress have affii'med that lend-lease is a 
powerful weapon working for the United States 
and the other United Nations against our common 
enemies. For the third time, I am affixing my ap- 
proval to a Lend-Lease Act. 

"Wlien, on March 11, 1941, the Lend-Lease Act 
first became law, Britain stood virtually alone be- 
fore the tide of Axis aggression which had swept 
across western Europe. Everywliere the peace- 
loving peoples of the world were facing disaster. 
But the iDassage of the Lend-Lease Act gave firm 
assurance to those resisting the aggressors that 
the overpowering material resources of the United 
States were on their side. 

"After we were attacked on December 7, 1941, 
lend-lease became an essential part of our own war 
effort. 

"The promise of ever-increasing help which the 
Lhiited States held forth to those who defied the 
Axis has been fulfilled. In April 1941, the first full 
month of the lend-lease program, we furnished aid 
valued at 28 million dollars. In the month of 
March 1944, the lend-lease aid supplied amounted 
to $1,629,554,000— almost as much as the aid ren- 
dered during the entire first year of lend-lease 
operations. From the beginning of the lend-lease 
program in March 1941 to April 1, 1944, our aid 
totaled $24,224,806,000. 

"Through lend-lease and I'everse lend-lease, the 
material resources and supplies of the United Na- 



' Under the act approved Mar. 11, 1041, as amended, 
known as "the Lend-Lease Act", agreements have been 
entered into with the following cotnitries: Anstr.ilia, Bel- 
gium, Bolivia, Brazil. Canada, Chile. China, Colombia, 
Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fighting France, Greece, 
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Liberia, Mexico, 
Netherland.s, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paragua.v, 
Peru, Poland, Union of Soviet .Socialist Republics, United 
Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. 

' BuLLETi.N of May 6, 1944, p. 413. 



tions have been pooled for their most effective use 
against our common enemies. 

"The combined forces and the combined re- 
sources of the United Nations are striking with 
their united strength from all directions against 
the heart of Nazi Germany. Our fighting men are 
joined with British, Soviet, French, Dutch, Polish, 
Czech, Yugoslavian, and the fighting men of the 
other LTnited Nations. In the Far East and in the 
Pacific, combined United Nations fighting forces 
are also striking with increasing power against 
the Jax^anese. 

"This unity of strength, both in men and in re- 
sources, among the free peoples of the world will 
bring complete and final victorj'. That victory will 
come sooner, and will cost less in lives and mate- 
rials because we have pooled our manpower and 
our material resources, as United Nations, to 
defeat the enemy." 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN 
NATIONALS 

fRelp.ised to the press May 17] 

The State Department and the War Department 
announced on May 17 that the United States Gov- 
ernment, under a separate and parallel agreement 
with the Government of Germany, is effecting an 
exchange of seriously sick and seriously wounded 
prisoners of war with Germany at Barcelona, 
Spain, at the same time as the exchange of sick and 
wounded which is to occur between the British 
Commonwealth Governments and Germany. By 
arrangement among the respective Governments, 
the motorship Gripsholm is being used for the 
transportation of the German repatriates in Allied 
custody to Barcelona and for the return of the 
Allied repatriates received at Barcelona. The ex- 
cliange began on May 17 and should be completed 
within two or three days. This was the mission on 
which the Gripshohn sailed May 2 from New York, 
as announced at that time by the State and War 
Departments.^ Until the exchange is actually 
completed at Barcelona the United States will not 
be in a position to announce definitively the num- 
bers and identities of the American sick and 
wounded who are being returned to the United 
States. Arrangements have been made for this in- 



MAY 2 0, 1944 



479 



formation to be telegraphed promptly upon com- 
pletion of the exchange operation at Barcelona, at 
which time next-of-kin of the American personnel 
being repatriated will be notified by telegram, and 
the details will be made available to the press. 

The Giipsholm will return to the United States 
via a North African port and a port in the United 
Kingdom and is expected to reach New York abovit 
June 10. The vessel is making the voyage under 
safe-conduct. 

CIVIL-AFFAIRS AGREEMENTS WITH BEL- 
GIUM, THE NETHERLANDS, AND NOR- 
WAY 

[Released to the press May 16] 

Agreements in identical terms were concluded 
on May 16 by the United States of America and 
the United Kingdom with the Governments of 
Belgium and the Netherlands and by the United 
States of America, the United Kingdom, and the 
U.S.S.E. with the Government of Norway. These 
agreements concern arrangements to be made for 
civil administration and jurisdiction in the Bel- 
gian, Netherlands, and Norwegian territories when 



they are liberated by the Allied forces.^ The Soviet 
Government has been consulted concerning the ar- 
rangements with Belgium and the Netherlands and 
has expressed its agreement. 

These agreements are intended to be essentially 
temporary and practical in character. They are 
designed to facilitate the task of Allied com- 
manders and to further the common purpose of the 
Governments concerned, namely, the speedy expul- 
sion of the Germans from Allied territory and 
final victory of the Allies over Germany. 

The agreements recognize that the Allied Su- 
preme Commander must enjoy de facto during the 
first or military phase of the liberation of the 
Netherlands such measure of supreme responsi- 
bility and authority over civil administration as 
may be required by the military situation. It is 
laid down that, as soon as the military situation 
permits, the Netherlands Government shall resume 
their full constitutional responsibility for civil ad- 
ministration on the understanding that such special 
facilities as the Allied forces may continue to re- 
quire on Netherlands territoiy will be made avail- 
able for the prosecution of the war to its final 
conclusion. 



General 



NATIONAL FOREIGN-TRADE WEEK 
Statement by the Secretary of State ^ 



[Released to the press May 19] 

Since National Foreign-Trade Week was ob- 
served last year the war against the aggressors has 
approached its most crucial stage. Ultimate col- 
lapse of the aimed forces of our enemies is certain, 
and we can hasten that collapse if we continue to 
maintain, at every moment, our utmost effort in 
complete unity with the other nations associated 
with us in this war. 

The coming victory throws into clearer and 
sharper focus some of the tremendous tasks and 
problems which we shall face at the end of 
hostilities. Without relaxing our war effort in the 
slightest degree, we must give profomid thought 



to post-war problems and begin to take steps which 
will help to solve them. We must hold fast to a 
clear vision of the security and well-being for which 
we are fighting and work toward effective means to 
preserve them after they have been won. 

National Foreign-Trade Week is a most appro- 
priate occasion for taking stock of our situation. 
Employment on the home-front is at an all-time 



^ In the case of the agreements with Belgium and the 
Netherlands, the press releases contain the following varia- 
tion : "liberated by the Allied Expeditionary Force under 
the Supreme Allied Commander". 

^ Made in connection with the observance of National 
Foreign-Trade Week, May 21-27, 1944. 



480 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



high. Many millions now employed in making 
the things with which war is waged will need good 
jobs after the war making peacetime products, as 
will many millions now serving in our armed 
forces. Private enterprise will, I believe, meet 
this challenge with courage and resourcefulness. 
I believe, also, that the great majority of American 
businessmen will recognize the need, as well as the 
unique opportunity, for utilizing our enormous ca- 
pacity in the production of the kinds of peace- 
time goods best suited to our material and human 
resources; for choosing those lines of production 
that can stand on their own feet without heavy 
tariff protection or subsidies. 

Only as people everywhere have opportunity to 
produce those things and perform those tasks for 
which they are best fitted and to exchange those 
products for the products of other people at home 
or abroad, will the world have the maximum sup- 
lilies of things to be enjoyed. This can be achieved 
only as we cooperate with other like-minded na- 
tions, as we are cooperating now in war, to pro- 
vide a basis for expanding trade and commerce 
among nations on a sound aud equitable basis. 

The shift from wai-time to peacetime commerce 
will undoubtedly entail some rather difficult ad- 
justments both in our domestic economy and in our 
economic relations with other countries. Those 
adjustments must not involve such blunders as oc- 
curred after World AVar I when we, as well as other 
nations, adopted commercial policies and took eco- 
nomic measures that disregarded and injured the 
citizens of other countries. Neither this country 
nor the world covdd stand a repetition of the bitter 
resentment among nations, the retaliatoi-y actions, 
and the economic chaos and depression which fi- 
nally helped to plunge us into this war. 

After this war, international economic rela- 
tions must be developed through cooperative meas- 
ures. Tliere must be international arrangement 
for currency stability as an aid to commerce and 
the settlement of international financial transac- 
tions. Through international investment, capital 
must be made available for the sound develop- 
ment of latent natural resources and productive 
capacity in relatively undeveloped areas. Above 
all, provision must be made for reduction or re- 



moval of unreasonable trade barriers and for the 
abandonment of trade discriminations in all forms. 

Such an international system of trade and finan- 
cial relations, embodying sound economic stand- 
ards and the principles of justice, must be cre- 
ated and made effective in order to support any in- 
ternational organization that may be set up to keep 
and enforce the peace. Otherwise, the structure 
of international security would be threatened with 
collapse as a result of economic disorder and 
conflict. 

Leadership toward a new system of international 
relationships in trade and other economic affairs 
will devolve very largely upon the United States 
because of our great economic strength. We 
should assume this leadership, and the respon- 
sibility that goes with it, primarily for reasons of 
pure national self-interest. We ourselves cannot 
live in prosperity and security in our own country 
while people in other countries are suffering want 
and being driven to despair by economic hard- 
ship. If we are to have jobs for all our workers 
and mai'kets for all our goods people in other 
countries must likewise have opportunity to pro- 
duce to their maximum capacity and to pay us, 
with the fruits of .their efforts, for the things we 
want to sell them. 

The Government of the United States and other 
United Nations Governments are endeavoring to 
make as rapid pi'ogress as possible toward the 
objectives set forth in the the Atlantic Charter, 
and the mutual-aid agreements, and the Moscow 
and Tehran Declarations. In carrying out this 
great task they need and must have the support 
of the people whose interests thej' serve. 

In this matter foreign traders have a special 
responsibility extending far beyond tlie mere safe- 
guarding and enhancement of their own business 
interests. They have a special knowledge of for- 
eign trade and its place as a necessary support 
of international prosperity and world security. 
They can contribute much to the establishment 
of a sound system of trade relations among na- 
tions by sharing their knowledge and understand- 
ing with other citizens and groups. Observance 
of National Foreign-Trade Week is one means of 
carrying out this responsibility. 



I 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



TWENTY-SIXTH INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE 
Remarks by President Roosevelt ' 



[Released to the press by the White House May 17] 

Miss Perkins, Mr. Goodrich, Mr. Phelan, Del- 
egates TO THE CoNrERENCE : It is a great pleasure 
to have you with us here in the White House 
again. As I pointed out to you Avhen we last 
met — two and a half years ago — taking part in 
a conference of the International Labor Organi- 
zation is not a new experience for nie. I take 
pride in the fact that I was permitted to play a 
part in the first conference of the Organization 
that was held here in Washington in 1919. 

Those were indeed trying days when last we 
met in 1941. The fate of the free peoples of the 
entire world hung in the balance. Yet with the 
courage and foresight that have always character- 
ized the Iniernutional Labor Organization, you 
as representatives of governments, workers, and 
employers had the boldness to come together from 
all parts of the world to formulate plans for re- 
construction. 

You have been meeting in Philadelphia where, 
one hundred sixty-eight j'ears ago, the Fathers of 
this Republic affirmed certain truths to be self- 
evident. They declared that among other things 
all men are endowed by their Creator with cer- 
tain inalienable rights, among them Life, Liberty, 
and the Pursuit of Happiness. In these words are 
expressed the nbiding purpose of all peoples im- 
bued with the ideals of freedom and democracy. 

The Declaration which you have formulated in 
Philadelphia may well acquire a similar signifi- 
cance. In it you have reaffirmed principles which 
are the essential bulwarks of any permanent peace. 
With the expanding use of machinery and the 
revolution in transportation, it is well that the 
world sliould recognize the fundamental principle 
of your Declaration: "Poverty anywhere consti- 
tutes a danger to prosperity everywhere." This 
pilnciple is a guide to all of our international 
economic deliberations. 



Y^ou liave affirmed the right of all human beings 
to material well-being and spiritual development 
under conditions of freedom and dignity and under 
conditions of economic security and opportunity. 
The attainment of those conditions must consti- 
tute a central aim of national and international 
I^olicy. Indeed, the worthiness and success of in- 
ternational policies will be measured in the future 
by the extent to which they promote the achieve- 
ment of this end. 

Your Declaration sums up the aspirations of 
an epoch which has known two world wars. I con- 
fidently believe that future generations will look 
back upon it as a landmark in world thinking. 
I am glad to have this opportunity of indorsing 
its siDecific terms on behalf of the United States. 
I trust, also, that within a short time its specific 
terms will be whole-heartedly indorsed by all of 
the LTnited Nations. 

As I look over the report of your work, I see 
that you have, for the first time in history, set out 
in a form which could be adopted as a treaty by 
the nations a particular series of social objectives. 
I note that among other things they include full 
employment, wages and working conditions calcu- 
lated to insure a just share of the fruits of 23rogress 
to all, the extension of social security, the recogni- 
tion of the right of collective bargaining, provi- 
sion for child welfare, and the assurance of ade- 
quate educational and vocational opportunities. 
It will be your responsibility to promote these ob- 
jectives through your own organization and 
through such international agencies as may be 
created. 

With great wisdom you have realized that these 
social objectives cannot be attained and supported 
without a high level of useful economic activity. 

'Delivered at the White Hou.se on May 17, 1944 before 
the delegates to the Conference of the International Labor 
Organization. 

481 



482 

You have recommended a series of economic poli- 
cies and undertakings designed to bring about a 
material economy which will make it possible to 
maintain them. 

You have also wisely provided for the further 
development and reorganization of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization itself so that it may 
be broadened and strengthened for carrying out 
these social objectives, and at the same time inte- 
grated on a cooperative basis with whatever new 
international agency or agencies are created by 
the United Nations. This forms an admirable 
pattern for formulating certain aspects of the 
peace. I want to assure you that this Government 
will do everything in its power to see that the 
provisions for the attainment of these social and 
labor objectives shall be included. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The people of the occupied countries are in deep 
suffering. Their representatives have agreed upon 
the social objectives and economic policies you have 
set forth. I trust that this marks the beginning 
of a new and better day, a period of hope for 
material comfort, for security, and for spiritual 
and personal development, for all those groups 
now suffering so sorely under the heel of the op- 
pressor. The United Nations will be determined 
that all the oppressed of the earth shall be included 
in these social objectives. 

I want to offer my congratulations to those of 
you who have participated in this Conference. 
You have mj' gratitude for the program of mutual 
helpfulness which you have laid out — a program 
which, I am sure, will inspire all of those in our 
generation who want to build and madntain a just 
peace. 



PROPOSED DECLARATION CONCERNING THE AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION ^ 



The text of the proposed Declaration concerning 
the aims and purposes of the International Labor 
Organization submitted by the Special Drafting 
Committee follows : 

The General Conference of the International 
Labour Organisation, meeting in its Twenty-sixth 
Session in Philadelphia, hereby adopts, this day 
of May in the year nineteen hundred and forty- 
four, the present Declaration of the aims and pur- 
poses of the International Labour Organisation 
and of the principles which should inspire the 
policy of its Members. 

I 
The Conference reaffirms the fundamental prin- 
ciples on which the Organisation is based and, in 
particular, that : 

(a) labour is not a commodity ; 

(b) freedom of expression and of association 
are essential to sustained progress; 

(c) poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to 
prosperity everywhere ; 

(d) the war against want requires to be carried 
on with unrelenting vigour within each nation, and 
by continuous and concerted international effort in 
which the representatives of workers and employ- 



ers, enjoying equal status with those of Govern- 
ments, join with them in free discussion and demo- 
cratic decision with a view to the promotion of the 
common welfare. 

II 

Believing that experience has fully demonstrated 
the truth of the statement in the Preamble to the 
Constitution of the International Labour Organi- 
sation that lasting peace can be established only 
if it is based on social justice, the Conference 
affirms that : 

(a) all human beings, irrespective of race, creed 
or sex, have the right to pursue both their material 
well-being and their spiritual development in con- 
ditions of freedom and dignity, of economic secu- 
rity and equal opportunity ; 

(i) the attainment of the conditions in which 
this shall be possible must constitute the central 
aim of national and international policy; 

(c) all national and international policies and 
measures, in particular those of an economic and 
financial character, should be judged in this light 

' International Labour Conferenre (twenty-sixth session, 
PhWaaehMa) , Provisio7ial Record, No. 16 [XXVI-1944]. 



I 



MAY 20, 1944 



483 



and accepted only in so far as they may be held to 
promote and not to hinder the achievement of this 
funrla mental objective ; 

(d) it is a responsibility of the International 
Labour Organisation to examine and consider all 
international economic and financial policies and 
measures in the light of this fundamental objec- 
tive; 

{e) in discharfiinf!; the tasks entrusted to it the 
International Labour Organisation, having con- 
sidered all relevant economic and financial factors, 
may include in its decisions and recommendations 
any pi'ovisions which it considers appropriate. 

Ill 

The Conference recognises the solemn obligation 
of the International Labour Organisation to fur- 
ther among the nations of the world programmes 
which will achieve : 

(a) full employment and the raising of stand- 
ards of living; 

{h) the employment of workers in the occupa- 
tions in whicli they can have the satisfaction of 
giving the fullest measure of their skill and at- 
tainments and make their greatest contribution 
to the common well-being; 

(c) the pi-Dvision, as a means to the attainment 
of this end and under adequate guarantees for all 
concerned, of facilities for training and the trans- 
fer of labour, including migration for employ- 
ment and settlement; 

{(l) policies in regard to wages and earnings, 
hours and other conditions of work calculated to 
ensure a just share of the fruits of progress to all, 
and a minimum living wage to all employed and 
in need of such protection; 

(e) the effective recognition of the right of col- 
lective bargaining, the co-operation of manage- 
ment and labour in tiie continuous improvement 
of productive efficiency, and the collaboration of 
workers ajid employers in the preparation and 
application of social and economic measures; 

(/) the extension of social security measures to 
provide a basic income to all in need of such pro- 
tection and comprehensive medical care ; 

ig) adequate protection for the life and health 
of workers in all occupations; 



{h) provision for child welfare and matei-nity 
protection; 

(/) the provision of adequate nutrition, housing 
and facilities for recreation and culture; 

{ /) the assurance of equality of educational and 
vocat ional opportunity. 

IV 

Confident that the fuller and broader utilisation 
of the world's productive resources necessary for 
the acliievement of tlie objectives set forth in this 
Declaration can be secured by effective interna- 
tional and national action, including measures to 
expand production and consumption, to avoid 
severe economic fluctuations, to promote the eco- 
nomic and social advancement of the less de- 
veloped regions of the world, to assure greater 
stability in world prices of primary products, and 
to promote a high and steady volume of interna- 
tional trade, the Conference pledges the full co- 
operation of the International Labour Organisa- 
tion with such international bodies as may be 
entrusted with a share of the responsibility for 
tliis great task and for the promotion of the health, 
education and well-being of all peoples. 



The Conference affirms that the principles set 
foi-th in this Declaration are fully applicable to all 
peoples everywhere and that, M'hile the manner of 
their application must be determined with due 
regard to the stage of social and economic de- 
velopment reached by each people, their progres- 
sive application to peoples who are still dependent, 
as well as to those who have already achieved self- 
government, is a matter of concei-n to the whole 
civilised world. 

FIRST CONFERENCE OF COMMISSIONS OF 
INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT 

The Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs has 
issued Economic Report, No. 5, dated May 20, 
1944, in which are included brief summaries of the 
texts of the recommendations adopted by the Con- 
ference of Commissions of Inter-American Devel- 
opment in New York on May 18. 1944. Recom- 
mendations concerning international trade are 



484 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



included in the report under the following 
headings: 

Insurance 

Statistics 

Reduction of Trade Barriers 

Trade Preferences and Discriminations 

Customs Unions 

Subsidies 

Private Agreements Which Restrict Interna- 
tional Trade 

State Trading 

Government Purchase Contracts 

International Agreements To Facilitate Dis- 
tribution of Production Surpluses 

Trade in Mineral Products 



Production, Distribution, and Consumption 

of Foodstuffs 
International Trade in Relation to Social 

Legislation 

The following recommendations deal with trans- 
portation : 

Transportation Facilities and Services 

Overland Transportation 

Merchant Marines 

Air Transportation 

Rates : Maintenance of Inter- American Ship- 
ping, Maritime, and Air Transportation — 
Freight Rates, and Transportation Rates 

Communication Facilities 

Touiist Travel 



A PATTERN OF NATIONAL UNITY 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to the press May 20] 

Ladies and Gentlemen : Following your annual 
custom, you, as social workers, are here assembled 
to consider your common problems. You have 
devoted your lives and professional efforts par- 
ticularly to persons and groups of Jewish origin. 
This in no sense separates or segregates you from 
the gallant groups of social workers throughout 
America who are meeting and attacking problems 
of human misei'y wherever and whenever they are 
found. Jewish social-welfare work is not a thing 
apart. It is a great element in a great American 
eifort. 

Nevertheless, you rightly do have an especial 
interest in Jewish problems, which form a part 
of the gi-eat complicated country which is America. 
I hope that never will Jewish problems be con- 
sidered apart from American problems and that 
the element of segregation will never creep into 
our national thinking. Your social work is a par- 
ticular and splendid demonstration of the unified 
American approach. In earlier days I had the 
rare privilege of working at the Henry Street Set- 
tlement under the leadership of a great woman, 
who was also a great Jewess and a great Ameri- 
can, Miss Lillian Wald. Her work has been copied 
and carried on not only in every State of the Union, 
but also in countries on every continent, and the 



world was richer for her tireless devotion. 
Around us in that vicinity were groups specifically 
devoted to the large Jewish immigrant population 
which was then concentrated in Lower New York. 
I can personally testify that in the many emer- 
gencies which concerned Italians, Slovenes, Greeks, 
and, in fact, many races, we turned when necessary 
to these Jewish societies, and never were turned 
away. Reciprocally, I can recall cases in which 
Jewish families found swift help from organiza- 
tions whose particular field of endeavor lay with 
groups of Italians, or Poles, or Negroes. 

This was great, because it was human and be- 
cause it was American. For America is not a 
combination of different racial groups. It is an 
integral whole ; and no one who loves America, or 
who understands her ideals, will undertake to fos- 
ter race blocs in this country. To attempt to divide 
the United States into separate groups for pur- 
poses of pressure politics, and particularly for 
purposes of foreign politicians, would be an at- 
tempt to destroy this country. 

Long ago our enemies conceived the idea that 
America could be thus divided, and weakened, and 



' D9liverecl at the joint annual meeting of the National 
Conference of Jewish Social Welfare, the National Asso- 
ciation of Jewish Center Worliei-s, and the National Coun- 
cil for Jewish Education, Cleveland, Ohio, Mav 20, 1944. 



MAY 20, 1944 



485 



eventually conquered. To this end, in 1937 the 
Hitler government instructed its propaganda 
service to endeavor to create racial divisions in 
this country. The spearhead of this attack was, 
of course, the encouragement of anti-Semitism; 
but the plan appears to have been to stir up any 
other race antagonisms which could conveniently 
be created and exploited. Happilj', that effort 
almost totally failed, because it was resisted by 
the solid common sense of most right-thinking 
Americans, irrespective of their ancestry or the 
countries from which they came. I venture to 
predict that no attempt to split race from race, 
or group from grouiD, will be successful as long 
as American thought remains true to the teach- 
ings of Washington and Jefferson and, beyond all 
others, Lincoln, great saints in the American cal- 
endar of freedom. 

It was partly with that in mind that the Depart- 
ment of State in 1941 issued a release, known as 
Kelease No. 600,^ asking that no attempt be made 
to build up blocs based on race or racial origin. 
Where anyone had a case to present, it would best 
be presented to the entire public opinion of the 
United States; and if help was sought, the most 
effective help could best be had from united Amer- 
ican effort. 

Tn keeping witli that spirit, American public 
opinion as a whole has been brought to bear on the 
tragic and terrible problem of Jews on the Con- 
tinent of Europe. Since the days of the Babj^- 
lonian captivity there has been, perhaps, no deeper 
tragedy in the dramatic passages of Jewish his- 
tory than that of today. I do not dwell on the 
ghastly details of the European terror. We have 
talked to survivors of it, and to eyewitnesses of 
unspeakable things. We have met, too, with 
gleams of light in this black picture ; for example, 
the spontaneous action of the Danish people which 
made possible the escape of substantially all of 
the Jews in Denmark when the Nazi hordes began 
to hunt them down. It is impossible not to re- 
member some groups in Hungary who gave shelter 
and safety to refugees in the very heart of Hitler's 
empire. More than a few, seeking safety, found 
refuge in peasant huts and small villages in Bel- 
gium, the Netherlands, France, and, indeed, in 



' Bulletin of Dee. 13, 1941, p. 519. 



practically all countries on the European main- 
land. These people risked their own lives to save 
others, strangers though they were. It is true 
that Jews today have cause for sorrow and bitter- 
ness. But I hope they will also remember the 
many acts of unrecorded heroism by which some 
have escaped and some, still in enemy territory, 
remain alive. 

It is the declared policy of this country to at- 
tempt to bring war criminals to justice; equally, 
it must be our duty to remember those who, in 
danger themselves, endeavored to reach out a help- 
ing hand. 

It is known to all of you that this Government is 
endeavoring to do what it can to assist and to 
rescue these victims of tyraniiy and hate. 

When the war is over, we shall have to meet a 
series of problems arising from the mania which 
has thrown its shadow across the world. This war 
was conceived in hatred, and built on hatred, pur- 
posely created and fostered by a savage group of 
evil men. In considerable measure the psychology 
created was essentially a disease ; for, as you well 
know, mental and spiritual diseases are today as 
well recognized medically as are physical diseases. 
The hate disease was sown and spread by the Nazis 
for the particular purpose of helping them to make 
their people fight. Yet the problem cannot be 
wholly limited to that group. They were able to 
injure other groups ; and the wounds they created 
are mental and psj'chological as well as physical. 
These will take time to heal. We must be swift to 
recognize the phenomenon and careful in han- 
dling it. 

In terms of political life, I think that for a time 
we shall hear louder and more strident voices as 
extremists endeavor to exploit the troubled and 
imhappy minds of people who have suffered more 
pain than the human spirit can easily bear. We 
shall have to recognize these extremists for what 
they are, and patiently and endlessly continue to 
follow in the paths of good-will. In seeking the 
larger objective of a world of peace-loving nations, 
we shall have to resolve steadily to put aside the 
minor irritations which endlessly beset us; we shall 
have to recognize that progress must be based 
not on exploiting grievances but on arriving at 
solutions. 



486 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



This will not be easy to do. The quieter voices 
are too often unlieard. Yet at long last when pas- 
sion is spent the work of reconstruction is even- 
tually done by the people who have had the 
strength and vision to endeavor to seek the truth 
and arrive at solutions with wisdom, justice, and 
charity. 

The United States, in company with her major 
Allies, is committed by the Moscow Declaration to 
the attempt to form a world organization, based on 
the principle of participation by all peace-loving 
nations. Thereby a pathway of hope may be 
opened which, if followed, may offer assurance 
that the peace which follows the war will be a last- 
ing settlement, and not merely an armistice be- 
tween conflicts. It is perhaps appropriate to em- 
phasize one outstanding fact. The international 
arrangements are, to be sure, of crucial importance. 
But they will only be valid if the moral sense and 
public opinion of the nations entering into this 
organization wholly support governments in this 
vast endeavor. It is fairly easy to draw plans and 
to write words. It is far less easy to mobilize and 
maintain the national will to make these arrange- 
ments work. Tills lesson has been taught us many 
times by history. A plan for an association of na- 
tions was sponsored by the famous French King, 
Henry IV, known as Henry of Navarre ; but it was 
too far ahead of his time to gain acceptance. An 
attempt was made after the Napoleonic wars to 
maintain peace through the European concert of 
powers ; but the will was lacking, and old rivalries, 
antagonisms, and ambitions proved stronger mo- 
tives than the desire for a continuing peace. The 
attempt made by President Wilson and the coun- 
tries which entered the League of Nations is still 
fresh in our memories. It is difficult not to con- 
clude that any of these plans might have succeeded 
had there been determination by all the peoples 
that these institutions, entered on with hope, 
should succeed; that smaller matters, even those 
important in themselves, must be put aside in 
attaining the larger objective. 

In this sense the entire world must seek to do 
what many of you have been doing here in the 
United States; must endeavor to sow confidence 
where thei'e was suspicion, and to refuse to follow 
demagogues and leaders who seek to exploit na- 



tional dijfferences, when true leadership calls for 
building up international confidence. 

In our social objectives, we have long since 
learned that disease and distress and unemploy- 
ment anywhere weakens our social fabric every- 
wjaere. Increasingly, our communities attempt to 
prevent or remedy these conditions as rapidly as 
they appear. We no longer delay preventive ac- 
tion because an e];)idemic has not reached our town 
or has not yet threatened our family. We no longer 
consider that we are safe as long as plague spots 
breeding crime and poverty and degeneracy are 
left unattended. We must learn that exactly 
the same considerations apply to international life 
and to the cause of peace. For one thing, the dis- 
ease of war will spread far more rapidly in years 
to come than has been true up to now. No longer 
can an American content himself with the belief 
that a war overseas cannot reach him because two 
oceans lie between him and the area of active 
danger. It is far more likely that another war, if 
it comes, will commence with an attack on the 
United States, since no General Staff, remembering 
the experience of the First and Second World 
Wars, will count America out. A statement re- 
cently attributed to General Stulpnagel, the Ger- 
man Military Governor of Paris, boars this out; 
he is quoted as saying that Germany, having failed 
in the present effort, must look forward to a new 
war and that in that war she should begin by 
paralyzing the United States. Long-range air- 
craft and new explosives might well bring this 
sufficiently near to possibility. Instead of having 
a cou^jle of years to think things over, to decide 
what we want to do, and to build up our force while 
others hold a front line, we shall probably be our- 
selves in the front line on a huge scale. If this is 
realized, we shall begin to understand the feelings 
of the European peoples who, if the world cannot 
prevent wars, must li\e out their entire lives in fear 
of sudden destruction. Planning post-war organi- 
zation is thus not an adventure in starry-eyed 
idealism. It is a matter of deadly practical 
necessity. 

There is thus offered to every American the 
opportunity to join directly in post-war reorgani- 
zation. He can begin with himself. He can study 
out and understand the need for world organization 



MAY 20, 1944 

which -will give security, and can study out and 
understand why it is of direct importance to him. 
He can make this clear to his friends and to the 
community in which he lives. He can assist in 
making the public opinion, without whicli no plan 
can be completed. He can go on maintaining that 
public o})ini()n so that, when a world organization 
is constructed, it can work etfectively, with the full 
support of the United States. He can refuse to 
become part}' to minor international controversies 
or to be led into race or national hatred. He can 
sui^port the efforts of men of good-will who seek 
with justice as well as strength to resolve questions 
in friendship and peace, and to defend against the 
I'ebirth of organized hatreds like that of the Nazi 
doctrine. He can jsractice this. 

He can do more. He can practice this at home. 
Many of us live in communities composed of several 
races, and of groujDS of different ancestry. Some 
communities have, in miniature, many of the cur- 
rents of thought which we find in the Old World. 
Not infi'equently, the same conflicts which divide 
race from race and nation from nation elsewhere 
crop up in these towns and cities. This is the prob- 
lem of world peace, though it may present itself 
as a local quarrel between a couple of rival groups, 
or a violent controversy between a couple of 
foreign-language newspapers. All of them can 
Mork actively at the problem of continuing peace 
almost without leaving your front doors.. The 
success of world organization depends directly on 
the success of the will to organize peace in the 
smallest community as well as in the family of 
nations. 

Statesmanship is not confined to Prime Minis- 
ters and Government representatives and profes- 
sional diplomats. It even transcends the related 
fields of journalism and science and leadership in 
public opinion. Every man can be, and today he 
must be, a statesman. He has the materials for it ; 
he has hour-by-hour information from every part 
of the world relating to every phase of hunum 
life. International problems ai'e actually brought 
to him not only by news, but by currents of politics 
and thought which endeavor to affect him and the 
men around him. He is no longer isolated from 
tlie processes of world politics. Whether he will 
or not, he is actually a part of them. His opinion 
is struggled for and fought for; his influence, no 
matter how humble, is courted and sought after 



487 

by nations, great and small. He is recognized as 
having within himself a part of the power which 
makes for justice or for aggression; for fairness 
or for hatred ; for peace or for war. 

America has insisted on a pattern of national 
unity, but based on the free thought and choice 
of individuals. She has protected that individual 
thought and opinion by freedom of information, 
freedom of speech, and by every historic and con- 
stitutional guaranty. She has argued, rightly, 
that this common bond of decent, law-abiding, and 
kindly people will resolve her internal conflicts 
and give her that singleness of purpose which will 
enable her in the future, as it has in the past, to 
face the world. She must rely on you, and all of 
you, and on your countless friends, to accept the 
responsibility that goes with the right of indi- 
vidual life and thought. She must rely upon you 
to furnish the strength and will to join in the 
great decisions which now face the world and to 
act when action is needed. She is on the eve of 
her greatest battle. She must depend on the moral 
and mental strength and courage of Americans to 
assure that the peace shall be fruitful, just as she 
must depend on the bravery and the resoluteness 
of her sons as they face the common enemy. 



American Republics 



PROTOCOL OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, AND 
BOUNDARIES, ECUADOR AND PERU ' 

[Released to the press May 2U] 

The following telegrams were sent by Presi- 
dent Eoosevelt to the Presidents of Ecuador and 
Peru and to the President of Brazil; and by the 
Secretary of State to the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs of Brazil: 

2'o the Presidents of Ecu<idor and, Peru 

ft 

I have learned with deep satisfaction that Your 
Excellency's Government, through the good offices 
of the eminent Foreign Minister of Brazil, Dr. Os- 
waldo Aranha, has reached agreement on inter- 
pretation of the Protocol of Peace, Friendship 

'BULLETIN of Mii.v 17, 1941, p. .""I'JG, July 26, 1941, p. 73, 
Aug. 9, 1941, p. 112, and Feb. 28, 1942, p. 194. 



488 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and Boundaries, signed by Ecuador and Peru on 
January 29, 1942 at Kio de Janeiro. I hope that 
confirmation of this agreement may be speedily 
effected by exchange of notes, in order to permit 
the distinguished Brazilian technical expert, Cap- 
tain Braz de Aguiar, to complete his inspection 
of the eastern sector of the boundary on the ground, 
and thus facilitate completion of the demarcation 
of all sectors of the boundary as soon as possible. 
I heartily congratulate Your Excellency on reach- 
ing this agreement, ■nhich I regard as an outstand- 
ing contribution to inter- American solidarity and 



good-will. 



Franklin D Roosevelt 



To the President of Brazil 

The splendid outcome of the -R-ork of your For- 
eign Minister, His Excellency Oswaldo Aranha, 
in adjusting the boundary differences between 
Ecuador and Peru, will be a source of reassurance 
and satisfaction to all America. I join the host 
of friends of your great nation in congratulating 



Your Excellency on this outstanding achievement, 
which is in accord with the Bi'azilian tradition of 
the peaceful settlement of boundary disputes by 
conciliation. 

Franklin D Eoosevelt 

To the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil 

I am immensely pleased that your brilliant 
efforts have so fruitfully assisted the Govern- 
ments of Ecuador and Peru in delimitation of 
their common boundary. Your action on behalf of 
the guarantors of the Rio de Janeiro Protocol 
again illustrates the highest type of cooperation 
among the American republics for the peaceful 
conciliation of their difficulties. 

It is a soui'ce of special gratification to me, as 
I extend my heartiest congratulations to you, the 
Foreign Minister of a great neighbor and an old 
and good friend, to know that you are continuing 
the historic achievements of Brazilian diplomacy 
in the peaceful settlement of boundary problems. 

CoRDELL Hull 



The Department 



CHANGE IN TITLE OF THE OFFICE OF FOREIGN SERVICE ADMINISTRATION 
ANT> CREATION OF THE DIVISION OF FOREIGN BUILDINGS OPERATIONS 

Departmental Order 1273 of May 6, 1944 ^ 



1 Change in Title of the Office of Foreign 
Service Administration. Departmental Order 
1218 ^ of January 15, 1944, is hereby amended to 
change the title of the Office of Foreign Service 
Administration to Office of the Foreign Service. 
The routing symbol of the Office shall be OFS. 

2 Creation of the Division of Foreign Buildings 
Operations. There is hereby established a Divi- 
sion of Foreign Buildings Operations in the Office 
of tlie Foreign Service to perform the functions 
of housing and furnishing diplomatic and consu- 
lar establishments abroad as required by the For- 
eign Service Buildings Act of Congress, approved 
May 7, 1926. 

3 Organization and Functions of the Division of 
Foreign Buildings O perations. Within the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Buildings Operations are three 



Sections, functioning under the direction of the 
Chief and Assistant Chief of the Division : Build- 
ings Projects Section, Property Management Sec- 
tion, and Furniture and Furnishings Section. 

4 Building Projects Section. The Building 
Projects Section is resi^onsible for the analysis, ap- 
proval and development of projects for the pur- 
chase of properties and construction of buildings 
for the housing of the diplomatic, consular and 
other agencies of the United States Government 
abroad. This includes such activities as: 

(a) The maintenance of complete information 
and records concerning property purchases, initial 
construction, and major improvements of proper- 
ties. 



' Effective May 6, 1944. 

= Bulletin of Jan. 22, 1944, p. 45. 



MAT 20, 1944 



489 



(b) Analysis and determination of the needs 
for acquiring new sites and constructing or alter- 
ing buildings for these purposes. 

(c) Providing of architectural and engineering 
designs, plans and specifications for the housing of 
the Foreign Service of the United States. 

(d) Analysis and determination upon projects 
submitted by the missions and other Government 
agencies for the purchase of property and build- 
ings, for new construction or for major altera- 
tions and repairs work. 

(e) Supervision and inspection of the con- 
struction, alterations, repairs and maintenance 
operations on Foreign Service buildings and 
pi'operties. 

5 Property Management Section. The Prop- 
ei'ty Management Section is responsible for the 
supervision of the physical maintenance and use 
of Foreign Service real properties. This shall 
include such activities as: 

(a) Maintenance of information and records 
regarding Government-owned diplomatic and 
consular establishments abroad. 

(b) Formulation and execution of plans for 
the physical maintenance, and routine alteration 
and repair of such properties. 

(c) Analysis and approval of requests for al- 
terations and repairs on Foreign Service proper- 
ties. 

(d) Advice to the missions on property matters. 

(e) Conduct of field inspections and surveys of 
Foreign Service properties. 

6 Furniture and Furnishings Section. The 
Furniture and Furnishings Section is responsible 
for the initial purchase and replacement of articles 
of residential furniture and furnishings. This 
includes such activities as: 

(a) Collection and maintenance of complete 
records and inventories on all Government-owned 
residential furniture, furnishings, and related 
articles of equipment in buildings owned or 
leased by the Department of State. 

(b) Preparation of programs for the furnish- 
ing of buildings constructed, purchased or leased 
for Foreign Service residences abroad, and the 
maintenance of existing furnishings. 

(c) Preparation of designs, layouts, specifica- 
tions, contracts, and orders for such articles of 
furniture and furnishings. 



(d) Analysis and approval of proposals from 
the field for purchase or maintenance of furniture 
and furnishings. 

(e) Conduct of factory, warehouse, showroom, 
or field inspections necessary to carry out its 
responsibilities. 

7 Responsibilities of the Chief of Division, (a) 
The Chief of the Division of Foreign Service 
Buildings is responsible for general supervision 
and direction of the work of the Division and the 
Sections. He shall act as Executive Secretary of 
the Foreign Service Buildings Commission, es- 
tablished by Act of Congress May 7, 1926, on 
which are represented the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Chairman and the ranking minority 
member of the Committee on Foreign Relations 
of the Senate, and the Chairman and the ranking 
minority member of the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs of the House of Representatives. The 
Chief of the Division is responsible for the prep- 
aration and submission to the Commission of re- 
ports on the status and projects of the Foreign 
Service Buildings program, and of reports for 
the Congress of the United States, and for carry- 
ing out the directions of the Foreign Service 
Buildings Commission. 

(b) The Chief of the Division is responsible 
for the preparation of budgetary programs' for 
initial construction work, property acquisitions, 
alterations, repairs, maintenance, residential fur- 
nishings, and supervision of construction, and 
is responsible for the expenditure of funds 
appropriated for such purposes. 

(c) The Chief of the Division shall work in 
close collaboration with the Division of Foreign 
Service Admhiistration, and shall render to 
that Division, when required, technical services, 
including : 

(1) Inspection and recommendation of proper- 
ties for lease; recommendations on lessor-lessee 
obligations, rental rates and terms and layout 
requirements. 

(2) Inspection of existing leased properties; 
reports and recommendations on contract party 
obligations and programs of improvement of exist- 
ing facilities. 

(d) The Chief, in carrying out the responsibili- 
ties of the Division, will also work closely with 



490 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Divipion of Foreign Service Personnel, the 
Division of Budget and Finance, the Legal Ad- 
viser, and the geographical Offices. 

8 Departmental Order Amended. Departmen-" 
tal Order 1218 of January 15, 1944, page 42, is 
hereby amended, and the functions, personnel and 
recoi'ds concerned with this work are hereby trans- 
ferred to the Division of Foreign Buildings Op- 
erations. 

9 Routing Symbol for the Division. The rout- 
ing symbol for the Division of Foreign Buildings 
Operations shall be FBO. 

CoEDELL Hull 
May 6, 1944. 

MODIFICATION OF THE VISA 
PROCEDURE 

[Released to tUe press May 16] 

A special committee has been set up in the Visa 
Division of the Department to exjjedite action in 
visa cases and to examine newly received applica- 
tions. Advisory approvals for the issuance of visas 
may be sent to American consular officers in cases 
other than those of alien enemies wliich are recom- 
mended by the committee as not requiring con- 
sideration under the Interdepartmental Visa Com- 
mittee Procedure. 

Until a simplified form of application is avail- 
able- the longer BC form of application may be 
used. 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 3 of May 6, 1944, 
effective I\Iay 6, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. Frederick D. G. Eibble as Executive 
Assistant to the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Long. 

By Departmental Designation 5 of May 6, 1944, 
effective May 6, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. Frederick Larkin as Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Buildings Operations. 

By Departmental Designation 6 of May 16, 1944, 
effective January 22, 1944, the Secretary of State 
designated Mr. Frank J. Merkling as Assistant on 
legislative matters to the Assistant Secretary, Mr. 
Long. 

By Departmental Designation 7 of May 20, 1944, 
effective JNIay 13, 1944, tlie Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. Eric C. "VVendelin as Assistant Chief and 
temporarily Acting Chief of the Division of Eiver 
Plate Affairs, Office of American Republic Affairs. 



Treaty Information 



AUSTRALIAN - NEW ZEALAND AGREEMENT, 
1944 

The text of the Australian - Xew Zealand Agree- 
ment, 1944, providing for Australian - New Zea- 
land cooperation and collaboration, signed at Can- 
berra, Australia, on January 21, 1944, and infor- 
mation and statements relating to the agreement 
and the Canberra conference are printed in Cv/r- 
rent Notes on International Affairs, January 1944, 
vol. 15, no. 1, issued by the Australian Department 
of External Affairs. 

RENEWAL OF NAVAL-AVIATION-MISSION 
AGREEMENT WITH PERU 

By exchanges of notes signed at Washington 
January 31, February 18, April 6 and 29, and May 
2, 1944 an agreement was effected between the Gov- 
ermnent of the United States and the Government 
of Peru for the renewal of the agreement pro- 
viding for the assignment of a United States 
Naval-Aviation Mission to Peru signed at Wash- 
ington on July 31, 1940 (Executive Agreement 
Series 178). 

The above-mentioned notes renew the agree- 
ment of 1940 for a period of two years from July 
31, 1944, the date the agreement would otherwise 
have terminated, and amend that agreement by 
the addition of the following article : 

"The members of this Mission are permitted and 
may be authorized to represent the United States 
of America on any commission and in any other 
capacity having to do with military cooperation 
or hemispheric defense without prejudice to this 
Agreement, during the present war emergency." 

The terms "Ministry of Marine and Aviation" 
and "Minister of Marine and Aviation" are 
changed to "Ministry of Aeronautics" and "Min- 
ister of Aeronautics", respectively, wherever they 
appear in the agreement of July 31, 1940, in con- 
formity with a recent act approved by the Con- 
irress of Peru. 



1 



^ ^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



H 



^ rm 



c 



riN 



MAY 27, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 257— Publication 2134 



ontents 



I 



\ 



The War p^^^ 

Certain Aspects of Our Economic Policy Toward the 

Ji^viroj)eiiu Neuir&h: By Livingston T. Merchant . . 493 
Lend-Lease Operations: Letter of the President to 

Congress Transmitting the Fifteenth Quarterly 

Keport 495 

CivU Aviation 496 

Relief Supplies for American Prisoners of War in the 

Philippines 496 

The Proclaimed List: Inclusion of Swedish Firms ... 497 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

United Nations Monetarj' and Financial Conference . . 498 

First Pan American Congress on Criminology 499 

United States National Commission of the Permanent 

American Aeronautical Commission 499 

American Republics 

Fifteenth Anniversary of Inauguration of Airmail 
Service Between the United States and vSouth 

America 500 

The New Government in Bolivia: Statement by the 

Secretary of State 501 

Visit of Rector of the National University of Nicaragua . 50 1 

Visit of Cuban Health-Unit Director 501 

[over] 




«.fi.8UP£RINTENDEriT0FD0CU«£Nrs 







ontents-coNTmvED 

Far East ^"^e 

Paul B. Eaton Eeturns From China 501 

Near East 

Conference of Greek Political Leaders 502 

The Department 

United States Section of Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission: Departmental Order 1274 of May 23, 
1944 502 

Appointment of Officers 503 

Treaty Information 

Renewal of Agreement With Panama for the Detail of a 
United States Army Officer To Serve as Adviser to 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama .... 503 

Canadian Mutual- Aid Agreements 504 

Legislation 504 

Publications 504 



The War 



CERTAIN ASPECTS OF OUR ECONOMIC POLICY TOWARD THE 

EUROPEAN NEUTRALS 

By Livingston T. Merchant ' 



Wlien the United States entered the war in De- 
cember 1941, the European neutrals assumed a 
new significance for this Government. From that 
moment two tests had to be applied to them : how 
much economic support could they give our war 
effort and how much help were they giving the 
enemy. This help to the enemy included oppor- 
tunities for espionage and the dissemination of 
propaganda; and, in certain cases, it included, 
through the export of strategic materials, impor- 
tant and direct economic support to the German 
war-machine. The effort to cut off economic aid 
to the Axis has been one phase of total war which 
for obvious reasons has received little publicity. 
Important results have, however, been achieved. 

In reviewing the effort to eliminate all economic 
assistance to the Axis on the part of the European 
neutrals one has to consider only five countries: 
Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, and Tur- 
key. The geographic situation of these five coun- 
tries in relation to Germany and to German-occu- 
pied territory permits the physical movement of 
raw materials or of other goods with regularity 
and on a significant scale. One must remember 
also, in considering the economic-warfare prob- 
lems posed by the position of these countries, that 
the situation of each vai-ies greatly. The five have 
little in common except non-belligerency. There 
has remained in this war a lingering and confus- 
ing tendency to lump the few remaining non-bel- 
ligerent countries in Europe into one group and 
conveniently refer to it as the "European neu- 
trals". This tendency is a relic of earlier smaller 
wars ; today it is totally unreal. One can reason- 
ably assume that the primary reason why Hitler 
has not long since occupied these countries is that 
his military advisers have coldly calculated that 



the necessary military investment would provide 
the Wehrmacht with too low a strategic and eco- 
nomic dividend. The escape of these countries 
from Nazi occupation has not been, therefore, ex- 
clusively an individual choice freely exercised. 

To emphasize the dissimilarities of these coun- 
tries one needs only to recall that Sweden and 
Switzerland are "islands" surrounded by Ger- 
many or by German-controlled areas. Turkey 
and Portugal have treaties of alliance with Great 
Britain. Spain, a dictatorsliip under debt to Hit- 
ler, is neither island nor ally. 

Common factors are, however, evident. In 
1940 and in 1941 each of these countries was trad- 
ing heavily with the Axis, but each was dependent, 
to some degree, on imports from overseas which 
the Axis could not supply. To deal with this 
economic problem the British threw into gear in 
September 1939 carefully laid plans for the appli- 
cation of an economic blockade against Germany 
and Italy. The main features of such a blockade 
were born in the experience of the first World 
War. It was naturally designed to meet the mili- 
tary and economic realities which the British faced 
at the start of World War II. The basic premises 
of the blockade were two in number: first, the 
naval forces at the disposal of Great Britain and 
its Allies at that time were insufficient to impose 
an absolute embargo by men-of-war patrolling 
every mile of Europe's coastline; second, the neu- 
trals possessed a right to maintain normal trade 
relations with the enemy. The blockade, therefore, 
rested for effectiveness at least as much upon the 
consent of the neutrals as upon the guns of the 
British Navy. The implements with which the 

" The author of this article is Chief of the Eastern 
Hemisphere Division of the Department of State. 

493 



494 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



blockade was enforced included the use of a special 
type of trade ti-eaty known as the "war trade 
agreement." 

Soon after the outbreak of war in 1939, Great 
Britain negotiated individual war trade agree- 
ments with most of the European neutrals. Al- 
though not identical, these agreements closely re- 
sembled each other. Turkey, however, was an 
exception. The guiding principle in each case 
was the establishment of blockade quotas for the 
goods received from overseas. 

The goods covered by these specific quotas as 
well as the size of each individual quota were based 
on an estimate of the normal requirements of the 
country in question. In return for permission to 
import through the blockade goods under quota 
in the amounts set for each quarter, each neutral 
agreed not to reexport the materials which thus 
passed through the blockade. Certain other re- 
strictions, varying from country to country in ac- 
cordance with the strength of Great Britain's bar- 
gaining position at the time of the negotiation, 
were imposed upon the size and character of the 
neutral's trade with the enemy. Machinery was 
established in London for the purpose of scruti- 
nizing each individual shipment to a neutral by 
water. If the particular consignment was ap- 
proved as being within the quarterly blockade 
quota, a passport, known as a "navicert," was 
issued. This gave the shipment safe passage 
through the blockade. Other components of the 
blockade were certain fiscal controls and the black 
list. These denied to enemy individuals and 
enemy concerns or to those denounced as agents of 
the enemy in neutral areas trading privileges with 
the Allies. 

In appraising the form and effectiveness of these 
agreements, one must not forget that the Germany 
of 1939 to 1943 was vastly different from what it is 
today. Even last year it had military forces to 
spare in addition to a powerful air force. The 
threat of the Luftwaffe brooded over the neutral 
negotiators every time they sat down at a confer- 
ence table with the enemies of Germany. Nor was 
Germany ever averse to punctuating a disappoint- 
ment over a withheld export license or an unful- 
filled commitment by torpedoing on the high seas 
a neutral ship in whose captain's safe rested a 
German safe-conduct. 



These considerations limited the freedom of 
choice of the neutrals. The Allies also operated 
under restraints. At times vital supply needs im- 
posed a limitation which might then be met only 
from a particular neutral source. The threat of 
such loss strengthened the hand of the neutral in 
its negotiation with us, and by the same token 
forced us sometimes to stay our own hand. 

In order to reduce the economic aid to the enemy 
which was within limits perforce admitted under 
the war trade agreements, the British made sub- 
stantial internal purchases from certain countries 
of materials that they did not necessarily need, 
but which the enemy required. Operations of this 
sort, designed to deny enemy acquisitions at the 
source, were labeled by the British as "preemp- 
tion." The United States has tended to call them 
"preclusive purchases." 

When this country entered the war in December 
1941 it became a partner in the economic-warfare 
system that the British had established and oper- 
ated. Thereupon the United States Government 
took various steps to adapt its existing economic 
controls and to adopt new measures necessary to 
implement the partnership. Among the measures 
was a provision for cooperating with the British 
on a joint basis in preclusive operations in certain 
neutral countries. 

The Allies' economic policy toward the neutrals 
in 1942 moved along much the same lines as in 
1941 before the United States entry into the war. 
Secretary Hull, in his speech on April 9, 1944,^ 
spoke of our efforts in every direction to reduce the 
aid which the neutrals by their trade gave the 
enemy and simultaneously to increase the strength 
which we might draw from them. The limits on 
our power continually forced the acceptance of 
compromises which we would not have freely 
chosen. The economic and the growing military 
force which followed the entry of the United States 
into the war, however, enabled the adoption of 
steadily intensified economic operations and in- 
creasing pressure on the neutrals to gain the 
avowed objective of the total withdrawal of their 
economic support to the enemy. Preclusive pur- 
chasing operations were multiplied in range and 
expenditure, and the results became increasingly 



' Bulletin of Apr. 15, 1944, p. 336. 



MAY 27, 1944 



495 



apparent. Certain of the war ti'ade agreements 
were renegotiated, and, in the case of at least one, 
the country concerned became an equal partner 
with the British in the new agreement. 

The year 1943 saw a further rise in the com- 
bined power of the Allies. This factor, coupled 
with the growing scarcity of vital raw materials 
throughout the world, enabled us to drive harder 
bargains and to exact greater concessions from the 
neutrals in our economic relations. The help they 
gave the enemy continued. It was clearly declin- 
ing, but it was still substantial. The number of 
Allied cruisers to be spared for the interception of 
neutral ships was increasing. The interception of 
neutral ships, which were brought into contraband- 
control bases and which were searched by experts, 
discouraged illicit shipments through the blockade 
and tightened still further the economic noose on 
Germany. In 1943 enemy blockade runners from 
the Far East, as newspaper readers are now aware, 
suffered a savagely high mortality, which placed 
additional pressure on the German war-machine. 

Throughout the war the economic-warfare agen- 
cies of the British and the United States Govern- 
ments have worked closely with the highest mili- 
tary authorities. They have maintained a con- 
stant interchange of information and recommenda- 
tions concerning the military pressure, through 
bombing, economic measures, negotiation, or other 
actions, that could do the most damage. One 
should recognize, however, that the highest mili- 
tary strategy at times required that the maximum 
economic pressure not be exerted against a partic- 
ular country, or occasionally even that economic 
benefits be conferred for reasons which might bear 
no apparent relation to the facts available to the 
public. This observation is made not to extenuate 
the failures where they have been encountered in 
our economic warfare, but rather to emphasize the 
intimacy of the relationship between military and 
economic warfare. 

The time has come when this Government, in 
the effort to shorten the war, has made abundantly 
clear the fact that the neutrals of Europe must 
cease their aid to Germany. Secretary Hull, in his 
speech of April 9, 1944, said : 

"We can no longer acquiesce in these [neutral] 
nations' drawing upon the resources of the allied 



world when they at the same time contribute to 
the death of troops whose sacrifice contributes to 
their salvation as well as ours. We have scrupu- 
lously respected the sovereignty of these nations; 
and we have not coerced, nor shall we coerce, any 
nation to join us in the fight. We have said to 
these countries that it is no longer necessary for 
them to purchase protection against aggression by 
furnishing aid to our enemy — whether it be by per- 
mitting official German agents to carry on their 
activities of espionage against the Allies within 
neutral borders, or by sending to Germany the 
essential ingredients of the steel which kills our 
soldiers, or by permitting highly skilled workers 
and factories to supply products which can no 
longer issue from the smoking ruins of German 
factories. We ask them only, but with insistence, 
to cease aiding our enemy." 

When we have achieved that objective completely 
we can confidently count on a shortening of the war 
as a direct result. From that time forward the 
direction of our economic policy toward the neu- 
trals will be in large part controlled by the necessity 
of reintegrating their resources and their produc- 
tive capacity into the economy of Europe at peace. 

LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 

Letter of the President to Congress Transmitting 
the Fifteenth Quarterly Report 

[Released to the press by the White House May 22] 

The following letter of the President to the 
Congress, dated May 22, 1944, accompanied a re- 
port on lend-lease operations for the period ended 
March 31, 1944:1 

To The Congress of the United States of 
America : 

I am submitting herewith the Fifteenth Report 
on Lend-Lease Operations for the period ending 
March 31, 1944. 

United Nations forces are now about to strike 
new and mightier blows at Nazi-occupied Europe 
from offensive bases in the West, the South, and 
the East. The fighting men of many nations have 
been banded together in combined operations. 
They are armed with the most powerful weapons 



' Not printed herein. 



496 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



that the combined resources and ingenuity of the 
United Nations can produce. They are ready to 
bring to bear their strength to continue the crush- 
ing process against the Nazis and the German war 
macliine. 

Our American forces will go into battle side by 
side with the men of Britain, France, Norway, 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Netherlands and our 
other allies. At sea, warships flying many United 
Nations flags will escort the fleets. In the skies, 
the E. A. F. will join with the United States Army 
Air Forces in blasting the paths for our troops 
and in protecting them from air attack. 

For this great undertaking, the United Nations 
fighting partnership has been made far stronger 
by lend-lease and reverse lend-lease. Through 
lend-lease we have made certain that every man 
in the forces of the other United Nations who goes 
into battle beside an American fighting man has 
what he needs to hit the common enemy as hard 
as possible. Through reverse lend-lease, the 
American Forces have been similarly aided by our 
allies with everything they had that we needed. 

On the eastern European front also, arms and 
other war supplies provided by the United States 
and the British Commonwealth, will continue to 
strengthen the Soviet Armies for the new blows 
that will be timed with our advances. 

In the Far East and the Pacific our offensives in 
New Guinea, in Burma, and against the Japanese 
fortress islands in the Central Pacific are proof 
that the battle for Japan is not waiting upon the 
successful conclusion of the battle against Nazi 
Germany. China is being helped to the utmost 
of our ability. 

Decisive battles are ahead. Now, more than 
ever, it is vital to our own American Army and 
Navy and Air Forces, as well as to the forces of 
the other United Nations, that we continue to pro- 
vide our fighting partners with the additional war 
supplies they need to supplement their own re- 
sources. Congress has again recognized this fact 
by its overwhelming vote to extend the Lend-Lease 
Act. 

Only by uniting our full strength with the full 
strength of the other free peoples of the world 
have we moved from the defensive to the offensive, 
from defeats to victories. By maintaining our 
unity now we shall certainly achieve final victory. 



By continuing our unity after the war we can 
assure a peace in which mankind can live and work 
and worship in peace, freedom, and security. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

CIVIL AVIATION^ 

[Released to the press May 25] 

The Chinese group, consisting of Mr. Chang Kia- 
Ngau, Minister of Transportation ; Major General 
P. T. Mow, Chinese Army Air Forces; and Mr. 
Liu Chieh, Chinese Minister and Counselor of the 
Embassy in Washington, has entered upon explor- 
atory talks on civil aviation with an American 
group consisting of Ambassador Joseph C. Grew ; ^ 
Assistant Secretary of State Adolf A. Berle, Jr.; 
Mr. L. Welch Pogue, Chairman of the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board; Mr. William A. M. Burden, As- 
sistant Secretary of Commerce; and Mr. Stokeley 
W. Morgan, Chief of the Aviation Division of the 
Department of State. The first conference was 
held on Monday, May 22, 1944, and another con- 
ference is expected to take place at an early date. 

The Russian group which is to hold exploratory 
conferences with the same American group is now 
in Washington and consists of the following : Am- 
bassador Andrei A. Gromyko ; Lieutenant General 
L. G. Rudenko; Major General A. A. Avseevich; 
Major General N. I. Petrov; and Colonel P. F. 
Berezin. The first conference is expected to take 
place on Monday, May 29, 1944. 

RELIEF SUPPLIES FOR AMERICAN PRISON- 
ERS OF WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES 

[Reloasod to the press May 23] 

The War Prisoners' Aid of ihe Young Men's 
Christian Association was recently informed by 
its Stockholm office that the Japanese authorities 
in the Philippine Islands had extended permission aj 
to the neutral delegate there of the War Prisoners' " 
Aid to purchase locally relief supplies to an amount 
not exceeding $25,000 monthly for shipment to ci- 
vilian internment and prisoner-of-war camps in 
the Philippine Islands. United States Govern- 
ment funds have been made available for expendi- 
ture by the War Prisoners' Aid delegate for this 
purpose. These funds are in addition to montlily 

' Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1944, p. 301. 

■ Mr. Grew is Director of the Office of Far Eastern Af- 
fairs, Department of State. 



MAY 27, 1944 



497 



remittances of official fimds which are being trans- 
mitted regularly through Swiss Government chan- 
nels to the executive committees of civilian intern- 
ment camps in the Philippine Islands under au- 
thorization obtained from the Japanese authorities 
in August 1943. Although information has been 
received that the American Red Cross relief sup- 
plies sent on the exchange vessels to Japan and 
Japanese-occupied territories, including the Phil- 
ippine Islands, have been distributed by the Jap- 
anese authorities, permission has so far not been 
given by the Japanese Government for the inspec- 
tion of civilian internment camps or of prisoner- 
of-war camps in the Philippine Islands by repre- 
sentatives of the Swiss Govermnent, which repre- 
sents American interests in the Far East, or by 
representatives of neutral organizations. The 
United States Government is continuing to press 
the Japanese Government to grant full reciprocity 
in this respect. 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: INCLUSION OF 
SWEDISH FIRMS 

[Released to the press May 22] 

With reference to a press report that considera- 
tion is being given to a complete blacklisting of all 
Swedish concerns having American connections, 
the Department of State stated on May 22, 1944 
that no firm has been or will be included in the 
Proclaimed List merely because means of pressure 
may exist by reason of American connections. 
Firms are included in the Proclaimed List only be- 
cause of activities on their part which assist the 
Axis war effort. None of the firms mentioned in 
the report is at the present time under considera- 
tion for inclusion in the list. The firms men- 
tioned, with their American connections, were : 

Swedish company 
De Laval Augturbin 

Separator A.B. 

Svenska A.B. Gasaccumulator 

Svenska A.B. Gasaccumulator 



Affiliate 

De Laval Steam Turbine 
Co. 

De Laval Separator Co. 

Elastic Stop Nut Corp. of 
America 

American Gas Accumu- 
lator Co. 

Electrolux Corp. 

Re- 



Electrolux Companies, Sweden 

Kreuger&Toll (EnskeldaBank) International .Match 

alization Co. 
Telefonaktiebolaget, L. M. Erics- Teleric, Inc. 

son 
Fernstrom & Co., A.B. 



Dick Bergman 



Fernstrom Paper Mills, 

Inc. 
Hoyland Steel Co., Inc. 



Skandia Insurance Co. Hudson Insurance Co. 

Enskilda Bank, A.B. Fudicia Nineteen Corp. 

(owned by A.B. Providentia) 
[Released to the press May 22] 

The Interdepartmental Proclaimed List Com- 
mittee took action on May 22, 1944 which will re- 
sidt in the inclusion of 38 additional Swedish firms 
in the supplement to the Proclaimed List to be 
issued on June 2. The inclusion of these firms is 
in line with the regular policy of the Committee 
of including in the list the names of firms in neu- 
tral countries who have assisted the Axis by en- 
gaging in trade with enemy territory to an unusual 
extent or in other ways. The names of other firms 
are currently under consideration for inclusion. 

The names of the Swedish firms which will be 
included in the June 2 supplement to the Pro- 
claimed List are : 

A. R. Applequist Forvaltnings A/B 
A/B Kol and Transport 

A/B Ara 

A/B Ragnar Appelquist 

Bat-Tjanst A/B 

Swedish Yaclits A/B 

Pilip Anderson & Co., A/B 

Filip Anderson 

Anderson Line Ltd., A/B 

A/B Kinofa 

Forsakringsbolaget Bore Forlags A/B 

J. C. Hempel 

A/B International Shipping Service 

A/B Planeten 

Tessalia A/B 

Hofjuvelerare K. Anderson A. B. 

Hallbergs Guldsmedsaktiebolag, C. G. 

Guldvaruhuset A/B 

Ungerska Exportkontoret A/B 

Pallig, Walter Albert 

Trulsson, Frithiof Nils Hans 

A/B Transportbransle 

Lindstrom and Wadell A/B 

A/B Pallasfllm 

Metallkontor A/B 

E. Schlabach 

A/B Eltron 

Superfon P. Richter 

Sydprodukter A/B 

Guernio de Luca 

Rosenthals Specialaffar A/B 

Tyska Skolan A/B 

Avimat A/B 

Nordiskt Filmotek A/B 

B. E. Berg 

Skandinaviska Berkefeld Filter A/B 
Janssen, Lebrecht Teodor 
Dufva, Dag Olaf 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



UNITED NATIONS MONETARY AND FINANCIAL CONFERENCE ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House May 26] 

President Roosevelt has called an international 
conference for the purpose of discussing proposals 
to meet post-war international monetary problems. 

Invitations have been extended to all the United 
Nations and the nations associated with them in 
the war, requesting them to send official repre- 
sentatives to the United States for the Conference, 
which will begin on July first. 

The delegates representing the United States 
will be headed by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 

A list of governments and authorities invited to 
participate in the Conference follows: 

Australia India 

Belgium Iran 

Brazil Iraq 

Canada Liberia 

Chile Luxembourg 

China Mexico 

Colombia Netherlands 

Costa Rica New Zealand 

Cuba Nicaragua 

Czechoslovakia Norway 

Dominican Republic Panama 

Ecuador Paraguay 

Egypt Peru 

El Salvador Philippine Commonwealth 

Ethiopia Poland 

French Committee of Union of South Africa 

National Liberation Union of Soviet Socialist 

Greece Republics 

Guatemala United Kingdom 

Haiti Uruguay 

Honduras , Venezuela 

Iceland Yugoslavia 

The Conference is expected to last several weeks. 

All agreements worked out by the Conference 
subsequently will be submitted to the respective 
governments for approval. 



A paraphrase of the circular note sent by the 
Secretary of State to the Washington missions, 

498 



inviting them to attend the United Nations Mone- 
tary and Financial Conference, follows: 

The Secretary of State presents his compli- 
ments to Their Excellencies and Messieurs, the 
chiefs of mission or principal representatives of 
the governments and authorities of the United 
Nations and the nations associated with them in 
this war, and refers to the Joint Statement of 
Technical Experts^ recommending the establish- 
ment of an international monetary fund and out- 
lining the principles for such a fund. 

The Government of the United States feels that 
the joint statement marks an important step to- 
ward international economic cooperation in the 
post-war world and is confident that others have 
been equally gratified by this evidence of the de- 
sire of the United Nations and the nations asso- 
ciated with them in this war to cooperate in 
meeting post-war economic problems. 

As a further step toward the realization of this 
objective, the President of the United States now 
proposes to call a United Nations conference for 
the purpose of formulating proposals of a defi- 
nite character for an international monetary 
fund and possibly a bank for reconstruction and 
development. Of course, it would be understood 
that the delegates would not be required to pos- 
sess plenipotentiary powers and that the pro- 
posals formulated at the meeting would be sub- 
mitted to the several governments and authorities 
for acceptance or rejection. 

Accordingly, telegraphic instructions have 
been issued to the chiefs of the appropriate diplo- 
matic missions of the United States to extend on 
behalf of the President a cordial invitation for the 
respective governments and authorities to send 
one or more delegates to the United Nations Mone- 
tary and Financial Conference to convene in the 

' To be held at Bretton Woods, N.H. 

' Treasury Department press release of Apr, 21, 1944. 



MAY 27, 1944 



499 



United States on July 1, 1944. The governments 
and authorities are being informed that the 
United States Delegation to the Conference will 
be under the chairmanship of the Secretary of 
the Treasury and that the names of the other 
United States delegates, as well as information 
concerning the site of the Conference and ar- 
rangements for the meeting, will be forwarded at 
a later date. 

The Government of the United States, believing 
that the early formulation of precise proposals 
for an international monetary fund and a bank 
for reconstruction and development is of vital 
concern to all of the United Nations group, hopes 
that favorable replies to the invitations extended 
on behalf of the President will be received at the 
earliest possible moment, together with the names 
of all of the members of the respective delegations. 

Mr. Hull will be glad to communicate from 
time to time to Their Excellencies and Messieurs, 
the chiefs of mission or princiiDal representatives, 
detailed information concerning the ai-rangements 
for the forthcoming Conference. 

Department of State, 

Washington, May 26, 19^. 

* 

FIRST PAN AMERICAN CONGRESS 
ON CRIMINOLOGY 

[Released to the press May 22] 

This Government has accepted the invitation of 
the Chilean Government to participate in the First 
Pan American Congress on Criminology, which 
will be held at Santiago, Chile, from May 29 to 
June 3, 1944. The President has approved the 
designation of the following oflBcials of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation, Department of Jus- 
tice, as this Government's delegates to the meeting : 
Mr. Heber M. Clegg, Mr. John N. Speakes, and 
Mr. William L. Shea. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL COMMISSION 
OF THE PERMANENT AMERICAN AERO- 
NAUTICAL COMMISSION 

[Released to the press May 27] 

Reference is made to the Department's Press 
Release 464 of September 23, 1941 ^ concerning 
the establislmient of the United States National 



Commission of the Permanent American Aero- 
nautical Commission (Comision Aeronautica Per- 
manente Americana), frequently referred to as 
C.A.P.A. The creation of the Permanent Ameri- 
can Aeronautical Commission was provided for in 
a resolution of the Inter-American Technical Avi- 
ation Conference which was held at Lima, Peru, 
in September 1937. The purpose of the Commis- 
sion is to forward the work incident to the unifica- 
tion and codification of international public and 
private air law and to develop and coordinate 
technical activities of mutual concern in the field 
of aeronautics among the American republics. The 
resolution of the Lima Conference also provided 
for the organization in each of the American re- 
publics of a national commission for the purpose 
of preparing projects and proposals for the con- 
sideration of the Permanent American Aeronauti- 
cal Commission. 

The terms of the original members of the United 
States National Commission having expired, the 
President has now approved the designation of 
the following persons as members of the United 
States National Commission of the Permanent 
Aeronautical Commission : 

Mr. Oswald Ryan, Member, Civil Aeronautics Board, De- 
partment of Commerce, chairman 

The Honorable Alfred L. Bulwinkle, Member of Committee 
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Repre- 
sentatives 

The Honorable William A. M. Burden, Assistant Secretary 
of Commerce 

The Honorable Bennett Champ Clarli, Chairman, Commit- 
tee on Interoceanlc Canals, United States Senate 

Lt. Col. Louis A. Johnson, Infantry Reserve, United States 
Army, former Assistant Secretary of War, Clarksburg, 
West Virginia 

Mr. Arnold W. Knauth, Attorney, Admiralty and Shipping 
Section, Department of Justice 

Mr. Stephen LatchforU, Cliairman, United States Section, 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal 
Experts 

ftlr. Stokeley W. Morgan, Chief, Aviation Division, Depart- 
ment of State 

Dr. Francis W. Reichelderfer, Chief, Weather Bureau, 
Department of Commerce, and Vice Chairman, Na- 
tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 

Mr. Theodore P. Wright, Director of the Aircraft Resources 
Control Office, Aircraft Production Board, War De- 
partment 



' Bulletin of Sept. 27, 1941, p. 238. 



American Republics 



FIFTEENTH AlVNIVERSARY OF INAUGURATION OF AIRMAIL SERVICE BETWEEN THE 

UNITED STATES AND SOUTH AMERICA 



[Released to the press May 23] 

The following telegrams have been exchanged 
between President Roosevelt and His Excellency 
Manuel Prado, President of the Republic of Peru : 

Mat 18, 1944. 
Fifteen years ago today Pan American-Grace 
Airways Inc. began international airmail service 
between Peru and the United States, thus estab- 
lishing a service which has contributed toward 
strengthening in the most efficient manner the 
bonds which unite both countries. On this agree- 
able occasion I am pleased cordially to address 
Your Excellency, renewing the decision of my 
Government to contribute by all possible means 
within its grasp to the fortifying of the magnifi- 
cent relations of good neighborliness existing 
between Peru and your great friendly Nation. 
Convinced that now it is indispensable to 
strengthen the union of the Americas in order to 
triumph in the unwavering undertaking to rees- 
tablish freedom in the world, I am confident that 
the important services which Pan American-Grace 
Airways Inc. has been rendering will be extended 
in the future, to the benefit of cultural, commercial, 
and personal relations between the men who foresee 
with faith the favorable future which Providence 
has in store for our peoples. 

Manuel Prado 



Mat 22, 1944. 
I wish to thank Your Excellency for your cordial 
message on the fifteenth anniversary of the inau- 
guration of the international airmail service be- 
tween Peru and the United States by Pan- 
American-Grace Airways, and I am pleased that 
you feel the efforts of the Company have contrib- 
uted materially toward strengthening the bonds 
which unite both countries. I agree with you that 
it is necessary to strengthen the union of the Amer- 
icas in order to carry to a satisfactory conclusion 
the struggle for freedom in which we are now 

500 



engaged and I believe that those enterprises which 
contribute to this end deserve our good wishes. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

[Released to the press May 23] 

The following telegrams have been exchanged 
between Pi'esident Roosevelt and His Excellency 
Carlos Arroyo del Rio, President of the Republic of 
Ecuador : 

Mat 18, 1944. 
Upon the occasion of the fifteenth anniversary 
of the flight by which there was inaugurated the 
airmail service between the United States and the 
countries of the west coast of South America, I 
am happy to send to Your Excellency, together 
with my cordial greetings, an expression of the 
api^roval with which Ecuador has observed the de- 
velopment of this service, which has contributed 
to bind together more closely the peoples of Amer- 
ica. I express the hope which Ecuador cherishes 
that this development will be intensified each day 
as necessity requires and as solidarity of effort and 
destiny demand. I reiterate to Your Excellency 
the testimony of my friendship and consideration. 

Arroyo del Rio 
President of Ecuador 



May 22, 1944. 

I appreciate Your Excellency's friendly message 
on the fifteenth anniversary of the inauguration of 
the airmail service between the United States and 
the west coast of South America. The growth of 
this essential service in the past fifteen years gives 
ground for confidence that the future development 
of aviation will continue to strengthen the bonds 
of friendship and mutual understanding between 
the peoples of this hemisphere. 

Please accept. Excellency, my warm personal re- 
gards and assurances of my highest esteem. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



MAY 27, 1944 



501 



THE NEW GOVERNMENT IN BOLIVIA ^ 
Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press May 26] 

The Secretary of State made the following reply 
to inquiries received May 26 : "Ambassador War- 
ren " has now handed me his report. I am giving 
the matter attention and will forward his findings 
to the Foreign Ministers of the other American 
republics for their study and recommendations. 
The report should serve as the basis for an ex- 
change of ideas and consultation among all of us." 

VISIT OF RECTOR OF THE NATIONAL 
UNIVERSITY OF NICARAGUA 

Dr. Modesto Armijo, rector of the National Uni- 
versity of Nicaragua at Managua, has arrived in 
Washington as guest of the Department of State. 
He plans to spend two months visiting leading edu- 
cational and cultural centers in AVashington and in 
Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern States. 

Dr. Armijo has held a Cabinet post as Minister 
of Education and has also been Chief Justice of 
the Su^Dreme Court of Nicaragua. In the inter- 
national field he has reijresented his country as 
Minister to Guatemala and delegate to many inter- 
national conferences. 

Among Dr. Armijo's most notable writings are a 
study on education in Nicaragua and his well- 
known work on the political status of women. 

Dr. Armijo is head of the Nicaraguan-American 
Cultural Institute, an organization dedicated to 
furthering mutual acquaintance and cultural rela- 
tions between citizens of the United States and 
Nicaragua. He is also a member of many literary 
and professional organizations and of the Acade- 
mies of Geography and History of both Nicaragua 
and Honduras. 

VISIT OF CUBAN HEALTHUNIT DIRECTOR 

Dr. Pedro Nogueira, director of the Marianao 
Health Unit in Cuba, has arrived in Washington 
at the invitation of the Department of State. 
During his six weeks' visit he will study public- 
health problems in Durham, N. C, Philadelphia, 
New York, and Albany. In June Dr. Nogueira 
plans to attend at Chicago the annual congress 
of the American College of Chest Physicians, of 
which he is a member. 



Dr. Nogueira is also vice director of the rural- 
housing section of the Cuban Good Neighbor 
Foundation, which was created soon after Pearl 
Harbor with funds assigned by the Pro-Allied Aid 
Commission of Cuba. This group devotes part of 
its receipts to worthy causes in other Allied na- 
tions, and part to health and other public-welfare 
enterprises in Cuba. One of the most recent proj- 
ects of the rural-housing section, to which Dr. 
Nogueira is devoting much attention, is demon- 
stration work on the Murga farm in Marianao. 
There, at a total cost of $2,800, 25 dwellings occu- 
pied by the families of farm laborers — 156 per- 
sons — have been supplied with running water, 
latrines, and cement floors. Stagnant pools have 
been drained. A communal garden has been 
planted and is tended by the school children, and 
the school itself is giving health instruction and 
vaccinating the children against smallpox and 
other communicable diseases. 



Far East 



PAUL B. EATON RETURNS FROM CHINA 

Paul B. Eaton, head of tlie mechanical engineer- 
ing department at Lafayette College, has just re- 
turned from China, where he served for one year 
under the Department of State as a teclmical ad- 
viser to the Chinese Government. Wliile in China 
Professor Eaton visited most of the government 
engineering universities, inspected many of the 
industries, and made a special trip over the rail- 
ways in the southern part of west China. He met 
engineers engaged in education, management, de- 
sign, and operation and gained an impression of 
the problems that they have been facing. Profes- 
sor Eaton states that the Chinese engineers, im- 
daunted by reverses, look eagerly to America and 
American engineers for aid, not only during the 
war but also in the post-war years, and that they 
desire aid in technological development and in the 
strengthening of management functions. 

• BULLETHN of Dec. 25, 1943, p. 449, Jan. 8, 1944, p. 28, and 
Jan. 29, 1944, p. 132. 
^ Sent on special mission to Bolivia. 



502 



DEPARTMEfNT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Near East 



CONFERENCE OF GREEK POLITICAL 
LEADERS 

[Released to the press May 22] 

On May 16, 1944 the President received the fol- 
lowing message from Professor Svolos and Messrs. 
Porphyrogennis and Roussos, three of the dele- 
gates attending the current conference of Greek 
political leaders in the Near East : 

We, the representatives of Fighting Greece at 
the Conference for National Unity, wish to express 
to you our respectful admiration and gi-atitude for 
the friendly interest which you take in our coun- 
try. 

The Greek people, who are fighting in the towns 
and in the mountains against the most barbarous 
of tyrannies, will never allow themselves to be 
withdrawn from the camp of the Allies and of the 
United Nations who are fighting for freedom and 
amongst whom your great country occupies, under 
your illustrious leadership, so glorious a position. 

Though the desire for national unity has led to 
actions as melancholy as the late mutinies in the 
Middle East forces, actions deplored and con- 
demned by all, we can assure Your Excellency that 
the Greek people, by their struggle of yesterday, 
today and tomorrow and by the help of their 
great Allies, will succeed in rubbing out that dark 
page. 

We rely on your sympathy which you have so 
often shown towards our country and we assure 
you that we will do our utmost to achieve that 
national unity which is an indispensable condition 
for the liberation, peace and well-being of our 
country which has endured so much from Italian, 
German and Bulgarian aggressors. 

SvOLOS 
PORPHTEOGENNIS 

Roussos 



The President sent the following reply under 
date of May 19 : 

I have received your welcome and reassuring 
message. We Americans are firm friends of the 
Greek people, who have fought so valiantly and 
suffered so direly during the course of the war, 
and have therefore been profoundly distressed by 
the recent disunity in Greek ranks. But we re- 
member that the Greeks have always shown the 
capacity to submerge their differences and rally 
together in times of real national crisis. The oc- 
casion and the opportunity exist again today and 
it is our earnest hope and prayer that the Greek 
leaders assembled in the Near East will make of 
the current conference a new landmark of pur- 
poseful unity in Greek history. 

Roosevelt 



The Department 



UNITED STATES SECTION OF ANGLO- 
AMERICAN CARIBBEAN COMMISSION 

Departmental Order 1274 of May 23, 1944 ^ 

1 Fwvction of the Anglo-Americwn Cariiiean 
Commission. Under the terms of the joint com- 
munique issued by the Governments of the United 
States and Great Britain on March 9, 1942, the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission was cre- 
ated "for the purpose of encouraging and strength- 
ening social and economic cooperation between 
the United States of America and its possessions 
and bases in the area known geographically and 
politically as the Caribbean, and the United King- 
dom and the British Colonies in the same area." 
The Commission was further directed to include 
in its terms of reference close cooperation in social 
and economic matters between all regions adjacent 
to the Caribbean. The Chairman of the United 



' Effective May 23, 1944. 



MAY 2 7, 1944 



503 



States Section of the Commission reports directly 
to the President. 

2 Relationshifs of the United States Section to 
the Department. In fiscal and administrative 
matters, the United States Section of the Anglo- 
American Caribbean Commission shall be under 
the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary in 
charge of the administration of the Department of 
State. Matters of policy affecting relations with 
possessions of European countries in the Carib- 
bean area dealt with by the United States Section 
of the Commission shall be cleared through the 
appropriate Divisions of the Office of European 
Affairs. Those policy matters affecting relations 
with American Republics in the Caribbean area 
shall be cleared through the Division of Caribbean 
and Central American Affairs of the Office of 
American Eepublic Affairs. When necessaiy, the 
United States Section of the Commission and the 
geographic Offices shall consult with other inter- 
ested Offices or Divisions of the Department. The 
United States Section of the Commission shall 
keep the Office of European Affairs and the Office 
of American Republic Affairs currently informed 
of matters which it is handling within their re- 
spective fields; those Offices, and other Divisions 
and Offices of the Department, particularly the 
Division of Communications and Records, shall 
keep the United States Section of the Commission 
currently informed of matters in which the United 
States Section is interested. 

The United States Section shall be represented 
on the interdivisional Working Committee on 
Problems of Dependent Territories of the Divi- 
sion of International Security and Organization. 

3 Office location and routing symhol. The 
offices of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion are in the Otis Building, 810 Eighteenth 
Street, Northwest. The routing symbol of the 
United States Section of the Commission shall be 
AACC. 



4 Departmental Order amended. Departmen- 
tal Order 1218, January 15, 1944, page 22, is ac- 
cordingly amended. 

CoRDELL Hull 

Mat 23, 1944 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 9 of May 22, 1944, 
effective May 1, 1944, the Secretary of State des- 
ignated Mr. Eugene H. Dooman and Mr. Edwin F. 
Stanton as Sjiecial Assistants to the Director of 
the Office of Far Eastern Affairs. 

By Departmental Designation 10 of May 26, 
1944, effective May 26, 1944, the Secretary of State 
has designated the following officers of the United 
States Section of the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission stationed in Washington : Mr. Charles 
W. Taussig, Chairman of the United States Sec- 
tion; Mr. Coert duBois, United States Commis- 
sioner, supervising field operations; Mr. Sidney 
de la Rue, Special Assistant to the Chairman ; and 
Mr. John F. Gauge, Executive Secretary. 



Treaty Information 



RENEWAL OF AGREEMENT WITH PANAMA 
FOR THE DETAIL OF A UNITED STATES 
ARMY OFFICER TO SERVE AS ADVISER 
TO THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
OF PANAMA 

There has been effected by an exchange of notes 
signed in Washington on April 26 and May 18, 
1944, between the Ambassador of Panama in 
Washington and the Under Secretary of State, a 
renewal, for an additional period of one year, of 
an agreement providing for the detail of a United 
States Army officer to serve as adviser to the Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs of Panama signed at 



504 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



Washington on July 7, 1942 (Executive Agreement 
Series 258), and extended for a period of one year 
by an exchange of notes dated July 6 and August 
6, 1943 (Executive Agreement Series 336). The 
renewal is effective from July 7, 1944. 

CANADIAN MUTUAL-AID AGREEMENTS 

The text of a mutual-aid agreement between 
the Government of Canada and the French Com- 
mittee of National Liberation, signed at Ottawa 
on April 14, 1944, was printed in the Bulletin of 
May 13, 1944, pages 456^57. Similar agreements 
were concluded by the Government of Canada with 
the United Kingdom on February 11, 1944, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on February 
11, 1944, Australia on March 9, 1944, and China 
on March 22, 1944. A statement by Prime Min- 
ister Mackenzie King regarding Canadian mutual 
aid appears in the March 16, 1944 issue of the 
Canadian House of Commons Debates, pages 
1584-1586. 



Legislation 



The Jewish National Home in Palestine: Hearings be- 
fore the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Repre- 
sentatives, 78th Cong., 2d sess., on H. Res. 418 and H. 
Res. 419, Resolutions Relative to the Jev?ish National 
Home in Palestine. February 8, 9, 15, and 16, 1944. 
With appendix of documents relating to the Jewish Na- 
tional Home in Palestine. 11, 512 pp. 
Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce Appropria- 
tion Bill for 1945 : 
Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Appropriations, United States Senate, 78th Cong., 
2d sess., on H.R. 4204. A bill making appropria- 
tions for the Department of State, the Department 
of Justice, and the Department of Commerce, for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945, and for other 
purposes, ii, 331 pp. 
S. Rept. 887, 78th Cong., on H.R. 4204. [Favorable re- 
port.] 5 pp. 
Appointment of Two Additional Assistant Secretaries of 
State. H. Rept. 1422, 78th Cong., on H.R. 4311. [Fav- 
orable report.] 2 pp. 
Foreign Service Buildings and Grounds. H. Rept. 1421, 
78th Cong., on H. R. 4282. [Favorable report] 5 pp. 



Providing That Nationals of the United States Shall Not 
Lose Their Nationality by Reason of Voting Under Legal 
Compulsion in a Foreign State. H. Rept. 1428, 78th 
Cong., on H. R. 2448. [Favorable report.] 3 pp. 

Declaring the policy of the Congress with Respect to the 
Independence of the Philippine Islands. H. Rept. 1497, 
78th Cong., on S. J. Res. 93. [Favorable report.] 2 pp. 

Establishing the Filipino Rehabilitation Commission. H. 
Rept. 1507, 78th Cong., on S. J. Res. 94. [Favorable 
report.] 3 pp. 

Limiting Production of Opium to Amount Required for 
Medicinal and Scientific Purposes. H. Rept. 1515, 78th 
Cong., on H. J. Res. 241. [Favorable report.] 4 pp. 

National War Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1945. H. Rept. 
I.'')!!, 7Sth Cong., on H. R. 4879. 43 pp. 

Lend-Lease Aid : Preliminary Report of Committee In- 
vestigators to the Committee on Appropriations, United 
States Senate, on Lend-Lease Aid and Government Ex- 
penditures Abroad. S. Doc. 190, 78th Cong, ii, 34 pp. 

Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the Depart- 
ment of State : Communication from the President of 
the United States transmitting supplemental estimates 
of appropriations for the fiscal year 1944, amounting to 
$11,600,000, and a draft of proposed provisions pertain- 
ing to appropriations, for the Department of State. H. 
Doe. 578, 78th Cong. 3 pp. 

Draft of Proposed Provision Pertaining to the Department 
of State : Communication from the President of the 
United States transmitting draft of a proposed provision 
pertaining to an appropriation of the Department of 
State for the fiscal year 1944. H. Doc. 587, 78th Cong. 
2 pp. 

Fifteenth Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Operations: 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting the Fifteenth Report on Lend-Lease Operations 
for the Period Ending March 31, 1944. H. Doc. 616. 
7Sth Cong. 84 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 
Boundaries of the Latin American Republics: An Anno- 
tated List of Documents, 1493-1943 (Tentative Version). 
By Alexander Marchant, Office of the Geographer, De- 
partment of State. Inter-American Series 24. Publica- 
tion 2082. V, 386 pp. 50c. 

Flight Strips Along Alaska Highway : Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Canada— Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Ottawa August 26 and Sep- 



MAY 27, 1944 

tember 10, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 381. Pub- 
lication 2112. 2 pp. 5c. 

Status of Countries in Relation to the War April 22, 1!W4 : 
Compiled by Katharine Elizabeth Crane, Division of 
Research and Publication, Department of State — Re- 
printed from the Bulletin of April 22, 1944. Publication 
211S. 10 pp. 5c. 

Other Government Agencies 

"Cuba in 1943", prepared in American Republics Unit, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, on basis of 
report from Albert F. Nufer, Counselor of Embassy for 
Economic Affairs, U. S. Embassy, Habana, Cuba. 

"The Foreign Service and American Business", by John G. 
Erhardt, Director, OflBce of Foreign Service Administra- 
tion, Department of State. 

"Economic Tug-of-War in Present-Day Spain", an article 
by Mr. Robert E. Whedbee of the Madrid Embassy In 



505 

collaboration with Mr. Arley T. Caudill of the European 
Unit of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 
the Year 1942 (in Three Volumes), Volume II: Letters 
from the Berlin Embassy 1871-1874, 1880-1885, Edited by 
Paul Knaplund, 78th Cong., 1st Sess. H. Doc. 12, 428 pp. 

The first article listed under "Other Government 
Agencies" will be found in the May 13, 1944 issue 
of the Department of Commerce publication en- 
titled Foveign Covimerce Weekly. The second ar- 
ticle -will be found in the May 20, 1944 issue of that 
periodical. The third article is to be published in 
the May 27, 1944 issue. 

Copies of Foreign Commerce Weehly may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, for 10 cents each. 



0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIEECTOE OP THE BUEEAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



H 



■^ m 



J 



TIN 

JUNE 3, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 258— Publication 2139 



C 



ontents 



The War: 

Sovereign Equality for All Nations: Statement by the 
Secretary of State 

Albania : Statement by the Secretary of State .... 

Lend-Lease Plane Exports: Statement by the Presi- 
dent 

Preliminary Discussions on Establishment of Inter- 
national Peace and Seciirity Organization: Statement 
by the Secretary of State 

Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy . . 

Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 3 to Revision 
VII 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 

American Republics 

Direct Radio Circuit Between United States and 

Uruguay 

Inter-American Coffee Board 

Agriculture in the United States: West Indian Assist- 
ance 

Visit of Du-ector of Children's Orchestras in Uruguay . . 

The Department 

Appointment of Advisers to Division of Labor Re- 
lations 

Appointment of Officers 

[OVEBl 



Page 

509 
510 

510 



510 
511 

511 
511 



511 

512 

512 
513 



513 
513 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMEuTS 

JUN 16 1944 







OntBTl fS— CONTINUED 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. Page 

Twenty -sixth International Labor Conference: 

Message of President Roosevelt 514 

Resolution Concerning Social Provisions in the Peace 

Settlement 514 

Resolution Concerning Economic Policies for the 

Attaiimient of Social Objectives 517 

Treaty Information 

Trade Agreement With Iran 521 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences . . 522 

General 

Iceland 522 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 522 

Publications 522 



The War 



SOVEREIGN EQUALITY FOR ALL NATIONS 

Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press June 1] 

At his press and radio news conference on June 1 
the Secretary of State made the following reply 
in answer to a question whether there was any- 
thing he could say that might be of reassurance 
to the small nations. The correspondent who 
asked the question pointed out that some of the 
small nations seemed to think that they would not 
be properly represented in the proposed interna- 
tional organization : 

"That is a matter in which the small nations and 
the large nations as well should be at all times 
especially interested. It is a mutual affair. The 
future welfare of each nation depends upon the 
welfare of all. In view of that common interest 
and that self-interest in every mutual sense, I 
doubt whether there would be many nations, large 
or small, which would have any other purpose than 
to cooperate in all legitimate and practicable in- 
ternational relationships that would be mutually 
advantageous and mutually profitable. As far as 
this Government is concerned, whenever I have 
said anything on this subject, it has always em- 
phasized the all-inclusive nature of the world situ- 
ation and our disposition and purpose to see that 
all nations, especially the small nations, are kept 
on a position of equality with all others and that, 
in every practicable way, there will be cooperation. 

"Now, it is not possible at this stage for this 
Government or any government to give any- 
body a blueprint as to all of the details of how 
these relationships between all of the different na- 
tions will be gradually developed and perfected. 
There is no occasion to be especially concerned 
about the attitude of this Government in view of 
the declarations that the President, and I, and 
others have made. The truth is that even those 
declarations are not necessarily called for in the 



light of our entire history and our traditions. We 
have for 150 years preached liberty to all the na- 
tions of the earth, to all the peoples of the earth, 
and we have practiced it. We have encouraged all 
nations to aspire to liberty, and to enjoy it. Our 
attitude toward the Philippines is a striking ex- 
ample. Nobody had to put us on the witness stand 
to know what we were doing for them. 

"Even back in our earlier days we preached the 
same spirit of liberty with which we, ourselves, 
were inspired in acquiring our own liberty, to all 
the nations — especially those that were in chains 
of despotism, as the South American countries 
were for centuries under Spanish rule. Nobody 
asked us to do it. That was our philosophy. That 
was our spirit, both at home and toward all peoples 
who might aspire to liberty. As soon as our Amer- 
ican neighbors threw off the Spanish yoke we 
proceeded to recognize them, right and left. We 
had the same spirit toward Greece and other coun- 
tries desiring liberty as we demonstrated in the 
Philippines. That has been our consistent record, 
a record of championship of liberty for everybody, 
encouraging them at all times and in all places. 
I see no reason why this country, this great free 
people who through generations have dedicated 
themselves to this wonderful human cause and pre- 
served it — I see no reason why they should be cate- 
chized every morning before breakfast as to their 
loyalty to liberty, or their consistent desire of lib- 
erty for everybody and freedom for aspiring peo- 
ples everywhere. 

"I have spoken of this often in speeches and at 
other times before, during, and after my trip to 
Europe. Here is an example from my address to 
the Congress : 'The principle of sovereign equality 
of all peace-loving states, irrespective of size and 
strength, as partners in a future system of general 

509 



510 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



security will be the foundation stone upon which 
the future international organization will be con- 
structed.' ^ That is our objective. I think I have 
indicated sufficiently to you the policy of this na- 
tion and this Government representing it." 

ALBANIA 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 2] 

Five years ago today, on June 3, 1939, a Fascist 
constitution was imposed uj^on the Albanian peo- 
ple by the Mussolini regime of Italy. The Alba- 
nian people never accepted this constitution nor the 
series of puppet governments set up to administer 
it. 

The United States, of coui'se, never recognized 
the Fascist annexation of Albania which followed 
the unprovoked aggression of April 7, 1939 and 
considers that the right to freedom under institu- 
tions of their own choosing resides in the people 
of Albania. 

Albanian patriots have fought, and continue to 
fight, to drive the Nazis from their country. This 
is a part of the common struggle, to which these 
sturdy people can make a precious contribution if 
they can achieve unity in the effoi't of their arms. 
Thus they can hasten the day of their liberation. 

LEND-LEASE PLANE EXPORTS 
Statement by the President 

[Released to the press by the White House June 2] 

Tabulation of figures on lend-lease plane exports 
for the month of March has now been completed by 
the Foreign Economic Administration. On the 
basis of these figures it can be announced that : 

1. In the 91 days from January 1, 1944 to April 
1, 1944 a total of 4,400 planes were sent to our 
Allies from the United States. This means that 
on the average 338 planes were shipped or flown 
every week to fighting forces allied with our own 
against our common enemies on battle-fronts 
around the world. 

2. Between March 11, 1941, when the Lend-Lease 
Act was passed, and April 1, 1944 more than 33,000 
planes have been sent from the United States to 
the forces of the other United Nations. Our Allies 
IDaid cash for 7,000 of the jplanes. The remaining 



26,000 were sent under lend-lease. Many thou- 
sands were ferried all the way by air from the 
factories to the battle-fronts. 

3. In the same period the United States pro- 
duced over 175,000 planes. We thus retained for 
our own part of the combined United Nations war 
effort more than four fifths of the planes we pro- 
duced, while sending very large numbers to our 
Allies. Through lend-lease we have seen to it that 
the men who fight beside Americans, in the of- 
fensives already under way and in the still greater 
offensives that are ahead, have the extra striking 
power they need to deliver the most damaging jjos- 
sible blows against our enemies — the Germans and 
the Japanese. 

PRELIMINARY DISCUSSIONS ON ESTAB- 
LISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE 
AND SECURITY ORGANIZATION 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press May 29] 

The first phase of the informal conversations 
with the eight Senators ^ has been concluded. We 
had frank and fruitful discussions on the general 
principles, questions, and plans relating to the 
establishment of an international peace and se- 
curity organization in accordance with the prin- 
ciples contained in the Moscow four-nation declara- 
tion,^ the Connally resolution, and other similar 
declarations made in this country. I am definitely 
encouraged and am ready to proceed, with the ap- 
proval of the President, with informal discussions 
on this subject with Great Britain, Russia, and 
China, and then with governments of other United 
Nations. 

Meanwhile, I shall have further discussions with 
these and other leaders of both parties in the two 
Houses of Congress, and with others. The door 
of non-partisanship will continue to be wide open 
here at the Department of State, especially when 
any phase of the planning for a post-war security 
organization is under consideration. 



" Bulletin of Nov. 20, 1943, p. 343. 

° Senators Connally of Texas, chairman; George of 
Georgia : Barkley of Kentucky ; Gillette of Iowa ; La Fol- 
lette of Wisconsin ; Vandenberg of Michigan ; White of 
Maine : and Austin of Vermont. 

' Bulletin of Nov. 6, 1»43, p. 308. and Nov. 20, 1943, 
p. 342. 



JUNE 3, 1944 



511 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC 
FOREIGN POLICY 

Creation and Authority — The Executive Com- 
mittee on Economic Foreign Policy was created by 
letter of April 5, 1944 from the President to the 
Secretary of State and by similar letters to the 
heads of the other interested Departments and 
agencies listed below. 

Purpose — It is the function of the Committee 
to examine problems and developments affecting 
the economic foreign policy of the United States 
and to formulate recommendations in regard 
thereto for the consideration of the Secretary of 
State and, in appropriate cases, of the President. 
Major interdepartmental committees concerned 
with general economic affairs including those es- 
tablished in the Department of State are, in accord- 
ance with the letter from the President, expected 
to be appropriately geared into this Committee. 

Organization — The Committee consists of repre- 
sentatives of the Departments of State, the Treas- 
ury, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, the 
United States Tariff Commission, and the Foreign 
Economic Administration. Representatives of 
other departments and agencies are invited to par- 
ticipate in this Committee or its subcommittees 
when matters of special interest to them are under 
consideration. The chairman of the Committee 
is an officer of the Department of State designated 
by the Secretary of State. 

Activities — The Committee meets weekly, or 
more often if necessary. The Committee studies 
and advises on questions of economic foreign 
policy. It considers also problems of various 
Departments and agencies of the Government deal- 
ing with domestic matters which have an impor- 
tant bearing on such policy. 

Members 

Department of State Dean Acheson, chairman 

Department of State Harry C. Hawkins, vice 

cliairman 

Department of the Treasury Harry D. White 

Department of Agriculture Leslie A. Wheeler 

Department of Commerce Amos E. Taylor 

Department of Labor A. P. Hinrichs 

United States Tariff Comniis- Oscar B. Ryder 

sion. 
Foreign Economic Administra- Lauchlin Currie 

tion. 



PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE SUP- 
PLEMENT 3 TO REVISION VII 

[Released to the press June 3] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Acting Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Administrator of Foreign Economic 
Administration, and the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, on June 3 issued Cumulative 
Supplement 3 to Revision VII of the Proclaimed 
List of Certain Blocked Nationals, promulgated 
March 23, 1944. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 3 contains 45 
additional listings in the other American republics 
and 55 deletions. Part II contains 214 additional 
listings outside the American republics and 42 de- 
letions. 

With the issuance of this Supplement the Pro- 
claimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals has been 
extended to include certain cases in Finland. 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND 
GERMAN NATIONALS 

A list of civilian American and Latin American 
nationals who will arrive in New York on board 
the G-rifsholm on or about June 5 has been issued 
as Department of State press release 195 of May 
29, 1944. 



American Republics 



DIRECT RADIO CIRCUIT BETWEEN 
UNITED STATES AND URUGUAY 

[Released to the press June 3] 

On the occasion of the opening of the first direct 
radio circuit on June 1, 1944 between the United 
States and Uruguay, the following congratulatory 
telegrams were exchanged between the President 
of Uruguay and President Roosevelt ; between the 
Minister of Foreign Relations and Secretary of 
State Hull ; and between the Director General of 
Communications in Uruguay and the Chairman of 
the Federal Communications Commission : 



512 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



I reafRrm to Your Excellency the profound 
sentiments of traditional friendship of our people 
united by history, destiny, and juridical and moral 
obligations in the struggle for liberty and in the 
defense of the Continent. 

Juan Jose Amezaga 
President of the Oriental 

Republic of Uruguay 

I deeply appreciate your message on the auspi- 
cious occasion of the inauguration of direct radio 
telegraphic communications between the United 
States and Uruguay. At this crucial moment in 
the struggle against the forces of world aggression, 
I reiterate to you, Mr. President, the deep senti- 
ment of friendship and collaboration that unites 
our people in the common defense of those princi- 
ples of liberty and justice that constitute the 
historic tradition of America. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



forces of oppression throughout the world has 
reached the crucial stage. 

CoRDELL Hull 



The direct radio telegraphic service between 
Uruguay and the United States of America now 
inaugurated will reinforce and stimulate the his- 
torical ties of our peoples identified in the guard- 
ianship of the principles of law and liberty which 
constitute the sacred and common tradition of the 
American countries and joined together in the 
work of continental cooperation and defense of 
the hemisphere. In the name of the Uruguayan 
people and Government I express to Your Excel- 
lency the most sincere and effusive wishes for the 
triumph of the free nations over the enemies of 
the ethical and juridical order of civilization. 

JosE Sebkato 

I thank Your Excellency for the cordial and 
friendly message transmitted on the occasion of 
the inauguration of direct radio telegraphic com- 
munications between the United States and Uru- 
guay. This significant development symbolizes the 
close ties and the singleness of purpose that unite 
our two countries in the defense of our common 
heritage of liberty and justice. I am particularly 
happy to reaffirm to you, Mr. Minister, the pro- 
found sentiment of friendship and mutual collab- 
oration that animates the peoples of our two coun- 
tries, at a time when the struggle against the 



I take pleasure in sending you, with my friendly 
greeting and congratulations for the success of 
preliminary tests, the assurances of my high ap- 
preciation for the favorable reception and val- 
uable support which you gave this initiative 
destined to unite still more closely the countries 
of Washington and Artigas. 

Juan J. Milleh 

It is with great satisfaction that I acknowledge 
your cordial message and send you my sincere 
greetings on the inauguration of direct radio tele- 
graphic service between New York and Monte- 
video. I have no doubt that the establishment of 
this new means of communication, to which you 
have so effectively contributed, will serve to bring 
our two countries ever closer together. 

James Lawrence Fly 

INTER-AMERICAN COFFEE BOARD 

[Released to the press May 30] 

The President has now approved the designa- 
tion of Mr. Edward G. Gale, Assistant Chief of 
the Commodities Division, Department of State, 
as the Delegate of the United States to the Inter- 
American Coffee Board to succeed Mr. Emilio G. 
Collado.' The President has also approved the 
designation of Mr. Walter N. Walmsley, Jr., Chief 
of the Division of Brazilian Affairs, Department 
of State, as Alternate Delegate to the Board. Mr. 
Cale held the position of Alternate Delegate dur- 
ing the incumbency of Mr. CoUado as this Govern- 
ment's Delegate. 

AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES 
West Indian Assistance 

[Released to the press May 29] 

Sir Henry Grattan Baishe, K.C.M.G., C.B., Gov- 
ernor of Barbados, British West Indies, accom- 
panied by Mr. Guy Perrin, Labor Commissioner 
of Barbados, returned to Bridgetown May 27 after 

' BniiETiN of Dec. 18, 1943, p. 431. 



JUNE 3, 194 4 

having spent two weeks in the United States in 
discussions with the War Food Administration, 
the War Manpower Commission, and the War 
Shipping Administration. As a result of these 
talks an understanding has been reached whereby 
Barbados will send to the United States during the 
summer approximately 5,000 laborers. The men 
will be assigned work principally in agriculture 
and in food processing. Recruiting of the laborers 
will commence in the immediate future. 

Sir Grattan came to tlie United States at the 
suggestion of the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission, which agency has been instrumental 
in assisting tlie successful completion of the 
arrangements. 

The West Indies are furnishing a substantial 
amount of labor to the United States for agricul- 
tural and allied purposes this year. British Hon- 
duras will furnish 1,200 laborers, 500 of whom are 
skilled lumbermen ; Jamaica will send at least 16,- 
000, and this number may be increased if trans- 
portation permits; the Bahamas are furnishing 
approximately 5,000; and arrangements are being 
made for approximately 3,000 Puerto Ricans, most 
of whom will be skilled or semi-skilled laborers, 
who will assist in food processing and in other 
emergency work. 

VISIT OF DIRECTOR OF CHILDREN'S 
ORCHESTRAS IN URUGUAY 

[Released to the press June 2] 

Ruben Cartimbula, of Montevideo, Uruguay, has 
arrived in Washington as guest of the Department 
of State. Seiior Carambula directs the Children's 
School for Initiation Into Music. He has organ- 
ized and directs children's orchestras throughout 
Uruguay. 

One of the most important phases of Seiior 
Car^mbula's work is carrying music to children in 
remote country districts, especially those too poor 
to have access to a piano or string instruments. 
To meet their needs, he has invented a series of 
instruments which they can construct themselves. 
He has introduced into Uruguay the tonette, a type 
of flute, and a recorder. Seiior Carambula has 
prepared short descriptions in English of the 
typical folk music of the River Plate region. 
While in the United States he plans to work with 
children's rhythm bands and orchestras in per- 
forming adaptations of this music. 



^ 



513 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF ADVISERS TO 
DIVISION OF LABOR RELATIONS 

[Released to the press May 20] 

The Department of State announced on May 29 
the appointment of Mr. Robert J. Watt, Interna- 
tional Representative of the American Federation 
of Labor; Mr. J. Raymond Walsh, Director of 
Research and Education of the Congress of Indus- 
trial Organizations; and Professor Sumner 
Slichter, of Harvard University, as advisers to the 
Department's Division of Labor Relations. In 
this capacity they will advise the Department on 
the labor aspects of economic and political prob- 
lems in the international field. 

The Division of Labor Relations, among other 
functions, is responsible for initiating and coor- 
dinating policy and action in matters pertaining 
to (a) the effects on the foreign relations of the 
United States of policies and practices in foreign 
countries concerning wage and hour standards, 
working conditions, and similar matters of in- 
terest and concern to labor in the United States 
and abroad; (b) the interest of labor in the United 
States in matters of broad international policy; 
and (c) international arrangements for the promo- 
tion of full employment, health, and economic and 
social welfare. 

Mr. Otis E. Mulliken has been designated Chief 
of the Division of Labor Relations.^ 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 13 of June 2, 1944, 
effective June 2, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. John N. Plakias as Special Assistant 
in the Office of Transportation and Communica- 
tions. 

By Departmental Designation 15 of June 2, 1944, 
effective May 31, 1944, the Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. A. Dana Hodgdon temporarily as Act- 
ing Liaison Officer with responsibility for assisting 
the Secretary and the Under Secretary in their 
liaison with the War and Navy Departments and 
such other duties as may be assigned to him. 



' Departmental Designation 11, Issued May 29, 1944 ; 
effective May 29, 1944. 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



TWENTY-SIXTH INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE 

Message of President Roosevelt 



JReleased to the press by the White House May 29] 

To The Congress of the United States : 

The Twenty-Sixth Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization has just been held at 
Philadelphia. Representatives of the govern- 
ments, employers and workers of forty-one coun- 
tries took part in its deliberations. 

The Conference, by a two-thirds majority, 
adopted Recommendations on the following seven 
subjects : 

1. Income Security 

2. Social Security for the Armed Forces 

3. Medical Care 

4. Social Policy in Dependent Territories 

5. Employment in the Transition from War to 

Peace 

6. The Organization of Employment Services 

7. National Planning of Public Works 

Under the Constitution of the International 
Labor Organization, these recommendations are 
forwarded to the member governments for submis- 
sion by them to their respective, competent na- 
tional authorities. I shall accordingly submit 
them to the Congress in the regular way when 
certified copies are received. 



The Conference made other important decisions 
of which I think the Congress should be informed. 

First, it adopted by unanimous vote a declara- 
tion of the aims and purposes of the International 
Labor Organization which has been referred to as 
the "Declaration of Philadelphia". 

Secondly, it unanimously adopted resolutions 
concerning the social provisions of the peace 
settlement. 

Thirdly, it unanimously adopted resolutions 
concerning the economic policies, international and 
national, required for the attainment of the social 
objectives of the United Nations. 

Because of the interest and importance of these 
three documents, I am transmitting them herewith 
for the information of the Congress. 

Frankun D Roosevelt 

The White House, 
May 29, 19U- 

[Here follows the text of the Declaration Con- 
cerning the Aims and Purposes of the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization ; see Bulletin of May 
20, 1944, p. 482.] 



Resolution Concerning Social Provisions in the Peace Settlement 



Whereas the Conference is called upon to make 
recommendations to the United Nations for pres- 
ent and post-war social policy, and more partic- 
ularly concerning the social provisions to be in- 
scribed in the various general or special treaties 
or agreements to which the United Nations will 
jointly or severally become parties; 

Wliereas the prospect of a complete victory of 
the United Nations makes it possible to prepare 
a better world order directed towards the achieve- 
ment of the social objectives which these nations 

514 



proclaimed in the Atlantic Charter in expressing 
their desire to bring about the fullest collaboration 
between all nations in the economic field with the 
object of securing for all improved labour stand- 
ards, economic advancement and social security; 

1. 

The Conference considers that the principles 
stated in the following draft are appropriate for 
inclusion in a general or special treaty or agree- 
ment between nations desirous of giving early ef- 



JUNE 3, 194 4 



515 



feet to the principles of the Atlantic Charter and 
Article VII of the Mutual Aid agreement : 

The signatory governments 

Having pledged themselves to provide condi- 
tions which will ensure an increasing measure of 
freedom from want to their own peoples and to 
all peoples ; Recognizing, therefore, their common 
obligation to foster expanding production and em- 
ployment on a sound basis, free from disruptive 
fluctuations, and to ensure that workers and pro- 
ductive resources shall not be allowed to be idle 
while the needs of large parts of the world remain 
unsatisfied; 

Eealizing that the economic life and conditions 
in each nation are increasingly dependent upon 
the economic life and conditions of other nations, 
and that hence the attainment of the above-stated 
objectives requires increasing collaboration among 
nations ; 

Have agreed that: 

Article I 

The Declaration of the Aims and Purposes of 
the International Labour Organization adopted 
by the International Labour Conference at Phila- 
delphia, 1944, the text of which is annexed, is 
hereby reaffirmed. 

Article II 

Each government recognizes its duty to main- 
tain a high level of employment. Accordingly, 
all arrangements by and among the signatory and 
other like-minded governments for international 
economic cooiDcration should be framed and ad- 
ministered to serve the objectives set forth in 
Article I. They should be directed to the expan- 
sion of production, employment and the exchange 
and consumption of goods and to the liberation of 
economic activity from unreasonable restrictions. 
Particular consideration should be given to meas- 
ures for promoting the reconstruction of economic 
life in countries whose economic and social life 
has been disrupted as the result of Axis aggres- 
sion. 

Article III 

The following matters are of international con- 
cern and should be among the social objectives of 
international as well as national policy : 

( 1 ) Opportunity for useful and regular employ- 
ment to all persons who want work, at fair wages 

591603—44 2 



or returns and under reasonable conditions, with 
provision for protection of health and against in- 
jury in all occupations; 

(2) Raising standards of living to provide ade- 
quate nutrition, housing, medical care and edu- 
cation ; 

(3) Establishment of minimum standards of 
employment to prevent exploitation of workers, 
whether employed or self-employed, whose oppor- 
tunities for high wage employment are limited; 

(4) Provision for child welfare; 

(5) Provision for a regular flow of income to all 
those whose employment is interrupted by sickness 
or injury, by old age or by lack of employment op- 
poi'tunity ; 

(6) The effective recognition of the right of 
freedom of association and of collective bargain- 

mfr- 

(7) Provision of facilities for training and 
transfer of labour. 

Article IV 

The International Labour Office may, under 
standards constitutionally determined by the In- 
ternational Labour Conference, as occasion re- 
quires, collect from, and interchange with, the sig- 
natory governments, uniform statistical and other 
economic information on the following matters 
which are among those of direct interest to the 
International Labour Organisation and are of 
intei'national concern : 

(1) Employment, wages and conditions of 
work ; 

(2) Standards of living and the distribution of 
income, with particular reference to wage and sal- 
aried workers; 

(3) Technical education and training for em- 
ployment ; 

(4) Industrial health, safety and welfare; 

(5) Industrial relations; 

(6) Social security; and 

(7) Administration of labour and social secu- 
rity legislation. 

Article V 

With respect to the matters set forth in article 
III: 

(1) The governments, through appropriate in- 
ternational agencies, shall develop standards and 
statistical measures, and shall maintain uniform 
statistics and other information. 



516 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(2) The governments shall interchange among 
themselves and make available to the International 
Labour Organisation such information and re- 
ports as may be required to assist them and the 
Organisation to develop recommendations with 
respect to such matters. 

(3) The governments shall take appropriate 
steps to assure close collaboration and full ex- 
change of information between the International 
Labour Organisation and any other international 
bodies which now exist or may be established for 
the promotion of economic advancement and so- 
cial well-being. 

(4) The governments shall take appropriate 
steps to have placed on the agenda of the Interna- 
national Labour Conference annually the subjects 
of the extent to which the social objectives set forth 
in Article I have been attained and on the measures 
taken during the year toward the attainment of the 
objectives. 

Abticle VI 

With respect to draft international conventions 
and recommendations adopted by the Conference 
in accordance with Article 19 of the constitution 
of the International Labour Organisation, the sig- 
natory governments undertake to report to the In- 
ternational Labour Office as requested by the Gov- 
erning Body on the status of legislation and 
administration and, in so far as practicable, of 
practices under collective agreements between em- 
ployers and workers. 



The Conference recommends that the Govern- 
ing Body of the International Labour Organisa- 
tion: 

(1) call a special conference of the Organisa- 
tion when in its opinion there is a danger of a 
substantial fall in general employment levels for 
the purpose of recommending appropriate national 
or international measures to prevent the develoiJ- 
ment or spread of imemployment and to establish 
conditions under which high levels of employment 
may be maintained or restored ; 

(2) correlate the activities of the I.L.O. toward 
the end of maintaining full employment with those 
of any other international agency or agencies 
which may be designated by the United Nations to 



have primary responsibility in related economic 
fields. 

3. 

The Conference Recommends that: 

(1) The United Nations should undertake — 

(a) to apply to any dependent territories in 
respect of which they have accepted or may accept 
a measure of international accountability through 
any international or regional commission or other 
body the princi]5le that all policies designed to 
applj' to dependent territories shall be primarily 
directed to the well-being and development of the 
peoples of such territories, and to the promotion 
of the desire on their part for social progress; 

(b) to apply to such territories the provi- 
sions of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930; the 
Recruiting of Indigenous Workers Convention, 
1936; the Contracts of Employment (Indigenous 
Workers) Convention, 1939, and the Penal Sanc- 
tions (Indigenous Woi'kers) Convention, 1939; 

(c) to make a periodical report to the In- 
ternational Labour Office in respect of each such 
territory indicating the extent to which effect has 
been given to the provisions of the Social Policy 
(Dependent Territoi-ies) Recommendation, 1944; 

(d) to ask the International Labour Office 
to appoint, in continuation of the collaboration 
established in the case of the Permanent Mandates 
Commission, a representative on any Committee 
which may be entrusted with the task of watching 
over the application of the principle of interna- 
tional accountability, and further to ensure that 
any facilities which may be afforded, in the form 
of inspection or otherwise, for the better imple- 
mentation of this principle, shall include appro- 
priate measures for examining the application of 
the above-mentioned Conventions and Recommen- 
dation. 

(2) When determining the future status of de- 
pendent territories which on 1 September 1939 
were controlled by Axis Powers, the United Na- 
tions should specifically require the application 
thereto of the arrangements provided for in the 
preceding paragraph. 

(3) In any negotiations regarding the organi- 
sation, control and operation of merchant ship- 
ping and in particular in making international 
arrangements for the disposal of merchant ship- 
ping tonnage, the United Nations concerned 



JUNE 3, 1944 



517 



should consult the competent bodies of the Inter- 
national Labour Organisation, such as the Joint 
Maritime Commission, in regard to the possibility 
of including stipulations concerning the standard 
of accommodation to be provided for crews and of 
stipulations embodying the provisions of Conven- 
tions already adopted by the maritime sessions of 
the Conference, or of any further such Conven- 
tions that may be adopted before the negotiation 
of such agreements. 

(4) In making international arrangements con- 
cerning transport by air, land, and inland water- 
way, the United Nations should have due regard 
to the repercussions of such arrangements on the 
working and living conditions of persons employed 
in transport, and should consult the International 
Labour Organisation in regard to such repercus- 
sions and more particularly in regard to the work- 
ing and living conditions of persons who, in oper- 
ating such transport systems, work in or under 
the jurisdiction of more than one country. 

(5) The International Labour Organisation 
should make available to the United Nations any 
information or assistance calculated to facilitate 
the implementation of the proposals contained in 
the resolution concerning economic policies for the 
attainment of social objectives and the present 
resolution and should be prepared to participate 
in any international conference which may be con- 
sidering such proposals. 

4. 

Believing that the exceptional opportunity of 
the negotiations of the peace settlement should be 
taken to secure a concerted advance in the ac- 
ceptance of binding obligations concerning condi- 
tions of labor; 

The Conference reaffirming the principle of the 
association of management and labour in the fram- 
ing of such standards. 

Recommends 

(a) That throughout the peace settlement the 
United Nations should wherever appropriate in- 
clude provisions for labor standards. In a num- 
ber of cases such provisions might properly be 
taken from conventions or recommendations that 
have been or may be adopted by the International 
Labour Conference. 



(b) That the Governing Body should appoint a 
consultative committee on labour provisions in the 
peace settlement. This committee should hold 
itself in readiness, together with the Director of 
the International Labour Office, to give advice 
with reference to such provisions on the request of 
the United Nations or of particular groups of the 
United Nations. This committee should have the 
right to co-opt additional members of special com- 
petence with respect to the particular sets of pro- 
visions under consideration. 

(c) That the United Nations should make full 
use of this committee in any way in which they 
consider it appropriate to include labour provi- 
sions in the peace settlement. 

5. 

The Conference recommends to Governments 
that a Conference of representatives of the Gov- 
ernments of the United, associated, and other Na- 
tions, willing to attend, be called at an early date, 
in association with the Governing Body of the 
International Labour Office, to consider an inter- 
national agreement on domestic policies of em- 
ployment and unemployment; and this Confer- 
ence pledges the full co-operation and the assist- 
ance of the I.L.O. in calling such a conference on 
employment, and in helping to carry into effect 
apjsropriate decisions it might make. 

Resolution Concerning Economic Policies for 
the Attainment of Social Objectives 

Wliereas the prospect of a complete victory of 
the United Nations makes it possible to prepare a 
better world order directed towards the achieve- 
ment of the social objectives which these nations 
proclaimed in the Atlantic Charter in expressing 
their desire to bring about the fullest collaboration 
between all nations in the economic field with the 
object of securing for all improved labour stand- 
ards, economic advancement and social security; 
and 

Whereas these objectives of the United Nations 
coincide with the basic principles of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organisation, and the International 
Labour Conference, meeting in New York in 1941, 
pledged the full collaboration of the International 
Labour Organisation in their implementation ; and 



518 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Whereas the International Labour Conference is 
called upon by Item II on the Agenda of the 
present Session to make recommendations to the 
United Nations for present and post-war social 
policy concerning more especially the measures re- 
quired to be taken internationally and nationally 
to ensure full employment, social security and ris- 
ing standards of living; and 

Whereas the initiative with regard to inter- 
national 25olicy lies with the United Nations at the 
present time, and it is desirable in order to attain 
the objectives referred to that all nations should 
pursue an appropriate national policy ; and 

Whereas the attainment of full employment and 
high productivity by the various nations after the 
war is essential to the achievement of freedom from 
want, the attainment of increasing living stand- 
ards, the realisation of genuine economic security 
and the continuation of peaceful economic prog- 
ress ; and 

Whei'eas full employment can be achieved and 
maintained only through the adoption, by govern- 
ments, industry and labour, of policies and 
measures which effectively encourage the continu- 
ing expansion of production and improvement of 
distribution ; and 

Wliereas the speedy achievement of full employ- 
ment requires the prompt and orderly reconversion, 
reconstruction and expansion of industry, trade, 
commerce and agriculture after the war, and the 
subsequent maintenance of employment and pro- 
duction at high levels requires the creation of an 
economic and social environment conducive to a 
progressive and expanding economy ; 

The Conference adopts the following resolution : 

1. Inteknational Policy 
1. Believing that the relief of war-stricken peo- 
ples, repatriation of prisoners and exiles and re- 
sumption of agricultural and industrial production 
are matters which will be of the utmost urgency 
immediately on the liberation of occupied countries 
and that on the successful handling of these prob- 
lems the possibility of achieving the long-range ob- 
jectives of social and economic well-being will 
largely depend. 

The Conference welcomes the creation of the 
United Nations Relief and Eehabilitation Admin- 
istration, urges all States concerned to co-operate 
actively in the achievement of the tasks entrusted 



to it and assures the Administration of the readi- 
ness of the International Labour Organisation to 
assist it in every appropriate way. 

2. In view of the fact that for varying periods 
after the end of hostilities many essential com- 
modities and transport facilities will be in short 
supply, and that international arrangements will 
be needed to ensure a fair allocation of available 
supplies and prevent excessive price movements, 

The Conference considers that the Governments 
of the United Nations concerned should arrange 
to continue in operation, for such periods as any 
serious shortages may persist, the existing machin- 
ery of international co-ordination and control sub- 
ject to such modification, and in particular to such 
enlargement of the membership of the authorities 
concerned, as may contribute to the equitable and 
efficient operation of such machinery in the transi- 
tion from war to peace. 

3. The Conference endorses the declaration of 
the United Nations Conference on Food and Agri- 
culture held in May 1943, that while the primary 
responsibility lies with each nation for seeing that 
its own people have the food needed for life and 
health, each nation can fully achieve this goal only 
if all co-operate in appropriate international ac- 
tion, and urges the setting up of a permanent inter- 
national organisation, as recommended by the 
Conference on Food and Agriculture, to raise the 
level of nutrition and improve the efficiency of ag- 
ricultural production and distribution. 

4. Recognising that a satisfactory international 
monetaiy system is essential to the full develop- 
ment of mutually advantageous economic relations 
between nations, and consequently to the raising 
of standards of living, 

The Conference attaches great importance to the 
establishment at the earliest possible moment of ef- 
fective international machinery for settling bal- 
ances arising out of international trade and other 
transactions and for maintaining stability in i-ates 
of exchange, notes with satisfaction that the Gov- 
ernments of the United Nations are giving careful 
attention to this matter and urges that they in- 
clude in any agreement establishing such machin- 
ery a provision requiring the authorities responsi- 
ble for its application to have regard in framing 
and applying their policies to the effect of their 
decisions on employment and living standards. 



JTJNE 3, 1944 



519 



5. Noting that imports of capital will be needed 
for reconstruction, development and the raising of 
living standards in many countries, and believing 
that the provision of such capital will contribute 
to the maintenance of full employment in the lend- 
ing countries, 

The Conference : 

(a) considers that the existing machinery 
of the international capital market should be sup- 
plemented by the establishment of appropriate in- 
ternational machinery for the purpose of promot- 
ing the international movement of capital ; 

(b) considers that the promotion of full 
employment and higher living standards should 
be regarded as a primary objective of any such 
international machinery ; 

(c) considers that the authorities responsi- 
ble for the operation of such international ma- 
chinery should consult the International Labour 
Organisation as to the appropriateness of includ- 
ing in the terms under which development works 
financed in whole or in part through such ma- 
chinery are to be carried out, provisions regarding 
the welfare and working conditions of the labour 
employed; and that such provisions should be 
framed in consultation with the International La- 
bour Organisation; 

(d) affirms the readiness of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organisation to render every 
assistance in its power in determining the appro- 
priateness of the inclusion of such provisions and 
in their framing and application and in the pro- 
motion through the operations of such interna- 
tional machinery of the general objectives of full 
employment and higher living standards. 

6. Recognising the great contribution which the 
international exchange of goods and services can 
make to higher living standards and to high levels 
of employment, 

The Conference : 

(a) believes that the measures proposed in 
the foregoing paragraphs for the promotion of 
exchange stabilisation and international lending 
will contribute to the expansion of international 
trade, but considers tliat the United Nations should 
also examine wartime changes in industrial capac- 
ity, and arrange for exchange of information on 
postwar industrial programmes and should take 
vigorous action to promote the expansion of in- 
ternational trade by appropriate commercial poli- 
cies; and considers that all countries, creditor as 



well as debtor, should adapt their commercial pol- 
icy in such a way as to enable them to settle all 
obligations arising out of international transac- 
tions ; 

(b) considers that the United Nations 
should initiate measures to facilitate the co-or- 
dination through appropriate international ma- 
chinery of the commercial policies of all countries 
for the purpose of promoting a steady expansion 
in world trade on a multilateral basis ; 

(c) considers that in such co-ordination 
special consideration should be given to the need 
of countries which are highly dependent on re- 
turns from exports to take measures to ensure a 
high degree of stability in the level of their eco- 
nomic activity and observes that the need for these 
measures will decrease to the extent that inter- 
national collaboration proves successful ; and 

(d) considers that in such co-ordination 
special account should be taken of the dislocation 
and the accumulated needs resulting from the 
devastation caused by war operations and from 
the jDrolonged diversion from peacetime produc- 
tion in countries which have been engaged for a 
long period in a sustained and total war effort. 

7. In order to lay the foundation for rising levels 
of consumption throughout the world and at the 
same time to ensure more stable and adequate in- 
comes to those primary producers whose services 
are needed for the production of essential raw 
materials and foodstuffs, 

The Conference considers that the United Na- 
tions should initiate concerted action designed to 
ensure the constant availability to all purchasers 
of adequate supj^lies of such commodities at prices 
which give a reasonable return to the efficient pro- 
ducer and are held sufficiently stable to afford pro- 
tection against major short-term fluctuations in 
supply or demand ; and that such international ar- 
rangements (a) should provide for adequate repre- 
sentation of consumers as well as producers, repre- 
senting both importing and exporting countries, 
in all authorities responsible for the determination 
and application of policy, and (b) should aim to 
assure to all workers, including the self-employed, 
engaged in the production of the commodities con- 
cerned, fair remuneration, satisfactory working 
conditions and adequate social security protection, 
having regard to the general standards in the 
countries concerned. 



520 

8. Believing that migratory movements may 
play an important part in the development of a 
dynamic economy, and that disorderly interna- 
tional migration may create economic and social 
dislocation in the countries concerned and involve 
serious individual hardship for the migrants them- 
selves, while desirable migratory movements are 
often hampered by technical and financial diffi- 
culties which can be overcome only through inter- 
national co-operation. 

The Conference considers that : 

(a) The United Nations should encourage 
by appropriate measures, with adequate safe- 
guards for all concerned, the orderly migration of 
labour and settled in accordance with the economic 
needs and social conditions prevailing in the vari- 
ous countries, and in this connection should note 
the Conclusions adopted by the Conference of Ex- 
perts on Teclmical and Financial Co-operation 
with regard to Migration for Settlement held at 
the International Labour Office in 1938; 

(b) Arrangements should be made for close 
co-operation between the International Labour 
Organisation and any public international agency 
established to deal with migration ; 

(c) The Governing Body should take steps 
to bring before an early session of the Conference 
a report of a representative commission, with such 
technical assistance as it may require, on the means 
necessary to protect the interests of labour, on the 
one hand, against barriers which prevent migra- 
tion from areas of limited resources, and on the 
other hand, against the lowering of the labour 
standards that might result from immigration at 
a rate exceeding the capacity of the receiving 
countries to absorb immigrants. 

9. In order that re-employment may be expe- 
dited and healthy living standards established 
within a period of minimum duration in areas lib- 
erated from Axis occupation. 

The Conference recommends that arrangements 
be made by those nations whose productive ca- 
pacities have been maintained during the war, by 
all other nations which are in a position to make 
materials available and by the appropriate inter- 
national organisations, to give the highest priority 
consistent with the exigencies of war to immedi- 
ately supplying the territories liberated from Axis 
occupation with materials and equipment required 
for industrial installations, agriculture, transport, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

public works and utilities of an essential character. 

10. Believing that the best possible conditions 
for a rise in the standard of living and the mainte- 
nance of full employment in the world can only be 
obtained by mutually consistent national economic, 
financial and social policies and by co-ordination 
of the activities of the different international in- 
stitutions in this field. 

The Conference considers that appropriate in- 
ternational measures should be taken which guar- 
antee sufficient contact and consultation with 
regard to such policies between governments as 
well as between the different international insti- 
tutions. 

2. National Polict 

11. In order that full employment at productive 
peacetime pursuits, freedom from want, rising 
standards of living and genuine economic security 
may be achieved with a minimum of delay after 
the war, 

Tlie Conference urges that governments and 
employers' and workers' organisations formulate 
comprehensive and co-ordinated programmes, 
suited to the particular needs of their countries, 
for prompt and orderly reconversion, reconstruc- 
tion and economic expansion, and that such pro- 
grammes be prepared and applied simultaneously 
with the consideration of the international meas- 
ures referred to in the preceding paragraphs. 

12. Kecognising that the economic situation will 
differ markedly among the various countries at the 
war's end, varying particularly with the degree 
and type of industrial development, the extent to 
which the peacetime economy has been disrupted 
by the war, and whether the country's territory 
has been occupied by the enemy ; and recognizing 
that national post-war economic programmes must 
vai'y accordingly, in order to meet most effectively 
the needs of the country in which they are to be 
applied. 

The Conference urges that, with due allowance 
for difference in national economic situations, pro- 
grammes for economic reconversion, reconstruc- 
tion and expansion include the development of 
sound policies and procedures to provide : 

(a) Effective arrangements for the orderly 
and expeditious demobilisation and repatriation, 
and for the early absorption in productive peace- 
time employment of members of the armed forces, 



JUNE 3, 1944 



521 



civilian workers, prisoners, persons who have re- 
sisted deportation, deported persons and refugees, 
for the prompt tei'mination of contracts and set- 
tlement of claims, the prompt determination of 
policy on the peacetime use of Government-owned 
war production capacity and equipment and the 
disposition of surplus materials, with a view to the 
use of these items to satisfy human needs, and lib- 
eral provision for the maintenance, educational 
training and retraining of persons unavoidably out 
of employment as recommended by the 26th Ses- 
sion of the International Labour Conference in its 
Recommendation concerning employment organi- 
sation in the transition from war to peace ; 

(b) Retention, as long as shortages exist, of 
such war-created economic controls — for example, 
price and exchange controls and rationing — as are 
necessai'y to prevent inflation, and the relaxation 
of such controls as rapidly thereafter as is con- 
sistent with the public welfare ; 

(c) Adjustment of tax systems to encourage 
rapid reconversion, reconstruction and economic 
expansion, while maintaining an equitable dis- 
tribution of tax burdens and avoiding financial 
measures which tend to increase the dangers of 
inflation or deflation ; 

(d) Development of effective mechanisms 
for adequate financing of the reconversion, recon- 
struction and expansion of industry, trade, com- 
merce and agriculture and jDarticularly to assist 
the establishment of new and efficient enterprises. 

13. The Conference urges that all practicable 
measures be taken to maintain a high and steady 
level of employment, to minimise fluctuations and 
business activity, and. to assure a steadily expand- 
ing volume of production, more particularly by 
means of : 

(a) Fiscal, monetary and other measures, 
including useful public works, to sustain the vol- 
ume of demand for goods and services at a high 
level while avoiding the dangers of an inflationary 
spiral of prices and wages — in this connection at- 
tention should be paid, among other measures, to 
such methods as an adequate income security sys- 
tem, and to properly timed public works financed 
by borrowing in periods of depression, in accord- 
ance with the Public Works (National Plaiming) 
Recommendation, 1937 ; 

(b) Measures to discourage monopolistic 
practices and to encourage teclmological progress, 



to maintain a reasonably flexible system of prices 
and wages, to encourage the transfer of workers 
and productive resources from declining to ex- 
panding industries, and to attain a high degree of 
mobility of resources and freedom of access to 
alternative employments ; 

(c) Measures to provide adequate incen- 
tives to engage in and expand constructive eco- 
nomic activity, to encourage private investment 
and to maintain the rate of investment — among 
the measures which warrant careful consideration 
in this connection are the adjustment of tax sys- 
tems, removal of artificial barriei's limiting access 
to resources and markets, the relaxation of un- 
reasonable restrictions imposed by governmental 
agencies or by business or by labour organisations, 
and the maintenance of a high and stable demand 
for goods ; 

(d) Measures to provide adequate oppor- 
tunity for workers to engage in productive activity 
and to obtain advancement — among the measures 
which warrant careful consideration in this con- 
nection are the provision of improved and more 
generally accessible educational and training fa- 
cilities, provision of higher nutritional and health 
standards, improvement of public employment 
services, increased provision against economic in- 
security, the maintenance of wages at a high level, 
and the protection, extension and improvement of 
collective bargaining procedures. 



Treaty Information 



TRADE AGREEMENT WITH IRAN 

[Released to the press May 29] 

On May 29, 1944 the Honorable Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State of the United States, and the 
Honorable Mohammed Shayesteh, Minister of Iran 
in Washington, effected the exchange of the Presi- 
dent's proclamation and the Iranian instrument of 
ratification of the reciprocal trade agreement and 
the accompanying exchange of notes between the 
United States and Iran dated April 8, 1943. 

Article XIV of the agreement provides that it 
shall enter into force on the thirtieth day follow- 
ing the exchange of the proclamation of the Presi- 
dent of the United States for the instrument of 
ratification of Iran. 



522 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Following the exchange on May 29, 1944, there 
was issued a supplementary proclamation by the 
President proclaiming that the agreement, includ- 
ing two schedules and the exchange of notes, will 
enter into force on June 28, 1944, the thirtieth day 
following May 29, 1944. 

The English texts of the agreement and accom- 
panying exchange of notes were made public in 
the Department's press release 133 of April 8, 1943 
and an analysis of the agreement in press release 
134 of the same date.^ A statement concerning the 
President's proclamation of the agreement, includ- 
ing the schedules and exchange of notes, was made 
in the Department's press release 102 of March 31, 
1944.2 rpj^g English and Persian texts of the agree- 
ment and accompanying exchange of notes will be 
printed in the Executive Agreement Series and the 
Statutes at Large. 

BNTER-AMEPJCAN INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

Chile 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State, by a letter 
of May 15, 1944, that the Convention on the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
which was opened for signature at the Pan Amer- 
ican Union on January 15, 1944, was signed for 
Chile on May 13, 1944. 




ICELAND 

[Released to the press June 3] 

The President has designated the Honorable 
Louis G. Di-eyfus, Jr., of California, as his Special 
Kepresentative with the personal rank of Ambas- 
sador to attend the ceremonies to be held in Iceland 
on June 17, 1944 incident to the establishment of 
the Republic of Iceland. 



The Foreign Service 



CONSULAR OFFICES 

The American Consulate at Grenada, British 
West Indies, was opened to the public on May 
25, 1944. 



Publications 



Depaetment of State 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Brazil — Signed at Rio 
de Janeiro July 17, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 

373. Publication 2115. 7 pp. 5^. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Brazil — Signed at Rio de 
Janeiro February 10, 1943 ; Executive Agreement Series 

374. Publication 2116. 7 pp. 5^. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Brazil — Agreement signed 
at Rio de Janeiro November 25, 1943, effective January 
1, 1944 ; and Exchange of Notes signed November 9 and 
25, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 875. Publication 
2119. 17 pp. 10^. 

Southern Terminus of Alaska Highway : Agreement Be- 
tween the United States of America and Canada — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Ottawa May 
4 and 9, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 380. Pub- 
lication 2122. 2 pp. 5^. 

Haines-Champagne Section of. Alaska Highway: Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and Can- 
ada — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Ottawa 
November 28 and December 7, 1942. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 382. Fublication*2123. 2 pp. 5^. 

Foreign Service List (Abridged), April 1, 1944. Publica- 
tion 2121. iv, 60 pp. Subscription, 500 a year (65(i 
foreign) ; single copy, 200. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : 
Cumulative Supplement No. 3, June 2, 1944, to Revision 
VII of March 23, 1944. Publication 2132. 36 pp. Free. 



' BijLLETiN of Apr. 10, 1943, p. 299. 
' Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1944, p. 305. 



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Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIBECTOK OF THE BDREAn OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



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JUNE 10, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 259— Publication 2144 



ontents 




The War 

Page 
"In This Poignant Hour . . .": Prayer by the Presi- 
dent 525 

Allied Military Operations in France : 

Statement by the Secretary of State 526 

Statement by the Acting Secretary of State 526 

Liberation of Rome by the Allies : 

Radio Address by the President 526 

Messages Exchanged Between the President of the 
United States and Government and Military 

Officials of the United Nations 628 

Attitude of the Liberian Government 532 

War Refugees : 

Removal of European Refugees to the United States . 532 

Refugee Centers in the Middle East 533 

Portuguese Action Concerning the Exportation and Pro- 
duction of AVolfram : Announcement by the Acting 

Secretary of State 535 

Exchange of American and German Nationals 535 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion : Statement by the Acting Secretary of State . . 535 

American Republics 

Visit of the Executive Director of the National Council 

of Geography of Brazil 536 

Recognition by the United States of the Government 

of Ecuador £36 

[ovee] 



JUL 25 liH4 







0/1^671^5— CONTINUED 



The Far East page 
Belief Supplies for Allied Nationals Interned in the Far 

Etist 536 

Visit of Scholars From China 537 

Willis C. Barrett Keturns From China 538 

EUEOPE 

Return of the President's Personal Representative to 

the Vatican 538 

Visit to the United States of the Polish Prime Minister . 538 

General 
The Responsibility of Labor in the Post-War Period: 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 539 

Presentation of Legion of Merit Medals 541 

American Mexican Claims Commission 542 

Treaty Information 

Double-Taxation Convention With Canada 543 

International Opium Convention 543 

The Department 

Transfer of Functions of the Secretary's Liaison Office 
to the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation : De- 
partmental Order 1277 of June 7, 1944 543 

Rubber Advisory Panel 544 

Appointment of Officers 544 

Legislation 544 

Publications 545 



The War 



"IN TfflS POIGNANT HOUR 
Prayer by the President ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House June 61 

My Fellow Americans : In this poignant hour, 
I ask you to join me in prayer : 

ALMIGHTY GOD: Our sons, pride of our 
t Nation, this day have set upon a mighty 
endeavor, a struggle to preserve our Republic, our 
religion, and our civilization, and to set free a 
suffering humanity. 

Lead them straight and true; give strength to 
their arms, stoutness to their hearts, steadfastness 
to their faith. 

They will need Thy blessings. Their road will 
be long and hard. The enemy is strong. He may 
liurl back our forces. Success may not come with 
rushing speed, but we shall return again and again ; 
and we know that by Thy grace, and by the right- 
eousness of our cause, our sons will triumph. 

They will be sore tried, by night and by day, 
without rest — till the victory is won. The dark- 
ness will be rent by noise and flame. Men's souls 
will be shaken with the violences of war. 

These are men lately drawn from the ways of 
peace. They fight not for the lust of conquest. 
They fight to end conquest. They fight to liberate. 
They fight to let justice arise, and tolerance and 
good-will among all Thy people. They yearn but 
for the end of battle, for their return to the haven 
of home. 

Some will never return. Embrace these, Father, 
and receive them, Thy heroic servants, into Thy 
kingdom. 

And for us at home — fathers, mothers, children, 
wives, sisters, and brothers of brave men overseas — 
whose thoughts and prayers are ever with them — 
help us. Almighty God, to rededicate ourselves in 



renewed faith in Thee in this hour of great 
sacrifice. 

Many people have urged that I call the Nation 
into a single day of special prayer. But because 
the road is long and the desire is great, I ask that 
our people devote themselves in continuance of 
prayer. As we rise to each new day, and again 
when each day is spent, let words of prayer be 
on our lips, invoking Thy help to our efforts. 

Give us strength, too — strength in our daily 
tasks, to redouble the contributions we make in 
the physical and material support of our armed 
forces. 

And let our hearts be stout, to wait out the long 
travail, to bear sorrows that may come, to impart 
our courage unto our sons wheresoever they 
may be. 

And, O Lord, give us Faith. Give us Faith in 
Thee; Faith in our sons; Faith in each other; 
Faith in our united crusade. Let not the keenness 
of our spirit ever be dulled. Let not the impacts 
of temporary events, of temporal matters of but 
fleeting moment — let not these deter us in our 
unconquerable purpose. 

With Thy blessing, we shall prevail over the 
unholy forces of our enemy. Help us to conquer 
the apostles of greed and racial arrogancies. Lead 
us to the saving of our country, and with our 
sister nations into a world unity that will spell 
a sure peace — a peace invulnerable to the schem- 
ings of unworthy men. And a peace that will let 
all men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards 
of their honest toil. 

Thy will be done, Almighty God. Amen. 



' Broadcast on June 6, 1944. 



525 



526 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ALLIED MILITARY OPERATIONS IN FRANCE 



Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June G] 

The Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, 
made the following statement at Hershey, Pa., in 
response to a request for comment on the invasion 
in Europe : 

"Our brave Allied armies, today waging the 
most pivotal battle of all time, never more truly 
represented the cause of liberty and of mankind. 
The forces of savagery, desperately endeavoring 
to destroy the human race, are making their last 
stand. While we fight and pray, and while we 
know that the fighting will be hard, we confidently 
look forward to a great historic Allied victory. 
We must then pledge our all that never again shall 
the forces of human destruction be let loose on 
the world." 



Statement by the Acting Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 6] 

The liberation of Europe has begun. For four 
long years the people of Europe have suffered 
tyranny, oppression, and starvation. They have 
remained strong in hope for this day and the days 
to come. For them it means that freedom from 
suffering and oppression is at last on the horizon. 
For the people of China and the Far East also, 
this day heralds the beginning of a new era. 

Our men and those of our Allies are making 
the supreme sacrifice in order that we and all 
men may live in peace and freedom. For us at 
home this is the time not for rejoicing — that 
can come later — but for every one of us to put 
everything he has into his job to speed the day 
of victory. 



UBERATION OF ROME BY THE ALLIES 
Radio Address by the President ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House June 5] 

Yesterday, June fourth, 1941, Rome fell to Amer- 
ican and Allied troops. The first of the Axis cap- 
itals is now in our hands. One up and two to go ! 

It is perhaps significant that the first of these 
capitals to fall should have the longest history of 
all of them. The story of Rome goes back to the 
time of the foundations of our civilization. We 
can still see there monuments of the time when 
Rome and the Romans controlled the whole of the 
then known world. That, too, is significant, for 
the United Nations are determined that in the 
future no one city and no one race will be able to 
control the whole of the world. 

In addition to the monuments of the older times, 
we also see in Rome the great symbol of Christian- 
ity, which has reached into almost every part of the 
world. There are other shrines and other churches 
in many places, but the churches and shrines of 
Rome are visible symbols of the faith and deter- 
mination of the early saints and martyrs that 
Christianity should live and become universal. 
And now it will be a source of deep satisfaction 
that the freedom of the Pope and of Vatican City 
is assured by the armies of the United Nations. 



It is also significant that Rome has been liberated 
by the armed forces of many nations. The Ameri- 
can and British armies — who bore the chief bur- 
dens of battle — found at their sides our own North 
American neighbors, the gallant Canadians. The 
fighting New Zealanders from the far South 
Pacific, the courageous French and the French 
Moroccans, the South Africans, the Poles and the 
East Indians — all of them fought with us on the 
bloody approaches to Rome. 

The Italians, too, foi'swearing a i^artnership in 
the Axis which they never desired, have sent their 
troops to join us in our battles against the German 
trespassers on their soil. 

The prospect of the liberation of Rome meant 
enough to Hitler and his generals to induce them 
to fight desperately at great cost of men and mate- 
rials and with great sacrifice to their crumbling 
Eastern line and to their Western front. No 
thanks are due to them if Rome was spared the 
devastation which the Germans wreaked on Naples 
and other Italian cities. The Allied generals 
maneuvered so skilfull^y that the Nazis could only 



' Broadcast ou June 5, 1944. 



JUNE 10, 1944 



527 



have stayed long enough to damage Eome at the 
risk of losing their armies. 

But Rome is of course more than a military 
objective. 

Ever since before the days of the Caesars, 
Rome has stood as a symbol of autliority. Rome 
was the Republic. Rome was the Empire. 
Rome was the Catholic Church, and Rome was 
the capital of a united Italy. Later, unfortu- 
nately, Rome became the seat of Fascism — one of 
the three capitals of the Axis. 

For a quarter century the Italian people were 
enslaved and degraded by the rule of Mussolini 
from Rome. They will mark its liberation with 
deep emotion. In the north of Ital}', the people 
are still dominated and threatened by the Nazi 
overlords and their Fascist puppets. 

Our victory comes at an excellent time, while 
our Allied forces are poised for another strike 
at Western Europe — and while armies of other 
Nazi soldiers nervously await our assault. And 
our gallant Russian allies continue to make their 
power felt more and more. 

From a strictly military standpoint, we had 
long ago accomplished certain of the main ob- 
jectives of our Italian campaign — the control of 
the sea lanes of the Mediterranean to shorten our 
combat and supply lines, and the capture of the 
air]iorts of Foggia from which we have struck 
telling blows on the Continent. 

It would be unwise to inflate in our own minds 
the military importance of the capture of Rome. 
We sliall have to jDush through a long period 
of greater effoi-t and fiercer fighting before we 
get into Germany itself. The Germans have re- 
treated thousands of miles, all the way from 
the gates of Cairo, through Libya and Tunisia 
and Sicily and southern Italy. They have suf- 
fered heavy losses, but not great enough yet to 
cause collapse. 

Germany has not yet been driven to surrender. 
Germany has not yet been driven to the point 
where she will be unable to recommence world 
conquest a geneifition hence. 

Therefore, the victory still lies some distance 
ahead. That distance will be covered in due 
time — have no fear of that. But it will be tough 
and it will be costly. 



In Italy the people had lived so long under 
the corrupt rule of Mussolini that, in spite of the 
tinsel at the top, their economic condition had 
grown steadily worse. Our troops have found 
starvation, malnutrition, disease, a deteriorating 
education, and lowered public health— all by- 
products of the Fascist misrule. 

The task of the Allies in occupation has been 
stupendous. We have had to start at tlie very 
bottom, assisting local governments to re-form on 
democratic lines. We have had to give them 
bread to replace that which was stolen out of 
their mouths by the Germans. We have had to 
make it possible for the Italians to raise and use 
their own local crops. We have to help them 
cleanse their schools of Fascist trappings. 

The American people as a whole approve the 
salvage of these human beings, who are only 
now learning to walk in a new atmosphere of 
freedom. 

Some of us may let our thoughts run to the 
financial cost of it. Essentially it is what we can 
call a form of relief. At the same time we hope 
that this relief will be an investment for the 
future — an investment that will pay dividends 
by eliminating Fascism and ending any Italian 
desires to start another war of aggression in the 
future. They are dividends which justify such 
an investment, because they are additional sup- 
ports for world jDeace. 

The Italian people are capable of self-govern- 
ment. We do not lose sight of their vii'tues as 
a peace-loving nation. 

We remember the many centuries in which the 
Italians were leaders in the arts and sciences, 
enriching the lives of all mankind. 

We remember the great sons of the Italian peo- 
ple — Galileo and Marconi, Michelangelo and 
Dante — and that fearless discoverer who typifies 
the courage of Italy, Christopher Columbus. 

Italy cannot grow in stature by seeking to build 
up a great militaristic empire. Italians have been 
overcrowded within their own territories, but they 
do not need to try to conquer the lands of other 
peoples in order to find the breath of life. Other 
peoples may not want to be conquered. 

In the past Italians have come by the millions 
to the United States. They have been welcomed. 



528 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



they have prospered, they have become good citi- 
zens, community and governmental leaders. 
They are not Italian-Americans. They are 
Americans — Americans of Italian descent. 

Italians have gone in great numbers to the other 
Americas — Brazil and the Argentine, for exam- 
ple — and to many other nations in every con- 
tinent of the world, giving of their industry and 
their talents, and achieving success and the com- 
fort of good living. 

Italy should go on as a great mother nation, 
contributing to the culture and progress and good- 
will of all mankind — and developing her special 
talents in the arts, crafts, and sciences, and pre- 
serving her historic and cultural heritage for the 
benefit of all peoples. 

We want and expect the help of the future Italy 
toward lasting peace. All the other nations op- 
posed to Fascism and Nazism should help give 
Italy a chance. 

The Germans, after years of domination in 
Rome, left the people in the Eternal City on the 
verge of starvation. We and the British will do 
everything we can to bring them relief. Antici- 
pating the fall of Rome, we made preparations to 
ship food supplies to the city, but it should be 
borne in mind that the needs are so great and the 
transportation requirements of our armies so 



heavy that improvement must be gradual. We 
have already begun to save the lives of the men, 
women, and children of Rome. 

This is an example of the efficiency of your 
machinery of war. The magnificent ability and 
energy of the American people in growing the 
crops, building the merchant ships, making and 
collecting the cargos, getting the supplies over 
thousands of miles of water, and thinking ahead 
to meet emergencies — all this spells, I think, an 
amazing efficiency on the part of our armed 
forces, all the various agencies working with them, 
and American industry and labor as a whole. 

No great effort like this can be a hundred per- 
cent perfect, but the batting average is very, very 
high. 

I extend the congi'atulations and thanks of the 
American people to General Alexander, who has 
been in command of the whole Italian operation; 
to General Clark and General Leese of the Fifth 
and the Eighth Armies; to General Wilson, the 
Sujireme Allied Commander of the Mediterranean 
theater, and General Devers, his American Dep- 
uty ; to General Eaker ; to Admirals Cunningham 
and Hewitt; and to all their brave officers and 
men. 

May God bless them and watch over them and 
over all of our gallant, fighting men. 



Message* Exchanged Between the President of the United States and Government and Military 

Officials of the United Nations 



[Released to the press by the White House June 7] 

The following cablegrams and acknowledg- 
ments have been exchanged to date between the 
President and various government and military 
officials of the United Nations : 

Premier Stalin to the President 
The news of the capture of Rome was received 
in the Soviet Union with great satisfaction. I 
congratulate you upon this great victory of Allied 
Anglo-American troops. 



Marshal Badoglio to the President 

To you, Mr. President, to the great and free 
North American people, and to your gallant troops, 
on the day when the victorious troops pursuing 
the fleeing enemy are restoring Rome to the new 



Italy, I send my ardent wishes for the future as 
well as my gratitude. Today Rome, the first 
European capital to be liberated from the Ger- 
mans, once again occupies her place in the world 
of justice and liberty. There can be no surer guar- 
antee of renewed and lasting friendship between 
the United States and Italy than the sacrifices of 
American soldiers for the liberation of Rome. 

The President to Marshal Badoglio 
I thank you for your message of June 6. The 
American people found it of good augury to that 
cause of world freedom and progress for which 
they are fighting that the first capital of the Euro- 
pean continent to emerge from the black shadow 
of tyranny should be Rome, with all its universal 
significance. Its liberation was a fitting prelude 
to that mighty invasion launched from the North. 



JUNE 10, 1944 



529 



Just as Rome and the other historic cities of 
Italy are felt to be the inheritance of all the civi- 
lized world, so, I am sure, the Italian people have 
never been moi'e keenly aware than today that the 
cause of the civilized world is their cause and 
demands the complete dedication of their powers 
of mind and heart. 



Prime Minister Curtin of Australia to the 
President 

Joyfully Australia tenders its congratulations 
on the Allied liberation of Rome and pays deep 
tribute to the gallant forces of the United Nations 
whose devotion has evoked this marked advance 
towards the final victory which will free all the 
world from despotism and tyranny. ]\Iy deepest 
personal regards. 



The President to General Sir Henry Maitland 
Wilson 

We are all thrilled by the splendid success in 
Italy. My very warm congratulations to you. 

General Sir Henry Maitland, Wilson to the 
President 

I greatly appreciate and want to thank you for 
your message. 

Our success during the last few months is due 
to the fine fighting qualities of the Allied troops, 
the constant harassing operations of the Allied Air 
Forces and the support received from the Allied 
Navies. The 85th and SS'th United States Divi- 
sions showed dash and fighting spirit in this their 
first battle, and I should like to record my admira- 
tion of these fine troops. 



The President to General Sir Harold Alexander 

I am very happy to be able to send to my old 
friend unstinted praise and congratulations on the 
fall of Rome. Grand job. 

General Sir Harold Alexander to the President 

Your kind message of congratulations is greatly 
appreciated. The United States Fifth Army 
played a magnificent part m this victory. I am 
immensely proud of it. 



The President to Lieutenant General Mark Clark 

You have made the American people very 
happy. It is a grand job. Well done. Con- 
gratulations to you and the men of the Fifth Army. 

Lieutenant General Mark Clark to the President 

All members of the Fifth Army are inspired by 
your deeply appreciated message of congratula- 
tions, and we reaffirm our pledge to deliver un- 
relenting blows until the enemy is finally defeated. 



The President to Lieutenant General Sir Oliver 
Leese 

My very warm congratulations to you and the 
men of the Eighth Army. 

Lieutenant General Sir Oliver Leese to the 
President 

I thank you, Mr. President, on behalf of all 
ranks of the Eighth Army, for your most kind con- 
gratulations which we value greatly. It has been 
an inspiration to fight alongside the Fifth Army. 
With all my respects and grateful thanks to- 
yourself. 

The President to Admiral Sir John H. D. 
Cwnningham 

My hearty congratulations to you, to the officers 
and men under your command. The Navies of 
Britain and the U.S. have lived up to their reputa- 
tions. Well done. 

Admiral Sir John Cunningham to the President 

I wish to thank you for your message on behalf 
of the officers and men of the Allied Navies. All 
of us appreciate it very much. 



The King of Greece to the President 

On the victory of Rome, the first great success 
in Europe, I send you my sincere congratulations 
with real pleasure and satisfaction. We are filled 
with confidence that the magnificant American 
and Allied troops will in a short while complete 
their task of bringing the world final victory and 
freedom. 



530 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The President of Brazil to the President 

I congratulate Your Excellency on the first day 
of the invasion of Europe, decisive step for the 
final victory of Allied arms, liberation of op- 
pressed nations, and restoration of tranquilitj' to 
the world. The Brazilian Government and people 
follow with emotion and enthusiasm, hour by 
hour, the march of events, certain that for the 
heroic American forces of land, sea, and air the 
decisive days which follow will be ones of glory 
during which th.ey represent on the fields of battle 
'the peoples of our Continent, yearning for peace 
and justice. I beg that Your Excellency, leader 
of the American people, accept my most cordial 
salutations and transmit to General Eisenhower 
the most ardent wishes of myself and of Brazil 
for the complete success of the arms under his 
supreme command. 



The President of Costa Rica to the President 

The Costa Rican Congress agreed in today's 
session to send the Congresses and Chiefs of the 
Allied Nations engaged in struggle for democracy 
a message of encouragement and friendship on the 
occasion of the invasion of the European Conti- 
nent which was begun today. 



The President of Honduras to the President 

The news of the Allied offensive against the 
fortress of Europe has stirred the Honduran 
people who are fully confident of the triumphs 
of the United Nations in the struggle against 
totalitarianism. The Honduran nation expresses 
the most fervent wishes for the success of the 
Allied arms in this great battle and associates 
itself with the feelings of the North American 
people and other friendly nations. 1 have the 
honor to present to Your Excellency the recog- 
nition of my Government and that of the Hon- 
duran nation for the gigantic efforts which that 
Government and people are making for victory. 
Your warm friend. 



people and of myself for the success achieved in 
the Italian campaign upon the occupation of 
Rome by the forces under the command of Gen- 
eral Clark, saving from destruction a historic 
city and its cultural and religious monuments. 
The glorious feat of war which has just been 
accomplished has brought new laurels for the 
armed forces of the United States and the Allies 
and constitutes a decisive step toward the final 
triumph over the aggressor hordes which have 
not been nor shall be able to resist the valor of 
the men who are fighting for the liberty of the 
world. On this pleasing occasion I renew to 
Your Excellency the testimony of my highest 
personal esteem. 

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-sheh to the President 

On the historic occasion of the liberation of 
Rome may I convey to you and the gallant Ameri- 
can forces my warmest congratulations. This sig- 
nal feat of arms demonstrates anew the might of 
the United Nations, which foreshadows in quick 
succession the liberation of all countries suffering 
under Axis occupation. 



The King of Egypt to the President 

The so brilliant exploits of the valiant Allied 
forces crowned by their triumphant entry into 
Rome offer me a happy occasion to renew to Your 
Excellency the sincere expression of all my admira- 
tion and my most sincere felicitations, together 
with my cordial wishes for an early final victory. 



TJie President of Peru to the President 
It is very pleasing to me to convey to Your 
Excellency the congratulations of the Peruvian 



The President of Colombia to the President 

When the soldiers of the United Nations under 
the command of an American general are begin- 
ning one of the greatest military enterprises in 
history, I wish to be the interpreter to Your Excel- 
lency of the very keenly felt emotion which grips 
the people of Colombia, now, as never before, 
linked to the American Nation in interest in vic- 
tory and in concern for the sacrifices which must 
precede it. 

The Colombians would, at any time, have ob- 
served with astonishment and enthusiasm this 
extraordinary military campaign and its opera- 
tions, the application of modern science to the 



JUNE 10, 1944 



531 



liberation of the oppressed peoples. On this occa- 
sion our people feel, moreover, a legitimate pride 
that it is American-born officers and soldiers who 
are fighting such extraordinary battles, carrying to 
the Old World not only the invincible force of a 
civilization which they prepared and strengthened 
for the service of humanity but also their generous 
spirit which does not jDermit them to vacillate in 
the determination to shed their blood for the liberty 
of the enslaved nations and for the defense and 
definitive establishment of the great political and 
social principles which have had their birth and 
such splendid development in America. 

The Colombians, Excellency, the Allies and 
brothers of the Americans who are fighting in 
France today against a common enemy, regret that 
they cannot offer yet greater aid to this great 
enterprise of free humanity nor a more effective 
direct contribution to the liberation of the Euro- 
pean peoples. All are today sending up their 
Christian prayers for the success and final victory 
of the Allied troops and hope, as do your country- 
men, that the compensation for the incalculable 
efforts, unmatched in the history of the world, 
which the United States is making in behalf of 
humanity may be a prompt victory which will save 
the greatest number of American lives and crown 
with glory the armies of all the nations which are 
beginning to lay siege, from the west, east, and 
south, to the fortress of political barbarity. Ee- 
ceive, Excellency, the sentiments of solidarity of 
the Colombian people and my sentiments of friend- 
ship and admiration. 



The President of the Republic of Paraguay to the 
President 

On this day so glorious for the arms of the United 
Nations, on which heavy forces of the Army of 
your country are taking part in the invasion of the 
Continent, I repeat to you my wishes that the most 
complete victoiy will crown so much daring and 
so much effort displayed in the cause of the freedom 
of the peoples of the world. 



The President of Haiti to the President 

On the occasion of the liberation of Rome by the 
valiant and glorious American troops, I feel the 
need, as Chief of an Allied and Catholic State, 

592397 



of expressing to Your Excellency the congratu- 
lations and sentiments of the Haitian people and 
Governinent. I desire also to add my wish to 
those formulated by all the United Nations, that 
the liberation of Europe, inaugurated by the land- 
ing of the Allied troops on the coast of France, 
may continue rapidly and lead to the final vic- 
tory. In the name of the Haitian people and 
Government, which are more than ever united 
with the great American Republic, I send Your 
Excellency the assurance of our unfailing attach- 
ment. 



The President and the Pro-Secretary of the 
Chilean Senate to the President 

On the occasion of the beginning of the libera- 
tion of Europe by the Allied armies the Chilean 
Senate decided unanimously to express to Your 
Excellency the joy which seizes it and the cer- 
tainty it has that the most complete success must 
reward this effort on behalf of liberty and right. 



The Prime Minister of Belgiv/m to the President 

The Belgian Government begs Your Excellency 
to accept its most ardent felicitations for the 
brilliant part played by the valiant American 
Army in the liberation of Rome. This glorious 
feat of arms, which constitutes an important step 
on the road to the liberation of Europe, will be 
deeply felt by my fellow countrymen, who suffer 
under the yoke of the enemy. 



The President of the Dominican Republic to the 
President 

Receive my most cordial and effusive message of 
congratulations and sympathy on the occasion of 
the success obtained by the Allied armies in be- 
ginning the offensive with which it is intended to 
liberate the European peoples from the oppression 
to which the pitiless Nazi tyranny now holds them 
subject. I very fervently hope that the final 
success of this glorious undertaking will crown the 
aspirations of those of us who have placed all our 
faith in the triumph of democracy and liberty. 
All this to the honor and glory of the North 
American armed forces. 



532 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Attitude of the Liberian Government 

[Released to the press June 8] 

The American Minister to Liberia, the Honor- 
able Lester A. Walton, has informed the Depart- 
ment that the Liberian Government has expressed 
to this Government its gratification over the occu- 
pation of Kome by the Allied Armies of the 



United Nations and their invasion of Europe 
through northern France. The Liberian Gov- 
ernment has also requested the American Minis- 
ter to inform this Government of its reaffirmation 
of the pledge of the Liberian nation and people 
whole-heartedly to give their support in the fight 
for freedom in the world. 



WAR REFUGEES 
Removal of European Refugees to the United States 



[Released to the press by the White House June 9] 

The following cablegram was sent by the Presi- 
dent to Ambassador Kobert Murphy in Algiers : 

"Information available to me indicates that there 
are real possibilities of saving human lives by 
bringing more refugees through Yugoslavia to 
southern Italy. I am also informed that the escape 
of refugees by this route has from time to time 
been greatly impeded because the facilities in 
southern Italy for refugees have been overtaxed. 
I am advised that this is the situation at the present 
moment and that accordingly possibilities of in- 
creasing the flow of refugees to Italy may be lost. 

"I understand that many of the refugees in 
southern Italy have been and are being moved to 
temporary havens in areas adjacent to the Mediter- 
ranean and that efforts are being made to increase 
existing refugee facilities in these areas. I am 
most anxious that this effort to take refugees from 
Italy to areas relatively close by be intensified. 

"At the same time I feel that it is important that 
the United States indicate that it is ready to share 
the burden of caring for refugees during the war. 
Accordingly, I have decided that approximately 
1,000 refugees should be immediately brought from 
Italy to this country, to be placed in an Emergency 
Refugee Shelter to be established at Fort Ontario 
near Oswego, New York, where under appropriate 
security restrictions they will remain for the dura- 
tion of the war. These refugees will be brought 
into this country outside of the regular immigra- 
tion procedure just as civilian internees from Latin 
American countries and prisoners of war have been 
brought here. The Emergency Refugee Shelter 
will be well equipped to take good care of these 
people. It is contemplated that at the end of the 
war they will be returned to their homelands. 



"You may assume that the Emergency Refugee 
Shelter will be ready to receive these refugees when 
they arrive. I will appreciate it therefore if you 
will arrange for the departure to the United States 
as rapidly as possible, consistent with military re- 
quirements, of approximately 1,000 refugees in 
southern Italy. You may call upon representatives 
of the War Refugee Boai'd in Algiers to assist you 
in this matter. The full cooperation of our mili- 
tary and naval authorities should be enlisted in 
effecting the prompt removal and transportation 
of the refugees. 

"In choosing the refugees to be brought to the 
L'nited States, please bear in mind that to the ex- 
tent possible those refugees should be selected for 
whom other havens of refuge are not immediately 
available. I should however like the group to in- 
clude a reasonable proportion of various categories 
of persecuted peoples who have fled to Italy. 

"You should bear in mind that since these refu- 
gees are to be placed in a camp in the LTnited States 
under appropriate security restrictions, the pi"o- 
cedure for the selection of the refugees and ar- 
rangements for bringing them here should be as 
simple and expeditious as possible, uncomplicated 
by any of the usual foi-malities involved in admit- 
ting people to the United States under the immi- 
gration laws. 

"However, please be sure that the necessary 
health checks are made to aA'oid bringing here per- 
sons afflicted with any loathsome, dangerous or 
contagious disease. 

"If you encounter any difficulties in arranging 
for the prompt departure of these refugees please 
let me know." 

A copy of the memorandum sent by the Presi- 
dent on June 8 to the Secretaries of War, Navy, 



JUNE 10, 1944 

and Interior, the Director of the Bndget, and the 
Executive Director of the War Refugee Board ^ 
follows : 

"There is attaclied a cable which I have dis- 
patched to Robert Murphy in Algiers, requesting 
that he make arrangements for the departure to 
the United States as rapidly as possible of ap- 
proximately 1,000 refugees now in southern Italy. 

"These refugees will be brought into this 
country outside of the regular immigration pro- 
cedure and placed in Fort Ontario near Oswego, 
New York. While the War Refugee Board is 
charged with the overall responsibility for this 
project, the Army shall take the necessary security 
precautions so that these refugees will remain in 
the camp and the actual administration of the 
camp is to be in the hands of the War Relocation 
Authority. 

"Accordingly, the following steps should be 
taken as expeditiously as possible: 

"(1) The AVar Department and the Navy De- 
l)artment shall send whatever instructions are 



533 

necessary to the military authorities in Italy and 
North Africa to expedite the transportation of 
these refugees to the United States. 

"(2) The War Department shall arrange to fur- 
nish and properly equip Fort Ontario to receive 
these refugees; shall arrange for their transpor- 
tation from tlie port of arrival to the camp; and 
shall arrange for the necessary security precau- 
tions. 

"(3) The War Relocation Authority sh.all make 
arrangements to handle the actual administration 
of the camp, which will be designated as an Emer- 
gency Refugee Shelter. 

"(4) Until UNRRA is in a position to assume 
the financial responsibilities involved, the Bureau 
of the Budget shall make arrangements for 
financing the project; using to the extent possible 
any available funds of the War Department, the 
War Relocation Authority, and the War Refugee 
Board, and from the Foreign War Relief appro- 
priation, and if necessary drawing upon the Presi- 
dent's Emergency Fund." 



Refugee Centers in the Middle East 



[Released to the press by tJNRRA June 10] 

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration on June 10 made public a descrip- 
tion of the refugee camps it operates in the Middle 
East which were referred to in President Roose- 
velt's statement on the care of eastern European 
refugees in his press conference June 9. The sum- 
mary follows : 

Since May 1, 1944, the United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration has been adminis- 
tering in the Middle East six refugee centers, now 
housing approximately 40,500 and expected within 
a short time to house a total of 54,000 Greek and 
Yugoslav refugees, mainly women and children. 
These camps were formerly administered by the 
Middle East Relief and Refugee Administration 
(M.E.R.R.A.), whose functions have been ab- 
sorbed by the United Nations Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration. The refugees cared for in 
these camps were driven out of coastal and island 
areas of Greece and Yugoslavia as a result of mili- 
tary operations. Refugees are pi-esently leaving 
these areas at the rate of 9,000 a month. 



The larger part of the Yugoslav refugees were 
at first transported by the military authorities 
from Yugoslavia to Italy and were and are being 
turned over to the care of the United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administration by the 
military authorities in order to reduce the drain on 
supplies and shipping to Italy. Most of the Greek 
refugees were driven out of the Greek and Dode- 
canese Islands by the Germans. Thus the care of 
these refugees by the United Nations Relief and 
Rehabilitation Administration is closely related to 
military necessity. In fact, the British Army is 
coo^Derating very closely with the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in the 
administration of the camps and is furnishing a 
substantial number of personnel and other services. 
Voluntary welfare agencies are also cooperating 
closely with the United Nations Relief and Reha- 
bilitation Administration and have furnished val- 
uable personnel and certain amounts of supplies. 

The estimate of the cost of operation of these 
camps for the year beginning May 1, 1944 is ap- 

' BururriN of Jan. 22, 1944, p. 95. 



634 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



proximately $9,600,000, excluding administrative 
expenses, which cannot be estimated since British 
military personnel is now assisting in the operation 
of tlie camps and may have to be replaced by 
civilians. An additional $500,000 will be required 
for new construction and additional equipment. 

These estimates assume a maximum camp popu- 
lation of 54,000. The general rule of the camps 
is to require work from all physically fit refugees. 
In addition to duties connected with camp mainte- 
nance, refugee women work at sewing and knit- 
ting, and men are carpenters, cobblers, paintei's, 
etc. Women and girls are being trained as nurses 
so that they can help in the camps and in the 
countries to which they will return. Those un- 
able to work receive small allowances of about 50 
cents weekly with which they may make purchases 
at the camp canteen. 

The following is a summary description of the 
camps : 

Moses WeJU — ^Located in Egypt. Refugee camp, 
in operation by Middle East Relief and Refugee 
Administration since July 1942. Population as of 
March 16, 1944, was 1,841 Greek refugees, pre- 
dominantly women and children; the camp was 
being enlarged and equipped to accommodate 
some 3,500 in May and June and 5,000 from July 
to September of this year. Refugees are housed 
in tents with concrete floors, the capacity of each 
tent being 16 to 20 persons. The camp has been 
administered by British Army personnel, with 
Greeks serving as medical officers, priests, and 
welfare officers. 

El Shaft — Located in Egj'pt. Refugee camp, 
set up by Middle East Relief and Refugee Ad- 
ministration early in 1944 to accommodate Yugo- 
slav refugees evacuated from the Dalmatian 
Coast via Italy to Egypt. By April 11,000 had 
arrived, predominantly women and children. The 
camp population is expected to be 20,000 to 25,000 
in May and June and 30,000 from July to Septem- 
ber. The camp was under construction when the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration took over, and conditions were very 
primitive. The refugees were and are to be 
housed in tents. At the end of March, the staff 
was comprised of British Army personnel and 
persons fi'om private agencies, including repre- 
sentatives from the Near East Foundation, the 



American Friends' Service Committee, the Men- 
nonite Central Committee, the Friends' Ambu- 
lance Unit, the British Red Cross and St. John's 
War Organization, the American Red Cross, the 
International Voluntary Service for Peace, the 
Jewish Relief Unit, and the Save the Children 
Federation. 

El Khatatha — ^Located in Egypt. A refugee 
camp, which is expected to hai'bor 5,000 Yugo- 
slavs. Its staff consisted, in April, of British 
Army personnel and 25 persons from private 
agencies. 

Tolumhat — ^Located in Egypt. A reception and 
transit camp, with a population of approximately 
40 Greeks and 173 Yugoslavs on March 16, 1944. 
Its staff at that date consisted of British officers. 
The camp is expected to harbor 1,000 f)ersons. 

Nuseiraf — ^Located in Palestine. Its popula- 
tion on April 6, 1944 consisted of 7,805 refugees 
from the Greek islands and the Dodecanese, of 
whom the great majority are women and children. 
Its population was expected to increase to 10,000 
in May and June and 12,000 from July to Sep- 
tember. This camp was taken over by the Middle 
East Relief and Refugee Administration to shel- 
ter all Greek refugees brought into Palestine. 
The refugees are housed in tents or barrack-style 
huts. As of April 6, 1944 the staff included 
British and Greek Army personnel, Greek doc- 
tors, and workers from voluntary societies (the 
Near East Foundation, British Red Cross, and 
Friends' Ambulance Unit). 

Aleppo — Located in Syria. A ti'ansit camp, 
housed in barracks and intended for the reception, 
interrogation, disinfection, medical examination, 
and routing of all refugees entering through 
Turkey. The refugees arriving in April were 
mainly from the Greek and Dodecanese Islands 
and were coming through at the rate of 1,000 a 
month. On March 16, 1944 the population of the 
camp numbered some 248 persons, and the staff on 
that date consisted of British military personnel. 
Its population was expected to increase to 1,000 
by May and June. 

Camp Marshal Lyautey near Casablanca, 
Morocco, is a joint United States-United King- 
dom undertaking to which stateless and other 
refugees in Spain are being removed so that other 
refugees may be able to enter Spain from enemy- 



JUNE 10, 1944 



535 



occupied areas. With the creation of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
the question arose of transferring the camp to the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration, and it is hoped that the transfer 
will become etfective when funds for the United 
States contribution to the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration have been ap- 
propriated. The site of the camp is a former 
Army base, now evacuated, and the buildings, of 
semi-permanent barracks tj'pe, will accommodate 
2,000 persons. With the use of tents, camp ca- 
pacity can be extended to 8,000. Pending the 
transfer, the United Nations Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration has provided certain neces- 
sary administrative personnel and has assisted 
United States agencies in their administration of 
the camp. 

PORTUGUESE ACTION CONCERNING THE 
EXPORTATION AND PRODUCTION OF 
WOLFRAM 

Announcement by the Acting Secretary of State 

[ Keleased to the press June 6] 

The Portuguese Government undertook on June 
5 to impose a total prohibition upon the export of 
wolfram and to bring about an immediate cessa- 
tion of wolfram production in Portugal. 

The action of the Portuguese Government 
sliould prove a factor in shortening the war, in as 
much as it will deprive the enemy in Europe of 
impox'tant quantities of a vital war material. 

The United States Government has been active 
in the negotiations which have led up to this sat- 
isfactory conclusion in close consultation with the 
British and Brazilian Governments. 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN 
NATIONALS 

[Released to the press June 6] 

The Swedish motor vessel Gripsholm docked 
June 6 at Jersey City, N. J., completing a voyage 
of 35 days in connection with another repatriation 
of nationals of the United States, certain of the 
other American republics, and the British Com- 
monwealth of Nations, on the one hand, and Ger- 
many on the other. There were repatriated from 
Germany 64 seriously sick and wounded American 



prisoners of war and 46 civilians of the United 
States and other countries of the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The vessel also embarked at Barcelona 
more than 900 seriously sick and wounded pris- 
oners of war of the British Commonwealth of 
Nations and 21 British civilians from Germany, 
most of whom were discharged in other ports dur- 
ing the return voyage. 

The Gnpsholtn carried to Barcelona 810 seri- 
ously sick and wounded German prisoners of war 
and protected personnel and 90 German civilians. 

The exchange was made possible through the 
kind cooperation of the Swiss Government, which 
provided channels of communication between the 
belligerents and safeguarded their respective in- 
terests, and the Spanish Government, which made 
the port facilities at Barcelona available and acted 
as guarantor of the actual exchange. Mr. Emil 
Greuter of the Swiss Legation in Washington 
served aboard the vessel as neutral representative 
for the belligerents. 

The United States Government has expressed 
its appreciation to the neutral Governments con- 
cerned for the parts they played in the exchange. 

The Gripsholm likewise carried relief supplies 
and mail for prisoners of war and civilian 
internees. 



International Conferences, 
Commissions, Etc. 



UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABIL- 
ITATION ADMINISTRATION 

Statement by the Acting Secretary of State ' 

[Released to the press June 5] 

The success of the UNRRA will be placed in 
grave jeopardy, and military operations for the 
liberation of Eurofje may be unnecessarily pro- 
longed, if the United States fails to provide — and 
to provide in time — its share of the funds necessary 
for UNRRA's operations. 

UNRRA may be called upon to begin active 
operations in some liberated areas within the cur- 
rent year. How rapidly its responsibilities will 

' Made at bis press and radio news conference on 
June 5, 1944. 



536 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



expand in scope will depend on military develop- 
ments, which no one can foresee. It is, however, 
essential that we be ready, and it is already late. 

Eight hundred million dollars is the minimum 
contribution by the United States necessary to 
pi'ovide for the first six months of active opera- 
tions by UNKRA. The $450,000,000 voted by the 
House is required for advance procurement of 
those supplies that must be bought ahead of time 
if they are to be on hand when they are needed. 
But the $350,000,000 which is in transfer authority 
which the House did not approve is required for 
other supplies equally essential, to the first six 
months of active relief operations. 

This $350,000,000 is an essential part of the 
amount needed now for UNERA. To provide for 
only one part without the other would seriously 
prejudice UNRRA's operations. 

I am confident that the Congress, on due con- 
sideration of what is at stake, will reverse this 
decision and that the appropriation bill, when it 
is finally passed, will provide the full amount nec- 
essary for UNRRA to undertake the responsibili- 
ties which the United States and the other United 
and Associated Nations have assigned to it. 



American Republics 



VISIT OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF 
THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF GEOGRAPHY 
OF BRAZIL 

[Released to the press June G] 

Dr. Christovao Leite de Castro, Executive Direc- 
tor of the National Council of Geography of the 
Government of Brazil, has arrived in Washington 
at the invitation of the Department of State. For 
the greater part of his two months' visit, Dr. Leite 
de Castro will act as Visiting Consultant on Bra- 
zilian Geography at the Hispanic Foundation of 
the Library of Congress. Later he will visit 
geographic centers and manufacturers of geo- 
graphic material throughout the country, con- 
ferring with technical experts and acquiring maps, 
instruments, and other aids for the use of his 
Government. 

Another purpose of his trip is to discuss with 
geogiaphers the second consultation of the Com- 



mittee on Cartography of the Pan American In- 
stitute of Geography and History, which will be 
held at Rio de Janeiro in August. The first meet- 
ing took place in Washington last October. Dr. 
Leite de Castro reports that the Brazilian Govern- 
ment is extending official invitations to all the 
American republics to send delegates to this 
meeting. 

RECOGNITION BY THE UNITED STATES OF 
THE GOVERNMENT OF ECUADOR 

[Released to the press June G] 

The Acting Secretary of State. Edward R. Stet- 
tinius, Jr., announced late on the afternoon of 
June 6 that the Government of the United States 
had extended full recognition to the Government 
of Ecuador which is now organized under Dr. Jose 
Alaria Velasco Ibarra. 

At 5 o'clock p. m. on June 6 the American 
Ambassador in Quito informed the new Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of Ecuador of this action by 
the Government of the United States. It is under- 
stood that many other American republics took 
simultaneous action in granting recognition, fol- 
lowing consultation and exchange of information 
pursuant to resolution 22 of the Committee for 
Political Defense at Montevideo.^ 



The Far East 



RELIEF SUPPLIES FOR ALLIED NATIONALS 
INTERNED IN THE FAR EAST 

[Released to the press June G] 

A communication from the Japanese Govern- 
ment was received by the United States Govern- 
ment on May 10, 194-4, through Swiss Government 
channels, in which the Japanese Government of- 
fered to send to a Soviet port at regular intervals 
a Japanese ship to pick up relief supplies which 
were shijiped to Vladivostok last fall — and addi- 
tional relief supplies and mail intended for distri- 
bution to Allied nationals interned in the Far East 
which would be sent subsequently via Soviet terri- 
tory with the cooperation of the Soviet Govern- 
ment — and to transport them to Japan. It was, of 
course, necessary to consult the Soviet Government 



' Bulletin of Jau. 1, 1M4, p. 20. 



JUNE 10, 1944 



537 



in the matter. That Government has kindly ex- 
pressed its willingness to cooperate and has named 
a convenient Soviet Pacific port adjacent to Vladi- 
vostok where the relief supplies already on Soviet 
territory may be picked up by a Japanese ship. 
The Soviet Government has suggested, alterna- 
tively, that these supplies might be sent overland 
and has offered to deliver them to the Japanese 
authorities at a convenient border railroad station. 
The Soviet Government has also named an equally 
accessible port where such mail and relief supplies 
as may be shipped in the future for distribution to 
Allied nationals in Japanese custody may be picked 
up by Japanese ships. The Japanese Government 
has been informed of the foregoing through the 
Swiss Government, and it is hoped that in the near 
future these supplies will be forwarded and 
distributed. 

VISIT OF SCHOLARS FROM CHINA 

[Released to the press June 7] 

Six Chinese institutions of learning have been 
asked by the Department of State to appoint 
members of their staffs to represent them for a 
year in the United States. They are Nankai Uni- 
versity, Peking National University, Nanking 
University, Lingnan University, National Amoy 
University, and the Academia Sinica. Five of 
them have already named representatives who are 
expected to arrive in this country during July, 

The group includes a botanist, a neurophysi- 
ologist, a sociologist, a specialist in Chinese litera- 
ture, and a chemist who is the president of one of 
China's leading universities. All five have 
studied in this country, but with .one exception 
they have not been here since 1927. 

Dr. S. C. (Hsu-ching) Chen, specialist in so- 
ciology and culturology, is the representative se- 
' lected by Nankai University. He is dean of the 
College of Law and Commerce of the National 
Southwest Associated University, of which Nankai 
is a constituent part. He received his Ph.D. at 
the University of Illinois in 1927 and also studied 
social sciences in Germany from 1929 to 1931. Be- 
fore joining the staff of the Nankai Institute of 
Economics in 1934, he taught for several years at 
Lingnan University. He served as research di- 
rector of the Nankai Institute from 1935 to 1941. 

The representative of the National University of 
Peking is Dr. Chen-sheng Yang, who has been act- 



ing dean of the College of Arts and Literature in 
the absence of Dr. Hu Shih.^ Di\ Yang studied 
psychology and education at Columbia, Cornell, 
and Harvard from 1919 to 1923. He was formerly 
president of National Tsingtao University. His 
specialty is the study of Chinese literature, and he 
is also deeply interested in Chinese painting. 

Nanking LTniversity is sending its president. Dr. 
Y. G. (Yu-kuang) Chen, who has, in addition to 
his professional concern with university adminis- 
tration and education, a long-continued interest in 
chemistry and general science, the field of his 
original training. He studied in this country from 
1916 to 1922, receiving his Ph.D. degree from 
Columbia in the latter year. He has been presi- 
dent of his university since 1927. He hopes to 
travel to various American educational centers to 
examine American educational developments dur- 
ing the war and post-war plans for educational 
programs relating to applied sciences. 

Lingnan University has appointed Dr. Chi-tung 
Yung of the College of Agriculture. Dr. Yung is 
a botanist whose special interests are plant mor- 
phology and plant anatomy. After receiving his 
B.S. at Tsing Hua University in 1929, he taught 
there until 1935 when he came to this country for 
further study as a research fellow of the China 
Foundation. He received his Ph.D. at Cliicago in 
1937. He has been at Lingnan since 1938. In 
addition to being a scientist, Dr. Yung is an accom- 
plished musician. He directs the orchestra and 
choir at his university. During his visit to the 
United States he hopes to travel and lecture and 
to have the opportunity of doing further botanic 
research. 

The Academia Sinica will send Dr. Ging-hsi 
"Wang, the director of its Institute of Psychology 
in Kweilin. Dr. Wang is particularly interested 
in physiological psychology and neurophysiology. 
After his graduation from National Peking Uni- 
versity in 1919, he came to 'this country to study 
and received his Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity ill 1923. Subsequently he taught psycho- 
biology at the Johns Hopkins Medical School in 
the years 1923-24 and 1925-27. He has held his 
present position since 1934. He hopes to spend 
much of his time in this country in physiological 
laboratories learning new techniques for experi- 



' Chinese Ambassador to the United States, 1938-42. 



538 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



mental research on the physiology of the central 
nervous sj'stem. 

National Araoy University has not yet named its 
representative. This university is still in Fukien 
province, very remote from Chungking. Com- 
munications are necessarily delayed. As soon as 
information is received, the professor appointed 
by this university will be announced. 

The invitations extended for the year 1944-45 
continue a program of the Department under 
which Professors Y. L. Chin (Tsinghua Univer- 
sity), C. Y. Chang (Chekiang University), N. C. 
Liu (Wuhan University), H. T. Fei (Yunnan 
University), T. L. Hsiao (Szechuan University), 
and C. Tsai (National Central University) spent 
the past year in this country as representatives 
of their universities. 

It is expected that all six of the visiting pro- 
fessors for 1944-45 will wish to travel widely to 
American educational institutions throughout the 
country and will be glad to participate in confer- 
ences or give lectures. Any inquiries or invita- 
tions for the professors should be addressed to 
the China Section; Science, Education, and Art 
Division; Department of State; Washington 25, 
D. C. 

WILLIS C. BARRETT RETURNS FROM 
CHINA 

[Released to the press June 9] 

Mr. Willis C. Barrett has returned from China 
where he served under the Department of State 
as a technical adviser to the National Conserv- 
ancy Commission of the Chinese Government. 

Mr. Barrett had had 10 years of engineering 
experience in China between 1924 and 1935. Dur- 
ing the past year in China he traveled extensively 
inspecting and advising on irrigation projects, 
canalization and training of rivers, flood control, 
and conservation of water for irrigation and 
power. He inspected more than 25 projects in 
the provinces of Szechuan, Kansu, Ningsia, 
Shensi, and Honan, the most important being the 
control of the flood waters of the Yellow River 
and a post-war plan to turn the Yellow River 
back into its old cliannels. Mr. Barrett was ac- 
companied on his various trips by officials of na- 
tional engineering agencies as well as by the ap- 
propriate provincial officials, which made possi- 



ble on-the-spot analyses of the problems involved 
in each project. ^^ 

Mr. Barrett is the tenth expert to complete his 
assignment under the Department of State's cul- 
tural-relations program; 12 other experts are 
either in China or are en route there to serve the 
Chinese Government. 



Europe 



RETURN OF THE PRESIDENT'S PERSONAL 
REPRESENTATIVE TO THE VATICAN 

[Released to the press June 10] 

The Acting Secretary of State, Edward R. Stet- 
tinius, Jr., announced on June 10 that at the re- 
quest of the President the Honorable Myron C. 
Taylor had been asked to return to the Vatican 
as soon as possible as the President's Personal 
Representative. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
POLISH PRIME MINISTER 

[Released to tlie press June 5] 

The following statement has been made by Act- 
ing Secretary of State Stettinius : 

"On the invitation of this Government, the Pol- 
ish Prime Minister is arriving in Washington to- 
day on a visit of courtesy, his first trip to this 
country since his assumption of the Premiership. 
He is expected, during his short stay, to exchange 
views with the President and other American offi- 
cials on general European and Polish questions." 

[Released to the press June 5] 

His Excellency Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, Prime 
Minister of Poland, arrived in Washington June 5 
as a guest of this Government and will remain in 
Washington approximately one week. 

During the Prime Minister's stay he will be at 
Blair House and will be given a dinner by the 
President at the White House on the evening of 
June 7. The Prime Minister will also be given 
dinners by the Acting Secretary of State on the 
evening of June 8 and by the Polish Ambassador 
on June 9. 

It is also expected that the Prime Minister will 
make the usual visits to Mount Vernon, Arlington, 
and the Capitol. 



General 



THE RESPONSIBILITY OF LABOR IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD 
Address by Assistant Secretary Berle ' 



[Released to the press June 6] 

Ladies and Gentlemen : It is always a privilege 
to be a guest at your conventions, and doubly so 
to be a guest in Boston, where I was born and which 
was my home for many years. It was my rare 
good fortune to work with members and officers 
of this union in many struggles in the public inter- 
est — municipal, State, and national. They have 
been good fights. 

But there is every indication that in the next few 
yeai's your organization and others like it will i'ace 
the most difficult and challenging period in the 
history of labor organization. To that subject I 
want to speak. 

Wars do end, and this one will. The years 
which follow wai's are not nice. In the history of 
the United States, they are apt to be pretty bad. 
Living and working through them takes all the 
strength of character men have. 



On the business side, the pattern is fairly fa- 
miliar. The first effect of peace is apt to be an 
economic explosion. Unless controlled, it means 
runaway prices, heavy speculation, and, at the end 
of a few months, an economic smash. This comes 
because, after war, people want to buy things they 
could not get, do the things they could not do. But 
since peacetime production is still short, the supply 
does not equal the "demand; speculators run up 
prices; trouble sets in. You remember sugar at 
30 cents a pound in 1919. 

A short time later, the short boom breaks and 
there is depression and unemployment. In the 
past this has happened because sufficient provision 
was not made for returning soldiers and for 
change-over of war workers to peacetime work. 
Men who are afraid their jobs will not last do not 
buy ; manufacturers who do not think they can sell 
do not put their plants to work. 



These immediate post-war depressions are also 
apt to be fairly short, though this is not sure. 
Usually things do get going; accumulated war sav- 
ings begin to be spent; business looks up; jobs 
become more plentiful. Fairly good times follow, 
lasting for several years. Traditionally, it used to 
be about eight years from the low of the post-war 
depression to the top of the next crest. 

These years do fairly well in tei'ms of employ- 
ment and business. But they are apt to be accom- 
panied by social changes which are not good. Post- 
war years have usually seen a low ebb in public 
and political life: a good deal of corruption and 
crookedness; a good deal of bad administration — 
local, State, and national. It was like that after 
the Civil War; and no one thinks of the years 
following the first World War with any pride. Na- 
tional and international life gets slack and un- 
jDleasant; business brings the smart operator to the 
fore; the solid, constructive forces are apt to be 
unheard. 

History tells that the latter end of these years is 
likely to be a crazy, speculative boom — and then, a 
complete crash, lasting for years. 

My suggestion today is that you start work now 
to avoid this pattern of bad history. 

II 

Countries which go through the post-war prob- 
lems are pretty apt to blame the entire mess on 
their leaders, and to look for new leaders who can 
bring them out of their troubles. In European 
countries, the result has been revolution more often 
than not. In the United States, it has been the 
signal for a general, agitated house-cleaning on all 
fronts: business, politics, labor, and the profes- 
sions. Wlien that time comes, people turn to men 



' Delivered before the session of the Twenty-fifth Conven- 
tion of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union 
at Boston on June 6, 1944. 

838 



540 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and groups tliey think they can trust, to organiza- 
tions which have kept faith with the public and 
with the country. Tlien, character counts. 

Your trade-union and othei's like it are going to 
have to live through those post-war years. They 
are going to have a good, large share of respon- 
sibility for carrying on the national life during 
that period. The ti'ades-unions are now one of the 
great centers of concentrated power in America. 
Because of that, they are going to be held, in part, 
responsible by the public for what happens. 

This is important. In the 1929 crash, the respon- 
sibility was largely borne by business and financial 
interests which had struggled for power, got it, 
and were unable to use it well. In the next period, 
the growth of labor power is such tliat their organ- 
izations and leaders will also be asked, "What did 
you do about it? Wliat part have you had in all 
this? What have you done to help the situation?" 
This is inescapable. In democratic life, respon- 
sibility goes with power. 

in 

Your organization and other enlightened unions 
have been well advised to be thinking, now, about 
your future plans. These will have to fall into 
two main categories: plans you make for strictly 
labor purposes ; and plans you make in the general 
public interest. Both subjects have to be con- 
sidered. Organized labor is now so great a part 
of American industi'ial life that it can no longer 
represent merely a labor interest. In fact, labor 
interest indeed can only be in a healthy condition 
when all other interests, public and private, are 
on a sound basis. Your membership is, actually, 
a large slice of the public. Perhaps you will ex- 
cuse a few suggestions from an old friend. 

First, do everything you can to clear out and 
clean up any bad spots in labor organization. A 
few days ago your president, Mr. Dubinsky, made 
the just observation that decentralization was no 
excuse for not cleaning up racketeering conditions, 
and he clearly included safeguarding democratic 
union administration. This union, happily, has 
an excellent record ; and it deserves the support of 
all other labor organizations in its clean-up cam- 
paign. Whenever a racketeer gets a strangle-hold 
on a union local, he commits a crime against every 
union member in the United States because he 
discredits and weakens the entire labor movement. 



This is a specific labor interest, but you will find 
that it takes you into the wider field of decent local 
government. Racketeers cannot exist without local 
political help. It will need not merely resolutions 
at conventions but active support of the forces 
of clean and decent government in the cities and 
towns in which you have influence. It may be 
added that you will need the strongest, cleanest, 
and most efficient local government you can hope 
to create for other purposes besides that of seeing 
that both labor and management keep themselves 
free of underworld groups which from time to tfrae 
like to masquerade as labor leaders. 

This means work and lots of it. Post-war eras 
have been pretty apt to develop unclean move- 
ments. Along with political corruption and dis- 
orderly movements, we had financial racketeering 
of the Goulds and the Fiskes as post-Civil-War 
products ; and these were paralleled by the cor- 
porate and financial racketeering and by the gang- 
ster troubles of the twenties. 

It is a good thing to keep your own organization 
clean, but it is not enough. There were financial 
people who said, in 1932, that they were not re- 
sponsible for the shocking conditions in finance 
because, though they knew about these conditions, 
they had kept clear themselves. The public, 
cruelly but justly, asked whether they had tried 
to do anything about it. Now, as partners in in- 
dustrial power the labor movement will be held to 
the same responsibility — and it can and must avoid 
making the same mistakes. 

Second, I hope you will intensify your work in 
the field of technical and economic research, not 
only in the specific field of your trade but in the 
field of general economic reconstruction. You can 
command the best talent in the country. You have 
as powerful a voice as any in formulating the 
measures which must be taken to prevent unem- 
ployment and to mitigate or prevent business up- 
sets of past post-war eras. Obviously, neither the 
garment trade nor any other trade will prosper 
if the country is going through a succession of 
booms and slumps. 

This is going to call for new and original 
thinking. As far as I can see, the United States 
is almost the last great industrial country in the 
world to stick to certain classic economic ideas. 
Practically everywhere else, business and eco- 
nomic life will be organized on quite different 



JUNE 10, 1944 



541 



lines. This obviously is true of Soviet Russia and 
apparently will be true of most of the Continent 
of Europe. We do not yet know the extent of in- 
dustrial reorganization in England, but there is 
every indication that the British economy is go- 
ing to be organized with the primary intention of 
maintaining full employment. My own opinion 
IS that no government in the United States will 
be able to live unless it likewise tackles and solves 
this problem and is prepared to take all measures 
necessary for that purpose. But there are all 
kinds of ways of attacking the problem. Merely 
to say, "no unemployment", is not enough — for 
there was no unemployment in Nazi Germany and 
the system was as evil as it could possibly be. 
We are committed to preserving private initiative 
so far as possible, but private initiative will prob- 
ably have to be supi:)lemented by Government meas- 
ures. You are just as much interested in a con- 
tinuing and growing market for your employer's 
goods as is your employer : he needs it, you need 
it. Where is it coming from? You know that 
there are plenty of people who need your product, 
and you know that you and the enterprises for 
which you work can fill that need. The problem 
is to create a situation so that the people who do 
need your product shall be able to buy it. 

Third, you will have to continue and perhaps 
intensify the splendid efforts you have already 
made in the cause of world organization 
and world peace. Obviously, no plan of organi- 
zation and no economic planning can be successful 
if the entire world, after the war, travels again 
the terrible road which it followed between the 
two wars. 

It is, of course, for governments to endeavor to 
work out the terms of world organization. But 
this, in a sense, is paper work. No organization 
or set of international agreements means anything 
unless it is backed by the solid public opinion of 
its respective countries. A successful search for 
peace will be almost as intense as the effort for 
victory. Aggression anywhere means eventual 
danger to the United States. Indeed, the detail 
of world organization is less important, essen- 
tially, than the popular force behind it. The in- 
stitutions created, if they are live, will learn by 
their mistakes and improve their structure as they 



go along. Institutions which have not the breath 
of popular life in them will simply decay. 

IV 

These, as it seems to me, are the three essen- 
tials of your work : a clean house, sound economic 
planning, and steady support of the active insti- 
tutions of peace. 

The resources of the United States in time of 
peace as well as in war are so vast that they are 
not even known. In the past four years this 
country has been able to support the economic 
burden of the greatest war in American history 
and at the same time to provide a civilian income 
about equal to normal. Plainly, the country is 
capable of liberating production sufficient almost 
to double the pre-war standard of living of every- 
one in this country, so far as material things go. 
Plainly, also, it has not yet found the means of 
doing this. You and your colleagues are one of 
the groups to which the country must look in 
charting its eventual course. You will have diffi- 
culties and troubles and disillusionments as you 
go forward. But you will find, year by year, that 
character in the long run brings with it the public 
confidence; that sound thinking eventually tri- 
umphs; and that, as your work continues, your 
strength will increase. 

PRESENTATION OF LEGION OF MERIT 
MEDALS 

[Released to the press June 0] 

In the presence of representatives of the War 
and Navy Departments, the Acting Secretary of 
State, on behalf of this Government, presented on 
June 9 to the Minister of Denmark, the Honorable 
Henrik de Kauffmann, the Legion of Merit medals 
and their citations which have been awarded with 
the approval of the President to Captain lb Poul- 
sen. Corporal Marius Jensen, and, posthumously, 
to Patrolman Eli Knudsen for exceptionally meri- 
torious conduct in the performance of outstanding 
services as members of the Northwest Greenland 
Sledge Patrol operating in collaboration with the 
Greenland Base Command, United States Army. 

As has previously been announced, a German 
base in Greenland was discovered early in 1913 by 
a Sledge Patrol group. The patrol was attacked 



540 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and groups they think they can trust, to organiza- 
tions which have kept faith with the public and 
with the country. Then, character counts. 

Your trade-union and others like it are going to 
have to live through those post-war years. They 
are going to liave a good, large share of respon- 
sibility for carrying on the national life during 
that period. Tlie trades-unions are now one of tlie 
great centers of concentrated power in America. 
Because of that, they are going to be held, in part, 
responsible by the public for what happens. 

This is important. In tlie 1929 crash, the respon- 
sibility was largely borne by business and financial 
interests which had struggled for power, got it, 
and were unable to use it well. In the next period, 
the growth of labor power is such that their organ- 
izations and leaders will also be asked, "AVhat did 
you do about it? Wliat part have you had in all 
this ? What have you done to help the situation ?" 
This is inescapable. In democratic life, respon- 
sibility goes with power. 

in 

Your organization and other enlightened unions 
have been well advised to be thinking, now, about 
your future plans. These will have to fall into 
two main categories : plans you make for strictly 
labor purposes ; and plans you make in the general 
public interest. Both subjects have to be con- 
sidered. Organized labor is now so great a part 
of American industrial life that it can no longer 
represent merely a labor interest. In fact, labor 
interest indeed can only be in a healthy condition 
when all other interests, public and private, are 
on a sound basis. Your membership is, actually, 
a large slice of the public. Perhaps you will ex- 
cuse a few suggestions from an old friend. 

First, do everything you can to clear out and 
clean up any bad spots in labor organization. A 
few days ago your president, Mr. Dubinsky, made 
the just observation that decentralization was no 
excuse for not cleaning up racketeering conditions, 
and he clearly included safeguarding democratic 
union administration. This union, happily, has 
an excellent record ; and it deserves the support of 
all other labor organizations in its clean-up cam- 
paign. Whenever a racketeer gets a strangle-hold 
on a union local, he commits a crime against every 
union member in the United States because he 
discredits and weakens the entire labor movement. 



This is a specific labor interest, but you will find 
that it takes you into the wider field of decent local 
government. Racketeers cannot exist without local 
political help. It will need not merely resolutions 
at conventions but active support of the forces 
of clean and decent govei'nment in the cities and 
towns in whicli you have influence. It may be 
added that you will need the strongest, cleanest, 
and most efficient local government you can hope 
to create for other purposes besides that of seeing 
that botli labor and management keep themselves 
free of underworld groups which from time to tfme 
like to masquerade as labor leaders. 

This means work and lots of it. Post-war eras 
have been pretty apt to develop unclean move- 
ments. Along witli political corruption and dis- 
orderly movements, we had financial racketeering 
of the Goulds and the Fiskes as post-Civil-War 
products ; and these were paralleled by the cor- , 
porate and financial racketeering and by the gang- 
ster troubles of the twenties. 

It is a good thing to keep your own organization 
clean, but it is not enough. There were financial 
people who said, in 1932, that they were not re- 
sponsible for the shocking conditions in finance 
because, though they knew about these conditions, 
they had kept clear themselves. The public, 
cruelly but justly, asked whether they had tried 
to do anything about it. Now, as partners in in- 
dustrial power the labor movement will be held to 
the same responsibility — and it can and must avoid 
making the same mistakes. 

Second, I hope you will intensify your work in i 
the field of technical and economic research, not 
only in the specific field of your trade but in the 
field of general economic reconstruction. You can 
command the best talent in the country. You have 
as powerful a voice as any in formulating the 
measures which must be taken to prevent unem- 
ployment and to mitigate or prevent business up- 
sets of past post-war eras. Obviously, neither the 
garment trade nor any other trade will prosper 
if the country is going through a succession of 
booms and slumps. 

This is going to call for new and original 
thinking. As far as I can see, the United States 
is almost the last great industrial country in the 
world to stick to certain classic economic ideas., 
Practically everywhere else, business and eco- 
nomic life will De organized on quite different 



JUNE 10, 1944 



541 



lines. This obviously is true of Soviet Russia and 
appai'ently will be true of most of the Continent 
of Europe. We do not yet know the extent of in- 
dustrial reorganization in England, but there is 
every indication that the British economy is go- 
ing to be organized with the primary intention of 
maintaining full employment. My own opinion 
is that no government in the United States will 
be able to live unless it likewise tackles and solves 
this problem and is prepared to take all measures 
necessary for that purpose. But there are all 
kinds of ways of attacking the problem. Merely 
to say, "no unemployment", is not enough — for 
there was no unemployment in Nazi Germany and 
the system was as evil as it could possibly be. 
We are committed to preserving private initiative 
so far as possible, but private initiative will prob- 
ably have to be supplemented by Government meas- 
ures. You are just as much interested in a con- 
tinuing and growing market for your employer's 
goods as is your employer: he needs it, you need 
it. Where is it coming from? You know that 
there are plenty of people who need your product, 
and you know that you and the enterprises for 
which you work can fill that need. The problem 
is to create a situation so that the people who do 
need your product shall be able to buy it. 

Third, you will have to continue and perhaps 
intensify the splendid efforts you have already 
made in the cause of world organization 
and world peace. Obviously, no plan of organi- 
zation and no economic planning can be successful 
if the entire world, after the war, travels again 
the terrible road which it followed between the 
two wars. 

It is, of course, for governments to endeavor to 
work out the terms of world organization. But 
this, in a sense, is paper work. No organization 
or set of international agreements means anything 
unless it is backed by the solid public opinion of 
its respective countries. A successful search for 
peace will be almost as intense as the effort for 
victory. Aggression anywhere means eventual 
danger to the United States. Indeed, the detail 
of world organization is less important, essen- 
tially, than the popular force behind it. The in- 
stitutions created, if they are live, will learn by 
their mistakes and improve their structure as they 



go along. Institutions which have not the breath 
of popular life in them will simply decay. 

IV 

These, as it seems to me, are the three essen- 
tials of your work : a clean house, sound economic 
planning, and steady support of the active insti- 
tutions of peace. 

The resources of the United States in time of 
peace as well as in war are so vast that they are 
not even known. In the past four years this 
country has been able to support the economic 
burden of the greatest war in American history 
and at the same time to provide a civilian income 
about equal to normal. Plainly, the country is 
capable of liberating production sufficient almost 
to double the pre-war standard of living of every- 
one in this country, so far as material things go. 
Plainly, also, it has not yet found the means of 
doing this. You and your colleagues are one of 
the groups to which the country must look in 
charting its eventual course. You will have diffi- 
culties and troubles and disillusionments as you 
go forward. But you will find, year by year, that 
character in the long run brings with it the public 
confidence; that sound thinking eventually tri- 
umphs; and that, as your work continues, your 
sti'ength will increase. 

PRESENTATION OF LEGION OF MERIT 
MEDALS 

[Released to the press June 0] 

In the presence of representatives of the War 
and Navy Departments, the Acting Secretary of 
State, on behalf of this Government, presented on 
June 9 to the Minister of Denmark, the Honorable 
Henrik de Kauffmann, the Legion of Merit medals 
and their citations which have been awarded with 
the approval of the President to Captain lb Poul- 
sen, Corporal Marius Jensen, and, posthumously, 
to Patrolman Eli Knudsen for exceptionally meri- 
torious conduct in the performance of outstanding 
services as members of the Northwest Greenland 
Sledge Patrol operating in collaboration with the 
Greenland Base Command, United States Army. 

As has previously been announced, a German 
base in Greenland was discovered early in 1913 by 
a Sledge Patrol group. The patrol was attacked 



542 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



by the Germans but managed to report its discov- 
ery to the American military authorities. 

The follo\vin<r remarks were made by the Hon- 
orable Edward 11. Stettinius, Jr., Acting Secretary 
of State, to the Honorable Henrik de Kauffmann, 
Minister of Denmark : 

"Mr. Minister: It gives me great pleasure to 
present to you on behalf of this Government the 
Legion of Merit Medals and their citations which 
have been awarded with the approval of the Presi- 
dent to aptain lb Poulsen, Corporal Manus Jen- 
sen, and, posthumously, to Patrolman Eli Knudsen 
for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the per- 
formance of outstanding service as members of the 
Northwest Greenland Sledge Patrol operating in 
collaboration with the Greenland Base Command, 
United States Army. Not only did these men fight 
valiantly in defense of this colony of Denmark but 
also one made the supreme sacrifice for his country. 
Their example is an inspiration to their fellow 
countrjmien who suffer under the heel of the Ger- 
man oppressor." 

The reply of the Minister of Denmark follows : 

"I want to thank you, Mr. Secretary, for the 
words you have just addressed to me and for the 
three decorations that you have handed to me to 
be transmitted to two of my countrymen and to 
the family of a Dane who died doing his duty. I 
shall turn these over, at the same time informing 
my countrymen of what you said. 

"You know how all Danes feel. Every Dane, 
whether he is at home or abroad, and whatever his 
position in life is — whether he is in the armed 
forces, on the seas, at home in Denmark working 
one way or the other — has one aim: to do his 
utmost to help win the war and defeat our com- 
mon enemy. 

"That is why the three decorations you have just 
handed me will not only bring happiness to the 
people directly concerned but also to every Dane. 
I want to thank you on behalf of Denmark." 

AMERICAN MEXICAN CLAIMS COMMISSION 

[Released to the press June G] 

John Maktos was appointed recently General 
Counsel of the American Mexican Claims Com- 
mission.' 



Mr. Maktos, a member of the bars of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and of Michigan, received three 
degrees from Harvard University : Bachelor of 
Arts in 1923, Bachelor of Law in 1926, and Doctor 
of Juridical Science in 1929. From 1926 to 1928 
he pursued post-graduate law studies at Oxford 
University. He has been awarded the Carnegie 
Fellowship in International Law and the Hyman 
Fellowship in International Law. 

From the time of his graduation until his ap- 
pointment as General Counsel, Mr. Maktos was 
in the service of the Department of State. He 
was Assistant Legal Adviser until 1941, when 
he was appointed chairman of Interdepartmental 
Visa Review Committee C. The Committee's 
function was to pass on the admissibility of aliens 
into the United States. Upon the completion of 
the Committee's work in 1943 he was appointed 
principal divisional assistant in the Division of 
International Security and Organization, a posi- 
tion which he held until the assumption of his 
present office. While Assistant Legal Adviser 
he acted as assistant counsel for the Government 
in the arbitration of the claim of the United 
States on behalf of P. W. Shufeldt against Guate- 
mala and as Legal Assistant to the American 
Connuissioner in the settlement of the claims of 
the United States against Turkey. 

Mr. Maktos succeeds Edwin D. Dickinson, 
formerly Dean of the School of Jurisprudence at 
the University of California, as General Counsel. 

The American Mexican Claims Commission 
consists of Edgar E. Witt of Texas, chairman, 
Samuel M. Gold of New York, and Charles F. 
McLaughlin of Nebraska. It was established 
under the act of Congress known as the "Settle- 
ment of Mexican Claims Act of 1942." The Com- 
mission's functions are to determine the merits 
of claims of the United States against Mexico en- 
titled to participate in the distribution of a lump 
sum of $40,000,OCO which the Government of 
Mexico agreed to pay to the United States in 
settlement of certain claims. The cases grow out 
of expropriation of lands and mines, confiscation 
or destruction of personal property, personal in- 
juries, and alleged denial of justice. 

'Bulletin of May 8, 1943, p. 420, and May 22, IMS, 
p. 457. 



JUNE 10, 1944 



543 



Treaty Information 



DOUBLE-TAXATION CONVENTION WITH 
CANADA 

[Released to the press June 9] 

A convention between the United States and 
Canada for the avoidance of double taxation and 
the jjrevention of fiscal evasion in the case of estate 
taxes and succession duties was signed on June 8 
by the Honorable Ray Atherton, American Am- 
bassador in Ottawa, for the United States, and by 
the Eight Honorable William Lyon Mackenzie 
King, C.M.G., Prime Minister, President of the 
Privy Council, Secretary of State for External 
Affairs, and the Honorable Colin William George 
Gibson, K.O., M.C., V.D., Minister of National 
Revenue, for Canada. 

The convention has for its principal purpose 
the elimination, in so far as practicable, of double 
taxation which otherwise would result from the 
application to the same estate or succession of both 
Federal estate taxes and Dominion succession 
duties. The convention also contains provisions 
relating to mutual administrative assistance 
through the exchange of infoi-mation, with a view 
to discouraging tax evasion. The application of 
the convention extends only to estate taxes imposed 
by the Federal Government and succession duties 
imposed by tlie Dominion Government, and does 
not extend to the imposition and collection of taxes 
by political subdivisions — that is, by States of the 
United States or Provinces of Canada. 

The principal provisions of the convention, in 
their aiD25li<^'ation to double taxation affecting es- 
tates or successions, parallel in certain respects the 
principal provisions of the convention and proto- 
col now in force between the United States and 
Canada providing for the avoidance of double tax- 
ation and prevention of fiscal evasion in the case 
of income taxes, signed in Washington on March 4, 
1942, which by its terms became effective as of 
January 1, IMU 

It is provided in article XIV of the convention 
signed in Ottawa that the convention shall be rati- 
fied and the instruments of ratification shall be 



exchanged. In the event of such an exchange of 
instruments of ratification, the convention shall be 
deemed to have come into effect on June 14, 1911, 
which date coincides with the date on which the 
Dominion Succession Duty Act went into effect, 
and shall continue in effect for a period of five 
years from that date and indefinitely after that 
period, but may be terminated by either Govern- 
ment at the end of the five-year period or at any 
time thereafter provided that at least six months 
prior notice of termination has been given. 

INTERNATIONAL OPIUM CONVENTION 

Afghanistan 

The American Embassy near the Netherlands 
Govermnent at London reported to the Depart- 
ment of State, by a despatch of May 17, 1944, that 
the Netherlands Government had stated in a note 
dated May 9, 1944, that it had received on May 5, 
1944, notification from the Government of Afghan- 
istan of the adherence of Afghanistan to the In- 
ternational Opium Convention which was signed 
at The Hague January 23, 1912 (Treaty Series 
612), effective as from May 5, 1944. 



The Department 



TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS OF THE SECRE- 
TARY'S LIAISON OFFICE TO THE DIVISION 
OF FOREIGN ACTIVITY CORRELATION 

Departmental Order 1277 of June 7, 1944 = 

Purpose. In order to centralize further the De- 
partment's liaison activities with the War and 
Navy Departments, the functions now performed 
by the Secretary's Liaison Office are hereby trans- 
ferred to the Division of Foreign Activity Correla- 
tion. The Secretary's Liaison Office is hereby 
abolished. 

1 Transfer of personnel. Personnel presently 
assigned to the Secretary's Liaison Office are 
hereby transferred to the Division of Foreign Ac- 
tivity Correlation. 

' Treaty Series G83; 56 Stat. 1399. 
^ Effective June 7, 1944. 



544 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



2 Routing symbol. The symbol of the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Activity Correlation will remain 
FC. Correspondence pertaining specifically to 
War-Navy Liaison matters should be marked 
FC/L. 

3 Previous orders amended or superseded. 
This order amends Departmental Order 825, and 
the appended Departmental Memorandum, dated 
November 3, 1939, describing the functions of the 
Liaison Office (then attached to the Office of the 
Under Secretary) ; and page 3 (Section 5, relating 
to the Office of the Secretary) and page 9 (Section 
4, relating to the Division of Foreign Activity 
Correlation) of Department Order 1218, dated 
January 15, 1944. This order supersedes Depart- 
mental Order 1255, dated April 10, 1944; the 
pertinent portion of the Administrative Instruc- 
tion dated March 6, 1944 ; and Departmental Des- 
ignation 15, dated May 31, 1944. 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr., 
Acting Secretary of State. 
June 7, 1944. 

RUBBER ADVISORY PANEL 

[Released to the press June 6] 

The following members will be on the Rubber 
Advisory Panel which was established to serve 
in a consultative capacity to the Department on 
matters relating to rubber and rubber substitutes 
and to advise on technical matters : 

F. B. Davis, Jr., chairman. United States Rubber Co. 

Stuart Hotchliiss, chairman, Cambridge Rubber Co. 

L. R. Jackson, executive vice president, Firestone Tire 
& Rubber Co. 

P. Litchfield, chairman, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 

Harry E. Smith, general manager, Manhattan Rubber 
Manufacturing Division, Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc. 

A. L. Viles, president. Rubber Manufacturers Assn., Inc. 

John L. CoUyer, president, B. F. Goodrich Co. 

J. W. Bicknell, executive vice president, Rubber Develop- 
ment Corp. 

William L. Batt, vice chairman. War Production Board. 

H. J. Klossner, president. Rubber Reserve Co. 

L. D. Tompkins, deputy rubber director. War Production 
Board. 

R. D. Young, president. Rubber Trade Assn. 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 16, issued June 
3, 1944, effective June 3, 1944, the Acting Secretary 
of State, pursuant to the provisions of Depart- 
mental Order 1275 establishing the position of 
Assistant Security Officer, designated Comdr. Lee 
W. Parke, U.S.N., as Assistant Security Officer in 
the Office of the Assistant Secretary and Security 
Officer, Mr. Shaw. By the same Departmental 
Designation, the Acting Secretary of State desig- 
nated Mr. David A. Salmon as Consultant on 
Cryptography in the Office of the Assistant Secre- 
tary, Mr. Shaw. 

By Departmental Designation 19, issued June 8, 
1944, effective June 8, 1944, the Acting Secretary 
of State designated Mr. E. Wilder Spaulding as 
Chief of the Division of Research and Publication. 



Legislation 



Twenty-sixth Conference of the International Labor 
Organization : Message from the President of the United 
States transmitting Recommendations of the Twenty- 
sixth Conference of the International Labor Organi- 
zation. H. Doc. 621, 78th Cong. 14 pp. 

Certain Officers and Employees of the Foreign Service of 
the United States: Message from the President of the 
United States transmitting Report from the Secretary 
of State with Reference to the Enactment of Legislation 
for the Sum of $90,130.91 for the Rslief of Certain Offi- 
cers and Employees of the Foreign Service of the 
United States. H. Doc. 622, 7Sth Cong. 22 pp. 

Digest of Legislation Enacted by the Seventy-eighth Con- 
gress, First Session, Together With a Preliminary 
Statement Relative Thereto. S. Doc. 195, 78th Cong. 
12 pp. 

National War Agencies Appropriation Bill for 1945: 
. Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee 
on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 
2d sess., on the National War Agencies Appropriation 
Bill for 1945. Part I, lOSO pp. [Department of State 
activities In connection with the Office of Coordinator 
of Inter-American Affairs, p. 1002]. Part IL 732 pp. 
[Department of State activities in connection with the 
Office of War Information, p. 333, and in connection 
with the Office of Strategic Services, p. 351] 



JUNE 10, 1944 



545 



Foreign Economic Administration Appropriation Bill for 
1945: Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 78th 
Cong., 2(3 sess., on the Foreign Economic Admiiiistratiou 
Appropriation Bill for 1945. 475 pp. [Department o£ 
State, pp. 244, 281, 402.] 

Foreign Economic Administration Appropriation Bill, 
1945 — Including Defense Aid (Lend-Lease) and Par- 
ticipation by tlie United States in the United Nations 
Belief and Rehabilitation Administration. H. Kept. 
1591, 78th Cong., on H.R. 4937. [Favorable report] 
28 pp. 

Department of State Appropriation Bill for 1945 : Hearings 
before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropri- 
ations, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 2d sess., on 



the Department of State Appropriation Bill for 1945. 
326 pp. 

Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce Appropria- 
tion Bill, 1945. H. Kept 1599, 78th Cong., on H.R. 4204. 
3 pp. 

Alaskan International Highvray Commission. H. Rept. 
1603, 7Sth Cong., on H.R. 4625. [Favorable report.] 
Ip. 

Implementing the Jurisdiction of Service Courts of 
Friendly Foreign Forces. S. Rept. 956, 78th Cong., on 
H.R. 3241. [Favorable report.] 7 pp. 

Requesting the President To Limit Production of Opium to 
Amounts Required for Medical Purposes. S. Rept. 957, 
78th Cong., on H. J. Res. 241. [Favorable report.] 2 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Cultural-Cooperation Program of the Department of State: 
Address by G. Howland Shaw, Assistant Secretary of 
State, at the Loyola University Forum, New Orleans, 
La., May 8, 1944. Publication 2130. 14 pp. 5(#. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Brazil — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Washington March 14, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 372. Publication 2063. 3 
pp. 50. 

Importation Privileges for Government Officials and Em- 
ployees : Agreement Between the United States of Amer- 
ica and Canada — Effected by exchanges of notes signed 
at Ottawa July 21, October 29, and November 9, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 3S3. Publication 2124. 3 
pp. 50. 



Other Government Agencies 

"Guatemala's Market for Organic Chemicals", by Kathleen 
Molesworth, Assistant Commercial Attach^ at Guate- 
mala City. 

"India's Sugar Industry Today", by Charles E. Brookhart, 
Consul at Calcutta, in collaboration with Alice J. Mullen 
of the Industrial Projects Unit, Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce. 

These articles will be found in the June 10, 1944 
issue of Foreign Commerce Weekly. Copies of 
this periodical, which is issued by the Department 
of Commerce, may be obtained from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Printing Of- 
fice, for 10 cents each. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE! 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government TrintlnK Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
Trice, 10 cents - - . - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE DIBECTOS OV THE BCIiEAO OV THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BIJ 



J 



J 



ETIN 



JUNE 17, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 260— Publication 2145 



C 



ontents 




The War Page 

Allied Military Operations in Europe: 

Report by General Eisenhower to the President . . 549 
Acknowledgments by President Roosevelt of Mes- 
sages From Various Officials of the United 

Nations 549 

Messages Exchanged Between the Prime Minister 

of Greece and the Secretary of State 552 

Post-War Security Organization Program: Statement 

by the President 552 

Removal of European Refugees to the United States: 

Message of the President to the Congress .... 553 

General 

Opportunities for Women in the Conduct of Inter- 
national Relations: Address by Assistant Secretary 
Shaw 555 

Iceland 

Independence of the Republic of Iceland: 

Messages of President Roosevelt to the President of 
Iceland and of the Secretary of State to the 

Minister of Foreign Aflairs 557 

Address by the Honorable Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr. . .' 557 
The Icelandic Independence Movement: By William 

C. Trimble 559 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the United 

States Minister to Iceland 563 

[over] 



•^^L 25 1944 



C' 



OnfG/liS— CONTINUED 



Fab East Page 

Visit of President of Amoy University to the United 

States 564 

Europe 

Minister of Finland Requested to Leave the United 

States 565 

Visit to the United States of the Polish Prime Minister . 565 

American Republics 

Proposal for Rescue of Refugees from German Terri- 
tory 566 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador 

of Costa Rica 566 

Treaty Information 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences . . . 567 

Regulation of Inter-American AutO;motive Traffic . . 567 
Provisional Fur-Seal Agreement Between the United 

States and Canada 568 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling , . . 568 

The Department 
Appointment of Officers 568 

Publications 568 

Legislation 568 



The War 



ALLIED MILITARY OPERATIONS IN EUROPE 

Report by General Eisenhower to the President 



[Released to the press by the White House June 13] 

On June 6th we initiated the first vital step lead- 
ing to tlie decisive battle of Europe. The first 
great obstacle has been surmounted — that is the 
breaching of the beach defenses that the enemy by 
lavish employment of enslaved labor had installed 
in forest-like density along the entire lateral of 
northwest Europe. Gallantry, fortitude and skill 
were called for, and these, in abundant measure, 
the entire allied force has displayed since the open- 
ing day of the battle. A particularly satisfying 
feature of the fighting has been the fine perform- 
ance of troops — American, Bi-itish, and Cana- 
dian — committed to battle for the first time. Just 
as they did and are still doing in the Mediter- 
ranean, these untried allied units have conducted 
themselves in a manner worthy of their more ex- 
perienced comrades who conquered the German 
in Africa, Sicily and Italy. 

What is more important, complete unity between 
the air, ground and naval services has prevailed. 

Satisfactory as is the progress of this battle to 
date, in magnitude it is but a mere beginning to 



the tremendous struggles that must follow before 

Although the cross- 



final victory is achieved, 
channel landing operation was attended by hazards 
and difficulties greater, I believe, than have ever 
before faced an invading army, this initial success 
has given us only a foothold upon northwestern 
France. Through the opening thus made, and 
through others yet to come, the flood of our fighting 
strength must be poured. Our operations, vast 
and imjjortant as they are, are only part of the 
far larger pattern of a combined assault against 
the fortress of Germany by the great Russian 
armies from the East and our forces from the 
Mediterranean. 

The Nazis will be forced to fight throughout the 
perimeter of their stronghold, daily expending 
their dwindling resources until overwhelmed by 
the hopelessness of their position. To this end we 
need every man, every weapon, and all the courage 
and fortitude of our respective peoples. The 
allied soldier will do his duty. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 



Acknowledgments by President Roosevelt of Messages From Various OfBeials 

of the United Nations 



[Released to the press by the White House June 14] 

On June 7 the press was given texts of cable- 
grams and acknowledgments exchanged between 
the President of the United States and various 
government and militai\y officials of the United 
Nations.^ The texts of the President's acknowl- 
edgments follow : 

To the King of Greece 

I am grateful for your message of congratula- 
tions on the fall of Rome. Our successful Allied 
armies in Italy and in the East have now been 



joined in the all-out struggle for the liberation of 
the continent by the forces who have landed in 
France. I know that their progress will be at- 
tended by the prayerful hopes of the entire Greek 
people. 

To the President of Brasil 

I am deeply moved by the sentiments expressed 
by Your Excellency on behalf of yourself and of 
the people of Brazil on the occasion of the first day 
of the landing of Allied troops in France to effect 

' Bulletin of June 10, 1944, p. 528. 

549 



550 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the liberation of the captive populations of Europe 
and to restore peace to the world. 

I shall take pleasure in transmitting to General 
Eisenhower the inspiring message of the Chief of 
the Government of our great Ally, Brazil, who is 
also sending her valiant sons to fight the foes of 
liberty on distant battlefields. 

To the President of the Costa Rican Congress 

Please convey to the Costa Rican Congress my 
thanks for its message of encouragement and sup- 
port sent in connection with the initiation of mili- 
tary operations for the liberation of Europe. 
Though the campaign may be difficult I have faith 
in the victory of the United Nations. 

To the President of Honduras 

I am happy to acknowledge the receipt of your 
telegram expressing the fervent hopes and prayers 
of the Honduran nation that victory will crown 
the attack of the United Nations upon the fortress 
of Europe. The battle will unquestionably be 
hard but I am wholly confident that the outcome 
will be a triumph for the forces of liberation. 

To the President of the Republic of Peru 

I have received with the greatest of pleasure 
Your Excellency's cordial message of June 5, sent 
on the occasion of the liberation of the city of 
Rome by the armies of the United Nations. I 
agree with Your Excellency that this event con- 
stitutes a decisive step toward the inevitable final 
triumph over the forces of our enemies. The lib- 
eration of Rome by the combined United Nations 
armies proves the gi'eat strength of the present 
union of free peoples the woi'ld over against the 
tyranny of the Axis powers. The people of the 
United States of America are also particularly 
pleased that this was effected without the destruc- 
tion of the historic monuments of the Eternal 
City. I take great pleasure in cordially recipro- 
cating Your Excellency's kind expression of per- 
sonal esteem. 

To the President of the National Governnfient of 
the Republic of China 

On behalf of the forces of the United States I 
thank you for your heartening message on the 
liberation of Rome. This achievement was made 
possible by the inspiration, unity and swiftly 



mounting strength of our democratic cause, and I 
am supremely confident that these factors will 
soon bring us gi-eater victories which will ensure 
the destruction of Axis tyranny not only in 
Europe but also in Asia. 

To the King of Egypt 

I have received with deep appreciation Your 
Majesty's message of felicitation on the occasion 
of the liberation of Rome. It is my hope also that 
the armies of freedom soon shall triumph over the 
forces of the Axis aggressors. 

To the President of the Republic of Colombia 

I deeply appreciate Your Excellency's inspir- 
ing message in which you have expressed in this 
momentous hour the deep and fervent spirit of the 
Colombian people who are united with us in the 
determination to achieve the liberation of those 
peoples cruelly enslaved by our common enemy. 
We may look forward with full confidence, that, 
through the sacrifice and devotion to the just cause 
to which our nations have dedicated themselves, 
ultimate victory will bring justice and freedom to 
the world. 

To the President of the Republic of Paraguay 

I take great pleasure in expressing my appre- 
ciation for Your Excellency's message of June 6 
on the occasion of the landing of United States 
forces in France. 

The decisive phase of the battle of liberation 
has begun with realistic appreciation of the long 
road that lies ahead and with complete confidence 
in ultimate victory. 

To the P7'esident of Haiti 

I wish to express my appreciation for your 
telegram conveying the congratulations of the 
Haitian peoj^le and Government upon the occa- 
sion of the occupation of Rome and the initiation 
of the campaign for the liberation of Europe. 
Though the road may be hard, I am certain of 
the ultimate victory of the United Nations. 

To the President of the Senate of Chile 

Thank you for the message which you and Don 
Fernando Altamirano Z. were kind enough to 
send on behalf of the Senate of Chile on the oc- 
casion of the landings made by the Allied armies 



JUNE 17, 1944 



551 



in northern France. It gives me deep satisfac- 
tion to know that the good wishes and support 
of the Chilean Senate are with us during this 
supremely critical phase of the war. 

To the Prhne Minister of Belgium 

I deeply appreciate your kind message of June 6. 
The victory of the Allies in Italy is an auspicious 
beginning of the liberation of the enslaved peo- 
ples of Europe. You may be sure that our un- 
sparing efforts will not cease until the enemy has 
been crushed and freedom has been restored to 
your brave fellow countrymen. 

To the President of the Dominican Republic 

I am happy to acknowledge the receipt of your 
telegram of congratulations on the initial suc- 
cess obtained by the Allied Armies in the cam- 
paign for the liberation of Europe. Though the 
campaign may be difficult, I have faith in the 
victory of the United Nations. 

To the PHme Minister of Australia 

Thank you for your message of congratula- 
tion upon the liberation of Rome and your trib- 
ute to tlie gallant forces of the United Nations. 
We may be justly proud of this splendid accom- 
plishment by our combined forces. This example 
of complete cooperation and coordination of ef- 
fort gives us high hopes for the success of the 
still greater task to which our combined armies 
have now set themselves on the Continent of 
Europe. 



that this was possible without destruction of its 
many monuments of religion, of history and of 
culture. 



The following wires from various foreign gov- 
ernments were received too late for inclusion in 
the June 7, 1944 release. Texts of the messages 
and of the President's replies are as follows : 

The President of Guatemala to the President 

I am happy to felicitate Your Excellency upon 
the occupation of Rome by the victorious North 
American troops and I express my desire that the 
invincible army of the United Nations may con- 
tinue its triumphant march forward. 

The President to the President of Ouatemala 

Please accept my thanks for your telegram of 
felicitations upon the taking of Rome. I rejoice 



The President of Ecuador to the President 

I greet Your Excellency and assure you of my 
pleasure at the transcendental victories in France, 
the nation of freedom, of the North American 
armies which have demonstrated to the world the 
inevitable arrival of the hour of the people and of 
justice. 

The President to the President of Ecuador 

I deeply appreciate Your Excellency's friendly 
message at this time when the Armies of tho 
United Nations are engaging in tremendous and 
sacrificial struggle which we know must precede 
the liberation of Europe. I am wholly confident 
of the ultimate victory which will assure through- 
out the world the reign of the principles of justice 
and freedom to which our nations are dedicated. 



The Emperor of Ethiopia to the President 

The entire Ethiopian people are following the 
opening of the invasion with their prayers to the 
God of victories for the triumphant outcome of 
the historic campaign to which the whole Ameri- 
can nation is committed. May the fall of Rome 
be speedily followed by the rapid fall of the 
remaining strongholds of Axis resistance. 

The President to the Emperor of Ethiopia 

I thank Your Majesty most wannly for your 
message. 

In this titanic struggle the American people are 
supported in their will to triumph by the knowl- 
edge that staunch and unfailing allies stand by 
their side and by the prayers and good wishes of 
honorable men everywhere. Victoi-y will come. 
Your Majesty's message cheers us on the way. 



The President of the United States of Venezuela 
to the President 

Yesterday, when the glorious Allied forces 
began the most important stage of this war in 
wliich the sons of Your Excellency's noble country 
are struggling with intrejiid valor, will pass into 



552 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



history as one of the symbolic dates of the struggle 
for the principles of liberty and justice which the 
democratic countries support. The Government 
and the people of Venezuela who share the same 
ideals have received with keen emotion the first 
news and express their sincere wishes for the suc- 
cess of the present campaign. To these, I add my 
personal wishes. 

The President to the President of the United 
States of Venezuela 

I deeply appreciate Your Excellency's friendly 
and inspiring message conveying your wishes and 
those of the Government and people of Venezuela 
for the successful outcome of the momentous 
struggle which has just been initiated in France. 
This military action will lead to the fulfillment 
of the fervent desires of free people the world 
over that freedom, liberty and justice shall be 
guaranteed to all. 

Messages Exchanged Between the Prime Minis- 
ter of Greece and the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press June 15] 

The Secretary of State has received the fol- 
lowing message of congratulation from the Prime 
Minister of Greece under date of June 8, 194:4 : 



Please accept and transmit to the American 
Government and people and to the gallant armed 
forces of the United States the congratulations of 
the Hellenic Government and myself for the his- 
torical victory of the capture of Eome and our 
heartfelt wishes for the success of the mighty 
endeavour which began yesterday on the shores 
of France. The Greek people who were the first 
to defeat the Italians in their untried pride and 
aggressiveness have hailed the fate of the second 
capital of the Axis as the infallible omen of 
greater and final victories which may God grant 
to your forces now engaged on their heroic cru- 
sade. 

George Papandreotj 

The following reply was sent to M. Papandreou 
on June 14: 

I greatly appreciate Your Excellency's message 
of congratulations on the occasion of the fall of 
Rome and the successful launching of the inva- 
sion from the West. The day of liberation of 
occupied Europe is surely dawning. It is the 
earnest hope of all Americans that this long- 
awaited prospect will give to the Greek people 
renewed strength and unity for the reconstruction 
of their free national life. 

CoRDELL Hull, 



POST-WAR SECURITY ORGANIZATION PROGRAM 



Statement by 

[Released to the press by the White House June 15] 

The conference today with officials of the De- 
partment of State on the post-war security organi- 
zation program is a continuation of conferences 
which have been held from time to time during 
the past 18 months. These conferences have en- 
abled me to give personal attention to the develop- 
ment and progress of the post-war work the 
Department of State is doing. 

All plans and suggestions from groups, organi- 
zations, and individuals have been carefully dis- 
cussed and considered. I wish to emphasize the 
entirely non-partisan nature of these consulta- 
tions. All aspects of the post-war program have 
been debated in a cooperative spirit. This is a 
tribute to the political leaders who realize that 



the President 

the national interest demands a national program 
now. Such teamwork has met the overwhelming 
approval of the American people. 

The maintenance of peace and security must be 
the joint task of all peace-loving nations. We 
have, therefore, sought to develop plans for an 
international organization comprising all such 
nations. The purpose of the organization would 
be to maintain peace and security and to assist the 
creation, through international cooperation, of 
conditions of stability and well-being necessary 
for peaceful and friendly relations among nations. 

Accordingly, it is our thought that the organi- 
zation would be a fully representative body with 
broad responsibilities for promoting and facili- 
tating international cooperation, through sucl^ 



JUNE 17, 1944 

agencies as may be found necessary, to consider 
and deal wi.tli the problems of world relations. 
It is our further thought that the organization 
would provide for a council, elected annually by 
the fully representative body of all nations, which 
would include the four major nations and a suit- 
able number of other nations. The council would 
concern itself with peaceful settlement of inter- 
national disputes and with the prevention of 
threats to the peace or breaches of the peace. 

There would also be an international court of 
justice to deal primarily with justiciable disputes. 

We are not thinking of a superstate with its 
own police forces and other paraphernalia of 
coercive power. We are seeking effective agree- 
ment and arrangements through which the na- 



553 

tions would maintain, according to their capaci- 
ties, adequate forces to meet the needs of pre- 
venting war and of making impossible deliberate 
preparation for war and to have such forces 
available for joint action when necessary. 

All this, of course, will become possible once 
our present enemies are defeated and effective 
arrangements are made to prevent them from 
making war again. 

Beyond that, the hope of a peaceful and ad- 
vancing world will rest upon the willingness and 
ability of the peace-loving nations, large and 
small, bearing responsibility commensurate with 
their individual capacities, to work together for 
the maintenance of peace and security. 



REMOVAL OF EUROPEAN REFUGEES TO THE UNITED STATES 

Message of the President to the Congress 



[Released to the press by the White House June 12] 

To THE Congress of the United States : Con- 
gress has repeatedly manifested its deep concern 
with the pitiful plight of the persecuted minori- 
ties in Europe whose lives are each day being 
offered in sacrifice on the altar of Nazi tyranny. 

This Nation is appalled by the systematic per- 
secution of helpless minority groups by the Nazis. 
To us the unprovoked murder of innocent people 
simply because of race, religion or political creed 
is the blackest of all possible crimes. Since the 
Nazis began this campaign many of our citizens 
in all walks of life and of all political and religious 
persuasions have expressed our feeling of repulsion 
and our anger. It is a matter with respect to 
which there is and can be no division of opinion 
amongst us. 

As the hour of the final defeat of the Hitlerite 
forces draws closer, the fury of their insane desire 
to wipe out the Jewish race in Europe continues 
undiminished. This is but one example: Many 
christian groups also are being murdered. 
Knowing that they have lost the war, the Nazis 
are determined to complete their program of mass 
extermination. This program is but one mani- 
festation of Hitler's aim to salvage from military 
defeat victory for Nazi principles — the very prin- 
ciples which this war must destroy unless we shall 
have fought in vain. 



This Government has not only made clear its 
abhorrence of this inhuman and barbarous activity 
of the Nazis, but, in cooperation with other gov- 
ernments has endeavored to alleviate the condi- 
tion of the persecuted peoples. In January of this 
year I determined that this Government should 
intensify its efforts to combat the Nazi terror. 
Accordingly, I established the War Refugee 
Board, composed of the Secretaries of State, 
Treasury and War. This Board was charged with 
the responsibility of taking all action consistent 
with the successful prosecution of the war to rescue 
the victims of enemy oppression in imminent dan- 
ger of death and to afford such victims all other 
possible relief and assistance. It was entrusted 
with the solemn duty of translating this Govern- 
ment's humanitarian policy into prompt action, 
thus manifesting once again in a concrete way 
that our kind of world and not Hitler's will pre- 
vail. Its purpose is directly and closely related 
to our whole war effort. 

Since its establishment, the War Refugee Board, 
acting through a full time administrative staff, 
has made a direct and forceful attack on the 
problem. Operating quietly, as is appropriate, 
tlie Board, through its representatives in various 
parts of the world, has actually succeeded in sav- 
ing the lives of innocent people. Not only have 
refugees been evacuated from enemy territory, 



554 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



but many measures have been taken to protect the 
lives of those who have not been able to escape. 

Above all, the eflForts of the Board have brought 
new hope to the oppressed peoples of Europe. 
This statement is not idle speculation. From 
various sources, I have received word that thou- 
sands of people, wearied by their years of resist- 
ance to Hitler and by their sufferings to the point 
of giving up the struggle, have been given the will 
and desire to continue bj^ the concrete manifesta- 
tion of this Government's desire to do all possible 
to aid and rescue the oppressed. 

To the Hitlerites, their subordinates and func- 
tionaries and satellites, to the German people and 
to all other peoples under the Nazi yoke, we have 
made clear our determination to punish all partici- 
pants in these acts of savagerj'. In the name of 
humanity we have called upon them to spare the 
lives of these innocent people. 

Notwithstanding this Government's unremitting 
efforts, which are continuing, the numbers actually 
rescued from the jaws of death have been small 
compared with the numbers still facing extinction 
in German territory'. This is due principally to 
the fact that our enemies, despite all our appeals 
and our willingness to find havsais of refuge for 
the oppressed peoples, persist in their fiendish 
extermination campaign and actively prevent the 
intended victims from escaping to safety. 

In the face of this attitude of our enemies we 
must not fail to take full advantage of any oppor- 
tunity, however limited, for the rescue of Hitler's 
victims. AYe are confronted with a most urgent 
situation. 

Therefore, I wish to report to you today concern- 
ing a step which I have just taken in an effort to 
save additional lives and which 1 am certain will 
meet with your approval. You will, I am sure, 
appreciate that this measure is not only consistent 
with the successful prosecution of the war, but that 
it was essential to take action without delay. 

Even before the Allied landing in Italy there 
had been a substantial movement of persecuted 
peoples of various races and nationalities into 
that country. This movement was undoubtedly 
prompted by the fact that, despite all attempts by 
the Fascists to stir up intolerance, the warm- 
hearted Italian people could not forsake their 
centuries-old tradition of tolerance and humani- 
tarianism. The Allied landings swelled this 
stream of fleeing and hunted peoples seeking sanc- 



tuary behind the gmis of the United Nations. 
However, in view of the military situation in Italy, 
the number of refugees who can be accommodated 
there is relatively limited. The Allied military 
forces, in view of their primary responsibility, 
have not been able generally speaking to encourage 
the escape of refugees from enemy territory. This 
unfortunate situation lias prevented the escape of 
the largest possible number of refugees. Further- 
more, as the number of refugees living in southern 
Italy increases, their care constitutes an additional 
and substantial burden for the militai'y authorities. 

Recently the facilities for the care of refugees in 
southern Italy have become so overtaxed that un- 
less many refugees who have already escaped to 
that area and are arriving daily, particularly from 
the Balkan countries, can be promptly removed to 
havens of refuge elsewhere, the escape of refugees 
to that area from German-occupied territory will 
be seriously impeded. It was apparent that 
prompt action was necessary to meet this situa- 
tion. Many of the refugees in southern Italy have 
been and are being moved to temporary refuges in 
the territory of other United and friendly nations. 
However, in view of the number of refugees still in 
southern Italy, the problem could not be solved 
unless temporary havens of refuge were found for 
some of them in still other areas. In view of this 
most urgent situation it seemed indispensable that 
the United States in keeping with our heritage and 
our ideals of liberty and justice take immediate 
steps to share the responsibility for meeting the 
problem. 

Accordingly, arrangements have been made to 
bring immediately to this country approximately 
1,000 refugees who have fled from their homelands 
to soutliern Italy. Upon the termination of the 
war thej' will be sent back to their homelands. 
These refugees are predominantly women and 
children. They will be placed on their arrival in 
a vacated Army camp on the Atlantic Coast where 
they will remain under appropriate security 
restrictions. 

The Ami}' will take tlie necessary security pre- 
cautions and the camp will be administered by the 
War Eelocation Authority. The War Refugee 
Board is charged with over-all responsibility for 
this project. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

The White House, 
June 12, lOU- 



General 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOIMEN IN THE CONDUCT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Address by Assistant Secretary Shaw ^ 



[Released to the press June 1-1] 

At the outset I am going to make an assumption 
which I know is a safe one, namely that you are not 
concerned with the conception, which happily is 
ever more narrowly held, that women as such con- 
stitute something in the nature of a national minor- 
ity for which representation should be secured on 
all Governmental projects. It may once have been 
tactically expedient to promote that somewhat re- 
stricted view in the process of obtaining general 
recognition of the simple fact that the w^omen of 
this country are likewise members of the body 
politic. But that fact is certainly now beyond 
dispute. 

Today we in the Government who are engaged 
in the selection of individuals for the performance 
of the multitude of tasks which confront us both 
here and abroad are concerned only with the com- 
petence of the potential Government servant or 
representative. Nevertheless to those of you who 
recall that June day 25 years ago when what be- 
came the 19th amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States received the approval of the 
Congress, there must indeed be a source of satisfac- 
tion in the knowledge that today the women of the 
nation are playing an active, a vital, and an indis- 
pensable role in every line of American endeavor 
from assembly line to the President's Cabinet. 
And those women are there, not because they are 
women but because they have what it takes. 

This afternoon I would like to speak briefly 
about the role of women in the conduct of our in- 
ternational relations, which as you know is the 
province of the State Department. In so doing I 
risk being charged with trying to divide into 
meaningless categories the people who serve their 
country in the international field. It might per- 
haps fairly be said that it would be almost as 
meaningful for me to devote a discussion to the 
work in this field of all persons who bear the name 
of Smith. Yet because of the history of the eman- 
cipation of women, perhaps such a segregation is 
not totally lacking in significance to this gathering. 

593897 — 44 2 



As you know, our foreign relations are con- 
ducted through the complementary channels of a 
home office — the Department of State — and a 
field staff — the Foreign Service of the United 
States. I am going to speak first about the home 
office — the Department of State. 

Of the persons engaged in administrative and 
professional work in the Department, more than 
300, or over one third, are women. This figure 
does not, of course, include the many highly valued 
women who are employed in the essentially im- 
portant field of secretarial and stenographic work. 
In the administrative and professional classifica- 
tions, to which I just referred, women are receiv- 
ing base salaries of from $2000 to $8000 per year. 
Wliile war conditions are in part responsible for 
the increased ratio of participation by women in 
Government affaii-s, those war conditions are not 
responsible for the professional and technical 
competency which is being outstandingly demon- 
strated by the women who have recently joined the 
State Department. I think some of you who have 
participated in the past in Government activities 
can take at least partial credit for the high quality 
of the work now being performed by women in 
the various activities of the Department. For, 
with the example before them of your own success- 
ful contributions to the operations of the Govern- 
ment, young women in their college days have in 
recent years prepared themselves with more as- 
surance that suitable outlets for their talents will 
be found. 

I think these women who are working with us 
are happy in the knowledge that they are more 
than carrying their share of the burden and that 
they are regarded by their fellow workers not as 
stopgap or makeshift employees — necessary evils 
"for the duration" — but as full-fledged and ex- 
pert technicians capable of doing the best possible 
job. It was interesting to me to hear the com- 
ments of a competent research worker — a woman 



1 Delivered at the Conference On How Women May 
Share in Post-War Policy-Making, Washington, June 14. 



5SS, 



556 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



known to many of you here — who recently joined 
the staff of the Department. Said she, "I have 
been impressed by the attitude or rather lack of 
attitude toward women in the Department." I 
thought that that was a very apt way of saying 
that the presence of women as officers of the De- 
partment has now become commonplace. 

So far as concerns the Foreign Service of the 
United States — I am speaking now of the regular 
Foreign Service or the "career service" as it is 
sometimes called — I will state quite frankly that 
the situation at least in the past has been different. 
These people serve abroad in many lands and 
under extremely varied circumstances. It is no 
reflection on our friendly neighbors in other parts 
of the world, but rather a manifestation of pride 
in our own standards, to say that the position 
which women hold in the United States is not 
always understood by the peoples of some of the 
other countries of this world. Moreover, the liv- 
ing conditions — not merely the physical surround- 
ings but the sociological settings — differ in many 
foreign posts to a very large degree from those 
found in our own country. I personally believe 
that time will bring a change in this situation and 
that in the future there will be more opportunity 
for women in our Foreign Service. However, in 
spite of these factors and in spite of the fact that 
Foreign Service officers must be selected on the 
basis of their being able to serve anywhere in 
the world at any time, there are now included in 
our regular Foreign Service seven women as 
Foreign Service officers. Five others have at one 
time or another been members of the regular 
Service but have either resigned or retired. In 
addition, as you know, two women have served as 
Chiefs of Missions: Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen 
Rohde as Minister to Denmark and Mrs. Florence 
J affray Harriman as Minister to Norway. 

During the war the regular Foreign Service 
has been supplemented by an Auxiliary Foreign 
Service made up of people sent abroad to serve in 
special capacities connected with this emergency 
period. Twelve women are officers in this auxil- 
iary service. It may be expected that the com- 
plexity which characterizes our present-day 
foreign relations will, even at the conclusion of the 
present emergency, require us more and more to 
attach to our embassies and legations abroad spe- 



cialists on temporary assignments in fields in which 
women have shown themselves outstandingly qual- 
ified, such as labor relations, welfare work, cul- 
tural relations, economic relations, and so on. 

So much for the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service of the United States. There is, 
of course, another area of international activity 
in which women have taken and will continue to 
take an active part, namely those international 
conversations, conferences, and commissions in 
which this Government participates through 
American delegations. The speakers this morning 
dwelt at some length upon the role which women 
have played in these special assignments. By way 
of summary, the following constitute a list of re- 
cent international gatherings at which women have 
been members of the American delegations : 

The United Nations Conference on Food and 
Agriculture at Hot Springs, Virginia, in 
May and June 1943 

The first Council Meeting of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration at 
Atlantic City in November 1943 

The Meeting of the International Labor Organ- 
ization at Philadelphia in April 1944 

The Conference of Allied Ministers of Education 
at London in April and May 1944 

As the war approaches the final decision we can, 
of course, expect that numerous other occasions will 
arise for consultations between representatives of 
the United Nations on international problems of 
mutual concern. Many of these problems will be 
of a highly technical character. It is inevitable 
that those selected to represent this Government in 
such consultations or deliberations will, as in the 
past, continue to be chosen on the basis of their 
technical qualifications. The record of participa- 
tion by women in the conferences and meetings 
which I have just listed clearly demonstrates, if 
there ever was a doubt, that the desired technical 
qualifications are to be found among women as well 
as men. From this it may be concluded that 
women will continue to find themselves taking part 
in future meetings of this character. And, of 
course, tlie same must be true of those international 
consultations and conferences which will follow the 
termination of hostilities. 

In the selection of those persons who will make 



JUNE 17, 1944 



557 



up the American representation in these ad hoc in- 
ternational consultations, it is obviously desirable 
that full information be available as to potential 
selectees, particularly with respect to their profes- 
sional or technical qualifications. This informa- 
tion is not always at hand in the files of the State 
Department or of other Government departments. 
In this connection I may say that we in the State 
Department are aware of the fact that groups of 
private citizens are capable of rendering valued 
assistance by assembling data as to technically 



qualified persons — and I emphasize the element of 
qualification — who might constitute something in 
the nature of an informal panel from which appro- 
priate selections can be made at opportune times. 
In summary, whether it be to serve in the State 
Department, in our Foreign Service, or on special 
commissions, we are looking for the best in the land. 
I can assure you that those who possess preemi- 
nently the requisite qualifications will be chosen, 
whether they be men or women. 



Iceland 



INDEPEIVDEIVCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ICELAND 

Messages of President Roosevelt to the President of Iceland and of the Secretary of State to the 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 



[Released to the press June 17] 

The following messages were sent by President 
Roosevelt to His Excellency Sveinn Bjornsson, 
President of the Republic of Iceland, and by Secre- 
tary of State Cordell Hull to His Excellency 
Vilhjalmur Thor, Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
Iceland : 

Please accept my heartiest congratulations on 
your election to the high office of President of the 



Republic of Iceland and my best wishes and those 
of the people of the United States for the continued 
prosperity of the Icelandic nation. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

On this historic occasion in Icelandic history 
please accept my sincere felicitations on the estab- 
lishment of the Republic of Iceland. 

Cordell Hull 



Address by the Honorable Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr.^ 



[Released to the press June 17] 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : I con- 
sider it both a great pleasure and a signal honor 
to address you, Mr.- President, as the Special 
Representative of the President of the United 
States on this unique and world-important occa- 
sion — the inauguration of the first President of 
the Republic of Iceland, to whom I am happy 
to bring the very cordial personal greetings and 
the congratulations of President Roosevelt. I 
also have the honor to welcome the Republic of 
Iceland as the newest republic in the family of 
free nations. The pleasure which I feel is derived 
from the warmth of friendship existing here, and 
the honor I sense results from the high standards 
and ideals of patriotism, democracy, and good- 
will for which the Icelandic nation stands. 



It is indeed at a great moment that I bring 
you this message. In that strange mutation of 
events shaping the heroic history of Iceland it 
is again a terrible world war that has given 
impetus to the intense desire of the people of 
Iceland for independence. The countries from 
which most of your ancestors came and with 
which you have been so closely associated in the 
past are at present under the heel of the oppressor, 
who confesses and openly preaches the unchristian 
doctrines which you, in common with the other 
peo^jles in the North, have combated these 900 



' Delivered at the inauguration of the President of 
Iceland on June 17, 1944. Mr. Dreyfus is Special Repre- 
sentative of the President with the personal rank of 
Ambassador. 



558 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



years. But it is not the physical severance of 
the cultural and political ties with the peoples of 
Denmark and Norway which has prompted you 
to reaffirm, once and for all, your national inde- 
pendence. It is rather the culmination of a cen- 
turies-old desire for complete sovereignty. Your 
country was established by an adventurous people 
who moved westward to seek a maximum freedom 
and independence. Today tlieir goals have finally 
been achieved. It is not strange that hundreds 
of years later the movement of other peoples 
cherishing tlie same desires also was toward the 
West. 

More than a thousand years ago a government 
was established at Thingvellir, this very spot 
where we meet today, which provided for a par- 
liament with legislative and judicial functions. 
The Althing, the world's oldest parliament, is 
universally recognized as Iceland's greatest con- 
tribution to the development of representative 
political institutions. The flame kindled here has 
spread to all lands where free men assemble. 
Mankind will never forget this debt it owes to 
Iceland. 

Here the history of Iceland imfolds itself. In 
my mind's eye I see heroic figures marching across 
the scene of passing centuries from Njal of 
Bjergthorshval, Thorvald Kodransson the Far 
Traveler, who espoused Christianity and preached 
it at the Althing in 984, to Jon Sigurdsson, to 
whom we have this morning paid worthy tribute. 
Jon Sigurdsson saw clearly how the desire for 
national independence ran like a golden thread 
through Iceland's history. When the Danish 
Government proposed to apply Denmark's con- 
stitution of June 5, 1849 to Iceland, thereby in- 
cluding it as an integral part of the kingdom, he 
voiced the protest of his countrymen in asserting 
that Iceland would not accept provincial au- 
tonomy but demanded a constitution of its own 
as a sovereign state in a confederate union with 
Denmark. He lived to see the constitution of 
1874 which, despite its defects, represented a step 
in the direction of the aspirations of the Icelandic 
people and whicli led to the emergence of Iceland 
as a sovereign state with its own flag in 1918. 

Today the United States and Iceland are asso- 
ciated to preserve that freedom so dear to both of 



us which insures to every man the inalienable 
rights with which we were endowed by God. In 
this instance, the cooperation is the direct result of 
the responsibility assumed on July 7, 1941 by the 
Government of the United States at the request of 
the Icelandic Government. To my mind this step 
of paramount significance may be considered to 
be the cornerstone of a close relationsliip between 
our two free independent nations. It has brought 
our countries together and has enabled citizens of 
the United States — who are essentially democratic 
and believers in individual liberty, effective elec- 
toral suffrage, and administrative honesty — to 
work side by side in a cordial collaboration with 
their Icelandic brothers, who cherish the same 
ideals and beliefs. 

It is my earnest hope that after the termina- 
tion of the war there will be a further develop- 
ment of the cultural and commercial relations now 
existing between our two countries. This will be 
one of my principal interests, as I am fully per- 
suaded that an intimate association of this nature 
will redound to the benefit of both our nations 
and will further the establishment and mainte- 
nance of a just and lasting peace throughout the 
world. Those sons of Iceland who migrated to the 
United States have contributed no little to its de- 
velopment and, in turn, because of a similarity of 
ideals and customs, fitted themselves with a mini- 
mum of effort into the cultural system of their 
adopted country. The ties of friendship estab- 
lished by Americans in Iceland and the number 
of Icelandic students who have gone to my country 
in pursuit of learning will contribute further to 
strengthen the cordial relationships which have 
always existed between our peoples and which, I 
am convinced, will continue to exist in the future. 

You, Mr. President, and you, the people of Ice- 
land, stand on the threshold of a new era that will 
bring you new problems. May there be granted 
to you the same determination, the same courage, 
and the same viilues as wei'e shown by the first 
Scandinavians who made landfall on your shores, 
who sailed a turbulent sea in open boats without 
compass, and who depended on the stars in heaven 
and their own stout hearts to reacli their goal. 
With the same courage and devotion as they dis- 
played, you will be facing a liigh destiny. 



JUNE 17, 1944 



559 



THE ICELANDIC INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT 

By Willmtn C. Trimhle ^ 



The Icelandic independence movement is con- 
sidered to have started in the nineteenth century. 
It was partially recognized by Denmark in the 
revival (»f the Althing ^ in 1843 and in the grant of 
substantial home rule in 1903. The Danish law of 
November 30, 1918, effective December 1, 1918, pi-o- 
viding for the union of Denmark and Iceland, was 
itself a further concession by Denmark to the 
growing demands for national independence. The 
pertinent sections of this agreement, which is 
usually referred to as the "Act of Union", are 
quoted below : ^ 

Part /, article 1 

"Denmark and Iceland shall be free and Sover- 
eign States united under a common King, and by 
the agreement contained in this Law of Union; the 
names of both States shall be indicated in the 
King's title." 

Part III, article 7 

"Demnark shall attend on Iceland's behalf to its 
foreign affairs . . ." 

Part III, article 8 

"Denmark will, until such time as Iceland may 
decide to take over at its own expense either 
wholly or in part the inspection of fishing in Ice- 
landic waters, undertake to carry out such under 
the Danish flag." 

Part VI, article 18 

"On the expiration of the year 1940, both the 
Kigsdag and the Althing may at any time demand 
the commencement of negotiations for a revision 
of the Law. 

"If on the exjoiration of three years after the 
handing in of a petition for the commencement of 
negotiations, these do not lead to a renewed agree- 
ment, both the Danish Rigsdag and the Icelandic 
Althing may resolve that the agreements contained 
in this Law shall be annulled. 



' The autbor of this article is an officer in the Division 
of Northern I-]uropean Affairs, Department of State. 

^Icelandic I'arliament. 

"Transiation as in British and Foreign State Papers, 
1917-1018, vol. CXI (London: His Majesty's Stationery 
Office, 1921). 



"In order that this decision shall be binding, at 
least two-thirds of the members of each House of 
the Rigsdag and of the United Assembly [Al- 
thing] must have voted in its favor, and it must 
subsequently be confirmed by voting on the part 
of electors, who possess the franchise at the usual 
general elections. 

"If it is shown by such voting that at least three- 
fourths of the electors participated at the election, 
and that at least three-fourths of the voters are 
for abolition of the Law, the agreement shall cease 
to exist." 

Part VII, article 20 

"This Law of Union comes into force on the 1st 
December, 1918. To which all must conform. 

"Given at Amalienborg, November 30, 1918 
under the Royal Hand and Seal. 

(ls) Christian R" 

At the time of its passage, the Act of Union was 
apparently considered by many Icelanders to be 
merely a temporary arrangement pending the 
achievement of complete independence, and this 
opinion has continued to be held, being reiterated 
in an Althing resolution of April 15, 1937, which 
stated, in translation, that : * 

"The Althing resolves to instruct the Govern- 
ment to prepare immediately, in cooperation with 
the Foreign Affairs Committee, the procedure for 
handling foreign affairs, at home and abroad, 
which will prove most suitable when the Icelanders 
take advantage of the abrogation clause of the Act 
of Union, and take the whole handling of their own 
affairs into their own hands . . ." 

The occupation of Denmark by Germany on 
April 9, 1940 prevented the King from executing 
his constitutional powers,'' and made it impossible 
for Denmark to handle Iceland's foreign relations 
and to protect its fisheries. Accordingly, on April 



* Text of resolution transmitted to the American Lega- 
tion at Reylfjavilj by the Icelandic Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs. 

" Constitution of the Kingdom of Iceland dated May 18, 
1920. 



560 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



10, 1940, the Icelandic Cabinet introduced into the 
Icelandic Althing the following two resolutions, 
both of which were passed by unanimous vote : ^ 

"1. Having regard to the fact that the situation 
which has been created makes it impossible for 
His Majesty the King of Iceland to execute the 
Royal Power given to him under the Constitutional 
Act, the Icelandic Parliament declares that the 
Cabinet of Iceland is, for the time being, intrusted 
with the conduct of the said power. 

"2. Having regard to the situation now created, 
Denmark is not in a position to execute the au- 
thority to take charge of the Foreign Affairs of 
Iceland, granted to it under the provisions of Ar- 
ticle 7 of the Danish Icelandic Act of Union, nor 
can it carry out the fishery inspection within Ice- 
landic territorial waters in accordance with Article 
8 of the same Act. Therefore, the Icelandic 
Althing declares that Iceland will, for the time 
being, take entire charge of the said affairs." 

A press release summarizing the above resolu- 
tions was issued by the Danish Legation in Wash- 
ington on April 10, 1910. 

Iceland's ability to "take charge of" its foreign 
affairs has been recognized by the United States 
and other governments, as is indicated by the ac- 
crediting of Ministers thereto and the negotiation 
of agreements such as the Defense of Iceland 
Agreement of July 1, 1941 " and the Eeciprocal 
Trade Agreement of August 27, 1943.^ Further- 
more, Iceland already possessed some experience 
in handling foreign affaii's, an Icelandic Legation 
havmg been maintained at Copenhagen for a num- 
ber of years and, more recently, Icelandic attaches 
having been attached to Danish legations in certain 
foreign countries. 

On May 17, 1941 both Houses of the Althing 
made the following announcement with respect to 
Iceland's independence : * 

"As a result of the German occupation of Den- 



' Utanrikismalataduneytid, Reykjavik. Translation pre- 
pared by the American Consulate at Reykjavik. 
^ Executive Agreement Series 232. 
^ Executive Agreement Series 342. 



mark the Icelandic Parliament on April 10, 1940 
passed two resolutions concerning : first, the execu- 
tion of the Supreme Power; and, second, the con- 
duct of foreign affairs, as well as the execution of 
fishery inspection within the territorial waters of 
Iceland. 

"In these resolutions it was stated that, in view of 
the situation which had been created, it was im- 
possible for His Majesty the King of Iceland to 
execute the Royal Power given to him under the 
Constitutional Act, and that therefore the Ice- 
landic Parliament had entrusted the Icelandic cab- 
inet, for the time being with the conduct of the said 
power. 

"As a consequence of the second resolution, 
which affirmed that Denmark was not in a posi- 
tion to execute the authority to take charge of 
the foreign affairs of Iceland, nor to carry out 
the fishery inspection within the territorial waters 
of Iceland in conformity with the provisions of 
the Act of Union of 1918, the Althing declared 
that Iceland, for the time being, would take com- 
plete charge of the said affairs. 

"Since more than a year has elapsed with the 
situation unchanged as concerns the incapacity 
of His Majesty the King to execute the Royal 
Power, and of Denmark to perform the functions 
entrusted to it by Iceland, the situation required 
that a more precise attitude should be taken in 
respect of relations with Denmark, so that, on 
the 17th of this month, the Althing passed unani- 
mous resolutions on the subject of the Act of 
Union with Denmark as well as the constitutional 
aims of the Althing as the representatives of the 
Icelandic people. These resolutions were as fol- 
lows: 

"1. The Althing resolves to declare that Ice- 
land has acquired the right to abolish entirely 
the Act of Union with Denmark, since Iceland 
has had to take into its own hands the conduct 
of all of its affairs, and since Denmark is not in 
a position to attend to the matters on behalf of 

* Translation prepared by the American Consulate at 
Reykjavik. 



JUNE 17, 1844 



561 



Iceland which were agreed to under the Danish- 
Icelandic Act of Union of 1918. On the part of 
Iceland there shall be no question of renewing 
the Act of Union with Denmark, although it is 
not thought expedient in the present circumstances 
to eflFect the formal abolition of the imion, nor to 
establish the final constitution of the state, but 
these will not be postponed beyond the end of 
the war. 

"2. The Althing has resolved to appoint a re- 
gent, for a period of one year,' to wield Supreme 
Power in matters of state which were placed in 
the hands of the cabinet on April 10, 1940. 

"3. The Althing decides to announce its will that 
a republic be established in Iceland as soon as 
the union with Denmark has been formally 
dissolved." 

The first and third resolutions were passed by 
unanimous vote and the second by a vote of 38 
to 3. Accordingly, they may be considered to 
have represented the practical unanimity of feel- 
ing of Icelanders on the subject of relations with 
Denmark. 

Immediately following the passage of the reso- 
lutions, the Icelandic Government instructed its 
Charge d'Affaires at Copenhagen to bring them 
to the notice of the King and the Danish Gov- 
ernment. This was done in a formal note dated 
May 20, 1941. In this connection it will be re- 
called that in accordance with the provisions of 
part VI, article 18, of the Act of Union Iceland 
now possessed the right to demand a revision 
of this agreement. In reply the Danish Prime 
Minister on May 31, 1941 wrote the following 
note to the Icelandic Charge d'Affaires : ' 

Sir: 

I hereby have the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of the message which you submitted to me 
on May 20, 1941, in accordance with the instructions 
of your Government, relative to two resolutions 
adopted by the Icelandic Althing concerning the 
dissolution of the Personal Union existing between 



' Term of office subsequently extended. 
' Translation of item in Copenhagen Politiken, June 6, 
1941. 



Denmark and Iceland and to request you kindly to 
communicate the following facts to the Government 
of Iceland : 

The Danish Government fully appreciates the 
difficulties called for by the existing circumstances 
which may have led to the adoption of these Reso- 
lutions, but finds it regrettable that the Althing has 
found itself called upon to indicate at this moment 
its views with respect to the interstate relations 
existing between the two countries. 

The Danish Government, which has observed 
with satisfaction the statement to the effect that 
Iceland does not regard it as opportune at present 
to take steps to dissolve the Union, has taken cog- 
nizance of this fact and regards it as an indication 
that the Icelandic Government intends at the con- 
clusion of this war to institute negotiations to this 
end. In this connection the Danish Government 
declares that as soon as conditions permit, it will 
be prepared on its part to enter into negotiations 
upon the basis of the provisions of the Treaty of 
Union, and to give due consideration to the wishes 
of the Icelandic people. 

Th. Stauning 

A further step toward independence was taken 
on September 7, 1942, when the following addition 
to the 75th article of the Constitution of May 18, 
1920 was passed by the Althing : ^ 

"1. Wlien the Parliament shall adopt the change 
in the Icelandic constitutional organization which 
is outlined in its resolution of May 17, 1941, this 
amendment as passed by the Parliament shall have 
the effect as fundamental law when the majority of 
all eligible voters in the country shall have ap- 
proved it by secret popular vote. 

"2. This law is effective at once." 

A committee of the Althing was appointed on 
May 22, 1942 to draft the aforementioned new con- 
stitution of Iceland. Its draft was submitted to 
the Althing in the form of a bill in April 1943. 
The proposed constitution differed from that of 
May 18, 1920 only in that it provided for the estab- 

' Translation of item in Reylijavik AlthyduMadid, Sept. 
8, 1942. 



562 

lishment of a republic instead of a kingdom, for 
the election of a President to replace the King, and 
for the changes necessary as a consequence of the 
severance of the union with Denmark. 

Since the three-year period following the de- 
livery of the notice of intention by Iceland to 
terminate the Act of Union would not expire be- 
fore May 20, 1944, the third anniversary of the 
date on which the Icelandic Charge d'Affaires at 
Copenhagen delivered his note on this subject to the 
Danish Government, the Icelandic Government 
decided that immediate action on the proposed 
constitution and the final abrogation of the Act of 
Union was not necessary. The delay in acting on 
the proposed constitution did not mean that senti- 
ment respecting the independence of Iceland had 
undergone any change. This is indicated in the 
following excerpts from a statement made by the 
Prime Minister of Iceland before a joint session 
of the Althing on November 1, 1943:^ 

"It is to be expected that final decisions about 
the establishment of a Kepublic in Iceland and 
about the constitution of the Supreme Power of 
the country will soon be taken in the Althing." 

"The present government will, therefore, carry 
out the decisions of the Althing about the estab- 
lishment of a Republic in Iceland, whenever such 
decisions may be made and to the best of their 
ability when called upon to do so." 

Further indication of the views of the Icelandic 
people with respect to the severance of the ties 
with Denmark was given in an announcement 
made on November 30, 1943 by spokesmen of 
the Conservative, Progressive, and Communist 
Parties, which control 45 of the 52 votes in the 
Althing, to the effect that the three parties had 
united in demanding a breach of ties with Den- 
mark "early in 1944" and the establishment of a 
republic before June 17, 1944.= 

In accordance with constitutional procedure, 
the proposed constitution was reintroduced on 
January 12, 1944 to the session of the Althing 
which had opened on January 10, 1944. Together 

' Statement in translation prepared by the Icelandic 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, transmitted to the American 
Legation at Rej-lijavik. 

' Summary of statement transmitted to the Department 
of State by the American Legation at Reyljjavilj. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

with it there was presented a brief resolution 
providing for the abrogation of the 1918 Act of 
Union with Denmark and the retention by Danish 
subjects resident in Iceland of equal rights with 
Icelanders. 

The Constitution Bill was passed by unanimous 
vote of the Althing on March 8. 1944, in substan- 
tially the same form as introduced, the principal 
modification being that the first President of the 
republic should be elected by the Althing for a 
term which would expire on July 31, 1945 and 
that each subsequent President should be elected 
by direct vote of the people for a four-year term. 

The proposed resolution on the abrogation of 
the Act of Union was referred to the Joint Com- 
mittee of the Althing on the Constitution and 
Abrogation which, after making certain changes, 
reported it out in the following form : ^ 

"The Althing resolves to proclaim that the Act 
of Union between Iceland and Denmark is 
abrogated. 

"This resolution shall be placed before the elec- 
torate of the country for acceptance or rejection by 
secret ballot. If the resolution is approved, it 
shall become effective when it has again been 
passed by the Althing following the plebiscite." 

The resolution was passed in this form by unani- 
mqus vote of the Althing on February 25. 1944. 

As may be noted, that section of the draft resolu- 
tion of January 10, 1944 regarding the retention 
by Danish subjects residing in Iceland of equal 
rights with Icelanders was omitted fi'om the text 
of the measure as passed by the Althing. Instead, 
a bill was introduced which became law on March 
2, 1944, providing that such rights should be en- 
joyed by Danish residents until six months after 
the initiation of negotiations on this subject 
between Iceland and Denmark. 

In accordance with the terms of article 18 of the 
Act of Union, a plebiscite was held on May 20-23, 
1944 to vote on the resolution of February 25 on 
the abrogation of the Act of Union and the Con- 
stitution Bill of March 8. Slightly less than 98 
percent of aU registered voters took part. Ninety- 
seven percent of the votes cast were in favor of 
terminating the union with Denmark, while 95 
percent approved the Constitution providing for 

° Translation prepared by the American Legation at 
Reykjavik. 



JUNE 17, 1944 



563 



the establishment of a republic. The Althing 
ratified the action of the people on these two pro- 
jiosals by unanimous vote on June Ifi, 1944. 

The Republic of Iceland formally came into 
being on June IT, 1944, the 13;kl anniversary of the 
birth of Jon Sigurdsson, the Icelandic national 
hero. On the same day the first President of the 
Republic was elected by the Althing. President 
Roosevelt designated the American Minister to 
Iceland as his Special Representative with the 
personal rank of Ambassador for the inaugural 
ceremonies. INIoreover, the Congress, in a con- 
current resolution passed by unanimous vote of 
the House of Representatives on June 10, 1944 and 
by the Senate on June 15, 1944, conveyed its con- 
gratulations to the Althing on the establishment 
of the Republic in the following terms : 

"Whereas the people of Iceland in a free plebi- 
scite on May 20 to 23, 1944, overwhelmingly ap- 
proved the constitutional bill passed by the 
Althing providing for the establishment of a 
republican form of government ; and 

"Whereas the Republic of Iceland will be for- 
mally established on June 17, 1944 : Now, therefore, 
belt 

"Resolved : That the Congress hereby expresses 
to the Icelandic Althing, the oldest parliamentary 
body in the world, its congratulations on the estab- 
lishment of the Republic of Iceland and its welcome 
to the Republic of Iceland as the newest republic 
in the family of free nations." 

A message sent by the King of Denmark on the 
occasion of the June 17 ceremonies is referred to 
in the following press release issued by the Ice- 
landic Foreign Office on that day : "At 17 : 1.5 
o'clock, the Prime Minister went unexpectedly to 
the Speaker's table and said he has been informed 
that the Icelandic Government had received a 
message from King Christian X of Denmark ex- 
pressing his best wishes for the Icelandic people 
and hoping the ties of friendship which exist 
between Iceland and other Scandinavian couu; 
tries might grow still stronger. The people re- 
ceived this news with great applause." ^ 

Although the ties with the Danish Crown have 
been severed and the form of the Government of 
Iceland changed, these acts do not imply that only 

' Translation prepared by the American Legation at 
Reykjavik. 



now has Iceland become a sovereign state. It has, 
in fact, enjoyed this status since December 1, 1918.^ 
Evidence of recognition of this fact by the United 
States is found in the Treaty of Arbitration with 
Iceland signed May 15, 1930.^ Further evidence is 
found in paragraph 2 of the Defense of Iceland 
Agreement which provides : * 

"United States further promise to recognize the 
absolute independence and sovereignty of Iceland 
and to exercise their best efforts witli those powers 
which will negotiate the peace treaty at the con- 
clusion of the present war in order that such treaty 
shall likewise recognize the absolute independence 
and sovereignty of Iceland." 

PRESEINTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE 
BY THE UNITED STATES MINISTER TO 
ICELAND 

[Released to the piess June 15] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Minister 
of the United States to Iceland, the Honorable 
Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr., on the occasion of the presen- 
tation of his letters of credence to the Regent of 
Iceland on June 14, 1944, follow : 

Excellency : I have the honor to place in Your 
Excellency's hands the letters of recall of my pred- 
ecessor, Mr. Leland Morris, and the letters which 
accredit me to you as Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary. 

It is a great distinction for me to have been 
designated by the President of the United States 
to fulfil this high mission on the eve of the estab- 
lishment of the Republic of Iceland, an event which 
opens a new chapter in the history of Iceland. 

Stimulated by the joint interests and the common 
benefits which it has created, a historic process of 
mutual rapprochement was initiated by the agree- 
ment effected July 1, 1941 between Iceland and the 
United States. This has served to place the rela- 
tions between our countries on a footing of the 
greatest cordiality and confidence, drawing closer 
and closer the bonds of cooperation and friendship 
between them. The deep interest in this pact 
shown by the President of the United States serves 



- See pt. I, art. 1, of the Act of Union, supra. 

' Treaty Series 828 ; Treaties. Conventions, International 
Acts, Protocols, and Agreements Brtv^een the United States 
of America and Other Potvers, 192S-37. vol. IV, p. 4074. 

* Executive Agreement Series 232. 



564 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



as a gi-eat incentive for me to devote myself to the 
best of my ability to the task of contributing to the 
further development of the friendly and intimate 
relations which so hajipily exist between our coun- 
ti'ies. I hope that I may in my endeavor count 
upon the assistance and the cooperation of Your 
Excellency and the Icelandic Government. 

President Roosevelt, with whom I conferred be- 
fore my departure from the United States, charged 
me particularly to convey to Your Excellency his 
best wishes and those of the American people for 
the prosperity of Iceland and for your personal 
happiness, to which wishes I desire to add my own. 

The reply of the Regent of Iceland follows: 

Mr. Minister: It is with great pleasure that I 
accept from your hands the letters by which His 
Excellency the President of the United States of 
America has accredited you as Envoy Extraordi- 
nary Plenipotentiary near the Government of Ice- 
land. I am happy to receive you in that capacity. 
You may be assured of my willingness and that of 
the officials of the Government to cooperate with 
you in the execution of your important mission. 
In accepting at the same time the letters of recall 
of your predecessor, I want to express how much 
I, myself, and the Government appreciated his 
devoted work for strengthening the good under- 
standing and the friendly relations between the 
Governments and jieoples of our two countries. 
Mr. Morris has left many good friends in Iceland, 
and I am glad to tell you that I am one of them. It 
gives me an especially great pleasure that you have 
also arrived here as a special representative with 
rank of Ambassador of His Excellency the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America for the pur- 
pose of representing him at the inauguration of the 
reestablishment of the Republic in Iceland. This 
extraordinary token of friendship which His Ex- 
cellency the President has thus shown our country 
at this important event in our history has touched 
the heart of every Icelander and at the same time 
been invaluable to Iceland. Since July 7. 1941 the 
friendly intercourse and cordial relations between 
Icelanders and Americans have grown to a great 
extent. It is a .special favor to me to be able to 
express to you the pleasure of our people with this 
expansion of mutual knowledge. We have learned 



to appreciate the great American nation's under- 
standing for our nation. This understanding has 
been expressed both by the authorities of the 
United States of America and their representatives 
in this country and by the United States armed 
forces which have been in this country according 
to an agreement for almost three j'ears. I think 
I am not saying too much when I call this a great 
example, a fact which may be traced to the sincere 
American love for freedom which we Icelanders 
are proud to share with our great Western friends. 
I am deeply grateful for the special greetings you 
brought me from the President of the United States 
and the wishes expressed therein towards Iceland 
and myself. I beg you to express to His Excel- 
lency the President my heart-felt appreciation of 
his greetings and of all the various friendship he 
has shown the people of Iceland and myself both 
now and earlier. I should be most grateful if 
you would convey to His Excellency the President 
my cordial wishes for his health and happiness and 
for the good fortune and well-being of the people 
of the United States of America. 



Far East 



VISIT OF PRESIDENT OF AMOY UNIVER- 
SITY TO THE UNITED STATES 

[Released to the press June 13] 

President P. T. (Pen-tung) Sah has been ap- 
pointed by the National University of Amoy as its 
representative in the United States for a year's 
visit at the invitation of the Department of State, 
according to information just received from China. 
President Sah is not only the administrative head 
of one of China's leading universities but is also 
a distinguished professor of physics, with a long 
record of teaching. Like the five other Chinese 
educators coming to this country under the same 
program, whose names were announced by the 
Department on June 7,^ President Sah will visit 
American colleges and universities and will be 
glad to lecture or take part in conferences. 



Bulletin of June 10, 1944, p. 537. 



JUNE 17, 1944 



Europe 



MINISTER OF FINLAND REQUESTED TO 
LEAVE THE UNITED STATES 

[Released to the press June 16] 

The Minister of Finland, Mr. Hjalmar J. 
Procope, and three counselors of the Finnish Lega- 
tion, Mr. T. O. Vahervuori, Mr. Urho Toivola, and 
Mr. Risto Solanko, were handed their passports 
on June 16 and requested to leave the country at 
the earliest moment because of activities on their 
part inimical to the interests of the United States. 

This action does not constitute a rupture of 
diplomatic relations between the United States and 
Finland. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
POLISH PRIME MINISTER 

[Released to the press June 17] 

Just before the departure of the Polish Prime 
Minister the President of the United States ad- 
dressed the following letter to him : 
]\It de.\r Mr. Prime Minister : 

I wish to take this opportunity, just before your 
departure, to wish you a safe return after your 
most welcome visit to Washington. 

I particularly desire to express to you the pleas- 
ure I had in seeing you again, which enabled me 
to have most frank, sincere, and friendly exchanges 
of views with you on the many questions which are 
of mutual interest to us. 

I need hardly tell you how much the American 
people admire the courage and fortitude of the 
Polish people, who for almost five years have borne 
witli brave and stout hearts the cruel hardships of 
war and oppression. Their steadfast determina- 
tion to be free again and the indomitable spirit of 
their fighting men constitute the best pledge that 
Poland shall reassume her rightful place among 
the free nations of the world. 

The forces of liberation are on the march to 
certain victory and the establishment of a peace 
based upon tlie principles of freedom, democracy, 
mutual understanding, and security for all liberty- 
loving people. 



565 

Permit me to express again how much I appreci- 
ated the opportunity of renewing our acquaint ance. 
I feel that such personal exchanges of views cannot 
but contribute to mutual understanding. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D Roose\'elt 

The Prime Minister of Poland, prior to his de- 
parture, sent the following letter to the President : 

Mr. President, 

I am deeply touched and most sincerely grate- 
ful for the great kindness and hospitality which I 
have received from you during my visit. May 
I thank you from the bottom of my heart for all 
the proofs of your kindness and for giving me 
so many opportunities of seeing you and of hav- 
ing frank talks with you on the vital subjects 
and problems which affect Poland and Europe 
now and after this war. 

I should like to thank you not only for your 
most friendly and kind reception but especially 
for your deep and so broad approach to the prob- 
lems of the future. 

The ideals and principles of the Atlantic 
Charter and of the Four Freedoms of which you 
are the initiator are for us Poles in our hard 
fight for the speedy liberation of our country that 
encouragement and inspiration which we most 
need on our way of struggle, suft'ering and work. 

The loss of individual freedom and of all that 
man possessed has strengthened in the Polish 
people their love, respect and yearning for that 
Freedom. The fate of the people shared by all 
social classes irrespective of their origin and 
religion has brought man closer to man in my 
country so strongly that it has cemented the 
foundations of Democracy and created the con- 
ditions necessary to mutual understanding and 
collaboration. This love of freedom increases the 
striving to make it .secure when, after the final 
Victory, it will be necessary to build new founda- 
tions for nations and peace-loving peoples. 

I leave greatly impressed by the conversations 
which I was privileged to have with you, by your 
views and your wide knowledge of human and 
national problems. 

I would be very happy if the few modest sug- 
gestions which you gave me the opportunity of 



566 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



contributing in our talks could even in the slight- 
est way serve the common cause and be of some 
use to you, Mr. President, who are leading your 
nation in this great fight for the common cause 
together with your Allies, giving so much of 
youi'self and carrying so great a responsibility as 
regards the fulfillment of the ideals with which 
you have inspired tlie hearts of the soldiers and 
fighters for freedom. 

S. MiKOLAJCZTK 



American Republics 



PROPOSAL FOR RESCUE OF REFUGEES 
FROM GERMAN TERRITORY 

[Released to the press June 17] 

The Secretary of State sent the following tele- 
gram on June 17 to Dr. Alberto Guani, Chairman 
of the Emergency Advisory Committee for Polit- 
ical Defense in Montevideo, with respect to the 
endeavors being made to rescue refugees from 
German territory : 

I have the honor to acknowledge Your Excel- 
lency's communication of May 31, transmitting 
to me a copy of the resolution adopted by the 
Committee on that date. 

I note that this resolution proposes that the 
American Republics concert and intensify their 
efforts to rescue from German hands some thou- 
sands of oppressed minorities holding non- 
European documentation; that this be done by 
joint proposals to exchange German nationals 
from the American Republics for these persecuted 
groups ; and that such exchanges can be achieved 
consistently with security considerations sur- 
rounding exchanges previously formulated by 
your Committee in the interests of hemispheric 
defense. 

My Government will be most happy to parti- 
cipate actively in such an inter-American pro- 
gram. In company with some of its sister repub- 
lics and other governments it has been giving 
intensive consideration to this problem. The di- 
rection and stimulus the Committee's resolution 



provides for the development of a joint progi'am 
of larger proportions is most welcome, and is in 
line with those great humanitarian concepts for 
which the American Republics stand. 

I extend to you and your distinguished col- 
leagues the assurances of my highest consideration. 

CoKDELL Hull 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CREDENCE 
BY THE AMBASSADOR OF COSTA RICA 

[Released to the press June 15] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of Costa Rica, Seiior Don 
Francisco cle Paula Gutierrez upon the occasion 
of the presentation of his letters of credence, June 
15, 1944, follows : 

Mr. President: The President of Costa Rica 
has been good enough to honor me with the repre- 
sentation of my country before your Government, 
and in accepting so arduous a task I have counted 
upon Your Excellency's benevolent friendship in 
order to be able to carry it out — a friendship which 
Your Excellency has ever manifested by lending 
us your efficacious help and valued cooperation 
for the purpose of settling the various problems 
which the difficult and abnormal world situation 
necessarily brings in its train. 

I consider it one of the privileges of my life 
that I am permitted to represent my small country 
before the great and powerful brother of the 
north, in the most important epoch of history, 
when the destinies of humanity are being forged, 
in great part, by the orientation given them by 
the illustrious statesman who — to the good for- 
tune of all — governs the United States of 
America. 

The traditional friendship of our two countries 
and of their Governments, which has Imown no 
eclipse through their independent life, has been 
even more strengthened now that the two Na- 
tions battle together to preserve to man the right 
to live in accordance with the rules of justice, 
under the egis of law, and within the framework 
of democratic institutions. 

Our contribution, Mr. President, is indeed 
modest, just as our resources are modest and our 



JUNE 17, 1944 



567 



population is small, but we have offered all we 
have and we give it with an inflexible determina- 
tion to serve until the final victory be won. While 
I occupy the high position whicli has been en- 
trusted to me I shall have no other aspiration 
than to follow that line of conduct, which is the 
one which Costa Eica has set for herself as one of 
the United Nations. When peace comes we shall 
Imaintain that same spirit of cooperation and 
solidarity in order to carry out to the end the 
plans the study of which has already begun 
and which have for their purpose the consolida- 
tion of tlie victory and the rendering impossible, 
in so far as that can be done, the scourge of a 
new world war. 

I have the honor to present to Your Excellency 
the letters of recall of my distinguished prede- 
cessor, Seiior Don Carlos Manuel Escalante, to- 
gether with the credentials which accredit me as 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
before Your Excellency's enlightened Government. 

In the name of the President of Costa Rica, 
of the Government and the people of Costa Rica, 
and in my own name, I express my vei-y sincere 
good wishes for the prosperity and increasing 
greatness of the United States and for the happi- 
ness of tlie illustrious statesman who today directs 
its destinies. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Senor 
Don Francisco de Paula Gutierrez follows : 

Mr. A]mb.\ssador : It is with great pleasure that 
I receive the letters accrediting Your Excellency 
as Ambassador of Costa Rica to the United States. 
You are welcome not only as the representative of 
an Ally in this great struggle — not alone for the 
distinguished career which you already have 
achieved — ^but also as one who has always striven 
to promote friendshij) between our respective 
countries. I am happy to assure you that you can 
count on the closest collaboration from the officials 
of this Government in carrying out the responsi- 
bilities of your office. 

The United States well remembers when, im- 
mediately it had been stricken by the treacherous 
blow of an aggressor, Costa Rica was in the fore- 
front of those nations which gallantly ranged 



themselves on our side. Today the aggressor na- 
tions are reeling beneath our counterstrokes ; al- 
though costly sacrifices must yet be made, we know 
the victory will be ours. Costa Rica has shown 
itself great in that which makes a nation great — 
a willingness to fight for fundamental principles. 
For this reason Costa Rica is one of the United 
Nations in this great battle for human dignity and 
freedom. 

I shall be grateful if you will convey to President 
Picado, whose recent visit we remember so pleas- 
antly, my cordial good wishes for his personal 
well-being and for the progress and prosperity of 
the Costa Rican people. 



Treaty Information 



INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

El Salvador 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a 
letter of June 7, 1944 that the instrument of 
ratification by the Government of El Salvador of 
the Convention on the Inter- American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciencee, which was opened for 
signature at the Pan American Union on January 
15, 1944, was deposited with the Pan American Un- 
ion on May 31, 1944. The instrument of rati- 
fication is dated May 16, 1944. 

REGULATION OF INTER-AMERICAN 
AUTOMOTIVE TRAFFIC 

Brazil 

The xlmerican Embassy at Rio de Janeiro trans- 
mitted to the Department, with a despatch of 
May 20, 1944, a copy of Decree Law 6481 of May 
9, 1944 approving the Convention on the Regu- 
lation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, 
which was deposited with the Pan American 
Union and opened for signature on December 
15, 1943. The Decree Law is printed in the 
Brazilian Diano Ojicial of May 11, 1944. 



568 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PROVISIONAL FUR-SEAL AGREEMENT 

BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES 

AND CANADA 

The Canadian Ambassador at Washington 
transmitted to the Secretary of State, with a note 
of June 12, 1944, copies of Order-in-Council P.C. 
4112 of May 30, 1944 issued under authority of 
the Canadian AVar Measures Act applying and 
giving force of law, in so far as Canada is con- 
cerned, to the provisions of the Provisional Fur- 
Seal Agreement between the United States of 
America and Canada which was effected by ex- 
change of notes signed in Washington on Decem- 
ber 8 and 19, 1942. The Agreement entered into 
force on May 30, 1944, the date of issuance of 
the Canadian Order-in-Council, and is effective 
as from June 1, 1942, under the provisions of 
article X of the Agreement. 

PROTOCOL ON PELAGIC WHALING 

On June 16, 1944 the Senate gave its advice 
and consent to ratification of a protocol relating 
to pelagic whaling operations which was signed 
at London on February 7, 1944 by the accredited 
representatives of the Governments of the United 
States of America, the Union of South Africa, 
the Commonwealth of Australia, the United 
Kingdom' of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
Canada, New Zealand, and Norway. 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Designation 20, issued June 
10, 1944, effective June 5, 1944, the Secretary of 
State designated Mr. Carl B. Spaeth as Chief of 
the Division of Eiver Plate Affairs. 



Publications 



Departjient of State 

Treaties in Force : A List of Treaties and Other Interna- 
tional Acts of the United States in Force on December 
31, 1941. Publication 2103. viii, 275 pp. 40^. 

The Personnel Program of the Department of State: Prin- 
ciples and Policies. Publication 2129. 8 pp. 5^. 

Diplomatic List. June 1944. Publication 2138. ii, 121 pp. 
Subscription, $1 a year; single copy, 100. 

Other Government Agencies 

"Sweden in 1943", by Grant Olson, Attache, American 

Legation, Stockholm. 
"Electronics in Peru", based on a report by Frederick 

W. Hinke, American Embassy, Lima. 

These two articles will be found in the June 17, 
1944 issue of the Department of Commerce publica- 
tion entitled Foreign Commerce Weekly^ copies of 
which may be obtained from the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, for 10 
cents each. 



Legislation 



Caring for Refugees in the United States: Message from 
the President of the United States notifying the Congress 
that arrangements have been made to care for approxi- 
mately 1,000 refugees in the United States. H. Doc. 656, 
78th Cong. 3 jjp. 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1944 : Hearings 
Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropri- 
ations, House of Representatives, 7Sth Cong., 2d Sess., 
on the Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1944. 
LDepartment of State, pp. 174-190.] 445 pp. 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1944. H. Rept. 1660, 
78th Cong., on H. R. 5040. [Department of State, pp. 
11,12,10,26.] 28 pp. 

Keeonstructiou Fund in Joint Account With Foreign Gov- 
ernments for Rehabilitation, Stabilization of Currencies, 



JUNE 17, 1944 569 

and Reconstruction: Hearings Before the Committee on Departments of State. Justice, and Commerce Appropria- 

Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, TSth Cong., M tion Bill, 1945 : H. Eept. 1623, 78th Cong., on H. R. 4204. 

Sess., on H.J. Res. 226, a joint resolution to provide for ^, J*'. ^ ,, , * ., n * .i c5^ * ^ . ^ 

Certain Former Employees of tlie United States Court for 

a central reconstruction fund to be used in joint account ^^.^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ..g^j^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^g^j ^ pp 

with foreign governments for rehabilitation, stabilization Removing Restrictions on Transfers of Small Craft to 

of currencies, and reconstruction, and for other pui-poses. Other American Republics in Furtherance of the War 

188 pp. Effort. H. Rept. 1675, 78th Cong., on H. R. 499. 4 pp. 



0. 1. OOVERNUENT PRIHT1II6 OFriCEt 1144 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing OflJce. Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, ?2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WSEKLY WITH THE APFBOVAL OF THB DIBBCTOB OF THB BUBEAD OF THE BUDOBT 



'j3S-i / /-fa 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUI 



J 



I 



^ 



^ rm 



riN 



JUNE 24, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 261— Publication 2147 



C 



ontents 



Page 



The War 

Error of Statement by British Minister of Production: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 573 

Appointment of Colonel O'Dwyer to the Allied Control 

Commission for Italy 573 

Thii'd Anniversary of the Nazi Attack on the Soviet 

Union 573 

General 

Freedom of Infoimation: Address by Assistant Secre- 
tary Berle 574 

Control of the International Traffic in Arms : By James 

M. Ludlow 576 

American Republics 

Recognition by the United States of the New Govern- 
ment of Bolivia 584 

Fellowships for Citizens From the Other American 

Republics 584 

Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation With 

the American Republics 585 

Visit of Hondm-an Architect 585 

Europe 

Arrangements for Departure of Former Minister of 

Finland 585 

The Far East 

Floyd Taylor Returns From China 586 

Gifts From United States to Chinese Institutions . . . 586 

[ovee] 




U. $. SUPERtKTE.'^iDE.M OF DOCUMENTS 

JUL 25 1944 







OMJe/lfS-CONTINUED 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. Page 

United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference . . 587 
United States Commission of the Permanent American 
Aeronautical Commission: Statement by Oswald 

Ryan 588 

British Colonies Supply Mission 588 

The Foreign Service 

The Joint Sm'vey Group : The Foreign Service Prepares 
To Meet Its Expanding Responsibilities, by Alan 
N. Steyne 589 

Death of Julian B. Foster 591 

Treaty Information 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 592 

Military-Service Agreement With China 593 

Intei'-American Institute of Agricultm-al Sciences . . . 593 
Convention of Commerce and Navigation, Chile and 

Cuba 594 

Publications 594 

Legislation 596 



S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, ^2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEBKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECTOK OF THE BUEEAD OF THE BUDQBI 



The War 



ERROR OF STATEMENT BY BRITISH MINISTER OF PRODUCTION 



Statement by the 

[Released to the press June 20] 

Unfortunately, the statement of the British 
Minister of Production is entirely in error as to 
the facts and fails to state the true attitude of the 
United States both during the earlier stages of 
military preparation for world conquest by Ger- 
many and Japan and during the later aggressions 
by those two countries. 

This Government from the beginning to the end 
was actuated by the single policy of self-defense 
against the rapidly increasing danger to this Na- 



Secretary of State 

tion. The aid given to Great Britain and other 
countries who were resisting conquest was, in the 
woixls of the Lend-Lease Act, "vital to the defense 
of the United States." 

Japan for years had notoriously pursued a pro- 
gram of the widest conquest. In 1931 she seized 
Manchuria; in 1937 she invaded China; in 1940 
she entered Indochina; and finally in 1941 she 
lamiched the unprovoked attack on the United 
States at Pearl Harbor. 



APPOINTMENT OF COLONEL O'DWYER 

FOR 

[Released to the press June 23] 

The President has appointed Col. William 
O'Dwyer to be the ranking American official of the 
Economic Section of the Allied Control Commis- 
sion for Italy with the title of Vice President. He 
will have the personal rank of Minister. In this 
capacity Colonel O'Dwyer will repi'esent the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministration. Colonel O'Dwyer will succeed Mr. 
Henry F. Grady. 

Colonel O'Dwyer was commissioned June 1, 
1942 as a major and since August 1942 has served 
with the Army Air Forces in Washington and at 
Wright Field, Ohio. 



TO THE ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION 
ITALY 

The Allied Control Commission for Italy is a 
combined Allied body, staffed by both military 
and civilian personnel, operating under the presi- 
dency of the Allied theater commander, Gen. Sir 
Henry M. Wilson. Its Deputy President is Lieu- 
tenant General Mason-Macfarlane of the British 
Army. The Allied Control Commission for 
Italy was established to supervise the execution 
of the terms of the armistice and acts in an 
advisory capacity with the Italian Govermnent 
on matters of military, economic, and civilian 
admmistration. 



THIRD ANNTVERSARY OF THE NAZI ATTACK ON THE SOVIET UNION 



[Released to the press June 22] 

At his press and radio news conference on June 
22 the Secretary of State said : 

"Again we mark the anniversary of the brutal 
Nazi assault upon the Soviet Union. The tre- 
mendous accomplishments achieved by the Soviet 
armies during a series of brilliant offensive cam- 



paigns during the past year have forced the Nazis 
to disgorge the bulk of their momentary conquests 
in the Soviet Union. No one can doubt that the 
Soviet forces will continue their brilliant offensive 
record in the forthcoming decisive battles for the 
liberation of Europe." 

573 



General 



FREEDOM OF INFORMATION 
Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 



[Released to the press June 21] 

Gentlemen : Any meeting of the Foreign Press 
Association is an event of importance. This is 
particularly true when it meets to welcome as dis- 
tinguished a guest of honor as Sir Keith Murdoch, 
who is famous not only in Australia but through- 
out the entire Western Pacific area. This is a part 
of the world about which we are learning in two 
ways : the hard way, as we fight over great parts of 
it, island by island ; and the friendly way, as we 
grow in acquaintance with our Allies, the Com- 
monwealth of Australia, the Dominion of New 
Zealand, and the Netherlands. 

On the hard side, our comradeship has become 
blood brotherhood as Australians, New Zealand- 
ers, Netherlanders, and Americans work together, 
fight together, die together, and win together 
against a bitter foe of everything we hold dear. 
But with this has come the happiness